Science.gov

Sample records for 2-bottle preference tests

  1. A Preference Test for Sweet Taste That Uses Edible Strips

    PubMed Central

    Smutzer, Gregory; Patel, Janki Y.; Stull, Judith C.; Abarintos, Ray A.; Khan, Neiladri K.; Park, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    A novel delivery method is described for the rapid determination of taste preferences for sweet taste in humans. This forced-choice paired comparison approach incorporates the non-caloric sweetener sucralose into a set of one-inch square edible strips for the rapid determination of sweet taste preferences. When compared to aqueous sucrose solutions, significantly lower amounts of sucralose were required to identify the preference for sweet taste. The validity of this approach was determined by comparing sweet taste preferences obtained with five different sucralose-containing edible strips to a set of five intensity-matched sucrose solutions. When compared to the solution test, edible strips required approximately the same number of steps to identify the preferred amount of sweet taste stimulus. Both approaches yielded similar distribution patterns for the preferred amount of sweet taste stimulus. In addition, taste intensity values for the preferred amount of sucralose in strips were similar to that of sucrose in solution. The hedonic values for the preferred amount of sucralose were lower than for sucrose, but the taste quality of the preferred sucralose strip was described as sweet. When taste intensity values between sucralose strips and sucralose solutions containing identical amounts of taste stimulus were compared, sucralose strips produced a greater taste intensity and more positive hedonic response. A preference test that uses edible strips for stimulus delivery should be useful for identifying preferences for sweet taste in young children, and in clinical populations. This test should also be useful for identifying sweet taste preferences outside of the lab or clinic. Finally, edible strips should be useful for developing preference tests for other primary taste stimuli and for taste mixtures. PMID:24225255

  2. College Students' Preferences for Test Accommodations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewandowski, Lawrence; Lambert, Tonya L.; Lovett, Benjamin J.; Panahon, Carlos J.; Sytsma, Marcia R.

    2014-01-01

    College students with (n = 137) and without disabilities (n = 475) were surveyed about their perceptions of using various types of test accommodations. Results indicated that extended time was perceived as having a positive effect by the most students (>87% of both groups), followed by separate room testing and extra breaks (>60% of both…

  3. A Psychological Measurement of Student Testing Design Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shukla, P. K.; Bruno, James

    An analytical technique from the field of market research called conjoint analysis was applied to a psychological measurement of student testing design preferences. Past concerns with testing design are reviewed, and a newer approach to testing is identified--the modified confidence weighted-admissible probability measurement (MCW-APM) test…

  4. Avoidance-preference testing in density stratified solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, E.H.; Logan, D.T.; Hansen, S.

    1994-12-31

    Toxicity testing is sometimes required where density stratifies test and reference solutions. Examples include freshwater effluents that float in estuarine and marine waters and desalinating plant effluents that sink. Standard avoidance-preference testing methods and apparatus are designed to test horizontal rather than vertical gradients and so are inappropriate for density stratified solutions. To overcome associated deficiencies, the authors modified testing chambers to take advantage of density stratification. Exposure levels for tests were selected based on NOELs from standard toxicity testing. Behavior of 10 striped bass was simultaneously observed using electronic surveillance. Measure of behavior include position in two axes and swimming speed. Avoidance-preference between several types of high density byproducts of salt water evaporation and lower density receiving water were tested. Results indicate that the modified test protocols allowed the authors to determine behavior responses to test materials.

  5. Older adults’ preferences for colorectal cancer-screening test attributes and test choice

    PubMed Central

    Kistler, Christine E; Hess, Thomas M; Howard, Kirsten; Pignone, Michael P; Crutchfield, Trisha M; Hawley, Sarah T; Brenner, Alison T; Ward, Kimberly T; Lewis, Carmen L

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding which attributes of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening tests drive older adults’ test preferences and choices may help improve decision making surrounding CRC screening in older adults. Materials and methods To explore older adults’ preferences for CRC-screening test attributes and screening tests, we conducted a survey with a discrete choice experiment (DCE), a directly selected preferred attribute question, and an unlabeled screening test-choice question in 116 cognitively intact adults aged 70–90 years, without a history of CRC or inflammatory bowel disease. Each participant answered ten discrete choice questions presenting two hypothetical tests comprised of four attributes: testing procedure, mortality reduction, test frequency, and complications. DCE responses were used to estimate each participant’s most important attribute and to simulate their preferred test among three existing CRC-screening tests. For each individual, we compared the DCE-derived attributes to directly selected attributes, and the DCE-derived preferred test to a directly selected unlabeled test. Results Older adults do not overwhelmingly value any one CRC-screening test attribute or prefer one type of CRC-screening test over other tests. However, small absolute DCE-derived preferences for the testing procedure attribute and for sigmoidoscopy-equivalent screening tests were revealed. Neither general health, functional, nor cognitive health status were associated with either an individual’s most important attribute or most preferred test choice. The DCE-derived most important attribute was associated with each participant’s directly selected unlabeled test choice. Conclusion Older adults’ preferences for CRC-screening tests are not easily predicted. Medical providers should actively explore older adults’ preferences for CRC screening, so that they can order a screening test that is concordant with their patients’ values. Effective interventions are

  6. Consumer preferences for the predictive genetic test for Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ming-Yi; Huston, Sally A; Perri, Matthew

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess consumer preferences for predictive genetic testing for Alzheimer disease in the United States. A rating conjoint analysis was conducted using an anonymous online survey distributed by Qualtrics to a general population panel in April 2011 in the United States. The study design included three attributes: Accuracy (40%, 80%, and 100%), Treatment Availability (Cure is available/Drug for symptom relief but no cure), and Anonymity (Anonymous/Not anonymous). A total of 12 scenarios were used to elicit people's preference, assessed by an 11-point scale. The respondents also indicated their highest willingness-to-pay (WTP) for each scenario through open-ended questions. A total of 295 responses were collected over 4 days. The most important attribute for the aggregate model was Accuracy, contributing 64.73% to the preference rating. Treatment Availability and Anonymity contributed 20.72% and 14.59%, respectively, to the preference rating. The median WTP for the highest-rating scenario (Accuracy 100%, a cure is available, test result is anonymous) was $100 (mean = $276). The median WTP for the lowest-rating scenario (40% accuracy, no cure but drugs for symptom relief, not anonymous) was zero (mean = $34). The results of this study highlight attributes people find important when making the hypothetical decision to obtain an AD genetic test. These results should be of interests to policy makers, genetic test developers and health care providers.

  7. Scaling Reward Value with Demand Curves versus Preference Tests

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Lindsay P.; Silberberg, Alan; Casey, Anna H.; Paukner, Annika; Suomi, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    In Experiment 1, six capuchins lifted a weight during a 10-minute session to receive a food piece. Across conditions, the weight was increased across six different amounts for three different food types. The number of food pieces obtained as a function of the weight lifted was fitted by a demand equation that is hypothesized to quantify food value. For most subjects, this analysis showed that the three food types differed little in value. In Experiment 2, these monkeys were given pairwise choices among these food types. In 13 of 18 comparisons, preferences at least equaled a 3-to-1 ratio; in seven comparisons, preference was absolute. There was no relation between values based on degree of preference versus values based on the demand equation. When choices in the present report were compared to similar data with these subjects from another study, between-study lability in preference emerged. This outcome contrasts with the finding in demand analysis that test-retest reliability is high. We attribute the unreliability and extreme assignment of value based on preference tests to high substitutability between foods. We suggest use of demand analysis instead of preference tests for studies that compare the values of different foods. A better strategy might be to avoid manipulating value by using different foods. Where possible, value should be manipulated by varying amounts of a single food type because, over an appropriate range, more food is consistently more valuable than less. Such an approach would be immune to problems in between-food substitutability. PMID:26908005

  8. Hitting a high note on math tests: Remembered success influences test preferences.

    PubMed

    Finn, Bridgid; Miele, David B

    2016-01-01

    Remembered utility is the retrospective evaluation about the pleasure and pain associated with a past experience. It can influence choices about repeating or avoiding similar situations in the future (Kahneman, 2000). A set of 5 experiments explored the remembered utility of effortful test episodes and how it impacted future test choices. Experiments 1-3 mimicked Kahneman, Fredrickson, Schreiber, and Redelmeier's (1993) cold pressor study, but used a challenging test experience in place of submerging one's hand in painfully cold ice water. Participants took a short and an extended test of difficult math problems. The short test was made of 30 difficult math problems. The extended test used 30 difficult problems plus 10 moderately difficult problems. Participants made retrospective evaluations about the tests and chose which kind of test (short or extended) they wanted for their next test and for a hypothetical test 1 day later. Results showed that a challenging test episode extended by a more moderate interval was preferred to an unextended interval. Future test choices reflected this preference. This pattern was evidenced even when points were awarded only to correctly answered difficult items but not to moderately answered difficult items. Experiment 4 directly compared preferences for a moderate end versus a moderate start test, and Experiment 5 contrasted those test conditions with a moderate middle test condition. The findings demonstrated test-takers' bias in favor of test experiences that start or end on a high note. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. A Study of the Characteristics of the Instrument Timbre Preference Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Edwin E.

    1991-01-01

    Reports results of a study of the musical timbre preferences of fifth grade students and of the effectiveness of the Instrument Timbre Preference Test. Concludes that results support the test's practical validity, particularly in terms of longitudinal prediction. Suggests that timbre preference investigations could affect aspects of music…

  10. [A NEW APPROACH FOR FOOD PREFERENCE TESTING IN ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION].

    PubMed

    Albertin, S V

    2015-10-01

    An article describes the original method allowing to study a mechanism of food preference related to the sensory properties of foods in animals. The method gives a good possibility to select the role of visual and orosensory signaling in food preference as well as to model the processes of physiological and pathological food and drug dependence in animal experiments. The role of discrete food presentation in the formation of the current motivations and food preferences was discussed.

  11. Food preference, keeper ratings, and reinforcer effectiveness in exotic animals: the value of systematic testing.

    PubMed

    Gaalema, Diann E; Perdue, Bonnie M; Kelling, Angela S

    2011-01-01

    Food preference describes the behavior of selecting between items for consumption; reinforcer effectiveness is the functional effect of that item in controlling behavior. Food preference and reinforcer effectiveness were examined in giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and African elephants (Loxodonta africana). A pairwise comparison between food items was used to assess food preference. High-, moderate-, and low-preference items were selected and tested for reinforcer effectiveness. High-preference items controlled behavior more effectively than less-preferred items. Caregiver ratings of food preferences were also collected for each subject, but these reports did not necessarily coincide with actual subject preferences. Caregiver ratings correlated with the food preferences of only 1 individual of each species; thus, preferences of 1 nonhuman animal may be falsely generalized to all animals of that species. Results suggest that food choice and reinforcer effectiveness should be investigated empirically and not rely on anecdotal reports.

  12. The geometry of distributional preferences and a non-parametric identification approach: The Equality Equivalence Test.

    PubMed

    Kerschbamer, Rudolf

    2015-05-01

    This paper proposes a geometric delineation of distributional preference types and a non-parametric approach for their identification in a two-person context. It starts with a small set of assumptions on preferences and shows that this set (i) naturally results in a taxonomy of distributional archetypes that nests all empirically relevant types considered in previous work; and (ii) gives rise to a clean experimental identification procedure - the Equality Equivalence Test - that discriminates between archetypes according to core features of preferences rather than properties of specific modeling variants. As a by-product the test yields a two-dimensional index of preference intensity.

  13. Use of an annular chamber for testing thermal preference of westslope cutthroat trout and rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, T.E.; Bear, E.A.; Zale, A.V.

    2008-01-01

    Remaining populations of westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) in western North America are primarily confined to cold headwaters whereas nonnative rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) predominate in warmer, lower elevation stream sections historically occupied by westslope cutthroat trout. We tested whether differing thermal preferences could account for the spatial segregation observed in the field. Thermal preferences of age-1 westslope cutthroat trout and rainbow trout (125 to 150 mm total length) were assessed in the laboratory using a modified annular preference chamber at acclimation temperatures of 10, 12, 14, and 16??C Final preferred temperature of westslope cutthroat trout (14.9??C) was similar to that of rainbow trout (14.8??C) when tested in a thermal gradient of 11-17??C The high degree of overlap in thermal preference indicates the two species have similar thermal niches and a high potential for competition. We suggest several modifications to the annular preference chamber to improve performance in future studies.

  14. Note on color preference and color vision test performance.

    PubMed

    Buckalew, L W; Buckalew, N M; Ross, S

    1989-12-01

    The incidence of color deficient vision was investigated using the Pseudo-Isochromatic Plates on a relatively large and representative group. In the sample of 112 adults aged 20 to 80 yr. and comprised of 53% women and 12% minorities, 8% of men and 3% of women were color deficient. Over-all performance indicated no effects for sex or race. Nearly half of the plates were nondiscriminating among sex, minority/majority, and "normal" and "defective" color vision groups. Named color preferences within the "normal" group strongly favored blues and reflected no sex differences.

  15. Development and Analysis of a Cognitive Preference Test in the Social Sciences. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payette, Roland Francis

    In order to allow for formulating affective objectives in communicable terms, the Cognitive Preference Test in the Social Sciences was developed. This exploratory device, which reflects cognitive preferences in terms of students' dispositions to respond consistently to either particular or general features of data, uses multiple choice wherein 4…

  16. Teachers' Preferences for Educational Planning: Dynamic Testing, Teaching Experience and Teachers' Sense of Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosma, Tirza; Hessels, Marco G. P.; Resing, Wilma C. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study surveyed a sample of 188 elementary teachers with respect to their preference for information regarding educational planning, in particular information captured with dynamic testing procedures. The influence of teachers' experience and sense of efficacy on teachers' preferences was also investigated. Results indicated teachers'…

  17. Intake of and preference for sweet solutions are attenuated in morphine-withdrawn rats.

    PubMed

    Lieblich, I; Yirmiya, R; Liebeskind, J C

    1991-12-01

    The hypothesis that intake of sweet solutions is partially controlled by endogenous opioid peptides was tested in 2 experiments that examined the effects of repetitive morphine administration and withdrawal on subsequent intake of and preference for saccharin solutions in rats. Experiment 1 established that 17 hr after morphine withdrawal, rats consumed less saccharin, but not less water, than did controls. The groups did not differ 8 days later. In Experiment 2, using a 2-bottle saccharin-preference test, rats exhibited a reduced preference to saccharin solutions (1, 3, 9, 30, or 60 mM) for 6 days after morphine withdrawal. The difference between the groups was most pronounced at the most preferred concentrations (9 and 30 mM). The results suggest that cross-tolerance occurs between morphine and the opioid-mediated hedonic effects of sweet solutions.

  18. Time-Preference Tests Fail to Predict Behavior Related to Self-control

    PubMed Central

    Arfer, Kodi B.; Luhmann, Christian C.

    2017-01-01

    According to theory, choices relating to patience and self-control in domains as varied as drug use and retirement saving are driven by generalized preferences about delayed rewards. Past research has shown that measurements of these time preferences are associated with these choices. Research has also attempted to examine how well such measurements can predict choices, but only with inappropriate analytical methods. Moreover, it is not clear which of the many kinds of time-preference tests that have been proposed are most useful for prediction, and a theoretically important aspect of time preferences, nonstationarity, has been neglected in measurement. In Study 1, we examined three approaches to measuring time preferences with 181 users of Mechanical Turk. Retest reliability, for both immediate and 1-month intervals, was decent, as was convergent validity between tests, and association was similar to previous results, but predictive accuracy for 10 criterion variables (e.g., tobacco use) was approximately nil. In Study 2, we examined one other approach to measuring time preferences, and 40 criterion variables, using 7,127 participants in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979. Time preferences were significantly related to criterion variables, but predictive accuracy was again poor. Our findings imply serious problems for using time-preference tests to predict real-world decisions. The results of Study 1 further suggest there is little value in measuring nonstationarity separately from patience. PMID:28232810

  19. NASA reliability preferred practices for design and test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Given here is a manual that was produced to communicate within the aerospace community design practices that have contributed to NASA mission success. The information represents the best technical advice that NASA has to offer on reliability design and test practices. Topics covered include reliability practices, including design criteria, test procedures, and analytical techniques that have been applied to previous space flight programs; and reliability guidelines, including techniques currently applied to space flight projects, where sufficient information exists to certify that the technique will contribute to mission success.

  20. Marketing the HIV Test to MSM: Ethnic Differences in Preferred Venues and Sources

    PubMed Central

    Lechuga, Julia; Owczarzak, Jill T.; Petroll, Andrew E.

    2014-01-01

    Lack of awareness of HIV status is associated with an increased likelihood of HIV transmission. We surveyed 633 men who have sex with men (MSM) from diverse ethnic groups recruited from a variety of community venues in a U.S. Midwestern city with rising HIV infection rates. Our first aim was to describe patterns of sexual risk, annual HIV testing frequency, and venues where information about HIV and HIV testing could be disseminated to inner-city MSM. Our second aim was to identify preferred sources to receive information about HIV testing and determine whether these preferences differed by ethnic background. Results indicated that despite similar proportions of high–sexual risk behaviors, compared with African American and Latino MSM, smaller proportions of non-Hispanic White MSM had received an HIV test in the last 12 months. Despite ethnic differences in health care access, a physician's office was the most common HIV testing site. Overall, a majority conveyed a preference to see advertisements in mainstream media outlets. However, when preferences were stratified by ethnicity, African American MSM were the least likely to prefer receiving information from mainstream media and conveyed a stronger preference to receive information from authority figures than non-Hispanic White and Hispanic MSM. PMID:23091299

  1. Postpartum depression in rats: differences in swim test immobility, sucrose preference and nurturing behaviors.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Jamie Winderbaum; Grizzell, J Alex; Philpot, Rex M; Wecker, Lynn

    2014-10-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common disorder affecting both mothers and their offspring. Studies of PPD in laboratory animals have typically assessed either immobility on forced swim testing or sucrose preference in ovariectomized rats following hormone supplementation and withdrawal or in stress models. To date, few studies have related these measures to maternal behaviors, a potential indicator of depressive-like activity postpartum. Because a single measure may be insufficient to characterize depression, the present study determined the distribution of depressive-like behaviors in Sprague-Dawley rats postpartum. Nurturing and non-nurturing behaviors exhibited by undisturbed dams were recorded during the first 12 days postpartum, and immobility in the forced swim test and sucrose preference were determined thereafter. A median-split analysis indicated that 19% of dams exhibited high sucrose preference and low immobility, 30% exhibited either only high immobility or only low sucrose preference, and 21% exhibited both high immobility and low preference. Dams exhibiting depressive-like activity on either or both tests displayed increased self-directed behaviors and decreased active nurturing during the dark phase of the diurnal cycle. This is the first study to characterize undisturbed nurturing and non-nurturing behaviors, and use both sucrose preference and immobility in the forced swim test, to classify PPD endophenotypes exhibited by rat dams following parturition. The present study underscores the idea that multiple tests should be used to characterize depressive-like behavior, which is highly heterogeneous in both the human and laboratory animal populations.

  2. Maltodextrin Acceptance and Preference in Eight Mouse Strains

    PubMed Central

    Aleman, Tiffany R.; Ellis, Hillary T.; Tordoff, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    Rodents are strongly attracted to the taste(s) of maltodextrins. A first step toward discovery of the underlying genes involves identifying phenotypic differences among inbred strains of mice. To do this, we used 5-s brief-access tests and 48-h 2-bottle choice tests to survey the avidity for the maltodextrin, Maltrin M040, of mice from 8 inbred strains (129S1/SvImJ, A/J, CAST/EiJ, C57BL/6J, NOD/ShiLTJ, NZO/HlLtJ, PWK/PhJ, and WSB/EiJ). In brief-access tests, the CAST and PWK strains licked significantly less maltodextrin than equivalent concentrations of sucrose, whereas the other strains generally licked the 2 carbohydrates equally. Similarly, in 2-bottle choice tests, the CAST and PWK strains drank less 4% maltodextrin than 4% sucrose, whereas the other strains had similar intakes of these 2 solutions; the CAST and PWK strains did not differ from the C57, NOD, or NZO strains in 4% sucrose intake. In sum, we have identified strain variation in maltodextrin perception that is distinct from variation in sucrose perception. The phenotypic variation characterized here will aid in identifying genes responsible for maltodextrin acceptance. Our results identify C57 × PWK mice or NZO × CAST mice as informative crosses to produce segregating hybrids that will expose quantitative trait loci underlying maltodextrin acceptance and preference. PMID:26464499

  3. Maltodextrin Acceptance and Preference in Eight Mouse Strains.

    PubMed

    Poole, Rachel L; Aleman, Tiffany R; Ellis, Hillary T; Tordoff, Michael G

    2016-01-01

    Rodents are strongly attracted to the taste(s) of maltodextrins. A first step toward discovery of the underlying genes involves identifying phenotypic differences among inbred strains of mice. To do this, we used 5-s brief-access tests and 48-h 2-bottle choice tests to survey the avidity for the maltodextrin, Maltrin M040, of mice from 8 inbred strains (129S1/SvImJ, A/J, CAST/EiJ, C57BL/6J, NOD/ShiLTJ, NZO/HlLtJ, PWK/PhJ, and WSB/EiJ). In brief-access tests, the CAST and PWK strains licked significantly less maltodextrin than equivalent concentrations of sucrose, whereas the other strains generally licked the 2 carbohydrates equally. Similarly, in 2-bottle choice tests, the CAST and PWK strains drank less 4% maltodextrin than 4% sucrose, whereas the other strains had similar intakes of these 2 solutions; the CAST and PWK strains did not differ from the C57, NOD, or NZO strains in 4% sucrose intake. In sum, we have identified strain variation in maltodextrin perception that is distinct from variation in sucrose perception. The phenotypic variation characterized here will aid in identifying genes responsible for maltodextrin acceptance. Our results identify C57 × PWK mice or NZO × CAST mice as informative crosses to produce segregating hybrids that will expose quantitative trait loci underlying maltodextrin acceptance and preference.

  4. MSG intake and preference in mice are influenced by prior testing experience.

    PubMed

    Ackroff, Karen; Weintraub, Rachel; Sclafani, Anthony

    2012-09-10

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG), the prototypical umami substance, is used as a flavor enhancer in many foods, but when presented alone is often only weakly attractive. Yet with experience mice will develop strong preferences for MSG solution over water. The present experiments explored the conditions that change indifference to preference for MSG. C57BL/6J mice were given a series of 2-day two-bottle tests with water vs. an ascending series of MSG concentrations (0.1-450 mM) to assess preference and intake. Naive mice were indifferent to all concentrations, but following forced one-bottle exposure to 300 mM MSG they preferred most concentrations and consumed more MSG. Exposure to 100mM MSG also increased subsequent MSG preference but not intake. Experience with other nutritive solutions (8% sucrose, 8% Polycose, 8% casein hydrolysate, and isocaloric 3.5% soybean oil emulsion) also enhanced subsequent MSG preference and intake. Polycose and sucrose experience were almost as effective as MSG experience. However, not all sapid solutions were effective; 0.8% sucralose and 10mM MSG exposure did not alter subsequent MSG preference. The generality of the preexposure effect was tested by offering an ascending series (0.1-100 mM) of inosine monophosphate (IMP), another umami substance; initial indifference was converted to preference after forced exposure to 300 mM MSG. Together these results suggest that a combination of oral and post-oral effects may be responsible for the experience effect, with MSG itself the most potent stimulus. A final experiment revealed that MSG preference in naïve mice is enhanced by presenting the MSG and water drinking spouts far apart rather than side by side. Thus the preferences for umami solutions in mice are subject to influence from prior tastant experience as well spout position, which should be taken into account when studying acceptance of taste solutions in mice.

  5. A Novel Method for Testing Learning and Preferences in People with Minimal Motor Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Muriel D.; Saunders, Richard R.; Mulugeta, Akalu; Henderson, Karen; Kedziorski, Terri; Hekker, Bob; Wilson, Shan

    2005-01-01

    Ten individuals with profound multiple impairments were given novel tests for learning and preference with adaptive switches and leisure-oriented devices, such as audio tape players. Typically, tests for learning include a baseline or extinction component in which the adaptive switch and device are not connected as a control for incidental or…

  6. Innovation of a reinforcer preference assessment with the difficult to test.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Muriel D; Saunders, Richard R

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we continued evaluation of a two-choice preference assessment aimed at identifying a hierarchy of reinforcers for individuals with only one voluntary motor sequence-closing and releasing an adaptive switch. We assessed preferences among types of sensory stimulation in 6 adults with multiple profound impairments using concurrent synchronous reinforcement contingencies. Pre-experimental assessments with various types of stimulation led to the selection of music (A), vibration (B), and either olfactory or visual stimulation (C) as the 3 modalities for continued testing. Each participant received opportunities for familiarization with each type of stimulation in blocks of six 20-min sessions in which the closure of an adaptive switch produced the stimulation for as long as the switch remained closed. Next, participants could choose between pairs of types of stimulation in blocks of 12 sessions. In the first 6 of the 12 sessions, switch closure activated one type (e.g., A) and switch release activated the contrasted type (e.g., B). In the second 6 sessions, the contingencies were reversed. Two additional 12-session blocks completed all possible contrasts (AB, BC and AC). Four of the 6 participants showed distinct preferences in these two-choice tests with indications of preference hierarchies. The results demonstrate a method for obtaining indications of relative preference for potentially reinforcing stimuli from individuals without communication and without the abilities to act on more than one switch.

  7. Development and Validation of a Test Instrument for Assessing Value Preferences in Medical Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolman, Cynthia J.; Doran, Rodney L.

    1982-01-01

    A test instrument for assessing the preferences medical students show for six value categories (aesthetic, economic, political, religious, social, and theoretical) was developed using a case-study approach. Validation was by comparison of medical ethics and general values in nonmedical students. Further research on the social values category is…

  8. Nodal Structure and Stimulus Relatedness in Equivalence Classes: Post-Class Formation Preference Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss-Lourenco, Patricia; Fields, Lanny

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments used postclass formation within-class preference test performances to evaluate the effects of nodal distance on the relatedness of stimuli in equivalence classes. In Experiment 1, two 2-node four-member equivalence classes were established using the simultaneous protocol in which all of the baseline relations were trained…

  9. Risk preferences: consequences for test and treatment thresholds and optimal cutoffs.

    PubMed

    Felder, Stefan; Mayrhofer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Risk attitudes include risk aversion as well as higher-order risk preferences such as prudence and temperance. This article analyzes the effects of such preferences on medical test and treatment decisions, represented either by test and treatment thresholds or-when the test result is not given-by optimal cutoff values for diagnostic tests. For a risk-averse decision maker, effective treatment is a risk-reducing strategy since it prevents the low health outcome of forgoing treatment in the sick state. Compared with risk neutrality, risk aversion thus lowers both the test and the treatment threshold and decreases the optimal test cutoff value. Risk vulnerability, which combines risk aversion, prudence, and temperance, is relevant if there is a comorbidity risk: thresholds and optimal cutoff values decrease even more. Since common utility functions imply risk vulnerability, our findings suggest that diagnostics in low prevalence settings (e.g., screening) may be considered more beneficial when risk preferences are taken into account.

  10. Rats display a robust bimodal preference profile for sucralose.

    PubMed

    Loney, Gregory C; Torregrossa, Ann-Marie; Smith, James C; Sclafani, Anthony; Eckel, Lisa A

    2011-10-01

    Female Sprague-Dawley rats display considerable variability in their preference for the artificial sweetener sucralose over water. While some rats can be classified as sucralose preferrers (SP), as they prefer sucralose across a broad range of concentrations, others can be classified as sucralose avoiders (SA), as they avoid sucralose at concentrations above 0.1 g/L. Here, we expand on a previous report of this phenomenon by demonstrating, in a series of 2-bottle 24-h preference tests involving water and an ascending series of sucralose concentrations, that this variability in sucralose preference is robust across sex, stage of the estrous cycle, and 2 rat strains (Long-Evans and Sprague-Dawley). In a second experiment involving a large sample of rats (n = 50), we established that the ratio of SP to SA is approximately 35-65%. This bimodal behavioral response to sucralose appears to be driven by taste because rats display a similar bimodal licking response to a range of sucralose solutions presented during brief-access tests. Finally, we have shown that sucralose avoidance is extremely robust as 23-h water-deprived SA continue to avoid sucralose in 1-h single-bottle intake tests. Based on their reduced licking responses to sucralose during brief-access (taste driven) tests, and the fact that their distaste for sucralose cannot be overcome by the motivation to rehydrate, we conclude that SA detect a negative taste quality of sucralose that SP are relatively insensitive to.

  11. Experimental Test of Preferences for an Invasive Prey by an Endangered Predator: Implications for Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Rebecca C.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying impacts of exotic species on native populations is central to ecology and conservation. Although the effects of exotic predators on native prey have received much attention, the role of exotic prey on native predators is poorly understood. Determining if native predators actively prefer invasive prey over native prey has implications for interpreting invasion impacts, identifying the presence of evolutionary traps, and predator persistence. One of the world’s most invasive species, Pomacea maculata, has recently established in portions of the endangered Everglade snail kite’s (Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus) geographic range. Although these exotic snails could provide additional prey resources, they are typically much larger than the native snail, which can lead to lower foraging success and the potential for diminished energetic benefits in comparison to native snails. Nonetheless, snail kites frequently forage on exotic snails. We used choice experiments to evaluate snail kite foraging preference in relation to exotic species and snail size. We found that snail kites do not show a preference for native or exotic snails. Rather, snail kites generally showed a preference for medium-sized snails, the sizes reflective of large native snails. These results suggest that while snail kites frequently forage on exotic snails in the wild, this behavior is likely driven simply by the abundance of exotic snails rather than snail kites preferring exotics. This lack of preference offers insights to hypotheses regarding effects of exotic species, guidance regarding habitat and invasive species management, and illustrates how native-exotic relationships can be misleading in the absence of experimental tests of such interactions. PMID:27829031

  12. New CP-Violation and Preferred-Frame Tests with Polarized Electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heckel, B. R.; Cramer, C. E.; Cook, T. S.; Adelberger, E. G.; Schlamminger, S.; Schmidt, U.

    2006-07-01

    We used a torsion pendulum containing ˜9×1022 polarized electrons to search for CP-violating interactions between the pendulum’s electrons and unpolarized matter in the laboratory’s surroundings or the Sun, and to test for preferred-frame effects that would precess the electrons about a direction fixed in inertial space. We find |gPegSN|/(ℏc)<1.7×10-36 and |gAegVN|/(ℏc)<4.8×10-56 for λ>1AU. Our preferred-frame constraints, interpreted in the Kostelecký framework, set an upper limit on the parameter |b˜e|≤5.0×10-21eV that should be compared to the benchmark value me2/MPlanck=2×10-17eV.

  13. Preferred HIV testing services and programme characteristics among clients of a rapid HIV testing programme

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the current context of diversity and coexistence of HIV testing approaches, limited information exists on test recipient’s views of HIV testing services and programme attributes that could ease the testing process and make it more appealing for at risk individuals who don’t know their HIV status. This study analyzed ratings given to different testing sites and programme characteristics that might facilitate testing. Methods We analyzed data from 3120 persons attending a mobile HIV testing programme located on a central street in the gay district of Madrid. Results 64% were men (of which, 55% had had sex with other men), 59.5% were <30 years, 35.4% foreigners, 50.6% had a university degree,71.7% a regular employment, 59.3% reported multiple partners and inconsistent condom use and 56.5% had been tested for HIV. Non Governmental Organizations and specific HIV/STI centres received the maximum rating from over 60% of participants, followed by self-testing (38.9%). Pharmacies (20.8%) and hospital emergency departments (14.2%) were the worst valued testing sites. Over 80% gave the highest rating to having immediate test results, not needing a previous appointment, and free testing, while less than 50% gave the maximum rating to privacy and anonymity. Conclusions HIV testing services that don’t require an appointment, based on free tests with rapid results are most valued by a young, not socially marginalized but high risk sexual exposure population. On the contrary, issues traditionally highly valued by health care providers or AIDS social organizations (privacy and anonymity) are much less valued. PMID:23987230

  14. Measures of Anxiety in Zebrafish (Danio rerio): Dissociation of Black/White Preference and Novel Tank Test

    PubMed Central

    Blaser, Rachel E.; Rosemberg, Denis B.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of wall color stimuli on diving, and the effects of depth stimuli on scototaxis, were assessed in zebrafish. Three groups of fish were confined to a black, a white, or a transparent tank, and tested for depth preference. Two groups of fish were confined to a deep or a shallow tank, and tested for black-white preference. As predicted, fish preferred the deep half of a split-tank over the shallow half, and preferred the black half of a black/white tank over the white half. Results indicated that the tank wall color significantly affected depth preference, with the transparent tank producing the strongest depth preference and the black tank producing the weakest preference. Tank depth, however, did not significantly affect color preference. Additionally, wall color significantly affected shuttling and immobility, while depth significantly affected shuttling and thigmotaxis. These results are consistent with previous indications that the diving response and scototaxis may reflect dissociable mechanisms of behavior. We conclude that the two tests are complementary rather than interchangeable, and that further research on the motivational systems underlying behavior in each of the two tests is needed. PMID:22615849

  15. Test-retest reliability and comparison of children's reports with parents' reports of young children's fruit and vegetable preferences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study is to investigate the test-retest reliability of a short computerized assessment of young children's fruit (F) and vegetable (V) preferences, and to compare children's responses with their parents' responses. A paper-and-pencil F and V preference and F and V food frequency ques...

  16. Hitting a High Note on Math Tests: Remembered Success Influences Test Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Bridgid; Miele, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Remembered utility is the retrospective evaluation about the pleasure and pain associated with a past experience. It can influence choices about repeating or avoiding similar situations in the future (Kahneman, 2000). A set of 5 experiments explored the remembered utility of effortful test episodes and how it impacted future test choices.…

  17. One size does not fit all: HIV testing preferences differ among high-risk groups in Northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Ostermann, Jan; Njau, Bernard; Mtuy, Tara; Brown, Derek S.; Mühlbacher, Axel; Thielman, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    In order to maximize the effectiveness of “Seek, Test, and Treat” strategies for curbing the HIV epidemic, new approaches are needed to increase the uptake of HIV testing services, particularly among high-risk groups. Low HIV testing rates among such groups suggests that current testing services may not align well with the testing preferences of these populations. Female bar workers and male mountain porters have been identified as two important high-risk groups in the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania. We used conventional survey methods and a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE), a preference elicitation method increasingly applied by economists and policy makers to inform health policy and services, to analyze trade-offs made by individuals and quantify preferences for HIV testing services. Compared to 486 randomly selected community members, 162 female bar workers and 194 male Kilimanjaro porters reported 2 to 3 times as many lifetime sexual partners (p<0.001), but similar numbers of lifetime HIV tests (median 1–2 across all groups). Bivariate descriptive statistics were used to analyze differences in survey responses across groups. For the DCE, participants’ stated choices across 11,178 hypothetical HIV testing scenarios (322 female and 299 male participants × 9 choice tasks × 2 alternatives) were analyzed using gender-specific mixed logit models. Direct assessments and the DCE data demonstrated that barworkers were less likely to prefer home testing and were more concerned about disclosure issues compared with their community counterparts. Male porters preferred testing in venues where antiretroviral therapy was readily available. Both high-risk groups were less averse to traveling longer distances to test compared to their community counterparts. These results expose systematic differences in HIV testing preferences across high-risk populations compared to their community peers. Tailoring testing options to the preferences of high-risk populations should

  18. Pharmacological study of the light/dark preference test in zebrafish (Danio rerio): Waterborne administration.

    PubMed

    Magno, Lílian Danielle Paiva; Fontes, Aldo; Gonçalves, Beatriz Maria Necy; Gouveia, Amauri

    2015-08-01

    Anxiety is a complex disorder; thus, its mechanisms remain unclear. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are a promising pharmacological model for anxiety research. Light/dark preference test is a behaviorally validated measure of anxiety in zebrafish; however, it requires pharmacological validation. We sought to evaluate the sensitivity of the light/dark preference test in adult zebrafish by immersing them in drug solutions containing clonazepam, buspirone, imipramine, fluoxetine, paroxetine, haloperidol, risperidone, propranolol, or ethanol. The time spent in the dark environment, the latency time to first crossing, and the number of midline crossings were analyzed. Intermediate concentrations of clonazepam administered for 600s decreased the time spent in the dark and increased locomotor activity. Buspirone reduced motor activity. Imipramine and fluoxetine increased time spent in the dark and the first latency, and decreased the number of alternations. Paroxetine did not alter the time in the dark; however, it increased the first latency time and decreased locomotor activity. Haloperidol decreased the time spent in the dark at low concentrations. Risperidone and propranolol did not change any parameters. Ethanol reduced the time spent in the dark and increased the number of crossings at intermediate concentrations. These results corroborate the previous work using intraperitoneal drug administration in zebrafish and rodents, suggesting that water drug delivery in zebrafish can effectively be used as an animal anxiety model.

  19. New CP-Violation and Preferred-Frame Tests with Polarized Electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Heckel, B. R.; Cramer, C. E.; Cook, T. S.; Adelberger, E. G.; Schlamminger, S.; Schmidt, U.

    2006-07-14

    We used a torsion pendulum containing {approx}9x10{sup 22} polarized electrons to search for CP-violating interactions between the pendulum's electrons and unpolarized matter in the laboratory's surroundings or the Sun, and to test for preferred-frame effects that would precess the electrons about a direction fixed in inertial space. We find |g{sub P}{sup e}g{sub S}{sup N}|/(({Dirac_h}/2{pi})c)<1.7x10{sup -36} and |g{sub A}{sup e}g{sub V}{sup N}|/(({Dirac_h}/2{pi})c)<4.8x10{sup -56} for {lambda}>1 AU. Our preferred-frame constraints, interpreted in the Kostelecky framework, set an upper limit on the parameter |b(tilde sign){sup e}|{<=}5.0x10{sup -21} eV that should be compared to the benchmark value m{sub e}{sup 2}/M{sub Planck}=2x10{sup -17} eV.

  20. The Effect of Computerized Testing on Sun Bear Behavior and Enrichment Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Perdue, Bonnie M.

    2016-01-01

    The field of comparative cognition investigates species’ differences and similarities in cognitive abilities, and sheds light on the evolutionary origins of such capacities. Cognitive testing has been carried out in a variety of species; however, there are some taxa that are underrepresented in this field. The current work follows on a recent increase in cognitive research in the order Carnivora with a specific focus on sun bears. Sun bears are the smallest existing bear species and live in tropical regions of Southeast Asia. They have an omnivorous diet and use their tongues to forage for insects and sap. Little is known about sun bear cognition, although much like other bear species, anecdotes suggest a high level of intelligence. The current work explored training sun bears to use a touchscreen computer. This effort allows for insight into cognitive abilities as well as providing a complex source of enrichment for the bears. The bears use their tongues to respond to a touchscreen computer, and the effects on stereotypic behaviors on exhibit and preference for this over other forms of enrichment were examined. Overall, bears performed well on the task and showed a preference for the computer. PMID:27669314

  1. Preferred Tone of Nutrition Text Messages for Young Adults: Focus Group Testing

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Young adults are a particularly hard to reach group using conventional health promotion practices as they do not see nutrition messages as personally relevant to them. Text messaging (short message service, SMS) offers an innovative approach to reaching young adults to support and promote dietary behavior change. Objective The aim of this study was to develop and test tonal preferences for nutrition text messages among young adults using focus groups. Methods A total of 39 young adults aged 18-30 years residing in Perth, Western Australia participated in four focus groups. Participants briefly discussed their perception of healthy eating and their responses to messages about increasing fruit and vegetables, and reducing “junk food” and alcohol intake. They ranked their preference for 15 nutrition messages across 3 dietary behaviors (fruit and vegetables, junk food, and alcohol) with 5 different message tones (authoritative, empathetic, generation Y, solutions, and substitutions) and identified the messages most likely to persuade young adults to change their diet. A 5-point ranking of the nutrition messages was from the most likely to least likely to persuade (1-5). The focus groups were conducted by a trained facilitator and observer and were recorded. Data driven content analysis was used to explore themes. Tonal preferences and potential motivators were collated and frequencies presented. Results Participants ranked offering substitutes (29%, 11/39) and using empathy (22%, 9/39) as the most persuasive message techniques in improving diets of young adults, with low responses for Generation Y (17%, 7/39), solutions (17%, 7/39), and authoritative (15%, 6/39) tones. Females were more likely to consider substitution messages persuasive (35%, 7/20) compared with males (22%, 4/19). A greater proportion of males compared with females considered authoritative messages persuasive: (22%, 4/19) compared with (7%, 1/20). There is a strong preference for a

  2. Testing Mixture Models of Transitive Preference: Comment on Regenwetter, Dana, and Davis-Stober (2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnbaum, Michael H.

    2011-01-01

    This article contrasts 2 approaches to analyzing transitivity of preference and other behavioral properties in choice data. The approach of Regenwetter, Dana, and Davis-Stober (2011) assumes that on each choice, a decision maker samples randomly from a mixture of preference orders to determine whether "A" is preferred to "B." In contrast, Birnbaum…

  3. Teaching Assistants' Preferences for Supervisory Style: Testing a Developmental Model of GTA Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prieto, Loreto R.

    1999-01-01

    Surveyed graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) to determine the frequency of their supervision, their preferences for supervisory style, and how those preferences conformed to theoretical expectations within a comprehensive developmental model. Most GTAs received supervision, but the frequency of supervision was often inadequate. They preferred a…

  4. Design for reliability: NASA reliability preferred practices for design and test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalli, Vincent R.

    1994-01-01

    This tutorial summarizes reliability experience from both NASA and industry and reflects engineering practices that support current and future civil space programs. These practices were collected from various NASA field centers and were reviewed by a committee of senior technical representatives from the participating centers (members are listed at the end). The material for this tutorial was taken from the publication issued by the NASA Reliability and Maintainability Steering Committee (NASA Reliability Preferred Practices for Design and Test. NASA TM-4322, 1991). Reliability must be an integral part of the systems engineering process. Although both disciplines must be weighed equally with other technical and programmatic demands, the application of sound reliability principles will be the key to the effectiveness and affordability of America's space program. Our space programs have shown that reliability efforts must focus on the design characteristics that affect the frequency of failure. Herein, we emphasize that these identified design characteristics must be controlled by applying conservative engineering principles.

  5. Preferences of referring physicians regarding the role of radiologists as direct communicators of test results

    PubMed Central

    Erdoğan, Nuri; İmamoğlu, Hakan; Görkem, Süreyya Burcu; Doğan, Serap; Şenol, Serkan; Öztürk, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE Currently, there is a growing need for patient-centered radiology in which radiologists communicate with patients directly. The aim of this study is to investigate the preferences of referring physicians (RPs) regarding direct communication between radiologists and patients. METHODS This study was conducted in a single academic hospital using a survey form. The survey items investigated the preferences of RPs regarding: 1. who should be the communicator of test results when a patient with abnormal findings requests information (the options were the radiologist; another health professional with communication skills training (CST); and the RP with CST); and 2. how the communication activity should be conducted if the radiologist is obliged (or chooses) to communicate with the patient directly (the options were that the disclosure should be limited to the findings in the radiology report; the radiologist should emphasize that the RP is the primary physician; and the communication activity should be conducted in accordance with guidelines established by consensus). The respondents were 101 RPs from various fields of specialty; they were asked to rate the items using a 5-point Likert scale. The effects of age, sex, field of specialty (surgical vs. nonsurgical), and total years of experience as a medical specialist on the ratings were statistically compared. RESULTS Most RPs preferred that the radiologist transmit the information to the RP without communicating directly with the patient (89.1%). Although 69.3% of the RPs declared that health professionals with CST have priority in communication, 86.1% declared that the RP should be the person who received CST. If the radiologist communicates with patients directly, the RPs favored that 1. the disclosure should be limited to the findings in the radiology report (95%); 2. the communication activity should include an emphasis on the RP as the patient’s primary agent (84.1%); and 3. communication should be

  6. Innovation of a Reinforcer Preference Assessment with the Difficult to Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Muriel D.; Saunders, Richard R.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we continued evaluation of a two-choice preference assessment aimed at identifying a hierarchy of reinforcers for individuals with only one voluntary motor sequence--closing and releasing an adaptive switch. We assessed preferences among types of sensory stimulation in 6 adults with multiple profound impairments using concurrent…

  7. Preferences for prenatal tests for Down syndrome: an international comparison of the views of pregnant women and health professionals.

    PubMed

    Hill, Melissa; Johnson, Jo-Ann; Langlois, Sylvie; Lee, Hyun; Winsor, Stephanie; Dineley, Brigid; Horniachek, Marisa; Lalatta, Faustina; Ronzoni, Luisa; Barrett, Angela N; Advani, Henna V; Choolani, Mahesh; Rabinowitz, Ron; Pajkrt, Eva; van Schendel, Rachèl V; Henneman, Lidewij; Rommers, Wieke; Bilardo, Caterina M; Rendeiro, Paula; Ribeiro, Maria João; Rocha, José; Bay Lund, Ida Charlotte; Petersen, Olav B; Becher, Naja; Vogel, Ida; Stefánsdottir, Vigdis; Ingvarsdottir, Sigrun; Gottfredsdottir, Helga; Morris, Stephen; Chitty, Lyn S

    2016-07-01

    Non-invasive prenatal testing is increasingly available worldwide and stakeholder viewpoints are essential to guide implementation. Here we compare the preferences of women and health professionals from nine different countries towards attributes of non-invasive and invasive prenatal tests for Down syndrome. A discrete choice experiment was used to obtain participants' stated preference for prenatal tests that varied according to four attributes: accuracy, time of test, risk of miscarriage, and type of information. Pregnant women and health professionals were recruited from Canada, Denmark, Iceland, Israel, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Singapore, and the United Kingdom. A total of 2666 women's and 1245 health professionals' questionnaires were included in the analysis. Differences in preferences were seen between women and health professionals within and between countries. Overall, women placed greater emphasis on test safety and comprehensive information than health professionals, who emphasised accuracy and early testing. Differences between women's and health professionals' preferences are marked between countries. Varied approaches to implementation and service delivery are therefore needed and individual countries should develop guidelines appropriate for their own social and screening contexts.

  8. Positive reinforcing effect of neurotensin microinjection into the ventral pallidum in conditioned place preference test.

    PubMed

    Ollmann, Tamás; Péczely, László; László, Kristóf; Kovács, Anita; Gálosi, Rita; Berente, Eszter; Karádi, Zoltán; Lénárd, László

    2015-02-01

    The ventral pallidum (VP) is innervated by the mesolimbic dopaminergic system and it has a key role in motivation, reward, and memory processes. Neurotensin (NT) is an important neuromodulator which has been shown to modulate reinforcement in the ventral tegmental area, in the ventral mesencephalic region and in the central nucleus of amygdala. Neurotensin receptor 1 (NTR1) has already been detected in the VP in abundance, but its role in rewarding and reinforcing processes is not fully understood yet. In our present experiments, the effects of NT on positive reinforcement were investigated in the VP. In conditioned place preference (CPP) test, male Wistar rats were microinjected bilaterally with 100 ng or 250 ng NT in the volume of 0.4 μl. In other groups of animals, 35 ng NTR1 antagonist SR 48692 was applied by itself, or microinjected 15 min before 100 ng NT treatment. One hundred ng dose of NT induced CPP, whereas animals injected with 250 ng NT did not exhibit significant differences from the vehicle group. Antagonist pretreatment inhibited the effect of NT, while the antagonist applied by itself had no effect. Our results show that NT injected into the VP is involved in positive reinforcement. This effect is specific to NTR1 receptors because the development of CPP can be prevented by specific antagonist.

  9. Assessment of lighting needs by W-36 laying hens via preference test.

    PubMed

    Ma, H; Xin, H; Zhao, Y; Li, B; Shepherd, T A; Alvarez, I

    2016-04-01

    Light intensity, spectrum and pattern may affect laying hen behaviors and production performance. However, requirements of these lighting parameters from the hens' standpoint are not fully understood. This study was conducted to investigate hens' needs for light intensity and circadian rhythm using a light tunnel with five identical compartments each at a different fluorescent light intensity of <1, 5, 15, 30 or 100 lux. The hens were able to move freely among the respective compartments. A group of four W-36 laying hens (23 to 30 weeks of age) were tested each time, and six groups or replicates were conducted. Behaviors of the hens were continuously recorded, yielding data on daily time spent, daily feed intake, daily feeding time, and eggs laid under each light intensity and daily inter-compartment movement. The results show that the hens generally spent more time in lower light intensities. Specifically, the hens spent 6.4 h (45.4%) at 5 lux, 3.0 h (22.1%) at 15 lux, 3.1 h (22.2%) at 30 lux and 1.5 h (10.3%) at 100 lux under light condition; and an accumulation of 10.0 h in darkness (<1 lux) per day. The 10-h dark period was distributed intermittently throughout the day, averaging 25.0±0.4 min per hour. This hourly light-dark rhythm differs from the typical commercial practice of providing continuous dark period for certain part of the day (e.g. 8 h at night). Distributions of daily feed intake (87.3 g/hen) among the different light conditions mirrored the trend of time spent in the respective light intensity, that is, highest at 5 lux (28.4 g/hen, 32.5% daily total) and lowest at 100 lux (5.8 g/hen, 6.7%). Hen-day egg production rate was 96.0%. Most of the eggs were laid in <1 lux (61.9% of total) which was significantly higher than under other light intensities (P<0.05). Findings from this study offer insights into preference of fluorescent light intensity by the laying hens. Further studies to assess or verify welfare and performance responses of the hens to

  10. Specific food preferences of older adults with a poor appetite. A forced-choice test conducted in various care settings.

    PubMed

    van der Meij, Barbara S; Wijnhoven, Hanneke A H; Finlayson, Graham S; Oosten, Babette S H; Visser, Marjolein

    2015-07-01

    A poor appetite in older adults is an important determinant of reduced food intake and undernutrition. Food preferences may influence food intake. The aim of this study was to investigate food preferences of older adults with a poor appetite and compare these with preferences of older adults with a good appetite. Older adults (n = 349, aged 65-101 years) in nursing/residential care homes, hospitals or at home receiving home care participated in a computer-based forced-choice food preference assessment. Self-reported appetite in the past week was classified as 'good' or 'poor' using a validated instrument. Food preferences were determined by counting the relative frequency of choices for food images according to 11 dichotomous categories: high/low 1) protein; 2) fat; 3) carbohydrates; 4) fiber; 5) variation; and 6) animal/vegetarian proteins; 7) sweet/savory taste; 8) solid/liquid texture; 9) dairy/non-dairy; with/without 10) sauce or 11) color variation. Specific food preferences in participants with a poor appetite were identified by one-sample t-tests comparing frequencies to the expected value of 48. Preference differences between those with a good and a poor appetite were analyzed using GLM adjusting for confounders. The results showed that older adults with a poor appetite (n = 113; 32.4%) preferred variation (51.6 vs. 48, P < 0.001), color variation (55.9 vs. 48, P < 0.01), non-dairy (53.0 vs. 48, P < 0.001), high-fiber (51.8 vs. 48, P < 0.05), and solid texture (53.5 vs. 48, P < 0.05). Participants with a poor appetite had a higher frequency score for variation than participants with a good appetite (51.6 vs. 48.5, P < 0.001). In conclusion, older adults with a poor appetite may have specific food preferences. Their preference for variation differs from those with a good appetite. These results may be used to develop meals that are preferred by older adults with poor appetite in order to increase food intake and prevent

  11. Dopamine receptor signaling in the medial orbital frontal cortex and the acquisition and expression of fructose-conditioned flavor preferences in rats

    PubMed Central

    Malkusz, Danielle C.; Yenko, Ira; Rotella, Francis M.; Banakos, Theodore; Olsson, Kerstin; Dindyal, Trisha; Vig, Vishal; Bodnar, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Systemic dopamine (DA) D1 (SCH23390: SCH) and D2 (raclopride: RAC) antagonists blocked fructose-conditioned flavor preference (CFP) acquisition and expression. Fructose-CFP acquisition was eliminated by medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) SCH and mPFC or amygdala (AMY) RAC. Fructose-CFP expression was reduced following SCH or RAC in AMY or nucleus accumbens (NAc). The present study examined fructose-CFP acquisition and expression following SCH and RAC in the medial orbital frontal cortex (MOFC), another ventral tegmental area DA target. For fructose-CFP acquisition, five groups of rats received vehicle, SCH (24 or 48 nmol) or RAC (24 or 48 nmol) in the MOFC 0.5 h prior to 8 training sessions with one flavor (CS+/Fs) mixed in 8% fructose and 0.2% saccharin, and another flavor (CS-/s) mixed in 0.2% saccharin. In six 2-bottle choice tests in 0.2% saccharin, similar fructose-CFP preferences occurred in groups trained with vehicle (76–77%), SCH24 (69–78%), SCH48(70–74%) and RAC48 (85–92%). RAC24-trained rats displayed significant CS+ preferences during the first (79%) and third (71%), but not second (58%) test pair. For fructose-CFP expression, rats similarly trained with CS+/Fs and CS- solutions received 2-bottle choice tests following MOFC injections of SCH or RAC (12–48 nmol). CS+ preference expression was significantly reduced by RAC (48 nmol: 58%), but not SCH relative to vehicle (78%). A control group receiving RAC in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex displayed fructose-CFP expression similar to vehicle. These data demonstrate differential frontal cortical DA mediation of fructose-CFP with mPFC D1 and D2 signaling exclusively mediating acquisition, and MOFC D2 signaling primarily mediating expression. PMID:25446441

  12. Preferred-frame and CP-violation tests with polarized electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Heckel, B. R.; Adelberger, E. G.; Cramer, C. E.; Cook, T. S.; Schlamminger, S.; Schmidt, U.

    2008-11-01

    We used a torsion pendulum containing {approx_equal}10{sup 23} polarized electrons to search new interactions that couple to electron spin. We limit CP-violating interactions between the pendulum's electrons and unpolarized matter in the Earth or the Sun, test for rotation and boost-dependent preferred-frame effects using the Earth's rotation and velocity with respect to the entire cosmos, and search for exotic velocity-dependent potentials between polarized electrons and unpolarized matter in the Sun and Moon. We find CP-violating parameters |g{sub P}{sup e}g{sub S}{sup N}|/(({Dirac_h}/2{pi})c)<9.4x10{sup -37} and |g{sub A}{sup e}g{sub V}{sup N}|/(({Dirac_h}/2{pi})c)<1.2x10{sup -56} for {lambda}>1 AU. We test for preferred-frame interactions of the form V=-{sigma}{sup e}{center_dot}A, V=-B{sigma}{sup e}{center_dot}v/c, or , where v is the velocity of the Earth with respect to the cosmic microwave background restframe and i, j represent the equatorial inertial coordinates X, Y, and Z. We constrain all 3 components of A, obtaining 1{sigma} upper limits |A{sub X,Y}|{<=}1.5x10{sup -22} eV and |A{sub Z}|{<=}4.4x10{sup -21} eV that may be compared to the benchmark value m{sub e}{sup 2}/M{sub Planck}=2x10{sup -17} eV. Interpreting our constraint on A in terms of noncommutative geometry, we obtain an upper bound of (355l{sub GUT}){sup 2} on the minimum observable area, where l{sub GUT}=({Dirac_h}/2{pi})c/(10{sup 16} GeV) is the grand unification length. We find that |B|{<=}1.2x10{sup -19} eV. All 9 components of C are constrained at the 10{sup -17} to 10{sup -18} eV level. We determine 9 linear combinations of parameters of the standard model extension; rotational-noninvariant and boost-noninvariant terms are limited at roughly the 10{sup -31} GeV and 10{sup -27} GeV levels, respectively. Finally, we find that the gravitational mass of an electron spinning toward the galactic center differs by less than about 1 part in 10{sup 21} from an electron spinning in the opposite

  13. Genomic testing to determine drug response: measuring preferences of the public and patients using Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The extent to which a genomic test will be used in practice is affected by factors such as ability of the test to correctly predict response to treatment (i.e. sensitivity and specificity of the test), invasiveness of the testing procedure, test cost, and the probability and severity of side effects associated with treatment. Methods Using discrete choice experimentation (DCE), we elicited preferences of the public (Sample 1, N = 533 and Sample 2, N = 525) and cancer patients (Sample 3, N = 38) for different attributes of a hypothetical genomic test for guiding cancer treatment. Samples 1 and 3 considered the test/treatment in the context of an aggressive curable cancer (scenario A) while the scenario for sample 2 was based on a non-aggressive incurable cancer (scenario B). Results In aggressive curable cancer (scenario A), everything else being equal, the odds ratio (OR) of choosing a test with 95% sensitivity was 1.41 (versus a test with 50% sensitivity) and willingness to pay (WTP) was $1331, on average, for this amount of improvement in test sensitivity. In this scenario, the OR of choosing a test with 95% specificity was 1.24 times that of a test with 50% specificity (WTP = $827). In non-aggressive incurable cancer (scenario B), the OR of choosing a test with 95% sensitivity was 1.65 (WTP = $1344), and the OR of choosing a test with 95% specificity was 1.50 (WTP = $1080). Reducing severity of treatment side effects from severe to mild was associated with large ORs in both scenarios (OR = 2.10 and 2.24 in scenario A and B, respectively). In contrast, patients had a very large preference for 95% sensitivity of the test (OR = 5.23). Conclusion The type and prognosis of cancer affected preferences for genomically-guided treatment. In aggressive curable cancer, individuals emphasized more on the sensitivity rather than the specificity of the test. In contrast, for a non-aggressive incurable cancer, individuals put similar

  14. Arginine is preferred to glucagon for stimulation testing of β-cell function.

    PubMed

    Robertson, R Paul; Raymond, Ralph H; Lee, Douglas S; Calle, Roberto A; Ghosh, Atalanta; Savage, Peter J; Shankar, Sudha S; Vassileva, Maria T; Weir, Gordon C; Fryburg, David A

    2014-10-15

    A key aspect of research into the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes is the availability of reproducible clinical research methodology to assess β-cell function. One commonly used method employs nonglycemic secretagogues like arginine (arg) or glucagon (glgn). This study was designed to quantify the insulin response to arg and glgn and determine test repeatability and tolerability. Obese overnight-fasted subjects with normal glucose tolerance were studied on 4 separate days: twice using arg (5 g iv) and twice with glgn (1 mg iv). Pre- and postinfusion samples for plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide were acquired. Arg and glgn challenges were repeated in the last 10 min of a 60-min glucose (900 mg/min) infusion. Insulin and C-peptide secretory responses were estimated under baseline fasting glucose conditions (AIRarg and AIRglgn) and hyperglycemic (AIRargMAX AIRglgnMAX) states. Relative repeatability was estimated by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Twenty-three (12 men and 11 women) subjects were studied (age: 42.4 ± 8.3 yr; BMI: 31.4 ± 2.8 kg/m²). Geometric means (95% CI) for baseline-adjusted values AIRarg and AIRglgn were 84 (75-95) and 102 (90-115) μU/ml, respectively. After the glucose infusion, AIRargMAX and AIRglgnMAX were 395 (335-466) and 483 (355-658) μU/ml, respectively. ICC values were >0.90 for AIRarg andAIRargMAX. Glucagon ICCs were 0.83, 0.34, and 0.36, respectively, although the exclusion of one outlier increased the latter two values (to 0.84 and 0.86). Both glgn and arg induced mild adverse events that were transient. Glucagon, but not arginine, induced moderate adverse events due to nausea. Taken together, arginine is preferred to glucagon for assessment of β-cell function.

  15. Designer's approach for scene selection in tests of preference and restoration along a continuum of natural to manmade environments

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, MaryCarol R.; Askarinejad, Ali

    2015-01-01

    It is well-established that the experience of nature produces an array of positive benefits to mental well-being. Much less is known about the specific attributes of green space which produce these effects. In the absence of translational research that links theory with application, it is challenging to design urban green space for its greatest restorative potential. This translational research provides a method for identifying which specific physical attributes of an environmental setting are most likely to influence preference and restoration responses. Attribute identification was based on a triangulation process invoking environmental psychology and aesthetics theories, principles of design founded in mathematics and aesthetics, and empirical research on the role of specific physical attributes of the environment in preference or restoration responses. From this integration emerged a list of physical attributes defining aspects of spatial structure and environmental content found to be most relevant to the perceptions involved with preference and restoration. The physical attribute list offers a starting point for deciphering which scene stimuli dominate or collaborate in preference and restoration responses. To support this, functional definitions and metrics—efficient methods for attribute quantification are presented. Use of these research products and the process for defining place-based metrics can provide (a) greater control in the selection and interpretation of the scenes/images used in tests of preference and restoration and (b) an expanded evidence base for well-being designers of the built environment. PMID:26347691

  16. How Are Mate Preferences Linked with Actual Mate Selection? Tests of Mate Preference Integration Algorithms Using Computer Simulations and Actual Mating Couples

    PubMed Central

    Conroy-Beam, Daniel; Buss, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Prior mate preference research has focused on the content of mate preferences. Yet in real life, people must select mates among potentials who vary along myriad dimensions. How do people incorporate information on many different mate preferences in order to choose which partner to pursue? Here, in Study 1, we compare seven candidate algorithms for integrating multiple mate preferences in a competitive agent-based model of human mate choice evolution. This model shows that a Euclidean algorithm is the most evolvable solution to the problem of selecting fitness-beneficial mates. Next, across three studies of actual couples (Study 2: n = 214; Study 3: n = 259; Study 4: n = 294) we apply the Euclidean algorithm toward predicting mate preference fulfillment overall and preference fulfillment as a function of mate value. Consistent with the hypothesis that mate preferences are integrated according to a Euclidean algorithm, we find that actual mates lie close in multidimensional preference space to the preferences of their partners. Moreover, this Euclidean preference fulfillment is greater for people who are higher in mate value, highlighting theoretically-predictable individual differences in who gets what they want. These new Euclidean tools have important implications for understanding real-world dynamics of mate selection. PMID:27276030

  17. Measurement of Behavioral Taste Responses in Mice: Two-Bottle Preference, Lickometer, and Conditioned Taste-Aversion Tests.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, Dany; Stratford, Jennifer M

    2016-12-01

    The natural like and dislike of foods based on taste is one of the most easily observed behaviors in animals. Animals eat palatable foods and reject aversive foods, which makes measurement of taste perception possible using various behavioral techniques. Three different methods to accurately measure taste behavior are described here. First, two-bottle preference tests evaluate whether a taste compound (tastant) is preferred over water. Second, lickometer tests quantify the like and dislike for multiple concentrations of the same tastant or multiple tastants at the same time. Finally, conditioned taste aversion tests accurately determine the perceived taste threshold for palatable tastants. Together, these diverse methods enable researchers to observe and measure behavioral taste responses in mice to any tastant. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  18. HIV testing history and preferences for future tests among gay men, bisexual men and other MSM in England: results from a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Witzel, T Charles; Melendez-Torres, G J; Hickson, Ford; Weatherburn, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The British HIV Association's (BHIVA) testing guidelines recommend men who have sex with men (MSM) test annually or more frequently if ongoing risk is present. We identify which groups of MSM in England are less likely to have tested for HIV and their preferences for future tests by testing model, in order to inform health promotion programmes. Methods Data come from the Gay Men's Sex Survey 2014, a cross-sectional survey of MSM, aged 16 years or older and living in the UK. Only men who did not have diagnosed HIV and were living in England were included in this analysis. We used logistic regression models to understand how social determinants of health were associated with not testing for HIV in the past 12 months, and never having tested. We then cross-tabulated preferred testing location by demographic characteristics. Results Younger men, older men and men who were not gay identified were least likely to have tested for HIV. Higher educational attainment, migrancy, Black ethnicity and being at higher of risk were associated with greater levels of HIV testing. Men who were less likely to have tested for HIV preferred a wider range of options for future HIV testing. Conclusions If the BHIVA's HIV testing policy of 2008 was used to guide testing priorities among MSM focus would be on increasing the rate of annual testing among MSM at less risk of HIV (ie, younger men, older men and non-gay identified MSM). Instead the promotion of more frequent testing among the groups most at risk of infection should be prioritised in order to reduce the time between infection and diagnosis. PMID:27630068

  19. Effects of callosal agenesis on rotational side preference of BALB/cCF mice in the free swimming test.

    PubMed

    Filgueiras, Cláudio C; Manhães, Alex C

    2004-11-05

    In order to test the hypothesis that the ontogenetic development of the corpus callosum is related to the establishment of behavioral laterality, the rotatory behavior in the free swimming test was studied in male mice of the BALB/cCF strain, in which approximately 20% of the animals present total or partial callosal agenesis. All animals were submitted to three sessions of the free-swimming rotatory test in three different sessions (diameter of the recipient = 21 cm; session duration = 5 min; inter-test interval = 48 h). The number and direction of the 30 and 360 degrees turns were recorded. Animals were classified as side-consistent turners (to the right or to the left) when they did not change their preferred side of rotation in all three sessions and in both turning units. In general our results suggested that acallosal animals present more pronounced laterality than normal ones. In the acallosal group, the percentage of consistent turners was significantly higher than that of non-consistent turners. The percentage of animals that presented strong turning preferences in the acallosal group was higher than in the normal group. In first session, the acallosal group presented a higher average number of turns to preferred side than the normal group. Taken together, our results constitute an endorsement to the hypothesis that the normal development of the corpus callosum is related to the establishment of cerebral laterality.

  20. The olfactory hole-board test in rats: a new paradigm to study aversion and preferences to odors

    PubMed Central

    Wernecke, Kerstin E. A.; Fendt, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Odors of biological relevance (e.g., predator odors, sex odors) are known to effectively influence basic survival needs of rodents such as anti-predatory defensiveness and mating behaviors. Research focused on the effects of these odors on rats’ behavior mostly includes multi-trial paradigms where animals experience single odor exposures in subsequent, separated experimental sessions. In the present study, we introduce a modification of the olfactory hole-board test that allows studying the effects of different odors on rats’ behavior within single trials. First, we demonstrated that the corner holes of the hole-board were preferentially visited by rats. The placement of different odors under the corner holes changed this hole preference. We showed that holes with carnivore urine samples were avoided, while corner holes with female rat urine samples were preferred. Furthermore, corner holes with urine samples from a carnivore, herbivore, and omnivore were differentially visited indicating that rats can discriminate these odors. To test whether anxiolytic treatment specifically modulates the avoidance of carnivore urine holes, we treated rats with buspirone. Buspirone treatment completely abolished the avoidance of carnivore urine holes. Taken together, our findings indicate that the olfactory hole-board test is a valuable tool for measuring avoidance and preference responses to biologically relevant odors. PMID:26379516

  1. Forelimb preferences in human beings and other species: multiple models for testing hypotheses on lateralization.

    PubMed

    Versace, Elisabetta; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Functional preferences in the use of right/left forelimbs are not exclusively present in humans but have been widely documented in a variety of vertebrate and invertebrate species. A matter of debate is whether non-human species exhibit a degree and consistency of functional forelimb asymmetries comparable to human handedness. The comparison is made difficult by the variability in hand use in humans and the few comparable studies conducted on other species. In spite of this, interesting continuities appear in functions such as feeding, object manipulation and communicative gestures. Studies on invertebrates show how widespread forelimb preferences are among animals, and the importance of experience for the development of forelimb asymmetries. Vertebrate species have been extensively investigated to clarify the origins of forelimb functional asymmetries: comparative evidence shows that selective pressures for different functions have likely driven the evolution of human handedness. Evidence of a complex genetic architecture of human handedness is in line with the idea of multiple evolutionary origins of this trait.

  2. An infrared motion detector system for lossless real-time monitoring of animal preference tests.

    PubMed

    Pogány, A; Heszberger, J; Szurovecz, Zita; Vincze, E; Székely, T

    2014-12-01

    Automated behavioural observations are routinely used in many fields of biology, including ethology, behavioural ecology and physiology. When preferences for certain resources are investigated, the focus is often on simple response variables, such as duration and frequency of visits to choice chambers. Here we present an automated motion detector system that use passive infrared sensors to eliminate many drawbacks of currently existing methods. Signals from the sensors are processed by a custom-built interface, and after unnecessary data is filtered by a computer software, the total time and frequency of the subject's visits to each of the choice chambers are calculated. We validate the detector system by monitoring (using the system) and in the same time video recording mating preferences of zebra finches in a four-way choice apparatus. Manual scoring of the video recordings showed very high consistency with data from the detector system both for time and for frequency of visits. Furthermore, the validation revealed that if we used micro-switches or light barriers, the most commonly applied automatic detection techniques, this would have resulted in approximately 22% less information compared to our lossless system. The system provides a low-cost alternative for monitoring animal movements, and we discuss its further applicability.

  3. Forelimb preferences in human beings and other species: multiple models for testing hypotheses on lateralization

    PubMed Central

    Versace, Elisabetta; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Functional preferences in the use of right/left forelimbs are not exclusively present in humans but have been widely documented in a variety of vertebrate and invertebrate species. A matter of debate is whether non-human species exhibit a degree and consistency of functional forelimb asymmetries comparable to human handedness. The comparison is made difficult by the variability in hand use in humans and the few comparable studies conducted on other species. In spite of this, interesting continuities appear in functions such as feeding, object manipulation and communicative gestures. Studies on invertebrates show how widespread forelimb preferences are among animals, and the importance of experience for the development of forelimb asymmetries. Vertebrate species have been extensively investigated to clarify the origins of forelimb functional asymmetries: comparative evidence shows that selective pressures for different functions have likely driven the evolution of human handedness. Evidence of a complex genetic architecture of human handedness is in line with the idea of multiple evolutionary origins of this trait. PMID:25798121

  4. Evaluation of bedding and nesting materials for laboratory mice by preference tests.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Kohei; Shimosaki, Shunsuke; Tongu, Miki; Kobayashi, Yuta; Nabika, Toru; Nomura, Masato; Yamada, Takaya

    2007-10-01

    Bedding and nesting materials can improve the health and environmental welfare of laboratory mice. This study was carried out to examine which items are actually preferred by mice. Two series of studies were performed on four types of floor-covering materials (Wood-shavings (Clean-chip), Cloth (Agrebe), Recycled-paper (Paper-clean), Paper (Care-feeaz), and on four types of nesting materials (Recycled-paper (Shepherd-shack), Cloth (Agrebe), Wood (Wood-cylinder), and Polycarbonate (Mouse-igloo). Preference of bedding materials was judged by the time length of staying in a cage. The results indicate that mice stayed in the cloth material (Agrebe) longer than in other bedding materials (light 51.1 +/- 5.3%, dark 51.5 +/- 2.6%). In the second experiment, the duration of stay in Agrebe was significantly longer than that in the other nesting materials in the light phase (70.9 +/- 2.4%). In the dark phase, staying time both in Agrebe and Shepherd-shack were significantly longer. These data suggest that cloth bedding and nesting is recommended for the environmental enrichment of laboratory mice.

  5. An evaluation of human immunodeficiency virus oral screening test awareness and preferences in the West region of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Nkenfou, Celine N; Kembou, Japhette T; Djikeng, Appolinaire; Domkam, Irenee; Tchuinkam, Timoleon

    2015-01-01

    HIV serological diagnosis has evolved during the last decade to give rise to rapid testing using biological materials, such as blood or oral mucosal transudate (OMT). However, blood collection is not always welcomed, justifying the evaluation of OMT-based devices. In a cross sectional study carried out in May 2011 aimed at evaluating the level of awareness about OMT based HIV tests, questionnaires were administered to participants who consented to take part in the study. Eighty-five percent (n = 1520) of participants reported a lack of awareness of HIV oral screening before the study, and surprisingly, no association was found between the awareness of participants and their educational level (p = 0.768). There was also no association (p = 0.743) found between having had previous screening tests and awareness of oral testing. The percentage of participants who accepted the oral test before being informed about it was 31.3% (n = 1520). After sensitization, 76.3% (n = 1520)preferred oral screening for future tests (p = 0). These results reveal that if the OMT based test is affordable, its implementation as a screening tool in the general population could greatly increase participation in screening campaigns and is welcomed by those who want to self-test in a non-invasive way. This will create a better estimation of the national HIV prevalence. Its use could then have a significant public health impact on HIV prevention and clinical management.

  6. Combined use of field and laboratory testing to predict preferred flow paths in an heterogeneous aquifer.

    PubMed

    Gierczak, R F D; Devlin, J F; Rudolph, D L

    2006-01-05

    Elevated nitrate concentrations within a municipal water supply aquifer led to pilot testing of a field-scale, in situ denitrification technology based on carbon substrate injections. In advance of the pilot test, detailed characterization of the site was undertaken. The aquifer consisted of complex, discontinuous and interstratified silt, sand and gravel units, similar to other well studied aquifers of glaciofluvial origin, 15-40 m deep. Laboratory and field tests, including a conservative tracer test, a pumping test, a borehole flowmeter test, grain-size analysis of drill cuttings and core material, and permeameter testing performed on core samples, were performed on the most productive depth range (27-40 m), and the results were compared. The velocity profiles derived from the tracer tests served as the basis for comparison with other methods. The spatial variation in K, based on grain-size analysis, using the Hazen method, were poorly correlated with the breakthrough data. Trends in relative hydraulic conductivity (K/K(avg)) from permeameter testing compared somewhat better. However, the trends in transient drawdown with depth, measured in multilevel sampling points, corresponded particularly well with those of solute mass flux. Estimates of absolute K, based on standard pumping test analysis of the multilevel drawdown data, were inversely correlated with the tracer test data. The inverse nature of the correlation was attributed to assumptions in the transient drawdown packages that were inconsistent with the variable diffusivities encountered at the scale of the measurements. Collectively, the data showed that despite a relatively low variability in K within the aquifer under study (within a factor of 3), water and solute mass fluxes were concentrated in discrete intervals that could be targeted for later bioremediation.

  7. Parsimonious Testing of Transitive or Intransitive Preferences: Reply to Birnbaum (2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regenwetter, Michel; Dana, Jason; Davis-Stober, Clintin P.; Guo, Ying

    2011-01-01

    Birnbaum raised important challenges to testing transitivity. We summarize why an approach based on counting response patterns does not solve these challenges. Foremost, we show why parsimonious tests of transitivity require at least 5 choice alternatives. While the approach of Regenwetter, Dana, and Davis-Stober achieves high power with modest…

  8. Diving beetles (Dytiscidae) as predators of mosquito larvae (Culicidae) in field experiments and in laboratory tests of prey preference.

    PubMed

    Lundkvist, E; Landin, J; Jackson, M; Svensson, C

    2003-06-01

    Field experiments were performed in artificial ponds to evaluate how the density of predatory diving beetles (Dytiscidae) would affect the population levels of mosquito larvae (Culicidae). Mosquitoes colonizing the ponds were predominantly species of the genus Culex. In 2000, most of the dytiscids colonizing the ponds were small (Hydroporus spp.), and these predators had no impact on the size of larval mosquito populations, not even in ponds with added dytiscids. In 2001, larger beetles (Ilybius, Rhantus, and Agabus spp.) were more common, and there were significantly fewer mosquito larvae in ponds with the highest numbers of dytiscids. There was a negative correlation between numbers of diving beetles in the ponds and the mean body length of mosquito larvae. In neither year could dytiscid densities be maintained above a certain level owing to emigration. In laboratory tests, there were marked differences between three common dytiscid species in regard to preferences for Daphnia and Culex species as prey: Colymbetes paykulli Erichson chose mosquito larvae more often, whereas both Ilybius ater (De Geer) and I. fuliginosus (Fabricius) preferred Daphnia spp. All of the tested dytiscids consumed large numbers of prey. Since some dytiscid species can efficiently decrease populations of mosquito larvae, they are probably important in the natural control of these dipterans.

  9. Reprint of "Pharmacological study of the light/dark preference test in zebrafish (Danio rerio): Waterborne administration".

    PubMed

    Magno, Lílian Danielle Paiva; Fontes, Aldo; Gonçalves, Beatriz Maria Necy; Gouveia, Amauri

    2015-12-01

    Anxiety is a complex disorder; thus, its mechanisms remain unclear. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are a promising pharmacological model for anxiety research. Light/dark preference test is a behaviorally validated measure of anxiety in zebrafish; however, it requires pharmacological validation. We sought to evaluate the sensitivity of the light/dark preference test in adult zebrafish by immersing them in drug solutions containing clonazepam, buspirone, imipramine, fluoxetine, paroxetine, haloperidol, risperidone, propranolol, or ethanol. The time spent in the dark environment, the latency time to first crossing, and the number of midline crossings were analyzed. Intermediate concentrations of clonazepam administered for 600s decreased the time spent in the dark and increased locomotor activity. Buspirone reduced motor activity. Imipramine and fluoxetine increased time spent in the dark and the first latency, and decreased the number of alternations. Paroxetine did not alter the time in the dark; however, it increased the first latency time and decreased locomotor activity. Haloperidol decreased the time spent in the dark at low concentrations. Risperidone and propranolol did not change any parameters. Ethanol reduced the time spent in the dark and increased the number of crossings at intermediate concentrations. These results corroborate the previous work using intraperitoneal drug administration in zebrafish and rodents, suggesting that water drug delivery in zebrafish can effectively be used as an animal anxiety model.

  10. The Conditioned Place Preference Test for Assessing Welfare Consequences and Potential Refinements in a Mouse Bladder Cancer Model

    PubMed Central

    Roughan, John V.; Coulter, Claire A.; Flecknell, Paul A.; Thomas, Huw D.; Sufka, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Most pre-clinical analgesic efficacy assays still involve nociceptive testing in rodents. This is despite concerns as to the relevance of these tests for evaluating the pain-preventative properties of drugs. More appropriate methods would target pain rather than nociception, but these are currently not available, so it remains unknown whether animal pain equates to the negatively affective and subjective/emotional state it causes in humans. Mouse cancer models are common despite the likelihood of substantial pain. We used Conditioned Place Preference (CPP) testing, assessments of thermal hyperalgesia and behaviour to determine the likelihood that MBT-2 bladder cancer impacts negatively on mouse welfare, such as by causing pain. There was no CPP to saline, but morphine preference in tumour bearing mice exceeded that seen in tumour-free controls. This occurred up to 10 days before the study end-point alongside reduced body weight, development of hyperalgesia and behaviour changes. These effects indicated mice experienced a negative welfare state caused by malaise (if not pain) before euthanasia. Due to the complexity of the assessments needed to demonstrate this, it is unlikely that this approach could be used for routine welfare assessment on a study-by-study basis. However, our results show mice in sufficiently similar studies are likely to benefit from more intensive severity assessment and re-evaluation of end-points with a view to implementing appropriate refinements. In this particular case, a refinement would have been to have euthanased mice at least 7 days earlier or possibly by provision of end-stage pain relief. CPP testing was found to be a helpful method to investigate the responses of mice to analgesics, possibly on a subjective level. These findings and those of other recent studies show it could be a valuable method of screening candidate analgesics for efficacy against cancer pain and possibly other pain or disease models. PMID:25100208

  11. Preference for physician vs. nurse-initiated opt-out screening on HIV test acceptance.

    PubMed

    Kinsler, Janni J; Sayles, Jennifer N; Cunningham, William E; Mahajan, Anish

    2013-01-01

    Provider-initiated opt-out HIV screening suggests that providers should routinely order HIV tests unless a patient declines. However, data on how providers will respond to this new screening model are scarce. Documented concerns from the providers' perspectives have included time constraints of a typical patient encounter, and discomfort with discussing sexual history and risk behavior with patients. To address these potential barriers, nurse-initiated screening has been proposed as an approach to increasing screening rates in general medical and urgent care settings. This study compares patient acceptability of provider-initiated opt-out HIV screening with nurse-initiated opt-out HIV screening among 220 patients between the ages of 18-64 from two publically funded "safety-net" outpatient clinics in Los Angeles County. Our study found that 77% of patients agreed to HIV testing using opt-out screening, and that HIV test acceptance was higher with the physician-initiated opt-out model compared with the nurse-initiated opt-out model (adjusted odds ratios = 2.92; 95% CI = 1.37-6.22). These findings indicate that adding opt-out screening to primary care providers responsibilities may be an acceptable and effective strategy for addressing the perennially low HIV testing rates, particularly among low income, traditionally underserved patient populations among whom the epidemic is expanding most rapidly.

  12. Preference as a Function of Active Interresponse Times: A Test of the Active Time Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misak, Paul; Cleaveland, J. Mark

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we describe a test of the active time model for concurrent variable interval (VI) choice. The active time model (ATM) suggests that the time since the most recent response is one of the variables controlling choice in concurrent VI VI schedules of reinforcement. In our experiment, pigeons were trained in a multiple concurrent…

  13. Neuronal calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II mediates nicotine reward in the conditioned place preference test in mice.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Kia J; Muldoon, Pretal P; Walters, Carrie; Damaj, Mohamad Imad

    2016-02-01

    Several recent studies have indicated the involvement of calcium-dependent mechanisms, in particular the abundant calcium-activated kinase, calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII), in behaviors associated with nicotine dependence in mice. Behavioral and biochemical studies have shown that CaMKII is involved in acute and chronic nicotine behaviors and nicotine withdrawal; however, evidence of a role for CaMKII in nicotine reward is lacking. Thus, the goal of the current study was to examine the role of CaMKII in nicotine reward. Using pharmacological and genetic tools, we tested nicotine conditioned place preference (CPP) in C57Bl/6 mice after administration of CaMKII antagonists and in α-CaMKII wild-type (+/+) and heterozygote (±) mice. CaMKII antagonists blocked expression of nicotine CPP, and the preference score was significantly reduced in α-CaMKII ± mice compared with their +/+ counterparts. Further, we assessed CaMKII activity in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), nucleus accumbens (NAc), prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus after nicotine CPP and found significant increases in CaMKII activity in the mouse VTA and NAc that were blocked by CaMKII antagonists. The findings from this study show that CaMKII mediates nicotine reward and suggest that increases in CaMKII activity in the VTA and NAc are relevant to nicotine reward behaviors.

  14. Adolescent Girls' Preferences Pertaining to Cardiovascular Fitness Testing: A Comparison between the One-Mile Run and PACER Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Carol; Brown, Lanell; Graser, Sue Vincent; Pennington, Todd R.

    2012-01-01

    Many adolescent girls are not participating in the recommended levels of physical activity (PA) and are at risk for unhealthy lifestyles (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2008). Helping girls understand the importance of PA and giving them positive experiences in physical education classes, including fitness testing, may help to…

  15. A Tool Preference Choice Method for RNA Secondary Structure Prediction by SVM with Statistical Tests

    PubMed Central

    Hor, Chiou-Yi; Yang, Chang-Biau; Chang, Chia-Hung; Tseng, Chiou-Ting; Chen, Hung-Hsin

    2013-01-01

    The Prediction of RNA secondary structures has drawn much attention from both biologists and computer scientists. Many useful tools have been developed for this purpose. These tools have their individual strengths and weaknesses. As a result, based on support vector machines (SVM), we propose a tool choice method which integrates three prediction tools: pknotsRG, RNAStructure, and NUPACK. Our method first extracts features from the target RNA sequence, and adopts two information-theoretic feature selection methods for feature ranking. We propose a method to combine feature selection and classifier fusion in an incremental manner. Our test data set contains 720 RNA sequences, where 225 pseudoknotted RNA sequences are obtained from PseudoBase, and 495 nested RNA sequences are obtained from RNA SSTRAND. The method serves as a preprocessing way in analyzing RNA sequences before the RNA secondary structure prediction tools are employed. In addition, the performance of various configurations is subject to statistical tests to examine their significance. The best base-pair accuracy achieved is 75.5%, which is obtained by the proposed incremental method, and is significantly higher than 68.8%, which is associated with the best predictor, pknotsRG. PMID:23641141

  16. Which is preferable for orthostatic hypotension diagnosis in older adults: active standing test or head-up tilt table test?

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Ali Ekrem; Soysal, Pinar; Isik, Ahmet Turan

    2017-01-01

    Background Correct evaluation of orthostatic hypotension (OH) is crucial in geriatric practice, since OH is associated with mortality and morbidity. The study aimed to determine the most appropriate method for measuring blood pressure in transition from supine to upright position in order to diagnose OH in older adults. Methods Active standing test (AST) and head-up tilt table (HUT) test as well as comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA), including mini-mental state examination or the cognitive state test, mini-nutritional assessment, basic and instrumental activities of daily living, and Tinetti performance-oriented mobility assessment indexes, were performed in 290 geriatric patients. Results The prevalence of OH during HUT and AST was 19% and 37%, respectively. In patients with OH during HUT, the frequency of dementia and recurrent falls were higher (P<0.05); on the other hand, the levels of serum vitamin D and albumin and estimated glomerular filtration rate were lower (P<0.05). However, all these parameters for OH during AST were not significant (P>0.05). Comparison of the groups according to CGA measurements revealed significant differences in terms of cognition, nutritional status, activities of daily life, and balance function in patients with OH only during HUT (P<0.05), but not during AST (P>0.05). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive values of AST were 49.0%, 65.5%, 25.0%, and 84.6% respectively, according to HUT. Conclusion The results suggest that orthostatic blood pressure changes determined by HUT might be of higher clinical significance than that by AST in older adults. It might be important that the evaluation of OH by HUT should be included in daily geriatric practice. PMID:28182163

  17. More breast cancer patients prefer BRCA-mutation testing without prior face-to-face genetic counseling.

    PubMed

    Sie, Aisha S; van Zelst-Stams, Wendy A G; Spruijt, Liesbeth; Mensenkamp, Arjen R; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J L; Brunner, Han G; Prins, Judith B; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline

    2014-06-01

    Currently, most breast cancer (BC) patients receive face-to-face genetic counseling (DNA-intake) prior to BRCA-mutation testing, with generic information regarding hereditary BC and BRCA-mutation testing. This prospective study evaluated a novel format: replacing the intake consultation with telephone, written and digital information sent home, and face-to-face contact following BRCA-mutation testing (DNA-direct). From August 2011 to February 2012, 161 of 233 eligible BC patients referred to our Human Genetics department chose between DNA-direct (intervention) or DNA-intake (control). Exclusion criteria were psychological problems (n = 33), difficulty with Dutch text (n = 5), known BRCA-family (n = 3), non-BRCA-referral (n = 1). 30 declined genetic counseling or study participation. Participants received questionnaires including satisfaction and psychological distress. 59 % chose DNA-direct (p = 0.03), of whom 90 % were satisfied and would choose DNA-direct again (including 6/8 BRCA-mutation carriers); although 27 % hesitated to recommend DNA-direct to other patients. General distress (GHQ-12, p = 0.001) and heredity-specific distress (IES, p = 0.02) scored lower in DNA-direct than DNA-intake, both at baseline and follow-up 2 weeks after BRCA-result disclosure; all scores remained below clinical relevance. DNA-direct participants reported higher website use (53 vs. 32 %, p = 0.01), more referrer information about personal consequences (41 vs. 20 %, p = 0.004) and lower decisional conflict (median 20 [0-88] vs. 25 [0-50], p = 0.01). Processing time in DNA-direct was reduced by 1 month. Mutation detection rate was 8 % in both groups. All BRCA-mutation carriers fulfilled current testing criteria. In conclusion, more BC patients preferred DNA-direct over intake consultation prior to BRCA-mutation testing, the majority being strongly to moderately satisfied with the procedure followed, without increased distress.

  18. Lower risk taking and exploratory behavior in alcohol-preferring sP rats than in alcohol non-preferring sNP rats in the multivariate concentric square field (MCSF) test.

    PubMed

    Roman, Erika; Colombo, Giancarlo

    2009-12-14

    The present investigation continues previous behavioral profiling studies of selectively bred alcohol-drinking and alcohol non-drinking rats. In this study, alcohol-naïve adult Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) and non-preferring (sNP) rats were tested in the multivariate concentric square field (MCSF) test. The MCSF test has an ethoexperimental approach and measures general activity, exploration, risk assessment, risk taking, and shelter seeking in laboratory rodents. The multivariate design enables behavioral profiling in one and the same test situation. Age-matched male Wistar rats were included as a control group. Five weeks after the first MCSF trial, a repeated testing was done to explore differences in acquired experience. The results revealed distinct differences in exploratory strategies and behavioral profiles between sP and sNP rats. The sP rats were characterized by lower activity, lower exploratory drive, higher risk assessment, and lower risk taking behavior than in sNP rats. In the repeated trial, risk-taking behavior was almost abolished in sP rats. When comparing the performance of sP and sNP rats with that of Wistar rats, the principal component analysis revealed that the sP rats were the most divergent group. The vigilant behavior observed in sP rats with low exploratory drive and low risk-taking behavior is interpreted here as high innate anxiety-related behaviors and may be related to their propensity for high voluntary alcohol intake and preference. We suggest that the different lines of alcohol-preferring rats with different behavioral characteristics constitute valuable animal models that mimic the heterogeneity in human alcohol dependence.

  19. [Comparative analysis of the maternal motivation expression in WAG/Rij and Wistar rats in the place preference and open field tests].

    PubMed

    Dobriakova, Iu V; Tanaeva, K K; Dubynin, V A; Sarkisova, K Iu

    2014-01-01

    Maternal behavior in females of WAG/Rij and Wistar rats was compared in the place preference test from 2 to 8 days after delivery, as well as in the open field test from 4 to 6 days after delivery. In females of WAG/Rij rats compared with females of Wistar rats weaker expression of maternal motivation has been revealed in both tests: they spend less time in the compartment associated with pups. Moreover, in females of WAG/Rij rats, number of approaches to pups, number of pup-carryings and time spent with pups (time of contacts) were less than in females of Wistar rats. Reduced maternal motivation in females of WAG/Rij rats in the place preference test persisted in repeated testing, while in the open field test it was detected only in the first testing, indicating higher reliability of the place preference test for revealing inter-strain differences in the expression of maternal motivation. It is supposed that weaker expression of maternal behavior and preference is due to hypo-function of the mesolimbic dopaminergic bran system in WAG/Rij rats as a genetic model of depression associated with absence epilepsy.

  20. Rapid HIV Testing Is Highly Acceptable and Preferred among High-Risk Gay And Bisexual Men after Implementation in Sydney Sexual Health Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Damian P.; Guy, Rebecca; Davies, Stephen C; Couldwell, Deborah L.; McNulty, Anna; Smith, Don E.; Keen, Phillip; Cunningham, Philip; Holt, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background Rapid HIV testing (RHT) is well established in many countries, but it is new in Australia. We assessed the acceptability of RHT and its associations among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBM) after implementation of RHT in Sydney sexual health clinics. Methods GBM were invited to complete an acceptability questionnaire before and after provision of the result of finger-prick blood RHT, comparing their experience of RHT with conventional HIV testing (CHT) involving venipuncture. Logistic regression was used to assess associations between patient characteristics and the preference for RHT over CHT next time they tested for HIV. Results Of 1061 GBM who received non-reactive RHT results, 59% found RHT less stressful than CHT and 34% reported no difference, and 61% found RHT more comfortable than CHT and 26% reported no difference. Nearly all men were satisfied with RHT result delivery (99%) and the RHT process overall (99%). Most men (79%) preferred RHT for their next HIV test and this preference was stronger in men who were aged 35-44 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.49, p<0.01), reported they would test more often if RHT was available (AOR 1.66, p=0.01), found returning for results annoying (AOR 1.67, p=0.01), and found RHT less stressful (AOR 2.37, p<0.01) and more comfortable (AOR 1.62, p=0.02) than CHT. Men concerned about the reliability of RHT were less than half as likely to prefer RHT for their next HIV test (AOR 0.44, p<0.01). Conclusions Most GBM preferred RHT to CHT next time and this preference was associated with finding RHT more convenient, more comfortable and less stressful than CHT. These findings suggest that in a clinic setting RHT should be considered to improve the patient experience and may potentially increase uptake and frequency of HIV testing. PMID:25898140

  1. Do prenatally methamphetamine-exposed adult male rats display general predisposition to drug abuse in the conditioned place preference test?

    PubMed

    Šlamberová, R; Pometlová, M; Schutová, B; Hrubá, L; Macúchová, E; Nová, E; Rokyta, R

    2012-01-01

    Drug abuse of pregnant women is a growing problem. The effect of prenatal drug exposure may have devastating effect on development of the offsprings that may be long-term or even permanent. One of the most common drug abused by pregnant women is methamphetamine (MA), which is also the most frequently abused illicit drug in the Czech Republic. Our previous studies demonstrated that prenatal MA exposure alters behavior, cognition, pain and seizures in adult rats in sex-specific manner. Our most recent studies demonstrate that prenatal MA exposure makes adult rats more sensitive to acute injection of the same or related drugs than their controls. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of prenatal MA exposure on drug-seeking behavior of adult male rats tested in the Conditioned place preference (CPP). Adult male rats were divided to: prenatally MA-exposed (5 mg/kg daily for the entire prenatal period), prenatally saline-exposed (1 ml/kg of physiological saline) and controls (without maternal injections). The following drugs were used in the CPP test in adulthood: MA (5 mg/kg), amphetamine (5 mg/kg), cocaine (5 and 10 mg/kg), morphine (5 mg/kg), MDMA (5 mg/kg) and THC (2 mg/kg). Our data demonstrated that prenatally MA-exposed rats displayed higher amphetamine-seeking behavior than both controls. MA as well as morphine induced drug-seeking behavior of adult male rats, however this effect did not differ based on the prenatal MA exposure. In contrast, prenatal MA exposure induced rather tolerance to cocaine than sensitization after the conditioning in the CPP. MDMA and THC did not induce significant effects. Even though the present data did not fully confirmed our hypotheses, future studies are planned to test the drug-seeking behavior also in self-administration test.

  2. Results of First Stage Field Testing of a Preferred Design for Organizational Effectiveness Studies of Rural, Small Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Willis J., Jr.; And Others

    This paper summarizes a preferred design of organizational effectiveness studies of small rural school districts. The preferred design consists of five major and mostly sequential steps: (1) considering a large number of complex policy questions associated with the issue of organizational effectiveness efforts; (2) deciding on the technical issue…

  3. Biomechanical characteristics, patient preference and activity level with different prosthetic feet: a randomized double blind trial with laboratory and community testing.

    PubMed

    Raschke, Silvia U; Orendurff, Michael S; Mattie, Johanne L; Kenyon, David E A; Jones, O Yvette; Moe, David; Winder, Lorne; Wong, Angie S; Moreno-Hernández, Ana; Highsmith, M Jason; J Sanderson, David; Kobayashi, Toshiki

    2015-01-02

    Providing appropriate prosthetic feet to those with limb loss is a complex and subjective process influenced by professional judgment and payer guidelines. This study used a small load cell (Europa™) at the base of the socket to measure the sagittal moments during walking with three objective categories of prosthetic feet in eleven individuals with transtibial limb loss with MFCL K2, K3 and K4 functional levels. Forefoot stiffness and hysteresis characteristics defined the three foot categories: Stiff, Intermediate, and Compliant. Prosthetic feet were randomly assigned and blinded from participants and investigators. After laboratory testing, participants completed one week community wear tests followed by a modified prosthetics evaluation questionnaire to determine if a specific category of prosthetic feet was preferred. The Compliant category of prosthetic feet was preferred by the participants (P=0.025) over the Stiff and Intermediate prosthetic feet, and the Compliant and Intermediate feet had 15% lower maximum sagittal moments during walking in the laboratory (P=0.0011) compared to the Stiff feet. The activity level of the participants did not change significantly with any of the wear tests in the community, suggesting that each foot was evaluated over a similar number of steps, but did not inherently increase activity. This is the first randomized double blind study in which prosthetic users have expressed a preference for a specific biomechanical characteristic of prosthetic feet: those with lower peak sagittal moments were preferred, and specifically preferred on slopes, stairs, uneven terrain, and during turns and maneuvering during real world use.

  4. A test of the hypothesis that impact-induced fractures are preferred sites for later tectonic activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, Sean C.; Duxbury, Elizabeth D.

    1987-01-01

    Impact cratering has been an important process in the solar system. The cratering event is generally accompanied by faulting in adjacent terrain. Impact-induced faults are nearly ubiquitous over large areas on the terrestrial planets. The suggestion is made that these fault systems, particularly those associated with the largest impact features are preferred sites for later deformation in response to lithospheric stresses generated by other processes. The evidence is a perceived clustering of orientations of tectonic features either radial or concentric to the crater or basin in question. An opportunity exists to test this suggestion more directly on Earth. The terrestrial continents contain more than 100 known or probable impact craters, with associated geological structures mapped to varying levels of detail. Prime facie evidence for reactivation of crater-induced faults would be the occurrence of earthquakes on these faults in response to the intraplate stress field. Either an alignment of epicenters with mapped fault traces or fault plane solutions indicating slip on a plane approximately coincident with that inferred for a crater-induced fault would be sufficient to demonstrate such an association.

  5. Exploring attitudes, beliefs, and communication preferences of Latino community members regarding BRCA1/2 mutation testing and preventive strategies

    PubMed Central

    Kinney, Anita Yeomans; Gammon, Amanda; Coxworth, James; Simonsen, Sara E.; Arce-Laretta, Maritza

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To inform development of a culturally sensitive hereditary breast and ovarian cancer communication initiative and related clinical genetic services. Methods Five focus groups were conducted with 51 female and male Latinos. Educational materials were designed to communicate information about hereditary breast or ovarian cancer and availability of relevant clinical services or prevention strategies. Focus groups explored participants’ knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about hereditary breast and ovarian cancer, BRCA1/2 testing, and communication preferences for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer health messages. Results Overall, awareness of familial breast and ovarian cancer and availability of genetic risk assessment was low. Once informed, participants held favorable attitudes toward risk assessment and counseling services. Critical themes of the research highlighted the need to provide bilingual media products and use of a variety of strategies to increase awareness about hereditary cancer risk and availability of clinical genetic services. Important barriers were identified regarding family cancer history communication and cancer prevention services. Strategies were suggested for communicating cancer genetic information to increase awareness and overcome these barriers; these included both targeted and tailored approaches. Conclusion This research suggests that cancer genetic communication efforts should consider community and cultural perspectives as well as health care access issues before widespread implementation. PMID:20061960

  6. Eliciting preferences for priority setting in genetic testing: a pilot study comparing best-worst scaling and discrete-choice experiments

    PubMed Central

    Severin, Franziska; Schmidtke, Jörg; Mühlbacher, Axel; Rogowski, Wolf H

    2013-01-01

    Given the increasing number of genetic tests available, decisions have to be made on how to allocate limited health-care resources to them. Different criteria have been proposed to guide priority setting. However, their relative importance is unclear. Discrete-choice experiments (DCEs) and best-worst scaling experiments (BWSs) are methods used to identify and weight various criteria that influence orders of priority. This study tests whether these preference eliciting techniques can be used for prioritising genetic tests and compares the empirical findings resulting from these two approaches. Pilot DCE and BWS questionnaires were developed for the same criteria: prevalence, severity, clinical utility, alternatives to genetic testing available, infrastructure for testing and care established, and urgency of care. Interview-style experiments were carried out among different genetics professionals (mainly clinical geneticists, researchers and biologists). A total of 31 respondents completed the DCE and 26 completed the BWS experiment. Weights for the levels of the six attributes were estimated by conditional logit models. Although the results derived from the DCE and BWS experiments differed in detail, we found similar valuation patterns in the DCE and BWS experiments. The respondents attached greatest value to tests with high clinical utility (defined by the availability of treatments that reduce mortality and morbidity) and to testing for highly prevalent conditions. The findings from this study exemplify how decision makers can use quantitative preference eliciting methods to measure aggregated preferences in order to prioritise alternative clinical interventions. Further research is necessary to confirm the survey results. PMID:23486538

  7. Why Does Rhinopithecus bieti Prefer the Highest Elevation Range in Winter? A Test of the Sunshine Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Behm, Jocelyn E.; Wang, Lin; Huang, Yong; Long, Yongcheng; Zhu, Jianguo

    2011-01-01

    Environmental factors that affect spatiotemporal distribution patterns of animals usually include resource availability, temperature, and the risk of predation. However, they do not explain the counterintuitive preference of high elevation range in winter by the black-and-white snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus bieti). We asked whether variation of sunshine along with elevations is the key driving force. To test this hypothesis, we conducted field surveys to demonstrate that there was a statistically significant pattern of high elevation use during winter. We then asked whether this pattern can be explained by certain environmental factors, namely temperature, sunshine duration and solar radiation. Finally, we concluded with a possible ecological mechanism for this pattern. In this study, we employed GIS technology to quantify solar radiation and sunshine duration across the monkey's range. Our results showed that: 1) R. bieti used the high altitude range between 4100–4400 m in winter although the yearly home range spanned from 3500–4500 m; 2) both solar radiation and sunshine duration increased with elevation while temperature decreased with elevation; 3) within the winter range, the use of range was significantly correlated with solar radiation and sunshine duration; 4) monkeys moved to the areas with high solar radiation and duration following a snowfall, where the snow melts faster and food is exposed earlier. We concluded that sunshine was the main factor that influences selection of high elevation habitat for R. bieti in winter. Since some other endotherms in the area exhibit similar winter distributional patterns, we developed a sunshine hypothesis to explain this phenomenon. In addition, our work also represented a new method of integrating GIS models into traditional field ecology research to study spatiotemporal distribution pattern of wildlife. We suggest that further theoretical and empirical studies are necessary for better understanding of sunshine

  8. Sexual Preference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Commission on the Observance of International Women's Year, Washington, DC.

    This document considers sexual preference as it specifically relates to women. Divided into two parts, the document presents a fact sheet about lesbianism and contains a workshop resource guide on sexual preference. The fact sheet, arranged in a question-answer format, focuses on the following concerns: (1) lesbianism as a woman's issue; (2) legal…

  9. Closed-loop control of zebrafish response using a bioinspired robotic-fish in a preference test.

    PubMed

    Kopman, Vladislav; Laut, Jeffrey; Polverino, Giovanni; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2013-01-06

    In this paper, we study the response of zebrafish to a robotic-fish whose morphology and colour pattern are inspired by zebrafish. Experiments are conducted in a three-chambered instrumented water tank where a robotic-fish is juxtaposed with an empty compartment, and the preference of live subjects is scored as the mean time spent in the vicinity of the tank's two lateral sides. The tail-beating of the robotic-fish is controlled in real-time based on feedback from fish motion to explore a spectrum of closed-loop systems, including proportional and integral controllers. Closed-loop control systems are complemented by open-loop strategies, wherein the tail-beat of the robotic-fish is independent of the fish motion. The preference space and the locomotory patterns of fish for each experimental condition are analysed and compared to understand the influence of real-time closed-loop control on zebrafish response. The results of this study show that zebrafish respond differently to the pattern of tail-beating motion executed by the robotic-fish. Specifically, the preference and behaviour of zebrafish depend on whether the robotic-fish tail-beating frequency is controlled as a function of fish motion and how such closed-loop control is implemented.

  10. HIV Self-Testing among Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) in the UK: A Qualitative Study of Barriers and Facilitators, Intervention Preferences and Perceived Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Witzel, T. Charles; Rodger, Alison J.; Burns, Fiona M.; Rhodes, Tim; Weatherburn, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Innovative strategies, such as HIV self-testing (HIVST), could increase HIV testing rates and diagnosis. Evidence to inform the design of an HIVST intervention in the UK is scarce with very little European data on this topic. This study aims to understand values and preferences for HIVST interventions targeting MSM in the UK. We explore the acceptability of HIVST among MSM in the context of known barriers and facilitators to testing for HIV; assess preferences for, and the concerns about, HIVST. Methods Six focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted with 47 MSM in London, Manchester and Plymouth. HIVST as a concept was discussed and participants were asked to construct their ideal HIVST intervention. OraQuickTM and BioSureTM kits were then demonstrated and participants commented on procedure, design and instructions. FGDs were recorded and transcribed verbatim, then analysed thematically. Results Convenience and confidentiality of HIVST was seen to facilitate testing. Issues with domestic privacy problematised confidentiality. HIVST kits and instructions were thought to be unnecessarily complicated, and did not cater to the required range of abilities. The window period was the most important element of an HIVST, with strong preference for 4th generation testing. Kits which used a blood sample were more popular than those using saliva due to higher perceived accuracy although phobia of needles and/or blood meant some would only access HIVST if a saliva sample option was available. A range of access options was important to maintain convenience and privacy. HIVST kits were assumed to increase frequency of testing, with concerns related to the dislocation of HIVST from sexual health care pathways and services. Discussion Utility of HIVST arises from relatively high levels of confidentiality and convenience. Until 4th generation assays are available HIVST will be seen as supplementary in a UK context. PMID:27611777

  11. Effect of partial covering of the visitor viewing area window on positioning and orientation of zoo orangutans: A preference test.

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, Rachel C; Gillespie, Graeme R; Kerswell, Keven J; Butler, Kym L; Hemsworth, Paul H

    2015-01-01

    The window of the visitor viewing area adjacent to an animal platform in an orangutan enclosure was altered to produce three viewing treatments in a randomized controlled experiment. These treatments were window uncovered, left side of the window covered or right side of the window covered. Observations were conducted on the orangutans present on the platform, and on their location (left or right side), and orientation (towards or away from the window) while on the platform. The partial covering of the window had little effect on the proportion of time orangutans spent on the viewing platform, or on the direction they faced when on the platform. When the orangutans were facing towards the window, and the right side was uncovered, irrespective of whether the left side was covered, they spent about three quarters of the time on the right side, suggesting a preference for the right side of the platform. However, when the right side was covered and the left side uncovered, the animals facing towards the window spent only about a quarter of the time on the right side, that is, they spent more time on the uncovered side. The results suggest that the orangutans have a preference to position themselves to face the window of the visitor viewing area.

  12. Arecoline Alters Taste Bud Cell Morphology, Reduces Body Weight, and Induces Behavioral Preference Changes in Gustatory Discrimination in C57BL/6 Mice.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wei-Hau; Chau, Yat-Pang; Lu, Kuo-Shyan; Kung, Hsiu-Ni

    2016-01-01

    Arecoline, a major alkaloid in areca nuts, is involved in the pathogenesis of oral diseases. Mammalian taste buds are the structural unit for detecting taste stimuli in the oral cavity. The effects of arecoline on taste bud morphology are poorly understood. Arecoline was injected intraperitoneally (IP) into C57BL/6 mice twice daily for 1-4 weeks. After arecoline treatment, the vallate papillae were processed for electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry analysis of taste receptor proteins (T1R2, T1R3, T1R1, and T2R) and taste associated proteins (α-gustducin, PLCβ2, and SNAP25). Body weight, food intake and water consumption were recorded. A 2-bottle preference test was also performed. The results demonstrated that 1) arecoline treatment didn't change the number and size of the taste buds or taste bud cells, 2) electron microscopy revealed the change of organelles and the accumulation of autophagosomes in type II cells, 3) immunohistochemistry demonstrated a decrease of taste receptor T1R2- and T1R3-expressing cells, 4) the body weight and food intake were markedly reduced, and 5) the sweet preference behavior was reduced. We concluded that the long-term injection of arecoline alters the morphology of type II taste bud cells, retards the growth of mice, and affects discrimination competencies for sweet tastants.

  13. A test of the longevity of impact-induced faults as preferred sites for later tectonic activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, Sean C.; Duxbury, Elizabeth D.

    1987-01-01

    The hypothesis that impact-induced faults have been preferred sites for later deformation in response to lithospheric stresses has been suggested for several planets and satellites. This hypothesis is investigated on earth by examining whether terrestrial impact structures show higher rates of nearby earthquake activity than do surrounding intraplate regions. For 28 of 30 probable impact structures having an original crater 20 km or more in diameter, the rates of nearby seismicity have been no higher than the regional background rates. For two large probable impact structures, Vredefort and Charlevoix, with higher than normal rates of nearby seismicity, factors other than slip on impact-induced faults appear to control the occurrence of earthquakes. It is concluded that impact-induced faults, at least on earth, do not persist as lithospheric 'weak zones' for periods in excess of several million years after the impact event.

  14. Social isolation in adolescence alters behaviors in the forced swim and sucrose preference tests in female but not in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Suzie; Flashner, Bess; Chiu, Melissa; Hoeve, Elizabeth ver; Luz, Sandra; Bhatnagar, Seema

    2011-01-01

    Social interactions in rodents are rewarding and motivating and social isolation is aversive. Accumulating evidence suggests that disruption of the social environment in adolescence has long-term effects on social interactions, on anxiety-like behavior and on stress reactivity. In previous work we showed that adolescent isolation produced increased reactivity to acute and to repeated stress in female rats, whereas lower corticosterone responses to acute stress and decreased anxiety-related behavior were noted in isolated males. These results indicate a sex specific impact on the effects of social stress in adolescence. However, little is known about whether social isolation impacts behaviors related to affect and whether it does so differently in male and female rats. The present study investigated the impact of adolescent social isolation from day 30-50 of age in male and female Sprague Dawley rats on behavior in the forced swim test at the end of adolescence and in adulthood and on behavior in the sucrose preference test in adulthood. Adult female rats that were isolated in adolescence exhibited increased climbing on the first and second day of the forced swim test and showed an increased preference for sucrose compared to adult females that were group-housed in adolescence. There were no effects in male rats. The results indicate that social isolation in adolescence produces a stable and active behavioral phenotype in adult female rats. PMID:21907226

  15. [The nonspecific bronchial stimulation test with methacholine and an ultrasonic mist of distilled water: which is to be preferred in the military sphere?].

    PubMed

    Ferrante, E; Grasso, S; Germani, M A; Morelli, R; Corbo, G M; Ciappi, G

    1992-04-01

    The authors compare the methacholine (Mch) and the nebulized ultrasonic distilled water (NUDW) bronchial challenge as regard sensitivity and time required to perform them. For military service fitness, were studied 24 asthmatic patients. Each subject performed random a bronchial challenge by Mch (Yan method) and by NUDW (Allegra method) in two different days; for each bronchial challenge has been measured the time required to perform it. The atopic status has been evaluated by skin-prick test. All the subjects have shown a positive response to Mch test (PD 20 FEV1 mean: 352 mcg, range 80-850) whereas 13 subjects (54%) have shown a positive response to NUDW. The time required to evaluate all the subjects by Mch test has been 199.5 minutes whereas the total time required to evaluate all the subjects by NUDW test (127 minutes) and to evaluate by Mch test the non responders to NUDW (100 minutes) has been 227 minutes. The most of subjects were skin reactors. No difference was found as regard onset of disease, basal lung function and atopic status between responders and non responders to NUDW test. We conclude that NUDW test has shown a lack of sensitivity in this sample (50% of asthmatic patients could be misdiagnosed) and that the Mch test is preferable to determine a rapid method for measurement of bronchial responsiveness.

  16. Spanish Students and Teachers' Preferences towards Computer-Based and Paper-and-Pencil Tests at Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De-Siqueira, Jose Macario; Peris-Fajarnes, Guillermo; Gimenez, Fernando; Magal-Royo, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify and analyze some significant features that influence students and teachers about computer-based tests (CBT) and paper-and-pencil tests (P&P) at the context of the PAULEX Project. In order to do that, a large experiment has been developed at the Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Polytechnic University of…

  17. Developing Pairwise Preference-Based Personality Test and Experimental Investigation of Its Resistance to Faking Effect by Item Response Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usami, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Asami; Naito, Jun; Abe, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have shown increased awareness of the importance of personality tests in educational, clinical, and occupational settings, and developing faking-resistant personality tests is a very pragmatic issue for achieving more precise measurement. Inspired by Stark (2002) and Stark, Chernyshenko, and Drasgow (2005), we develop a pairwise…

  18. The effect of prior alcohol consumption on the ataxic response to alcohol in high-alcohol preferring mice

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Brandon M.; Boehm, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously shown that ethanol-naïve high-alcohol preferring (HAP) mice, genetically predis-posed to consume large quantities of alcohol, exhibited heightened sensitivity and more rapid acute functional tolerance (AFT) to alcohol-induced ataxia compared to low-alcohol preferring mice. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effect of prior alcohol self-administration on these responses in HAP mice. Naïve male and female adult HAP mice from the second replicate of selection (HAP2) underwent 18 days of 24-h, 2-bottle choice drinking for 10% ethanol vs. water, or water only. After 18 days of fluid access, mice were tested for ataxic sensitivity and rapid AFT following a 1.75 g/kg injection of ethanol on a static dowel apparatus in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, a separate group of mice was tested for more protracted AFT development using a dual-injection approach where a second, larger (2.0 g/kg) injection of ethanol was given following the initial recovery of performance on the task. HAP2 mice that had prior access to alcohol exhibited a blunted ataxic response to the acute alcohol challenge, but this pre-exposure did not alter rapid within-session AFT capacity in Experiment 1 or more protracted AFT capacity in Experiment 2. These findings suggest that the typically observed increase in alcohol consumption in these mice may be influenced by ataxic functional tolerance development, but is not mediated by a greater capacity for ethanol exposure to positively influence within-session ataxic tolerance. PMID:25454537

  19. Comparing the OPI and the OPIc: The Effect of Test Method on Oral Proficiency Scores and Student Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Gregory L.; Cox, Troy L.; Knapp, Nieves

    2016-01-01

    While studies have been done to rate the validity and reliability of the Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI) and Oral Proficiency Interview-Computer (OPIc) independently, a limited amount of research has analyzed the interexam reliability of these tests, and studies have yet to be conducted comparing the results of Spanish language learners who take…

  20. Absence of social conditioned place preference in BTBR T+tf/J mice: relevance for social motivation testing in rodent models of autism.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Brandon L; Bettis, Jaclyn K; Meyza, Ksenia Z; Yamamoto, Lace Y; Blanchard, D Caroline; Blanchard, Robert J

    2012-07-15

    A major goal of translation research in autism is to characterize the physiological and psychological processes underlying behavioral abnormalities. Since autism reflects impairments in social motivation, we modified the mouse three-chamber social approach apparatus for use as a social conditioned place preference arena. We paired one of two unique contexts with social interactions in juvenile mice for five or ten conditioning sessions in BTBR T+tf/J mice and a control strain with normal approach behaviors (C57BL/6J) since the BTBR T+tf/J inbred mouse strain displays a variety of behavioral alterations analogous to symptoms of autism spectrum disorders. While C57BL/6J mice formed a conditioned place preference to the context associated with social interactions, particularly those receiving ten days of conditioning, BTBR T+tf/J mice did not. Neither absence of social proximity nor avoidance due to high rates of autogrooming appeared to underlie the impaired positive incentive value of the unconditioned social stimulus in the BTBR T+tf/J strain. These data contribute to a growing body of evidence suggesting that the BTBR T+tf/J strain shows impairments in all diagnostic domains of autism including social motivation. Additionally, social conditioning testing might provide an important social motivation measure in other rodent models of neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by social abnormalities.

  1. Effects of learning-style environmental and tactal/kinesthetic preferences on the understanding of scientific terms and attitude test scores of fifth-grade students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Angela Tirino

    This investigator analyzed the effects of learning-style environmental and tactual/kinesthetic preferences on the understanding of scientific terms and attitude test scores of fifth-grade students. To identify individual preferences, the Learning-Styles Inventory (Dunn, Dunn & Price, 1996) was administered to students who attended a suburban elementary school. Forty-six general education students were given instruction through the gradual establishment of an environmentally- and perceptually-responsive learning-style classroom. Instructional units were divided into three phases of two weeks each. The units of scientific terms were instructed for varied learning-style preferences and were gradually introduced during these instructional phases: Phase 1: Electricity was taught with traditional teaching methods; Phase 2: The Source of Energy was taught with accommodations for sound, light, temperature, design elements; Phase 3: Pollution was taught with accommodations for tactual/kinesthetic modalities. Pre and Post-tests, were administered in each of the three phases to determine scientific term gains. A repeated measures ANOVA and General Linear Model were employed to compare mean gains from phase to phase. Post-hoc comparisons were performed using the Bonferroni method and similar procedures were conducted on the Semantic Differential Scales (Pizzo, 1981). Correlations of relative gain scores during each phase were assessed by means of Pearson-product-moment correlations. Differences in the strengths of correlated correlations were evaluated by means of t-tests for related correlation coefficients. Significant gains were found when students were instructed employing incremental learning-styles strategies. To determine attitudinal changes toward science terms, the Semantic Differential Scale (Pizzo, 1981) was administered three times throughout this study: after Phase 1, traditional teaching; Phases 2 and 3, after learning-styles intervention. Statistically higher

  2. Testing of Environmentally Preferable Aluminum Pretreatments and Coating Systems for Use on Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, C.; Raley, R.; Zook, L.

    2001-01-01

    The solid rocket booster (SRB) has historically used a chromate conversion coating prior to protective finish application. After conversion coating, an organic paint system consisting of a chromated epoxy primer and polyurethane topcoat is applied. An overall systems approach was selected to reduce waste generation from the coatings application and removal processes. While the most obvious waste reduction opportunity involved elimination of the chromate conversion coating, several other coating system configurations were explored in an attempt to reduce the total waste. This paper will briefly discuss the use of a systems view to reduce waste generation from the coating process and present the results of the qualification testing of nonchromated aluminum pretreatments and alternate coating systems configurations.

  3. Assessing Preference for Social Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clay, Casey J.; Samaha, Andrew L.; Bloom, Sarah E.; Bogoev, Bistra K.; Boyle, Megan A.

    2013-01-01

    We examined a procedure to assess preference for social interactions in individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Preferences were identified in five individuals using a paired-choice procedure in which participants approached therapists who provided different forms of social interactions. A subsequent tracking test showed that…

  4. Squirrel Foraging Preferences: Gone Nuts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, Randi A.

    2007-01-01

    This field exercise examines the feeding preferences of Gray Squirrels ("Sciurus carolinensis"). Students present squirrels with a variety of food types in a cafeteria-style arrangement in order to test hypotheses about foraging preferences. This exercise, which is appropriate for introductory biology, ecology, and animal behavior classes, is…

  5. Preferences for Academic Advising Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weir, Susan B.; Dickman, Marcia M.; Fuqua, Dale R.

    2005-01-01

    This psychometric study was designed to test the feasibility of measuring college students' preferences for developmental and prescriptive advising styles as separate constructs. Part 5 of the Academic Advising Inventory (Winston & Sandor, 1984b) was revised into two independent scales, one for measuring preferences for developmental advising…

  6. Women's Experiences and Preferences for Service Delivery of Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing for Aneuploidy in a Public Health Setting: A Mixed Methods Study.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Celine; Hill, Melissa; Chitty, Lyn S

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for aneuploidy is currently only available in the UK through the private sector outside of the research arena. As part of an implementation study in the UK National Health Service we conducted a mixed methods study to assess women's experience of being offered NIPT using validated measures of decisional conflict, decisional regret and anxiety. Clinical service preferences were also explored. Women with a Down syndrome screening risk >1:1000 were invited to take part in the study and offered NIPT, NIPT and invasive testing (for women with a risk above 1:150) or no further testing. A cross-sectional survey and semi-structured interviews were conducted at two time points; at the time of testing and one month following receipt of results (or equivalent for NIPT decliners). In total, 845 questionnaires and 81 interviews were analysed. The main motivation to accept NIPT was for reassurance (30.8%). Decisional conflict occurred in a minimal number of cases (3.8%), however, none of the participants experienced decisional regret. Around a third (29.9%) of women had elevated anxiety at the time of testing, including intermediate risk women who traditionally would not be offered further testing (54.4% high risk; 20.1% medium risk), a finding supported through the qualitative interviews where prolonged or additional anxiety was found to occur in some medium risk cases. Women were overwhelmingly positive about the opportunity to have a test that was procedurally safe, accurate, reduced the need for invasive testing and identified cases of Down syndrome that might otherwise have been missed. Reassurance was identified as the main motivator for accepting NIPT, particularly amongst medium risk women, with high risk women inclined to accept NIPT to inform decisions around invasive testing. The current turnaround time for test result was identified as a key limitation. All the women interviewed thought NIPT should be adopted as part of NHS

  7. Women’s Experiences and Preferences for Service Delivery of Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing for Aneuploidy in a Public Health Setting: A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Celine; Hill, Melissa; Chitty, Lyn S.

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for aneuploidy is currently only available in the UK through the private sector outside of the research arena. As part of an implementation study in the UK National Health Service we conducted a mixed methods study to assess women’s experience of being offered NIPT using validated measures of decisional conflict, decisional regret and anxiety. Clinical service preferences were also explored. Women with a Down syndrome screening risk >1:1000 were invited to take part in the study and offered NIPT, NIPT and invasive testing (for women with a risk above 1:150) or no further testing. A cross-sectional survey and semi-structured interviews were conducted at two time points; at the time of testing and one month following receipt of results (or equivalent for NIPT decliners). In total, 845 questionnaires and 81 interviews were analysed. The main motivation to accept NIPT was for reassurance (30.8%). Decisional conflict occurred in a minimal number of cases (3.8%), however, none of the participants experienced decisional regret. Around a third (29.9%) of women had elevated anxiety at the time of testing, including intermediate risk women who traditionally would not be offered further testing (54.4% high risk; 20.1% medium risk), a finding supported through the qualitative interviews where prolonged or additional anxiety was found to occur in some medium risk cases. Women were overwhelmingly positive about the opportunity to have a test that was procedurally safe, accurate, reduced the need for invasive testing and identified cases of Down syndrome that might otherwise have been missed. Reassurance was identified as the main motivator for accepting NIPT, particularly amongst medium risk women, with high risk women inclined to accept NIPT to inform decisions around invasive testing. The current turnaround time for test result was identified as a key limitation. All the women interviewed thought NIPT should be adopted as part of NHS

  8. Decision-making for non-invasive prenatal testing for Down syndrome: Hong Kong Chinese women's preferences for individual vs relational autonomy.

    PubMed

    Lau, J Y C; Yi, H; Ahmed, S

    2016-05-01

    Individual autonomy in antenatal screening is internationally recognized and supported. Policy and practice guidelines in various countries place emphasis on the woman's right to make her own decision and are related to concepts such as self-determination, independence, and self-sufficiency. In contrast, the dominant perspective in Chinese medical ethics suggests that the family is pivotal in making medical decisions, hence providing support for relational autonomy. This study explored Hong Kong Chinese pregnant women's preferences for individual vs relational autonomy for non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for Down syndrome. A qualitative study was carried out using semi-structured interviews with 36 women who had undertaken NIPT in Hong Kong. The findings show that most Hong Kong Chinese women valued aspects of both relational and individual autonomy in decision-making for NIPT. Women expected support from doctors as experts on the topic and wanted to involve their husband in decision-making while retaining control over the outcome. Somewhat surprisingly, the findings do not provide support for the involvement of family members in decision-making for NIPT. The adequacy of current interpretations of autonomy in prenatal testing policies as an individual approach needs discussion, where policy developers need to find a balance between individual and relational approaches.

  9. Male rats with same sex preference show high experimental anxiety and lack of anxiogenic-like effect of fluoxetine in the plus maze test.

    PubMed

    García-Cárdenas, Nallely; Olvera-Hernández, Sandra; Gómez-Quintanar, Blanca Nelly; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso

    2015-08-01

    Homosexual men show a 2-4 higher risk to suffer anxiety in comparison with heterosexuals. It is unknown if biological factors collaborate to increase such incidence. Fluoxetine produces differential brain activation in homosexuals as compared with heterosexuals, suggesting that it may produce a divergent behavioral effect dependant on sex-preference. The first aim was to evaluate experimental anxiety in male rats that show same-sex preference in the elevated plus maze (EPM). The second goal explored the putative differential effect of fluoxetine (10mg/kg) in male rats with female and same-sex preference in the EPM. To induce same-sex preference males were prenatally treated with letrozole (0.56μg/kg, 10-20 gestation days), while controls were males prenatally treated with letrozole that retain female-preference or which mothers received oil. In both groups we found animals with male preference, but the proportion was higher in males that prenatally received letrozole (10 vs. 27%). Males with same-sex preference spent less time and showed lower number of entries to the open arms of the EPM than males that prefer females, regardless of the prenatal treatment. In males with female preference, fluoxetine reduced the time spent and number of entries to the open arms that was absent in males with same-sex preference. These data suggest that biological factors contribute to the high levels of anxiety in subjects with same-sex preference and that fluoxetine in men may produce a divergent action depending on sexual orientation.

  10. EMP Preferred Test Procedures. Revision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-02-01

    International Rockwell, General Semi- conductor Industries, Siemens Corporation, Signalite, Joslyn Electronic Systems, Electro-Data Technology, Sandia...8217.N S.’th Lzh.lsh &D A mn f ru WtI Ilh%, m, A SC ~bujuc~quc(itt-ttimj, offt~) " IIN D-*I’, Lb.A IFN:D(K.Dfll J 41N .1..I Nx rt Iti . II I’ Ai I 444...hp)4l1 Et)’)I All’S: DocK. Con(4. 𔃾’l’I P, lll’h. I ji. 47 D-5 A I I IN~ ~~~~ ’j Ii t ~ t . I a.- I-%.,~i AI I N I- II % A I I I 1..0 1 k’ Nx .- h. p

  11. Adolescent Internet addiction: testing the association between self-esteem, the perception of Internet attributes, and preference for online social interactions.

    PubMed

    Fioravanti, Giulia; Dèttore, Davide; Casale, Silvia

    2012-06-01

    There is a general consensus that Internet addiction (IA) is mainly related to social aspects of the Web, especially among adolescents. The empirical link between poor social skills and IA is well documented; however, theoretical explanations for this relationship are less developed. One possibility is that people with poor social skills are especially prone to develop a preference for online social interaction (POSI), which, in turn, predicts problematic usage. This hypothesis has been tested for loneliness and social anxiety, but not for self-esteem (SE; one of the main antecedents of IA). Furthermore, the mediating role of the perceived relevance of some Internet features (e.g., anonymity) in the relationship between SE and POSI has never been investigated. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 257 adolescents. Using mediation analyses, we found evidence among females for the mediating role of (a) POSI in the relationship between SE and IA, and (b) the subjective relevance of some Internet features in the association between SE and POSI. No significant effects were found for males.

  12. Determining Preferences Related to HIV Counselling and Testing Services Among High School Learners in KwaZulu-Natal: A Discrete Choice Experiment.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Michael; George, Gavin L; Rhodes, Bruce D

    2016-11-16

    A key strategy of the South African national response to HIV is the scale-up of HIV counselling and testing (HCT) in the 15-49 years age group. The integrated school health policy aims to guide the roll out of youth-friendly health services including the provision of HCT in schools. Using a discrete choice experiment to examine preferences regarding the attributes of HCT service packages, this study identifies barriers to and facilitators of HCT among high school learners. Monetary considerations were found to have the strongest effect of any attribute on choice, whilst confidentiality was found to be a primary concern for learners considering HCT. Policy makers and service providers must ensure that confidentiality is maintained, and could consider using monetary incentives as a way of increasing uptake of HCT. Programmes designed to reduce social stigma and improve education and knowledge dissemination around HCT and HIV, are vital in creating demand for HCT and changing attitudes among young people.

  13. Generalization of a Modified Food Preference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, Leann Lipps

    1981-01-01

    Assesses preschool children's preferences for eight snack foods and tests procedures to modify preferences for certain foods by having children sort foods according to self-determined categories. Enhanced preferences for target foods generalized to other foods in the same category only for children using semantic sorting categories. (Author/DB)

  14. How Are Preferences Revealed?

    PubMed Central

    Beshears, John; Choi, James J.; Laibson, David; Madrian, Brigitte C.

    2009-01-01

    Revealed preferences are tastes that rationalize an economic agent’s observed actions. Normative preferences represent the agent’s actual interests. It sometimes makes sense to assume that revealed preferences are identical to normative preferences. But there are many cases where this assumption is violated. We identify five factors that increase the likelihood of a disparity between revealed preferences and normative preferences: passive choice, complexity, limited personal experience, third-party marketing, and intertemporal choice. We then discuss six approaches that jointly contribute to the identification of normative preferences: structural estimation, active decisions, asymptotic choice, aggregated revealed preferences, reported preferences, and informed preferences. Each of these approaches uses consumer behavior to infer some property of normative preferences without equating revealed and normative preferences. We illustrate these issues with evidence from savings and investment outcomes. PMID:24761048

  15. Muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic receptor antagonists differentially mediate acquisition of fructose-conditioned flavor preference and quinine-conditioned flavor avoidance in rats.

    PubMed

    Rotella, Francis M; Olsson, Kerstin; Vig, Vishal; Yenko, Ira; Pagirsky, Jeremy; Kohen, Ilanna; Aminov, Alon; Dindyal, Trisha; Bodnar, Richard J

    2015-09-01

    Rats display both conditioned flavor preference (CFP) for fructose, and conditioned flavor avoidance (CFA) following sweet adulteration with quinine. Previous pharmacological analyses revealed that fructose-CFP expression was significantly reduced by dopamine (DA) D1 or D2 antagonists, but not NMDA or opioid antagonists. Fructose-CFP acquisition was significantly reduced by DA D1, DA D2 or NMDA antagonists, but not opioid antagonists. Quinine-CFA acquisition was significantly enhanced and prolonged by DA D1, NMDA or opioid, but not DA D2 antagonists. Cholinergic interneurons and projections interact with DA systems in the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area. Further, both muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic receptor signaling have been implicated in sweet intake and development of food-related preferences. Therefore, the present study examined whether systemic administration of muscarinic (scopolamine: SCOP) or nicotinic (mecamylamine: MEC) cholinergic receptor antagonists mediated fructose-CFP expression, fructose-CFP acquisition and quinine-CFA acquisition. For fructose-CFP expression, rats were trained over 10 sessions with a CS+ flavor in 8% fructose and 0.2% saccharin and a CS- flavor in 0.2% saccharin. Two-bottle choice tests with CS+ and CS- flavors mixed in 0.2% saccharin occurred following vehicle, SCOP (0.1-10mg/kg) and MEC (1-8mg/kg). For fructose-CFP acquisition, six groups of rats received vehicle, SCOP (1 or 2.5mg/kg), MEC (4 or 6mg/kg) or a limited intake vehicle control 0.5h prior to 10 CS+ and CS- training sessions followed by six 2-bottle CS+ and CS- choice tests in 0.2% saccharin. For quinine-CFA acquisition, five groups of rats received vehicle, SCOP (1 or 2.5mg/kg) or MEC (4 or 6mg/kg) 0.5h prior to 8 one-bottle CS- (8% fructose+0.2% saccharin: FS) and CS+ (fructose+saccharin+quinine (0.030%: FSQ) training sessions followed by six 2-bottle CS- and CS+ choice tests in fructose-saccharin solutions. Fructose-CFP expression was

  16. Transitivity of Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regenwetter, Michel; Dana, Jason; Davis-Stober, Clintin P.

    2011-01-01

    Transitivity of preferences is a fundamental principle shared by most major contemporary rational, prescriptive, and descriptive models of decision making. To have transitive preferences, a person, group, or society that prefers choice option "x" to "y" and "y" to "z" must prefer "x" to…

  17. Mate preference in wild and domesticated (game-farm) mallards (Anas platyrhynchos): I. Initial preference

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, K.M.; Shoffner, R.N.; Phillips, R.E.; Lee, F.B.

    1978-01-01

    Wild and game-farm mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) raised in pure strain and mixed groups were tested for initial mate preference in a choice test. Female mallards showed no significant preference but males of either strain raised with females of their own strain significantly preferred female models of their own strain during the test. Males raised with females of the other strain merely showed attenuation of their preference for female models of their own strain and did not show preference for female models of the other strain. Game-farm mallards approached models significantly sooner than wild mallards and there was a significant sex X mate interaction.

  18. Cancer risk communication, predictive testing and management in France, Germany, the Netherlands and the UK: general practitioners' and breast surgeons' current practice and preferred practice responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Nippert, Irmgard; Julian-Reynier, Claire; Harris, Hilary; Evans, Gareth; van Asperen, Christi J; Tibben, Aad; Schmidtke, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Genetic testing has its greatest public health value when it identifies individuals who will benefit from specific interventions based upon their risk. This paradigm is the basis for the use of predictive tests, such as BRCA1/BRCA2 testing which has become part of clinical practice for more than a decade. Currently predictive BRCA1/BRCA2 testing is offered to women using low, moderate and high risk based upon family history as cut-off levels. Non-genetic health professionals such as general practitioners (GPs) and breast surgeons (BS) are seen as gatekeepers to manage demand and/or facilitate access to appropriate services for high-risk patients. Data about current practices are lacking. The paper presents data on the current practice of GPs' and BS' cancer risk assessment, referral practices and preferred practice responsibilities for women at risk for familial breast cancer in France, Germany, the Netherlands and the UK derived by a self-administered questionnaire send to a representative sample of GPs and BS in the four countries. One thousand one hundred ninety-seven GPs and 1,223 BS completed the questionnaire. Both GPs and BS reported that they are consulted by a considerable number of patients presenting with concerns about a family history of cancer. Both commonalities and striking differences could be observed between GPs and BS from the four participating countries. GPs from France and Germany reported significantly higher proportions taking a family history of cancer including the extended family than GPs from the Netherlands and the UK. Most GPs from France, Germany and the Netherlands stated their willingness for providing risk assessment for an unaffected (high-risk) woman with a family history of breast cancer and the vast majority of BS from all four countries reported that they themselves would provide risk assessment for an unaffected (high-risk) woman with a family history of breast cancer. However, a substantial number of both GPs and BS would

  19. Comparing Preference Assessments: Selection- versus Duration-Based Preference Assessment Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kodak, Tiffany; Fisher, Wayne W.; Kelley, Michael E.; Kisamore, April

    2009-01-01

    In the current investigation, the results of a selection- and a duration-based preference assessment procedure were compared. A Multiple Stimulus With Replacement (MSW) preference assessment [Windsor, J., Piche, L. M., & Locke, P. A. (1994). "Preference testing: A comparison of two presentation methods." "Research in Developmental Disabilities,…

  20. Host plant preference and performance of the sibling species of butterflies Leptidea sinapis and Leptidea reali: a test of the trade-off hypothesis for food specialisation.

    PubMed

    Friberg, Magne; Wiklund, Christer

    2009-02-01

    A large proportion of phytophagous insect species are specialised on one or a few host plants, and female host plant preference is predicted to be tightly linked to high larval survival and performance on the preferred plant(s). Specialisation is likely favoured by selection under stable circumstances, since different host plant species are likely to differ in suitability-a pattern usually explained by the "trade-off hypothesis", which posits that increased performance on a given plant comes at a cost of decreased performance on other plants. Host plant specialisation is also ascribed an important role in host shift speciation, where different incipient species specialise on different host plants. Hence, it is important to determine the role of host plants when studying species divergence and niche partitioning between closely related species, such as the butterfly species pair Leptidea sinapis and Leptidea reali. In Sweden, Leptidea sinapis is a habitat generalist, appearing in both forests and meadows, whereas Leptidea reali is specialised on meadows. Here, we study the female preference and larval survival and performance in terms of growth rate, pupal weight and development time on the seven most-utilised host plants. Both species showed similar host plant rank orders, and larvae survived and performed equally well on most plants with the exceptions of two rarely utilised forest plants. We therefore conclude that differences in preference or performance on plants from the two habitats do not drive, or maintain, niche separation, and we argue that the results of this study do not support the trade-off hypothesis for host plant specialisation, since the host plant generalist Leptidea sinapis survived and performed as well on the most preferred meadow host plant Lathyrus pratensis as did Leptidea reali although the generalist species also includes other plants in its host range.

  1. Student selection and preference types.

    PubMed

    Gaskey, N J

    1982-02-01

    The use of paper and pencil tests for the selection of candidates and to identify individual differences should be approached cautiously because the interpretations of the tests can be very subjective. Although personal preferences do tend to become more stable as we grow older, they may vary from one day to the next. No one is an absolute extrovert or introvert; we all have tendencies toward one or the other depending on the particular situation and the mitigating circumstances. The preference type indicator is not recommended for use in selecting candidates for entrance into a nurse anesthesia program; but, rather, to make members of the department aware of the similarities and differences among people. It is helpful in making individuals aware of the other person's preferences. It is also useful in making them aware of the need to examine their own areas of weakness and to improve them before attempting to change someone else.

  2. A history-based method to estimate animal preference

    PubMed Central

    Maia, Caroline Marques; Volpato, Gilson Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Giving animals their preferred items (e.g., environmental enrichment) has been suggested as a method to improve animal welfare, thus raising the question of how to determine what animals want. Most studies have employed choice tests for detecting animal preferences. However, whether choice tests represent animal preferences remains a matter of controversy. Here, we present a history-based method to analyse data from individual choice tests to discriminate between preferred and non-preferred items. This method differentially weighs choices from older and recent tests performed over time. Accordingly, we provide both a preference index that identifies preferred items contrasted with non-preferred items in successive multiple-choice tests and methods to detect the strength of animal preferences for each item. We achieved this goal by investigating colour choices in the Nile tilapia fish species. PMID:27350213

  3. Pictorial versus Verbal Rating Scales in Music Preference Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBlanc, Albert; Jin, Young Chang; Simpson, Charles S.; Stamou, Lelouda; McCrary, Jan

    1998-01-01

    Compares pictorial and verbal rating scales as measures of music preference opinions. Examines internal consistency and test-retest reliability of each type of scale, the overall preference scores generated through the use of each to measure preference for the same music stimuli, and student preferences for each type after using them. (DSK)

  4. Color preference in red–green dichromats

    PubMed Central

    Álvaro, Leticia; Moreira, Humberto; Lillo, Julio; Franklin, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Around 2% of males have red–green dichromacy, which is a genetic disorder of color vision where one type of cone photoreceptor is missing. Here we investigate the color preferences of dichromats. We aim (i) to establish whether the systematic and reliable color preferences of normal trichromatic observers (e.g., preference maximum at blue, minimum at yellow-green) are affected by dichromacy and (ii) to test theories of color preference with a dichromatic sample. Dichromat and normal trichromat observers named and rated how much they liked saturated, light, dark, and focal colors twice. Trichromats had the expected pattern of preference. Dichromats had a reliable pattern of preference that was different to trichromats, with a preference maximum rather than minimum at yellow and a much weaker preference for blue than trichromats. Color preference was more affected in observers who lacked the cone type sensitive to long wavelengths (protanopes) than in those who lacked the cone type sensitive to medium wavelengths (deuteranopes). Trichromats’ preferences were summarized effectively in terms of cone-contrast between color and background, and yellow-blue cone-contrast could account for dichromats’ pattern of preference, with some evidence for residual red–green activity in deuteranopes’ preference. Dichromats’ color naming also could account for their color preferences, with colors named more accurately and quickly being more preferred. This relationship between color naming and preference also was present for trichromat males but not females. Overall, the findings provide novel evidence on how dichromats experience color, advance the understanding of why humans like some colors more than others, and have implications for general theories of aesthetics. PMID:26170287

  5. Color preference in red-green dichromats.

    PubMed

    Álvaro, Leticia; Moreira, Humberto; Lillo, Julio; Franklin, Anna

    2015-07-28

    Around 2% of males have red-green dichromacy, which is a genetic disorder of color vision where one type of cone photoreceptor is missing. Here we investigate the color preferences of dichromats. We aim (i) to establish whether the systematic and reliable color preferences of normal trichromatic observers (e.g., preference maximum at blue, minimum at yellow-green) are affected by dichromacy and (ii) to test theories of color preference with a dichromatic sample. Dichromat and normal trichromat observers named and rated how much they liked saturated, light, dark, and focal colors twice. Trichromats had the expected pattern of preference. Dichromats had a reliable pattern of preference that was different to trichromats, with a preference maximum rather than minimum at yellow and a much weaker preference for blue than trichromats. Color preference was more affected in observers who lacked the cone type sensitive to long wavelengths (protanopes) than in those who lacked the cone type sensitive to medium wavelengths (deuteranopes). Trichromats' preferences were summarized effectively in terms of cone-contrast between color and background, and yellow-blue cone-contrast could account for dichromats' pattern of preference, with some evidence for residual red-green activity in deuteranopes' preference. Dichromats' color naming also could account for their color preferences, with colors named more accurately and quickly being more preferred. This relationship between color naming and preference also was present for trichromat males but not females. Overall, the findings provide novel evidence on how dichromats experience color, advance the understanding of why humans like some colors more than others, and have implications for general theories of aesthetics.

  6. Patient Preferences and Expectations for Care

    PubMed Central

    Lurie, Jon D.; Berven, Sigurd H.; Gibson-Chambers, Jennifer; Tosteson, Tor; Tosteson, Anna; Hu, Serena S.; Weinstein, James N.

    2009-01-01

    Study Design Prospective observational cohort. Objective To describe the baseline characteristics of patients with a diagnosis of intervertebral disc herniation who had different treatment preferences and the relationship of specific expectations with those preferences. Summary of Background Data Data were gathered from the observational cohort of the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT). Patients in the observational cohort met eligibility requirements identical to those of the randomized cohort, but declined randomization, receiving instead the treatment of their choice. Methods Baseline preference and expectation data were acquired at the time of enrollment of the patient, before exposure to the informed consent process. Univariate analyses were performed using a t test for continuous variables and χ2 for categorical variables. Multivariate analyses were also performed with ANCOVA for continuous variables and logistic regression for categorical variables. Multiple logistic regression models were developed in a forward stepwise fashion using blocks of variables. Results More patients preferred operative care: 67% preferred surgery, 28% preferred nonoperative treatment, and 6% were unsure; 53% of those preferring surgery stated a definite preference, whereas only 18% of those preferring nonoperative care had a definite preference. Patients preferring surgery were younger, had lower levels of education, and higher levels of unemployment/disability. This group also reported higher pain, worse physical and mental functioning, more back pain related disability, a longer duration of symptoms, and more opiate use. Gender, race, comorbidities, and use of other therapies did not differ significantly across preference groups. Patients’ expectations regarding improvement with nonoperative care was the strongest predictor of preference. Conclusion Patient expectations, particularly regarding the benefit of nonoperative treatment, are the primary determinant of

  7. Measuring Children's Food Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, Leann L.; Sullivan, Susan A.

    1991-01-01

    Measures of preference are useful predictors of children's food consumption patterns. The paper discusses children's affective response to food and describes the preference assessment procedure which obtains information on children's likes and dislikes. The methodology helps investigate factors influencing development of preferences and food…

  8. Neonatal handling induces deficits in infant mother preference and adult partner preference.

    PubMed

    Raineki, Charlis; Lutz, Maiara Lenise; Sebben, Vanise; Ribeiro, Rosane Aparecida; Lucion, Aldo Bolten

    2013-07-01

    Neonatal handling is an experimental procedure used to understand how early-life adversity can negatively affect neurobehavioral development and place animals on a pathway to pathology. Decreased preference for the maternal odor during infancy is one of many behavioral deficits induced by neonatal handling. Here, we hypothesize that deficits in maternal odor preference may interfere with partner preference in the adult. To test this hypothesis, we assessed infant maternal odor preference and adult partner preference in different reproductive stages in both male and female rats that received neonatal handling. Our results indicate that only neonatally handled females present deficits in maternal odor preference during infancy, but both male and females present deficits in adult partner preference. However, sexual experience was effective in rescuing partner preference deficits in males. These results indicate that, considering infant and adult social interactions, females are more susceptible to the effects of neonatal handling than males.

  9. Comparing preference assessments: selection- versus duration-based preference assessment procedures.

    PubMed

    Kodak, Tiffany; Fisher, Wayne W; Kelley, Michael E; Kisamore, April

    2009-01-01

    In the current investigation, the results of a selection- and a duration-based preference assessment procedure were compared. A Multiple Stimulus With Replacement (MSW) preference assessment [Windsor, J., Piché, L. M., & Locke, P. A. (1994). Preference testing: A comparison of two presentation methods. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 15, 439-455] and a variation of a Free-Operant (FO) preference assessment procedure [Roane, H. S., Vollmer, T. R., Ringdahl, J. E., & Marcus, B. A. (1998). Evaluation of a brief stimulus preference assessment. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 31, 605-620] were conducted with four participants. A reinforcer assessment was conducted to determine which preference assessment procedure identified the item that produced the highest rates of responding. The items identified as most highly preferred were different across preference assessment procedures for all participants. Results of the reinforcer assessment showed that the MSW identified the item that functioned as the most effective reinforcer for two participants.

  10. Access to Healthcare, HIV/STI Testing, and Preferred Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Providers among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Men Who Engage in Street-Based Sex Work in the US

    PubMed Central

    Underhill, Kristen; Morrow, Kathleen M.; Colleran, Christopher M.; Holcomb, Richard; Operario, Don; Calabrese, Sarah K.; Galárraga, Omar; Mayer, Kenneth H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a promising strategy for HIV prevention among men who have sex with men (MSM) and men who engage in sex work. But access will require routine HIV testing and contacts with healthcare providers. This study investigated men’s healthcare and HIV testing experiences to inform PrEP implementation. Methods We conducted 8 focus groups (n = 38) in 2012 and 56 in-depth qualitative interviews in 2013–14 with male sex workers (MSWs) (n = 31) and other MSM (n = 25) in Providence, RI. MSWs primarily met clients in street-based sex work venues. Facilitators asked participants about access to healthcare and HIV/STI testing, healthcare needs, and preferred PrEP providers. Results MSWs primarily accessed care in emergency rooms (ERs), substance use clinics, correctional institutions, and walk-in clinics. Rates of HIV testing were high, but MSWs reported low access to other STI testing, low insurance coverage, and unmet healthcare needs including primary care, substance use treatment, and mental health services. MSM not engaging in sex work were more likely to report access to primary and specialist care. Rates of HIV testing among these MSM were slightly lower, but they reported more STI testing, more insurance coverage, and fewer unmet needs. Preferred PrEP providers for both groups included primary care physicians, infectious disease specialists, and psychiatrists. MSWs were also willing to access PrEP in substance use treatment and ER settings. Conclusions PrEP outreach efforts for MSWs and other MSM should engage diverse providers in many settings, including mental health and substance use treatment, ERs, needle exchanges, correctional institutions, and HIV testing centers. Access to PrEP will require financial assistance, but can build on existing healthcare contacts for both populations. PMID:25386746

  11. Host plant preference in Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field and laboratory-choice tests were conducted to better understand host plant preference by the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), in Virginia. In laboratory olfactometer studies, L. decemlineata preferred potato over both tomato and eggplant foli...

  12. Synthesis of dimethyl ether and alternative fuels in the liquid phase from coal-derived synthesis gas. Task 2.2: Definition of preferred catalyst system; Task 2.3: Process variable scans on the preferred catalyst system; Task 2.4: Life-test on the preferred catalyst system

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatt, B.L.

    1992-09-01

    As part of the DOE-sponsored contract for the Synthesis of Dimethyl Ether (DME) and Alternative Fuels in the Liquid Phase from Coal- Derived Syngas, the single-step, slurry phase DME synthesis process was developed. The development involved screening of catalyst systems, process variable studies, and catalyst life studies in two 300 ml stirred autoclaves. As a spin-off of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH*) process, the new process significantly improves the syngas conversion efficiency of the LPMEOH process. This improvement can be achieved by replacing a portion of methanol catalyst with a dehydration catalyst in the reactor, resulting in the product methanol being converted to DME, thus avoiding the thermodynamic equilibrium constraint of the methanol reaction. Overall, this increases syngas conversion per-pass. The selectivity and productivity of DME and methanol are affected by the catalyst system employed as well as operating conditions. A preferred catalyst system, consisting of a physical mixture of a methanol catalyst and a gamma alumina, was identified. An improvement of about 50% in methanol equivalent productivity was achieved compared to the LPMEOH process. Results from the process variable study indicate that higher pressure and CO{sub 2} removal benefit the process significantly. Limited life studies performed on the preferred catalyst system suggest somewhat higher than expected deactivation rate for the methanol catalyst. Several DME/methanol mixtures were measured for their key properties as transportation fuels. With small amounts of DME added, significant improvements in both flash points and Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP) were observed over the corresponding values of methanol alone.

  13. Order, topology and preference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sertel, M. R.

    1971-01-01

    Some standard order-related and topological notions, facts, and methods are brought to bear on central topics in the theory of preference and the theory of optimization. Consequences of connectivity are considered, especially from the viewpoint of normally preordered spaces. Examples are given showing how the theory of preference, or utility theory, can be applied to social analysis.

  14. Sex differences in personality traits and gender-related occupational preferences across 53 nations: testing evolutionary and social-environmental theories.

    PubMed

    Lippa, Richard A

    2010-06-01

    Using data from over 200,000 participants from 53 nations, I examined the cross-cultural consistency of sex differences for four traits: extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism, and male-versus-female-typical occupational preferences. Across nations, men and women differed significantly on all four traits (mean ds = -.15, -.56, -.41, and 1.40, respectively, with negative values indicating women scoring higher). The strongest evidence for sex differences in SDs was for extraversion (women more variable) and for agreeableness (men more variable). United Nations indices of gender equality and economic development were associated with larger sex differences in agreeableness, but not with sex differences in other traits. Gender equality and economic development were negatively associated with mean national levels of neuroticism, suggesting that economic stress was associated with higher neuroticism. Regression analyses explored the power of sex, gender equality, and their interaction to predict men's and women's 106 national trait means for each of the four traits. Only sex predicted means for all four traits, and sex predicted trait means much more strongly than did gender equality or the interaction between sex and gender equality. These results suggest that biological factors may contribute to sex differences in personality and that culture plays a negligible to small role in moderating sex differences in personality.

  15. Comparison of nonmicroprocessor knee mechanism versus C-Leg on Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire, stumbles, falls, walking tests, stair descent, and knee preference.

    PubMed

    Kahle, Jason T; Highsmith, M Jason; Hubbard, Sandra L

    2008-01-01

    This study compared subjects' performance with a nonmicroprocessor knee mechanism (NMKM) versus a C-Leg on nine clinically repeatable evaluative measures. We recorded data on subjects' performance while they used an accommodated NMKM and, following a 90-day accommodation period, the C-Leg in a convenience sample of 19 transfemoral (TF) amputees (mean age 51 +/- 19) from an outpatient prosthetic clinic. We found that use of the C-Leg improved function in all outcomes: (1) Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire scores increased 20% (p = 0.007), (2) stumbles decreased 59% (p = 0.006), (3) falls decreased 64% (p = 0.03), (4) 75 m self-selected walking speed on even terrain improved 15% (p = 0.03), (5) 75 m fastest possible walking speed (FPWS) on even terrain improved 12% (p = 0.005), (6) 38 m FPWS on uneven terrain improved 21% (p < 0.001), (7) 6 m FPWS on even terrain improved 17% (p = 0.001), (8) Montreal Rehabilitation Performance Profile Performance Composite Scores for stair descent increased for 12 subjects, and (9) the C-Leg was preferred over the NMKM by 14 subjects. Four limited community ambulators (Medicare Functional Classification Level [MFCL] K2) increased their ambulatory functional level to unlimited community ambulation (MFCL K3). Objective evaluative clinical measures are vital for justifying the medical necessity of knee mechanisms for TF amputees. Use of the C-Leg improves performance and quality of life and can increase MFCL and community ambulation level.

  16. Analysis of feeding preference experiments.

    PubMed

    Peterson, C H; Renaud, P E

    1989-03-01

    Published studies of consumer feeding preferences using foods that experience autogenic change in mass, numbers, area, etc., on the time scale of a feeding trial fail to employ appropriate statistical analyses to incorporate controls for those food changes occurring in the absence of the consumer. The studies that run controls typically use them to calculate a constant "correction factor", which is subtracted prior to formal data analysis. This procedure constitutes a non-rigorous suppression of variance that overstates the statistical significance of observed differences. The appropriate statistical analysis for preference tests with two foods is usually a simple t-test performed on the between-food differences in loss of mass (or numbers, area, etc.) comparing the results of experimentals with consumers to controls without consumers. Application of this recommended test procedure to an actual data set illustrates how low replication in controls, which is typical of most studies of feeding preference, inhibits detection of an apparently large influence of previous mechanical damage (simulated grazing) in reducing the attractiveness of a brown alga to a sea urchin.

  17. Social preference experiments in animals: strengthening the case for human preferences.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Keith

    2012-02-01

    Guala appears to take social preferences for granted in his discussion of reciprocity experiments. While he does not overtly claim that social preferences are only by-products that arise in testing environments, he does assert that whatever they are--and how they evolved--they have little value in the real world. Experiments on animals suggest that social preferences may be unique to humans, supporting the idea that they might play a prominent role in our world.

  18. Goal preference shapes confrontations of sexism.

    PubMed

    Mallett, Robyn K; Melchiori, Kala J

    2014-05-01

    Although most women assume they would confront sexism, assertive responses are rare. We test whether women's preference for respect or liking during interpersonal interactions explains this surprising tendency. Women report preferring respect relative to liking after being asked sexist, compared with inappropriate, questions during a virtual job interview (Study 1, n = 149). Women's responses to sexism increase in assertiveness along with their preference for being respected, and a respect-preference mediates the relation between the type of questions and response assertiveness (Studies 1 and 2). In Study 2 (n = 105), women's responses to sexist questions are more assertive when the sense of belonging is enhanced with a belonging manipulation. Moreover, preference for respect mediates the effect of the type of questions on response assertiveness, but only when belonging needs are met. Thus the likelihood of confrontation depends on the goal to be respected outweighing the goal to be liked.

  19. Retrospective dream components and musical preferences.

    PubMed

    Kroth, Jerry; Lamas, Jasmin; Pisca, Nicholas; Bourret, Kristy; Kollath, Miranda

    2008-08-01

    Retrospective dream components endorsed on the KJP Dream Inventory were correlated with those on the Short Test of Musical Preference for 68 graduate students in counseling psychology (11 men). Among 40 correlations, 6 were significant between preferences for Heavy Metal and Dissociative avoidance dreams (.32), Dreaming that you are dreaming (.40), Dreaming that you have fallen unconscious or asleep (.41), Recurring pleasantness (.31), and Awakening abruptly from a dream (-.31); between preferences for Rap/Hip-Hop and Sexual dreams (.27); and between preferences for Jazz and Recurring pleasantness in dreams (.33). Subjects preferring Classical music reported a higher incidence of Dreams of flying (.33) and rated higher Discontentedness in dreams (-.26). The meaning of these low values awaits research based on personality inventories and full dream reports.

  20. Patient preferences for dentists.

    PubMed

    Furnham, Adrian; Swami, Viren

    2009-03-01

    A representative British sample of 257 adults completed a questionnaire in which they indicated their preference for eight dentists stratified by sex, age, and training location. These data were analysed in relation to participants' own sex and age, the latter stratified by a median split. A mixed analysis of variance indicated two main effects: a preference for younger (rather than older) dentists and dentists trained in Britain (rather than in Asia). There were also a significant two-way interaction between dentist age and training location: for the British-trained there was a preference for younger dentists, whereas for the Asian-trained there was a preference for older dentists. Limitations of the study design are discussed in conclusion.

  1. Patient Preferences and Adherence to Colorectal Cancer Screening in an Urban Population

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Randi L.; Basch, Charles E.; Brouse, Corey H.; Shmukler, Celia; Shea, Steven

    2006-01-01

    We measured patient preferences for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening strategies and actual receipt of alternative CRC screening tests among an urban minority sample participating in an intervention study. The fecal occult blood test was the most preferred test, reportedly owing to its convenience and the noninvasive nature. For individuals who obtained a test that was other than their stated preference (41.1%), reasons for this discordance may be due to physician preferences that override patient preferences. PMID:16571715

  2. Preference for newspaper size.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Steve N H; Hoffmann, Errol R; Chan, Alan H S

    2014-05-01

    The past few years has seen a change in the size of newspapers, with publishers moving to a smaller size format. Five 'standard' newspaper sizes are used in different countries: Broadsheet, Rhensch, Tabloid, Tall Tabloid and Berliner. These papers vary in both width and height of pages and hence there are implications for human reading comfort, which may be dependent on reading location such as on a lounge chair or on a train. Experiments were carried out to determine preferences for the different sizes and to relate these preferences to the geometric characteristics of the newspapers. For both comfortable and cramped/uncomfortable reading conditions, the rank order of preference for paper types was, from least to most-preferred, Broadsheet, Rhensch, Berliner, Tall Tabloid and Tabloid. Preferences were much stronger when determined in cramped/uncomfortable reading conditions, where most comparisons were significantly different. There was good correlation between participant ratings on several scales and preference, where most factors were related to comfort of holding and controlling the paper.

  3. Nutritional state influences shoaling preference for familiars.

    PubMed

    Frommen, Joachim G; Luz, Corinna; Bakker, Theo C M

    2007-01-01

    Preferences for grouping with familiar individuals are shown in many animal species, including the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Shoaling with familiars is advantageous because of more precise anti-predator behaviours or more stable dominance hierarchies. Additionally, associations with familiar individuals facilitate the evolution of altruistic behaviour. Thus, in situations of increased competition one might expect an increased preference for familiar fish. We gave single juvenile sticklebacks of different nutritional state the choice between shoals composed either of familiar or unfamiliar individuals. Satiated fish preferred to shoal with familiar individuals. A comparative analysis of 8 stickleback studies with 15 different tests using familiars showed that all tests gave similar results, i.e. sticklebacks of all age classes preferred to shoal with familiars in a non-sexual context. In contrast, hungry test fish did not prefer to shoal with familiar fish, but even showed a preference for the unfamiliar group. Because sticklebacks use early-life familiarity to recognize kin, the results suggest the avoidance of competition with relatives. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing an impact of nutritional state on social interactions with familiar individuals.

  4. Patients' preferences for information

    PubMed Central

    Kindelan, K.; Kent, G.

    1986-01-01

    In a study of patients' views of the type of information they would like to receive from the doctor 265 patients from four general practices were given a list of five areas of information — diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, aetiology and social effects of their illness — and asked to rank these in order of importance for that visit. In general, information on diagnosis and prognosis was the most highly valued, while the ways the illness would affect daily activities was the least preferred. Although information on treatment was rarely selected as the first preference it was often the second or third preference. Conversely, diagnosis was the first choice of the largest proportion of patients and the least valued information for 26%. PMID:3440990

  5. Metal Preferences and Metallation*

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Andrew W.; Osman, Deenah; Robinson, Nigel J.

    2014-01-01

    The metal binding preferences of most metalloproteins do not match their metal requirements. Thus, metallation of an estimated 30% of metalloenzymes is aided by metal delivery systems, with ∼25% acquiring preassembled metal cofactors. The remaining ∼70% are presumed to compete for metals from buffered metal pools. Metallation is further aided by maintaining the relative concentrations of these pools as an inverse function of the stabilities of the respective metal complexes. For example, magnesium enzymes always prefer to bind zinc, and these metals dominate the metalloenzymes without metal delivery systems. Therefore, the buffered concentration of zinc is held at least a million-fold below magnesium inside most cells. PMID:25160626

  6. Sour taste preferences of children relate to preference for novel and intense stimuli.

    PubMed

    Liem, Djin Gie; Westerbeek, Annemarie; Wolterink, Sascha; Kok, Frans J; de Graaf, Cees

    2004-10-01

    Previous research has suggested that some children have a preference for sour tastes. The origin of this preference remains unclear. We investigated whether preference for sour tastes is related to a difference in rated sour intensity due to physiological properties of saliva, or to an overall preference for intense and new stimuli. Eighty-nine children 7-12 years old carried out a rank-order procedure for preference and category scale for perceived intensity for four gelatins (i.e. 0.0 M, 0.02 M, 0.08 M, 0.25 M added citric acid) and four yellow cards that differed in brightness. In addition, we measured their willingness to try a novel candy and their flow and buffering capacity of their saliva. Fifty-eight percent of the children tested preferred one of the two most sour gelatins. These children had a higher preference for the brightest color (P < 0.05) and were more likely to try the candy with the unknown flavor (P < 0.001) than children who did not prefer the most sour gelatins. Preference for sour taste was not related with differences in rated sour intensity, however those who preferred sour taste had a higher salivary flow (P < 0.05). These findings show that a substantial proportion of young children have a preference for extreme sour taste. This appears to be related to the willingness to try unknown foods and preference for intense visual stimuli. Further research is needed to investigate how these findings can be implemented in the promotion of sour-tasting food such as fruit.

  7. Language-based social preferences among children in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kinzler, Katherine D; Shutts, Kristin; Spelke, Elizabeth S

    2012-07-01

    Monolingual English-speaking children in the United States express social preferences for speakers of their native language with a native accent. Here we explore the nature of children's language-based social preferences through research with children in South Africa, a multilingual nation. Like children in the United States, Xhosa South African children preferred speakers of their first language (Xhosa) to speakers of a foreign language (French). Thus, social preferences based on language are observed not only among children with limited exposure to cultural and linguistic variation but also among children living in a diverse linguistic environment. Moreover, Xhosa children attending school in English expressed social preferences for speakers of English over speakers of Xhosa, even when tested by a Xhosa-speaking experimenter. Thus, children's language-based social preferences do not depend exclusively on preferences for more familiar or intelligible speech but also extend to preferences for speech that may convey higher status in the child's society.

  8. Eliciting Preferences on Secondary Findings: The Preferences Instrument for Genomic Secondary Results (PIGSR)

    PubMed Central

    Brothers, Kyle B.; East, Kelly M.; Kelley, Whitley V.; Frances Wright, M.; Westbrook, Matthew J.; Rich, Carla A.; Bowling, Kevin M.; Lose, Edward J.; Martina Bebin, E.; Simmons, Shirley; Myers, John A.; Barsh, Greg; Myers, Richard M.; Cooper, Greg M.; Pulley, Jill M.; Rothstein, Mark A.; Wright Clayton, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Eliciting and understanding patient and research participant preferences regarding return of secondary test results is a key aspect of genomic medicine. A valid instrument should be easily understood without extensive pre-test counseling, while still faithfully eliciting patients’ preferences. Methods We conducted focus groups with 110 adults to understand patient perspectives on secondary genomic findings and the role preferences should play. We then developed and refined a draft instrument, and used it to elicit preferences from parents participating in a genomic sequencing study in children with intellectual disabilities. Results Patients preferred filtering of secondary genomic results to avoid information overload and to avoid learning what the future holds, among other reasons. Patients preferred to make autonomous choices about which categories of results to receive and to have their choices applied automatically before results are returned to them and their clinicians. The Preferences Instrument for Genomic Secondary Results (PIGSR) is designed to be completed by patients or research participants without assistance and to guide bioinformatic analysis of genomic raw data. Most participants wanted to receive all secondary results, but a significant minority indicated other preferences. Conclusions Our novel instrument – PIGSR – should be useful in a wide range of clinical and research settings. PMID:27561086

  9. Ethnic group preferences for multicultural counseling competencies.

    PubMed

    Fraga, Elizabeth D; Atkinson, Donald R; Wampold, Bruce E

    2004-02-01

    Asian American (n = 155), European American (n = 200), and Hispanic (n = 152) undergraduate students were surveyed using a paired-comparison format to determine preferences for the 9 attitudes/beliefs, 11 knowledges, and 11 skills identified by D. W. Sue, P. Arredondo, and R. J. McDavis (1992) as characteristics of the competent multicultural counselor. The Bradley-Terry-Luce model, which uses a weighted least square regression to place the competencies on a continuum from least preferred to most preferred and to test for significant intergroup differences, was used to analyze the data. Results indicated that preferences for 5 of the 9 attitudes/beliefs, 5 of the 11 knowledges, and 7 of the 11 skills competencies varied as a function of race/ethnicity.

  10. User Preferences in Image Map Using

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vondráková, A.; Vozenilek, V.

    2016-06-01

    In the process of map making, the attention is given to the resulting image map (to be accurate, readable, and suit the primary purpose) and its user aspects. Current cartography understands the user issues as all matters relating to user perception, map use and also user preferences. Most commercial cartographic production is strongly connected to economic circumstances. Companies are discovering user's interests and market demands. However, is it sufficient to focus just on the user's preferences? Recent research on user aspects at Palacký University Olomouc addresses a much wider scope of user aspects. The user's preferences are very often distorting - the users think that the particular image map is kind, beautiful, and useful and they wants to buy it (or use it - it depends on the form of the map production). But when the same user gets the task to use practically this particular map (such as finding the shortest way), so the user concludes that initially preferred map is useless, and uses a map, that was worse evaluated according to his preferences. It is, therefore, necessary to evaluate not only the correctness of image maps and their aesthetics but also to assess the user perception and other user issues. For the accomplishment of such testing, eye-tracking technology is a useful tool. The research analysed how users read image maps, or if they prefer image maps over traditional maps. The eye tracking experiment on the comparison of the conventional and image map reading was conducted. The map readers were asked to solve few simple tasks with either conventional or image map. The readers' choice of the map to solve the task was one of investigated aspect of user preferences. Results demonstrate that the user preferences and user needs are often quite different issues. The research outcomes show that it is crucial to implement map user testing into the cartographic production process.

  11. Preference and consequences: A preliminary look at whether preference impacts oral processing in non-human primates.

    PubMed

    Vinyard, Christopher J; Thompson, Cynthia L; Doherty, Alison; Robl, Nicholas

    2016-09-01

    Non-human primates demonstrate food preferences much like humans. We have little insight, however, into how those preferences impact oral processing in primates. To begin describing this relationship, we conducted a preliminary analysis measuring food preference in two tufted capuchins (Cebus apella) and comparing ranked preference to physiological variables during chewing of these foods. Food preference was assessed for each monkey across 12 foods, including monkey biscuits and 11 foods consumed by humans (e.g., various fruits and nuts). Animals chose from randomized pairs of foods to generate a ranked scale across the 12 foods. Contemporaneous with preference testing, electromyographic (EMG) activity was measured for the jaw-closing muscles to assess oral physiology during chewing of these foods. As expected, these capuchins exhibited clear preferences among these 12 foods. Based on their preferences, we identified sets of preferred and non-preferred brittle (i.e., almond versus monkey chow) and ductile (i.e., dates and prunes versus apricots) foods for physiological comparisons that broadly control variation in food mechanical properties (FMPs). As expected, oral physiology varied with FMPs in each animal. Within brittle and ductile groupings, we observed several significant differences in chewing cycle length and relative muscle activation levels that are likely related to food preference. These differences tended to be complex and individual specific. The two capuchins chewed non-preferred apricots significantly faster than preferred dates and prunes. Effect sizes for preference were smaller than those for FMPs, supporting the previous focus on FMPs in primate dietary research. Although preliminary, these results suggest that food preference may influence oral physiology in non-human primates. The prospect that this relationship exists in monkeys raises the possibility that a link between food preference and oral processing in humans may be based on shared

  12. Effects of stress on human mating preferences: stressed individuals prefer dissimilar mates.

    PubMed

    Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Deuter, Christian E; Kuehl, Linn K; Schulz, André; Blumenthal, Terry D; Schachinger, Hartmut

    2010-07-22

    Although humans usually prefer mates that resemble themselves, mating preferences can vary with context. Stress has been shown to alter mating preferences in animals, but the effects of stress on human mating preferences are unknown. Here, we investigated whether stress alters men's preference for self-resembling mates. Participants first underwent a cold-pressor test (stress induction) or a control procedure. Then, participants viewed either neutral pictures or pictures of erotic female nudes whose facial characteristics were computer-modified to resemble either the participant or another participant, or were not modified, while startle eyeblink responses were elicited by noise probes. Erotic pictures were rated as being pleasant, and reduced startle magnitude compared with neutral pictures. In the control group, startle magnitude was smaller during foreground presentation of photographs of self-resembling female nudes compared with other-resembling female nudes and non-manipulated female nudes, indicating a higher approach motivation to self-resembling mates. In the stress group, startle magnitude was larger during foreground presentation of self-resembling female nudes compared with other-resembling female nudes and non-manipulated female nudes, indicating a higher approach motivation to dissimilar mates. Our findings show that stress affects human mating preferences: unstressed individuals showed the expected preference for similar mates, but stressed individuals seem to prefer dissimilar mates.

  13. Effects of stress on human mating preferences: stressed individuals prefer dissimilar mates

    PubMed Central

    Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Deuter, Christian E.; Kuehl, Linn K.; Schulz, André; Blumenthal, Terry D.; Schachinger, Hartmut

    2010-01-01

    Although humans usually prefer mates that resemble themselves, mating preferences can vary with context. Stress has been shown to alter mating preferences in animals, but the effects of stress on human mating preferences are unknown. Here, we investigated whether stress alters men's preference for self-resembling mates. Participants first underwent a cold-pressor test (stress induction) or a control procedure. Then, participants viewed either neutral pictures or pictures of erotic female nudes whose facial characteristics were computer-modified to resemble either the participant or another participant, or were not modified, while startle eyeblink responses were elicited by noise probes. Erotic pictures were rated as being pleasant, and reduced startle magnitude compared with neutral pictures. In the control group, startle magnitude was smaller during foreground presentation of photographs of self-resembling female nudes compared with other-resembling female nudes and non-manipulated female nudes, indicating a higher approach motivation to self-resembling mates. In the stress group, startle magnitude was larger during foreground presentation of self-resembling female nudes compared with other-resembling female nudes and non-manipulated female nudes, indicating a higher approach motivation to dissimilar mates. Our findings show that stress affects human mating preferences: unstressed individuals showed the expected preference for similar mates, but stressed individuals seem to prefer dissimilar mates. PMID:20219732

  14. Coaching preferences of athletes.

    PubMed

    Terry, P C; Howe, B L

    1984-12-01

    The study examined the coaching preferences of 80 male and 80 female athletes, as measured by the Leadership Scale for Sports (Chelladurai and Saleh, 1978, 1980). In addition, it attempted to assess the applicability to sport of the Life-cycle and Path-goal theories of leadership. Comparisons between groups were made on the basis of sex, age, and type of sport. A MANOVA indicated that athletes in independent sports preferred more democratic behaviour (p less than .001) and less autocratic behaviour (p = .028) than athletes in interdependent sports. No differences in coaching preferences were found which could be attributed to the age or sex of the athlete, or the variability of the sports task. These results partially supported the Path-goal theory, but did not support the Life-cycle theory. Athletes of all groups tended to favour coaches who displayed training behaviour and rewarding behaviour "often", democratic behaviour and social support behaviour "occasionally", and autocratic behaviour "seldom". This consistency may be a useful finding for those organizations and institutions interested in preparing coaches.

  15. Factors affecting enhanced video quality preferences

    PubMed Central

    Satgunam, PremNandhini; Woods, Russell L; Bronstad, P Matthew; Peli, Eli

    2013-01-01

    The development of video quality metrics requires methods for measuring perceived video quality. Most such metrics are designed and tested using databases of images degraded by compression and scored using opinion ratings. We studied video quality preferences for enhanced images of normally-sighted participants using the method of paired comparisons with a thorough statistical analysis. Participants (n=40) made pair-wise comparisons of high definition (HD) video clips enhanced at four different levels using a commercially available enhancement device. Perceptual scales were computed with binary logistic regression to estimate preferences for each level and to provide statistical inference of the differences among levels and the impact of other variables. While moderate preference for enhanced videos was found, two unexpected effects were also uncovered: (1) Participants could be broadly classified into two groups: those who preferred enhancement ("Sharp") and those who disliked enhancement ("Smooth"). (2) Enhancement preferences depended on video content, particularly for human faces to be enhanced less. The results suggest that algorithms to evaluate image quality (at least for enhancement) may need to be adjusted or applied differentially based on video content and viewer preferences. The possible impact of similar effects on image quality of compressed video needs to be evaluated. PMID:24107400

  16. Constraint-based Temporal Reasoning with Preferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khatib, Lina; Morris, Paul; Morris, Robert; Rossi, Francesca; Sperduti, Alessandro; Venable, K. Brent

    2005-01-01

    Often we need to work in scenarios where events happen over time and preferences are associated to event distances and durations. Soft temporal constraints allow one to describe in a natural way problems arising in such scenarios. In general, solving soft temporal problems require exponential time in the worst case, but there are interesting subclasses of problems which are polynomially solvable. In this paper we identify one of such subclasses giving tractability results. Moreover, we describe two solvers for this class of soft temporal problems, and we show some experimental results. The random generator used to build the problems on which tests are performed is also described. We also compare the two solvers highlighting the tradeoff between performance and robustness. Sometimes, however, temporal local preferences are difficult to set, and it may be easier instead to associate preferences to some complete solutions of the problem. To model everything in a uniform way via local preferences only, and also to take advantage of the existing constraint solvers which exploit only local preferences, we show that machine learning techniques can be useful in this respect. In particular, we present a learning module based on a gradient descent technique which induces local temporal preferences from global ones. We also show the behavior of the learning module on randomly-generated examples.

  17. Preferences and non-preferences for nectar constituents inOrnithoptera priamus poseidon (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae).

    PubMed

    Erhardt, Andreas

    1992-07-01

    Preferences for nectar sugars and amino acids ofOrnithoptera priamus butterflies were tested experimentally. Both male and female butterflies clearly preferred a sucrose solution over a glucose solution of equal concentration (25%, weight to total weight) and equally a fructose solution over a glucose solution. A significant trend of males to prefer fructose over sucrose and of females to prefer sucrose over fructose was detected. However, neither males nor females discriminated between a mimic ofLantana camara nectar containing amino acids and a corresponding plain sugar solution. These results suggest that butterflies select against glucose in floral nectar but do not support the hypothesis that butterflies select for high levels of amino acids in nectar. The rather unspecific response ofOrnithoptera priamus butterflies to the tested nectar constituents may reflect a generalist feeding strategy of these long-lived and spectacular butterflies.

  18. The Vocational Preference Inventory Scores and Environmental Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunce, Joseph T.; Kappes, Bruno Maurice

    1976-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between vocational interest measured by the Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI) and preferences of 175 undergraduates for structured or unstructured environments. Males having clear-cut preferences for structured situations had significantly higher Realistic-Conventional scores than those without…

  19. Floor temperature preference of sows at farrowing.

    PubMed

    Phillips; Fraser; Pawluczuk

    2000-03-22

    A preference testing apparatus was used to provide sows with continuous access to three identical farrowing crates, each with a different floor temperature. The concrete floor under each crate contained copper pipe through which temperature-controlled water was circulated to achieve unoccupied floor temperatures of 22 degrees C (+/-3.5), 29 degrees C (+/-1) and 35 degrees C (+/-1). Eighteen sows were tested in the apparatus. Video recording was used to determine sow position from 7 days before farrowing (Days -7 to -1) to 14 days after (Days 1 to 14). On Days -7 to -1, sows showed no significant preference among the three temperatures when selecting a resting area. Once farrowing had begun, there was a significant increase (P<0.01) in the use of the 35 degrees C floor and it became the most preferred resting area for Days 1 to 3. After this interval, use of the 35 degrees C floor declined significantly (P<0.01), and use of the cooler floors increased, resulting in no significant thermal preference during Days 4 to 6. There was a further decline in the use of the 35 degrees C floor after Days 4 to 6 (P<0.01) to the extent that the coolest floor (22 degrees C) became the most preferred from Days 7 to 14. In summary, sows showed a pronounced increase in preference for a warm floor during the 3 days after the start of farrowing. This change in preference may explain how free-living sows select a suitable thermal environment for their young, and why sows try to avoid metal flooring at the time of farrowing.

  20. Anomalous Motion Illusion Contributes to Visual Preference

    PubMed Central

    Stevanov, Jasmina; Spehar, Branka; Ashida, Hiroshi; Kitaoka, Akiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the magnitude of illusory motion in the variants of the “Rotating Snakes” pattern and the visual preference among such patterns. In Experiment 1 we manipulated the outer contour and the internal geometrical structure of the figure to test for corresponding modulations in the perceived illusion magnitude. The strength of illusory motion was estimated by the method of adjustment where the speed of a standard moving figure was matched to the speed of the perceived illusory motion in test figures. We observed modulation of the perceived strength of illusory motion congruent with our geometrical manipulations. In Experiment 2, we directly compared the magnitude of the perceived illusory motion and the preference for these patterns by a method of paired comparison. Images differing in illusion magnitude showed corresponding differences in the reported preference for these patterns. In addition, further analysis revealed that the geometry and lower level image characteristics also substantially contributed to the observed preference ratings. Together these results support the idea that presence of illusory effect and geometrical characteristics determine affective preference for images, as they may be regarded as more interesting, surprising, or fascinating. PMID:23226138

  1. Background complexity affects colour preference in bumblebees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrest, Jessica; Thomson, James D.

    2009-08-01

    Flowers adapted for hummingbird pollination are typically red. This correlation is usually explained by the assertion that nectar- or pollen-stealing bees are “blind” to red flowers. However, laboratory studies have shown that bees are capable of locating artificial red flowers and often show no innate preference for blue over red. We hypothesised that these findings might be artefacts of the simplified laboratory environment. Using bumblebees ( Bombus impatiens) that had been trained to visit red and blue artificial flowers, we tested whether colour preference was influenced by complexity of the background on which they were foraging. Many bees were indifferent to flower colour when tested using a uniform green background like those commonly used in laboratory studies, but all bees showed strong colour preferences (usually for blue) when flowers were presented against a photograph of real foliage. Overall, preference for blue flowers was significantly greater on the more realistic, complex background. These results support the notion that the red of “hummingbird syndrome” flowers can function to reduce bee visits despite the ability of bees to detect red and highlight the need to consider context when drawing inferences about pollinator preferences from laboratory data.

  2. Therapeutic Recreation Majors' Work Preference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Elizabeth H.; Magafas, Anita

    1992-01-01

    Investigates the client age/disability work preference of 76 therapeutic recreation undergraduate students at 3 universities. Results indicate a preference to work with younger clients, disability groups, and physically impaired clients. Chronically ill clients were last in work preference. Students need exposure to the benefits of working with…

  3. Shifting Preferences in Pornography Consumption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zillmann, Dolf; Bryant, Jennings

    1986-01-01

    Concludes that subjects with considerable prior exposure to common, nonviolent pornography preferred to watch uncommon pornography. Male nonstudents preferred it almost exclusively, as did male students to a lesser extent. Females also exhibited this consumption preference, though it was far less pronounced, especially in female students. (JD)

  4. Consumer preference models: fuzzy theory approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turksen, I. B.; Wilson, I. A.

    1993-12-01

    Consumer preference models are widely used in new product design, marketing management, pricing and market segmentation. The purpose of this article is to develop and test a fuzzy set preference model which can represent linguistic variables in individual-level models implemented in parallel with existing conjoint models. The potential improvements in market share prediction and predictive validity can substantially improve management decisions about what to make (product design), for whom to make it (market segmentation) and how much to make (market share prediction).

  5. Interpreting visual preferences in the visual paired-comparison task.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Jenny; Colombo, Michael; Hayne, Harlene

    2007-09-01

    Performance on the visual paired-comparison (VPC) task has typically been interpreted with E. Sokolov's (1963) comparator model of the orienting response; novelty preferences are interpreted as evidence of retention, whereas null preferences are interpreted as evidence of forgetting. Here the authors capitalized on the verbal nature of human adults to clarify the interpretation of visual preferences in VPC performance. In 2 experiments, adults were tested on either the VPC task or a forced-choice recognition task after delays of 3 min to 12 months. In Experiment 1, adults tested on the VPC task exhibited novelty preferences after short delays, null preferences after intermediate delays, and familiarity preferences after long delays. In Experiment 2, adults tested on the forced-choice recognition task exhibited high levels of accuracy irrespective of delay, but the latency with which they recognized the stimuli increased systematically over the retention interval. These data are inconsistent with a simple Sokolovian interpretation of VPC performance and instead suggest that memory may be expressed as a novelty preference, null preference, or familiarity preference depending on the accessibility of the representation.

  6. PATIENTS’ PREFERENCES FOR TREATMENT OF HEPATITIS C

    PubMed Central

    Fraenkel, Liana; Chodkowski, Diane; Lim, Joseph; Garcia-Tsao, Guadalupe

    2009-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to ascertain patient preferences for treatment of HCV. Methods We recruited consecutive patients eligible for treatment of HCV and used Adaptive Conjoint Analysis (ACA), a hybrid approach of conjoint analysis that uses both self-explicated ratings and pairwise comparisons, to elicit preferences for pegylated-interferon and ribavirin. We examined the association between patient characteristics and treatment preferences using the Mann-Whitney U test and chi-square statistic for continuous and categorical variables respectively and subsequently calculated adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals using logistic regression. Results 140 subjects completed the ACA task. The mean (±SD) age of the sample was 51 ± 8, 85% were male, and 59% White. When described as being associated with mild side effects, 67% (N=94) of subjects’ preferred treatment for HCV. The percentage of subjects preferring therapy decreased to 51% (N=72) when it was described as being associated with severe side effects. Preferences for treatment of HCV were stronger among subjects with a higher perceived risk of developing cirrhosis, more severe underlying liver disease, and worse HCV-related quality of life. Subjects having more severe disease placed greater weight on the importance of expected benefits and less on the risk of toxicity compared to those with mild or no fibrosis. Conclusions Whether or not to choose treatment for HCV is a difficult decision for many patients. Treatment is usually recommended for those with moderate to severe liver disease and our results demonstrate that most patients’ preferences are concordant with this practice. PMID:19636065

  7. ONTOGENY OF ETHANOL INTAKE IN ALCOHOL PREFERRING (P) AND ALCOHOL NON-PREFERRING (NP) RATS

    PubMed Central

    Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Nizhnikov, Michael E.; Truxell, Eric; Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Norman E.

    2011-01-01

    There is a scarcity of research on ethanol affinity in alcohol-preferring (P) rats before weaning and it is unknown if neonate P rats exhibit ethanol intake preferences comparable to those observed in adult P rats. This study examined ethanol intake in alcohol-preferring and non-preferring (NP) rats 3 hours after birth (Experiment 1, surrogate nipple test), at postnatal days (PD) 8, 12 and 18 (Experiment 2, consumption off the floor procedure) and at adolescence (Experiment 3, two-bottle choice test at PD32). The high-preference genotype was readily expressed three hours after birth. P neonates drank twice as much ethanol as their NP counterparts. This heightened ethanol preference transiently reversed at P8, reemerged as weaning approached (P18) and was fully expressed during adolescence. These results help clarify the ontogeny of genetic predisposition for ethanol. Genetic predisposition for higher ethanol intake in P than in NP rats seems to be present immediately following birth. PMID:21400486

  8. Infant salt preference and mother's morning sickness.

    PubMed

    Crystal, S R; Bernstein, I L

    1998-06-01

    Evidence for an association between early pregnancy sickness and offspring salt (NaCl) preference has been obtained from studying offspring as young adults. To determine whether effects on NaCl preference are expressed in infancy, the present study examined 16-week-old infants whose mothers reported either little or no vomiting (N = 15) or frequent moderate to severe vomiting (N = 14) during the first 14 weeks of their pregnancy. The infants' oral-motor facial reactions to each solution and their relative intakes of distilled water and 0.1m and 0.2m NaCl were used as measures of preference. Infants of mothers who reported no or mild symptoms had a significantly lower relative intake of salt solutions than infants whose mothers reported moderate to severe symptoms (p < 0.01). The former infants also showed a greater number of aversive facial responses when given 0.2m NaCl (p < 0.05). Taken together, these findings support the hypothesis that maternal dehydration, induced by moderate to severe vomiting during pregnancy, can lead to enhanced salt preference in offspring. They also provide a potential explanation for some of the variability encountered when human infants are tested for their salt preference.

  9. Preference reversal in quantum decision theory.

    PubMed

    Yukalov, Vyacheslav I; Sornette, Didier

    2015-01-01

    We consider the psychological effect of preference reversal and show that it finds a natural explanation in the frame of quantum decision theory. When people choose between lotteries with non-negative payoffs, they prefer a more certain lottery because of uncertainty aversion. But when people evaluate lottery prices, e.g., for selling to others the right to play them, they do this more rationally, being less subject to behavioral biases. This difference can be explained by the presence of the attraction factors entering the expression of quantum probabilities. Only the existence of attraction factors can explain why, considering two lotteries with close utility factors, a decision maker prefers one of them when choosing, but evaluates higher the other one when pricing. We derive a general quantitative criterion for the preference reversal to occur that relates the utilities of the two lotteries to the attraction factors under choosing vs. pricing and test successfully its application on experiments by Tversky et al. We also show that the planning paradox can be treated as a kind of preference reversal.

  10. Algorithms for Learning Preferences for Sets of Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagstaff, Kiri L.; desJardins, Marie; Eaton, Eric

    2010-01-01

    concepts to estimate quantitative measures of the user s preferences from training examples (preferred subsets) specified by the user. Once preferences have been learned, the system uses those preferences to select preferred subsets from new sets. The method was found to be viable when tested in computational experiments on menus, music playlists, and rover images. Contemplated future development efforts include further tests on more diverse sets and development of a sub-method for (a) estimating the parameter that represents the relative importance of diversity versus depth, and (b) incorporating background knowledge about the nature of quality functions, which are special functions that specify depth preferences for features.

  11. Motivational control of latent inhibition in flavor preference conditioning.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Burgos, David; González, Felisa; Hall, Geoffrey

    2013-09-01

    In three experiments, rats given pairings of a neutral flavor with sucrose showed a preference for that flavor when subsequently allowed to choose between it and water. Preexposure to the flavor produced a latent inhibition effect (reduced the size of the preference) when the rats were hungry during the test (Experiments 1 and 2). Rats that were not hungry during the test failed to show latent inhibition (Experiments 1-3). Experiment 3 confirmed that sucrose-flavor pairings were capable of producing a preference even in nonhungry rats. It is argued that the preference shown by rats that are hungry on test depends on a flavor-nutrient association, a form of learning that is susceptible to latent inhibition in the same way as standard conditioning procedures are. The failure to obtain latent inhibition in nonhungry rats suggests that the preference obtained in these conditions depends on a different form of learning that is less susceptible to the effects of stimulus exposure.

  12. Transitivity of Odor Preferences: Constant and Particularities in Hedonic Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Gerard; Haaz, Virginie; Jacquot, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Transitivity of preferences has been investigated for a long time in decision-making. In the field of perception, the pleasantness of odors raises several questions related to individual versus cultural or universal preferences and the existence of a classification in a delimited hedonic space. The aim of this study was to test transitivity in…

  13. The Tuning of Human Neonates' Preference for Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vouloumanos, Athena; Hauser, Marc D.; Werker, Janet F.; Martin, Alia

    2010-01-01

    Human neonates prefer listening to speech compared to many nonspeech sounds, suggesting that humans are born with a bias for speech. However, neonates' preference may derive from properties of speech that are not unique but instead are shared with the vocalizations of other species. To test this, thirty neonates and sixteen 3-month-olds were…

  14. When getting angry is smart: emotional preferences and emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Ford, Brett Q; Tamir, Maya

    2012-08-01

    People who prefer to feel useful emotions, even when they are unpleasant to experience, must understand emotions and seek to regulate them in strategic ways. Such people, therefore, may be more emotionally intelligent compared with people who prefer to feel emotions that may not be useful for the context at hand, even if those emotions are pleasant to experience. We tested this hypothesis by measuring emotional intelligence and preferences to feel pleasant and unpleasant emotions in contexts in which they are likely to be useful or not. We found significant positive associations between emotional intelligence and preferences for useful emotions, even when controlling for trait emotional experiences and cognitive intelligence. People who prefer to feel anger when confronting others tend to be higher in emotional intelligence, whereas people who prefer to feel happiness in such contexts tend to be lower in emotional intelligence. Such findings are consistent with the idea that wanting to feel bad may be good at times, and vice versa.

  15. Personality, drug preference, drug use, and drug availability.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Marc; Boyer, Bret; Kumar, V K; Prout, Maurice

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between drug preference, drug use, drug availability, and personality among individuals (n = 100) in treatment for substance abuse in an effort to replicate the results of an earlier study (Feldman, Kumar, Angelini, Pekala, & Porter, 2007) designed to test prediction derived from Eysenck's (1957, 1967) theories. Drug preference was measured by the method of paired-comparison and personality was measured with the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire-50 CC. Contrary to expectations, high compared with low scorers on Sociability and Impulsive-Sensation Seeking preferred depressants. Surprisingly, low compared with high scorers on neuroticism did not differ in preference for alcohol. As in the previous study, drug preference, use, and availability were highly correlated, although ease of availability was slightly more predictive of drug use than drug preference. Clinical and theoretical implications are discussed.

  16. The influence of a hand preference for acquiring objects on the development of a hand preference for unimanual manipulation from 6 to 14 months.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Julie M; Marcinowski, Emily C; Babik, Iryna; Michel, George F

    2015-05-01

    Development of hand preferences for unimanual manipulation of objects was explored in 90 infants (57 males) tested monthly from 6 to 14 months. From a larger sample of 380 infants, 30 infants with a consistent left hand preference for acquiring objects were matched for sex and development of locomotion skills with 30 infants with a consistent right hand preference for acquisition and 30 with no preference. Although frequency of unimanual manipulations increased during 6-14 month period, infants with a hand preference for acquisition did more object manipulations than those without a preference for acquisition. Multilevel modeling of unimanual manipulation trajectories for the three hand-preference groups revealed that hand preferences for unimanual manipulation become more distinctive with age, and the preference is predicted by the hand preference for object acquisition. Infants with a right and left hand preference for object acquisition develop a right and left (respectively) hand preference for unimanual manipulation. However, the majority of infants at each month do not exhibit hand preferences for unimanual manipulation that are unlikely to occur by chance, even by 14 months. The results are consistent with a cascading theory of handedness development in which early preferences (i.e., for acquisition) are transferred to later developing preferences (i.e., for unimanual manipulation).

  17. Preference patterns in infant vowel perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnar, Monika T.; Polka, Linda

    2004-05-01

    Infants show directional asymmetries in vowel discrimination tasks that reveal an underlying perceptual bias favoring more peripheral vowels. Polka and Bohn (2003) propose that this bias is language independent and plays an important role in the development of vowel perception. In the present study we measured infant listening preferences for vowels to assess whether a perceptual bias favoring peripheral vowels can be measured more directly. Monolingual (French and English) and bilingual infants completed a listening preference task using multiple natural tokens of German /dut/ and /dyt/ produced by a male talker. In previous work, discrimination of this vowel pair by German-learning and by English-learning infants revealed a robust directional asymmetry in which /u/ acts as a perceptual anchor; specifically, infants had difficulty detecting a change from /u/ to /y/, whereas a change from /y/ to /u/ was readily detected. Preliminary results from preference tests with these stimuli show that most infants between 3 and 5 months of age also listen longer to /u/ than to /y/. Preference data obtained from older infants and with other vowel pairs will also be reported to further test the claim that peripheral vowels have a privileged perceptual status in infant perception.

  18. Preference for bedding material in Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Lanteigne, M; Reebs, S G

    2006-10-01

    This study aimed to determine whether Syrian (golden) hamsters, Mesocricetus auratus, prefer certain bedding materials and whether bedding material can affect paw condition, body weight gain and wheel-running activity. In a first experiment, 26 male hamsters had access to two connected cages, each cage containing a different bedding material (either pine shavings, aspen shavings, corn cob or wood pellets). In a second experiment, 14 male hamsters had access to four connected cages that contained the different bedding materials and also a piece of paper towel to serve as nest material. In a third experiment, 30 male hamsters were each placed in a single cage, 10 of them with pine shavings, 10 with aspen shavings and 10 with corn cob, and they were monitored for 50 days. Significant preferences in the first experiment were: pine shavings over aspen shavings, corn cob over wood pellets, pine shavings over corn cob and aspen shavings over wood pellets (aspen shavings versus corn cob was not tested). However, there was no significant preference expressed in the second experiment, suggesting that the general preference for shavings in the first experiment was based on bedding material suitability as a nesting material. No significant effect of bedding material on paw condition, body weight gain and wheel-running activity was detected. None of the four bedding materials tested in this study can be judged to be inappropriate in the short term if nesting material is added to the cage and if the litter is changed regularly.

  19. Heightened sour preferences during childhood.

    PubMed

    Liem, Djin Gie; Mennella, Julie A

    2003-02-01

    Basic research has revealed that the chemical sensory world of children is different from that of adults, as evidenced by their heightened preferences for sweet and salty tastes. However, little is known about the ontogeny of sour taste preferences, despite the growing market of extreme sour candies. The present study investigated whether the level of sourness most preferred in a food matrix and the ability to discriminate differences in sour intensity differed between 5- to 9-year-old children and their mothers, by using a rank-by-elimination procedure embedded in the context of a game. Mothers also completed a variety of questionnaires and children were asked several questions to assess whether children's temperament and food preferences and habits related to sour preferences. The results indicated that, although every mother and all but two of the children (92%) were able to rank the gelatins from most to least sour, more than one-third (35%) of the children, but virtually none of the adults, preferred the high levels of sour taste (0.25 M citric acid) in gelatin. Those children who preferred the extreme sour tastes were significantly less food neophobic (P < 0.05) and tended to experience a greater variety of fruits when compared with the remaining children (P = 0.11). Moreover, the children's preference for sour tastes generalized to other foods, such as candies and lemons, as reported by both children and mothers. These findings are the first experimental evidence to demonstrate that sour taste preferences are heightened during childhood and that such preferences are related to children's food habits and preferences. Further research is needed to unfold the relationship between the level of sour taste preferred and the actual consumption of sour-tasting foods and flavors in children.

  20. The Reading Preferences of Third, Fourth, and Fifth Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Peter J. L.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the influence of teachers, age, sex, and race on the reading preferences of third, fourth, and fifth grade pupils. Concludes that the tested variables do explain differences, but that there are more similarities than differences. (RS)

  1. Temporal Constraint Reasoning With Preferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khatib, Lina; Morris, Paul; Morris, Robert; Rossi, Francesca

    2001-01-01

    A number of reasoning problems involving the manipulation of temporal information can naturally be viewed as implicitly inducing an ordering of potential local decisions involving time (specifically, associated with durations or orderings of events) on the basis of preferences. For example. a pair of events might be constrained to occur in a certain order, and, in addition. it might be preferable that the delay between them be as large, or as small, as possible. This paper explores problems in which a set of temporal constraints is specified, where each constraint is associated with preference criteria for making local decisions about the events involved in the constraint, and a reasoner must infer a complete solution to the problem such that, to the extent possible, these local preferences are met in the best way. A constraint framework for reasoning about time is generalized to allow for preferences over event distances and durations, and we study the complexity of solving problems in the resulting formalism. It is shown that while in general such problems are NP-hard, some restrictions on the shape of the preference functions, and on the structure of the preference set, can be enforced to achieve tractability. In these cases, a simple generalization of a single-source shortest path algorithm can be used to compute a globally preferred solution in polynomial time.

  2. Voter-Weighted Environmental Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Jason; Huber, Joel; Viscusi, W. Kip

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the political economy of preferences with respect to the environment using a new stated preference survey that presents the first benefit values for national water quality levels. The mean valuation greatly exceeds the median value, as the distribution of valuations is highly skewed. The study couples the survey valuations…

  3. Children Reason about Shared Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fawcett, Christine A.; Markson, Lori

    2010-01-01

    Two-year-old children's reasoning about the relation between their own and others' preferences was investigated across two studies. In Experiment 1, children first observed 2 actors display their individual preferences for various toys. Children were then asked to make inferences about new, visually inaccessible toys and books that were described…

  4. Children's Reading Preferences in Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Rob; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Children, ages 8-9 and 11-12, rated fiction they had just read. Boys preferred supernatural, adventure and mystery stories while girls rated fairy and pony stories highly. Both preferred characters of their own sex. Sex differences were smaller in the 11-12 age group (f=fiche number). (CP)

  5. Odor Preference Learning and Memory Modify GluA1 Phosphorylation and GluA1 Distribution in the Neonate Rat Olfactory Bulb: Testing the AMPA Receptor Hypothesis in an Appetitive Learning Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cui, Wen; Darby-King, Andrea; Grimes, Matthew T.; Howland, John G.; Wang, Yu Tian; McLean, John H.; Harley, Carolyn W.

    2011-01-01

    An increase in synaptic AMPA receptors is hypothesized to mediate learning and memory. AMPA receptor increases have been reported in aversive learning models, although it is not clear if they are seen with memory maintenance. Here we examine AMPA receptor changes in a cAMP/PKA/CREB-dependent appetitive learning model: odor preference learning in…

  6. Mulch preferences of the Asian cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae).

    PubMed

    Snoddy, Edward T; Appel, Arthur G

    2013-02-01

    Mulch preferences of the Asian cockroach, Blattella asahinai Mizukubo, were determined in a series of laboratory experiments. Because this species is a peridomestic pest, mulch preferences may be a key part of an integrated pest management program for homeowners. Five mulches were used: cypress, oak leaf litter, pine straw, rubber, and topsoil. Large arena experiments showed that adult male Asian cockroaches preferred oak leaf litter and pine straw, while adult females preferred oak leaf litter and rubber mulches. Nymphal stages preferred rubber (48.3-62.5% for small and medium instars, respectively) to all other mulches. All stages of the Asian cockroach showed very little preference to topsoil (0%) and cypress mulch (6.3%). Ebeling choice box tests confirmed lack of preference or repellency of adult males to topsoil (17.8 +/- 3.6%) and rubber mulch (15.7 +/- 3.6%). Continuous exposure experiments indicated that pine straw was significantly more toxic to adult males than other mulches (66.7 +/- 18.4% mortality at 7 d). Mulch preferences of the Asian cockroach may be mediated by characteristics of the interstitial spaces in the different mulches. Rubber mulch afforded smaller, more humid spaces that were inaccessible to adults. Because cypress mulch was least preferred by nymphs and adults, use of cypress mulch in an integrated pest management program around homes may help to reduce Asian cockroach populations and limit insecticide exposure to humans, animals, and the environment.

  7. Stevia and saccharin preferences in rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, Anthony; Bahrani, Mahsa; Zukerman, Steven; Ackroff, Karen

    2010-06-01

    Use of natural noncaloric sweeteners in commercial foods and beverages has expanded recently to include compounds from the plant Stevia rebaudiana. Little is known about the responses of rodents, the animal models for many studies of taste systems and food intake, to stevia sweeteners. In the present experiments, preferences of female Sprague-Dawley rats and C57BL/6J mice for different stevia products were compared with those for the artificial sweetener saccharin. The stevia component rebaudioside A has the most sweetness and least off-tastes to human raters. In ascending concentration tests (48-h sweetener vs. water), rats and mice preferred a high-rebaudioside, low-stevioside extract as strongly as saccharin, but the extract stimulated less overdrinking and was much less preferred to saccharin in direct choice tests. Relative to the extract, mice drank more pure rebaudioside A and showed stronger preferences but still less than those for saccharin. Mice also preferred a commercial mixture of rebaudioside A and erythritol (Truvia). Similar tests of sweet receptor T1R3 knockout mice and brief-access licking tests with normal mice suggested that the preferences were based on sweet taste rather than post-oral effects. The preference response of rodents to stevia sweeteners is notable in view of their minimal response to some other noncaloric sweeteners (aspartame and cyclamate).

  8. Stevia and Saccharin Preferences in Rats and Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bahrani, Mahsa; Zukerman, Steven; Ackroff, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Use of natural noncaloric sweeteners in commercial foods and beverages has expanded recently to include compounds from the plant Stevia rebaudiana. Little is known about the responses of rodents, the animal models for many studies of taste systems and food intake, to stevia sweeteners. In the present experiments, preferences of female Sprague–Dawley rats and C57BL/6J mice for different stevia products were compared with those for the artificial sweetener saccharin. The stevia component rebaudioside A has the most sweetness and least off-tastes to human raters. In ascending concentration tests (48-h sweetener vs. water), rats and mice preferred a high-rebaudioside, low-stevioside extract as strongly as saccharin, but the extract stimulated less overdrinking and was much less preferred to saccharin in direct choice tests. Relative to the extract, mice drank more pure rebaudioside A and showed stronger preferences but still less than those for saccharin. Mice also preferred a commercial mixture of rebaudioside A and erythritol (Truvia). Similar tests of sweet receptor T1R3 knockout mice and brief-access licking tests with normal mice suggested that the preferences were based on sweet taste rather than post-oral effects. The preference response of rodents to stevia sweeteners is notable in view of their minimal response to some other noncaloric sweeteners (aspartame and cyclamate). PMID:20413452

  9. Sensory preference and overselective responding in autistic children.

    PubMed

    Kolko, D J; Anderson, L; Campbell, M

    1980-09-01

    Five autistic and five normal children were allowed to register a sensory modality preference by bar pressing to select either a visual (slides) or an auditory (music) stimulus. The children were then taught a discrimination between the presence or absence of a compound auditory-visual stimulus (white noise and light). Testing for stimulus overselectivity revealed that the autistic children attended to only one aspect of the compound stimulus. In all cases this was the sensory modality that was selected during the preference test. Significant correlations were obtained between Gesell developmental scores and degree of overselectivity. Normal children registered an equal preference for music and slides and displayed no overselectivity.

  10. JPL preferred parts list: Reliable electronic components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Covey, R. E.; Scott, W. R.; Hess, L. M.; Steffy, T. G.; Stott, F. R.

    1982-01-01

    The JPL Preferred Parts List was prepared to provide a basis for selection of electronic parts for JPL spacecraft programs. Supporting tests for the listed parts were designed to comply with specific spacecraft environmental requirements. The list tabulates the electronic, magnetic, and electromechanical parts applicable to all JPL electronic equipment wherein reliability is a major concern. The parts listed are revelant to equipment supplied by subcontractors as well as fabricated at the laboratory.

  11. Perspectives in avoidance-preference bioassays

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, C.W.; Taylor, D.H.; Strickler-Shaw, S.

    1996-12-31

    Although behavioral endpoints are used in hazard assessment, establishment of water quality criteria and assessment of a contaminant`s hazard to aquatic life rely primarily on standard acute and chronic toxicity tests. Sublethal effects of pollutants should, however, be of major concern because more organisms experience sublethal rather than acutely or chronically lethal exposures of contaminants. The avoidance-preference approach to behavioral bioassays is very useful in screening pollutants for which the mechanisms of perception or response are largely unknown. The underlying philosophy of these studies is that an animal which perceives a chemical can be attracted or repulsed by it. No response is frequently assumed to indicate lack of perception. All three responses have broad ecological implications. The authors discuss the conditions required for performing avoidance-preference bioassays, as well as their sensitivities, advantages, and limitations. In this regard, a comparative approach is used in examining the results of avoidance-preference bioassays with zebrafish in two different apparatuses. Finally, they compare the results of avoidance-preference studies with other measures of the behavioral toxicity of lead to tadpoles.

  12. Consumer preferences for mild cheddar cheese flavors.

    PubMed

    Drake, S L; Gerard, P D; Drake, M A

    2008-11-01

    Flavor is an important factor in consumer selection of cheeses. Mild Cheddar cheese is the classification used to describe Cheddar cheese that is not aged extensively and has a "mild" flavor. However, there is no legal definition or age limit for Cheddar cheese to be labeled mild, medium, or sharp, nor are the flavor profiles or flavor expectations of these cheeses specifically defined. The objectives of this study were to document the distinct flavor profiles among commercially labeled mild Cheddar cheeses, and to characterize if consumer preferences existed for specific mild Cheddar cheese flavors or flavor profiles. Flavor descriptive sensory profiles of a representative array of commercial Cheddar cheeses labeled as mild (n= 22) were determined using a trained sensory panel and an established cheese flavor sensory language. Nine representative Cheddar cheeses were selected for consumer testing. Consumers (n= 215) assessed the cheeses for overall liking and other consumer liking attributes. Internal preference mapping, cluster analysis, and discriminant analysis were conducted. Mild Cheddar cheeses were diverse in flavor with many displaying flavors typically associated with more age. Four distinct consumer clusters were identified. The key drivers of liking for mild Cheddar cheese were: color, cooked/milky, whey and brothy flavors, and sour taste. Consumers have distinct flavor and color preferences for mild Cheddar cheese. These results can help manufacturers understand consumer preferences for mild Cheddar cheese.

  13. Sexual imprinting can induce sexual preferences for exaggerated parental traits.

    PubMed

    ten Cate, Carel; Verzijden, Machteld N; Etman, Eric

    2006-06-06

    Sexual preferences in animals are often skewed toward mates with exaggerated traits. In many vertebrates, parents provide, through the learning process of "sexual imprinting," the model for the later sexual preference. How imprinting can result in sexual preferences for mates having exaggerated traits rather than resembling the parental appearance is not clear. We test the hypothesis that a by-product of the learning process, "peak shift", may induce skewed sexual preferences for exaggerated parental phenotypes. To this end, zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) males were raised by white parents, with beak color as the most prominent sexual dimorphism. We manipulated this feature with nail varnish. At adult age, each male was given a preference test in which he could choose among eight females with beak colors ranging from more extreme on the paternal to more extreme on the maternal side. The males preferred females with a beak of a more extreme color than that of their mothers, i.e., they showed a peak shift. Sexual imprinting can thus generate skewed sexual preferences for exaggerated maternal phenotypes, phenotypes that have not been present at the time of the learning. We suggest that such preferences can drive the evolution of sexual dimorphism and exaggerated sexual traits.

  14. Preferences in Data Production Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, Keith; Brafman, Ronen; Pang, Wanlin

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the data production problem, which consists of transforming a set of (initial) input data into a set of (goal) output data. There are typically many choices among input data and processing algorithms, each leading to significantly different end products. To discriminate among these choices, the planner supports an input language that provides a number of constructs for specifying user preferences over data (and plan) properties. We discuss these preference constructs, how we handle them to guide search, and additional challenges in the area of preference management that this important application domain offers.

  15. Novelty vs. Familiarity Principles in Preference Decisions: Task-Context of Past Experience Matters.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hsin-I; Yeh, Su-Ling; Shimojo, Shinsuke

    2011-01-01

    Our preferences are shaped by past experience in many ways, but a systematic understanding of the factors is yet to be achieved. For example, studies of the mere exposure effect show that experience with an item leads to increased liking (familiarity preference), but the exact opposite tendency is found in other studies utilizing dishabituation (novelty preference). Recently, it has been found that image category affects whether familiarity or novelty preference emerges from repeated stimulus exposure (Park et al., 2010). Faces elicited familiarity preference, but natural scenes elicited novelty preference. In their task, preference judgments were made throughout all exposures, raising the question of whether the task-context during exposure was involved. We adapt their paradigm, testing if passive exposure or objective judgment task-contexts lead to different results. Results showed that after passive viewing, familiar faces were preferred, but no preference bias in either direction was found with natural scenes, or with geometric figures (control). After exposure during the objective judgment task, familiar faces were preferred, novel natural scenes were preferred, and no preference bias was found with geometric figures. The overall results replicate the segregation of preference biases across object categories and suggest that the preference for familiar faces and novel natural scenes are modulated by task-context memory at different processing levels or selection involvement. Possible underlying mechanisms of the two types of preferences are discussed.

  16. Odor preference learning and memory modify GluA1 phosphorylation and GluA1 distribution in the neonate rat olfactory bulb: testing the AMPA receptor hypothesis in an appetitive learning model.

    PubMed

    Cui, Wen; Darby-King, Andrea; Grimes, Matthew T; Howland, John G; Wang, Yu Tian; McLean, John H; Harley, Carolyn W

    2011-01-01

    An increase in synaptic AMPA receptors is hypothesized to mediate learning and memory. AMPA receptor increases have been reported in aversive learning models, although it is not clear if they are seen with memory maintenance. Here we examine AMPA receptor changes in a cAMP/PKA/CREB-dependent appetitive learning model: odor preference learning in the neonate rat. Rat pups were given a single pairing of peppermint and 2 mg/kg isoproterenol, which produces a 24-h, but not a 48-h, peppermint preference in the 7-d-old rat pup. GluA1 PKA-dependent phosphorylation peaked 10 min after the 10-min training trial and returned to baseline within 90 min. At 24 h, GluA1 subunits did not change overall but were significantly increased in synaptoneurosomes, consistent with increased membrane insertion. Immunohistochemistry revealed a significant increase in GluA1 subunits in olfactory bulb glomeruli, the targets of olfactory nerve axons. Glomerular increases were seen at 3 and 24 h after odor exposure in trained pups, but not in control pups. GluA1 increases were not seen as early as 10 min after training and were no longer observed 48 h after training when odor preference is no longer expressed behaviorally. Thus, the pattern of increased GluA1 membrane expression closely follows the memory timeline. Further, blocking GluA1 insertion using an interference peptide derived from the carboxyl tail of the GluA1 subunit inhibited 24 h odor preference memory providing causative support for our hypothesis. PKA-mediated GluA1 phosphorylation and later GluA1 insertion could, conjointly, provide increased AMPA function to support both short-term and long-term appetitive memory.

  17. Accounting for taste: individual differences in preference for harmony.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Stephen E; Griscom, William S

    2013-06-01

    Although empirical research on aesthetics has had some success in explaining the average preferences of groups of observers, relatively little is known about individual differences in preference, and especially about how such differences might covary across different domains. In this study, we identified a new factor underlying aesthetic response-preference for harmonious stimuli-and examined how it varies over four domains (color, shape, spatial location, and music) across individuals with different levels of training in art and music. We found that individual preferences for harmony are strongly correlated across all four dimensions tested and decrease consistently with training in the relevant aesthetic domains. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that cross-domain preference for harmony is well-represented as a single, unified factor, with effects separate from those of training and of common personality measures.

  18. Measuring customer preferences in the German statutory health insurance.

    PubMed

    Pendzialek, Jonas B; Simic, Dusan; Stock, Stephanie

    2016-09-21

    This paper investigates consumer preferences in the German statutory health insurance market. It further aims to test whether preferences differ by age and health status. Evidence is provided by a discrete choice experiment conducted in 2014 using the six most important attributes in sickness fund competition and ten random generated choice sets per participant. Price is found to be the most important attribute followed by additional benefits, managed care programmes, and distance to nearest branch. Other positive attributes of sickness funds are found to balance out a higher price, which would allow a sickness fund to position itself as high quality. However, significant differences in preferences were found between age and health status group. In particular, compromised health is associated with higher preference for illness-related additional benefits and less distance to the lowest branch, but lower preference for a lower price. Based on these differences, a distinct sickness fund offer could be constructed that would allow passive risk selection.

  19. Teachers' Preferences for Reading Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canney, George; Neuenfeldt, Christine

    1993-01-01

    Reports a survey of 639 teachers (grades K-9) that revealed most preferred using a combination of basal and tradebooks in their reading programs regardless of teaching experience, formal training in reading, or grade level. (NH)

  20. Enriching tortoises: assessing color preference.

    PubMed

    Passos, Luiza F; Mello, Humberto Espirito Santo; Young, Robert John

    2014-01-01

    Environmental enrichment is a principle that is used to enhance the quality of care for nonhuman animals in captivity. To achieve this, it is necessary to understand the animal's needs. This study focused on color preference to provide food stimuli as a source of environmental enrichment for the tortoise, Chelonoidis denticulata. During this study, the stimuli green-, blue-, yellow-, and red-colored bananas and plaster blocks were randomly offered to the tortoises. Analysis of the data showed that the tortoises had a preference for the stimuli dyed with colors red and yellow over the other presented colors. It was possible to conclude that presenting food in different colors stimulated the animals to evaluate their environment and make choices in relation to their color preference. Thus, this experiment introduced an element of choice into their lives, beyond identifying color food preferences for the tortoises. The element of choice is known to be important to animal welfare.

  1. Clothing preferences of older consumers.

    PubMed

    Chowdhary, U

    1998-06-01

    The study focused on identifying the apparel needs of older men and women in a midwestern county. A survey technique was used to collect data on older peoples' preferences for apparel including accessories, most preferred items, identified similarity with previous apparel choices, and identification of buyer of the apparel. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Implications of the findings for future research and possibility of use by apparel designers, manufacturers, and retailers are discussed.

  2. Preference for Infant-Directed Singing in 2-Day-Old Hearing Infants of Deaf Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masataka, Nobuo

    1999-01-01

    Used a modified visual-fixation-based auditory-preference procedure to test preferences for infant-directed singing versus adult-directed singing in 15 two-day-old hearing infants of deaf parents. Subjects heard a Japanese and an English play song. Found that infants prefer infant-directed singing over adult-directed singing and that the…

  3. Evaluation of the Multiple-Stimulus without Replacement Preference Assessment Method Using Activities as Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Edward J., III; Wells, Nikki J.; Swanger-Gagne, Michelle S.; Carr, James E.; Kunz, Gina M.; Taylor, Ashley M.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the accuracy of the multiple-stimulus without replacement (MSWO) preference assessment for identifying preferred common classroom activities as reinforcers with children with behavioral disorders. The accuracy of predictions from the MSWO regarding high, medium, and low stimulus preference was tested by providing…

  4. Preference-Inconsistent Recommendations: An Effective Approach for Reducing Confirmation Bias and Stimulating Divergent Thinking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwind, Christina; Buder, Jurgen; Cress, Ulrike; Hesse, Friedrich W.

    2012-01-01

    The Web is a perfect backdrop for opinion formation as a multitude of different opinions is publicly available. However, the different opinions often remain unexploited: Learners prefer preference-consistent over preference-inconsistent information, a phenomenon called confirmation bias. Two experiments were designed to test whether technologies…

  5. Preferred Frame Effects in Relativistic Binary Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, M.; Wex, N.

    2008-03-01

    We summarize our recently presented consistent, theory-independent methodology to measure preferred-frame effects (PFEs) in binary pulsars that exhibit a high rate of periastron advance. In these systems the existence of a preferred frame for gravity leads to an observable characteristic signature in the timing data. A newly developed PFE timing model can be used to either measure or constrain the parameters related to a violation of the local Lorentz invariance of gravity in the strong internal fields of neutron stars. In particular, in the presence of PFEs we expect a set of the new timing parameters to have a unique relationship that can be measured and tested incontrovertibly. A combination of several suitable systems in a PFE antenna array provides full sensitivity to possible violations of local Lorentz invariance in strong gravitational fields in all directions of the sky.

  6. Language-based social preferences among children in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kinzler, Katherine D.; Shutts, Kristin; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2015-01-01

    Monolingual English-speaking children in the United States express social preferences for speakers of their native language with a native accent. Here we explore the nature of children’s language-based social preferences through research with children in South Africa, a multilingual nation. Like children in the United States, Xhosa South African children preferred speakers of their first language (Xhosa) to speakers of a foreign language (French). Thus, social preferences based on language are observed not only among children with limited exposure to cultural and linguistic variation but also among children living in a diverse linguistic environment. Moreover, Xhosa children attending school in English expressed social preferences for speakers of English over speakers of Xhosa, even when tested by a Xhosa-speaking experimenter. Thus, children’s language-based social preferences do not depend exclusively on preferences for more familiar or intelligible speech but also extend to preferences for speech that may convey higher status in the child’s society. PMID:26973440

  7. Human preference for individual colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Stephen E.; Schloss, Karen B.

    2010-02-01

    Color preference is an important aspect of human behavior, but little is known about why people like some colors more than others. Recent results from the Berkeley Color Project (BCP) provide detailed measurements of preferences among 32 chromatic colors as well as other relevant aspects of color perception. We describe the fit of several color preference models, including ones based on cone outputs, color-emotion associations, and Palmer and Schloss's ecological valence theory. The ecological valence theory postulates that color serves an adaptive "steering' function, analogous to taste preferences, biasing organisms to approach advantageous objects and avoid disadvantageous ones. It predicts that people will tend to like colors to the extent that they like the objects that are characteristically that color, averaged over all such objects. The ecological valence theory predicts 80% of the variance in average color preference ratings from the Weighted Affective Valence Estimates (WAVEs) of correspondingly colored objects, much more variance than any of the other models. We also describe how hue preferences for single colors differ as a function of gender, expertise, culture, social institutions, and perceptual experience.

  8. Preference for art: similarity, statistics, and selling price

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Daniel J.; Friedenberg, Jay D.; McCandless, Cyrus H.; Rockmore, Daniel N.

    2010-02-01

    Factors governing human preference for artwork have long been studied but there remain many holes in our understanding. Bearing in mind contextual factors (both the conditions under which the art is viewed, and the state of knowledge viewers have regarding art) that play some role in preference, we assess in this paper three questions. First, what is the relationship between perceived similarity and preference for different types of art? Second, are we naturally drawn to certain qualities-and perhaps to certain image statistics-in art? And third, do social and economic forces tend to select preferred stimuli, or are these forces governed by non-aesthetic factors such as age, rarity, or artist notoriety? To address the first question, we tested the notion that perceived similarity predicts preference for three classes of paintings: landscape, portrait/still-life, and abstract works. We find that preference is significantly correlated with (a) the first principal component of similarity in abstract works; and (b) the second principal component for landscapes. However, portrait/still-life images did not show a significant correlation between similarity and preference, perhaps due to effects related to face perception. The preference data were then compared to a wide variety of image statistics relevant to early visual system coding. For landscapes and abstract works, nonlinear spatial and intensity statistics relevant to visual processing explained surprisingly large portions of the variance of preference. For abstract works, a quarter of the variance of preference rankings could be explained by a statistic gauging pixel sparseness. For landscape paintings, spatial frequency amplitude spectrum statistics explained one fifth of the variance of preference data. Consistent with results for similarity, image statistics for portrait/still-life works did not correlate significantly with preference. Finally, we addressed the role of value. If there are shared "rules" of

  9. Flavor Dependent Retention of Remote Food Preference Memory

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Aditya; Kumar, Suraj; Singh, Vikram Pal; Das, Asish; Balaji, J.

    2017-01-01

    Social Transmission of Food Preference (STFP) is a single trial non-aversive learning task that is used for testing non-spatial memory. This task relies on an accurate estimate of a change in food preference of the animals following social demonstration of a novel flavor. Conventionally this is done by providing two flavors of powdered food and later estimating the amount of food consumed for each of these flavors in a defined period of time. This is achieved through a careful measurement of leftover food for each of these flavors. However, in mice, only a small (~1 g) amount of food is consumed making the weight estimates error prone and thereby limiting the sensitivity of the paradigm. Using multiplexed video tracking, we show that the pattern of consumption can be used as a reliable reporter of memory retention in this task. In our current study, we use this as a measure and show that the preference for the demonstrated flavor significantly increases following demonstration and the retention of this change in preference during remote testing is flavor specific. Further, we report a modified experimental design for performing STFP that allows testing of change in preference among two flavors simultaneously. Using this paradigm, we show that during remote testing for thyme and basil demonstrated flavors, only basil demonstrated mice retain the change in preference while thyme demonstrated mice do not. PMID:28210216

  10. Lactose tolerance tests

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrogen breath test for lactose tolerance ... Two common methods include: Lactose tolerance blood test Hydrogen breath test The hydrogen breath test is the preferred method. It measures the amount of hydrogen in the air you breathe out. ...

  11. Do assortative preferences contribute to assortative mating for adiposity?

    PubMed

    Fisher, Claire I; Fincher, Corey L; Hahn, Amanda C; Little, Anthony C; DeBruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C

    2014-11-01

    Assortative mating for adiposity, whereby levels of adiposity in romantic partners tend to be positively correlated, has implications for population health due to the combined effects of partners' levels of adiposity on fertility and/or offspring health. Although assortative preferences for cues of adiposity, whereby leaner people are inherently more attracted to leaner individuals, have been proposed as a factor in assortative mating for adiposity, there have been no direct tests of this issue. Because of this, and because of recent work suggesting that facial cues of adiposity convey information about others' health that may be particularly important for mate preferences, we tested the contribution of assortative preferences for facial cues of adiposity to assortative mating for adiposity (assessed from body mass index, BMI) in a sample of romantic couples. Romantic partners' BMIs were positively correlated and this correlation was not due to the effects of age or relationship duration. However, although men and women with leaner partners showed stronger preferences for cues of low levels of adiposity, controlling for these preferences did not weaken the correlation between partners' BMIs. Indeed, own BMI and preferences were uncorrelated. These results suggest that assortative preferences for facial cues of adiposity contribute little (if at all) to assortative mating for adiposity.

  12. Preference for sugars and nonnutritive sweeteners in young beagles.

    PubMed

    Ferrell, F

    1984-01-01

    Two-bowl choice tests were used to examined preference of puppies aged two to four months for compounds tasting sweet to humans. Puppies found many, but not all of the compounds highly palatable, and were sensitive to both type and amount of sugar or nonnutritive sweetener contained in a semi-moist dog food recipe. Lactose, fructose, and sucrose were well accepted, whereas maltose elicited indifference or rejection. Sodium cyclamate, but not sodium saccharin, was preferred at some concentrations to 15 percent sucrose sweetened semi-moist food used as the standard. Solutions of lactose, fructose, glucose and galactose were preferred to plain tap water.

  13. 47 CFR 1.1622 - Preferences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... franchise area, nor will the diversity preference be available to applicants whose proposed transmitter site... diversity preference be available to applicants whose proposed transmitter site is located within...

  14. 25 CFR 170.619 - Do tribal preference and Indian preference apply to IRR Program funding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Do tribal preference and Indian preference apply to IRR... Agreements Under Isdeaa § 170.619 Do tribal preference and Indian preference apply to IRR Program funding? Tribal preference and Indian preference apply to IRR Program funding as shown in the following table:...

  15. Cartoons vs. realistic illustration: picture preferences of adolescent patients.

    PubMed

    Dirr, K L; Katz, A A

    1989-01-01

    Illustrations are an important element in patient education materials because they engage the interest of the audience. However, little research has been conducted to determine the style of illustration that most effectively engages a patient population. This study tested the picture preferences of 39 adolescents with phenylketonuria (PKU). A survey instrument asked them to choose between cartoons and realistic illustrations. A significant number preferred realistic illustrations to cartoons.

  16. Sex differences in cognitive strategic preference among medical students.

    PubMed

    Caplan, B

    1984-02-01

    The cognitive strategic preferences of first-year medical students (42 men and 31 women) were assessed using the Word-Shape Sorting Test, on which subjects may adopt a verbal or visuospatial approach to problem-solving. 24 (77%) women, but only 25 (60%) men, exhibited a clear preference for a particular information-processing strategy. Some factors contributing to confusion in the literature on cognitive style are discussed.

  17. Preference pulses induced by reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Hachiga, Yosuke; Sakagami, Takayuki; Silberberg, Alan

    2014-11-01

    Eight rats responded on concurrent Variable-Ratio 20 Extinction schedules for food reinforcement. The assignment of variable-ratio reinforcement to a left or right lever varied randomly following each reinforcer, and was cued by illumination of a stimulus light above that lever. Postreinforcement preference levels decreased substantially and reliably over time when the lever that just delivered reinforcement was now in extinction; however, if that lever was once again associated with variable ratio, this decrease in same-lever preference tended to be small, and for some subjects, not in evidence. The changes in preference level to the extinction lever were well described by a modified version of Killeen, Hanson, and Osborne's (1978) induction model. Consistent with this model's attribution of preference change to induction, we attribute preference change in this report to a brief period of reinforcer-induced arousal that energizes responding to the lever that delivered the last reinforcer. After a few seconds, this induced responding diminishes, and the operant responding that remains comes under the control of the stimulus light cuing the lever providing variable-ratio reinforcement.

  18. Relationship between ethanol preference and sensation/novelty seeking.

    PubMed

    Manzo, Lidia; Gómez, Ma José; Callejas-Aguilera, José E; Donaire, Rocío; Sabariego, Marta; Fernández-Teruel, Alberto; Cañete, Antoni; Blázquez, Gloria; Papini, Mauricio R; Torres, Carmen

    2014-06-22

    High- and low-avoidance Roman inbred rat strains (RHA-I, RLA-I) were selected for extreme differences in two-way active avoidance. RHA-I rats also express less anxiety than RLA-I rats. This study compared male Roman rats in ethanol preference and sensation/novelty seeking. Rats were first exposed in counterbalanced order to the hole-board test (forced exposure to novelty) and the Y-maze and emergence tests (free choice between novel and familiar locations). Then, rats were tested in 24-h, two-bottle preference tests with water in one bottle and ethanol (2, 4, 6, 8, or 10% in successive days). Compared to RLA-I rats, RHA-I rats showed (1) higher frequency and time in head dipping, (2) higher activity, and (3) lower frequency of rearing and grooming in the hole-board test, and (4) remained in the novel arm longer in the Y-maze test. No strain differences were observed in the emergence test. RHA-I rats exhibited higher preference for and consumed more ethanol than RLA-I rats at all concentrations. However, both strains preferred ethanol over water for 2-4% concentrations, but water over ethanol for 6-10% concentrations. Factorial analysis with all the rats pooled identified a two-factor solution, one grouping preferred ethanol concentrations (2-4%) with head dipping and grooming in the hole board, and another factor grouping the nonpreferred ethanol concentrations (6-10%) with activity in the hole board and novel-arm time in the Y-maze test. These results show that preference for ethanol is associated with different aspects of behavior measured in sensation/novelty-seeking tests.

  19. Morning sickness: impact on offspring salt preference.

    PubMed

    Crystal, S R; Bernstein, I L

    1995-12-01

    These studies examined the relationship between salt preference of adult offspring and their mothers' symptoms of morning sickness during pregnancy. College students who could provide information about their mothers' symptoms of morning sickness completed a survey about their dietary salt intake (study 1; n = 169) or rated and consumed ten snack foods (study 2; n = 66). In study 1 a salt-use score was calculated based on responses to the Salt Intake Questionnaire; offspring of women with moderate or severe vomiting reported a significantly higher level of salt use (p < 0.01) than those whose mothers report little or no symptoms. In study 2 saltiness and pleasantness ratings of high-salt foods, intake of those foods and total sodium intake were the focus of analysis. Offspring of women reporting moderate or severe vomiting showed a significantly greater preference for the snack food subjects rated as saltiest than those whose mothers reported no or mild vomiting. They also ate more of that food and consumed more total sodium during the test session. Effects were stronger in Caucasian than Asian subjects. These studies suggest that moderate to severe vomiting during pregnancy can be associated with significantly higher salt intake in offspring. Thus, a gestational event may be an important determinant of salt intake and preference in adulthood.

  20. [Ovipositional preference of Grapholitha molesta].

    PubMed

    Gong, Qing-Tao; Li, Su-Hong; Zhang, Kun-Peng; Wu, Hai-Bin; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Xue-Ping; Sun, Rui-Hong

    2014-09-01

    In order to gain better understanding of the oviposition preference of Grapholitha molesta, we studied the ovipositional preference on different host fruit leaves, different parts of peach bran- ches and different varieties of peach in simulated outdoor conditions. The adult ovipositional preference on the host fruit leaves was in descending order, i. e. peach > cherry > apple > plum > pear > crabapple > apricot, and 33.5% of eggs were laid on the peach leaves with the average number of egg on one peach leaf being 8.3. There were differences in egg distribution on both sides of the leaves in different hosts. The number of egg laid on the positive surface was more than on the reverse surface of apple and crabapple leaves, and vice versus for peach, plum, pear and apricot leaves, and 3.3 times more eggs were laid on the reverse surface of peach leaves than on the positive surface. The egg distribution had no significant difference on both sides of cherry leaves. The adult ovipositional preference on peach branches was in descending order of leaf > stipule > petiole > branch. The leaves were the major ovipositonal places with 88.7% of total eggs on. 72.5% of eggs were laid on the 10 leaves near the top unexpanded leaflets, and the maximum number was on the 3rd leaf accounting for 9.3%, while only 1.1% of eggs were laid on the peach leaves after 25th. The ovipositional preference on different peach fruits was in descending order of nectarine > flat peach > prunus persica. The density and characteristics of the hair on host fruits and leaves were the primary factors affecting the ovipositional preference.

  1. The value of customer preference

    SciTech Connect

    Herig, C.; Houston, A.

    1996-05-01

    Customer preference (CP), or green pricing, may be the financial hedge for electric supply industry integration of photovoltaics. CP is currently defined as a voluntary contribution for energy generated with renewable resources. Several utilities have examined the CP financing of renewables through experimental or implemented programs and market research. This paper first expands the concept of customer preference to include both voluntary and involuntary customer contributions. It then categorizes the features of existing and proposed CP programs. The connections between these features and market research and marketing strategies for new product development from a competitive industry are analyzed.

  2. [Study on preferred retinal locus].

    PubMed

    Dai, Bing-Fa; Hu, Jian-Min; Xu, Duan-Lian

    2012-03-01

    Preferred retinal locus (PRL) is always found in the age-related macular degeneration and other macular damages in patients with low vision, and it is a very important anatomic position in patients with central vision impairment to achieve the rehabilitation. In recent years, the training of preferred retinal locus (PRL) has become a research hotspot of low vision rehabilitation, it can clearly improve functional vision and quality of life. The authors reviewed relevant literatures, and summarized the definition, position, characteristics, training and clinical implications of the PRL.

  3. Analysis of skin conductance response during evaluation of preferences for cosmetic products

    PubMed Central

    Ohira, Hideki; Hirao, Naoyasu

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed skin conductance response (SCR) as a psychophysiological index to evaluate affective aspects of consumer preferences for cosmetic products. To examine the test-retest reliability of association between preferences and SCR, we asked 33 female volunteers to complete two experimental sessions approximately 1 year apart. The participants indicated their preferences in a typical paired comparison task by choosing the better option from a combination of two products among four products. We measured anticipatory SCR prior to expressions of the preferences. We found that the mean amplitude of the SCR elicited by the preferred products was significantly larger than that elicited by the non-preferred products. The participants' preferences and corresponding SCR patterns were well preserved at the second session 1 year later. Our results supported cumulating findings that SCR is a useful index of consumer preferences that has future potential, both in laboratory and marketing settings. PMID:25709593

  4. Analysis of skin conductance response during evaluation of preferences for cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Ohira, Hideki; Hirao, Naoyasu

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed skin conductance response (SCR) as a psychophysiological index to evaluate affective aspects of consumer preferences for cosmetic products. To examine the test-retest reliability of association between preferences and SCR, we asked 33 female volunteers to complete two experimental sessions approximately 1 year apart. The participants indicated their preferences in a typical paired comparison task by choosing the better option from a combination of two products among four products. We measured anticipatory SCR prior to expressions of the preferences. We found that the mean amplitude of the SCR elicited by the preferred products was significantly larger than that elicited by the non-preferred products. The participants' preferences and corresponding SCR patterns were well preserved at the second session 1 year later. Our results supported cumulating findings that SCR is a useful index of consumer preferences that has future potential, both in laboratory and marketing settings.

  5. Evaluating the use of computerized stimulus preference assessments in foster care.

    PubMed

    Whitehouse, Cristina M; Vollmer, Timothy R; Colbert, Bennie

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of these studies was to extend the use of stimulus preference assessments to children in foster care. In Study 1, subjects completed a computerized 4-point Likert-type questionnaire designed to assess preference for a wide range of stimuli and activities. Next, items identified as highly preferred (HP) and less preferred (LP) on the questionnaire were tested using a computerized paired-stimulus preference assessment. Results showed complete correspondence between the results of the computerized preference assessments for 11 of 17 subjects. Studies 2 and 3 evaluated whether the stimuli identified as HP in Study 1 would function as reinforcers. Overall, subjects allocated their engagement to HP items, and those HP items could be used as reinforcers for math problem completion. Collectively, these studies demonstrated that computerized preference assessments may be a feasible method of identifying preferences in the foster care system. Implications for their use in foster care are discussed.

  6. Drug Preferences of Multiple Drug Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harford, Robert J.

    1978-01-01

    Examined drug preferences of a group of active multiple drug abusers referred for treatment. Nearly half the respondents preferred drugs other than type they most frequently used. Preferences were related to method of administration. Results suggest preference is one among several determinants of drug use. (Author/BEF)

  7. Hand and eye preference and their association with task approach by preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Mahone, E Mark; Wodka, Ericka L; Hiemenz, Jennifer R

    2006-06-01

    Hand preference, eye preference, and the concordance of hand-eye preference were assessed in 99 healthy preschool-age children (46 boys: Mage= 55.4 mo., SD= 10.5 and 53 girls: Mage=53.6 mo., SD= 11.8). Children were also administered neuropsychological measures requiring attention and reaching to both sides of midline including the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Third Edition, Multiple Boxes Test, Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment Visual Attention, and Imitating Hand Positions. All groups performed in the average range using standard administration and scoring of the neuropsychological tests, and no significant differences were found in performance between those with left- versus right-hand preference, left-versus right-eye preference, or concordant versus discordant hand/eye preference. In contrast, significant differences were noted in task approach to neuropsychological measures depending on hand preference. Rate of left-hand preference in this sample was consistent with that seen for adults; and rate of left-eye preference, and hand/eye concordance remained stable across age groups 3 to 6 years. While the presence of left-hand or -eye preference or discordance in the preschool years appears to be a benign characteristic in relation to standardized test performance, some aspects of test-taking efficiency may be affected.

  8. Prazosin differentially affects extinction of cocaine conditioned place preference on the basis of dose and initial preference.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Rick E; Lattal, K Matthew

    2012-12-19

    Recent work has shown that α1-adrenergic receptor blockade impairs extinction in fear conditioning paradigms in rodents. However, studies of the role of α1-adrenergic receptors in extinction using other conditioning paradigms, such as those examining the conditioned effects of drug of abuse, have yielded inconsistent results. In this article, we reanalyze and extend previously reported findings of the effect of prazosin, an α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist, on the extinction of a cocaine-induced conditioned place preference in rats, using a median split of performance during the initial test for preference. This new reanalysis, which includes further extinction testing, indicated a paradoxical dose effect. A single post-test administration of a lower dose of prazosin, 0.3 mg/kg intraperitoneally, impaired extinction in rats that showed a below-median preference during initial testing, but had no effect on extinction in rats that showed an above-median preference during initial testing. In contrast, a single post-test administration of a higher dose of prazosin, 1.0 mg/kg intraperitoneally, enhanced extinction in rats that showed an above-median preference during initial testing, but had no effect on extinction in rats that showed a below-median preference during initial testing. Consistent with other studies of fear and drug conditioning, these results suggest the involvement of the α1-adrenergic receptor in the formation of extinction memories, but also indicate a potentially important differential effect on extinction on the basis of the dose of prazosin and the strength of the initial learning.

  9. Preferences for behavioural, analytic and gestalt psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sobel, H J

    1979-09-01

    This study investigated preferences for behavioural, analytic and gestalt psychotherapy among a sample of 40 SES class III and IV adult females and 67 college freshmen who had never been actual therapy patients. A scaled survey assessed general preference, preference given an imagined long-standing depressive disorder, preference given an imagined specific phobia, and preference for the therapist-patient relationship. Three audio tapes were designed, each describing one of the modalities. High inter-rater reliability and agreement were determined by three independent judges. Results showed that young females had a general preference for gestalt therapy. Young and old females, but not young males, significantly preferred behavioural therapy for a specific phobia. Under forced-choice conditions the group as a whole significantly preferred gestalt therapy. No differences were found for the relationship or preference given a depressive disorder. Preference was hypothesized as a cognitive structure with potential use in therapist-client matching.

  10. Training Implications of Work Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margerison, C. J.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    An important factor in job choice, both at the start of and during one's career, is one's psychological makeup, which must be taken into account in training and development programs. The authors relate the Jungian introvert-extrovert, judgment-perception theories to work and management, presenting data from a management work preferences sampling.…

  11. Bad Arguments Defending Racial Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Carl

    2008-01-01

    Professor Cohen describes the arduous path to the passage of Proposition 2 in Michigan in 2006. In considering the reasons for its victory, he shows how claims (sometimes well-intended) "for" preferences rest on truly bad arguments. (Contains 8 footnotes.)

  12. Compatibility Effects and Preference Reversals,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-21

    SEPTEMBER 1983 ysis," Journal of Risk and Insurance , March Mowen, John C and Gentry, James W., "Inves- 1980, 47, 111-32. tigation of the Preference...Corn- C., "An Experimental Study of Insurance plexity and Choice Inconsistency Among Decisions," Journal of Risk and Insurance , Gambles," Organizational

  13. Preference Reversal in Multiattribute Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsetsos, Konstantinos; Usher, Marius; Chater, Nick

    2010-01-01

    A central puzzle for theories of choice is that people's preferences between options can be reversed by the presence of decoy options (that are not chosen) or by the presence of other irrelevant options added to the choice set. Three types of reversal effect reported in the decision-making literature, the attraction, compromise, and similarity…

  14. Rats show only a weak preference for the artificial sweetener aspartame.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, A; Abrams, M

    1986-01-01

    The preference of adult female rats for aspartame (L-asparty L-phenylalamine methyl ester) was measured using 24 hr/day and 30 min/day two bottle preference tests. At aspartame concentrations that humans find sweet (0.0125% to 0.05%) the rats failed to prefer aspartame to water. At higher concentrations (0.1% to 1.0%) half (n = 11) of the rats tested displayed mild (64%) to moderate (83%) aspartame preferences. The other half of the rats were indifferent or avoided the aspartame. Even at the most preferred concentration (1.0%) the rats' aspartame preference was much less than their preference for saccharin or sucrose, and they showed little increase in total fluid intake when given the aspartame solution. The results indicate that aspartame is not very palatable to rats, and suggest that it has little or no sweet, i.e., sucrose-like, taste to rats as it does to humans.

  15. Innate preferences for flower features in the hawkmoth Macroglossum stellatarum

    PubMed

    Kelber

    1997-01-01

    The diurnal hawkmoth Macroglossum stellatarum is known to feed from a variety of flower species of almost all colours, forms and sizes. A newly eclosed imago, however, has to find its first flower by means of an innate flower template. This study investigates which visual flower features are represented in this template and their relative importance. Newly eclosed imagines were tested for their innate preferences, using artificial flowers made out of coloured paper or projected onto a screen through interference filters. The moths were found to have a strong preference for 440 nm and a weaker preference for 540 nm. The attractiveness of a colour increases with light intensity. The background colour, as well as the spectral composition of the ambient illumination, influences the choice behaviour. Blue paper disks against a yellowish background are chosen much more often than the same disks against a bluish background. Similarly, under ultraviolet-rich illumination, the preference for 540 nm is much more pronounced than under yellowish illumination. Disks of approximately 32 mm in diameter are preferred to smaller and larger ones, and a sectored pattern is more attractive than a ring pattern. Pattern preferences are less pronounced with coloured than with black-and-white patterns. Tests using combinations of two parameters reveal that size is more important than colour and that colour is more important than pattern.

  16. Neural correlates of behavioral preference for culturally familiar drinks.

    PubMed

    McClure, Samuel M; Li, Jian; Tomlin, Damon; Cypert, Kim S; Montague, Latané M; Montague, P Read

    2004-10-14

    Coca-Cola (Coke) and Pepsi are nearly identical in chemical composition, yet humans routinely display strong subjective preferences for one or the other. This simple observation raises the important question of how cultural messages combine with content to shape our perceptions; even to the point of modifying behavioral preferences for a primary reward like a sugared drink. We delivered Coke and Pepsi to human subjects in behavioral taste tests and also in passive experiments carried out during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Two conditions were examined: (1) anonymous delivery of Coke and Pepsi and (2) brand-cued delivery of Coke and Pepsi. For the anonymous task, we report a consistent neural response in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex that correlated with subjects' behavioral preferences for these beverages. In the brand-cued experiment, brand knowledge for one of the drinks had a dramatic influence on expressed behavioral preferences and on the measured brain responses.

  17. Statistical analysis of subjective preferences for video enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Russell L.; Satgunam, PremNandhini; Bronstad, P. Matthew; Peli, Eli

    2010-02-01

    Measuring preferences for moving video quality is harder than for static images due to the fleeting and variable nature of moving video. Subjective preferences for image quality can be tested by observers indicating their preference for one image over another. Such pairwise comparisons can be analyzed using Thurstone scaling (Farrell, 1999). Thurstone (1927) scaling is widely used in applied psychology, marketing, food tasting and advertising research. Thurstone analysis constructs an arbitrary perceptual scale for the items that are compared (e.g. enhancement levels). However, Thurstone scaling does not determine the statistical significance of the differences between items on that perceptual scale. Recent papers have provided inferential statistical methods that produce an outcome similar to Thurstone scaling (Lipovetsky and Conklin, 2004). Here, we demonstrate that binary logistic regression can analyze preferences for enhanced video.

  18. Sexuality education instructional techniques: teacher usage and student preference.

    PubMed

    Hammonds, M M; Schultz, J B

    1984-08-01

    This paper identifies instructional techniques utilized by 89 secondary school teachers and those preferred by 334 secondary school students when 20 sexuality education topics are taught in the classroom. Instructional techniques most often utilized by teachers and preferred by students include large group discussion, educational media, guest speakers, case study, lecture, small group work, and role play. The findings indicate that large group discussion was most often employed by teachers and preferred by students when teaching social and emotional aspects of sexuality such as self-awareness, feelings and emotions, building relationships, and communicating with others. Educational media and guest speakers were the instructional techniques used and preferred to address some of the physiological aspects of sexuality such as reproductive systems, conception, childbirth, and birth control. Significant differences using the chi-square test of independence were found between teacher and student responses for 16 of the 20 topics.

  19. Preference for Curvature: A Historical and Conceptual Framework

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Puerto, Gerardo; Munar, Enric; Nadal, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    That people find curved contours and lines more pleasurable than straight ones is a recurrent observation in the aesthetic literature. Although such observation has been tested sporadically throughout the history of scientific psychology, only during the last decade has it been the object of systematic research. Recent studies lend support to the idea that human preference for curved contours is biologically determined. However, it has also been argued that this preference is a cultural phenomenon. In this article, we review the available evidence, together with different attempts to explain the nature of preference for curvature: sensoriomotor-based and valuation-based approaches. We also argue that the lack of a unifying framework and clearly defined concepts might be undermining our efforts towards a better understanding of the nature of preference for curvature. Finally, we point to a series of unresolved matters as the starting point to further develop a consistent research program. PMID:26793092

  20. Host preference and suitability of grasses for Oebalus pugnax

    PubMed Central

    Awuni, GA; Gore, J; Cook, D; Bond, JA; Musser, FR; Adams, CA

    2014-01-01

    The rice stink bug, Oebalus pugnax (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae: Carpocorini), though graminaceous, discriminates among its numerous host grass species. This could represent a feeding preference, it could be related to host suitability for growth and development. To clarify the role of host grass discrimination, two laboratory studies were conducted: (1) free-choice tests to evaluate preferences of O. pugnax among 11 wild host grass species found in three rice-producing counties of the central Mississippi Delta (MS, USA), and (2) no-choice tests to evaluate the impact of rice (Oryza sativa L.), junglerice [Echinochloa colona (L.) Link], and dallisgrass (Paspalum dilatatum Poir.) (all Poaceae), on the development of O. pugnax from second instar to adult. In the free-choice test, four experiments were conducted, each with four sets of host grass species and observed 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 h after release in cages. Approximately 4 h was necessary for O. pugnax to settle on preferred host grasses. Oebalus pugnax showed a feeding preference for junglerice over all 10 other grass species. Bahiagrass, Paspalum notatum Flueggé, was the least preferred. The no-choice tests showed significant effect of host grass species on O. pugnax mean development time of nymphal survival to adults. Survival of nymphs was lower and mean development time was longer on dallisgrass compared to rice and junglerice. Knowledge of O. pugnax rate of growth and development on host grasses could be useful in the future development of rice integrated pest management strategies. PMID:25635144

  1. Music-induced context preference following cocaine conditioning in rats.

    PubMed

    Polston, J E; Glick, S D

    2011-08-01

    Traditional models of drug-seeking behavior have shown that exposure to associated environmental cues can trigger relapse. These learned associations take place during repeated drug administration, resulting in conditioned reinforcement. Although considerable investigation has occurred regarding simple conditioned stimuli, less is known about complex environmental cues, particularly those that may be salient in human addiction. Recent studies indicate that music can serve as a contextual conditioned stimulus in rats and influence drug-seeking behavior during abstinence. The purpose of the present study was to further assess the effectiveness of music as a conditioned stimulus in rats, to determine rats' preferences for two contrasting pieces of music, and to determine rats' preferences for music versus silence. To this end, we created an apparatus that gave instrumental control of musical choice (Miles Davis vs. Beethoven) to the rats themselves. After determining baseline musical preference, animals were conditioned with cocaine (10 mg/kg) to the music they initially preferred least, with alternating conditioning sessions pairing saline with the music preferred most. The animals were subsequently tested in a drug-free state to determine what effect this conditioning had on musical preference. The results indicate that music serves as an effective contextual conditioned stimulus, significantly increasing both musical preference and locomotor activity after repeated cocaine conditioning. Furthermore, we found that rats initially favor silence over music, but that this preference can be altered as a result of cocaine-paired conditioning. These findings demonstrate that, after repeated association with reward (cocaine), music can engender a conditioned context preference in rats; these findings are consistent with other evidence showing that musical contextual cues can reinstate drug-seeking behavior in rats.

  2. Multivariate representation of food preferences in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Pogoda, Luca; Holzer, Matthias; Mormann, Florian; Weber, Bernd

    2016-12-01

    One major goal in decision neuroscience is to investigate the neuronal mechanisms being responsible for the computation of product preferences. The aim of the present fMRI study was to investigate whether similar patterns of brain activity, reflecting category dependent and category independent preference signals, can be observed in case of different food product categories (i.e. chocolate bars and salty snacks). To that end we used a multivariate searchlight approach in which a linear support vector machine (l-SVM) was trained to distinguish preferred from non-preferred chocolate bars and subsequently tested its predictive power in case of chocolate bars (within category prediction) and salty snacks (across category prediction). Preferences were measured by a binary forced choice decision paradigm before the fMRI task. In the scanner, subjects saw only one product per trial which they had to rate after presentation. Consistent with previous multi voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) studies, we found category dependent preference signals in the ventral parts of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), but also in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). Category independent preference signals were observed in the dorsal parts of mPFC, dACC, and dlPFC. While the first two results have also been reported in a closely related study, the activation in dlPFC is new in this context. We propose that the dlPFC activity does not reflect the products' value computation per se, but rather a modulatory signal which is computed in anticipation of the forthcoming product rating after stimulus presentation. Furthermore we postulate that this kind of dlPFC activation emerges only if the anticipated choices fall into the domain of primary rewards, such as foods. Thus, in contrast to previous studies which investigated preference decoding for stimuli from utterly different categories, the present study revealed some food domain specific aspects of

  3. A fuzzy set preference model for market share analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turksen, I. B.; Willson, Ian A.

    1992-01-01

    Consumer preference models are widely used in new product design, marketing management, pricing, and market segmentation. The success of new products depends on accurate market share prediction and design decisions based on consumer preferences. The vague linguistic nature of consumer preferences and product attributes, combined with the substantial differences between individuals, creates a formidable challenge to marketing models. The most widely used methodology is conjoint analysis. Conjoint models, as currently implemented, represent linguistic preferences as ratio or interval-scaled numbers, use only numeric product attributes, and require aggregation of individuals for estimation purposes. It is not surprising that these models are costly to implement, are inflexible, and have a predictive validity that is not substantially better than chance. This affects the accuracy of market share estimates. A fuzzy set preference model can easily represent linguistic variables either in consumer preferences or product attributes with minimal measurement requirements (ordinal scales), while still estimating overall preferences suitable for market share prediction. This approach results in flexible individual-level conjoint models which can provide more accurate market share estimates from a smaller number of more meaningful consumer ratings. Fuzzy sets can be incorporated within existing preference model structures, such as a linear combination, using the techniques developed for conjoint analysis and market share estimation. The purpose of this article is to develop and fully test a fuzzy set preference model which can represent linguistic variables in individual-level models implemented in parallel with existing conjoint models. The potential improvements in market share prediction and predictive validity can substantially improve management decisions about what to make (product design), for whom to make it (market segmentation), and how much to make (market share

  4. Circadian preference and thinking styles: implications for school achievement.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Morales, Juan Francisco; Escribano, Cristina

    2013-12-01

    Research has shown that thinking styles could have an influence on academic achievement. Previous studies have described that evening types are usually right-thinkers who tend to be creative and intuitive, whereas morning types tend to be left-thinkers who prefer verbal and analytic strategies in processing information. However, these studies have been realized among undergraduates, who have more freedom to choose their time schedules according to their circadian preference than adolescents or adult workers. On other hand, the relationship between thinking styles and circadian preference has not been analyzed considering school achievement. The present study aims (1) to investigate the relationship between circadian preference, that is, behavioral differences in circadian rhythmic expression, and thinking styles, referring to the preference toward information processing typical of the right versus the left cerebral hemisphere; and (2) to test the implications for self-reported school achievement. A sample of 1134 preadolescents and adolescents (581 girls; mean ± SD age: 12.1 ± 1.47, range: 10-14 yrs) completed the Morningness-Eveningness Scale for Children (MESC) as measure of circadian preference (morning, neither, or evening types), the Hemispheric Preference Test (HPT), conceived as a tool to measure thinking styles (right-, balanced-, and left-thinkers), and self-reported school achievement. Results indicated a greater percentage of left-thinkers among morning types and a greater percentage of right-thinkers among evening types. No differences were found among balanced-thinkers and neither types. Morning types and left-thinkers reported the highest subjective level of achievement, followed by evening types and left-thinkers, and morning types and right-thinkers. Evening types and right-thinkers reported the lowest subjective level of achievement. Finally, multivariate regression analysis indicated that age, left hemisphere and morning preferences accounted

  5. Social effects on development of food preferences.

    PubMed

    Wyrwicka, W

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to answer the question as to whether the food preferences of the young are dependent on the social influences or not. The experiments were conducted on female cats bearing electrodes implanted in the mid-lateral hypothalamus, and their weanling kittens. Each mother was given a self-stimulation test; the mothers which learned to press a lever for the hypothalamic stimulation reward were chosen for the experiment. Each mother, always 4 h food deprived before the session, was given a choice of meat pellets and banana slices. Eating bananas was rewarded by the hypothalamic stimulation whereas eating meat pellets was not; as a result, the mother concentrated only on eating bananas while ignoring meat pellets. In the following sessions one or two weanling kittens were always accompanying the mother during the session. It was found that 15 out of 18 weanling kittens used in this experiment joined the mothers in eating bananas. After separation from the mothers these kittens continued to choose bananas and ignore meat pellets when tested in the absence of the mother. Control kittens of the same age, which were never trained with the mother, refused to eat bananas. Similar results were obtained with other mother-kittens groups in which mashed potatoes or plain jellied agar were given instead of bananas. These results suggested that the food preferences of the weanling kittens were influenced by the mother's choice of food, even in the case when this food was unusual for the species.

  6. Assessing Students' Performance by Measured Patterns of Perceived Strengths: Does Preference Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urda, Julie; Ramocki, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is an empirical field study of whether college students' preferences for assessment type correspond to their performance in assessment that tests that particular strength. For example, if students say they prefer assessment that tests their creativity, do they actually perform better on assessment tasks requiring the use of…

  7. Assortative mating without assortative preference

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yu; Cheng, Siwei; Zhou, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Assortative mating—marriage of a man and a woman with similar social characteristics—is a commonly observed phenomenon. In the existing literature in both sociology and economics, this phenomenon has mainly been attributed to individuals’ conscious preferences for assortative mating. In this paper, we show that patterns of assortative mating may arise from another structural source even if individuals do not have assortative preferences or possess complementary attributes: dynamic processes of marriages in a closed system. For a given cohort of youth in a finite population, as the percentage of married persons increases, unmarried persons who newly enter marriage are systematically different from those who married earlier, giving rise to the phenomenon of assortative mating. We use microsimulation methods to illustrate this dynamic process, using first the conventional deterministic Gale–Shapley model, then a probabilistic Gale–Shapley model, and then two versions of the encounter mating model. PMID:25918366

  8. Assortative mating without assortative preference.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yu; Cheng, Siwei; Zhou, Xiang

    2015-05-12

    Assortative mating--marriage of a man and a woman with similar social characteristics--is a commonly observed phenomenon. In the existing literature in both sociology and economics, this phenomenon has mainly been attributed to individuals' conscious preferences for assortative mating. In this paper, we show that patterns of assortative mating may arise from another structural source even if individuals do not have assortative preferences or possess complementary attributes: dynamic processes of marriages in a closed system. For a given cohort of youth in a finite population, as the percentage of married persons increases, unmarried persons who newly enter marriage are systematically different from those who married earlier, giving rise to the phenomenon of assortative mating. We use microsimulation methods to illustrate this dynamic process, using first the conventional deterministic Gale-Shapley model, then a probabilistic Gale-Shapley model, and then two versions of the encounter mating model.

  9. Visual aesthetics and human preference.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Stephen E; Schloss, Karen B; Sammartino, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Human aesthetic preference in the visual domain is reviewed from definitional, methodological, empirical, and theoretical perspectives. Aesthetic science is distinguished from the perception of art and from philosophical treatments of aesthetics. The strengths and weaknesses of important behavioral techniques are presented and discussed, including two-alternative forced-choice, rank order, subjective rating, production/adjustment, indirect, and other tasks. Major findings are reviewed about preferences for colors (single colors, color combinations, and color harmony), spatial structure (low-level spatial properties, shape properties, and spatial composition within a frame), and individual differences in both color and spatial structure. Major theoretical accounts of aesthetic response are outlined and evaluated, including explanations in terms of mere exposure effects, arousal dynamics, categorical prototypes, ecological factors, perceptual and conceptual fluency, and the interaction of multiple components. The results of the review support the conclusion that aesthetic response can be studied rigorously and meaningfully within the framework of scientific psychology.

  10. Sensory preferences and discrimination ability of children before and after an obesity intervention.

    PubMed

    Alexy, Ute; Schaefer, Anke; Sailer, Oliver; Busch-Stockfisch, Mechthild; Reinehr, Thomas; Kunert, Joachim; Kersting, Mathilde

    2010-01-01

    Sensory preferences and discrimination ability were assessed before and after participating in a long-term outpatient obesity lifestyle intervention for obese children and adolescents ('Obeldicks'). Each subject (N=72; 7-16 years) performed 9 experimental sensory tests (5 paired-comparison preference tests, 4 paired-comparison sensitivity tests). For the examination of the taste categories sweet, salty and sour, sugar, table salt or citric acid were added to suitable customary foods. Fatty foods were included in the tests using cheese and sausage (salami) in the preference tests and milk with different fat content in the sensitivity tests. All tests were conducted at the start of the intervention program, after three and twelve months. For both preference and sensitivity tests, there was no significant difference in experimental test decisions between the three time points.

  11. Derived relations and generalized alteration of preferences.

    PubMed

    Valdivia-Salas, Sonsoles; Dougher, Michael J; Luciano, Carmen

    2013-06-01

    The present study examined the role of derived relations in the generalizability of the evaluative conditioning effect. Healthy university students participated. Four geometrical shapes were first established as discriminative stimuli for the contingent presentation of pictograms (B1, B2, C1, and C2, respectively). We then assessed the reinforcing properties of B1 versus B2, and C1 versus C2 by using simultaneous discrimination tasks: at baseline (baseline assessment), after pairing B1 with aversive slides plus noise and B2 with pleasant slides (test I), and after employing equivalence training and testing to establish B1 as equivalent to C1 and B2 as equivalent to C2 (test II). Most participants (82%) in the experimental condition, as compared with the control conditions (17% and 10%), selected the discriminative shapes for B2 (test I) and C2 (test II) on most trials, replicating and extending previous findings. Subsequently, the geometrical shapes were established as equivalent to the letters X, Y, W, and Z, respectively, which then served as antecedent stimuli in simultaneous discrimination tasks as before (test III). As was expected, only participants in the experimental condition showed preference for the novel letters that were established as equivalent to B2-producing and C2-producing shapes. These findings suggest that the evaluative conditioning effect may extend far beyond the stimulus being de/valuated and narrow the behavioral repertoire.

  12. Review: Thermal preference in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Michael E.; Wang, George; Garrity, Paul A.; Huey, Raymond B.

    2009-01-01

    Environmental temperature strongly affects physiology of ectotherms. Small ectotherms, like Drosophila, cannot endogenously regulate body temperature so must rely on behavior to maintain body temperature within a physiologically permissive range. Here we review what is known about Drosophila thermal preference. Work on thermal behavior in this group is particularly exciting because it provides the opportunity to connect genes to neuromolecular mechanisms to behavior to fitness in the wild. PMID:20161211

  13. A Theory of Preference Reversals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    has been .%..’... Preference Reversals 35 called "probability equivalence" ( Johnson and Schkade, 1984). In this method, a subject is shown a sure gain...and Schoemaker, 19821 Hershey and Schosmaker, 19831 Johnson and Schkade, 1984). While Expression 2hoory has not been applied to these assessment...Bass. Johnson , I. J., a Schkade, D. A. (1984). Anchoring, adjustment and bias in utility assessments. Unpublished manuscript, Carnegie-Mellon

  14. Preferred and actual relative height among homosexual male partners vary with preferred dominance and sex role.

    PubMed

    Valentova, Jaroslava Varella; Stulp, Gert; Třebický, Vít; Havlíček, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown repeatedly that human stature influences mate preferences and mate choice in heterosexuals. In general, it has been shown that tall men and average height women are most preferred by the opposite sex, and that both sexes prefer to be in a relationship where the man is taller than the woman. However, little is known about such partner preferences in homosexual individuals. Based on an online survey of a large sample of non-heterosexual men (N = 541), we found that the majority of men prefer a partner slightly taller than themselves. However, these preferences were dependent on the participant's own height, such that taller men preferred shorter partners, whereas shorter men preferred taller partners. We also examined whether height preferences predicted the preference for dominance and the adoption of particular sexual roles within a couple. Although a large proportion of men preferred to be in an egalitarian relationship with respect to preferred dominance (although not with respect to preferred sexual role), men that preferred a more dominant and more "active" sexual role preferred shorter partners, whereas those that preferred a more submissive and more "passive" sexual role preferred taller partners. Our results indicate that preferences for relative height in homosexual men are modulated by own height, preferred dominance and sex role, and do not simply resemble those of heterosexual women or men.

  15. Preferred and Actual Relative Height among Homosexual Male Partners Vary with Preferred Dominance and Sex Role

    PubMed Central

    Valentova, Jaroslava Varella; Stulp, Gert; Třebický, Vít; Havlíček, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown repeatedly that human stature influences mate preferences and mate choice in heterosexuals. In general, it has been shown that tall men and average height women are most preferred by the opposite sex, and that both sexes prefer to be in a relationship where the man is taller than the woman. However, little is known about such partner preferences in homosexual individuals. Based on an online survey of a large sample of non-heterosexual men (N = 541), we found that the majority of men prefer a partner slightly taller than themselves. However, these preferences were dependent on the participant’s own height, such that taller men preferred shorter partners, whereas shorter men preferred taller partners. We also examined whether height preferences predicted the preference for dominance and the adoption of particular sexual roles within a couple. Although a large proportion of men preferred to be in an egalitarian relationship with respect to preferred dominance (although not with respect to preferred sexual role), men that preferred a more dominant and more “active” sexual role preferred shorter partners, whereas those that preferred a more submissive and more “passive” sexual role preferred taller partners. Our results indicate that preferences for relative height in homosexual men are modulated by own height, preferred dominance and sex role, and do not simply resemble those of heterosexual women or men. PMID:24466136

  16. Gender differences regarding preferences for specific heterosexual practices.

    PubMed

    Purnine, D M; Carey, M P; Jorgensen, R S

    1994-01-01

    Few investigations of sexual attitudes have restricted their focus to individuals' preferences for specific behaviors within a heterosexual relationship. None have examined gender differences in a broad and multidimensional array of such behavioral particulars. As part of an effort to develop a measure of preferred scripts in heterosexual couples, 258 men and women reported how much they agreed or disagreed with 74 statements of preference. A reduced and factor analyzed questionnaire included 38 items and was administered to a second sample (N = 228). Results offer qualified support that, compared to women, men are more erotophilic and show a stronger preference for incorporating erotic materials as well as drugs and alcohol into sexual relations with their partner. These results were more robust in the second sample, in which almost half of the subjects were tested in same-sex groups. Across both samples, women showed stronger preferences for activities reflecting romanticism. No gender differences were evident in sexual conventionality or in preference regarding the general use of contraceptives. However, results suggest that both sexes respond more favorably to a partner-focused or unspecified contraceptive method than to a self-focused method.

  17. Population genetic segmentation of MHC-correlated perfume preferences.

    PubMed

    Hämmerli, A; Schweisgut, C; Kaegi, M

    2012-04-01

    It has become difficult to find a matching perfume. An overwhelming number of 300 new perfumes launch each year, and marketing campaigns target pre-defined groups based on gender, age or income rather than on individual preferences. Recent evidence for a genetic basis of perfume preferences, however, could be the starting point for a novel population genetic approach to better match perfumes with people's preferences. With a total of 116 participants genotyped for alleles of three loci of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), the aim of this study was to test whether common MHC alleles could be used as genetic markers to segment a given population into preference types. Significant deviations from random expectations for a set of 10 common perfume ingredients indicate how such segmentation could be achieved. In addition, preference patterns of participants confronted with images that contained a sexual communication context significantly differed in their ratings for some of the scents compared with participants confronted with images of perfume bottles. This strongly supports the assumption that genetically correlated perfume preferences evolved in the context of sexual communication. The results are discussed in the light of perfume customization.

  18. Basolateral amygdala lesions abolish mutual reward preferences in rats.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Lallement, Julen; van Wingerden, Marijn; Schäble, Sandra; Kalenscher, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    In a recent study, we demonstrated that rats prefer mutual rewards in a Prosocial Choice Task. Here, employing the same task, we show that the integrity of basolateral amygdala was necessary for the expression of mutual reward preferences. Actor rats received bilateral excitotoxic (n=12) or sham lesions (n=10) targeting the basolateral amygdala and were subsequently tested in a Prosocial Choice Task where they could decide between rewarding ("Both Reward") or not rewarding a partner rat ("Own Reward"), either choice yielding identical reward to the actors themselves. To manipulate the social context and control for secondary reinforcement sources, actor rats were paired with either a partner rat (partner condition) or with an inanimate rat toy (toy condition). Sham-operated animals revealed a significant preference for the Both-Reward-option in the partner condition, but not in the toy condition. Amygdala-lesioned animals exhibited significantly lower Both-Reward preferences than the sham group in the partner but not in the toy condition, suggesting that basolateral amygdala was required for the expression of mutual reward preferences. Critically, in a reward magnitude discrimination task in the same experimental setup, both sham-operated and amygdala-lesioned animals preferred large over small rewards, suggesting that amygdala lesion effects were restricted to decision making in social contexts, leaving self-oriented behavior unaffected.

  19. Saccharin Taste Conditions Flavor Preference in Weanling Rats.

    PubMed

    Ueji, Kayoko; Minematsu, Yuji; Takeshita, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    Innate and learned taste/flavor preferences to chemical stimuli in weanling rats are not fully understood. Our previous study showed that weanling rats could establish conditioned flavor preferences when low, but not high, concentrations of sucrose solutions were used as associative rewarding stimuli. Here, we examined whether 3-week-old rats could acquire flavor learning when the rewarding stimulus was saccharin, a non-nutritive artificial sweetener. In the acquisition session, they consumed water with a flavor (cherry or grape) and 0.1% sodium saccharin with another flavor (grape or cherry) for 15 min daily on alternative days over 6 consecutive days. The subsequent test session revealed significant preferences for the flavor previously associated with saccharin. However, they failed to retain the preference when retested in adulthood at the age of 20 weeks. These behavioral results were similar to those previously demonstrated when 2% sucrose was used as an associative sweetener. Although these 2 solutions were equally preferred, the taste quality may not be the same because the weanling rats showed neophobia to 0.1% saccharin and a larger chorda tympani response than 2% sucrose. The present study showed that a conditioned flavor preference was established to saccharin in weanling rats on the basis of flavor-taste association.

  20. Preference-performance linkage of the xylem feeding leafhopper, Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera Cicadellidae).

    PubMed

    Brodbeck, Brent V; Andersen, Peter C; Oden, Steve; Mizell, Russell F

    2007-12-01

    Insect species exhibiting a weak linkage between adult preference and immature performance have frequently been shown to be prone to outbreaks. We used choice and no-choice tests to examine the preference-performance linkage of the xylem fluid-feeding leafhopper, Homalodisca vitripennis Germar. Leafhoppers were offered a choice of hosts common to their native range and also a choice from hosts where they have been recently introduced. Behavior (residence preference, oviposition preference, and consumption rates) was quantified in choice tests. Performance (development of immature leafhoppers, fecundity, body weights, and survivorship) was quantified in no-choice tests. Virtually all aspects of leafhopper behavior and performance varied with host species, yet there were no linkages between adult preference and immature performance. Lagerstroemia indica and Citrus sinensis were the preferred hosts, but both species supported <30% of neonate development until the second stadia. Glycine max was the superior developmental host with development to the adult stage exceeding 40%, but this host was seldom used by adult leafhoppers. Adult preference reflected aspects of adult performance including increases in fecundity, body weights, and survivorship. These preference-performance linkages were impacted by environmental context, insect reproductive status, and insect feeding history. Essential amino acids were consistently correlated with performance of both adult and developing insects; relationships between nutrients and preference were less consistent. The weak linkage of adult preference and immature leafhopper performance are discussed in terms of outbreaks of H. vitripennis.

  1. Listening, watching, and reading: the structure and correlates of entertainment preferences.

    PubMed

    Rentfrow, Peter J; Goldberg, Lewis R; Zilca, Ran

    2011-04-01

    People spend considerable amounts of time and money listening to music, watching TV and movies, and reading books and magazines, yet almost no attention in psychology has been devoted to understanding individual differences in preferences for such entertainment. The present research was designed to examine the structure and correlates of entertainment genre preferences. Analyses of the genre preferences of more than 3,000 individuals revealed a remarkably clear factor structure. Using multiple samples, methods, and geographic regions, data converged to reveal five entertainment-preference dimensions: Communal, Aesthetic, Dark, Thrilling, and Cerebral. Preferences for these entertainment dimensions were uniquely related to demographics and personality traits. Results also indicated that personality accounted for significant proportions of variance in entertainment preferences over and above demographics. The results provide a foundation for developing and testing hypotheses about the psychology of entertainment preferences.

  2. Listening, Watching, and Reading: The Structure and Correlates of Entertainment Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Rentfrow, Peter J.; Goldberg, Lewis R.; Zilca, Ran

    2010-01-01

    People spend considerable amounts of time and money listening to music, watching TV and movies, and reading books and magazines, yet almost no attention in psychology has been devoted to understanding individual differences in preferences for such entertainment. The present research was designed to examine the structure and correlates of entertainment genre preferences. Analyses of the genre preferences of over 3,000 individuals revealed a remarkably clear factor structure. Using multiple samples, methods, and geographic regions, data converged to reveal five entertainment-preference dimensions: Communal, Aesthetic, Dark, Thrilling, and Cerebral. Preferences for these entertainment dimensions were uniquely related to demographics and personality traits. Results also indicated that personality accounted for significant proportions of variance in entertainment preferences over and above demographics. The results provide a foundation for developing and testing hypotheses about the psychology of entertainment preferences. PMID:20649744

  3. The geometry of distributional preferences and a non-parametric identification approach: The Equality Equivalence Test☆

    PubMed Central

    Kerschbamer, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a geometric delineation of distributional preference types and a non-parametric approach for their identification in a two-person context. It starts with a small set of assumptions on preferences and shows that this set (i) naturally results in a taxonomy of distributional archetypes that nests all empirically relevant types considered in previous work; and (ii) gives rise to a clean experimental identification procedure – the Equality Equivalence Test – that discriminates between archetypes according to core features of preferences rather than properties of specific modeling variants. As a by-product the test yields a two-dimensional index of preference intensity. PMID:26089571

  4. Virtual reality conditioned place preference using monetary reward.

    PubMed

    Childs, Emma; Astur, Robert S; de Wit, Harriet

    2017-03-30

    Computerized tasks based on conditioned place preference (CPP) methodology offer the opportunity to study learning mechanisms involved in conditioned reward in humans. In this study, we examined acquisition and extinction of a CPP for virtual environments associated with monetary reward ($). Healthy men and women (N=57) completed a computerized CPP task in which they controlled an avatar within a virtual environment. On day 1, subjects completed 6 conditioning trials in which one room was paired with high $ and another with low $. Acquisition of place conditioning was assessed by measuring the time spent in each room during an exploration test of the virtual environments and using self-reported ratings of room liking and preference. Twenty-four hours later, retention and extinction of CPP were assessed during 4 successive exploration tests of the virtual environments. Participants exhibited a place preference for (spent significantly more time in) the virtual room paired with high $ over the one paired with low $ (p=0.015). They also reported that they preferred the high $ room (p<0.001) and liked it significantly more than the low $ room (p<0.001). However, these preferences were short-lived: 24h later subjects did not exhibit a behavioral or subjective preference for the high $ room. These findings show that individuals exhibit transient behavioral and subjective preferences for a virtual environment paired with monetary reward. Variations on this task may be useful to study mechanisms and brain substrates involved in conditioned reward and to examine the influence of drugs upon appetitive conditioning.

  5. Using knowledge maintenance for preference assessment.

    PubMed

    Jain, N L; Kahn, M G

    1995-01-01

    Most real-life decisions require the decision maker to make trade-offs in order to fulfill multiple conflicting objectives. This is especially true in medical decision making while selecting the optimal therapy plan from among competing therapy plans for a patient. Multi-attribute utility theory provides a framework to specify these trade-offs for optimal decision making based on the preferences of the decision maker. However traditional preference-assessment techniques are difficult to implement and rarely elicit the true preferences of the decision maker. We describe a new preference-assessment method based on the concept of knowledge maintenance where the preference model is changed each time it makes an incorrect recommendation. The method is implemented in a decision-theoretic system to evaluate competing three-dimensional radiation treatment plans. The preference-assessment method leads to preference models which perform better than preference models elicited using traditional assessment techniques.

  6. Using knowledge maintenance for preference assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Jain, N. L.; Kahn, M. G.

    1995-01-01

    Most real-life decisions require the decision maker to make trade-offs in order to fulfill multiple conflicting objectives. This is especially true in medical decision making while selecting the optimal therapy plan from among competing therapy plans for a patient. Multi-attribute utility theory provides a framework to specify these trade-offs for optimal decision making based on the preferences of the decision maker. However traditional preference-assessment techniques are difficult to implement and rarely elicit the true preferences of the decision maker. We describe a new preference-assessment method based on the concept of knowledge maintenance where the preference model is changed each time it makes an incorrect recommendation. The method is implemented in a decision-theoretic system to evaluate competing three-dimensional radiation treatment plans. The preference-assessment method leads to preference models which perform better than preference models elicited using traditional assessment techniques. PMID:8563281

  7. Innate olfactory preferences in dung beetles.

    PubMed

    Dormont, Laurent; Jay-Robert, Pierre; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Rapior, Sylvie; Lumaret, Jean-Pierre

    2010-09-15

    The effects of insect larval diet on adult olfactory responses to host-plant or food volatiles are still debated. The induction of adult host preferences has been studied in insects with diverse ecologies, including parasitoids, flower-visitors and phytophagous species. We investigated this question for the first time in a coprophagous insect species. Larvae of the French scarab dung beetle Agrilinus constans were reared on four different artificial substrates containing dung from cattle, horse, sheep or wild boar, and responses of imagos to dung volatiles were then behaviourally tested in an olfactometer. We also reported the first analysis of the composition of different mammal dung volatiles. We showed that adult beetles were more attracted to cattle and sheep dung odours, and that larval feeding experience had no effect on the adult olfactory responses to dung volatiles. A second experiment showed that the presence of other insects inside the dung resource affects the process of dung selection by adults. We identified 64 chemical compounds from dung emissions, and showed that dung volatiles clearly differed among different mammal species, allowing olfactory discrimination by dung beetles. Our results suggest that resource selection in coprophagous insects may be based on innate olfactory preferences. Further experiments should examine whether Agrilinus adults can learn new dung odours, and whether larval diet may influence the behaviour of adults in other coprophagous species.

  8. Macroglomeruli for fruit odors change blend preference in Drosophila

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibba, Irene; Angioy, Anna Maria; Hansson, Bill S.; Dekker, Teun

    2010-12-01

    The olfactory circuitry of Drosophila melanogaster is becoming increasingly clear. However, how olfactory processing translates into appropriate behavioral responses is still poorly understood. Using a sibling species approach, we tested how a perturbation in the olfactory circuitry affects odor preference. In a previous study, we found that the sibling species of D. melanogaster, the specialist D. sechellia, overrepresents a sensillum, ab3, the A neuron of which is sensitive to hexanoate esters, characteristic of the species' sole host, the Morinda citrifolia fruit. Concordantly, the corresponding glomerulus, DM2, is enlarged. In this study, we found that the ab3B neuron, the expansion of which was previously assumed to be pleiotropic and of no ecological significance, is in fact tuned to another morinda fruit volatile, 2-heptanone (HP). Axons of this neuron type arborize in a second enlarged glomerulus. In behavioral experiments we tested how this has affected the fly's odor preference. We demonstrate that D. sechellia has a reversed preference for the key ligands of these macroglomeruli, especially at high concentrations. Whereas D. melanogaster was repelled by high concentrations of these odors, D. sechellia was highly attracted. This was the case for odors presented singly, but more notably for blends thereof. Our study indicates that relatively simple changes, such as a shift in sensillar abundance, and concordant shifts in glomerular size, can distort the resulting olfactory code, and can lead to saltatory shifts in odor preference. D. sechellia has exploited this to align its olfactory preference with its ecological niche.

  9. Flavor preferences conditioned by intragastric monosodium glutamate in mice.

    PubMed

    Ackroff, Karen; Sclafani, Anthony

    2013-11-01

    The consumption of monosodium glutamate (MSG) solutions has been shown to reinforce preferences for MSG and for MSG-paired flavors in mice. These effects appear to have a strong postoral component, such that MSG detected in the gut is associated with concurrently consumed flavors. Two experiments investigated postoral MSG reward by infusing 400mM MSG intragastrically (IG) to C57BL/6 mice as they consumed a conditioned stimulus (CS+) flavor. An alternate CS- flavor was paired with IG water. In Experiment 1, the grape and cherry CS flavors were unsweetened, and intakes and preferences for the CS+ flavor were modest. Experiment 2 attempted to generate stronger preferences by adding 0.05% saccharin to the CS flavors. Sweet taste did enhance intakes during training and testing but did not significantly increase percent CS+ intake or persistence of the preference. However, only conditioning with the sweet CS+ resulted in the mice expressing a preference for oral MSG in an initial choice test with water. These findings extend recent studies demonstrating postoral MSG conditioning in rats.

  10. Grouping by closure influences subjective regularity and implicit preference

    PubMed Central

    Makin, Alexis; Pecchinenda, Anna; Bertamini, Marco

    2012-01-01

    A reflection between a pair of contours is more rapidly detected than a translation, but this effect is stronger when the contours are closed to form a single object compared to when they are closed to form 2 objects with a gap between them. That is, grouping changes the relative salience of different regularities. We tested whether this manipulation would also change preference for reflection or translation. We measured preference for these patterns using the Implicit Association Test (IAT). On some trials, participants saw words that were either positive or negative and had to classify them as quickly as possible. On interleaved trials, they saw reflection or translation patterns and again had to classify them. Participants were faster when 1 button was used for reflection and positive words and another button was used for translation and negative words, compared to when the reverse response mapping was used (translation and positive vs. reflection and negative). This reaction time difference indicates an implicit preference for reflection over translation. However, the size of the implicit preference was significantly reduced in the Two-objects condition. We concluded that factors that affect perceptual sensitivity also systematically affect implicit preference formation. PMID:23145305

  11. A Pilot Study of the Interface Design of Cross-Cultural Web Sites through Usability Testing of Multilanguage Web Sites and Determining the Preferences of Taiwanese and American Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ku, David Tawei; Chang, Chia-Chi

    2014-01-01

    By conducting usability testing on a multilanguage Web site, this study analyzed the cultural differences between Taiwanese and American users in the performance of assigned tasks. To provide feasible insight into cross-cultural Web site design, Microsoft Office Online (MOO) that supports both traditional Chinese and English and contains an almost…

  12. Tempo Preferences of Different Age Music Listeners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBlanc, Albert; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Measures the effect of four levels of tempo on the self-reported preferences of six different age-groups for traditional jazz music listening examples. Stated that listener age exerted a strong influence on overall preference scores. Reported an analysis of variance showing that there is a significant preference for increasingly faster tempo at…

  13. 76 FR 53631 - BioPreferred Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-29

    ... biobased preferred procurement program (one part of the BioPreferred Program) is available on the Internet... reference Amend: to: And adding in its place: Sec. 2904.2, definition of ``Biobased part 2902 part 3201. content''. Sec. 2904.2, definition of part 2902 part 3201. ``BioPreferred Product''. Sec....

  14. 43 CFR 4110.2 - Grazing preference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Grazing preference. 4110.2 Section 4110.2..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA Qualifications and Preference § 4110.2 Grazing preference....

  15. Intergenerational transfer of time and risk preferences

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Heather; van der Pol, Marjon

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing interest in individual time and risk preferences. Little is known about how these preferences are formed. It is hypothesised that parents may transmit their preferences to their offspring. This paper examines the correlation in offspring and parental time and risk preferences using data from an annual household survey in Australia (the HILDA survey). Both time and risk preferences are examined and we explored whether the correlation in time and risk preferences varies across the distribution of preferences and across the across the four parent–child dyads (mother/daughter, mother/son, father/daughter, father/son). The results show that there is a significant relationship between parents and their young adult offspring risk and time preference measures. The correlation varies across the distribution of time preferences. The correlation was largest for longer planning horizons. Risk averse parents are more likely to have risk averse children. Except for the father/daughter dyad risk seeking parents are more likely to have risk seeking offspring. Some gender differences were found. The association in parental and offspring time preference was larger for mothers than fathers. Daughters are more likely to be influenced by their mother’s risk preferences, however, sons are equally influenced by both parents. The results of this study suggest that the transmission in preferences is more nuanced than previously thought and parental gender may be important. PMID:26412913

  16. Measurement of Client Preferences for Therapist Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richert, Alphons J.

    While past research has found conflicting results on the place for client role preferences in psychotherapy, none of this research has examined the client role preferences in an actual client population seeking outpatient therapy. This study involved the development of a measure of client role preferences which attempted to survey a wider range of…

  17. Employer Preferences for Resumes and Cover Letters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schullery, Nancy M.; Ickes, Linda; Schullery, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the results of a survey of employers' preferences for resume style, resume delivery method, and cover letters. Employers still widely prefer the standard chronological resume, with only 3% desiring a scannable resume. The vast majority of employers prefer electronic delivery, either by email (46%) or at the company's Web site…

  18. Subject Preference Regarding Three Psychotherapy Orientations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollis, Thomas G.

    Research has shown that therapy preference affects both the quality of the initial therapy session and treatment outcome. To determine personality characteristics which would affect subjects' preference of therapeutic orientation and to obtain qualitative information about subjects' therapy preferences, 203 community college students indicated…

  19. Intergenerational transfer of time and risk preferences.

    PubMed

    Brown, Heather; van der Pol, Marjon

    2015-08-01

    There is a growing interest in individual time and risk preferences. Little is known about how these preferences are formed. It is hypothesised that parents may transmit their preferences to their offspring. This paper examines the correlation in offspring and parental time and risk preferences using data from an annual household survey in Australia (the HILDA survey). Both time and risk preferences are examined and we explored whether the correlation in time and risk preferences varies across the distribution of preferences and across the across the four parent-child dyads (mother/daughter, mother/son, father/daughter, father/son). The results show that there is a significant relationship between parents and their young adult offspring risk and time preference measures. The correlation varies across the distribution of time preferences. The correlation was largest for longer planning horizons. Risk averse parents are more likely to have risk averse children. Except for the father/daughter dyad risk seeking parents are more likely to have risk seeking offspring. Some gender differences were found. The association in parental and offspring time preference was larger for mothers than fathers. Daughters are more likely to be influenced by their mother's risk preferences, however, sons are equally influenced by both parents. The results of this study suggest that the transmission in preferences is more nuanced than previously thought and parental gender may be important.

  20. Vision and the End of Racial Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clegg, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Are we facing the end of racial preferences in America? Mr. Clegg thinks we probably are, and examines the role demographics, law, attraction, and vision may play in their demise. What makes preferences still attractive to so many people? Do most Americans share a vision that includes the continued use of racial preferences? Mr. Clegg offers a…

  1. Minimal Mimicry: Mere Effector Matching Induces Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparenberg, Peggy; Topolinski, Sascha; Springer, Anne; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Both mimicking and being mimicked induces preference for a target. The present experiments investigate the minimal sufficient conditions for this mimicry-preference link to occur. We argue that mere effector matching between one's own and the other person's movement is sufficient to induce preference, independent of which movement is actually…

  2. Dental Continuing Education Preference Survey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    the 63A9Ds and 34.9% for the 63A00s, selected Comprehensive Dentistry as their specialty preference. For the 63A9Ds, orthodontics , periodontics, and...prosthodontics were the next most frequently selected specialties. For the 63A00s, it was orthodontics , prosthodontics, and endodontics. Nearly 10% of...Vital Pulp Therapy 1 2 3 4 (20) 17) Basic Clinical Oral Pathology / Medicine 1 2 3 4 (21) 18) Esthetics and Prosthodontics 1 2 3 4 (22) 19) Minor Tooth

  3. Preferred Attachment in Affiliation Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloznelis, Mindaugas; Götze, Friedrich

    2014-08-01

    Vertices of an affiliation network are linked to attributes and two vertices are declared adjacent whenever they share a common attribute. For example, two customers of an internet shop (or video-sharing website) are called adjacent if they have purchased (or downloaded) the same or similar items. Assuming that each newly arrived customer is linked preferentially to already popular items we obtain a preferred attachment affiliation network that evolves in time. We show that the fraction of customers having neighbours scales as for large . Here is the ratio between the two intensities: intensity of the flow of customers and that of the newly arriving items.

  4. Gender Imbalance in College Applications: Does It Lead to a Preference for Men in the Admissions Process?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, S.; Goodstein, E.

    2005-01-01

    Using data from 13 liberal arts colleges, we test for a preference for men in the college admissions process. We find that gender does matter, but in a complex way. Men do appear to be given preference as college applicant pools become more female. Consistent with this pattern, we find clear evidence of a preference for men in historically female…

  5. Preferences for Prolonging Life: A Prospect Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Laraine; Lawton, M. Powell; Ruckdeschel, Katy

    2003-01-01

    Kahneman and Tversky's (1979) Prospect theory was tested as a model of preferences for prolonging life under various hypothetical health statuses. A sample of 384 elderly people living in congregate housing (263 healthy, 131 frail) indicated how long (if at all) they would want to live under each of nine hypothetical health conditions (e.g.,…

  6. Personality, Drug Preference, Drug Use, and Drug Availability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Marc; Boyer, Bret; Kumar, V. K.; Prout, Maurice

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between drug preference, drug use, drug availability, and personality among individuals (n = 100) in treatment for substance abuse in an effort to replicate the results of an earlier study (Feldman, Kumar, Angelini, Pekala, & Porter, 2007) designed to test prediction derived from Eysenck's (1957, 1967)…

  7. Preference of Gossypium genotypes to Bemisia argentifolii (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several Gossypium species and genotypes were evaluated by in field and greehouse tests in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas, for preference to the whitefly. Genotypes with G.hirsutum, G. barabadense, G. herbaceum, and G. arboreum were examined, including commercial and obsolete cultivars,(cultivar...

  8. Assessment of Anomalous Erotic Preferences in Situational Impotence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freund, Kurt

    1976-01-01

    Sometimes the main reason for situational impotence is a gross anomaly in a patient's erotic preferences. An overview on nonverbal diagnostic methods is presented, and one of them, the phallometric test, is described in more detail, including a discussion of its limitations. (Author)

  9. Salinity Preference in the Estuarine Teleost Fish Mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus): Halocline Behavior.

    PubMed

    Marshall, W S; Tait, J C; Mercer, E W

    2016-01-01

    Mummichogs prefer seawater (SW) but have wide ability to acclimate to extreme temperatures and salinities. In the field, minnow trapping revealed that mummichogs move progressively into low-salinity warmer water during early spring after ice melt and show significant aversion to colder temperatures and high salinity. First appearance in estuarine shallows occurred above 10°C, and catch increased to 21°C over 4 wk. Three-spine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) also preferred warmer low-salinity locations but preferred slowing streams, whereas mummichogs preferred tidal ponds. In the laboratory, artificial haloclines tested isothermal salinity preference, between 28‰ full-strength SW (below) and 10% SW (3.0‰; above). Mummichogs of both sexes acclimated to 5°C in SW strongly preferred SW. Freshwater (0% SW)-acclimated mummichogs at 21°C also preferred SW, but of sexually mature fish acclimated to 21°C SW, only the males preferred SW; the females showed no significant preference for SW, meaning they freely entered low salinity. SW preference was manifested by a stereotypic passive aversion to the dilute upper layer at the halocline. We conclude that the overall movement of mummichogs into summer breeding grounds of low salinity is driven by maturation of females and their preference for warmer water regardless of salinity.

  10. Do pig farmers preferences bias consumer choice for pork? Response to critique of the pork preference studies.

    PubMed

    Ngapo, T M; Fortin, J; Martin, J-F

    2010-08-01

    Québec consumers and pig farmers selected their preferred chop from 16 images that had been modified to give 16 treatments: two levels each of fat cover, colour, marbling and drip. The selection process was repeated eight times from different groups of chops. Fat cover (47% preferred lean) and colour (44%, light red) were the most frequently chosen characteristics. No significant differences were observed between farmers and consumers preferences (chi(2) test, P<0.05). Two preference-based clusters were found; 41% preferring dark red, lean meat and 59%, light red, lean meat, without marbling or drip. Choice-based clusters showed no significant links with either individual socio-demographic items, including pig farmer as occupation, or the three socio-demographic-based clusters observed (chi(2) test, P<0.05). No evidence was found to suggest that the choices of pig farmers differed from those of consumers and, therefore, inclusion of pig farmers in consumer panels would not bias consumer choice for pork.

  11. Sex-dimorphic face shape preference in heterosexual and homosexual men and women.

    PubMed

    Glassenberg, Aaron N; Feinberg, David R; Jones, Benedict C; Little, Anthony C; Debruine, Lisa M

    2010-12-01

    Studies have used manipulated faces to test the preferences of heterosexual individuals for sexually dimorphic facial cues. In contrast to previous studies, which have generally excluded homosexual participants, we directly compared homosexual and heterosexual male and female preferences for manipulated sexual dimorphism in faces (homosexual males: n = 311; heterosexual males: n = 215; homosexual females: n = 159; heterosexual females: n = 218). Prior studies on sexual orientation and preferences for faces that were paired with masculine and feminine behavioral descriptors suggest that homosexual men prefer more masculine men and that homosexual women demonstrate no preference for either masculinity or femininity in women. In our study, we tested for similarities and differences among heterosexual and homosexual males and females with regard to their preferences for a more specific aspect of faces: sexual dimorphism of face shape. Homosexual men demonstrated stronger preferences for masculinity in male faces than did all of the other groups. Homosexual women demonstrated stronger preferences for masculinity in female faces than did heterosexual women. These results suggest attractiveness judgments of same-sex faces made by homosexual individuals are not a mirror image of those made by heterosexual individuals of the opposite sex. Our data suggest that face preferences of homosexual individuals reflect a system of biologically and socially guided preferences at least as complex as those found among heterosexual individuals.

  12. Nectar concentration preferences and sugar intake in the white-bellied sunbird, Cinnyris talatala (Nectariniidae).

    PubMed

    Leseigneur, C D C; Nicolson, S W

    2009-08-01

    Plant nectar is a simple food consumed by many different animals. Preferences regarding its components, especially sugars, have been studied for many species, but the preferences of nectar-feeding birds for different sugar concentrations are less well known than their sugar type preferences. The concentration preferences of white-bellied sunbirds, Cinnyris talatala, were examined using paired solutions of either sucrose or equicaloric 1:1 mixtures of glucose and fructose. Preferences were tested over a broad concentration range of 0.25-2.5 M sucrose equivalents (using 0.25 or 0.5 M differences between pairs). On both sucrose and hexose diets, the higher concentration was preferred up to 1 M, but there were no significant preferences above this concentration, except that birds preferred 1.5 to 2 M sucrose. As with other nectar-feeding vertebrates, the laboratory preferences of sunbirds do not explain the low concentration of their natural nectars. We recorded apparent excess sugar consumption during 6 h preference tests involving concentrated hexose diets; this could be due to digestive constraints or viscosity differences between sucrose and hexose solutions.

  13. Age-related changes in conditioned flavor preference in rats.

    PubMed

    Renteria, Adam F; Silbaugh, Bryant C; Tolentino, Jerlyn C; Gilbert, Paul E

    2008-03-17

    Age-related changes have been documented in regions of the brain shown to process reward information. However, few studies have examined the effects of aging on associative memory for reward. The present study tested 7- and 24-month-old rats on a conditioned flavor preference task. Half of the rats in each age group received an unsweetened grape-flavored solution (CS-) on odd-numbered days and a sweetened cherry-flavored solution (CS+) on even-numbered days. The remaining rats in each age group received a sweetened grape-flavored solution (CS+) on odd-numbered days and an unsweetened cherry-flavored solution (CS-) on even-numbered days. During the acquisition phase of testing, the designated solution (CS+ or CS-) was presented to each rat for 15 min daily across six consecutive days. On the preference phase, each rat received unsweetened cherry and unsweetened grape-flavored solutions simultaneously for 15 min daily across four consecutive days. The 7-month-old rats showed a significant preference for the flavor that was previously sweetened during the acquisition phase (CS+) compared to the previously unsweetened solution (CS-) when the two unsweetened solutions were presented simultaneously during the preference phase of testing. In contrast, the 24-month-old rats did not show a preference and consumed roughly equal amounts of the previously sweetened (CS+) and unsweetened (CS-) solutions. Thus, the data suggest that the ability to form flavor-reward associations declines with increasing age, resulting in impaired conditioned flavor preference.

  14. [Relationships between host preference of Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard) and nutrient and chlorophyll contents in host foliage].

    PubMed

    Gao, Jun-Ping; Pang, Bao-Ping; Meng, Rui-Xia; Wang, Juan

    2007-03-01

    The laboratory study with no free choice means showed that the host preference of Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard) adult differed significantly with test plants. Phaseolus vulgaris, Chrysanthemum coronarium and Cucurbita pepo were the most preferred, while Lycopersicum esculenturn and Brassica oleracea were the least. Correlative analysis indicated that the host preference of L. huidobrensis adult had a significant positive correlation with the content of soluble sugar, but less correlation with soluble protein and chlorophyll contents in host foliage.

  15. Assessing preference and reinforcer effectiveness in dogs.

    PubMed

    Vicars, Sara M; Miguel, Caio F; Sobie, Jennifer L

    2014-03-01

    The paired-stimulus (PS) preference assessment has been shown to be effective in assessing preference with animal subjects, including dogs; however, evaluations on whether preferred stimuli would also function as reinforcers are lacking. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the use of the PS preference assessment as a predictor of reinforcer effectiveness in eight dogs. The assessment was followed by concurrent and progressive ratio schedules to evaluate the reinforcer efficacy of food items. Results showed that the preference assessment predicted reinforcer efficacy for all subjects. Benefits of using this assessment with dogs are discussed.

  16. MHC-correlated odour preferences in humans and the use of oral contraceptives

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, S. Craig; Gosling, L. Morris; Carter, Vaughan; Petrie, Marion

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies in animals and humans show that genes in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) influence individual odours and that females often prefer odour of MHC-dissimilar males, perhaps to increase offspring heterozygosity or reduce inbreeding. Women using oral hormonal contraceptives have been reported to have the opposite preference, raising the possibility that oral contraceptives alter female preference towards MHC similarity, with possible fertility costs. Here we test directly whether contraceptive pill use alters odour preferences using a longitudinal design in which women were tested before and after initiating pill use; a control group of non-users were tested with a comparable interval between test sessions. In contrast to some previous studies, there was no significant difference in ratings between odours of MHC-dissimilar and MHC-similar men among women during the follicular cycle phase. However, single women preferred odours of MHC-similar men, while women in relationships preferred odours of MHC-dissimilar men, a result consistent with studies in other species, suggesting that paired females may seek to improve offspring quality through extra-pair partnerships. Across tests, we found a significant preference shift towards MHC similarity associated with pill use, which was not evident in the control group. If odour plays a role in human mate choice, our results suggest that contraceptive pill use could disrupt disassortative mate preferences. PMID:18700206

  17. Game theory, conditional preferences, and social influence.

    PubMed

    Stirling, Wynn C; Felin, Teppo

    2013-01-01

    Neoclassical noncooperative game theory is based on a simple, yet powerful synthesis of mathematical and logical concepts: unconditional and immutable preference orderings and individual rationality. Although this structure has proven useful for characterizing competitive multi-player behavior, its applicability to scenarios involving complex social relationships is problematic. In this paper we directly address this limitation by the introduction of a conditional preference structure that permits players to modulate their preference orderings as functions of the preferences of other players. Embedding this expanded preference structure in a formal and graphical framework provides a systematic approach for characterizing a complex society. The result is an influence network that allows conditional preferences to propagate through the community, resulting in an emergent social model which characterizes all of the social relationships that exist and which leads to solution concepts that account for both group and individual interests. The Ultimatum game is presented as an example of how social influence can be modeled with conditional preferences.

  18. Hand preferences for bimanual coordination in 29 bonobos (Pan paniscus).

    PubMed

    Chapelain, Amandine S; Hogervorst, Eef

    2009-01-03

    Brain lateralization has long been thought to be unique to humans. To investigate the origins and functions of this feature, researchers study behavioural laterality in other animals. Despite a substantial database, manual laterality in non-human primates remains a controversial topic. We give here a review of the main findings on manual preference in great apes. This article presents data on hand preferences for a bimanual coordination in 29 bonobos (Pan paniscus). The study aims to provide data on manual laterality for a complex bimanual task in this very interesting and rarely studied species. Hand preferences were assessed using the 'tube task'. This task has been used with other species, which allows reliable data comparisons. The task requires a bimanual coordinated precise action: the subject holds the tube with one hand while reaching for food inside with the other hand. As a complex task, this measure has been shown to be efficient in revealing hand preferences. It has revealed group-level right bias in chimpanzees. Bonobos had never been tested. We recorded both independent bouts (counting only the first pattern of a sequence of identical actions) and frequency (counting every action). The bonobos exhibited strong hand preferences. With frequency, 11 bonobos were classified as right-handed, 15 were left-handed and 3 had no preference. With bouts, 8 bonobos were right-handed, 9 were left-handed and 12 had no preference. No group-level bias appeared. The results are discussed in relation with previous findings and theories on brain lateralization.

  19. Musical Preferences are Linked to Cognitive Styles

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, David M.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Stillwell, David J.; Kosinski, Michal; Rentfrow, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Why do we like the music we do? Research has shown that musical preferences and personality are linked, yet little is known about other influences on preferences such as cognitive styles. To address this gap, we investigated how individual differences in musical preferences are explained by the empathizing-systemizing (E-S) theory. Study 1 examined the links between empathy and musical preferences across four samples. By reporting their preferential reactions to musical stimuli, samples 1 and 2 (Ns = 2,178 and 891) indicated their preferences for music from 26 different genres, and samples 3 and 4 (Ns = 747 and 320) indicated their preferences for music from only a single genre (rock or jazz). Results across samples showed that empathy levels are linked to preferences even within genres and account for significant proportions of variance in preferences over and above personality traits for various music-preference dimensions. Study 2 (N = 353) replicated and extended these findings by investigating how musical preferences are differentiated by E-S cognitive styles (i.e., ‘brain types’). Those who are type E (bias towards empathizing) preferred music on the Mellow dimension (R&B/soul, adult contemporary, soft rock genres) compared to type S (bias towards systemizing) who preferred music on the Intense dimension (punk, heavy metal, and hard rock). Analyses of fine-grained psychological and sonic attributes in the music revealed that type E individuals preferred music that featured low arousal (gentle, warm, and sensual attributes), negative valence (depressing and sad), and emotional depth (poetic, relaxing, and thoughtful), while type S preferred music that featured high arousal (strong, tense, and thrilling), and aspects of positive valence (animated) and cerebral depth (complexity). The application of these findings for clinicians, interventions, and those on the autism spectrum (largely type S or extreme type S) are discussed. PMID:26200656

  20. Musical Preferences are Linked to Cognitive Styles.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, David M; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Stillwell, David J; Kosinski, Michal; Rentfrow, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Why do we like the music we do? Research has shown that musical preferences and personality are linked, yet little is known about other influences on preferences such as cognitive styles. To address this gap, we investigated how individual differences in musical preferences are explained by the empathizing-systemizing (E-S) theory. Study 1 examined the links between empathy and musical preferences across four samples. By reporting their preferential reactions to musical stimuli, samples 1 and 2 (Ns = 2,178 and 891) indicated their preferences for music from 26 different genres, and samples 3 and 4 (Ns = 747 and 320) indicated their preferences for music from only a single genre (rock or jazz). Results across samples showed that empathy levels are linked to preferences even within genres and account for significant proportions of variance in preferences over and above personality traits for various music-preference dimensions. Study 2 (N = 353) replicated and extended these findings by investigating how musical preferences are differentiated by E-S cognitive styles (i.e., 'brain types'). Those who are type E (bias towards empathizing) preferred music on the Mellow dimension (R&B/soul, adult contemporary, soft rock genres) compared to type S (bias towards systemizing) who preferred music on the Intense dimension (punk, heavy metal, and hard rock). Analyses of fine-grained psychological and sonic attributes in the music revealed that type E individuals preferred music that featured low arousal (gentle, warm, and sensual attributes), negative valence (depressing and sad), and emotional depth (poetic, relaxing, and thoughtful), while type S preferred music that featured high arousal (strong, tense, and thrilling), and aspects of positive valence (animated) and cerebral depth (complexity). The application of these findings for clinicians, interventions, and those on the autism spectrum (largely type S or extreme type S) are discussed.

  1. Measuring preferences for schizophrenia outcomes with the time tradeoff method.

    PubMed

    Shumway, Martha; Chouljian, Tandy L; Battle, Cynthia L

    2005-01-01

    Measuring preferences for schizophrenia outcomes facilitates meaningful integration of multiple outcome measures and multiple perspectives on treatment outcomes. The Time Tradeoff (TTO) technique, specifically developed for measuring health state preferences, is used widely in health research, but some evidence suggests that the TTO may work less well with schizophrenia than with other health conditions. This study tested the hypotheses that tailoring the time frame of the standard TTO to the course of schizophrenia and simplifying its presentation format would improve its feasibility and efficiency. Forty clinicians provided TTO ratings using 1 of 4 combinations of time frame and presentation format. Numeric ratings and quantitative and qualitative measures of feasibility showed that while participants preferred the simpler format, none of the alterations improved feasibility. Participants' ratings were prone to logical inconsistencies and participants found all 4 versions of the TTO confusing and poorly suited to the context of schizophrenia treatment.

  2. Art for twins: Yorùbá artists and their statues/twin research studies: twins' education and conceptions; diurnal preference; inherited eye diseases; ultrasound counseling when twins are conjoined/popular twin reports: twin sisters (the film); rare pregnancy; diet test; French twins reared apart and reunited.

    PubMed

    Segal, Nancy L

    2014-06-01

    The Yorùbá of Nigeria are well known for their high twinning rate and the statues they create to commemorate deceased twins. An impressive collection of this artwork was displayed at the University of California's Fowler Museum in Los Angeles between October 13, 2013 and March 2, 2014. An overview of this exhibit is provided. Next, twin research on maternal education and conception, diurnal preference, inherited eye diseases, and ultrasound counseling for couples with conjoined twins are briefly summarized. This article concludes with a discussion of media-based items related to twins. The topics include an award-winning twin film, a rare pregnancy, a diet test, and the separation and chance reunion of monozygotic female twins.

  3. Delivery route preferences of urban women of low socioeconomic status*

    PubMed Central

    Kudish, Bela; Mehta, Shobha; Kruger, Michael; Russell, Evie; Sokol, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To identify the main determinants of mode of delivery preference among urban dwelling women of lower socioeconomic status (SES). Methods Over a 12-month period, a self-completion 36-item questionnaire was administered to a convenience sample of 308 women within the first 3 postpartum days. Non-parametric tests were used for analysis. Results Study participants were mostly African American (>85%), single mothers (>75%), and unemployed (≥55%). Among the women, 85.7% had vaginal delivery (VD) and 14.3% had cesarean delivery (CD). Women who preferred CD (10%) were more likely to be concerned about a vaginal tear/episiotomy during VD, forceps, and a "big" baby compared with women who preferred VD, for whom “pushing the baby out myself” and “fear of cesarean” were the most important factors. In the final model of 7 factors, the 3 main factors found to positively impact maternal preference for CD were a vaginal cut during VD (P<0.001), higher mean BMI (P=0.001), and cesarean as the most recent delivery type (P<0.001). The total explained variance by this model was 46%. Conclusions Short-term complications of a VD, higher BMI, and a previous cesarean delivery are the most significant factors that impact the preferences of women of lower SES for future mode of delivery. PMID:20579999

  4. Kodama time: Geometrically preferred foliations of spherically symmetric spacetimes

    SciTech Connect

    Abreu, Gabriel; Visser, Matt

    2010-08-15

    In a general time-dependent (3+1)-dimensional spherically symmetric spacetime, the so-called Kodama vector is a naturally defined geometric quantity that is timelike outside the evolving horizon and so defines a preferred class of fiducial observers. However the Kodama vector does not by itself define any preferred notion of time. We first extract as much information as possible by invoking the 'warped product' structure of spherically symmetric spacetime to study the Kodama vector, and the associated Kodama energy flux, in a coordinate-independent manner. Using this formalism we construct a general class of conservation laws, generalizing Kodama's energy flux. We then demonstrate that a preferred time coordinate - which we shall call Kodama time - can be introduced by taking the additional step of applying the Clebsch decomposition theorem to the Kodama vector. We thus construct a geometrically preferred coordinate system for any time-dependent spherically symmetric spacetime, and explore its properties. We study the geometrically preferred fiducial observers, and demonstrate that it is possible to define and calculate a generalized notion of surface gravity that is valid throughout the entire evolving spacetime. Furthermore, by building and suitably normalizing a set of radial null geodesics, we can show that this generalized surface gravity passes several consistency tests and has a physically appropriate static limit.

  5. Realistic Free-Spins Features Increase Preference for Slot Machines.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Lorance F; Macaskill, Anne C; Hunt, Maree J

    2016-07-20

    Despite increasing research into how the structural characteristics of slot machines influence gambling behaviour there have been no experimental investigations into the effect of free-spins bonus features-a structural characteristic that is commonly central to the design of slot machines. This series of three experiments investigated the free-spins feature using slot machine simulations to determine whether participants allocate more wagers to a machine with free spins, and, which components of free-spins features drive this preference. In each experiment, participants were exposed to two computer-simulated slot machines-one with a free-spins feature or similar bonus feature and one without. Participants then completed a testing phase where they could freely switch between the two machines. In Experiment 1, participants did not prefer the machine with a simple free-spins feature. In Experiment 2 the free-spins feature incorporated additional elements such as sounds, animations, and an increased win frequency; participants preferred to gamble on this machine. The Experiment 3 "bonus feature" machine resembled the free spins machine in Experiment 2 except spins were not free; participants showed a clear preference for this machine also. These findings indicate that (1) free-spins features have a major influence over machine choice and (2) the "freeness" of the free-spins bonus features is not an important driver of preference, contrary to self-report and interview research with gamblers.

  6. TRANSITIVITY OF ODOR PREFERENCES: CONSTANT AND PARTICULARITIES IN HEDONIC PERCEPTION

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Gérard; Haaz, Virginie; Jacquot, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Transitivity of preferences has been investigated for a long time in decision-making. In the field of perception, the pleasantness of odors raises several questions related to individual versus cultural or universal preferences and the existence of a classification in a delimited hedonic space. The aim of this study was to test transitivity in olfactory hedonicity using a first panel of 10 mixed odors and a second panel of 10 odors from a delimited floral category. Data were collected by paired comparisons in a two-alternative forced choice. Results in both panels showed a strong transitivity for each participant leading to a linear range of 10 odors classified by preference. However, ranges varied from one participant to another and the mean preferences of the group did not allow one to infer individual's hedonic classification of odors. Moreover, the individual classification appeared stable over time and undisturbed by odorant distractors. These findings suggest that humans have considerable ability to classify odors hedonically as a model of individual preferences in a sensory space usually considered to be more involved in affective/emotional states than in cognitive performances. PMID:23008522

  7. Developmental Study on Leg-to-Body Ratio Preferences.

    PubMed

    Sabiniewicz, Agnieszka; Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Oleszkiewicz, Anna; Sorokowski, Piotr

    2015-09-01

    Few studies have tested developmental differences in the perception of human body attractiveness and none have investigated development of Leg-to-Body Ratio (LBR) preferences. The aim of the current study was to determine whether preferences for LBR are largely innate and present among children in their early childhood, acquired in the course of socialization, and/or triggered by biological and hormonal changes. The study included 450 Polish men and women from Lower Silesia and Opole Province, Poland, whose ages ranged from 3 to 20 years. Participants were asked to choose which figurine they found the most attractive from a set of male and female figurines of various LBRs. We found that children below 8 years of age did not prefer any particular LBR and starting from about 9 years of age, preferences towards the legs of average length emerged. Importantly an LBR higher than the population average was not perceived as the most attractive until the age of 15 years. Therefore, we have empirically confirmed that LBR preferences change during develop ment.

  8. Why mercury prefers soft ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Riccardi, Demian M; Guo, Hao-Bo; Gu, Baohua; Parks, Jerry M; Summers, Anne; Miller, S; Liang, Liyuan; Smith, Jeremy C

    2013-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a major global pollutant arising from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Defining the factors that determine the relative affinities of different ligands for the mercuric ion, Hg2+, is critical to understanding its speciation, transformation, and bioaccumulation in the environment. Here, we use quantum chemistry to dissect the relative binding free energies for a series of inorganic anion complexes of Hg2+. Comparison of Hg2+ ligand interactions in the gaseous and aqueous phases shows that differences in interactions with a few, local water molecules led to a clear periodic trend within the chalcogenide and halide groups and resulted in the well-known experimentally observed preference of Hg2+ for soft ligands such as thiols. Our approach establishes a basis for understanding Hg speciation in the biosphere.

  9. Birth insult alters ethanol preference in the adult rat.

    PubMed

    Boksa, P

    1998-05-08

    While genetic factors clearly play a role in regulating ethanol intake, the present study considered the possibility that early environmental factors which influence central nervous system development and long-term function might also alter ethanol intake. The specific aim of the study was to test whether alterations in birth condition, namely Caesarean section (C-section) birth and C-section birth with an added period of global anoxia, can affect subsequent ethanol preference in the adult rat. At 5 months of age, groups of experimental and vaginally born control rats were offered free choice between drinking water or various concentrations of ethanol (1-10% v/v) in water across 36 days of testing. Rats that had been born by C-section with 10 or 15 min of added global anoxia showed significant reductions in ethanol preference scores, in comparison to vaginally born controls. For the 10-min anoxia group, ethanol intake was decreased, water intake was increased and total fluid intake remained unchanged relative to values for vaginally born controls, across the entire test period. Although total fluid intake by the 15-min anoxia group also did not differ from that of vaginally born controls, the decreased ethanol preference scores in the 15-min anoxia group were mainly due to increased water intake during some test periods and a combination of reduced ethanol intake and increased water intake during others. Animals born by rapid C-section alone, with no added period of global anoxia, showed reduced ethanol preference only during a few early periods of testing, a much less pronounced effect than that observed for animals with added global anoxia. When animals were given the choice between drinking water vs. solutions of sucrose or NaCl, no group differences due to birth condition were found on measures of sucrose or NaCl preference. Together with reduced ethanol preference, the 10-min anoxia group showed a transient depression of locomotor activity in response to a low

  10. Measuring Distributive Justice Preferences of Finnish University Students via the State Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venetoklis, Takis

    2007-01-01

    We measure the distributive justice preferences of students within eight departments in the faculty of Social Sciences at the University of Turku, Finland. We use the Finnish government's annual budget and its specific appropriations as a proxy to measure the students' underlying preferences. We test whether the type of studies of the respondents…

  11. A Comparative Study of Cognitive Preferences of Different Groups of Chemistry Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofstein, Avi; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Describes a study done to compare the cognitive preferences of four student populations: postgraduate students in chemistry, students from academic high schools, those in vocational schools training to become lab technicians, and students joining science clubs. Results of a 34 item cognitive preference test are summarized. (Author/MA)

  12. Preference for Consonance over Dissonance by Hearing Newborns of Deaf Parents and of Hearing Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masataka, Nobuo

    2006-01-01

    Behavioral preferences for consonance over dissonance were tested in hearing infants of deaf parents and in hearing infants of hearing parents when they were 2 days old. Using a modified visual-fixation-based, auditory-preference procedure, I found that both 2-day-old infants of deaf parents and those of hearing parents looked longer at a visual…

  13. A Dual Process Motivational Model of Ambivalent Sexism and Gender Differences in Romantic Partner Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibley, Chris G.; Overall, Nickola C.

    2011-01-01

    We tested a dual process motivational model of ambivalent sexism and gender differences in intimate partner preferences. Meta-analysis of 32 samples (16 with men, 16 with women; N = 5,459) indicated that Benevolent Sexism (BS) in women was associated with greater preferences for high-resource partners (r = 0.24), whereas Hostile Sexism (HS) in men…

  14. Job Preferences in the Anticipatory Socialization Phase: A Comparison of Two Matching Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Mira K.; Frieze, Irene Hanson

    1993-01-01

    Responses from 86 business administration graduate students tested (1) a model matching self-concept to development of job preferences and (2) an expectancy-value model. Both models significantly predicted job preferences; a higher proportion of variance was explained by the expectancy-value model. (SK)

  15. "Listen My Children and You Shall Hear": Auditory Preferences in Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Rhea; Chawarska, Katarzyna; Fowler, Carol; Cicchetti, Domenic; Volkmar, Fred

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study tests the hypothesis that toddlers with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) will show differences from contrast groups in preferences for attending to speech. Method: This study examined auditory preferences in toddlers with ASD and matched groups of (a) typical age-mates, (b) age-mates with nonautistic developmental disabilities,…

  16. Indigenous Mexican Culture's Influence upon the Reading Preferences of Chicana and Chicano Middle-School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godina, Heriberto

    A study investigated the effects of instruction in indigenous Mexican culture on Chicana and Chicano adolescents' reading preferences. Subjects, 81 Mexican-American students in a Southwestern middle school, were administered a culture interest inventory as a pre- and post-test for identifying reading preferences. Students participated in 4 days of…

  17. Predatory Odor Disrupts Social Novelty Preference in Long-Evans Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Matthew J.; Layton, William B.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of predatory odor (cat urine) on social novelty preference in Long-Evans rats. Adult male subjects encountered a juvenile conspecific at training, were exposed to either clean cat litter (control) or litter soiled with cat urine (predatory odor), and were tested for social novelty preference. While the…

  18. A marker of growth differs between adolescents with high versus low sugar preference

    PubMed Central

    Coldwell, Susan E.; Oswald, Teresa K.; Reed, Danielle R.

    2009-01-01

    Sweet preference is higher in childhood than adulthood but the mechanism for this developmental shift is not known. The objective of this study was to assess perceptual, physiological and eating habit differences between children preferring solutions high in sugar (high preference) and children preferring solutions low in sugar (low preference). We tested 143 children (11- to 15-years old) using sip and spit methodology to assess their hedonic profile, detection threshold, and perceived intensity of sucrose. Their plasma concentration of several hormones, a biomarker of bone-growth, body size, puberty stage, and dietary habits were measured. Eighty-eight children were classified as high preference and 53 were classified as low preference based on their hedonic ratings to a series of sucrose solutions. A marker of bone growth measured in urine and plasma leptin adjusted for body weight were significantly lower in the low preference group. Children with high and low preference patterns did not differ in sensory aspects of sucrose perception, nor did they differ in age, body mass index percentile, or dietary restraint. The change in sugar preference from high to low during adolescence appears to be associated with the cessation of growth. PMID:19150454

  19. Sleep deprivation impairs recall of social transmission of food preference in rats

    PubMed Central

    Wooden, Jessica I; Pido, Jennifer; Mathews, Hunter; Kieltyka, Ryan; Montemayor, Bertha A; Ward, Christopher P

    2014-01-01

    Evidence indicates that sleep plays an important role in learning and memory, and disruption of sleep especially seems to interfere with hippocampal memory processes. Social transmission of food preference (STFP), a natural test of paired associative learning, has been shown to be dependent on the hippocampus. While social transmission of food preference is not a novel task, it has not been used to examine the role of sleep in memory consolidation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: cage control; sleep-deprived; and device control. Demonstrator rats were given powdered food mixed with a target spice. Test rats then interacted with demonstrator rats before being given a two choice test of powered food with the target spice or a novel spice. Sleep-deprived rats were then placed in an automated device that prevented sleep for 24 hours. After sleep deprivation, animals were given a preference test again to determine memory for the target spice at both 24 hours and 72 hours. Polysomnography was used to validate the method of sleep deprivation. During immediate preference testing, rats demonstrated a clear preference for the food containing the target spice. Rats that experienced 24 hours of sleep deprivation following the initial testing indicated a significant reduction in the recall of the target spice at 24 and 72 hours. The cage control and device animals maintained their preference for food containing the target spice. Therefore, the loss of sleep interfered with memory consolidation for food preference learned via social transmission. PMID:25395874

  20. Sleep deprivation impairs recall of social transmission of food preference in rats.

    PubMed

    Wooden, Jessica I; Pido, Jennifer; Mathews, Hunter; Kieltyka, Ryan; Montemayor, Bertha A; Ward, Christopher P

    2014-01-01

    Evidence indicates that sleep plays an important role in learning and memory, and disruption of sleep especially seems to interfere with hippocampal memory processes. Social transmission of food preference (STFP), a natural test of paired associative learning, has been shown to be dependent on the hippocampus. While social transmission of food preference is not a novel task, it has not been used to examine the role of sleep in memory consolidation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: cage control; sleep-deprived; and device control. Demonstrator rats were given powdered food mixed with a target spice. Test rats then interacted with demonstrator rats before being given a two choice test of powered food with the target spice or a novel spice. Sleep-deprived rats were then placed in an automated device that prevented sleep for 24 hours. After sleep deprivation, animals were given a preference test again to determine memory for the target spice at both 24 hours and 72 hours. Polysomnography was used to validate the method of sleep deprivation. During immediate preference testing, rats demonstrated a clear preference for the food containing the target spice. Rats that experienced 24 hours of sleep deprivation following the initial testing indicated a significant reduction in the recall of the target spice at 24 and 72 hours. The cage control and device animals maintained their preference for food containing the target spice. Therefore, the loss of sleep interfered with memory consolidation for food preference learned via social transmission.

  1. Cues from the reef: olfactory preferences of a symbiotically luminous cardinalfish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, Alison L.; Harii, Saki; Dunlap, Paul V.

    2015-06-01

    The symbiotically luminous, reef-dwelling cardinalfish, Siphamia tubifer (Perciformes: Apogonidae), exhibits daily site fidelity, homing behavior, and a preference for the long-spined urchin, Diadema setosum, as its daytime host. The fish acquires its symbiont during larval development and releases large numbers of the bacteria with its feces daily at a host urchin. To examine the role of olfaction in site fidelity and homing by S. tubifer, juvenile and adult fish were tested in a two-channel choice flume for their olfactory preferences. Neither juveniles nor adults showed a preference for seawater conditioned by D. setosum. Juvenile fish, but not adults, preferred seawater conditioned by conspecific fish versus unconditioned seawater. Both juveniles and adults preferred seawater conditioned by their luminous symbiont and also preferred home site water to foreign reef water. These results suggest that S. tubifer uses chemical cues for homing and possibly settlement and symbiont acquisition, but not for host urchin recognition.

  2. Classroom climate and students' goal preferences: a cross-cultural comparison.

    PubMed

    Vedder, Paul; Kouwenhoven, Coen; Burk, William J

    2009-04-01

    Goal preferences indicate intentions to achieve or avoid particular states. We examined whether Curacaoan and Dutch students differ in goal preferences related to school and whether goal preferences are associated with students' evaluation of the classroom climate. Measurement invariance of the instruments was also tested between samples. Participants attended vocational high schools in Curacao (N = 276) or in the Netherlands (N = 283). Both the classroom climate and goal preferences differed between the samples. In the Netherlands the preference for individuality, belongingness, and recognition was stronger, whereas in Curacao mastery, satisfaction, self-determination, and material gain were more frequently endorsed. The two variables were modestly correlated. Schools do have a globalizing effect on students' school experiences and hardly adapt to goal preferences. The latter seem to be affected by non-school related cultural factors.

  3. Choosing to be afraid: preferences for fear as a function of goal pursuit.

    PubMed

    Tamir, Maya; Ford, Brett Q

    2009-08-01

    According to an instrumental approach to emotion regulation (M. Tamir, in press), people may not always prefer to feel pleasant emotions and avoid unpleasant ones. Instead, they may be motivated to experience even unpleasant emotions when they might be useful for goal attainment. Given that fear serves to promote successful avoidance, these studies tested this hypothesis by examining preferences for fear in preparation for avoidance goal pursuits. Consistent with the predictions of the instrumental approach, participants preferred to increase their level of fear as they prepared to pursue an avoidance goal. Such preferences were higher than preferences for either excitement or anger and were unique to avoidance (vs. approach or confrontational) goal pursuits. Given the aversive nature of fear, these findings clearly demonstrate that people may sometimes prefer to feel bad if doing so can lead to instrumental benefits.

  4. Mate preference in the painted goby: the influence of visual and acoustic courtship signals.

    PubMed

    Amorim, M Clara P; da Ponte, Ana Nunes; Caiano, Manuel; Pedroso, Silvia S; Pereira, Ricardo; Fonseca, Paulo J

    2013-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that females of a small vocal marine fish with exclusive paternal care, the painted goby, prefer high parental-quality mates such as large or high-condition males. We tested the effect of male body size and male visual and acoustic courtship behaviour (playback experiments) on female mating preferences by measuring time spent near one of a two-choice stimuli. Females did not show preference for male size but preferred males that showed higher levels of courtship, a trait known to advertise condition (fat reserves). Also, time spent near the preferred male depended on male courtship effort. Playback experiments showed that when sound was combined with visual stimuli (a male confined in a small aquarium placed near each speaker), females spent more time near the male associated with courtship sound than with the control male (associated with white noise or silence). Although male visual courtship effort also affected female preference in the pre-playback period, this effect decreased during playback and disappeared in the post-playback period. Courtship sound stimuli alone did not elicit female preference in relation to a control. Taken together, the results suggest that visual and mainly acoustic courtship displays are subject to mate preference and may advertise parental quality in this species. Our results indicate that visual and acoustic signals interplay in a complex fashion and highlight the need to examine how different sensory modalities affect mating preferences in fish and other vertebrates.

  5. Pro-social preferences and self-selection into the public health sector: evidence from an economic experiment.

    PubMed

    Kolstad, Julie Riise; Lindkvist, Ida

    2013-05-01

    Motivational crowding-out theory establishes that the effectiveness of financial incentive schemes, like pay-for-performance, crucially depends on the underlying social preferences of health workers. In this paper we study the extent to which heterogeneity in the strength and structure of social preferences is related to career choices by testing whether preferences vary systematically between Tanzanian health worker students who prefer to work in the private for-profit health sector and those who prefer to work in the public health sector. Despite its important policy implications, this issue has received little attention to date. By combining data from a questionnaire and an economic experiment, we find that students who prefer to work in the public health sector have stronger pro-social preferences than those who prefer to work in the private for-profit sector.

  6. Candidate preferences and expectations of election outcomes.

    PubMed

    Delavande, Adeline; Manski, Charles F

    2012-03-06

    Analysis of data from the American Life Panel shows that in the presidential election of 2008 and in multiple statewide elections in 2010, citizens exhibited large differences in their expectations of election outcomes. Expectations were strongly positively associated with candidate preferences, persons tending to believe that their preferred candidate is more likely to win the election. Committed supporters of opposing candidates regularly differed by 20-30% in their assessments of the likelihood that each candidate would win. These findings contribute evidence on the false consensus effect, the empirical regularity that own preferences tend to be positively associated with perceptions of social preferences. We used unique measures of preferences and perceptions that enabled respondents to express uncertainty flexibly. We studied a setting that would a priori seem inhospitable to false consensus--one where persons have little private information on social preferences but substantial common knowledge provided by media reports of election polls.

  7. Strategies for Global Optimization of Temporal Preferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Paul; Morris, Robert; Khatib, Lina; Ramakrishnan, Sailesh

    2004-01-01

    A temporal reasoning problem can often be naturally characterized as a collection of constraints with associated local preferences for times that make up the admissible values for those constraints. Globally preferred solutions to such problems emerge as a result of well-defined operations that compose and order temporal assignments. The overall objective of this work is a characterization of different notions of global preference, and to identify tractable sub-classes of temporal reasoning problems incorporating these notions. This paper extends previous results by refining the class of useful notions of global temporal preference that are associated with problems that admit of tractable solution techniques. This paper also answers the hitherto open question of whether problems that seek solutions that are globally preferred from a Utilitarian criterion for global preference can be found tractably.

  8. Reported Modality Preferences of Sonar Operators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-01

    indicated a preference for the visual modality, which was similar in proportion for both STS and STG groups. On questions pertinent to sonar operation...most operators indicated a visual preference. However, on two of these items, proportionally more STS than STG operators showed an auditory...preference. Interestingly, 99% of all the subjects reported that present sonar systems are biased toward visual information. Yet, this survey showed that only

  9. Male Homosexual Preference: Where, When, Why?

    PubMed Central

    Barthes, Julien; Crochet, Pierre-André; Raymond, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Male homosexual preference (MHP) has long been of interest to scholars studying the evolution of human sexuality. Indeed, MHP is partially heritable, induces a reproductive cost and is common. MHP has thus been considered a Darwinian paradox. Several questions arise when MHP is considered in an evolutionary context. At what point did MHP appear in the human evolutionary history? Is MHP present in all human groups? How has MHP evolved, given that MHP is a reproductively costly trait? These questions were addressed here, using data from the anthropological and archaeological literature. Our detailed analysis of the available data challenges the common view of MHP being a “virtually universal” trait present in humans since prehistory. The conditions under which it is possible to affirm that MHP was present in past societies are discussed. Furthermore, using anthropological reports, the presence or absence of MHP was documented for 107 societies, allowing us to conclude that evidence of the absence of MHP is available for some societies. A recent evolutionary hypothesis has argued that social stratification together with hypergyny (the hypergyny hypothesis) are necessary conditions for the evolution of MHP. Here, the link between the level of stratification and the probability of observing MHP was tested using an unprecedented large dataset. Furthermore, the test was performed for the first time by controlling for the phylogenetic non-independence between societies. A positive relationship was observed between the level of social stratification and the probability of observing MHP, supporting the hypergyny hypothesis. PMID:26267276

  10. Left preference for sport tasks does not necessarily indicate left-handedness: sport-specific lateral preferences, relationship with handedness and implications for laterality research in behavioural sciences.

    PubMed

    Loffing, Florian; Sölter, Florian; Hagemann, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    In the elite domain of interactive sports, athletes who demonstrate a left preference (e.g., holding a weapon with the left hand in fencing or boxing in a 'southpaw' stance) seem overrepresented. Such excess indicates a performance advantage and was also interpreted as evidence in favour of frequency-dependent selection mechanisms to explain the maintenance of left-handedness in humans. To test for an overrepresentation, the incidence of athletes' lateral preferences is typically compared with an expected ratio of left- to right-handedness in the normal population. However, the normal population reference values did not always relate to the sport-specific tasks of interest, which may limit the validity of reports of an excess of 'left-oriented' athletes. Here we sought to determine lateral preferences for various sport-specific tasks (e.g., baseball batting, boxing) in the normal population and to examine the relationship between these preferences and handedness. To this end, we asked 903 participants to indicate their lateral preferences for sport-specific and common tasks using a paper-based questionnaire. Lateral preferences varied considerably across the different sport tasks and we found high variation in the relationship between those preferences and handedness. In contrast to unimanual tasks (e.g., fencing or throwing), for bimanually controlled actions such as baseball batting, shooting in ice hockey or boxing the incidence of left preferences was considerably higher than expected from the proportion of left-handedness in the normal population and the relationship with handedness was relatively low. We conclude that (i) task-specific reference values are mandatory for reliably testing for an excess of athletes with a left preference, (ii) the term 'handedness' should be more cautiously used within the context of sport-related laterality research and (iii) observation of lateral preferences in sports may be of limited suitability for the verification of

  11. Left Preference for Sport Tasks Does Not Necessarily Indicate Left-Handedness: Sport-Specific Lateral Preferences, Relationship with Handedness and Implications for Laterality Research in Behavioural Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Loffing, Florian; Sölter, Florian; Hagemann, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    In the elite domain of interactive sports, athletes who demonstrate a left preference (e.g., holding a weapon with the left hand in fencing or boxing in a ‘southpaw’ stance) seem overrepresented. Such excess indicates a performance advantage and was also interpreted as evidence in favour of frequency-dependent selection mechanisms to explain the maintenance of left-handedness in humans. To test for an overrepresentation, the incidence of athletes' lateral preferences is typically compared with an expected ratio of left- to right-handedness in the normal population. However, the normal population reference values did not always relate to the sport-specific tasks of interest, which may limit the validity of reports of an excess of ‘left-oriented’ athletes. Here we sought to determine lateral preferences for various sport-specific tasks (e.g., baseball batting, boxing) in the normal population and to examine the relationship between these preferences and handedness. To this end, we asked 903 participants to indicate their lateral preferences for sport-specific and common tasks using a paper-based questionnaire. Lateral preferences varied considerably across the different sport tasks and we found high variation in the relationship between those preferences and handedness. In contrast to unimanual tasks (e.g., fencing or throwing), for bimanually controlled actions such as baseball batting, shooting in ice hockey or boxing the incidence of left preferences was considerably higher than expected from the proportion of left-handedness in the normal population and the relationship with handedness was relatively low. We conclude that (i) task-specific reference values are mandatory for reliably testing for an excess of athletes with a left preference, (ii) the term ‘handedness’ should be more cautiously used within the context of sport-related laterality research and (iii) observation of lateral preferences in sports may be of limited suitability for the

  12. Infants' preference for prosocial behaviors: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Holvoet, Claire; Scola, Céline; Arciszewski, Thomas; Picard, Delphine

    2016-11-01

    In 2007, a study carried out by Hamlin, Wynn, and Bloom provided concrete evidence that infants as young as 6 months were capable of social evaluation, displaying an early preference for agents performing a prosocial behavior. Since then the development of early social abilities to judge other's behavior has been the topic of a growing body of research. The present paper reviews studies conducted between 2007 and 2015 that experimentally examined infants' social evaluation abilities by testing their preference for agents acting prosocially. We performed a detailed analysis of a corpus of 16 research studies including 59 experimental results, scrutinizing their methods and findings, and identifying their convergent and divergent features. This analysis showed that a preference for agents who perform prosocial behaviors (as opposed to antisocial or neutral) was present in a majority of infants, but some conflicting results have also been reported. The rich interpretation that infants are endowed with mature socio-moral evaluation abilities has not really been sufficiently discussed. In order to deepen this debate, we assessed other studies that have further explored infants' understanding of the social value of behaviors. Many of the studies provide evidence that young infants manage to identify and prefer the prosocial agent by taking into account the context and agents' mental states beyond the behavior itself. In this study two specific areas are assessed: (1) studies that have previously explored social evaluation abilities beyond a basic preference for prosocial behavior and (2) current theories which attempt to explain how and why such preferences could exist so early in infancy. Future directions for research on social evaluation abilities in infants are also discussed as well as a review of the literature.

  13. Young Children’s Development of Fairness Preference

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Wang, Wen; Yu, Jing; Zhu, Liqi

    2016-01-01

    Fairness is one of the most important foundations of morality and may have played a key role in the evolution of cooperation in humans beings. As an important type of fairness concern, inequity aversion is the preference for fairness and the resistance to inequitable outcomes. To examine the early development of fairness preference in young children, sixty 2- and 3-year-old children were recruited to examine young children’s preferences for fairness using a forced choice paradigm. We tested how toddlers acted when they took charge of distributing resources (two candies) to themselves and others and when they were the recipients of both other-advantageous distribution and self-advantageous distribution. Different alternative options were paired with the same fair option in the two conditions. In the other-advantageous condition, children had fewer resources in the alternative options than others, whereas their resources in the alternative options were greater than others’ in the self-advantageous condition. The results showed that more children displayed fairness preferences when they distributed resources between two friends than when they distributed resources between a friend and themselves. In both scenarios, 3-year-old children were more likely to demonstrate fairness preference than 2-year-old children. The findings suggest that inequity aversion develops in young children and increases with age over the course of early childhood. When they were recipients, there was a trend in young children’s preference for fairness in the other-advantageous condition compared with the self-advantageous condition. This suggests that children might tend to be more likely to display inequity aversion when they are in a disadvantageous position. PMID:27625616

  14. Effects of continuous exposure to high gravity on gravity preference in rats.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccoy, D. F.; Jankovich, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    Rats were chronically centrifuged in excess of 2.0 g for 6 or 12 mo. They were given four 24-hr gravity-preference tests in a spiral centrifuge in which they could adjust the gravity level imposed by locomoting inward or outward radially along a track. Chronically centrifuged rats (Group CC) spent as much time at 2.0 g as at 1.0 g while normally raised controls (Group NC) selecdonly 1.0 g. Group CC initially selected 2.0 g and a preference for 1.0 g developed over the four test sessions. These results suggest that hypergravity is not necessarily an aversive stimulus and that gravity preference may depend initially upon the reference level involved. The ultimate selection of 1.0 g by chronically centrifuged animals suggests that a preference for a familiar gravity environment is replaced by a preference for low-gravity stimuli.

  15. ‘Beauty Is No Quality in Things Themselves’: Epistemic Motivation Affects Implicit Preferences for Art

    PubMed Central

    Chirumbolo, Antonio; Brizi, Ambra; Mastandrea, Stefano; Mannetti, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    Art preferences are affected by a number of subjective factors. This paper reports two studies which investigated whether need for closure shapes implicit art preferences. It was predicted that higher need for closure would negatively affect implicit preferences for abstract art. In study one, 60 participants were tested for dispositional need for closure and then completed an Implicit Association Test (IAT) task to measure their implicit preference for abstract (vs. figurative) paintings. In study two, 54 participants completed the same IAT task. In this experiment need for closure was both manipulated by cognitive load and tapped as a dispositional trait. Results of the studies converged in showing that after controlling for other important individual factors such as participants'expertise and cognitive ability, need for closure, both as a dispositional trait and as a situationally induced motivational state, was negatively associated with implicit preference for abstract art. PMID:25360697

  16. 'Beauty is no quality in things themselves': epistemic motivation affects implicit preferences for art.

    PubMed

    Chirumbolo, Antonio; Brizi, Ambra; Mastandrea, Stefano; Mannetti, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    Art preferences are affected by a number of subjective factors. This paper reports two studies which investigated whether need for closure shapes implicit art preferences. It was predicted that higher need for closure would negatively affect implicit preferences for abstract art. In study one, 60 participants were tested for dispositional need for closure and then completed an Implicit Association Test (IAT) task to measure their implicit preference for abstract (vs. figurative) paintings. In study two, 54 participants completed the same IAT task. In this experiment need for closure was both manipulated by cognitive load and tapped as a dispositional trait. Results of the studies converged in showing that after controlling for other important individual factors such as participants'expertise and cognitive ability, need for closure, both as a dispositional trait and as a situationally induced motivational state, was negatively associated with implicit preference for abstract art.

  17. Flavor preference conditioning by different sugars in sweet ageusic Trpm5 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, Anthony; Ackroff, Karen

    2015-03-01

    Knockout (KO) mice missing the taste signaling protein Trpm5 have greatly attenuated sweetener preferences but develop strong preferences for glucose in 24-h tests, which is attributed to post-oral sugar conditioning. Trpm5 KO mice express mild preferences for galactose but no preferences for fructose in 24-h tests, which suggests that these sugars differ in their post-oral reinforcing effects. Here we investigated sugar-conditioned flavor preferences in Trpm5 KO and C57BL/6J wildtype (B6) mice. The mice were trained to consume a flavored (CS+, e.g. grape) 8% sugar solution and flavored (CS-, e.g., cherry) water on alternating days followed by two-bottle choice tests with CS+ vs. CS- flavors in water and with unflavored sugar vs. water. The KO mice displayed strong preferences (>80%) for the CS+ glucose and CS+ galactose but not for the CS+ fructose flavor. They also preferred glucose and galactose, but not fructose to water. In contrast, the B6 mice preferred all three CS+ flavors to the CS- flavor, and all three sugars to water. In tests with the non-metabolizable sugar α-methyl-d-glucopyranoside (MDG), the KO and B6 mice preferred 8% MDG to water but did not prefer the CS+ 8% MDG to CS-. However, they preferred a CS+ flavor mixed with 4% MDG over the CS- flavor. Trpm5 KO mice also preferred galactose and MDG to fructose in direct choice tests. The Trpm5 KO data indicate that glucose and, to a lesser extent, galactose and MDG have post-oral reinforcing actions that stimulate intake and preference while fructose has a much weaker effect. The CS+ flavor and sugar preferences of B6 mice may be mediated by the sweet taste and/or post-oral actions of the various sugars. Glucose, galactose, and MDG, but not fructose, are ligands for the sodium-glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) which is implicated in post-oral sugar conditioning in B6 mice.

  18. The cannabinoid 1-receptor silent antagonist O-2050 attenuates preference for high-fat diet and activated astrocytes in mice.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Sei; Irie, Keiichi; Mishima, Shohei; Araki, Maiko; Ohji, Makiko; Shirakawa, Atsunori; Akitake, Yoshiharu; Matsuyama, Kiyoshi; Mishima, Kenji; Mishima, Kenichi; Iwasaki, Katsunori; Fujiwara, Michihiro

    2010-01-01

    Endocannabinoids have been shown to activate reward-related feeding and to promote astrocytic differentiation. We investigated whether high-fat diet (HFD) intake produced a preference for HFD via an endocannabinoid-dependent mechanism. In the conditioned place preference test, the 2-week HFD-intake group showed preference for HFD and had increased expression of a marker for reactive astrocytes, glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP), in the hypothalamus. The cannabinoid CB(1)-receptor antagonist O-2050 reduced the preference for HFD and expression of GFAP in the hypothalamus. These results suggested that HFD intake led to the development of a preference for HFD via astrocytic CB(1) receptors in the hypothalamus.

  19. Dietary preference in dairy calves for feed ingredients high in energy and protein.

    PubMed

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Montoro, C; Ipharraguerre, I R; Bach, A

    2014-03-01

    In 3 experiments, we assessed preference of recently weaned dairy calves for (1) 8 high-energy feed types [barley meal, corn meal, corn gluten feed (CGF), oat meal, rice meal, sorghum meal, wheat meal, and wheat middlings meal]; (2) 6 high-protein feed types [corn gluten meal (CGM), wheat distillers dried grains, rapeseed meal, soybean meal (SBM), sunflower meal, and pea meal]; and (3) 4 mixtures (50:50) of the highest- and lowest-ranked high-energy and high-protein feeds, to assess whether calves maintain preference for feed ingredients that are included in a mixture. In all experiments, pairwise preference tests were conducted between all feed types (28 different pairwise preference tests in experiment 1, 15 tests in experiment 2, and 6 tests in experiment 3). Each pairwise preference test was conducted by offering ad libitum access to both feed types for 6h. All tests were repeated with 20 Holstein calves. Before this study, calves were offered milk replacer at a rate of 4 L/d and a pelleted starter feed ad libitum. After weaning at 62 d of age, each calf was involved in a pairwise preference test at 3 and 5d postweaning. A preference ratio was calculated for each calf in each test as (intake of feed type A)/(intake of feed type A + intake of feed type B). Preference for feed types was ranked across tests in each experiment using pairwise comparison charts. In experiment 1, the highest-ranked high-energy feed type was wheat meal and the lowest ranked were rice meal and CGF. In experiment 2, the highest-ranked high-protein feed type was SBM and the lowest ranked was CGM. According to the preference rankings from experiments 1 and 2, experiment 3 evaluated (50:50) mixtures of SBM + wheat meal, SBM + CGF, CGM + wheat meal, and CGM + CGF. The mixture of SBM + wheat meal was highest ranked, CGM + CGF was lowest ranked, and the mixtures containing one high-ranked and one low-ranked feed ingredient (SBM + CGF and CGM + wheat meal) were ranked equally. The results of

  20. Alcohol preference drinking in a mouse line selectively bred for high drinking in the dark.

    PubMed

    Crabbe, John C; Spence, Stephanie E; Brown, Lauren L; Metten, Pamela

    2011-08-01

    We have selectively bred mice that reach very high blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) after drinking from a single bottle of 20% ethanol. High Drinking in the Dark (HDID-1) mice drink nearly 6g/kg ethanol in 4h and reach average BECs of more than 1.0mg/mL. Previous studies suggest that DID and two-bottle preference for 10% ethanol with continuous access are influenced by many of the same genes. We therefore asked whether HDID-1 mice would differ from the HS/Npt control stock on two-bottle preference drinking. We serially offered mice access to 3-40% ethanol in tap water versus tap water. For ethanol concentrations between 3 and 20%, HDID-1 and HS/Npt controls did not differ in two-bottle preference drinking. At the highest concentrations, the HS/Npt mice drank more than the HDID-1 mice. We also tested the same mice for preference for two concentrations each of quinine, sucrose, and saccharin. Curiously, the mice showed preference ratios (volume of tastant/total fluid drunk) of about 50% for all tastants and concentrations. Thus, neither genotype showed either preference or avoidance for any tastant after high ethanol concentrations. Therefore, we compared naive groups of HDID-1 and HS/Npt mice for tastant preference. Results from this test showed that ethanol-naive mice preferred sweet fluids and avoided quinine but the genotypes did not differ. Finally, we tested HDID-1 and HS mice for an extended period for preference for 15% ethanol versus water during a 2-h access period in the dark. After several weeks, HDID-1 mice consumed significantly more than HS. We conclude that drinking in the dark shows some genetic overlap with other tests of preference drinking, but that the degree of genetic commonality depends on the model used.

  1. Flavor preferences conditioned by nutritive and non-nutritive sweeteners in mice.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, Anthony; Ackroff, Karen

    2017-02-10

    Recent studies suggest that preferences are conditioned by nutritive (sucrose) but not by non-nutritive (sucralose) sweeteners in mice. Here we compared the effectiveness of nutritive and non-nutritive sweeteners to condition flavor preferences in three mouse strains. Isopreferred sucrose and sucralose solutions both conditioned flavor preferences in C57BL/6J (B6) mice but sucrose was more effective, consistent with its post-oral appetition action. Subsequent experiments compared flavor conditioning by fructose, which has no post-oral appetition effect in B6 mice, and a sucralose+saccharin mixture (SS) which is highly preferred to fructose in 24-h choice tests. Both sweeteners conditioned flavor preferences but fructose induced stronger preferences than SS. Training B6 mice to drink a flavored SS solution paired with intragastric fructose infusions did not enhance the SS-conditioned preference. Thus, the post-oral nutritive actions of fructose do not explain the sugar's stronger preference conditioning effect. Training B6 mice to drink a flavored fructose solution containing SS did not reduce the sugar-conditioned preference, indicating that SS does not have an off-taste that attenuates conditioning. Although B6 mice strongly preferred flavored SS to flavored fructose in a direct choice test, they preferred the fructose-paired flavor to the SS-paired flavor when these were presented in water. Fructose conditioned a stronger flavor preference than an isopreferred saccharin solution, indicating that sucralose is not responsible for the limited SS conditioning actions. SS is highly preferred by FVB/NJ and CAST/EiJ inbred mice, yet conditioned only weak flavor preferences. It is unclear why highly or equally preferred non-nutritive sweeteners condition weaker preferences than fructose, when all stimulate the same T1r2/T1r3 sweet receptor. Recent findings support the existence of non-T1r2/T1r3 glucose taste sensors; however, there is no evidence for receptors that

  2. Handedness and Preferred Ear for Telephoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Stephen M.

    1987-01-01

    Examined relationship between handedness and preferred ear for telephoning in 140 college students. Increased degree of sinistrality was associated with increased tendency to use left ear for telephoning. Found tendency to pick up telephone receiver with preferred hand and hold earpiece to ipsilateral ear. Results may relate to reports of reduced…

  3. Distinguishing the Spending Preferences of Seniors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmer, Zachary; Chappell, Neena L.

    1996-01-01

    The consumer spending preferences of 1,406 senior Canadians were surveyed. Age distinguished those who had product-specific preferences. Income and health status separated those interested in recreational spending from those more interested in basic needs. Diversity of health and social characteristics in this population extends to their…

  4. Preservice Music Teachers' Employment Preferences: Consideration Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Nicole R.

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate preservice music teachers' (N = 187) perceptions of employment preferences when considering future teaching positions. Adaptive Conjoint Analysis, a business market-based research tool, was used to determine preferences for personal factors (e.g., salary, commute), school environmental factors (e.g.,…

  5. Students' Preferred Learning Styles in Graphic Communications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ernst, Jeremy V.; Clark, Aaron C.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify changes in dominant preferred learning styles of students based on instructional presentation of course content. This study evaluates dominant preferred learning styles of two groups of university students. The first group of students was enrolled in a course that introduces graphical representation in…

  6. Friendship Preferences among German and Turkish Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jugert, Philipp; Noack, Peter; Rutland, Adam

    2011-01-01

    This study examined changes in and predictors of preference for same-ethnic friendships among German (N = 106) and Turkish (N = 45) preadolescents (M age = 10.4 years) during their 1st year in an ethnically heterogeneous school. Drawing on the contact hypothesis, it examined the relation between children's attitudes and their preference for…

  7. Biological Components of Colour Preference in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Anna; Bevis, Laura; Ling, Yazhu; Hurlbert, Anya

    2010-01-01

    Adult colour preference has been summarized quantitatively in terms of weights on the two fundamental neural processes that underlie early colour encoding: the S-(L+M) ("blue-yellow") and L-M ("red-green") cone-opponent contrast channels ( Ling, Hurlbert & Robinson, 2006; Hurlbert & Ling, 2007). Here, we investigate whether colour preference in…

  8. 75 FR 28788 - Preferred Supplier Program (PSP)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-24

    ..., performance, quality, and business relations would be granted Preferred Supplier Status (PSS). Contractors.../business_opportunities/preferred_supplier , so commenters should not include information that they do not wish to be posted (for example, personal or business-confidential). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  9. Age and Gender Differences in Instructional Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belcheir, Marcia J.

    This study examines whether students' age and/or gender impact their preferences for instructional practices thought to improve learning, and their preparation for college and performance in college. Students were asked which of 38 instructional practices they preferred, how often they experienced each practice, and how well prepared they felt in…

  10. Preferences for Three Theoretically Derived Counseling Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holen, Michael C.; Kinsey, William M.

    1975-01-01

    This study examined differences in potential-client preference and believed effectiveness for counseling approaches. Analyses of responses to randomly ordered same-client, same-problem tapes of each approach indicated that the behavioral approach was significantly more highly preferred and believed more effective than either the client-centered or…

  11. Personal Epistemology and Preference for Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyddon, William J.

    1989-01-01

    Used a 3 x 3 mixed factorial design to study relation between a person's dominant way of knowing (rationalism, metaphorism, empiricism) and the preference for three counseling approaches (rationalist, constructivist, behavioral) with college students (N=92). Found participants significantly preferred counseling approach hypothesized to represent…

  12. A Method to Assess Work Task Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobigo, Virginie; Morin, Diane; Lachapelle, Yves

    2009-01-01

    Persons with intellectual disability may encounter difficulties in making choices and expressing preferences because of restricted communication skills or a tendency to acquiesce. In addition, many studies provide evidence that these persons have less opportunity to make choices and express their preferences. The aim of this study was to conduct a…

  13. Course Structure Preferences: The Discriminating Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanier, Dinoo J.; Kallis, M. Jeffery

    1984-01-01

    In observing the effect of types of instructional methods on academic achievement, students were viewed as decision makers whose preferences were to be taken into account. Student reaction to preferred teaching techniques translated into an application of marketing concept to education. Research methodology is presented and implications of…

  14. 36 CFR 17.7 - Preference rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preference rights. 17.7... CONVEYANCE OF FREEHOLD AND LEASEHOLD INTERESTS ON LANDS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 17.7 Preference rights... right to acquire the interest for an amount equal to the highest bid if within 30 days they notify...

  15. Teachers' Preferences to Teach Underserved Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronfeldt, Matthew; Kwok, Andrew; Reininger, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    To increase the supply of teachers into underserved schools, teacher educators and policymakers commonly use two approaches: (a) recruit individuals who already report strong preferences to work in underserved schools or (b) design pre-service preparation to increase preferences. Using survey and administrative data on more than 1,000 teachers in…

  16. Qualitative Investigation of Young Children's Music Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roulston, Kathryn

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative study examined young children's music preferences through group conversations with children, interviews with parents, and non-participant observation of classroom settings in daycare and elementary classrooms. Data were analyzed inductively to generate themes, and revealed that (1) children expressed distinct preferences for an…

  17. Undergraduate Psychology Courses Preferred by Graduate Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Timothy J.; Reisinger, Debra L.; Jordan-Fleming, Mary Kay

    2012-01-01

    Information about the undergraduate psychology courses preferred by graduate programs is useful for a number of purposes, including (a) advising psychology majors who are interested in graduate school, (b) undergraduate curriculum planning, and (c) examining whether graduate programs' preferences reflect national guidelines for the undergraduate…

  18. Sound preferences in urban open public spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jian; Yang, Wei

    2003-10-01

    This paper studies people's perception of sound, based on an intensive questionnaire survey in fourteen urban open public spaces of five European countries. The questionnaire includes identification of recognized sounds, classification of sound preference, and indication of wanted and unwanted sounds. The results indicate three facets to people's sound preferences. First, people generally prefer natural and culture-related sounds rather than artificial sounds. Vehicle sounds and construction sounds are regarded as the most unpopular, whereas sounds from human activities are normally rated as neutral. Second, cultural background and long-term environmental experience play an important role in people's judgment of sound preference. People from a similar environment may show a similar tendency on their sound preferences, which can be defined as macro-preference. Third, personal differences, such as age and gender, further influence people's sound preference, which can be defined as micro-preference. For example, with increasing age, a higher percentage of people are favorable to, or tolerate, sounds relating to nature, culture or human activities. Male and female exhibit only slight differences. [Work supported by the European Commission.

  19. 36 CFR 13.315 - Preferred operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preferred operators. 13.315 Section 13.315 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Visitor Services § 13.315 Preferred operators. (a)...

  20. 36 CFR 13.315 - Preferred operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Preferred operators. 13.315 Section 13.315 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Visitor Services § 13.315 Preferred operators. (a)...

  1. 36 CFR 13.315 - Preferred operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Preferred operators. 13.315 Section 13.315 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Visitor Services § 13.315 Preferred operators. (a)...

  2. 36 CFR 13.315 - Preferred operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Preferred operators. 13.315 Section 13.315 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Visitor Services § 13.315 Preferred operators. (a)...

  3. 36 CFR 13.315 - Preferred operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Preferred operators. 13.315 Section 13.315 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Visitor Services § 13.315 Preferred operators. (a)...

  4. Learning Style Preferences of Gifted Minority Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Norma J.; Yong, Fung Lan

    1993-01-01

    This study compared learning style preferences among gifted African-American (n=54), Mexican-American (n=61), and American-born Chinese (n=40) middle grade students attending Chicago, Illinois, public schools. Significant ethnic, gender, and grade differences were found. All three groups preferred studying in the afternoon and bright light and did…

  5. Implicit Learning of Semantic Preferences of Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paciorek, Albertyna; Williams, John N.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies of semantic implicit learning in language have only examined learning grammatical form-meaning connections in which learning could have been supported by prior linguistic knowledge. In this study we target the domain of verb meaning, specifically semantic preferences regarding novel verbs (e.g., the preference for a novel verb to…

  6. Students' Preferences in Undergraduate Mathematics Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iannone, P.; Simpson, A.

    2015-01-01

    Existing research into students' preferences for assessment methods has been developed from a restricted sample: in particular, the voice of students in the 'hard-pure sciences' has rarely been heard. We conducted a mixed method study to explore mathematics students' preferences of assessment methods. In contrast to the message from the general…

  7. 13 CFR 120.411 - Preferences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preferences. 120.411 Section 120.411 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Lenders Participation Criteria § 120.411 Preferences. An agreement to participate under the Act may not establish any...

  8. Music Listening Preferences of Macau Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hui, Wanfong Viny

    2009-01-01

    This is a pioneer study of Macau's music education focusing on music listening preference. Adopting models from Western cultures, the study, launched in 2006, aimed to explore the factors of age and gender in regard to music preference. The subjects ranged from fourth-graders to university students (N=2495) (15 missing). Participants rated their…

  9. Women's Comedy Preferences during the Menstrual Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadowcroft, Jeanne M.; Zillman, Dolf

    1987-01-01

    Indicates that premenstrual and menstrual women preferred comedy over alternative choices more strongly than did women midway through the cycle. Suggests that this preference reflects a desire to overcome the hormonally mediated noxious mood states that are characteristically associated with the premenstrual and menstrual phases of the cycle. (JD)

  10. 20 CFR 617.24 - Preferred training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preferred training. 617.24 Section 617.24 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TRADE ADJUSTMENT ASSISTANCE FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Reemployment Services § 617.24 Preferred training....

  11. Understanding drug preferences, different perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Mol, Peter G M; Arnardottir, Arna H; Straus, Sabine M J; de Graeff, Pieter A; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M; Quik, Elise H; Krabbe, Paul F M; Denig, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Aims To compare the values regulators attach to different drug effects of oral antidiabetic drugs with those of doctors and patients. Methods We administered a ‘discrete choice’ survey to regulators, doctors and patients with type 2 diabetes in The Netherlands. Eighteen choice sets comparing two hypothetical oral antidiabetic drugs were constructed with varying drug effects on glycated haemoglobin, cardiovascular risk, bodyweight, duration of gastrointestinal complaints, frequency of hypoglycaemia and risk of bladder cancer. Responders were asked each time which drug they preferred. Results Fifty-two regulators, 175 doctors and 226 patients returned the survey. Multinomial conditional logit analyses showed that cardiovascular risk reduction was valued by regulators positively (odds ratio 1.98, 95% confidence interval 1.11–3.53), whereas drug choices were negatively affected by persistent gastrointestinal problems (odds ratio 0.24, 95% confidence interval 0.14–0.41) and cardiovascular risk increase (odds ratio 0.49, 95% confidence interval 0.27–0.87). Doctors and patients valued these effects in a similar manner to regulators. The values that doctors attached to large changes in glycated haemoglobin and that both doctors and patients attached to hypoglycaemia and weight gain also reached statistical significance. No group's drug choice was affected by a small absolute change in risk of bladder cancer when presented in the context of other drug effects. When comparing the groups, the value attached by regulators to less frequent hypoglycaemic episodes was significantly smaller than by patients (P = 0.044). Conclusions Regulators may value major benefits and risks of drugs for an individual diabetes patient mostly in the same way as doctors and patients, but differences may exist regarding the value of minor or short-term drug effects. PMID:25469876

  12. Context effects and the temporal stability of stated preferences.

    PubMed

    Liebe, Ulf; Hundeshagen, Cordula; Beyer, Heiko; Cramon-Taubadel, Stephan von

    2016-11-01

    In stated preference studies it is assumed that individuals' answers reflect true preferences and are stable over time. We test these two assumptions of validity and reliability using as an example a choice experiment study on ethical consumption that measures preferences for a Peace Product jointly produced by Israeli and Palestinian producers as well as for organic products. In a web survey conducted in Germany, we investigate the validity assumption by manipulating the question context and presenting one group of respondents with questions on anti-Semitic and anti-Arabic attitudes before the choice tasks, and presenting another group with these questions after the choice tasks. In order to test the assumption of temporal stability, the same experimental set-up was repeated in a second survey based on a new sample ten months after the first. However, prior to the second survey an external event, a major violent dispute between Israelis and the Palestinians occurred. Overall, we find evidence for a context effect but not for temporal instability. In both surveys, the placement of the attitudinal questions before the choice tasks has a positive effect on the valuation of products from Israel, Palestinian products and the Peace Product (i.e. a directional context effect). The respondents seem to act according to an anti-discrimination norm. In line with this reasoning, we find an attention shift caused by the attitudinal questions. Organic products are valued much less positively if discriminatory attitudes are surveyed before the choice tasks. Furthermore, despite the violent dispute, stated preferences are very stable over time. This indicates high reliability of stated preference studies and encourages the use of study results by private and public decision makers.

  13. Mining Preferred Traversal Paths with HITS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Jieh-Shan; Lin, Ying-Lin; Chen, Yu-Cheng

    Web usage mining can discover useful information hidden in web logs data. However, many previous algorithms do not consider the structure of web pages, but regard all web pages with the same importance. This paper utilizes HITS values and PNT preferences as measures to mine users' preferred traversal paths. Wë structure mining uses HITS (hypertext induced topic selection) to rank web pages. PNT (preferred navigation tree) is an algorithm that finds users' preferred navigation paths. This paper introduces the Preferred Navigation Tree with HITS (PNTH) algorithm, which is an extension of PNT. This algorithm uses the concept of PNT and takes into account the relationships among web pages using HITS algorithm. This algorithm is suitable for E-commerce applications such as improving web site design and web server performance.

  14. Speciality preferences in Dutch medical students influenced by their anticipation on family responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Alers, Margret; Pepping, Tess; Bor, Hans; Verdonk, Petra; Hamberg, Katarina; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine

    2014-12-01

    Physician gender is associated with differences in the male-to-female ratio between specialities and with preferred working hours. We explored how graduating students' sex or full-time or part-time preference influences their speciality choice, taking work-life issues into account. Graduating medical students at Radboud University Medical Centre, the Netherlands participated in a survey (2008-2012) on career considerations. Logistic regression tested the influence of sex or working hour preference on speciality choice and whether work-life issues mediate. Of the responding students (N = 1,050, response rate 83, 73.3 % women), men preferred full-time work, whereas women equally opted for part time. More men chose surgery, more women family medicine. A full-time preference was associated with a preference for surgery, internal medicine and neurology, a part-time preference with psychiatry and family medicine. Both male and female students anticipated that foremost the career of women will be negatively influenced by family life. A full-time preference was associated with an expectation of equality in career opportunities or with a less ambitious partner whose career would affect family life. This increased the likelihood of a choice for surgery and reduced the preference for family medicine among female students. Gender specifically plays an important role in female graduates' speciality choice making, through considerations on career prospects and family responsibilities.

  15. NASA preferred reliability-practices for design and test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lisk, Ronald C.

    1992-01-01

    NASA HQ established the NASA R&M Steering Committee (R&MSC) comprised of membership from each NASA field center. The primary charter of the R&MSC is to obtain, record, and share the best design practices that NASA has applied to successful space flight programs and current design considerations (guidelines) that should enhance flight reliability on emerging programs. The practices and guidelines are being assembled in a living document for distribution to NASA centers and the aerospace community. The document will be updated annually with additional practices and guidelines as contributions from the centers are reviewed and approved by the R&MSC. Practices and guidelines are not requirements, but rather a means of sharing procedures and techniques that a given center and the R&MSC together feel have strong technical merit and application to the design of space-related equipment.

  16. Infant's visual preferences for facial traits associated with adult attractiveness judgements: data from eye-tracking.

    PubMed

    Griffey, Jack A F; Little, Anthony C

    2014-08-01

    Human preferences for facial attractiveness appear to emerge at an early stage during infant development. A number of studies have demonstrated that infants display a robust preference for facial attractiveness, preferring to look at physically attractive faces versus less attractive faces as judged by adults. However, to-date, relatively little is known about which traits of the face infants use to base these preferences upon. In contrast, a large number of studies conducted with human adults have identified that preference for attractive faces can be attributed to a number of specific facial traits. The purpose of the experiments here was to measure and assess infant's visual preference via eye-tracker technology for faces manipulated for one of three traits known to effect attractiveness judgments in adult preference tests: symmetry, averageness, and sexually dimorphic traits. Sixty-four infants (28 female and 36 male) aged between 12 and 24 months old each completed a visual paired comparison (VPC) task for one of the three facial dimensions investigated. Data indicated that infants displayed a significant visual preference for facial symmetry analogous to those preferences displayed by adults. Infants also displayed a significant visual preference for feminine versions of faces, in line with some studies of adult preferences. Visual preferences for facial non-averageness, or distinctiveness were also seen, a pattern opposite to that seen in adults. These findings demonstrate that infant's appreciation for facial attractiveness in adult images between the ages of 12 and 24 months of age is based on some, but not all, traits that adults find attractive.

  17. A Precision Recursive Estimate for Ephemeris Refinement (PREFER)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbs, B.

    1980-01-01

    A recursive filter/smoother orbit determination program was developed to refine the ephemerides produced by a batch orbit determination program (e.g., CELEST, GEODYN). The program PREFER can handle a variety of ground and satellite to satellite tracking types as well as satellite altimetry. It was tested on simulated data which contained significant modeling errors and the results clearly demonstrate the superiority of the program compared to batch estimation.

  18. Spontaneous Behaviors and Wall-Curvature Lead to Apparent Wall Preference in Planarian.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Yoshitaro; Agata, Kiyokazu; Inoue, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    The planarian Dugesia japonica tends to stay near the walls of its breeding containers and experimental dishes in the laboratory, a phenomenon called "wall preference". This behavior is thought to be important for environmental adaptation, such as hiding by planarians in nature. However, the mechanisms regulating wall-preference behavior are not well understood, since this behavior occurs in the absence of any particular stimulation. Here we show the mechanisms of wall-preference behavior. Surprisingly, planarian wall-preference behavior was also shown even by the head alone and by headless planarians. These results indicate that planarian "wall-preference" behavior only appears to be a "preference" behavior, and is actually an outcome of spontaneous behaviors, rather than of brain function. We found that in the absence of environmental cues planarians moved basically straight ahead until they reached a wall, and that after reaching a wall, they changed their direction of movement to one tangential to the wall, suggesting that this spontaneous behavior may play a critical role in the wall preference. When we tested another spontaneous behavior, the wigwag movement of the planarian head, using computer simulation with various wigwag angles and wigwag intervals, large wigwag angle and short wigwag interval reduced wall-preference behavior. This indicated that wigwag movement may determine the probability of staying near the wall or leaving the wall. Furthermore, in accord with this simulation, when we tested planarian wall-preference behavior using several assay fields with different curvature of the wall, we found that concavity and sharp curvature of walls negatively impacted wall preference by affecting the permissible angle of the wigwag movement. Together, these results indicate that planarian wall preference may be involuntarily caused by the combination of two spontaneous planarian behaviors: moving straight ahead until reaching a wall and then moving along it

  19. Son preference in Pakistan: an analysis of intentions vs. behavior.

    PubMed

    De Tray, D

    1984-01-01

    The study assesses the extent to which the very strong expressed preference for sons in Pakistan influences couples' actual fertility behavior. Several fertility measures and estimation techniques were used to determine whether subsequent fertility behavior is influenced by the sex composition of previous births. Khan and Sirageldin's work on sex preference and desires for additional children in Pakistan were reviewed, followed by consideration of several methods of testing the relationship between sex of children and subsequent fertility and presentation of the results of several other tests of the hypothesis that sex composition of children affects actual fertility behavior. The Khan and Sirageldin (1977) results can be translated into a stopping rule which states that the higher the proportion of boys in a family, the less likely a couple is to go on to have another child. This finding, based on intentions, conflicts with the results based on actual behavior presented here. The Khan and Sirageldin results were extended by assessing the extent to which couples translated their very strong expressed preferences for sons into actual behavior. This extension was based on a sample of women, most of whom have completed fertility (all were aged 35 or older) and all of whom had at least 1 live birth. No overall relationship was found between the sex composition of children and subsequent fertility behavior. At least 2 explanations are possible for this inconsistency between intentions and behavior with each having a different implication for population policy and for the future of population growth in general. The first explanation is that in traditional societies such as Pakistan couples are unable to control their fertility adequately. The policy implications of this view suggest family planning and contraceptive distribution programs aimed at reducing the cost of achieving whatever desired family size couples want. Another explanation is that although parents

  20. A New Autonomy-Supportive Way of Teaching That Increases Conceptual Learning: Teaching in Students' Preferred Ways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Hyungshim; Reeve, Johnmarshall; Halusic, Marc

    2016-01-01

    We tested the educational utility of "teaching in students' preferred ways" as a new autonomy-supportive way of teaching to enhance students' autonomy and conceptual learning. A pilot test first differentiated preferred versus nonpreferred ways of teaching. In the main study, a hired teacher who was blind to the purpose of the study…

  1. Lambs form preferences for nonnutritive flavors paired with glucose.

    PubMed

    Burritt, E A; Provenza, F D

    1992-04-01

    We studied lambs' preferences for nonnutritive flavors that were paired with a glucose solution. On the 1st d of the experiment, lambs were offered a saccharin solution flavored with either orange or grape. The following day lambs received a glucose solution containing either orange or grape flavor. Lambs that had received grape and saccharin on d 1 received orange and glucose on d 2, and the reverse was true for the remaining lambs. Conditioning lasted 10 d; odd days were like the first and even days like the second. After conditioning, when lambs were offered a choice between orange- or grape-flavored water without sweeteners, lambs chose the flavor that had been paired with glucose. We also tested the initial hedonic response of naive lambs to the flavor of glucose and saccharin solutions. Lambs exhibited no initial preference. Our results indicate that lambs preferred the flavor that was paired with glucose (calories). Furthermore, results of this study suggest that ruminants may not innately recognize specific chemical constituents in foods or select diets based on initial hedonic value. Rather, learning plays a key role in the formation of dietary preference.

  2. Do women prefer more complex music around ovulation?

    PubMed

    Charlton, Benjamin D; Filippi, Piera; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2012-01-01

    The evolutionary origins of music are much debated. One theory holds that the ability to produce complex musical sounds might reflect qualities that are relevant in mate choice contexts and hence, that music is functionally analogous to the sexually-selected acoustic displays of some animals. If so, women may be expected to show heightened preferences for more complex music when they are most fertile. Here, we used computer-generated musical pieces and ovulation predictor kits to test this hypothesis. Our results indicate that women prefer more complex music in general; however, we found no evidence that their preference for more complex music increased around ovulation. Consequently, our findings are not consistent with the hypothesis that a heightened preference/bias in women for more complex music around ovulation could have played a role in the evolution of music. We go on to suggest future studies that could further investigate whether sexual selection played a role in the evolution of this universal aspect of human culture.

  3. Morningness-eveningness preferences and academic achievement of university students.

    PubMed

    Beşoluk, Senol; Onder, Ismail; Deveci, Isa

    2011-03-01

    The present study investigates whether the circadian preferences of students are related to their academic achievements. This study explores whether different class times affect students' achievement and examines the performance of students on final exams administered at 09:30 h for differences according to chronotype. A total of 1471 university students between 18 and 25 yrs of age responded to a morningness-eveningness questionnaire (MEQ), and data on their cumulative grade point averages (CGPA) were also collected from their transcripts. Some of the students in the sample attended classes during the first teaching period, which started at 08:00 h and ended at 14:50 h, and the remaining students followed the second schedule, which started at 15:00 h and ended at 21:50 h. MEQ scores were found to differ by sex. MEQ scores partially predicted academic success and that students' academic achievements differed according to the time of the teaching period. Moreover, final exam (administered at 09:30 h) scores differed with respect to their circadian preferences; students with a morning preference achieved higher scores than either those with an evening or intermediate preference. Both teaching and test start times thus impact academic performance.

  4. Preferences for nesting material as environmental enrichment for laboratory mice.

    PubMed

    Van de Weerd, H A; Van Loo, P L; Van Zutphen, L F; Koolhaas, J M; Baumans, V

    1997-04-01

    Behavioural and psychological needs of laboratory animals generally cannot adequately be met in standard laboratory cages. Environmental enrichment, which provides a more structured environment can enhance the well-being of laboratory animals. They may perform more of their species-specific behaviour and may control their environment in a better way. An easily applicable form of enrichment for laboratory mice is nesting material. Six different types of nesting materials were evaluated in a preference test with male and female animals of two strains [C57BL/6J or BALB/c, n = 48]. No significant differences in preference were found between the strains or between the sexes. All mice showed a clear preference for cages with tissues or towels as compared to paper strips or no nesting material, and for cages with cotton string or wood-wool as compared to wood shavings or no nesting material. Paper-derived materials were preferred over wood-derived materials, although the results also suggest that the nature (paper or wood) of the nesting material is less important than its structure, which determines the nestability of the material. Nesting material may be a relatively simple method to contribute to the well-being of laboratory mice.

  5. Oral tobacco products: preference and effects among smokers

    PubMed Central

    Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Jensen, Joni; Anderson, Amanda; Broadbent, Berry; Allen, Sharon; Zhang, Yan; Severson, Herb

    2011-01-01

    Background Recently, oral tobacco products have been marketed specifically towards cigarette smokers. These products come in different nicotine doses and formulations (snus vs. lozenge). To date, little research has been conducted to determine how smokers respond to these products. The goal of this study was to examine if smokers prefer certain oral tobacco products based on their specific characteristics. Methods Smokers interested in quitting underwent a sampling phase and a treatment phase. The sampling phase consisted of testing five different products varying in nicotine dose (high vs. moderate vs. low) and formulation (snus vs. lozenge): General Snus, Camel Snus, Marlboro Snus, Stonewall and Ariva. Each product was sampled in the natural environment on separate days. At the end of the sampling period, subjects chose which product they would use during the 2-week cigarette abstinence phase. Results General Snus (high nicotine) was not preferred by any smoker. No significant differences in preferences were observed across the other tobacco products. During the smoking cessation phase, Camel Snus was generally associated with greater craving relief and satisfaction, reduced use of cigarettes, and greater abstinence during follow-up compared to other products. Conclusion There were no differences in preferences for four of the five oral tobacco products but higher nicotine oral tobacco products were associated with better cessation outcomes among smokers who chose these products. PMID:21515003

  6. Ant Colonies Prefer Infected over Uninfected Nest Sites

    PubMed Central

    Pontieri, Luigi; Vojvodic, Svjetlana; Graham, Riley; Pedersen, Jes Søe; Linksvayer, Timothy A.

    2014-01-01

    During colony relocation, the selection of a new nest involves exploration and assessment of potential sites followed by colony movement on the basis of a collective decision making process. Hygiene and pathogen load of the potential nest sites are factors worker scouts might evaluate, given the high risk of epidemics in group-living animals. Choosing nest sites free of pathogens is hypothesized to be highly efficient in invasive ants as each of their introduced populations is often an open network of nests exchanging individuals (unicolonial) with frequent relocation into new nest sites and low genetic diversity, likely making these species particularly vulnerable to parasites and diseases. We investigated the nest site preference of the invasive pharaoh ant, Monomorium pharaonis, through binary choice tests between three nest types: nests containing dead nestmates overgrown with sporulating mycelium of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum (infected nests), nests containing nestmates killed by freezing (uninfected nests), and empty nests. In contrast to the expectation pharaoh ant colonies preferentially (84%) moved into the infected nest when presented with the choice of an infected and an uninfected nest. The ants had an intermediate preference for empty nests. Pharaoh ants display an overall preference for infected nests during colony relocation. While we cannot rule out that the ants are actually manipulated by the pathogen, we propose that this preference might be an adaptive strategy by the host to “immunize” the colony against future exposure to the same pathogenic fungus. PMID:25372856

  7. Rattus Psychologicus: construction of preferences by self-stimulating rats.

    PubMed

    Breton, Yannick-André; Marcus, James C; Shizgal, Peter

    2009-08-24

    Behavioral economists have proposed that human preferences are constructed during their elicitation and are thus influenced by the elicitation procedure. For example, different preferences are expressed when options are encountered one at a time or concurrently. This phenomenon has been attributed to differences in the "evaluability" of a particular attribute when comparison to an option with a different value of this attribute is or is not available. Research on the preferences of laboratory animals has often been carried out by means of operant-conditioning methods. Formal treatments of operant behavior relate preferences to variables such as the strength and cost of reward but do not address the evaluability of these variables. Two experiments assessed the impact of procedural factors likely to alter the evaluability of an opportunity cost ("price"): the work time required for a rat to earn a train of rewarding electrical brain stimulation. The results support the notion that comparison between recently encountered prices is necessary to render the price variable highly evaluable. When price is held constant over many trials and test sessions, the evaluability of this variable appears to decline. Implications are discussed for the design of procedures for estimating subjective reward strengths and costs in operant-conditioning experiments aimed at characterizing, identifying and understanding neural circuitry underlying evaluation and choice.

  8. Who Do Batswana Men Prefer: Male or Female Health Providers?

    PubMed

    Letshwenyo-Maruatona, Sandra

    2015-12-14

    Sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services are rarely designed specifically to meet men's needs. There is a general consensus among clinicians that males need access to SRH services. Studies have reported that men are often hesitant to go to health facilities because they feel uncomfortable being served by female providers. The study sought to determine whether men who participate in SRH services have specific preference for the gender of health workers for consultation on different types of services. A mixed-method design was employed. A combination of stratified proportional sampling of facilities and criterion purposive sampling of participants were used. Questionnaires were used to collect data from 390 participants, which were complemented with 10 in-depth interviews. Chi-square analysis with post hoc comparisons were used to determine whether there were significant differences in gender preference for specific services. Based on the data, Batswana males did not have any gender preference of the health provider for consultation on SRH services. The gender of the provider is of minor importance compared with other characteristics such as competence and confidentiality. However, the gender of the provider seems to be more important to younger men for delivery, sexually transmitted infections, voluntary counselling, and testing services. Further research is needed because the study was conducted in the city and the participants' characteristics may be unique to an urban setting. Preferences for providers among demographic groups can be useful in informing resource prioritization and help direct program efforts to reach different subgroups of males.

  9. Role of unsaponifiable fraction on the preference for beef tallow in C57Black/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Keisuke; Mitsumoto, Mitsuru

    2004-06-01

    We examined the contribution of unsaponifiable fraction, a model for minor substances in food fat, on the preference for beef tallow in C57Black/6NCrj mice. First, we tested the difference in preference among three kinds of beef tallow in mice by a two-bottle choice test. The beef tallow samples were preferred in the order 'premium' food-use, food-use, and chemical grades. The amount of unsaponifiable fraction was the highest in the premium and the lowest in the chemical-grade beef tallow sample. Fatty acid and triacylglycerol profiles, however, were similar in the three samples. Subsequently, we examined the effects and role of unsaponifiable fraction in the preference for triacylglycerol. Unsaponifiable fraction prepared from premium beef tallow sample alone did not affect the preference in mice, but a preference was observed when triolein and unsaponifiable fraction coexisted. These results indicated that the unsaponifiable fraction in beef tallow contributed to the preference in mice. In addition, it was suggested that the unsaponifiable fraction acted as an enhancer in the preference for triacylglycerol in C57Black/6NCrj mice.

  10. Changes in salivary estradiol predict changes in women's preferences for vocal masculinity.

    PubMed

    Pisanski, Katarzyna; Hahn, Amanda C; Fisher, Claire I; DeBruine, Lisa M; Feinberg, David R; Jones, Benedict C

    2014-08-01

    Although many studies have reported that women's preferences for masculine physical characteristics in men change systematically during the menstrual cycle, the hormonal mechanisms underpinning these changes are currently poorly understood. Previous studies investigating the relationships between measured hormone levels and women's masculinity preferences tested only judgments of men's facial attractiveness. Results of these studies suggested that preferences for masculine characteristics in men's faces were related to either women's estradiol or testosterone levels. To investigate the hormonal correlates of within-woman variation in masculinity preferences further, here we measured 62 women's salivary estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone levels and their preferences for masculine characteristics in men's voices in five weekly test sessions. Multilevel modeling of these data showed that changes in salivary estradiol were the best predictor of changes in women's preferences for vocal masculinity. These results complement other recent research implicating estradiol in women's mate preferences, attention to courtship signals, sexual motivation, and sexual strategies, and are the first to link women's voice preferences directly to measured hormone levels.

  11. Rats acquire stronger preference for flavors consumed towards the end of a high-fat meal.

    PubMed

    Myers, Kevin P

    2013-02-17

    Rats learn to prefer flavors associated with postingestive effects of nutrients. The physiological signals underlying this postingestive reward are unknown. We have previously shown that rats readily learn to prefer a flavor that was consumed early in a multi-flavored meal when glucose is infused intragastrically (IG), suggesting rapid postingestive reward onset. The present experiments investigate the timing of postingestive fat reward, by providing distinctive flavors in the first and second halves of meals accompanied by IG fat infusion. Learning stronger preference for the earlier or later flavor would indicate when the rewarding postingestive effects are sensed. Rats consumed sweetened, calorically-dilute flavored solutions accompanied by IG high-fat infusion (+ sessions) or water (- sessions). Each session included an "Early" flavor for 8min followed by a "Late" flavor for 8min. Learned preferences were then assessed in two-bottle tests (no IG infusion) between Early(+) vs. Early(-), Late(+) vs. Late(-), Early(+) vs. Late(+), and Early(-) vs. Late(-). Rats only preferred Late(+), not Early(+), relative to their respective (-) flavors. In a second experiment rats trained with a higher fat concentration learned to prefer Early(+) but more strongly preferred Late(+). Learned preferences were evident when rats were tested deprived or recently satiated. Unlike with glucose, ingested fat appears to produce a slower-onset rewarding signal, detected later in a meal or after its termination, becoming more strongly associated with flavors towards the end of the meal. This potentially contributes to enhanced liking for dessert foods, which persists even when satiated.

  12. Physicians' current use and preferences for male HPV vaccine-related patient education materials.

    PubMed

    Kasting, Monica L; Lake, Paige; Vadaparampil, Susan T

    2017-04-09

    Understanding physician preferences for educational materials to support male HPV vaccination is critical to improving vaccine uptake. Pediatric (Peds) and Family Medicine (FM) physicians in Florida completed a survey from May-August 2014 assessing current use of male-specific HPV vaccination patient education materials, and preferences for materials to increase HPV vaccination uptake. Peds and FM responses were compared with chi-squared or nonparametric tests. Most participants were FM (53.2%), White (66.6%), non-Hispanic (74.1%), and provided male patients/parents with HPV educational materials (59.1%). More than half (55.5%) provided a CDC factsheet for parents. Peds were more likely to indicate they provide educational materials (p<0.0001) than FM. The preferred source was the CDC (77.8%). Peds preferred using a factsheet as the medium of information more often than FM (85.6% vs. 68.0%; p<0.0001). When asked about preferences for targeted materials, 74.8% of providers indicated they would prefer materials targeted towards patients, 63.2% preferred information targeted towards parents, and 20.7% indicated they prefer non-targeted materials. Future research should focus on the development and testing of new HPV vaccine-specific materials and communication strategies for Peds and FM physicians.

  13. Visual preferences of imprinted ducklings are altered by the maternal call.

    PubMed

    Johnston, T D; Gottlieb, G

    1981-10-01

    This study determined whether the visual characteristics of a familiar (imprinted) model or the auditory characteristics of the species maternal call are more important in determining the maternal preferences of visually imprinted ducklings. Domestic mallard (Peking) ducklings were visually imprinted to a stuffed model of a mallard duck during a 30-min following trial at 24 hr after hatching. Simultaneous choice tests between the familiar mallard model and an unfamiliar red-and-white striped box at 48 hr and 72 hr confirmed the efficacy of the imprinting procedure: When both models were silent, subjects preferred to follow the familiar mallard model. However, when a recording of the mallard maternal assembly call was played from a speaker mounted inside the red box, subjects imprinted to the mallard preferred to follow the unfamiliar box rather than the familiar mallard model (Experiment 1). That preference was not due merely to the audiovisual stimulation provided by athe box, since when a recording of intermittent tones was played from the mallard model, subjects imprinted to the mallard still preferred to follow the red box emitting the mallard call (Experiment 2). Playing only the tones from the red box disrupted the stability of the subjects' imprinted preferences between the first and second tests but did not produce a preference for the box (Experiment 3). These results show that the mallard maternal call is more important than visual experience with an inanimate model in determining the maternal preferences of visually imprinted Peking ducklings.

  14. Role Preferences of People with Multiple Sclerosis: Image-Revised, Computerized Self-Administered Version of the Control Preference Scale

    PubMed Central

    Solari, Alessandra; Giordano, Andrea; Kasper, Jurgen; Drulovic, Jelena; van Nunen, An; Vahter, Liina; Viala, Frederique; Pietrolongo, Erika; Pugliatti, Maura; Antozzi, Carlo; Radice, Davide; Köpke, Sascha; Heesen, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Background The Control Preference Scale (CPS) is the most frequently used measure of patients’ preferred roles in treatment decisions. We revised the original CPS and developed a new computerized patient self-administered version (eCPS). We used the eCPS to assess role preferences, and their determinants, in Italian and German people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods New cartoons were produced, based on MS health professional and patient input/feedback and previous findings, and pilot tested on 26 Italian and German MS patients. eCPS acceptability and reliability (weighted kappa statistic, wK) in comparison to the original tool, was determined in 92 MS patients who received both CPS versions in random order. Results The new cartoons were well accepted and easily interpreted by patients, who reported they based their choices mainly on the text and considered the images of secondary importance. eCPS reliability was moderate (wK 0.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.40–0.65) and similar to the test-retest reliability of face-to-face administration assessed in a previous publication (wK 0.65, 95% CI 0.45–0.81). Higher education (odds ratio [OR] 3.74, 95% CI 1.00–14.05) and German nationality (OR 10.30, 95% CI 3.10–34.15) were associated with preference for an active role in the logistic model. Conclusions The newly devised eCPS was well received and considered easy to use by MS patients. Reliability was in line with that of the original version. Role preference appears affected by cultural characteristics and (borderline statistical significance) education. PMID:23823627

  15. Colostrum mediates the development of mother preference by newborn lambs.

    PubMed

    Goursaud, A P; Nowak, R

    1999-08-01

    The first sucking bouts have strong rewarding properties in the establishment of a preference for the mother by newborn lambs. In this study we designed an artificial teat (Experiment 1) and a method of tube feeding (Experiment 2) to investigate the role of nonnutritive sucking and colostrum intake as reinforcers in the development of this relationship (Experiment 3). In this third experiment, lambs of the control group (n=10) had free access to the udder. In the other groups they were prevented from sucking between birth and 6 h by covering the ewe's udder while lambs received one of the following treatments: access to nonnutritive teats fitted onto the mother's udder (n=12), tube fed with colostrum (n=11), or fully deprived (n=10). When tested in a two-choice test at 24 h of age, controls and lambs receiving colostrum spent significantly more time near their mother than near the alien ewe. By contrast, deprived lambs did not. Half of the lambs having access to nonnutritive teats displayed a preference for their mother; the other half chose the alien ewe. However, most lambs that were affected by the treatments displayed a preference for their mother when a second test was performed at 48 h. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that a neonatal nasogastric infusion of colostrum has the same rewarding properties as a complete sucking bout. They also provide evidence for the first time that a relationship with the dam can be established via a nutritional signal originating from the gastrointestinal sphere.

  16. Prefrontal cortex damage abolishes brand-cued changes in cola preference.

    PubMed

    Koenigs, Michael; Tranel, Daniel

    2008-03-01

    Human decision-making is remarkably susceptible to commercial advertising, yet the neurobiological basis of this phenomenon remains largely unexplored. With a series of Coke and Pepsi taste tests we show that patients with damage specifically involving ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPC), an area important for emotion, did not demonstrate the normal preference bias when exposed to brand information. Both comparison groups (neurologically normal adults and lesion patients with intact VMPC) preferred Pepsi in a blind taste test, but in subsequent taste tests that featured brand information ('semi-blind' taste tests), both comparison groups' preferences were skewed toward Coke, illustrating the so-called 'Pepsi paradox'. Like comparison groups, the VMPC patients preferred Pepsi in the blind taste test, but unlike comparison groups, the VMPC patients maintained their Pepsi preference in the semi-blind test. The result that VMPC damage abolishes the 'Pepsi paradox' suggests that the VMPC is an important part of the neural substrate for translating commercial images into brand preferences.

  17. Assessing Projection Bias in Consumers’ Food Preferences

    PubMed Central

    de-Magistris, Tiziana; Gracia, Azucena

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to test whether projection bias exists in consumers’ purchasing decisions for food products. To achieve our aim, we used a non-hypothetical experiment (i.e., experimental auction), where hungry and non-hungry participants were incentivized to reveal their willingness to pay (WTP). The results confirm the existence of projection bias when consumers made their decisions on food products. In particular, projection bias existed because currently hungry participants were willing to pay a higher price premium for cheeses than satiated ones, both in hungry and satiated future states. Moreover, participants overvalued the food product more when they were delivered in the future hungry condition than in the satiated one. Our study provides clear, quantitative and meaningful evidence of projection bias because our findings are based on economic valuation of food preferences. Indeed, the strength of this study is that findings are expressed in terms of willingness to pay which is an interpretable amount of money. PMID:26828930

  18. PREFERRED RETINAL LOCUS IN MACULAR DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    GREENSTEIN, VIVIENNE C.; SANTOS, RODRIGO A. V.; TSANG, STEPHEN H.; SMITH, R. THEODORE; BARILE, GAETANO R.; SEIPLE, WILLIAM

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the location and fixation stability of preferred retinal locations (PRLs) in patients with macular disease, and the relationship among areas of abnormal fundus autofluorescence, the PRL and visual sensitivity. Methods Fifteen patients (15 eyes) were studied. Seven had Stargardt disease, 1 bull’s eye maculopathy, 5 age-related macular degeneration, 1 Best disease, and 1 pattern dystrophy. All tested eyes had areas of abnormal fundus autofluorescence. The PRL was evaluated with fundus photography and the Nidek microperimeter. Visual field sensitivity was measured with the Nidek microperimeter. Results Of the 15 eyes, 4 had foveal and 11 had eccentric fixation. Eccentric PRLs were above the atrophic lesion and their stability did not depend on the degree of eccentricity from the fovea. Visual sensitivity was markedly decreased in locations corresponding to hypofluorescent areas. Sensitivity was not decreased in hyperfluorescent areas corresponding to flecks but was decreased if hyperfluorescence was in the form of dense annuli. Conclusion Eccentric PRLs were in the superior retina in regions of normal fundus autofluorescence. Fixation stability was not correlated with the degree of eccentricity from the fovea. To assess the outcomes of treatment trials it is important to use methods that relate retinal morphology to visual function. PMID:18628727

  19. Are consonant intervals music to their ears? Spontaneous acoustic preferences in a nonhuman primate.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Josh; Hauser, Marc

    2004-12-01

    Humans find some sounds more pleasing than others; such preferences may underlie our enjoyment of music. To gain insight into the evolutionary origins of these preferences, we explored whether they are present in other animals. We designed a novel method to measure the spontaneous sound preferences of cotton-top tamarins, a species that has been extensively tested for other perceptual abilities. Animals were placed in a V-shaped maze, and their position within the maze controlled their auditory environment. One sound was played when they were in one branch of the maze, and a different sound for the opposite branch; no food was delivered during testing. We used the proportion of time spent in each branch as a measure of preference. The first two experiments were designed as tests of our method. In Experiment 1, we used loud and soft white noise as stimuli; all animals spent most of their time on the side with soft noise. In Experiment 2, tamarins spent more time on the side playing species-specific feeding chirps than on the side playing species-specific distress calls. Together, these two experiments suggest that the method is effective, providing a spontaneous measure of preference. In Experiment 3, however, subjects showed no preference for consonant over dissonant intervals. Finally, tamarins showed no preference in Experiment 4 for a screeching sound (comparable to fingernails on a blackboard) over amplitude-matched white noise. In contrast, humans showed clear preferences for the consonant intervals of Experiment 3 and the white noise of Experiment 4 using the same stimuli and a similar method. We conclude that tamarins' preferences differ qualitatively from those of humans. The preferences that support our capacity for music may, therefore, be unique among the primates, and could be music-specific adaptations.

  20. Linkage of butterfly mate preference and wing color preference cue at the genomic location of wingless

    PubMed Central

    Kronforst, Marcus R.; Young, Laura G.; Kapan, Durrell D.; McNeely, Camille; O'Neill, Rachel J.; Gilbert, Lawrence E.

    2006-01-01

    Sexual isolation is a critical form of reproductive isolation in the early stages of animal speciation, yet little is known about the genetic basis of divergent mate preferences and preference cues in young species. Heliconius butterflies, well known for their diversity of wing color patterns, mate assortatively as a result of divergence in male preference for wing patterns. Here we show that the specific cue used by Heliconius cydno and Heliconius pachinus males to recognize conspecific females is the color of patches on the wings. In addition, male mate preference segregates with forewing color in hybrids, indicating a genetic association between the loci responsible for preference and preference cue. Quantitative trait locus mapping places a preference locus coincident with the locus that determines forewing color, which itself is perfectly linked to the wing patterning candidate gene, wingless. Furthermore, yellow-colored males of the polymorphic race H. cydno alithea prefer to court yellow females, indicating that wing color and color preference are controlled by loci that are located in an inversion or are pleiotropic effects of a single locus. Tight genetic associations between preference and preference cue, although rare, make divergence and speciation particularly likely because the effects of natural and sexual selection on one trait are transferred to the other, leading to the coordinated evolution of mate recognition. This effect of linkage on divergence is especially important in Heliconius because differentiation of wing color patterns in the genus has been driven and maintained by natural selection for Müllerian mimicry. PMID:16611733

  1. Children's gender and parents' color preferences.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Philip N

    2013-04-01

    Gender differences in color preferences have been found in adults and children, but they remain unexplained. This study asks whether the gendered social environment in adulthood affects parents' color preferences. The analysis used the gender of children to represent one aspect of the gendered social environment. Because having male versus female children in the U.S. is generally randomly distributed, it provides something of a natural experiment, offering evidence about the social construction of gender in adulthood. The participants were 749 adults with children who responded to an online survey invitation, asking "What's your favorite color?" Men were more likely to prefer blue, while women were more likely to prefer red, purple, and pink, consistent with long-standing U.S. patterns. The effect of having only sons was to widen the existing gender differences between men and women, increasing the odds that men prefer blue while reducing the odds that women do; and a marginally significant effect showed women having higher odds of preferring pink when they have sons only. The results suggest that, in addition to any genetic, biological or child-socialization effects shaping adults' tendency to segregate their color preferences by gender, the gender context of adulthood matters as well.

  2. Game Theory, Conditional Preferences, and Social Influence

    PubMed Central

    Stirling, Wynn C.; Felin, Teppo

    2013-01-01

    Neoclassical noncooperative game theory is based on a simple, yet powerful synthesis of mathematical and logical concepts: unconditional and immutable preference orderings and individual rationality. Although this structure has proven useful for characterizing competitive multi-player behavior, its applicability to scenarios involving complex social relationships is problematic. In this paper we directly address this limitation by the introduction of a conditional preference structure that permits players to modulate their preference orderings as functions of the preferences of other players. Embedding this expanded preference structure in a formal and graphical framework provides a systematic approach for characterizing a complex society. The result is an influence network that allows conditional preferences to propagate through the community, resulting in an emergent social model which characterizes all of the social relationships that exist and which leads to solution concepts that account for both group and individual interests. The Ultimatum game is presented as an example of how social influence can be modeled with conditional preferences. PMID:23451078

  3. Why Contextual Preference Reversals Maximize Expected Value

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Contextual preference reversals occur when a preference for one option over another is reversed by the addition of further options. It has been argued that the occurrence of preference reversals in human behavior shows that people violate the axioms of rational choice and that people are not, therefore, expected value maximizers. In contrast, we demonstrate that if a person is only able to make noisy calculations of expected value and noisy observations of the ordinal relations among option features, then the expected value maximizing choice is influenced by the addition of new options and does give rise to apparent preference reversals. We explore the implications of expected value maximizing choice, conditioned on noisy observations, for a range of contextual preference reversal types—including attraction, compromise, similarity, and phantom effects. These preference reversal types have played a key role in the development of models of human choice. We conclude that experiments demonstrating contextual preference reversals are not evidence for irrationality. They are, however, a consequence of expected value maximization given noisy observations. PMID:27337391

  4. Thermal preference predicts animal personality in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.

    PubMed

    Cerqueira, Marco; Rey, Sonia; Silva, Tome; Featherstone, Zoe; Crumlish, Margaret; MacKenzie, Simon

    2016-09-01

    Environmental temperature gradients provide habitat structure in which fish orientate and individual thermal choice may reflect an essential integrated response to the environment. The use of subtle thermal gradients likely impacts upon specific physiological and behavioural processes reflected as a suite of traits described by animal personality. In this study, we examine the relationship between thermal choice, animal personality and the impact of infection upon this interaction. We predicted that thermal choice in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus reflects distinct personality traits and that under a challenge individuals exhibit differential thermal distribution. Nile tilapia were screened following two different protocols: 1) a suite of individual behavioural tests to screen for personality and 2) thermal choice in a custom-built tank with a thermal gradient (TCH tank) ranging from 21 to 33 °C. A first set of fish were screened for behaviour and then thermal preference, and a second set were tested in the opposite fashion: thermal then behaviour. The final thermal distribution of the fish after 48 h was assessed reflecting final thermal preferendum. Additionally, fish were then challenged using a bacterial Streptococcus iniae model infection to assess the behavioural fever response of proactive and reactive fish. Results showed that individuals with preference for higher temperatures were also classified as proactive with behavioural tests and reactive contemporaries chose significantly lower water temperatures. All groups exhibited behavioural fever recovering personality-specific thermal preferences after 5 days. Our results show that thermal preference can be used as a proxy to assess personality traits in Nile tilapia and it is a central factor to understand the adaptive meaning of animal personality within a population. Importantly, response to infection by expressing behavioural fever overrides personality-related thermal choice.

  5. U-processes and preference learning.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Ren, Chuanbao; Li, Luoqing

    2014-12-01

    Preference learning has caused great attention in machining learning. In this letter we propose a learning framework for pairwise loss based on empirical risk minimization of U-processes via Rademacher complexity. We first establish a uniform version of Bernstein inequality of U-processes of degree 2 via the entropy methods. Then we estimate the bound of the excess risk by using the Bernstein inequality and peeling skills. Finally, we apply the excess risk bound to the pairwise preference and derive the convergence rates of pairwise preference learning algorithms with squared loss and indicator loss by using the empirical risk minimization with respect to U-processes.

  6. A study of automobile exhaust noise preferences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haire, Jay B.; Carney, Melinda J.; Cheenne, Dominique J.

    2005-04-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the relationship between preferences in automobile exhaust noise and the demographic factors of a listening jury. Noise samples of four different vehicles were recorded at idle as well as at 3000 RPM, and 1/3 octave sound spectra were acquired simultaneously. The recordings were presented to the jury using headphones and a preference survey was administered. Zwicker loudness was computed for all samples. Demographic factors such as gender, age, current and future vehicle ownership, were correlated to listening preferences, and unforeseen results were found, especially in regards to sport utility vehicles (SUV).

  7. Evaluation of the multiple-stimulus without replacement preference assessment method using activities as stimuli.

    PubMed

    Daly, Edward J; Wells, Nikki J; Swanger-Gagné, Michelle S; Carr, James E; Kunz, Gina M; Taylor, Ashley M

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the accuracy of the multiple-stimulus without replacement (MSWO) preference assessment for identifying preferred common classroom activities as reinforcers with children with behavioral disorders. The accuracy of predictions from the MSWO regarding high, medium, and low stimulus preference was tested by providing contingent access to activities for completing math problems within an independent seatwork format. Overall, there was an interaction effect between preference ranking (high, medium, or low) and number of problems completed. The results confirm and extend previous findings regarding the accuracy of predictions with the MSWO. The findings also reveal, however, some individual differences that may account for instances in which student behavior did not conform to predictions of stimulus preference assessments.

  8. Preference for consonance over dissonance by hearing newborns of deaf parents and of hearing parents.

    PubMed

    Masataka, Nobuo

    2006-01-01

    Behavioral preferences for consonance over dissonance were tested in hearing infants of deaf parents and in hearing infants of hearing parents when they were 2 days old. Using a modified visual-fixation-based, auditory-preference procedure, I found that both 2-day-old infants of deaf parents and those of hearing parents looked longer at a visual stimulus when looking produced the original version of a Mozart minuet as opposed to a version altered to contain many dissonant intervals. The relative magnitude of such preference did not significantly differ whether their parents were deaf or hearing. Infants prefer consonance over dissonance, and the preference is present from birth and is not dependent on any specific prenatal or early postnatal experience.

  9. The effects of control of resources on magnitudes of sex differences in human mate preferences.

    PubMed

    Moore, Fhionna; Cassidy, Clare; Perrett, David I

    2010-12-03

    We tested the hypothesis that magnitudes of sex differences in human mate preferences would be inversely related to control of resources. Specifically, we predicted that the ideal partner age, maximum and minimum partner ages tolerated and preferences for "physical attractiveness" over "good financial prospects" of female participants would approach parity with that of men with increasing control of resources. In a sample of 3770 participants recruited via an online survey, the magnitudes of sex differences in age preferences increased with resource control whereas the sex difference in preferences for "physical attractiveness" over "good financial prospects" disappeared when resource control was high. Results are inconsistent, and are discussed in the context of adaptive tradeoff and biosocial models of sex differences in human mate preferences.

  10. Preferred and Energetically Optimal Transition Speeds During Backward Human Locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Hreljac, Alan; Imamura, Rodney; Escamilla, Rafael F.; Casebolt, Jeffrey; Sison, Mitell

    2005-01-01

    Some aspects of backward locomotion are similar to forward locomotion, while other aspects are not related to their forward counterpart. The backward preferred transition speed (BPTS) has never been directly compared to the energetically optimal transition speed (EOTS), nor has it been compared to the preferred transition speed (PTS) during forward locomotion. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the BPTS occurs at the EOTS, and to examine the relationship between the backward and forward preferred gait transition speeds. The preferred backward and forward transition speeds of 12 healthy, young subjects (7 males, 5 females) were determined after subjects were familiarized with forward and backward treadmill locomotion. On a subsequent day, subjects walked backward at speeds of 70, 80, 90, 100, and 110% of the BPTS and ran backward at speeds of 60, 75, 90, 100, and 120% of the BPTS while VO2 and RPE data were collected. After subtracting standing VO2, exercise VO2 was normalized to body mass and speed. For each subject, energy-speed curves for walking and running were fit to the normalized data points. The intersection of these curves was defined as the EOTS which was compared to the BPTS using a paired t-test (p < 0.05). RPE and VO2 at the BPTS were also compared between walking and running conditions, and the correlation between BPTS and PTS was calculated. The EOTS (1.85 ± 0.09 m·s-1) was significantly greater than the BPTS (1.63 ± 0.11 m·s-1). Even though RPE was equal for walking and running at the BPTS, VO2 was significantly greater when running. There was a strong correlation (r = 0.82) between the BPTS and the PTS. Similar to forward locomotion, the determinants of the BPTS must include factors other than metabolic energy. The gait transition during backward locomotion exhibits several similarities to its forward counterpart. Key Points The backward preferred transition speed (1.63 ± 0.11 m·s-1) was significantly less than the

  11. Preferred Modality of Stimulus Input and Memory for CVC Trigrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Patricia N.; Tacker, Robert S.

    1974-01-01

    Three groups of 8-year-old children were selected: one preferring auditory over visual stimuli, one preferring visual over auditory, and one with no preference. The students then learned lists of CVC trigrams presented through preferred and nonpreferred modalities. Preferred modalities triggered the best recall. (Authors/JA)

  12. DEVELOPING A TOOL FOR ENVIRONMENTALLY PREFERABLE PURCHASING

    EPA Science Inventory

    LCA-based guidance was developed by EPA under the Framework for Responsible Environmental Decision Making (FRED) effort to demonstrate how to conduct a relative comparison between product types to determine environmental preferability. It identifies data collection needs and iss...

  13. Evolution properties of online user preference diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Qiang; Ji, Lei; Liu, Jian-Guo; Han, Jingti

    2017-02-01

    Detecting the evolution properties of online user preference diversity is of significance for deeply understanding online collective behaviors. In this paper, we empirically explore the evolution patterns of online user rating preference, where the preference diversity is measured by the variation coefficient of the user rating sequence. The statistical results for four real systems show that, for movies and reviews, the user rating preference would become diverse and then get centralized finally. By introducing the empirical variation coefficient, we present a Markov model, which could regenerate the evolution properties of two online systems regarding to the stable variation coefficients. In addition, we investigate the evolution of the correlation between the user ratings and the object qualities, and find that the correlation would keep increasing as the user degree increases. This work could be helpful for understanding the anchoring bias and memory effects of the online user collective behaviors.

  14. Why do Varroa mites prefer nurse bees?

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xianbing; Huang, Zachary Y.; Zeng, Zhijiang

    2016-01-01

    The Varroa mite, Varroa destructor, is an acarine ecto-parasite on Apis mellifera. It is the worst pest of Apis mellifera, yet its reproductive biology on the host is not well understood. In particular, the significance of the phoretic stage, when mites feed on adult bees for a few days, is not clear. In addition, it is not clear whether the preference of mites for nurses observed in the laboratory also happens inside real colonies. We show that Varroa mites prefer nurses over both newly emerged bees and forgers in a colony setting. We then determined the mechanism behind this preference. We show that this preference maximizes Varroa fitness, although due to the fact that each mite must find a second host (a pupa) to reproduce, the fitness benefit to the mites is not immediate but delayed. Our results suggest that the Varroa mite is a highly adapted parasite for honey bees. PMID:27302644

  15. Specialty Preferences of Physicians and Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gough, Harrison G.

    1975-01-01

    Family and internal medicine were rated high by the groups studied. Neurological and colon-rectal surgery were rated low. Males gave higher ratings to surgical specialities, whereas females express stronger preferences for obstetrics and gynecology. (Author/KE)

  16. A Nonverbal Technique for Studying Music Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotter, Vance W.; Spradlin, Joseph E.

    1971-01-01

    Evaluates the preference among retarded children and adolescents for music as compared to silence, for music as compared to white noise (nonmusical auditory stimulus) and for two particular types of music. (Author/AJ)

  17. GSFC preferred parts lists PPL-17

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldini, B. P. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    A listing of preferred parts, part upgrading procedures, part derating guidelines, and part screening procedures to be used in the selection, procurement, and application of parts for Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) space systems and ground support equipment is contained.

  18. Consumer preference and effect of correct or misleading information after ageing beef longissimus muscle using vacuum, dry ageing, or a dry ageing bag.

    PubMed

    Stenström, Helena; Li, Xin; Hunt, Melvin C; Lundström, Kerstin

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine which ageing treatment of beef was sensorially preferred by consumers and how their preference changed when given information about the ageing treatment used. Longissimus thoracis et lumborum from four young bulls were randomly assigned three ageing treatments: dry ageing, vacuum ageing and ageing in a highly moisture permeable bag (bag dry-ageing); each was aged at 1.6 °C for another 13 days. A preference test (171 consumers) with questions about overall liking, tenderness, and juiciness was performed. Thereafter, a deceptive test (61 consumers) was performed with two taste samples, the first taste sample with correct information about ageing treatment and the second with false information. In the preference test, consumers preferred dry ageing and bag dry-ageing to vacuum ageing. In the deceptive test, dry ageing was preferred, but the information given influenced preference.

  19. Colour preferences of juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).

    PubMed

    Li, Xian; Chi, Liang; Tian, Huiqin; Meng, Lingjie; Zheng, Jimeng; Gao, Xiaolong; Liu, Ying

    2016-03-15

    The background colour of aquaculture tanks is normally chosen based on practical experience and/or observations of fish behaviour and the growth rates achieved. However, some farmed species, including turbot, are sentient and can show a preference for a particular environment. In the current study, a self-referent colour preference device was developed and the self-referent colour preference of farmed fish investigated. In experiment 1, the background colour preference of juvenile turbot cultured under a grey background for >3months post-incubation was evaluated. Based on these results, in experiment 2, juvenile turbot were adapted to blue, pink, white, or black backgrounds for 50days and their preferences established. Meanwhile, the growth rates, feed intake, and metabolic rates (including oxygen consumption rate, and ammonia excretion rate) of the turbot were evaluated. The results showed that turbot farmed under a grey background, or after long-term white, blue, pink and black colour adaptation, always displayed a preference for a white background and a dislike for black, red, or brown backgrounds, although their body colour was greyish. Long-term adaptation influenced the frequency of juveniles selecting white, black, pink or blue backgrounds. They showed the highest growth rate, feed intake, and metabolic rates under blue and white backgrounds, and the lowest under a black background in accordance with their preferences shown in experiment 1. Although it is unclear how turbot determine their self-referent colour preferences over such a short period of time, these results indicate that dark colours are unsuitable for the aquaculture of turbot culture in terms of the welfare of the fish.

  20. Domestic Preference Policies in Federal Procurement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    PROGRAM PROJECT TASK WORK UNIT ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. ACCESSION NO. 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) (UNCLAS SIFIED) Domestic Preference Policies ...obsolete SECURF:Y CLASSIcICATION O. THIS PAGE DOMESTIC PREFERENCE POLICIES IN FEDERAL PROCUREMENT By David Roy Francis B.A. May 1977, State University of...authored by Captain Charles W. Trainor). 3 such, they directly conflict with the liberal international trade policies advocated by the United States

  1. Problem and Preferred Management Practices Identification Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Patchen, Douglas G.

    2003-03-10

    The goals for this workshop were: to introduce key players in the Appalachian basin oil industry to DOE's new Preferred Upstream Management Practices (PUMP) program; to explain the various elements of our two-year project in detail; to transfer technology through a series of short, invited talks; to identify technical problems and best management practices; and to recruit members for our Preferred Management Practices (PMP) Council.

  2. Binge drinking in alcohol-preferring sP rats at the end of the nocturnal period.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Giancarlo; Maccioni, Paola; Acciaro, Carla; Lobina, Carla; Loi, Barbara; Zaru, Alessandro; Carai, Mauro A M; Gessa, Gian Luigi

    2014-05-01

    Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats have been selectively bred for high alcohol preference and consumption using the standard 2-bottle "alcohol (10%, v/v) vs. water" choice regimen with unlimited access; under this regimen, sP rats daily consume 6-7 g/kg alcohol. The present study assessed a new paradigm of alcohol intake in which sP rats were exposed to the 4-bottle "alcohol (10%, 20%, and 30%, v/v) vs. water" choice regimen during one of the 12 h of the dark phase of the daily light/dark cycle; the time of alcohol exposure was changed daily in a semi-random order and was unpredictable to rats. Alcohol intake was highly positively correlated with the time of the drinking session and averaged approximately 2 g/kg when the drinking session occurred during the 12th hour of the dark phase. Alcohol drinking during the 12th hour of the dark phase resulted in (a) blood alcohol levels averaging approximately 100 mg% and (b) severe signs of alcohol intoxication (e.g., impaired performance at a Rota-Rod task). The results of a series of additional experiments indicate that (a) both singular aspects of this paradigm (i.e., unpredictability of alcohol exposure and concurrent availability of multiple alcohol concentrations) contributed to this high alcohol intake, (b) alcohol intake followed a circadian rhythm, as it decreased progressively over the first 3 h of the light phase and then maintained constant levels until the beginning of the dark phase, and (c) sensitivity to time schedule was specific to alcohol, as it did not generalize to a highly palatable chocolate-flavored beverage. These results demonstrate that unpredictable, limited access to multiple alcohol concentrations may result in exceptionally high intakes of alcohol in sP rats, modeling - to some extent - human binge drinking. A progressively increasing emotional "distress" associated to rats' expectation of alcohol might be the neurobehavioral basis of this drinking behavior.

  3. Firmness Perception Influences Women’s Preferences for Vaginal Suppositories

    PubMed Central

    Zaveri, Toral; Primrose, Rachel J.; Surapaneni, Lahari; Ziegler, Gregory R.; Hayes, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Microbicides are being actively researched and developed as woman-initiated means to prevent HIV transmission during unprotected coitus. Along with safety and efficacy, assessing and improving compliance is a major area of research in microbicide development. We have developed carrageenan-based semisoft vaginal suppositories and have previously evaluated how physical properties such as firmness, size and shape influence women’s willingness to try them. Firmness has previously been quantified in terms of small-strain storage modulus, G’, however large-strain properties of the gels may also play a role in the firmness perception. In the current study we prepared two sets of suppositories with the same G’ but different elongation properties at four different G’ values (250, 2500, 12,500, 25,000 Pa): For convenience we refer to these as “brittle” and “elastic”, although these terms were never provided to study participants. In the first of two tests conducted to assess preference, women compared pairs of brittle and elastic suppositories and indicated their preference. We observed an interaction, as women preferred brittle suppositories at lower G’ (250, 2500 Pa) and elastic ones at a higher G’ (25,000 Pa). In the second test, women evaluated samples across different G’, rated the ease-of-insertion and willingness-to-try and ranked the samples in order of preference. Brittle suppositories at G’ of 12,500 Pa were most preferred. In vitro studies were also conducted to measure the softening of the suppositories in contact with vaginal simulant fluid (VSF). Release of antiretroviral drug tenofovir in VSF was quantified for the brittle and elastic suppositories at G’ of 12,500 Pa to determine the effect of suppository type on release. The initial rate of release was 20% slower with elastic suppositories as compared to brittle suppositories. Understanding how different physical properties simultaneously affect women’s preferences and

  4. Modelling Nonlinearities and Reference Dependence in General Practitioners' Income Preferences.

    PubMed

    Holte, Jon Helgheim; Sivey, Peter; Abelsen, Birgit; Olsen, Jan Abel

    2016-08-01

    This paper tests for the existence of nonlinearity and reference dependence in income preferences for general practitioners. Confirming the theory of reference dependent utility within the context of a discrete choice experiment, we find that losses loom larger than gains in income for Norwegian general practitioners, i.e. they value losses from their current income level around three times higher than the equivalent gains. Our results are validated by comparison with equivalent contingent valuation values for marginal willingness to pay and marginal willingness to accept compensation for changes in job characteristics. Physicians' income preferences determine the effectiveness of 'pay for performance' and other incentive schemes. Our results may explain the relative ineffectiveness of financial incentive schemes that rely on increasing physicians' incomes. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Behavioral and biochemical characteristics of rats preferring ethanol or water

    SciTech Connect

    Kulikova, O.G.; Borodkin, Y.S.; Razumovskaya, N.I.; Shabanov, P.D.; Sokolovskaya, N.E.

    1985-05-01

    Considering that learning and memory processes are largely determined by the intensity of RNA synthesis in specific brain structure, the authors study the relationship between learning ability of rats preferring ethanol or water and the level of RNA-synthesizing activity of brain cell nuclei. RNA-synthesizing activity of cell nuclei from cortical gray matter of the animals was determined one month after selection by measuring incorporation of deuterium-uridine triphosphate. The numerical results were subjected to statistical analysis by Student's test at P 0.05. It is shown that the altered behavior of animals preferring ethanol is evidently based on disturbed interaction between mediator and genetic structures of brain cells.

  6. Two Solvers for Tractable Temporal Constraints with Preferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossi, F.; Khatib,L.; Morris, P.; Morris, R.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A number of reasoning problems involving the manipulation of temporal information can naturally be viewed as implicitly inducing an ordering of potential local decisions involving time on the basis of preferences. Soft temporal constraints problems allow to describe in a natural way scenarios where events happen over time and preferences are associated to event distances and durations. In general, solving soft temporal problems require exponential time in the worst case, but there are interesting subclasses of problems which are polynomially solvable. We describe two solvers based on two different approaches for solving the same tractable subclass. For each solver we present the theoretical results it stands on, a description of the algorithm and some experimental results. The random generator used to build the problems on which tests are performed is also described. Finally, we compare the two solvers highlighting the tradeoff between performance and representational power.

  7. Oviposition preference, larval performance and adaptation of Trichoplusia ni on cabbage and cotton.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan-Xi; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2015-04-01

    Most female herbivores ensure to lay eggs where their offspring can develop successfully. The oviposition preferences of females affect strategies in pest management. In this study, the performance of two cohorts of Trichoplusia ni larvae on cabbage and cotton (after they had been transferred from their original host plants) were investigated. The preferences of female moth ovipositing and larval feeding on these two host plants were observed. The results indicated that plants significantly affected oviposition preference of the female adults and development and survival of larvae of T. ni. All females preferred to lay eggs on cabbage than cotton regardless from which host they originated. The detrimental effects of cotton on the development and survival of T. ni larvae originated from cabbage (CaTn) increased with the increase of the larval age when they were transferred. In addition, the host plant change did not significantly affect the development and survival of larvae of T. ni originating from cotton (CoTn). Larvae of CaTn preferred cabbage plants as compared to cotton plants, whereas larvae of CoTn did not show a significant choice. Although the adult females preferred laying eggs on cabbage, they did not show preferences between cotton and cabbage in a Y-tube olfactometer test. The hypothesis of oviposition preference and performance of larvae was supported by the results of CaTn, whereas they not supported by those from CoTn. Based on these results, the strategy to manage this serious pest was discussed.

  8. Effects of early visual experience on the background preference in juvenile cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yi-Hsin; Yan, Hong Young; Chiao, Chuan-Chin

    2012-10-23

    Although cuttlefish are capable of showing diverse camouflage body patterns against a variety of background substrates, whether they show background preference when given a choice of substrates is not well known. In this study, we characterized the background choice of post-embryonic cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis) and examined the effects of rearing visual environments on their background preferences. Different rearing backgrounds (enriched, uniformly grey and checkerboard) were used to raise cuttlefish from eggs or hatchlings, and four sets of two-background-choice experiments (differences in contrast, shape, size and side) were conducted at day 1 and weeks 4, 8 and 12 post-hatch. Cuttlefish reared in the enriched environment preferred high-contrast backgrounds at all post-embryonic stages. In comparison, those reared in the impoverished environments (uniformly grey and checkerboard) had either reversed or delayed high-contrast background preference. In addition, cuttlefish raised on the uniformly grey background, exposed to a checkerboard briefly (0.5 or 3 h) at week 4 and tested at week 8 showed increased high-contrast background preference. Interestingly, cuttlefish in the enriched group preferred an object size similar to their body size at day 1 and week 4, but changed this preference to smaller objects at week 12. These results suggest that high-contrast backgrounds may be more adaptive for juvenile cuttlefish, and visually enriched environments are important for the development of these background preference behaviours.

  9. Avoiding toxic levels of essential minerals: a forgotten factor in deer diet preferences.

    PubMed

    Ceacero, Francisco; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás; Olguín, Augusto; Miranda, María; García, Andrés; Martínez, Alberto; Cassinello, Jorge; Miguel, Valentín; Gallego, Laureano

    2015-01-01

    Ungulates select diets with high energy, protein, and sodium contents. However, it is scarcely known the influence of essential minerals other than Na in diet preferences. Moreover, almost no information is available about the possible influence of toxic levels of essential minerals on avoidance of certain plant species. The aim of this research was to test the relative importance of mineral content of plants in diet selection by red deer (Cervus elaphus) in an annual basis. We determined mineral, protein and ash content in 35 common Mediterranean plant species (the most common ones in the study area). These plant species were previously classified as preferred and non-preferred. We found that deer preferred plants with low contents of Ca, Mg, K, P, S, Cu, Sr and Zn. The model obtained was greatly accurate identifying the preferred plant species (91.3% of correct assignments). After a detailed analysis of these minerals (considering deficiencies and toxicity levels both in preferred and non-preferred plants) we suggest that the avoidance of excessive sulphur in diet (i.e., selection for plants with low sulphur content) seems to override the maximization for other nutrients. Low sulphur content seems to be a forgotten factor with certain relevance for explaining diet selection in deer. Recent studies in livestock support this conclusion, which is highlighted here for the first time in diet selection by a wild large herbivore. Our results suggest that future studies should also take into account the toxicity levels of minerals as potential drivers of preferences.

  10. Validity of the Control Preferences Scale in patients with emotional disorders

    PubMed Central

    De las Cuevas, Carlos; Peñate, Wenceslao

    2016-01-01

    Background The Control Preferences Scale (CPS) is the most frequently used measure of patients’ preferred roles in treatment decisions. The aim of this study was to provide data about the validity of CPS in psychiatric care of patients with emotional disorders. Methods The original CPS was translated to Spanish using the process of cross-cultural adaptation of self-reported measures as the methodological model for Spanish translation. The final version was tested in a convenience sample of 621 consecutive psychiatric outpatients (461 depressive and 160 anxiety disorders) that also completed the Shared Decision-Making Questionnaire, the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale, the Drug Attitude Inventory, and a questionnaire including sociodemographic and clinical variables. Results CPS showed a moderate internal consistency and a good convergent validity. Patients with collaborative and passive preferences expressed a greater reliance on psychotropics. Patients preferring a collaborative role self-reported greater perception of involvement in decision-making about their treatment. Patients preferring a passive role showed a greater external health locus of control. The most common preferred role was the collaborative–passive. Older patients and those under longer treatments preferred a passive role, while patients with higher levels of education preferred a collaborative role. Conclusion The CPS is a valid measure of the amount of control that psychiatric outpatients with emotional disorders want to assume in the process of making decisions about their treatment. PMID:27895470

  11. Preference of the herbivorous marine teleost Siganus canaliculatus for different macroalgae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Cuihong; Zeng, Fangui; Wang, Shuqi; Li, Yuanyou

    2014-06-01

    The decomposition of a large amount of unexploited macroalgal resource along the coast of China often results in heavy environmental pollution. In order to pave a way of using macroalgae as the dietary ingredient of rabbitfish Siganus canaliculatus, one of a few farmed herbivorous marine teleosts in China, its preference (feeding selectivity) for different macroalgae was determined in this study. Seven seaweed species abundantly inhabiting the coast of east Guangdong Province were exposed simultaneously to rabbitfish juveniles in laboratory (multiple-choice feeding) with their content and absolute intake assayed. It was found that the most preferred algae were Ulva prolifera, Gracilaria lemaneiformis and Chaetomorpha linum, less preferred algae were U. pertusa and Porphyra haitanensis, and least preferred ones were Sargassum fusiforme and Corallina sessilis. Such an order did not change when one to four relatively preferred seaweeds were removed. The preferred seaweeds were richer in protein and soluble sugar thus higher in energy than the least preferred. In addition, this fish was found to favor filamentous and flat algae rather than calcified ones. Accordingly, the richness of nutrients and morphological characteristics determined the preference of S. canaliculatus for tested macroalgae.

  12. Heterosexual experience prevents the development of conditioned same-sex partner preference in male rats.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Rodríguez, Rodrigo; Tecamachaltzi-Silvaran, Miriam B; Díaz-Estrada, Victor X; Chena-Becerra, Florencia; Herrera-Covarrubias, Deissy; Paredes-Ramos, Pedro; Manzo, Jorge; Garcia, Luis I; Coria-Avila, Genaro A

    2017-03-01

    Sexual partner preferences can be strengthened, weakened or even drastically modified via Pavlovian conditioning. For example, conditioned same-sex partner preference develops in sexually-naïve male rats that undergo same-sex cohabitation under the effects of quinpirole (QNP, D2 agonist). Here, we assessed the effect of prior heterosexual experience on the probability to develop a conditioned same-sex preference. Naïve or Sexually-experienced males received either Saline or QNP and cohabited during 24h with a male partner that bore almond scent on the back as conditioned stimulus. This was repeated every 4days for a total of three trials and resulted in four groups (Saline-naïve, Saline-experienced, QNP-naïve, QNP-experienced). Social and sexual preference were assessed four days after the last conditioning trial in a drug-free test in which experimental males chose between the scented familiar male and a novel sexually receptive female. Results showed that Saline-naïve, Saline-experienced and QNP-experienced displayed a clear preference for the female (opposite-sex). By contrast, only QNP-naïve males displayed a same-sex preference. Accordingly, QNP-experienced males were not affected by the conditioning process and continued to prefer females. We discuss the effects of copulation and D2 agonists on the facilitation and/or disruption of conditioned partner preferences.

  13. Minimal mimicry: mere effector matching induces preference.

    PubMed

    Sparenberg, Peggy; Topolinski, Sascha; Springer, Anne; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2012-12-01

    Both mimicking and being mimicked induces preference for a target. The present experiments investigate the minimal sufficient conditions for this mimicry-preference link to occur. We argue that mere effector matching between one's own and the other person's movement is sufficient to induce preference, independent of which movement is actually performed. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants moved either their arms or legs, and watched avatars that moved either their arms or legs, respectively, without any instructions to mimic. The executed movements themselves and their pace were completely different between participants (fast circular movements) and targets (slow linear movements). Participants preferred avatars that moved the same body part as they did over avatars that moved a different body part. In Experiment 3, using human targets and differently paced movements, movement similarity was manipulated in addition to effector overlap (moving forward-backward or sideways with arms or legs, respectively). Only effector matching, but not movement matching, influenced preference ratings. These findings suggest that mere effector overlap is sufficient to trigger preference by mimicry.

  14. Temporal context, preference, and resistance to change.

    PubMed

    Podlesnik, Christopher A; Jimenez-Gomez, Corina; Thrailkill, Eric A; Shahan, Timothy A

    2011-09-01

    According to behavioral momentum theory, preference and relative resistance to change in concurrent-chains schedules are correlated and reflect the relative conditioned value of discriminative stimuli. In the present study, we explore the generality of this relation by manipulating the temporal context within a concurrent-chains procedure through changes in the duration of the initial links. Consistent with previous findings, preference for a richer terminal link was less extreme with longer initial links across three experiments with pigeons. In Experiment 1, relative resistance to change and preference were related inversely when responding was disrupted with response-independent food presentations during initial links, replicating a previous finding with rats. However, more food was presented with longer initial links, confounding the disrupter and initial-link duration. In Experiment 2, presession feeding was used instead and eliminated the negative relation between relative resistance to change and preference, but relative resistance to change was not sensitive to relative terminal-link reinforcement rates. In Experiment 3, with more extreme relative terminal-link reinforcement rates, increasing initial-link duration similarly decreased preference and relative resistance to change for the richer terminal link. Thus, when conditions of disruption are equal and assessed under the appropriate reinforcement conditions, changes in temporal context impact relative resistance to change and preference similarly.

  15. Biological components of colour preference in infancy.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Anna; Bevis, Laura; Ling, Yazhu; Hurlbert, Anya

    2010-03-01

    Adult colour preference has been summarized quantitatively in terms of weights on the two fundamental neural processes that underlie early colour encoding: the S-(L+M) ('blue-yellow') and L-M ('red-green') cone-opponent contrast channels (Ling, Hurlbert & Robinson, 2006; Hurlbert & Ling, 2007). Here, we investigate whether colour preference in 4-5-month-olds may be analysed in the same way. We recorded infants' eye-movements in response to pairwise presentations of eight colour stimuli varying only in hue. Infants looked longest at reddish and shortest at greenish hues. Analyses revealed that the L-M and S-(L+M) contrast between stimulus colour and background explained around half of the variation in infant preference across the hue spectrum. Unlike adult colour preference patterns, there was no evidence for sex differences in the weights on either of the cone-opponent contrast components. The findings provide a quantitative model of infant colour preference that summarizes variation in infant preference across hues.

  16. [Patients' preferences for nurses' nonverbal expressions of warmth during nursing rounds and administration of oral medication].

    PubMed

    Kim, H S; Kim, M S

    1990-12-01

    Nursing involves deep human interpersonal relationships between nurses and patients. But in modern Korea, the nurse-patient relationship tends to be ritualistic and mechanestic. Patients usually express the hope that nurses be more tender and kind. Patients expect nurses to express their warmth especially through nonverbal behaviour. This study was conducted to identify patients' preferences for nurse's nonverbal expressions of warmth. Through the confirmation of these preferences, nurses may learn how to enhance their interpersonal relationships with patients. Subjects for the study were 73 patients who had been admitted to a university teaching hospital for at least three days and agreed to be interviewed by the investigator. The interactions were studied nonverbal expressions of warmth during nursing rounds and administration of oral medication. The interview schedule was especially designed by the investigator to measure the nurse's posture, the distance between the nurse and the patient, the nurse's eye contact, facial expression, hand motion and head nodding. Data analysis included frequencies, percentages and X2-test. The results of this study may be summerized as follows: 1. Patient's preferences for nurse's nonverbal expressions of warmth during nursing rounds. Preferred nurse's posture was sitting (50.7%) or standing (49.3%) opposite the patient. Preferred distance between the nurse and the patient was close to the bed (93.2%), less than 1m. Preferred eye contact was directed to the patient's eyes or their affected part (41.1%). Preferred facial expression was a smile (97.3%). Preferred hand motions were light gestures (41.1%). Patients preferred head nodding which approved their own opinions (69.9%). 2. Patient's preferences for nurse's nonverbal expressions of warmth during administration of oral medication. Preferred nurse's posture was standing and waiting to confirm that the medication had been taken (58.9%). Preferred distance from the patient was

  17. Herbivore Oral Secreted Bacteria Trigger Distinct Defense Responses in Preferred and Non-Preferred Host Plants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Chung, Seung Ho; Peiffer, Michelle; Rosa, Cristina; Hoover, Kelli; Zeng, Rensen; Felton, Gary W

    2016-06-01

    Insect symbiotic bacteria affect host physiology and mediate plant-insect interactions, yet there are few clear examples of symbiotic bacteria regulating defense responses in different host plants. We hypothesized that plants would induce distinct defense responses to herbivore- associated bacteria. We evaluated whether preferred hosts (horsenettle) or non-preferred hosts (tomato) respond similarly to oral secretions (OS) from the false potato beetle (FPB, Leptinotarsa juncta), and whether the induced defense triggered by OS was due to the presence of symbiotic bacteria in OS. Both horsenettle and tomato damaged by antibiotic (AB) treated larvae showed higher polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity than those damaged by non-AB treated larvae. In addition, application of OS from AB treated larvae induced higher PPO activity compared with OS from non-AB treated larvae or water treatment. False potato beetles harbor bacteria that may provide abundant cues that can be recognized by plants and thus mediate corresponding defense responses. Among all tested bacterial isolates, the genera Pantoea, Acinetobacter, Enterobacter, and Serratia were found to suppress PPO activity in tomato, while only Pantoea sp. among these four isolates was observed to suppress PPO activity in horsenettle. The distinct PPO suppression caused by symbiotic bacteria in different plants was similar to the pattern of induced defense-related gene expression. Pantoea inoculated FPB suppressed JA-responsive genes and triggered a SA-responsive gene in both tomato and horsenettle. However, Enterobacter inoculated FPB eliminated JA-regulated gene expression and elevated SA-regulated gene expression in tomato, but did not show evident effects on the expression levels of horsenettle defense-related genes. These results indicate that suppression of plant defenses by the bacteria found in the oral secretions of herbivores may be a more widespread phenomenon than previously indicated.

  18. Determinants of Taste Preference and Acceptability: Quality vs. Hedonics

    PubMed Central

    Loney, Gregory C.; Blonde, Ginger D.; Eckel, Lisa A.; Spector, Alan C.

    2012-01-01

    Several methods exist for reliably determining the motivational valence of a taste stimulus in animals, but few to determine its perceptual quality independent of its apparent affective properties. Individual differences in taste preference and acceptability could result from variance in the perceptual qualities of the stimulus leading to different hedonic evaluations. Alternatively, taste perception might be identical across subjects whereas processing of the sensory signals in reward circuits could differ. Utilizing an operant-based taste cue discrimination/generalization task involving a gustometer, we trained male Long-Evans rats to report the degree to which a test stimulus resembled the taste quality of either sucrose or quinine irrespective of its intensity. The rats, grouped by a characteristic bimodal phenotypic difference in their preference for sucralose, treated this artificial sweetener as qualitatively different with the sucralose-preferring rats finding the stimulus much more perceptually similar to sucrose, relative to sucralose-avoiding rats. Although the possibility that stimulus palatability may have served as a discriminative cue cannot entirely be ruled out, the profile of results suggested otherwise. Subsequent brief-access licking tests revealed that affective licking responses of the same sucralose-avoiding and -preferring rats differed across concentration in a manner roughly similar to that found in the stimulus generalization task. Thus, the perceived taste quality of sucralose alone may be sufficient to drive the observed behavioral avoidance of the compound. By virtue of its potential ability to dissociate the sensory and motivational consequences of a given experimental manipulation on taste-related behavior, this approach could be interpretively valuable. PMID:22815522

  19. Effects of SOA and saccharin adulteration on Polycose preference in rats.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, A; Vigorito, M

    1987-01-01

    Female rats were tested for their preference for a 32% Polycose solution, and for 32% Polycose solutions made bitter or sweet by adulteration with either 0.05% sucrose octa acetate (SOA) or 0.2% saccharin during 24 hr/day two-bottle tests. The rats preferred the saccharin-Polycose to the Polycose, the Polycose to the SOA-Polycose, and strongly preferred the saccharin-Polycose to the SOA-Polycose solution. Additional rats that were given only a Polycose or an SOA-polycose solution, in addition to chow and water, consumed similar amounts of solution, and consumed as much as did the rats given the saccharin-Polycose solution. Thus, while SOA adulteration reduces, and saccharin adulteration increases, the relative palatability of Polycose, they do not alter the animal's intake when only one solution is available. In a second experiment rats were given the choice between a 32% Polycose solution and pure Polycose powder, between an SOA-Polycose solution and Polycose powder, or between an SOA-Polycose solution and sucrose powder during both 30-min/day and 24-hr/day preference tests. During the initial short-term test the rats preferred the Polycose solution and, to a lesser degree, the SOA-Polycose solution to the Polycose powder, but they strongly preferred the sucrose powder to the SOA-Polycose solution. During the subsequent long-term test, however, the rats developed a preference for the SOA-Polycose solution over the sucrose powder. The mechanism responsible for this preference switch is not certain, but it may be related to the postingestive effects of the solution, and may also be responsible for the rat's hyperphagic response to carbohydrates in solution form but not in powder form.

  20. Southern Monarchs do not Develop Learned Preferences for Flowers With Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Marina Vasconcelos; Trigo, José Roberto; Rodrigues, Daniela

    2015-07-01

    Danaus butterflies sequester pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) from nectar and leaves of various plant species for defense and reproduction. We tested the hypothesis that the southern monarch butterfly Danaus erippus shows innate preferences for certain flower colors and has the capacity to develop learned preferences for artificial flowers presenting advantageous floral rewards such as PAs. We predicted that orange and yellow flowers would be innately preferred by southern monarchs. Another prediction is that flowers with both sucrose and PAs would be preferred over those having sucrose only, regardless of flower color. In nature, males of Danaus generally visit PA sources more often than females, so we expected that males of D. erippus would exhibit a stronger learned preference for PA sources than the females. In the innate preference tests, adults were offered artificial non-rewarding yellow, orange, blue, red, green, and violet flowers. Orange and yellow artificial flowers were most visited by southern monarchs, followed by blue and red ones. No individual visited either green or violet flowers. For assessing learned preferences for PA flowers over flowers with no PAs, southern monarchs were trained to associate orange flowers with sucrose plus the PA monocrotaline vs. yellow flowers with sucrose only; the opposite combination was used to train another set of butterflies. In the tests, empty flowers were offered to trained butterflies. Neither males nor females showed learned preferences for flower colors associated with PAs in the training set. Thus, southern monarchs resemble the sister species Danaus plexippus in their innate preferences for orange and yellow flowers. Southern monarchs, similarly to temperate monarchs, might not be as PA-demanding as are other danaine species.

  1. Herbivore Preference for Native vs. Exotic Plants: Generalist Herbivores from Multiple Continents Prefer Exotic Plants That Are Evolutionarily Naïve

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Wendy E.; Hay, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    Enemy release and biotic resistance are competing, but not mutually exclusive, hypotheses addressing the success or failure of non-native plants entering a new region. Enemy release predicts that exotic plants become invasive by escaping their co-adapted herbivores and by being unrecognized or unpalatable to native herbivores that have not been selected to consume them. In contrast, biotic resistance predicts that native generalist herbivores will suppress exotic plants that will not have been selected to deter these herbivores. We tested these hypotheses using five generalist herbivores from North or South America and nine confamilial pairs of native and exotic aquatic plants. Four of five herbivores showed 2.4–17.3 fold preferences for exotic over native plants. Three species of South American apple snails (Pomacea sp.) preferred North American over South American macrophytes, while a North American crayfish Procambarus spiculifer preferred South American, Asian, and Australian macrophytes over North American relatives. Apple snails have their center of diversity in South America, but a single species (Pomacea paludosa) occurs in North America. This species, with a South American lineage but a North American distribution, did not differentiate between South American and North American plants. Its preferences correlated with preferences of its South American relatives rather than with preferences of the North American crayfish, consistent with evolutionary inertia due to its South American lineage. Tests of plant traits indicated that the crayfish responded primarily to plant structure, the apple snails primarily to plant chemistry, and that plant protein concentration played no detectable role. Generalist herbivores preferred non-native plants, suggesting that intact guilds of native, generalist herbivores may provide biotic resistance to plant invasions. Past invasions may have been facilitated by removal of native herbivores, introduction of non

  2. Herbivore preference for native vs. exotic plants: generalist herbivores from multiple continents prefer exotic plants that are evolutionarily naïve.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Wendy E; Hay, Mark E

    2011-03-04

    Enemy release and biotic resistance are competing, but not mutually exclusive, hypotheses addressing the success or failure of non-native plants entering a new region. Enemy release predicts that exotic plants become invasive by escaping their co-adapted herbivores and by being unrecognized or unpalatable to native herbivores that have not been selected to consume them. In contrast, biotic resistance predicts that native generalist herbivores will suppress exotic plants that will not have been selected to deter these herbivores. We tested these hypotheses using five generalist herbivores from North or South America and nine confamilial pairs of native and exotic aquatic plants. Four of five herbivores showed 2.4-17.3 fold preferences for exotic over native plants. Three species of South American apple snails (Pomacea sp.) preferred North American over South American macrophytes, while a North American crayfish Procambarus spiculifer preferred South American, Asian, and Australian macrophytes over North American relatives. Apple snails have their center of diversity in South America, but a single species (Pomacea paludosa) occurs in North America. This species, with a South American lineage but a North American distribution, did not differentiate between South American and North American plants. Its preferences correlated with preferences of its South American relatives rather than with preferences of the North American crayfish, consistent with evolutionary inertia due to its South American lineage. Tests of plant traits indicated that the crayfish responded primarily to plant structure, the apple snails primarily to plant chemistry, and that plant protein concentration played no detectable role. Generalist herbivores preferred non-native plants, suggesting that intact guilds of native, generalist herbivores may provide biotic resistance to plant invasions. Past invasions may have been facilitated by removal of native herbivores, introduction of non

  3. Lack of support for relation between woman's masculinity preference, estradiol level and mating context.

    PubMed

    Marcinkowska, Urszula M; Ellison, Peter T; Galbarczyk, Andrzej; Milkowska, Karolina; Pawlowski, Boguslaw; Thune, Inger; Jasienska, Grazyna

    2016-02-01

    It has been proposed that women's preferences for male facial sexual dimorphism are positively correlated with conception probability and differ between short- and long-term mating contexts. In this study, we tested this assumption by analyzing relationships between estradiol levels to the women's preferences of male faces that were manipulated to vary in masculinity. Estradiol was measured in daily saliva samples throughout the entire menstrual cycle collected by Polish women with regular menstrual cycles. In our analyses, we included the three most commonly used definitions of the fertile window in the literature. After computing the overall masculinity preference of each participant and measuring hormone levels, we found that i) the timing of ovulation varied greatly among women (between -11 and -17days from the onset of the next menses, counting backwards), ii) there was no relationship between daily, measured during the day of the test (N=83) or average for the cycle (N=115) estradiol levels and masculinity preferences, iii) there were no differences in masculinity preferences between women in low- and high-conception probability phases of the cycle, and iv) there were no differences in masculinity preferences between short- and long-term mating contexts. Our results do not support the idea that women's preferences for a potential sexual partner's facial masculinity fluctuate throughout the cycle.

  4. The influence of pollinator phylogeography and mate preference on floral divergence in a sexually deceptive daisy.

    PubMed

    de Jager, Marinus L; Ellis, Allan G

    2013-06-01

    Divergent mate preferences and subsequent genetic differentiation between populations has been demonstrated, but its effects on interspecific interactions are unknown. Associated species exploiting these mate preferences, for example, may diverge to match local preferences. We explore this idea in the sexually deceptive, fly-mimicking daisy, Gorteria diffusa, by testing for association between genetic structure in the fly pollinator (a proxy for mate preference divergence) and geographic divergence in floral form. If genetic structure in flies influences interactions with G. diffusa, we expect phylogeographically distinct flies to be associated with different floral forms. Flies associated with forms exploiting only feeding behavior often belonged to several phylogeographic clades, whereas flies associated with forms exploiting male-mating behavior always belonged to distinct clades, indicating the possibility of pollinator-mediated floral divergence through phylogeographic variation in mating preferences of male flies. We tested this hypothesis with reciprocal presentations using male flies from distinct clades associated with separate floral forms. Results show that males from all clades exhibit similar preferences, making pollinator driven divergence through geographic variation in mate preference unlikely. Males, however, showed evidence of learned resistance to deceptive traits, suggesting antagonistic interactions between plants and pollinators may drive deceptive floral trait evolution in G. diffusa.

  5. Advantame sweetener preference in C57BL/6J mice and Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, Anthony; Ackroff, Karen

    2015-03-01

    Advantame is a new ultrahigh-intensity noncaloric sweetener derived from aspartame and approved for human use. Rats and mice are not attracted to the taste of aspartame and this study determined their preference for advantame. In 24-h choice tests with water, C57BL/6J mice and Sprague-Dawley rats were indifferent to advantame at concentrations of 0.01, 0.03, and 0.1mM but significantly preferred 0.3 and 1mM advantame to water. Both species also preferred 1mM advantame to 1mM saccharin in direct choice tests, but preferred 10mM saccharin to 1mM advantame, which is near the solubility limit for this sweetener. Mice also preferred 1mM advantame to 1mM sucralose or acesulfame K, but preferred both sweeteners at 10mM to 1mM advantame. In addition, mice preferred 1mM advantame to 1 and 10mM aspartame. Thus, advantame is a potent sweetener for rodents but, because of limited solubility, is not an effective alternative to saccharin, sucralose, or acesulfame K at higher concentrations.

  6. Sweetener preference of C57BL/6ByJ and 129P3/J mice

    PubMed Central

    Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Tordoff, Michael G.; Beauchamp, Gary K.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown large differences in taste responses to several sweeteners between mice from the C57BL/6ByJ (B6) and 129P3/J (129) inbred strains. The goal of this study was to compare behavioral responses of the B6 and 129 mice to a wider variety of sweeteners. Seventeen sweeteners were tested using two-bottle preference tests with water. Three main patterns of strain differences were evident. First, sucrose, maltose, saccharin, acesulfame, sucralose and SC-45647 were preferred by both strains, but the B6 mice had lower preference thresholds and higher solution intakes. Second, the amino acids D-phenylalanine, D-tryptophan, L-proline and glycine were highly preferred by the B6 mice, but not by the 129 mice. Third, glycyrrhizic acid, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, thaumatin and cyclamate did not evoke strong preferences in either strain. Aspartame was neutral to all 129 mice and some B6 mice, but other B6 mice strongly preferred it. Thus, compared with the 129 mice, the B6 mice had higher preferences for sugars, sweet-tasting amino acids and several but not all non-caloric sweeteners. Glycyrrhizic acid, neohesperidin, thaumatin and cyclamate are not palatable to B6 or 129 mice. PMID:11555485

  7. Electronic paper display preferred viewing distance and character size for different age groups.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hsin-Chieh

    2011-09-01

    This study explores the preferred viewing distance and character size for an electronic paper display for three age groups. Proofreading speed and accuracy ratio were measured during Chinese proofreading tests using the preferred character size and minimum acceptable character size. Data analysis showed that the mean preferred viewing distance for young, middle-aged and older groups was 503, 455 and 444 mm, respectively. The mean preferred character size determined by young, middle-aged and older groups was 42.0, 50.0 and 55.2 min arc, respectively. The proofreading test results indicated that the older group proofread significantly more slowly (1.25 word/sec) than the young (1.76 word/sec) and middle-aged groups (1.74 word/sec). Further, the participants proofread more correctly with their preferred character size (73.3%) than with their minimum acceptable character size (65.4%). This study provides valuable information for the design of Chinese text presentations for various age groups. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This study confirmed the preferred viewing distance and character size for E-paper display were influenced by age. The preferred Chinese character size for young, middle-aged and older people was 42, 50 and 55 min arc, respectively. Therefore, the age factor should be considered for E-paper displays design and video display terminal (VDT) guidelines.

  8. Quantitative orientation preference and susceptibility to space motion sickness simulated in a virtual reality environment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Chao, Jian-Gang; Chen, Xue-Wen; Wang, Jin-Kun; Tan, Cheng

    2015-04-01

    Orientation preference should appear when variable weightings of spatial orientation cues are used between individuals. It is possible that astronauts' orientation preferences could be a potential predictor for susceptibility to space motion sickness (SMS). The present study was conducted to confirm this relationship on Earth by quantifying orientation preferences and simulating SMS in a virtual reality environment. Two tests were carried out. The first was to quantitatively determine one's orientation preference. Thirty-two participants' vision and body cue preferences were determined by measuring perceptual up (PU) orientations. The ratio of vision and body vector (ROVB) was used as the indicator of one's orientation preference. The second test was to visually induce motion sickness symptoms that represent similar sensory conflicts as SMS using a virtual reality environment. Relationships between ROVB values and motion sickness scores were analyzed, which revealed cubic functions by using optimal fits. According to ROVB level, participants were divided into three groups - body group, vision group, and confusion group - and the factor of gender was further considered as a covariate in the analysis. Consistent differences in motion sickness scores were observed between the three groups. Thus, orientation preference had a significant relationship with susceptibility to simulated SMS symptoms. This knowledge could assist with astronaut selection and might be a useful countermeasure when developing new preflight trainings.

  9. Cervical cancer screening preferences among African American women in the Mississippi Delta.

    PubMed

    Litton, Allison G; Castle, Philip E; Partridge, Edward E; Scarinci, Isabel C

    2013-02-01

    Although cervical cancer screening rates have increased in the United States, there are still geographic areas that experience a high cervical cancer burden, including the Mississippi Delta. Human papillomavirus (HPV) self-collection may be a feasible alternative to traditional clinician-collection for cervical cancer screening for under-screened women. This study examined women's preferences for cervical cancer screening methods. Interviewer-administered questionnaires regarding cervical cancer screening preferences were completed by 524 African American women in the Mississippi Delta. Statistically significant differences were observed for age, employment status, and number of children across recruitment groups. Regardless of how women were recruited, the majority preferred self-sampling for HPV testing method to clinician-collection. Among women who preferred self-collected sampling for HPV testing, the most frequent reasons given were convenience, privacy, and comfort. Alternative strategies must be considered when targeting the under-screened to reduce the burden of cervical cancer.

  10. Developing the Stroke Exercise Preference Inventory (SEPI)

    PubMed Central

    Bonner, Nicholas S.; O’Halloran, Paul D.; Bernhardt, Julie; Cumming, Toby B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is highly prevalent after stroke, increasing the risk of poor health outcomes including recurrent stroke. Tailoring of exercise programs to individual preferences can improve adherence, but no tools exist for this purpose in stroke. Methods We identified potential questionnaire items for establishing exercise preferences via: (i) our preliminary Exercise Preference Questionnaire in stroke, (ii) similar tools used in other conditions, and (iii) expert panel consultations. The resulting 35-item questionnaire (SEPI-35) was administered to stroke survivors, along with measures of disability, depression, anxiety, fatigue and self-reported physical activity. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify a factor structure in exercise preferences, providing a framework for item reduction. Associations between exercise preferences and personal characteristics were analysed using multivariable regression. Results A group of 134 community-dwelling stroke survivors (mean age 64.0, SD 13.3) participated. Analysis of the SEPI-35 identified 7 exercise preference factors (Supervision-support, Confidence-challenge, Health-wellbeing, Exercise context, Home-alone, Similar others, Music-TV). Item reduction processes yielded a 13-item version (SEPI-13); in analysis of this version, the original factor structure was maintained. Lower scores on Confidence-challenge were significantly associated with disability (p = 0.002), depression (p = 0.001) and fatigue (p = 0.001). Self-reported barriers to exercise were particularly prevalent in those experiencing fatigue and anxiety. Conclusions The SEPI-13 is a brief instrument that allows assessment of exercise preferences and barriers in the stroke population. This new tool can be employed by health professionals to inform the development of individually tailored exercise interventions. PMID:27711242

  11. Resource format preferences across the medical curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Pickett, Keith M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This research study sought to determine the formats (print or electronic) of articles and book chapters most-preferred by first-year medical students, third-year medical students entering clinical clerkships, and incoming residents and to determine if these preferences change during the course of the medical curriculum. These trends will enable academic health sciences libraries to make appropriate collection development decisions to best cater to their user populations. Methods First-year medical students, third-year medical students, and incoming medical residents were asked to complete a paper survey from September 2014 to June 2015. The survey consisted of five multiple-choice questions, with two questions given space for optional short answers. Quantitative and qualitative responses were collected and calculated using Microsoft Excel. Results First-year students, third-year students, and incoming residents all preferred to read journal articles and book chapters in print, except in cases where the article or book chapter is under ten pages in length. Although print is preferred, demand for electronic articles and book chapters increases as students progress from undergraduate medical education into residency. The only category where a majority of incoming residents chose an electronic resource was which format they would give to a colleague, if the article or book chapter was critical to the care of an individual patient. Conclusions The preference for print resources is strong across the medical curriculum, although residents show an increased preference for electronic materials when compared to first- and third-year students. Academic health sciences libraries should take these preferences into account when making decisions regarding collection development. PMID:27366119

  12. Preference and aversion for deterrent chemicals in two species of Peromyscus mouse.

    PubMed

    Glendinning, J I

    1993-07-01

    Deterrent chemicals such as quinine hydrochloride (QHC1) are generally considered to be aversive to mammals at all detectable concentrations. However, several species contain individuals that drink solutions containing low concentrations of deterrents in preference to plain water. The present study examines this paradoxical preference in two species of mouse, Peromyscus melanotis and P. aztecus. Preliminary findings had suggested that whereas some P. aztecus prefer low concentrations of QHC1, no P. melanotis prefer any concentration of QHC1. Experiment 1 tested the hypothesis that individual mice that prefer low concentrations of QHC1 would respond similarly to four other deterrents described by humans as bitter and/or astringent (ouabain, hop extract, sucrose octaacetate, and tannic acid) in 48-h, two-bottle choice tests. Peromyscus aztecus displayed a large amount of intraspecific variation in response to all five deterrents. Those P. aztecus that drank low concentrations of QHC1 in preference to plain water were significantly more likely to respond similarly to low concentrations of the other deterrents. No P. melanotis displayed a preference for any concentration of either deterrent. Experiment 2 examined the temporal stability of the response to 0.1 mM QHC1 in P. aztecus over six consecutive choice tests. Mice were divided into three groups based on their initial response to the QHC1 solution (preference, no response, or rejection) and then subjected to the 12-day test. The response of mice within each of the groups did not change significantly over time.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Cover preference of the Carolina madtom (Noturus furiosus), an imperiled, indemic southeastern stream fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Midway, S.R.; Aday, D.D.; Kwak, Thomas J.; Gross, K.

    2010-01-01

    In a laboratory setting, we investigated cover preference of the Carolina madtom (Noturus furiosus), an imperiled, endemic southeastern USA stream fish. Fish were tested individually and given 24 hours to make a selection from four cover options, including rock, leaf pack, mussel shell, and an artificial cover unit. Among 30 trials, Carolina madtom preferred the artificial cover unit, selecting it 63% of the time. Rock was selected 23% of the time, and leaf pack 13%. Mussel shells were not selected during any trial.

  14. Cover preference of the Carolina madtom (Noturus furiosus), an imperiled, endemic southeastern stream fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Midway, S.R.; Aday, D.D.; Kwak, T.J.; Gross, K.

    2010-01-01

    In a laboratory setting, we investigated cover preference of the Carolina madtom (Noturus furiosus), an imperiled, endemic southeastern USA stream fish. Fish were tested individually and given 24 hours to make a selection from four cover options, including rock, leaf pack, mussel shell, and an artificial cover unit. Among 30 trials, Carolina madtom preferred the artificial cover unit, selecting it 63% of the time. Rock was selected 23% of the time, and leaf pack 13%. Mussel shells were not selected during any trial.

  15. The Influence of the Digital Divide on Face Preferences in El Salvador: People without Internet Access Prefer More Feminine Men, More Masculine Women, and Women with Higher Adiposity

    PubMed Central

    Batres, Carlota; Perrett, David I.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies on face preferences have found that online and laboratory experiments yield similar results with samples from developed countries, where the majority of the population has internet access. No study has yet explored whether the same holds true in developing countries, where the majority of the population does not have internet access. This gap in the literature has become increasingly important given that several online studies are now using cross-country comparisons. We therefore sought to determine if an online sample is representative of the population in the developing country of El Salvador. In studies of Hispanic men and women aged 18–25, we tested facial masculinity and adiposity preferences by collecting data in person as well as online. Our results showed that there were no differences in preferences between people who reported having internet access, whether they were tested online or in person. This provides evidence that testing style does not bias preferences among the same population. On the other hand, our results showed multiple differences in preferences between people who reported having internet access and people who reported not having internet access. More specifically, we found that people without internet access preferred more feminine men, more masculine women, and women with higher adiposity than people with internet access. We also found that people without internet access had fewer resources (e.g. running water) than people with internet access, suggesting that harshness in the environment may be influencing face preferences. These findings suggest that online studies may provide a distorted perspective of the populations in developing countries. PMID:25006801

  16. The influence of the digital divide on face preferences in El Salvador: people without internet access prefer more feminine men, more masculine women, and women with higher adiposity.

    PubMed

    Batres, Carlota; Perrett, David I

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies on face preferences have found that online and laboratory experiments yield similar results with samples from developed countries, where the majority of the population has internet access. No study has yet explored whether the same holds true in developing countries, where the majority of the population does not have internet access. This gap in the literature has become increasingly important given that several online studies are now using cross-country comparisons. We therefore sought to determine if an online sample is representative of the population in the developing country of El Salvador. In studies of Hispanic men and women aged 18-25, we tested facial masculinity and adiposity preferences by collecting data in person as well as online. Our results showed that there were no differences in preferences between people who reported having internet access, whether they were tested online or in person. This provides evidence that testing style does not bias preferences among the same population. On the other hand, our results showed multiple differences in preferences between people who reported having internet access and people who reported not having internet access. More specifically, we found that people without internet access preferred more feminine men, more masculine women, and women with higher adiposity than people with internet access. We also found that people without internet access had fewer resources (e.g. running water) than people with internet access, suggesting that harshness in the environment may be influencing face preferences. These findings suggest that online studies may provide a distorted perspective of the populations in developing countries.

  17. Nitrogen Uptake Preferences by Plants in Arid and Semiarid Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macko, S.; Wang, L.; D'Odorico, P.

    2005-12-01

    In arid and semiarid ecosystems like African savannas, nutrient availability varies spatially and temporally and nutrients are considered to be a major limiting factor for growth in addition to water availability. Preference for different nitrogen forms presumably enhances the survivorship and fitness of plants since the relative abundances of nitrate and ammonium varies between drier and wetter areas. To test the hypothesis that species developing in dry areas will prefer nitrate whereas species growing in wet areas will prefer ammonium, a controlled experiment using a greenhouse was undertaken. Six native African grass species from different precipitation regimes were used in this study. Two species were from relatively wet areas (Pandamatenga, Botswana, precipitation = 698 mm/year), two were from relatively dry areas (Tshane, Botswana, precipitation = 232 mm/year) and other two were from intermediate environments (Ghanzi, Botswana, precipitation = 400 mm/year). The grass seeds were collected in the field during the dry season of 2004 and using germination pans, were grown in a greenhouse. When individuals were mature, they were transferred into plastic pots (one individual per pot) containing commercial sand. After one week period of adjustment, a 15N labeled fertilizer (NH4NO3) was applied. The total N applied as fertilizer was comparable to the mineralized field N based on a calculated rate for the top 15 cm of soil. A pair of individual plants was treated as an experimental unit. Each plant received the same amount of total N fertilizer, but one was 15NO3 labeled and another was 15NH4 labeled. Nutrient uptake preference was determined by the 15N difference between pairs. The preliminary results with three species shows that, the individuals from dry area ( Enneapogon cenchroides from Tshane) has significantly higher foliar 15N signatures in the 15NO3 labeling treatment (p = 0.0103) and no difference in root 15N signatures. Whereas individuals from the wet

  18. Incentive learning for morphine-associated stimuli during protracted abstinence increases conditioned drug preference.

    PubMed

    Smith, Rachel J; Aston-Jones, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory found that rats express increased preference for drug-paired stimuli following 2 or 5 weeks of protracted abstinence from chronic drug exposure as compared with naive animals. Here, we show that this increased morphine place preference depends upon experiencing drug-stimulus pairings specifically in the abstinent state, indicating a critical role for incentive learning. Male Sprague Dawley rats were initially conditioned for morphine place preference (8 mg/kg) and then made dependent on morphine (by subcutaneous morphine pellets) and subjected to forced abstinence. Place preference was tested every 1-2 weeks with no additional drug-cue conditioning. In this paradigm, there was no difference between morphine-pelleted (dependent) and placebo-pelleted (non-dependent) rats in place preference at any time during abstinence (up to 6 weeks). However, these same morphine-pelleted rats expressed significantly increased preference when they were subsequently re-conditioned for morphine place preference during protracted abstinence. Placebo-pelleted rats did not show enhanced preference after re-conditioning. These findings reveal that incentive learning has a key role in increased morphine place preference when drug is experienced during protracted abstinence. This indicates that incentive learning is involved not only in instrumental responding (as previously reported), but also in updating Pavlovian-conditioned responses to morphine-associated stimuli. Therefore, enhanced morphine preference is not a direct consequence of the negative affective state of abstinence, but instead reflects increased acquisition of morphine-stimulus associations during abstinence. These results indicate that, during the development of addiction in humans, drug-associated stimuli acquire increasingly stronger incentive properties each time they are re-experienced.

  19. Looking at eye dominance from a different angle: is sighting strength related to hand preference?

    PubMed

    Carey, David P; Hutchinson, Claire V

    2013-10-01

    Sighting dominance (the behavioural preference for one eye over the other under monocular viewing conditions) has traditionally been thought of as a robust individual trait. However, Khan and Crawford (2001) have shown that, under certain viewing conditions, eye preference reverses as a function of horizontal gaze angle. Remarkably, the reversal of sighting from one eye to the other depends on which hand is used to reach out and grasp the target. Their procedure provides an ideal way to measure the strength of monocular preference for sighting, which may be related to other indicators of hemispheric specialisation for speech, language and motor function. Therefore, we hypothesised that individuals with consistent side preferences (e.g., right hand, right eye) should have more robust sighting dominance than those with crossed lateral preferences. To test this idea, we compared strength of eye dominance in individuals who are consistently right or left sided for hand and foot preference with those who are not. We also modified their procedure in order to minimise a potential image size confound, suggested by Banks et al. (2004) as an explanation of Khan and Crawford's results. We found that the sighting dominance switch occurred at similar eccentricities when we controlled for effects of hand occlusion and target size differences. We also found that sighting dominance thresholds change predictably with the hand used. However, we found no evidence for relationships between strength of hand preference as assessed by questionnaire or by pegboard performance and strength of sighting dominance. Similarly, participants with consistent hand and foot preferences did not show stronger eye preference as assessed using the Khan and Crawford procedure. These data are discussed in terms of indirect relationships between sighting dominance, hand preference and cerebral specialisation for language and motor control.

  20. Countergradient variation in temperature preference in populations of killifish Fundulus heteroclitus.

    PubMed

    Fangue, Nann A; Podrabsky, Jason E; Crawshaw, Larry I; Schulte, Patricia M

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral thermoregulation can allow ectotherms to buffer the effects of changes in environmental temperature, and thus an organism's preferred temperature is thought to be under strong selection. However, this contention has seldom been tested. We used common killifish Fundulus heteroclitus from high-latitude (northern) and low-latitude (southern) populations to investigate intraspecific variation in thermal preference and its relationship to habitat temperature. We quantified the preferred temperatures of northern and southern killifish populations acclimated to three temperatures (5 degrees , 15 degrees , and 25 degrees C) to evaluate two alternative hypotheses for the evolution of differences in thermal preference among latitudinally separated populations: local thermal adaptation, which predicts that organisms from high latitudes should prefer lower temperatures than individuals from lower latitudes, versus countergradient variation, which predicts that high-latitude organisms should prefer higher temperatures to compensate for shorter growing seasons. All killifish selected their final thermal preferendum within 4 h. Southern killifish and killifish acclimated to warmer temperatures had greater variability in selected temperature. This increase in variability was the result of an increase in interindividual variation in preferred temperature rather than a reduction in the precision of temperature selection in these groups. Northern killifish preferred significantly higher temperatures than southern fish (30.6 degrees vs. 29.0 degrees C, respectively, when calculated on the basis of the temperature selected consistently for at least 30 min; 28.4 degrees vs. 26.5 degrees C, respectively, when calculated on the basis of the mean temperature occupied), regardless of acclimation temperature. These data are not consistent with local adaptation in thermal preference but instead can be better explained by countergradient variation in thermal preference in killifish.

  1. Vole preference of bilberry along gradients of simulated moose density and site productivity.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Simen; Andreassen, Harry P; Persson, Inga-Lill; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Danell, Kjell; Skarpe, Christina

    2011-12-01

    Browsing by large herbivores might either increase or decrease preference for the plant by other herbivores, depending on the plant response. Using a cafeteria test, we studied the preference by root voles (Microtus oeconomus [Pallas, 1776]) for bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) previously subjected to 4 levels of simulated moose (Alces alces [Linnaeus, 1758]) density. The different levels of moose density were simulated at population densities relevant for Fennoscandian conditions, in exclosures situated along a site productivity gradient. We expected: (i) voles to prefer bilberry from high productivity sites over low productivity sites; (ii) voles to prefer browsed bilberry, if plants allocate resources to compensatory growth or to avoid browsed bilberry if plants allocate resources to defense; (iii) these effects to increase with increasing simulated moose density; and (iv) the concentration of plant chemicals and the plant morphology to explain vole preference. Specifically, we predicted that voles would prefer: (i) plants with high nitrogen content; (ii) plants with low content of defensive substances; and (iii) tall plants with long shoots. Voles preferred bilberry from the high productivity sites compared to the low productivity sites. We also found an interaction between site productivity and simulated moose density, where voles preferred unbrowsed plants at low productivity sites and intermediate levels of browsing at high productivity sites. There was no effect of plant chemistry or morphology on vole preference. We conclude that moose browsing impacts the food preference of voles. With the current high densities of moose in Fennoscandia, this could potentially influence vole food selection and population dynamics over large geographical areas.

  2. Men's preferences for women's breast morphology in New Zealand, Samoa, and Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Dixson, Barnaby J; Vasey, Paul L; Sagata, Katayo; Sibanda, Nokuthaba; Linklater, Wayne L; Dixson, Alan F

    2011-12-01

    Sexual selection via mate choice may have influenced the evolution of women's breast morphology. We conducted an image-based questionnaire quantifying and comparing the preferences of men from Papua New Guinea (PNG), Samoa, and New Zealand (NZ) for images of women's breast size, breast symmetry, areola size, and areolar pigmentation. Results showed that men from PNG preferred larger breasts to a greater extent than men from Samoa and NZ, providing some support for the hypothesis that men from subsistence living cultures have a greater preference for morphological cues indicative of caloric reserves. Symmetrical breasts were most attractive to men in each culture. However, preferences were highest among NZ men, followed by men from Samoa, and were lowest among men from PNG. These results did not support the hypothesis that people living in higher pathogen environments have a greater preference for traits indicative of pathogen resistance and developmental stability. Large areolae were preferred among men from PNG, and to a lesser extent in Samoa, while in NZ men preferred medium-sized areolae. Thus, men's preferences for women's areolar size appear to be highly culturally specific. Darkly pigmented areolae were most attractive to men from Samoa and PNG, whereas men from NZ preferred areolae with medium pigmentation. These findings suggest that areolar pigmentation indicative of sexual maturity is preferred by men rather than lighter pigmentation, which may signal that a woman is in the early years of reproductive maturity. This study highlights the importance of cross-cultural research when testing the role of morphological cues in mate choice.

  3. Personalized image retrieval with user's preference model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yong-Hwan; Lee, K. E.; Choi, K. S.; Yoo, Ji-Beom; Rhee, Phill-Kyu; Park, Youngchoon

    1998-10-01

    Recently, available information resources in the form of various media have been increased with rapid speed. Many retrieval systems for multimedia information resources have been developed only focused on their efficiency and performance. Therefore, they cannot deal with user's preferences and interests well. In this paper, we present the framework design of a personalized image retrieval system (PIRS) which can reflect user's preferences and interests incrementally. The prototype of PIRS consists of two major parts: user's preference model (UPM) and retrieval module (RM). The UPM plays a role of refining user's query to meet with user's needs. The RM retrieves the proper images for refined query by computing the similarities between each image and refined query, and the retrieved images are ordered by these similarities. In this paper, we mainly discuss about UPM. The incremental machine learning technologies have been employed to provide the user adaptable and intelligent capability to the system. The UPM is implemented by decision tree based on incremental tree induction, and adaptive resonance theory network. User's feedbacks are returned to the UPM, and they modify internal structure of the UPM. User's iterative retrieval activities with PIRS cause the UPM to be revised for user's preferences and interests. Therefore, the PIRS can be adapted to user's preferences and interests. We have achieved encouraging results through experiments.

  4. Carbohydrate-conditioned odor preferences in rats.

    PubMed

    Lucas, F; Sclafani, A

    1995-06-01

    The effectiveness of odor cues to support nutrient-conditioned flavor preferences in rats was studied. When the rats drank fluid, the CS+ odor was paired with intragastric (IG) infusions of Polycose, and the CS- odor with IG water. In Experiment 1, rats trained with almond and anise odors presented with plain drinking water failed to acquire a CS+ odor preference. In contrast, rats in Experiment 2 formed a strong aversion to anise (or almond) paired with lithium chloride, which indicated that the odors were distinguishable to the rats. Experiment 3 showed that providing unique tastes (bitter or sour) in combination with the odors during training potentiated odor conditioning. The rats displayed a strong preference for the odor+taste CS+ and for the odor component alone. Experiment 4 showed that with another pair of odor (peppermint and vanilla), CS+ preferences could be conditioned in the absence of taste cues during training. These results demonstrate that rats can acquire strong nutrient-conditioned odor preferences.

  5. Language preference in monolingual and bilingual infants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valji, Ayasha; Polka, Linda

    2001-05-01

    Previous research shows that infants being raised in single-language families have some basic language discrimination abilities at birth, that these skills improve over the first 6 months of life, and that infants are attending to the rhythmic properties of language to perform these skills. Research has also revealed that newborns and older babies from monolingual families prefer listening to their native language over an unfamiliar language. Data on language discrimination and preference in bilingual infants is very limited but is necessary to determine if the patterns and rate of bilingual language development parallel those of monolingual development, or if exposure to more than one language modifies developmental patterns. The present study addresses this issue by comparing language preference in monolingual English, monolingual French, and bilingual English-French infants between 3 and 10 months of age. Infant preference to listen to passages in three rhythmically different languages (English, French, Japanese) was assessed using a visual fixation procedure. Passages were produced by three female native speakers of each language. Findings will show how native language preference is affected by age and language experience in infants who experience monolingual and bilingual language exposure.

  6. Hand preferences in captive orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus).

    PubMed

    O'malley, Robert C; McGrew, W C

    2006-07-01

    The strength of the evidence for population-level handedness in the great apes is a topic of considerable debate, yet there have been few studies of handedness in orangutans. We conducted a study of manual lateralization in a captive group of eight orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) ranking the degrees of manual preference according to a defined framework. We analyzed five behavioral patterns: eat (one- and two-handed), make/modify tool, oral tool-use, and manual tool-use. Although some individuals showed significant manual preferences for one or more tasks, at the group-level both one-handed and two-handed eating, oral tool-use, and make/modify tool were ranked at level 1 (unlateralized). Manual tool-use was ranked at level 2, with four subjects demonstrating significant hand preferences, but no group-level bias to the right or left. Four subjects also showed hand specialization to the right or left across several tasks. These results are consistent with most previous studies of manual preference in orangutans. The emergence of manual lateralization in orangutans may relate to more complex manipulative tasks. We hypothesize that more challenging manual tasks elicit stronger hand preferences.

  7. Indian dental students' preferences regarding lecture courses.

    PubMed

    Parolia, Abhishek; Mohan, Mandakini; Kundabala, M; Shenoy, Ramya

    2012-03-01

    Teaching and learning activities in the dental clinic or hospital are a challenging area for students as well as teachers. With various teaching methodologies being used in dental schools around the world, gaining greater understanding of students' attitudes toward these methodologies would be useful for dental educators. The objective of this study was to explore the preferences of dental students in India about various aspects of lecture courses. A structured survey consisting of ten closed-ended questions was developed, and 2,680 undergraduate students from forty-three dental schools in India were approached via e-mail with a follow-up postal mailing. Of these, 1,980 students responded, for a response rate of 73.8 percent. Most of the students reported preferring lectures with the aid of PowerPoint and chalkboard. They preferred morning lectures from 8 am to 10 am for a maximum of thirty to forty minutes for each lecture, and they preferred to receive information about the lecture topic in advance. The students said that delivery of clinical demonstrations was beneficial after the lectures, and they preferred learning-based rather than exam-oriented education. The respondents also said that attendance should be made compulsory and that numerical marking of examinations should not be replaced by a grading system.

  8. Language preference in monolingual and bilingual infants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valji, Ayasha; Polka, Linda

    2004-05-01

    Previous research shows that infants being raised in single-language families have some basic language discrimination abilities at birth, that these skills improve over the first 6 months of life, and that infants are attending to the rhythmic properties of language to perform these skills. Research has also revealed that newborns and older babies from monolingual families prefer listening to their native language over an unfamiliar language. Data on language discrimination and preference in bilingual infants is very limited but is necessary to determine if the patterns and rate of bilingual language development parallel those of monolingual development, or if exposure to more than one language modifies developmental patterns. The present study addresses this issue by comparing language preference in monolingual English, monolingual French, and bilingual English-French infants between 3 and 10 months of age. Infant preference to listen to passages in three rhythmically different languages (English, French, Japanese) was assessed using a visual fixation procedure. Passages were produced by three female native speakers of each language. Findings will show how native language preference is affected by age and language experience in infants who experience monolingual and bilingual language exposure.

  9. Patient education preferences in ophthalmic care

    PubMed Central

    Rosdahl, Jullia A; Swamy, Lakshmi; Stinnett, Sandra; Muir, Kelly W

    2014-01-01

    Background The learning preferences of ophthalmology patients were examined. Methods Results from a voluntary survey of ophthalmology patients were analyzed for education preferences and for correlation with race, age, and ophthalmic topic. Results To learn about eye disease, patients preferred one-on-one sessions with providers as well as printed materials and websites recommended by providers. Patients currently learning from the provider were older (average age 59 years), and patients learning from the Internet (average age 49 years) and family and friends (average age 51 years) were younger. Patients interested in cataracts, glaucoma, macular degeneration, and dry eye were older; patients interested in double vision and glasses were younger. There were racial differences regarding topic preferences, with Black patients most interested in glaucoma (46%), diabetic retinopathy (31%), and cataracts (28%) and White patients most interested in cataracts (22%), glaucoma (22%), and macular degeneration (19%). Conclusion Most ophthalmology patients preferred personalized education: one-on-one with their provider or a health educator and materials (printed and electronic) recommended by their provider. Age-related topics were more popular with older patients, and diseases with racial risk factors were more popular with high risk racial groups. PMID:24812493

  10. Investigating preferences for color-shape combinations with gaze driven optimization method based on evolutionary algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Tim; Zanker, Johannes M.

    2013-01-01

    Studying aesthetic preference is notoriously difficult because it targets individual experience. Eye movements provide a rich source of behavioral measures that directly reflect subjective choice. To determine individual preferences for simple composition rules we here use fixation duration as the fitness measure in a Gaze Driven Evolutionary Algorithm (GDEA), which has been demonstrated as a tool to identify aesthetic preferences (Holmes and Zanker, 2012). In the present study, the GDEA was used to investigate the preferred combination of color and shape which have been promoted in the Bauhaus arts school. We used the same three shapes (square, circle, triangle) used by Kandinsky (1923), with the three color palette from the original experiment (A), an extended seven color palette (B), and eight different shape orientation (C). Participants were instructed to look for their preferred circle, triangle or square in displays with eight stimuli of different shapes, colors and rotations, in an attempt to test for a strong preference for red squares, yellow triangles and blue circles in such an unbiased experimental design and with an extended set of possible combinations. We Tested six participants extensively on the different conditions and found consistent preferences for color-shape combinations for individuals, but little evidence at the group level for clear color/shape preference consistent with Kandinsky's claims, apart from some weak link between yellow and triangles. Our findings suggest substantial inter-individual differences in the presence of stable individual associations of color and shapes, but also that these associations are robust within a single individual. These individual differences go some way toward challenging the claims of the universal preference for color/shape combinations proposed by Kandinsky, but also indicate that a much larger sample size would be needed to confidently reject that hypothesis. Moreover, these experiments highlight the

  11. Investigating preferences for color-shape combinations with gaze driven optimization method based on evolutionary algorithms.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Tim; Zanker, Johannes M

    2013-01-01

    Studying aesthetic preference is notoriously difficult because it targets individual experience. Eye movements provide a rich source of behavioral measures that directly reflect subjective choice. To determine individual preferences for simple composition rules we here use fixation duration as the fitness measure in a Gaze Driven Evolutionary Algorithm (GDEA), which has been demonstrated as a tool to identify aesthetic preferences (Holmes and Zanker, 2012). In the present study, the GDEA was used to investigate the preferred combination of color and shape which have been promoted in the Bauhaus arts school. We used the same three shapes (square, circle, triangle) used by Kandinsky (1923), with the three color palette from the original experiment (A), an extended seven color palette (B), and eight different shape orientation (C). Participants were instructed to look for their preferred circle, triangle or square in displays with eight stimuli of different shapes, colors and rotations, in an attempt to test for a strong preference for red squares, yellow triangles and blue circles in such an unbiased experimental design and with an extended set of possible combinations. We Tested six participants extensively on the different conditions and found consistent preferences for color-shape combinations for individuals, but little evidence at the group level for clear color/shape preference consistent with Kandinsky's claims, apart from some weak link between yellow and triangles. Our findings suggest substantial inter-individual differences in the presence of stable individual associations of color and shapes, but also that these associations are robust within a single individual. These individual differences go some way toward challenging the claims of the universal preference for color/shape combinations proposed by Kandinsky, but also indicate that a much larger sample size would be needed to confidently reject that hypothesis. Moreover, these experiments highlight the

  12. The Role of Visual Eccentricity on Preference for Abstract Symmetry.

    PubMed

    Rampone, Giulia; O' Sullivan, Noreen; Bertamini, Marco

    2016-01-01

    This study tested preference for abstract patterns, comparing random patterns to a two-fold bilateral symmetry. Stimuli were presented at random locations in the periphery. Preference for bilateral symmetry has been extensively studied in central vision, but evaluation at different locations had not been systematically investigated. Patterns were presented for 200 ms within a large circular region. On each trial participant changed fixation and were instructed to select any location. Eccentricity values were calculated a posteriori as the distance between ocular coordinates at pattern onset and coordinates for the centre of the pattern. Experiment 1 consisted of two Tasks. In Task 1, participants detected pattern regularity as fast as possible. In Task 2 they evaluated their liking for the pattern on a Likert-scale. Results from Task 1 revealed that with our parameters eccentricity did not affect symmetry detection. However, in Task 2, eccentricity predicted more negative evaluation of symmetry, but not random patterns. In Experiment 2 participants were either presented with symmetry or random patterns. Regularity was task-irrelevant in this task. Participants discriminated the proportion of black/white dots within the pattern and then evaluated their liking for the pattern. Even when only one type of regularity was presented and regularity was task-irrelevant, preference evaluation for symmetry decreased with increasing eccentricity, whereas eccentricity did not affect the evaluation of random patterns. We conclude that symmetry appreciation is higher for foveal presentation in a way not fully accounted for by sensitivity.

  13. Does aggression cause a preference for viewing media violence?

    PubMed

    Fenigstein, A

    1979-12-01

    Virtually all of the research concerned with media violence has attempted to determine whether the viewing of violence is associated with or causes aggression. Little experimental research has been directed at understanding why persons view media violence. The present research experimentally tested the hypotheses that physical aggression and fantasy aggression would lead to a preference for viewing violence. In Experiment 1, undergraduate men and women were induced to express aggressive, nonaggressive, or no fantasies and were then given an opportunity to select film clips for viewing. The films chosen by men contained more violence than those chosen by women. In addition, aggressive fantasies in males, compared to nonaggressive fantasies, increased the preference for viewing violence. Experiment 2, using only males, replicated the results of the first study and also found that men who were given an opportunity to aggress physically, compared to those who had no such opportunity, were more likely to choose to view films containing violent content. These results provide an additional perspective on the relationship between the observation of violence and the expression of aggression by suggesting that the causal effects are bidirectional: Just as the viewing of violence may increase aggression, so, too, aggressive behavior may increase the preference for viewing violence.

  14. Cryptic female preference for colorful males in guppies.

    PubMed

    Pilastro, Andrea; Simonato, Martina; Bisazza, Angelo; Evans, Jonathan P

    2004-03-01

    Cryptic female choice (CFC) refers to female-mediated processes occurring during or after copulation that result in biased sperm use in favor of preferred or compatible males. Despite recent empirical support for this hypothesis, evidence that CFC contributes towards the evolution of male body ornaments, in the same way that precopulatory female choice does, is currently lacking. Here, we tested the possibility that CFC selects for increased male attractiveness in the guppy Poecilia reticulata, a freshwater fish exhibiting internal fertilization. Specifically, we examined whether females are able to manipulate the number of sperm transferred or retained at copulation in favor of relatively attractive males. In support of this prediction, we found that following solicited copulations the number of sperm inseminated is influenced exclusively by the female's perception of relative male coloration, independent of any direct manipulation of males themselves. Because females prefer brightly colored males during precopulatory mate choice, our finding that colorful males are also favored as a consequence of enhanced insemination success indicates that cryptic female choice can reinforce precopulatory preferences for extravagant male ornaments.

  15. Place preference conditioning with ventral tegmental injections of cytisine.

    PubMed

    Museo, E; Wise, R A

    1994-01-01

    The present experiment was designed to determine whether ventral tegmental injections of the nicotinic agonist cytisine can establish place preferences. Two groups of rats were tested: one group received injections into the ventral tegmentum and a second group received injections into sites dorsal to the ventral tegmentum; this latter group was used to assess whether the diffusion of drug into sites dorsal to the ventral tegmentum might in itself be sufficient to account for the effects associated with injections into the ventral tegmentum. A total of eight sets of injections were made. On days 1, 3, 5, and 7, animals were injected with cytisine (10 nmol per 0.5 microliter per side) and placed in one of the two main compartments of a place-preference apparatus. On days 2, 4, 6, and 8, injections of physiological saline, the drug vehicle, were paired with the other main compartment. Animals that received ventral tegmental injections of cytisine spent significantly more time in the cytisine-paired compartment than in the saline-paired compartment. Animals given cytisine injections into sites dorsal to the ventral tegmentum did not show a preference for the cytisine-paired compartment. These findings provide additional evidence in support of the hypothesis that nicotinic actions at the level of the ventral tegmentum contribute to the reinforcing actions of systemic injections of nicotine.

  16. Communication during haematological consultations; patients' preferences and professionals' performances.

    PubMed

    van Bruinessen, Inge R; van der Hout, Lotte E; van Weel-Baumgarten, Evelyn M; Gouw, Hans; Zijlstra, Josée M; van Dulmen, Sandra

    2016-06-01

    Many patients with haematological malignancies experience barriers in clinical communication. Reaching effective communication is of great importance as it has been linked to a range of improved patient outcomes such as satisfaction, compliance to treatment, perceived quality of life and physical and mental health. To get a better understanding how communication in haematological consultations can be improved, the current study focussed on patients' preferences and perceived performances regarding the communicative behaviour of their health care professional. Secondly, the mediation of an online communication tool for patients was analysed. Within a controlled pre- post-test design, 78 datasets of clinical consultations could be analysed. Patients considered both affective and instrumental communication aspects important. The affective communication behaviour of the health care professional met the patients' pre-visit preferences well. In the information exchange, more variability and discrepancies were found. Overall, the online intervention did not seem to influence the patients' perceived communication performance of their health care professional much. To further improve the communication during clinical consultations, health care professionals should inquire about patients' expectations, especially during the exchange of information and advices. At the same time, patients should be supported to express their preferences at the start of the consultation. The study was registered in the Netherlands Trial Register, number 3779.

  17. Colour preferences and colour vision in poultry chicks.

    PubMed

    Ham, A D; Osorio, D

    2007-08-22

    The dramatic colours of biological communication signals raise questions about how animals perceive suprathreshold colour differences, and there are long-standing questions about colour preferences and colour categorization by non-human species. This study investigates preferences of foraging poultry chicks (Gallus gallus) as they peck at coloured objects. Work on colour recognition often deals with responses to monochromatic lights and how animals divide the spectrum. We used complementary colours, where the intermediate is grey, and related the chicks' choices to three models of the factors that may affect the attractiveness. Two models assume that attractiveness is determined by a metric based on the colour discrimination threshold either (i) by chromatic contrast against the background or (ii) relative to an internal standard. An alternative third model is that categorization is important. We tested newly hatched and 9-day-old chicks with four pairs of (avian) complementary colours, which were orange, blue, red and green for humans. Chromatic contrast was more relevant to newly hatched chicks than to 9-day-old birds, but in neither case could contrast alone account for preferences; especially for orange over blue. For older chicks, there is evidence for categorization of complementary colours, with a boundary at grey.

  18. The Relationship between Music Preferences of Different Mode and Tempo and Personality Traits--Implications for Music Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobrota, Snježana; Reic Ercegovac, Ina

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the relationship between music preferences of different mode and tempo and personality traits. The survey included 323 students who had to fill out the following tests: questionnaire of music preferences, scale of optimism and pessimism and International Personality Item Pool for measuring Big Five…

  19. Multimedia category preferences of working engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baukal, Charles E.; Ausburn, Lynna J.

    2016-09-01

    Many have argued for the importance of continuing engineering education (CEE), but relatively few recommendations were found in the literature for how to use multimedia technologies to deliver it most effectively. The study reported here addressed this gap by investigating the multimedia category preferences of working engineers. Four categories of multimedia, with two types in each category, were studied: verbal (text and narration), static graphics (drawing and photograph), dynamic non-interactive graphics (animation and video), and dynamic interactive graphics (simulated virtual reality (VR) and photo-real VR). The results showed that working engineers strongly preferred text over narration and somewhat preferred drawing over photograph, animation over video, and simulated VR over photo-real VR. These results suggest that a variety of multimedia types should be used in the instructional design of CEE content.

  20. Tractable Pareto Optimization of Temporal Preferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Robert; Morris, Paul; Khatib, Lina; Venable, Brent

    2003-01-01

    This paper focuses on temporal constraint problems where the objective is to optimize a set of local preferences for when events occur. In previous work, a subclass of these problems has been formalized as a generalization of Temporal CSPs, and a tractable strategy for optimization has been proposed, where global optimality is defined as maximizing the minimum of the component preference values. This criterion for optimality, which we call 'Weakest Link Optimization' (WLO), is known to have limited practical usefulness because solutions are compared only on the basis of their worst value; thus, there is no requirement to improve the other values. To address this limitation, we introduce a new algorithm that re-applies WLO iteratively in a way that leads to improvement of all the values. We show the value of this strategy by proving that, with suitable preference functions, the resulting solutions are Pareto Optimal.

  1. Do dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) prefer family?

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Jennifer; Vonk, Jennifer

    2015-10-01

    Kin recognition requires the ability to discriminate between one's own genetic relatives and non-relatives. There are two mechanisms that aid in kin discrimination: phenotype matching and familiarity. Dogs may be a good model for assessing these mechanisms as dogs are a promiscuous social species with a keen sense of smell. Domestic dogs of both sexes were presented with two scents (close kin, distant-kin) and preference was assessed through three measures (latency to approach, number of visits, time spent). Experiment 1 explored the possibility of phenotype matching as subjects had no contact with sires, whose scent was presented alongside a control male's scent. Experiment 2 explored recognition of siblings raised with the subjects and then separated at seven weeks of age. Whereas female dogs in this experiment did not show a statistically significant preference, male dogs showed a preference for distant-kin when presented with sire and female sibling samples.

  2. On the preferred mode of jet instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, R. A.; Samet, M. M.

    1988-01-01

    The preferred mode of instability was investigated in an axisymmetric air jet of moderate Reynolds number. Natural instabilities are shown to scale with local shear-layer thickness and the preferred mode is shown to be a shear-layer instability. The spatial evolution of the preferred mode was examined by exciting the flow acoustically and then mapping the phase-locked velocity fluctuations. Throughout the potential core region the phase-locked profiles are shown to agree with the eigensolutions of the Orr-Sommerfeld stability equations provided the calculations are based on measured, mean velocity profiles. The excitation intensity was varied from low levels, where the flow was merely tagged, to high levels where the mean flow was substantially distorted, and over that range of excitation there was no apparent deterioration in the agreement with stability predictions.

  3. Learning User Preferences for Sets of Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    desJardins, Marie; Eaton, Eric; Wagstaff, Kiri L.

    2006-01-01

    Most work on preference learning has focused on pairwise preferences or rankings over individual items. In this paper, we present a method for learning preferences over sets of items. Our learning method takes as input a collection of positive examples--that is, one or more sets that have been identified by a user as desirable. Kernel density estimation is used to estimate the value function for individual items, and the desired set diversity is estimated from the average set diversity observed in the collection. Since this is a new learning problem, we introduce a new evaluation methodology and evaluate the learning method on two data collections: synthetic blocks-world data and a new real-world music data collection that we have gathered.

  4. Does Octopus vulgaris have preferred arms?

    PubMed

    Byrne, Ruth A; Kuba, Michael J; Meisel, Daniela V; Griebel, Ulrike; Mather, Jennifer A

    2006-08-01

    Previous behavioral studies in Octopus vulgaris revealed lateralization of eye use. In this study, the authors expanded the scope to investigate arm preferences. The octopus's generalist hunting lifestyle and the structure of their arms suggest that these animals have no need to designate specific arms for specific tasks. However, octopuses also show behaviors, like exploration, in which only single or small groups of arms are involved. Here the authors show that octopuses had a strong preference for anterior arm use to reach for and explore objects, which points toward a task division between anterior and posterior arms. Four out of 8 subjects also showed a lateral bias. In addition, octopuses had a preference for a specific arm to reach into a T maze to retrieve a food reward. These findings give evidence for limb-specialization in an animal whose 8 arms were believed to be equipotential.

  5. Learning other agents` preferences in multiagent negotiation

    SciTech Connect

    Bui, H.H.; Kieronska, D.; Venkatesh, S.

    1996-12-31

    In multiagent systems, an agent does not usually have complete information about the preferences and decision making processes of other agents. This might prevent the agents from making coordinated choices, purely due to their ignorance of what others want. This paper describes the integration of a learning module into a communication-intensive negotiating agent architecture. The learning module gives the agents the ability to learn about other agents` preferences via past interactions. Over time, the agents can incrementally update their models of other agents` preferences and use them to make better coordinated decisions. Combining both communication and learning, as two complement knowledge acquisition methods, helps to reduce the amount of communication needed on average, and is justified in situations where communication is computationally costly or simply not desirable (e.g. to preserve the individual privacy).

  6. Social Class Differences Produce Social Group Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Horwitz, Suzanne R.; Shutts, Kristin; Olson, Kristina R.

    2014-01-01

    Some social groups are higher in socioeconomic status than others and the former tend to be favored over the latter. The present research investigated whether observing group differences in wealth alone can directly cause children to prefer wealthier groups. In Experiment 1, 4–5-year-old children developed a preference for a wealthy novel group over a less wealthy group. In Experiment 2, children did not develop preferences when groups differed by another kind of positive/negative attribute (i.e., living in brightly-colored houses vs. drab houses), suggesting that wealth is a particularly meaningful group distinction. Lastly, in Experiment 3, the effect of favoring novel wealthy groups was moderated by group membership: Children assigned to a wealthy group showed ingroup favoritism, but those assigned to the less wealthy group did not. These experiments shed light on why children tend to be biased in favor of social groups that are higher in socioeconomic status. PMID:24702971

  7. Who Prefers What? Disciplinary Differences in Students' Preferred Approaches To Teaching and Learning Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hativa, Nira; Birenbaum, Menucha

    2000-01-01

    A newly developed measure to identify students' preferred teaching approaches was evaluated with 175 engineering and education undergraduates at an Israeli university. Students in both fields preferred lecturers who were organized, clear, and interesting. Least favored teaching methods were information-transmission and promotion of…

  8. Estimating the causal effect of randomization versus treatment preference in a doubly randomized preference trial.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Sue M; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Wang, Pei; Shadish, William R; Steiner, Peter M

    2012-06-01

    Although randomized studies have high internal validity, generalizability of the estimated causal effect from randomized clinical trials to real-world clinical or educational practice may be limited. We consider the implication of randomized assignment to treatment, as compared with choice of preferred treatment as it occurs in real-world conditions. Compliance, engagement, or motivation may be better with a preferred treatment, and this can complicate the generalizability of results from randomized trials. The doubly randomized preference trial (DRPT) is a hybrid randomized and nonrandomized design that allows for estimation of the causal effect of randomization versus treatment preference. In the DRPT, individuals are first randomized to either randomized assignment or choice assignment. Those in the randomized assignment group are then randomized to treatment or control, and those in the choice group receive their preference of treatment versus control. Using the potential outcomes framework, we apply the algebra of conditional independence to show how the DRPT can be used to derive an unbiased estimate of the causal effect of randomization versus preference for each of the treatment and comparison conditions. Also, we show how these results can be implemented using full matching on the propensity score. The methodology is illustrated with a DRPT of introductory psychology students who were randomized to randomized assignment or preference of mathematics versus vocabulary training. We found a small to moderate benefit of preference versus randomization with respect to the mathematics outcome for those who received mathematics training.

  9. Eye Movements and Reading Comprehension While Listening to Preferred and Non-Preferred Study Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Roger; Holmqvist, Kenneth; Mossberg, Frans; Lindgren, Magnus

    2012-01-01

    In the present study 24 university students read four different texts in four conditions: (1) while listening to music they preferred to listen to while studying; (2) while listening to music they did not prefer to listen to while studying; (3) while listening to a recording of noise from a cafe; and finally (4) in silence. After each text they…

  10. 25 CFR 170.619 - Do tribal preference and Indian preference apply to IRR Program funding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Do tribal preference and Indian preference apply to IRR Program funding? 170.619 Section 170.619 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Service Delivery for Indian Reservation Roads Contracts...

  11. The Association between Learning Preferences and Preferred Methods of Assessment of Dental Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Phil

    2016-01-01

    This study is designed to gather information concerning a possible relationship between how dental students prefer to take in and communicate new information and how they prefer to be assessed. Though there are numerous references in the literature regarding the learning styles of students there are also references to the inaccuracy of such…

  12. 'Chronophilia': Entries of Erotic Age Preference into Descriptive Psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Diederik F

    2015-10-01

    A scientific nomenclature of erotic age preferences informed the mid- through late nineteenth century joint appearance of homosexuality and sexual abuse of minors on the medico-legal scene. Yet, even in the twenty-first century, legal, psychiatric and culture-critical dimensions of related terms are rarely cleanly distinguished. Review of primary sources shows the ongoing Western suspension of notions of 'sick desire', alongside and beyond the medicalisation of homosexuality, between metaphor, legal interdiction and postulated psychopathology. Virtually all early attention to erotic age preference occurred in the context of emergent attention to erotic gender preference. Age of attraction and age difference centrally animate modern homosexuality's pre-modern past; its earliest psychiatric nomenclature and typologies (1844-69); its early aetiologies stipulating degrees of sexual differentiation (1890 s); its concomitant sub-classification (1896-1914); its earliest psychophysiological tests (1950s); and, finally, its post-psychiatric, social scientific typologies (1980s). Several identifications of 'paedophilia' were seen throughout the 1890 s but as a trope it gained cultural momentum only during, and as a seemingly intriguing corollary of, the progressive depsychiatricisation of homosexuality across the Anglo-European world (late 1950s through 1980s). Early twentieth century sources varied in having it denote (1) a distinct perversion, thus possible 'complication' of sexual inversion (2) a discrete corollary of psychosexual differentiation akin to gender preference (3) a distinct subtype of fetishism, thus a likely imprint of early seduction (4) a more intricate expression of erotic symbolism or psychosexual complex or (5) a taste answering to culture, a lack of it, or a libertine disregard for it.

  13. Chimpanzees prefer African and Indian music over silence.

    PubMed

    Mingle, Morgan E; Eppley, Timothy M; Campbell, Matthew W; Hall, Katie; Horner, Victoria; de Waal, Frans B M

    2014-10-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 40(4) of Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Learning and Cognition (see record 2014-35305-001). For the article, the below files were used to create the audio used in this study. The original West African akan and North Indian raga pieces were used in their entirety and the Japanese taiko piece was used from the 0:19 second mark through the end. The tempo of each piece was adjusted so that they maintained an identical base tempo of 90 beats per minute, then looped to create 40 minutes of continuous music. Additionally, the volume of the music was standardized at 50 dB so that the all music maintained the same average amplitude. All audio manipulations were completed using GarageBand © (Apple Inc.).] All primates have an ability to distinguish between temporal and melodic features of music, but unlike humans, in previous studies, nonhuman primates have not demonstrated a preference for music. However, previous research has not tested the wide range of acoustic parameters present in many different types of world music. The purpose of the present study is to determine the spontaneous preference of common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) for 3 acoustically contrasting types of world music: West African akan, North Indian raga, and Japanese taiko. Sixteen chimpanzees housed in 2 groups were exposed to 40 min of music from a speaker placed 1.5 m outside the fence of their outdoor enclosure; the proximity of each subject to the acoustic stimulus was recorded every 2 min. When compared with controls, subjects spent significantly more time in areas where the acoustic stimulus was loudest in African and Indian music conditions. This preference for African and Indian music could indicate homologies in acoustic preferences between nonhuman and human primates. .

  14. Cognitive Fatigue Destabilizes Economic Decision Making Preferences and Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Mullette-Gillman, O’Dhaniel A.; Leong, Ruth L. F.; Kurnianingsih, Yoanna A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective It is common for individuals to engage in taxing cognitive activity for prolonged periods of time, resulting in cognitive fatigue that has the potential to produce significant effects in behaviour and decision making. We sought to examine whether cognitive fatigue modulates economic decision making. Methods We employed a between-subject manipulation design, inducing fatigue through 60 to 90 minutes of taxing cognitive engagement against a control group that watched relaxing videos for a matched period of time. Both before and after the manipulation, participants engaged in two economic decision making tasks (one for gains and one for losses). The analyses focused on two areas of economic decision making—preferences and choice strategies. Uncertainty preferences (risk and ambiguity) were quantified as premium values, defined as the degree and direction in which participants alter the valuation of the gamble in comparison to the certain option. The strategies that each participant engaged in were quantified through a choice strategy metric, which contrasts the degree to which choice behaviour relies upon available satisficing or maximizing information. We separately examined these metrics for alterations within both the gains and losses domains, through the two choice tasks. Results The fatigue manipulation resulted in significantly greater levels of reported subjective fatigue, with correspondingly higher levels of reported effort during the cognitively taxing activity. Cognitive fatigue did not alter uncertainty preferences (risk or ambiguity) or informational strategies, in either the gains or losses domains. Rather, cognitive fatigue resulted in greater test-retest variability across most of our economic measures. These results indicate that cognitive fatigue destabilizes economic decision making, resulting in inconsistent preferences and informational strategies that may significantly reduce decision quality. PMID:26230404

  15. End-of-life preferences for atheists.

    PubMed

    Smith-Stoner, Marilyn

    2007-08-01

    Atheists represent an understudied population in palliative care medicine. Although professional and regulatory organizations require an individualized plan of care for each patient and family, little is known about atheist preferences for end-of-life (EOL) care. The aims of this pilot study were twofold: (1) to explore the EOL preferences for atheists, and (2) to apply a threefold model of spiritual care (intrapersonal, interpersonal, and natural interconnectedness) to assess the appropriateness of potential interventions for a group of atheists. Eighty-eight participants completed either an online or paper survey. Analyses of open-ended and closed questions were consistent with prior studies on EOL preferences, including components of a ;;good death.'' The results related to the first aim of the study, to explore EOL preferences, suggests that participants view of a good death was expanded to include respect for nonbelief and the withholding of prayer or other references to God. Strong preference for physician-assisted suicide and evidence-based medical interventions were central themes from participants. The second aim of the study, to apply a threefold definition of spirituality--which includes intrapersonal, interpersonal, and natural focus--appears appropriate in planning interventions for atheists at EOL. Participants expressed a deep desire to find meaning in their own lives (intrapersonal), to maintain connection with family and friends (interpersonal), and to continue to experience and appreciate the natural world (natural interconnectedness) through the dying experience. Additional research is necessary to explore the preferences for this understudied group. Further clarification of the use of the term "atheist'' is also necessary to ensure that the inclusion of all individuals with nontheist beliefs are represented in future research efforts.

  16. Preference for sons: past and present.

    PubMed

    Li, D

    1997-10-01

    This brief article discusses the present and past preference for sons in China. The preference for sons is rooted in feudal views that men are superior to women. Preference for sons dates back to the Warring States Period, in about 500 B.C. Clan brotherhoods of men have existed for centuries. Historical records mention the practice of female infanticide. Patriarchal families believed that women were economically dependent on men and thus became their subjects. Daughters married, lived in their husband's home, and did not carry the responsibility of caring for their own parents. Couples with only daughters would seek a son-in-law to support them in old age. Rural families with no sons were looked down upon. Sons were expected to carry on the family lineage, increase the reputation of the family, and protect the family's interests. The lack of sons was a sign of humiliation and a curse. The founding of the People's Republic of China brought changes to son preference. The government attempted to increase women's status. In rural areas, women were given equal access to the land. Job opportunities were created for women during the industrialization drive. The Chinese government encouraged the repudiation of the negative impacts of the doctrines of Confucius and Mencius. Efforts were made to give men and women equal pay for equal work. Legislation was passed prohibiting arranged marriage, polygyny, and early marriage. A side effect of fertility decline is the renewed preference for sons. In Huangyan and Haining in Zhejiang, a developed province, the sex ratio at birth is normal. Sexual division of labor reinforces son preference.

  17. Segmenting patients and physicians using preferences from discrete choice experiments.

    PubMed

    Deal, Ken

    2014-01-01

    People often form groups or segments that have similar interests and needs and seek similar benefits from health providers. Health organizations need to understand whether the same health treatments, prevention programs, services, and products should be applied to everyone in the relevant population or whether different treatments need to be provided to each of several segments that are relatively homogeneous internally but heterogeneous among segments. Our objective was to explain the purposes, benefits, and methods of segmentation for health organizations, and to illustrate the process of segmenting health populations based on preference coefficients from a discrete choice conjoint experiment (DCE) using an example study of prevention of cyberbullying among university students. We followed a two-level procedure for investigating segmentation incorporating several methods for forming segments in Level 1 using DCE preference coefficients and testing their quality, reproducibility, and usability by health decision makers. Covariates (demographic, behavioral, lifestyle, and health state variables) were included in Level 2 to further evaluate quality and to support the scoring of large databases and developing typing tools for assigning those in the relevant population, but not in the sample, to the segments. Several segmentation solution candidates were found during the Level 1 analysis, and the relationship of the preference coefficients to the segments was investigated using predictive methods. Those segmentations were tested for their quality and reproducibility and three were found to be very close in quality. While one seemed better than others in the Level 1 analysis, another was very similar in quality and proved ultimately better in predicting segment membership using covariates in Level 2. The two segments in the final solution were profiled for attributes that would support the development and acceptance of cyberbullying prevention programs among university

  18. Brow archetype preferred by Korean women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong Kee; Cha, Seung Hyun; Hwang, Kun; Hwang, Se Won; Kim, Young Suk

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study is to see which brow archetype is preferred by Korean women. The archetypes were chosen from a literature search, which contain detailed, replicable methods and have diagrams (Westmore, Lamas, Anastasia, Schreiber, and Hwang). A survey was conducted on 300 subjects (group A, 100 female medical students; group B, 100 women who had visited a plastic surgery clinic for periorbital rejuvenation; and group C, 100 women who visited the brow bar). They were asked whether they think there might be a method that yields an ideal brow archetype. In the cases where they said yes, they were asked to choose 1 of the illustrated 5 brow archetypes that they think is ideal. Among the 300 respondents, 232 (77.3%) thought there might be a method to yield an ideal brow archetype, whereas 68 (22.7%) answered they did not. The preference for the brow archetypes was different among the 5 archetypes (P = 0.0001, χ2). Anastasia was the most preferred (44.8%, brow starts on a perpendicular line drawn from the middle of the nostril, arches on a line drawn from the center of the nose through the center of the pupil, and ends on a line drawn from the edge of the corresponding nasal ala through the outer edge of the eye). Anastasia was followed by Lamas (22.0%). In group A, Anastasia (55.7%) was the most preferred, followed by Lamas (26.2%) and Westmore (13.1%). In group B, Anastasia (34.8%) was the most preferred, followed by Lamas (30.3%) and Westmore and Schreiber (both 13.5%). In group C, Anastasia (47.6%) was the most preferred, followed by Hwang (25.5%) and Westmore (11.0%). There was a significant difference (P < 0.001) among the 3 groups. There was a significant correlation between the preference of brow archetype and occupation (P = 0.0033). However, no significant differences were noted for the preference of brow archetype between the age groups of younger than 30 years and older than 30 years (P = 0.1374), level of education (P = 0.3403), marital status (P = 0

  19. Effects of periadolescent ethanol exposure on alcohol preference in two BALB substrains.

    PubMed

    Blizard, David A; Vandenbergh, David J; Jefferson, Akilah L; Chatlos, Cynthia D; Vogler, George P; McClearn, Gerald E

    2004-01-01

    Ethanol exposure during adolescence is a rite of passage in many societies, but only a subset of individuals exposed to ethanol becomes dependent on alcohol. To explore individual differences in response to ethanol exposure, we compared the effects of periadolescent ethanol exposure on alcohol drinking in an animal model. Male and female mice of two BALB substrains were exposed to ethanol in one of three forms--choice [water vs. 10% (volume/volume) ethanol], forced (10% ethanol in a single bottle), or gradual (single bottle exposure, starting with 0.5% ethanol and increasing at 2-day intervals to 10% ethanol)--from the 6th through the 12th week of age and administered two-bottle alcohol preference tests (10% ethanol vs. water) for 15 days immediately thereafter. All three forms of ethanol exposure increased alcohol preference in male and female BALB/cByJ mice, relative to findings for ethanol-naive control animals. Only gradual ethanol exposure produced an increase in alcohol preference in BALB/cJ mice. During extended alcohol preference testing (for a total of 39 days) of mice in the gradual ethanol exposure group, the higher alcohol preference of the gradual ethanol-exposed BALB/cByJ male mice persisted, but alcohol preference of control group female mice in this strain--formerly ethanol naive, but at this point having received 10% ethanol in the two-bottle paradigm for 15 days--rose to the level of alcohol preference of female mice in the gradual ethanol exposure group. This finding demonstrated that both adolescent and adult ethanol exposure stimulated alcohol preference in female mice of this strain. Across days of testing in adulthood, alcohol preference of the gradual ethanol-exposed BALB/cJ mice decreased, resulting in a lack of effect of gradual exposure to ethanol on alcohol preference in both male and female mice of this strain during the period of extended testing. These strain differences support a genetic basis for the effects of ethanol exposure on

  20. Do you want the good news or the bad news first? The nature and consequences of news order preferences.

    PubMed

    Legg, Angela M; Sweeny, Kate

    2014-03-01

    Information often comes as a mix of good and bad news, prompting the question, "Do you want the good news or the bad news first?" In such cases, news-givers and news-recipients differ in their concerns and considerations, thus creating an obstacle to ideal communication. In three studies, we examined order preferences of news-givers and news-recipients and the consequences of these preferences. Study 1 confirmed that news-givers and news-recipients differ in their news order preferences. Study 2 tested two solutions to close the preference gap between news-givers and recipients and found that both perspective-taking and priming emotion-protection goals shift news-givers' delivery patterns to the preferred order of news-recipients. Study 3 provided evidence that news order has consequences for recipients, such that opening with bad news (as recipients prefer) reduces worry, but this emotional benefit undermines motivation to change behavior.