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Sample records for 2-d acar measurements

  1. 2-D ACAR measurements of Ni/sub 3/A1

    SciTech Connect

    Smedskjaer, L.C.; DasGupta, A.; Legnini, D.G.; Stahulak, M.D.

    1987-07-01

    In connection with a detailed study of the electronic structure and stability of the aluminides (Ni,Fe)/sub 3/Al, 2-D ACAR positron annihilation measurements were made on a Ni/sub 3/Al single crystal to study the Fermi surface. The results for Ni/sub 3/Al have been compared with results for pure Ni. Strong similarities were found for the electronic structures of these materials. Theoretical calculations of the Fermi surface for Ni/sub 3/Al are in good agreement with the experimental results. The GAMMA/sub 16/ sheet, not previously observed in any experiment, has now been observed for the first time in Ni/sub 3/Al. 14 refs., 10 figs.

  2. In-situ Hydrogen Sorption 2D-ACAR Facility for the Study of Metal Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legerstee, W. J.; de Roode, J.; Anastasopol, A.; Falub, C. V.; Eijt, S. W. H.

    We developed a dedicated hydrogen sorption setup coupled to a positron 2D-ACAR (two-dimensional Angular Correlation of Annihilation Radiation) setup employing a 22Na-source, which will enable to collect 2D-ACAR momentum distributions in-situ as a function of temperature, hydrogen pressure and hydrogen content. In parallel, a dedicated glovebox was constructed for handling air-sensitive metal and metal hydride samples, with a special entrance for the 2D-ACAR sample insert. The 2D-ACAR setup was tested in first measurements on a Pd0.75Ag0.25 foil and on a ball-milled MgH2 powder in both the hydrogen loaded and desorbed states. The hydrogen loaded Pd0.75Ag0.25Hx sample was kept under a 1 bar hydrogen pressure to prevent partial desorption during measurements at room temperature. The collected 2D-ACAR distributions of Pd0.75Ag0.25 and Pd0.75Ag0.25Hx showed similar features as observed in previous studies. The broadening of the ACAR distributions observed for the Mg to MgH2 metal-insulator transition was compared in a quantitative manner to ab-initio calculations reported in the literature.

  3. Positron Annihilation 3-D Momentum Spectrometry by Synchronous 2D-ACAR and DBAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burggraf, Larry W.; Bonavita, Angelo M.; Williams, Christopher S.; Fagan-Kelly, Stefan B.; Jimenez, Stephen M.

    2015-05-01

    A positron annihilation spectroscopy system capable of determining 3D electron-positron (e--e+) momentum densities has been constructed and tested. In this technique two opposed HPGe strip detectors measure angular coincidence of annihilation radiation (ACAR) and Doppler broadening of annihilation radiation (DBAR) in coincidence to produce 3D momentum datasets in which the parallel momentum component obtained from the DBAR measurement can be selected for annihilation events that possess a particular perpendicular momentum component observed in the 2D ACAR spectrum. A true 3D momentum distribution can also be produced. Measurement of 3-D momentum spectra in oxide materials has been demonstrated including O-atom defects in 6H SiC and silver atom substitution in lithium tetraborate crystals. Integration of the 3-D momentum spectrometer with a slow positron beam for future surface resonant annihilation spectrometry measurements will be described. Sponsorship from Air Force Office of Scientific Research

  4. 2D ACAR momentum density study of the nature of the positron surface state on Al(100)

    SciTech Connect

    Berko, S.; Canter, K.F.; Lynn, K.G.; Mills, A.P.; Roellig, L.O.; West, R.N.

    1985-01-01

    The two-dimensional angular correlation of the 2..gamma.. annihilation radiation (2D ACAR) has been measured from an Al(100) surface bombarded by 200-eV positrons. After removing the contribution of fast para-positronium annihilation, the spectrum from positrons annihilating at the surface exhibits a nearly isotropic conical shape with a (7.1 +- 0.5) mrad FWHM. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Electronic structure of disordered CuPd alloys by positron-annihilation 2D-ACAR

    SciTech Connect

    Smedskjaer, L.C.; Benedek, R.; Siegel, R.W.; Legnini, D.G.; Stahulak, M.D.; Bansil, A.

    1988-01-01

    We report 2D-ACAR experiments and KKR CPA calculations on alpha-phase single-crystal Cu/sub 1-x/Pd/sub x/ in the range x less than or equal to 0.25. The flattening of the Fermi surface near (110) with increasing x predicted by theory is confirmed by our experimental results. 16 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Positron 2D-ACAR experiments and electron-positron momentum density in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x}

    SciTech Connect

    Smedskjaer, L.C.; Welp, U.; Fang, Y.; Bailey, K.G.; Bansil, A.

    1991-12-01

    We discuss positron annihilation (2D-ACAR) measurements in the C- projection on an untwinned metallic single crystal of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} as a function of temperature, for five temperatures ranging from 30K to 300K. The measured 2D-ACAR intensities are interpreted in terms of the electron-positron momentum density obtained within the KKR-band theory framework. The temperature dependence of the 2D-ACAR spectra is used to extract a ``background corrected`` experimental spectrum which is in remarkable accord with the corresponding band theory predictions, and displays in particular clear signatures of the electron ridge Fermi surface.

  7. Positron 2D-ACAR experiments and electron-positron momentum density in YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7-x

    SciTech Connect

    Smedskjaer, L.C.; Welp, U.; Fang, Y.; Bailey, K.G. ); Bansil, A. . Dept. of Physics)

    1991-12-01

    We discuss positron annihilation (2D-ACAR) measurements in the C- projection on an untwinned metallic single crystal of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} as a function of temperature, for five temperatures ranging from 30K to 300K. The measured 2D-ACAR intensities are interpreted in terms of the electron-positron momentum density obtained within the KKR-band theory framework. The temperature dependence of the 2D-ACAR spectra is used to extract a background corrected'' experimental spectrum which is in remarkable accord with the corresponding band theory predictions, and displays in particular clear signatures of the electron ridge Fermi surface.

  8. A temperature dependent 2D-ACAR study of untwinned metallic YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}x}

    SciTech Connect

    Smedskjaer, L.C.; Welp, U.; Fang, Y.; Bailey, K.G.; Bansil, A.

    1992-02-01

    The authors have carried out 2D-ACAR measurements in the c-axis projection on an untwinned single crystal of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}x} as a function of temperature, for five temperatures ranging from 30K to 300K. These temperature dependent 2D-ACAR spectra can be approximated by a superposition of two temperature independent spectra with temperature dependent weighting factors. The authors discuss how the temperature dependence of the data can be exploited to obtain a {open_quote}background corrected{close_quote} experimental spectrum, which is found to be in remarkable accord with the corresponding band theory based predictions, including for the first time the overall amplitude of the anisotropy in the 2D-ACAR. The corrected data also show clear signatures of the ridge Fermi surface and an indication of the pillbox surface.

  9. Positron-annihilation 2D-ACAR studies of disordered and defected alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Bansil, A.; Prasad, R.; Smedskjaer, L.C.; Benedek, R.; Mijnarends, P.E.

    1987-09-01

    Theoretical and experimental progess in connection with 2D-ACAR positron annihilation studies of ordered, disordered, and defected alloys is discussed. We present, in particular, some of the recent developments concerning the electronic structure of disordered alloys, and the work in the area of annihilation from positrons trapped at vacancy-type defects in metals and alloys. The electronic structure and properties of a number of compounds are also discussed briefly; we comment specifically on high T/sub c/ ceramic superconductors, Heusler alloys, and transition-metal aluminides. 58 refs., 116 figs.

  10. 2D-ACAR spectra of insulating and superconducting Y-123

    SciTech Connect

    Smedskjaer, L.C.; Bansil, A.

    1992-09-01

    An overview of the two-dimensional angular correlation (2D-ACAR) positron annihilation results for the three fundamental phases of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x}, namely, the normal metal, the superconductor, and the insulator, is presented. In addition to the c-axis projected momentum density, the recent results for the a-axis projection as well as the insulating Y123 are discussed. The experimental results are compared and contrasted with the corresponding band theory predictions as far as possible in order to gain insight into the electronic structure and Fermiology of this archetypal high-{Tc} superconductor.

  11. Momentum density and 2D-ACAR experiments in YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7

    SciTech Connect

    Bansil, A. . Dept. of Physics); Smedskjaer, L.C. )

    1991-12-01

    We compare measured c-projected 2D-ACAR spectrum from an untwinned single crystal of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} with the corresponding band theory predictions. Many different one-dimensional sections through the spectrum are considered, together with the characteristic amplitudes and shapes of the spectral anisotropies, with a focus on identifying and delineating Fermi surface signatures in the spectra. The positron data clearly show several distinct features of the ridge Fermi surface predicted by the band theory, and give an indication of the pillbox Fermi sheet. The good agreement between theory and experiment suggests that the band theory framework based on the local density approximation (LDA) is capable of providing a substantially correct description of the momentum density and Fermiology of the normal ground state electronic structure of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7}.

  12. Momentum density and 2D-ACAR experiments in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7}

    SciTech Connect

    Bansil, A.; Smedskjaer, L.C.

    1991-12-01

    We compare measured c-projected 2D-ACAR spectrum from an untwinned single crystal of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} with the corresponding band theory predictions. Many different one-dimensional sections through the spectrum are considered, together with the characteristic amplitudes and shapes of the spectral anisotropies, with a focus on identifying and delineating Fermi surface signatures in the spectra. The positron data clearly show several distinct features of the ridge Fermi surface predicted by the band theory, and give an indication of the pillbox Fermi sheet. The good agreement between theory and experiment suggests that the band theory framework based on the local density approximation (LDA) is capable of providing a substantially correct description of the momentum density and Fermiology of the normal ground state electronic structure of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7}.

  13. ACARS wind measurements - An intercomparison with radiosonde, cloud motion and VAS thermally derived winds. [Communications, Addressing and Reporting System VISSR Atmospheric Sounder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lord, R. J.; Menzel, W. P.; Pecht, L. E.

    1984-01-01

    Statistical comparisons between winds measured by ACARS and winds obtained from radiosondes, geostationary satellite image cloud motions, and VAS are presented. Observations from three separate comparisons reveal over 60 percent of wind vector magnitude differences are within 9 m/s, and 70 percent of the directional differences are within 15 deg. The comparisons indicate that the ACARS system provides an independent source of wind data that complements other sources of wind data for constructing composite wind field analyses.

  14. Persistence Measures for 2d Soap Froth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Y.; Ruskin, H. J.; Zhu, B.

    Soap froths as typical disordered cellular structures, exhibiting spatial and temporal evolution, have been studied through their distributions and topological properties. Recently, persistence measures, which permit representation of the froth as a two-phase system, have been introduced to study froth dynamics at different length scales. Several aspects of the dynamics may be considered and cluster persistence has been observed through froth experiment. Using a direct simulation method, we have investigated persistent properties in 2D froth both by monitoring the persistence of survivor cells, a topologically independent measure, and in terms of cluster persistence. It appears that the area fraction behavior for both survivor and cluster persistence is similar for Voronoi froth and uniform froth (with defects). Survivor and cluster persistent fractions are also similar for a uniform froth, particularly when geometries are constrained, but differences observed for the Voronoi case appear to be attributable to the strong topological dependency inherent in cluster persistence. Survivor persistence, on the other hand, depends on the number rather than size and position of remaining bubbles and does not exhibit the characteristic decay to zero.

  15. Study of the equilibrium vacancy ensemble in aluminum using 1D- and 2D-angular correlation of annihilation radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Fluss, M.J.; Berko, S.; Chakraborty, B.; Hoffmann, K.R.; Lippel, P.; Siegel, R.W.

    1985-03-12

    One- and two-dimensional angular correlation of positron-electron annihilation radiation (1D and 2D-ACAR) data have been obtained between 293 and 903 K for single crystals of aluminum. The peak counting rates vs temperature, which were measured using the 1D-ACAR technique, provide a model independent value for the temperature dependence of the positron trapping probability. Using these results it is possible to strip out the Bloch state contribution from the observed 2D-ACAR surfaces and then compare the resulting defect ACAR surfaces to calculated 2D-ACAR surfaces for positrons annihilating from the Bloch, monovacancy, and divacancy-trapped states. The result of this comparison is that the presence of an increasing equilibrium divacancy population is consistent with the observed temperature dependence of ACAR data at high temperature in Al and that the present results when compared to earlier studies on Al indicate that the ratio of the trapping rates at divacancies and monovacancies is of order two.

  16. A two-dimensional ACAR study of untwinned YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7-x

    SciTech Connect

    Smedskjaer, L.C. ); Bansil, A. . Dept. of Physics)

    1991-12-01

    We have carried out 2D-ACAR measurements on an untwinned single crystal of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} as a function of temperature, for five temperatures ranging from 30K to 300K. We show that these temperature dependent 2D-ACAR spectra can be described to a good approximation as a superposition of two temperature independent spectra with temperature dependent weighting factors. We show further how the data can be used to correct for the background'' in the experimental spectrum. Such a background corrected'' spectrum is in remarkable accord with the corresponding band theory predictions, and displays in particular clear signatures of the electron ridge Fermi surface.

  17. High Precision 2-D Grating Groove Density Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ningxiao; McEntaffer, Randall; Tedesco, Ross

    2017-08-01

    Our research group at Penn State University is working on producing X-ray reflection gratings with high spectral resolving power and high diffraction efficiency. To estimate our fabrication accuracy, we apply a precise 2-D grating groove density measurement to plot groove density distributions of gratings on 6-inch wafers. In addition to plotting a fixed groove density distribution, this method is also sensitive to measuring the variation of the groove density simultaneously. This system can reach a measuring accuracy (ΔN/N) of 10-3. Here we present this groove density measurement and some applications.

  18. NASA High-Speed 2D Photogrammetric Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dismond, Harriett R.

    2012-01-01

    The object of this report is to provide users of the NASA high-speed 2D photogrammetric measurement system with procedures required to obtain drop-model trajectory and impact data for full-scale and sub-scale models. This guide focuses on use of the system for vertical drop testing at the NASA Langley Landing and Impact Research (LandIR) Facility.

  19. Shear viscosity measurements in a 2D Yukawa liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosenko, Volodymyr

    2005-03-01

    Shear viscosity was measured for a 2D strongly-coupled Yukawa liquid. First, we formed a dilute monolayer suspension of microspheres in a partially-ionized rarefied gas, i.e., a dusty plasma. In the absence of manipulation, the suspension forms a 2D triangular lattice. We used a new in-situ method of applying a shear stress using the scattering forces applied by counter-propagating laser beams. The lattice melted and a shear flow formed. Using digital video microscopy for direct imaging and particle tracking, the microscopic dynamics of the shear flow are observed. Averaging the velocities of individual microspheres, a velocity flow profile was calculated. Using the Navier-Stokes equation with an additional frictional term to account for gas drag, we fit the velocity profile. The fit yielded the value of the shear viscosity. The kinematic viscosity of our particle suspension is of order 1 mm^2s-1, which is comparable to that for liquid water. We believe this is the first report of a rheological measurement in a 2D dusty plasma. This talk is based on V. Nosenko and J. Goree, PRL 93, 155004 (2004).

  20. Measurements of Shear Reduction of 2D Vortex Diffusion.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driscoll, C. F.; Anderegg, F.; Dubin, D. H. E.

    2001-11-01

    Experiments with magnetized ion columns in the 2-dimensional regime demonstrate shear reduction of vortex diffusion, in close correspondence with recent theory.(D.H.E. Dubin, Phys. Lett. A 284), 112 (2001). Here, the ions move in ( r, θ ) as point vortices, and we can accurately control the vorticity ζ (r), fluid rotation Ω (r), and shear S (r) ≡ r ; partial Ω / partial r. Moreover, individual ions can be ``tagged,'' so that the vortex diffusion rate D can be measured directly. For flows with low shear, i.e. S / Ω <= 10-3, the measured diffusion is close to the Taylor-McNamara prediction for a homogeneous gas of N point vortices.(J.B. Taylor and B. McNamara, Phys. Fluids 14), 1492 (1971). As the shear is increased, the measured diffusion decreases by up to 100×, in factor-of-three correspondence with the predicted D ∝ S-1. For very large shear, the ions can no longer be treated as 2D point vortices, since their shear separation is faster than their axial transversal of the trap. In this limit, the measured diffusion agrees quantitatively with the theory of long-range 3D Coulomb collisions.

  1. A two-dimensional ACAR study of untwinned YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x}

    SciTech Connect

    Smedskjaer, L.C.; Bansil, A.

    1991-12-01

    We have carried out 2D-ACAR measurements on an untwinned single crystal of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} as a function of temperature, for five temperatures ranging from 30K to 300K. We show that these temperature dependent 2D-ACAR spectra can be described to a good approximation as a superposition of two temperature independent spectra with temperature dependent weighting factors. We show further how the data can be used to correct for the ``background`` in the experimental spectrum. Such a ``background corrected`` spectrum is in remarkable accord with the corresponding band theory predictions, and displays in particular clear signatures of the electron ridge Fermi surface.

  2. Sensitivity of 2-D complex resistivity measurements to subsurface anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenkel, J.; Kemna, A.

    2016-11-01

    In general, the complex electrical resistivity in the subsurface is anisotropic. Despite this, algorithms for the tomographic inversion of complex resistivity data commonly assume isotropy, mainly due to the lack of anisotropic modelling and inversion schemes, potentially leading to artifacts in the inversion results in the presence of anisotropy. The development of an effective anisotropic complex resistivity inversion algorithm which utilizes the gradient information of some cost function benefits from understanding the characteristics of the problem's sensitivities, i.e., the partial derivative of impedance data with respect to the complex conductivities in the different spatial directions, as well as with respect to the different ratios of complex conductivities, i.e., the different anisotropy ratios. We here derive expressions for these sensitivities and, based on a 2.5-D finite-element modelling algorithm, we compute and discuss sensitivity distributions as well as measurement response curves of typical surface and cross-borehole measurement configurations for 2-D subsurface anisotropic complex resistivity distributions. Depending on the electrode layout and measurement configuration, the sensitivity with respect to the conductivity in a particular direction shows a unique pattern, while for other directions sensitivity patterns are qualitatively similar. These sensitivity characteristics translate into important equivalences between impedance responses of local anisotropic and isotropic anomalies, for both magnitude and phase. Accordingly, with collinear surface arrays only the complex conductivity in the direction of the electrode layout can be unambiguously resolved, and with cross-borehole arrays only the conductivity in the vertical direction, provided an in-hole current injection is used. Nevertheless, anisotropy ratios involving these resolvable conductivity components are likewise detectable. The distinct shape of the measurement response curves

  3. Sensitivity of 2-D complex resistivity measurements to subsurface anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenkel, J.; Kemna, A.

    2017-02-01

    In general, the complex electrical resistivity in the subsurface is anisotropic. Despite this, algorithms for the tomographic inversion of complex resistivity data commonly assume isotropy, mainly due to the lack of anisotropic modelling and inversion schemes, potentially leading to artefacts in the inversion results in the presence of anisotropy. The development of an effective anisotropic complex resistivity inversion algorithm which utilizes the gradient information of some cost function benefits from understanding the characteristics of the problem's sensitivities, that is, the partial derivative of the impedance forward response with respect to the complex conductivities in the different spatial directions, as well as with respect to the different ratios of complex conductivities, that is, the different anisotropy ratios. We here derive expressions for these sensitivities and, based on a 2.5-D finite-element modelling algorithm, we compute and discuss sensitivity distributions as well as measurement response curves of typical surface and cross-borehole measurement configurations for 2-D subsurface anisotropic complex resistivity distributions. Depending on the electrode layout and measurement configuration, the sensitivity with respect to the conductivity in a particular direction shows a unique pattern, while for other directions sensitivity patterns are qualitatively similar. These sensitivity characteristics translate into important equivalences between impedance responses of local anisotropic and isotropic anomalies, for both magnitude and phase. Accordingly, with collinear surface arrays only the complex conductivity in the direction of the electrode layout can be unambiguously resolved, and with cross-borehole arrays only the conductivity in the vertical direction, provided an in-hole current injection is used. Nevertheless, anisotropy ratios involving these resolvable conductivity components are likewise detectable. The distinct shape of the measurement

  4. 2D Sub-Pixel Disparity Measurement Using QPEC / Medicis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cournet, M.; Giros, A.; Dumas, L.; Delvit, J. M.; Greslou, D.; Languille, F.; Blanchet, G.; May, S.; Michel, J.

    2016-06-01

    In the frame of its earth observation missions, CNES created a library called QPEC, and one of its launcher called Medicis. QPEC / Medicis is a sub-pixel two-dimensional stereo matching algorithm that works on an image pair. This tool is a block matching algorithm, which means that it is based on a local method. Moreover it does not regularize the results found. It proposes several matching costs, such as the Zero mean Normalised Cross-Correlation or statistical measures (the Mutual Information being one of them), and different match validation flags. QPEC / Medicis is able to compute a two-dimensional dense disparity map with a subpixel precision. Hence, it is more versatile than disparity estimation methods found in computer vision literature, which often assume an epipolar geometry. CNES uses Medicis, among other applications, during the in-orbit image quality commissioning of earth observation satellites. For instance the Pléiades-HR 1A & 1B and the Sentinel-2 geometric calibrations are based on this block matching algorithm. Over the years, it has become a common tool in ground segments for in-flight monitoring purposes. For these two kinds of applications, the two-dimensional search and the local sub-pixel measure without regularization can be essential. This tool is also used to generate automatic digital elevation models, for which it was not initially dedicated. This paper deals with the QPEC / Medicis algorithm. It also presents some of its CNES applications (in-orbit commissioning, in flight monitoring or digital elevation model generation). Medicis software is distributed outside the CNES as well. This paper finally describes some of these external applications using Medicis, such as ground displacement measurement, or intra-oral scanner in the dental domain.

  5. A novel method for measuring the 2D information of burst strong flashing object in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, P.; Jin, Ye

    2009-11-01

    The burst strongly flashing event taking place in space such as strong explosion in low air is very random in time and position, and its duration time is very short. In this paper, a photoelectric measuring device, namely, 2D angle localizer for measuring 2D angle of a burst strongly flashing object appearing in place randomly has been presented. It mainly includes detecting head with narrow slot, cylinder silicon photoelectric receiver, absolute photoelectric encoder and computer. It can complete the measurement of 2D information, namely, the azimuth angle and pitching angle of the center position of a spatial flashing object. The principle of measuring angle and basic structure of measuring angle device are introduced. The critical parts of the device are briefly described. A contrast experiment of measuring the sun's 2D angle by 2D angle localizer and theodolite was made. The measuring results and accuracy analysis have been given. Due to being equipped with variable gain amplifiers and three silicon photoelectric accepters with cylinder surface, the 2D angle localizer has the characteristics of Wide dynamic measurement range and omnidirectional angle measurement. The measuring accuracy of 2D angle localizer is more than 2mil and the act of measuring can be finished in 0.5s.

  6. Reliability of a field based 2D:4D measurement technique in children.

    PubMed

    Ranson, R M; Taylor, S R; Stratton, G

    2013-08-01

    There is limited literature on the relationship between second to fourth finger digit ratio (2D:4D) and health- and skill-related fitness in children. To examine this relationship it is important to establish a reliable method of assessing 2D:4D for use with large groups of children. The aim of the study was to examine the reliability of a field-based 2D:4D measure in children. METHODS/RESEARCH DESIGN: Fifty 8-11 year olds had 2D:4D of the right hand measured using a Perspex table top, a digital camera, and Adobe Photoshop software. Second to fourth finger digit ratio (and 2D and 4D) intra-observer and inter-observer reliabilities were assessed on the same day and intraobserver reliability was measured between days. Limits of agreement (LoA), coefficient of variation (CV) and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used for statistical analysis. High correlation coefficients (r=0.95-0.99) and low CV's (0.4-1.2%) were reported for intra- and inter-observer reliabilities on the same day and between days. LoA revealed negligible systematic bias with random error ranging from 0.02 to 0.12. These findings suggest that 2D:4D (and 2D and 4D) assessment in children using digital photography provides a reliable measure of 2D:4D that can be used during field-based testing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Measurement and modelling of magnetic properties of soft magnetic composite material under 2D vector magnetisations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Y. G.; Zhu, J. G.; Zhong, J. J.

    2006-07-01

    This paper reports the measurement and modelling of magnetic properties of SOMALOY TM 500, a soft magnetic composite (SMC) material, under different 2D vector magnetisations, such as alternating along one direction, circularly and elliptically rotating in a 2D plane. By using a 2D magnetic property tester, the B- H curves and core losses of the SMC material have been measured with different flux density patterns on a single sheet square sample. The measurements can provide useful information for modelling of the magnetic properties, such as core losses. The core loss models have been successfully applied in the design of rotating electrical machines with SMC core.

  8. Condensate fraction in a 2D Bose gas measured across the Mott-insulator transition.

    PubMed

    Spielman, I B; Phillips, W D; Porto, J V

    2008-03-28

    We realize a single-band 2D Bose-Hubbard system with Rb atoms in an optical lattice and measure the condensate fraction as a function of lattice depth, crossing from the superfluid to the Mott-insulating phase. We quantitatively identify the location of the superfluid to normal transition by observing when the condensed fraction vanishes. Our measurement agrees with recent quantum Monte Carlo calculations for a finite-sized 2D system to within experimental uncertainty.

  9. 2D electron density profile measurement in tokamak by laser-accelerated ion-beam probe

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y. H.; Yang, X. Y.; Lin, C. E-mail: cjxiao@pku.edu.cn; Wang, X. G.; Xiao, C. J. E-mail: cjxiao@pku.edu.cn; Wang, L.; Xu, M.

    2014-11-15

    A new concept of Heavy Ion Beam Probe (HIBP) diagnostic has been proposed, of which the key is to replace the electrostatic accelerator of traditional HIBP by a laser-driven ion accelerator. Due to the large energy spread of ions, the laser-accelerated HIBP can measure the two-dimensional (2D) electron density profile of tokamak plasma. In a preliminary simulation, a 2D density profile was reconstructed with a spatial resolution of about 2 cm, and with the error below 15% in the core region. Diagnostics of 2D density fluctuation is also discussed.

  10. A three-dimensional measuring system based on 2D laser displacement sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Sulun; Fu, Yuegang; Zhu, Wangbin; Zhang, Yingwei; Wang, Weichen

    2014-12-01

    3D(Three-dimensional) measurement has found its applications in the fields of automation process, Reverse engineering(RE), machine vision, as well as medical diagnostic. There are some disadvantages in the present 3D measurement methods. In this paper, a 2D laser displacement sensor-based and fast-dimensional surface measurement method for small size objects was proposed after analyzing the existing three-dimensional measurement methods. This method uses the information collected by 2D laser displacement sensor and encoder in pan-tilt to three-dimensional reconstruct 3D model. And then discuss the restrictive relation between angular velocity of pan-tilt and parameters (measurement range, signal sample rate, precision, etc.) of 2D laser displacement sensor. The sources of error and methods of improving precision were analyzed. Theoretical analyses and experiments have proved the feasibility, high-precision and practical of this method.

  11. Highly resolved measurements of atmospheric turbulence with the new 2d-Atmospheric Laser Cantilever Anemometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeromin, A.; Schaffarczyk, A. P.; Puczylowski, J.; Peinke, J.; Hölling, M.

    2014-12-01

    For the investigation of atmospheric turbulent flows on small scales a new anemometer was developed, the so-called 2d-Atmospheric Laser Cantilever Anemometer (2d-ALCA). It performs highly resolved measurements with a spatial resolution in millimeter range and temporal resolution in kHz range, thus detecting very small turbulent structures. The anemometer is a redesign of the successfully operating 2d-LCA for laboratory application. The new device was designed to withstand hostile operating environments (rain and saline, humid air). In February 2012, the 2d-ALCA was used for the first time in a test field. The device was mounted in about 53 m above ground level on a lattice tower near the German North Sea coast. Wind speed was measured by the 2d-ALCA at 10 kHz sampling rate and by cup anemometers at 1 Hz. The instantaneous wind speed ranged from 8 m/s to 19 m/s at an average turbulence level of about 7 %. Wind field characteristics were analyzed based on cup anemometer as well as 2d-ALCA. The combination of both devices allowed the study of atmospheric turbulence over several magnitudes in turbulent scales.

  12. Online measurement for geometrical parameters based on 2D laser sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hongtao; Shao, Shuangyun; Feng, Qibo

    2015-02-01

    Based on 2-D laser sensor, an optimized system for dynamically measuring geomet rical parameters of train wheels is proposed in this paper. The calibrat ion of the system is simplified by combining a 1-D laser sensor and a 2-D laser sensor. Accuracy of the 2-D laser sensor reaches 0.2mm and it ensures that most information of the wheel tread surface is acquired. The geometrical parameters including wheel diameter, flange thickness, flange height, tread wear and rim width can be calculated once the information is processed. In order to improve the measurement accuracy of wheel diameter, a new method for spatial circle fitting is proposed. According to the results acquired in the field, the measurement system can satisfy the requirements of dynamically measuring the geometrical parameters of train wheels.

  13. Optical method of measuring angular displacement using a 2-D charge coupled device.

    PubMed

    Sato, K; Yamamoto, S; Ami, M; Fukushima, K

    1990-08-10

    We investigated a quick noncontact method of measuring angular displacement with a simple system comprising a 2-D CCD and a personal computer. According to this method the angular displacement can be measured even when the rotational axis is not known, and even when the system moves parallel to the plane.

  14. Digital phase-stepping holographic interferometry in measuring 2-D density fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanen, T. A. W. M.; Nebbeling, C.; van Ingen, J. L.

    1990-06-01

    This paper presents a holographic interferometer technique for measuring transparent (2-D or quasi 2-D) density fields. To be able to study the realization of such a field at a certain moment of time, the field is “frozen” on a holographic plate. During the reconstruction of the density field from the hologram the length of the path traversed by the reconstruction beam is diminished in equal steps by applying a computer controlled voltage to a piezo-electric crystal that translates a mirror. Four phase-stepped interferograms resulting from this pathlength variation are digitized and serve as input to an algorithm for computing the phase surface. The method is illustrated by measuring the basically 2-D density field existing around a heated horizontal cylinder in free convection.

  15. Ultrasonic tissue characterization via 2-D spectrum analysis: theory and in vitro measurements

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tian; Lizzi, Frederic L.; Ketterling, Jeffrey A.; Silverman, Ronald H.; Kutcher, Gerald J.

    2010-01-01

    A theoretical model is described for application in ultrasonic tissue characterization using a calibrated 2-D spectrum analysis method. This model relates 2-D spectra computed from ultrasonic backscatter signals to intrinsic physical properties of tissue microstructures, e.g., size, shape, and acoustic impedance. The model is applicable to most clinical diagnostic ultrasound systems. Two experiments employing two types of tissue architectures, spherical and cylindrical scatterers, are conducted using ultrasound with center frequencies of 10 and 40 MHz, respectively. Measurements of a tissue-mimicking phantom with an internal suspension of microscopic glass beads are used to validate the theoretical model. Results from in vitro muscle fibers are presented to further elucidate the utility of 2-D spectrum analysis in ultrasonic tissue characterization. PMID:17441250

  16. Ultrasonic tissue characterization via 2-D spectrum analysis: theory and in vitro measurements.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tian; Lizzi, Frederic L; Ketterling, Jeffrey A; Silverman, Ronald H; Kutcher, Gerald J

    2007-03-01

    A theoretical model is described for application in ultrasonic tissue characterization using a calibrated 2-D spectrum analysis method. This model relates 2-D spectra computed from ultrasonic backscatter signals to intrinsic physical properties of tissue microstructures, e.g., size, shape, and acoustic impedance. The model is applicable to most clinical diagnostic ultrasound systems. Two experiments employing two types of tissue architectures, spherical and cylindrical scatterers, are conducted using ultrasound with center frequencies of 10 and 40 MHz, respectively. Measurements of a tissue-mimicking phantom with an internal suspension of microscopic glass beads are used to validate the theoretical model. Results from in vitro muscle fibers are presented to further elucidate the utility of 2-D spectrum analysis in ultrasonic tissue characterization.

  17. Reference measurements on a Francis model turbine with 2D Laser-Doppler-Anemometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, A.; Kirschner, O.; Riedelbauch, S.; Jester-Zuerker, R.; Jung, A.

    2016-11-01

    To validate the investigations of a high-resolution CFD simulation of a Francis turbine, measurements with 2D Laser-Doppler-Anemometry are carried out. The turbine is operated in part load, where a rotating vortex rope occurs. To validate both, mean velocities and velocity fluctuations, the measurements are classified relative to the vortex rope position. Several acrylic glass windows are installed in the turbine walls such as upstream of the spiral case inlet, in the vaneless space and in the draft tube. The current investigation is focused on a measurement plane below the runner. 2D velocity components are measured on this whole plane by measuring several narrow spaced radial lines. To avoid optical refraction of the laser beam a plan parallel window is inserted in the cone wall. The laser probe is positioned with a 2D traverse system consisting of a circumferential rail and a radial aligned linear traverse. The velocity data are synchronized with the rotational frequency of the rotating vortex rope. The results of one measurement line show the dependency of the axial and circumferential velocities on the vortex rope position.

  18. Automatic computation of 2D cardiac measurements from B-mode echocardiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, JinHyeong; Feng, Shaolei; Zhou, S. Kevin

    2012-03-01

    We propose a robust and fully automatic algorithm which computes the 2D echocardiography measurements recommended by America Society of Echocardiography. The algorithm employs knowledge-based imaging technologies which can learn the expert's knowledge from the training images and expert's annotation. Based on the models constructed from the learning stage, the algorithm searches initial location of the landmark points for the measurements by utilizing heart structure of left ventricle including mitral valve aortic valve. It employs the pseudo anatomic M-mode image generated by accumulating the line images in 2D parasternal long axis view along the time to refine the measurement landmark points. The experiment results with large volume of data show that the algorithm runs fast and is robust comparable to expert.

  19. FPGA implementation of 3D-displacement measurement based on 2D-DIC and FPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Zhenkun; Zhang, Fangxu; Li, Xuan

    2014-07-01

    Nondestructive optical techniques have been widely used to satisfy engineering applicat ion. 2D digital image correlation (DIC) method has superiority of convenient manipulation and high accuracy in measuring planar displacement. Moreover, fringe pattern profilometry (FPP) method has become a highly developed technique to measure surface profile. Combined with 2D-DIC method, FPP method can be applied to measure three-dimensional displacements conveniently. As a semi-custom integrated circuit, Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) has been popular for its powerful programming performance on controlling experimental instrument. Furthermore, Labview, an efficient graphical programming language which excels in instrument communication, can be used to program FPGA. In this paper, a corrected dynamic FPP method combined with 2D-DIC method has been presented and achieved by Labview programming to measure dynamic deformation. An experimental system including a projector and a camera is used to project fringe patterns and acquire images alternately at a high speed. By the referred method a series of spatial-discrete displacement data in equal intervals of time are obtained. Then a four-dimensional interpolation is adopted to get full-field and continuous-time displacement data. Thus, the planar and out-plane displacements can be simultaneously measured. Experiments were performed and verified the feasibility of proposed method.

  20. Multiple Stokes wavelength generation in H2, D2, and CH4 for lidar aerosol measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Zhiping; Wilkerson, Thomas D.; Singh, Upendra N.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental results are reported of multiple Stokes generation of a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser in H2, D2, and CH4 in a focusing geometry. The energies at four Stokes orders were measured as functions of pump energy and gas pressure. The characteristics of the Stokes radiation generated in these gases are compared for optical production of multiple wavelengths. The competition between Raman components is analyzed in terms of cascade Raman scattering and four-wave mixing. The results indicate the possibility of using these generation processes for atmospheric aerosol measurements by means of multiwavelength lidar systems. Also, this study distinguishes between the gases, as regards the tendency to produce several wavelengths (H2,D2) versus the preference to produce mainly first Stokes radiation (CH4).

  1. Measuring temperature-dependent activation energy in thermally activated processes: a 2D Arrhenius plot method.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian V; Johnston, Steven W; Yan, Yanfa; Levi, Dean H

    2010-03-01

    Thermally activated processes are characterized by two key quantities, activation energy (E(a)) and pre-exponential factor (nu(0)), which may be temperature dependent. The accurate measurement of E(a), nu(0), and their temperature dependence is critical for understanding the thermal activation mechanisms of non-Arrhenius processes. However, the classic 1D Arrhenius plot-based methods cannot unambiguously measure E(a), nu(0), and their temperature dependence due to the mathematical impossibility of resolving two unknown 1D arrays from one 1D experimental data array. Here, we propose a 2D Arrhenius plot method to solve this fundamental problem. Our approach measures E(a) at any temperature from matching the first and second moments of the data calculated with respect to temperature and rate in the 2D temperature-rate plane, and therefore is able to unambiguously solve E(a), nu(0), and their temperature dependence. The case study of deep level emission in a Cu(In,Ga)Se(2) solar cell using the 2D Arrhenius plot method reveals clear temperature dependent behavior of E(a) and nu(0), which has not been observable by its 1D predecessors.

  2. Stationary-Afterglow measurements of dissociative recombination of H2D+ and HD2+ ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dohnal, Petr; Kalosi, Abel; Plasil, Radek; Johnsen, Rainer; Glosik, Juraj

    2016-09-01

    Binary recombination rate coefficients of H2D+ and HD2+ ions have been measured at a temperature of 80 K in an afterglow plasma experiment in which the fractional abundances of H3+, H2D+, HD2+, and D3+ ions were varied by adjusting the [D2]/([D2] + [H2]) ratio of the neutral gas. The fractional abundances of the four ion species during the afterglow and their rotational states were determined in situ by continuous-wave cavity ring-down absorption spectroscopy (CRDS), using overtone transitions from the ground vibrational states of the ions. The experimentally determined recombination rate coefficients will be compared to results of advanced theoretical calculations and to the known H3+ and D3+ recombination rate coefficients. We conclude that the recombination coefficients depend only weakly on the isotopic composition. Astrophysical implications of the measured recombination rate coefficients will be also discussed. Work supported by: Czech Science Foundation projects GACR 14-14649P, GACR 15-15077S, GACR P209/12/0233, and by Charles University in Prague Project Nr. GAUK 692214.

  3. Frequency Comb Assisted IR Measurements of H_3^+, H_2D^+ and D_2H^+ Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jusko, Pavol; Asvany, Oskar; Schlemmer, Stephan

    2016-06-01

    We present recent measurements of the fundamental transitions of H_3^+, H_2D^+ and D_2H^+ in a 4 K 22-pole trap by action spectroscopic techniques. Either Laser Induced Inhibition of Cluster Growth (He attachment at T≈4 K), endothermic reaction of H_3^+ with O_2, or deuterium exchange has been used as measurement scheme. We used a 3 μm optical parametric oscillator coupled to a frequency comb in order to achieve accuracy generally below 1 MHz. Five transitions of H_3^+, eleven of H_2D^+ and ten of D_2H^+ were recorder in our spectral range. We compare our H_3^+ results with two previous frequency comb assisted works. Moreover, accurate determination of the frequency allows us to predict pure rotational transitions for H_2D^+ and D_2H^+ in the THz range. P. Jusko, C. Konietzko, S. Schlemmer, O. Asvany, J. Mol. Spec. 319 (2016) 55 O. Asvany, S. Brünken, L. Kluge, S. Schlemmer, Appl. Phys. B 114 (2014) 203 O. Asvany, J. Krieg, S. Schlemmer, Rev. Sci. Instr. 83 (2012) 093110 J.N. Hodges, A.J. Perry, P.A. Jenkins, B.M. Siller, B.J. McCall, J. Chem. Phys. 139 (2013) 164201 H.-C. Chen, C.-Y. Hsiao, J.-L. Peng, T. Amano, J.-T. Shy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109 (2012) 263002

  4. Measurements of density field in a swirling flame by 2D spontaneous Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharaborin, D. K.; Dulin, V. M.; Lobasov, A. S.; Markovich, D. M.

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the density distribution in swirling turbulent premixed flames. The measurement principle is based on registration of spontaneous Raman scattering, when the reacting gas flow is illuminated by a laser sheet. Evaluation of 1D and 2D distributions of density and temperature were performed in a laminar Bunsen flame as a test case for validation of experimental technique. Time-averaged 2D images of the scattering during rovibronic transitions of nitrogen molecules were captured in turbulent premixed low-swirl and high-swirl (Re = 5000) propane-air flames in a wide range of equivalence ratio. The obtained density fields are useful for better understanding of heat and mass transfer in swirl-stabilized turbulent flames and for validation of CFD results.

  5. Measuring the 2D baryon acoustic oscillation signal of galaxies in WiggleZ: cosmological constraints

    PubMed Central

    Hinton, Samuel R.; Kazin, Eyal; Davis, Tamara M.; Blake, Chris; Brough, Sarah; Colless, Matthew; Couch, Warrick J.; Drinkwater, Michael J.; Glazebrook, Karl; Jurek, Russell J.; Parkinson, David; Pimbblet, Kevin A.; Poole, Gregory B.; Pracy, Michael; Woods, David

    2016-01-01

    We present results from the 2D anisotropic baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) signal present in the final data set from the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey. We analyse the WiggleZ data in two ways: first using the full shape of the 2D correlation function and secondly focusing only on the position of the BAO peak in the reconstructed data set. When fitting for the full shape of the 2D correlation function we use a multipole expansion to compare with theory. When we use the reconstructed data we marginalize over the shape and just measure the position of the BAO peak, analysing the data in wedges separating the signal along the line of sight from that parallel to the line of sight. We verify our method with mock data and find the results to be free of bias or systematic offsets. We also redo the pre-reconstruction angle-averaged (1D) WiggleZ BAO analysis with an improved covariance and present an updated result. The final results are presented in the form of Ωc h2, H(z), and DA(z) for three redshift bins with effective redshifts z = 0.44, 0.60, and 0.73. Within these bins and methodologies, we recover constraints between 5 and 22 per cent error. Our cosmological constraints are consistent with flat ΛCDM cosmology and agree with results from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. PMID:28066154

  6. Measuring the 2D baryon acoustic oscillation signal of galaxies in WiggleZ: cosmological constraints.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Samuel R; Kazin, Eyal; Davis, Tamara M; Blake, Chris; Brough, Sarah; Colless, Matthew; Couch, Warrick J; Drinkwater, Michael J; Glazebrook, Karl; Jurek, Russell J; Parkinson, David; Pimbblet, Kevin A; Poole, Gregory B; Pracy, Michael; Woods, David

    2017-02-01

    We present results from the 2D anisotropic baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) signal present in the final data set from the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey. We analyse the WiggleZ data in two ways: first using the full shape of the 2D correlation function and secondly focusing only on the position of the BAO peak in the reconstructed data set. When fitting for the full shape of the 2D correlation function we use a multipole expansion to compare with theory. When we use the reconstructed data we marginalize over the shape and just measure the position of the BAO peak, analysing the data in wedges separating the signal along the line of sight from that parallel to the line of sight. We verify our method with mock data and find the results to be free of bias or systematic offsets. We also redo the pre-reconstruction angle-averaged (1D) WiggleZ BAO analysis with an improved covariance and present an updated result. The final results are presented in the form of Ω c  h(2), H(z), and DA (z) for three redshift bins with effective redshifts z = 0.44, 0.60, and 0.73. Within these bins and methodologies, we recover constraints between 5 and 22 per cent error. Our cosmological constraints are consistent with flat ΛCDM cosmology and agree with results from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey.

  7. Measuring the 2D baryon acoustic oscillation signal of galaxies in WiggleZ: cosmological constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinton, Samuel R.; Kazin, Eyal; Davis, Tamara M.; Blake, Chris; Brough, Sarah; Colless, Matthew; Couch, Warrick J.; Drinkwater, Michael J.; Glazebrook, Karl; Jurek, Russell J.; Parkinson, David; Pimbblet, Kevin A.; Poole, Gregory B.; Pracy, Michael; Woods, David

    2017-02-01

    We present results from the 2D anisotropic baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) signal present in the final data set from the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey. We analyse the WiggleZ data in two ways: first using the full shape of the 2D correlation function and secondly focusing only on the position of the BAO peak in the reconstructed data set. When fitting for the full shape of the 2D correlation function we use a multipole expansion to compare with theory. When we use the reconstructed data we marginalize over the shape and just measure the position of the BAO peak, analysing the data in wedges separating the signal along the line of sight from that parallel to the line of sight. We verify our method with mock data and find the results to be free of bias or systematic offsets. We also redo the pre-reconstruction angle-averaged (1D) WiggleZ BAO analysis with an improved covariance and present an updated result. The final results are presented in the form of Ωc h2, H(z), and DA(z) for three redshift bins with effective redshifts z = 0.44, 0.60, and 0.73. Within these bins and methodologies, we recover constraints between 5 and 22 per cent error. Our cosmological constraints are consistent with flat ΛCDM cosmology and agree with results from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey.

  8. Toward 2D and 3D imaging of magnetic nanoparticles using EPR measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Coene, A. Crevecoeur, G.; Dupré, L.; Leliaert, J.

    2015-09-15

    Purpose: Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are an important asset in many biomedical applications. An effective working of these applications requires an accurate knowledge of the spatial MNP distribution. A promising, noninvasive, and sensitive technique to visualize MNP distributions in vivo is electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). Currently only 1D MNP distributions can be reconstructed. In this paper, the authors propose extending 1D EPR toward 2D and 3D using computer simulations to allow accurate imaging of MNP distributions. Methods: To find the MNP distribution belonging to EPR measurements, an inverse problem needs to be solved. The solution of this inverse problem highly depends on the stability of the inverse problem. The authors adapt 1D EPR imaging to realize the imaging of multidimensional MNP distributions. Furthermore, the authors introduce partial volume excitation in which only parts of the volume are imaged to increase stability of the inverse solution and to speed up the measurements. The authors simulate EPR measurements of different 2D and 3D MNP distributions and solve the inverse problem. The stability is evaluated by calculating the condition measure and by comparing the actual MNP distribution to the reconstructed MNP distribution. Based on these simulations, the authors define requirements for the EPR system to cope with the added dimensions. Moreover, the authors investigate how EPR measurements should be conducted to improve the stability of the associated inverse problem and to increase reconstruction quality. Results: The approach used in 1D EPR can only be employed for the reconstruction of small volumes in 2D and 3D EPRs due to numerical instability of the inverse solution. The authors performed EPR measurements of increasing cylindrical volumes and evaluated the condition measure. This showed that a reduction of the inherent symmetry in the EPR methodology is necessary. By reducing the symmetry of the EPR setup, quantitative images of

  9. The use of 2D ultrasound elastography for measuring tendon motion and strain.

    PubMed

    Chernak Slane, Laura; Thelen, Darryl G

    2014-02-07

    The goal of the current study was to investigate the fidelity of a 2D ultrasound elastography method for the measurement of tendon motion and strain. Ultrasound phantoms and ex vivo porcine flexor tendons were cyclically stretched to 4% strain while cine ultrasound radiofrequency (RF) data and video data were simultaneously collected. 2D ultrasound elastography was used to estimate tissue motion and strain from RF data, and surface tissue motion and strain were separately estimated using digital image correlation (DIC). There were strong correlations (R(2)>0.97) between DIC and RF measurements of phantom displacement and strain, and good agreement in estimates of peak phantom strain (DIC: 3.5±0.2%; RF: 3.7±0.1%). For tendon, elastographic estimates of displacement profiles also correlated well with DIC measurements (R(2)>0.92), and exhibited similar estimated peak tendon strain (DIC: 2.6±1.4%; RF: 2.2±1.3%). Elastographic tracking with B-Mode images tended to under-predict peak strain for both the phantom and tendon. This study demonstrates the capacity to use quantitative elastographic techniques to measure tendon displacement and strain within an ultrasound image window. The approach may be extendible to in vivo use on humans, which would allow for the non-invasive analysis of tendon deformation in both normal and pathological states. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Use of 2D Ultrasound Elastography for Measuring Tendon Motion and Strain

    PubMed Central

    Slane, Laura Chernak; Thelen, Darryl G.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to investigate the fidelity of a 2D ultrasound elastography method for the measurement of tendon motion and strain. Ultrasound phantoms and ex vivo porcine flexor tendons were cyclically stretched to 4% strain while cine ultrasound radiofrequency (RF) data and video data were simultaneously collected. 2D ultrasound elastography was used to estimate tissue motion and strain from RF data, and surface tissue motion and strain were separately estimated using digital image correlation (DIC). There were strong correlations (R2 > 0.97) between DIC and RF measurements of phantom displacement and strain, and good agreement in estimates of peak phantom strain (DIC: 3.5 ± 0.2%; RF: 3.7 ± 0.1%). For tendon, elastographic estimates of displacement profiles also correlated well with DIC measurements (R2 > 0.92), and exhibited similar estimated peak tendon strain (DIC: 2.6 ± 1.4%; RF: 2.2 ± 1.3%). Elastographic tracking with B-Mode images tended to under-predict peak strain for both the phantom and tendon. This study demonstrates the capacity to use quantitative elastographic techniques to measure tendon displacement and strain within an ultrasound image window. The approach may be extendible to in vivo use on humans, which would allow for the non-invasive analysis of tendon deformation in both normal and pathological states. PMID:24388164

  11. Laser Absorption spectrometer instrument for tomographic 2D-measurement of climate gas emission from soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, Anne; Wagner, Steven; Dreizler, Andreas; Ebert, Volker

    2014-05-01

    One of the most intricate effects in climate modelling is the role of permafrost thawing during the global warming process. Soil that has formerly never totally lost its ice cover now emits climate gases due to melting processes[1]. For a better prediction of climate development and possible feedback mechanisms, insights into physical procedures (like e.g. gas emission from underground reservoirs) are required[2]. Therefore, a long-term quantification of greenhouse gas concentrations (and further on fluxes) is necessary and the related structures that are responsible for emission need to be identified. In particular the spatial heterogeneity of soils caused by soil internal structures (e.g. soil composition changes or surface cracks) or by surface modifications (e.g. by plant growth) generate considerable complexities and difficulties for local measurements, for example with soil chambers. For such situations, which often cannot be avoided, a spatially resolved 2D-measurement to identify and quantify the gas emission from the structured soil would be needed, to better understand the influence of the soil sub-structures on the emission behavior. Thus we designed a spatially scanning laser absorption spectrometer setup to determine a 2D-gas concentration map in the soil-air boundary layer. The setup is designed to cover the surfaces in the range of square meters in a horizontal plane above the soil to be investigated. Existing field instruments for gas concentration or flux measurements are based on point-wise measurements, so structure identification is very tedious or even impossible. For this reason, we have developed a tomographic in-situ instrument based on TDLAS ('tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy') that delivers absolute gas concentration distributions of areas with 0.8m × 0.8m size, without any need for reference measurements with a calibration gas. It is a simple and robust device based on a combination of scanning mirrors and reflecting foils, so

  12. Displacement Vector Measurement Using 2D Modulation by Virtual Hyperbolic Beam Forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Kengo; Yamakawa, Makoto; Shiina, Tsuyoshi

    For the purpose of diagnosing ischemic heart disease by detection of malfunction area and cancer tumor by detection of hard area, 3-D tissue motion must be correctly evaluated. So far various methods of measuring multidimensional displacement have been developed. Most of present techniques are restricted to one-dimensional measurement of tissue displacement such as myocardial stain-rate imaging. Although lateral modulation method enables us to attain high-accuracy measurement of lateral displacement as well as axial direction by generating lateral oscillating RF signals, the method causes distorted RF far from center of aperture. As a result, the method is not suited to sector scan which is used for myocardial examination. We propose a method to solve the problem by using 2-D modulation with the virtual hyperbolic beam forming and detection of 2-D displacement vector. The feasibilities of the proposed method were evaluated by numerically simulating the left ventricle short-axis imaging of cylindrical myocardial model. The volume strain image obtained by the proposed method clearly depicted the hard infarction area where conventional multi-beam Doppler imaging could not.

  13. Automatic angle measurement of a 2D object using optical correlator-neural networks hybrid system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manivannan, N.; Neil, M. A. A.

    2011-04-01

    In this paper a novel method is proposed and demonstrated for automatic rotation angle measurement of a 2D object using a hybrid architecture, consisting of a 4f optical correlator with a binary phase only multiplexed matched filter and a single layer neural network. The hybrid set-up can be considered as a two-layer perceptron-like neural network; an optical correlator is the first layer and the standard single layer neural network is the second layer. The training scheme used to train the hybrid architecture is a combination of a Direct Binary Search algorithm, to train the optical correlator, and an Error Back Propagation algorithm, to train the neural network. The aim is to perform the major information processing by the optical correlator with a small additional processing by the neural network stage. This allows the system to be used for real-time applications as optics has the inherent ability to process information in a parallel manner at high speed. The neural network stage gives an extra dimension of freedom so that complicated tasks like automatic rotation angle measurement can be achieved. Results of both computer simulation and experimental set-up are presented for rotation angle measurement of an English alphabetic character as a 2D object. The experimental set-up consists of a real optical correlator using two spatial light modulators for both input and frequency plane representations and a PC based model of a single layer network.

  14. Hierarchy of universal entanglement in 2D measurement-based quantum computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Jacob; Miyake, Akimasa

    2016-11-01

    Measurement-based quantum computation (MQC) is a paradigm for studying quantum computation using many-body entanglement and single-qubit measurements. Although MQC has inspired wide-ranging discoveries throughout quantum information, our understanding of the general principles underlying MQC seems to be biased by its historical reliance upon the archetypal 2D cluster state. Here we utilise recent advances in the subject of symmetry-protected topological order (SPTO) to introduce a novel MQC resource state, whose physical and computational behaviour differs fundamentally from that of the cluster state. We show that, in sharp contrast to the cluster state, our state enables universal quantum computation using only measurements of single-qubit Pauli X, Y, and Z operators. This novel computational feature is related to the 'genuine' 2D SPTO possessed by our state, and which is absent in the cluster state. Our concrete connection between the latent computational complexity of many-body systems and macroscopic quantum orders may find applications in quantum many-body simulation for benchmarking classically intractable complexity.

  15. Comparison of Students' Ability to Measure Distance using Wavelength in 1D and 2D Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Gary

    2015-03-01

    When physics students are asked to measure the distance between two fixed locations using a concrete object like a pencil, virtually all respond successfully; however, in some settings, when asked to perform a similar measurement using wavelength as a ruler, there is less success, especially if the students are first asked to note that the ``ruler'' to be used is not fixed in length (see ``Is a Simple Measurement Task a Roadblock to Student Understanding of Wave Phenomena?,'' by M. Kryjevskaia, M. Stetzer, and P. Heron, The Physics Teacher 51,560, (2103) and references therein). I will show some data from introductory classes (algebra- and calculus-based) that replicate this latter result, and also show some interesting features when comparing particular 1D and 2D contexts.

  16. Wound Measurement Techniques: Comparing the Use of Ruler Method, 2D Imaging and 3D Scanner

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Aj; Wollak, C.; Shah, J.B.

    2015-01-01

    The statistics on the growing number of non-healing wounds is alarming. In the United States, chronic wounds affect 6.5 million patients. An estimated US $25 billion is spent annually on treatment of chronic wounds and the burden is rapidly growing due to increasing health care costs, an aging population and a sharp rise in the incidence of diabetes and obesity worldwide.1 Accurate wound measurement techniques will help health care personnel to monitor the wounds which will indirectly help improving care.7,9 The clinical practice of measuring wounds has not improved even today.2,3 A common method like the ruler method to measure wounds has poor interrater and intrarater reliability.2,3 Measuring the greatest length by the greatest width perpendicular to the greatest length, the perpendicular method, is more valid and reliable than other ruler based methods.2 Another common method like acetate tracing is more accurate than the ruler method but still has its disadvantages. These common measurement techniques are time consuming with variable inaccuracies. In this study, volumetric measurements taken with a non-contact 3-D scanner are benchmarked against the common ruler method, acetate grid tracing, and 2-D image planimetry volumetric measurement technique. A liquid volumetric fill method is used as the control volume. Results support the hypothesis that the 3-D scanner consistently shows accurate volumetric measurements in comparison to standard volumetric measurements obtained by the waterfill technique (average difference of 11%). The 3-D scanner measurement technique was found more reliable and valid compared to other three techniques, the ruler method (average difference of 75%), acetate grid tracing (average difference of 41%), and 2D planimetric measurements (average difference of 52%). Acetate tracing showed more accurate measurements compared to the ruler method (average difference of 41% (acetate tracing) compared to 75% (ruler method)). Improving the

  17. Wound Measurement Techniques: Comparing the Use of Ruler Method, 2D Imaging and 3D Scanner.

    PubMed

    Shah, Aj; Wollak, C; Shah, J B

    2013-12-01

    The statistics on the growing number of non-healing wounds is alarming. In the United States, chronic wounds affect 6.5 million patients. An estimated US $25 billion is spent annually on treatment of chronic wounds and the burden is rapidly growing due to increasing health care costs, an aging population and a sharp rise in the incidence of diabetes and obesity worldwide.(1) Accurate wound measurement techniques will help health care personnel to monitor the wounds which will indirectly help improving care.(7,9) The clinical practice of measuring wounds has not improved even today.(2,3) A common method like the ruler method to measure wounds has poor interrater and intrarater reliability.(2,3) Measuring the greatest length by the greatest width perpendicular to the greatest length, the perpendicular method, is more valid and reliable than other ruler based methods.(2) Another common method like acetate tracing is more accurate than the ruler method but still has its disadvantages. These common measurement techniques are time consuming with variable inaccuracies. In this study, volumetric measurements taken with a non-contact 3-D scanner are benchmarked against the common ruler method, acetate grid tracing, and 2-D image planimetry volumetric measurement technique. A liquid volumetric fill method is used as the control volume. Results support the hypothesis that the 3-D scanner consistently shows accurate volumetric measurements in comparison to standard volumetric measurements obtained by the waterfill technique (average difference of 11%). The 3-D scanner measurement technique was found more reliable and valid compared to other three techniques, the ruler method (average difference of 75%), acetate grid tracing (average difference of 41%), and 2D planimetric measurements (average difference of 52%). Acetate tracing showed more accurate measurements compared to the ruler method (average difference of 41% (acetate tracing) compared to 75% (ruler method)). Improving

  18. Development of Micro-Raman Spectroscopic Instrumentation for Measurement of Novel 2D Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Michael; Thompson, Zach; Simpson, Jeff; Towson University Team

    2013-03-01

    Recent research activity in mono-atomic layer graphene stimulates interest in other novel 2D materials, including molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) . Raman spectroscopy, based on the inelastic scattering of light, provides a powerful and high-throughput spectroscopic technique to probe low energy excitations, e.g., phonons, in graphene and related novel 2D materials. The accurate measurement of phonon frequency, especially its sensitive dependence on physical parameters such as temperature, carrier doping, and defects, requires an appropriately calibrated spectrometer. We report on the implementation and calibration of a homebuilt Raman system. Specifically we correlated peak wavelength from known atomic spectral lines with the pixel number detected on a thermoelectrically-cooled CCD camera attached to a grating monochromator. Additionally we developed software to control the grating position and maintain calibration while acquiring spectra. Once calibrated, we interfaced the spectrometer to a microscope to acquire spatial maps of small samples. Single-layer MoS2 flakes were prepared using the mechanical exfoliation of bulk MoS2 and transferred to substrates using techniques pioneered in graphene research. Using HeNe and Ar ion lasers for excitation, we measured the Raman spectra of single-layer MoS2 flakes. The temperature-dependence of the observed Raman-active phonons will be discussed.

  19. Breast density measurement: 3D cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images versus 2D digital mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Tao; Lai, Chao-Jen; Chen, Lingyun; Liu, Xinming; Shen, Youtao; Zhong, Yuncheng; Ge, Shuaiping; Yi, Ying; Wang, Tianpeng; Yang, Wei T.; Shaw, Chris C.

    2009-02-01

    Breast density has been recognized as one of the major risk factors for breast cancer. However, breast density is currently estimated using mammograms which are intrinsically 2D in nature and cannot accurately represent the real breast anatomy. In this study, a novel technique for measuring breast density based on the segmentation of 3D cone beam CT (CBCT) images was developed and the results were compared to those obtained from 2D digital mammograms. 16 mastectomy breast specimens were imaged with a bench top flat-panel based CBCT system. The reconstructed 3D CT images were corrected for the cupping artifacts and then filtered to reduce the noise level, followed by using threshold-based segmentation to separate the dense tissue from the adipose tissue. For each breast specimen, volumes of the dense tissue structures and the entire breast were computed and used to calculate the volumetric breast density. BI-RADS categories were derived from the measured breast densities and compared with those estimated from conventional digital mammograms. The results show that in 10 of 16 cases the BI-RADS categories derived from the CBCT images were lower than those derived from the mammograms by one category. Thus, breasts considered as dense in mammographic examinations may not be considered as dense with the CBCT images. This result indicates that the relation between breast cancer risk and true (volumetric) breast density needs to be further investigated.

  20. 1d, 2d, and 3d periodic structures: Electromagnetic characterization, design, and measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brockett, Timothy John

    Periodic structures have many useful applications in electromagnetics including phased arrays, frequency selective surfaces, and absorbing interfaces. Their unique properties can be used to provide increased performance in antenna gain, electromagnetic propagation, and electromagnetic absorption. In antenna arrays, repeating elements create a larger eective aperture, increasing the gain of the antenna and the ability to scan the direction of the main beam. Three-dimensional periodic structures, such as an array of shaped pillars such as columns, cones, or prisms have the potential of improving electromagnetic absorption, improving performance in applications such as solar cell eciency and absorbing interfaces. Furthermore, research into periodic structures is a continuing endeavor where novel approaches and analysis in appropriate applications can be sought. This dissertation will address the analysis, diagnostics, and enhancement of 1D, 2D, and 3D periodic structures for antenna array applications and solar cell technology. In particular, a unique approach to array design will be introduced to prevent the appearance of undesirable grating lobes in large antenna arrays that employ subarrays. This approach, named the distortion diagnostic procedure, can apply directly to 1D and 2D periodic structures in the form of planar antenna arrays. Interesting corollaries included here are developments in millimeter-wave antenna measurements including spiral planar scanning, phaseless measurements, and addressing antennas that feature an internal source. Finally, analysis and enhancement of 3D periodic structures in nanostructure photovoltaic arrays and absorbing interfaces will be examined for their behavior and basic operation in regards to improved absorption of electromagnetic waves.

  1. New float equivalent calibration method for 2D image measuring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gou, Jiansong; Wang, Zhong; Lu, Ruijun; Shen, Xinlan

    2015-08-01

    Pixel equivalent is an important parameter to describe the relationship between pixels of digital images and actual size of measured piece in a 2D image measuring system. It is mainly calibrated with the standard component method, which is traditionally off-line and requires measuring conditions and attitude of devices to remain constant while measuring and calibrating. To overcome above limitations, a new calibration method is proposed in this paper which is defined as the float equivalent method. This method requires the standard component and measured piece be placed in image measuring system simultaneously. Everytime before measuring, no matter aiming at the same measuring point or not, the pixel equivalent is calibrated for this specific time, specific condition, specific measuring point, and specific object distance. This method has the advantage of reducing the influence of conditions changing on the accuracy without additional calibration equipment or operations. The steel tape verification system is taken as an example to testify the effectiveness of the method.

  2. Calibration of an acoustic system for measuring 2-D temperature distribution around hydrothermal vents.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wei; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Chen, Ying

    2013-04-01

    One of the fundamental purposes of quantitative acoustic surveys of seafloor hydrothermal vents is to measure their 2-D temperature distributions. Knowing the system latencies and the acoustic center-to-center distances between the underwater transducers in an acoustic tomography system is fundamental to the overall accuracy of the temperature reconstruction. However, commercial transducer sources typically do not supply the needed data. Here we present a novel calibration algorithm to automatically determine the system latencies and the acoustic center-to-center distances. The possible system latency error and the resulting temperature error are derived and analyzed. We have also developed the experimental setup for calibration. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed calibration method, an experimental study was performed on acoustic imaging of underwater temperature fields in Lake Qiezishan, located at Longling County, Yunnan Province, China. Using the calibrated data, the reconstructed temperature distributions closely resemble the actual distributions measured with thermocouples, thus confirming the effectiveness of our algorithm.

  3. Measuring JHH values with a selective constant-time 2D NMR protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Liangjie; Wei, Zhiliang; Lin, Yanqin; Chen, Zhong

    2016-11-01

    Proton-proton scalar couplings play important roles in molecule structure elucidation. However, measurements of JHH values in complex coupled spin systems remain challenging. In this study, we develop a selective constant-time (SECT) 2D NMR protocol with which scalar coupling networks involving chosen protons can be revealed, and corresponding JHH values can be measured through doublets along the F1 dimension. All JHH values within a network of n fully coupled protons can be separately determined with (n - 1) SECT experiments. Additionally, the proposed pulse sequence possesses satisfactory sensitivity and handy implementation. Therefore, it will interest scientists who intend to address structural analyzes of molecules with overcrowded spectra, and may greatly facilitate the applications of scalar-coupling constants in molecule structure studies.

  4. 2D MEMS scanning for LIDAR with sub-Nyquist sampling, electronics, and measurement procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giese, Thorsten; Janes, Joachim

    2015-05-01

    Electrostatic driven 2D MEMS scanners resonantly oscillate in both axes leading to Lissajous trajectories of a digitally modulated laser beam reflected from the micro mirror. A solid angle of about 0.02 is scanned by a 658nm laser beam with a maximum repetition rate of 350MHz digital pulses. Reflected light is detected by an APD with a bandwidth of 80MHz. The phase difference between the scanned laser light and the light reflected from an obstacle is analyzed by sub-Nyquist sampling. The FPGA-based electronics and software for the evaluation of distance and velocity of objects within the scanning range are presented. Furthermore, the measures to optimize the Lidar accuracy of about 1mm and the dynamic range of up to 2m are examined. First measurements demonstrating the capability of the system and the evaluation algorithms are discussed.

  5. 2D X-ray scanner and its uses in laboratory reservoir characterization measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Maloney, D.; Doggett, K.

    1997-08-01

    X-ray techniques are used in petroleum laboratories for a variety of reservoir characterization measurements. This paper describes the configuration of a 2D X-ray scanner and many of the ways in which it simplifies and improves accuracy`s of laboratory measurements. Linear X-ray scanners are most often used to provide descriptions of fluid saturations within core plugs during flow tests. We configured our linear scanner for both horizontal and vertical movement. Samples can be scanned horizontally, vertically, or according to horizontal and vertical grids. X-ray measurements are fast, allowing measurements of two- and three-phase fluid saturations during both steady- and unsteady-state flow processes. Rock samples can be scanned while they are subjected to stress, pore pressure, and temperature conditions simulating those of a petroleum reservoir. Many types of measurements are possible by selecting appropriate X-ray power settings, dopes, filters, and collimator configurations. The scanner has been used for a variety of applications besides fluid saturation measurements. It is useful for measuring porosity distributions in rocks, concentrations of X-ray dopes within flow streams during tracer tests, gap widths in fracture flow cells, fluid interface levels in PVT cells and fluid separators, and other features and phenomena.

  6. Measurement of electrostatic potential variations between 2D materials using low-energy electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Barrera, Sergio; Mende, Patrick; Li, Jun; Feenstra, Randall; Lin, Yu-Chuan; Robinson, Joshua; Vishwanath, Suresh; Xing, Huili

    Among the many properties that evolve as isolated 2D materials are brought together to form a heterostructure, rearrangement of charges between layers due to unintentional doping results in dipole fields at the interface, which critically affect the electronic properties of the structure. Here we report a method for directly measuring work function differences, and hence electrostatic potential variations, across the surface of 2D materials and heterostructures thereof using low energy electron microscopy (LEEM). Study of MoSe2 grown by molecular beam epitaxy on epitaxial graphene on SiC with LEEM reveals a large work function difference between the MoSe2 and the graphene, indicating charge transfer between the layers and a subsequent dipole layer. In addition to quantifying dipole effects between transition metal dichalcogenides and graphene, direct imaging of the surface, diffraction information, and the spectroscopic dependence of electron reflectivity will be discussed. This work was supported in part by the Center for Low Energy Systems Technology (LEAST), one of the six SRC STARnet Centers, sponsored by MARCO and DARPA.

  7. 2D surface temperature measurement of plasma facing components with modulated active pyrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Amiel, S.; Loarer, T.; Pocheau, C.; Roche, H.; Gauthier, E.; Aumeunier, M.-H.; Courtois, X.; Jouve, M.; Balorin, C.; Moncada, V.; Le Niliot, C.; Rigollet, F.

    2014-10-01

    In nuclear fusion devices, such as Tore Supra, the plasma facing components (PFC) are in carbon. Such components are exposed to very high heat flux and the surface temperature measurement is mandatory for the safety of the device and also for efficient plasma scenario development. Besides this measurement is essential to evaluate these heat fluxes for a better knowledge of the physics of plasma-wall interaction, it is also required to monitor the fatigue of PFCs. Infrared system (IR) is used to manage to measure surface temperature in real time. For carbon PFCs, the emissivity is high and known (ε ~ 0.8), therefore the contribution of the reflected flux from environment and collected by the IR cameras can be neglected. However, the future tokamaks such as WEST and ITER will be equipped with PFCs in metal (W and Be/W, respectively) with low and variable emissivities (ε ~ 0.1–0.4). Consequently, the reflected flux will contribute significantly in the collected flux by IR camera. The modulated active pyrometry, using a bicolor camera, proposed in this paper allows a 2D surface temperature measurement independently of the reflected fluxes and the emissivity. Experimental results with Tungsten sample are reported and compared with simultaneous measurement performed with classical pyrometry (monochromatic and bichromatic) with and without reflective flux demonstrating the efficiency of this method for surface temperature measurement independently of the reflected flux and the emissivity.

  8. 2D surface temperature measurement of plasma facing components with modulated active pyrometry.

    PubMed

    Amiel, S; Loarer, T; Pocheau, C; Roche, H; Gauthier, E; Aumeunier, M-H; Le Niliot, C; Rigollet, F; Courtois, X; Jouve, M; Balorin, C; Moncada, V

    2014-10-01

    In nuclear fusion devices, such as Tore Supra, the plasma facing components (PFC) are in carbon. Such components are exposed to very high heat flux and the surface temperature measurement is mandatory for the safety of the device and also for efficient plasma scenario development. Besides this measurement is essential to evaluate these heat fluxes for a better knowledge of the physics of plasma-wall interaction, it is also required to monitor the fatigue of PFCs. Infrared system (IR) is used to manage to measure surface temperature in real time. For carbon PFCs, the emissivity is high and known (ɛ ∼ 0.8), therefore the contribution of the reflected flux from environment and collected by the IR cameras can be neglected. However, the future tokamaks such as WEST and ITER will be equipped with PFCs in metal (W and Be/W, respectively) with low and variable emissivities (ɛ ∼ 0.1-0.4). Consequently, the reflected flux will contribute significantly in the collected flux by IR camera. The modulated active pyrometry, using a bicolor camera, proposed in this paper allows a 2D surface temperature measurement independently of the reflected fluxes and the emissivity. Experimental results with Tungsten sample are reported and compared with simultaneous measurement performed with classical pyrometry (monochromatic and bichromatic) with and without reflective flux demonstrating the efficiency of this method for surface temperature measurement independently of the reflected flux and the emissivity.

  9. The Effect of Ethnicity on 2D and 3D Frontomaxillary Facial Angle Measurement in the First Trimester

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Jill

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To determine the existence and extent of ethnic differences in 2D or 3D fetal frontomaxillary facial angle (FMFA) measurements. Methods. During routine 11–14 weeks nuchal translucency screening undertaken in a private ultrasound practice in Sydney, Australia, 2D images and 3D volumes of the fetal profile were collected from consenting patients. FMFA was measured on a frozen 2D ultrasound image in the appropriate plane and, after a delay of at least 48 hours, was also measured on the reconstructed 3D ultrasound volume offline. Results. Overall 416 patients were included in the study; 220 Caucasian, 108 north Asian, 36 east Asian and 52 south Asian patients. Caucasians had significantly lower median FMFA measurements than Asians in both 2D (2.2°; P < 0.001) and 3D (3.4°; P < 0.001) images. Median 2D measurements were significantly higher than 3D measurements in the Caucasian and south Asian groups (P < 0.001 and P = 0.04), but not in north and east Asian groups (P = 0.08 and P = 0.41). Conclusions. Significant ethnic variations in both 2D and 3D FMFA measurements exist. These differences may indicate the need to establish ethnic-specific reference ranges for both 2D and 3D imaging. PMID:24288543

  10. Precision measurement of the 3 d 3/2 2D-state lifetime in a single trapped +40Ca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, H.; Huang, Y.; Guan, H.; Qian, Y.; Gao, K.

    2016-10-01

    We present a high-precision measurement of the 3 d 3/2 2D-state lifetime in a single trapped +40Ca. The measurement was performed using a high-efficiency quantum-state detection technique to monitor quantum jumps and a high-precision and highly synchronous measurement sequence for laser control. A feature in our measurement is the pumping rate of the 729-nm laser that was corrected in a real-time way. The 3 d 3/2 2D-state lifetime was obtained through the measurement of the spontaneous decay rate after incoherent shelving of the ion to the 3 d 3/2 2D state with a wait time. Systematic errors, such as collisions with background gases, heating effects, impurity components, the shelving and pumping rates, and state detection, were carefully analyzed and estimated. We determined an improved value of the 3 d 3/2 2D-state lifetime to be τ3 /2=1.195 (8 ) s. Furthermore, the 3 d 3/2 2D →4 s 1/2 2S quadrupole transition matrix element was measured to be Sk i=7.936 (26 ) e a02 , and the ratio between the lifetimes of 3 d 2D3 /2 and 3 d 2D5 /2 was determined to be 1.018(11). Our method can be universally applied to lifetime measurements of other single ions and atoms with a similar structure.

  11. On the consistency of 2-D video disdrometers in measuring microphysical parameters of solid precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernauer, F.; Hürkamp, K.; Rühm, W.; Tschiersch, J.

    2015-08-01

    Detailed characterization and classification of precipitation is an important task in atmospheric research. Line scanning 2-D video disdrometer devices are well established for rain observations. The two orthogonal views taken of each hydrometeor passing the sensitive area of the instrument qualify these devices especially for detailed characterization of nonsymmetric solid hydrometeors. However, in case of solid precipitation, problems related to the matching algorithm have to be considered and the user must be aware of the limited spatial resolution when size and shape descriptors are analyzed. Clarifying the potential of 2-D video disdrometers in deriving size, velocity and shape parameters from single recorded pictures is the aim of this work. The need of implementing a matching algorithm suitable for mixed- and solid-phase precipitation is highlighted as an essential step in data evaluation. For this purpose simple reproducible experiments with solid steel spheres and irregularly shaped Styrofoam particles are conducted. Self-consistency of shape parameter measurements is tested in 38 cases of real snowfall. As a result, it was found that reliable size and shape characterization with a relative standard deviation of less than 5 % is only possible for particles larger than 1 mm. For particles between 0.5 and 1.0 mm the relative standard deviation can grow up to 22 % for the volume, 17 % for size parameters and 14 % for shape descriptors. Testing the adapted matching algorithm with a reproducible experiment with Styrofoam particles, a mismatch probability of less than 3 % was found. For shape parameter measurements in case of real solid-phase precipitation, the 2-DVD shows self-consistent behavior.

  12. Chemometric modelling based on 2D-fluorescence spectra without a calibration measurement.

    PubMed

    Solle, D; Geissler, D; Stärk, E; Scheper, T; Hitzmann, B

    2003-01-22

    2D fluorescence spectra provide information from intracellular compounds. Fluorophores like trytophan, tyrosine and phenylalanin as well as NADH and flavins make the corresponding measurement systems very important for bioprocess supervision and control. The evaluation is usually based on chemometric modelling using for their calibration procedure off-line measurements of the desired process variables. Due to the data driven approach lots of off-line measurements are required. Here a methodology is presented, which enables to perform a calibration procedure of chemometric models without any further measurement. The necessary information for the calibration procedure is provided by means of the a priori knowledge about the process, i.e. a mathematical model, whose model parameters are estimated during the calibration procedure, as well as the fact that the substrate should be consumed at the end of the process run. The new methodology for chemometric calibration is applied for a batch cultivation of aerobically grown S. cerevisiae on the glucose Schatzmann medium. As will be presented the chemometric models, which are determined by this method, can be used for prediction during new process runs. The MATHLAB routine is free available on request from the authors.

  13. Multichannel reconfigurable measurement system for hot plasma diagnostics based on GEM-2D detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojenski, A. J.; Kasprowicz, G.; Pozniak, K. T.; Byszuk, A.; Chernyshova, M.; Czarski, T.; Jablonski, S.; Juszczyk, B.; Zienkiewicz, P.

    2015-12-01

    In the future magnetically confined fusion research reactors (e.g. ITER tokamak), precise determination of the level of the soft X-ray radiation of plasma with temperature above 30 keV (around 350 mln K) will be very important in plasma parameters optimization. This paper presents the first version of a designed spectrography measurement system. The system is already installed at JET tokamak. Based on the experience gained from the project, the new generation of hardware for spectrography measurements, was designed and also described in the paper. The GEM detector readout structure was changed to 2D in order to perform measurements of i.e. laser generated plasma. The hardware structure of the system was redesigned in order to provide large number of high speed input channels. Finally, this paper also covers the issue of new control software, necessary to set-up a complete system of certain complexity and perform data acquisition. The main goal of the project was to develop a new version of the system, which includes upgraded structure and data transmission infrastructure (i.e. handling large number of measurement channels, high sampling rate).

  14. Measurement of food volume based on single 2-D image without conventional camera calibration.

    PubMed

    Yue, Yaofeng; Jia, Wenyan; Sun, Mingui

    2012-01-01

    Food portion size measurement combined with a database of calories and nutrients is important in the study of metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes. In this work, we present a convenient and accurate approach to the calculation of food volume by measuring several dimensions using a single 2-D image as the input. This approach does not require the conventional checkerboard based camera calibration since it is burdensome in practice. The only prior requirements of our approach are: 1) a circular container with a known size, such as a plate, a bowl or a cup, is present in the image, and 2) the picture is taken under a reasonable assumption that the camera is always held level with respect to its left and right sides and its lens is tilted down towards foods on the dining table. We show that, under these conditions, our approach provides a closed form solution to camera calibration, allowing convenient measurement of food portion size using digital pictures.

  15. Drag measurements in laterally confined 2D canopies: Reconfiguration and sheltering effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsu, Sylvie; Doppler, Delphine; Jerome, J. John Soundar; Rivière, Nicolas; Lance, Michel

    2016-10-01

    Plants in aquatic canopies deform when subjected to a water flow and so, unlike a rigid bluff body, the resulting drag force FD grows sub-quadratically with the flow velocity U ¯ . In this article, the effect of density on the canopy reconfiguration and the corresponding drag reduction is experimentally investigated for simple 2D synthetic canopies in an inclinable, narrow water channel. The drag acting on the canopy, and also on individual sheets, is systematically measured via two independent techniques. Simultaneous drag and reconfiguration measurements demonstrate that data for different Reynolds numbers (400-2200), irrespective of sheet width (w) and canopy spacing (ℓ), collapse on a unique curve given by a bending beam model which relates the reconfiguration number and a properly rescaled Cauchy number. Strikingly, the measured Vogel exponent V and hence the drag reduction via reconfiguration is found to be independent of the spacing between sheets and the lateral confinement; only the drag coefficient decreases linearly with the sheet spacing since a strong sheltering effect exists as long as the spacing is smaller than a critical value depending on the sheet width.

  16. A Variance-Constrained Approach to Recursive Filtering for Nonlinear 2-D Systems With Measurement Degradations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fan; Liang, Jinling; Wang, Zidong; Liu, Xiaohui

    2017-06-27

    This paper is concerned with the recursive filtering problem for a class of nonlinear 2-D time-varying systems with degraded measurements over a finite horizon. The phenomenon of measurement degradation occurs in a random way depicted by stochastic variables satisfying certain probabilities distributions. The nonlinearities under consideration are dealt with through the Taylor expansion, where the high-order terms of the linearization errors are characterized by norm-bounded parameter uncertainties. The objective of the addressed problem is to design a filter which guarantees an upper bound of the estimation error variance and subsequently minimizes such a bound with the desired gain parameters. By means of mathematical induction, an upper bound is first derived for the estimation error variance by constructing two sets of Riccati-like difference equations, and then the obtained bound is minimized by properly selecting the filter parameter at each time step. Both the minimal upper bound and the desired filter parameter are suitable for recursive online computation. Furthermore, the effect of the stochastic measurement degradation on the filtering performance is discussed. Finally, a simulation example is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the designed filter.

  17. A comparison of measurement methods and sexual dimorphism for digit ratio (2D:4D) in Han ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Xi, Huanjiu; Li, Ming; Fan, Yingnan; Zhao, Liguang

    2014-02-01

    The digit ratio (2D:4D) is sexually dimorphic and has been considered an indicator of prenatal sex hormone exposure. Previous studies have shown that males tend to have lower 2D to 4D ratio than females, and this sexual dimorphism has been reported across different ethnic groups and different countries. However, digit ratio data are missing from the Han ethnicity in China. Furthermore, most of the previous studies used direct measurement for digit ratio. In this article, we used multiple measurement methods, including the direct measurement and two X-ray measurement methods to examine the trait of 2D:4D in Chinese Han. Our sample consisted of 128 men and 122 women from Liaoning Medical University. They were 18-20 years old. The direct measurement and two types of X-ray measurements of the length of their 2nd and 4th fingers were used separately to calculate digit ratios. Soft tissue thickness of 2D and 4D fingertips were also assessed from the two X-ray methods. The results suggest that (1) sex differences in 2D:4D tend to be stronger in the two X-ray measurements in comparison to the direct measurement; (2) 2D:4D ratios from X-ray measurements tend to be lower than that from the direct measurement; (3) Han ethnicity have a lower mean value of 2D:4D than other ethnic groups; (4) no sex difference in the soft tissue of finger tips. In conclusion, the digit ratio is lower in both men and women in Han, and the sexual dimorphism in digit ratio was stronger with X-ray measurements in comparison to the direct measurement.

  18. A scintillating gas detector for 2D dose measurements in clinical carbon beams.

    PubMed

    Seravalli, E; de Boer, M; Geurink, F; Huizenga, J; Kreuger, R; Schippers, J M; van Eijk, C W E; Voss, B

    2008-09-07

    A two-dimensional position sensitive dosimetry system based on a scintillating gas detector has been developed for pre-treatment verification of dose distributions in hadron therapy. The dosimetry system consists of a chamber filled with an Ar/CF4 scintillating gas mixture, inside which two cascaded gas electron multipliers (GEMs) are mounted. A GEM is a thin kapton foil with copper cladding structured with a regular pattern of sub-mm holes. The primary electrons, created in the detector's sensitive volume by the incoming beam, drift in an electric field towards the GEMs and undergo gas multiplication in the GEM holes. During this process, photons are emitted by the excited Ar/CF4 gas molecules and detected by a mirror-lens-CCD camera system. Since the amount of emitted light is proportional to the dose deposited in the sensitive volume of the detector by the incoming beam, the intensity distribution of the measured light spot is proportional to the 2D hadron dose distribution. For a measurement of a 3D dose distribution, the scintillating gas detector is mounted at the beam exit side of a water-bellows phantom, whose thickness can be varied in steps. In this work, the energy dependence of the output signal of the scintillating gas detector has been verified in a 250 MeV/u clinical 12C ion beam by means of a depth-dose curve measurement. The underestimation of the measured signal at the Bragg peak depth is only 9% with respect to an air-filled ionization chamber. This is much smaller than the underestimation found for a scintillating Gd2O2S:Tb ('Lanex') screen under the same measurement conditions (43%). Consequently, the scintillating gas detector is a promising device for verifying dose distributions in high LET beams, for example to check hadron therapy treatment plans which comprise beams with different energies.

  19. A scintillating gas detector for 2D dose measurements in clinical carbon beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seravalli, E.; de Boer, M.; Geurink, F.; Huizenga, J.; Kreuger, R.; Schippers, J. M.; van Eijk, C. W. E.; Voss, B.

    2008-09-01

    A two-dimensional position sensitive dosimetry system based on a scintillating gas detector has been developed for pre-treatment verification of dose distributions in hadron therapy. The dosimetry system consists of a chamber filled with an Ar/CF4 scintillating gas mixture, inside which two cascaded gas electron multipliers (GEMs) are mounted. A GEM is a thin kapton foil with copper cladding structured with a regular pattern of sub-mm holes. The primary electrons, created in the detector's sensitive volume by the incoming beam, drift in an electric field towards the GEMs and undergo gas multiplication in the GEM holes. During this process, photons are emitted by the excited Ar/CF4 gas molecules and detected by a mirror-lens-CCD camera system. Since the amount of emitted light is proportional to the dose deposited in the sensitive volume of the detector by the incoming beam, the intensity distribution of the measured light spot is proportional to the 2D hadron dose distribution. For a measurement of a 3D dose distribution, the scintillating gas detector is mounted at the beam exit side of a water-bellows phantom, whose thickness can be varied in steps. In this work, the energy dependence of the output signal of the scintillating gas detector has been verified in a 250 MeV/u clinical 12C ion beam by means of a depth-dose curve measurement. The underestimation of the measured signal at the Bragg peak depth is only 9% with respect to an air-filled ionization chamber. This is much smaller than the underestimation found for a scintillating Gd2O2S:Tb ('Lanex') screen under the same measurement conditions (43%). Consequently, the scintillating gas detector is a promising device for verifying dose distributions in high LET beams, for example to check hadron therapy treatment plans which comprise beams with different energies.

  20. Measurements of 2D turbulent spectra on a beta-plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baroud, Charles N.; Plapp, Brendan B.; Swinney, Harry L.

    2000-11-01

    The existence of coherent structures and a β-plane can affect the scaling of energy in two-dimensional turbulence. We study an azimuthal turbulent jet in a rotating annular tank with a sloped bottom (β-plane). Rotation constrains the dynamics to be 2D. The velocity field is measured using Particle Image Velocimetry which allows us to track the time evolution of features such as waves or vortices. Our measurements of the energy spectra capture simultaneously an inverse energy cascade and a forward enstrophy cascade. The energy injection wavenumber ki is deduced from these spectra. Below the Rhines wavenumber (k_β = (β/2 u)^1/2), energy transfer is dominated by the dispersion of Rossby waves. By nonlinearly transforming our coordinates, we isolate the effects of long-lived vortices on the scaling of the spectra. We find that as a result of these coherent structures the exponent decreases below -3 for k>k_i, and it decreases below -5/3 for k

  1. Refractive effects on optical measurement of alveolar volume: a 2-D ray-tracing approach.

    PubMed

    Golabchi, Fatemeh N; Brooks, Dana H; Gouldstone, Andrew; DiMarzio, Charles A

    2011-01-01

    Lung imaging and assessment of alveoli geometry in the lung tissue is of great importance. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a real-time imaging technique used for this purpose, based on near-infrared interferometry, that can image several layers of distal alveoli in the lung tissue. The OCT measurements use low coherence interferometry, where light reflections from surfaces in the tissue are used to construct 2D images of the tissue. OCT images provide better depth compared to other optical microscopy techniques such as confocal reflectance and two-photon microscopy. Therefore, it is important to detect and verify optical distortions that happens with OCT, including refractive effect at the tissue-air alveoli wall interface which is not taken into account in the OCT imaging model. In this paper, the refractive effect at the tissue-air interface of the alveoli wall is modeled using exact ray tracing and direct implementation of Snell's law, and differences between alveoli area computed from OCT imaging and those measured by exact ray tracing of the OCT signal are analyzed.

  2. Study of Positronium in Low-k Dielectric Films by means of 2D-Angular Correlation Experiments at a High-Intensity Slow-Positron Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Gessmann, T; Petkov, M P; Weber, M H; Lynn, K G; Rodbell, K P; Asoka-Kumar, P; Stoeffl, W; Howell, R H

    2001-06-20

    Depth-resolved measurements of the two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation (2D-ACAR) were performed at the high-intensity slow-positron beam of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. We studied the formation of positronium in thin films of methyl-silsesquioxane (MSSQ) spin-on glass containing open-volume defects in the size of voids. Samples with different average void sizes were investigated and positronium formation could be found in all cases. The width of the angular correlation related to the annihilation of parapositronium increased with the void size indicating the annihilation of non-thermalized parapositronium.

  3. Comprehensive 2D measurements of radiative divertor plasmas in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Fenstermacher, M.E.; Wood, R.D.; Allen, S.L.; Hill, D.N.

    1997-07-01

    This paper presents a comparison of the total radiated power profile and impurity line emission distributions in the SOL and divertor of DIII-D. This is done for ELMing H-mode plasmas with heavy deuterium injection (Partially Detached Divertor operation, PDD) and those without deuterium puffing. Results are described from a series of dedicated experiments performed on DIII-D to systematically measure the 2-D (R,Z) structure of the divertor plasma. The discharges were designed to optimize measurements with new divertor diagnostics including a divertor Thomson scattering system. Discharge sequences were designed to produce optimized data sets against which SOL and divertor theories and simulation codes could be benchmarked. During PDD operation the regions of significant radiated power shift from the inner divertor leg and SOL to the outer leg and X-point regions. D{alpha} emission shifts from the inner strikepoint to the outer strikepoint. Carbon emissions (visible CII and CIII) shift from the inner SOL near the X-point to a distributed region from the X-point to partially down the outer leg during moderate D2 puffing. In heavy puffing discharges the carbon emission coalesces on the outer separatrix near the X-point and for very heavy puffing it appears inside the last closed flux surface above the X-point. Calibrated spectroscopic measurements indicate that hydrogenic and carbon radiation can account for all of the radiated power. L{alpha} and CIV radiation are comparable and when combined account for as much as 90% of the total radiated power along chords viewing the significant radiating regions of the outer leg.

  4. Measurements of 2D Monopolar Vortex Motion Driven by a Background Vorticity Gradient.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabantsev, A. A.; Driscoll, C. F.

    2000-11-01

    The movement of vortices up or down a background vorticity gradient has been measured in magnetized electron plasmas, showing quantitative agreement with recent 2D fluid theory.(D.A. Schecter and D.H.E. Dubin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83), 2191 (1999). Positive vortices move up the gradient, whereas negative vortices move down the gradient; for example, this effect gives the northwest drift of cyclones on the northern hemisphere β-plane. Experimentally, the electron column is a single sign of background vorticity with gradient partial ζ / partial r, and the resulting rotational flow has negative radial shear. Additional clumps of excess electrons are then self-trapped retrograde vortices, and ``holes'' in the electron density are prograde vortices. The experiments show that prograde vortices move about 10 times slower than retrograde vortices, in quantitative agreement with theory for the accessible regime of 0.2 < l / rv < 6; here, l is the vortex trapping length and rv is the vortex position. The experiments also confirm that the vortex motion ceases when the local gradient is sufficiently small. Interestingly, retrograde clumps leave a filamentary wake in the ambient flow, which generates a large number of long-lived secondary prograde holes.

  5. The Ultrasonic Measurement of Crystallographic Orientation for Imaging Anisotropic Components with 2d Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, C. J. L.; Dunhill, A. K.; Drinkwater, B. W.; Wilcox, P. D.

    2011-06-01

    Single crystal components are used widely in the gas-turbine industry. However, these components are elastically anisotropic which causes difficulties when performing NDE inspections with ultrasound. Recently an ultrasonic algorithm for a 2D array has been corrected to perform the reliable volumetric inspection of single crystals. For the algorithm to be implemented the crystallographic orientation of the components must be known. This paper, therefore, develops and reviews crystallographic orientation methods using 2D ultrasonic arrays. The methods under examination are based on the anisotropic propagation of surface and bulk waves and an image-based orientation method is also considered.

  6. A MODIFIED LIGHT TRANSMISSION VISUALIZATION METHOD FOR DNAPL SATURATION MEASUREMENTS IN 2-D MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this research, a light transmission visualization (LTV) method was used to quantify dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL) saturation in two-dimensional (2-D), two fluid phase systems. The method is an expansion of earlier LTV methods and takes into account both absorption an...

  7. DNAPL MAPPING AND WATER SATURATION MEASUREMENTS IN 2-D MODELS USING LIGHT TRANSMISSION VISUALIZATION (LTV) TECHNIQUE

    EPA Science Inventory

    • LTV can be used to characterize free phase PCE architecture in 2-D flow chambers without using a dye. • Results to date suggest that error in PCE detection using LTV can be less than 10% if the imaging system is optimized. • Mass balance calculations show a maximum error of 9...

  8. A MODIFIED LIGHT TRANSMISSION VISUALIZATION METHOD FOR DNAPL SATURATION MEASUREMENTS IN 2-D MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this research, a light transmission visualization (LTV) method was used to quantify dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL) saturation in two-dimensional (2-D), two fluid phase systems. The method is an expansion of earlier LTV methods and takes into account both absorption an...

  9. Measuring the equation of state for a 2D colloidal membrane: A microfluidic approach to buffer exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balchunas, Andrew; Cabanas, Rafael; Fraden, Seth; Dogic, Zvonimir

    Previous work has shown that monodisperse rod-like colloidal particles, such as a filamentous bacteriophage, self assemble into a 2D monolayer smectic in the presence of a non-adsorbing depleting polymer. These structures have the same functional form of bending rigidity and lateral compressibility as conventional lipid bi-layers, so we name the monolayer smectic a colloidal membrane. We have developed a microfluidic device such that the osmotic pressure acting on a colloidal membrane may be controlled via a full in situ buffer exchange. Rod density within individual colloidal membranes was measured as a function of osmotic pressure and a first order phase transition, from 2D fluid to 2D solid, was observed. kon and koff rates of rod to membrane binding were measured by lowering the osmotic pressure until membrane evaporation occurred.

  10. Measurements of Thermal Conductivity of Superfluid Helium Near its Transition Temperature T(sub lambda) in a 2D Confinement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jerebets, Sergei

    2004-01-01

    We report our recent experiments on thermal conductivity measurements of superfluid He-4 near its phase transition in a two-dimensional (2D) confinement under saturated vapor pressure. A 2D confinement is created by 2-mm- and 1-mm-thick glass capillary plates, consisting of densely populated parallel microchannels with cross-sections of 5 x 50 and 1 x 10 microns, correspondingly. A heat current (2 < Q < 400 nW/sq cm) was applied along the channels long direction. High-resolution measurements were provided by DC SQUID-based high-resolution paramagnetic salt thermometers (HRTs) with a nanokelvin resolution. We might find that thermal conductivity of confined helium is finite at the bulk superfluid transition temperature. Our 2D results will be compared with those in a bulk and 1D confinement.

  11. The CD control improvement by using CDSEM 2D measurement of complex OPC patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, William; Cheng, Jeffrey; Lee, Adder; Cheng, James; Tzeng, Alex C.; Lu, Colbert; Yang, Ray; Lee, Hong Jen; Bandoh, Hideaki; Santo, Izumi; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Chien Kang

    2016-10-01

    As the process node becomes more advanced, the accuracy and precision in OPC pattern CD are required in mask manufacturing. CD SEM is an essential tool to confirm the mask quality such as CD control, CD uniformity and CD mean to target (MTT). Unfortunately, in some cases of arbitrary enclosed patterns or aggressive OPC patterns, for instance, line with tiny jogs and curvilinear SRAF, CD variation depending on region of interest (ROI) is a very serious problem in mask CD control, even it decreases the wafer yield. For overcoming this situation, the 2-dimensional (2D) method by Holon is adopted. In this paper, we summarize the comparisons of error budget between conventional (1D) and 2D data using CD SEM and the CD performance between mask and wafer by complex OPC patterns including ILT features.

  12. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction measurements of reciprocal space structure of 2D materials.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Y; Guo, F-W; Lu, T-M; Wang, G-C

    2016-12-02

    Knowledge on the symmetry and perfection of a 2D material deposited or transferred to a surface is very important and valuable. We demonstrate a method to map the reciprocal space structure of 2D materials using reflection high energy diffraction (RHEED). RHEED from a 2D material gives rise to 'streaks' patterns. It is shown that from these streaks patterns at different azimuthal rotation angles that the reciprocal space intensity distribution can be constructed as a function of momentum transfer parallel to the surface. To illustrate the principle, we experimentally constructed the reciprocal space structure of a commercial graphene/SiO2/Si sample in which the graphene layer was transferred to the SiO2/Si substrate after it was deposited on a Cu foil by chemical vapor deposition. The result reveals a 12-fold symmetry of the graphene layer which is a result of two dominant orientation domains with 30° rotation relative to each other. We show that the graphene can serve as a template to grow other materials such as a SnS film that follows the symmetry of graphene.

  13. Alignment of a 3-D Sensor and a 2-D Sensor Measuring Azimuth and Elevation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    alignment algorithm discussed in this report were developed by the Combat System Technologies Branch (N35) of the Engineering and Technology Division ( N30 ...removal of alignment errors in dissimilar sensors (e.g., active and passive sensors, 2-D and 3-D sensors, etc.). However, the alignment of dissimilar...G21 (CARSOLA) 1 G70 1 G71 1 G71 (BLAIR) 1 G71 (PALEN) 1 G71 (RICE) 10 G73 (FONTANA) 1 N 1 N05 (GASTON) 1 N24 (HENDERSON) 1 N30 1 N33 (ERVIN) 1 N33

  14. Comparison of 2D simulations of detached divertor plasmas with divertor Thomson measurements in the DIII-D tokamak

    DOE PAGES

    Rognlien, Thomas D.; McLean, Adam G.; Fenstermacher, Max E.; ...

    2017-01-27

    A modeling study is reported using new 2D data from DIII-D tokamak divertor plasmas and improved 2D transport model that includes large cross-field drifts for the numerically difficult H-mode regime. The data set, which spans a range of plasmas densities for both forward and reverse toroidal magnetic field (Bt) over a range of plasma densities, is provided by divertor Thomson scattering (DTS). Measurements utilizing X-point sweeping give corresponding 2D profiles of electron temperature (Te) and density (ne) across both divertor legs for individual discharges. The calculations show the same features of in/out plasma asymmetries as measured in the experiment, withmore » the normal Bt direction (ion ∇B drift toward the X-point) having higher ne and lower Te in the inner divertor leg than outer. Corresponding emission data for total radiated power shows a strong inner-divertor/outer-divertor asymmetry that is reproduced by the simulations. Furthermore, these 2D UEDGE transport simulations are enabled for steep-gradient H-mode conditions by newly implemented algorithms to control isolated grid-scale irregularities.« less

  15. Detection and assessment of damage in 2D structures using measured modal response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banan, Mohammad Reza; Mehdi-pour, Yousef

    2007-10-01

    Motivated by one of the concepts in the field of health monitoring for structural systems, a damage detection procedure is developed. In order to perform the system health monitoring, structural health along with sensor and actuator malfunction must be continuously checked. As a step toward developing a system health-monitoring scheme, this paper investigated structural damage detection, using a constrained eigenstructure assignment. The proposed damage detection method is constructed based on a concept of control theory and subspace rotation for two-dimensional (2D)-structural systems. To demonstrate the capabilities of the developed damage detection algorithm, the behavior of a simulated degraded braced-frame structure is studied. Using Monte Carlo simulation, the performance of the approach is evaluated. It shows that the proposed algorithm is potentially promising for application to real cases.

  16. Flow and Transport of Radionuclides in the Rhizosphere: Imaging and Measurements in a 2D System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pales, Ashley; Darnault, Christophe; Li, Biting; Clifford, Heather; Montgomery, Dawn; Moysey, Stephen; Powell, Brian; DeVol, Tim; Erdmann, Bryan; Edayilam, Nimisha; Tharayil, Nishanth; Dogan, Mine; Martinez, Nicole

    2017-04-01

    This research aims to build upon past 2D tank light transmission methods to quantify real-time flow in unsaturated porous media, understand how exudates effect unstable flow patterns, and understand radionuclide mobility and dispersion in the subsurface. A 2D tank light transmission method was created using a transparent flow through tank coupled with a random rainfall simulator; a commercial LED light and a CMOS DSLR Nikon D5500 camera were used to capture the real-time flow images. The images were broken down from RGB into HVI and analyzed in Matlab to produce quantifiable data about finger formation and water saturation distribution. Radionuclide locations were determined via handheld gamma scanner. Water saturation along the vertical and horizontal profile (Matlab) was used to quantify the finger more objectively than by eye assessment alone. The changes in finger formation and speed of propagation between the control rain water (0.01M NaCl) and the solutions containing plant exudates illustrates that the plant exudates increased the wettability (mobility) of water moving through unsaturated porous media. This understanding of plant exudates effect on unsaturated flow is important for works studying how plants, their roots and exudates, may affect the mobility of radionuclides in unsaturated porous media. As there is an increase in exudate concentration, the mobility of the radionuclides due to changing flow pattern and available water content in porous media may be improved causing more dispersion in the porous media and intake into the plant. Changes in plant root exudation impact the distribution and density of radionuclides in the rhizosphere and vadose zone.

  17. 2D spatial profile measurements of potential fluctuation with heavy ion beam probe on the Large Helical Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, A.; Ido, T.; Nishiura, M.; Kato, S.; Ogawa, K.; Takahashi, H.; Igami, H.; Yoshimura, Y.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.

    2016-11-01

    Two-dimensional spatial profiles of potential fluctuation were measured with the heavy ion beam probe (HIBP) in the Large Helical Device (LHD). For 2D spatial profile measurements, the probe beam energy has to be changed, which requires the adjustment of many deflectors in the beam transport line to optimize the beam trajectory, since the transport line of LHD-HIBP system is long. The automatic beam adjustment system was developed, which allows us to adjust the beam trajectory easily. By analyzing coherence between potential fluctuation and magnetic probe signal, the noise level of the mode power spectrum of the potential fluctuation can be reduced. By using this method, the 2D spatial profile of potential fluctuation profile was successfully obtained.

  18. Micro PIV measurements of turbulent flow over 2D structured roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartenberger, Joel; Perlin, Marc

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the turbulent boundary layer over surfaces with 2D spanwise square and triangular protrusions having nominal heights of 100 - 300 microns for Reynolds numbers ranging from Reτ ~ 1500 through Reτ ~ 4500 using a high speed, high magnification imaging system. Micro PIV analysis gives finely resolved velocity fields of the flow (on the order of 10 microns between vectors) enabling a detailed look at the inner region as well as the flow in the immediate vicinity of the roughness elements. Additionally, planar PIV with lower resolution is performed to capture the remainder of the boundary layer to the freestream flow. Varying the streamwise distance between individual roughness elements from one to ten times the nominal heights allows investigation of k-type and d-type roughness in both the transitionally rough and fully rough regimes. Preliminary results show a shift in the mean velocity profile similar to the results of previous studies. Turbulent statistics will be presented also. The authors would like to acknowledge the support of NAVSEA which funded this project through the Naval Engineering Education Center (NEEC).

  19. Comparing measurements of the horizontal wind speed of a 2D Multi-Lidar and a cup anemometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneemann, Jörge; Trabucchi, Davide; José Trujillo, Juan; Kühn, Martin

    2014-12-01

    Wind measurements of a 2D Multi-Lidar and a mast mounted cup anemometer are compared in this study. Average wind speed and direction as well as the turbulence intensity of the wind speed are considered. Data analysis is mainly performed using standard regression analysis on 10 minute average data and the calculation of the power spectral density. The results show a good agreement regarding wind speed and direction and the turbulence intensity of the horizontal wind.

  20. Quantitative assessment of soil parameter (KD and TC) estimation using DGT measurements and the 2D DIFS model.

    PubMed

    Lehto, N J; Sochaczewski, L; Davison, W; Tych, W; Zhang, H

    2008-03-01

    Diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) is a dynamic, in situ measuring technique that can be used to supply diverse information on concentrations and behaviour of solutes. When deployed in soils and sediments, quantitative interpretation of DGT measurements requires the use of a numerical model. An improved version of the DGT induced fluxes in soils and sediments model (DIFS), working in two dimensions (2D DIFS), was used to investigate the accuracy with which DGT measurements can be used to estimate the distribution coefficient for labile metal (KD) and the response time of the soil to depletion (TC). The 2D DIFS model was used to obtain values of KD and TC for Cd, Zn and Ni in three different soils, which were compared to values determined previously using 1D DIFS for these cases. While the 1D model was shown to provide reasonable estimates of KD, the 2D model refined the estimates of the kinetic parameters. Desorption rate constants were shown to be similar for all three metals and lower than previously thought. Calculation of an error function as KD and TC are systematically varied showed the spread of KD and TC values that fit the experimental data equally well. These automatically generated error maps reflected the quality of the data and provided an appraisal of the accuracy of parameter estimation. They showed that in some cases parameter accuracy could be improved by fitting the model to a sub-set of data.

  1. Accurate Measurements of Multiple-Bond 13C- 1H Coupling Constants from Phase-Sensitive 2D INEPT Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Keyang

    1999-10-01

    Measurements of multiple-bond 13C-1H coupling constants are of great interest for the assignment of nonprotonated 13C resonances and the elucidation of molecular conformation in solution. Usually, the heteronuclear multiple-bond coupling constants were measured either by the JCH splittings mostly in selective 2D spectra or in 3D spectra, which are time consuming, or by the cross peak intensity analysis in 2D quantitative heteronuclear J correlation spectra (1994, G. Zhu, A. Renwick, and A. Bax, J. Magn. Reson. A 110, 257; 1994, A. Bax, G. W. Vuister, S. Grzesiek, F. Delaglio, A. C. Wang, R. Tschudin, and G. Zhu, Methods Enzymol. 239, 79.), which suffer from the accuracy problem caused by the signal-to-noise ratio and the nonpure absorptive peak patterns. Concerted incrementation of the duration for developing proton antiphase magnetization with respect to carbon-13 and the evolution time for proton chemical shift in different steps in a modified INEPT pulse sequence provides a new method for accurate measurements of heteronuclear multiple-bond coupling constants in a single 2D experiment.

  2. Entanglement genesis by ancilla-based parity measurement in 2D circuit QED.

    PubMed

    Saira, O-P; Groen, J P; Cramer, J; Meretska, M; de Lange, G; DiCarlo, L

    2014-02-21

    We present an indirect two-qubit parity meter in planar circuit quantum electrodynamics, realized by discrete interaction with an ancilla and a subsequent projective ancilla measurement with a dedicated, dispersively coupled resonator. Quantum process tomography and successful entanglement by measurement demonstrate that the meter is intrinsically quantum nondemolition. Separate interaction and measurement steps allow the execution of subsequent data-qubit operations in parallel with ancilla measurement, offering time savings over continuous schemes.

  3. Detailed temporally resolved 2-D Velocity Measurements in a Novel Heat Exchanger Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guezennec, Yann G.; Ko, Jang-Hyok; Choi, Woong-Chul

    1998-11-01

    Using flow visualization as a primary tool, a novel, high-performance heat transfer surface for compact heat exchangers was designed, specifically for low Reynolds number applications. This geometry was specifically created to enhance or generate strong three-dimensional transport even at low Reynolds number. It consists of a staggered array of "pin" mounted normal to the fins. A 15:1 model of this heat exchanger surface core was built out of Plexiglas to provide optical access and this model was placed in a 1'x1' water channel. The flow speed was adjusted to match the Reynolds based on the hydraulic diameter based on the fin pitch. The flow was seeded with small polystyrene particles and illuminated by a laser sheet from an Argon Ion laser. The fluid motion was recorded using a CCD camera and an S-VHS video recorder. In post-processing, the video records were automatically digitized and processed using a cinematographic PIV technique. The temporal evolution of the 2-D flow field (side view) clearly shows the presence of unsteady, shed vortical regions behind the pins, modulated by the spatially-periodic acceleration/deceleration and meandering of the mean flow between the periodic array of staggered pins. In the perpendicular view (top view), the results show the presence of two strong cross-stream transport mechanisms, mainly the horse-shoe vortex near the pin-fin junctions and the very strong spanwise transport in the separated wake region of the pins. This transport is most likely associated with the strong interaction of the longitudinal vortices (emanating form the horseshoe) and the spanwise vortices from the pin wake. This vortex interaction sets up a strong spanwise pressure gradient inducing large cross-stream transport from the fin to the core flow. Animation of the results illustrating these effects will be presented.

  4. A new multi-modal similarity measure for fast gradient-based 2D-3D image registration.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Mark R; Muhit, Abdullah A; Scarvell, Jennie M; Smith, Paul N

    2009-01-01

    2D-3D image registration has been adopted in many clinical applications such as image-guided surgery and the kinematic analysis of bones in knee and ankle joints. In this paper we propose a new single-plane 2D-3D registration algorithm which requires far less iteration than previous techniques. The new algorithm includes a new multi-modal similarity measure and a novel technique for the analytic calculation of the required gradients. Our experimental results show that, when compared to existing gradient and non-gradient based techniques, the proposed algorithm has a wider range of initial poses for which registration can be achieved and requires significantly fewer iterations to converge to the true 3D position of the anatomical structure.

  5. Performance of a 2D image-based anthropometric measurement and clothing sizing system.

    PubMed

    Meunier, P; Yin, S

    2000-10-01

    Two-dimensional, image-based anthropometric measurement systems offer an interesting alternative to traditional and three-dimensional methods in applications such as clothing sizing. These automated systems are attractive because of their low cost and the speed with which they can measure size and determine the best-fitting garment. Although these systems have appeal in this type of application, not much is known about the accuracy and precision of the measurements they take. In this paper, the performance of one such system was assessed. The accuracy of the system was analyzed using a database of 349 subjects (male and female) who were also measured with traditional anthropometric tools and techniques, and the precision was estimated through repeated measurements of both a plastic mannequin and a human subject. The results of the system were compared with those of trained anthropometrists, and put in perspective relative to clothing sizing requirements and short-term body changes. It was concluded that image-based systems are capable of providing anthropometric measurements that are quite comparable to traditional measurement methods (performed by skilled measurers), both in terms of accuracy and repeatability.

  6. Digital 2D-photogrammetry and direct anthropometry--a comparing study on test accomplishment and measurement data.

    PubMed

    Franke-Gromberg, Christine; Schüler, Grit; Hermanussen, Michael; Scheffler, Christiane

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this methodological anthropometric study was to compare direct anthropometry and digital two-dimensional photogrammetry in 18 male and 27 female subjects, aged 24 to 65 years, from Potsdam, Germany. In view of the rising interest in reliable biometric kephalofacial data, we focussed on head and face measurements. Out of 34 classic facial anatomical landmarks, 27 landmarks were investigated both by direct anthropometry and 2D-photogrammetry; 7 landmarks could not be localized by 2D-photogrammetry. Twenty-six kephalofacial distances were analysed both by direct anthropometry and digital 2D-photogrammetry. Kephalofacial distances are on average 7.6% shorter when obtained by direct anthropometry. The difference between the two techniques is particularly evident in total head height (vertex-gnathion) due to the fact that vertex is usually covered by hair and escapes from photogrammetry. Also the distances photographic sellion-gnathion (1.3 cm, i. e. 11.6%) and nasal-gnathion (1.2 cm, i. e. 9.4%) differ by more than one centimetre. Differences below 0.5 cm between the two techniques were found when measuring mucosa-lip-height (2.2%), gonia (3.0%), glabella-stomion (3.9%), and nose height (glabella-subnasal) (4.0%). Only the estimates of forehead width were significantly narrower when obtained by 2D-photogrammetry (-1.4 cm, -13.1%). The methodological differences increased with increasing magnitude of the kephalometric distance. Apart from these limitations, both techniques are similarly valid and may replace each other.

  7. Comparison of 2-D model simulations of ozone and nitrous oxide at high latitudes with stratospheric measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proffitt, M. H.; Solomon, S.; Loewenstein, M.

    1992-01-01

    A linear reference relationship between O3 and N2O has been used to estimate polar winter O3 loss from aircraft data taken in the lower stratosphere. Here, this relationship is evaluated at high latitudes by comparing it with a 2D model simulation and with NIMBUS 7 satellite measurements. Although comparisons with satellite measurements are limited to January through May, the model simulations are compared during other seasons. The model simulations and the satellite data are found to be consistent with the winter O3 loss analysis. It is shown that such analyses are likely to be inappropriate during other seasons.

  8. 2D velocity and temperature measurements in high speed flows based on spectrally resolved Rayleigh scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seasholtz, Richard G.

    1992-01-01

    The use of molecular Rayleigh scattering for measurements of gas velocity and temperature is evaluated. Molecular scattering avoids problems associated with the seeding required by conventional laser anemometry and particle image velocimetry. The technique considered herein is based on the measurement of the spectrum of the scattered light. Planar imaging of Rayleigh scattering using a laser light sheet is evaluated for conditions at 30 km altitude (typical hypersonic flow conditions). The Cramer-Rao lower bounds for velocity and temperature measurement uncertainties are calculated for an ideal optical spectrum analyzer and for a planar mirror Fabry-Perot interferometer used in a static, imaging mode. With this technique, a single image of the Rayleigh scattered light from clean flows can be analyzed to obtain temperature and one component of velocity. Experimental results are presented for planar velocity measurements in a Mach 1.3 air jet.

  9. Interferometric Approach to Measuring Band Topology in 2D Optical Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abanin, Dmitry A.; Kitagawa, Takuya; Bloch, Immanuel; Demler, Eugene

    2013-04-01

    Recently, optical lattices with nonzero Berry’s phases of Bloch bands have been realized. New approaches for measuring Berry’s phases and topological properties of bands with experimental tools appropriate for ultracold atoms need to be developed. In this Letter, we propose an interferometric method for measuring Berry’s phases of two-dimensional Bloch bands. The key idea is to use a combination of Ramsey interference and Bloch oscillations to measure Zak phases, i.e., Berry’s phases for closed trajectories corresponding to reciprocal lattice vectors. We demonstrate that this technique can be used to measure the Berry curvature of Bloch bands, the π Berry’s phase of Dirac points, and the first Chern number of topological bands. We discuss several experimentally feasible realizations of this technique, which make it robust against low-frequency magnetic noise.

  10. Comparing the sphere anemometer to standard sensors for 2D wind measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heisselmann, Hendrik; Hoelling, Michael; Peinke, Joachim

    2011-11-01

    The cup anemometers commonly used for wind energy applications are fairly robust, but suffer from several drawbacks like their limited temporal resolution, a systematic overestimation of the wind speed in turbulent flows and the inability to measure the wind direction. While sonic anemometers can measure the wind vector at a higher temporal resolution, they are more fragile and significantly more expensive. Therefore, we propose the sphere anemometer as a robust and highly-resolving alternative to standard anemometers. Designed without wearing parts, the sphere anemometer provides simultaneous wind speed and direction measurements as needed for wind turbine operation especially under challenging conditions such as offshore installation. In our contribution, we introduce the setup of the sphere anemometer which is based on the velocity-dependent deflection of a flexible tube with a sphere mounted atop. The deflection is measured in two dimensions using a light pointer, which allows for the simultaneous determination of wind speed and direction via calibration. Experimental results from wind tunnel measurements with sonic anemometer and sphere anemometer are presented, as well as first comparative measurements from the operation on the nacelle of a near-shore wind turbine.

  11. Quantitative comparisons between experimentally measured 2-D carbon radiation and Monte Carlo impurity (MCI) code simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, T.E.; Leonard, A.W.; West, W.P.; Finkenthal, D.F.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Porter, G.D.

    1998-08-01

    Experimentally measured carbon line emissions and total radiated power distributions from the DIII-D divertor and Scrape-Off Layer (SOL) are compared to those calculated with the Monte Carlo Impurity (MCI) model. A UEDGE background plasma is used in MCI with the Roth and Garcia-Rosales (RG-R) chemical sputtering model and/or one of six physical sputtering models. While results from these simulations do not reproduce all of the features seen in the experimentally measured radiation patterns, the total radiated power calculated in MCI is in relatively good agreement with that measured by the DIII-D bolometric system when the Smith78 physical sputtering model is coupled to RG-R chemical sputtering in an unaltered UEDGE plasma. Alternatively, MCI simulations done with UEDGE background ion temperatures along the divertor target plates adjusted to better match those measured in the experiment resulted in three physical sputtering models which when coupled to the RG-R model gave a total radiated power that was within 10% of measured value.

  12. A Comparison of 1D and 2D (Unbiased) Experimental Methods for Measuring CSAsolarDD Cross-Correlated Relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batta, Gy.; Kövér, K. E.; Kowalewski, J.

    1999-01-01

    Conventional and enhanced 1D experiments and different NOESY experiments (the 2D unbiased method) were performed for measuring CSA/DD cross-correlated relaxation on trehalose, a compound which could be approximated as a spherical top, and on simple model compounds comprisingC3vsymmetry (CHCl3, triphenylsilane (TPSi)). The comparison gives experimental evidence for the equivalence of the methods within the limits of the two-spin approach. 1D data are evaluated with both the simple initial rate and the Redfield relaxation matrix approach. The 2D data are obtained from the so-called transfer matrix using the Perrin-Gipe eigenvalue/eigenvector method. For the improved performance of the 2D method, anX-filtered (HHH) NOESY is suggested at the natural abundance of13C (or other dilute, low γ species). Also, experimental parameters crucial for reliable CSA data are tested (e.g., the impact of insufficient relaxation delay). Error estimation is carried out for fair comparison of methods. Revised liquid state1H and13C (29Si) CSA data are presented for chloroform and TPSi.

  13. A new anemometer for 2D atmospheric flow measurements in rough environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heisselmann, Hendrik; Hoelling, Michael; Peinke, Joachim

    2010-11-01

    One major downside of cup anemometry is the different response time for increasing and decreasing wind speeds, causing a systematic over-estimation of the mean wind speed under turbulent conditions. Especially under harsh environmental conditions like in offshore operation, the measuring principle leads to a wear of bearings causing a de-calibration over time and the requirement of regular maintenance. Therefore, we propose the newly developed sphere anemometer as a simple and robust alternative without any moving parts. The sphere anemometer consists of a flexible tube with a sphere mounted on top of it. The drag force acting on the sphere and its support causes a deflection, which is measured by means of a light pointer. Via calibration, this allows for simultaneous determination of wind speed and direction using only one sensor. In our contribution, we introduce the anemometer's setup and it's optimization towards offshore application. Additionally, experimental results obtained from wind tunnel measurements of turbulent flows are presented. Measurements under real wind conditions are compared to those of state-of-the-art wind speed sensors, such as cup and ultrasonic anemometers.

  14. Weakly coupled bound state of 2-D Schrödinger operator with potential-measure.

    PubMed

    Kondej, Sylwia; Lotoreichik, Vladimir

    2014-12-15

    We consider a self-adjoint two-dimensional Schrödinger operator [Formula: see text], which corresponds to the formal differential expression[Formula: see text] where μ is a finite compactly supported positive Radon measure on [Formula: see text] from the generalized Kato class and [Formula: see text] is the coupling constant. It was proven earlier that [Formula: see text]. We show that for sufficiently small α the condition [Formula: see text] holds and that the corresponding unique eigenvalue has the asymptotic expansion[Formula: see text] with a certain constant [Formula: see text]. We also obtain a formula for the computation of [Formula: see text]. The asymptotic expansion of the corresponding eigenfunction is provided. The statements of this paper extend the results of Simon [41] to the case of potentials-measures. Also for regular potentials our results are partially new.

  15. Temperature Effects on the Wind Direction Measurement of 2D Solid Thermal Wind Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bei; Zhu, Yan-Qing; Yi, Zhenxiang; Qin, Ming; Huang, Qing-An

    2015-01-01

    For a two-dimensional solid silicon thermal wind sensor with symmetrical structure, the wind speed and direction information can be derived from the output voltages in two orthogonal directions, i.e., the north-south and east-west. However, the output voltages in these two directions will vary linearly with the ambient temperature. Therefore, in this paper, a temperature model to study the temperature effect on the wind direction measurement has been developed. A theoretical analysis has been presented first, and then Finite Element Method (FEM) simulations have been performed. It is found that due to symmetrical structure of the thermal wind sensor, the temperature effects on the output signals in the north-south and east-west directions are highly similar. As a result, the wind direction measurement of the thermal wind sensor is approximately independent of the ambient temperature. The experimental results fit the theoretical analysis and simulation results very well. PMID:26633398

  16. Temperature Effects on the Wind Direction Measurement of 2D Solid Thermal Wind Sensors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bei; Zhu, Yan-Qing; Yi, Zhenxiang; Qin, Ming; Huang, Qing-An

    2015-11-30

    For a two-dimensional solid silicon thermal wind sensor with symmetrical structure, the wind speed and direction information can be derived from the output voltages in two orthogonal directions, i.e., the north-south and east-west. However, the output voltages in these two directions will vary linearly with the ambient temperature. Therefore, in this paper, a temperature model to study the temperature effect on the wind direction measurement has been developed. A theoretical analysis has been presented first, and then Finite Element Method (FEM) simulations have been performed. It is found that due to symmetrical structure of the thermal wind sensor, the temperature effects on the output signals in the north-south and east-west directions are highly similar. As a result, the wind direction measurement of the thermal wind sensor is approximately independent of the ambient temperature. The experimental results fit the theoretical analysis and simulation results very well.

  17. 2D and 3D fault basis for fuel cell diagnosis by external magnetic field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ifrek, Lyes; Cauffet, Gilles; Chadebec, Olivier; Bultel, Yann; Rosini, Sébastien; Rouveyre, Luc

    2017-07-01

    An original approach used for the identification of faults in fuel cell stacks is presented. It is based on the 3D reconstruction of the current density from external magnetic field measurements which is an ill-posed magnetostatic linear inverse problem. A suitable and original current density and magnetic field basis are proposed in order to define both local and global faults on a fuel cell stack. The inverse problem is regularized by truncated singular value decomposition (SVD) to ensure the uniqueness of the solution. Contribution to the topical issue "Electrical Engineering Symposium (SGE 2016)", edited by Adel Razek

  18. Weakly coupled bound state of 2-D Schrödinger operator with potential-measure

    PubMed Central

    Kondej, Sylwia; Lotoreichik, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    We consider a self-adjoint two-dimensional Schrödinger operator Hαμ, which corresponds to the formal differential expression−Δ−αμ, where μ is a finite compactly supported positive Radon measure on R2 from the generalized Kato class and α>0 is the coupling constant. It was proven earlier that σess(Hαμ)=[0,+∞). We show that for sufficiently small α the condition ♯σd(Hαμ)=1 holds and that the corresponding unique eigenvalue has the asymptotic expansionλ(α)=−(Cμ+o(1))exp⁡(−4παμ(R2)),α→0+, with a certain constant Cμ>0. We also obtain a formula for the computation of Cμ. The asymptotic expansion of the corresponding eigenfunction is provided. The statements of this paper extend the results of Simon [41] to the case of potentials-measures. Also for regular potentials our results are partially new. PMID:25843975

  19. Single-snapshot 2D color measurement by plenoptic imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Kensuke; Yamanaka, Yuji; Maruyama, Go; Nagai, Sho; Hirai, Hideaki; Meng, Lingfei; Tosic, Ivana

    2014-03-01

    Plenoptic cameras enable capture of directional light ray information, thus allowing applications such as digital refocusing, depth estimation, or multiband imaging. One of the most common plenoptic camera architectures contains a microlens array at the conventional image plane and a sensor at the back focal plane of the microlens array. We leverage the multiband imaging (MBI) function of this camera and develop a single-snapshot, single-sensor high color fidelity camera. Our camera is based on a plenoptic system with XYZ filters inserted in the pupil plane of the main lens. To achieve high color measurement precision of this system, we perform an end-to-end optimization of the system model that includes light source information, object information, optical system information, plenoptic image processing and color estimation processing. Optimized system characteristics are exploited to build an XYZ plenoptic colorimetric camera prototype that achieves high color measurement precision. We describe an application of our colorimetric camera to color shading evaluation of display and show that it achieves color accuracy of ΔE<0.01.

  20. Improving Cardiac Action Potential Measurements: 2D and 3D Cell Culture.

    PubMed

    Daily, Neil J; Yin, Yue; Kemanli, Pinar; Ip, Brian; Wakatsuki, Tetsuro

    2015-11-01

    Progress in the development of assays for measuring cardiac action potential is crucial for the discovery of drugs for treating cardiac disease and assessing cardiotoxicity. Recently, high-throughput methods for assessing action potential using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) derived cardiomyocytes in both two-dimensional monolayer cultures and three-dimensional tissues have been developed. We describe an improved method for assessing cardiac action potential using an ultra-fast cost-effective plate reader with commercially available dyes. Our methods improve dramatically the detection of the fluorescence signal from these dyes and make way for the development of more high-throughput methods for cardiac drug discovery and cardiotoxicity.

  1. Measurement of H/sub 2/, D/sub 2/ solubilities in Zr-Al

    SciTech Connect

    Knize, R.J.; Cecchi, J.L.; Dylla, H.F.

    1981-12-01

    We have measured solubility constants for hydrogen and deuterium in the Zr-Al alloy to be: K/sub H/ = exp (11.1(5) - 16900(600)/T9 (Torr/(Torr-1/g)/sup 2/) and K/sub D/ = exp (12.2(8) - 16800(600)/T) (Torr/Torr-1/g)/sup 2/) respectively, where K is defined implicitly by P = Kq/sup 2/ with P the equilibrium pressre (in Torr) and q the bulk concentration (in Torr-l/g). These values, in conjunction with a model for the solubility, predict that the constant for tritium, K/sub T/ approx. 4 K/sub H/. Consequently, the regeneration of tritium will be faster by a factor of four over that for hydrogen at the same temperature, or the tritium regeneration temperature can be reduced approx. 50/sup 0/K compared to hydrogen for the same regeneration time.

  2. Impact of lens distortions on strain measurements obtained with 2D digital image correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lava, P.; Van Paepegem, W.; Coppieters, S.; De Baere, I.; Wang, Y.; Debruyne, D.

    2013-05-01

    The determination of strain fields based on displacements obtained via digital image correlation (DIC) at the micro-strain level (≤1000 μm/m) is still a cumbersome task. In particular when high-strain gradients are involved, e.g. in composite materials with multidirectional fibre reinforcement, uncertainties in the experimental setup and errors in the derivation of the displacement fields can substantially hamper the strain identification process. In this contribution, the aim is to investigate the impact of lens distortions on strain measurements. To this purpose, we first perform pure rigid body motion experiments, revealing the importance of precise correction of lens distortions. Next, a uni-axial tensile test on a textile composite with spatially varying high strain gradients is performed, resulting in very accurately determined strains along the fibers of the material.

  3. High resolution 2D dose measurement device based on a few long scintillating fibers and tomographic reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Goulet, Mathieu; Archambault, Louis; Beaulieu, Luc; Gingras, Luc

    2012-08-01

    Patient-specific QA of highly conformal radiotherapy treatments are usually conducted using 2D or 3D dosimetry of the incident dose distribution in a water-equivalent phantom. However, dosimeters typically used for this task usually lack in either spatial resolution or dose accuracy. The purpose of this work is to develop and validate a novel type of high resolution 2D dosimeter based on the tomographic reconstruction of the dose projections obtained using long scintillating fibers for the quality assurance of modern radiotherapy techniques such as IMRT. Fifty parallel scintillating fibers were aligned in a 30 cm diameter cylindrical masonite phantom with a 95 cm source-to-surface distance and a 100 cm source-to-fibers distance. The fibers were disposed so that the effective detection area of the scintillating fibers was a 20 cm diameter disk. Both ends of each scintillating fiber were coupled to clear optical fibers to enable light collection by a single CCD camera. Seven IMRT segments and two square fields were acquired using 18 projections over a 170° rotation of the device. Computation of the dose integrals was made for each scintillating fiber using the irradiation of known rectangular reference fields. Dose reconstructions were conducted using a total-variation minimization iterative reconstruction algorithm. Eight monitor units were programmed for each projection and the reconstructed dose grid pixel resolution was set to 1 × 1 mm(2). 3%∕3 mm gamma tests conducted between the reconstructed IMRT dose distributions and the dose calculated with the treatment planning system Pinnacle(3) were on average successful for 99.6% of the dose pixels with a predicted dose of at least 10% of the maximum dose. The dose profiles for both square fields and IMRT segments agreed within 2% to the dose calculated with Pinnacle(3) except in high dose gradient regions, and were comparable to the dose measured using an ionization chamber array (IBA MatriXX) and radiographic

  4. Turbulence Measurements on a 2D NACA 0036 with Synthetic Jet Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. S.

    2006-01-01

    An active flow control experiment was conducted on a 2-ft chord NACA 0036 airfoil in a 3-ft by 4-ft Wind Tunnel at Re = 1 x 10(exp 6). The model was equipped with synthetic jet actuators at x/c = 0.30 and 0.65 that provided 120 Hz periodic excitation at a C(sub mu) 0.86% through 0.06-in wide slots. Three different slot con gurations were tested, including a baseline with no slots. Surface pressure data was collected to compare to previous tests and to combine with turbulence data to aid future CFD modeling efforts. Turbulence data, measured by hot-wire, was compared with and without flow control. Pressure data corroborates previous test data and provides more points for CFD validation. Hot-wire results showed ow control reduced the separated wake size and brought the high Reynolds stress shear layer closer to the airfoil surface. The position of this layer to the surface was altered more significantly than the magnitude of the peak stresses. Flow control was shown to increase turbulent energy in the attached boundary layer downstream of the slot but to have little effect upstream. These results provide further justification to continue assessing the potential of active flow control to reduce drag of helicopter airframe components.

  5. Mapping electromagnetic dualities via quantum decoherence measurements in 2D materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heremans, J. J.; Xie, Yuantao; Ren, S. L.; Le Priol, C.; Santos, M. B.

    2016-09-01

    The quantification of quantum phase coherence can reveal several properties of charge carriers in systems of given dimensionality, illuminating mechanisms leading to quantum decoherence due to inelastic scattering events, to decoherence mechanisms due to device geometry, and to dephasing due to geometrical phases from applied fields. Examples of several effects are presented. Quantum phase coherence lengths were measured in mesoscopic geometries by quantum transport methods including universal conductance fluctuations, weak-localization, and quantum interferometry. The geometries were fabricated from two-dimensional starting materials. In wires of materials with strong spin-orbit interaction, we show that spin decoherence due to spin-orbit interaction and dephasing due to applied magnetic fields show an electromagnetic duality. We show that dephasing due to applied magnetic fields can be expressed in terms of a magnetic length quantifying time-reversal symmetry breaking. In wires, the main orbital quantum decoherence mechanism related to the wire length appears as environmental coupling decoherence, with longer wires showing asymptotically longer phase coherence lengths. For mesoscopic stadia, the geometry plays an additional role, inducing stadium-wire coupling decoherence.

  6. 2D Synchrotron Radiation Interferometer for Measuring the Transverse Dimensions of an Electron Beam in a Circular Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novokshonov, A. I.; Potylitsyn, A. P.; Kube, G.

    2017-08-01

    In the majority of cases, modern systems for measuring the transverse profile of the electron beam in storage rings of synchrotron type work in the x-ray range in order to overcome the resolution limit imposed by diffraction. In conjunction with devices of this type, use is frequently made of a synchrotron radiation interferometer operating in the visible wavelength range. With the help of such an interferometer, consisting of a screen with two slits (1D interferometer), it is possible to measure the transverse dimension down to a few micrometers. 1D interferometers are widely used in circular accelerators throughout the world, including a PETRA III (DESY) storage ring, where such an interferometer is used to determine the vertical dimension of the beam. It is proposed to use a 2D interferometer, consisting of a screen with four circular holes, making it possible to measure the vertical and horizontal dimensions simultaneously.

  7. Quantitative Measurements on the Human Ascending Aortic Flow Using 2D Cine Phase-Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokosawa, Suguru; Nakamura, Masanori; Wada, Shigeo; Isoda, Haruo; Takeda, Hiroyasu; Yamaguchi, Takami

    The flow in the human ascending aorta was quantified using two-dimensional (2D) cine phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The quality and reliability of the method were demonstrated with a specially designed phantom model; the flow rate determined with the MRI agreed well with that obtained with a measuring cylinder. The method was then used to measure the aortic blood flow of three healthy human volunteers. The velocity profiles at the supra-aortic valvular plane and ascending aortic plane (approximately 2 and 5cm distal to the aortic valve, respectively) were significantly different. At the peak of systole, the profile was almost axisymmetric at the supra-aortic valvular plane, while it was skewed towards the anterior side of the vessel at the ascending aorta. The Reynolds number, volume flow rate, and stroke volume were all within the normal physiological range. This study demonstrated that the 2D cine phase-contrast MRI technique can be used to provide detailed information on the flow velocity and configuration of a blood vessel, making it a promising tool for analyzing complex hemodynamics in the aorta.

  8. Theoretical analysis on the measurement errors of local 2D DIC: Part I temporal and spatial uncertainty quantification of displacement measurements

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Yueqi; Lava, Pascal; Reu, Phillip; ...

    2015-12-23

    This study presents a theoretical uncertainty quantification of displacement measurements by subset-based 2D-digital image correlation. A generalized solution to estimate the random error of displacement measurement is presented. The obtained solution suggests that the random error of displacement measurements is determined by the image noise, the summation of the intensity gradient in a subset, the subpixel part of displacement, and the interpolation scheme. The proposed method is validated with virtual digital image correlation tests.

  9. Theoretical analysis on the measurement errors of local 2D DIC: Part I temporal and spatial uncertainty quantification of displacement measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yueqi; Lava, Pascal; Reu, Phillip; Debruyne, Dimitri; Van Houtte, Paul

    2015-12-23

    This study presents a theoretical uncertainty quantification of displacement measurements by subset-based 2D-digital image correlation. A generalized solution to estimate the random error of displacement measurement is presented. The obtained solution suggests that the random error of displacement measurements is determined by the image noise, the summation of the intensity gradient in a subset, the subpixel part of displacement, and the interpolation scheme. The proposed method is validated with virtual digital image correlation tests.

  10. Biomechanical properties and microarchitecture parameters of trabecular bone are correlated with stochastic measures of 2D projection images

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xuanliang N.; Shirvaikar, Mukul; Wang, Xiaodu

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that loss of bone mass, quantified by areal bone mineral density (aBMD) using DXA, is associated with the increasing risk of bone fractures. However, bone mineral density alone cannot fully explain changes in fracture risks. On top of bone mass, bone architecture has been identified as another key contributor to fracture risk. In this study, we used a novel stochastic approach to assess the distribution of aBMD from 2D projection images of Micro-CT scans of trabecular bone specimens at a resolution comparable to DXA images. Sill variance, a stochastic measure of distribution of aBMD, had significant relationships with microarchitecture parameters of trabecular bone, including bone volume fraction, bone surface-to-volume ratio, trabecular thickness, trabecular number, trabecular separation and anisotropy. Accordingly, it showed significantly positive correlations with strength and elastic modulus of trabecular bone. Moreover, a combination of aBMD and sill variance derived from the 2D projection images (R2=0.85) predicted bone strength better than using aBMD alone (R2=0.63). Thus, it would be promising to extend the stochastic approach to routine DXA scans to assess the distribution of aBMD, offering a more clinically significant technique for predicting risks of bone fragility fractures. PMID:23756232

  11. Micro-PIV measurements of multiphase flow of water and supercritical CO2 in 2D heterogeneous porous micromodels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Kazemifar, F.; Blois, G.; Christensen, K. T.

    2015-12-01

    Multiphase flow of water and supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) in porous media is central to geological sequestration of CO2 into saline aquifers. However, our fundamental understanding of the coupled flow dynamics of CO2 and water in complex geologic media still remains limited, especially at the pore scale. Recently, studies have been carried out in 2D homogeneous models with the micro-PIV technique, yielding very interesting observations of pore-scale flow transport. The primary aim of this work is to leverage this experimental protocol to quantify the pore-scale flow of water and liquid/supercritical CO2 in 2D heterogeneous porous micromodels under reservoir-relevant conditions. The goal is to capture the dynamics of this multi-phase flow in a porous matrix that mimics the heterogeneity of natural rock. Fluorescent microscopy and the micro-PIV technique are employed to simultaneously measure the spatially-resolved instantaneous velocity field in the water and quantify the instantaneous spatial configuration of both phases. The results for heterogeneous micromodels will be presented and compared with those for homogeneous micromodels, yielding valuable insight into flow processes at the pore scale in natural rock.

  12. Conforming the measured lifetimes of the 5 d 2D3 /2 ,5 /2 states in Cs with theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, B. K.

    2016-02-01

    We find very good agreement between our theoretically evaluated lifetimes of the 5 d 2D3 /2 and 5 d 2D5 /2 states of Cs with the experimental values reported by DiBerardino et al. [Phys. Rev. A 57, 4204 (1998), 10.1103/PhysRevA.57.4204], which were demonstrated to disagree with an earlier rigorous theoretical study [Safronova and Clark, Phys. Rev. A 69, 040501(R) (2004), 10.1103/PhysRevA.69.040501] and with the other available precise measurement [Hoeling et al., Opt. Lett. 21, 74 (1996), 10.1364/OL.21.000074]. In this work, we carry out calculations of the radiative transition matrix elements using many variants of relativistic many-body methods, mainly in the coupled-cluster theory framework, and analyze the propagation of electron correlation effects to elucidate their roles in accurate evaluations of the matrix elements. We also demonstrate contributions explicitly from Dirac-Coulomb interactions, frequency-independent Breit interaction, and lower order quantum electrodynamics effects. Uncertainties in these matrix elements due to different possible sources of errors are estimated. By combining our calculated radiative matrix elements with the experimental values of the transition wavelengths, we obtain the transition probabilities due to both the allowed and the lower order forbidden channels. Adding these quantities together, the lifetimes of the above two states are determined precisely and plausible reasons for the reported inconsistencies between the earlier theoretical calculations and the experimental results are pointed out.

  13. 1-D and 2-D resonances in an Alpine valley identified from ambient noise measurements and 3-D modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Roux, Olivier; Cornou, Cécile; Jongmans, Denis; Schwartz, Stéphane

    2012-09-01

    H/V spectral ratios are regularly used for estimating the bedrock depth in 1-D like basins exhibiting smooth lateral variations. In the case of 2-D or 3-D pronounced geometries, observational and numerical studies have shown that H/V curves exhibit peculiar shapes and that the H/V frequency generally overestimates 1-D theoretical resonance frequency. To investigate the capabilities of the H/V method in complex structures, a detailed comparison between measured and 3-D-simulated ambient vibrations was performed in the small-size lower Romanche valley (French Alps), which shows significant variations in geometry, downstream and upstream the Séchilienne basin. Analysing the H/V curve characteristics, two different wave propagation modes were identified along the valley. Relying on previous geophysical investigation, a power-law relationship was derived between the bedrock depth and the H/V peak frequency, which was used for building a 3-D model of the valley geometry. Simulated and experimental H/V curves were found to exhibit quite similar features in terms of curve shape and peak frequency values, validating the 3-D structure. This good agreement also evidenced two different propagation modes in the valley: 2-D resonance in the Séchilienne basin and 1-D resonance in the external parts. This study underlines the interest of H/V curves for investigating complex basin structures.

  14. Automatic Measurement of Thalamic Diameter in 2-D Fetal Ultrasound Brain Images Using Shape Prior Constrained Regularized Level Sets.

    PubMed

    Sridar, Pradeeba; Kumar, Ashnil; Li, Changyang; Woo, Joyce; Quinton, Ann; Benzie, Ron; Peek, Michael J; Feng, Dagan; Kumar, R Krishna; Nanan, Ralph; Kim, Jinman

    2017-07-01

    We derived an automated algorithm for accurately measuring the thalamic diameter from 2-D fetal ultrasound (US) brain images. The algorithm overcomes the inherent limitations of the US image modality: nonuniform density; missing boundaries; and strong speckle noise. We introduced a "guitar" structure that represents the negative space surrounding the thalamic regions. The guitar acts as a landmark for deriving the widest points of the thalamus even when its boundaries are not identifiable. We augmented a generalized level-set framework with a shape prior and constraints derived from statistical shape models of the guitars; this framework was used to segment US images and measure the thalamic diameter. Our segmentation method achieved a higher mean Dice similarity coefficient, Hausdorff distance, specificity, and reduced contour leakage when compared to other well-established methods. The automatic thalamic diameter measurement had an interobserver variability of -0.56 ± 2.29 mm compared to manual measurement by an expert sonographer. Our method was capable of automatically estimating the thalamic diameter, with the measurement accuracy on par with clinical assessment. Our method can be used as part of computer-assisted screening tools that automatically measure the biometrics of the fetal thalamus; these biometrics are linked to neurodevelopmental outcomes.

  15. Measuring fish and their physical habitats: Versatile 2D and 3D video techniques with user-friendly software

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuswanger, Jason R.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Rosenberger, Amanda E.; Hughes, Nicholas F.

    2017-01-01

    Applications of video in fisheries research range from simple biodiversity surveys to three-dimensional (3D) measurement of complex swimming, schooling, feeding, and territorial behaviors. However, researchers lack a transparently developed, easy-to-use, general purpose tool for 3D video measurement and event logging. Thus, we developed a new measurement system, with freely available, user-friendly software, easily obtained hardware, and flexible underlying mathematical methods capable of high precision and accuracy. The software, VidSync, allows users to efficiently record, organize, and navigate complex 2D or 3D measurements of fish and their physical habitats. Laboratory tests showed submillimetre accuracy in length measurements of 50.8 mm targets at close range, with increasing errors (mostly <1%) at longer range and for longer targets. A field test on juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) feeding behavior in Alaska streams found that individuals within aggregations avoided the immediate proximity of their competitors, out to a distance of 1.0 to 2.9 body lengths. This system makes 3D video measurement a practical tool for laboratory and field studies of aquatic or terrestrial animal behavior and ecology.

  16. Improvement of vertical profiles of raindrop size distribution from micro rain radar using 2D video disdrometer measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adirosi, E.; Baldini, L.; Roberto, N.; Gatlin, P.; Tokay, A.

    2016-03-01

    A measurement scheme aimed at investigating precipitation properties based on collocated disdrometer and profiling instruments is used in many experimental campaigns. Raindrop size distribution (RSD) estimated by disdrometer is referred to the ground level; the collocated profiling instrument is supposed to provide complementary estimation at different heights of the precipitation column above the instruments. As part of the Special Observation Period 1 of the HyMeX (Hydrological Cycle in the Mediterranean Experiment) project, conducted between 5 September and 6 November 2012, a K-band vertically pointing micro rain radar (MRR) and a 2D video disdrometer (2DVD) were installed close to each other at a site in the historic center of Rome (Italy). The raindrop size distributions collected by 2D video disdrometer are considered to be fairly accurate within the typical sizes of drops. Vertical profiles of raindrop sizes up to 1085 m are estimated from the Doppler spectra measured by the micro rain radar with a height resolution of 35 m. Several issues related to vertical winds, attenuation correction, Doppler spectra aliasing, and range-Doppler ambiguity limit the performance of MRR in heavy precipitation or in convection, conditions that frequently occur in late summer or in autumn in Mediterranean regions. In this paper, MRR Doppler spectra are reprocessed, exploiting the 2DVD measurements at ground to estimate the effects of vertical winds at 105 m (the most reliable MRR lower height), in order to provide a better estimation of vertical profiles of raindrop size distribution from MRR spectra. Results show that the reprocessing procedure leads to a better agreement between the reflectivity computed at 105 m from the reprocessed MRR spectra and that obtained from the 2DVD data. Finally, vertical profiles of MRR-estimated RSDs and their relevant moments (namely median volume diameter and reflectivity) are presented and discussed in order to investigate the

  17. Demonstration of synchronised scanning Lidar measurements of 2D velocity fields in a boundary-layer wind tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dooren, M. F.; Kühn, M.; PetroviĆ, V.; Bottasso, C. L.; Campagnolo, F.; Sjöholm, M.; Angelou, N.; Mikkelsen, T.; Croce, A.; Zasso, A.

    2016-09-01

    This paper combines the currently relevant research methodologies of scaled wind turbine model experiments in wind tunnels with remote-sensing short-range WindScanner Lidar measurement technology. The wind tunnel of the Politecnico di Milano was equipped with three wind turbine models and two short-range WindScanner Lidars to demonstrate the benefits of synchronised scanning Lidars in such experimental surroundings for the first time. The dual- Lidar system can provide fully synchronised trajectory scans with sampling time scales ranging from seconds to minutes. First, staring mode measurements were compared to hot wire probe measurements commonly used in wind tunnels. This yielded goodness of fit coefficients of 0.969 and 0.902 for the 1 Hz averaged u- and v-components of the wind speed, respectively, validating the 2D measurement capability of the Lidar scanners. Subsequently, the measurement of wake profiles on a line as well as wake area scans were executed to illustrate the applicability of Lidar scanning to measuring small scale wind flow effects. The downsides of Lidar with respect to the hot wire probes are the larger measurement probe volume and the loss of some measurements due to moving blades. In contrast, the benefits are the high flexibility in conducting both point measurements and area scanning, and the fact that remote sensing techniques do not disturb the flow while measuring. The research campaign revealed a high potential for using short-range WindScanner Lidar for accurately measuring small scale flow structures in a wind tunnel.

  18. 2D image of local density and magnetic fluctuations from line-integrated interferometry-polarimetry measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, L.; Ding, W. X.; Brower, D. L.

    2014-11-01

    Combined polarimetry-interferometry capability permits simultaneous measurement of line-integrated density and Faraday effect with fast time response (˜1 μs) and high sensitivity. Faraday effect fluctuations with phase shift of order 0.05° associated with global tearing modes are resolved with an uncertainty ˜0.01°. For physics investigations, local density fluctuations are obtained by inverting the line-integrated interferometry data. The local magnetic and current density fluctuations are then reconstructed using a parameterized fit of the polarimetry data. Reconstructed 2D images of density and magnetic field fluctuations in a poloidal cross section exhibit significantly different spatial structure. Combined with their relative phase, the magnetic-fluctuation-induced particle transport flux and its spatial distribution are resolved.

  19. 2D image of local density and magnetic fluctuations from line-integrated interferometry-polarimetry measurements.

    PubMed

    Lin, L; Ding, W X; Brower, D L

    2014-11-01

    Combined polarimetry-interferometry capability permits simultaneous measurement of line-integrated density and Faraday effect with fast time response (∼1 μs) and high sensitivity. Faraday effect fluctuations with phase shift of order 0.05° associated with global tearing modes are resolved with an uncertainty ∼0.01°. For physics investigations, local density fluctuations are obtained by inverting the line-integrated interferometry data. The local magnetic and current density fluctuations are then reconstructed using a parameterized fit of the polarimetry data. Reconstructed 2D images of density and magnetic field fluctuations in a poloidal cross section exhibit significantly different spatial structure. Combined with their relative phase, the magnetic-fluctuation-induced particle transport flux and its spatial distribution are resolved.

  20. 2D image of local density and magnetic fluctuations from line-integrated interferometry-polarimetry measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, L. Ding, W. X.; Brower, D. L.

    2014-11-15

    Combined polarimetry-interferometry capability permits simultaneous measurement of line-integrated density and Faraday effect with fast time response (∼1 μs) and high sensitivity. Faraday effect fluctuations with phase shift of order 0.05° associated with global tearing modes are resolved with an uncertainty ∼0.01°. For physics investigations, local density fluctuations are obtained by inverting the line-integrated interferometry data. The local magnetic and current density fluctuations are then reconstructed using a parameterized fit of the polarimetry data. Reconstructed 2D images of density and magnetic field fluctuations in a poloidal cross section exhibit significantly different spatial structure. Combined with their relative phase, the magnetic-fluctuation-induced particle transport flux and its spatial distribution are resolved.

  1. On the potential of 2-D-Video Disdrometer technique to measure micro physical parameters of solid precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernauer, F.; Hürkamp, K.; Rühm, W.; Tschiersch, J.

    2015-03-01

    Detailed characterization and classification of precipitation is an important task in atmospheric research. Line scanning 2-D-video disdrometer technique is well established for rain observations. The two orthogonal views taken of each hydrometeor passing the sensitive area of the instrument qualify this technique especially for detailed characterization of non symmetric solid hydrometeors. However, in case of solid precipitation problems related to the matching algorithm have to be considered and the user must be aware of the limited spacial resolution when size and shape descriptors are analyzed. This work has the aim of clarifying the potential of 2-D-video disdrometer technique in deriving size, velocity and shape parameters from single recorded pictures. The need of implementing a matching algorithm suitable for mixed and solid phase precipitation is highlighted as an essential step in data evaluation. For this purpose simple reproducible experiments with solid steel spheres and irregularly shaped styrofoam particles are conducted. Self-consistency of shape parameter measurements is tested in 40 cases of real snow fall. As result it was found, that reliable size and shape characterization with a relative standard deviation of less than 5% is only possible for particles larger than 1 mm. For particles between 0.5 and 1.0 mm the relative standard deviation can grow up to 22% for the volume, 17% for size parameters and 14% for shape descriptors. Testing the adapted matching algorithm with a reproducible experiment with styrofoam particles a mismatch probability of less than 2.5% was found. For shape parameter measurements in case of real solid phase precipitation the 2DVD shows self-consistent behavior.

  2. Preliminary measurements of the edge magnetic field pitch from 2-D Doppler backscattering in MAST and NSTX-U (invited)

    DOE PAGES

    Vann, R. G. L.; Brunner, K. J.; Ellis, R.; ...

    2016-09-13

    The Synthetic Aperture Microwave Imaging (SAMI) system is a novel diagnostic consisting of an array of 8 independently phased antennas. At any one time, SAMI operates at one of the 16 frequencies in the range 10-34.5 GHz. The imaging beam is steered in software post-shot to create a picture of the entire emission surface. In SAMI’s active probing mode of operation, the plasma edge is illuminated with a monochromatic source and SAMI reconstructs an image of the Doppler back-scattered (DBS) signal. By assuming that density fluctuations are extended along magnetic field lines, and knowing that the strongest back-scattered signals aremore » directed perpendicular to the density fluctuations, SAMI’s 2-D DBS imaging capability can be used to measure the pitch of the edge magnetic field. In this paper, we present preliminary pitch angle measurements obtained by SAMI on the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST) at Culham Centre for Fusion Energy and on the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Lastly, the results demonstrate encouraging agreement between SAMI and other independent measurements.« less

  3. Preliminary measurements of the edge magnetic field pitch from 2-D Doppler backscattering in MAST and NSTX-U (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vann, R. G. L.; Brunner, K. J.; Ellis, R.; Taylor, G.; Thomas, D. A.

    2016-11-01

    The Synthetic Aperture Microwave Imaging (SAMI) system is a novel diagnostic consisting of an array of 8 independently phased antennas. At any one time, SAMI operates at one of the 16 frequencies in the range 10-34.5 GHz. The imaging beam is steered in software post-shot to create a picture of the entire emission surface. In SAMI's active probing mode of operation, the plasma edge is illuminated with a monochromatic source and SAMI reconstructs an image of the Doppler back-scattered (DBS) signal. By assuming that density fluctuations are extended along magnetic field lines, and knowing that the strongest back-scattered signals are directed perpendicular to the density fluctuations, SAMI's 2-D DBS imaging capability can be used to measure the pitch of the edge magnetic field. In this paper, we present preliminary pitch angle measurements obtained by SAMI on the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST) at Culham Centre for Fusion Energy and on the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The results demonstrate encouraging agreement between SAMI and other independent measurements.

  4. Preliminary measurements of the edge magnetic field pitch from 2-D Doppler backscattering in MAST and NSTX-U (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Vann, R. G. L.; Brunner, K. J.; Ellis, R.; Taylor, G.; Thomas, D. A.

    2016-09-13

    The Synthetic Aperture Microwave Imaging (SAMI) system is a novel diagnostic consisting of an array of 8 independently phased antennas. At any one time, SAMI operates at one of the 16 frequencies in the range 10-34.5 GHz. The imaging beam is steered in software post-shot to create a picture of the entire emission surface. In SAMI’s active probing mode of operation, the plasma edge is illuminated with a monochromatic source and SAMI reconstructs an image of the Doppler back-scattered (DBS) signal. By assuming that density fluctuations are extended along magnetic field lines, and knowing that the strongest back-scattered signals are directed perpendicular to the density fluctuations, SAMI’s 2-D DBS imaging capability can be used to measure the pitch of the edge magnetic field. In this paper, we present preliminary pitch angle measurements obtained by SAMI on the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST) at Culham Centre for Fusion Energy and on the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Lastly, the results demonstrate encouraging agreement between SAMI and other independent measurements.

  5. The effect of bone fracture unevenness on ultrasound axial transmission measurements: A pilot 2D simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, Christiano B.; Pereira, Wagner C. A.; Padilla, Frédéric; Laugier, Pascal

    2012-05-01

    Ultrasound axial transmission (UAT) has been proposed to the diagnosis and follow-up of fracture healing. Some researchers have already pointed out the influence of fracture length, geometry and callus composition on the ultrasound time-of-flight and attenuation, with experimental and simulation studies. The aim of this work was to develop a pilot study on the effect of bone fracture unevenness on UAT measurements. Two-dimensional (2D) numerical simulations of ultrasound wave propagation were run using a custom-made finite-difference time domain code (SimSonic2D). Numerical models were composed of two 4-mm thick bone plates, with fracture lengths varying from 0 to 4 mm. For each case, an upward (UWun) and downward (DWun) unevenness of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mm was implemented in the second plate. The 1-MHz emitter and receptor transducers were placed at 40 mm from each other, 20 mm apart from the center fracture. Two configurations were considered: 1.5 mm above the plates (for the 0-mm unevenness case) and transducers in contact with bone plate. For each situation, the time-of-flight of the first arriving signal (TOFFAS) and the FAS energy amplitude loss measured by the sound pressure level (SPLFAS) were computed. Results showed that there was a linear increase in TOFFAS with increasing fracture length, and a decrease of SPLFAS with the presence of a discontinuity. TOFFAS values were decreased with UWun (-0.87 μs for UWun = 1.5 mm), and increased with DWun (+0.99 μs for DWun = 1.5 mm). The SPLFAS increased with both UWun (+3.54 dB for UWun = 1.5 mm) and DWun (+8.15 dB for DWun = 1.5 mm). Both parameters showed the same variability. When transducers were put in contact with bone surface, fracture unevenness had no influence on TOF and SPL estimates. Previous works have already demonstrated that a fracture of 3 mm can increase TOFFAS in an order of 1 μs. Considering these preliminary results, it can be concluded that, although the variable fracture unevenness (until 1

  6. SU-E-T-645: Qualification of a 2D Ionization Chamber Array for Beam Steering and Profile Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, S; Balter, P; Rose, M; Simon, W

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Establish a procedure for beam steering and profile measurement using a 2D ionization chamber array and show equivalence to a water scanning system. Methods: Multiple photon beams (30×30cm{sup 2} field) and electron beams (25×25cm{sup 2} cone) were steered in the radial and transverse directions using Sun Nuclear’s IC PROFILER (ICP). Solid water was added during steering to ensure measurements were beyond the buildup region. With steering complete, servos were zeroed and enabled. Photon profiles were collected in a 30×30cm{sup 2} field at dmax and 2.9 cm depth for flattened and FFF beams respectively. Electron profiles were collected with a 25×25cm{sup 2} cone and effective depth (solid water + 0.9 cm intrinsic buildup) as follows: 0.9 cm (6e), 1.9 cm (9e), 2.9 cm (12e, 16e, 20e). Profiles of the same energy, field size and depth were measured in water with Sun Nuclear’s 3D SCANNER (3DS). Profiles were re-measured using the ICP after the in-water scans. Profiles measured using the ICP and 3DS were compared by (a) examining the differences in Varian’s “Point Difference Symmetry” metric, (b) visual inspection of the overlaid profile shapes and (c) calculation of point-by-point differences. Results: Comparing ICP measurements before and after water scanning showed very good agreement indicating good stability of the linac and measurement system. Comparing ICP Measurements to water phantom measurements using Varian’s symmetry metric showed agreement within 0.5% for all beams. The average magnitude of the agreement was within 0.2%. Comparing ICP Measurements to water phantom measurements using point-by-point difference showed agreement within 0.5% inside of 80% area of the field width. Conclusion: Profile agreement to within 0.5% was observed between ICP and 3DS after steering multiple energies with the ICP. This indicates that the ICP may be used for steering electron beams, and both flattened and FFF photon beams. Song Gao: Sun Nuclear

  7. Improved 3D displacement measurements method and calibration of a combined fringe projection and 2D-DIC system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegmann, Philip; Felipe-Sese, Luis; Diaz-Garrido, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    An improved measurement method and an automatic calibration procedure are proposed for a combined 2D Digital Image Correlation and Fringe Projection system that allows measuring in- and out-of-plane displacement maps with only one image at each deformation stage of a specimen. The proposed method increases the accuracy and range of the out-of-plane displacements by taking into account the divergences of both the projected fringes (uncollimated) and the camera (with non-zero FOV). The calibration is performed automatically by acquiring a sequence of images of a reference plane by displacing perpendicular to it the camera and fringe projector with a motorized translation stage. The acquired images are then used to obtain a fringe function for each pixel and the necessary parameters required for the correction of the in-plane displacements. Furthermore, a closed form expression is obtained that relates the out-of-plane displacements with the shifted phase at each pixel for a given experimental set-up. This expression is in good agreement with the fringe function obtained by fitting a simple 2nd order polynomial to the experimental obtained calibration data. Finally, the polynomial approach is proposed as a fringe function because it avoids the errors in the determination of the required parameters of the theoretical expression as well as some small misalignment or aberration effects.

  8. Analysis of amorphous solid dispersions using 2D solid-state NMR and (1)H T(1) relaxation measurements.

    PubMed

    Pham, Tran N; Watson, Simon A; Edwards, Andrew J; Chavda, Manisha; Clawson, Jacalyn S; Strohmeier, Mark; Vogt, Frederick G

    2010-10-04

    Solid-state NMR (SSNMR) can provide detailed structural information about amorphous solid dispersions of pharmaceutical small molecules. In this study, the ability of SSNMR experiments based on dipolar correlation, spin diffusion, and relaxation measurements to characterize the structure of solid dispersions is explored. Observation of spin diffusion effects using the 2D (1)H-(13)C cross-polarization heteronuclear correlation (CP-HETCOR) experiment is shown to be a useful probe of association between the amorphous drug and polymer that is capable of directly proving glass solution formation. Dispersions of acetaminophen and indomethacin in different polymers are examined using this approach, as well as (1)H double-quantum correlation experiments to probe additional structural features. (1)H-(19)F CP-HETCOR serves a similar role for fluorinated drug molecules such as diflunisal in dispersions, providing a rapid means to prove the formation of a glass solution. Phase separation is detected using (13)C, (19)F, and (23)Na-detected (1)H T(1) experiments in crystalline and amorphous solid dispersions that contain small domains. (1)H T(1) measurements of amorphous nanosuspensions of trehalose and dextran illustrate the ability of SSNMR to detect domain size effects in dispersions that are not glass solutions via spin diffusion effects. Two previously unreported amorphous solid dispersions involving up to three components and containing voriconazole and telithromycin are analyzed using these experiments to demonstrate the general applicability of the approach.

  9. Ground Based In-situ Measurements of Snowfall with a 2D-Video Distrometer on Mt. Zugspitze, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernauer, F.; Schwinzerl, M.; Huerkamp, K.; Tschiersch, J.

    2014-12-01

    Measuring micro physical properties of snowfall is a challenging task that is essential in many areas of research. Some examples are wet deposition of atmospheric pollution, electromagnetic wave propagation during snowfall, avalanche and glacier research. In recent years the 2D-video-disdrometer (2DVD, Joanneum Research) has been established for ground based in-situ rain measurements. The 2DVD is an optical device that delivers shape, size and velocity information derived from a front and a side view taken from each hydrometeor falling through the sensitive area. In case of snowfall the user has to be aware of certain diffculties that are addressed in this contribution.For our study we installed the 2DVD at the Environmental Research Station Schneefernerhaus (UFS) on Mt. Zugspitze, Germany (2650m a.s.l.). We analyzed a data set consisting of 150 days with snowfall and 70 man made observations including a classification according to the World Meteorologic Organization code 4677. We compared measured micro physical parameters with man made observations of shape, degree of riming and humidity of single hydrometeors and correlated the precipitation rate and total water equivalent from the 2DVD with measurements of a weighing precipitation sensor (in cooperation with the Institute for Geophysics and Meteorology, University Cologne).We show that the implementation of a matching algorithm that finds appropriate pairs of pictures is essential for reliable measurement results. Without the improved matching algorithm the data sets contain about 80% of hydrometeors with extreme geometries and velocities. Applying the new matching algorithm 2DVD measurements and man made observations fit in most of the cases of calm winds. Simply summing up hydrometeor volumes derived from the measured apparent diameters leads to an overestimation of water equivalent by a factor of 10. The measurement of water equivalent is improved significantly with the use of a size-density relation for

  10. A statistical comparison of cirrus particle size distributions measured using the 2-D stereo probe during the TC4, SPARTICUS, and MACPEX flight campaigns with historical cirrus datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, M. Christian

    2017-08-01

    This paper addresses two straightforward questions. First, how similar are the statistics of cirrus particle size distribution (PSD) datasets collected using the Two-Dimensional Stereo (2D-S) probe to cirrus PSD datasets collected using older Particle Measuring Systems (PMS) 2-D Cloud (2DC) and 2-D Precipitation (2DP) probes? Second, how similar are the datasets when shatter-correcting post-processing is applied to the 2DC datasets? To answer these questions, a database of measured and parameterized cirrus PSDs - constructed from measurements taken during the Small Particles in Cirrus (SPARTICUS); Mid-latitude Airborne Cirrus Properties Experiment (MACPEX); and Tropical Composition, Cloud, and Climate Coupling (TC4) flight campaigns - is used.Bulk cloud quantities are computed from the 2D-S database in three ways: first, directly from the 2D-S data; second, by applying the 2D-S data to ice PSD parameterizations developed using sets of cirrus measurements collected using the older PMS probes; and third, by applying the 2D-S data to a similar parameterization developed using the 2D-S data themselves. This is done so that measurements of the same cloud volumes by parameterized versions of the 2DC and 2D-S can be compared with one another. It is thereby seen - given the same cloud field and given the same assumptions concerning ice crystal cross-sectional area, density, and radar cross section - that the parameterized 2D-S and the parameterized 2DC predict similar distributions of inferred shortwave extinction coefficient, ice water content, and 94 GHz radar reflectivity. However, the parameterization of the 2DC based on uncorrected data predicts a statistically significantly higher number of total ice crystals and a larger ratio of small ice crystals to large ice crystals than does the parameterized 2D-S. The 2DC parameterization based on shatter-corrected data also predicts statistically different numbers of ice crystals than does the parameterized 2D-S, but the

  11. Influence of sea ice cover on high latitude precipitation: Inferences from precipitation isotope measurements and a 2D model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posmentier, E. S.; Faiia, A.; Feng, X.; Michel, F. A.

    2009-12-01

    The most widely cited climate feedback in the Arctic region is ice cover. Warming climate reduces the sea ice extent, which causes a lower surface albedo, resulting in more absorbed insolation and further warming - a positive feedback. Conversely, warming is also likely to result in increased Arctic evaporation and precipitation, leading to increased snow cover and a higher Arctic terrestrial albedo, which would cause cooling - a negative feedback. The balance between these feedbacks must be understood and quantified in order to predict climate response to influences such as increased greenhouse gases. Here, we use measurements of high latitude precipitation isotopes and a 2D model to investigate interannual variability in the contributions of subtropical and Arctic vapor sources to Arctic precipitation. In a previous study, we used isotopic ratios alone to investigate the sources of moisture to the Arctic. We found significant positive relationships between ice area and the d-excess of precipitation on both interannual and seasonal timescales, an expected result under the assumption that sea ice prevents evaporation from the sea surface and consequently reduces the contribution of Arctic moisture with low d-excess values to Arctic precipitation. In this work, we go a step further with an attempt to estimate the influence of sea ice cover on Arctic evaporation using a 2D model and constraining it with high latitude isotopic measurements. The 2D model is a vertical-meridional mass conservation model for H2O, HDO, and H218O with prescribed atmospheric circulation and temperatures. For each isotope, the rates of surface evaporation, sublimation, precipitation, and reevaporation of falling hydrometeors are calculated, and values of the humidity and isotopic concentrations of both vapor and hydrometeors are computed interdependently with the four process rates.. The model fractionation associated with the four processes is based primarily on the work of Jouzel and

  12. EPID-based dosimetry and its relation to other 2D and 3D dose measurement techniques in radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mijnheer, B.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper I will summarize the possibilities and limitations of different 2D and 3D dosimetry techniques used in radiation therapy, and evaluate these features relative to those of EPID-based techniques. After briefly discussing their characteristics, I will review the use of EPIDs for pre-treatment and in vivo dosimetry applications by separating them into transit and non-transit approaches, analysed by either forward- or backward-projection methods. I will then review the various types of 3D dosimetry systems by categorizing them into semi-3D, pseudo-3D, to which EPID-based back-projection approaches belong, and full-3D systems. All methods can in principle be used for pre-treatment 3D dose verification; the choice of a specific system depends on the aim of the measurement and the properties of the specific hard- and software. At this moment EPIDs are the only tools available for 3D in vivo dosimetry. I will conclude with revealing some trends and future developments in 3D pre-treatment and in vivo dosimetry.

  13. SU-E-T-778: Use of the 2D MatriXX Detector for Measuring Scanned Ion Beam Parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Anvar, M Varasteh; Monaco, V; Sacchi, R; Guarachi, L Fanola; Cirio, R; Giordanengo, S; Marchetto, F; Vignati, A; Donetti, M; Ciocca, M; Panizza, D

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The quality assurance (QA) procedure has to check the most relevant beam parameters to ensure the delivery of the correct dose to patients. Film dosimetry, which is commonly used for scanned ion beam QA, does not provide immediate results. The purpose of this work is to answer whether, for scanned ion beam therapy, film dosimetry can be replaced with the 2D MatriXX detector as a real-time tool. Methods: MatriXX, equipped with 32×32 parallel plate ion-chambers, is a commercial device intended for pre-treatment verification of conventional radiation therapy.The MatriXX, placed at the isocenter, and GAFCHROMIC films, positioned on the MatriXX entrance, were exposed to 131.44 MeV proton and 221.45 MeV/u Carbon-ion beams.The OmniPro-I’mRT software, applied for the data taking of MatriXX, gives the possibility of acquiring consecutive snapshots. Using the NI LabVIEW, the data from snapshots were logged as text files for further analysis. Radiochromic films were scanned with EPSON scanner and analyzed using software programs developed in-house for comparative purposes. Results: The field dose uniformity, flatness, beam position and beam width were investigated. The field flatness for the region covering 6×6 cm{sup 2} square field was found to be better than 2%. The relative standard deviations, expected to be constant over 2×2, 4×4 and 6×6 pixels from MatriXX measurement gives a uniformity of 1.5% in good agreement with the film results.The beam center position is determined with a resolution better than 200 µm for Carbon and less than 100 µm for proton beam.The FWHM determination for a beam wider than 10 mm is satisfactory, whilst for smaller beams the determination is uncertain. Conclusion: Precise beam position and fast 2D dose distribution can be determined in real-time using MatriXX detector. The results show that MatriXX is quick and accurate enough to be used in charged-particle therapy QA.

  14. Digit Ratios (2D:4D) Determined by Computer-Assisted Analysis are More Reliable than Those Using Physical Measurements, Photocopies, and Printed Scans

    PubMed Central

    ALLAWAY, HEATHER C.; BLOSKI, TERRI G.; PIERSON, ROGER A.; LUJAN, MARLA E.

    2010-01-01

    Prenatal androgens influence the second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) of hands with men having lower ratios than women. Numerous methods are used to assess 2D:4D including, physical measurements with calipers, and measurements made from photocopies, scanned images, digital photographs, radiographs, and scaled tubes. Although each method appears relatively reliable, agreement upon a gold standard is necessary to better explore the putative effects of prenatal androgens. Our objective was to assess the level of intra and interobserver reliability when evaluating 2D:4D using four techniques: (1) physical measurements, (2) photocopies, (3) printed scanned images, and (4) computer-assisted image analysis. Physical measurements, photocopies, and printed scanned images were measured with Vernier calipers. Scanned images were also measured with computer-based calipers. Measurements were made in 30 men and 30 women at two different time points, by three experienced observers. Intraclass correlation coefficients were used to assess the level of reliability. Intraobserver reliability was best for computer-assisted (0.957), followed by photocopies (0.939), physical measurements (0.925), and printed scans (0.842; P = 0.015). Interobserver reliability was also greatest for computer-assisted (0.892), followed by photocopies (0.858), physical measurements (0.795), and printed scans (0.761; P = 0.001). Mean 2D:4D from physical measurements were higher than all other techniques (P < 0.0001). Digit ratios determined from computer-assisted, physical measurements, and printed scans were more reliable in men than women (P = 0.009, P = 0.017, and P = 0.012, respectively). In summary, 2D:4D determined from computer-assisted analysis yielded the most accurate and consistent measurements among observers. Investigations of 2D:4D should use computer-assisted measurements over alternate methods whenever possible. PMID:19263413

  15. Estimation of raindrop drop size distribution vertical profile from simultaneous micro rain radar and 2D video disdrometer measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adirosi, Elisa; Baldini, Luca; Roberto, Nicoletta; Montopoli, Mario; Gorgucci, Eugenio; Gatlin, Patrick; Tokay, Ali

    2016-04-01

    Experimental field campaigns of rain precipitation usually require the coexistence of several ground and satellite based observations in order to guarantee a more complete analysis of the collected case studies at the various spatial and temporal scales of interest. In the framework of the Ground Validation programme of the NASAA/JAXA Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission, several climate regions of the Earth have been interested by various field campaigns involving experimental setup which include one or more ground based disdrometers and profilers. In such situation a typical implementation of the measurement scheme consists of a pair of K-band vertically pointing micro rain radar (MRR) and a 2D video disdrometer (2DVD) installed close each other. Since 2DVD estimates are referred to the ground level, the co-located MRR is supposed to provide complementary vertical profiles of drop size distribution (DSD) measurements. However, if not properly processed MRR and 2DVD raw data can lead to erroneous interpretations of the underlying microphysics. In this work, we investigate some typical issues occurring when dealing with MRR and 2DVD observations proposing techniques to ensure the adequate data quality required in typical field validation campaigns. More in detail, MRR is an affordable continuous wave frequency-modulated radar (CWFM) typically used at vertical incidence. In the MMR configuration used, DSD profiles are estimated from Doppler spectra determined by drops falling at different velocities and at different heights from 1000 meters almost up to the ground level with a vertical resolution of 35 meters and time resolution up to 10 seconds. The importance of the microphysical measurements from MRR are related to the effects of the vertical gradients of rain precipitation at the sub-resolution scale of the measurements based remote sensing instruments such as those provided by the dual frequency radar of GPM as well as by ground based weather radars

  16. Measurement of Cortical Thickness and Volume of Subcortical Structures in Multiple Sclerosis: Agreement between 2D Spin-Echo and 3D MPRAGE T1-Weighted Images.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Jordana, A; Pareto, D; Sastre-Garriga, J; Auger, C; Ciampi, E; Montalban, X; Rovira, A

    2017-02-01

    Gray matter pathology is known to occur in multiple sclerosis and is related to disease outcomes. FreeSurfer and the FMRIB Integrated Registration and Segmentation Tool (FIRST) have been developed for measuring cortical and subcortical gray matter in 3D-gradient-echo T1-weighted images. Unfortunately, most historical MS cohorts do not have 3D-gradient-echo, but 2D-spin-echo images instead. We aimed to evaluate whether cortical thickness and the volume of subcortical structures measured with FreeSurfer and FIRST could be reliably measured in 2D-spin-echo images and to investigate the strength and direction of clinicoradiologic correlations. Thirty-eight patients with MS and 2D-spin-echo and 3D-gradient-echo T1-weighted images obtained at the same time were analyzed by using FreeSurfer and FIRST. The intraclass correlation coefficient between the estimates was obtained. Correlation coefficients were used to investigate clinicoradiologic associations. Subcortical volumes obtained with both FreeSurfer and FIRST showed good agreement between 2D-spin-echo and 3D-gradient-echo images, with 68.8%-76.2% of the structures having either a substantial or almost perfect agreement. Nevertheless, with FIRST with 2D-spin-echo, 18% of patients had mis-segmentation. Cortical thickness had the lowest intraclass correlation coefficient values, with only 1 structure (1.4%) having substantial agreement. Disease duration and the Expanded Disability Status Scale showed a moderate correlation with most of the subcortical structures measured with 3D-gradient-echo images, but some correlations lost significance with 2D-spin-echo images, especially with FIRST. Cortical thickness estimates with FreeSurfer on 2D-spin-echo images are inaccurate. Subcortical volume estimates obtained with FreeSurfer and FIRST on 2D-spin-echo images seem to be reliable, with acceptable clinicoradiologic correlations for FreeSurfer. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  17. Theory and Applications of a Faraday Filter-Based Spectrometer to Measure Sodium Nightglow D2/D1 Intensity Ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrell, S. D.; She, C.; Krueger, D. A.; Yuan, T.; Reising, S. C.

    2008-12-01

    The Chapman mechanism (1939) offers the accepted chemical pathway for the production of excited states of mesospheric sodium, leading to nightglow at two wavelengths: D2 (589.158 nm) and D1 (589.756 nm). While the Chapman mechanism leaves open the possibility that the intensity ratio of the two transitions may vary due to the chemical reaction involving atomic oxygen, early observations by Sipler and Biondi (1978) yielded the value of two within experimental error. Recent work by Slanger et al. (2005), however, showed that not only does the intensity ratio vary, but its value is related to the concentration ratio of atomic oxygen [O] to molecular oxygen [O2]. They proposed a modification of the Chapman mechanism involving two competing chemical pathways for sodium production to account for the observed variation. This paper will describe our compact, Faraday filter-based spectrometer to measure the D2/D1 intensity ratio of the sodium nightglow from the upper mesosphere. The novelty of this method also permits determination of the fractional contributions of the two chemical pathways to test the validity of the modified Chapman mechanism for Na chemistry, as well as to infer information about [O]/[O2]. Since the delineation between the two chemical pathways requires a spectral resolution of 0.0002 nm, this is not possible with any other existing instrument. With this spectrometer deployed at the Colorado State University sodium lidar facility (41°N, 105°W), we expect to be able to measure short-term variations of the sodium nightglow intensity ratio and the chemical pathway fraction, from which [O]/[O2] can be inferred. These observations may yield new insights into mesospheric chemistry, especially for atomic and molecular oxygen, which play a key role in upper atmospheric chemistry and dynamics.

  18. High-throughput critical dimensions uniformity (CDU) measurement of two-dimensional (2D) structures using scanning electron microscope (SEM) systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullam, Jennifer; Boye, Carol; Standaert, Theodorus; Gaudiello, John; Tomlinson, Derek; Xiao, Hong; Fang, Wei; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Fei; Ma, Long; Zhao, Yan; Jau, Jack

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we tested a novel methodology of measuring critical dimension (CD) uniformity, or CDU, with electron beam (e-beam) hotspot inspection and measurement systems developed by Hermes Microvision, Inc. (HMI). The systems were used to take images of two-dimensional (2D) array patterns and measure CDU values in a custom designated fashion. Because this methodology combined imaging of scanning micro scope (SEM) and CD value averaging over a large array pattern of optical CD, or OCD, it can measure CDU of 2D arrays with high accuracy, high repeatability and high throughput.

  19. Replicated nil associations of digit ratio (2D:4D) and absolute finger lengths with implicit and explicit measures of aggression.

    PubMed

    Voracek, Martin; Stieger, Stefan

    2009-08-01

    Preliminary evidence suggests that within-sex individual variation in the length ratio of the index finger to the ring finger (2D:4D), a putative marker of prenatal androgen levels, may be more strongly or consistently related to implicit measures (Implicit Association Test, IAT) than to corresponding explicit (self-report) measures of candidate personality traits. The underlying logic is that the non-introspective IAT may reflect earlier and inaccessible experiences, whereas introspective self-reports reflect more recent and necessarily accessible experiences. Associations of 2D:4D and absolute finger length (a marker of pubertal-adolescent androgen levels) with implicit versus explicit aggression measures (IAT vs. Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire and a feeling thermometer) were examined in two samples with identical procedures (Ns=244 and 233). Attesting to procedural validity and data typicality, several experiments of related research were replicated in both samples, including sex differences in 2D:4D and theory compliant interrelations among psychometric measures. However, no theory compliant, reliable, or replicable associations of 2D:4D or finger length with implicit or explicit aggression measures resulted. These nil findings cast doubt on hypothesized advantages of implicitly (over explicitly) measured target traits for 2D:4D research. More generally, they add to a growing number of replication failures in this area.

  20. Use of micro-photoluminescence as a contactless measure of the 2D electron density in a GaAs quantum well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamburov, D.; Baldwin, K. W.; West, K. W.; Lyon, S.; Pfeiffer, L. N.; Pinczuk, A.

    2017-06-01

    We compare micro-photoluminescence (μPL) as a measure of the electron density in a clean, two-dimensional (2D) system confined in a GaAs quantum well (QW) to the standard magneto-transport technique. Our study explores the PL shape evolution across a number of molecular beam epitaxy-grown samples with different QW widths and 2D electron densities and notes its correspondence with the density obtained in magneto-transport measurements on these samples. We also measure the 2D density in a top-gated quantum well sample using both PL and transport and find that the two techniques agree to within a few percent over a wide range of gate voltages. We find that the PL measurements are sensitive to gate-induced 2D density changes on the order of 109 electrons/cm2. The spatial resolution of the PL density measurement in our experiments is 40 μm, which is already substantially better than the millimeter-scale resolution now possible in spatial density mapping using magneto-transport. Our results establish that μPL can be used as a reliable high spatial resolution technique for future contactless measurements of density variations in a 2D electron system.

  1. The CU 2-D-MAX-DOAS instrument - Part 2: Raman scattering probability measurements and retrieval of aerosol optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Ivan; Coburn, Sean; Berg, Larry K.; Lantz, Kathy; Michalsky, Joseph; Ferrare, Richard A.; Hair, Johnathan W.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Volkamer, Rainer

    2016-08-01

    The multiannual global mean of aerosol optical depth at 550 nm (AOD550) over land is ˜ 0.19, and that over oceans is ˜ 0.13. About 45 % of the Earth surface shows AOD550 smaller than 0.1. There is a need for measurement techniques that are optimized to measure aerosol optical properties under low AOD conditions. We present an inherently calibrated retrieval (i.e., no need for radiance calibration) to simultaneously measure AOD and the aerosol phase function parameter, g, based on measurements of azimuth distributions of the Raman scattering probability (RSP), the near-absolute rotational Raman scattering (RRS) intensity. We employ radiative transfer model simulations to show that for solar azimuth RSP measurements at solar elevation and solar zenith angle (SZA) smaller than 80°, RSP is insensitive to the vertical distribution of aerosols and maximally sensitive to changes in AOD and g under near-molecular scattering conditions. The University of Colorado two-dimensional Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CU 2-D-MAX-DOAS) instrument was deployed as part of the Two Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) at Cape Cod, MA, during the summer of 2012 to measure direct sun spectra and RSP from scattered light spectra at solar relative azimuth angles (SRAAs) between 5 and 170°. During two case study days with (1) high aerosol load (17 July, 0.3 < AOD430 < 0.6) and (2) near-molecular scattering conditions (22 July, AOD430 < 0.13) we compare RSP-based retrievals of AOD430 and g with data from a co-located CIMEL sun photometer, Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR), and an airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL-2). The average difference (relative to DOAS) for AOD430 is +0.012 ± 0.023 (CIMEL), -0.012 ± 0.024 (MFRSR), -0.011 ± 0.014 (HSRL-2), and +0.023 ± 0.013 (CIMELAOD - MFRSRAOD) and yields the following expressions for correlations between different instruments

  2. SATURATION MEASUREMENT OF IMMISCIBLE FLUIDS IN 2-D STATIC SYSTEMS: VALIDATION BY LIGHT TRANSMISSION VISUALIZATION (SAN FRANCISCO, CA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study is a part of an ongoing research project that aims at assessing the environmental benefits of DNAPL removal. The laboratory part of the research project is to examine the functional relationship between DNAPL architecture, mass removal and contaminant mass flux in 2-D ...

  3. SATURATION MEASUREMENT OF IMMISCIBLE FLUIDS IN 2-D STATIC SYSTEMS: VALIDATION BY LIGHT TRANSMISSION VISUALIZATION (SAN FRANCISCO, CA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study is a part of an ongoing research project that aims at assessing the environmental benefits of DNAPL removal. The laboratory part of the research project is to examine the functional relationship between DNAPL architecture, mass removal and contaminant mass flux in 2-D ...

  4. Reliability Criteria for Liver Stiffness Measurements with Real-Time 2D Shear Wave Elastography in Different Clinical Scenarios of Chronic Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Thiele, M; Madsen, B S; Procopet, B; Hansen, J F; Møller, L M S; Detlefsen, S; Berzigotti, A; Krag, A

    2016-06-07

    Purpose: Liver stiffness measurement by real-time 2-dimensional shear wave elastography (2D-SWE) lacks universal reliability criteria. We sought to assess whether previously published 2D-SWE reliability criteria for portal hypertension were applicable for the evaluation of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, and to look for criteria that minimize the risk of misclassification in this setting. Materials and Methods: In a biopsy-controlled diagnostic study, we obtained five 2D-SWE measurements of optimal image quality. Correctly classified cases of fibrosis and cirrhosis were compared to misclassified cases. We compared reliability predictors (standard deviation (SD), SD/mean, size of region of interest (ROI) and difference between a single measurement and the patient's median) with those obtained in a prior study on clinically significant portal hypertension. Results: We obtained 678 2D-SWE measurements from 142 patients. Overall, the variability in liver stiffness within single 2D-SWE measurements was low (SD = 1.1 ± 1.5kPa; SD/mean = 12 ± 9 %). Intra-observer analysis showed almost perfect concordance (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.95; 95 % CI 0.94 - 0.96; average difference from median = 0.4 ± 0.9kPa). For the diagnosis of cirrhosis, a smaller SD (optimally ≤ 1.75 kPa) and larger ROI size (optimally ≥ 18 mm) were associated with higher accuracy. Similarly, within the published cohort of patients assessed for portal hypertension, a low variability of measurements was associated with high reliability. Conclusion: A high quality 2D-SWE elastogram ensures low variability and high reliability, regardless of indication. We recommend aiming for a combination of low standard deviation and large ROI.

  5. Simultaneous measurement of J(HH) and two different (n)J(CH) coupling constants from a single multiply edited 2D cross-peak.

    PubMed

    Saurí, Josep; Parella, Teodor

    2013-07-01

    Three different J-editing methods (IPAP, E.COSY and J-resolved) are implemented in a single NMR experiment to provide spin-state-edited 2D cross-peaks from which a simultaneous measurement of different homonuclear and heteronuclear coupling constants can be performed. A new J-selHSQMBC-IPAP experiment is proposed for the independent measurement of two different (n)J(CH) coupling constants along the F2 and F1 dimensions of the same 2D cross-peak. In addition, the E.COSY pattern provides additional information about the magnitude and relative sign between J(HH) and (n)J(CH) coupling constants.

  6. Solid H2/D2 Particle Seeding and Injection System for Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) Measurement of He II

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, T.; Van Sciver, S. W.

    2006-04-27

    Solid particles of the mixture of hydrogen and deuterium have certain advantages for use in Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) of He II flow. The H2/D2 particles are near neutrally buoyant in He II and will vaporize with the helium as the experimental apparatus is warmed to room temperature. Progress of the construction of a H2/D2 particle seeding and injection system is reported in this paper. A cryogenic pulse valve is used to inject the mixture of helium, hydrogen and deuterium gas directly into a He II bath. Experiments show that the seeding quality is dependent on the back pressure, the mix ratio of the deuterium and helium gases and valve open duration. The effects of these parameters on the solid deuterium particle distribution are also discussed.

  7. Photocurrent measurements in Coupled Quantum Well van der Waals Heterostructures made of 2D Transition Metal Dichalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joe, Andrew; Jauregui, Luis; High, Alex; Dibos, Alan; Gulpinar, Elgin; Pistunova, Kateryna; Park, Hongkun; Kim, Philip

    , Luis A. Jauregui, Alex A. High, Alan Dibos, Elgin Gulpinar, Kateryna Pistunova, Hongkun Park, Philip Kim Harvard University, Physics Department -abstract- Single layer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDC) are 2-dimensional (2D) semiconductors van der Waals (vdW) characterized by a direct optical bandgap in the visible wavelength (~2 eV). Characterization of the band alignment between TMDC and the barrier is important for the fabrication of tunneling devices. Here, we fabricate coupled quantum well (CQW) heterostructures made of 2D TMDCs with hexagonal Boron nitride (hBN) as an atomically thin barrier and gate dielectric and with top and bottom metal (or graphite) as gate electrodes. We observe a clear dependence of the photo-generated current with varying hBN thickness, electrode workfunctions, electric field, laser excitation power, excitation wavelength, and temperature. We will discuss the implication of photocurrent in relation to quantum transport process across the vdW interfaces.

  8. Second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) is unrelated to measures of somatic reproductive effort among young men from Cebu, the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Georgiev, Alexander V; Ryan, Calen P; Gettler, Lee T; McDade, Thomas W; Kuzawa, Christopher W

    2017-07-01

    A low second-to-fourth (2D:4D) digit ratio, a retrospective marker of high prenatal androgens, predicts increased investment in costly sexually dimorphic traits in men in some studies, although results are mixed. Here we test the hypothesis that the association of low 2D:4D ratios with increased muscularity and decreased adiposity depends on current testosterone (T) levels, such that digit ratio will be a particularly strong predictor of outcomes among men exhibiting a mating-effort-oriented endocrinological profile (high T). We also test the association between 2D:4D and somatic traits independently of T. We related 2D:4D digit ratios, and their interaction with T, to handgrip strength, lean mass, arm muscle area, and skinfold thickness in a sample of young, childess men (20-22 y) from Cebu, Philippines (N = 623). Digit ratio did not significantly predict men's T-dependent somatic traits. Interactions between 2D:4D and morning T, similarly, did not predict male muscularity or adiposity. Although two of the interactions were significant or marginally significant (p < .1), after adjusting for multiple testing the evidence in support of our hypothesis was weak. We found no evidence that 2D:4D predicted measures of somatic reproductive effort in this sample of young men from Cebu, who as a group could be considered mostly mating-oriented. These relationships were also not contingent upon, or stronger, when considering the moderating effect of concurrent T levels. In this sample, 2D:4D was therefore either a poor proxy of prenatal androgen exposure or prenatal androgens had limited influence on adult somatic outcomes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. High-accuracy 2D digital image correlation measurements using low-cost imaging lenses: implementation of a generalized compensation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Bing; Yu, Liping; Wu, Dafang

    2014-02-01

    The ideal pinhole imaging model commonly assumed for an ordinary two-dimensional digital image correlation (2D-DIC) system is neither perfect nor stable because of the existence of small out-of-plane motion of the test sample surface that occurred after loading, small out-of-plane motion of the sensor target due to temperature variation of a camera and unavoidable geometric distortion of an imaging lens. In certain cases, these disadvantages can lead to significant errors in the measured displacements and strains. Although a high-quality bilateral telecentric lens has been strongly recommended to be used in the 2D-DIC system as an essential optical component to achieve high-accuracy measurement, it is not generally applicable due to its fixed field of view, limited depth of focus and high cost. To minimize the errors associated with the imperfectness and instability of a common 2D-DIC system using a low-cost imaging lens, a generalized compensation method using a non-deformable reference sample is proposed in this work. With the proposed method, the displacement of the reference sample rigidly attached behind the test sample is first measured using 2D-DIC, and then it is fitted using a parametric model. The fitted parametric model is then used to correct the displacements of the deformed sample to remove the influences of these unfavorable factors. The validity of the proposed compensation method is first verified using out-of-plane translation, out-of-plane rotation, in-plane translation tests and their combinations. Uniaxial tensile tests of an aluminum specimen were also performed to quantitatively examine the strain accuracy of the proposed compensation method. Experiments show that the proposed compensation method is an easy-to-implement yet effective technique for achieving high-accuracy deformation measurement using an ordinary 2D-DIC system.

  10. Comparison of velocity patterns in an AComA aneurysm measured with 2D phase contrast MRI and simulated with CFD.

    PubMed

    Karmonik, Christof; Klucznik, Richard; Benndorf, Goetz

    2008-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) is increasingly being used for modeling hemodynamics in intracranial aneurysms. While CFD techniques are well established, need for validation of the results remains. By quantifying features in velocity patterns measured with 2D phase contrast magnetic resonance (pcMRI) in vivo and simulated with CFD, the role of pcMRI for providing reference data for the CFD simulation is explored. Unsteady CFD simulations were performed with inflow boundary conditions obtained from 2D pcMRI measurements of an aneurysm of the anterior communication artery. Intra-aneurysmal velocity profiles were recorded with 2D pcMRI and calculated with CFD. Relative areas of positive and negative velocity were calculated in these profiles for maximum and minimum inflow. Areas of positive and of negative velocity similar in shape were found in the velocity profiles obtained with both methods. Relative difference in size of the relative areas for the whole cardiac cycle ranged from 1%-25% (average 12%). 2D pcMRI is able to record velocity profiles in an aneurysm of the anterior commuting artery in vivo. These velocity profiles can serve as reference data for validation of CFD simulations. Further studies are needed to explore the role of pcMRI in the context of CFD simulations.

  11. Resolution-optimized NMR measurement of (1)D(CH), (1)D(CC) and (2)D(CH) residual dipolar couplings in nucleic acid bases.

    PubMed

    Boisbouvier, Jérôme; Bryce, David L; O'neil-Cabello, Erin; Nikonowicz, Edward P; Bax, Ad

    2004-11-01

    New methods are described for accurate measurement of multiple residual dipolar couplings in nucleic acid bases. The methods use TROSY-type pulse sequences for optimizing resolution and sensitivity, and rely on the E.COSY principle to measure the relatively small two-bond (2)D(CH) couplings at high precision. Measurements are demonstrated for a 24-nt stem-loop RNA sequence, uniformly enriched in (13)C, and aligned in Pf1. The recently described pseudo-3D method is used to provide homonuclear (1)H-(1)H decoupling, which minimizes cross-correlation effects and optimizes resolution. Up to seven (1)H-(13)C and (13)C-(13)C couplings are measured for pyrimidines (U and C), including (1)D(C5H5), (1)D(C6H6), (2)D(C5H6), (2)D(C6H5), (1)D(C5C4), (1)D(C5C6), and (2)D(C4H5). For adenine, four base couplings ((1)D(C2H2), (1)D(C8H8), (1)D(C4C5), and (1)D(C5C6)) are readily measured whereas for guanine only three couplings are accessible at high relative accuracy ((1)D(C8H8), (1)D(C4C5), and (1)D(C5C6)). Only three dipolar couplings are linearly independent in planar structures such as nucleic acid bases, permitting cross validation of the data and evaluation of their accuracies. For the vast majority of dipolar couplings, the error is found to be less than +/-3% of their possible range, indicating that the measurement accuracy is not limiting when using these couplings as restraints in structure calculations. Reported isotropic values of the one- and two-bond J couplings cluster very tightly for each type of nucleotide.

  12. Multivariate genetic analyses of the 2D:4D ratio: examining the effects of hand and measurement technique in data from 757 twin families.

    PubMed

    Medland, Sarah E; Loehlin, John C

    2008-06-01

    The ratio of the lengths of the second to fourth digits of the hand (2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic trait that has been proposed as a measure of prenatal testosterone exposure and a putative correlate of a variety of later behavioral and physiological outcomes including personality, fitness and sexual orientation. We present analyses of 2D:4D ratios collected from twins (1413 individuals) and their nontwin siblings (328 individuals) from 757 families. In this sample 2D:4D was measured from photocopies using digital calipers, and for a subset of participants, computer-aided measurement. Multivariate modeling of the left- and right-hand measurements revealed significant genetic and environmental covariation between hands. The two methods yielded very similar results, and the majority of variance was explained by factors shared by both measurement methods. Neither common environmental nor dominant genetic effects were found, and the covariation between siblings could be accounted for by additive genetic effects accounting for 80% and 71% of the variance for the left and right hands, respectively. There was no evidence of sex differences in the total variance, nor in the magnitude or source of genetic and environmental influences, suggesting that X-linked effects (such as the previously identified association with the Androgen receptor) are likely to be small. However, there were also nonshared environmental effects specific to each hand, which, in addition to measurement error, may in part explain why some studies within in the literature find effects for the 2D:4D ratio of one hand but not the other.

  13. A combined high CYP2D6-CYP2C19 metabolic capacity is associated with the severity of suicide attempt as measured by objective circumstances.

    PubMed

    Peñas-Lledó, E; Guillaume, S; Naranjo, M E G; Delgado, A; Jaussent, I; Blasco-Fontecilla, H; Courtet, P; LLerena, A

    2015-04-01

    This study examined, for the first time, whether a high CYP2D6-CYP2C19 metabolic capacity combination increases the likelihood of suicidal intent severity in a large study cohort. Survivors of a suicide attempt (n=587; 86.8% women) were genotyped for CYP2C19 (*2, *17) and CYP2D6 (*3, *4, *4xN, *5, *6, *10, wtxN) genetic variation and evaluated with the Beck Suicide Intent Scale (SIS). Patients with a high CYP2D6-CYP2C19 metabolic capacity showed an increased risk for a severe suicide attempt (P<0.01) as measured by the SIS-objective circumstance subscale (odds ratio (OR)=1.37; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.05-1.78; P=0.02) after adjusting for confounders (gender, age, level of studies, marital status, mental disorders, tobacco use, family history of suicide, personal history of attempts and violence of the attempt). Importantly, the risk was greater in those without a family history of suicide (OR=1.82; CI=1.19-2.77; P=0.002). Further research is warranted to evaluate whether the observed relationship is mediated by the role of CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 involvement in the endogenous physiology or drug metabolism or both.

  14. Portal hypertension in patients with cirrhosis: indirect assessment of hepatic venous pressure gradient by measuring azygos flow with 2D-cine phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Gouya, Hervé; Grabar, Sophie; Vignaux, Olivier; Saade, Anastasia; Pol, Stanislas; Legmann, Paul; Sogni, Philippe

    2016-07-01

    To measure azygos, portal and aortic flow by two-dimensional cine phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (2D-cine PC MRI), and to compare the MRI values to hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) measurements, in patients with cirrhosis. Sixty-nine patients with cirrhosis were prospectively included. All patients underwent HVPG measurements, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and 2D-cine PC MRI measurements of azygos, portal and aortic blood flow. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to evaluate the correlation between the blood flow and HVPG. The performance of 2D-cine PC MRI to diagnose severe portal hypertension (HVPG ≥ 16 mmHg) was determined by receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis, and area under the curves (AUC) were compared. Azygos and aortic flow values were associated with HVPG in univariate linear regression model. Azygos flow (p < 10(-3)), aortic flow (p = 0.001), age (p = 0.001) and presence of varices (p < 10(-3)) were independently associated with HVPG. Azygos flow (AUC = 0.96 (95 % CI [0.91-1.00]) had significantly higher AUC than aortic (AUC = 0.64 (95 % CI [0.51-0.77]) or portal blood flow (AUC = 0.40 (95 % CI [0.25-0.54]). 2D-cine PC MRI is a promising technique to evaluate significant portal hypertension in patients with cirrhosis. • Noninvasive HVPG assessment can be performed with MRI azygos flow. • Azygos MRI flow is an easy-to-measure marker to detect significant portal hypertension. • MRI flow is more specific that varice grade to detect portal hypertension.

  15. Measured count-rate performance of the Discovery STE PET/CT scanner in 2D, 3D and partial collimation acquisition modes.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, L R; Schmitz, R E; Alessio, A M; Wollenweber, S D; Stearns, C W; Ganin, A; Harrison, R L; Lewellen, T K; Kinahan, P E

    2008-07-21

    We measured count rates and scatter fraction on the Discovery STE PET/CT scanner in conventional 2D and 3D acquisition modes, and in a partial collimation mode between 2D and 3D. As part of the evaluation of using partial collimation, we estimated global count rates using a scanner model that combined computer simulations with an empirical live-time function. Our measurements followed the NEMA NU2 count rate and scatter-fraction protocol to obtain true, scattered and random coincidence events, from which noise equivalent count (NEC) rates were calculated. The effect of patient size was considered by using 27 cm and 35 cm diameter phantoms, in addition to the standard 20 cm diameter cylindrical count-rate phantom. Using the scanner model, we evaluated two partial collimation cases: removing half of the septa (2.5D) and removing two-thirds of the septa (2.7D). Based on predictions of the model, a 2.7D collimator was constructed. Count rates and scatter fractions were then measured in 2D, 2.7D and 3D. The scanner model predicted relative NEC variation with activity, as confirmed by measurements. The measured 2.7D NEC was equal or greater than 3D NEC for all activity levels in the 27 cm and 35 cm phantoms. In the 20 cm phantom, 3D NEC was somewhat higher ( approximately 15%) than 2.7D NEC at 100 MBq. For all higher activity concentrations, 2.7D NEC was greater and peaked 26% above the 3D peak NEC. The peak NEC in 2.7D mode occurred at approximately 425 MBq, and was 26-50% greater than the peak 3D NEC, depending on object size. NEC in 2D was considerably lower, except at relatively high activity concentrations. Partial collimation shows promise for improved noise equivalent count rates in clinical imaging without altering other detector parameters.

  16. Measurement of complex joint trajectories using slice-to-volume 2D/3D registration and cine MR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloch, C.; Figl, M.; Gendrin, C.; Weber, C.; Unger, E.; Aldrian, S.; Birkfellner, W.

    2010-02-01

    A method for studying the in vivo kinematics of complex joints is presented. It is based on automatic fusion of single slice cine MR images capturing the dynamics and a static MR volume. With the joint at rest the 3D scan is taken. In the data the anatomical compartments are identified and segmented resulting in a 3D volume of each individual part. In each of the cine MR images the joint parts are segmented and their pose and position are derived using a 2D/3D slice-to-volume registration to the volumes. The method is tested on the carpal joint because of its complexity and the small but complex motion of its compartments. For a first study a human cadaver hand was scanned and the method was evaluated with artificially generated slice images. Starting from random initial positions of about 5 mm translational and 12° rotational deviation, 70 to 90 % of the registrations converged successfully to a deviation better than 0.5 mm and 5°. First evaluations using real data from a cine MR were promising. The feasibility of the method was demonstrated. However we experienced difficulties with the segmentation of the cine MR images. We therefore plan to examine different parameters for the image acquisition in future studies.

  17. Measured branching ratios for O II2D and 2P transitions in the wavelength range 530 to 800 A. [airglow spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, D.; Cunningham, A. J.; Christensen, A. B.

    1981-01-01

    Branching ratios for four sets of extreme ultraviolet transitions terminating on the 2D0 and 2P0 metastable levels of ionized oxygen have been measured. The emissions were excited in both an open window hollow cathode and a capillary discharge lamp, and the branching ratios were derived from the observed intensity ratios of the multiplet pairs. The results are in good agreement with theoretical values and compare favorably, within experimental uncertainties, with line ratios obtained by EUV spectroscopy of the airglow.

  18. Simulation of 3D Resistivity Logging Measurements with a Parallel Implementation of 2D hp-Adaptive Goal-Oriented Finite Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paszyński, Maciej; Pardo, David; Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    2007-09-01

    The paper presents parallel simulations of 3D resistivity logging measurements. These simulations are performed with a new geometry-based formulation with a 2D self-adaptive goal-oriented hp-adaptive strategy combined with a Fourier series expansion in a non-orthogonal system of coordinates. Numerical simulations analyze 3D resistivity effects occuring on deviated wells. We present a parallel implementation based on both domain decomposition and functional decomposition paradigms.

  19. An Investigation of Cross-Borehole Ground Penetrating Radar Measurements for Characterizing the 2D Moisture Content Distribution in the Vadose Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Alumbaugh, D.; Paprocki, L.

    1999-01-25

    The use of cross-borehole ground penetrating radar (GPR) imaging for determining g the two dimensional (2D) in situ moisture content distribution within the vadose zone is being investigated. The ultimate goal is to use the GPR images as input to a 2D hydrologic inversion scheme for recovering the van Genuchten parameters governing unsaturated ,hydraulic flow. Initial experiments conducted on synthetic data have shown that at least in theory, cross-borehole GPR measurements can provide realistic estimates of the spatial variation in moisture content that are needed for this type of hydrologic inversion scheme. However, the method can not recover exact values of moisture content due to the break down of the empirical expression often employed to convert GPR velocity images to moisture content, and to the smearing nature of the imaging algorithm. To test the applicability of this method in a real world environment cross- borehole GPR measurements were made at a hydrologic/geophysical vadose zone test site in Socorro, New Mexico. Results show that the GPR images compare well with the uncalibrated borehole neutron log data. GPR data acquisition will continue once an infiltration test has started, and the results from these measurements will be employed in a 2D hydrologic inverse scheme.

  20. Multiangular L-band Datasets for Soil Moisture and Sea Surface Salinity Retrieval Measured by Airborne HUT-2D Synthetic Aperture Radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kainulainen, J.; Rautiainen, K.; Seppänen, J.; Hallikainen, M.

    2009-04-01

    SMOS is the European Space Agency's next Earth Explorer satellite due for launch in 2009. It aims for global monitoring of soil moisture and ocean salinity utilizing a new technology concept for remote sensing: two-dimensional aperture synthesis radiometry. The payload of SMOS is Microwave Imaging Radiometer by Aperture Synthesis, or MIRAS. It is a passive instrument that uses 72 individual L-band receivers for measuring the brightness temperature of the Earth. From each acquisition, i.e. integration time or snapshot, MIRAS provides two-dimensional brightness temperature of the scene in the instrument's field of view. Thus, consecutive snapshots provide multiangular measurements of the target once the instrument passes over it. Depending on the position of the target in instrument's swath, the brightness temperature of the target at incidence angles from zero up to 50 degrees can be measured with one overpass. To support the development MIRAS instrument, its calibration, and soil moisture and sea surface salinity retrieval algorithm development, Helsinki University of Technology (TKK) has designed, manufactured and tested a radiometer which operates at L-band and utilizes the same two-dimensional methodology of interferometery and aperture synthesis as MIRAS does. This airborne instrument, called HUT-2D, was designed to be used on board the University's research aircraft. It provides multiangular measurements of the target in its field of view, which spans up to 30 degrees off the boresight of the instrument, which is pointed to the nadir. The number of independent measurements of each target point depends on the flight speed and altitude. In addition to the Spanish Airborne MIRAS demonstrator (AMIRAS), HUT-2D is the only European airborne synthetic aperture radiometer. This paper presents the datasets and measurement campaigns, which have been carried out using the HUT-2D radiometer and are available for the scientific community. In April 2007 HUT-2D participated

  1. Evaluation of similarity measures for use in the intensity-based rigid 2D-3D registration for patient positioning in radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Jian; Kim, Minho; Peters, Jorg; Chung, Heeteak; Samant, Sanjiv S.

    2009-12-15

    Purpose: Rigid 2D-3D registration is an alternative to 3D-3D registration for cases where largely bony anatomy can be used for patient positioning in external beam radiation therapy. In this article, the authors evaluated seven similarity measures for use in the intensity-based rigid 2D-3D registration using a variation in Skerl's similarity measure evaluation protocol. Methods: The seven similarity measures are partitioned intensity uniformity, normalized mutual information (NMI), normalized cross correlation (NCC), entropy of the difference image, pattern intensity (PI), gradient correlation (GC), and gradient difference (GD). In contrast to traditional evaluation methods that rely on visual inspection or registration outcomes, the similarity measure evaluation protocol probes the transform parameter space and computes a number of similarity measure properties, which is objective and optimization method independent. The variation in protocol offers an improved property in the quantification of the capture range. The authors used this protocol to investigate the effects of the downsampling ratio, the region of interest, and the method of the digitally reconstructed radiograph (DRR) calculation [i.e., the incremental ray-tracing method implemented on a central processing unit (CPU) or the 3D texture rendering method implemented on a graphics processing unit (GPU)] on the performance of the similarity measures. The studies were carried out using both the kilovoltage (kV) and the megavoltage (MV) images of an anthropomorphic cranial phantom and the MV images of a head-and-neck cancer patient. Results: Both the phantom and the patient studies showed the 2D-3D registration using the GPU-based DRR calculation yielded better robustness, while providing similar accuracy compared to the CPU-based calculation. The phantom study using kV imaging suggested that NCC has the best accuracy and robustness, but its slow function value change near the global maximum requires a

  2. 2D phase-sensitive inversion recovery imaging to measure in vivo spinal cord gray and white matter areas in clinically feasible acquisition times.

    PubMed

    Papinutto, Nico; Schlaeger, Regina; Panara, Valentina; Caverzasi, Eduardo; Ahn, Sinyeob; Johnson, Kevin J; Zhu, Alyssa H; Stern, William A; Laub, Gerhard; Hauser, Stephen L; Henry, Roland G

    2015-09-01

    To present and assess a procedure for measurement of spinal cord total cross-sectional areas (TCA) and gray matter (GM) areas based on phase-sensitive inversion recovery imaging (PSIR). In vivo assessment of spinal cord GM and white matter (WM) could become pivotal to study various neurological diseases, but it is challenging because of insufficient GM/WM contrast provided by conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We acquired 2D PSIR images at 3T at each disc level of the spinal axis in 10 healthy subjects and measured TCA, cord diameters, WM and GM areas, and GM area/TCA ratios. Second, we investigated 32 healthy subjects at four selected levels (C2-C3, C3-C4, T8-T9, T9-T10, total acquisition time <8 min) and generated normative reference values of TCA and GM areas. We assessed test-retest, intra- and interoperator reliability of the acquisition strategy, and measurement steps. The measurement procedure based on 2D PSIR imaging allowed TCA and GM area assessments along the entire spinal cord axis. The tests we performed revealed high test-retest/intraoperator reliability (mean coefficient of variation [COV] at C2-C3: TCA = 0.41%, GM area = 2.75%) and interoperator reliability of the measurements (mean COV on the 4 levels: TCA = 0.44%, GM area = 4.20%; mean intraclass correlation coefficient: TCA = 0.998, GM area = 0.906). 2D PSIR allows reliable in vivo assessment of spinal cord TCA, GM, and WM areas in clinically feasible acquisition times. The area measurements presented here are in agreement with previous MRI and postmortem studies. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Instantaneous 2D Velocity and Temperature Measurements in High Speed Flows Based on Spectrally Resolved Molecular Rayleigh Scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seasholtz, Richard G.

    1995-01-01

    A Rayleigh scattering diagnostic for high speed flows is described for the simultaneous, instantaneous measurement of gas temperature and velocity at a number (up to about one hundred) of locations in a plane illuminated by an injection-seeded, frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser. Molecular Rayleigh scattered light is collected and passed through a planar mirror Fabry-Perot interferometer. The resulting image is analyzed to determine the gas temperature and bulk velocity at each of the regions. The Cramer Rao lower bound for measurement uncertainty is calculated. Experimental data is presented for a free jet and for preliminary measurements in the Lewis 4 inch by 10 inch supersonic wind tunnel.

  4. A new method to make 2-D wear measurements less sensitive to projection differences of cemented THAs.

    PubMed

    The, Bertram; Flivik, Gunnar; Diercks, Ron L; Verdonschot, Nico

    2008-03-01

    Wear curves from individual patients often show unexplained irregular wear curves or impossible values (negative wear). We postulated errors of two-dimensional wear measurements are mainly the result of radiographic projection differences. We tested a new method that makes two-dimensional wear measurements less sensitive for radiograph projection differences of cemented THAs. The measurement errors that occur when radiographically projecting a three-dimensional THA were modeled. Based on the model, we developed a method to reduce the errors, thus approximating three-dimensional linear wear values, which are less sensitive for projection differences. An error analysis was performed by virtually simulating 144 wear measurements under varying conditions with and without application of the correction: the mean absolute error was reduced from 1.8 mm (range, 0-4.51 mm) to 0.11 mm (range, 0-0.27 mm). For clinical validation, radiostereometric analysis was performed on 47 patients to determine the true wear at 1, 2, and 5 years. Subsequently, wear was measured on conventional radiographs with and without the correction: the overall occurrence of errors greater than 0.2 mm was reduced from 35% to 15%. Wear measurements are less sensitive to differences in two-dimensional projection of the THA when using the correction method.

  5. A New Method to Make 2-D Wear Measurements Less Sensitive to Projection Differences of Cemented THAs

    PubMed Central

    Flivik, Gunnar; Diercks, Ron L.; Verdonschot, Nico

    2008-01-01

    Wear curves from individual patients often show unexplained irregular wear curves or impossible values (negative wear). We postulated errors of two-dimensional wear measurements are mainly the result of radiographic projection differences. We tested a new method that makes two-dimensional wear measurements less sensitive for radiograph projection differences of cemented THAs. The measurement errors that occur when radiographically projecting a three-dimensional THA were modeled. Based on the model, we developed a method to reduce the errors, thus approximating three-dimensional linear wear values, which are less sensitive for projection differences. An error analysis was performed by virtually simulating 144 wear measurements under varying conditions with and without application of the correction: the mean absolute error was reduced from 1.8 mm (range, 0–4.51 mm) to 0.11 mm (range, 0–0.27 mm). For clinical validation, radiostereometric analysis was performed on 47 patients to determine the true wear at 1, 2, and 5 years. Subsequently, wear was measured on conventional radiographs with and without the correction: the overall occurrence of errors greater than 0.2 mm was reduced from 35% to 15%. Wear measurements are less sensitive to differences in two-dimensional projection of the THA when using the correction method. PMID:18264857

  6. First dose-map measured with a polycrystalline diamond 2D dosimeter under an intensity modulated radiotherapy beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaringella, M.; Zani, M.; Baldi, A.; Bucciolini, M.; Pace, E.; de Sio, A.; Talamonti, C.; Bruzzi, M.

    2015-10-01

    A prototype of bidimensional dosimeter made on a 2.5×2.5 cm2 active area polycrystalline Chemical Vapour Deposited (pCVD) diamond film, equipped with a matrix of 12×12 contacts connected to the read-out electronics, has been used to evaluate a map of dose under Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) fields for a possible application in pre-treatment verifications of cancer treatments. Tests have been performed under a 6-10 MVRX beams with IMRT fields for prostate and breast cancer. Measurements have been taken by measuring the 144 pixels in different positions, obtained by shifting the device along the x/y axes to span a total map of 14.4×10 cm2. Results show that absorbed doses measured by our pCVD diamond device are consistent with those calculated by the Treatment Planning System (TPS).

  7. OH and O3 in the MLT: Comparing MAHRSI and ORA measurements With the SOCRATES 2D-model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabrillat, S.; Kockarts, G.; Brasseur, G.; Fussen, D.; Fonteyn, D.

    2001-12-01

    New space-based measurements of two key chemical species in the MLT, OH and O3\\ , were recently published. The OH radical was measured for the first time in the stratosphere and the mesosphere by the MAHRSI instrument. Conway et al. [2000] showed the difficulty to explain these observations with a one-dimensional model. Ozone measurements were extracted from the ORA instrument, which uses solar occultation in the UV-visible wavelength range. More than 2500 vertical profiles of O3 at sunrise and sunset were obtained, up to 110 km altitude. This is the first ozone data set to extend above the mesopause, capturing the ozone secondary maximum in its totality. We compare these measurements with the results of the SOCRATES two-dimensional interactive model. The latest version of this model includes, among other improvements, an accurate calculation of the absorption of the Lyman-α solar line by O2\\ , molecular diffusion, and a parameterization of the gravity wave drag to accurately match the observed temperature distribution in the MLT - especially the temporal and spatial structure of the mesopause. We show that the observations of mesospheric OH and O3 in the MLT are reproduced in a very satisfactory manner using this new multi-dimensional model.

  8. High spatiotemporal resolution measurement of regional lung air volumes from 2D phase contrast x-ray images

    SciTech Connect

    Leong, Andrew F. T.; Islam, M. Sirajul; Kitchen, Marcus J.; Fouras, Andreas; Wallace, Megan J.; Hooper, Stuart B.

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: Described herein is a new technique for measuring regional lung air volumes from two-dimensional propagation-based phase contrast x-ray (PBI) images at very high spatial and temporal resolution. Phase contrast dramatically increases lung visibility and the outlined volumetric reconstruction technique quantifies dynamic changes in respiratory function. These methods can be used for assessing pulmonary disease and injury and for optimizing mechanical ventilation techniques for preterm infants using animal models. Methods: The volumetric reconstruction combines the algorithms of temporal subtraction and single image phase retrieval (SIPR) to isolate the image of the lungs from the thoracic cage in order to measure regional lung air volumes. The SIPR algorithm was used to recover the change in projected thickness of the lungs on a pixel-by-pixel basis (pixel dimensions {approx}16.2 {mu}m). The technique has been validated using numerical simulation and compared results of measuring regional lung air volumes with and without the use of temporal subtraction for removing the thoracic cage. To test this approach, a series of PBI images of newborn rabbit pups mechanically ventilated at different frequencies was employed. Results: Regional lung air volumes measured from PBI images of newborn rabbit pups showed on average an improvement of at least 20% in 16% of pixels within the lungs in comparison to that measured without the use of temporal subtraction. The majority of pixels that showed an improvement was found to be in regions occupied by bone. Applying the volumetric technique to sequences of PBI images of newborn rabbit pups, it is shown that lung aeration at birth can be highly heterogeneous. Conclusions: This paper presents an image segmentation technique based on temporal subtraction that has successfully been used to isolate the lungs from PBI chest images, allowing the change in lung air volume to be measured over regions as small as the pixel size. Using

  9. Modeling and Measurement of 3D Deformation of Scoliotic Spine Using 2D X-ray Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hao; Leow, Wee Kheng; Huang, Chao-Hui; Howe, Tet Sen

    Scoliosis causes deformations such as twisting and lateral bending of the spine. To correct scoliotic deformation, the extents of 3D spinal deformation need to be measured. This paper studies the modeling and measurement of scoliotic spine based on 3D curve model. Through modeling the spine as a 3D Cosserat rod, the 3D structure of a scoliotic spine can be recovered by obtaining the minimum potential energy registration of the rod to the scoliotic spine in the x-ray image. Test results show that it is possible to obtain accurate 3D reconstruction using only the landmarks in a single view, provided that appropriate boundary conditions and elastic properties are included as constraints.

  10. Perpendicular ultrasound velocity measurement by 2D cross correlation of RF data. Part A: validation in a straight tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beulen, Bart; Bijnens, Nathalie; Rutten, Marcel; Brands, Peter; van de Vosse, Frans

    2010-11-01

    An ultrasound velocity assessment technique was validated, which allows the estimation of velocity components perpendicular to the ultrasound beam, using a commercially available ultrasound scanner equipped with a linear array probe. This enables the simultaneous measurement of axial blood velocity and vessel wall position, rendering a viable and accurate flow assessment. The validation was performed by comparing axial velocity profiles as measured in an experimental setup to analytical and computational fluid dynamics calculations. Physiologically relevant pulsating flows were considered, employing a blood analog fluid, which mimics both the acoustic and rheological properties of blood. In the core region (| r|/ a < 0.9), an accuracy of 3 cm s-1 was reached. For an accurate estimation of flow, no averaging in time was required, making a beat to beat analysis of pulsating flows possible.

  11. High resolution imaging of 2D distribution of lithium in thin samples measured with multipixel detectors in sandwich geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomandl, I.; Vacík, J.; Mora Sierra, Y.; Granja, C.; Kraus, V.

    2017-02-01

    A method that enables visualization of lateral distribution of Li in thin films is described. The method is based on the simultaneous detection of the reaction products of the 6Li(n,α)t nuclear reaction with thermal neutrons measured with two multipixel detectors in a sandwich geometry with a sample. Here, the principle and basic methodological parameters of the method, including tests with thin polymers with known Li microstructure, are discussed.

  12. High resolution imaging of 2D distribution of lithium in thin samples measured with multipixel detectors in sandwich geometry.

    PubMed

    Tomandl, I; Vacík, J; Mora Sierra, Y; Granja, C; Kraus, V

    2017-02-01

    A method that enables visualization of lateral distribution of Li in thin films is described. The method is based on the simultaneous detection of the reaction products of the (6)Li(n,α)t nuclear reaction with thermal neutrons measured with two multipixel detectors in a sandwich geometry with a sample. Here, the principle and basic methodological parameters of the method, including tests with thin polymers with known Li microstructure, are discussed.

  13. 2D ion velocity distribution function measurements by laser-induced fluorescence above a radio-frequency biased silicon wafer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Nathaniel; Gekelman, Walter; Pribyl, Patrick; Zhang, Yiting; Kushner, Mark

    2012-10-01

    Ion dynamics have been measured in the sheath above a 30 cm diameter, 2.2 MHz-biased silicon wafer in a plasma processing etch tool using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). The velocity distribution function of argon ions was measured at thousands of positions above and radially along the edge of the wafer by sending a planar laser sheet from a pulsed, tunable dye laser into the tool. The RF sheath is clearly resolved. The laser sheet entered the machine both parallel and perpendicular to the wafer in order to measure the distribution function for both parallel and perpendicular velocities/energies (0.4 eV < Emax<600 eV). The resulting fluorescence was recorded using a fast CCD camera, which provided spatial (0.4 mm) and temporal (30 ns) resolution. Data was taken at eight different phases of the 2.2 MHz cycle. The distribution functions were found to be spatially non-uniform near the edge of the wafer and the distribution of energies extremely phase-dependent. Several cm above the wafer the distribution is Maxwellian and independent of phase. Results are compared with simulations; for example, the experimental time-averaged ion energy distribution function compares favorably with a computer model carefully constructed to emulate the device.

  14. 2D ion velocity distribution function measurements by laser-induced fluorescence above a radio-frequency biased silicon wafer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Nathaniel; Gekelman, Walter; Pribyl, Patrick; Zhang, Yiting; Kushner, Mark

    2012-10-01

    Ion dynamics have been measured in the sheath above a 30 cm diameter, 2.2 MHz-biased silicon wafer in a plasma processing etch tool using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). The velocity distribution function of argon ions was measured at thousands of positions above and radially along the edge of the wafer by sending a planar laser sheet from a pulsed, tunable dye laser into the tool. The RF sheath is clearly resolved. The laser sheet entered the machine both parallel and perpendicular to the wafer in order to measure the distribution function for both parallel and perpendicular velocities/energies (0.4 eV < Emax< 600 eV). The resulting fluorescence was recorded using a fast CCD camera, which provided spatial (0.4 mm) and temporal (30 ns) resolution. Data was taken at eight different phases of the 2.2 MHz cycle. The distribution functions were found to be spatially non-uniform near the edge of the wafer and the distribution of energies extremely phase-dependent. Several cm above the wafer the distribution is Maxwellian and independent of phase. Results are compared with simulations; for example, the experimental time-averaged ion energy distribution function compares favorably with a computer model carefully constructed to emulate the device.

  15. Robust, spatially scanning, open-path TDLAS hygrometer using retro-reflective foils for fast tomographic 2-D water vapor concentration field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, A.; Wagner, S.; Dreizler, A.; Ebert, V.

    2015-05-01

    We have developed a fast, spatially scanning direct tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer (dTDLAS) that combines four polygon-mirror based scanning units with low-cost retro-reflective foils. With this instrument, tomographic measurements of absolute 2-D water vapor concentration profiles are possible without any calibration using a reference gas. A spatial area of 0.8 m x 0.8 m was covered, which allows for application in soil physics, where greenhouse gas emission from certain soil structures shall be monitored. The whole concentration field was measured with up to 2.5 Hz. In this paper, we present the setup and spectroscopic performance of the instrument regarding the influence of the polygon rotation speed and mode on the absorption signal. Homogeneous H2O distributions were measured and compared to a single channel, bi-static reference TDLAS spectrometer for validation of the instrument. Good accuracy and precision with errors of less than 6% of the absolute concentration and length and bandwidth normalized detection limits of up to 1.1 ppmv . m (Hz)-0.5 were achieved. The spectrometer is a robust and easy to set up instrument for tomographic reconstructions of 2-D-concentration fields that can be considered as a good basis for future field measurements in environmental research.

  16. Robust, spatially scanning, open-path TDLAS hygrometer using retro-reflective foils for fast tomographic 2-D water vapour concentration field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, A.; Wagner, S.; Dreizler, A.; Ebert, V.

    2014-12-01

    We have developed a fast, spatially direct scanning tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer (dTDLAS) that combines four polygon-mirror based scanning units with low-cost retro-reflective foils. With this instrument, tomographic measurements of absolute 2-D water vapour concentration profiles are possible without any calibration using a reference gas. A spatial area of 0.8 m × 0.8 m was covered, which allows for application in soil physics, where greenhouse gas emission from certain soil structures shall be monitored. The whole concentration field was measured with up to 2.5 Hz. In this paper, we present the setup and spectroscopic performance of the instrument regarding the influence of the polygon rotation speed and mode on the absorption signal. Homogeneous H2O distributions were measured and compared to a single channel, bi-static reference TDLAS spectrometer for validation of the instrument. Good accuracy and precision with errors of less than 6% of the absolute concentration and length and bandwidth normalized detection limits of up to 1.1 ppmv · m · √Hz-1 were achieved. The spectrometer is a robust and easy to set up instrument for tomographic reconstructions of 2-D-concentration fields that can be considered a good basis for future field measurements in environmental research.

  17. Model-based measurement of food portion size for image-based dietary assessment using 3D/2D registration

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hsin-Chen; Jia, Wenyan; Yue, Yaofeng; Li, Zhaoxin; Sun, Yung-Nien; Fernstrom, John D.; Sun, Mingui

    2013-01-01

    Dietary assessment is important in health maintenance and intervention in many chronic conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. However, there is currently a lack of convenient methods for measuring the volume of food (portion size) in real-life settings. We present a computational method to estimate food volume from a single photographical image of food contained in a typical dining plate. First, we calculate the food location with respect to a 3D camera coordinate system using the plate as a scale reference. Then, the food is segmented automatically from the background in the image. Adaptive thresholding and snake modeling are implemented based on several image features, such as color contrast, regional color homogeneity and curve bending degree. Next, a 3D model representing the general shape of the food (e.g., a cylinder, a sphere, etc.) is selected from a pre-constructed shape model library. The position, orientation and scale of the selected shape model are determined by registering the projected 3D model and the food contour in the image, where the properties of the reference are used as constraints. Experimental results using various realistically shaped foods with known volumes demonstrated satisfactory performance of our image based food volume measurement method even if the 3D geometric surface of the food is not completely represented in the input image. PMID:24223474

  18. Model-based measurement of food portion size for image-based dietary assessment using 3D/2D registration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsin-Chen; Jia, Wenyan; Yue, Yaofeng; Li, Zhaoxin; Sun, Yung-Nien; Fernstrom, John D; Sun, Mingui

    2013-10-01

    Dietary assessment is important in health maintenance and intervention in many chronic conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. However, there is currently a lack of convenient methods for measuring the volume of food (portion size) in real-life settings. We present a computational method to estimate food volume from a single photographical image of food contained in a typical dining plate. First, we calculate the food location with respect to a 3D camera coordinate system using the plate as a scale reference. Then, the food is segmented automatically from the background in the image. Adaptive thresholding and snake modeling are implemented based on several image features, such as color contrast, regional color homogeneity and curve bending degree. Next, a 3D model representing the general shape of the food (e.g., a cylinder, a sphere, etc.) is selected from a pre-constructed shape model library. The position, orientation and scale of the selected shape model are determined by registering the projected 3D model and the food contour in the image, where the properties of the reference are used as constraints. Experimental results using various realistically shaped foods with known volumes demonstrated satisfactory performance of our image based food volume measurement method even if the 3D geometric surface of the food is not completely represented in the input image.

  19. Model-based measurement of food portion size for image-based dietary assessment using 3D/2D registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hsin-Chen; Jia, Wenyan; Yue, Yaofeng; Li, Zhaoxin; Sun, Yung-Nien; Fernstrom, John D.; Sun, Mingui

    2013-10-01

    Dietary assessment is important in health maintenance and intervention in many chronic conditions, such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, there is currently a lack of convenient methods for measuring the volume of food (portion size) in real-life settings. We present a computational method to estimate food volume from a single photographic image of food contained on a typical dining plate. First, we calculate the food location with respect to a 3D camera coordinate system using the plate as a scale reference. Then, the food is segmented automatically from the background in the image. Adaptive thresholding and snake modeling are implemented based on several image features, such as color contrast, regional color homogeneity and curve bending degree. Next, a 3D model representing the general shape of the food (e.g., a cylinder, a sphere, etc) is selected from a pre-constructed shape model library. The position, orientation and scale of the selected shape model are determined by registering the projected 3D model and the food contour in the image, where the properties of the reference are used as constraints. Experimental results using various realistically shaped foods with known volumes demonstrated satisfactory performance of our image-based food volume measurement method even if the 3D geometric surface of the food is not completely represented in the input image.

  20. 2D imaging of laser wing effects and of soot sublimation in laser-induced incandescence measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delhay, J.; Bouvier, Y.; Therssen, E.; Black, J. D.; Desgroux, P.

    2005-07-01

    The distribution of Laser-Induced Incandescence (LII) signal in sooting flames along the laser beam is imaged using two directions of observation: one counter to the propagation direction of the incident laser (backward LII) and one at right angles. It is shown that the effective probe volume, in which the LII signal is observed, is highly dependent on the laser irradiance profile. At high fluence, the LII from the central part of the beam decreases because of soot sublimation. This decrease can be compensated by an increase in the LII from the wings of the laser beam. This interaction is particularly important in the extraction of quantitative information in the backward LII case, which is the configuration best suited to the practical application of LII for in-situ particle concentration measurements in the exhaust of aero-engines.

  1. Upgrade of the tangentially viewing vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) telescope system for 2D fluctuation measurement in the large helical device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. J.; Ming, T. F.; Gao, X.; Du, X. D.; Ohdachi, S.

    2016-11-01

    A high-speed tangentially viewing vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) telescope system, using an inverse Schwarzschild-type optic system was developed to study fluctuations in the Large Helical Device (LHD). However, for the original system, the sampling rate was restricted to below 2000 Hz due to the low signal to noise (S/N) ratio in the experiment. In order to improve the S/N ratio, upgrade of the system was made. With this upgraded optical system, the maximum framing rate is improved to 6000 fps with a similar spatial resolution. Rotation of the m = 2 structure caused by the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instability is measured by the upgraded system. The spatial structure of the image is consistent with the synthetic image assuming the interchange mode type displacement of the flux surfaces.

  2. WE-EF-210-06: Ultrasound 2D Strain Measurement of Radiation-Induced Toxicity: Phantom and Ex Vivo Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, T; Torres, M; Rossi, P; Jani, A; Curran, W; Yang, X

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Radiation-induced fibrosis is a common long-term complication affecting many patients following cancer radiotherapy. Standard clinical assessment of subcutaneous fibrosis is subjective and often limited to visual inspection and palpation. Ultrasound strain imaging describes the compressibility (elasticity) of biological tissues. This study’s purpose is to develop a quantitative ultrasound strain imaging that can consistently and accurately characterize radiation-induce fibrosis. Methods: In this study, we propose a 2D strain imaging method based on deformable image registration. A combined affine and B-spline transformation model is used to calculate the displacement of tissue between pre-stress and post-stress B-mode image sequences. The 2D displacement is estimated through a hybrid image similarity measure metric, which is a combination of the normalized mutual information (NMI) and normalized sum-of-squared-differences (NSSD). And 2D strain is obtained from the gradient of the local displacement. We conducted phantom experiments under various compressions and compared the performance of our proposed method with the standard cross-correlation (CC)- based method using the signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise (CNS) ratios. In addition, we conducted ex-vivo beef muscle experiment to further validate the proposed method. Results: For phantom study, the SNR and CNS values of the proposed method were significantly higher than those calculated from the CC-based method under different strains. The SNR and CNR increased by a factor of 1.9 and 2.7 comparing to the CC-based method. For the ex-vivo experiment, the CC-based method failed to work due to large deformation (6.7%), while our proposed method could accurately detect the stiffness change. Conclusion: We have developed a 2D strain imaging technique based on the deformable image registration, validated its accuracy and feasibility with phantom and ex-vivo data. This 2D ultrasound strain imaging

  3. Total dose incurred by patients and staff from BMD measurement using a new 2D digital bone densitometer.

    PubMed

    Boudousq, V; Kotzki, P O; Dinten, J M; Barrau, C; Robert-Coutant, C; Thomas, E; Goulart, D Mariano

    2003-05-01

    Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a widely used and precise technique for non-invasive assessment of bone mineral density. The DXA systems have evolved from pencil X-ray beam (single detector) to fan beam (linear array detector) and recently cone beam densitometers (bi-dimensional detector), allowing for an examination to occur without any scanning and with a short acquisition time. The purpose of this study was to evaluate patient and staff dose from a new cone beam densitometer, the DMS Lexxos. Measurements were performed on a DMS Lexxos bone densitometer prototype. An anthropomorphic phantom and thermoluminescent dosimeters were used to evaluate the effective dose. Ionization chambers and electronic personal dosimeters were used to evaluate the staff dose. The effective dose is 8.4 micro Sv for an anteroposterior spine examination and 4.8 micro Sv for a femoral neck in standard mode. The averaged scattered dose rate (ambient dose equivalent) at 1 m from the beam is evaluated at 226 micro Sv/h. Assuming six patients per hour with two views per patient, the time averaged dose rate is evaluated at 2.9 micro Sv/h. By the personal dosimeter, the staff dose (Hp 10) at 1 m from the beam is evaluated at 0.23 micro Sv per examination. For one examination, patient and staff dose from this new technology remains low: in the same range as the fan-beam densitometer.

  4. Measurement of sediment and crustal thickness corrected RDA for 2D profiles at rifted continental margins: Applications to the Iberian, Gulf of Aden and S Angolan margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowie, Leanne; Kusznir, Nick

    2014-05-01

    Subsidence analysis of sedimentary basins and rifted continental margins requires a correction for the anomalous uplift or subsidence arising from mantle dynamic topography. Whilst different global model predictions of mantle dynamic topography may give a broadly similar pattern at long wavelengths, they differ substantially in the predicted amplitude and at shorter wavelengths. As a consequence the accuracy of predicted mantle dynamic topography is not sufficiently good to provide corrections for subsidence analysis. Measurements of present day anomalous subsidence, which we attribute to mantle dynamic topography, have been made for three rifted continental margins; offshore Iberia, the Gulf of Aden and southern Angola. We determine residual depth anomaly (RDA), corrected for sediment loading and crustal thickness variation for 2D profiles running from unequivocal oceanic crust across the continental ocean boundary onto thinned continental crust. Residual depth anomalies (RDA), corrected for sediment loading using flexural backstripping and decompaction, have been calculated by comparing observed and age predicted oceanic bathymetries at these margins. Age predicted bathymetric anomalies have been calculated using the thermal plate model predictions from Crosby & McKenzie (2009). Non-zero sediment corrected RDAs may result from anomalous oceanic crustal thickness with respect to the global average or from anomalous uplift or subsidence. Gravity anomaly inversion incorporating a lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly correction and sediment thickness from 2D seismic reflection data has been used to determine Moho depth, calibrated using seismic refraction, and oceanic crustal basement thickness. Crustal basement thicknesses derived from gravity inversion together with Airy isostasy have been used to correct for variations of crustal thickness from a standard oceanic thickness of 7km. The 2D profiles of RDA corrected for both sediment loading and non-standard crustal

  5. A volumetric model-based 2D to 3D registration method for measuring kinematics of natural knees with single-plane fluoroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Tsung-Yuan; Lu, Tung-Wu; Chen, Chung-Ming; Kuo, Mei-Ying; Hsu, Horng-Chaung

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: Accurate measurement of the three-dimensional (3D) rigid body and surface kinematics of the natural human knee is essential for many clinical applications. Existing techniques are limited either in their accuracy or lack more realistic experimental evaluation of the measurement errors. The purposes of the study were to develop a volumetric model-based 2D to 3D registration method, called the weighted edge-matching score (WEMS) method, for measuring natural knee kinematics with single-plane fluoroscopy to determine experimentally the measurement errors and to compare its performance with that of pattern intensity (PI) and gradient difference (GD) methods. Methods: The WEMS method gives higher priority to matching of longer edges of the digitally reconstructed radiograph and fluoroscopic images. The measurement errors of the methods were evaluated based on a human cadaveric knee at 11 flexion positions. Results: The accuracy of the WEMS method was determined experimentally to be less than 0.77 mm for the in-plane translations, 3.06 mm for out-of-plane translation, and 1.13 deg. for all rotations, which is better than that of the PI and GD methods. Conclusions: A new volumetric model-based 2D to 3D registration method has been developed for measuring 3D in vivo kinematics of natural knee joints with single-plane fluoroscopy. With the equipment used in the current study, the accuracy of the WEMS method is considered acceptable for the measurement of the 3D kinematics of the natural knee in clinical applications.

  6. Analytical Method for Measuring Total Protium and Total Deuterium in a Gas Mixture Containing H2, D2, and HD Via Gas Chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    SESSIONS, HENRY

    2004-03-24

    A new analytical technique has been developed that measures both total protium (H) and deuterium (D) in a gas mixture containing H2, D2, and HD. This new analytical technique uses a micro gas chromatograph (GC) with two molecular sieve columns. One column uses D2 as the carrier gas and the other uses H2 as the carrier gas. Laboratory tests have shown that when used in this configuration the GC can measure both total protium and total deuterium, each with a sensitivity of less than 20 ppm. This new analytical technique was developed as a result of a request to provide instrumentation to measure the protium and deuterium concentrations at several process points during initial testing of the new hydrogen tritium thermal cycling absorption process columns.

  7. Performance of linear and nonlinear texture measures in 2D and 3D for monitoring architectural changes in osteoporosis using computer-generated models of trabecular bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehm, Holger F.; Link, Thomas M.; Monetti, Roberto A.; Mueller, Dirk; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Raeth, Christoph W.

    2005-04-01

    Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease leading to de-mineralization and increased risk of fracture. The two major factors that determine the biomechanical competence of bone are the degree of mineralization and the micro-architectural integrity. Today, modern imaging modalities (high resolution MRI, micro-CT) are capable of depicting structural details of trabecular bone tissue. From the image data, structural properties obtained by quantitative measures are analysed with respect to the presence of osteoporotic fractures of the spine (in-vivo) or correlated with biomechanical strength as derived from destructive testing (in-vitro). Fairly well established are linear structural measures in 2D that are originally adopted from standard histo-morphometry. Recently, non-linear techniques in 2D and 3D based on the scaling index method (SIM), the standard Hough transform (SHT), and the Minkowski Functionals (MF) have been introduced, which show excellent performance in predicting bone strength and fracture risk. However, little is known about the performance of the various parameters with respect to monitoring structural changes due to progression of osteoporosis or as a result of medical treatment. In this contribution, we generate models of trabecular bone with pre-defined structural properties which are exposed to simulated osteoclastic activity. We apply linear and non-linear texture measures to the models and analyse their performance with respect to detecting architectural changes. This study demonstrates, that the texture measures are capable of monitoring structural changes of complex model data. The diagnostic potential varies for the different parameters and is found to depend on the topological composition of the model and initial "bone density". In our models, non-linear texture measures tend to react more sensitively to small structural changes than linear measures. Best performance is observed for the 3rd and 4th Minkowski Functionals and for the scaling

  8. Simultaneous, two-camera, 2D gas-phase temperature and velocity measurements by thermographic particle image velocimetry with ZnO tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, L.; Gao, Y.; Hayakawa, A.; Hochgreb, S.

    2017-04-01

    This work presents simultaneous 2D temperature and velocity measurements on a heated jet using two non-intensified cameras to realize thermographic PIV. In contrast to previous studies which use separate PIV cameras and LIP cameras, the present experiment uses only a double-pulsed UV laser and two low-speed CCD cameras running in double-frame mode, greatly simplifying the setup. The intensity ratio is calculated based on the image pair recorded at two spectral lines for thermography, while the cross-correlation is performed over the two consecutive frames for PIV. A method is proposed to correct for the effects of non-uniform spatial distribution of laser fluence on the intensity ratio, by including the laser fluence into the calibration function. The laser sheet energy profiles are measured and the intensity ratio is translated into temperature according to the local laser fluence and two-colour ratio. The temperature accuracy using this technique is estimated as 3 K at 410 K, by comparing the mean temperature field with the result provided by a thermocouple. Simultaneous 2D temperature and velocity fields are presented for a simple heated jet, demonstrating the expected similarities. The demonstration shows the potential of thermographic PIV in the investigation fundamental problems on turbulent flows, and shows that the technique can be improved through the availability of a dual-cavity UV laser.

  9. 3 dimensional distributions of NO2, CHOCHO, and HCHO measured by the University of Colorado 2D-MAX-DOAS during MAD-CAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Ivan; Sinreich, Roman; Volkamer, Rainer

    2014-05-01

    We present results of 2 dimensional Multi Axis-DOAS (2D-MAX-DOAS) measurements to infer 3-dimensional measurements of trace gases by characterizing boundary layer vertical profiles and near surface azimuth horizontal distribution of NO2 (14 angles covering 360°). We combine the established optimal estimation inversion with a new parameterization approach; the first method to derive NO2 tropospheric vertical profiles and boundary layer height and the second one to retrieve the azimuth horizontal distribution of near surface NO2 mixing ratios, both at multiple wavelengths (350 nm, 450 nm, and 560 nm). This was conducted for three cloud-free days in the framework of the intensive Multi Axis DOAS Comparison campaign for Aerosols and Trace gases (MAD-CAT) in Mainz, Germany 2013. By retrieving NO2 at multiple wavelengths range-resolved distributions of NO2 are derived using an 'Onion-peeling' approach, i.e., exploiting the fact that the optical path lengths at different wavelengths probe different horizontal air masses. We also measure glyoxal (CHOCHO) and formaldehyde (HCHO) distributions, and present to our knowledge the first 3-dimesional trace-gas distribution measurements of CHOCHO by a ground-based instrument. We expand the 2D-MAX-DOAS capabilities to calculate azimuth ratios of HCHO-to-NO2 (RFN) and CHOCHO-to-NO2 (RGN) to pinpoint volatile organic compound (VOC) oxidation chemistry and CHOCHO-to-HCHO (RGF) ratios as an indicator of biogenic and/or anthropogenic VOC emissions. The results of RFN correlate well with RGN and we identify azimuth variations that indicate gradients in the VOC/NOx chemistry that leads to O3 and secondary aerosol production. While there is a clear diurnal pattern in the RFN and RGN, no such variations are observed in the RGF, which shows rather constant values below 0.04 throughout the day, consistent with previous measurements, and indicative of urban air masses.

  10. ANALYTICAL METHOD FOR MEASURING TOTAL PROTIUM AND TOTAL DEUTERIUM IN A GAS MIXTURE CONTAINING H2, D2,AND HD VIA GAS CHAROMATOGRAPHY

    SciTech Connect

    Sessions, H

    2007-08-07

    The most common analytical method of identifying and quantifying non-radioactive isotopic species of hydrogen is mass spectrometry. A low mass, high resolution mass spectrometer with adequate sensitivity and stability to identify and quantify hydrogen isotopes in the low ppm range is an expensive, complex instrument. A new analytical technique has been developed that measures both total protium (H) and total deuterium (D) in a gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, D{sub 2}, and HD using an inexpensive micro gas chromatograph (GC) with two molecular sieve columns. One column uses D{sub 2} as the carrier gas and the other uses H{sub 2} as the carrier gas. Laboratory tests have shown that when used in this configuration the GC can measure both total protium and total deuterium each with a detection and quantification limit of less than 20 ppm.

  11. Use of Caval Subtraction 2D Phase-Contrast MR Imaging to Measure Total Liver and Hepatic Arterial Blood Flow: Preclinical Validation and Initial Clinical Translation.

    PubMed

    Chouhan, Manil D; Mookerjee, Rajeshwar P; Bainbridge, Alan; Walker-Samuel, Simon; Davies, Nathan; Halligan, Steve; Lythgoe, Mark F; Taylor, Stuart A

    2016-09-01

    Purpose To validate caval subtraction two-dimensional (2D) phase-contrast magnetic resonance (MR) imaging measurements of total liver blood flow (TLBF) and hepatic arterial fraction in an animal model and evaluate consistency and reproducibility in humans. Materials and Methods Approval from the institutional ethical committee for animal care and research ethics was obtained. Fifteen Sprague-Dawley rats underwent 2D phase-contrast MR imaging of the portal vein (PV) and infrahepatic and suprahepatic inferior vena cava (IVC). TLBF and hepatic arterial flow were estimated by subtracting infrahepatic from suprahepatic IVC flow and PV flow from estimated TLBF, respectively. Direct PV transit-time ultrasonography (US) and fluorescent microsphere measurements of hepatic arterial fraction were the standards of reference. Thereafter, consistency of caval subtraction phase-contrast MR imaging-derived TLBF and hepatic arterial flow was assessed in 13 volunteers (mean age, 28.3 years ± 1.4) against directly measured phase-contrast MR imaging PV and proper hepatic arterial inflow; reproducibility was measured after 7 days. Bland-Altman analysis of agreement and coefficient of variation comparisons were undertaken. Results There was good agreement between PV flow measured with phase-contrast MR imaging and that measured with transit-time US (mean difference, -3.5 mL/min/100 g; 95% limits of agreement [LOA], ±61.3 mL/min/100 g). Hepatic arterial fraction obtained with caval subtraction agreed well with those with fluorescent microspheres (mean difference, 4.2%; 95% LOA, ±20.5%). Good consistency was demonstrated between TLBF in humans measured with caval subtraction and direct inflow phase-contrast MR imaging (mean difference, -1.3 mL/min/100 g; 95% LOA, ±23.1 mL/min/100 g). TLBF reproducibility at 7 days was similar between the two methods (95% LOA, ±31.6 mL/min/100 g vs ±29.6 mL/min/100 g). Conclusion Caval subtraction phase-contrast MR imaging is a simple and clinically

  12. Optoelectronics with 2D semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) atomic crystals, such as graphene and layered transition-metal dichalcogenides, are currently receiving a lot of attention for applications in electronics and optoelectronics. In this talk, I will review our research activities on electrically driven light emission, photovoltaic energy conversion and photodetection in 2D semiconductors. In particular, WSe2 monolayer p-n junctions formed by electrostatic doping using a pair of split gate electrodes, type-II heterojunctions based on MoS2/WSe2 and MoS2/phosphorene van der Waals stacks, 2D multi-junction solar cells, and 3D/2D semiconductor interfaces will be presented. Upon optical illumination, conversion of light into electrical energy occurs in these devices. If an electrical current is driven, efficient electroluminescence is obtained. I will present measurements of the electrical characteristics, the optical properties, and the gate voltage dependence of the device response. In the second part of my talk, I will discuss photoconductivity studies of MoS2 field-effect transistors. We identify photovoltaic and photoconductive effects, which both show strong photoconductive gain. A model will be presented that reproduces our experimental findings, such as the dependence on optical power and gate voltage. We envision that the efficient photon conversion and light emission, combined with the advantages of 2D semiconductors, such as flexibility, high mechanical stability and low costs of production, could lead to new optoelectronic technologies.

  13. Critical Slowing of Density Fluctuations Approaching the Isotropic-Nematic Transition in Liquid Crystals: 2D IR Measurements and Mode Coupling Theory.

    PubMed

    Sokolowsky, Kathleen P; Bailey, Heather E; Hoffman, David J; Andersen, Hans C; Fayer, Michael D

    2016-07-21

    Two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) data are presented for a vibrational probe in three nematogens: 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl, 4-cyano-4'-octylbiphenyl, and 4-(trans-4-amylcyclohexyl)-benzonitrile. The spectral diffusion time constants in all three liquids in the isotropic phase are proportional to [T*/(T - T*)](1/2), where T* is 0.5-1 K below the isotropic-nematic phase transition temperature (TNI). Rescaling to a reduced temperature shows that the decays of the frequency-frequency correlation function (FFCF) for all three nematogens fall on the same curve, suggesting a universal dynamic behavior of nematogens above TNI. Spectral diffusion is complete before significant orientational relaxation in the liquid, as measured by optically heterodyne detected-optical Kerr effect (OHD-OKE) spectroscopy, and before any significant orientational randomization of the probe measured by polarization selective IR pump-probe experiments. To interpret the OHD-OKE and FFCF data, we constructed a mode coupling theory (MCT) schematic model for the relationships among three correlation functions: ϕ1, a correlator for large wave vector density fluctuations; ϕ2, the orientational correlation function whose time derivative is the observable in the OHD-OKE experiment; and ϕ3, the FFCF for the 2D IR experiment. The equations for ϕ1 and ϕ2 match those in the previous MCT schematic model for nematogens, and ϕ3 is coupled to the first two correlators in a straightforward manner. Resulting models fit the data very well. Across liquid crystals, the temperature dependences of the coupling constants show consistent, nonmonotonic behavior. A remarkable change in coupling occurs at ∼5 K above TNI, precisely where the rate of spectral diffusion in 5CB was observed to deviate from that of a similar nonmesogenic liquid.

  14. Oxygen-Atom Defects In 6H Silicon Carbide Implanted Using 24- MeV O{sup 3+} Ions Measured Using Three-Dimensional Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy System (3DPASS)

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Christopher S.; Petrosky, James C.; Burggraf, Larry W.

    2011-06-01

    Three dimensional electron-positron (e{sup -}-e{sup +}) momentum distributions were measured for single crystal 6H silicon carbide (SiC); both virgin and having implanted oxygen-atom defects. 6H SiC samples were irradiated by 24- MeV O{sup 3+} ions at 20 particle-nanoamps at the Sandia National Laboratory's Ion Beam Facility. O{sup 3+} ions were implanted 10.8 {mu}m deep normal to the (0001) face of one side of the SiC samples. During positron annihilation measurements, the opposite face of the 254.0-{mu}m thick SiC samples was exposed to positrons from a {sup 22}Na source. This technique reduced the influence on the momentum measurements of vacancy-type defects resulting from knock-on damage by the O{sup 3+} ions. A three-dimensional positron annihilation spectroscopy system (3DPASS) was used to measure e{sup -}-e{sup +} momentum distributions for virgin and irradiated 6H SiC crystal both before and following annealing. 3DPASS simultaneously measures coincident Doppler-broadening (DBAR) and angular correlation of annihilation radiation (ACAR) spectra. DBAR ratio plots and 2D ACAR spectra are presented. Changes in the momentum anisotropies relative to crystal orientation observed in 2D ACAR spectra for annealed O-implanted SiC agree with the local structure of defect distortion predicted using Surface Integrated Molecular Orbital/Molecular Mechanics (SIMOMM). Oxygen atoms insert between Si and C atoms increasing their separation by 0.9 A forming a Si-O-C bond angle of {approx}150 deg.

  15. Imaging and Measurements of Flow Phenomena and Impact of Soil Associated Constituents Through Unsaturated Porous Media in a 2D System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pales, A. R.; Li, B.; Clifford, H.; Edayilam, N.; Montgomery, D.; Dogan, M.; Tharayil, N.; Martinez, N. E.; Moysey, S. M.; Darnault, C. J. G.

    2016-12-01

    This research aims to build upon past two-dimension (2D) tank light transmission methods to quantify real-time flow in unsaturated porous media (ASTM silica sand; US Silica, Ottawa, IL, USA) and how exudates effect unstable flow patterns. A 2D tank light transmission method was created using a transparent flow through tank coupled with a random rainfall simulator; a commercial LED light and a complementary metal oxide semiconductor digital single lens reflex (CMOS DSLR) Nikon D5500 camera were used to capture the real-time flow images. The images were broken down from red-green-blue (RGB) into hue-saturation-intensity (HVI) and analyzed in Matlab to produce quantifiable data about finger formation and water saturation distribution. Contact angle and surface tension of the chemical plant exudate solutions was measured using a Kruss EasyDrop FM40Mk2 (Kruss GmbH Germany). The exudates (oxalate, citrate, tannic acid, and Suwannee River Natural Organic Matter) had an increased wettability effect compared to control rain water (0.01M NaCl). This resulted in variable finger formation and speed of finger propagation; dependent on exudate type and concentration. Water saturation along the vertical and horizontal profile (Matlab) was used to quantify the finger more objectively than by eye assessment alone. The changes in finger formation and speed of propagation between the control rain water (0.01M NaCl) and the solutions containing plant exudates illustrates that the plant exudates increased the wettability (mobility) of water moving through unsaturated porous media. This understanding of plant exudates effect on unsaturated flow is important for future works in this study to analyze how plants, their roots and exudates, may affect the mobility of radionuclides in unsaturated porous media.

  16. Characterization of the growth of 2D protein crystals on a lipid monolayer by ellipsometry and rigidity measurements coupled to electron microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Vénien-Bryan, C; Lenne, P F; Zakri, C; Renault, A; Brisson, A; Legrand, J F; Berge, B

    1998-01-01

    We present here some sensitive optical and mechanical experiments for monitoring the process of formation and growth of two-dimensional (2D) crystals of proteins on a lipid monolayer at an air-water interface. The adsorption of proteins on the lipid monolayer was monitored by ellipsometry measurements. An instrument was developed to measure the shear elastic constant (in plane rigidity) of the monolayer. These experiments have been done using cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) and annexin V as model proteins interacting with a monosialoganglioside (GM1) and dioleoylphosphatidylserine (DOPS), respectively. Electron microscopy observations of the protein-lipid layer transferred to grids were systematically used as a control. We found a good correlation between the measured in-plane rigidity of the monolayer and the presence of large crystalline domains observed by electron microscopy grids. Our interpretation of these data is that the crystallization process of proteins on a lipid monolayer passes through at least three successive stages: 1) molecular recognition between protein and lipid-ligand, i.e., adsorption of the protein on the lipid layer; 2) nucleation and growth of crystalline patches whose percolation is detected by the appearance of a non-zero in-plane rigidity; and 3) annealing of the layer producing a slower increase of the lateral or in-plane rigidity. PMID:9591688

  17. Development of a Cryogenic Thermal Distortion Measurement Facility for Testing the James Webb Space Telescope Instrument Support Integration Module 2-D Test Assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Franklin; Bagdanove, paul; Blake, Peter; Canavan, Ed; Cofie, Emmanuel; Crane, J. Allen; Dominquez, Kareny; Hagopian, John; Johnston, John; Madison, Tim; hide

    2007-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope Instrument Support Integration Module (ISIM) is being designed and developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The ISM Thermal Distortion Testing (ITDT) program was started with the primary objective to validate the ISM mechanical design process. The ITDT effort seeks to establish confidence and demonstrate the ability to predict thermal distortion in composite structures at cryogenic temperatures using solid element models. This-program's goal is to better ensure that ISIM meets all the mechanical and structural requirements by using test results to verify or improve structural modeling techniques. The first step to accomplish the ITDT objectives was to design, and then construct solid element models of a series 2-D test assemblies that represent critical building blocks of the ISIM structure. Second, the actual test assemblies consisting of composite tubes and invar end fittings were fabricated and tested for thermal distortion. This paper presents the development of the GSFC Cryo Distortion Measurement Facility (CDMF) to meet the requirements of the ISIM 2-D test. assemblies, and other future ISIM testing needs. The CDMF provides efficient cooling with both a single, and two-stage cryo-cooler. Temperature uniformity of the test assemblies during thermal transients and at steady state is accomplished by using sapphire windows for all of the optical ports on the radiation shields and by using .thermal straps to cool the test assemblies. Numerical thermal models of the test assemblies were used to predict the temperature uniformity of the parts during cooldown and at steady state. Results of these models are compared to actual temperature data from the tests. Temperature sensors with a 0.25K precision were used to insure that test assembly gradients did not exceed 2K lateral, and 4K axially. The thermal distortions of two assemblies were measured during six thermal cycles from 320K to 35K using laser interferometers. The standard

  18. Development of a Cryogenic Thermal Distortion Measurement Facility for Testing the James Webb Space Telescope Instrument Support Integration Module 2-D Test Assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Franklin; Bagdanove, paul; Blake, Peter; Canavan, Ed; Cofie, Emmanuel; Crane, J. Allen; Dominquez, Kareny; Hagopian, John; Johnston, John; Madison, Tim; Miller, Dave; Oaks, Darrell; Williams, Pat; Young, Dan; Zukowski, Barbara; Zukowski, Tim

    2007-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope Instrument Support Integration Module (ISIM) is being designed and developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The ISM Thermal Distortion Testing (ITDT) program was started with the primary objective to validate the ISM mechanical design process. The ITDT effort seeks to establish confidence and demonstrate the ability to predict thermal distortion in composite structures at cryogenic temperatures using solid element models. This-program's goal is to better ensure that ISIM meets all the mechanical and structural requirements by using test results to verify or improve structural modeling techniques. The first step to accomplish the ITDT objectives was to design, and then construct solid element models of a series 2-D test assemblies that represent critical building blocks of the ISIM structure. Second, the actual test assemblies consisting of composite tubes and invar end fittings were fabricated and tested for thermal distortion. This paper presents the development of the GSFC Cryo Distortion Measurement Facility (CDMF) to meet the requirements of the ISIM 2-D test. assemblies, and other future ISIM testing needs. The CDMF provides efficient cooling with both a single, and two-stage cryo-cooler. Temperature uniformity of the test assemblies during thermal transients and at steady state is accomplished by using sapphire windows for all of the optical ports on the radiation shields and by using .thermal straps to cool the test assemblies. Numerical thermal models of the test assemblies were used to predict the temperature uniformity of the parts during cooldown and at steady state. Results of these models are compared to actual temperature data from the tests. Temperature sensors with a 0.25K precision were used to insure that test assembly gradients did not exceed 2K lateral, and 4K axially. The thermal distortions of two assemblies were measured during six thermal cycles from 320K to 35K using laser interferometers. The standard

  19. Measurements of total depletion of ozone in the 2010-2011 Arctic winter lower stratosphere by MIPAS/ENVISAT using a 2D tomographic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnone, E.; Castelli, E.; Viscardy, S.; Papandrea, E.; Errera, Q.; Carlotti, M.; Dinelli, B.

    2011-12-01

    We present observations of the 2010-2011 Arctic winter stratosphere from the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) onboard ENVISAT. We adopted a full 2D tomographic retrieval approach to account for the strong horizontal inhomogeneity of the atmosphere present under vortex conditions. A well isolated stratospheric vortex extended the PSC season up to middle March, with consequent significant activation of heterogeneous chemistry and ozone destruction. Through inspection of MIPAS spectra, 84% of PSCs were identified as supercooled ternary solution (STS) or STS mixed with nitric acid trihydrate (NAT), 16% formed mostly by NAT particles, and only a few by ice. In the lower stratosphere, vortex average ozone showed a daily depletion rate reaching 100 ppbv/day and absolute values dropping to 0.6 ppmv (corresponding to a chemical loss from early winter greater than 80%). In early April, 10% of vortex measurements at 18 km altitude displayed total depletion of ozone. Ozone loss was accompanied by activation of ClO, associated depletion of its reservoir ClONO2, and significant denitrification which further delayed the recovery of ozone in spring. Compared to MIPAS observed 2003-2010 Arctic winters, the lower stratospheric vortex in March had temperature 15 K lower than average, pressure measurements showed a contraction by up to 20% and HNO3 was 50% lower. This resulted in vortex ozone 50% lower than usual and the largest depletion ever observed.

  20. Metabolic flux and metabolic network analysis of Penicillium chrysogenum using 2D [13C, 1H] COSY NMR measurements and cumulative bondomer simulation.

    PubMed

    van Winden, Wouter A; van Gulik, Walter M; Schipper, Dick; Verheijen, Peter J T; Krabben, Preben; Vinke, Jacobus L; Heijnen, Joseph J

    2003-07-05

    At present two alternative methods are available for analyzing the fluxes in a metabolic network: (1) combining measurements of net conversion rates with a set of metabolite balances including the cofactor balances, or (2) leaving out the cofactor balances and fitting the resulting free fluxes to measured (13)C-labeling data. In this study these two approaches are applied to the fluxes in the glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway of Penicillium chrysogenum growing on either ammonia or nitrate as the nitrogen source, which is expected to give different pentose phosphate pathway fluxes. The presented flux analyses are based on extensive sets of 2D [(13)C, (1)H] COSY data. A new concept is applied for simulation of this type of (13)C-labeling data: cumulative bondomer modeling. The outcomes of the (13)C-labeling based flux analysis substantially differ from those of the pure metabolite balancing approach. The fluxes that are determined using (13)C-labeling data are shown to be highly dependent on the chosen metabolic network. Extending the traditional nonoxidative pentose phosphate pathway with additional transketolase and transaldolase reactions, extending the glycolysis with a fructose 6-phosphate aldolase/dihydroxyacetone kinase reaction sequence or adding a phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase reaction to the model considerably improves the fit of the measured and the simulated NMR data. The results obtained using the extended version of the nonoxidative pentose phosphate pathway model show that the transketolase and transaldolase reactions need not be assumed reversible to get a good fit of the (13)C-labeling data. Strict statistical testing of the outcomes of (13)C-labeling based flux analysis using realistic measurement errors is demonstrated to be of prime importance for verifying the assumed metabolic model. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 83: 75-92, 2003.

  1. Vertical 2D Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotsch, Bettina V.

    2015-07-01

    Graphene's legacy has become an integral part of today's condensed matter science and has equipped a whole generation of scientists with an armory of concepts and techniques that open up new perspectives for the postgraphene area. In particular, the judicious combination of 2D building blocks into vertical heterostructures has recently been identified as a promising route to rationally engineer complex multilayer systems and artificial solids with intriguing properties. The present review highlights recent developments in the rapidly emerging field of 2D nanoarchitectonics from a materials chemistry perspective, with a focus on the types of heterostructures available, their assembly strategies, and their emerging properties. This overview is intended to bridge the gap between two major—yet largely disjunct—developments in 2D heterostructures, which are firmly rooted in solid-state chemistry or physics. Although the underlying types of heterostructures differ with respect to their dimensions, layer alignment, and interfacial quality, there is common ground, and future synergies between the various assembly strategies are to be expected.

  2. Interaction between serotonin transporter and dopamine D2/D3 receptor radioligand measures is associated with harm avoidant symptoms in anorexia and bulimia nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Bailer, Ursula F.; Frank, Guido K.; Price, Julie C.; Meltzer, Carolyn C.; Becker, Carl; Mathis, Chester A.; Wagner, Angela; Barbarich-Marsteller, Nicole C.; Bloss, Cinnamon S.; Putnam, Karen; Schork, Nicholas J.; Gamst, Anthony; Kaye, Walter H.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) have alterations of measures of serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) function, which persist after long-term recovery and are associated with elevated harm avoidance (HA), a measure of anxiety and behavioral inhibition. Objective Based on theories that 5-HT is an aversive motivational system that may oppose a DA-related appetitive system, we explored interactions of positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand measures that reflect portions of these systems. Methods Twenty-seven individuals recovered (REC) from eating disorders (EDs) (7 AN-BN, 11 AN, 9 BN) and 9 control women (CW) were analyzed for correlations between [11C]McN5652 and [11C]raclopride binding. Results There was a positive correlation between [11C]McN5652 binding potential BPnon displaceable(ND)) and [11C]raclopride BPND for the dorsal caudate (r(27) = .62; p < .001), antero-ventral striatum (r(27) = .55, p = .003), middle caudate (r(27) = .68; p < .001), ventral (r(27) = .64; p < .001) and dorsal putamen (r(27) = .42; p = .03). No significant correlations were found in CW. [11C]raclopride BPND, but not [11C]McN5652 BPND, was significantly related to HA in REC EDs. A linear regression analysis showed that the interaction between [11C]McN5652 BPND and [11C]raclopride BPND in the dorsal putamen significantly (b = 140.04; t (22) = 2.21; p = .04) predicted HA. Conclusions This is the first study using PET and the radioligands [11C]McN5652 and [11C]raclopride to show a direct relationship between 5-HT transporter and striatal DA D2/D3 receptor binding in humans, supporting the possibility that 5-HT and DA interactions contribute to HA behaviors in EDs. PMID:23154100

  3. Individual bottle brush molecules in dense 2D layers restoring high degree of extension after collapse-decollapse cycle: directly measured scaling exponent.

    PubMed

    Gallyamov, M O; Tartsch, B; Potemkin, I I; Börner, H G; Matyjaszewski, K; Khokhlov, A R; Möller, M

    2009-05-01

    We prepared dense films of adsorbed brush-like macromolecules on mica substrate by transfer of compressed Langmuir monolayers from water subphase. The main macromolecular contours in the dense films were clearly resolved by SFM. The films were subjected to successive treatments by ethanol and water vapours. In accordance with previous results for isolated macromolecules, the films underwent collapse and subsequent decollapse morphological transformations in the changing vapour environment. Statistical analysis of the macromolecular dimensions in the films allowed us to measure the values of the scaling exponent nu determining the correlation between mean lateral and linear dimensions of the macromolecules. The analysis showed that the macromolecular conformations in the film as transferred were similar to the previously described conformations of the same macromolecules deposited directly on mica as isolated chains at much lower surface densities. The determined nu was close to the 0.75 value corresponding to the 2D SAW statistics. We assumed that the molecules retained the high degree of extension during the compression step due to suppressed reorganisation of the side chains. Differently from previous observations for isolated macromolecules, the restored conformations in the dense films after collapse-decollapse cycle were more extended with the nu of about 0.73 value. A theoretical explanation of the high degree of re-extension is proposed.

  4. Micro-PIV measurements of multiphase flow of water and liquid CO2 in 2D homogeneous and heterogeneous porous micromodels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yaofa; Kazemifar, Farzan; Blois, Gianluca; Christensen, Kenneth

    2015-11-01

    Geological sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) has been of great interest primarily for the reason of CO2 emission reduction and enhanced oil recovery. Yet, our fundamental understanding of the coupled flow dynamics of CO2 and water in geologic media still remains limited, especially at the pore scale. Therefore, in this work the pore-scale flow of water and liquid/supercritical CO2 are quantified in 2D homogeneous and heterogeneous porous micro-models under reservoir-relevant conditions. Fluorescent microscopy and the micro-PIV technique are employed to simultaneously visualize both phases and obtain the velocity field in the aqueous phase. The velocity measurements in the homogeneous micro-model illustrate active and passive flow pathways and circulation regions near the fluid-fluid interfaces induced by shear. Moreover, the results for heterogeneous micro-models are presented and compared with those for homogeneous micro-models, which give valuable insight into flow processes at the pore scale in natural rock.

  5. Differential cross sections, measured with guided ion beams: applications to N + + N 2 and C 2H 2+ + C 2D 4 collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mark, S.; Gerlich, D.

    1996-09-01

    In gas phase ion chemistry, the guided-ion-beam (GIB) technique is well established for measuring reliable absolute integral cross sections over a wide range of collision energies. It is less known that the method is also well suited for recoil velocity distributions of product ions (the axial component is determined by using the time-off-flight method (GIB-TOF), the transverse component by guiding field variation (GIB-VAR)). This additional information can be used as a diagnostic tool and helps to unravel the energetics of competing reaction pathways. In general, it allows determination of absolute doubly differential cross sections with very high sensitivity and in an energy and scattering angular range inaccessible to standard ion-beam methods. The experimental part of this paper describes the technique in detail, its difficulties and advantages and the required experimental test procedures. Numerical simulations aid the understanding of the kinematics and the shortfalls of the technique, mainly caused by the random motion of the gas in the scattering cell. The results section briefly summarizes already published product velocity distributions obtained for simple systems. New measurements will be presented for two collision systems, N + + N 2 and C 2H 2+C 2D 4. For the first one, product velocity distributions provide information on the role of excited states of both reactants and products. In combination with new ab initio calculations of the N 3+ potential surface [F.R. Bennett et al., Chem. Phys., this issue] the role of barriers and nonadiabatic interactions is elucidated. In the case of the more complicated hydrocarbon system, the method allows us to distinguish between products of same mass but different isotopic compositions. In addition, different reaction pathways are identified and hints to barrier heights are extracted from the product velocity distributions.

  6. 2D semiconductor optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novoselov, Kostya

    The advent of graphene and related 2D materials has recently led to a new technology: heterostructures based on these atomically thin crystals. The paradigm proved itself extremely versatile and led to rapid demonstration of tunnelling diodes with negative differential resistance, tunnelling transistors, photovoltaic devices, etc. By taking the complexity and functionality of such van der Waals heterostructures to the next level we introduce quantum wells engineered with one atomic plane precision. Light emission from such quantum wells, quantum dots and polaritonic effects will be discussed.

  7. The CU 2-D-MAX-DOAS instrument – Part 2: Raman scattering probability measurements and retrieval of aerosol optical properties

    DOE PAGES

    Ortega, Ivan; Coburn, Sean; Berg, Larry K.; ...

    2016-08-23

    In this study, the multiannual global mean of aerosol optical depth at 550 nm (AOD550) over land is ~0.19, and that over oceans is ~0.13. About 45 % of the Earth surface shows AOD550 smaller than 0.1. There is a need for measurement techniques that are optimized to measure aerosol optical properties under low AOD conditions. We present an inherently calibrated retrieval (i.e., no need for radiance calibration) to simultaneously measure AOD and the aerosol phase function parameter, g, based on measurements of azimuth distributions of the Raman scattering probability (RSP), the near-absolute rotational Raman scattering (RRS) intensity. We employmore » radiative transfer model simulations to show that for solar azimuth RSP measurements at solar elevation and solar zenith angle (SZA) smaller than 80°, RSP is insensitive to the vertical distribution of aerosols and maximally sensitive to changes in AOD and g under near-molecular scattering conditions. The University of Colorado two-dimensional Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CU 2-D-MAX-DOAS) instrument was deployed as part of the Two Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) at Cape Cod, MA, during the summer of 2012 to measure direct sun spectra and RSP from scattered light spectra at solar relative azimuth angles (SRAAs) between 5 and 170°. During two case study days with (1) high aerosol load (17 July, 0.3 < AOD430 < 0.6) and (2) near-molecular scattering conditions (22 July, AOD430 < 0.13) we compare RSP-based retrievals of AOD430 and g with data from a co-located CIMEL sun photometer, Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR), and an airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL-2). The average difference (relative to DOAS) for AOD430 is +0.012 ± 0.023 (CIMEL), –0.012 ± 0.024 (MFRSR), –0.011 ± 0.014 (HSRL-2), and +0.023 ± 0.013 (CIMELAOD –MFRSRAOD) and yields the following expressions for correlations between different instruments: DOASAOD = –(0.019

  8. Finger bone immaturity and 2D:4D ratio measurement error in the assessment of the hyperandrogenic hypothesis for the etiology of autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Michael S; Houston, Allison S; Mills, James L; Molloy, Cynthia A; Hediger, Mary L

    2010-06-01

    Emerging hypotheses suggest a causal role for prenatal androgen exposure in some cases of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The ratios of the lengths of the bones of the 2nd to the 4th digit (2D:4D) are purported to be markers for prenatal androgen exposure and to be established early in gestation. Elongation of the 4th digit in response to testosterone is said to reduce 2D:4D in males versus females. We examined the ratios of bones from the left hand radiographs of 75 boys and 6 girls 4-8 years of age, diagnosed with ASD, to evaluate digit ratio as a marker for gestational androgen exposure. Contrary to our expectations, girls had reduced 2D:4D compared to boys but the difference was not significant (Cohen's D 0.51-0.66, P>0.05). The limited sample size for this study and the absence of a referent group precluded providing robust estimates for girls and identifying possible statistical differences between the sexes. Tanner-Whitehouse 3 (TW3) rating of finger bone growth suggested relative immaturity of the 4th relative to the 2nd digits. Positive correlations were detected for 2D:4D ratios, body mass index (r=0.23, P=0.039), chronologic age (r=0.35, P=0.001), and skeletal age (r=0.42, P<0.0001). The TW3 ratings and associations between 2D:4D ratios and indicators of growth suggest that digits develop at different rates. This asynchronous development may produce differences in 2D:4D over time which could lead to erroneous interpretation of androgen exposure in utero among young ASD children. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Finger bone immaturity and 2D:4D ratio measurement error in the assessment of the hyperandrogenic hypothesis for the etiology of autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, Michael S.; Houston, Allison S.; Mills, James L.; Molloy, Cynthia A.; Hediger, Mary L.

    2010-01-01

    Emerging hypotheses suggest a causal role for prenatal androgen exposure in some cases of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The ratios of the lengths of the bones of the 2nd to the 4th digit (2D:4D) are purported to be markers for prenatal androgen exposure and to be established early in gestation. Elongation of the 4th digit in response to testosterone is said to reduce 2D:4D in males versus females. We examined the ratios of bones from the left hand radiographs of 75 boys and 6 girls 4–8 years of age, diagnosed with ASD, to evaluate digit ratio as a marker for gestational androgen exposure. Contrary to our expectations, girls had reduced 2D:4D compared to boys but the difference was not significant (Cohen’s D 0.51–0.66, P>0.05). The limited sample size for this study and the absence of a referent group precluded providing robust estimates for girls and identifying possible statistical differences between the sexes. Tanner-Whitehouse 3 (TW3) rating of finger bone growth suggested relative immaturity of the 4th relative to the 2nd digits. Positive correlations were detected for 2D:4D ratios, body mass index (r=0.23, P=0.039), chronologic age (r=0.35, P=0.001), and skeletal age (r=0.42, P<0.0001). The TW3 ratings and associations between 2D:4D ratios and indicators of growth suggest that digits develop at different rates. This asynchronous development may produce differences in 2D:4D over time which could lead to erroneous interpretation of androgen exposure in utero among young ASD children. PMID:20093135

  10. Quantitative 2D liquid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    Giraudeau, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) liquid-state NMR has a very high potential to simultaneously determine the absolute concentration of small molecules in complex mixtures, thanks to its capacity to separate overlapping resonances. However, it suffers from two main drawbacks that probably explain its relatively late development. First, the 2D NMR signal is strongly molecule-dependent and site-dependent; second, the long duration of 2D NMR experiments prevents its general use for high-throughput quantitative applications and affects its quantitative performance. Fortunately, the last 10 years has witnessed an increasing number of contributions where quantitative approaches based on 2D NMR were developed and applied to solve real analytical issues. This review aims at presenting these recent efforts to reach a high trueness and precision in quantitative measurements by 2D NMR. After highlighting the interest of 2D NMR for quantitative analysis, the different strategies to determine the absolute concentrations from 2D NMR spectra are described and illustrated by recent applications. The last part of the manuscript concerns the recent development of fast quantitative 2D NMR approaches, aiming at reducing the experiment duration while preserving - or even increasing - the analytical performance. We hope that this comprehensive review will help readers to apprehend the current landscape of quantitative 2D NMR, as well as the perspectives that may arise from it.

  11. 2D Modelling of the Gorkha earthquake through the joint exploitation of Sentinel 1-A DInSAR measurements and geological, structural and seismological information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Novellis, Vincenzo; Castaldo, Raffaele; Solaro, Giuseppe; De Luca, Claudio; Pepe, Susi; Bonano, Manuela; Casu, Francesco; Zinno, Ivana; Manunta, Michele; Lanari, Riccardo; Tizzani, Pietro

    2016-04-01

    A Mw 7.8 earthquake struck Nepal on 25 April 2015 at 06:11:26 UTC, killing more than 9,000 people, injuring more than 23,000 and producing extensive damages. The main seismic event, known as the Gorkha earthquake, had its epicenter localized at ~82 km NW of the Kathmandu city and the hypocenter at a depth of approximately 15 km. After the main shock event, about 100 aftershocks occurred during the following months, propagating toward the south-east direction; in particular, the most energetic shocks were the Mw 6.7 and Mw 7.3 occurred on 26 April and 12 May, respectively. In this study, we model the causative fault of the earthquake by jointly exploiting surface deformation retrieved by the DInSAR measurements collected through the Sentinel 1-A (S1A) space-borne sensor and the available geological, structural and seismological information. We first exploit the analytical solution performing a back-analysis of the ground deformation detected by the first co-seismic S1A interferogram, computed by exploiting the 17/04/2015 and 29/04/2015 SAR acquisitions and encompassing the main earthquake and some aftershocks, to search for the location and geometry of the fault plane. Starting from these findings and by benefiting from the available geological, structural and seismological data, we carry out a Finite Element (FE)-based 2D modelling of the causative fault, in order to evaluate the impact of the geological structures activated during the seismic event on the distribution of the ground deformation field. The obtained results show that the causative fault has a rather complex compressive structure, dipping northward, formed by segments with different dip angles: 6° the deep segment and 60° the shallower one. Therefore, although the hypocenters of the main shock and most of the more energetic aftershocks are located along the deeper plane, corresponding to a segment of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT), the FE solution also indicates the contribution of the shallower

  12. Detailed landfill leachate plume mapping using 2D and 3D electrical resistivity tomography - with correlation to ionic strength measured in screens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurya, P. K.; Rønde, V. K.; Fiandaca, G.; Balbarini, N.; Auken, E.; Bjerg, P. L.; Christiansen, A. V.

    2017-03-01

    Leaching of organic and inorganic contamination from landfills is a serious environmental problem as surface water and aquifers are affected. In order to assess these risks and investigate the migration of leachate from the landfill, 2D and large scale 3D electrical resistivity tomography were used at a heavily contaminated landfill in Grindsted, Denmark. The inverted 2D profiles describe both the variations along the groundwater flow as well as the plume extension across the flow directions. The 3D inversion model shows the variability in the low resistivity anomaly pattern corresponding to differences in the ionic strength of the landfill leachate. Chemical data from boreholes agree well with the observations indicating a leachate plume which gradually sinks and increases in size while migrating from the landfill in the groundwater flow direction. Overall results show that the resistivity method has been very successful in delineating the landfill leachate plume and that good correlation exists between the resistivity model and leachate ionic strength.

  13. Results of an attempt to measure increased rates of the reaction D-2 + D-2 yields He-3 + n in a nonelectrochemical cold fusion experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fralick, Gustave C.; Decker, Arthur J.; Blue, James W.

    1989-01-01

    An experiment was performed to look for evidence of deuterium fusion in palladium. The experiment, which involved introducing deuterium into the palladium filter of a hydrogen purifier, was designed to detect neutrons produced in the reaction D-2 + D-2 yields He-3 + n as well as heat production. The neutron counts for deuterium did not differ significantly from background or from the counts for a hydrogen control. Heat production was detected when deuterium, but not hydrogen, was pumped from the purifier.

  14. Frequency measurement of the 2S(1/2)-2D(3/2) electric quadrupole transition in a single 171Yb+ ion.

    PubMed

    Webster, Stephen; Godun, Rachel; King, Steven; Huang, Guilong; Walton, Barney; Tsatourian, Veronika; Margolis, Helen; Lea, Stephen; Gill, Patrick

    2010-03-01

    We report on precision laser spectroscopy of the 2S(1/2)(F = 0)-2D(3/2) (F = 2, m(F) = 0) clock transition in a single ion of 171Yb+. The absolute value of the transition frequency, determined using an optical frequency comb referenced to a hydrogen maser, is 688358979309310 +/- 9 Hz. This corresponds to a fractional frequency uncertainty of 1.3 x 10(-14).

  15. Fractal dimension as a measure of altered actin cytoskeleton in MC3T3-E1 cells under simulated microgravity using 3-D/2-D clinostats.

    PubMed

    Qian, A R; Li, D; Han, J; Gao, X; Di, S M; Zhang, W; Hu, L F; Shang, Peng

    2012-05-01

    Osteoblasts, the bone-forming cells, respond to various mechanical forces, such as stretch and fluid shear force in essentially similar ways. The cytoskeleton, as the load-bearing architecture of the cell, is sensitive to altered inertial forces. Disruption of the cytoskeleton will result in alteration of cellular structure and function. However, it is difficult to quantitatively illustrate cytoskeletal rearrangement because of the complexity of cytoskeletal structure. Usually, the morphological changes in actin organization caused by external stimulus are basically descriptive. In this study, fractal dimensions (D) analysis was used to quantify the morphological changes in the actin cytoskeleton of osteoblast-like cells (MC3T3-E1) under simulated microgravity using 3-D/2-D clinostats. The ImageJ software was used to count the fractal dimension of actin cytoskeleton by box-counting methods. Real-time PCR and immunofluroscent assays were used to further confirm the results obtained by fractal dimension analysis. The results showed significant decreases in D value of actin cytoskeleton, β-actin mRNA expression, and the mean fluorescence intensity of F-actin in osteoblast-like cells after 24 or 48 h of incubation under 3-D/2-D clinorotation condition compared with control. The findings indicate that 3-D/2-D clinorotation affects both actin cytoskeleton architecture and mRNA expression, and fractal may be a promising approach for quantitative analysis of the changes in cytoskeleton in different environments.

  16. The CU 2-D-MAX-DOAS instrument – Part 2: Raman scattering probability measurements and retrieval of aerosol optical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Ortega, Ivan; Coburn, Sean; Berg, Larry K.; Lantz, Kathy; Michalsky, Joseph; Ferrare, Richard A.; Hair, Johnathan W.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Volkamer, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    The multiannual global mean of aerosol optical depth at 550 nm (AOD550) over land is ~0.19, and that over oceans is ~0.13. About 45 % of the Earth surface shows AOD550 smaller than 0.1. There is a need for measurement techniques that are optimized to measure aerosol optical properties under low AOD conditions. We present an inherently calibrated retrieval (i.e., no need for radiance calibration) to simultaneously measure AOD and the aerosol phase function parameter, g, based on measurements of azimuth distributions of the Raman scattering probability (RSP), the near-absolute rotational Raman scattering (RRS) intensity. We employ radiative transfer model simulations to show that for solar azimuth RSP measurements at solar elevation and solar zenith angle (SZA) smaller than 80°, RSP is insensitive to the vertical distribution of aerosols and maximally sensitive to changes in AOD and g under near-molecular scattering conditions. The University of Colorado two-dimensional Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CU 2-D-MAX-DOAS) instrument was deployed as part of the Two Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) at Cape Cod, MA, during the summer of 2012 to measure direct sun spectra and RSP from scattered light spectra at solar relative azimuth angles (SRAAs) between 5 and 170°. During two case study days with (1) high aerosol load (17 July, 0.3 < AOD430 < 0.6) and (2) near-molecular scattering conditions (22 July, AOD430 < 0.13) we compare RSP-based retrievals of AOD430 and g with data from a co-located CIMEL sun photometer, Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR), and an airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL-2). The average difference (relative to DOAS) for AOD430 is +0.012 ± 0.023 (CIMEL), -0.012 ± 0.024 (MFRSR), -0.011 ± 0.014 (HSRL-2), and +0.023 ± 0.013 (CIMELAOD - MFRSRAOD) and yields the following

  17. 2D quasiperiodic plasmonic crystals

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Christina; Kobiela, Georg; Giessen, Harald

    2012-01-01

    Nanophotonic structures with irregular symmetry, such as quasiperiodic plasmonic crystals, have gained an increasing amount of attention, in particular as potential candidates to enhance the absorption of solar cells in an angular insensitive fashion. To examine the photonic bandstructure of such systems that determines their optical properties, it is necessary to measure and model normal and oblique light interaction with plasmonic crystals. We determine the different propagation vectors and consider the interaction of all possible waveguide modes and particle plasmons in a 2D metallic photonic quasicrystal, in conjunction with the dispersion relations of a slab waveguide. Using a Fano model, we calculate the optical properties for normal and inclined light incidence. Comparing measurements of a quasiperiodic lattice to the modelled spectra for angle of incidence variation in both azimuthal and polar direction of the sample gives excellent agreement and confirms the predictive power of our model. PMID:23209871

  18. 2D quasiperiodic plasmonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Christina; Kobiela, Georg; Giessen, Harald

    2012-01-01

    Nanophotonic structures with irregular symmetry, such as quasiperiodic plasmonic crystals, have gained an increasing amount of attention, in particular as potential candidates to enhance the absorption of solar cells in an angular insensitive fashion. To examine the photonic bandstructure of such systems that determines their optical properties, it is necessary to measure and model normal and oblique light interaction with plasmonic crystals. We determine the different propagation vectors and consider the interaction of all possible waveguide modes and particle plasmons in a 2D metallic photonic quasicrystal, in conjunction with the dispersion relations of a slab waveguide. Using a Fano model, we calculate the optical properties for normal and inclined light incidence. Comparing measurements of a quasiperiodic lattice to the modelled spectra for angle of incidence variation in both azimuthal and polar direction of the sample gives excellent agreement and confirms the predictive power of our model.

  19. Increased dopamine D2/D3 receptor binding after recovery from anorexia nervosa measured by positron emission tomography and [11c]raclopride.

    PubMed

    Frank, Guido K; Bailer, Ursula F; Henry, Shannan E; Drevets, Wayne; Meltzer, Carolyn C; Price, Julie C; Mathis, Chester A; Wagner, Angela; Hoge, Jessica; Ziolko, Scott; Barbarich-Marsteller, Nicole; Weissfeld, Lisa; Kaye, Walter H

    2005-12-01

    Several lines of evidence support the possibility that disturbances of dopamine (DA) function could contribute to alterations of weight, feeding, motor activity, and reward in anorexia nervosa (AN). To assess possibly trait-related disturbances but avoid confounding effects of malnutrition, 10 women who were recovered from AN (REC AN) were compared with 12 healthy control women (CW). Positron emission tomography with [(11)C]raclopride was used to assess DA D2/D3 receptor binding. The women who were recovered from AN had significantly higher [(11)C]raclopride binding potential in the antero-ventral striatum than CW. For REC AN, [(11)C]raclopride binding potential was positively related to harm avoidance in the dorsal caudate and dorsal putamen. These data lend support for the possibility that decreased intrasynaptic DA concentration or increased D2/D3 receptor density or affinity is associated with AN and might contribute to the characteristic harm avoidance or increased physical activity found in AN. Most intriguing is the possibility that individuals with AN might have a DA related disturbance of reward mechanisms contributing to altered hedonics of feeding behavior and their ascetic, anhedonic temperament.

  20. Radiofrequency Spectroscopy and Thermodynamics of Fermi Gases in the 2D to Quasi-2D Dimensional Crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chingyun; Kangara, Jayampathi; Arakelyan, Ilya; Thomas, John

    2016-05-01

    We tune the dimensionality of a strongly interacting degenerate 6 Li Fermi gas from 2D to quasi-2D, by adjusting the radial confinement of pancake-shaped clouds to control the radial chemical potential. In the 2D regime with weak radial confinement, the measured pair binding energies are in agreement with 2D-BCS mean field theory, which predicts dimer pairing energies in the many-body regime. In the qausi-2D regime obtained with increased radial confinement, the measured pairing energy deviates significantly from 2D-BCS theory. In contrast to the pairing energy, the measured radii of the cloud profiles are not fit by 2D-BCS theory in either the 2D or quasi-2D regimes, but are fit in both regimes by a beyond mean field polaron-model of the free energy. Supported by DOE, ARO, NSF, and AFOSR.

  1. Influence of Tricuspid Bioprosthetic Mitral Valve Orientation Regarding the Flow Field Inside the Left Ventricle: In Vitro Hydrodynamic Characterization Based on 2D PIV Measurements.

    PubMed

    Bazan, Ovandir; Ortiz, Jayme P; Fukumasu, Newton K; Pacifico, Antonio L; Yanagihara, Jurandir I

    2016-02-01

    The flow patterns of a prosthetic heart valve in the aortic or mitral position can change according to its type and orientation. This work describes the use of 2D particle image velocimetry (PIV) applied to the in vitro flow fields characterization inside the upper part of a left ventricular model at various heart rates and as a function of two orientations of stented tricuspid mitral bioprostheses. In the ventricular model, each mitral bioprosthesis (27 and 31 mm diameter) was installed in two orientations, rotated by 180°, while the aortic bileaflet mechanical valve (27 mm diameter) remained in a fixed orientation. The results (N = 50) showed changes in the intraventricular flow fields according to the mitral bioprostheses positioning. Also, changes in the aortic upstream velocity profiles were noticed as a function of mitral orientations.

  2. Advanced 2D die placement inspection system for reliable flip chip interconnections based on 3D information of die and substrate by a phase measuring profilometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyun-Kee; Kim, Min Young

    2011-05-01

    To use flip chip interconnection technology for semiconductor packages offers a number of possible advantages to the user: reduced signal inductance, reduced power/ground inductance, higher signal density, die shrink, and reduced package footprint. However, manufacturing processes for 'flip chip'-integrated packages need a high precision alignment between flip chip and matched substrate. Comparing with original visual alignment based on 2D image information, an advanced die placement inspection system for reliable flip chip interconnections has been firstly proposed by authors [2]. In this paper, the proposed system is reviewed briefly, and system calibration algorithms and information processing algorithms are described in detail. To verify the system performance, a series of real experiments is performed on flip chip packages for high performance computing, and its results are discussed in detail.

  3. 2D/3D switchable displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekker, T.; de Zwart, S. T.; Willemsen, O. H.; Hiddink, M. G. H.; IJzerman, W. L.

    2006-02-01

    A prerequisite for a wide market acceptance of 3D displays is the ability to switch between 3D and full resolution 2D. In this paper we present a robust and cost effective concept for an auto-stereoscopic switchable 2D/3D display. The display is based on an LCD panel, equipped with switchable LC-filled lenticular lenses. We will discuss 3D image quality, with the focus on display uniformity. We show that slanting the lenticulars in combination with a good lens design can minimize non-uniformities in our 20" 2D/3D monitors. Furthermore, we introduce fractional viewing systems as a very robust concept to further improve uniformity in the case slanting the lenticulars and optimizing the lens design are not sufficient. We will discuss measurements and numerical simulations of the key optical characteristics of this display. Finally, we discuss 2D image quality, the switching characteristics and the residual lens effect.

  4. 2-d Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, L. A.; Hallquist, J. O.

    1996-07-15

    ORION is an interactive program that serves as a postprocessor for the analysis programs NIKE2D, DYNA2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. ORION reads binary plot files generated by the two-dimensional finite element codes currently used by the Methods Development Group at LLNL. Contour and color fringe plots of a large number of quantities may be displayed on meshes consisting of triangular and quadrilateral elements. ORION can compute strain measures, interface pressures along slide lines, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. ORION has been applied to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.

  5. A 2D/3D image analysis system to track fluorescently labeled structures in rod-shaped cells: application to measure spindle pole asymmetry during mitosis.

    PubMed

    Schmitter, Daniel; Wachowicz, Paulina; Sage, Daniel; Chasapi, Anastasia; Xenarios, Ioannis; Simanis; Unser, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is frequently used as a model for studying the cell cycle. The cells are rod-shaped and divide by medial fission. The process of cell division, or cytokinesis, is controlled by a network of signaling proteins called the Septation Initiation Network (SIN); SIN proteins associate with the SPBs during nuclear division (mitosis). Some SIN proteins associate with both SPBs early in mitosis, and then display strongly asymmetric signal intensity at the SPBs in late mitosis, just before cytokinesis. This asymmetry is thought to be important for correct regulation of SIN signaling, and coordination of cytokinesis and mitosis. In order to study the dynamics of organelles or large protein complexes such as the spindle pole body (SPB), which have been labeled with a fluorescent protein tag in living cells, a number of the image analysis problems must be solved; the cell outline must be detected automatically, and the position and signal intensity associated with the structures of interest within the cell must be determined. We present a new 2D and 3D image analysis system that permits versatile and robust analysis of motile, fluorescently labeled structures in rod-shaped cells. We have designed an image analysis system that we have implemented as a user-friendly software package allowing the fast and robust image-analysis of large numbers of rod-shaped cells. We have developed new robust algorithms, which we combined with existing methodologies to facilitate fast and accurate analysis. Our software permits the detection and segmentation of rod-shaped cells in either static or dynamic (i.e. time lapse) multi-channel images. It enables tracking of two structures (for example SPBs) in two different image channels. For 2D or 3D static images, the locations of the structures are identified, and then intensity values are extracted together with several quantitative parameters, such as length, width, cell orientation, background fluorescence and

  6. Quantum coherence selective 2D Raman-2D electronic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Austin P.; Hutson, William O.; Harel, Elad

    2017-03-01

    Electronic and vibrational correlations report on the dynamics and structure of molecular species, yet revealing these correlations experimentally has proved extremely challenging. Here, we demonstrate a method that probes correlations between states within the vibrational and electronic manifold with quantum coherence selectivity. Specifically, we measure a fully coherent four-dimensional spectrum which simultaneously encodes vibrational-vibrational, electronic-vibrational and electronic-electronic interactions. By combining near-impulsive resonant and non-resonant excitation, the desired fifth-order signal of a complex organic molecule in solution is measured free of unwanted lower-order contamination. A critical feature of this method is electronic and vibrational frequency resolution, enabling isolation and assignment of individual quantum coherence pathways. The vibronic structure of the system is then revealed within an otherwise broad and featureless 2D electronic spectrum. This method is suited for studying elusive quantum effects in which electronic transitions strongly couple to phonons and vibrations, such as energy transfer in photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes.

  7. Quantum coherence selective 2D Raman–2D electronic spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Austin P.; Hutson, William O.; Harel, Elad

    2017-01-01

    Electronic and vibrational correlations report on the dynamics and structure of molecular species, yet revealing these correlations experimentally has proved extremely challenging. Here, we demonstrate a method that probes correlations between states within the vibrational and electronic manifold with quantum coherence selectivity. Specifically, we measure a fully coherent four-dimensional spectrum which simultaneously encodes vibrational–vibrational, electronic–vibrational and electronic–electronic interactions. By combining near-impulsive resonant and non-resonant excitation, the desired fifth-order signal of a complex organic molecule in solution is measured free of unwanted lower-order contamination. A critical feature of this method is electronic and vibrational frequency resolution, enabling isolation and assignment of individual quantum coherence pathways. The vibronic structure of the system is then revealed within an otherwise broad and featureless 2D electronic spectrum. This method is suited for studying elusive quantum effects in which electronic transitions strongly couple to phonons and vibrations, such as energy transfer in photosynthetic pigment–protein complexes. PMID:28281541

  8. Quantum coherence selective 2D Raman-2D electronic spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Austin P; Hutson, William O; Harel, Elad

    2017-03-10

    Electronic and vibrational correlations report on the dynamics and structure of molecular species, yet revealing these correlations experimentally has proved extremely challenging. Here, we demonstrate a method that probes correlations between states within the vibrational and electronic manifold with quantum coherence selectivity. Specifically, we measure a fully coherent four-dimensional spectrum which simultaneously encodes vibrational-vibrational, electronic-vibrational and electronic-electronic interactions. By combining near-impulsive resonant and non-resonant excitation, the desired fifth-order signal of a complex organic molecule in solution is measured free of unwanted lower-order contamination. A critical feature of this method is electronic and vibrational frequency resolution, enabling isolation and assignment of individual quantum coherence pathways. The vibronic structure of the system is then revealed within an otherwise broad and featureless 2D electronic spectrum. This method is suited for studying elusive quantum effects in which electronic transitions strongly couple to phonons and vibrations, such as energy transfer in photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes.

  9. Carbon Dioxide in a Supported Ionic Liquid Membrane: Structural and Rotational Dynamics Measured with 2D IR and Pump-Probe Experiments.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jae Yoon; Yamada, Steven A; Fayer, Michael D

    2017-08-16

    Supported ionic liquid membranes (SILMs) are porous membranes impregnated with ionic liquids (ILs) and used as advanced carbon capture materials. Here, two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) and IR polarization selective pump-probe (PSPP) spectroscopies were used to investigate CO2 reorientation and spectral diffusion dynamics in SILMs. The SILM contained 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonly)imide in the poly(ether sulfone) membrane with average pore size of ∼350 nm. Two ensembles of CO2 were observed in the SILM, one in the IL phase in the membrane pores and the other in the supporting membrane polymer. CO2 in the polymer displayed a red-shifted IR absorption spectrum and a shorter vibrational lifetime of the asymmetric stretch mode compared to the IL phase. Despite the relatively large pore sizes, the complete orientational randomization of CO2 and structural fluctuations of the IL (spectral diffusion) in the pores are slower than in the bulk IL by ∼2-fold. The implication is that the IL structural change induced by the polymer interface can propagate out from the interface more than a hundred nanometers, influencing the dynamics. The dynamics in the polymer are even slower. This study demonstrates that there are significant differences in the dynamics of ILs in SILMs on a molecular level compared to the bulk IL, and the study of dynamics in SILMs can provide important information for the design of SILMs for CO2 capture.

  10. Left ventricular infarct size, peri-infarct zone, and papillary scar measurements: A comparison of high-resolution 3D and conventional 2D late gadolinium enhancement cardiac MR.

    PubMed

    Peters, Dana C; Appelbaum, Evan A; Nezafat, Reza; Dokhan, Basem; Han, Yuchi; Kissinger, Kraig V; Goddu, Beth; Manning, Warren J

    2009-10-01

    To compare higher spatial resolution 3D late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (Cardiac MR) with 2D LGE in patients with prior myocardial infarction. Fourteen patients were studied using high spatial resolution 3D LGE (1.3 x 1.3 x 5.0 mm(3)) and conventional 2D LGE (2 x 2 x 8 mm(3)) scans. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were measured. Total infarct volume, peri-infarct volume measured in a limited slab, and papillary muscle scar volume were compared using Bland-Altman analysis. Image quality was graded. 3D LGE had higher scar SNR (P < 0.001), higher myocardial SNR (P = 0.001), higher papillary scar-blood CNR (P = 0.01), and greater sharpness (P = 0.01). The scar volumes agreed (14.5 +/- 8.2 for 2D, vs. 13.2 +/- 8.8 for 3D), with bias +/- 2 standard deviations (SDs) of 0.5 +/- 6.8 mL, P = 0.59 R = 0.91. The peri-infarct volumes correlated but less strongly than scar (P = 0.40, R = 0.77). For patients with more heterogeneous scar, larger peri-infarct volumes were measured by 3D (1.9 +/- 1.1 mL for 2D vs. 2.4 +/- 1.6 mL for 3D, P = 0.15, in the matched region). Papillary scar, present in 6/14 (42%) patients, was more confidently identified on 3D LGE. Higher spatial resolution 3D LGE provides sharper images and higher SNR, but less myocardial nulling. Scar volumes agree well, with peri-infarct volumes correlating less well. 3D LGE may be superior in visualization of papillary muscle scar. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Measurements of the Three Components of the Water Flow Around a Hydrodynamic Model in a Towing Tank with a 2D Laser Doppler Velocimeter System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-23

    Velocimeter. This device is used to measure the velocity distribution and to study the boundary layer around the back half of a l/12th scale model of a 22.5...so as to have a good repeatability in the measurements. At 11 knots for a full scale model, about three velocity measurements can be done per hour...mm. MODEL EXPERIMENTAL SETUP The model hull is a 1/I2th scale of n mono propeller, 22.5 meter fishi.ig boat presenting a transom stern. Figure 2

  12. [Evaluation of the usefulness of the EOS 2D/3D system for the measurement of lower limbs anatomical and biomechanical parameters in children].

    PubMed

    Schlégl, Adám Tibor; Szuper, Kinga; Somoskeöy, Szabolcs; Than, Péter

    2014-10-26

    Bevezetés: Az alsó végtag anatómiai és biomechanikai paraméterei számos gyermekortopédiai betegség kulcstényezői, így pontos mérésük elengedhetetlen. Célkitűzés: A szerzők célja a rendelkezésükre álló 3D rekonstrukcióra képes képalkotó eszköz, az EOS 2D/3D System gyermekkori alkalmazhatóságának vizsgálata volt. Módszer: A 2–16 éves korcsoportba tartozó 523 egyén 3D modellezését végezték el, akiknél az alsó végtag biomechanikáját befolyásoló eltérés nem igazolódott. Az adatok statisztikai feldolgozásához intraclass korrelációs vizsgálatot, páros t-próbát, Spearman-korrelációt, illetve Welch-tesztet alkalmaztak. Eredmények: A megbízhatósági vizsgálat során az operátor minden paraméter esetében kiváló eredményt ért el. A képalkotás során alkalmazott előrelépett pozíció egyedül a sagittalis tibifemoralis szögnél okozott eltérést. A szerzők által vizsgált összes paraméter összefüggést mutatott a korral és a nemmel. Ezzel szemben a magassággal nem mutatott összefüggést a collodiaphysealis szög, a csípő-térd eltolódás és a femoralis és tibialis torzió. Következtetések: Az EOS-technológia alkalmas módszernek bizonyult az alsó végtag anatómiai paramétereinek mérésére gyermekkorban. Ezek változása összefügg a nemmel és a korral egyaránt. Orv., Hetil., 2014, 155(43), 1701–1711.

  13. 2D potential measurements by applying automatic beam adjustment system to heavy ion beam probe diagnostic on the Large Helical Device

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, A. Ido, T.; Kato, S.; Hamada, Y.; Kurachi, M.; Makino, R.; Nishiura, M.; Nishizawa, A.

    2014-11-15

    Two-dimensional potential profiles in the Large Helical Device (LHD) were measured with heavy ion beam probe (HIBP). To measure the two-dimensional profile, the probe beam energy has to be changed. However, this task is not easy, because the beam transport line of LHD-HIBP system is very long (∼20 m), and the required beam adjustment consumes much time. To reduce the probe beam energy adjustment time, an automatic beam adjustment system has been developed. Using this system, required time to change the probe beam energy is dramatically reduced, such that two-dimensional potential profiles were able to be successfully measured with HIBP by changing the probe beam energy shot to shot.

  14. Analysis of downregulation of cellular energy demand by 2D measurements of intracapillary HbO2, Hb, pO2, and redox state of cytochromes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krug, Alfons; Kessler, Manfred D.; Hoeper, Jens; Zellner, S.; Sourdoulaud, Valerie

    1995-04-01

    Rapid microlightguide spectrometers (EMPHO IIa/b) and a multiwire pO2 electrode are applied for measurements of heterogeneous distribution of tissue oxygenation and redox state of respiratory enzymes in heart and rat liver. Optical and pO2 measurements are noninvasively performed by use of sensors placed on the surface of tissue. Measurements in isolated perfused rat and in dog heart in situ were performed in order to investigate the relation between myocardial oxygenation and function. The tissue monitoring in liver was initiated by optical and polarographic monitoring in the hemoglobin free perfused organ. Subsequently, erythrocytes were added to the perfusate in several steps. The experiments reveal clear evidence that a protective system of tissue is activated when critical pO2 values at the lethal corner of micro vessels fall off a critical threshold around 5 mmHg, thus causing a depletion of oxidative metabolism.

  15. Shubnikov-de Haas measurements of the 2-D electron gas in pseudomorphic In(0.1)Ga(0.9)As grown on GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szydlic, P. P.; Alterovitz, S. A.; Haugland, E. J.; Segall, B.; Henderson, T. S.

    1988-01-01

    Shubnikov-de Hass (SdH) measurements performed on a 200 A layer of pseudomorphic In(0.10)Ga(0.90)As grown by MBE on undoped GaAs with an overlayer of Al(0.15)Ga(0.85)As are presented. These measurements were performed in magnetic fields up to 1.4 tesla at T in the range of 1.4-10 K. It was found that only one subband was populated with a density of 5.8 x 10 to the 11/cm-squared and an effective mass at the Fermi level m(asterisk) = (0.060 + or - 0.001)m(0).

  16. Shubnikov-de Haas measurements of the 2-D electron gas in pseudomorphic In(0.1)Ga(0.9)As grown on GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szydlic, P. P.; Alterovitz, S. A.; Haugland, E. J.; Segall, B.; Henderson, T. S.

    1988-01-01

    Shubnikov-de Hass (SdH) measurements performed on a 200 A layer of pseudomorphic In(0.10)Ga(0.90)As grown by MBE on undoped GaAs with an overlayer of Al(0.15)Ga(0.85)As are presented. These measurements were performed in magnetic fields up to 1.4 tesla at T in the range of 1.4-10 K. It was found that only one subband was populated with a density of 5.8 x 10 to the 11/cm-squared and an effective mass at the Fermi level m(asterisk) = (0.060 + or - 0.001)m(0).

  17. Lifetime measurements on electronically excited C 2(A 1Π u) and C 2(d 3Π g) by laser-induced fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, W.; Becker, K. H.; Bielefeld, M.; Meuser, R.

    1986-01-01

    The radiative lifetimes of C 2(A 1Π u, ν'= 0 and 3) were determined by laser-induced fluorescence to be τ 0(0) = 18.5 ± 3 and τ 0(3) = 11.4 ± 2 μs. In addition, the lifetimes of C 2C 2(A 1Π u,ν' = 0 and 1) were measured as τ 0 = 106 ± 15 ns and 105 ± 15 ns, respectively. The error is 3σ.

  18. Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Actuators with Novel Geometries for Flow Modification: Experimental Measurements and Validation with a 2-D Fluid Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-30

    Dielectric barrier discharge ( DBD ) U U U UU 16 Noah Hershkowitz 608-831-5862 SF-298 Abstract / Contract No. FA9550-10-1-0565 Optical characteristics of...surface dielectric barrier discharge ( DBD ) plasma actuators with wire/planar electrodes were studied using an intensified charge-coupled device camera and...grounded planar electrode were observed for the first time. Time resolved velocity measurements of the air flow fields induced by planar DBD actuators

  19. Real-time application of critical dimension measurement of TFT-LCD pattern using a newly proposed 2D image-processing algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jeong-Ho; Kim, You-Sik; Kim, Sung-Ryoung; Lee, Il-Hwan; Pahk, Heui-Jae

    2008-07-01

    A critical dimension measurement system for TFT-LCD patterns has been implemented in this study. To improve the measurement accuracy, an imaging auto-focus algorithm, fast pattern-matching algorithm, and precise edge detection algorithm with subpixel accuracy have been developed and implemented in the system. The optimum focusing position can be calculated using the image focus estimator. The two-step auto-focusing technique has been newly proposed for various LCD patterns, and various focus estimators have been compared to select a stable and accurate one. Fast pattern matching and subpixel edge detection have been developed for measurement. The new approach, called NEMC, is based on edge detection for the selection of influential points; in this approach, points having a strong edge magnitude are only used in the matching procedure. To accelerate pattern matching, point correlation and an image pyramid structure are combined. Edge detection is the most important technique in a vision inspection system. A two-stage edge detection algorithm has been introduced. In the first stage, a first order derivative operator such as the Sobel operator is used to place the edge points and to find the edge directions using a least-square estimation method with pixel accuracy. In the second stage, an eight-connected neighborhood of the estimated edge points is convolved with the LoG (Laplacian of Gaussian) operator, and the LoG-filtered image can be modeled as a continuous function using the facet model. The measurement results of the various patterns are finally presented. The developed system has been successfully used in the TFT-LCD manufacturing industry, and repeatability of less than 30 nm (3 σ) can be obtained with a very fast inspection time.

  20. A comparison of 3-D computed tomography versus 2-D radiography measurements of ulnar variance and ulnolunate distance during forearm rotation.

    PubMed

    Kawanishi, Y; Moritomo, H; Omori, S; Kataoka, T; Murase, T; Sugamoto, K

    2014-06-01

    Positive ulnar variance is associated with ulnar impaction syndrome and ulnar variance is reported to increase with pronation. However, radiographic measurement can be affected markedly by the incident angle of the X-ray beam. We performed three-dimensional (3-D) computed tomography measurements of ulnar variance and ulnolunate distance during forearm rotation and compared these with plain radiographic measurements in 15 healthy wrists. From supination to pronation, ulnar variance increased in all cases on the radiographs; mean ulnar variance increased significantly and mean ulnolunate distance decreased significantly. However on 3-D imaging, ulna variance decreased in 12 cases on moving into pronation and increased in three cases; neither the mean ulnar variance nor mean ulnolunate distance changed significantly. Our results suggest that the forearm position in which ulnar variance increased varies among individuals. This may explain why some patients with ulnar impaction syndrome complain of wrist pain exacerbated by forearm supination. It also suggests that standard radiographic assessments of ulnar variance are unreliable.

  1. Simultaneous 2-D Measurements of Transient Velocity and Temperature Fields in a Thermal Starting Plume: Laboratory Models of Entrainment and Structure of Mantle Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, I.; Yanagisawa, T.; Kurita, K.

    2002-12-01

    Both numerical and experimental models of thermal plumes suggest that mantle plumes entrain surrounding mantle and their morphology (temperature and compositional fields in the plume head) evolves as they rise. Recent geochemical and isotopic studies of mantle plume products have revealed mixing of the ambient mantle with the primitive plume source. In order to make a quantitative comparison of the geophysical modeling with geological evidences, it is desired to show a precise image of spatial and temporal evolution of temperature and compositional fields in the plumes. Here, we present preliminary results of our laboratory experiments on thermal starting plumes using a quantitative technique of digital image processing. By coupling Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) with Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) we can measure simultaneous 2-dimensional transient velocity and temperature fields in a thermal plume. Our experiments were conducted in a transparent rectangular tank containing a viscous fluid. Buoyancy in the form of heat was injected into the fluid by operating a heater at the base of the tank. The flow was marked with tracer particles for velocity and with the fluorescence dye, Rhodamine B, for temperature measurements. The particles and the fluorescence dye were illuminated and exited by a thin vertical sheet of laser light that was oriented to contain the axis of symmetry. We succeeded in simultaneous measurements of ascent velocity of the plume head, precise velocity field within the plume head, and evolution of the temperature field. This makes clear their relation and is useful for considering the entrainment process of plumes. Our aim of this study is to clarify the physics of entrainment and mixing phenomena of starting plumes, and to make quantitative geophysical models of mantle plumes connecting with geological and seismic evidences. In this presentation, we will show that this quantitative technique is a powerful tool for approaching these issues.

  2. Quantitative planar and volumetric cardiac measurements using 64 MDCT and 3T MRI versus standard 2D and M-mode echocardiography: Does anesthetic protocol matter?

    PubMed Central

    Drees, Randi; Johnson, Rebecca A; Stepien, Rebecca L; Rio, Alejandro Munoz Del; Saunders, Jimmy H; François, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sectional imaging of the heart utilizing computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been shown to be superior for the evaluation of cardiac morphology and systolic function in humans compared to echocardiography. The purpose of this prospective study was to test the effects of two different anesthetic protocols on cardiac measurements in 10 healthy beagle dogs using 64-multidetector row computed tomographic angiography (64-MDCTA), 3T magnetic resonance (MRI) and standard awake echocardiography. Both anesthetic protocols used propofol for induction and isoflourane for anesthetic maintenance. In addition, protocol A used midazolam/fentanyl and protocol B used dexmedetomedine as premedication and constant rate infusion during the procedure. Significant elevations in systolic and mean blood pressure were present when using protocol B. There was overall good agreement between the variables of cardiac size and systolic function generated from the MDCTA and MRI exams and no significant difference was found when comparing the variables acquired using either anesthetic protocol within each modality. Systolic function variables generated using 64-MDCTA and 3T MRI were only able to predict the left ventricular end diastolic volume as measured during awake echocardiogram when using protocol B and 64-MDCTA. For all other systolic function variables, prediction of awake echocardiographic results was not possible (P = 1). Planar variables acquired using MDCTA or MRI did not allow prediction of the corresponding measurements generated using echocardiography in the awake patients (P=1). Future studies are needed to validate this approach in a more varied population and clinically affected dogs. PMID:26082285

  3. PIV, 2D-LIF and 1D-Raman measurements of flow field, composition and temperature in premixed gas turbine flames

    SciTech Connect

    Stopper, U.; Aigner, M.; Ax, H.; Meier, W.; Sadanandan, R.; Stoehr, M.; Bonaldo, A.

    2010-04-15

    Several laser diagnostic measurement techniques have been applied to study the lean premixed natural gas/air flames of an industrial swirl burner. This was made possible by equipping the burner with an optical combustion chamber that was installed in the high-pressure test rig facility at the DLR Institute of Combustion Technology in Stuttgart. The burner was operated with preheated air at various operating conditions with pressures up to p = 6 bar and a maximum thermal power of P = 1 MW. The instantaneous planar flow field inside the combustor was studied with particle image velocimetry (PIV). Planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) of OH radicals on a single-shot basis was used to determine the shape and the location of the flame front as well as the spatial distribution of reaction products. 1D laser Raman spectroscopy was successfully applied for the measurement of the temperature and the concentration of major species under realistic gas turbine conditions. Results of the flow field analysis show the shape and the size of the main flow regimes: the inflow region, the inner and the outer recirculation zone. The highly turbulent flow field of the inner shear layer is found to be dominated by small and medium sized vortices. High RMS fluctuations of the flow velocity in the exhaust gas indicate the existence of a rotating exhaust gas swirl. From the PLIF images it is seen that the primary reactions happened in the shear layers between inflow and the recirculation zones and that the appearance of the reaction zones changed with flame parameters. The results of the multiscalar Raman measurements show a strong variation of the local mixture fraction allowing conclusions to be drawn about the premix quality. Furthermore, mixing effects of unburnt fuel and air with fully reacted combustion products are studied giving insights into the processes of the turbulence-chemistry interaction. (author)

  4. A novel 2D and 3D method for automated insulin granule measurement and its application in assessing accepted preparation methods for electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantell, J.; Nam, D.; Bull, D.; Achim, A.; Verkade, P.

    2014-06-01

    Transmission electron microscopy images of insulin-producing beta cells in the islets of Langerhans contain many complex structures, making it difficult to accurately segment insulin granules. Furthermore the appearance of the granules and surrounding halo and limiting membrane can vary enormously depending on the methods used for sample preparation. An automated method has been developed using active contours to segment the insulin core initially and then expand to segment the halos [1]. The method has been validated against manual measurements and also yields higher accuracy than other automated methods [2]. It has then been extended to three dimensions to analyse a tomographic reconstruction from a thick section of the same material. The final step has been to produce a GUI and use the automated process to compare a number of different electron microscopy preparation protocols including chemical fixation (where many of halos are often distended) and to explore the many subtleties of high pressure freezing (where the halos are often minimal, [3]).

  5. A supervised texton based approach for automatic segmentation and measurement of the fetal head and femur in 2D ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Ye, Xujiong; Lambrou, Tryphon; Duan, Wenting; Allinson, Nigel; Dudley, Nicholas J.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a supervised texton based approach for the accurate segmentation and measurement of ultrasound fetal head (BPD, OFD, HC) and femur (FL). The method consists of several steps. First, a non-linear diffusion technique is utilized to reduce the speckle noise. Then, based on the assumption that cross sectional intensity profiles of skull and femur can be approximated by Gaussian-like curves, a multi-scale and multi-orientation filter bank is designed to extract texton features specific to ultrasound fetal anatomic structure. The extracted texton cues, together with multi-scale local brightness, are then built into a unified framework for boundary detection of ultrasound fetal head and femur. Finally, for fetal head, a direct least square ellipse fitting method is used to construct a closed head contour, whilst, for fetal femur a closed contour is produced by connecting the detected femur boundaries. The presented method is demonstrated to be promising for clinical applications. Overall the evaluation results of fetal head segmentation and measurement from our method are comparable with the inter-observer difference of experts, with the best average precision of 96.85%, the maximum symmetric contour distance (MSD) of 1.46 mm, average symmetric contour distance (ASD) of 0.53 mm while for fetal femur, the overall performance of our method is better than the inter-observer difference of experts, with the average precision of 84.37%, MSD of 2.72 mm and ASD of 0.31 mm.

  6. Spin Polarization of 2D Electrons in GaAs Quantum Wells at ν=1/2 from Gallium NMR Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freytag, N.; Horvatić, M.; Berthier, C.; Lévy, L.-P.; Melinte, S.; Bayot, V.; Shayegan, M.

    2000-03-01

    The spin polarization (\\cal P) of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in two GaAs/AlGaAs multiple-quantum-well heterostructures was probed by measurements of magnetic hyperfine shifts of gallium nuclei located in the quantum wells. The low temperature (50 mK <= T<= 10 K) nuclear magnetic resonance spectra were observed using a standard spin-echo technique(S. Melinte et al.), Phys. Rev. Lett. in press (cond-mat/9908098).. Here we report on the temperature and magnetic field-orientation dependence of \\cal P at Landau level filling factor ν =1/2. Our interpretation of the data relies on the concept of polarization mass (m_p) for composite fermions (CFs) introduced by Park and Jain(K. Park and J.K. Jain, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80), 4237 (1998).. The results in perpendicular magnetic fields (θ = 0) compare well to the simplest model for \\cal P, derived by assuming non-interacting CFs of mass m^*_p, carrying a spin, and with a g-factor the same as electrons. An unexpected behavior is observed when the 2DEG is tilted in the magnetic field; these θ neq 0 data do not agree with predictions by the non-interacting CF model by Park and Jain or the Hamiltonian model by Shankar(R. Shankar, cond-mat/9911288.).

  7. Extensions of 2D gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Sevrin, A.

    1993-06-01

    After reviewing some aspects of gravity in two dimensions, I show that non-trivial embeddings of sl(2) in a semi-simple (super) Lie algebra give rise to a very large class of extensions of 2D gravity. The induced action is constructed as a gauged WZW model and an exact expression for the effective action is given.

  8. Highly crystalline 2D superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yu; Nojima, Tsutomu; Iwasa, Yoshihiro

    2017-02-01

    Recent advances in materials fabrication have enabled the manufacturing of ordered 2D electron systems, such as heterogeneous interfaces, atomic layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy, exfoliated thin flakes and field-effect devices. These 2D electron systems are highly crystalline, and some of them, despite their single-layer thickness, exhibit a sheet resistance more than an order of magnitude lower than that of conventional amorphous or granular thin films. In this Review, we explore recent developments in the field of highly crystalline 2D superconductors and highlight the unprecedented physical properties of these systems. In particular, we explore the quantum metallic state (or possible metallic ground state), the quantum Griffiths phase observed in out-of-plane magnetic fields and the superconducting state maintained in anomalously large in-plane magnetic fields. These phenomena are examined in the context of weakened disorder and/or broken spatial inversion symmetry. We conclude with a discussion of how these unconventional properties make highly crystalline 2D systems promising platforms for the exploration of new quantum physics and high-temperature superconductors.

  9. Highly crystalline 2D superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yu; Nojima, Tsutomu; Iwasa, Yoshihiro

    2016-12-01

    Recent advances in materials fabrication have enabled the manufacturing of ordered 2D electron systems, such as heterogeneous interfaces, atomic layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy, exfoliated thin flakes and field-effect devices. These 2D electron systems are highly crystalline, and some of them, despite their single-layer thickness, exhibit a sheet resistance more than an order of magnitude lower than that of conventional amorphous or granular thin films. In this Review, we explore recent developments in the field of highly crystalline 2D superconductors and highlight the unprecedented physical properties of these systems. In particular, we explore the quantum metallic state (or possible metallic ground state), the quantum Griffiths phase observed in out-of-plane magnetic fields and the superconducting state maintained in anomalously large in-plane magnetic fields. These phenomena are examined in the context of weakened disorder and/or broken spatial inversion symmetry. We conclude with a discussion of how these unconventional properties make highly crystalline 2D systems promising platforms for the exploration of new quantum physics and high-temperature superconductors.

  10. A dosimetric study of a heterogeneous phantom for lung stereotactic body radiation therapy comparing Monte Carlo and pencil beam calculations to dose distributions measured with a 2-D diode array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curley, Casey Michael

    Monte Carlo (MC) and Pencil Beam (PB) calculations are compared to their measured planar dose distributions using a 2-D diode array for lung Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT). The planar dose distributions were studied for two different phantom types: an in-house heterogeneous phantom and a homogeneous phantom. The motivation is to mimic the human anatomy during a lung SBRT treatment and incorporate heterogeneities into the pre-treatment Quality Assurance process, where measured and calculated planar dose distributions are compared before the radiation treatment. Individual and combined field dosimetry has been performed for both fixed gantry angle (anterior to posterior) and planned gantry angle delivery. A gamma analysis has been performed for all beam arrangements. The measurements were obtained using the 2-D diode array MapCHECK 2(TM). MC and PB calculations were performed using the BrainLAB iPlan RTRTM Dose software. The results suggest that with the heterogeneous phantom as a quality assurance device, the MC calculations result in closer agreements to the measured values, when using the planned gantry angle delivery method for composite beams. For the homogeneous phantom, the results suggest that the preferred delivery method is at the fixed anterior to posterior gantry angle. Furthermore, the MC and PB calculations do not show significant differences for dose difference and distance to agreement criteria 3%/3mm. However, PB calculations are in better agreement with the measured values for more stringent gamma criteria when considering individual beam whereas MC agreements are closer for composite beam measurements.

  11. E-2D Advanced Hawkeye Aircraft (E-2D AHE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    and Homeland Defense. As a part of the E-2D AHE radar modernization effort, the Navy also invested in integrating a full glass cockpit and full...Communication Navigation Surveillance/Air Traffic Management capability. The glass cockpit will also provide the capability for the pilot or co-pilot to...hours at a station distance of 200nm Flat Turn Service Ceiling =>25,000 feet above MSL at mission profile =>25,000 feet above MSL at mission

  12. Piezoelectricity of 2D nanomaterials: characterization, properties, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jin; Meguid, S. A.

    2017-04-01

    The discovery of piezoelectricity in 2D nanomaterials represents a milestone towards embedding low-dimensional materials into future technologies. This article reviews recent progress in the characterization, properties evaluation, and applications of piezoelectricity of 2D piezoelectric nanomaterials (PNs). To begin, an introduction to the existing 2D PNs, which exhibit a wide range of atomic structures and configurations, is presented. The nanoscale measurements and associated experimental techniques as well as the atomic simulations of the piezoelectric properties of 2D PNs are then summarized. Some of the pertinent parameters, which govern the piezoelectric properties of 2D PNs, are discussed. Furthermore, our article concludes with some potential applications including piezotronics, piezophototronics, and energy harvesting of 2D PNs, which can open the doors to the innovative design of next-generation nanoelectronics and nanodevices. Finally, we highlight perspectives and challenges for the future development of 2D PNs.

  13. Extrinsic Cation Selectivity of 2D Membranes

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    From a systematic study of the concentration driven diffusion of positive and negative ions across porous 2D membranes of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), we prove their cation selectivity. Using the current–voltage characteristics of graphene and h-BN monolayers separating reservoirs of different salt concentrations, we calculate the reversal potential as a measure of selectivity. We tune the Debye screening length by exchanging the salt concentrations and demonstrate that negative surface charge gives rise to cation selectivity. Surprisingly, h-BN and graphene membranes show similar characteristics, strongly suggesting a common origin of selectivity in aqueous solvents. For the first time, we demonstrate that the cation flux can be increased by using ozone to create additional pores in graphene while maintaining excellent selectivity. We discuss opportunities to exploit our scalable method to use 2D membranes for applications including osmotic power conversion. PMID:28157333

  14. Assessment of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) lower limb measurements in adults: Comparison of micro-dose and low-dose biplanar radiographs.

    PubMed

    Rosskopf, Andrea B; Pfirrmann, Christian W A; Buck, Florian M

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate reliability of 2D and 3D lower limb measurements in adults using micro-dose compared to low-dose biplanar radiographs(BPR). One hundred patients (mean 54.9 years) were examined twice using micro-dose and low-dose BPR. Length and mechanical axis of lower limbs were measured on the antero-posterior(ap) micro-dose and low-dose images by two independent readers. Femoral and tibial torsions of 50 patients were measured by two independent readers using reconstructed 3D-models based on the micro-dose and low-dose BPR. Intermethod and interreader agreements were calculated using descriptive statistics, intraclass-correlation-coefficient(ICC), and Bland-Altman analysis. Mean interreader-differences on micro-dose were 0.3 cm(range 0-1.0)/ 0.7°(0-2.9) for limb length/axis and 0.4 cm (0-1.0)/0.8°(0-3.3) on low-dose BPR. Mean intermethod-difference was 0.04 cm ± 0.2/0.04° ± 0.6 for limb length/axis. Interreader-ICC for limb length/axis was 0.999/0.991 on micro-dose and 0.999/0.987 on low-dose BPR. Interreader-ICC for micro-dose was 0.879/0.826 for femoral/ tibial torsion, for low-dose BPR was 0.924/0.909. Mean interreader-differences on micro-dose/low-dose BPR were 3°(0-13°)/2°(0°-12°) for femoral and 4°(0-18°)/3°(0°-10°) for tibial torsion. Mean intermethod-difference was -0.1° ± 5.0/-0.4° ± 2.9 for femoral/tibial torsion. Mean dose-area-product was significantly lower (9.9 times;p < 0.001) for micro-dose BPR. 2D-and 3D-measurements of lower limbs based on micro-dose BPR are reliable and provide a 10-times lower radiation dose. • Lower limb length and mechanical axis can be reliably measured with micro-dose. • Femoral and tibial torsion can be reliably assessed with micro-dose. • Micro-dose allows a huge reduction of radiation exposure.

  15. 2-D or not 2-D, that is the question: A Northern California test

    SciTech Connect

    Mayeda, K; Malagnini, L; Phillips, W S; Walter, W R; Dreger, D

    2005-06-06

    Reliable estimates of the seismic source spectrum are necessary for accurate magnitude, yield, and energy estimation. In particular, how seismic radiated energy scales with increasing earthquake size has been the focus of recent debate within the community and has direct implications on earthquake source physics studies as well as hazard mitigation. The 1-D coda methodology of Mayeda et al. has provided the lowest variance estimate of the source spectrum when compared against traditional approaches that use direct S-waves, thus making it ideal for networks that have sparse station distribution. The 1-D coda methodology has been mostly confined to regions of approximately uniform complexity. For larger, more geophysically complicated regions, 2-D path corrections may be required. The complicated tectonics of the northern California region coupled with high quality broadband seismic data provides for an ideal ''apples-to-apples'' test of 1-D and 2-D path assumptions on direct waves and their coda. Using the same station and event distribution, we compared 1-D and 2-D path corrections and observed the following results: (1) 1-D coda results reduced the amplitude variance relative to direct S-waves by roughly a factor of 8 (800%); (2) Applying a 2-D correction to the coda resulted in up to 40% variance reduction from the 1-D coda results; (3) 2-D direct S-wave results, though better than 1-D direct waves, were significantly worse than the 1-D coda. We found that coda-based moment-rate source spectra derived from the 2-D approach were essentially identical to those from the 1-D approach for frequencies less than {approx}0.7-Hz, however for the high frequencies (0.7{le} f {le} 8.0-Hz), the 2-D approach resulted in inter-station scatter that was generally 10-30% smaller. For complex regions where data are plentiful, a 2-D approach can significantly improve upon the simple 1-D assumption. In regions where only 1-D coda correction is available it is still preferable over 2

  16. Stationary afterglow measurements of the temperature dependence of the electron–ion recombination rate coefficients of {{\\rm{H}}}_{2}{{\\rm{D}}}^{+} and {{HD}}_{2}^{+} in He/Ar/H2/D2 gas mixtures at T = 80–145 K 

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plašil, Radek; Dohnal, Petr; Kálosi, Ábel; Roučka, Štěpán; Johnsen, Rainer; Glosík, Juraj

    2017-03-01

    We report measurements of the binary and ternary recombination rate coefficients of deuterated isotopologues of {{{H}}}3+. A cavity ring-down absorption spectrometer was used to monitor the fractional abundances of {{{H}}}3+, {{{H}}}2{{{D}}}+, {{HD}}2+ and {{{D}}}3+ during the decay of a plasma in He/Ar/{{{H}}}2/{{{D}}}2 mixtures. A dependence of the measured effective recombination rate coefficients on the helium buffer gas density was observed and hence both the binary and the ternary recombination rate coefficients for {{{H}}}2{{{D}}}+ and {{HD}}2+ were obtained in the temperature range 80–145 K.

  17. Valleytronics in 2D materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaibley, John R.; Yu, Hongyi; Clark, Genevieve; Rivera, Pasqual; Ross, Jason S.; Seyler, Kyle L.; Yao, Wang; Xu, Xiaodong

    2016-11-01

    Semiconductor technology is currently based on the manipulation of electronic charge; however, electrons have additional degrees of freedom, such as spin and valley, that can be used to encode and process information. Over the past several decades, there has been significant progress in manipulating electron spin for semiconductor spintronic devices, motivated by potential spin-based information processing and storage applications. However, experimental progress towards manipulating the valley degree of freedom for potential valleytronic devices has been limited until very recently. We review the latest advances in valleytronics, which have largely been enabled by the isolation of 2D materials (such as graphene and semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides) that host an easily accessible electronic valley degree of freedom, allowing for dynamic control.

  18. Unparticle example in 2D.

    PubMed

    Georgi, Howard; Kats, Yevgeny

    2008-09-26

    We discuss what can be learned about unparticle physics by studying simple quantum field theories in one space and one time dimension. We argue that the exactly soluble 2D theory of a massless fermion coupled to a massive vector boson, the Sommerfield model, is an interesting analog of a Banks-Zaks model, approaching a free theory at high energies and a scale-invariant theory with nontrivial anomalous dimensions at low energies. We construct a toy standard model coupling to the fermions in the Sommerfield model and study how the transition from unparticle behavior at low energies to free particle behavior at high energies manifests itself in interactions with the toy standard model particles.

  19. SU-E-T-634: Pre-Verification of FFF Prostate VMAT Plans with Gamma Method and DVHs Reconstructed Based On Measurements with 2D-ARRAY (PTW 1500) and OCTAVIUS 4D

    SciTech Connect

    Kruszyna, M; Adamczyk, M

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The aim of this work was to characterize the clinical correctness of FFF prostate treatment VMAT plans based on analysis of DVHs reconstructed from pre-verification 2D-arrays measurements. Methods: The new 2D ion chamber array 1500 with rotational phantom cylindrical Octavius 4D and Verisoft 6.1 software with DVH option (PTW, Freiburg) were used to determine the clinical usefulness of the treatment plans. Ten patients treated with VMAT high-fractionated (2 fraction x 7,5 Gy) FFF prostate plans (TrueBeam, Varian) were analyzed using the 3D gamma analysis by local dose method with a 5% threshold for various tolerance parameters DTA [mm] and DD [%] were 1%/1, 2%/2, 3%/3. Additional, based on the measurements of irradiation dose distributions and patients’ CT scans with contoured structures of organs, the DVHs were reconstructed using a software. The obtained DVHs were compared to planned dose distributions and the deviations were analysed with parameters: for CTV D50, D98, D2, and D25, D50, Dmax for OARs — rectum, bladder and left/right femoral heads. Results: The analyzed treatment plans passed gamma criteria (3/3%; 95%), the results obtained were as follow: mean value and standard deviation of gamma score for criteria (DTA[mm]/DD[%]): 1/1% (L53.3±3.2); 2/2% (L87.0±2.2); 3/3% (L97.5±0.9). In the DVH analysis, the highest differences were observed for OARs (especially for bladder): the mean percentage differences values for rectum, bladder and left/right femoral heads were: D25 (1.67; 6.83)%, D50 (0.18; 7.18; 1.53; 0.30)%, Dmax (−0.84; −1.64; 0.37; −4.63)%, respectively. For the CTV mean relative deviations for proper parameters were in good agreement with TPS: D98 (0.95±2.21)%, D50 (1.93±0.67)%, D2 (1.76±0.76)%. Conclusion: The gamma method is recommended tool for pre-verification analysis of correctness of treatment plans. Moreover, the scrutiny checking with reconstructed DVH gives additional, clinical information about quality of plan

  20. 2D transition metal dichalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzeli, Sajedeh; Ovchinnikov, Dmitry; Pasquier, Diego; Yazyev, Oleg V.; Kis, Andras

    2017-08-01

    Graphene is very popular because of its many fascinating properties, but its lack of an electronic bandgap has stimulated the search for 2D materials with semiconducting character. Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), which are semiconductors of the type MX2, where M is a transition metal atom (such as Mo or W) and X is a chalcogen atom (such as S, Se or Te), provide a promising alternative. Because of its robustness, MoS2 is the most studied material in this family. TMDCs exhibit a unique combination of atomic-scale thickness, direct bandgap, strong spin-orbit coupling and favourable electronic and mechanical properties, which make them interesting for fundamental studies and for applications in high-end electronics, spintronics, optoelectronics, energy harvesting, flexible electronics, DNA sequencing and personalized medicine. In this Review, the methods used to synthesize TMDCs are examined and their properties are discussed, with particular attention to their charge density wave, superconductive and topological phases. The use of TMCDs in nanoelectronic devices is also explored, along with strategies to improve charge carrier mobility, high frequency operation and the use of strain engineering to tailor their properties.

  1. A fast and simple method for simultaneous measurements of 25(OH)D, 24,25(OH)2D and the Vitamin D Metabolite Ratio (VMR) in serum samples by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Fabregat-Cabello, Neus; Farre-Segura, Jordi; Huyghebaert, Loreen; Peeters, Stéphanie; Le Goff, Caroline; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Cavalier, Étienne

    2017-10-01

    Rapid, easy and reliable measurement of the major vitamin D metabolites is required in order to fulfill the needs of a clinical routine laboratory. To overcome these challenges, we have developed and validated a LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 and D3, epi-25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Sample preparation was based on precipitation and centrifugation of 100μL of patient serum, followed by injection into the LC-MS/MS system. Samples from Vitamin D Standardization Program (n=80) and patient samples (n=281) have been compared with a reference LC-MS/MS method. For the analytical validation NIST and Labquality quality control materials were used. Mean intra-assay and inter-assay imprecision were <6.0 and 6.4% and mean recoveries were within 95-104%. LOQ's were 0.5μg/L for 24,25(OH)2D3, 1.1μg/L for 25(OH)D3 and epi-25(OH)D3 and 1.7μg/L for 25(OH)D2. A 3% bias obtained between the proposed and the reference method satisfies Vitamin D Standardization Program recommendations. We present a rapid, easy, reliable and cost-effective method completely adequate for routine testing, which permits the measurement of the ratio of 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D to 25-hydroxyvitamin D, Vitamin D Metabolite Ratio (VMR), in serum samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. From weakly to strongly interacting 2D Fermi gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyke, Paul; Fenech, Kristian; Lingham, Marcus; Peppler, Tyson; Hoinka, Sascha; Vale, Chris

    2014-05-01

    We study ultracold 2D Fermi gases of 6Li formed in a highly oblate trapping potential. The potential is generated by a cylindrically focused, blue detuned TEM01 mode laser beam. Weak magnetic field curvature provides highly harmonic confinement in the radial direction and we can readily produce single clouds with an aspect ratio of 230. Our experiments investigate the dimensional crossover from 3D to 2D for a two component Fermi gas in the Bose-Einstein Condensate to Bardeen Cooper Schrieffer crossover. Observation of an elbow in measurements of the cloud width vs. atom number is consistent with populating only the lowest transverse harmonic oscillator state for weak attractive interactions. This measurement is extended to the strongly interacting region using the broad Feshbach resonance at 832 G. We also report our progress towards measurement of the 2D equation of state for an interacting 2D Fermi gas via in-situ absorption imaging.

  3. Jamming in 2D Prolate Granular Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklin, Scott

    2003-11-01

    We have been looking at how 2D piles of prolate (L/D>1) granular materials respond when disturbed. A test object is pushed slowly through a horizontal network of particles; the packing fraction and particle aspect ratio can be varied independently. Particles are cut from square brass rods; the square cross-section reduces the chances of a particle rolling on top of another and keeps the pile two-dimensinal. The initial condition of the pile is quantified with an orientational order parameter which measures the inter-particle alignment. At a critical packing fraction the pile jams and the force needed to push the test object through the pile increases. The jammed state also corresponds to an increase in the number of particles undergoing large-scale motion. This is revealed both in video analysis, which measures particle rearrangments within the pile, and in the number of particles that are pushed off the end of the table.

  4. Joint 2D and 3D phase processing for quantitative susceptibility mapping: application to 2D echo-planar imaging.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hongjiang; Zhang, Yuyao; Gibbs, Eric; Chen, Nan-Kuei; Wang, Nian; Liu, Chunlei

    2017-04-01

    Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) measures tissue magnetic susceptibility and typically relies on time-consuming three-dimensional (3D) gradient-echo (GRE) MRI. Recent studies have shown that two-dimensional (2D) multi-slice gradient-echo echo-planar imaging (GRE-EPI), which is commonly used in functional MRI (fMRI) and other dynamic imaging techniques, can also be used to produce data suitable for QSM with much shorter scan times. However, the production of high-quality QSM maps is difficult because data obtained by 2D multi-slice scans often have phase inconsistencies across adjacent slices and strong susceptibility field gradients near air-tissue interfaces. To address these challenges in 2D EPI-based QSM studies, we present a new data processing procedure that integrates 2D and 3D phase processing. First, 2D Laplacian-based phase unwrapping and 2D background phase removal are performed to reduce phase inconsistencies between slices and remove in-plane harmonic components of the background phase. This is followed by 3D background phase removal for the through-plane harmonic components. The proposed phase processing was evaluated with 2D EPI data obtained from healthy volunteers, and compared against conventional 3D phase processing using the same 2D EPI datasets. Our QSM results were also compared with QSM values from time-consuming 3D GRE data, which were taken as ground truth. The experimental results show that this new 2D EPI-based QSM technique can produce quantitative susceptibility measures that are comparable with those of 3D GRE-based QSM across different brain regions (e.g. subcortical iron-rich gray matter, cortical gray and white matter). This new 2D EPI QSM reconstruction method is implemented within STI Suite, which is a comprehensive shareware for susceptibility imaging and quantification. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. NKG2D ligands as therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Paul; Wu, Ming-Ru; Sentman, Marie-Louise; Sentman, Charles L.

    2013-01-01

    The Natural Killer Group 2D (NKG2D) receptor plays an important role in protecting the host from infections and cancer. By recognizing ligands induced on infected or tumor cells, NKG2D modulates lymphocyte activation and promotes immunity to eliminate ligand-expressing cells. Because these ligands are not widely expressed on healthy adult tissue, NKG2D ligands may present a useful target for immunotherapeutic approaches in cancer. Novel therapies targeting NKG2D ligands for the treatment of cancer have shown preclinical success and are poised to enter into clinical trials. In this review, the NKG2D receptor and its ligands are discussed in the context of cancer, infection, and autoimmunity. In addition, therapies targeting NKG2D ligands in cancer are also reviewed. PMID:23833565

  6. Observing the Great Plains Low-Level Jet Using the Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System (ACARS): A Comparison with Boundary Layer Profiler Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, P. S.; Basu, S.

    2009-12-01

    Wind resources derived from the nocturnal low-level jet of the Great Plains of the United States are a driving factor in the proliferation of wind energy facilities across the region. Accurate diagnosis and forecasting of the low-level jet is important to not only assess the wind resource but to estimate the potential for shear-induced stress generation on turbine rotors. This study will examine the utility of Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System (ACARS) observations in diagnosing low-level jet events across the Texas Panhandle. ACARS observations from Lubbock International Airport (KLBB) will be compared to observations from a 915 MHZ Doppler radar vertical boundary-layer profiler with 60m vertical resolution located at the field experiment site of Texas Tech University. The ability of ACARS data to adequately observe low-level jet events during the spring and summer of 2009 will be assessed and presented.

  7. Reconstruction-based 3D/2D image registration.

    PubMed

    Tomazevic, Dejan; Likar, Bostjan; Pernus, Franjo

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel 3D/2D registration method, where first, a 3D image is reconstructed from a few 2D X-ray images and next, the preoperative 3D image is brought into the best possible spatial correspondence with the reconstructed image by optimizing a similarity measure. Because the quality of the reconstructed image is generally low, we introduce a novel asymmetric mutual information similarity measure, which is able to cope with low image quality as well as with different imaging modalities. The novel 3D/2D registration method has been evaluated using standardized evaluation methodology and publicly available 3D CT, 3DRX, and MR and 2D X-ray images of two spine phantoms, for which gold standard registrations were known. In terms of robustness, reliability and capture range the proposed method outperformed the gradient-based method and the method based on digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs).

  8. Phonon thermal conduction in novel 2D materials.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiangfan; Chen, Jie; Li, Baowen

    2016-12-07

    Recently, there has been increasing interest in phonon thermal transport in low-dimensional materials, due to the crucial importance of dissipating and managing heat in micro- and nano-electronic devices. Significant progress has been achieved for one-dimensional (1D) systems, both theoretically and experimentally. However, the study of heat conduction in two-dimensional (2D) systems is still in its infancy due to the limited availability of 2D materials and the technical challenges of fabricating suspended samples that are suitable for thermal measurements. In this review, we outline different experimental techniques and theoretical approaches for phonon thermal transport in 2D materials, discuss the problems and challenges of phonon thermal transport measurements and provide a comparison between existing experimental data. Special attention will be given to the effects of size, dimensionality, anisotropy and mode contributions in novel 2D systems, including graphene, boron nitride, MoS2, black phosphorous and silicene.

  9. Phonon thermal conduction in novel 2D materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiangfan; Chen, Jie; Li, Baowen

    2016-12-01

    Recently, there has been increasing interest in phonon thermal transport in low-dimensional materials, due to the crucial importance of dissipating and managing heat in micro- and nano-electronic devices. Significant progress has been achieved for one-dimensional (1D) systems, both theoretically and experimentally. However, the study of heat conduction in two-dimensional (2D) systems is still in its infancy due to the limited availability of 2D materials and the technical challenges of fabricating suspended samples that are suitable for thermal measurements. In this review, we outline different experimental techniques and theoretical approaches for phonon thermal transport in 2D materials, discuss the problems and challenges of phonon thermal transport measurements and provide a comparison between existing experimental data. Special attention will be given to the effects of size, dimensionality, anisotropy and mode contributions in novel 2D systems, including graphene, boron nitride, MoS2, black phosphorous and silicene.

  10. Double resonance rotational spectroscopy of CH2D+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Töpfer, Matthias; Jusko, Pavol; Schlemmer, Stephan; Asvany, Oskar

    2016-09-01

    Context. Deuterated forms of CH are thought to be responsible for deuterium enrichment in lukewarm astronomical environments. There is no unambiguous detection of CH2D+ in space to date. Aims: Four submillimetre rotational lines of CH2D+ are documented in the literature. Our aim is to present a complete dataset of highly resolved rotational lines, including millimetre (mm) lines needed for a potential detection. Methods: We used a low-temperature ion trap and applied a novel IR-mm-wave double resonance method to measure the rotational lines of CH2D+. Results: We measured 21 low-lying (J ≤ 4) rotational transitions of CH2D+ between 23 GHz and 1.1 THz with accuracies close to 2 ppb.

  11. Phylogenetic tree construction based on 2D graphical representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Bo; Shan, Xinzhou; Zhu, Wen; Li, Renfa

    2006-04-01

    A new approach based on the two-dimensional (2D) graphical representation of the whole genome sequence [Bo Liao, Chem. Phys. Lett., 401(2005) 196.] is proposed to analyze the phylogenetic relationships of genomes. The evolutionary distances are obtained through measuring the differences among the 2D curves. The fuzzy theory is used to construct phylogenetic tree. The phylogenetic relationships of H5N1 avian influenza virus illustrate the utility of our approach.

  12. 2D Electrostatic Actuation of Microshutter Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Devin E.; Oh, Lance H.; Li, Mary J.; Jones, Justin S.; Kelly, Daniel P.; Zheng, Yun; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Moseley, Samuel H.

    2015-01-01

    An electrostatically actuated microshutter array consisting of rotational microshutters (shutters that rotate about a torsion bar) were designed and fabricated through the use of models and experiments. Design iterations focused on minimizing the torsional stiffness of the microshutters, while maintaining their structural integrity. Mechanical and electromechanical test systems were constructed to measure the static and dynamic behavior of the microshutters. The torsional stiffness was reduced by a factor of four over initial designs without sacrificing durability. Analysis of the resonant behavior of the microshutter arrays demonstrates that the first resonant mode is a torsional mode occurring around 3000 Hz. At low vacuum pressures, this resonant mode can be used to significantly reduce the drive voltage necessary for actuation requiring as little as 25V. 2D electrostatic latching and addressing was demonstrated using both a resonant and pulsed addressing scheme.

  13. 2D Electrostatic Actuation of Microshutter Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Devin E.; Oh, Lance H.; Li, Mary J.; Kelly, Daniel P.; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Moseley, Samuel H.

    2015-01-01

    Electrostatically actuated microshutter arrays consisting of rotational microshutters (shutters that rotate about a torsion bar) were designed and fabricated through the use of models and experiments. Design iterations focused on minimizing the torsional stiffness of the microshutters, while maintaining their structural integrity. Mechanical and electromechanical test systems were constructed to measure the static and dynamic behavior of the microshutters. The torsional stiffness was reduced by a factor of four over initial designs without sacrificing durability. Analysis of the resonant behavior of the microshutters demonstrates that the first resonant mode is a torsional mode occurring around 3000 Hz. At low vacuum pressures, this resonant mode can be used to significantly reduce the drive voltage necessary for actuation requiring as little as 25V. 2D electrostatic latching and addressing was demonstrated using both a resonant and pulsed addressing scheme.

  14. Absolute state-selected total cross sections for the ion-molecule reactions O + (4S,2D,2P)+H2(D2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Huang, Y.-L.; Flesch, G. D.; Ng, C. Y.

    1997-01-01

    Absolute total cross sections for the state-selected reactions of O+(4S,2D,2P)+H2 (D2) have been measured in the center-of-mass collision energy (Ec.m.) range of 0.02-12 eV. The cross sections for OH+ (OD+) from O+(2D)+H2 (D2) are slightly higher than those from O+(4S)+H2 (D2), whereas the OH+ (OD+) cross sections from O+ (2P)+H2 (D2) are ≈40% lower than those from O+(4S)+H2 (D2) and O+ (2D)+H2 (D2). At Ec.m.<0.5 eV, the total cross sections for OH+ (OD+) from O+ (4S)+H2 (D2) and O+(2D)+H2 (D2) are in accord with those predicted by the Langevin-Gioumousis-Stevenson model. Significantly higher cross sections are observed for H+ (D+) and H2+ (D2+) from O+(2D)+H2 (D2) and O+(2P)+H2 (D2), as compared to those from O+(4S)+H2 (D2). The exothermic nature of the O+(2D,2P)+H2 (D2) charge transfer collisions accounts for the high cross sections observed for H2+ (D2+). While the H+ (D+) ions observed in the O+(4S)+H2 (D2) reaction are identified with the H+ (D+)+O+H channel, the H+ (D+) ions from the reactions involving O+(2D) and O+(2P) are associated mostly with the H+ (D+)+OH (OD) channel, the formation of which obeys the spin-conservation rule. The comparison of the sum (σT) of cross sections for OH+ (OD+), H2+ (D2+), and H+ (D+) from O+(4S)+H2 (D2) to those from O+(2D)+H2 (D2) and O+(2P)+H2 (D2) shows that the σTs for O+(4S)+H2 (D2), O+(2D)+H2 (D2), and O+(2P)+H2 (D2) at Ec.m.<0.5 eV are comparable. At Ec.m.>0.5 eV, the σTs for O+(2P)+H2 (D2) are greater than those for O+(2D)+H2 (D2), which in turn are greater than those for O+(4S)+H2 (D2). This observation is attributed to the increase in the number of accessible product channels for reactions involving the excited O+(2D) and O+(2P) reactant ions.

  15. Comparison of 2D and 3D gamma analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Pulliam, Kiley B.; Huang, Jessie Y.; Howell, Rebecca M.; Followill, David; Kry, Stephen F.; Bosca, Ryan; O’Daniel, Jennifer

    2014-02-15

    be noted that clinical 2D versus 3D datasets may have additional differences—for example, if 2D measurements are made with a different dosimeter than 3D measurements. Factors such as inherent dosimeter differences may be an important additional consideration to the extra dimension of available data that was evaluated in this study.

  16. Intermittency in 2D Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldburg, Walter; Cerbus, Rory

    2013-03-01

    The existence of intermittency in three-dimensional turbulence is generally accepted, although with a variety of interpretations. However, the issue of intermittency in two- dimensional turbulence is unresolved. By measuring the velocity in a flowing soap film, we show that there is significant intermittency in both the enstrophy and energy cascades. The intermittency is characterized by the scaling exponents of velocity structure functions Sn (r) as well as the flatness F of velocity derivatives. Both show a strong Reynolds number dependence. However, unlike turbulence in three dimensions, the intermittency decreases with increasing Reynolds number. This work is supported by NSF grant No. 1044105, a Mellon fellowship, and the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology.

  17. Recovering 3D particle size distributions from 2D sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Olson, Daniel M.

    2017-03-01

    We discuss different ways to convert observed, apparent particle size distributions from 2D sections (thin sections, SEM maps on planar surfaces, etc.) into true 3D particle size distributions. We give a simple, flexible, and practical method to do this; show which of these techniques gives the most faithful conversions; and provide (online) short computer codes to calculate both 2D-3D recoveries and simulations of 2D observations by random sectioning. The most important systematic bias of 2D sectioning, from the standpoint of most chondrite studies, is an overestimate of the abundance of the larger particles. We show that fairly good recoveries can be achieved from observed size distributions containing 100-300 individual measurements of apparent particle diameter.

  18. Dominant 2D magnetic turbulence in the solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bieber, John W.; Wanner, Wolfgang; Matthaeus, William H.

    1995-01-01

    There have been recent suggestions that solar wind magnetic turbulence may be a composite of slab geometry (wavevector aligned with the mean magnetic field) and 2D geometry (wavevectors perpendicular to the mean field). We report results of two new tests of this hypothesis using Helios measurements of inertial ranged magnetic spectra in the solar wind. The first test is based upon a characteristic difference between perpendicular and parallel reduced power spectra which is expected for the 2D component but not for the slab component. The second test examines the dependence of power spectrum density upon the magnetic field angle (i.e., the angle between the mean magnetic field and the radial direction), a relationship which is expected to be in opposite directions for the slab and 2D components. Both tests support the presence of a dominant (approximately 85 percent by energy) 2D component in solar wind magnetic turbulence.

  19. ORION96. 2-d Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, L.A.; Hallquist, J.O.

    1992-02-02

    ORION is an interactive program that serves as a postprocessor for the analysis programs NIKE2D, DYNA2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. ORION reads binary plot files generated by the two-dimensional finite element codes currently used by the Methods Development Group at LLNL. Contour and color fringe plots of a large number of quantities may be displayed on meshes consisting of triangular and quadrilateral elements. ORION can compute strain measures, interface pressures along slide lines, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. ORION has been applied to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.

  20. [2D:4D finger ratio and language development].

    PubMed

    Albores-Gallo, L; Fernández-Guasti, A; Hernández-Guzmán, L; List-Hilton, C

    A possible hormonal influence in language development has been suggested in the recent years. The 2D:4D finger ratio is an indirect measure for prenatal androgen exposure. It is negatively related to prenatal testosterone and positively related to prenatal estrogen, resulting in a lower ratio for men and a larger ratio for women. It can be explored in children as young as 2 years old. To study if an association exists between the 2D:4D finger ratio and language development (vocabulary) and/or language problems. The lengths of the second digit (index finger) (2D) and the fourth digit (ring finger) (4D) were measured in 97 preschoolers and the Language Development Survey was administered to the parents. A weak negative correlation between language development (vocabulary) and right 2D:4D ratio was found in both sexes for children aged 4 or less years, significant only in boys. A strong negative correlation between language articulation problems and right 2D:4D ratio in both sexes for children aged 3 or less years, and a lower negative correlation between articulation problems and right 2D:4D ratio were found for boys aged 4 or less years. Findings suggest an important role for testosterone in language development (vocabulary) and a possible influence on articulation problems, probably through higher testosterone levels.

  1. Metrology for graphene and 2D materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollard, Andrew J.

    2016-09-01

    The application of graphene, a one atom-thick honeycomb lattice of carbon atoms with superlative properties, such as electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and strength, has already shown that it can be used to benefit metrology itself as a new quantum standard for resistance. However, there are many application areas where graphene and other 2D materials, such as molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), may be disruptive, areas such as flexible electronics, nanocomposites, sensing and energy storage. Applying metrology to the area of graphene is now critical to enable the new, emerging global graphene commercial world and bridge the gap between academia and industry. Measurement capabilities and expertise in a wide range of scientific areas are required to address this challenge. The combined and complementary approach of varied characterisation methods for structural, chemical, electrical and other properties, will allow the real-world issues of commercialising graphene and other 2D materials to be addressed. Here, examples of metrology challenges that have been overcome through a multi-technique or new approach are discussed. Firstly, the structural characterisation of defects in both graphene and MoS2 via Raman spectroscopy is described, and how nanoscale mapping of vacancy defects in graphene is also possible using tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS). Furthermore, the chemical characterisation and removal of polymer residue on chemical vapour deposition (CVD) grown graphene via secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is detailed, as well as the chemical characterisation of iron films used to grow large domain single-layer h-BN through CVD growth, revealing how contamination of the substrate itself plays a role in the resulting h-BN layer. In addition, the role of international standardisation in this area is described, outlining the current work ongoing in both the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) and the

  2. Staring 2-D hadamard transform spectral imager

    DOEpatents

    Gentry, Stephen M.; Wehlburg, Christine M.; Wehlburg, Joseph C.; Smith, Mark W.; Smith, Jody L.

    2006-02-07

    A staring imaging system inputs a 2D spatial image containing multi-frequency spectral information. This image is encoded in one dimension of the image with a cyclic Hadamarid S-matrix. The resulting image is detecting with a spatial 2D detector; and a computer applies a Hadamard transform to recover the encoded image.

  3. Annotated Bibliography of EDGE2D Use

    SciTech Connect

    J.D. Strachan and G. Corrigan

    2005-06-24

    This annotated bibliography is intended to help EDGE2D users, and particularly new users, find existing published literature that has used EDGE2D. Our idea is that a person can find existing studies which may relate to his intended use, as well as gain ideas about other possible applications by scanning the attached tables.

  4. 2D microscopic model of graphene fracture properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, Peter

    2015-05-01

    An analytical two-dimensional (2D) microscopic fracture model based on Morse-type interaction is derived containing no adjustable parameter. From the 2D Young’s moduli and 2D intrinsic strengths of graphene measured by nanoindentation based on biaxial tension and calculated by density functional theory for uniaxial tension the widely unknown breaking force, line or edge energy, surface energy, fracture toughness, and strain energy release rate were determined. The simulated line energy agrees well with ab initio calculations and the fracture toughness of perfect graphene sheets is in good agreement with molecular dynamics simulations and the fracture toughness evaluated for defective graphene using the Griffith relation. Similarly, the estimated critical strain energy release rate agrees well with result of various theoretical approaches based on the J-integral and surface energy. The 2D microscopic model, connecting 2D and three-dimensional mechanical properties in a consistent way, provides a versatile relationship to easily access all relevant fracture properties of pristine 2D solids.

  5. SEM signal emulation for 2D patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhov, Evgenii; Muelders, Thomas; Klostermann, Ulrich; Gao, Weimin; Braylovska, Mariya

    2016-03-01

    The application of accurate and predictive physical resist simulation is seen as one important use model for fast and efficient exploration of new patterning technology options, especially if fully qualified OPC models are not yet available at an early pre-production stage. The methodology of using a top-down CD-SEM metrology to extract the 3D resist profile information, such as the critical dimension (CD) at various resist heights, has to be associated with a series of presumptions which may introduce such small, but systematic CD errors. Ideally, the metrology effects should be carefully minimized during measurement process, or if possible be taken into account through proper metrology modeling. In this paper we discuss the application of a fast SEM signal emulation describing the SEM image formation. The algorithm is applied to simulated resist 3D profiles and produces emulated SEM image results for 1D and 2D patterns. It allows estimating resist simulation quality by comparing CDs which were extracted from the emulated and from the measured SEM images. Moreover, SEM emulation is applied for resist model calibration to capture subtle error signatures through dose and defocus. Finally, it should be noted that our SEM emulation methodology is based on the approximation of physical phenomena which are taking place in real SEM image formation. This approximation allows achieving better speed performance compared to a fully physical model.

  6. 2D Radiative Processes Near Cloud Edges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varnai, T.

    2012-01-01

    Because of the importance and complexity of dynamical, microphysical, and radiative processes taking place near cloud edges, the transition zone between clouds and cloud free air has been the subject of intense research both in the ASR program and in the wider community. One challenge in this research is that the one-dimensional (1D) radiative models widely used in both remote sensing and dynamical simulations become less accurate near cloud edges: The large horizontal gradients in particle concentrations imply that accurate radiative calculations need to consider multi-dimensional radiative interactions among areas that have widely different optical properties. This study examines the way the importance of multidimensional shortwave radiative interactions changes as we approach cloud edges. For this, the study relies on radiative simulations performed for a multiyear dataset of clouds observed over the NSA, SGP, and TWP sites. This dataset is based on Microbase cloud profiles as well as wind measurements and ARM cloud classification products. The study analyzes the way the difference between 1D and 2D simulation results increases near cloud edges. It considers both monochromatic radiances and broadband radiative heating, and it also examines the influence of factors such as cloud type and height, and solar elevation. The results provide insights into the workings of radiative processes and may help better interpret radiance measurements and better estimate the radiative impacts of this critical region.

  7. Ion Transport in 2-D Graphene Nanochannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Quan; Foo, Elbert; Duan, Chuanhua

    2015-11-01

    Graphene membranes have recently attracted wide attention due to its great potential in water desalination and selective molecular sieving. Further developments of these membranes, including enhancing their mass transport rate and/or molecular selectivity, rely on the understanding of fundamental transport mechanisms through graphene membranes, which has not been studied experimentally before due to fabrication and measurement difficulties. Herein we report the fabrication of the basic constituent of graphene membranes, i.e. 2-D single graphene nanochannels (GNCs) and the study of ion transport in these channels. A modified bonding technique was developed to form GNCs with well-defined geometry and uniform channel height. Ion transport in such GNCs was studied using DC conductance measurement. Our preliminary results showed that the ion transport in GNCs is still governed by surface charge at low concentrations (10-6M to 10-4M). However, GNCs exhibits much higher ionic conductances than silica nanochannels with the same geometries in the surface-charge-governed regime. This conductance enhancement can be attributed to the pre-accumulation of charges on graphene surfaces. The work is supported by the Faculty Startup Fund (Boston University, USA).

  8. Digit ratio (2D:4D) and postoperative pain perception.

    PubMed

    Kasielska-Trojan, Anna; Stabryła, Piotr; Antoszewski, Bogusław

    2017-07-01

    It has not been established whether sex differences in pain perception are influenced by prenatal sex hormones. Digit ratio as an indicator of prenatal hormone exposure can be used as a simple measure of the influence of prenatal hormones on pain sensitivity or perception in adulthood. The aim of this study was to determine a correlation between the 2D:4D ratio and pain perception in the postoperative period after rhinoplasty. A prospective cohort study of 100 patients (50 women of the mean age of 30.74±8.09years and 50 men of the mean age of 30.98±10.86years) who underwent posttraumatic rhinoplasty due to the nose trauma in Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery Clinic. The following measurements were taken the day before a surgery: body height, waist and hip circumference, II and IV digits' lengths and body weight. All subjects filled in a questionnaire including 0-10-point VAS scales to assess postoperative pain 1h after an operation (AO), 6h AO, 12h AO, 24h AO and 48h AO. Women with low 2D:4D reported significantly more pain 1h after an operation than women with high 2D:4D. Similar correlation was observed for low 2D:4D in women 48h AO. In men, low 2D:4D was associated with lower postoperative pain 12h AO (p=0.029). In conclusion, we showed that low 2D:4D in women was associated with high postoperative pain, and low right 2D:4D in men was associated with low postoperative pain. This may suggest that intrauterine estrogen exposure makes women more resistant to pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Rapid-scan coherent 2D fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Draeger, Simon; Roeding, Sebastian; Brixner, Tobias

    2017-02-20

    We developed pulse-shaper-assisted coherent two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy in liquids using fluorescence detection. A customized pulse shaper facilitates shot-to-shot modulation at 1 kHz and is employed for rapid scanning over all time delays. A full 2D spectrum with 15 × 15 pixels is obtained in approximately 6 s of measurement time (plus further averaging if needed). Coherent information is extracted from the incoherent fluorescence signal via 27-step phase cycling. We exemplify the technique on cresyl violet in ethanol and recover literature-known oscillations as a function of population time. Signal-to-noise behavior is analyzed as a function of the amount of averaging. Rapid scanning provides a 2D spectrum with a root-mean-square error of < 0.05 after 1 min of measurement time.

  10. 2D Free-breathing Dual Navigator-gated Cardiac Function Validated against the 2D Breath-hold Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Dana C.; Nezafat, Reza; Eggers, Holger; Stehning, Christian; Manning, Warren J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To develop and validate a free-breathing cardiac cine acquisition, with potential to simplify cardiac MR studies, provide registered slices and increase spatial resolution. Materials and Methods A 2D free-breathing (FB) navigator-gated cine radial acquisition for cardiac function was developed which used two navigators (one placed prior to the QRS, and another 500 ms after the QRS complex, after systole) to provide complete motion-compensated assessment of systole, without loss of end-diastole. Eleven subjects were studied. Results The 2D FB method provided results visually and quantitatively similar to the 2D breath-hold (BH) methods. Comparison of volumes measured with the free-breathing to those measured by standard 2D BH cine resulted in mean bias ± 2 standard deviations of 1.0 ml ± 13.7 ml, 1.1 ml ± 7.6 ml, 3.0 g ± 18.8 g, and 0.3 %± 2.5%, for end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, and left-ventricular mass, and ejection fraction, respectively. Slice misregistration was identified in 4 (36%) of the BH studies, but none (0%) of the FB studies. In subjects with slice misregistration, there was greater discordance in LV volume measurements (P<0.05 for end-diastolic mass). Conclusion The free-breathing cine acquisition provided results qualitatively and quantitatively similar to 2D breath-hold methods with improved slice registration. PMID:18777547

  11. 2D free-breathing dual navigator-gated cardiac function validated against the 2D breath-hold acquisition.

    PubMed

    Peters, Dana C; Nezafat, Reza; Eggers, Holger; Stehning, Christian; Manning, Warren J

    2008-09-01

    To develop and validate a free-breathing cardiac cine acquisition, with potential to simplify cardiac MR studies, provide registered slices, and increase spatial resolution. A 2D free-breathing (FB) navigator-gated cine radial acquisition for cardiac function was developed that used two navigators (one placed prior to the QRS, and another 500 msec after the QRS complex, after systole) to provide complete motion-compensated assessment of systole, without loss of end-diastole. Eleven subjects were studied. The 2D FB method provided results visually and quantitatively similar to the 2D breath-hold (BH) methods. Comparison of volumes measured with FB to those measured by standard 2D BH cine resulted in mean bias+/-2 standard deviations of 1.0 mL+/-13.7 mL, 1.1 mL+/-7.6 mL, 3.0 g+/-18.8 g, and 0.3%+/-2.5%, for end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, left ventricular (LV) mass, and ejection fraction, respectively. Slice misregistration was identified in four (36%) of the BH studies, but none (0%) of the FB studies. In subjects with slice misregistration, there was greater discordance in LV volume measurements (P<0.05 for end-diastolic mass). The FB cine acquisition provided results qualitatively and quantitatively similar to 2D BH methods with improved slice registration. Copyright (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. The agreement between 3D, standard 2D and triplane 2D speckle tracking: effects of image quality and 3D volume rate.

    PubMed

    Trache, Tudor; Stöbe, Stephan; Tarr, Adrienn; Pfeiffer, Dietrich; Hagendorff, Andreas

    2014-12-01

    Comparison of 3D and 2D speckle tracking performed on standard 2D and triplane 2D datasets of normal and pathological left ventricular (LV) wall-motion patterns with a focus on the effect that 3D volume rate (3DVR), image quality and tracking artifacts have on the agreement between 2D and 3D speckle tracking. 37 patients with normal LV function and 18 patients with ischaemic wall-motion abnormalities underwent 2D and 3D echocardiography, followed by offline speckle tracking measurements. The values of 3D global, regional and segmental strain were compared with the standard 2D and triplane 2D strain values. Correlation analysis with the LV ejection fraction (LVEF) was also performed. The 3D and 2D global strain values correlated good in both normally and abnormally contracting hearts, though systematic differences between the two methods were observed. Of the 3D strain parameters, the area strain showed the best correlation with the LVEF. The numerical agreement of 3D and 2D analyses varied significantly with the volume rate and image quality of the 3D datasets. The highest correlation between 2D and 3D peak systolic strain values was found between 3D area and standard 2D longitudinal strain. Regional wall-motion abnormalities were similarly detected by 2D and 3D speckle tracking. 2DST of triplane datasets showed similar results to those of conventional 2D datasets. 2D and 3D speckle tracking similarly detect normal and pathological wall-motion patterns. Limited image quality has a significant impact on the agreement between 3D and 2D numerical strain values.

  13. The agreement between 3D, standard 2D and triplane 2D speckle tracking: effects of image quality and 3D volume rate

    PubMed Central

    Stöbe, Stephan; Tarr, Adrienn; Pfeiffer, Dietrich; Hagendorff, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Comparison of 3D and 2D speckle tracking performed on standard 2D and triplane 2D datasets of normal and pathological left ventricular (LV) wall-motion patterns with a focus on the effect that 3D volume rate (3DVR), image quality and tracking artifacts have on the agreement between 2D and 3D speckle tracking. 37 patients with normal LV function and 18 patients with ischaemic wall-motion abnormalities underwent 2D and 3D echocardiography, followed by offline speckle tracking measurements. The values of 3D global, regional and segmental strain were compared with the standard 2D and triplane 2D strain values. Correlation analysis with the LV ejection fraction (LVEF) was also performed. The 3D and 2D global strain values correlated good in both normally and abnormally contracting hearts, though systematic differences between the two methods were observed. Of the 3D strain parameters, the area strain showed the best correlation with the LVEF. The numerical agreement of 3D and 2D analyses varied significantly with the volume rate and image quality of the 3D datasets. The highest correlation between 2D and 3D peak systolic strain values was found between 3D area and standard 2D longitudinal strain. Regional wall-motion abnormalities were similarly detected by 2D and 3D speckle tracking. 2DST of triplane datasets showed similar results to those of conventional 2D datasets. 2D and 3D speckle tracking similarly detect normal and pathological wall-motion patterns. Limited image quality has a significant impact on the agreement between 3D and 2D numerical strain values. PMID:26693303

  14. Perspective: Echoes in 2D-Raman-THz spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamm, Peter; Shalit, Andrey

    2017-04-01

    Recently, various spectroscopic techniques have been developed, which can measure the 2D response of the inter-molecular degrees of freedom of liquids in the THz regime. By employing hybrid Raman-THz pulse sequences, the inherent experimental problems of 2D-Raman spectroscopy are circumvented completely, culminating in the recent measurement of the 2D-Raman-THz responses of water and aqueous salt solutions. This review article focuses on the possibility to observe echoes in such experiments, which would directly reveal the inhomogeneity of the typically extremely blurred THz bands of liquids, and hence the heterogeneity of local structures that are transiently formed, in particular, in a hydrogen-bonding liquid such as water. The generation mechanisms of echoes in 2D-Raman-THz spectroscopy are explained, which differ from those in "conventional" 2D-IR spectroscopy in a subtle but important manner. Subsequently, the circumstances are discussed, under which echoes are expected, revealing a physical picture of the information content of an echo. That is, the echo decay reflects the lifetime of local structures in the liquid on a length scale that equals the delocalization length of the intermolecular modes. Finally, recent experimental results are reviewed from an echo perspective.

  15. Matrix models of 2d gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsparg, P.

    1991-01-01

    These are introductory lectures for a general audience that give an overview of the subject of matrix models and their application to random surfaces, 2d gravity, and string theory. They are intentionally 1.5 years out of date.

  16. Matrix models of 2d gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsparg, P.

    1991-12-31

    These are introductory lectures for a general audience that give an overview of the subject of matrix models and their application to random surfaces, 2d gravity, and string theory. They are intentionally 1.5 years out of date.

  17. Brittle damage models in DYNA2D

    SciTech Connect

    Faux, D.R.

    1997-09-01

    DYNA2D is an explicit Lagrangian finite element code used to model dynamic events where stress wave interactions influence the overall response of the system. DYNA2D is often used to model penetration problems involving ductile-to-ductile impacts; however, with the advent of the use of ceramics in the armor-anti-armor community and the need to model damage to laser optics components, good brittle damage models are now needed in DYNA2D. This report will detail the implementation of four brittle damage models in DYNA2D, three scalar damage models and one tensor damage model. These new brittle damage models are then used to predict experimental results from three distinctly different glass damage problems.

  18. Chemical Approaches to 2D Materials.

    PubMed

    Samorì, Paolo; Palermo, Vincenzo; Feng, Xinliang

    2016-08-01

    Chemistry plays an ever-increasing role in the production, functionalization, processing and applications of graphene and other 2D materials. This special issue highlights a selection of enlightening chemical approaches to 2D materials, which nicely reflect the breadth of the field and convey the excitement of the individuals involved in it, who are trying to translate graphene and related materials from the laboratory into a real, high-impact technology.

  19. Brittle Fracture of 2D MoSe2

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Yingchao; Li, Xing; Wen, Minru; ...

    2016-11-03

    An in situ quantitative tensile testing platform is developed in this paper to enable the uniform in-plane loading of a freestanding membrane of 2D materials inside a scanning electron microscope. The in situ tensile testing reveals the brittle fracture of large-area MoSe2 crystals and measures their fracture strength for the first time.

  20. 2-D Imaging of Electron Temperature in Tokamak Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    T. Munsat; E. Mazzucato; H. Park; C.W. Domier; M. Johnson; N.C. Luhmann Jr.; J. Wang; Z. Xia; I.G.J. Classen; A.J.H. Donne; M.J. van de Pol

    2004-07-08

    By taking advantage of recent developments in millimeter wave imaging technology, an Electron Cyclotron Emission Imaging (ECEI) instrument, capable of simultaneously measuring 128 channels of localized electron temperature over a 2-D map in the poloidal plane, has been developed for the TEXTOR tokamak. Data from the new instrument, detailing the MHD activity associated with a sawtooth crash, is presented.

  1. In situ spazialisation of flow laws in a fractured media with multi-parametric measurements (pressure, deformation, water conductivity) and 2d coupled hydro-mechanical (h.m) modelling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charmoille, A.; Cappa, F.; Guglielmie, Y.

    2003-04-01

    decreasing. The simultaneous record of deformations in the drain and joint show us that joint deformation is effective after the drain opening. It is necessarily to have a sufficient water pressure in the drain to open the joint, thus the joint deformation is strongly dependent of the water pressure in the drain. When the pressure decreases in the drain, the stress stopped on the joint, and it happens a reduction of the joint aperture which induces a pressure fall less fast than the pressure fall in the drain. In the very low permeable area of the joint, it only happens a lightly decrease of pressure. In this investigation area, the joint opening is less important than in the low permeable area. During the pressure decrease in the drain, the joint closed, and the new affected permeability only permits water to slowly flow out of the joint. Then, we induce the second pressure increase when the pressure decrease in this area doesn’t finish. The reopening of the joint with the arrivals of water induces a new pressure increase which adds to the residual pressure, thus, it happens an accumulation of pressure in the joint. This observation shows us that the flow in the fractured media isn’t governed by the same parameters in a low permeable discontinuity or in a very permeable discontinuity. The conductivity measurements in the joint and in drain clearly highlight the channelling of a fracture plan. In this stratigraphic joint studied, the conductivity variations show the complexity of a joint surface. These variations of conductivity resulted of the water flow from one channel to another one induced by the pressure variations in the drain. The last stage of this research work consists of to analyse the hydro-mechanical (H.M) behaviour of the two studied discontinuities with the UDEC 2D numerical code. The procedures of modelling examine the coupled H.M effects of a jointed rock mass affected, in a first test, by an identical joint aperture in the network, and, in a second

  2. The digit ratio (2D:4D) in China: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yin; Zheng, Yong

    2015-01-01

    To explore the 2D:4D in China (mainland and Taiwan) and to analyze the influences of ethnicity, digit measurement methods, age, and latitude on Chinese 2D:4D. We here conducted a meta-analysis of the results of 28 studies. A total of 112 independent samples and 19,093 participants were included. The sex difference in left 2D:4D only approached significance when outliers were removed (P = 0.078), whereas the right 2D:4D was significantly lower in males compared to females, showing that the magnitude of sex difference was greater for the right hand than for the left hand. No significant differences were found in the 2D:4D between Han and ethnic minorities. The 2D:4D of samples measured using indirect digit measurement tended to be lower than in samples measured using direct digit measurement. Moreover, there were no effects of age and latitude on the 2D:4D in China. We concluded that the sex differences in Chinese 2D:4D are consistent with the results from western studies, and that genetic pool differences rather than latitude-related environmental variables affect the 2D:4D in China. In addition, 2D:4D measurements obtained by different digit measurement techniques should not be combined within one study, or used together in comparative studies. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Multimodal evaluation of 2-D and 3-D ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in measurements of the thyroid volume using universally applicable cross-sectional imaging software: a phantom study.

    PubMed

    Freesmeyer, Martin; Wiegand, Steffen; Schierz, Jan-Henning; Winkens, Thomas; Licht, Katharina

    2014-07-01

    A precise estimate of thyroid volume is necessary for making adequate therapeutic decisions and planning, as well as for monitoring therapy response. The goal of this study was to compare the precision of different volumetry methods. Thyroid-shaped phantoms were subjected to volumetry via 2-D and 3-D ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The 3-D US scans were performed using sensor navigation and mechanical sweeping methods. Volumetry calculation ensued with the conventional ellipsoid model and the manual tracing method. The study confirmed the superiority of manual tracing with CT and MRI volumetry of the thyroid, but extended this knowledge also to the superiority of the 3-D US method, regardless of whether sensor navigation or mechanical sweeping is used. A novel aspect was successful use of the same universally applicable cross-imaging software for all modalities.

  4. 2d-LCA - an alternative to x-wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puczylowski, Jaroslaw; Hölling, Michael; Peinke, Joachim

    2014-11-01

    The 2d-Laser Cantilever Anemometer (2d-LCA) is an innovative sensor for two-dimensional velocity measurements in fluids. It uses a micostructured cantilever made of silicon and SU-8 as a sensing element and is capable of performing mesurements with extremly high temporal resolutions up to 150 kHz. The size of the cantilever defines its spatial resolution, which is in the order of 150 μm only. Another big feature is a large angular range of 180° in total. The 2d-LCA has been developed as an alternative measurement method to x-wires with the motivation to create a sensor that can operate in areas where the use of hot-wire anemometry is difficult. These areas include measurements in liquids and in near-wall or particle-laden flows. Unlike hot-wires, the resolution power of the 2d-LCA does not decrease with increasing flow velocity, making it particularly suitable for measurements in high speed flows. Comparative measurements with the 2d-LCA and hot-wires have been carried out in order to assess the performance of the new anemometer. The data of both measurement techniques were analyzed using the same stochastic methods including a spectral analysis as well as an inspection of increment statistics and structure functions. Furthermore, key parameters, such as mean values of both velocity components, angles of attack and the characteristic length scales were determined from both data sets. The analysis reveals a great agreement between both anemometers and thus confirms the new approach.

  5. Sparse radar imaging using 2D compressed sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Qingkai; Liu, Yang; Chen, Zengping; Su, Shaoying

    2014-10-01

    Radar imaging is an ill-posed linear inverse problem and compressed sensing (CS) has been proved to have tremendous potential in this field. This paper surveys the theory of radar imaging and a conclusion is drawn that the processing of ISAR imaging can be denoted mathematically as a problem of 2D sparse decomposition. Based on CS, we propose a novel measuring strategy for ISAR imaging radar and utilize random sub-sampling in both range and azimuth dimensions, which will reduce the amount of sampling data tremendously. In order to handle 2D reconstructing problem, the ordinary solution is converting the 2D problem into 1D by Kronecker product, which will increase the size of dictionary and computational cost sharply. In this paper, we introduce the 2D-SL0 algorithm into the reconstruction of imaging. It is proved that 2D-SL0 can achieve equivalent result as other 1D reconstructing methods, but the computational complexity and memory usage is reduced significantly. Moreover, we will state the results of simulating experiments and prove the effectiveness and feasibility of our method.

  6. IUPAP Award: Ion transport in 2D materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Wenzhong

    Intercalation in 2D materials drastically influences both physical and chemical properties, which leads to a new degree of freedom for fundamental studies and expands the potential applications of 2D materials. In this talk, I will discuss our work in the past two years related to ion intercalation of 2D materials, including insertion of Li and Na ions in graphene and MoS2. We focused on both fundamental mechanism and potential application, e.g. we measured in-situ optical transmittance spectra and electrical transport properties of few-layer graphene (FLG) nanostructures upon electrochemical lithiation/delithiation. By observing a simultaneous increase of both optical transmittance and DC conductivity, strikingly different from other materials, we proposed its application as a next generation transparent electrode.

  7. 2d-retrieval For Mipas-envisat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steck, T.; von Clarmann, T.; Grabowski, U.; Höpfner, M.

    Limb sounding of the Earth's atmosphere provides vertically high resolved profiles of geophysical parameters. The long ray path through the atmosphere makes limb sounders sensitive to even little abundant species. On the other hand, horizontal in- homogeneities, if not taken into account properly, can cause systematic errors within the retrieval process. Especially for limb emission measurements in the mid IR, at- mopheric temperature gradients result in considerable vmr retrieval errors if they are neglected. We present a dedicated method of taking full 2D fields of state parameters (indepen- dent of tangent points) into account in the forward model and in the retrieval. The basic idea is that the 2D state vector is updated sequentially for each limb scan. This method is applied to the 2D retrieval of temperature and vmr for simulated radiances as expected from MIPAS-ENVISAT.

  8. 2D:4D Ratio and its Implications in Medicine.

    PubMed

    Jeevanandam, Saravanakumar; Muthu, Prathibha K

    2016-12-01

    Digit ratios, especially 2D:4D ratio, a potential proxy marker for prenatal androgen exposure shows sexual dimorphism. Existing literature and recent research show accumulating evidence on 2D:4D ratio showing correlations with various phenotypic traits in humans. Ratio of 2D:4D is found to correlate negatively to testosterone and positively to oestrogen in the foetus. Interestingly, it is constant since birth and not influenced by the adult hormone levels. Usually, males have lower ratios when compared to females. Prenatal androgen exposure and therefore, digit ratios have been reported to be associated with numerical competencies, spatial skills, handedness, cognitive abilities, academic performance, sperm counts, personalities and prevalence of obesity, migraine, eating disorders, depression, myopia, autism etc. The authors have attempted to write a brief account on the digit ratios and the dimorphism observed in various physiological, psychological and behavioural traits. Also, the authors have discussed the relevant molecular basics and the methods of measurement of digit ratios.

  9. 2D microwave imaging reflectometer electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Spear, A. G.; Domier, C. W. Hu, X.; Muscatello, C. M.; Ren, X.; Luhmann, N. C.; Tobias, B. J.

    2014-11-15

    A 2D microwave imaging reflectometer system has been developed to visualize electron density fluctuations on the DIII-D tokamak. Simultaneously illuminated at four probe frequencies, large aperture optics image reflections from four density-dependent cutoff surfaces in the plasma over an extended region of the DIII-D plasma. Localized density fluctuations in the vicinity of the plasma cutoff surfaces modulate the plasma reflections, yielding a 2D image of electron density fluctuations. Details are presented of the receiver down conversion electronics that generate the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) reflectometer signals from which 2D density fluctuation data are obtained. Also presented are details on the control system and backplane used to manage the electronics as well as an introduction to the computer based control program.

  10. Large Area Synthesis of 2D Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Eric

    Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have generated significant interest for numerous applications including sensors, flexible electronics, heterostructures and optoelectronics due to their interesting, thickness-dependent properties. Despite recent progress, the synthesis of high-quality and highly uniform TMDs on a large scale is still a challenge. In this talk, synthesis routes for WSe2 and MoS2 that achieve monolayer thickness uniformity across large area substrates with electrical properties equivalent to geological crystals will be described. Controlled doping of 2D semiconductors is also critically required. However, methods established for conventional semiconductors, such as ion implantation, are not easily applicable to 2D materials because of their atomically thin structure. Redox-active molecular dopants will be demonstrated which provide large changes in carrier density and workfunction through the choice of dopant, treatment time, and the solution concentration. Finally, several applications of these large-area, uniform 2D materials will be described including heterostructures, biosensors and strain sensors.

  11. Orthotropic Piezoelectricity in 2D Nanocellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Y.; Ruiz-Blanco, Yasser B.; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Sotomayor-Torres, C. M.

    2016-10-01

    The control of electromechanical responses within bonding regions is essential to face frontier challenges in nanotechnologies, such as molecular electronics and biotechnology. Here, we present Iβ-nanocellulose as a potentially new orthotropic 2D piezoelectric crystal. The predicted in-layer piezoelectricity is originated on a sui-generis hydrogen bonds pattern. Upon this fact and by using a combination of ab-initio and ad-hoc models, we introduce a description of electrical profiles along chemical bonds. Such developments lead to obtain a rationale for modelling the extended piezoelectric effect originated within bond scales. The order of magnitude estimated for the 2D Iβ-nanocellulose piezoelectric response, ~pm V‑1, ranks this material at the level of currently used piezoelectric energy generators and new artificial 2D designs. Such finding would be crucial for developing alternative materials to drive emerging nanotechnologies.

  12. Orthotropic Piezoelectricity in 2D Nanocellulose

    PubMed Central

    García, Y.; Ruiz-Blanco, Yasser B.; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Sotomayor-Torres, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    The control of electromechanical responses within bonding regions is essential to face frontier challenges in nanotechnologies, such as molecular electronics and biotechnology. Here, we present Iβ-nanocellulose as a potentially new orthotropic 2D piezoelectric crystal. The predicted in-layer piezoelectricity is originated on a sui-generis hydrogen bonds pattern. Upon this fact and by using a combination of ab-initio and ad-hoc models, we introduce a description of electrical profiles along chemical bonds. Such developments lead to obtain a rationale for modelling the extended piezoelectric effect originated within bond scales. The order of magnitude estimated for the 2D Iβ-nanocellulose piezoelectric response, ~pm V−1, ranks this material at the level of currently used piezoelectric energy generators and new artificial 2D designs. Such finding would be crucial for developing alternative materials to drive emerging nanotechnologies. PMID:27708364

  13. Orthotropic Piezoelectricity in 2D Nanocellulose.

    PubMed

    García, Y; Ruiz-Blanco, Yasser B; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Sotomayor-Torres, C M

    2016-10-06

    The control of electromechanical responses within bonding regions is essential to face frontier challenges in nanotechnologies, such as molecular electronics and biotechnology. Here, we present Iβ-nanocellulose as a potentially new orthotropic 2D piezoelectric crystal. The predicted in-layer piezoelectricity is originated on a sui-generis hydrogen bonds pattern. Upon this fact and by using a combination of ab-initio and ad-hoc models, we introduce a description of electrical profiles along chemical bonds. Such developments lead to obtain a rationale for modelling the extended piezoelectric effect originated within bond scales. The order of magnitude estimated for the 2D Iβ-nanocellulose piezoelectric response, ~pm V(-1), ranks this material at the level of currently used piezoelectric energy generators and new artificial 2D designs. Such finding would be crucial for developing alternative materials to drive emerging nanotechnologies.

  14. 2D microwave imaging reflectometer electronics.

    PubMed

    Spear, A G; Domier, C W; Hu, X; Muscatello, C M; Ren, X; Tobias, B J; Luhmann, N C

    2014-11-01

    A 2D microwave imaging reflectometer system has been developed to visualize electron density fluctuations on the DIII-D tokamak. Simultaneously illuminated at four probe frequencies, large aperture optics image reflections from four density-dependent cutoff surfaces in the plasma over an extended region of the DIII-D plasma. Localized density fluctuations in the vicinity of the plasma cutoff surfaces modulate the plasma reflections, yielding a 2D image of electron density fluctuations. Details are presented of the receiver down conversion electronics that generate the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) reflectometer signals from which 2D density fluctuation data are obtained. Also presented are details on the control system and backplane used to manage the electronics as well as an introduction to the computer based control program.

  15. Assessing 2D electrophoretic mobility spectroscopy (2D MOSY) for analytical applications.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yuan; Yushmanov, Pavel V; Furó, István

    2016-12-08

    Electrophoretic displacement of charged entity phase modulates the spectrum acquired in electrophoretic NMR experiments, and this modulation can be presented via 2D FT as 2D mobility spectroscopy (MOSY) spectra. We compare in various mixed solutions the chemical selectivity provided by 2D MOSY spectra with that provided by 2D diffusion-ordered spectroscopy (DOSY) spectra and demonstrate, under the conditions explored, a superior performance of the former method. 2D MOSY compares also favourably with closely related LC-NMR methods. The shape of 2D MOSY spectra in complex mixtures is strongly modulated by the pH of the sample, a feature that has potential for areas such as in drug discovery and metabolomics. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. StartCopTextCopyright © 2016 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. 2D Distributed Sensing Via TDR

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    plate VEGF CompositeSensor Experimental Setup Air 279 mm 61 78 VARTM profile: slope RTM profile: rectangle 22 1 Jul 2003© 2003 University of Delaware...2003 University of Delaware All rights reserved Vision: Non-contact 2D sensing ü VARTM setup constructed within TL can be sensed by its EM field: 2D...300.0 mm/ns. 1 2 1 Jul 2003© 2003 University of Delaware All rights reserved Model Validation “ RTM Flow” TDR Response to 139 mm VEGC

  17. Inkjet printing of 2D layered materials.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiantong; Lemme, Max C; Östling, Mikael

    2014-11-10

    Inkjet printing of 2D layered materials, such as graphene and MoS2, has attracted great interests for emerging electronics. However, incompatible rheology, low concentration, severe aggregation and toxicity of solvents constitute critical challenges which hamper the manufacturing efficiency and product quality. Here, we introduce a simple and general technology concept (distillation-assisted solvent exchange) to efficiently overcome these challenges. By implementing the concept, we have demonstrated excellent jetting performance, ideal printing patterns and a variety of promising applications for inkjet printing of 2D layered materials.

  18. Ultrafast Charge Transfer and Hybrid Exciton Formation in 2D/0D Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Boulesbaa, Abdelaziz; Wang, Kai; Mahjouri-Samani, Masoud; Tian, Mengkun; Puretzky, Alexander A; Ivanov, Ilia; Rouleau, Christopher M; Xiao, Kai; Sumpter, Bobby G; Geohegan, David B

    2016-11-09

    Photoinduced interfacial charge transfer is at the heart of many applications, including photovoltaics, photocatalysis, and photodetection. With the emergence of a new class of semiconductors, i.e., monolayer two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (2D-TMDs), charge transfer at the 2D/2D heterojunctions has attracted several efforts due to the remarkable optical and electrical properties of 2D-TMDs. Unfortunately, in 2D/2D heterojunctions, for a given combination of two materials, the relative energy band alignment and the charge-transfer efficiency are locked. Due to their large variety and broad size tunability, semiconductor quantum dots (0D-QDs) interfaced with 2D-TMDs may become an attractive heterostructure for optoelectronic applications. Here, we incorporate femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy to reveal the sub-45 fs charge transfer at a 2D/0D heterostructure composed of tungsten disulfide monolayers (2D-WS2) and a single layer of cadmium selenide/zinc sulfide core/shell 0D-QDs. Furthermore, ultrafast dynamics and steady-state measurements suggested that, following electron transfer from the 2D to the 0D, hybrid excitons, wherein the electron resides in the 0D and the hole resides in the 2D-TMD monolayer, are formed with a binding energy on the order of ∼140 meV, which is several times lower than that of tightly bound excitons in 2D-TMDs.

  19. Ultrafast Charge Transfer and Hybrid Exciton Formation in 2D/0D Heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Boulesbaa, Abdelaziz; Wang, Kai; Mahjouri-Samani, Masoud; Tian, Mengkun; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Ivanov, Ilia; Rouleau, Christopher M.; Xiao, Kai; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Geohegan, David B.

    2016-10-18

    We report that photoinduced interfacial charge transfer is at the heart of many applications, including photovoltaics, photocatalysis, and photodetection. With the emergence of a new class of semiconductors such as monolayer two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (2D-TMDs), charge transfer at the 2D/2D heterojunctions attracted several efforts due to the remarkable optical and electrical properties of 2D-TMDs. Unfortunately, in 2D/2D heterojunctions, for a given combination of two materials, the relative energy band alignment and the charge transfer efficiency are locked. Due to their large variety and broad size tunability, semiconductor quantum dots (0D-QDs) interfaced with 2D-TMDs may become an attractive heterostructure for optoelectronic applications. Here, we incorporate femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy to reveal the sub-45 fs charge transfer at a 2D/0D heterostructure composed of tungsten disulfide monolayers (2D-WS2) and a single layer of cadmium selenide (CdSe)/zinc sulfide (ZnS) core/shell 0D-QDs. Furthermore, ultrafast dynamics and steady-state measurements suggested that following electron transfer from the 2D to the 0D, hybrid excitons (HXs), wherein the electron resides in the 0D and hole resides in the 2D-TMD monolayer, are formed with a binding energy on the order of ~140 meV, which is several times lower than that of tightly bound excitons in 2D-TMDs.

  20. Ultrafast Charge Transfer and Hybrid Exciton Formation in 2D/0D Heterostructures

    DOE PAGES

    Boulesbaa, Abdelaziz; Wang, Kai; Mahjouri-Samani, Masoud; ...

    2016-10-18

    We report that photoinduced interfacial charge transfer is at the heart of many applications, including photovoltaics, photocatalysis, and photodetection. With the emergence of a new class of semiconductors such as monolayer two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (2D-TMDs), charge transfer at the 2D/2D heterojunctions attracted several efforts due to the remarkable optical and electrical properties of 2D-TMDs. Unfortunately, in 2D/2D heterojunctions, for a given combination of two materials, the relative energy band alignment and the charge transfer efficiency are locked. Due to their large variety and broad size tunability, semiconductor quantum dots (0D-QDs) interfaced with 2D-TMDs may become an attractive heterostructure formore » optoelectronic applications. Here, we incorporate femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy to reveal the sub-45 fs charge transfer at a 2D/0D heterostructure composed of tungsten disulfide monolayers (2D-WS2) and a single layer of cadmium selenide (CdSe)/zinc sulfide (ZnS) core/shell 0D-QDs. Furthermore, ultrafast dynamics and steady-state measurements suggested that following electron transfer from the 2D to the 0D, hybrid excitons (HXs), wherein the electron resides in the 0D and hole resides in the 2D-TMD monolayer, are formed with a binding energy on the order of ~140 meV, which is several times lower than that of tightly bound excitons in 2D-TMDs.« less

  1. A novel improved method for analysis of 2D diffusion relaxation data—2D PARAFAC-Laplace decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tønning, Erik; Polders, Daniel; Callaghan, Paul T.; Engelsen, Søren B.

    2007-09-01

    This paper demonstrates how the multi-linear PARAFAC model can with advantage be used to decompose 2D diffusion-relaxation correlation NMR spectra prior to 2D-Laplace inversion to the T2- D domain. The decomposition is advantageous for better interpretation of the complex correlation maps as well as for the quantification of extracted T2- D components. To demonstrate the new method seventeen mixtures of wheat flour, starch, gluten, oil and water were prepared and measured with a 300 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer using a pulsed gradient stimulated echo (PGSTE) pulse sequence followed by a Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) pulse echo train. By varying the gradient strength, 2D diffusion-relaxation data were recorded for each sample. From these double exponentially decaying relaxation data the PARAFAC algorithm extracted two unique diffusion-relaxation components, explaining 99.8% of the variation in the data set. These two components were subsequently transformed to the T2- D domain using 2D-inverse Laplace transformation and quantitatively assigned to the oil and water components of the samples. The oil component was one distinct distribution with peak intensity at D = 3 × 10 -12 m 2 s -1 and T2 = 180 ms. The water component consisted of two broad populations of water molecules with diffusion coefficients and relaxation times centered around correlation pairs: D = 10 -9 m 2 s -1, T2 = 10 ms and D = 3 × 10 -13 m 2 s -1, T2 = 13 ms. Small spurious peaks observed in the inverse Laplace transformation of original complex data were effectively filtered by the PARAFAC decomposition and thus considered artefacts from the complex Laplace transformation. The oil-to-water ratio determined by PARAFAC followed by 2D-Laplace inversion was perfectly correlated with known oil-to-water ratio of the samples. The new method of using PARAFAC prior to the 2D-Laplace inversion proved to have superior potential in analysis of diffusion-relaxation spectra, as it

  2. Common CYP2D6 polymorphisms affecting alternative splicing and transcription: long-range haplotypes with two regulatory variants modulate CYP2D6 activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Danxin; Poi, Ming J; Sun, Xiaochun; Gaedigk, Andrea; Leeder, J Steven; Sadee, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) is involved in the metabolism of 25% of clinically used drugs. Genetic polymorphisms cause substantial variation in CYP2D6 activity and serve as biomarkers guiding drug therapy. However, genotype-phenotype relationships remain ambiguous except for poor metabolizers carrying null alleles, suggesting the presence of yet unknown genetic variants. Searching for regulatory CYP2D6 polymorphisms, we find that a SNP defining the CYP2D6*2 allele, rs16947 [R296C, 17-60% minor allele frequency (MAF)], previously thought to convey normal activity, alters exon 6 splicing, thereby reducing CYP2D6 expression at least 2-fold. In addition, two completely linked SNPs (rs5758550/rs133333, MAF 13-42%) increase CYP2D6 transcription more than 2-fold, located in a distant downstream enhancer region (>100 kb) that interacts with the CYP2D6 promoter. In high linkage disequilibrium (LD) with each other, rs16947 and the enhancer SNPs form haplotypes that affect CYP2D6 enzyme activity in vivo. In a pediatric cohort of 164 individuals, rs16947 alone (minor haplotype frequency 28%) was associated with reduced CYP2D6 metabolic activity (measured as dextromethorphan/metabolite ratios), whereas rs5758550/rs133333 alone (frequency 3%) resulted in increased CYP2D6 activity, while haplotypes containing both rs16947 and rs5758550/rs133333 were similar to the wild-type. Other alleles used in biomarker panels carrying these variants such as CYP2D6*41 require re-evaluation of independent effects on CYP2D6 activity. The occurrence of two regulatory variants of high frequency and in high LD, residing on a long haplotype, highlights the importance of gene architecture, likely shaped by evolutionary selection pressures, in determining activity of encoded proteins.

  3. Substrate effects and dielectric integration in 2D electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamlagain, Bhim Prasad

    The ultra-thin body of monolayer (and few-layer) two dimensional (2D) semiconducting materials such as transitional metal dichalconiges (TMDs), black phosphorous (BP) has demonstrated tremendous beneficial physical, transport, and optical properties for a wide range of applications. Because of their ultrathin bodies, the properties of 2D materials are highly sensitive to environmental effects. Particularly, the performance of 2D semiconductor electronic devices is strongly dependent on the substrate/dielectric properties, extrinsic impurities and absorbates. In this work, we systematically studied the transport properties of mechanically exfoliated few layer TMD field-effect transistors (FETs) consistently fabricated on various substrates including SiO2,Parylene -C, Al2O3, SiO2 modified by octadecyltrimethoxysilane (OTMS) self-assembled monolayer (SAMs), and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). We performed variable temperature transport measurements to understand the effects of various scattering mechanisms such as remote surface phonon scattering, coulomb scattering, surface roughness scattering on the mobility of these devices. To reveal the intrinsic channel properties, we also investigated TMD devices encapsulated by h-BN. To further optimize the dielectric interface and electrostatic control of the TMD channels, we developed a novel thermal-oxidation method to turn few-layer 2D metals into ultrathin and atomically flat high -kappa dielectrics. In order to optimize the performance of TMD electronic devices, it is also critical to fabricate low resistance ohmic contacts required for effectively injecting charge carriers into the TMD channel. Along this direction, we developed a new contact strategy to minimize the contact resistance for a variety of TMDs by van der Waals assembly of doped TMDs as contacts and undoped TMDs as channel materials. The developed unique method for low-resistance ohmic contacts achieved using the 2D/2D contact strategy and novel technique

  4. Towards functional assembly of 3D and 2D nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Christopher B.; Wang, Kai; Ievlev, Anton V.; Muckley, Eric S.; Ivanov, Ilia N.

    2016-09-01

    Functional assemblies of materials can be realized by tuning the work function and band gap of nanomaterials by rational material selection and design. Here we demonstrate the structural assembly of 2D and 3D nanomaterials and show that layering a 2D material monolayer on a 3D metal oxide leads to substantial alteration of both the surface potential and optical properties of the 3D material. A 40 nm thick film of polycrystalline NiO was produced by room temperature rf-sputtering, resulting in a 3D nanoparticle assembly. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown 10-30 μm WS2 flakes (2D material) were placed on the NiO surface using a PDMS stamp transfer technique. The 2D/3D WS2/NiO assembly was characterized using confocal micro Raman spectroscopy to evaluate the vibrational properties and using Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) to evaluate the surface potential. Raman maps of the 2D/3D assembly show spatial non-uniformity of the A1g mode ( 418 cm-1) and the disorder-enhanced longitudinal acoustic mode, 2LA(M) ( 350 cm-1), suggesting that the WS2 exists in a strained condition on when transferred onto 3D polycrystalline NiO. KPFM measurements show that single layer WS2 on SiO2 has a surface potential 75 mV lower than that of SiO2, whereas the surface potential of WS2 on NiO is 15 mV higher than NiO, indicating that WS2 could act as electron donor or acceptor depending on the 3D material it is interfaced with. Thus 2D and 3D materials can be organized into functional assemblies with electron flow controlled by the WS2 either as the electron donor or acceptor.

  5. The chemistry of H2D(+) in cold clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagani, L.; Salez, M.; Wannier, P. G.

    1992-05-01

    A simple gas-phase, steady-state chemical model of H2D(+) is presented where the ortho/para ratio is investigated in detail. We show that thermal equilibrium should prevail above 20 K but that it is in cold clouds that the ortho form should be the most abundant contrarily to what is expected from thermal equilibrium alone, its abundance being several orders of magnitude larger than previously thought, in which case, cold clouds with high column densities should be the best places to search for this species. We discuss the upper limits derived from our observations (Pagani et al., 1992) in comparison with our model and also reexamine the relations between H2D(+) measurements, the DCO(+)/HCO(+) ratio and the abundances of H3(+), H2D(+), and of electrons in dark clouds. Recent findings in observational, theoretical and laboratory astrochemistry make it difficult to derive H3 and e(-) abundances from these measurements and thus make it difficult to derive the important H2D(+)/H3(+) ratio.

  6. Optimal light harvesting in 2D semiconductor heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhesheng; Biscaras, Johan; Shukla, Abhay

    2017-06-01

    Optoelectronics with two dimensional (2D) heterostructures combining transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) and other semiconductors in hybrid stacks is potentially promising because of the possibility of fabricating devices with high efficiency and new properties. Ultrafast charge transfer across the interface and long lifetime of carriers makes the vertical geometry attractive with respect to traditional bulk heterostructures. In such ultrathin structures, the multiple boundaries and the thickness of each material play a key role in the interaction of light with the device and can strongly influence the device performance. In this article we study light harvesting in 2D InSe/MoS2 semiconductor heterostructures by measuring Raman enhancement or attenuation as a function of layer thicknesses. Measurements are precisely reproduced by the calculation of the light emission, and the field distribution inside the heterostructure. Optimizing layer thickness and material interfaces has a significant effect on the light distribution in such 2D heterostructures with layer thickness in the region of a few tens of nanometers, providing a means to enhance the performance of emerging 2D semiconductor-heterostructure optoelectronics.

  7. Electron hopping transport in 2D zinc oxide nanoflakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Dunliang; Lai, Jian-Jhong; Lin, Yen-Fu; Zhai, Jianpang; Li, Irene Ling; Tian, Feng; Wang, Shulin; Hua, Ping; Ku, Ming-Ming; Jian, Wen-Bin; Ruan, Shuangchen; Tang, Zikang

    2017-06-01

    A sequential hydrothermal process was used to synthesize ZnO nanostructures on Si substrates. The synthesized ZnO nanostructures were inspected and presented a morphology of 2D structures, named nanoflakes. These ZnO nanoflakes had a thickness of tens of nanometers. An energy dispersive x-ray spectrum revealed their composition of only Zn and O elements. In addition, its crystalline structure was investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The nanoflakes were then dispersed for another morphology measurement using atomic force microscopy and their average thickness was determined. The dispersed nanoflakes were further contacted with metal electrodes for electron transport measurements. Through the analysis of temperature-dependent resistivity, it was confirmed that the electron transport in such ZnO nanoflakes agrees well with the theory of Mott’s 2D variable range hopping. The nature of the 2D electron system in the ZnO nanoflakes points to potential applications of this 2D semiconductor as a new channel material for electronics.

  8. Parallel Stitching of 2D Materials.

    PubMed

    Ling, Xi; Lin, Yuxuan; Ma, Qiong; Wang, Ziqiang; Song, Yi; Yu, Lili; Huang, Shengxi; Fang, Wenjing; Zhang, Xu; Hsu, Allen L; Bie, Yaqing; Lee, Yi-Hsien; Zhu, Yimei; Wu, Lijun; Li, Ju; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo; Dresselhaus, Mildred; Palacios, Tomás; Kong, Jing

    2016-03-23

    Diverse parallel stitched 2D heterostructures, including metal-semiconductor, semiconductor-semiconductor, and insulator-semiconductor, are synthesized directly through selective "sowing" of aromatic molecules as the seeds in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The methodology enables the large-scale fabrication of lateral heterostructures, which offers tremendous potential for its application in integrated circuits.

  9. Parallel stitching of 2D materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, Xi; Wu, Lijun; Lin, Yuxuan; Ma, Qiong; Wang, Ziqiang; Song, Yi; Yu, Lili; Huang, Shengxi; Fang, Wenjing; Zhang, Xu; Hsu, Allen L.; Bie, Yaqing; Lee, Yi -Hsien; Zhu, Yimei; Li, Ju; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo; Dresselhaus, Mildred; Palacios, Tomas; Kong, Jing

    2016-01-27

    Diverse parallel stitched 2D heterostructures, including metal–semiconductor, semiconductor–semiconductor, and insulator–semiconductor, are synthesized directly through selective “sowing” of aromatic molecules as the seeds in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Lastly, the methodology enables the large-scale fabrication of lateral heterostructures, which offers tremendous potential for its application in integrated circuits.

  10. The basics of 2D DIGE.

    PubMed

    Beckett, Phil

    2012-01-01

    The technique of two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis is a powerful tool for separating complex mixtures of proteins, but since its inception in the mid 1970s, it acquired the stigma of being a very difficult application to master and was generally used to its best effect by experts. The introduction of commercially available immobilized pH gradients in the early 1990s provided enhanced reproducibility and easier protocols, leading to a pronounced increase in popularity of the technique. However gel-to-gel variation was still difficult to control without the use of technical replicates. In the mid 1990s (at the same time as the birth of "proteomics"), the concept of multiplexing fluorescently labeled proteins for 2D gel separation was realized by Jon Minden's group and has led to the ability to design experiments to virtually eliminate gel-to-gel variation, resulting in biological replicates being used for statistical analysis with the ability to detect very small changes in relative protein abundance. This technology is referred to as 2D difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE).

  11. Parallel stitching of 2D materials

    DOE PAGES

    Ling, Xi; Wu, Lijun; Lin, Yuxuan; ...

    2016-01-27

    Diverse parallel stitched 2D heterostructures, including metal–semiconductor, semiconductor–semiconductor, and insulator–semiconductor, are synthesized directly through selective “sowing” of aromatic molecules as the seeds in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Lastly, the methodology enables the large-scale fabrication of lateral heterostructures, which offers tremendous potential for its application in integrated circuits.

  12. Relaxation-Assisted 2D IR Using Weak Vibrational Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurochkin, Dmitry V.; Naraharisetty, Sri Ram G.; Rubtsov, Igor V.

    Implementation of weak IR modes as structural reporters via dual-frequency 2D IR spectroscopy is demonstrated. Prominent cross peaks originated from interactions of C≡N with C=O and C≡N with C=C modes were measured in 3-cyanocoumarin using heterodyned three-pulse photon-echo technique. In 4-acetylbenzonitrile, where the distance between CN and CO groups is over two times larger than in 3-cyanocoumarin, the direct coupling was just below the level of detectivity. A new method of measuring 2D spectra is proposed that utilizes vibrational relaxation phenomena. Using the new method the cross peaks at (ωCN, ωCO) has easily been detected; over six times increase of the cross-peak amplitude has been observed when the waiting time between the second and third pulses, T, was varied. Calculations show that using this approach vibrational modes separated by over 7-10 Å can be used as structural probes enhancing substantially detectable distances via 2D IR, especially when weak IR modes are used. We have also demonstrated implementation of C-D stretching modes as structural reporters. Although C-D modes have very small transition dipoles, interaction with C≡N mode has been cleanly detected in acetonitrile-D3. As C-H groups are widespread in organic molecules, the deuterium can be placed in the vicinity of virtually any group. Implementation of new labels, reinforced by vibrational-relaxation-assisted 2D IR method, provides universal labeling strategies for structure determination via 2D IR.

  13. Application of 2D Non-Graphene Materials and 2D Oxide Nanostructures for Biosensing Technology

    PubMed Central

    Shavanova, Kateryna; Bakakina, Yulia; Burkova, Inna; Shtepliuk, Ivan; Viter, Roman; Ubelis, Arnolds; Beni, Valerio; Starodub, Nickolaj; Yakimova, Rositsa; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of graphene and its unique properties has inspired researchers to try to invent other two-dimensional (2D) materials. After considerable research effort, a distinct “beyond graphene” domain has been established, comprising the library of non-graphene 2D materials. It is significant that some 2D non-graphene materials possess solid advantages over their predecessor, such as having a direct band gap, and therefore are highly promising for a number of applications. These applications are not limited to nano- and opto-electronics, but have a strong potential in biosensing technologies, as one example. However, since most of the 2D non-graphene materials have been newly discovered, most of the research efforts are concentrated on material synthesis and the investigation of the properties of the material. Applications of 2D non-graphene materials are still at the embryonic stage, and the integration of 2D non-graphene materials into devices is scarcely reported. However, in recent years, numerous reports have blossomed about 2D material-based biosensors, evidencing the growing potential of 2D non-graphene materials for biosensing applications. This review highlights the recent progress in research on the potential of using 2D non-graphene materials and similar oxide nanostructures for different types of biosensors (optical and electrochemical). A wide range of biological targets, such as glucose, dopamine, cortisol, DNA, IgG, bisphenol, ascorbic acid, cytochrome and estradiol, has been reported to be successfully detected by biosensors with transducers made of 2D non-graphene materials. PMID:26861346

  14. Application of 2D Non-Graphene Materials and 2D Oxide Nanostructures for Biosensing Technology.

    PubMed

    Shavanova, Kateryna; Bakakina, Yulia; Burkova, Inna; Shtepliuk, Ivan; Viter, Roman; Ubelis, Arnolds; Beni, Valerio; Starodub, Nickolaj; Yakimova, Rositsa; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr

    2016-02-06

    The discovery of graphene and its unique properties has inspired researchers to try to invent other two-dimensional (2D) materials. After considerable research effort, a distinct "beyond graphene" domain has been established, comprising the library of non-graphene 2D materials. It is significant that some 2D non-graphene materials possess solid advantages over their predecessor, such as having a direct band gap, and therefore are highly promising for a number of applications. These applications are not limited to nano- and opto-electronics, but have a strong potential in biosensing technologies, as one example. However, since most of the 2D non-graphene materials have been newly discovered, most of the research efforts are concentrated on material synthesis and the investigation of the properties of the material. Applications of 2D non-graphene materials are still at the embryonic stage, and the integration of 2D non-graphene materials into devices is scarcely reported. However, in recent years, numerous reports have blossomed about 2D material-based biosensors, evidencing the growing potential of 2D non-graphene materials for biosensing applications. This review highlights the recent progress in research on the potential of using 2D non-graphene materials and similar oxide nanostructures for different types of biosensors (optical and electrochemical). A wide range of biological targets, such as glucose, dopamine, cortisol, DNA, IgG, bisphenol, ascorbic acid, cytochrome and estradiol, has been reported to be successfully detected by biosensors with transducers made of 2D non-graphene materials.

  15. Optoelectronics of supported and suspended 2D semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolotin, Kirill

    2014-03-01

    Two-dimensional semiconductors, materials such monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) are characterized by strong spin-orbit and electron-electron interactions. However, both electronic and optoelectronic properties of these materials are dominated by disorder-related scattering. In this talk, we investigate approaches to reduce scattering and explore physical phenomena arising in intrinsic 2D semiconductors. First, we discuss fabrication of pristine suspended monolayer MoS2 and use photocurrent spectroscopy measurements to study excitons in this material. We observe band-edge and van Hove singularity excitons and estimate their binding energies. Furthermore, we study dissociation of these excitons and uncover the mechanism of their contribution to photoresponse of MoS2. Second, we study strain-induced modification of bandstructures of 2D semiconductors. With increasing strain, we find large and controllable band gap reduction of both single- and bi-layer MoS2. We also detect experimental signatures consistent with strain-induced transition from direct to indirect band gap in monolayer MoS2. Finally, we fabricate heterostructures of dissimilar 2D semiconductors and study their photoresponse. For closely spaced 2D semiconductors we detect charge transfer, while for separation larger than 10nm we observe Forster-like energy transfer between excitations in different layers.

  16. Graphene band structure and its 2D Raman mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narula, Rohit; Reich, Stephanie

    2014-08-01

    High-precision simulations are used to generate the 2D Raman mode of graphene under a range of screening conditions and laser energies EL. We reproduce the decreasing trend of the 2D mode FWHM vs EL and the nearly linearly increasing dispersion ∂ω2D/∂EL seen experimentally in freestanding (unscreened) graphene, and propose relations between these experimentally accessible quantities and the local, two-dimensional gradients |∇ | of the electronic and TO phonon bands. In light of state-of-the-art electronic structure calculations that acutely treat the long-range e-e interactions of isolated graphene and its experimentally observed 2D Raman mode, our calculations determine a 40% greater slope of the TO phonons about K than given by explicit phonon measurements performed in graphite or GW phonon calculations in graphene. We also deduce the variation of the broadening energy γ [EL] for freestanding graphene and find a nominal value γ ˜140 meV, showing a gradually increasing trend for the range of frequencies available experimentally.

  17. Fermi surface and conduction electrons of Na 0.64WO 3 by two-dimensional angular correlation of positron annihilation radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akahane, T.; Hoffmann, K. R.; Chiba, T.; Berko, S.

    1985-06-01

    Two-dimensional angular correlation of positron annihilation radiation (2-D ACAR) form a Na 0.64WO 3 single crystal has been measured with a 64 detector 2-D ACAR apparatus. The results show that the Fermi surface of this compound has a jungle-gym like structure similar to that of ReO 3 and that the conduction electrons have strong t2g character.

  18. Schottky diodes from 2D germanane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Nanda Gopal; Esteves, Richard J.; Punetha, Vinay Deep; Pestov, Dmitry; Arachchige, Indika U.; McLeskey, James T.

    2016-07-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of a Schottky diode made using 2D germanane (hydrogenated germanene). When compared to germanium, the 2D structure has higher electron mobility, an optimal band-gap, and exceptional stability making germanane an outstanding candidate for a variety of opto-electronic devices. One-atom-thick sheets of hydrogenated puckered germanium atoms have been synthesized from a CaGe2 framework via intercalation and characterized by XRD, Raman, and FTIR techniques. The material was then used to fabricate Schottky diodes by suspending the germanane in benzonitrile and drop-casting it onto interdigitated metal electrodes. The devices demonstrate significant rectifying behavior and the outstanding potential of this material.

  19. Schottky diodes from 2D germanane

    SciTech Connect

    Sahoo, Nanda Gopal; Punetha, Vinay Deep; Esteves, Richard J; Arachchige, Indika U.; Pestov, Dmitry; McLeskey, James T.

    2016-07-11

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of a Schottky diode made using 2D germanane (hydrogenated germanene). When compared to germanium, the 2D structure has higher electron mobility, an optimal band-gap, and exceptional stability making germanane an outstanding candidate for a variety of opto-electronic devices. One-atom-thick sheets of hydrogenated puckered germanium atoms have been synthesized from a CaGe{sub 2} framework via intercalation and characterized by XRD, Raman, and FTIR techniques. The material was then used to fabricate Schottky diodes by suspending the germanane in benzonitrile and drop-casting it onto interdigitated metal electrodes. The devices demonstrate significant rectifying behavior and the outstanding potential of this material.

  20. Compatible embedding for 2D shape animation.

    PubMed

    Baxter, William V; Barla, Pascal; Anjyo, Ken-Ichi

    2009-01-01

    We present new algorithms for the compatible embedding of 2D shapes. Such embeddings offer a convenient way to interpolate shapes having complex, detailed features. Compared to existing techniques, our approach requires less user input, and is faster, more robust, and simpler to implement, making it ideal for interactive use in practical applications. Our new approach consists of three parts. First, our boundary matching algorithm locates salient features using the perceptually motivated principles of scale-space and uses these as automatic correspondences to guide an elastic curve matching algorithm. Second, we simplify boundaries while maintaining their parametric correspondence and the embedding of the original shapes. Finally, we extend the mapping to shapes' interiors via a new compatible triangulation algorithm. The combination of our algorithms allows us to demonstrate 2D shape interpolation with instant feedback. The proposed algorithms exhibit a combination of simplicity, speed, and accuracy that has not been achieved in previous work.

  1. Stochastic Inversion of 2D Magnetotelluric Data

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jinsong

    2010-07-01

    The algorithm is developed to invert 2D magnetotelluric (MT) data based on sharp boundary parametrization using a Bayesian framework. Within the algorithm, we consider the locations and the resistivity of regions formed by the interfaces are as unknowns. We use a parallel, adaptive finite-element algorithm to forward simulate frequency-domain MT responses of 2D conductivity structure. Those unknown parameters are spatially correlated and are described by a geostatistical model. The joint posterior probability distribution function is explored by Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling methods. The developed stochastic model is effective for estimating the interface locations and resistivity. Most importantly, it provides details uncertainty information on each unknown parameter. Hardware requirements: PC, Supercomputer, Multi-platform, Workstation; Software requirements C and Fortan; Operation Systems/version is Linux/Unix or Windows

  2. Static & Dynamic Response of 2D Solids

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jerry

    1996-07-15

    NIKE2D is an implicit finite-element code for analyzing the finite deformation, static and dynamic response of two-dimensional, axisymmetric, plane strain, and plane stress solids. The code is fully vectorized and available on several computing platforms. A number of material models are incorporated to simulate a wide range of material behavior including elasto-placicity, anisotropy, creep, thermal effects, and rate dependence. Slideline algorithms model gaps and sliding along material interfaces, including interface friction, penetration and single surface contact. Interactive-graphics and rezoning is included for analyses with large mesh distortions. In addition to quasi-Newton and arc-length procedures, adaptive algorithms can be defined to solve the implicit equations using the solution language ISLAND. Each of these capabilities and more make NIKE2D a robust analysis tool.

  3. Explicit 2-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jerry

    1996-08-07

    DYNA2D* is a vectorized, explicit, two-dimensional, axisymmetric and plane strain finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic and hydrodynamic response of inelastic solids. DYNA2D* contains 13 material models and 9 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented in all machine versions are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic elastic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, rubber, high explosive burn, isotropic elastic-plastic, temperature-dependent elastic-plastic. The isotropic and temperature-dependent elastic-plastic models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 9 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, and tabulated.

  4. 2D Metals by Repeated Size Reduction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hanwen; Tang, Hao; Fang, Minghao; Si, Wenjie; Zhang, Qinghua; Huang, Zhaohui; Gu, Lin; Pan, Wei; Yao, Jie; Nan, Cewen; Wu, Hui

    2016-10-01

    A general and convenient strategy for manufacturing freestanding metal nanolayers is developed on large scale. By the simple process of repeatedly folding and calendering stacked metal sheets followed by chemical etching, free-standing 2D metal (e.g., Ag, Au, Fe, Cu, and Ni) nanosheets are obtained with thicknesses as small as 1 nm and with sizes of the order of several micrometers.

  5. Realistic and efficient 2D crack simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadegar, Jacob; Liu, Xiaoqing; Singh, Abhishek

    2010-04-01

    Although numerical algorithms for 2D crack simulation have been studied in Modeling and Simulation (M&S) and computer graphics for decades, realism and computational efficiency are still major challenges. In this paper, we introduce a high-fidelity, scalable, adaptive and efficient/runtime 2D crack/fracture simulation system by applying the mathematically elegant Peano-Cesaro triangular meshing/remeshing technique to model the generation of shards/fragments. The recursive fractal sweep associated with the Peano-Cesaro triangulation provides efficient local multi-resolution refinement to any level-of-detail. The generated binary decomposition tree also provides efficient neighbor retrieval mechanism used for mesh element splitting and merging with minimal memory requirements essential for realistic 2D fragment formation. Upon load impact/contact/penetration, a number of factors including impact angle, impact energy, and material properties are all taken into account to produce the criteria of crack initialization, propagation, and termination leading to realistic fractal-like rubble/fragments formation. The aforementioned parameters are used as variables of probabilistic models of cracks/shards formation, making the proposed solution highly adaptive by allowing machine learning mechanisms learn the optimal values for the variables/parameters based on prior benchmark data generated by off-line physics based simulation solutions that produce accurate fractures/shards though at highly non-real time paste. Crack/fracture simulation has been conducted on various load impacts with different initial locations at various impulse scales. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed system has the capability to realistically and efficiently simulate 2D crack phenomena (such as window shattering and shards generation) with diverse potentials in military and civil M&S applications such as training and mission planning.

  6. Quasiparticle interference in unconventional 2D systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lan; Cheng, Peng; Wu, Kehui

    2017-03-01

    At present, research of 2D systems mainly focuses on two kinds of materials: graphene-like materials and transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). Both of them host unconventional 2D electronic properties: pseudospin and the associated chirality of electrons in graphene-like materials, and spin-valley-coupled electronic structures in the TMDs. These exotic electronic properties have attracted tremendous interest for possible applications in nanodevices in the future. Investigation on the quasiparticle interference (QPI) in 2D systems is an effective way to uncover these properties. In this review, we will begin with a brief introduction to 2D systems, including their atomic structures and electronic bands. Then, we will discuss the formation of Friedel oscillation due to QPI in constant energy contours of electron bands, and show the basic concept of Fourier-transform scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (FT-STM/STS), which can resolve Friedel oscillation patterns in real space and consequently obtain the QPI patterns in reciprocal space. In the next two parts, we will summarize some pivotal results in the investigation of QPI in graphene and silicene, in which systems the low-energy quasiparticles are described by the massless Dirac equation. The FT-STM experiments show there are two different interference channels (intervalley and intravalley scattering) and backscattering suppression, which associate with the Dirac cones and the chirality of quasiparticles. The monolayer and bilayer graphene on different substrates (SiC and metal surfaces), and the monolayer and multilayer silicene on a Ag(1 1 1) surface will be addressed. The fifth part will introduce the FT-STM research on QPI in TMDs (monolayer and bilayer of WSe2), which allow us to infer the spin texture of both conduction and valence bands, and present spin-valley coupling by tracking allowed and forbidden scattering channels.

  7. Compact 2-D graphical representation of DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randić, Milan; Vračko, Marjan; Zupan, Jure; Novič, Marjana

    2003-05-01

    We present a novel 2-D graphical representation for DNA sequences which has an important advantage over the existing graphical representations of DNA in being very compact. It is based on: (1) use of binary labels for the four nucleic acid bases, and (2) use of the 'worm' curve as template on which binary codes are placed. The approach is illustrated on DNA sequences of the first exon of human β-globin and gorilla β-globin.

  8. 2D materials: Graphene and others

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, Suneev Anil Singh, Amrinder Pal; Kumar, Suresh

    2016-05-06

    Present report reviews the recent advancements in new atomically thick 2D materials. Materials covered in this review are Graphene, Silicene, Germanene, Boron Nitride (BN) and Transition metal chalcogenides (TMC). These materials show extraordinary mechanical, electronic and optical properties which make them suitable candidates for future applications. Apart from unique properties, tune-ability of highly desirable properties of these materials is also an important area to be emphasized on.

  9. 2dF mechanical engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Greg; Lankshear, Allan

    1998-07-01

    2dF is a multi-object instrument mounted at prime focus at the AAT capable of spectroscopic analysis of 400 objects in a single 2 degree field. It also prepares a second 2 degree 400 object field while the first field is being observed. At its heart is a high precision robotic positioner that places individual fiber end magnetic buttons on one of two field plates. The button gripper is carried on orthogonal gantries powered by linear synchronous motors and contains a TV camera which precisely locates backlit buttons to allow placement in user defined locations to 10 (mu) accuracy. Fiducial points on both plates can also be observed by the camera to allow repeated checks on positioning accuracy. Field plates rotate to follow apparent sky rotation. The spectrographs both analyze light from the 200 observing fibers each and back- illuminate the 400 fibers being re-positioned during the observing run. The 2dF fiber position and spectrograph system is a large and complex instrument located at the prime focus of the Anglo Australian Telescope. The mechanical design has departed somewhat from the earlier concepts of Gray et al, but still reflects the audacity of those first ideas. The positioner is capable of positioning 400 fibers on a field plate while another 400 fibers on another plate are observing at the focus of the telescope and feeding the twin spectrographs. When first proposed it must have seemed like ingenuity unfettered by caution. Yet now it works, and works wonderfully well. 2dF is a system which functions as the result of the combined and coordinated efforts of the astronomers, the mechanical designers and tradespeople, the electronic designers, the programmers, the support staff at the telescope, and the manufacturing subcontractors. The mechanical design of the 2dF positioner and spectrographs was carried out by the mechanical engineering staff of the AAO and the majority of the manufacture was carried out in the AAO workshops.

  10. Engineering light outcoupling in 2D materials.

    PubMed

    Lien, Der-Hsien; Kang, Jeong Seuk; Amani, Matin; Chen, Kevin; Tosun, Mahmut; Wang, Hsin-Ping; Roy, Tania; Eggleston, Michael S; Wu, Ming C; Dubey, Madan; Lee, Si-Chen; He, Jr-Hau; Javey, Ali

    2015-02-11

    When light is incident on 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), it engages in multiple reflections within underlying substrates, producing interferences that lead to enhancement or attenuation of the incoming and outgoing strength of light. Here, we report a simple method to engineer the light outcoupling in semiconducting TMDCs by modulating their dielectric surroundings. We show that by modulating the thicknesses of underlying substrates and capping layers, the interference caused by substrate can significantly enhance the light absorption and emission of WSe2, resulting in a ∼11 times increase in Raman signal and a ∼30 times increase in the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of WSe2. On the basis of the interference model, we also propose a strategy to control the photonic and optoelectronic properties of thin-layer WSe2. This work demonstrates the utilization of outcoupling engineering in 2D materials and offers a new route toward the realization of novel optoelectronic devices, such as 2D LEDs and solar cells.

  11. Irreversibility-inversions in 2D turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragg, Andrew; de Lillo, Filippo; Boffetta, Guido

    2016-11-01

    We consider a recent theoretical prediction that for inertial particles in 2D turbulence, the nature of the irreversibility of their pair dispersion inverts when the particle inertia exceeds a certain value. In particular, when the particle Stokes number, St , is below a certain value, the forward-in-time (FIT) dispersion should be faster than the backward-in-time (BIT) dispersion, but for St above this value, this should invert so that BIT becomes faster than FIT dispersion. This non-trivial behavior arises because of the competition between two physically distinct irreversibility mechanisms that operate in different regimes of St . In 3D turbulence, both mechanisms act to produce faster BIT than FIT dispersion, but in 2D, the two mechanisms have opposite effects because of the inverse energy cascade in the turbulent velocity field. We supplement the qualitative argument given by Bragg et al. by deriving quantitative predictions of this effect in the short-time dispersion limit. These predictions are then confirmed by results of inertial particle dispersion in a direct numerical simulation of 2D turbulence.

  12. MAGNUM-2D computer code: user's guide

    SciTech Connect

    England, R.L.; Kline, N.W.; Ekblad, K.J.; Baca, R.G.

    1985-01-01

    Information relevant to the general use of the MAGNUM-2D computer code is presented. This computer code was developed for the purpose of modeling (i.e., simulating) the thermal and hydraulic conditions in the vicinity of a waste package emplaced in a deep geologic repository. The MAGNUM-2D computer computes (1) the temperature field surrounding the waste package as a function of the heat generation rate of the nuclear waste and thermal properties of the basalt and (2) the hydraulic head distribution and associated groundwater flow fields as a function of the temperature gradients and hydraulic properties of the basalt. MAGNUM-2D is a two-dimensional numerical model for transient or steady-state analysis of coupled heat transfer and groundwater flow in a fractured porous medium. The governing equations consist of a set of coupled, quasi-linear partial differential equations that are solved using a Galerkin finite-element technique. A Newton-Raphson algorithm is embedded in the Galerkin functional to formulate the problem in terms of the incremental changes in the dependent variables. Both triangular and quadrilateral finite elements are used to represent the continuum portions of the spatial domain. Line elements may be used to represent discrete conduits. 18 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  13. A scanning-mode 2D shear wave imaging (s2D-SWI) system for ultrasound elastography.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Weibao; Wang, Congzhi; Li, Yongchuan; Zhou, Juan; Yang, Ge; Xiao, Yang; Feng, Ge; Jin, Qiaofeng; Mu, Peitian; Qian, Ming; Zheng, Hairong

    2015-09-01

    Ultrasound elastography is widely used for the non-invasive measurement of tissue elasticity properties. Shear wave imaging (SWI) is a quantitative method for assessing tissue stiffness. SWI has been demonstrated to be less operator dependent than quasi-static elastography, and has the ability to acquire quantitative elasticity information in contrast with acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging. However, traditional SWI implementations cannot acquire two dimensional (2D) quantitative images of the tissue elasticity distribution. This study proposes and evaluates a scanning-mode 2D SWI (s2D-SWI) system. The hardware and image processing algorithms are presented in detail. Programmable devices are used to support flexible control of the system and the image processing algorithms. An analytic signal based cross-correlation method and a Radon transformation based shear wave speed determination method are proposed, which can be implemented using parallel computation. Imaging of tissue mimicking phantoms, and in vitro, and in vivo imaging test are conducted to demonstrate the performance of the proposed system. The s2D-SWI system represents a new choice for the quantitative mapping of tissue elasticity, and has great potential for implementation in commercial ultrasound scanners.

  14. 2D superconductivity by ionic gating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasa, Yoshi

    2D superconductivity is attracting a renewed interest due to the discoveries of new highly crystalline 2D superconductors in the past decade. Superconductivity at the oxide interfaces triggered by LaAlO3/SrTiO3 has become one of the promising routes for creation of new 2D superconductors. Also, the MBE grown metallic monolayers including FeSe are also offering a new platform of 2D superconductors. In the last two years, there appear a variety of monolayer/bilayer superconductors fabricated by CVD or mechanical exfoliation. Among these, electric field induced superconductivity by electric double layer transistor (EDLT) is a unique platform of 2D superconductivity, because of its ability of high density charge accumulation, and also because of the versatility in terms of materials, stemming from oxides to organics and layered chalcogenides. In this presentation, the following issues of electric filed induced superconductivity will be addressed; (1) Tunable carrier density, (2) Weak pinning, (3) Absence of inversion symmetry. (1) Since the sheet carrier density is quasi-continuously tunable from 0 to the order of 1014 cm-2, one is able to establish an electronic phase diagram of superconductivity, which will be compared with that of bulk superconductors. (2) The thickness of superconductivity can be estimated as 2 - 10 nm, dependent on materials, and is much smaller than the in-plane coherence length. Such a thin but low resistance at normal state results in extremely weak pinning beyond the dirty Boson model in the amorphous metallic films. (3) Due to the electric filed, the inversion symmetry is inherently broken in EDLT. This feature appears in the enhancement of Pauli limit of the upper critical field for the in-plane magnetic fields. In transition metal dichalcogenide with a substantial spin-orbit interactions, we were able to confirm the stabilization of Cooper pair due to its spin-valley locking. This work has been supported by Grant-in-Aid for Specially

  15. Relationships between digit ratio (2D:4D) and female competitive rowing performance.

    PubMed

    Hull, Melissa J; Schranz, Natasha K; Manning, John T; Tomkinson, Grant R

    2015-01-01

    Digit ratio (2D:4D), a measure of prenatal testosterone exposure, is weakly-to-moderately associated with increased physical performance, although the evidence is far stronger for males than females. To examine the relationship between 2D:4D and measured on-water rowing performance in young females competing at the Australian Rowing Championships. Using an observational, cross-sectional design, female rowers (n = 69, aged 12-30 years) who competed in single sculls events at the Australian Rowing Championships in 2007 and 2008 had numerous physical and digital anthropometric measurements taken, including 2D:4D measurements. Relationships between 2D:4Ds and race times were examined using Pearson's correlations, partial correlations and multiple regression. Partial Least Squares regression analysis determined the strength of the 2D:4D as a predictor of race time relative to 78 body dimensions plus age. Overall, weak to strong positive correlations between 2D:4D and race time were found; that is, females with smaller 2D:4Ds had faster race times than females with larger 2D:4Ds. Relationships were weak to moderate for all females (r = 0.29-0.32), moderate-to-strong for senior rowers (aged ≥20 years; r = 0.42-0.55), and weak for junior rowers (aged <20 years; r = 0.13-0.18), with all relationships persisting following adjustment for age. Partial Least Squares regression analysis showed that 2D:4Ds had high predictive importance relative to other body dimensions. Females with smaller 2D:4Ds rowed substantially faster than females with larger 2D:4Ds, with the 2D:4D possibly linked to underlying characteristics that have been optimized over time resulting in better rowing performance. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. 2D non-separable linear canonical transform (2D-NS-LCT) based cryptography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liang; Muniraj, Inbarasan; Healy, John J.; Malallah, Ra'ed; Cui, Xiao-Guang; Ryle, James P.; Sheridan, John T.

    2017-05-01

    The 2D non-separable linear canonical transform (2D-NS-LCT) can describe a variety of paraxial optical systems. Digital algorithms to numerically evaluate the 2D-NS-LCTs are not only important in modeling the light field propagations but also of interest in various signal processing based applications, for instance optical encryption. Therefore, in this paper, for the first time, a 2D-NS-LCT based optical Double-random- Phase-Encryption (DRPE) system is proposed which offers encrypting information in multiple degrees of freedom. Compared with the traditional systems, i.e. (i) Fourier transform (FT); (ii) Fresnel transform (FST); (iii) Fractional Fourier transform (FRT); and (iv) Linear Canonical transform (LCT), based DRPE systems, the proposed system is more secure and robust as it encrypts the data with more degrees of freedom with an augmented key-space.

  17. Instantons in 2D U(1) Higgs model and 2D CP(N-1) sigma models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Yaogang

    2007-12-01

    In this thesis I present the results of a study of the topological structures of 2D U(1) Higgs model and 2D CP N-1 sigma models. Both models have been studied using the overlap Dirac operator construction of topological charge density. The overlap operator provides a more incisive probe into the local topological structure of gauge field configurations than the traditional plaquette-based operator. In the 2D U(1) Higgs model, we show that classical instantons with finite sizes violate the negativity of topological charge correlator by giving a positive contribution to the correlator at non-zero separation. We argue that instantons in 2D U(1) Higgs model must be accompanied by large quantum fluctuations in order to solve this contradiction. In 2D CPN-1 sigma models, we observe the anomalous scaling behavior of the topological susceptibility chi t for N ≤ 3. The divergence of chi t in these models is traced to the presence of small instantons with a radius of order a (= lattice spacing), which are directly observed on the lattice. The observation of these small instantons provides detailed confirmation of Luscher's argument that such short-distance excitations, with quantized topological charge, should be the dominant topological fluctuations in CP1 and CP 2, leading to a divergent topological susceptibility in the continuum limit. For the CPN-1 models with N > 3 the topological susceptibility is observed to scale properly with the mass gap. Another topic presented in this thesis is an implementation of the Zolotarev optimal rational approximation for the overlap Dirac operator. This new implementation has reduced the time complexity of the overlap routine from O(N3 ) to O(N), where N is the total number of sites on the lattice. This opens up a door to more accurate lattice measurements in the future.

  18. Resolving 2D Amorphous Materials with Scanning Probe Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burson, Kristen M.; Buechner, Christin; Lewandowski, Adrian; Heyde, Markus; Freund, Hans-Joachim

    Novel two-dimensional (2D) materials have garnered significant scientific interest due to their potential technological applications. Alongside the emphasis on crystalline materials, such as graphene and hexagonal BN, a new class of 2D amorphous materials must be pursued. For amorphous materials, a detailed understanding of the complex structure is necessary. Here we present a structural study of 2D bilayer silica on Ru(0001), an insulating material which is weakly coupled to the substrate. Atomic structure has been determined with a dual mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) sensor in ultra-high vacuum (UHV) at low temperatures, revealing a network of different ring sizes. Liquid AFM measurements with sub-nanometer resolution bridge the gap between clean UHV conditions and the environments that many material applications demand. Samples are grown and characterized in vacuum and subsequently transferred to the liquid AFM. Notably, the key structural features observed, namely nanoscale ring networks and larger holes to the substrate, show strong quantitative agreement between the liquid and UHV microscopy measurements. This provides direct evidence for the structural stability of these silica films for nanoelectronics and other applications. KMB acknowledges support from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation.

  19. Enhanced automated platform for 2D characterization of RFID communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuza, Dan Tudor; Vlǎdescu, Marian

    2016-12-01

    The characterization of the quality of communication between an RFID reader and a transponder at all expected positions of the latter on the reader antenna is of primal importance for the evaluation of performance of an RFID system. Continuing the line of instruments developed for this purpose by the authors, the present work proposes an enhanced version of a previously introduced automated platform for 2D evaluation. By featuring higher performance in terms of mechanical speed, the new version allows to obtain 2D maps of communication with a higher resolution that would have been prohibitive in terms of test duration with the previous version. The list of measurement procedures that can be executed with the platform is now enlarged with additional ones, such as the determination of the variation of the magnetic coupling between transponder and antenna across the antenna surface and the utilization of transponder simulators for evaluation of the quality of communication.

  20. Controlling avalanche criticality in 2D nano arrays.

    PubMed

    Zohar, Y C; Yochelis, S; Dahmen, K A; Jung, G; Paltiel, Y

    2013-01-01

    Many physical systems respond to slowly changing external force through avalanches spanning broad range of sizes. Some systems crackle even without apparent external force, such as bursts of neuronal activity or charge transfer avalanches in 2D molecular layers. Advanced development of theoretical models describing disorder-induced critical phenomena calls for experiments probing the dynamics upon tuneable disorder. Here we show that isomeric structural transitions in 2D organic self-assembled monolayer (SAM) exhibit critical dynamics with experimentally tuneable disorder. The system consists of field effect transistor coupled through SAM to illuminated semiconducting nanocrystals (NCs). Charges photoinduced in NCs are transferred through SAM to the transistor surface and modulate its conductivity. Avalanches of isomeric structural transitions are revealed by measuring the current noise I(t) of the transistor. Accumulated surface traps charges reduce dipole moments of the molecules, decrease their coupling, and thus decrease the critical disorder of the SAM enabling its tuning during experiments.

  1. Controlling avalanche criticality in 2D nano arrays

    PubMed Central

    Zohar, Y. C.; Yochelis, S.; Dahmen, K. A.; Jung, G.; Paltiel, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Many physical systems respond to slowly changing external force through avalanches spanning broad range of sizes. Some systems crackle even without apparent external force, such as bursts of neuronal activity or charge transfer avalanches in 2D molecular layers. Advanced development of theoretical models describing disorder-induced critical phenomena calls for experiments probing the dynamics upon tuneable disorder. Here we show that isomeric structural transitions in 2D organic self-assembled monolayer (SAM) exhibit critical dynamics with experimentally tuneable disorder. The system consists of field effect transistor coupled through SAM to illuminated semiconducting nanocrystals (NCs). Charges photoinduced in NCs are transferred through SAM to the transistor surface and modulate its conductivity. Avalanches of isomeric structural transitions are revealed by measuring the current noise I(t) of the transistor. Accumulated surface traps charges reduce dipole moments of the molecules, decrease their coupling, and thus decrease the critical disorder of the SAM enabling its tuning during experiments. PMID:23677142

  2. Micro-structural Fluctuations in 2D Dusty Plasma Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    I Lin; Huang, Y.-H.; Teng, L.-W.

    2007-07-13

    We address structural fluctuations in a cold 2D dusty plasma liquid which is self-organized through the strong Coulomb coupling of the negatively charged micro-meter sized dust particles suspending in weakly ionized discharges. The 2D liquids consist of triangular type ordered domains surrounded by defect clusters, which can be reorganized through avalanche type hopping under the interplay of strong Coulomb coupling and thermal fluctuations. The spatio-temporal evolutions of the local bond-orientational order are directly tracked through digital optical microscopy. The power law scaling of the temporal persistence length of fluctuations is obtained for the cold liquid. The measurement of the conditional probability of the persistence lengths of the successive fluctuating cycles suggests certain types of the persistence length combinations are more preferred. The memory of persistence lasts a few fluctuating cycles.

  3. Determination of yield stress of 2D (Yukawa) dusty plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bin; Goree, J.

    2017-10-01

    Elastic and plastic deformations of a two-dimensional (2D) dusty plasma crystal under shear stresses are investigated using a numerical simulation. Our simulation mimics experiments that start with a crystal that is then manipulated by a pair of laser beams separated by a gap. In a pair of rectangular regions, we apply two equal but oppositely directed forces, to induce a shear deformation in the gap between. These external forces are increased incrementally to examine the elastic behavior, plasticity, and liquid flows. In the low-force elastic limit, a measurement of the shear modulus is obtained, which agrees with a theoretical value based on a sound speed. For larger forces resulting in plastic deformation, we determine the yield stress, which is found to agree with a common theoretical model for the critical yield stress, after accounting for the dimensionality for 2D.

  4. Domain specific relationships of 2D:4D digit ratio in risk perception and risk behavior.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngjun; Kim, Kyungil; Kim, Tae Hoon

    2014-01-01

    The 2D:4D digit ratio (henceforth, 2D:4D) is accepted as a marker of prenatal testosterone, demonstrating gender differences. The present study reveals that 2D:4D shows not only gender differences but also individual differences in personality and risk-taking behavior. We measured individual participants' 2D:4D, structural personality, and risk-taking attitude scores. The result of the current study replicates the gender difference in 2D:4D in previous researches. However, we found different aspects of the correlations among 2D:4D, personality, and risk-taking attitude. Path analyses indicated that 2D:4D passes through personality factors before reaching the risk-taking attitude, particularly in the financial domain activities of investing and gambling. Also we observed a specific relationship between right-hand 2D:4D and emotionality and between left-hand 2D:4D and agreeableness. Finally, we suggest multiple path models of 2D:4D and personality in risk taking depending on the domain.

  5. Codon Constraints on Closed 2D Shapes,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    19843$ CODON CONSTRAINTS ON CLOSED 2D SHAPES Go Whitman Richards "I Donald D. Hoffman’ D T 18 Abstract: Codons are simple primitives for describing plane...RSONAL AUT"ORtIS) Richards, Whitman & Hoffman, Donald D. 13&. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED N/A P8 AT F RRrT t~r. Ago..D,) is, PlE COUNT Reprint...outlines, if figure and ground are ignored. Later, we will address the problem of indexing identical codon descriptors that have different figure

  6. ENERGY LANDSCAPE OF 2D FLUID FORMS

    SciTech Connect

    Y. JIANG; ET AL

    2000-04-01

    The equilibrium states of 2D non-coarsening fluid foams, which consist of bubbles with fixed areas, correspond to local minima of the total perimeter. (1) The authors find an approximate value of the global minimum, and determine directly from an image how far a foam is from its ground state. (2) For (small) area disorder, small bubbles tend to sort inwards and large bubbles outwards. (3) Topological charges of the same sign repel while charges of opposite sign attract. (4) They discuss boundary conditions and the uniqueness of the pattern for fixed topology.

  7. Periodically sheared 2D Yukawa systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kovács, Anikó Zsuzsa; Hartmann, Peter; Donkó, Zoltán

    2015-10-15

    We present non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation studies on the dynamic (complex) shear viscosity of a 2D Yukawa system. We have identified a non-monotonic frequency dependence of the viscosity at high frequencies and shear rates, an energy absorption maximum (local resonance) at the Einstein frequency of the system at medium shear rates, an enhanced collective wave activity, when the excitation is near the plateau frequency of the longitudinal wave dispersion, and the emergence of significant configurational anisotropy at small frequencies and high shear rates.

  8. Probabilistic Cellular Automata for Low-Temperature 2-d Ising Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Procacci, Aldo; Scoppola, Benedetto; Scoppola, Elisabetta

    2016-12-01

    We construct a parallel stochastic dynamics with invariant measure converging to the Gibbs measure of the 2-d low-temperature Ising model. The proof of such convergence requires a polymer expansion based on suitably defined Peierls-type contours.

  9. Effect of 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2D3) metabolism in vitamin D-deficient rats infused with 1,25-(OH)2D3

    SciTech Connect

    Yamato, H.; Matsumoto, T.; Fukumoto, S.; Ikeda, K.; Ishizuka, S.; Ogata, E.

    1989-01-01

    Previous studies revealed that administration of 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (24,25-(OH)2D3) to calcium (Ca)-deficient rats causes a dose-dependent reduction in markedly elevated serum 1,25-(OH)2D3 level. Although the results suggested that the metabolism of 1,25-(OH)2D3 was accelerated by 24,25-(OH)2D3, those experiments could not define whether the enhanced metabolism of 1,25-(OH)2D3 played a role in the reduction in the serum 1,25-(OH)2D3 level. In the present study, in order to address this issue more specifically, serum 1,25-(OH)2D3 was maintained solely by exogenous administration through miniosmotic pumps of 1,25-(OH)2D3 into vitamin D-deficient rats. Thus, by measuring the serum 1,25-(OH)2D3 concentration, the effect of 24,25-(OH)2D3 on the MCR of 1,25-(OH)2D3 could be examined. Administration of 24,25-(OH)2D3 caused a dose-dependent enhancement in the MCR of 1,25-(OH)2D3, and 1 microgram/100 g rat.day 24,25-(OH)2D3, which elevated serum 24,25-(OH)2D3 to 8.6 +/- 1.3 ng/ml, significantly increased MCR and suppressed serum levels of 1,25-(OH)2D3. The effect of 24,25-(OH)2D3 on 1,25-(OH)2D3 metabolism developed with a rapid time course, and the recovery of iv injected (1 beta-3H)1,25-(OH)2D3 in blood was significantly reduced within 1 h. In addition, there was an increase in radioactivity in the water-soluble fraction of serum as well as in urine, suggesting that 1,25-(OH)2D3 is rapidly degraded to a water-soluble metabolite(s). Furthermore, the reduction in serum 1,25-(OH)2D3 was associated with a reduction in both serum and urinary Ca levels. Because the conversion of (3H)24,25-(OH)2D3 to (3H)1,24,25-(OH)2D3 or other metabolites was minimal in these rats, 24,25-(OH)2D3 appears to act without being converted into other metabolites. These results demonstrate that 24,25-(OH)2D3 rapidly stimulates the metabolism of 1,25-(OH)2D3 and reduces its serum level.

  10. Temperature-dependent kinetic measurements and quasi-classical trajectory studies for the OH{sup +} + H{sub 2}/D{sub 2} → H{sub 2}O{sup +}/HDO{sup +} + H/D reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, Oscar; Ard, Shaun G.; Shuman, Nicholas S.; Viggiano, Albert A. E-mail: afrl.rvborgmailbox@kirtland.af.mil; Li, Anyang; Guo, Hua E-mail: afrl.rvborgmailbox@kirtland.af.mil

    2015-09-21

    We have measured the temperature-dependent kinetics for the reactions of OH{sup +} with H{sub 2} and D{sub 2} using a selected ion flow tube apparatus. Reaction occurs via atom abstraction to result in H{sub 2}O{sup +}/HDO{sup +} + H/D. Room temperature rate coefficients are in agreement with prior measurements and resulting temperature dependences are T{sup 0.11} for the hydrogen and T{sup 0.25} for the deuterated reactions. This work is prompted in part by recent theoretical work that mapped a full-dimensional global potential energy surface of H{sub 3}O{sup +} for the OH{sup +} + H{sub 2} → H + H{sub 2}O{sup +} reaction [A. Li and H. Guo, J. Phys. Chem. A 118, 11168 (2014)], and reported results of quasi-classical trajectory calculations, which are extended to a wider temperature range and initial rotational state specification here. Our experimental results are in excellent agreement with these calculations which accurately predict the isotope effect in addition to an enhancement of the reaction rate constant due to the molecular rotation of OH{sup +}. The title reaction is of high importance to astrophysical models, and the temperature dependence of the rate coefficients determined here should now allow for better understanding of this reaction at temperatures more relevant to the interstellar medium.

  11. A comparison of 1-D and 2-D algorithms for radar target classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Leslie M.

    The use of high-resolution radar measurement data from four ground vehicles (bulldozer, Dodge Power Wagon, Dodge Van, and Camaro) to evaluate the performance of several 1D and 2D classifiers is discussed. The 1D classifiers use high-resolution range profiles to classify targets; the 2D classifier uses high-resolution inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) images to classify targets. Classification performance results using the 1D and 2D algorithms are presented, and it is shown that the 2D algorithm performed best.

  12. Digit ratio (2D:4D) and performance in elite rugby players.

    PubMed

    Bennett, M; Manning, J T; Cook, C J; Kilduff, L P

    2010-11-01

    The relative length of the second and fourth digits (2D:4D) is a putative marker for prenatal testosterone. Low 2D:4D has been reported to correlate with high performance in sport in general. Here, for the first time, we examine the relationship between 2D:4D and performance in elite rugby players. The 44 players (28 forwards, 16 backs) were drawn from the Ospreys Rugby Union Club and 44 age-matched controls. The measures of performance comprised age-adjusted number of international performances (caps) for Wales, a comparison of coaches' first-choice League team with others, and the number of tries scored by backs in club matches. Compared with controls, players were larger and had lower 2D:4D for the right and left hand. With regard to number of caps, players with low 2D:4D in their right hand and low right 2D:4D compared with their left (right - left 2D:4D difference) had high numbers of caps. First-choice players did not differ significantly from second-choice players in their 2D:4D but they did have a lower right - left 2D:4D difference than second-choice players. Low right 2D:4D and low right - left 2D:4D difference were significantly linked with large numbers of tries. We conclude that low right 2D:4D and low right - left 2D:4D difference are predictors of high rugby performance.

  13. Digit ratio (2D:4D) in newborns: influences of prenatal testosterone and maternal environment.

    PubMed

    Ventura, T; Gomes, M C; Pita, A; Neto, M T; Taylor, A

    2013-02-01

    The 2D:4D digit ratio is sexually-dimorphic, probably due to testosterone action through the perinatal period. We characterize the 2D:4D ratio in newborn (NB) infants, in between the pre- and postnatal surges of testosterone, and relate it to the mother's 2D:4D and to testosterone levels in the amniotic fluid (AF). Testosterone was assayed in samples of maternal plasma and AF collected at amniocentesis. Shortly after birth, 106 NBs and their mothers were measured for 2D:4D ratio. NB males had lower mean 2D:4D ratios than females but this dimorphism was significant only for the left hand (males: 0.927; females: 0.950; p=0.004). Mothers who had sons had lower 2D:4D ratios than those who had daughters and the mother's 2D:4D were higher than those of NBs regardless of sex. Both hands of NB females were negatively correlated with AF testosterone and positively correlated with the mother's 2D:4D, but males showed no significant associations. Maternal plasma testosterone also showed a negative weak correlation with NB's digit ratio in both sexes. Sexual dimorphism at birth was only significant for the left hand, in contrast with reports of greater right hand dimorphism, suggesting that postnatal testosterone is determinant for 2D:4D stabilization. The lower 2D:4D ratios in mothers who had sons support claims that hormone levels in parents are influential for determining their children's sex. NB female's digit ratio, but not males', was associated to the level of AF testosterone. The mother's 2D:4D ratios were positively correlated with their daughters' 2D:4D, but the same was not observed for male NBs, suggesting that prenatal testosterone levels in male fetus lead their 2D:4D ratios to stray from their mothers' with high individual variability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Remarks on thermalization in 2D CFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, Jan; Engelhardt, Dalit

    2016-12-01

    We revisit certain aspects of thermalization in 2D conformal field theory (CFT). In particular, we consider similarities and differences between the time dependence of correlation functions in various states in rational and non-rational CFTs. We also consider the distinction between global and local thermalization and explain how states obtained by acting with a diffeomorphism on the ground state can appear locally thermal, and we review why the time-dependent expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor is generally a poor diagnostic of global thermalization. Since all 2D CFTs have an infinite set of commuting conserved charges, generic initial states might be expected to give rise to a generalized Gibbs ensemble rather than a pure thermal ensemble at late times. We construct the holographic dual of the generalized Gibbs ensemble and show that, to leading order, it is still described by a Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black hole. The extra conserved charges, while rendering c <1 theories essentially integrable, therefore seem to have little effect on large-c conformal field theories.

  15. Gas sensing in 2D materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shengxue; Jiang, Chengbao; Wei, Su-huai

    2017-06-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) layered inorganic nanomaterials have attracted huge attention due to their unique electronic structures, as well as extraordinary physical and chemical properties for use in electronics, optoelectronics, spintronics, catalysts, energy generation and storage, and chemical sensors. Graphene and related layered inorganic analogues have shown great potential for gas-sensing applications because of their large specific surface areas and strong surface activities. This review aims to discuss the latest advancements in the 2D layered inorganic materials for gas sensors. We first elaborate the gas-sensing mechanisms and introduce various types of gas-sensing devices. Then, we describe the basic parameters and influence factors of the gas sensors to further enhance their performance. Moreover, we systematically present the current gas-sensing applications based on graphene, graphene oxide (GO), reduced graphene oxide (rGO), functionalized GO or rGO, transition metal dichalcogenides, layered III-VI semiconductors, layered metal oxides, phosphorene, hexagonal boron nitride, etc. Finally, we conclude the future prospects of these layered inorganic materials in gas-sensing applications.

  16. 2D packing using the Myriad framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatburn, Luke T.; Batchelor, Bruce G.

    2004-02-01

    Myriad is a framework for building networked and distributed vision systems and is described in a companion paper in this conference. Myriad allows the components of a multi-camera, multi-user vision system (web-cameras, image processing engines, intelligent device controllers, databases and the user interface terminals) to be interconnected and operated together, even if they are physically separated by many hundreds, or thousands, of kilometres. This is achieved by operating them as Internet services. The principal objective in this article is to illustrate the simplicity of harmonising visual control with an existing system using Myriad. However, packing of 2-dimensional blob-like objects is of considerable commercial importance in some industries and involves robotic handling and/or cutting. The shapes to be packed may be cut from sheet metal, glass, cloth, leather, wood, card, paper, composite board, or flat food materials. In addition, many 3D packing applications can realistically be tackled only by regarding them as multi-layer 2D applications. Using Myriad to perform 2D packing, a set of blob-like input objects ("shapes") can be digitised using a standard camera (e.g. a "webcam"). The resulting digital images are then analysed, using a separate processing engine, perhaps located on a different continent. The packing is planned by another processing system, perhaps on a third continent. Finally, the assembly is performed using a robot, usually but not necessarily, located close to the camera.

  17. Microwave Assisted 2D Materials Exfoliation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanbin

    Two-dimensional materials have emerged as extremely important materials with applications ranging from energy and environmental science to electronics and biology. Here we report our discovery of a universal, ultrafast, green, solvo-thermal technology for producing excellent-quality, few-layered nanosheets in liquid phase from well-known 2D materials such as such hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), graphite, and MoS2. We start by mixing the uniform bulk-layered material with a common organic solvent that matches its surface energy to reduce the van der Waals attractive interactions between the layers; next, the solutions are heated in a commercial microwave oven to overcome the energy barrier between bulk and few-layers states. We discovered the minutes-long rapid exfoliation process is highly temperature dependent, which requires precise thermal management to obtain high-quality inks. We hypothesize a possible mechanism of this proposed solvo-thermal process; our theory confirms the basis of this novel technique for exfoliation of high-quality, layered 2D materials by using an as yet unknown role of the solvent.

  18. WFR-2D: an analytical model for PWAS-generated 2D ultrasonic guided wave propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yanfeng; Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents WaveFormRevealer 2-D (WFR-2D), an analytical predictive tool for the simulation of 2-D ultrasonic guided wave propagation and interaction with damage. The design of structural health monitoring (SHM) systems and self-aware smart structures requires the exploration of a wide range of parameters to achieve best detection and quantification of certain types of damage. Such need for parameter exploration on sensor dimension, location, guided wave characteristics (mode type, frequency, wavelength, etc.) can be best satisfied with analytical models which are fast and efficient. The analytical model was constructed based on the exact 2-D Lamb wave solution using Bessel and Hankel functions. Damage effects were inserted in the model by considering the damage as a secondary wave source with complex-valued directivity scattering coefficients containing both amplitude and phase information from wave-damage interaction. The analytical procedure was coded with MATLAB, and a predictive simulation tool called WaveFormRevealer 2-D was developed. The wave-damage interaction coefficients (WDICs) were extracted from harmonic analysis of local finite element model (FEM) with artificial non-reflective boundaries (NRB). The WFR-2D analytical simulation results were compared and verified with full scale multiphysics finite element models and experiments with scanning laser vibrometer. First, Lamb wave propagation in a pristine aluminum plate was simulated with WFR-2D, compared with finite element results, and verified by experiments. Then, an inhomogeneity was machined into the plate to represent damage. Analytical modeling was carried out, and verified by finite element simulation and experiments. This paper finishes with conclusions and suggestions for future work.

  19. Gold-standard performance for 2D hydrodynamic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasternack, G. B.; MacVicar, B. J.

    2013-12-01

    Two-dimensional, depth-averaged hydrodynamic (2D) models are emerging as an increasingly useful tool for environmental water resources engineering. One of the remaining technical hurdles to the wider adoption and acceptance of 2D modeling is the lack of standards for 2D model performance evaluation when the riverbed undulates, causing lateral flow divergence and convergence. The goal of this study was to establish a gold-standard that quantifies the upper limit of model performance for 2D models of undulating riverbeds when topography is perfectly known and surface roughness is well constrained. A review was conducted of published model performance metrics and the value ranges exhibited by models thus far for each one. Typically predicted velocity differs from observed by 20 to 30 % and the coefficient of determination between the two ranges from 0.5 to 0.8, though there tends to be a bias toward overpredicting low velocity and underpredicting high velocity. To establish a gold standard as to the best performance possible for a 2D model of an undulating bed, two straight, rectangular-walled flume experiments were done with no bed slope and only different bed undulations and water surface slopes. One flume tested model performance in the presence of a porous, homogenous gravel bed with a long flat section, then a linear slope down to a flat pool bottom, and then the same linear slope back up to the flat bed. The other flume had a PVC plastic solid bed with a long flat section followed by a sequence of five identical riffle-pool pairs in close proximity, so it tested model performance given frequent undulations. Detailed water surface elevation and velocity measurements were made for both flumes. Comparing predicted versus observed velocity magnitude for 3 discharges with the gravel-bed flume and 1 discharge for the PVC-bed flume, the coefficient of determination ranged from 0.952 to 0.987 and the slope for the regression line was 0.957 to 1.02. Unsigned velocity

  20. Simulation of 2D Fields of Raindrop Size Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berne, A.; Schleiss, M.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2008-12-01

    The raindrop size distribution (DSD hereafter) is of primary importance for quantitative applications of weather radar measurements. The radar reflectivity~Z (directly measured by radar) is related to the power backscattered by the ensemble of hydrometeors within the radar sampling volume. However, the rain rate~R (the flux of water to the surface) is the variable of interest for many applications (hydrology, weather forecasting, air traffic for example). Usually, radar reflectivity is converted into rain rate using a power law such as Z=aRb. The coefficients a and b of the Z-R relationship depend on the DSD. The variability of the DSD in space and time has to be taken into account to improve radar rain rate estimates. Therefore, the ability to generate a large number of 2D fields of DSD which are statistically homogeneous provides a very useful simulation framework that nicely complements experimental approaches based on DSD data, in order to investigate radar beam propagation through rain as well as radar retrieval techniques. The proposed approach is based on geostatistics for structural analysis and stochastic simulation. First, the DSD is assumed to follow a gamma distribution. Hence a 2D field of DSDs can be adequately described as a 2D field of a multivariate random function consisting of the three DSD parameters. Such fields are simulated by combining a Gaussian anamorphosis and a multivariate Gaussian random field simulation algorithm. Using the (cross-)variogram models fitted on data guaranties that the spatial structure of the simulated fields is consistent with the observed one. To assess its validity, the proposed method is applied to data collected during intense Mediterranean rainfall. As only time series are available, Taylor's hypothesis is assumed to convert time series in 1D range profile. Moreover, DSD fields are assumed to be isotropic so that the 1D structure can be used to simulate 2D fields. A large number of 2D fields of DSD parameters are

  1. Probing the 2-D kinematic structure of early-type galaxies out to 3 effective radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proctor, Robert N.; Forbes, Duncan A.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Brodie, Jean P.; Strader, Jay; Spolaor, Max; Mendel, J. Trevor; Spitler, Lee

    2010-11-01

    We detail an innovative new technique for measuring the 2-D velocity moments (rotation velocity, velocity dispersion and Gauss-Hermite coefficients h3 and h4) using spectra from Keck DEIMOS multi-object spectroscopic observations. The data are used to reconstruct 2-D rotation velocity maps.

  2. Measurement of astrophysical S factors and electron screening potentials for d( d, n)3He reaction In ZrD2, TiD2, D2O, and CD2 targets in the ultralow energy region using plasma accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bystritsky, V. M.; Bystritskii, Vit. M.; Dudkin, G. N.; Filipowicz, M.; Gazi, S.; Huran, J.; Kobzev, A. P.; Mesyats, G. A.; Nechaev, B. A.; Padalko, V. N.; Parzhitskii, S. S.; Pen'kov, F. M.; Philippov, A. V.; Kaminskii, V. L.; Tuleushev, Yu. Zh.; Wozniak, J.

    2012-01-01

    The paper is devoted to study electron screening effect influence on the rate of d( d, n)3He reaction in the ultralow deuteron collision energy range in the deuterated polyethylene (CD2), frozen heavy water (D2O) and deuterated metals (ZrD2 and TiD2). The ZrD2 and TiD2 targets were fabricated via magnetron sputtering of titanium and zirconium in gas (deuterium) environment. The experiments have been carried out using high-current plasma pulsed accelerator with forming of inverse Z pinch (HCEIRAS, Russia) and pulsed Hall plasma accelerator (NPI at TPU, Russia). The detection of neutrons with energy of 2.5MeV from dd reaction was done with plastic scintillation spectrometers. As a result of the experiments the energy dependences of astrophysical S factor for the dd reaction in the deuteron collision energy range of 2-7 keV and the values of the electron screening potential U e of interacting deuterons have been measured for the indicated above target: U e (CD2) ⩽ 40 eV; U e (D2O) ⩽ 26 eV; U e (ZrD2) = 157 ± 43 eV; U e (TiD2) = 125±34 eV. The value of astrophysical S factor, corresponding to the deuteron collision energy equal to zero, in the experiments with D2O target is found: S b (0) = 58.6 ± 3.6 keV b. The paper compares our results with other available published experimental and calculated data.

  3. Volumetric Elasticity Imaging with a 2D CMUT Array

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Ted G.; Hall, Timothy J.; Panda, Satchi; Richards, Michael S.; Barbone, Paul E.; Jiang, Jingfeng; Resnick, Jeff; Barnes, Steve

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the use of a two-dimensional (2D) capacitive micro-machined ultrasound transducer (CMUT) to acquire radio frequency (RF) echo data from relatively large volumes of a simple ultrasound phantom to compare 3D elasticity imaging methods. Typical 2D motion tracking for elasticity image formation was compared to three different methods of 3D motion tracking, with sum-squared difference (SSD) used as the similarity measure. Differences among the algorithms were the degree to which they tracked elevational motion: not at all (2D search), planar search, combination of multiple planes, and plane independent guided search. The cross correlation between the pre-deformation and motion-compensated post-deformation RF echo fields was used to quantify motion tracking accuracy. The lesion contrast-to-noise ratio was used to quantify image quality. Tracking accuracy and strain image quality generally improved with increased tracking sophistication. When used as input for a 3D modulus reconstruction, high quality 3D displacement estimates yielded accurate and low noise modulus reconstruction. PMID:20510188

  4. 2D:4D Ratio and its Implications in Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Jeevanandam, Saravanakumar

    2016-01-01

    Digit ratios, especially 2D:4D ratio, a potential proxy marker for prenatal androgen exposure shows sexual dimorphism. Existing literature and recent research show accumulating evidence on 2D:4D ratio showing correlations with various phenotypic traits in humans. Ratio of 2D:4D is found to correlate negatively to testosterone and positively to oestrogen in the foetus. Interestingly, it is constant since birth and not influenced by the adult hormone levels. Usually, males have lower ratios when compared to females. Prenatal androgen exposure and therefore, digit ratios have been reported to be associated with numerical competencies, spatial skills, handedness, cognitive abilities, academic performance, sperm counts, personalities and prevalence of obesity, migraine, eating disorders, depression, myopia, autism etc. The authors have attempted to write a brief account on the digit ratios and the dimorphism observed in various physiological, psychological and behavioural traits. Also, the authors have discussed the relevant molecular basics and the methods of measurement of digit ratios. PMID:28208851

  5. Volumetric elasticity imaging with a 2-D CMUT array.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Ted G; Hall, Timothy J; Panda, Satchi; Richards, Michael S; Barbone, Paul E; Jiang, Jingfeng; Resnick, Jeff; Barnes, Steve

    2010-06-01

    This article reports the use of a two-dimensional (2-D) capacitive micro-machined ultrasound transducer (CMUT) to acquire radio-frequency (RF) echo data from relatively large volumes of a simple ultrasound phantom to compare three-dimensional (3-D) elasticity imaging methods. Typical 2-D motion tracking for elasticity image formation was compared with three different methods of 3-D motion tracking, with sum-squared difference (SSD) used as the similarity measure. Differences among the algorithms were the degree to which they tracked elevational motion: not at all (2-D search), planar search, combination of multiple planes and plane independent guided search. The cross-correlation between the predeformation and motion-compensated postdeformation RF echo fields was used to quantify motion tracking accuracy. The lesion contrast-to-noise ratio was used to quantify image quality. Tracking accuracy and strain image quality generally improved with increased tracking sophistication. When used as input for a 3-D modulus reconstruction, high quality 3-D displacement estimates yielded accurate and low noise modulus reconstruction.

  6. Fully automated 2D-3D registration and verification.

    PubMed

    Varnavas, Andreas; Carrell, Tom; Penney, Graeme

    2015-12-01

    Clinical application of 2D-3D registration technology often requires a significant amount of human interaction during initialisation and result verification. This is one of the main barriers to more widespread clinical use of this technology. We propose novel techniques for automated initial pose estimation of the 3D data and verification of the registration result, and show how these techniques can be combined to enable fully automated 2D-3D registration, particularly in the case of a vertebra based system. The initialisation method is based on preoperative computation of 2D templates over a wide range of 3D poses. These templates are used to apply the Generalised Hough Transform to the intraoperative 2D image and the sought 3D pose is selected with the combined use of the generated accumulator arrays and a Gradient Difference Similarity Measure. On the verification side, two algorithms are proposed: one using normalised features based on the similarity value and the other based on the pose agreement between multiple vertebra based registrations. The proposed methods are employed here for CT to fluoroscopy registration and are trained and tested with data from 31 clinical procedures with 417 low dose, i.e. low quality, high noise interventional fluoroscopy images. When similarity value based verification is used, the fully automated system achieves a 95.73% correct registration rate, whereas a no registration result is produced for the remaining 4.27% of cases (i.e. incorrect registration rate is 0%). The system also automatically detects input images outside its operating range.

  7. Simulation of Yeast Cooperation in 2D.

    PubMed

    Wang, M; Huang, Y; Wu, Z

    2016-03-01

    Evolution of cooperation has been an active research area in evolutionary biology in decades. An important type of cooperation is developed from group selection, when individuals form spatial groups to prevent them from foreign invasions. In this paper, we study the evolution of cooperation in a mixed population of cooperating and cheating yeast strains in 2D with the interactions among the yeast cells restricted to their small neighborhoods. We conduct a computer simulation based on a game theoretic model and show that cooperation is increased when the interactions are spatially restricted, whether the game is of a prisoner's dilemma, snow drifting, or mutual benefit type. We study the evolution of homogeneous groups of cooperators or cheaters and describe the conditions for them to sustain or expand in an opponent population. We show that under certain spatial restrictions, cooperator groups are able to sustain and expand as group sizes become large, while cheater groups fail to expand and keep them from collapse.

  8. Variational regularized 2-D nonnegative matrix factorization.

    PubMed

    Gao, Bin; Woo, W L; Dlay, S S

    2012-05-01

    A novel approach for adaptive regularization of 2-D nonnegative matrix factorization is presented. The proposed matrix factorization is developed under the framework of maximum a posteriori probability and is adaptively fine-tuned using the variational approach. The method enables: (1) a generalized criterion for variable sparseness to be imposed onto the solution; and (2) prior information to be explicitly incorporated into the basis features. The method is computationally efficient and has been demonstrated on two applications, that is, extracting features from image and separating single channel source mixture. In addition, it is shown that the basis features of an information-bearing matrix can be extracted more efficiently using the proposed regularized priors. Experimental tests have been rigorously conducted to verify the efficacy of the proposed method.

  9. Graphene suspensions for 2D printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soots, R. A.; Yakimchuk, E. A.; Nebogatikova, N. A.; Kotin, I. A.; Antonova, I. V.

    2016-04-01

    It is shown that, by processing a graphite suspension in ethanol or water by ultrasound and centrifuging, it is possible to obtain particles with thicknesses within 1-6 nm and, in the most interesting cases, 1-1.5 nm. Analogous treatment of a graphite suspension in organic solvent yields eventually thicker particles (up to 6-10 nm thick) even upon long-term treatment. Using the proposed ink based on graphene and aqueous ethanol with ethylcellulose and terpineol additives for 2D printing, thin (~5 nm thick) films with sheet resistance upon annealing ~30 MΩ/□ were obtained. With the ink based on aqueous graphene suspension, the sheet resistance was ~5-12 kΩ/□ for 6- to 15-nm-thick layers with a carrier mobility of ~30-50 cm2/(V s).

  10. 2D quantum gravity from quantum entanglement.

    PubMed

    Gliozzi, F

    2011-01-21

    In quantum systems with many degrees of freedom the replica method is a useful tool to study the entanglement of arbitrary spatial regions. We apply it in a way that allows them to backreact. As a consequence, they become dynamical subsystems whose position, form, and extension are determined by their interaction with the whole system. We analyze, in particular, quantum spin chains described at criticality by a conformal field theory. Its coupling to the Gibbs' ensemble of all possible subsystems is relevant and drives the system into a new fixed point which is argued to be that of the 2D quantum gravity coupled to this system. Numerical experiments on the critical Ising model show that the new critical exponents agree with those predicted by the formula of Knizhnik, Polyakov, and Zamolodchikov.

  11. Canard configured aircraft with 2-D nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Child, R. D.; Henderson, W. P.

    1978-01-01

    A closely-coupled canard fighter with vectorable two-dimensional nozzle was designed for enhanced transonic maneuvering. The HiMAT maneuver goal of a sustained 8g turn at a free-stream Mach number of 0.9 and 30,000 feet was the primary design consideration. The aerodynamic design process was initiated with a linear theory optimization minimizing the zero percent suction drag including jet effects and refined with three-dimensional nonlinear potential flow techniques. Allowances were made for mutual interference and viscous effects. The design process to arrive at the resultant configuration is described, and the design of a powered 2-D nozzle model to be tested in the LRC 16-foot Propulsion Wind Tunnel is shown.

  12. Transition to turbulence: 2D directed percolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chantry, Matthew; Tuckerman, Laurette; Barkley, Dwight

    2016-11-01

    The transition to turbulence in simple shear flows has been studied for well over a century, yet in the last few years has seen major leaps forward. In pipe flow, this transition shows the hallmarks of (1 + 1) D directed percolation, a universality class of continuous phase transitions. In spanwisely confined Taylor-Couette flow the same class is found, suggesting the phenomenon is generic to shear flows. However in plane Couette flow the largest simulations and experiments to-date find evidence for a discrete transition. Here we study a planar shear flow, called Waleffe flow, devoid of walls yet showing the fundamentals of planar transition to turbulence. Working with a quasi-2D yet Navier-Stokes derived model of this flow we are able to attack the (2 + 1) D transition problem. Going beyond the system sizes previously possible we find all of the required scalings of directed percolation and thus establish planar shears flow in this class.

  13. Canard configured aircraft with 2-D nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Child, R. D.; Henderson, W. P.

    1978-01-01

    A closely-coupled canard fighter with vectorable two-dimensional nozzle was designed for enhanced transonic maneuvering. The HiMAT maneuver goal of a sustained 8g turn at a free-stream Mach number of 0.9 and 30,000 feet was the primary design consideration. The aerodynamic design process was initiated with a linear theory optimization minimizing the zero percent suction drag including jet effects and refined with three-dimensional nonlinear potential flow techniques. Allowances were made for mutual interference and viscous effects. The design process to arrive at the resultant configuration is described, and the design of a powered 2-D nozzle model to be tested in the LRC 16-foot Propulsion Wind Tunnel is shown.

  14. Numerical Evaluation of 2D Ground States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolkovska, Natalia

    2016-02-01

    A ground state is defined as the positive radial solution of the multidimensional nonlinear problem \\varepsilon propto k_ bot 1 - ξ with the function f being either f(u) =a|u|p-1u or f(u) =a|u|pu+b|u|2pu. The numerical evaluation of ground states is based on the shooting method applied to an equivalent dynamical system. A combination of fourth order Runge-Kutta method and Hermite extrapolation formula is applied to solving the resulting initial value problem. The efficiency of this procedure is demonstrated in the 1D case, where the maximal difference between the exact and numerical solution is ≈ 10-11 for a discretization step 0:00025. As a major application, we evaluate numerically the critical energy constant. This constant is defined as a functional of the ground state and is used in the study of the 2D Boussinesq equations.

  15. Relationships between digit ratio (2D:4D) and basketball performance in Australian men.

    PubMed

    Frick, Nathan A; Hull, Melissa J; Manning, John T; Tomkinson, Grant R

    2017-05-06

    To investigate relationships between the digit ratio (2D:4D) and competitive basketball performance in Australian men. Using an observational cross-sectional design a total of 221 Australian basketball players who competed in the Olympic Games, International Basketball Federation World Championships/Cup, Australian National Basketball League, Central Australian Basketball League or socially had their 2D:4Ds measured. Analysis of variance was used to assess differences in mean 2D:4Ds between men playing at different competitive standards, with relationships between 2D:4Ds and basketball game-related statistics assessed using Pearson's product moment correlations in men playing at a single competitive standard. There were significant differences between competitive standards for the left 2D:4D following Bonferroni correction, but not for the right 2D:4D, with basketballers who achieved higher competitive standards tending to have lower left 2D:4Ds. No important correlations between 2D:4D and basketball game-related statistics were found, with correlations typically negligible. This study indicated that the 2D:4D can discriminate between basketballers competing at different standards, but not between basketballers within a single competitive standard using objective game-related statistics. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The mouse ruby-eye 2(d) (ru2(d) /Hps5(ru2-d) ) allele inhibits eumelanin but not pheomelanin synthesis.

    PubMed

    Hirobe, Tomohisa; Ito, Shosuke; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa

    2013-09-01

    The novel mutation named ru2(d) /Hps5(ru2-d) , characterized by light-colored coats and ruby-eyes, prohibits differentiation of melanocytes by inhibiting tyrosinase (Tyr) activity, expression of Tyr, Tyr-related protein 1 (Tyrp1), Tyrp2, and Kit. However, it is not known whether the ru2(d) allele affects pheomelanin synthesis in recessive yellow (e/Mc1r(e) ) or in pheomelanic stage in agouti (A) mice. In this study, effects of the ru2(d) allele on pheomelanin synthesis were investigated by chemical analysis of melanin present in dorsal hairs of 5-week-old mice from F2 generation between C57BL/10JHir (B10)-co-isogenic ruby-eye 2(d) and B10-congenic recessive yellow or agouti. Eumelanin content was decreased in ruby-eye 2(d) and ruby-eye 2(d) agouti mice, whereas pheomelanin content in ruby-eye 2(d) recessive yellow and ruby-eye 2(d) agouti mice did not differ from the corresponding Ru2(d) /- mice, suggesting that the ru2(d) allele inhibits eumelanin but not pheomelanin synthesis. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Site-specific difference 2D-IR spectroscopy of bacteriorhodopsin.

    PubMed

    Andresen, Esben Ravn; Hamm, Peter

    2009-05-07

    We demonstrate the extension of the principle of difference Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to difference 2D-IR spectroscopy. To this end, we measure difference 2D-IR spectra of the protein bacteriorhodopsin in its early J- and K-intermediates. By comparing with the static 2D-IR spectrum of the protonated Schiff base of all-trans retinal, we demonstrate that the 2D-IR spectrum of the all-trans retinal chromophore in bacteriorhodopsin can be measured with the background from the remainder of the protein completely suppressed. We discuss several models to interpret the detailed line shape of the difference 2D-IR spectrum.

  18. Interpretive 2-D treatment of scrape-off-layer plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Umansky, M.; Allen, A.; Daughton, W.

    1996-12-31

    The width of the scrape-off-layer in a tokamak is determined by cross field transport. In Alcator C-mod the plasma parameters in the scrape-off-layer are measured at upstream and divertor plate locations. We solve a 2-D scrape-off-layer heat conduction equation in the flux geometry (as determined by EFIT) of the C-mod experiment. Bolometric measurements are utilized for the radiative loss term. We use the end wall probe measurements of electron temperature as a boundary condition and the fast scanning probe measurements of upstream temperature are treated as constraints to determine the cross field transport and thermal conductivity. Results are compared with 1-D onion-skin-model predictions.

  19. Fast, accurate 2D-MR relaxation exchange spectroscopy (REXSY): Beyond compressed sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Ruiliang; Benjamini, Dan; Cheng, Jian; Basser, Peter J.

    2016-10-01

    Previously, we showed that compressive or compressed sensing (CS) can be used to reduce significantly the data required to obtain 2D-NMR relaxation and diffusion spectra when they are sparse or well localized. In some cases, an order of magnitude fewer uniformly sampled data were required to reconstruct 2D-MR spectra of comparable quality. Nonetheless, this acceleration may still not be sufficient to make 2D-MR spectroscopy practicable for many important applications, such as studying time-varying exchange processes in swelling gels or drying paints, in living tissue in response to various biological or biochemical challenges, and particularly for in vivo MRI applications. A recently introduced framework, marginal distributions constrained optimization (MADCO), tremendously accelerates such 2D acquisitions by using a priori obtained 1D marginal distribution as powerful constraints when 2D spectra are reconstructed. Here we exploit one important intrinsic property of the 2D-MR relaxation exchange spectra: the fact that the 1D marginal distributions of each 2D-MR relaxation exchange spectrum in both dimensions are equal and can be rapidly estimated from a single Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) or inversion recovery prepared CPMG measurement. We extend the MADCO framework by further proposing to use the 1D marginal distributions to inform the subsequent 2D data-sampling scheme, concentrating measurements where spectral peaks are present and reducing them where they are not. In this way we achieve compression or acceleration that is an order of magnitude greater than that in our previous CS method while providing data in reconstructed 2D-MR spectral maps of comparable quality, demonstrated using several simulated and real 2D T2 - T2 experimental data. This method, which can be called "informed compressed sensing," is extendable to other 2D- and even ND-MR exchange spectroscopy.

  20. Design and characterization of low-loss 2D grating couplers for silicon photonics integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacava, C.; Carrol, L.; Bozzola, A.; Marchetti, R.; Minzioni, P.; Cristiani, I.; Fournier, M.; Bernabe, S.; Gerace, D.; Andreani, L. C.

    2016-03-01

    We present the characterization of Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) photonic-crystal based 2D grating-couplers (2D-GCs) fabricated by CEA-Leti in the frame of the FP7 Fabulous project, which is dedicated to the realization of devices and systems for low-cost and high-performance passives-optical-networks. On the analyzed samples different test structures are present, including 2D-GC connected to another 2D-GC by different waveguides (in a Mach-Zehnder like configuration), and 2D-GC connected to two separate 2D-GCs, so as to allow a complete assessment of different parameters. Measurements were carried out using a tunable laser source operating in the extended telecom bandwidth and a fiber-based polarization controlling system at the input of device-under-test. The measured data yielded an overall fiber-to-fiber loss of 7.5 dB for the structure composed by an input 2D-GC connected to two identical 2D-GCs. This value was obtained at the peak wavelength of the grating, and the 3-dB bandwidth of the 2D-GC was assessed to be 43 nm. Assuming that the waveguide losses are negligible, so as to make a worst-case analysis, the coupling efficiency of the single 2D-GC results to be equal to -3.75 dB, constituting, to the best of our knowledge, the lowest value ever reported for a fully CMOS compatible 2D-GC. It is worth noting that both the obtained values are in good agreement with those expected by the numerical simulations performed using full 3D analysis by Lumerical FDTD-solutions.

  1. Quantifying Therapeutic and Diagnostic Efficacy in 2D Microvascular Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia; Vickerman, Mary B.; Keith, Patricia A.

    2009-01-01

    VESGEN is a newly automated, user-interactive program that maps and quantifies the effects of vascular therapeutics and regulators on microvascular form and function. VESGEN analyzes two-dimensional, black and white vascular images by measuring important vessel morphology parameters. This software guides the user through each required step of the analysis process via a concise graphical user interface (GUI). Primary applications of the VESGEN code are 2D vascular images acquired as clinical diagnostic images of the human retina and as experimental studies of the effects of vascular regulators and therapeutics on vessel remodeling.

  2. Optical diffraction by ordered 2D arrays of silica microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakov, A. A.; Shavdina, O.; Tishchenko, A. V.; Veillas, C.; Verrier, I.; Dellea, O.; Jourlin, Y.

    2017-03-01

    The article presents experimental and theoretical studies of angular dependent diffraction properties of 2D monolayer arrays of silica microspheres. High-quality large area defect-free monolayers of 1 μm diameter silica microspheres were deposited by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique under an accurate optical control. Measured angular dependencies of zeroth and one of the first order diffraction efficiencies produced by deposited samples were simulated by the rigorous Generalized Source Method taking into account particle size dispersion and lattice nonideality.

  3. Comparative metabolic capabilities and inhibitory profiles of CYP2D6.1, CYP2D6.10, and CYP2D6.17.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hongwu; He, Minxia M; Liu, Houfu; Wrighton, Steven A; Wang, Li; Guo, Bin; Li, Chuan

    2007-08-01

    Polymorphisms in the cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) gene are a major cause of pharmacokinetic variability in human. Although the poor metabolizer phenotype is known to be caused by two null alleles leading to absence of functional CYP2D6 protein, the large variability among individuals with functional alleles remains mostly unexplained. Thus, the goal of this study was to examine the intrinsic enzymatic differences that exist among the several active CYP2D6 allelic variants. The relative catalytic activities (enzyme kinetics) of three functionally active human CYP2D6 allelic variants, CYP2D6.1, CYP2D6.10, and CYP2D6.17, were systematically investigated for their ability to metabolize a structurally diverse set of clinically important CYP2D6-metabolized drugs [atomoxetine, bufuralol, codeine, debrisoquine, dextromethorphan, (S)-fluoxetine, nortriptyline, and tramadol] and the effects of various CYP2D6-inhibitors [cocaine, (S)-fluoxetine, (S)-norfluoxetine, imipramine, quinidine, and thioridazine] on these three variants. The most significant difference observed was a consistent but substrate-dependent decease in the catalytic efficiencies of cDNA-expressed CYP2D6.10 and CYP2D6.17 compared with CYP2D6.1, yielding 1.32 to 27.9 and 7.33 to 80.4% of the efficiency of CYP2D6.1, respectively. The most important finding from this study is that there are mixed effects on the functionally reduced allelic variants in enzyme-substrate affinity or enzyme-inhibitor affinity, which is lower, higher, or comparable to that for CYP2D6.1. Considering the rather high frequencies of CYP2D6*10 and CYP2D6*17 alleles for Asians and African Americans, respectively, these data provide further insight into ethnic differences in CYP2D6-mediated drug metabolism. However, as with all in vitro to in vivo extrapolations, caution should be applied to the clinical consequences.

  4. MicroRNAs 9 and 370 Association with Biochemical Markers in T2D and CAD Complication of T2D.

    PubMed

    Motawae, Tarek M; Ismail, Manal F; Shabayek, Marwa I; Seleem, Mae M

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non coding RNAs with essential roles, of which any alteration leads to several conditions. Their roles in diabetes (DM) and its vascular complications have not been completely assessed. to study the association of two miRNAs; 9 and 370, with biochemical parameters of type 2 diabetic (T2D), dyslipidemia and coronary artery disease (CAD). Blood samples were taken from 200 subjects of both genders, in the Outpatient clinic of Al Qasr El-Einy teaching hospitals, in which levels of both miRNAs (using real time PCR) and routine parameters were measured. Subjects were divided over four groups, 50 in each group as follows; patients with T2D, patients with CAD, patients with T2D and CAD, and healthy control subjects. miRNA 9 levels were expected to be over expressed in diabetic patients, while miRNA 370 levels were expected to be over expressed in those suffering from CAD and their association with CAD complication of T2D. miRNA 9 levels were significantly higher in T2D patients and T2D patients with CAD, (1.18±0.07, and 1.31±0.08 respectively), while miRNA 370 levels were significantly higher in T2D patients, CAD patients, and T2D patients with CAD (0.59±0.05, 1.00±0.05, and 1.20±0.06 respectively), compared to control group at p = 0.000. In addition both miRNAs were still significantly associated with each other even after conducting multiple regression analysis. This study associates the possible role of miRNAs in the diagnosis/prognosis of CAD complication of T2D.

  5. Competing coexisting phases in 2D water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanotti, Jean-Marc; Judeinstein, Patrick; Dalla-Bernardina, Simona; Creff, Gaëlle; Brubach, Jean-Blaise; Roy, Pascale; Bonetti, Marco; Ollivier, Jacques; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Bellissent-Funel, Marie-Claire

    2016-05-01

    The properties of bulk water come from a delicate balance of interactions on length scales encompassing several orders of magnitudes: i) the Hydrogen Bond (HBond) at the molecular scale and ii) the extension of this HBond network up to the macroscopic level. Here, we address the physics of water when the three dimensional extension of the HBond network is frustrated, so that the water molecules are forced to organize in only two dimensions. We account for the large scale fluctuating HBond network by an analytical mean-field percolation model. This approach provides a coherent interpretation of the different events experimentally (calorimetry, neutron, NMR, near and far infra-red spectroscopies) detected in interfacial water at 160, 220 and 250 K. Starting from an amorphous state of water at low temperature, these transitions are respectively interpreted as the onset of creation of transient low density patches of 4-HBonded molecules at 160 K, the percolation of these domains at 220 K and finally the total invasion of the surface by them at 250 K. The source of this surprising behaviour in 2D is the frustration of the natural bulk tetrahedral local geometry and the underlying very significant increase in entropy of the interfacial water molecules.

  6. Competing coexisting phases in 2D water

    PubMed Central

    Zanotti, Jean-Marc; Judeinstein, Patrick; Dalla-Bernardina, Simona; Creff, Gaëlle; Brubach, Jean-Blaise; Roy, Pascale; Bonetti, Marco; Ollivier, Jacques; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Bellissent-Funel, Marie-Claire

    2016-01-01

    The properties of bulk water come from a delicate balance of interactions on length scales encompassing several orders of magnitudes: i) the Hydrogen Bond (HBond) at the molecular scale and ii) the extension of this HBond network up to the macroscopic level. Here, we address the physics of water when the three dimensional extension of the HBond network is frustrated, so that the water molecules are forced to organize in only two dimensions. We account for the large scale fluctuating HBond network by an analytical mean-field percolation model. This approach provides a coherent interpretation of the different events experimentally (calorimetry, neutron, NMR, near and far infra-red spectroscopies) detected in interfacial water at 160, 220 and 250 K. Starting from an amorphous state of water at low temperature, these transitions are respectively interpreted as the onset of creation of transient low density patches of 4-HBonded molecules at 160 K, the percolation of these domains at 220 K and finally the total invasion of the surface by them at 250 K. The source of this surprising behaviour in 2D is the frustration of the natural bulk tetrahedral local geometry and the underlying very significant increase in entropy of the interfacial water molecules. PMID:27185018

  7. Reduced sleep duration mediates decreases in striatal D2/D3 receptor availability in cocaine abusers

    PubMed Central

    Wiers, C E; Shumay, E; Cabrera, E; Shokri-Kojori, E; Gladwin, T E; Skarda, E; Cunningham, S I; Kim, S W; Wong, T C; Tomasi, D; Wang, G-J; Volkow, N D

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have documented reduced striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptor (D2/D3R) availability in cocaine abusers, which has been associated with impaired prefrontal activity and vulnerability for relapse. However, the mechanism(s) underlying the decreases in D2/D3R remain poorly understood. Recent studies have shown that sleep deprivation is associated with a downregulation of striatal D2/D3R in healthy volunteers. As cocaine abusers have disrupted sleep patterns, here we investigated whether reduced sleep duration mediates the relationship between cocaine abuse and low striatal D2/D3R availability. We used positron emission tomography with [11C]raclopride to measure striatal D2/D3R availability in 24 active cocaine abusers and 21 matched healthy controls, and interviewed them about their daily sleep patterns. Compared with controls, cocaine abusers had shorter sleep duration, went to bed later and reported longer periods of sleep disturbances. In addition, cocaine abusers had reduced striatal D2/D3R availability. Sleep duration predicted striatal D2/D3R availability and statistically mediated the relationship between cocaine abuse and striatal D2/D3R availability. These findings suggest that impaired sleep patterns contribute to the low striatal D2/D3R availability in cocaine abusers. As sleep impairments are similarly observed in other types of substance abusers (for example, alcohol and methamphetamine), this mechanism may also underlie reductions in D2/D3R availability in these groups. The current findings have clinical implications suggesting that interventions to improve sleep patterns in cocaine abusers undergoing detoxification might be beneficial in improving their clinical outcomes. PMID:26954979

  8. Completeness of the classical 2D Ising model and universal quantum computation.

    PubMed

    Van den Nest, M; Dür, W; Briegel, H J

    2008-03-21

    We prove that the 2D Ising model is complete in the sense that the partition function of any classical q-state spin model (on an arbitrary graph) can be expressed as a special instance of the partition function of a 2D Ising model with complex inhomogeneous couplings and external fields. In the case where the original model is an Ising or Potts-type model, we find that the corresponding 2D square lattice requires only polynomially more spins with respect to the original one, and we give a constructive method to map such models to the 2D Ising model. For more general models the overhead in system size may be exponential. The results are established by connecting classical spin models with measurement-based quantum computation and invoking the universality of the 2D cluster states.

  9. 2D:4D in men is related to aggressive dominance but not to sociable dominance.

    PubMed

    van der Meij, Leander; Almela, Mercedes; Buunk, Abraham P; Dubbs, Shelli; Salvador, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    It has been shown that a smaller ratio between the length of the second and fourth digit (2D:4D) is an indicator of the exposure to prenatal testosterone (T). This study measured the 2D:4D of men and assessed dominance as a personality trait to investigate indirectly if the exposure to prenatal T is related to a dominant personality later in life. Results showed that men had a more aggressive dominant personality when having a more masculine (lower) 2D:4D, while there was no relationship between sociable dominance and 2D:4D. Findings from this study indicate that it is important to distinguish different forms of dominance since other studies failed to find relationships between dominance and 2D:4D. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. 2D Gridded Surface Data Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Q; Xie, S

    2015-08-30

    This report describes the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Best Estimate (ARMBE) 2-dimensional (2D) gridded surface data (ARMBE2DGRID) value-added product. Spatial variability is critically important to many scientific studies, especially those that involve processes of great spatial variations at high temporal frequency (e.g., precipitation, clouds, radiation, etc.). High-density ARM sites deployed at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) allow us to observe the spatial patterns of variables of scientific interests. The upcoming megasite at SGP with its enhanced spatial density will facilitate the studies at even finer scales. Currently, however, data are reported only at individual site locations at different time resolutions for different datastreams. It is difficult for users to locate all the data they need and requires extra effort to synchronize the data. To address these problems, the ARMBE2DGRID value-added product merges key surface measurements at the ARM SGP sites and interpolates the data to a regular 2D grid to facilitate the data application.

  11. MAGNUM2D. Radionuclide Transport Porous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Langford, D.W.; Baca, R.G.

    1989-03-01

    MAGNUM2D was developed to analyze thermally driven fluid motion in the deep basalts below the Paco Basin at the Westinghouse Hanford Site. Has been used in the Basalt Waste Isolation Project to simulate nonisothermal groundwater flow in a heterogeneous anisotropic medium and heat transport in a water/rock system near a high level nuclear waste repository. Allows three representations of the hydrogeologic system: an equivalent porous continuum, a system of discrete, unfilled, and interconnecting fractures separated by impervious rock mass, and a low permeability porous continuum with several discrete, unfilled fractures traversing the medium. The calculations assume local thermodynamic equilibrium between the rock and groundwater, nonisothermal Darcian flow in the continuum portions of the rock, and nonisothermal Poiseuille flow in discrete unfilled fractures. In addition, the code accounts for thermal loading within the elements, zero normal gradient and fixed boundary conditions for both temperature and hydraulic head, and simulation of the temperature and flow independently. The Q2DGEOM preprocessor was developed to generate, modify, plot and verify quadratic two dimensional finite element geometries. The BCGEN preprocessor generates the boundary conditions for head and temperature and ICGEN generates the initial conditions. The GRIDDER postprocessor interpolates nonregularly spaced nodal flow and temperature data onto a regular rectangular grid. CONTOUR plots and labels contour lines for a function of two variables and PARAM plots cross sections and time histories for a function of time and one or two spatial variables. NPRINT generates data tables that display the data along horizontal or vertical cross sections. VELPLT differentiates the hydraulic head and buoyancy data and plots the velocity vectors. The PATH postprocessor plots flow paths and computes the corresponding travel times.

  12. MAGNUM2D. Radionuclide Transport Porous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Langford, D.W.; Baca, R.G.

    1988-08-01

    MAGNUM2D was developed to analyze thermally driven fluid motion in the deep basalts below the Paco Basin at the Westinghouse Hanford Site. Has been used in the Basalt Waste Isolation Project to simulate nonisothermal groundwater flow in a heterogeneous anisotropic medium and heat transport in a water/rock system near a high level nuclear waste repository. Allows three representations of the hydrogeologic system: an equivalent porous continuum, a system of discrete, unfilled, and interconnecting fractures separated by impervious rock mass, and a low permeability porous continuum with several discrete, unfilled fractures traversing the medium. The calculation assumes local thermodynamic equilibrium between the rock and groundwater, nonisothermal Darcian flow in the continuum portions of the rock, and nonisothermal Poiseuille flow in discrete unfilled fractures. In addition, the code accounts for thermal loading within the elements, zero normal gradient and fixed boundary conditions for both temperature and hydraulic head, and simulation of the temperature and flow independently. The Q2DGEOM preprocessor was developed to generate, modify, plot and verify quadratic two dimensional finite element geometries. The BCGEN preprocessor generates the boundary conditions for head and temperature and ICGEN generates the initial conditions. The GRIDDER postprocessor interpolates nonregularly spaced nodal flow and temperature data onto a regular rectangular grid. CONTOUR plots and labels contour lines for a function of two variables and PARAM plots cross sections and time histories for a function of time and one or two spatial variables. NPRINT generates data tables that display the data along horizontal or vertical cross sections. VELPLT differentiates the hydraulic head and buoyancy data and plots the velocity vectors. The PATH postprocessor plots flow paths and computes the corresponding travel times.

  13. 2-D Animation's Not Just for Mickey Mouse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinman, Lynda

    1995-01-01

    Discusses characteristics of two-dimensional (2-D) animation; highlights include character animation, painting issues, and motion graphics. Sidebars present Silicon Graphics animations tools and 2-D animation programs for the desktop computer. (DGM)

  14. 2D discrete Fourier transform on sliding windows.

    PubMed

    Park, Chun-Su

    2015-03-01

    Discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is the most widely used method for determining the frequency spectra of digital signals. In this paper, a 2D sliding DFT (2D SDFT) algorithm is proposed for fast implementation of the DFT on 2D sliding windows. The proposed 2D SDFT algorithm directly computes the DFT bins of the current window using the precalculated bins of the previous window. Since the proposed algorithm is designed to accelerate the sliding transform process of a 2D input signal, it can be directly applied to computer vision and image processing applications. The theoretical analysis shows that the computational requirement of the proposed 2D SDFT algorithm is the lowest among existing 2D DFT algorithms. Moreover, the output of the 2D SDFT is mathematically equivalent to that of the traditional DFT at all pixel positions.

  15. NIKE2D96. Static & Dynamic Response of 2D Solids

    SciTech Connect

    Raboin, P.; Engelmann, B.; Halquist, J.O.

    1992-01-24

    NIKE2D is an implicit finite-element code for analyzing the finite deformation, static and dynamic response of two-dimensional, axisymmetric, plane strain, and plane stress solids. The code is fully vectorized and available on several computing platforms. A number of material models are incorporated to simulate a wide range of material behavior including elasto-placicity, anisotropy, creep, thermal effects, and rate dependence. Slideline algorithms model gaps and sliding along material interfaces, including interface friction, penetration and single surface contact. Interactive-graphics and rezoning is included for analyses with large mesh distortions. In addition to quasi-Newton and arc-length procedures, adaptive algorithms can be defined to solve the implicit equations using the solution language ISLAND. Each of these capabilities and more make NIKE2D a robust analysis tool.

  16. Digit Ratio (2D:4D) and Handgrip Strength in Hani Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Dapeng; Yu, Keli; Zhang, Xinghua; Zheng, Lianbin

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The ratio of the length of the second finger to the fourth finger (2D:4D) in humans is considered as a putative marker of prenatal exposure to testosterone, and has been progressively adopted as one useful tool to evaluate the effect of prenatal hormones in some traits such as physical ability. Handgrip strength is one authentic measure of physical ability and is generally used on the anthropological research within an evolutionary viewpoint. Methods Here we present the first evidence on 2D:4D and handgrip strength on adult participants of Hani ethnicity and explore the relationship between digit ratio (2D:4D) and handgrip strength. We examined 2D:4D and handgrip strength of 80 males and 60 females at Bubeng village, in the Yunnan province of China. Results The mean 2D:4D in females was higher than that in males for each hand. Females showed significantly higher 2D:4D than males in the right hand rather than in the left hand. Males displayed significantly higher handgrip strength than females for both hands. Handgrip strength decreased with age for both sexes. A significant negative correlation between 2D:4D and handgrip strength was found in the right hand of males. Conclusion The relationship between 2D:4D and handgrip strength may be attributed to evolutionary drive of sexual selection operating on fetal programming. PMID:24205044

  17. Digit ratio (2D:4D) and handgrip strength in Hani ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dapeng; Yu, Keli; Zhang, Xinghua; Zheng, Lianbin

    2013-01-01

    The ratio of the length of the second finger to the fourth finger (2D:4D) in humans is considered as a putative marker of prenatal exposure to testosterone, and has been progressively adopted as one useful tool to evaluate the effect of prenatal hormones in some traits such as physical ability. Handgrip strength is one authentic measure of physical ability and is generally used on the anthropological research within an evolutionary viewpoint. Here we present the first evidence on 2D:4D and handgrip strength on adult participants of Hani ethnicity and explore the relationship between digit ratio (2D:4D) and handgrip strength. We examined 2D:4D and handgrip strength of 80 males and 60 females at Bubeng village, in the Yunnan province of China. The mean 2D:4D in females was higher than that in males for each hand. Females showed significantly higher 2D:4D than males in the right hand rather than in the left hand. Males displayed significantly higher handgrip strength than females for both hands. Handgrip strength decreased with age for both sexes. A significant negative correlation between 2D:4D and handgrip strength was found in the right hand of males. The relationship between 2D:4D and handgrip strength may be attributed to evolutionary drive of sexual selection operating on fetal programming.

  18. Generates 2D Input for DYNA NIKE & TOPAZ

    SciTech Connect

    Hallquist, J. O.; Sanford, Larry

    1996-07-15

    MAZE is an interactive program that serves as an input and two-dimensional mesh generator for DYNA2D, NIKE2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. MAZE also generates a basic template for ISLAND input. MAZE has been applied to the generation of input data to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.

  19. MAZE96. Generates 2D Input for DYNA NIKE & TOPAZ

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, L.; Hallquist, J.O.

    1992-02-24

    MAZE is an interactive program that serves as an input and two-dimensional mesh generator for DYNA2D, NIKE2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. MAZE also generates a basic template for ISLAND input. MAZE has been applied to the generation of input data to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.

  20. A Planar Quantum Transistor Based on 2D-2D Tunneling in Double Quantum Well Heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, W.E.; Blount, M.A.; Hafich, M.J.; Lyo, S.K.; Moon, J.S.; Reno, J.L.; Simmons, J.A.; Wendt, J.R.

    1998-12-14

    We report on our work on the double electron layer tunneling transistor (DELTT), based on the gate-control of two-dimensional -- two-dimensional (2D-2D) tunneling in a double quantum well heterostructure. While previous quantum transistors have typically required tiny laterally-defined features, by contrast the DELTT is entirely planar and can be reliably fabricated in large numbers. We use a novel epoxy-bond-and-stop-etch (EBASE) flip-chip process, whereby submicron gating on opposite sides of semiconductor epitaxial layers as thin as 0.24 microns can be achieved. Because both electron layers in the DELTT are 2D, the resonant tunneling features are unusually sharp, and can be easily modulated with one or more surface gates. We demonstrate DELTTs with peak-to-valley ratios in the source-drain I-V curve of order 20:1 below 1 K. Both the height and position of the resonant current peak can be controlled by gate voltage over a wide range. DELTTs with larger subband energy offsets ({approximately} 21 meV) exhibit characteristics that are nearly as good at 77 K, in good agreement with our theoretical calculations. Using these devices, we also demonstrate bistable memories operating at 77 K. Finally, we briefly discuss the prospects for room temperature operation, increases in gain, and high-speed.

  1. Controlling Structural Anisotropy of Anisotropic 2D Layers in Pseudo-1D/2D Material Heterojunctions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bin; Wu, Kedi; Suslu, Aslihan; Yang, Sijie; Cai, Hui; Yano, Aliya; Soignard, Emmanuel; Aoki, Toshihiro; March, Katia; Shen, Yuxia; Tongay, Sefaattin

    2017-07-10

    Chemical vapor deposition and growth dynamics of highly anisotropic 2D lateral heterojunctions between pseudo-1D ReS2 and isotropic WS2 monolayers are reported for the first time. Constituent ReS2 and WS2 layers have vastly different atomic structure, crystallizing in anisotropic 1T' and isotropic 2H phases, respectively. Through high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and angle-resolved Raman spectroscopy, this study is able to provide the very first atomic look at intimate interfaces between these dissimilar 2D materials. Surprisingly, the results reveal that ReS2 lateral heterojunctions to WS2 produce well-oriented (highly anisotropic) Re-chains perpendicular to WS2 edges. When vertically stacked, Re-chains orient themselves along the WS2 zigzag direction, and consequently, Re-chains exhibit six-fold rotation, resulting in loss of macroscopic scale anisotropy. The degree of anisotropy of ReS2 on WS2 largely depends on the domain size, and decreases for increasing domain size due to randomization of Re-chains and formation of ReS2 subdomains. Present work establishes the growth dynamics of atomic junctions between novel anisotropic/isotropic 2D materials, and overall results mark the very first demonstration of control over anisotropy direction, which is a significant leap forward for large-scale nanomanufacturing of anisotropic systems. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Quantitation of protein in samples prepared for 2-D electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Berkelman, Tom

    2008-01-01

    The concentration of protein in a sample prepared for two dimensional (2-D) electrophoretic analysis is usually determined by protein assay. Reasons for this include the following. (1) Protein quantitation ensures that the amount of protein to be separated is appropriate for the gel size and visualization method. (2) Protein quantitation facilitates comparison among similar samples, as image-based analysis is simplified when equivalent quantities of proteins have been loaded on the gels to be compared. (3) Quantitation is necessary in cases where the protein sample is labeled with dye before separation (1,2). The labeling chemistry is affected by the dye to protein ratio so it is essential to know the protein concentration before setting up the labeling reaction.A primary consideration with quantitating protein in samples prepared for 2-D electrophoresis is interference by nonprotein substances that may be present in the sample. These samples generally contain chaotropic solubilizing agents, detergents, reductants, buffers or carrier ampholytes, all of which potentially interfere with protein quantitation. The most commonly used protein assays in proteomics research are colorimetric assays in which the presence of protein causes a color change that can be measured spectrophotometrically (3). All protein assays utilize standards, a dilution series of a known concentration of a known protein, to create a standard curve. Two methods will be considered that circumvent some of the problems associated with interfering substances and are well suited for samples prepared for 2-D electrophoresis. The first method (4.1.1) relies on a color change that occurs upon binding of a dye to protein and the second (4.1.2) relies on binding and reduction of cupric ion (Cu2+) ion to cuprous ion (Cu+) by proteins.

  3. 2D to 3D conversion implemented in different hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos-Diaz, Eduardo; Gonzalez-Huitron, Victor; Ponomaryov, Volodymyr I.; Hernandez-Fragoso, Araceli

    2015-02-01

    Conversion of available 2D data for release in 3D content is a hot topic for providers and for success of the 3D applications, in general. It naturally completely relies on virtual view synthesis of a second view given by original 2D video. Disparity map (DM) estimation is a central task in 3D generation but still follows a very difficult problem for rendering novel images precisely. There exist different approaches in DM reconstruction, among them manually and semiautomatic methods that can produce high quality DMs but they demonstrate hard time consuming and are computationally expensive. In this paper, several hardware implementations of designed frameworks for an automatic 3D color video generation based on 2D real video sequence are proposed. The novel framework includes simultaneous processing of stereo pairs using the following blocks: CIE L*a*b* color space conversions, stereo matching via pyramidal scheme, color segmentation by k-means on an a*b* color plane, and adaptive post-filtering, DM estimation using stereo matching between left and right images (or neighboring frames in a video), adaptive post-filtering, and finally, the anaglyph 3D scene generation. Novel technique has been implemented on DSP TMS320DM648, Matlab's Simulink module over a PC with Windows 7, and using graphic card (NVIDIA Quadro K2000) demonstrating that the proposed approach can be applied in real-time processing mode. The time values needed, mean Similarity Structural Index Measure (SSIM) and Bad Matching Pixels (B) values for different hardware implementations (GPU, Single CPU, and DSP) are exposed in this paper.

  4. Helical Quantum Edge Gears in 2D Topological Insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Yang-Zhi; Levchenko, Alex; Foster, Matthew

    A remarkable and as-yet-unexploited aspect of topological insulator (TI) physics is the topology of the edge states, i.e. the fact that the edge liquid of a 2D TI forms a closed, unbreakable loop in the absence of electrical contacts or magnetic fields. We propose a novel experimental setup in which edge loops rotate as interlocking ``gears'' through Coulomb drag, in TIs with Rashba spin-orbit coupling. We show that two-terminal transport can measure the Luttinger liquid parameter K, a quantity that is otherwise notoriously difficult to measure. In the low-temperature (T --> 0) perfect drag regime, the conductance is (e2 / h) (2 K + 1) / (K + 1) . At higher T we predict a conductivity ~T - 4 K + 3 . Our results should trigger new experiments and may open a new venue for edge gear-based electronic devices.Ref: Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 186404 (2015)

  5. Microwave Imaging with Infrared 2-D Lock-in Amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiyo, Noritaka; Arai, Mizuki; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Nishikata, Atsuhiro; Maeno, Takashi

    We have developed a 3-D electromagnetic field measurement system using 2-D lock-in amplifier. This system uses an amplitude modulated electromagnetic wave source to heat a resistive screen. A very small change of temperature on a screen illuminated with the modulated electromagnetic wave is measured using an infrared thermograph camera. In this paper, we attempted to apply our system to microwave imaging. By placing conductor patches in front of the resistive screen and illuminating with microwave, the shape of each conductor was clearly observed as the temperature difference image of the screen. In this way, the conductor pattern inside the non-contact type IC card could be visualized. Moreover, we could observe the temperature difference image reflecting the shape of a Konnyaku (a gelatinous food made from devil's-tonge starch) or a dried fishbone, both as non-conducting material resembling human body. These results proved that our method is applicable to microwave see-through imaging.

  6. Effects of repeated treatment with the dopamine D2/D3 receptor partial agonist aripiprazole on striatal D2/D3 receptor availability in monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Czoty, Paul W.; Gage, H. Donald; Garg, Pradeep K.; Garg, Sudha; Nader, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Chronic treatment with dopamine (DA) receptor agonists and antagonists can differentially affect measures of DA D2/D3 receptor number and function, but the effects of chronic treatment with a partial D2/D3 receptor agonist are not clear. Objective We used a within-subjects design in male cynomolgus monkeys to determine the effects of repeated (17-day) treatment with the D2/D3 receptor partial agonist aripiprazole (ARI; 0.03 mg/kg and 0.1 mg/kg i.m.) on food-reinforced behavior (n=5) and on D2/D3 receptor availability as measured with positron emission tomography (PET; n=9). Methods Five monkeys responded under a fixed-ratio 50 schedule of food reinforcement and D2/D3 receptor availability was measured before and four days after ARI treatment using PET and the D2/D3 receptor-selective radioligand [18F]fluoroclebopride (FCP). Four additional monkeys were studied using [11C]raclopride and treated sequentially with each dose of ARI for 17 days. Results ARI decreased food-maintained responding with minimal evidence of tolerance. Repeated ARI administration increased FCP and raclopride distribution volume ratios (DVRs) in the caudate nucleus and putamen in most monkeys, but decreases were observed in monkeys with the highest baseline DVRs. Conclusions The results indicate that repeated treatment with a low efficacy DA receptor partial agonist produces effects on brain D2/D3 receptor availability that are qualitatively different from those of both high-efficacy receptor agonists and antagonists, and suggest that the observed individual differences in response to ARI treatment may reflect its partial agonist activity. PMID:24077804

  7. Topologiacl Models of 2D Fractal Cellular Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Caër, G.; Delannay, R.

    1995-11-01

    In space-filling 2D cellular structures with trivalent vertices and in which each cell is constrained to share at most one side with any cell and no side with itself, the maximum fraction of three-sided cells is produced by a decoration of vertices of any initial structure by three-sided cells. Fractal cellular structures are obtained if the latter decoration process is iterated indefinitely. Other methods of constructions of fractal structures are also described. The probability distribution P(n) of the number n of cell sides and some two-cell topological properties of a 2D fractal cellular structure constructed from the triangular Sierpinski gasket are investigated. On the whole, the repartition of cells in 2D structures with n geq 3 and P(3) ne 0 evolve regularly when topological disorder, conveniently measured by the variance μ2 of P(n), increases. The strong correlations which exist among cells, in particular in natural structures (μ2lesssim 5), decrease progressively when μ2 increases, a cell repartition close to a random one being reached for μ2sim 12. We argue that the structures finally evolve to fractal structures (for which μ2 is infinite) but we have not characterized the latter transition. Dans des structures cellulaires 2D à sommets trivalents qui remplissent l'espace et dans lesquelles une cellule partage au plus un côté avec toute autre cellule et aucun avec elle-même, la proportion maximum admissible de cellules à trois côtés est obtenue par une décoration de tous les sommets d'une structure initiale quelconque par des cellules à trois côtés. Des structures cellulaires “fractales” 2D sont ainsi engendrées si le processus précédent est répété à l'infini. D'autres méthodes de constructions de structures fractales sont également décrites. La distribution de probabilité P(n) du nombre n de côtés des cellules ainsi que des corrélations de paires sont étudiées pour une structure cellulaire fractale construite à partir

  8. Digit ratio (2D:4D) and performance in Indian swimmers.

    PubMed

    Sudhakar, H H; Veena, Umesh B; Tejaswi, R Nadig

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that achievement in sports is correlated with a putative measure of prenatal testosterone the 2nd to 4th digit ratio (2D:4D). It has been shown that digit ratio (2D:4D) is negatively associated with prenatal testosterone, and it is also negatively associated with ability in sports. This study examined associations between 2D:4D and performance of both male and female National level Indian swimmers. Age matched non-sports personnel formed the control. Lengths of second and fourth digits were measured after scanning both hands and their ratio calculated. Our results show lower 2D:4D values in males compared to females (P < 0.05). Among male, but not female, swimmers had significantly (P < 0.05) lower 2D:4D ratio. Low 2D:4D in male swimmers suggests they are more prenatally programmed via long-lasting extra genital effects of testosterone. 2D:4D ratio could be used to identify young sports personnel who have potential to reach high levels of performance.

  9. Polymer ultrapermeability from the inefficient packing of 2D chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, Ian; Bezzu, C. Grazia; Carta, Mariolino; Comesaña-Gándara, Bibiana; Lasseuguette, Elsa; Ferrari, M. Chiara; Bernardo, Paola; Clarizia, Gabriele; Fuoco, Alessio; Jansen, Johannes C.; Hart, Kyle E.; Liyana-Arachchi, Thilanga P.; Colina, Coray M.; McKeown, Neil B.

    2017-09-01

    The promise of ultrapermeable polymers, such as poly(trimethylsilylpropyne) (PTMSP), for reducing the size and increasing the efficiency of membranes for gas separations remains unfulfilled due to their poor selectivity. We report an ultrapermeable polymer of intrinsic microporosity (PIM-TMN-Trip) that is substantially more selective than PTMSP. From molecular simulations and experimental measurement we find that the inefficient packing of the two-dimensional (2D) chains of PIM-TMN-Trip generates a high concentration of both small (<0.7 nm) and large (0.7-1.0 nm) micropores, the former enhancing selectivity and the latter permeability. Gas permeability data for PIM-TMN-Trip surpass the 2008 Robeson upper bounds for O2/N2, H2/N2, CO2/N2, H2/CH4 and CO2/CH4, with the potential for biogas purification and carbon capture demonstrated for relevant gas mixtures. Comparisons between PIM-TMN-Trip and structurally similar polymers with three-dimensional (3D) contorted chains confirm that its additional intrinsic microporosity is generated from the awkward packing of its 2D polymer chains in a 3D amorphous solid. This strategy of shape-directed packing of chains of microporous polymers may be applied to other rigid polymers for gas separations.

  10. 3D surface configuration modulates 2D symmetry detection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Chung; Sio, Lok-Teng

    2015-02-01

    We investigated whether three-dimensional (3D) information in a scene can affect symmetry detection. The stimuli were random dot patterns with 15% dot density. We measured the coherence threshold, or the proportion of dots that were the mirror reflection of the other dots in the other half of the image about a central vertical axis, at 75% accuracy with a 2AFC paradigm under various 3D configurations produced by the disparity between the left and right eye images. The results showed that symmetry detection was difficult when the corresponding dots across the symmetry axis were on different frontoparallel or inclined planes. However, this effect was not due to a difference in distance, as the observers could detect symmetry on a slanted surface, where the depth of the two sides of the symmetric axis was different. The threshold was reduced for a hinge configuration where the join of two slanted surfaces coincided with the axis of symmetry. Our result suggests that the detection of two-dimensional (2D) symmetry patterns is subject to the 3D configuration of the scene; and that coplanarity across the symmetry axis and consistency between the 2D pattern and 3D structure are important factors for symmetry detection.

  11. 2D Magnetic Texture Analysis of Co-Cu Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayirli, Mehmet; Karaagac, Oznur; Kockar, Hakan; Alper, Mursel

    2017-05-01

    The magnetic textures for the produced magnetic materials are important concepts in accordance with technical applications. Therefore, the aim of this article is to determine 2D magnetic textures of electrodeposited Co-Cu films by the measurement of hysteresis loops at the incremented angles. For that, Co-Cu films were deposited with different Co2+ in the electrolyte. In addition, the easy-axis orientation in the films from the squareness values of the angles, Mp(β) obtained by the hysteresis loops have been numerically studied using the Fourier series analysis. The differences observed in the magnetic easy-axis distributions were attributed to changes of the incorporation of Co in the films with the change of Co2+ in the electrolyte. The coefficients of Fourier series (A0 and A2n ) were also computed for 2D films. It is seen that a systematic and small decrease in A0 and an obvious decrease in A2n (n=1) were observed with increasing incorporated Co in the films. Results imply that interactions cause slightly demagnetization effect accordance with higher incorporation of Co in the films. Furthermore, the crystal structure of the Co-Cu films analysed by X-ray diffraction revealed that the films have dominantly face-centred cubic structure. Film contents analysed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and film morphologies observed by scanning electron microscope also support the magnetic texture analysis results found by numerical computation.

  12. Polymer ultrapermeability from the inefficient packing of 2D chains.

    PubMed

    Rose, Ian; Bezzu, C Grazia; Carta, Mariolino; Comesaña-Gándara, Bibiana; Lasseuguette, Elsa; Ferrari, M Chiara; Bernardo, Paola; Clarizia, Gabriele; Fuoco, Alessio; Jansen, Johannes C; Hart, Kyle E; Liyana-Arachchi, Thilanga P; Colina, Coray M; McKeown, Neil B

    2017-09-01

    The promise of ultrapermeable polymers, such as poly(trimethylsilylpropyne) (PTMSP), for reducing the size and increasing the efficiency of membranes for gas separations remains unfulfilled due to their poor selectivity. We report an ultrapermeable polymer of intrinsic microporosity (PIM-TMN-Trip) that is substantially more selective than PTMSP. From molecular simulations and experimental measurement we find that the inefficient packing of the two-dimensional (2D) chains of PIM-TMN-Trip generates a high concentration of both small (<0.7 nm) and large (0.7-1.0 nm) micropores, the former enhancing selectivity and the latter permeability. Gas permeability data for PIM-TMN-Trip surpass the 2008 Robeson upper bounds for O2/N2, H2/N2, CO2/N2, H2/CH4 and CO2/CH4, with the potential for biogas purification and carbon capture demonstrated for relevant gas mixtures. Comparisons between PIM-TMN-Trip and structurally similar polymers with three-dimensional (3D) contorted chains confirm that its additional intrinsic microporosity is generated from the awkward packing of its 2D polymer chains in a 3D amorphous solid. This strategy of shape-directed packing of chains of microporous polymers may be applied to other rigid polymers for gas separations.

  13. 2D Mueller matrix approach for tissue complete polarization characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanjul-Vélez, F.; Arce-Diego, J.-L.; Romanov, O. G.; Tolstik, A. L.; Ormachea, O.

    2007-06-01

    The use of optical techniques in medical praxis allows practitioners to improve their tools. This improvement is realized in two main aspects, treatment and characterization of biological tissue. The former deals with methods like Photodynamic Therapy (PDT), Low Intensity Laser Therapy (LILT) or Hyperthermia. Tissue characterization by optical means is more challenging. The idea is to obtain images from biological tissues with a non-contact, non-invasive and safe procedure. The drawbacks of conventional imaging techniques, like X-Ray with its ionising radiation or ultrasound with the needed contact, are then avoided. Some of these optical techniques are for instance Confocal Microscopy or Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). The inclusion of the analysis of light polarization can increase the contrast in these images. In this work, polarization information via the Mueller matrix of the target tissue in 2D is proposed as an improved way of characterization. This matrix contains all the polarization properties of tissue, including depolarisation, so a more complete analysis can be carried out. A polarimeter, composed by linear polarizers and rotators, as long as a CCD camera, is proposed to measure 2D Mueller matrix in concrete points of a biological tissue. The importance of these diagnosis methods is crucial in preliminary detection of diseases, like cancer.

  14. CYP2D7 Sequence Variation Interferes with TaqMan CYP2D6 (*) 15 and (*) 35 Genotyping.

    PubMed

    Riffel, Amanda K; Dehghani, Mehdi; Hartshorne, Toinette; Floyd, Kristen C; Leeder, J Steven; Rosenblatt, Kevin P; Gaedigk, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    TaqMan™ genotyping assays are widely used to genotype CYP2D6, which encodes a major drug metabolizing enzyme. Assay design for CYP2D6 can be challenging owing to the presence of two pseudogenes, CYP2D7 and CYP2D8, structural and copy number variation and numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) some of which reflect the wild-type sequence of the CYP2D7 pseudogene. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism causing false-positive CYP2D6 (*) 15 calls and remediate those by redesigning and validating alternative TaqMan genotype assays. Among 13,866 DNA samples genotyped by the CompanionDx® lab on the OpenArray platform, 70 samples were identified as heterozygotes for 137Tins, the key SNP of CYP2D6 (*) 15. However, only 15 samples were confirmed when tested with the Luminex xTAG CYP2D6 Kit and sequencing of CYP2D6-specific long range (XL)-PCR products. Genotype and gene resequencing of CYP2D6 and CYP2D7-specific XL-PCR products revealed a CC>GT dinucleotide SNP in exon 1 of CYP2D7 that reverts the sequence to CYP2D6 and allows a TaqMan assay PCR primer to bind. Because CYP2D7 also carries a Tins, a false-positive mutation signal is generated. This CYP2D7 SNP was also responsible for generating false-positive signals for rs769258 (CYP2D6 (*) 35) which is also located in exon 1. Although alternative CYP2D6 (*) 15 and (*) 35 assays resolved the issue, we discovered a novel CYP2D6 (*) 15 subvariant in one sample that carries additional SNPs preventing detection with the alternate assay. The frequency of CYP2D6 (*) 15 was 0.1% in this ethnically diverse U.S. population sample. In addition, we also discovered linkage between the CYP2D7 CC>GT dinucleotide SNP and the 77G>A (rs28371696) SNP of CYP2D6 (*) 43. The frequency of this tentatively functional allele was 0.2%. Taken together, these findings emphasize that regardless of how careful genotyping assays are designed and evaluated before being commercially marketed, rare or unknown SNPs underneath primer

  15. CYP2D7 Sequence Variation Interferes with TaqMan CYP2D6*15 and *35 Genotyping

    PubMed Central

    Riffel, Amanda K.; Dehghani, Mehdi; Hartshorne, Toinette; Floyd, Kristen C.; Leeder, J. Steven; Rosenblatt, Kevin P.; Gaedigk, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    TaqMan™ genotyping assays are widely used to genotype CYP2D6, which encodes a major drug metabolizing enzyme. Assay design for CYP2D6 can be challenging owing to the presence of two pseudogenes, CYP2D7 and CYP2D8, structural and copy number variation and numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) some of which reflect the wild-type sequence of the CYP2D7 pseudogene. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism causing false-positive CYP2D6*15 calls and remediate those by redesigning and validating alternative TaqMan genotype assays. Among 13,866 DNA samples genotyped by the CompanionDx® lab on the OpenArray platform, 70 samples were identified as heterozygotes for 137Tins, the key SNP of CYP2D6*15. However, only 15 samples were confirmed when tested with the Luminex xTAG CYP2D6 Kit and sequencing of CYP2D6-specific long range (XL)-PCR products. Genotype and gene resequencing of CYP2D6 and CYP2D7-specific XL-PCR products revealed a CC>GT dinucleotide SNP in exon 1 of CYP2D7 that reverts the sequence to CYP2D6 and allows a TaqMan assay PCR primer to bind. Because CYP2D7 also carries a Tins, a false-positive mutation signal is generated. This CYP2D7 SNP was also responsible for generating false-positive signals for rs769258 (CYP2D6*35) which is also located in exon 1. Although alternative CYP2D6*15 and *35 assays resolved the issue, we discovered a novel CYP2D6*15 subvariant in one sample that carries additional SNPs preventing detection with the alternate assay. The frequency of CYP2D6*15 was 0.1% in this ethnically diverse U.S. population sample. In addition, we also discovered linkage between the CYP2D7 CC>GT dinucleotide SNP and the 77G>A (rs28371696) SNP of CYP2D6*43. The frequency of this tentatively functional allele was 0.2%. Taken together, these findings emphasize that regardless of how careful genotyping assays are designed and evaluated before being commercially marketed, rare or unknown SNPs underneath primer and/or probe regions can impact

  16. Relationship between CYP 2D6 metabolic status and sexual dysfunction in paroxetine treatment.

    PubMed

    Zourková, Alexandra; Hadasová, Eva

    2002-01-01

    This article describes the incidence of sexual dysfunction in 30 patients subjected to long-term treatment by paroxetine in dependence on the P 450 CYP 2D6 isoenzyme metabolic status. Measured on the Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASEX; McGahuey, Delgado, & Gelenberg, 1999), the incidence of sexual dysfunction in patients converted to CYP 2D6 poor metabolizers was markedly higher compared with patients who had no history of such conversion, a difference that reached the level of statistical significance. Our article discusses the incidence of sexual dysfunction in connection with reduced CYP 2D6 capacity.

  17. Height-dependent transition from 3-D to 2-D turbulence in the hurricane boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, David; Zhang, Jun A.

    2013-04-01

    Here we show, from in situ aircraft measurements in the hurricane boundary layer, a height-dependent transition of the flow from 3-D to 2-D turbulence. This marks a fundamental change in the energy dynamics of the hurricane boundary layer due to the fact that in 3-D, energy flows downscale from larger to smaller scales, whereas in 2-D, it flows upscale, from smaller to larger scales. These results represent the first measurement of the 2-D upscale energy flux in the atmosphere and also the first to characterize the transition from 3-D to 2-D. It is shown that the large-scale parent vortex may gain energy directly from small scales in tropical cyclones.

  18. Spatial inhomogeneity and temporal dynamics of a 2D electron gas in interaction with a 2D adatom gas.

    PubMed

    Cheynis, F; Curiotto, S; Leroy, F; Müller, P

    2017-09-06

    Fundamental interest for 2D electron gas (2DEG) systems has been recently renewed with the advent of 2D materials and their potential high-impact applications in optoelectronics. Here, we investigate a 2DEG created by the electron transfer from a Ag adatom gas deposited on a Si(111) [Formula: see text]-Ag surface to an electronic surface state. Using low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM), we measure the Ag adatom gas concentration and the 2DEG-induced charge transfer. We demonstrate a linear dependence of the surface work function change on the Ag adatom gas concentration. A breakdown of the linear relationship is induced by the occurrence of the Ag adatom gas superstructure identified as Si(111) [Formula: see text]-Ag only observed below room temperature. We evidence below room temperature a confinement of the 2DEG on atomic terraces characterised by spatial inhomogeneities of the 2DEG-induced charge transfer along with temporal fluctuations. These variations mirror the Ag adatom gas concentration changes induced by the growth of 3D Ag islands and the occurrence of an Ehrlich-Schwoebel diffusion barrier of 155 ± 10 meV.

  19. Development of wide-angle 2D light scattering static cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Linyan; Liu, Qiao; Shao, Changshun; Su, Xuantao

    2016-10-01

    We have recently developed a 2D light scattering static cytometer for cellular analysis in a label-free manner, which measures side scatter (SSC) light in the polar angular range from 79 to 101 degrees. Compared with conventional flow cytometry, our cytometric technique requires no fluorescent labeling of the cells, and static cytometry measurements can be performed without flow control. In this paper we present an improved label-free static cytometer that can obtain 2D light scattering patterns in a wider angular range. By illuminating the static microspheres on chip with a scanning optical fiber, wide-angle 2D light scattering patterns of single standard microspheres with a mean diameter of 3.87 μm are obtained. The 2D patterns of 3.87 μm microspheres contain both large-angle forward scatter (FSC) and SSC light in the polar angular range from 40 to 100 degrees, approximately. Experimental 2D patterns of 3.87 μm microspheres are in good agreement with Mie theory simulated ones. The wide-angle light scattering measurements may provide a better resolution for particle analysis as compared with the SSC measurements. Two dimensional light scattering patterns of HL-60 human acute leukemia cells are obtained by using our static cytometer. Compared with SSC 2D light scattering patterns, wide-angle 2D patterns contain richer information of the HL-60 cells. The obtaining of 2D light scattering patterns in a wide angular range could help to enhance the capabilities of our label-free static cytometry for cell analysis.

  20. Residual lens effects in 2D mode of auto-stereoscopic lenticular-based switchable 2D/3D displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sluijter, M.; IJzerman, W. L.; de Boer, D. K. G.; de Zwart, S. T.

    2006-04-01

    We discuss residual lens effects in multi-view switchable auto-stereoscopic lenticular-based 2D/3D displays. With the introduction of a switchable lenticular, it is possible to switch between a 2D mode and a 3D mode. The 2D mode displays conventional content, whereas the 3D mode provides the sensation of depth to the viewer. The uniformity of a display in the 2D mode is quantified by the quality parameter modulation depth. In order to reduce the modulation depth in the 2D mode, birefringent lens plates are investigated analytically and numerically, by ray tracing. We can conclude that the modulation depth in the 2D mode can be substantially decreased by using birefringent lens plates with a perfect index match between lens material and lens plate. Birefringent lens plates do not disturb the 3D performance of a switchable 2D/3D display.

  1. Mechanical characterization of 2D, 2D stitched, and 3D braided/RTM materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deaton, Jerry W.; Kullerd, Susan M.; Portanova, Marc A.

    1993-01-01

    Braided composite materials have potential for application in aircraft structures. Fuselage frames, floor beams, wing spars, and stiffeners are examples where braided composites could find application if cost effective processing and damage tolerance requirements are met. Another important consideration for braided composites relates to their mechanical properties and how they compare to the properties of composites produced by other textile composite processes being proposed for these applications. Unfortunately, mechanical property data for braided composites do not appear extensively in the literature. Data are presented in this paper on the mechanical characterization of 2D triaxial braid, 2D triaxial braid plus stitching, and 3D (through-the-thickness) braid composite materials. The braided preforms all had the same graphite tow size and the same nominal braid architectures, (+/- 30 deg/0 deg), and were resin transfer molded (RTM) using the same mold for each of two different resin systems. Static data are presented for notched and unnotched tension, notched and unnotched compression, and compression after impact strengths at room temperature. In addition, some static results, after environmental conditioning, are included. Baseline tension and compression fatigue results are also presented, but only for the 3D braided composite material with one of the resin systems.

  2. Differential CYP 2D6 metabolism alters primaquine pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Potter, Brittney M J; Xie, Lisa H; Vuong, Chau; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Ping; Duan, Dehui; Luong, Thu-Lan T; Bandara Herath, H M T; Dhammika Nanayakkara, N P; Tekwani, Babu L; Walker, Larry A; Nolan, Christina K; Sciotti, Richard J; Zottig, Victor E; Smith, Philip L; Paris, Robert M; Read, Lisa T; Li, Qigui; Pybus, Brandon S; Sousa, Jason C; Reichard, Gregory A; Marcsisin, Sean R

    2015-04-01

    Primaquine (PQ) metabolism by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D family of enzymes is required for antimalarial activity in both humans (2D6) and mice (2D). Human CYP 2D6 is highly polymorphic, and decreased CYP 2D6 enzyme activity has been linked to decreased PQ antimalarial activity. Despite the importance of CYP 2D metabolism in PQ efficacy, the exact role that these enzymes play in PQ metabolism and pharmacokinetics has not been extensively studied in vivo. In this study, a series of PQ pharmacokinetic experiments were conducted in mice with differential CYP 2D metabolism characteristics, including wild-type (WT), CYP 2D knockout (KO), and humanized CYP 2D6 (KO/knock-in [KO/KI]) mice. Plasma and liver pharmacokinetic profiles from a single PQ dose (20 mg/kg of body weight) differed significantly among the strains for PQ and carboxy-PQ. Additionally, due to the suspected role of phenolic metabolites in PQ efficacy, these were probed using reference standards. Levels of phenolic metabolites were highest in mice capable of metabolizing CYP 2D6 substrates (WT and KO/KI 2D6 mice). PQ phenolic metabolites were present in different quantities in the two strains, illustrating species-specific differences in PQ metabolism between the human and mouse enzymes. Taking the data together, this report furthers understanding of PQ pharmacokinetics in the context of differential CYP 2D metabolism and has important implications for PQ administration in humans with different levels of CYP 2D6 enzyme activity.

  3. 2-D tomography with bolometry in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, A.W.; Meyer, W.H.; Geer, B.; Behne, D.M.; Hill, D.N.

    1994-07-01

    We have installed a 48-channel platinum-foil bolometer system on DIII-D achieve better spatial and temporal resolution of the radiated power in diverted discharges. Two 24-channel arrays provide complete plasma coverage with optimized views of the divertor. We have measured the divertor radiation profile for a series of radiative divertor and power balance experiments. We observe a rapid change in the magnitude and distribution of divertor radiation with heavy gas puffing. Unfolding the radiation profile with only two views requires us to treat the core and divertor radiation separately. The core radiation is fitted to a function of magnetic flux and is then subtracted from the divertor viewing chords. The divertor profile is then fit to a 2-D spline as a function of magnetic flux and poloidal angle.

  4. 2-D soft x-ray arrays in the EAST

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Kaiyun; Xu, Liqing Hu, Liqun; Duan, Yanmin; Yuan, Yi; Mao, Songtao; Sheng, Xiuli; Zhao, Jinlong; Li, Xueqin

    2016-06-15

    A high spatial and temporal resolution soft x-ray (SXR) imaging diagnostic has been installed in EAST for the study of magnetohydrodynamics activities and core high-Z impurity transport. Up to 122 lines of sight view the poloidal plasma from three directions (two up-down symmetrical horizontal arrays and one vertical array), which renders the diagnostic able to provide detailed tomographic reconstructions under various conditions. Fourier-Bessel method based on flux coordinates was employed for 2-D SXR tomographic reconstruction. Examples of several events measured by SXR diagnostic in EAST are shown, namely the crash patterns of sawtooth, periodical burst of edge localized modes, and the transport of high-Z intrinsic impurities.

  5. Bayesian 2D Current Reconstruction from Magnetic Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clement, Colin B.; Bierbaum, Matthew K.; Nowack, Katja; Sethna, James P.

    We employ a Bayesian image reconstruction scheme to recover 2D currents from magnetic flux imaged with scanning SQUIDs (Superconducting Quantum Interferometric Devices). Magnetic flux imaging is a versatile tool to locally probe currents and magnetic moments, however present reconstruction methods sacrifice resolution due to numerical instability. Using state-of-the-art blind deconvolution techniques we recover the currents, point-spread function and height of the SQUID loop by optimizing the probability of measuring an image. We obtain uncertainties on these quantities by sampling reconstructions. This generative modeling technique could be used to develop calibration protocols for scanning SQUIDs, to diagnose systematic noise in the imaging process, and can be applied to many tools beyond scanning SQUIDs.

  6. Automated Motion Estimation for 2D Cine DENSE MRI

    PubMed Central

    Gilliam, Andrew D.; Epstein, Frederick H.

    2013-01-01

    Cine displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE) is a magnetic resonance (MR) method that directly encodes tissue displacement into MR phase images. This technique has successfully interrogated many forms of tissue motion, but is most commonly used to evaluate cardiac mechanics. Currently, motion analysis from cine DENSE images requires manually delineated anatomical structures. An automated analysis would improve measurement throughput, simplify data interpretation, and potentially access important physiological information during the MR exam. In this article, we present the first fully automated solution for the estimation of tissue motion and strain from 2D cine DENSE data. Results using both simulated and human cardiac cine DENSE data indicate good agreement between the automated algorithm and the standard semi-manual analysis method. PMID:22575669

  7. Soft exfoliation of 2D SnO with size-dependent optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Mandeep; Della Gaspera, Enrico; Ahmed, Taimur; Walia, Sumeet; Ramanathan, Rajesh; van Embden, Joel; Mayes, Edwin; Bansal, Vipul

    2017-06-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have recently gained unprecedented attention as potential candidates for next-generation (opto)electronic devices due to their fascinating optical and electrical properties. Tin monoxide, SnO, is an important p-type semiconductor with applications across photocatalysis (water splitting) and electronics (transistors). However, despite its potential in several important technological applications, SnO remains underexplored in its 2D form. Here we present a soft exfoliation strategy to produce 2D SnO nanosheets with tunable optical and electrical properties. Our approach involves the initial synthesis of layered SnO microspheres, which are readily exfoliated through a low-power sonication step to form high quality SnO nanosheets. We demonstrate that the properties of 2D SnO are strongly dependent on its dimensions. As verified through optical absorption and photoluminescence studies, a strong size-dependent quantum confinement effect in 2D SnO leads to substantial variation in its optical and electrical properties. This results in a remarkable (>1 eV) band gap widening in atomically thin SnO. Through photoconductivity measurements, we further validate a strong correlation between the quantum-confined properties of 2D SnO and the selective photoresponse of atomically thin sheets in the high energy UV light. Such tunable semiconducting properties of 2D SnO could be exploited for a variety of applications including photocatalysis, photovoltaics and optoelectronics in general.

  8. Decreased digit ratio (2D:4D) and gastric cancer in Chinese men.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Youjing; Qian, Wenli; Wang, Lu; Huo, Zhenghao; Lu, Hong; Yu, Haochen; Geng, Zhi; Cheng, Ping

    2016-12-01

    The development of finger length is influenced by the level of hormones during pregnancy in the womb. The relative length of 2nd to 4th digit (2D:4D) is considered as a putative marker for prenatal hormone exposure and may represent an individual susceptibility to certain diseases, particularly those hormone-related cancers (e.g., gastric cancer). The aim of this study is to investigate whether there is a possible relationship between 2D:4D ratio and gastric cancer (GCA) in Chinese men. 94 male patients with GCA and 91 controls were chosen to participate in this study. Photographs of both hands were collected and then the lengths of second and fourth digits of both hands were measured. Left hand, right hand, mean hand, and right minus left hand (∆R-L) 2D:4D ratios were analyzed and compared. In GCA group, 2D:4D ratios were significantly lower (right hand: p<0.01; left hand, mean hand: p<0.001) than controls. No association was observed between 2D:4D ratio and tumor staging (neither in tumor size (T) nor in lymph node involvement (N) or distant metastases (M)). There was also no correlation between 2D:4D ratio and age of onset. Decreased 2D:4D ratio may be an indicator for forecasting the susceptibility to develop GCA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Forces acting in quasi 2d emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orellana, Carlos; Lowensohn, Janna; Weeks, Eric

    We study the forces in a quasi two dimensional emulsion system. Our samples are oil-in-water emulsions confined between two close-spaced parallel plates, so that the oil droplets are deformed into pancake shapes. By means of microscopy, we measure the droplet positions and their deformation, which we can relate to the contact forces due to surface tension. We improve over prior work in our lab, achieving a better force resolution. We use this result to measure and calibrate the viscous forces acting in our system, which fully determine all the forces on the droplets. Our results can be applied to study static configurations of emulsion, as well as faster flows.

  10. Computational Screening of 2D Materials for Photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Arunima K; Mathew, Kiran; Zhuang, Houlong L; Hennig, Richard G

    2015-03-19

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials exhibit a range of extraordinary electronic, optical, and mechanical properties different from their bulk counterparts with potential applications for 2D materials emerging in energy storage and conversion technologies. In this Perspective, we summarize the recent developments in the field of solar water splitting using 2D materials and review a computational screening approach to rapidly and efficiently discover more 2D materials that possess properties suitable for solar water splitting. Computational tools based on density-functional theory can predict the intrinsic properties of potential photocatalyst such as their electronic properties, optical absorbance, and solubility in aqueous solutions. Computational tools enable the exploration of possible routes to enhance the photocatalytic activity of 2D materials by use of mechanical strain, bias potential, doping, and pH. We discuss future research directions and needed method developments for the computational design and optimization of 2D materials for photocatalysis.

  11. Synthetic Covalent and Non-Covalent 2D Materials.

    PubMed

    Boott, Charlotte E; Nazemi, Ali; Manners, Ian

    2015-11-16

    The creation of synthetic 2D materials represents an attractive challenge that is ultimately driven by their prospective uses in, for example, electronics, biomedicine, catalysis, sensing, and as membranes for separation and filtration. This Review illustrates some recent advances in this diverse field with a focus on covalent and non-covalent 2D polymers and frameworks, and self-assembled 2D materials derived from nanoparticles, homopolymers, and block copolymers.

  12. Differential cytochrome P450 2D metabolism alters tafenoquine pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Vuong, Chau; Xie, Lisa H; Potter, Brittney M J; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Ping; Duan, Dehui; Nolan, Christina K; Sciotti, Richard J; Zottig, Victor E; Nanayakkara, N P Dhammika; Tekwani, Babu L; Walker, Larry A; Smith, Philip L; Paris, Robert M; Read, Lisa T; Li, Qigui; Pybus, Brandon S; Sousa, Jason C; Reichard, Gregory A; Smith, Bryan; Marcsisin, Sean R

    2015-07-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D metabolism is required for the liver-stage antimalarial efficacy of the 8-aminoquinoline molecule tafenoquine in mice. This could be problematic for Plasmodium vivax radical cure, as the human CYP 2D ortholog (2D6) is highly polymorphic. Diminished CYP 2D6 enzyme activity, as in the poor-metabolizer phenotype, could compromise radical curative efficacy in humans. Despite the importance of CYP 2D metabolism for tafenoquine liver-stage efficacy, the exact role that CYP 2D metabolism plays in the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of tafenoquine and other 8-aminoquinoline molecules has not been extensively studied. In this study, a series of tafenoquine pharmacokinetic experiments were conducted in mice with different CYP 2D metabolism statuses, including wild-type (WT) (reflecting extensive metabolizers for CYP 2D6 substrates) and CYPmouse 2D knockout (KO) (reflecting poor metabolizers for CYP 2D6 substrates) mice. Plasma and liver pharmacokinetic profiles from a single 20-mg/kg of body weight dose of tafenoquine differed between the strains; however, the differences were less striking than previous results obtained for primaquine in the same model. Additionally, the presence of a 5,6-ortho-quinone tafenoquine metabolite was examined in both mouse strains. The 5,6-ortho-quinone species of tafenoquine was observed, and concentrations of the metabolite were highest in the WT extensive-metabolizer phenotype. Altogether, this study indicates that CYP 2D metabolism in mice affects tafenoquine pharmacokinetics and could have implications for human tafenoquine pharmacokinetics in polymorphic CYP 2D6 human populations. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Differential Cytochrome P450 2D Metabolism Alters Tafenoquine Pharmacokinetics

    PubMed Central

    Vuong, Chau; Xie, Lisa H.; Potter, Brittney M. J.; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Ping; Duan, Dehui; Nolan, Christina K.; Sciotti, Richard J.; Zottig, Victor E.; Nanayakkara, N. P. Dhammika; Tekwani, Babu L.; Walker, Larry A.; Smith, Philip L.; Paris, Robert M.; Read, Lisa T.; Li, Qigui; Pybus, Brandon S.; Sousa, Jason C.; Reichard, Gregory A.; Smith, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D metabolism is required for the liver-stage antimalarial efficacy of the 8-aminoquinoline molecule tafenoquine in mice. This could be problematic for Plasmodium vivax radical cure, as the human CYP 2D ortholog (2D6) is highly polymorphic. Diminished CYP 2D6 enzyme activity, as in the poor-metabolizer phenotype, could compromise radical curative efficacy in humans. Despite the importance of CYP 2D metabolism for tafenoquine liver-stage efficacy, the exact role that CYP 2D metabolism plays in the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of tafenoquine and other 8-aminoquinoline molecules has not been extensively studied. In this study, a series of tafenoquine pharmacokinetic experiments were conducted in mice with different CYP 2D metabolism statuses, including wild-type (WT) (reflecting extensive metabolizers for CYP 2D6 substrates) and CYPmouse 2D knockout (KO) (reflecting poor metabolizers for CYP 2D6 substrates) mice. Plasma and liver pharmacokinetic profiles from a single 20-mg/kg of body weight dose of tafenoquine differed between the strains; however, the differences were less striking than previous results obtained for primaquine in the same model. Additionally, the presence of a 5,6-ortho-quinone tafenoquine metabolite was examined in both mouse strains. The 5,6-ortho-quinone species of tafenoquine was observed, and concentrations of the metabolite were highest in the WT extensive-metabolizer phenotype. Altogether, this study indicates that CYP 2D metabolism in mice affects tafenoquine pharmacokinetics and could have implications for human tafenoquine pharmacokinetics in polymorphic CYP 2D6 human populations. PMID:25870069

  14. Unusual dimensionality effects and surface charge density in 2D Mg(OH)2

    PubMed Central

    Suslu, Aslihan; Wu, Kedi; Sahin, Hasan; Chen, Bin; Yang, Sijie; Cai, Hui; Aoki, Toshihiro; Horzum, Seyda; Kang, Jun; Peeters, Francois M.; Tongay, Sefaattin

    2016-01-01

    We present two-dimensional Mg(OH)2 sheets and their vertical heterojunctions with CVD-MoS2 for the first time as flexible 2D insulators with anomalous lattice vibration and chemical and physical properties. New hydrothermal crystal growth technique enabled isolation of environmentally stable monolayer Mg(OH)2 sheets. Raman spectroscopy and vibrational calculations reveal that the lattice vibrations of Mg(OH)2 have fundamentally different signature peaks and dimensionality effects compared to other 2D material systems known to date. Sub-wavelength electron energy-loss spectroscopy measurements and theoretical calculations show that Mg(OH)2 is a 6 eV direct-gap insulator in 2D, and its optical band gap displays strong band renormalization effects from monolayer to bulk, marking the first experimental confirmation of confinement effects in 2D insulators. Interestingly, 2D-Mg(OH)2 sheets possess rather strong surface polarization (charge) effects which is in contrast to electrically neutral h-BN materials. Using 2D-Mg(OH)2 sheets together with CVD-MoS2 in the vertical stacking shows that a strong change transfer occurs from n-doped CVD-MoS2 sheets to Mg(OH)2, naturally depleting the semiconductor, pushing towards intrinsic doping limit and enhancing overall optical performance of 2D semiconductors. Results not only establish unusual confinement effects in 2D-Mg(OH)2, but also offer novel 2D-insulating material with unique physical, vibrational, and chemical properties for potential applications in flexible optoelectronics. PMID:26846617

  15. Unusual dimensionality effects and surface charge density in 2D Mg(OH)2.

    PubMed

    Suslu, Aslihan; Wu, Kedi; Sahin, Hasan; Chen, Bin; Yang, Sijie; Cai, Hui; Aoki, Toshihiro; Horzum, Seyda; Kang, Jun; Peeters, Francois M; Tongay, Sefaattin

    2016-02-05

    We present two-dimensional Mg(OH)2 sheets and their vertical heterojunctions with CVD-MoS2 for the first time as flexible 2D insulators with anomalous lattice vibration and chemical and physical properties. New hydrothermal crystal growth technique enabled isolation of environmentally stable monolayer Mg(OH)2 sheets. Raman spectroscopy and vibrational calculations reveal that the lattice vibrations of Mg(OH)2 have fundamentally different signature peaks and dimensionality effects compared to other 2D material systems known to date. Sub-wavelength electron energy-loss spectroscopy measurements and theoretical calculations show that Mg(OH)2 is a 6 eV direct-gap insulator in 2D, and its optical band gap displays strong band renormalization effects from monolayer to bulk, marking the first experimental confirmation of confinement effects in 2D insulators. Interestingly, 2D-Mg(OH)2 sheets possess rather strong surface polarization (charge) effects which is in contrast to electrically neutral h-BN materials. Using 2D-Mg(OH)2 sheets together with CVD-MoS2 in the vertical stacking shows that a strong change transfer occurs from n-doped CVD-MoS2 sheets to Mg(OH)2, naturally depleting the semiconductor, pushing towards intrinsic doping limit and enhancing overall optical performance of 2D semiconductors. Results not only establish unusual confinement effects in 2D-Mg(OH)2, but also offer novel 2D-insulating material with unique physical, vibrational, and chemical properties for potential applications in flexible optoelectronics.

  16. Comparison of digit ratio (2D:4D) between Brazilian men with and without prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Mendes, P H C; Martelli, D R B; de Melo Costa, S; Gonçalves, E; Macedo, C P; Silveira, M F; Martelli Júnior, H

    2016-03-01

    Digit ratio (2D:4D) has been suggested as a proxy biomarker for prenatal androgen activity and has been linked to prostate cancer, as the genes that regulate the formation and differentiation of the fingers are also related to the carcinogenesis of prostate cancer. To investigate the possible correlation between right hand, left hand and right hand minus left hand (DR-L) 2D:4D and prostate cancer of Brazilian subjects by comparing 2D:4D ratios of individuals diagnosed with prostate cancer and individuals without the disease. Also, to inquire the relationship between 2D:4D and severity of prostate cancer through Gleason scores. Digital measurements of the lengths of the index and ring fingers of both hands of patients diagnosed with prostate cancer (PCA group, n=100) and healthy control individuals (n=100) were obtained using a digital vernier caliper. Means of the 2D:4D ratios were compared. Data were analyzed by the Student's t-test for unpaired samples, Mann-Whitney test and Spearman's correlation with a significance level of 5%. The PCA group presented significantly lower right and left 2D:4D (P=0.001 and P=0.002, respectively) in comparison to healthy controls, but DR-L were not significantly different between groups (P=0.589). In addition, digit ratios were not correlated to Gleason score for either hand or in DR-L. 2D:4D seems to be a marker for screening patients for prostate cancer in an admixed population, as males with prostate cancer present lower 2D:4D than healthy subjects. On the other hand, 2D:4D does not appear to be associated with the severity of prostate cancer.

  17. Is maternal periconceptional smoking associated with 2D:4D digit ratio in their children?

    PubMed

    Velez, M P; Arbuckle, T E; Monnier, P; Fraser, W D

    2017-05-23