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Sample records for 2-d cell culture

  1. Modeling Physiological Events in 2D vs. 3D Cell Culture.

    PubMed

    Duval, Kayla; Grover, Hannah; Han, Li-Hsin; Mou, Yongchao; Pegoraro, Adrian F; Fredberg, Jeffery; Chen, Zi

    2017-07-01

    Cell culture has become an indispensable tool to help uncover fundamental biophysical and biomolecular mechanisms by which cells assemble into tissues and organs, how these tissues function, and how that function becomes disrupted in disease. Cell culture is now widely used in biomedical research, tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and industrial practices. Although flat, two-dimensional (2D) cell culture has predominated, recent research has shifted toward culture using three-dimensional (3D) structures, and more realistic biochemical and biomechanical microenvironments. Nevertheless, in 3D cell culture, many challenges remain, including the tissue-tissue interface, the mechanical microenvironment, and the spatiotemporal distributions of oxygen, nutrients, and metabolic wastes. Here, we review 2D and 3D cell culture methods, discuss advantages and limitations of these techniques in modeling physiologically and pathologically relevant processes, and suggest directions for future research. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Modeling Physiological Events in 2D vs. 3D Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Duval, Kayla; Grover, Hannah; Han, Li-Hsin; Mou, Yongchao; Pegoraro, Adrian F.; Fredberg, Jeffery

    2017-01-01

    Cell culture has become an indispensable tool to help uncover fundamental biophysical and biomolecular mechanisms by which cells assemble into tissues and organs, how these tissues function, and how that function becomes disrupted in disease. Cell culture is now widely used in biomedical research, tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and industrial practices. Although flat, two-dimensional (2D) cell culture has predominated, recent research has shifted toward culture using three-dimensional (3D) structures, and more realistic biochemical and biomechanical microenvironments. Nevertheless, in 3D cell culture, many challenges remain, including the tissue-tissue interface, the mechanical microenvironment, and the spatiotemporal distributions of oxygen, nutrients, and metabolic wastes. Here, we review 2D and 3D cell culture methods, discuss advantages and limitations of these techniques in modeling physiologically and pathologically relevant processes, and suggest directions for future research. PMID:28615311

  3. Bridging the gap: from 2D cell culture to 3D microengineered extracellular matrices

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanfen

    2016-01-01

    Historically the culture of mammalian cells in the laboratory has been performed on planar substrates with media cocktails that are optimized to maintain phenotype. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that much of biology discerned from 2D studies does not translate well to the 3D microenvironment. Over the last several decades, 2D and 3D microengineering approaches have been developed that better recapitulate the complex architecture and properties of in vivo tissue. Inspired by the infrastructure of the microelectronics industry, lithographic patterning approaches have taken center stage because of the ease in which cell-sized features can be engineered on surfaces and within a broad range of biocompatible materials. Patterning and templating techniques enable precise control over extracellular matrix properties including: composition, mechanics, geometry, cell-cell contact, and diffusion. In this review article we will explore how the field of engineered extracellular matrices has evolved with the development of new hydrogel chemistry and the maturation of micro- and nano- fabrication. Guided by the spatiotemporal regulation of cell state in developing tissues, we will review the maturation of micropatterning in 2D, pseudo-3D systems, and patterning within 3D hydrogels in the context of translating the information gained from 2D systems to synthetic engineered 3D tissues. PMID:26592366

  4. The relevance of using 3D cell cultures, in addition to 2D monolayer cultures, when evaluating breast cancer drug sensitivity and resistance

    PubMed Central

    Breslin, Susan; O'Driscoll, Lorraine

    2016-01-01

    Solid tumours naturally grow in 3D wherein the spatial arrangement of cells affects how they interact with each other. This suggests that 3D cell culture may mimic the natural in vivo setting better than traditional monolayer (2D) cell culture, where cells are grown attached to plastic. Here, using HER2-positive breast cancer cell lines as models (BT474, HCC1954, EFM192A), the effects of culturing cells in 3D using the poly-HEMA method compared to 2D cultures were assessed in terms of cellular viability, response/resistance to anti-cancer drugs, protein expression and enzyme activity. Scanning electron microscopy showed the morphology of cells in 3D to be substantially different to those cultured in 2D. Cell viability in 3D cells was substantially lower than that of cells in 2D cultures, while 3D cultures were more resistant to the effects of HER-targeted (neratinib) and classical chemotherapy (docetaxel) drugs. Expression of proteins involved in cell survival, transporters associated with drug resistance and drug targets were increased in 3D cultures. Finally, activity of drug metabolising enzyme CYP3A4 was substantially increased in 3D compared to 2D cultures. Together this data indicates that the biological information represented by 3D and 2D cell cultures is substantially different i.e. 3D cell cultures demonstrate higher innate resistance to anti-cancer drugs compared to 2D cultures, which may be facilitated by the altered receptor proteins, drug transporters and metabolising enzyme activity. This highlights the importance of considering 3D in addition to 2D culture methods in pre-clinical studies of both newer targeted and more traditional anti-cancer drugs. PMID:27304190

  5. Planar arrangement of eukaryotic cells in merged hydrogels combines the advantages of 3-D and 2-D cultures.

    PubMed

    Gordeev, Alexander A; Chetverina, Helena V; Chetverin, Alexander B

    2012-05-01

    We report an unordered 2-D array of eukaryotic cells completely embedded in a 3-D matrix. Every cell is located at the same distance from the gel surface, which ensures uniformity of growth conditions and ease of observation characteristic of a 2-D culture. Each cell is firmly immobilized, and each has a unique address in the array. The cells can be rapidly screened, individually monitored during extended time periods, and cultured with the formation of spheroid microcolonies characteristic of a 3-D culture. Individual microcolonies can be extracted from the gel and further propagated, thus enabling isolation of pure cell clones from rather dense cell populations and rapid drug-free generation of stable cell lines.

  6. Trehalose effectiveness as a cryoprotectant in 2D and 3D cell cultures of human embryonic kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Hara, Jared; Tottori, Jordan; Anders, Megan; Dadhwal, Smritee; Asuri, Prashanth; Mobed-Miremadi, Maryam

    2017-05-01

    Post cryopreservation viability of human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells under two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) culture conditions was studied using trehalose as the sole cryoprotective agent. An L 9 (3 4 ) Taguchi design was used to optimize the cryoprotection cocktail seeding process prior to slow-freezing with the specific aim of maximizing cell viability measured 7 days post thaw, using the combinatorial cell viability and in-vitro cytotoxicity WST assay. At low (200 mM) and medium (800 mM) levels of trehalose concentration, encapsulation in alginate offered a greater protection to cryopreservation. However, at the highest trehalose concentration (1200 mM) and in the absence of the pre-incubation step, there was no statistical difference at the 95% CI (p = 0.0212) between the viability of the HEK cells under 2D and 3D culture conditions estimated to be 17.9 ± 4.6% and 14.0 ± 3.6%, respectively. A parallel comparison between cryoprotective agents conducted at the optimal levels of the L 9 study, using trehalose, dimethylsulfoxide and glycerol in alginate microcapsules yielded a viability of 36.0 ± 7.4% for trehalose, in average 75% higher than the results associated with the other two cell membrane-permeating compounds. In summary, the effectiveness of trehalose has been demonstrated by the fact that 3D cell cultures can readily be equilibrated with trehalose before cryopreservation, thus mitigating the cytotoxic effects of glycerol and dimethylsulfoxide.

  7. Biocompatibility of printed paper-based arrays for 2-D cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Juvonen, Helka; Määttänen, Anni; Laurén, Patrick; Ihalainen, Petri; Urtti, Arto; Yliperttula, Marjo; Peltonen, Jouko

    2013-05-01

    The use of paper-based test platforms in cell culture experiments is demonstrated. The arrays used for two-dimensional cell cultures were prepared by printing patterned structures on a paper substrate using a hydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) ink. The non-printed, PDMS-free areas formed the array for the cell growth experiments. Cell imaging was enabled by using a lipophilic staining agent. A set of coated paper substrates was prepared to study the effect of the physicochemical properties of the substrate (topography, roughness and surface energetics) on cell attachment and growth. The studied paper substrates were found to be cell-repellent or cell-supporting. Cell growth was supported by substrates with a large bearing area, low surface area ratio (Sdr), high total surface free energy and an intermediate electron donor surface energy component. The cells were grown to full confluency within 72 h. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Regulation of podocalyxin trafficking by Rab small GTPases in 2D and 3D epithelial cell cultures

    PubMed Central

    Mrozowska, Paulina S.

    2016-01-01

    MDCK II cells, a widely used model of polarized epithelia, develop into different structures depending on culture conditions: two-dimensional (2D) monolayers when grown on synthetic supports or three-dimensional (3D) cysts when surrounded by an extracellular matrix. The establishment of epithelial polarity is accompanied by transcytosis of the apical marker podocalyxin from the outer plasma membrane to the newly formed apical domain, but its exact route and regulation remain poorly understood. Here, through comprehensive colocalization and knockdown screenings, we identified the Rab GTPases mediating podocalyxin transcytosis and showed that different sets of Rabs coordinate its transport during cell polarization in 2D and 3D structures. Moreover, we demonstrated that different Rab35 effectors regulate podocalyxin trafficking in 2D and 3D environments; trafficking is mediated by OCRL in 2D monolayers and ACAP2 in 3D cysts. Our results give substantial insight into regulation of the transcytosis of this apical marker and highlight differences between trafficking mechanisms in 2D and 3D cell cultures. PMID:27138252

  9. Collagen esterification enhances the function and survival of pancreatic β cells in 2D and 3D culture systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, Jae Hyung; Kim, Yang Hee; Asan Institute for Life Science, 388-1 Pungnap-2 Dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul

    2015-08-07

    Collagen, one of the most important components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), may play a role in the survival of pancreatic islet cells. In addition, chemical modifications that change the collagen charge profile to a net positive charge by esterification have been shown to increase the adhesion and proliferation of various cell types. The purpose of this study was to characterize and compare the effects of native collagen (NC) and esterified collagen (EC) on β cell function and survival. After isolation by the collagenase digestion technique, rat islets were cultured with NC and EC in 2 dimensional (2D) and 3more » dimensional (3D) environments for a long-term duration in vitro. The cells were assessed for islet adhesion, morphology, viability, glucose-induced insulin secretion, and mRNA expression of glucose metabolism-related genes, and visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Islet cells attached tightly in the NC group, but islet cell viability was similar in both the NC and EC groups. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was higher in the EC group than in the NC group in both 2D and 3D culture. Furthermore, the mRNA expression levels of glucokinase in the EC group were higher than those in the NC group and were associated with glucose metabolism and insulin secretion. Finally, SEM observation confirmed that islets had more intact component cells on EC sponges than on NC sponges. These results indicate that modification of collagen may offer opportunities to improve function and viability of islet cells. - Highlights: • We changed the collagen charge profile to a net positive charge by esterification. • Islets cultured on esterified collagen improved survival in both 2D and 3D culture. • Islets cultured on esterified collagen enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin release. • High levels of glucokinase mRNA may be associated with increased insulin release.« less

  10. Surface Acoustic Waves (SAW)-Based Biosensing for Quantification of Cell Growth in 2D and 3D Cultures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Green, Ryan; Nair, Rajesh Ramakrishnan; Howell, Mark; Mohapatra, Subhra; Guldiken, Rasim; Mohapatra, Shyam Sundar

    2015-12-19

    Detection and quantification of cell viability and growth in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures commonly involve harvesting of cells and therefore requires a parallel set-up of several replicates for time-lapse or dose-response studies. Thus, developing a non-invasive and touch-free detection of cell growth in longitudinal studies of 3D tumor spheroid cultures or of stem cell regeneration remains a major unmet need. Since surface acoustic waves (SAWs) permit mass loading-based biosensing and have been touted due to their many advantages including low cost, small size and ease of assembly, we examined the potential of SAW-biosensing to detect and quantify cell growth. Herein, we demonstrate that a shear horizontal-surface acoustic waves (SH-SAW) device comprising two pairs of resonators consisting of interdigital transducers and reflecting fingers can be used to quantify mass loading by the cells in suspension as well as within a 3D cell culture platform. A 3D COMSOL model was built to simulate the mass loading response of increasing concentrations of cells in suspension in the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) well in order to predict the characteristics and optimize the design of the SH-SAW biosensor. The simulated relative frequency shift from the two oscillatory circuit systems (one of which functions as control) were found to be concordant to experimental data generated with RAW264.7 macrophage and A549 cancer cells. In addition, results showed that SAW measurements per se did not affect viability of cells. Further, SH-SAW biosensing was applied to A549 cells cultured on a 3D electrospun nanofiber scaffold that generate tumor spheroids (tumoroids) and the results showed the device's ability to detect changes in tumor spheroid growth over the course of eight days. Taken together, these results demonstrate the use of SH-SAW device for detection and quantification of cell growth changes over time in 2D suspension cultures and in 3D cell

  11. Efficient Large-Scale 2D Culture System for Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells and Differentiated Cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Tohyama, Shugo; Fujita, Jun; Fujita, Chihana; Yamaguchi, Miho; Kanaami, Sayaka; Ohno, Rei; Sakamoto, Kazuho; Kodama, Masami; Kurokawa, Junko; Kanazawa, Hideaki; Seki, Tomohisa; Kishino, Yoshikazu; Okada, Marina; Nakajima, Kazuaki; Tanosaki, Sho; Someya, Shota; Hirano, Akinori; Kawaguchi, Shinji; Kobayashi, Eiji; Fukuda, Keiichi

    2017-11-14

    Cardiac regenerative therapies utilizing human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are hampered by ineffective large-scale culture. hiPSCs were cultured in multilayer culture plates (CPs) with active gas ventilation (AGV), resulting in stable proliferation and pluripotency. Seeding of 1 × 10 6 hiPSCs per layer yielded 7.2 × 10 8 hiPSCs in 4-layer CPs and 1.7 × 10 9 hiPSCs in 10-layer CPs with pluripotency. hiPSCs were sequentially differentiated into cardiomyocytes (CMs) in a two-dimensional (2D) differentiation protocol. The efficiency of cardiac differentiation using 10-layer CPs with AGV was 66%-87%. Approximately 6.2-7.0 × 10 8 cells (4-layer) and 1.5-2.8 × 10 9 cells (10-layer) were obtained with AGV. After metabolic purification with glucose- and glutamine-depleted and lactate-supplemented media, a massive amount of purified CMs was prepared. Here, we present a scalable 2D culture system using multilayer CPs with AGV for hiPSC-derived CMs, which will facilitate clinical applications for severe heart failure in the near future. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cytokine profiling of MCF-7 cell line 2D, progressive 3D, and 3D revert cultures.

    PubMed

    Subramaniyan, Aishwarya; Maddaly, Ravi

    2018-02-01

    Cancer cytokines are known to mediate several complex cancer cell physiologies. Also, cancer cells themselves are known to secrete cytokines whose expressions and net inducible results are controlled by a variety of factors. We profiled a few cytokines secreted by 2D, 3D aggregates, and the 3DRs of MCF-7 cell line at various time points. Several cytokines were seen more expressed by 3D cultures on the 4th day and IL-10 peaked on the day 1 of 3D cultures while TNF-α level peaked on the 7th day. α-Defensin, SDF-7, and TGF-β also showed markedly higher levels. There was a reduced expression of IL-6 and IL-17 by the 3DRs. TGF-β did not show much change among the 2D, progressive 3D, and 3DR cultures. Utilizing 3DRs as study material will be a significant extension of the ways cells lines can be used for research. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Improving Cardiac Action Potential Measurements: 2D and 3D Cell Culture.

    PubMed

    Daily, Neil J; Yin, Yue; Kemanli, Pinar; Ip, Brian; Wakatsuki, Tetsuro

    2015-11-01

    Progress in the development of assays for measuring cardiac action potential is crucial for the discovery of drugs for treating cardiac disease and assessing cardiotoxicity. Recently, high-throughput methods for assessing action potential using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) derived cardiomyocytes in both two-dimensional monolayer cultures and three-dimensional tissues have been developed. We describe an improved method for assessing cardiac action potential using an ultra-fast cost-effective plate reader with commercially available dyes. Our methods improve dramatically the detection of the fluorescence signal from these dyes and make way for the development of more high-throughput methods for cardiac drug discovery and cardiotoxicity.

  14. Development of drug loaded nanoparticles for tumor targeting. Part 1: synthesis, characterization, and biological evaluation in 2D cell cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Dakdouki, Mohammad H.; Puré, Ellen; Huang, Xuefei

    2013-04-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are being extensively studied as carriers for drug delivery, but they often have limited penetration inside tumors. We envision that by targeting an endocytic receptor on the cell surface, the uptake of NPs can be significantly enhanced through receptor mediated endocytosis. In addition, if the receptor is recycled to the cell surface, the NP cargo can be transported out of the cells, which is then taken up by neighboring cells thus enhancing solid tumor penetration. To validate our hypothesis, in the first of two articles, we report the synthesis of doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded, hyaluronan (HA) coated silica nanoparticles (SNPs) containing a highly fluorescent core to target CD44, a receptor expressed on the cancer cell surface. HA was conjugated onto amine-functionalized SNPs prepared through an oil-water microemulsion method. The immobilization of the cytotoxic drug DOX was achieved through an acid sensitive hydrazone linkage. The NPs were fully characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential measurements, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), UV-vis absorbance, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Initial biological evaluation experiments demonstrated that compared to ligand-free SNPs, the uptake of HA-SNPs by the CD44-expressing SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells was significantly enhanced when evaluated in the 2D monolayer cell culture. Mechanistic studies suggested that cellular uptake of HA-SNPs was mainly through CD44 mediated endocytosis. HA-SNPs with immobilized DOX were endocytosed efficiently by the SKOV-3 cells as well. The enhanced tumor penetration and drug delivery properties of HA-SNPs will be evaluated in 3D tumor models in the subsequent paper.Nanoparticles (NPs) are being extensively studied as carriers for drug delivery, but they often have limited penetration inside tumors. We envision that by targeting an endocytic receptor on the cell surface, the uptake of NPs can be

  15. A Genome-wide Analysis of Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Endothelial Cells in 2D or 3D Culture.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jue; Schwartz, Michael P; Hou, Zhonggang; Bai, Yongsheng; Ardalani, Hamisha; Swanson, Scott; Steill, John; Ruotti, Victor; Elwell, Angela; Nguyen, Bao Kim; Bolin, Jennifer; Stewart, Ron; Thomson, James A; Murphy, William L

    2017-04-11

    A defined protocol for efficiently deriving endothelial cells from human pluripotent stem cells was established and vascular morphogenesis was used as a model system to understand how synthetic hydrogels influence global biological function compared with common 2D and 3D culture platforms. RNA sequencing demonstrated that gene expression profiles were similar for endothelial cells and pericytes cocultured in polyethylene glycol (PEG) hydrogels or Matrigel, while monoculture comparisons identified distinct vascular signatures for each cell type. Endothelial cells cultured on tissue-culture polystyrene adopted a proliferative phenotype compared with cells cultured on or encapsulated in PEG hydrogels. The proliferative phenotype correlated to increased FAK-ERK activity, and knockdown or inhibition of ERK signaling reduced proliferation and expression for cell-cycle genes while increasing expression for "3D-like" vasculature development genes. Our results provide insight into the influence of 2D and 3D culture formats on global biological processes that regulate cell function. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Role of cell division and self-propulsion in self-organization of 2D cell co-cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Moumita; Dey, Supravat; Wu, Mingming; Ma, Minglin

    Self-organization of cells is a key process in developmental and cancer biology. The differential adhesion hypothesis (DAH), which assumes cells as equilibrium liquid droplets and relates the self-assembly of cells to differences in inter-cellular adhesiveness, has been very successful in explaining cellular organization during morphogenesis where neighboring cells have the same non-equilibrium properties (motility, proliferation rate). However, recently it has been experimentally shown that for a co-culture of two different cell types proliferating at different rates, the resulting spatial morphologies cannot be explained using the DAH alone. Motivated by this, we develop and study a two-dimensional model of a cell co-culture that includes cell division and self-propulsion in addition to cell-cell adhesion, and systemically study how cells with significantly different adhesion, motility, and proliferation rate dynamically organize themselves in a spatiotemporal and context-dependent manner. Our results may help to understand how differential equilibrium and non-equilibrium properties cooperate and compete leading to different morphologies during tumor development, with important consequences for invasion and metastasis

  17. Regulation of adipose-tissue-derived stromal cell orientation and motility in 2D- and 3D-cultures by direct-current electrical field.

    PubMed

    Yang, Gang; Long, Haiyan; Ren, Xiaomei; Ma, Kunlong; Xiao, Zhenghua; Wang, Ying; Guo, Yingqiang

    2017-02-01

    Cell alignment and motility play a critical role in a variety of cell behaviors, including cytoskeleton reorganization, membrane-protein relocation, nuclear gene expression, and extracellular matrix remodeling. Direct current electric field (EF) in vitro can direct many types of cells to align vertically to EF vector. In this work, we investigated the effects of EF stimulation on rat adipose-tissue-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) in 2D-culture on plastic culture dishes and in 3D-culture on various scaffold materials, including collagen hydrogels, chitosan hydrogels and poly(L-lactic acid)/gelatin electrospinning fibers. Rat ADSCs were exposed to various physiological-strength EFs in a homemade EF-bioreactor. Changes of morphology and movements of cells affected by applied EFs were evaluated by time-lapse microphotography, and cell survival rates and intracellular calcium oscillations were also detected. Results showed that EF facilitated ADSC morphological changes, under 6 V/cm EF strength, and that ADSCs in 2D-culture aligned vertically to EF vector and kept a good cell survival rate. In 3D-culture, cell galvanotaxis responses were subject to the synergistic effect of applied EF and scaffold materials. Fast cell movement and intracellular calcium activities were observed in the cells of 3D-culture. We believe our research will provide some experimental references for the future study in cell galvanotaxis behaviors. © 2017 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  18. Genotoxic Effects of Low- and High-LET Radiation on Human Epithelial Cells Grown in 2-D Versus 3-D Culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Z. S.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Huff, J. L.

    2011-01-01

    Risk estimation for radiation-induced cancer relies heavily on human epidemiology data obtained from terrestrial irradiation incidents from sources such as medical and occupational exposures as well as from the atomic bomb survivors. No such data exists for exposures to the types and doses of high-LET radiation that will be encountered during space travel; therefore, risk assessment for space radiation requires the use of data derived from cell culture and animal models. The use of experimental models that most accurately replicate the response of human tissues is critical for precision in risk projections. This work compares the genotoxic effects of radiation on normal human epithelial cells grown in standard 2-D monolayer culture compared to 3-D organotypic co-culture conditions. These 3-D organotypic models mimic the morphological features, differentiation markers, and growth characteristics of fully-differentiated normal human tissue and are reproducible using defined components. Cultures were irradiated with 2 Gy low-LET gamma rays or varying doses of high-LET particle radiation and genotoxic damage was measured using a modified cytokinesis block micronucleus assay. Our results revealed a 2-fold increase in residual damage in 2 Gy gamma irradiated cells grown under organotypic culture conditions compared to monolayer culture. Irradiation with high-LET particle radiation gave similar results, while background levels of damage were comparable under both scenarios. These observations may be related to the phenomenon of "multicellular resistance" where cancer cells grown as 3-D spheroids or in vivo exhibit an increased resistance to killing by chemotherapeutic agents compared to the same cells grown in 2-D culture. A variety of factors are likely involved in mediating this process, including increased cell-cell communication, microenvironment influences, and changes in cell cycle kinetics that may promote survival of damaged cells in 3-D culture that would

  19. Sub-100 nm biodegradable nanoparticles: in vitro release features and toxicity testing in 2D and 3D cell cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biondi, Marco; Guarnieri, Daniela; Yu, Hui; Belli, Valentina; Netti, Paolo Antonio

    2013-02-01

    A big challenge in tumor targeting by nanoparticles (NPs), taking advantage of the enhanced permeability and retention effect, is the fabrication of small size devices for enhanced tumor penetration, which is considered fundamental to improve chemotherapy efficacy. The purposes of this study are (i) to engineer the formulation of doxorubicin-loaded poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) NPs to obtain <100 nm devices and (ii) to translate standard 2D cytotoxicity studies to 3D collagen systems in which an initial step gradient of the NPs is present. Doxorubicin release can be prolonged for days to weeks depending on the NP formulation and the pH of the release medium. Sub-100 nm NPs are effectively internalized by HeLa cells in 2D and are less cytotoxic than free doxorubicin. In 3D, <100 nm NPs are significantly more toxic than larger ones towards HeLa cells, and the cell death rate is affected by the contributions of drug release and device transport through collagen. Thus, the reduction of NP size is a fundamental feature from both a technological and a biological point of view and must be properly engineered to optimize the tumor response to the NPs.

  20. The mechanical coupling of adult marrow stromal stem cells during cardiac regeneration assessed in a 2-D co-culture model

    PubMed Central

    Valarmathi, Mani T.; Fuseler, John W.; Goodwin, Richard L.; Davis, Jeffrey M.; Potts, Jay D.

    2011-01-01

    Postnatal cardiomyocytes undergo terminal differentiation and a restricted number of human cardiomyocytes retain the ability to divide and regenerate in response to ischemic injury. However, whether these neo-cardiomyocytes are derived from endogenous population of resident cardiac stem cells or from the exogenous double assurance population of resident bone marrow-derived stem cells that populate the damaged myocardium is unresolved and under intense investigation. The vital challenge is to ameliorate and/or regenerate the damaged myocardium. This can be achieved by stimulating proliferation of native quiescent cardiomyocytes and/or cardiac stem cell, or by recruiting exogenous autologous or allogeneic cells such as fetal or embryonic cardiomyocyte progenitors or bone marrow-derived stromal stem cells. The prerequisites are that these neo-cardiomyocytes must have the ability to integrate well within the native myocardium and must exhibit functional synchronization. Adult bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) have been shown to differentiate into cardiomyocyte-like cells both in vitro and in vivo. As a result, BMSCs may potentially play an essential role in cardiac repair and regeneration, but this concept requires further validation. In this report, we have provided compelling evidence that functioning cardiac tissue can be generated by the interaction of multipotent BMSCs with embryonic cardiac myocytes (ECMs) in two-dimensional (2-D) co-cultures. The differentiating BMSCs were induced to undergo cardiomyogenic differentiation pathway and were able to express unequivocal electromechanical coupling and functional synchronization with ECMs. Our 2-D co-culture system provides a useful in vitro model to elucidate various molecular mechanisms underpinning the integration and orderly maturation and differentiation of BMSCs into neo-cardiomyocytes during myocardial repair and regeneration. PMID:21288568

  1. Phototoxic action of a zinc(II) phthalocyanine encapsulated into poloxamine polymeric micelles in 2D and 3D colon carcinoma cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Chiarante, Nicolás; García Vior, María C; Awruch, Josefina; Marino, Julieta; Roguin, Leonor P

    2017-05-01

    Photodynamic therapy is emerging as a hopeful method for the treatment of oncological diseases. In the search of novel therapeutic strategies for colorectal cancer, in this work we reported the photocytotoxic activity of a lipophilic zinc(II) phthalocyanine on a murine colon adenocarcinoma cell line (CT26 cells). The 2,9(10),16(17),23(24) tetrakis[(2-dimethylamino)ethylsulfanyl]phthalocyaninatozinc(II), named Pc9, was encapsulated into Tetronic® 1107 polymeric poloxamine micelles (T1107) and assayed in 2D and 3D cell cultures. We showed that the formulation Pc9-T1107 was efficient to reduce cell viability after photodynamic treatment both in 2D cultures (IC 50 10±2nM) as well as in CT26 spheroids (IC 50 370±11nM). Cellular uptake of Pc9-T1107 was a time- and concentration-dependent process, being the phthalocyanine formulation mainly incorporated into lysosomal vesicles and endoplasmic reticulum cisterns, but not in mitochondria. Pc9-T1107 also induced the formation of reactive oxygen species immediately after cell irradiation. We also found that the phototoxic action of Pc9-T1107 was partially reversed in the presence of antioxidants, such as TROLOX and N-acetyl-cysteine. In addition, we showed that Pc9-T1107 treatment triggered an apoptotic cell death, as suggested by the detection of pyknotic nuclei, the reduction in the expression levels of procaspase-3 and the increase in caspase-3 enzymatic activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Spatio-temporal morphology changes in and quenching effects on the 2D spreading dynamics of cell colonies in both plain and methylcellulose-containing culture media.

    PubMed

    Muzzio, N E; Pasquale, M A; Huergo, M A C; Bolzán, A E; González, P H; Arvia, A J

    2016-06-01

    To deal with complex systems, microscopic and global approaches become of particular interest. Our previous results from the dynamics of large cell colonies indicated that their 2D front roughness dynamics is compatible with the standard Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) or the quenched KPZ equations either in plain or methylcellulose (MC)-containing gel culture media, respectively. In both cases, the influence of a non-uniform distribution of the colony constituents was significant. These results encouraged us to investigate the overall dynamics of those systems considering the morphology and size, the duplication rate, and the motility of single cells. For this purpose, colonies with different cell populations (N) exhibiting quasi-circular and quasi-linear growth fronts in plain and MC-containing culture media are investigated. For small N, the average radial front velocity and its change with time depend on MC concentration. MC in the medium interferes with cell mitosis, contributes to the local enlargement of cells, and increases the distribution of spatio-temporal cell density heterogeneities. Colony spreading in MC-containing media proceeds under two main quenching effects, I and II; the former mainly depending on the culture medium composition and structure and the latter caused by the distribution of enlarged local cell domains. For large N, colony spreading occurs at constant velocity. The characteristics of cell motility, assessed by measuring their trajectories and the corresponding velocity field, reflect the effect of enlarged, slow-moving cells and the structure of the medium. Local average cell size distribution and individual cell motility data from plain and MC-containing media are qualitatively consistent with the predictions of both the extended cellular Potts models and the observed transition of the front roughness dynamics from a standard KPZ to a quenched KPZ. In this case, quenching effects I and II cooperate and give rise to the quenched

  3. Expression of transcription factors after short-term exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana cell cultures to hypergravity and simulated microgravity (2-D/3-D clinorotation, magnetic levitation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babbick, M.; Dijkstra, C.; Larkin, O. J.; Anthony, P.; Davey, M. R.; Power, J. B.; Lowe, K. C.; Cogoli-Greuter, M.; Hampp, R.

    Gravity is an important environmental factor that controls plant growth and development. Studies have shown that the perception of gravity is not only a property of specialized cells, but can also be performed by undifferentiated cultured cells. In this investigation, callus of Arabidopsis thaliana cv. Columbia was used to investigate the initial steps of gravity-related signalling cascades, through altered expression of transcription factors (TFs). TFs are families of small proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific promoter sequences. Based on microarray studies, members of the gene families WRKY, MADS-box, MYB, and AP2/EREBP were selected for investigation, as well as members of signalling chains, namely IAA 19 and phosphoinositol-4-kinase. Using qRT-PCR, transcripts were quantified within a period of 30 min in response to hypergravity (8 g), clinorotation [2-D clinostat and 3-D random positioning machine (RPM)] and magnetic levitation (ML). The data indicated that (1) changes in gravity induced stress-related signalling, and (2) exposure in the RPM induced changes in gene expression which resemble those of magnetic levitation. Two dimensional clinorotation resulted in responses similar to those caused by hypergravity. It is suggested that RPM and ML are preferable to simulate microgravity than clinorotation.

  4. Binding of galectin-1 to breast cancer cells MCF7 induces apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation in vitro in a 2D- and 3D- cell culture model.

    PubMed

    Geiger, Pamina; Mayer, Barbara; Wiest, Irmi; Schulze, Sandra; Jeschke, Udo; Weissenbacher, Tobias

    2016-11-08

    Galectin-1 (gal-1) belongs to the family of β-galactoside-binding proteins which primarily recognizes the Galβ1-4GlcNAc sequences of oligosaccharides associated with several cell surface glycoconjugates. The lectin recognizes correspondent glycoepitopes on human breast cancer cells. Galectin-1 is expressed both in normal and malignant tissues. Lymphatic organs naturally possessing high rates of apoptotic cells, express high levels of Galectin-1. Furthermore galectin-1 can initiate T cell apoptosis. Binding of galectin-1 to trophoblast tumor cells presenting the oncofetal Thomsen-Friedenreich (TF) carbohydrate antigen inhibits tumor cell proliferation. In this study we examined the impact galectin-1 has in vitro on cell proliferation, apoptotic potential and metabolic activity of MCF-7 and T-47D breast cancer cells in dependence to their expression of the Thomsen-Friedenreich (TF) tumor antigen. For proliferation and apoptosis assays cells were grown in presence of 10, 30 and 60 μg gal-1/ml medium. Cell proliferation was determined by a BrdU uptake ELISA. Detection of apoptotic cells was done by M30 cyto death staining, in situ nick translation and by a nucleosome ELISA method. Furthermore we studied the impact galectin-1 has on the metabolic activity of MCF-7 and T-47D cells in a homotypic three-dimensional spheroid cell culture model mimicking a micro tumour environment. Gal-1 inhibited proliferation of MCF-7 cells (strong expression of the TF epitope) but did not significantly change proliferation of T-47D cells (weak expression of the TF epitope). The incubation of MCF-7 cells with gal-1 raised number of apoptotic cells significantly. Treating the spheroids with 30 μg/ml galectin-1 in addition to standard chemotherapeutic regimes (FEC, TAC) resulted in further suppression of the metabolic activity in MCF-7 cells whereas T-47D cells were not affected. Our results demonstrate that galectin-1 can inhibit proliferation und metabolic cell activity and induce

  5. Dextran and Polymer Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Coating Reduce Both 5 and 30 nm Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Cytotoxicity in 2D and 3D Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Miao; Huang, Shaohui; Yu, Kevin Jun; Clyne, Alisa Morss

    2012-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are widely used in biomedical applications, yet questions remain regarding the effect of nanoparticle size and coating on nanoparticle cytotoxicity. In this study, porcine aortic endothelial cells were exposed to 5 and 30 nm diameter iron oxide nanoparticles coated with either the polysaccharide, dextran, or the polymer polyethylene glycol (PEG). Nanoparticle uptake, cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, and cell morphology changes were measured. Endothelial cells took up nanoparticles of all sizes and coatings in a dose dependent manner, and intracellular nanoparticles remained clustered in cytoplasmic vacuoles. Bare nanoparticles in both sizes induced a more than 6 fold increase in cell death at the highest concentration (0.5 mg/mL) and led to significant cell elongation, whereas cell viability and morphology remained constant with coated nanoparticles. While bare 30 nm nanoparticles induced significant ROS formation, neither 5 nm nanoparticles (bare or coated) nor 30 nm coated nanoparticles changed ROS levels. Furthermore, nanoparticles were more toxic at lower concentrations when cells were cultured within 3D gels. These results indicate that both dextran and PEG coatings reduce nanoparticle cytotoxicity, however different mechanisms may be important for different size nanoparticles. PMID:22754315

  6. Cervical cancer cell lines expressing NKG2D-ligands are able to down-modulate the NKG2D receptor on NKL cells with functional implications.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Perez, Miriam I; Jave-Suarez, Luis F; Ortiz-Lazareno, Pablo C; Bravo-Cuellar, Alejandro; Gonzalez-Ramella, Oscar; Aguilar-Lemarroy, Adriana; Hernandez-Flores, Georgina; Pereira-Suarez, Ana L; Daneri-Navarro, Adrian; del Toro-Arreola, Susana

    2012-02-08

    Cervical cancer represents the third most commonly diagnosed cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. Natural killer (NK) cells play an important role in the defense against viruses, intracellular bacteria and tumors. NKG2D, an activating receptor on NK cells, recognizes MHC class I chain-related molecules, such as MICA/B and members of the ULBP/RAET1 family. Tumor-derived soluble NKG2D-ligands have been shown to down-modulate the expression of NKG2D on NK cells. In addition to the down-modulation induced by soluble NKG2D-ligands, it has recently been described that persistent cell-cell contact can also down-modulate NKG2D expression. The goal of this study was to determine whether the NKG2D receptor is down-modulated by cell-cell contact with cervical cancer cells and whether this down-modulation might be associated with changes in NK cell activity. We demonstrate that NKG2D expressed on NKL cells is down-modulated by direct cell contact with cervical cancer cell lines HeLa, SiHa, and C33A, but not with non-tumorigenic keratinocytes (HaCaT). Moreover, this down-modulation had functional implications. We found expression of NKG2D-ligands in all cervical cancer cell lines, but the patterns of ligand distribution were different in each cell line. Cervical cancer cell lines co-cultured with NKL cells or fresh NK cells induced a marked diminution of NKG2D expression on NKL cells. Additionally, the cytotoxic activity of NKL cells against K562 targets was compromised after co-culture with HeLa and SiHa cells, while co-culture with C33A increased the cytotoxic activity of the NKL cells. Our results suggest that differential expression of NKG2D-ligands in cervical cancer cell lines might be associated with the down-modulation of NKG2D, as well as with changes in the cytotoxic activity of NKL cells after cell-cell contact with the tumor cells.

  7. Antiproliferative activity of amino substituted benzo[b]thieno[2,3-b]pyrido[1,2-a]benzimidazoles explored by 2D and 3D cell culture system.

    PubMed

    Perin, Nataša; Bobanović, Kristina; Zlatar, Ivo; Jelić, Dubravko; Kelava, Vanja; Koštrun, Sanja; Marković, Vesna Gabelica; Brajša, Karmen; Hranjec, Marijana

    2017-01-05

    Benzimidazo[1,2-a]quinolines and benzo[b]thieno[2,3-b]pyrido[1,2-a]benzimidazoles with amino chains on the different positions have been evaluated by 2D and 3D assays on the human breast cancer cells. Pentacyclic derivatives were synthesized by microwave assisted amination to study the influence of the thiophene substructure on antitumor activity in comparison to tetracyclic analogues. The results obtained from 2D assay reveals that the antitumor activity is strongly dependent on the nature and position of amino chains. Tetracyclic derivatives displayed selective activity on SK-BR-3 with the 2-amino substituted derivatives as the most active ones while pentacyclic derivatives 6-16 and 21-25 showed more pronounced activity on T-47D. The evaluation of antitumor activity in the 3D assay pointed out that some of the tetracyclic and pentacyclic amino substituted derivatives showed selective activity on the MDA-MB-231 cell line. Influence of physico-chemical properties of the compounds on antiproliferative activity have been investigated by multivariate statistical methods. As a measure of lipophilicity, experimental Chrom LogD values have been determined and number of structural parameters have been calculated for investigated compounds. Main factors contributing to the antiproliferative effect for both 2D and 3D cell cultures are found to be basicity, lipophilicity, molecular weight and number of H-bond donors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Human IgG1 antibodies antagonizing activating receptor NKG2D on natural killer cells

    PubMed Central

    Steigerwald, Jutta; Raum, Tobias; Pflanz, Stefan; Cierpka, Ronny; Mangold, Susanne; Rau, Doris; Hoffmann, Patrick; Kvesic, Majk; Zube, Christina; Linnerbauer, Stefanie; Lumsden, John; Sriskandarajah, Mirnaalini; Kufer, Peter; Baeuerle, Patrick A

    2009-01-01

    NKG2D is a surface receptor expressed on NK cells but also on CD8+ T cells, γδ T cells, and auto-reactive CD4+/CD28− T cells of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Various studies suggested that NKG2D plays a critical role in autoimmune diseases, e.g., in diabetes, celiac disease and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), rendering the activating receptor a potential target for antibody-based therapies. Here, we describe the generation and characteristics of a panel of human, high-affinity anti-NKG2D IgG1 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) derived by phage display. The lead molecule mAb E4 bound with an affinity (KD) of 2.7 ± 1.4 × 10−11 M to soluble and membrane-bound human NKG2D, and cross-reacted with NKG2D from cynomolgus macaque, indicating potential suitability for studies in a relevant primate model. MAb E4 potently antagonized the cytolytic activity of NKL cells against BaF/3-MICA cells expressing NKG2D ligand, and blocked the NKG2D ligand-induced secretion of TNFα, IFNγ and GM-CSF, as well as surface expression of CRTAM by NK cells cultured on immobilized MICA or ULBP-1 ligands. The antibody did not show a detectable loss of binding to NKG2D after seven days in human serum at 37°C, and resisted thermal inactivation up to 70°C. Based on these results, anti-human NKG2D mAb E4 provides an ideal candidate for development of a novel therapeutic agent antagonizing a key receptor of NK and cytotoxic T cells with implications in autoimmune diseases. PMID:20061825

  9. A droplet-to-digital (D2D) microfluidic device for single cell assays.

    PubMed

    Shih, Steve C C; Gach, Philip C; Sustarich, Jess; Simmons, Blake A; Adams, Paul D; Singh, Seema; Singh, Anup K

    2015-01-07

    We have developed a new hybrid droplet-to-digital microfluidic platform (D2D) that integrates droplet-in-channel microfluidics with digital microfluidics (DMF) for performing multi-step assays. This D2D platform combines the strengths of the two formats-droplets-in-channel for facile generation of droplets containing single cells, and DMF for on-demand manipulation of droplets including control of different droplet volumes (pL-μL), creation of a dilution series of ionic liquid (IL), and parallel single cell culturing and analysis for IL toxicity screening. This D2D device also allows for automated analysis that includes a feedback-controlled system for merging and splitting of droplets to add reagents, an integrated Peltier element for parallel cell culture at optimum temperature, and an impedance sensing mechanism to control the flow rate for droplet generation and preventing droplet evaporation. Droplet-in-channel is well-suited for encapsulation of single cells as it allows the careful manipulation of flow rates of aqueous phase containing cells and oil to optimize encapsulation. Once single cell containing droplets are generated, they are transferred to a DMF chip via a capillary where they are merged with droplets containing IL and cultured at 30 °C. The DMF chip, in addition to permitting cell culture and reagent (ionic liquid/salt) addition, also allows recovery of individual droplets for off-chip analysis such as further culturing and measurement of ethanol production. The D2D chip was used to evaluate the effect of IL/salt type (four types: NaOAc, NaCl, [C2mim] [OAc], [C2mim] [Cl]) and concentration (four concentrations: 0, 37.5, 75, 150 mM) on the growth kinetics and ethanol production of yeast and as expected, increasing IL concentration led to lower biomass and ethanol production. Specifically, [C2mim] [OAc] had inhibitory effects on yeast growth at concentrations 75 and 150 mM and significantly reduced their ethanol production compared to cells grown

  10. The cultural divide: exponential growth in classical 2D and metabolic equilibrium in 3D environments.

    PubMed

    Wrzesinski, Krzysztof; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Kanlaya, Rattiyaporn; Borkowski, Kamil; Schwämmle, Veit; Dai, Jie; Joensen, Kira Eyd; Wojdyla, Katarzyna; Carvalho, Vasco Botelho; Fey, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    Cellular metabolism can be considered to have two extremes: one is characterized by exponential growth (in 2D cultures) and the other by a dynamic equilibrium (in 3D cultures). We have analyzed the proteome and cellular architecture at these two extremes and found that they are dramatically different. Structurally, actin organization is changed, microtubules are increased and keratins 8 and 18 decreased. Metabolically, glycolysis, fatty acid metabolism and the pentose phosphate shunt are increased while TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation is unchanged. Enzymes involved in cholesterol and urea synthesis are increased consistent with the attainment of cholesterol and urea production rates seen in vivo. DNA repair enzymes are increased even though cells are predominantly in Go. Transport around the cell--along the microtubules, through the nuclear pore and in various types of vesicles has been prioritized. There are numerous coherent changes in transcription, splicing, translation, protein folding and degradation. The amount of individual proteins within complexes is shown to be highly coordinated. Typically subunits which initiate a particular function are present in increased amounts compared to other subunits of the same complex. We have previously demonstrated that cells at dynamic equilibrium can match the physiological performance of cells in tissues in vivo. Here we describe the multitude of protein changes necessary to achieve this performance.

  11. Intracellular ROS mediates gas plasma-facilitated cellular transfection in 2D and 3D cultures

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Dehui; Wang, Biqing; Xu, Yujing; Chen, Zeyu; Cui, Qinjie; Yang, Yanjie; Chen, Hailan; Kong, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the potential of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) as a versatile tool for delivering oligonucleotides into mammalian cells. Compared to lipofection and electroporation methods, plasma transfection showed a better uptake efficiency and less cell death in the transfection of oligonucleotides. We demonstrated that the level of extracellular aqueous reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by gas plasma is correlated with the uptake efficiency and that this is achieved through an increase of intracellular ROS levels and the resulting increase in cell membrane permeability. This finding was supported by the use of ROS scavengers, which reduced CAP-based uptake efficiency. In addition, we found that cold atmospheric plasma could transfer oligonucleotides such as siRNA and miRNA into cells even in 3D cultures, thus suggesting the potential for unique applications of CAP beyond those provided by standard transfection techniques. Together, our results suggest that cold plasma might provide an efficient technique for the delivery of siRNA and miRNA in 2D and 3D culture models. PMID:27296089

  12. Different responses in transformation of MDCK cells in 2D and 3D culture by v-Src as revealed by microarray techniques, RT-PCR and functional assays.

    PubMed

    Töyli, Mira; Rosberg-Kulha, Linda; Capra, Janne; Vuoristo, Jussi; Eskelinen, Sinikka

    2010-06-01

    Differentiation and transformation of untransformed and ts-Src-transformed canine kidney MDCK cells in 2D and 3D environment were investigated using microarray technique, RT-PCR, confocal microscopy and functional assays. Activated Src induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in 2D environment followed by translocation of junctional proteins to the cytoplasm, without significant changes in protein expression. In 3D environment untransformed MDCK cells formed cell cysts with apical domain facing a lumen, E-cadherin delineating the lateral membranes, ZO-1 at tight junctions and caspase-3 in apoptotic cells captured within the lumen. This was accompanied by reduced expression of an apoptosis inhibitor, survivin and vesicle transport effectors, rab 7 and 8, whereas rab 5 expression increased. In 3D environment activated Src induced changes in expression of over 100 genes as revealed by microarray analysis, mostly involved in cell signaling, division and energy metabolism. Only response in cytoskeletal components was decreased expression of actin and Arp2/3 by v-Src, whereas two p120catenin binding proteins Kaiso and Nanos increased their expression. Concomitantly, apoptosis was inhibited by v-Src resulting in formation of a sphere with epitheloid cells facing extracellular matrix and undifferentiated cells captured within the cluster. This was accompanied by increased expression of apoptosis inhibitor survivin, as revealed by western blotting. Mitochondrial membrane potential in untransformed MDCK cells was lower than in ts-Src-MDCK cells in early days of cluster formation correlating with the induction of apoptosis. Hence, v-Src activation in 3D environment did not induce EMT, but brought about inhibition of apoptosis and increased proliferation where increased expression of survivin and inhibition of the mitochondrial permeability have a role.

  13. 2-D Model for Normal and Sickle Cell Blood Microcirculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tekleab, Yonatan; Harris, Wesley

    2011-11-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a genetic disorder that alters the red blood cell (RBC) structure and function such that hemoglobin (Hb) cannot effectively bind and release oxygen. Previous computational models have been designed to study the microcirculation for insight into blood disorders such as SCD. Our novel 2-D computational model represents a fast, time efficient method developed to analyze flow dynamics, O2 diffusion, and cell deformation in the microcirculation. The model uses a finite difference, Crank-Nicholson scheme to compute the flow and O2 concentration, and the level set computational method to advect the RBC membrane on a staggered grid. Several sets of initial and boundary conditions were tested. Simulation data indicate a few parameters to be significant in the perturbation of the blood flow and O2 concentration profiles. Specifically, the Hill coefficient, arterial O2 partial pressure, O2 partial pressure at 50% Hb saturation, and cell membrane stiffness are significant factors. Results were found to be consistent with those of Le Floch [2010] and Secomb [2006].

  14. A phenomenological approach to modelling collective cell movement in 2D.

    PubMed

    Rey, R; García-Aznar, J M

    2013-11-01

    There are two main approaches to unraveling the mechanisms involved in the regulation of collective cell movement. On the one hand, "in vitro" tests try to represent "in vivo" conditions. On the other hand, "in silico" tests aim to model this movement through the use of complex numerically implemented mathematical methods. This paper presents a simple cell-based mathematical model to represent the collective movement phenomena. This approach is used to better understand the different interactive forces which guide cell movement, focusing mainly on the role of the cell propulsion force with the substrate. Different applications are simulated for 2D cell cultures, wound healing, and collective cell movement in substrates with different degrees of stiffness. The model provides a plausible explanation of how cells work together in order to regulate their movement, showing the significant influence of the propulsive force exerted by the cell to the substrate on guiding the collective cell movement and its interplay with other cell forces.

  15. Chemotherapeutic efficiency of drugs in vitro: Comparison of doxorubicin exposure in 3D and 2D culture matrices.

    PubMed

    Casey, A; Gargotti, M; Bonnier, F; Byrne, H J

    2016-06-01

    The interest in the use of 3D matrices for in vitro analysis, with a view to increasing the relevance of in vitro studies and reducing the dependence on in vivo studies, has been growing in recent years. Cells grown in a 3D in vitro matrix environment have been reported to exhibit significantly different properties to those in a conventional 2D culture environment. However, comparison of 2D and 3D cell culture models have recently been noted to result in differing responses of cytotoxic assays, without any associated change in viability. The effect was attributed to differing conversion rates and effective concentrations of the resazurin assay in 2D and 3D environments, rather than differences in cellular metabolism. In this study, the efficacy of a chemotherapeutic agent, doxorubicin, is monitored and compared in conventional 2D and 3D collagen gel exposures of immortalized human cervical cells. Viability was monitored with the aid of the Alamar Blue assay and drug internalisation was verified using confocal microscopy. Drug uptake and retention within the collagen matrix was monitored by absorption spectroscopy. The viability studies showed apparent differences between the 2D and 3D culture systems, the differences attributed in part to the physical transition from 2D to a 3D environment causing alterations to dye resazurin uptake and conversion rates. The use of 3D culture matrices has widely been interpreted to result in "reduced" toxicity or cellular "resistance" to the chemotherapeutic agent. The results of this study show that the reduced efficiency of the drug to cells grown in the 3D environment can be accounted for by a sequential reduction of the effective concentration of the test compound and assay. This is due to absorption within the collagen gel inducing a higher uptake of both drug and assay thereby influencing the toxic impact of the drug and conversion rate of resazurin, and. The increased effective surface area of the cell exposed to the drug

  16. NKG2D-dependent activation of dendritic epidermal T cells in contact hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Morten M; Dyring-Andersen, Beatrice; Schmidt, Jonas D; Witherden, Deborah; Lovato, Paola; Woetmann, Anders; Ødum, Niels; Poulsen, Steen S; Havran, Wendy L; Geisler, Carsten; Bonefeld, Charlotte M

    2015-05-01

    The interaction between keratinocytes (KCs) and skin-resident immune cells has an important role in induction of contact hypersensitivity. A specific subset of γδ T cells termed dendritic epidermal T cells (DETCs) are located in mouse epidermis, and we have recently shown that DETCs become activated and produce IL-17 in an IL-1β-dependent manner during contact hypersensitivity. Various receptors on DETCs, including NKG2D, are involved in DETC responses against tumors and during wound healing. The ligands for NKG2D (NKG2DL) are stress-induced proteins such as mouse UL16-binding protein-like transcript 1 (Mult-1), histocompatibility 60 (H60), and retinoic acid early inducible-1 (Rae-1) in mice and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-chain-related A (MICA), MHC class I-chain-related B, and UL16-binding protein in humans. Here, we show that allergens upregulate expression of the NKG2DL Mult-1, H60, and Rae-1 in cultured mouse KCs and of MICA in primary human KCs. We demonstrate that Mult-1 is expressed in mouse skin exposed to allergen. Furthermore, we find that the vast majority of DETCs in murine epidermis and skin-homing cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen positive γδ T cells in humans express NKG2D. Finally, we demonstrate that blocking of NKG2D partially inhibits allergen-induced DETC activation. These findings demonstrate that NKG2D and NKG2DL are involved in allergen-induced activation of DETCs and indicate that the NKG2D/NKG2DL pathway might be a potential target for treatment of contact hypersensitivity.

  17. Behaviour of gravisensitive cells on 2D and 3D clinostats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauch, Sebastian M.; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Seibt, Dieter; Schuber, Marianne; Hader, Donat-P.

    2005-08-01

    2D and 3D clinostats are widely applied to study the influence of simulated microgravity on different kinds of organisms and cell cultures [1]. To critically evaluate the results achieved (functional weightlessness, omnilateral gravistimulation or other side effects such as strong mechanical disturbances) a comparison between the applied simulation methods and real microgravity is necessary. In a first approach, the swimming behavior of Euglena gracilis, a "professional gravi-sensing" unicellular freshwater flagellate, was observed under 2D and 3D clinostat conditions as well as under real microgravity during a TEXUS sounding rocket flight.According to current theory Euglena perceives the gravity vector by stimulation of mechanosensitive channels: the cell mass, which is denser than the surrounding medium, exerts pressure onto the lower membrane and the resulting gated calcium influx modulates the beating pattern of the flagella [4].A changed influence of gravity of the cells can be directly visualized by changes in their orientation with respect to gravity (gravitaxis).

  18. Laser irradiated fluorescent perfluorocarbon microparticles in 2-D and 3-D breast cancer cell models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Chengcheng; Wang, Long; Wang, Zhigang; Xu, Yan; Hu, Yihe; Peng, Qinghai

    2017-03-01

    Perfluorocarbon (PFC) droplets were studied as new generation ultrasound contrast agents via acoustic or optical droplet vaporization (ADV or ODV). Little is known about the ODV irradiated vaporization mechanisms of PFC-microparticle complexs and the stability of the new bubbles produced. In this study, fluorescent perfluorohexane (PFH) poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) particles were used as a model to study the process of particle vaporization and bubble stability following excitation in two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) cell models. We observed localization of the fluorescent agent on the microparticle coating material initially and after vaporization under fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, the stability and growth dynamics of the newly created bubbles were observed for 11 min following vaporization. The particles were co-cultured with 2-D cells to form 3-D spheroids and could be vaporized even when encapsulated within the spheroids via laser irradiation, which provides an effective basis for further work.

  19. Human Uterine NK cells Interact with Uterine Macrophages via NKG2D upon stimulation with PAMPs

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Satarupa; Eriksson, Mikael; Pioli, Patricia A.; Conejo-Garcia, Jose; Mselle, Teddy F.; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Wira, Charles R.; Sentman, Charles L.

    2010-01-01

    Problem The initiation of an immune response often involves the cooperation of various innate immune cells. In the human endometrium, uterine NK cells and uterine macrophages are present in significant numbers and in close proximity, yet how they cooperatively respond to infectious challenge is poorly understood. Method of study Primary autologous uterine NK cells and macrophages were co-cultured to determine functional interactions after stimulation with PAMPs. Results After stimulation by polyI:C, human uNK cells interact with autologous uterine macrophages and produce IFN-γ in an NKG2D-dependent manner. Stimulated primary uterine macrophages upregulated the expression of MHC Class I Chain-related protein A (MICA), but expression of the cognate receptor NKG2D remained unchanged on uNK cells, even in the presence of cytokines. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the NKG2D-MICA interaction is an important molecular mechanism that is involved in the innate immune response to microbial signals in the human uterine endometrium. PMID:19086992

  20. Alternation of adriamycin penetration kinetics in MCF-7 cells from 2D to 3D culture based on P-gp expression through the Chk2/p53/NF-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Lu, Meng; Zhou, Fang; Hao, Kun; Liu, Jiali; Chen, Qianying; Ni, Ping; Zhou, Honghao; Wang, Guangji; Zhang, Jingwei

    2015-01-15

    Monolayer cells are largely different from tumor masses, and might misguide drug screenings. 3D in vitro cell culture models simulate the characteristics of tumor masses in vivo and have recently been used in many studies of anti-cancer drugs. Among various 3D cell culture models, multi-cellular layer (MCL) models allow for the direct quantitative assessment of the penetration of chemotherapeutic agents through solid tissue environments without requiring the use of fluorescently labeled drugs or imaging molecules. Therefore, in our present study, a 3D-no base and embedded MCF-7 MCL model was successfully developed for a 14-day culture. Over time, its thickness and cell layers increased and exhibited highly proliferative properties and drug resistance to adriamycin (ADR) with markedly elevated IC50 values. Meanwhile, G2/M stage cycle arrest was also observed, which likely up-regulated P-gp expression through the Chk2/p53/NF-κB pathway. The elevated P-gp expression altered the ADR penetration kinetics in MCF-7 MCLs in vitro by accelerating the apparent penetration of ADR through the intercellular spaces of the MCLs. Additionally, a decreased ADR retention within tumor cells was observed, but could be significantly reversed by a P-gp inhibitor. The attenuated ADR retention in the deeper cells of tumor masses was confirmed in xenografted mice in vivo. This phenomenon could be elucidated by the mathematical modeling of penetration kinetics parameters. Our study provided a new model that evaluated and improved the quantification of the drug penetration kinetics, revealed the relationship between P-gp and drug penetration through tumor masses, and suggested the potential molecular mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Fratricide of natural killer cells dressed with tumor-derived NKG2D ligand.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kyohei; Nakayama, Masafumi; Kawano, Mitsuko; Amagai, Ryo; Ishii, Tomonori; Harigae, Hideo; Ogasawara, Kouetsu

    2013-06-04

    The natural killer group 2 membrane D (NKG2D) activating receptor plays crucial roles not only in host defense against tumors and viral infections, but also in autoimmune diseases. After NKG2D-mediated activation, Natural killer (NK) cells must be regulated to avoid potentially harmful reactivity. However, the negative regulation of these activated NK cells is poorly understood. Here, we reveal that the engagement of NKG2D by its ligand elicits not only target cell lysis, but also NK cell fratricide. Conventional mouse NK cells underwent cell death when cocultured with RMA cells expressing the NKG2D ligand retinoic acid early-inducible protein 1 (Rae-1), but not with RMA cells lacking MHC class I. NK cells from mice deficient for DAP10 and DAP12 or perforin did not undergo death, highlighting the importance of the NKG2D pathway for NK cell death. However, NKG2D does not transmit direct death signals in NK cells. Rather, the interaction between NKG2D and Rae-1 allowed NK cells to acquire tumor-derived Rae-1 by a membrane transfer process known as "trogocytosis," which was associated with clathrin-dependent NKG2D endocytosis. NK cells dressed with Rae-1 were lysed by neighboring NK cells through the NKG2D-induced perforin pathway in vitro and in vivo. These results provide the unique NKG2D function in negative regulation of activated NK cells.

  2. Halfway between 2D and Animal Models: Are 3D Cultures the Ideal Tool to Study Cancer-Microenvironment Interactions?

    PubMed Central

    Hoarau-Véchot, Jessica; Rafii, Arash; Pasquier, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    An area that has come to be of tremendous interest in tumor research in the last decade is the role of the microenvironment in the biology of neoplastic diseases. The tumor microenvironment (TME) comprises various cells that are collectively important for normal tissue homeostasis as well as tumor progression or regression. Seminal studies have demonstrated the role of the dialogue between cancer cells (at many sites) and the cellular component of the microenvironment in tumor progression, metastasis, and resistance to treatment. Using an appropriate system of microenvironment and tumor culture is the first step towards a better understanding of the complex interaction between cancer cells and their surroundings. Three-dimensional (3D) models have been widely described recently. However, while it is claimed that they can bridge the gap between in vitro and in vivo, it is sometimes hard to decipher their advantage or limitation compared to classical two-dimensional (2D) cultures, especially given the broad number of techniques used. We present here a comprehensive review of the different 3D methods developed recently, and, secondly, we discuss the pros and cons of 3D culture compared to 2D when studying interactions between cancer cells and their microenvironment. PMID:29346265

  3. Halfway between 2D and Animal Models: Are 3D Cultures the Ideal Tool to Study Cancer-Microenvironment Interactions?

    PubMed

    Hoarau-Véchot, Jessica; Rafii, Arash; Touboul, Cyril; Pasquier, Jennifer

    2018-01-18

    An area that has come to be of tremendous interest in tumor research in the last decade is the role of the microenvironment in the biology of neoplastic diseases. The tumor microenvironment (TME) comprises various cells that are collectively important for normal tissue homeostasis as well as tumor progression or regression. Seminal studies have demonstrated the role of the dialogue between cancer cells (at many sites) and the cellular component of the microenvironment in tumor progression, metastasis, and resistance to treatment. Using an appropriate system of microenvironment and tumor culture is the first step towards a better understanding of the complex interaction between cancer cells and their surroundings. Three-dimensional (3D) models have been widely described recently. However, while it is claimed that they can bridge the gap between in vitro and in vivo, it is sometimes hard to decipher their advantage or limitation compared to classical two-dimensional (2D) cultures, especially given the broad number of techniques used. We present here a comprehensive review of the different 3D methods developed recently, and, secondly, we discuss the pros and cons of 3D culture compared to 2D when studying interactions between cancer cells and their microenvironment.

  4. Liver Cell Culture Devices

    PubMed Central

    Andria, B.; Bracco, A.; Cirino, G.; Chamuleau, R. A. F. M.

    2010-01-01

    In the last 15 years many different liver cell culture devices, consisting of functional liver cells and artificial materials, have been developed. They have been devised for numerous different applications, such as temporary organ replacement (a bridge to liver transplantation or native liver regeneration) and as in vitro screening systems in the early stages of the drug development process, like assessing hepatotoxicity, hepatic drug metabolism, and induction/inhibition studies. Relevant literature is summarized about artificial human liver cell culture systems by scrutinizing PubMed from 2003 to 2009. Existing devices are divided in 2D configurations (e.g., static monolayer, sandwich, perfused cells, and flat plate) and 3D configurations (e.g., liver slices, spheroids, and different types of bioreactors). The essential features of an ideal liver cell culture system are discussed: different types of scaffolds, oxygenation systems, extracellular matrixes (natural and artificial), cocultures with nonparenchymal cells, and the role of shear stress problems. Finally, miniaturization and high-throughput systems are discussed. All these factors contribute in their own way to the viability and functionality of liver cells in culture. Depending on the aim for which they are designed, several good systems are available for predicting hepatotoxicity and hepatic metabolism within the general population. To predict hepatotoxicity in individual cases genomic analysis might be essential as well. PMID:26998397

  5. NKG2D-NKG2D ligand interaction inhibits the outgrowth of naturally arising low-grade B cell lymphoma in vivo1

    PubMed Central

    Raju, Saravanan; Kretzmer, Lena Z.; Koues, Olivia I.; Payton, Jacqueline E.; Oltz, Eugene M.; Cashen, Amanda; Polic, Bojan; Schreiber, Robert D.; Shaw, Andrey S.; Markiewicz, Mary A.

    2016-01-01

    It is now clear that recognition of nascent tumors by the immune system is critical for survival of the host against cancer. During cancer immunoediting, the ability of the tumor to escape immune recognition is important for tumor development. The immune system recognizes tumors via the presence of classical antigens and also by conserved innate mechanisms. One of these mechanisms is the NKG2D receptor that recognizes ligands whose expression is induced by cell transformation. Here we show that in NKG2D receptor deficient mice, increasing numbers of B cells begin to express NKG2D ligands as they age. Their absence in wild-type mice suggests that these cells are normally cleared by NKG2D expressing cells. NKG2D deficient mice and mice constitutively expressing NKG2D ligands had increased incidence of B cell tumors, confirming that the inability to clear NKG2D ligand expressing cells was important in tumor suppression and that NKG2D ligand expression is a marker of nascent tumors. Supporting a role for NKG2D ligand expression in controlling the progression of early stage B cell lymphomas in humans, we found higher expression of a miRNA that inhibits human NKG2D ligand expression in tumor cells from low-grade compared with high-grade follicular lymphoma patients. PMID:27183590

  6. Optimization of cell seeding in a 2D bio-scaffold system using computational models.

    PubMed

    Ho, Nicholas; Chua, Matthew; Chui, Chee-Kong

    2017-05-01

    The cell expansion process is a crucial part of generating cells on a large-scale level in a bioreactor system. Hence, it is important to set operating conditions (e.g. initial cell seeding distribution, culture medium flow rate) to an optimal level. Often, the initial cell seeding distribution factor is neglected and/or overlooked in the design of a bioreactor using conventional seeding distribution methods. This paper proposes a novel seeding distribution method that aims to maximize cell growth and minimize production time/cost. The proposed method utilizes two computational models; the first model represents cell growth patterns whereas the second model determines optimal initial cell seeding positions for adherent cell expansions. Cell growth simulation from the first model demonstrates that the model can be a representation of various cell types with known probabilities. The second model involves a combination of combinatorial optimization, Monte Carlo and concepts of the first model, and is used to design a multi-layer 2D bio-scaffold system that increases cell production efficiency in bioreactor applications. Simulation results have shown that the recommended input configurations obtained from the proposed optimization method are the most optimal configurations. The results have also illustrated the effectiveness of the proposed optimization method. The potential of the proposed seeding distribution method as a useful tool to optimize the cell expansion process in modern bioreactor system applications is highlighted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The relationship between terminal functionalization and molecular weight of a gene delivery polymer and transfection efficacy in mammary epithelial 2-D cultures and 3-D organotypic cultures

    PubMed Central

    Bhise, Nupura S.; Gray, Ryan S.; Sunshine, Joel C.; Htet, Soe; Ewald, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Non-viral gene delivery vectors were developed for efficient gene transfer to hard to transfect mouse mammary epithelial cells. Ten modified versions of the same base poly(beta-amino ester), poly(1,4-butanediol diacrylate-co-5-amino-1-pentanol), were tested in both traditional 2-D monolayer and in 3-D organotypic cultures. The polymers self-assembled with plasmid DNA encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein to form nanoparticles (~100 nm) used to transfect the cells. Nanoparticle transfection efficacy was tuned by changes in synthesis and fabrication conditions and the transfection efficacy was analyzed using confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. The best performing polymeric nanoparticles transfected 57±6% of the cells in 2-D culture and 6±1% of the cells in 3-D culture. Small modifications to the polymer end-capping molecules and tuning of polymer molecular weight could either significantly enhance the transfection efficacy up to 6-fold or instead abolish efficacy completely. The efficacy of leading polymers was higher than that of the commercial transfection agent FuGENE® HD by a factor of 13 in 2-D and 2 in 3-D. These non-viral nanoparticles may be useful as delivery reagents or targeted therapeutics for breast cancer. This gene delivery strategy is also a promising approach for studying the normal development of the mammary gland. PMID:20674001

  8. Understanding the Impact of 2D and 3D Fibroblast Cultures on In Vitro Breast Cancer Models

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Kyung Eun; Su, Xiaojing; Berthier, Erwin; Pehlke, Carolyn; Friedl, Andreas; Beebe, David J.

    2013-01-01

    The utilization of 3D, physiologically relevant in vitro cancer models to investigate complex interactions between tumor and stroma has been increasing. Prior work has generally focused on the cancer cells and, the role of fibroblast culture conditions on tumor-stromal cell interactions is still largely unknown. Here, we focus on the stroma by comparing functional behaviors of human mammary fibroblasts (HMFs) cultured in 2D and 3D and their effects on the invasive progression of breast cancer cells (MCF10DCIS.com). We identified increased levels of several paracrine factors from HMFs cultured in 3D conditions that drive the invasive transition. Using a microscale co-culture model with improved compartmentalization and sensitivity, we demonstrated that HMFs cultured in 3D intensify the promotion of the invasive progression through the HGF/c-Met interaction. This study highlights the importance of the 3D stromal microenvironment in the development of multiple cell type in vitro cancer models. PMID:24124550

  9. NKG2D ligand expression in Crohn’s disease and NKG2D-dependent stimulation of CD8+ T cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Vadstrup, Kasper; Galsgaard, Elisabeth Douglas; Jensen, Helle; Lanier, Lewis L.; Ryan, James C.; Chen, Shih-Yu; Nolan, Garry P.; Vester-Andersen, Marianne Kajbæk; Pedersen, Julie Steen; Gerwien, Jens; Jensen, Teis; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    Interaction between the activating NKG2D receptor on lymphocytes and its ligands MICA, MICB, and ULBP1–6 modulate T and NK cell activity and may contribute to the pathogenesis of Crohn’s disease (CD). NKG2D ligands are generally not expressed on the cell surface of normal, non-stressed cells, but expression of MICA and MICB in CD intestine has been reported. In this exploratory study, we further characterize the expression of NKG2D and its ligands, including the less well-described ULBP4–6, in CD, and test if NKG2D ligand interactions are involved in the migration of activated T cells into the affected mucosal compartments. Intestinal tissue from CD patients and healthy controls were analyzed by flow cytometry, mass cytometry, and immunohistochemistry for expression of NKG2D and ligands, and for cytokine release. Furthermore, NKG2D-dependent chemotaxis of activated CD8+ T cells across a monolayer of ligand-expressing human intestinal endothelial cells was examined. Activated lymphocytes down-regulated NKG2D expression upon accumulation in inflamed CD intestine. NKG2D expression on CD56+ T and γδ T cells from inflamed tissue seemed inversely correlated with CRP levels and cytokine release. B cells, monocytes, mucosal epithelium, and vascular endothelium expressed NKG2D ligands in inflamed CD intestine. The expression of NKG2D ligands was correlated with cytokine release, but was highly variable between patients. Stimulation of vascular intestinal endothelial cells in vitro induced expression of NKG2D ligands, including MICA/B and ULBP2/6. Blockade of NKG2D on CD8+ T cells inhibited the migration over ligand-expressing endothelial cells. Intestinal induction of NKG2D ligands and ligand-induced down-regulation of NKG2D in CD suggest that the NKG2D-ligand interaction may be involved in both the activation and recruitment of NKG2D+ lymphocytes into the inflamed CD intestine. PMID:28684217

  10. NKG2D ligand expression in Crohn's disease and NKG2D-dependent stimulation of CD8+ T cell migration.

    PubMed

    Vadstrup, Kasper; Galsgaard, Elisabeth Douglas; Jensen, Helle; Lanier, Lewis L; Ryan, James C; Chen, Shih-Yu; Nolan, Garry P; Vester-Andersen, Marianne Kajbæk; Pedersen, Julie Steen; Gerwien, Jens; Jensen, Teis; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2017-08-01

    Interaction between the activating NKG2D receptor on lymphocytes and its ligands MICA, MICB, and ULBP1-6 modulate T and NK cell activity and may contribute to the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD). NKG2D ligands are generally not expressed on the cell surface of normal, non-stressed cells, but expression of MICA and MICB in CD intestine has been reported. In this exploratory study, we further characterize the expression of NKG2D and its ligands, including the less well-described ULBP4-6, in CD, and test if NKG2D ligand interactions are involved in the migration of activated T cells into the affected mucosal compartments. Intestinal tissue from CD patients and healthy controls were analyzed by flow cytometry, mass cytometry, and immunohistochemistry for expression of NKG2D and ligands, and for cytokine release. Furthermore, NKG2D-dependent chemotaxis of activated CD8 + T cells across a monolayer of ligand-expressing human intestinal endothelial cells was examined. Activated lymphocytes down-regulated NKG2D expression upon accumulation in inflamed CD intestine. NKG2D expression on CD56 + T and γδ T cells from inflamed tissue seemed inversely correlated with CRP levels and cytokine release. B cells, monocytes, mucosal epithelium, and vascular endothelium expressed NKG2D ligands in inflamed CD intestine. The expression of NKG2D ligands was correlated with cytokine release, but was highly variable between patients. Stimulation of vascular intestinal endothelial cells in vitro induced expression of NKG2D ligands, including MICA/B and ULBP2/6. Blockade of NKG2D on CD8 + T cells inhibited the migration over ligand-expressing endothelial cells. Intestinal induction of NKG2D ligands and ligand-induced down-regulation of NKG2D in CD suggest that the NKG2D-ligand interaction may be involved in both the activation and recruitment of NKG2D + lymphocytes into the inflamed CD intestine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Common Effects on Cancer Cells Exerted by a Random Positioning Machine and a 2D Clinostat.

    PubMed

    Svejgaard, Benjamin; Wehland, Markus; Ma, Xiao; Kopp, Sascha; Sahana, Jayashree; Warnke, Elisabeth; Aleshcheva, Ganna; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Hauslage, Jens; Grosse, Jirka; Bauer, Johann; Corydon, Thomas Juhl; Islam, Tawhidul; Infanger, Manfred; Grimm, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    In this study we focused on gravity-sensitive proteins of two human thyroid cancer cell lines (ML-1; RO82-W-1), which were exposed to a 2D clinostat (CLINO), a random positioning machine (RPM) and to normal 1g-conditions. After a three (3d)- or seven-day-culture (7d) on the two devices, we found both cell types growing three-dimensionally within multicellular spheroids (MCS) and also cells remaining adherent (AD) to the culture flask, while 1g-control cultures only formed adherent monolayers, unless the bottom of the culture dish was covered by agarose. In this case, the cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 facilitated the formation of MCS in both cell lines using the liquid-overlay technique at 1g. ML-1 cells grown on the RPM or the CLINO released amounts of IL-6 and MCP-1 into the supernatant, which were significantly elevated as compared to 1g-controls. Release of IL-4, IL-7, IL-8, IL-17, eotaxin-1 and VEGF increased time-dependently, but was not significantly influenced by the gravity conditions. After 3d on the RPM or the CLINO, an accumulation of F-actin around the cellular membrane was detectable in AD cells of both cell lines. IL-6 and IL-8 stimulation of ML-1 cells for 3d and 7d influenced the protein contents of ß1-integrin, talin-1, Ki-67, and beta-actin dose-dependently in adherent cells. The ß1-integrin content was significantly decreased in AD and MCS samples compared with 1g, while talin-1 was higher expressed in MCS than AD populations. The proliferation marker Ki-67 was elevated in AD samples compared with 1g and MCS samples. The ß-actin content of R082-W-1 cells remained unchanged. ML-1 cells exhibited no change in ß-actin in RPM cultures, but a reduction in CLINO samples. Thus, we concluded that simulated microgravity influences the release of cytokines in follicular thyroid cancer cells, and the production of ß1-integrin and talin-1 and predicts an identical effect under real microgravity conditions.

  12. Inhibitory effects of phytochemicals on metabolic capabilities of CYP2D6*1 and CYP2D6*10 using cell-based models in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Qiang; Qu, Jian; Han, Lu; Zhan, Min; Wu, Lan-xiang; Zhang, Yi-wen; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Hong-hao

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Herbal products have been widely used, and the safety of herb-drug interactions has aroused intensive concerns. This study aimed to investigate the effects of phytochemicals on the catalytic activities of human CYP2D6*1 and CYP2D6*10 in vitro. Methods: HepG2 cells were stably transfected with CYP2D6*1 and CYP2D6*10 expression vectors. The metabolic kinetics of the enzymes was studied using HPLC and fluorimetry. Results: HepG2-CYP2D6*1 and HepG2-CYP2D6*10 cell lines were successfully constructed. Among the 63 phytochemicals screened, 6 compounds, including coptisine sulfate, bilobalide, schizandrin B, luteolin, schizandrin A and puerarin, at 100 μmol/L inhibited CYP2D6*1- and CYP2D6*10-mediated O-demethylation of a coumarin compound AMMC by more than 50%. Furthermore, the inhibition by these compounds was dose-dependent. Eadie-Hofstee plots demonstrated that these compounds competitively inhibited CYP2D6*1 and CYP2D6*10. However, their Ki values for CYP2D6*1 and CYP2D6*10 were very close, suggesting that genotype-dependent herb-drug inhibition was similar between the two variants. Conclusion: Six phytochemicals inhibit CYP2D6*1 and CYP2D6*10-mediated catalytic activities in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. Thus herbal products containing these phytochemicals may inhibit the in vivo metabolism of co-administered drugs whose primary route of elimination is CYP2D6. PMID:24786236

  13. T Cells Infiltrating Diseased Liver Express Ligands for the NKG2D Stress Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei-Chen; Easom, Nicholas J; Tang, Xin-Zi; Gill, Upkar S; Singh, Harsimran; Robertson, Francis; Chang, Chiwen; Trowsdale, John; Davidson, Brian R; Rosenberg, William M; Fusai, Giuseppe; Toubert, Antoine; Kennedy, Patrick T; Peppa, Dimitra; Maini, Mala K

    2017-02-01

    NK cells, which are highly enriched in the liver, are potent regulators of antiviral T cells and immunopathology in persistent viral infection. We investigated the role of the NKG2D axis in T cell/NK cell interactions in hepatitis B. Activated and hepatitis B virus (HBV)-specific T cells, particularly the CD4 fraction, expressed NKG2D ligands (NKG2DL), which were not found on T cells from healthy controls (p < 0.001). NKG2DL-expressing T cells were strikingly enriched within HBV-infected livers compared with the periphery or to healthy livers (p < 0.001). NKG2D + NK cells were also increased and preferentially activated in the HBV-infected liver (p < 0.001), in direct proportion to the percentage of MICA/B-expressing CD4 T cells colocated within freshly isolated liver tissue (p < 0.001). This suggests that NKG2DL induced on T cells within a diseased organ can calibrate NKG2D-dependent activation of local NK cells; furthermore, NKG2D blockade could rescue HBV-specific and MICA/B-expressing T cells from HBV-infected livers. To our knowledge, this is the first ex vivo demonstration that non-virally infected human T cells can express NKG2DL, with implications for stress surveillance by the large number of NKG2D-expressing NK cells sequestered in the liver. Copyright © 2017 The Authors.

  14. Regulation of immune cell function and differentiation by the NKG2D receptor.

    PubMed

    Zafirova, Biljana; Wensveen, Felix M; Gulin, Maja; Polić, Bojan

    2011-11-01

    NKG2D is one of the most intensively studied immune receptors of the past decade. Its unique binding and signaling properties, expression pattern, and functions have been attracting much interest within the field due to its potent antiviral and anti-tumor properties. As an activating receptor, NKG2D is expressed on cells of the innate and adaptive immune system. It recognizes stress-induced MHC class I-like ligands and acts as a molecular sensor for cells jeopardized by viral infections or DNA damage. Although the activating functions of NKG2D have been well documented, recent analysis of NKG2D-deficient mice suggests that this receptor may have a regulatory role during NK cell development. In this review, we will revisit known aspects of NKG2D functions and present new insights in the proposed influence of this molecule on hematopoietic differentiation.

  15. A simple and accurate rule-based modeling framework for simulation of autocrine/paracrine stimulation of glioblastoma cell motility and proliferation by L1CAM in 2-D culture.

    PubMed

    Caccavale, Justin; Fiumara, David; Stapf, Michael; Sweitzer, Liedeke; Anderson, Hannah J; Gorky, Jonathan; Dhurjati, Prasad; Galileo, Deni S

    2017-12-11

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a devastating brain cancer for which there is no known cure. Its malignancy is due to rapid cell division along with high motility and invasiveness of cells into the brain tissue. Simple 2-dimensional laboratory assays (e.g., a scratch assay) commonly are used to measure the effects of various experimental perturbations, such as treatment with chemical inhibitors. Several mathematical models have been developed to aid the understanding of the motile behavior and proliferation of GBM cells. However, many are mathematically complicated, look at multiple interdependent phenomena, and/or use modeling software not freely available to the research community. These attributes make the adoption of models and simulations of even simple 2-dimensional cell behavior an uncommon practice by cancer cell biologists. Herein, we developed an accurate, yet simple, rule-based modeling framework to describe the in vitro behavior of GBM cells that are stimulated by the L1CAM protein using freely available NetLogo software. In our model L1CAM is released by cells to act through two cell surface receptors and a point of signaling convergence to increase cell motility and proliferation. A simple graphical interface is provided so that changes can be made easily to several parameters controlling cell behavior, and behavior of the cells is viewed both pictorially and with dedicated graphs. We fully describe the hierarchical rule-based modeling framework, show simulation results under several settings, describe the accuracy compared to experimental data, and discuss the potential usefulness for predicting future experimental outcomes and for use as a teaching tool for cell biology students. It is concluded that this simple modeling framework and its simulations accurately reflect much of the GBM cell motility behavior observed experimentally in vitro in the laboratory. Our framework can be modified easily to suit the needs of investigators interested in other

  16. Comparison of Hepatic 2D Sandwich Cultures and 3D Spheroids for Long-term Toxicity Applications: A Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Catherine C; Dankers, Anita C A; Sison-Young, Rowena; Jenkins, Roz; Rowe, Cliff; Goldring, Chris E; Park, Kevin; Regan, Sophie L; Walker, Tracy; Schofield, Chris; Baze, Audrey; Foster, Alison J; Williams, Dominic P; van de Ven, Amy W M; Jacobs, Frank; van Houdt, Jos; Lähteenmäki, Tuula; Snoeys, Jan; Juhila, Satu; Richert, Lysiane; Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) are commonly used for in vitro studies of drug-induced liver injury. However, when cultured as 2D monolayers, PHH lose crucial hepatic functions within hours. This dedifferentiation can be ameliorated when PHHs are cultured in sandwich configuration (2Dsw), particularly when cultures are regularly re-overlaid with extracellular matrix, or as 3D spheroids. In this study, the 6 participating laboratories evaluated the robustness of these 2 model systems made from cryopreserved PHH from the same donors considering both inter-donor and inter-laboratory variability and compared their suitability for use in repeated-dose toxicity studies using 5 different hepatotoxins with different toxicity mechanisms. We found that expression levels of proteins involved in drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion, as well as catalytic activities of 5 different CYPs, were significantly higher in 3D spheroid cultures, potentially affecting the exposure of the cells to drugs and their metabolites. Furthermore, global proteomic analyses revealed that PHH in 3D spheroid configuration were temporally stable whereas proteomes from the same donors in 2Dsw cultures showed substantial alterations in protein expression patterns over the 14 days in culture. Overall, spheroid cultures were more sensitive to the hepatotoxic compounds investigated, particularly upon long-term exposures, across testing sites with little inter-laboratory or inter-donor variability. The data presented here suggest that repeated-dosing regimens improve the predictivity of in vitro toxicity assays, and that PHH spheroids provide a sensitive and robust system for long-term mechanistic studies of drug-induced hepatotoxicity, whereas the 2Dsw system has a more dedifferentiated phenotype and lower sensitivity to detect hepatotoxicity. PMID:29329425

  17. Electric field-controlled directed migration of neural progenitor cells in 2D and 3D environments.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiaoting; Li, Wenfei; Young, Fraser; Gao, Runchi; Chalmers, Laura; Zhao, Min; Song, Bing

    2012-02-16

    Endogenous electric fields (EFs) occur naturally in vivo and play a critical role during tissue/organ development and regeneration, including that of the central nervous system(1,2). These endogenous EFs are generated by cellular regulation of ionic transport combined with the electrical resistance of cells and tissues. It has been reported that applied EF treatment can promote functional repair of spinal cord injuries in animals and humans(3,4). In particular, EF-directed cell migration has been demonstrated in a wide variety of cell types(5,6), including neural progenitor cells (NPCs)(7,8). Application of direct current (DC) EFs is not a commonly available technique in most laboratories. We have described detailed protocols for the application of DC EFs to cell and tissue cultures previously(5,11). Here we present a video demonstration of standard methods based on a calculated field strength to set up 2D and 3D environments for NPCs, and to investigate cellular responses to EF stimulation in both single cell growth conditions in 2D, and the organotypic spinal cord slice in 3D. The spinal cordslice is an ideal recipient tissue for studying NPC ex vivo behaviours, post-transplantation, because the cytoarchitectonic tissue organization is well preserved within these cultures(9,10). Additionally, this ex vivo model also allows procedures that are not technically feasible to track cells in vivo using time-lapse recording at the single cell level. It is critically essential to evaluate cell behaviours in not only a 2D environment, but also in a 3D organotypic condition which mimicks the in vivo environment. This system will allow high-resolution imaging using cover glass-based dishes in tissue or organ culture with 3D tracking of single cell migration in vitro and ex vivo and can be an intermediate step before moving onto in vivo paradigms.

  18. NKG2D-Based CAR T Cells and Radiotherapy Exert Synergistic Efficacy in Glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Tobias; Weller, Michael; Guckenberger, Matthias; Sentman, Charles L; Roth, Patrick

    2018-02-15

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy is an emerging immunotherapy against several malignancies including glioblastoma, the most common and most aggressive malignant primary brain tumor in adults. The challenges in solid tumor immunotherapy comprise heterogenously expressed tumor target antigens and restricted trafficking of CAR T cells to and impaired long-term persistence at the tumor site, as well as the unaddressed integration of CAR T-cell therapy into conventional anticancer treatments. We addressed these questions using a NKG2D-based chimeric antigen receptor construct (chNKG2D) in fully immunocompetent orthotopic glioblastoma mouse models. ChNKG2D T cells demonstrated high IFNγ production and cytolytic activity in vitro Upon systemic administration in vivo , chNKG2D T cells migrated to the tumor site in the brain, did not induce adverse events, prolonged survival, and cured a fraction of glioma-bearing mice. Surviving mice were protected long-term against tumor rechallenge. Mechanistically, this was not solely the result of a classical immune memory response, but rather involved local persistence of chNKG2D T cells. A subtherapeutic dose of local radiotherapy in combination with chNKG2D T-cell treatment resulted in synergistic activity in two independent syngeneic mouse glioma models by promoting migration of CAR T cells to the tumor site and increased effector functions. We thus provide preclinical proof-of-concept of NKG2D CAR T-cell activity in mouse glioma models and demonstrate efficacy, long-term persistence, and synergistic activity in combination with radiotherapy, providing a rationale to translate this immunotherapeutic strategy to human glioma patients. Significance: These findings provide evidence for synergy of conventional anticancer therapy and CAR T cells and heralds future studies for other treatment combinations. Cancer Res; 78(4); 1031-43. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  19. Soluble ligands for the NKG2D receptor are released during HIV-1 infection and impair NKG2D expression and cytotoxicity of NK cells.

    PubMed

    Matusali, Giulia; Tchidjou, Hyppolite Kuekou; Pontrelli, Giuseppe; Bernardi, Stefania; D'Ettorre, Gabriella; Vullo, Vincenzo; Buonomini, Anna Rita; Andreoni, Massimo; Santoni, Angela; Cerboni, Cristina; Doria, Margherita

    2013-06-01

    In humans, the interaction of the natural killer group 2 member D (NKG2D)-activating receptor on natural killer (NK) and CD8(+) T cells with its major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain (MIC) and UL16 binding protein (ULBP) ligands (NKG2DLs) promotes recognition and elimination of stressed cells, such as tumor or infected cells. Here, we investigated the capacity of HIV-1 to modulate NKG2DL expression and escape NGK2D-mediated immunosurveillance. In CD4(+) T lymphocytes, both cell surface expression and release of MICA, MICB, and ULBP2 were up-regulated >2-fold by HIV-1 infection. In HIV-infected CD4(+) T lymphocytes or Jurkat T-cell lines, increased shedding of soluble NKG2DLs (sNKG2DLs) was impaired by a matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor (MMPI). Moreover, naive HIV(+) patients displayed increased plasma sMICA and sULBP2 levels and reduced NKG2D expression on NK and CD8(+) T cells compared to patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) or healthy donors. In individual patients, HAART uptake resulted in the drop of sNKG2DL and recovery of NKG2D expression. Finally, sNKG2DLs in patients' plasma down-regulated NKG2D on NK and CD8(+) T cells and impaired NKG2D-mediated cytotoxicity of NK cells. Thus, NKG2D detuning by sNKG2DLs may promote HIV-1 immune evasion and compromise host resistance to opportunistic infections, but HAART and MMPI have the potential to avoid such immune dysfunction.

  20. Modulation of NKG2D-ligand cell surface expression enhances immune cell therapy of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Baocheng; Sikorski, Rachel; Sampath, Padma; Thorne, Steve H

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY A variety of immune cell therapies proposed for use in the treatment of cancer, including both autologus cells (Lymphokine Activated Killer, Cytokine Induced Killer) or cell lines (TALL-104, NK-92), rely on recognition of NKG2D ligands on malignant cells for targeting. These ligands, such as MICA and MICB in humans are stress response ligands and are commonly, but not ubiquitously expressed within tumors. Several tumor escape mechanisms have been reported, including ligand down regulation and internalization, or proteolytic cleavage and shedding of their exposed portions (releasing soluble MICA and MICB; sMICA, sMICB). Therefore, an ability to pre-screen patients for the level of tumor cell surface expression and shedding of these ligands would prevent needless treatment of patients that are unable to respond, while targeted pre-treatment of patients to increase surface expression and/ or block shedding would enhance the subsequent effectiveness of these therapies. Here we report that serum tests of sMICA and sMICB in conjunction with tumor measurements might be used to determine rates of shedding from a tumor and that treatment with a selected combination of histone deacetylase inhibitors (to upregulate cell surface MICA/B in some tumors), and metalloproteinase inhibitors (to block MICA/B shedding in others) can be incorporated to regulate cell surface MICA/B levels prior to immune cell therapy, significantly enhancing their effectiveness (either used alone or as carrier vehicles for oncolytic viruses). Ultimately pre-screening patients undergoing such immune cell therapies might be used to personalize cancer treatment regimens based on the NKG2D-ligand status of the tumor. PMID:21389869

  1. A microfluidic device for 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D cell navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamloo, Amir; Amirifar, Leyla

    2016-01-01

    Microfluidic devices have received wide attention and shown great potential in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Investigating cell response to various stimulations is much more accurate and comprehensive with the aid of microfluidic devices. In this study, we introduced a microfluidic device by which the matrix density as a mechanical property and the concentration profile of a biochemical factor as a chemical property could be altered. Our microfluidic device has a cell tank and a cell culture chamber to mimic both 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D migration of three types of cells. Fluid shear stress is negligible on the cells and a stable concentration gradient can be obtained by diffusion. The device was designed by a numerical simulation so that the uniformity of the concentration gradients throughout the cell culture chamber was obtained. Adult neural cells were cultured within this device and they showed different branching and axonal navigation phenotypes within varying nerve growth factor (NGF) concentration profiles. Neural stem cells were also cultured within varying collagen matrix densities while exposed to NGF concentrations and they experienced 3D to 3D collective migration. By generating vascular endothelial growth factor concentration gradients, adult human dermal microvascular endothelial cells also migrated in a 2D to 3D manner and formed a stable lumen within a specific collagen matrix density. It was observed that a minimum absolute concentration and concentration gradient were required to stimulate migration of all types of the cells. This device has the advantage of changing multiple parameters simultaneously and is expected to have wide applicability in cell studies.

  2. Natural Killer Group 2, Member D/NKG2D Ligands in Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Carapito, Raphael; Aouadi, Ismail; Ilias, Wassila; Bahram, Seiamak

    2017-01-01

    Natural killer group 2, member D (NKG2D) is an invariant activatory receptor present on subsets of natural killer and T lymphocytes. It stimulates the cytolytic effector response upon engagement of its various stress-induced ligands NKG2D ligands (NKG2DL). Malignant transformation and conditioning treatment prior to hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) are stress factors leading to the activation of the NKG2D/NKG2DL signaling in clinical settings. In the context of HCT, NKG2D-bearing cells can kill both tumor and healthy cells expressing NKG2DL. The NKG2D/NKG2DL engagement has therefore a key role in the regulation of one of the most salient issues in allogeneic HCT, i.e., maintaining a balance between graft-vs.-leukemia effect and graft-vs.-host disease. The present review summarizes the current state of our knowledge pertaining to the role of the NKG2D and NKG2DL in HCT. PMID:28396673

  3. Mechanisms of acute toxicity in NKG2D Chimeric Antigen Receptor T cell treated mice1

    PubMed Central

    Sentman, Marie-Louise; Murad, Joana M.; Cook, W. James; Wu, Ming-Ru; Reder, Jake; Baumeister, Susanne H.; Dranoff, Glenn; Fanger, Michael W.; Sentman, Charles L.

    2016-01-01

    Targeting cancer through the use of effector T cells bearing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) leads to elimination of tumors in animals and patients, but recognition of normal cells or excessive activation can result in significant toxicity and even death. CAR T cells based on modified NKG2D receptors are effective against many types of tumors, and their efficacy is mediated through direct cytotoxicity and cytokine production. Under certain conditions, their ligands can be expressed on non-tumor cells, so a better understanding of the potential off tumor activity of these NKG2D CAR T cells is needed. Injection of very high numbers of activated T cells expressing CARs based on murine NKG2D or DNAM1 resulted in increased serum cytokines (IFNγ, IL-6, MCP-1) and acute toxicity similar to cytokine release syndrome. Acute toxicity required two key effector molecules in CAR T cells – perforin and GM-CSF. Host immune cells also contributed to this toxicity, and mice with severe immune cell defects remained healthy at the highest CAR T cell dose. These data demonstrate that specific CAR T cell effector mechanisms and the host immune system are required for this cytokine release-like syndrome in murine models. PMID:27849169

  4. Chimeric NKG2D CAR-Expressing T Cell-Mediated Attack of Human Ovarian Cancer Is Enhanced by Histone Deacetylase Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Song, De-Gang; Ye, Qunrui; Santoro, Stephen; Fang, Chongyun; Best, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Abstract NKG2D ligands (NKG2DLs) are widely expressed on ovarian cancers to various degrees, making them attractive targets for immunotherapy. Here, we applied a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) approach for the targeting of NKG2DLs expressed on human ovarian cancer cells and evaluated the impact of pharmacological upregulation of NKG2DLs on immune recognition. Various NKG2DLs, including MICA/B and ULBP-1, -2, -3, and -4, were expressed at various levels on the surface of all established ovarian cancer cell lines and primary ovarian cancer samples tested. To redirect human T cells against NKG2DLs, an NKG2DL-specific CAR was generated by fusing the extracellular domain of the NKG2D receptor to the 4-1BB costimulatory and CD3-ζ chain signaling domains. In vitro expansion of chimeric NKG2D CAR T cells was delayed compared with untransduced T cells and control CAR T cells; the likely result of fratricide among activated T cells expressing NKG2DLs. However, NKG2D CAR T cells did expand and were selectively enriched during prolonged culture. In coculture, CD4+ and CD8+ NKG2D CAR T cells specifically recognized and killed NKG2DL-expressing ovarian cancer cell lines but not NKG2DL-negative cells. Notably, pretreatment of ovarian cancer cells expressing moderate to low levels of NKG2DLs with the histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium valproate (VPA) upregulated NKG2DL cell surface expression and consequently enhanced their immune recognition by chimeric NKG2D CAR T cells. Our results demonstrate that VPA-induced upregulation of NKG2DL expression enhances the immune recognition of ovarian cancer cells by engineered NKG2D CAR T cells, and rationalizes the use of VPA in combination with NKG2DL-targeted immunotherapy in ovarian cancer. PMID:23297870

  5. Ex vivo 2D and 3D HSV-2 infection model using human normal vaginal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yaqi; Yang, Yan; Guo, Juanjuan; Dai, Ying; Ye, Lina; Qiu, Jianbin; Zeng, Zhihong; Wu, Xiaoting; Xing, Yanmei; Long, Xiang; Wu, Xufeng; Ye, Lin; Wang, Shubin; Li, Hui

    2017-02-28

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infects human genital mucosa and establishes life-long latent infection. It is unmet need to establish a human cell-based microphysiological system for virus biology and anti-viral drug discovery. One of barriers is lacking of culture system of normal epithelial cells in vitro over decades. In this study, we established human normal vaginal epithelial cell (HNVEC) culture using co-culture system. HNVEC cells were then propagated rapidly and stably in a defined culture condition. HNVEC cells exhibited a normal diploid karyotype and formed the well-defined and polarized spheres in matrigel three-dimension (3D) culture, while malignant cells (HeLa) formed disorganized and nonpolar solid spheres. HNVEC cells had a normal cellular response to DNA damage and had no transforming property using soft agar assays. HNVEC expressed epithelial marker cytokeratin 14 (CK14) and p63, but not cytokeratin 18 (CK18). Next, we reconstructed HNVEC-derived 3D vaginal epithelium using air-liquid interface (ALI) culture. This 3D vaginal epithelium has the basal and apical layers with expression of epithelial markers as its originated human vaginal tissue. Finally, we established an HSV-2 infection model based on the reconstructed 3D vaginal epithelium. After inoculation of HSV-2 (G strain) at apical layer of the reconstructed 3D vaginal epithelium, we observed obvious pathological effects gradually spreading from the apical layer to basal layer with expression of a viral protein. Thus, we established an ex vivo 2D and 3D HSV-2 infection model that can be used for HSV-2 virology and anti-viral drug discovery.

  6. Adaptation of a 2-D Clinostat for Simulated Microgravity Experiments with Adherent Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eiermann, Peter; Kopp, Sascha; Hauslage, Jens; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Gerzer, Rupert; Ivanova, Krassimira

    2013-10-01

    The fast-rotating 2-D clinostat, a ground-based facility for investigations in simulated microgravity, is mainly used for experiments with cell suspensions. Here, we describe the adaptation of a 2-D clinostat for adherent cell investigations using commercially available slide flasks. As a gradient of residual accelerations is present in the slide flasks during clinorotation, the range of maximal g-values has to be adjusted to the investigated cells and type of analysis. For gene expression analysis, a harvesting slide chamber was constructed, allowing collection of cells exposed to defined g-values. Using this slide chamber, human 1F6 melanoma cell line, exposed in the ranges of ≤0.012 g, ≤0.024 g, or ≤0.036 g for 24 h, was harvested and the respective mRNA levels of guanylyl cyclase A (GC-A), an enzyme catalyzing cyclic GMP synthesis, were determined by real-time quantitative PCR analysis. Our results show that the down-regulation of GC-A mRNA levels in 1F6 melanoma cells depends on the residual acceleration values with a maximal reduction at ≤0.012 g. We further used the slide flasks by the clinorotation of murine RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line for f-actin analysis. The laser scanning microscopy images of cells exposed to g-values of ≤0.006 g for 1 h show an increase in the cell size of clinorotated cells, but no rearrangement in the f-actin filament system compared to static 1-g controls. Thus, 2-D clinostats equipped with slide flasks can be used for adherent cell experiments, however, the maximal g-values have to be carefully considered.

  7. Cell Culture Made Easy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dye, Frank J.

    1985-01-01

    Outlines steps to generate cell samples for observation and experimentation. The procedures (which use ordinary laboratory equipment) will establish a short-term primary culture of normal mammalian cells. Information on culture vessels and cell division and a list of questions to generate student interest and involvement in the topics are…

  8. NKG2D ligands in glioma stem-like cells: expression in situ and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Flüh, Charlotte; Chitadze, Guranda; Adamski, Vivian; Hattermann, Kirsten; Synowitz, Michael; Kabelitz, Dieter; Held-Feindt, Janka

    2018-03-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly malignant brain tumor. Tumor stem cells have a major influence on tumor malignancy, and immunological escape mechanisms, involving the Natural Killer Group 2, member D (NKG2D) receptor-ligand-system, are key elements in tumor immuno-surveillance. We analyzed the expression profile and localization of NKG2D ligands (NKG2DL) and embryonic and neural stem cell markers in solid human GBM and stem-like cells isolated from glioma cell lines by qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, including quantitative analysis. We also evaluated the effect of Temozolomide (TMZ), the standard chemotherapeutic agent used in GBM therapy, on NKG2DL expression. NKG2DL-positive cells were mostly found scattered and isolated, were detectable in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive tumor regions and partly in the penumbra of tumor vessels. NKG2DL were found in a distinct tumor stem-like cell subpopulation and were broadly costained with each other. Quantitative analysis revealed, that dependent on the individual NKG2DL investigated, cell portions costained with different stem cell markers varied between small (Musashi-1) and high (KLf-4) amounts. However, a costaining of NKG2DL with CD3γ, typically found in T cells, was also observable, whereas CD11b as a marker for tumor micoglia cells was only rarely costained with NKG2DL. Stem-like cells derived from the glioma cell lines T98G and U251MG showed a distinct expression pattern of NKG2DL and stem cell markers, which seemed to be balanced in a cell line-specific way. With differentiation, T98G displayed less NKG2DL, whereas in U251MG, only expression of most stem cell markers decreased. In addition, stimulation with TMZ led to a significant upregulation of NKG2DL in stem-like cells of both lines. As stem-like glioma cells tend to show a higher expression of NKG2DL than more differentiated tumor cells and TMZ treatment supports upregulation of NKG2DL, the NKG2D system might play an important role

  9. A 2-D Piston Effect Solution for the Relaxation in the MISTE Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weilert, Mark

    2003-01-01

    When a large density stratification is no longer a problem in a microgravity environment, one would like to increase the sample size in order to increase the signal-to-noise ratio for a specific heat measurement. To reduce the equilibration time associated with the large sample size, we designed a cylindrical cell containing a stack of plates that separate the bulk fluid into 60 equally thin layers. To understand the thermal behavior of the whole cell, we analyzed the thermal behavior of a 2-D composite system of a cylindrical near-critical fluid layer in contact with a cylindrical copper plate. In this 2-D analysis, the circumference boundary of the two cylindrical layers is subjected to a step temperature change. The solution of this 2-D composite system includes the piston effect that speeds up the equilibration in the near-critical fluid layer and the pure diffusion in the copper plate. The results of this analysis indicate that the characteristic length for the equilibration of the stacked cell is determined by an effective thickness of a single fluid layer instead of the total height of the cylindrical cell.

  10. Plant cell suspension cultures.

    PubMed

    Moscatiello, Roberto; Baldan, Barbara; Navazio, Lorella

    2013-01-01

    Plant cell suspension cultures are widely used in plant biology as a convenient tool for the investigation of a wide range of phenomena, bypassing the structural complexity of the plant organism in toto. The homogeneity of an in vitro cell population, the large availability of material, the high rate of cell growth and the good reproducibility of conditions make suspension-cultured cells suitable for the analysis of complex physiological processes at the cellular and molecular levels. Moreover, plant cell cultures provide a valuable platform for the production of high-value secondary metabolites and other substances of commercial interest. Here we describe how to initiate and maintain plant cell cultures starting from explants obtained from in vitro germinated seedlings. Isolation of protoplasts from plant cell suspension cultures and regeneration of plants via organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis are also presented.

  11. Modeling human diseases with induced pluripotent stem cells: from 2D to 3D and beyond.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun; Oikonomopoulos, Angelos; Sayed, Nazish; Wu, Joseph C

    2018-03-08

    The advent of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) presents unprecedented opportunities to model human diseases. Differentiated cells derived from iPSCs in two-dimensional (2D) monolayers have proven to be a relatively simple tool for exploring disease pathogenesis and underlying mechanisms. In this Spotlight article, we discuss the progress and limitations of the current 2D iPSC disease-modeling platform, as well as recent advancements in the development of human iPSC models that mimic in vivo tissues and organs at the three-dimensional (3D) level. Recent bioengineering approaches have begun to combine different 3D organoid types into a single '4D multi-organ system'. We summarize the advantages of this approach and speculate on the future role of 4D multi-organ systems in human disease modeling. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Regulation and Gene Expression Profiling of NKG2D Positive Human Cytomegalovirus-Primed CD4+ T-Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Helle; Folkersen, Lasse; Skov, Søren

    2012-01-01

    NKG2D is a stimulatory receptor expressed by natural killer (NK) cells, CD8+ T-cells, and γδ T-cells. NKG2D expression is normally absent from CD4+ T-cells, however recently a subset of NKG2D+ CD4+ T-cells has been found, which is specific for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). This particular subset of HCMV-specific NKG2D+ CD4+ T-cells possesses effector-like functions, thus resembling the subsets of NKG2D+ CD4+ T-cells found in other chronic inflammations. However, the precise mechanism leading to NKG2D expression on HCMV-specific CD4+ T-cells is currently not known. In this study we used genome-wide analysis of individual genes and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) to investigate the gene expression profile of NKG2D+ CD4+ T-cells, generated from HCMV-primed CD4+ T-cells. We show that the HCMV-primed NKG2D+ CD4+ T-cells possess a higher differentiated phenotype than the NKG2D– CD4+ T-cells, both at the gene expression profile and cytokine profile. The ability to express NKG2D at the cell surface was primarily determined by the activation or differentiation status of the CD4+ T-cells and not by the antigen presenting cells. We observed a correlation between CD94 and NKG2D expression in the CD4+ T-cells following HCMV stimulation. However, knock-down of CD94 did not affect NKG2D cell surface expression or signaling. In addition, we show that NKG2D is recycled at the cell surface of activated CD4+ T-cells, whereas it is produced de novo in resting CD4+ T-cells. These findings provide novel information about the gene expression profile of HCMV-primed NKG2D+ CD4+ T-cells, as well as the mechanisms regulating NKG2D cell surface expression. PMID:22870231

  13. Cell culture contamination.

    PubMed

    Stacey, Glyn N

    2011-01-01

    Microbial contamination is a major issue in cell culture, but there are a range of procedures which can be adopted to prevent or eliminate contamination. Contamination may arise from the operator and the laboratory environment, from other cells used in the laboratory, and from reagents. Some infections may present a risk to laboratory workers: containment and aseptic technique are the key defence against such risks. Remedial management of suspected infection may simply mean discarding a single potentially infected culture. However, if a more widespread problem is identified, then all contaminated cultures and associated unused media that have been opened during this period should be discarded, equipment should be inspected and cleaned, cell culture operations reviewed, and isolation from other laboratories instituted until the problem is solved. Attention to training of staff, laboratory layout, appropriate use of quarantine for new cultures or cell lines, cleaning and maintenance, and quality control are important factors in preventing contamination in cell culture laboratories.

  14. Ternary solution-processed organic solar cells incorporating 2D materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stylianakis, Minas M.; Konios, Dimitrios; Petridis, Constantinos; Kakavelakis, George; Stratakis, Emmanuel; Kymakis, Emmanuel

    2017-12-01

    Recently, the study of ternary organic solar cells (OSCs) has attracted the efforts of the scientific community, leading to significantly higher performance due to the enhanced harvesting of incoming irradiation. Here, for the first time, and in order to promote this OSC architecture, we review the progress implemented by the application of two-dimensional (2D) materials in the field of blend bulk heterojunction ternary OSCs. Power conversion efficiency (PCE) improvements of the order of 40% compared to the reference binary devices, and PCEs in excess of 8% have been reported by incorporating graphene-based or other 2D materials as a third element inside the active layer. These OSCs combine the synergetic advantages of ternary devices and the superb properties of the 2D material family. In conclusion, the incorporation of the unique properties of graphene and other 2D materials inside the active layer opens up a very promising pathway in the design and construction of high-performance, simply fabricated and low- cost photovoltaic devices.

  15. Simulation of Red Blood Cells by the Lubricated Immersed Boundary Method in 2D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fai, Thomas; Rycroft, Chris

    2017-11-01

    The flow of red cells through capillaries involves near-contact between structures, including both cell-cell and cell-wall interactions. The thin fluid layers that arise during near-contact are difficult to resolve by standard computational fluid dynamics methods based on uniform fluid grids. Motivated by this fluid-structure interaction problem, we have developed an immersed boundary method that uses elements of lubrication theory as a subgrid model to resolve the thin fluid layers between immersed boundaries. In contrast to methods based on adaptive mesh refinement, our approach does not impose additional restrictions on the timestep. We have applied this lubricated immersed boundary method to 2D flows of increasing complexity, including a single red cell near a wall in shear flow and a suspension of red cells. We find that our method gives accurate results and reduces numerical artifacts.

  16. 2D-CELL: image processing software for extraction and analysis of 2-dimensional cellular structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Righetti, F.; Telley, H.; Leibling, Th. M.; Mocellin, A.

    1992-01-01

    2D-CELL is a software package for the processing and analyzing of photographic images of cellular structures in a largely interactive way. Starting from a binary digitized image, the programs extract the line network (skeleton) of the structure and determine the graph representation that best models it. Provision is made for manually correcting defects such as incorrect node positions or dangling bonds. Then a suitable algorithm retrieves polygonal contours which define individual cells — local boundary curvatures are neglected for simplicity. Using elementary analytical geometry relations, a range of metric and topological parameters describing the population are then computed, organized into statistical distributions and graphically displayed.

  17. IL-15 stimulates NKG2D while promoting IgM expression of B-1a cells.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Amlan Kanti; Sinha, Debolina; Biswas, Ratna; Biswas, Tapas

    2017-07-01

    Interleukin (IL)-15, a key manipulator of T-cell function also modulates B-1a cell activity by augmenting activation markers, turning them towards type 1 polarization and immunoglobulin (Ig) expression which is significant in the context of gut immunity. Here we show, for the first time, IL-15 mediated up-regulation of the activation receptor NKG2D and its adaptor DAP10 in B-1a cells indicating their essential coupling with IL-15 receptor signaling pathway. Our results demonstrate IL-15 treatment increases phosphorylation of STAT5 and p38 leading to translocation of NF-κB onto the nucleus, an attribute that delineates activation of B-1a cells and its role in inflammation. In parallel, increase of anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL suggests its role in long term survival of B-1a cells in culture by IL-15. The cytokine induced overexpression of the plasma cell differentiation transcription factor BLIMP-1 while reducing PAX-5a that could be responsible for the spontaneous Ig secretion by B-1a cells. Up-regulation of IgM transcripts in presence of IL-15 validates mucosal response of the cells through natural Abs to counter pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Neonatal rat heart cells cultured in simulated microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akins, R. E.; Schroedl, N. A.; Gonda, S. R.; Hartzell, C. R.

    1997-01-01

    In vitro characteristics of cardiac cells cultured in simulated microgravity are reported. Tissue culture methods performed at unit gravity constrain cells to propagate, differentiate, and interact in a two-dimensional (2D) plane. Neonatal rat cardiac cells in 2D culture organize predominantly as bundles of cardiomyocytes with the intervening areas filled by nonmyocyte cell types. Such cardiac cell cultures respond predictably to the addition of exogenous compounds, and in many ways they represent an excellent in vitro model system. The gravity-induced 2D organization of the cells, however, does not accurately reflect the distribution of cells in the intact tissue. We have begun characterizations of a three-dimensional (3D) culturing system designed to mimic microgravity. The NASA-designed High-Aspect Ratio Vessel (HARV) bioreactors provide a low shear environment that allows cells to be cultured in static suspension. HARV-3D cultures were prepared on microcarrier beads and compared to control-2D cultures using a combination of microscopic and biochemical techniques. Both systems were uniformly inoculated and medium exchanged at standard intervals. Cells in control cultures adhered to the polystyrene surface of the tissue culture dishes and exhibited typical 2D organization. Cells cultured in HARVs adhered to microcarrier beads, the beads aggregated into defined clusters containing 8 to 15 beads per cluster, and the clusters exhibited distinct 3D layers: myocytes and fibroblasts appeared attached to the surfaces of beads and were overlaid by an outer cell type. In addition, cultures prepared in HARVs using alternative support matrices also displayed morphological formations not seen in control cultures. Generally, the cells prepared in HARV and control cultures were similar; however, the dramatic alterations in 3D organization recommend the HARV as an ideal vessel for the generation of tissuelike organization of cardiac cells in vitro.

  19. Neonatal rat heart cells cultured in simulated microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akins, Robert E.; Schroedl, Nancy A.; Gonda, Steve R.; Hartzell, Charles R.

    1994-01-01

    In vitro characteristics of cardiac cells cultured in simulated microgravity are reported. Tissue culture methods performed at unit gravity constrain cells to propagate, differentiate, and interact in a two dimensional (2D) plane. Neonatal rat cardiac cells in 2D culture organize predominantly as bundles of cardiomyocytes with the intervening areas filled by non-myocyte cell types. Such cardiac cell cultures respond predictably to the addition of exogenous compounds, and in many ways they represent an excellent in vitro model system. The gravity-induced 2D organization of the cells, however, does not accurately reflect the distribution of cells in the intact tissue. We have begun characterizations of a three-dimensional (3D) culturing system designed to mimic microgravity. The NASA designed High-Aspect-Ratio-Vessel (HARV) bioreactors provide a low shear environment which allows cells to be cultured in static suspension. HARV-3D cultures were prepared on microcarrier beads and compared to control-2D cultures using a combination of microscopic and biochemical techniques. Both systems were uniformly inoculated and medium exchanged at standard intervals. Cells in control cultures adhered to the polystyrene surface of the tissue culture dishes and exhibited typical 2D organization. Cells in cultured in HARV's adhered to microcarrier beads, the beads aggregated into defined clusters containing 8 to 15 beads per cluster, and the clusters exhibited distinct 3D layers: myocytes and fibroblasts appeared attached to the surfaces of beads and were overlaid by an outer cell type. In addition, cultures prepared in HARV's using alternative support matrices also displayed morphological formations not seen in control cultures. Generally, the cells prepared in HARV and control cultures were similar, however, the dramatic alterations in 3D organization recommend the HARV as an ideal vessel for the generation of tissue-like organizations of cardiac cells in simulated microgravity.

  20. One-Year stable perovskite solar cells by 2D/3D interface engineering

    PubMed Central

    Grancini, G.; Roldán-Carmona, C.; Zimmermann, I.; Mosconi, E.; Lee, X.; Martineau, D.; Narbey, S.; Oswald, F.; De Angelis, F.; Graetzel, M.; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja

    2017-01-01

    Despite the impressive photovoltaic performances with power conversion efficiency beyond 22%, perovskite solar cells are poorly stable under operation, failing by far the market requirements. Various technological approaches have been proposed to overcome the instability problem, which, while delivering appreciable incremental improvements, are still far from a market-proof solution. Here we show one-year stable perovskite devices by engineering an ultra-stable 2D/3D (HOOC(CH2)4NH3)2PbI4/CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite junction. The 2D/3D forms an exceptional gradually-organized multi-dimensional interface that yields up to 12.9% efficiency in a carbon-based architecture, and 14.6% in standard mesoporous solar cells. To demonstrate the up-scale potential of our technology, we fabricate 10 × 10 cm2 solar modules by a fully printable industrial-scale process, delivering 11.2% efficiency stable for >10,000 h with zero loss in performances measured under controlled standard conditions. This innovative stable and low-cost architecture will enable the timely commercialization of perovskite solar cells. PMID:28569749

  1. One-Year stable perovskite solar cells by 2D/3D interface engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grancini, G.; Roldán-Carmona, C.; Zimmermann, I.; Mosconi, E.; Lee, X.; Martineau, D.; Narbey, S.; Oswald, F.; de Angelis, F.; Graetzel, M.; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja

    2017-06-01

    Despite the impressive photovoltaic performances with power conversion efficiency beyond 22%, perovskite solar cells are poorly stable under operation, failing by far the market requirements. Various technological approaches have been proposed to overcome the instability problem, which, while delivering appreciable incremental improvements, are still far from a market-proof solution. Here we show one-year stable perovskite devices by engineering an ultra-stable 2D/3D (HOOC(CH2)4NH3)2PbI4/CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite junction. The 2D/3D forms an exceptional gradually-organized multi-dimensional interface that yields up to 12.9% efficiency in a carbon-based architecture, and 14.6% in standard mesoporous solar cells. To demonstrate the up-scale potential of our technology, we fabricate 10 × 10 cm2 solar modules by a fully printable industrial-scale process, delivering 11.2% efficiency stable for >10,000 h with zero loss in performances measured under controlled standard conditions. This innovative stable and low-cost architecture will enable the timely commercialization of perovskite solar cells.

  2. Oncolytic measles virus enhances antitumour responses of adoptive CD8+NKG2D+ cells in hepatocellular carcinoma treatment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Aiping; Zhang, Yonghui; Meng, Gang; Jiang, Dengxu; Zhang, Hailin; Zheng, Meihong; Xia, Mao; Jiang, Aiqin; Wu, Junhua; Beltinger, Christian; Wei, Jiwu

    2017-07-12

    There is an urgent need for novel effective treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Oncolytic viruses (OVs) not only directly lyse malignant cells, but also induce potent antitumour immune responses. The potency and precise mechanisms of antitumour immune activation by attenuated measles virus remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the potency of the measles virus vaccine strain Edmonston (MV-Edm) in improving adoptive CD8 + NKG2D + cells for HCC treatment. We show that MV-Edm-infected HCC enhanced the antitumour activity of CD8 + NKG2D + cells, mediated by at least three distinct mechanisms. First, MV-Edm infection compelled HCC cells to express the specific NKG2D ligands MICA/B, which may contribute to the activation of CD8 + NKG2D + cells. Second, MV-Edm-infected HCC cells stimulated CD8 + NKG2D + cells to express high level of FasL resulting in enhanced induction of apoptosis. Third, intratumoural administration of MV-Edm enhanced infiltration of intravenously injected CD8 + NKG2D + cells. Moreover, we found that MV-Edm and adoptive CD8 + NKG2D + cells, either administered alone or combined, upregulated the immune suppressive enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) in HCC. Elimination of IDO1 by fludarabine enhanced antitumour responses. Taken together, our data provide a novel and clinically relevant strategy for treatment of HCC.

  3. Mammalian Cell Culture Simplified.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Robert; Solomon, Sondra

    1991-01-01

    A tissue culture experiment that does not require elaborate equipment and that can be used to teach sterile technique, the principles of animal cell line maintenance, and the concept of cell growth curves is described. The differences between cancerous and normal cells can be highlighted. The procedure is included. (KR)

  4. Negative regulation of NKG2D expression by IL-4 in memory CD8 T cells.

    PubMed

    Ventre, Erwan; Brinza, Lilia; Schicklin, Stephane; Mafille, Julien; Coupet, Charles-Antoine; Marçais, Antoine; Djebali, Sophia; Jubin, Virginie; Walzer, Thierry; Marvel, Jacqueline

    2012-10-01

    IL-4 is one of the main cytokines produced during Th2-inducing pathologies. This cytokine has been shown to affect a number of immune processes such as Th differentiation and innate immune responses. However, the impact of IL-4 on CD8 T cell responses remains unclear. In this study, we analyzed the effects of IL-4 on global gene expression profiles of Ag-induced memory CD8 T cells in the mouse. Gene ontology analysis of this signature revealed that IL-4 regulated most importantly genes associated with immune responses. Moreover, this IL-4 signature overlapped with the set of genes preferentially expressed by memory CD8 T cells over naive CD8 T cells. In particular, IL-4 downregulated in vitro and in vivo in a STAT6-dependent manner the memory-specific expression of NKG2D, thereby increasing the activation threshold of memory CD8 T cells. Furthermore, IL-4 impaired activation of memory cells as well as their differentiation into effector cells. This phenomenon could have an important clinical relevance as patients affected by Th2 pathologies such as parasitic infections or atopic dermatitis often suffer from viral-induced complications possibly linked to inefficient CD8 T cell responses.

  5. Fish Stem Cell Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Ni; Li, Zhendong; Hong, Yunhan

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation. First stem cell cultures were derived 30 years ago from early developing mouse embryos. These are pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells. Efforts towards ES cell derivation have been attempted in other mammalian and non-mammalian species. Work with stem cell culture in fish started 20 years ago. Laboratory fish species, in particular zebrafish and medaka, have been the focus of research towards stem cell cultures. Medaka is the second organism that generated ES cells and the first that gave rise to a spermatogonial stem cell line capable of test-tube sperm production. Most recently, the first haploid stem cells capable of producing whole animals have also been generated from medaka. ES-like cells have been reported also in zebrafish and several marine species. Attempts for germline transmission of ES cell cultures and gene targeting have been reported in zebrafish. Recent years have witnessed the progress in markers and procedures for ES cell characterization. These include the identification of fish homologs/paralogs of mammalian pluripotency genes and parameters for optimal chimera formation. In addition, fish germ cell cultures and transplantation have attracted considerable interest for germline transmission and surrogate production. Haploid ES cell nuclear transfer has proven in medaka the feasibility of semi-cloning as a novel assisted reproductive technology. In this special issue on “Fish Stem Cells and Nuclear Transfer”, we will focus our review on medaka to illustrate the current status and perspective of fish stem cells in research and application. We will also mention semi-cloning as a new development to conventional nuclear transfer. PMID:21547056

  6. Fish stem cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ni; Li, Zhendong; Hong, Yunhan

    2011-04-13

    Stem cells have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation. First stem cell cultures were derived 30 years ago from early developing mouse embryos. These are pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells. Efforts towards ES cell derivation have been attempted in other mammalian and non-mammalian species. Work with stem cell culture in fish started 20 years ago. Laboratory fish species, in particular zebrafish and medaka, have been the focus of research towards stem cell cultures. Medaka is the second organism that generated ES cells and the first that gave rise to a spermatogonial stem cell line capable of test-tube sperm production. Most recently, the first haploid stem cells capable of producing whole animals have also been generated from medaka. ES-like cells have been reported also in zebrafish and several marine species. Attempts for germline transmission of ES cell cultures and gene targeting have been reported in zebrafish. Recent years have witnessed the progress in markers and procedures for ES cell characterization. These include the identification of fish homologs/paralogs of mammalian pluripotency genes and parameters for optimal chimera formation. In addition, fish germ cell cultures and transplantation have attracted considerable interest for germline transmission and surrogate production. Haploid ES cell nuclear transfer has proven in medaka the feasibility of semi-cloning as a novel assisted reproductive technology. In this special issue on "Fish Stem Cells and Nuclear Transfer", we will focus our review on medaka to illustrate the current status and perspective of fish stem cells in research and application. We will also mention semi-cloning as a new development to conventional nuclear transfer.

  7. Expression of TXNIP in Cancer Cells and Regulation by 1,25(OH)2D3: Is It Really the Vitamin D3 Upregulated Protein?

    PubMed Central

    Almouhanna, Fadi; Wölfl, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) was originally identified in HL-60 cells as the vitamin D3 upregulated protein 1, and is now known to be involved in diverse cellular processes, such as maintenance of glucose homeostasis, redox balance, and apoptosis. Besides the initial characterization, little is known about if and how 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] induces TXNIP expression. We therefore screened multiple cancerous cell lines of different tissue origins, and observed induction, repression, or no change in TXNIP expression in response to 1,25(OH)2D3. In-depth analyses on HL-60 cells revealed a rapid and transient increase in TXNIP mRNA levels by 1,25(OH)2D3 (3–24 h), followed by a clear reduction at later time points. Furthermore, a strong induction in protein levels was observed only after 96 h of 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment. Induction of TXNIP expression by 1,25(OH)2D3 was found to be dependent on the availability of glucose in the culture medium, as well as the presence of a functional glucose transport system, indicating an inter-dependence of 1,25(OH)2D3 actions and glucose-sensing mechanisms. Moreover, the inhibition of de novo protein synthesis by cycloheximide reduced TXNIP half-life in 24 h, but not in 96 h-1,25(OH)2D3-treated HL-60 cells, demonstrating a possible influence of 1,25(OH)2D3 on TXNIP stability in long-term treatment. PMID:29534438

  8. Enhanced durability of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells by functionalized 2D boron nitride nanoflakes.

    PubMed

    Oh, Keun-Hwan; Lee, Dongju; Choo, Min-Ju; Park, Kwang Hyun; Jeon, Seokwoo; Hong, Soon Hyung; Park, Jung-Ki; Choi, Jang Wook

    2014-05-28

    We report boron nitride nanoflakes (BNNFs), for the first time, as a nanofiller for polymer electrolyte membranes in fuel cells. Utilizing the intrinsic mechanical strength of two-dimensional (2D) BN, addition of BNNFs even at a marginal content (0.3 wt %) significantly improves mechanical stability of the most representative hydrocarbon-type (HC-type) polymer electrolyte membrane, namely sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (sPEEK), during substantial water uptake through repeated wet/dry cycles. For facile processing with BNNFs that frequently suffer from poor dispersion in most organic solvents, we non-covalently functionalized BNNFs with 1-pyrenesulfonic acid (PSA). Besides good dispersion, PSA supports efficient proton transport through its sulfonic functional groups. Compared to bare sPEEK, the composite membrane containing BNNF nanofiller exhibited far improved long-term durability originating from enhanced dimensional stability and diminished chronic edge failure. This study suggests that introduction of properly functionalized 2D BNNFs is an effective strategy in making various HC-type membranes sustainable without sacrificing their original adventurous properties in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells.

  9. 1α,25(OH)2D3 differentially regulates miRNA expression in human bladder cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yingyu; Hu, Qiang; Luo, Wei; Pratt, Rachel N.; Glenn, Sean T.; Liu, Song; Trump, Donald L.; Johnson, Candace S.

    2014-01-01

    Bladder cancer is the fourth most commonly diagnosed cancer in men and eighth leading cause of cancer-related death in the US. Epidemiological and experimental studies strongly suggest a role for 1α,25(OH)2D3 in cancer prevention and treatment. The antitumor activities of 1α,25(OH)2D3 are mediated by the induction of cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, differentiation and the inhibition of angiogenesis and metastasis. MiRNAs play important regulatory roles in cancer development and progression. However, the role of 1α,25(OH)2D3 in the regulation of miRNA expression and the potential impact in bladder cancer has not been investigated. Therefore, we studied 1α,25(OH)2D3-regulated miRNA expression profiles in human bladder cancer cell line 253J and the highly tumorigenic and metastatic derivative line 253J-BV by miRNA qPCR panels. 253 J and 253J-BV cells express endogenous vitamin D receptor (VDR) which can be further induced by 1α,25(OH)2D3. VDR target gene 24-hydroxylase was induced by 1α,25(OH)2D3 in both cell lines, indicating functional 1α,25(OH)2D3 signaling. The miRNA qPCR panel assay results showed that 253J and 253J-BV cells have distinct miRNA expression profiles. Further, 1α,25(OH)2D3 differentially regulated miRNA expression profiles in 253J and 253 J-BV cells in a dynamic manner. Pathway analysis of the miRNA target genes revealed distinct patterns of contribution to the molecular functions and biological processes in the two cell lines. In conclusion, 1α,25(OH)2D3 differentially regulates the expression of miRNAs, which may contribute to distinct biological functions, in human bladder 253J and 253J-BV cells. PMID:25263658

  10. The natural killer-activating receptor, NKG2D, on CD3+CD8+ T cells plays a critical role in identifying and killing autologous myeloma cells.

    PubMed

    Talebian, Laleh; Fischer, Dawn A; Wu, Jillian; Channon, Jacqueline Y; Sentman, Charles L; Ernstoff, Marc S; Meehan, Kenneth R

    2014-06-01

    The NKG2D receptor, one of the natural killer (NK) cell-activating receptors, is expressed on the surface of CD3+CD8+ T cells, γδ+ T cells, NK cells, NKT cells, and a few CD4+ T cells. We show, for the first time, a critical role for the NKG2D receptor on CD3+CD8+ T cells isolated from myeloma patients, in identifying and killing autologous myeloma cells isolated from the same patients' marrow. We also show that blocking NKG2D using anti-NKG2D reverses the cytotoxicity while blocking HLA-I using antibodies does not have the same effect, showing that the autologous cytotoxicity is NKG2D dependent and major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-I independent. We further confirmed the NKG2D specificity by small interfering RNA (siRNA) down regulation of NKG2D receptor. Using ex vivo expansion methods that enrich for NKG2D+CD3+CD8+ T cells, we investigated whether these ex vivo expanded NKG2D+CD3+CD8+ T cells would recognize and lyse autologous and allogeneic myeloma cells, independent of T-cell receptor or MHC-I expression. Myeloma cell lysis by the NKG2D+CD3+CD8+ T cells correlated with the amount of NKG2D ligand expression. With receptor-ligand interaction, interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α were released. Blocking the NKG2D receptor by using either monoclonal antibodies or siRNAs inhibited the receptor's function and prevented myeloma cell lysis. Clinical trials are ongoing to determine a correlation with the number and function of NKG2D+CD3+CD8+ T cells and clinical outcomes in transplanted myeloma patients, including lymphocyte recovery following transplant and overall survival. © 2014 AABB.

  11. Comparison of 2D and 3D neural induction methods for the generation of neural progenitor cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Abinaya; Avci, Hasan X; Ochalek, Anna; Rösingh, Lone N; Molnár, Kinga; László, Lajos; Bellák, Tamás; Téglási, Annamária; Pesti, Krisztina; Mike, Arpad; Phanthong, Phetcharat; Bíró, Orsolya; Hall, Vanessa; Kitiyanant, Narisorn; Krause, Karl-Heinz; Kobolák, Julianna; Dinnyés, András

    2017-12-01

    Neural progenitor cells (NPCs) from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are frequently induced using 3D culture methodologies however, it is unknown whether spheroid-based (3D) neural induction is actually superior to monolayer (2D) neural induction. Our aim was to compare the efficiency of 2D induction with 3D induction method in their ability to generate NPCs, and subsequently neurons and astrocytes. Neural differentiation was analysed at the protein level qualitatively by immunocytochemistry and quantitatively by flow cytometry for NPC (SOX1, PAX6, NESTIN), neuronal (MAP2, TUBB3), cortical layer (TBR1, CUX1) and glial markers (SOX9, GFAP, AQP4). Electron microscopy demonstrated that both methods resulted in morphologically similar neural rosettes. However, quantification of NPCs derived from 3D neural induction exhibited an increase in the number of PAX6/NESTIN double positive cells and the derived neurons exhibited longer neurites. In contrast, 2D neural induction resulted in more SOX1 positive cells. While 2D monolayer induction resulted in slightly less mature neurons, at an early stage of differentiation, the patch clamp analysis failed to reveal any significant differences between the electrophysiological properties between the two induction methods. In conclusion, 3D neural induction increases the yield of PAX6 + /NESTIN + cells and gives rise to neurons with longer neurites, which might be an advantage for the production of forebrain cortical neurons, highlighting the potential of 3D neural induction, independent of iPSCs' genetic background. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Apoptosis as a specific biomarker of diazinon toxicity in NTera2-D1 cells.

    PubMed

    Aluigi, M G; Guida, C; Falugi, C

    2010-09-06

    The NTera2/D1 (NT2) cell line, which was derived from a human teratocarcinoma, exhibits properties that are characteristics of a committed neuronal precursor at an early stage of differentiation. Its property to express a whole set of molecules related to the cholinergic neurotransmission system, including active acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC 3.1.1.7) makes it a good alternative model for testing the effects of neurotoxic compounds, such as organophosphorus (OP) insecticides, whose primary target is the inhibition of AChE activity. Recent findings have elucidated the role of AChE in the modulation of apoptosis, but the mechanisms are still rather obscure. NT2 cells exposed to the OP insecticide diazinon at concentrations ranging between 10(-4) and 10(-5)M showed a time-dependent enhancement of cell death. When exposed at 10(-6)M diazinon showed higher cell viability than control samples up to 72 h, followed by a decreasing phase. The cell death caused by the exposures showed a number of features characteristic of apoptosis, including membrane and mitochondrial potential changes. We suggest the hypothesis that such behaviour is due to a dynamic balance between activated and blocked acetylcholine receptors that in turn trigger electrical events and caspase cascade. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of NKG2D haplotypes on the cell-surface expression of NKG2D protein on natural killer and CD8 T cells of peripheral blood among atomic-bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Imai, Kazue; Hayashi, Tomonori; Yamaoka, Mika; Kajimura, Junko; Yoshida, Kengo; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Nakachi, Kei

    2012-06-01

    NKG2D is a primary activating receptor that triggers cell-mediated cytotoxicity in NK cells against tumor and virus-infected cells. We previously identified the NKG2D haplotypes in the natural killer gene complex region on chromosome 12p. Two major haplotype alleles, LNK1 and HNK1, were closely related to low and high natural cytotoxic activity phenotypes, respectively. Furthermore, the haplotype of HNK1/HNK1 has revealed a decreased risk of cancer compared with LNK1/LNK1. In the present study, using flow cytometry, we evaluated the functional effects of NKG2D haplotypes and five htSNPs in terms of the cell-surface expression of NKG2D protein on NK and CD8 T cells of peripheral blood among 732 atomic-bomb survivors. NKG2D expression on NK cells showed significant increases, in the order of LNK1/LNK1, LNK1/HNK1 and HNK1/HNK1 haplotypes (p for trend=0.003), or with major homozygous, heterozygous, and minor homozygous genotypes for individual htSNPs (p for trend=0.02-0.003). The same trend was observed for NKG2D expression on CD8 T cells. Our findings indicate that the NKG2D haplotypes are associated with the expression levels of NKG2D protein on NK and CD8 T cells, resulting in inter-individual variations in human cytotoxic response. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Myocyte enhancer factor 2D regulates ectoderm specification and adhesion properties of animal cap cells in the early Xenopus embryo.

    PubMed

    Katz Imberman, Sandra; Kolpakova, Alina; Keren, Aviad; Bengal, Eyal

    2015-08-01

    In Xenopus, animal cap (AC) cells give rise to ectoderm and its derivatives: epidermis and the central nervous system. Ectoderm has long been considered a default pathway of embryonic development, with cells that are not under the influence of vegetal Nodal signaling adopting an ectodermal program of gene expression. In the present study, we describe the involvement of the animally-localized maternal transcription factor myocyte enhancer factor (Mef) 2D in regulating the identity of AC cells. We find that Mef2D is required for the formation of both ectodermal lineages: neural and epidermis. Gain and loss of function experiments indicate that Mef2D regulates early gastrula expression of key ectodermal/epidermal genes in the animal region. Mef2D controls the activity of zygotic bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling known to dictate the epidermal differentiation program. Exogenous expression of Mef2D in vegetal blastomeres was sufficient to induce ectopic expression of ectoderm/epidermal genes in the vegetal half of the embryo, when Nodal signaling was inhibited. Depletion of Mef2D caused a loss of AC cell adhesion that was rescued by the expression of E-cadherin or bone morphogenetic protein 4. In addition, expression of Mef2D in the prospective endoderm caused unusual aggregation of vegetal cells with animal cells in vitro and inappropriate segregation to other germ layers in vivo. Mef2D cooperates with another animally-expressed transcription factor, FoxI1e. Together, they regulate the expression of genes encoding signaling proteins and the transcription factors that control the regional identity of animal cells. Therefore, we describe a new role for the animally-localized Mef2D protein in early ectoderm specification, which is similar to that of the vegetally-localized VegT in endoderm and mesoderm formation. © 2015 FEBS.

  15. The histone lysine methyltransferase KMT2D sustains a gene expression program that represses B cell lymphoma development

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Molina, Ana; Boss, Isaac W.; Canela, Andres; Pan, Heng; Jiang, Yanwen; Zhao, Chunying; Jiang, Man; Hu, Deqing; Agirre, Xabier; Niesvizky, Itamar; Lee, Ji-Eun; Chen, Hua-Tang; Ennishi, Daisuke; Scott, David W.; Mottok, Anja; Hother, Christoffer; Liu, Shichong; Cao, Xing-Jun; Tam, Wayne; Shaknovich, Rita; Garcia, Benjamin A.; Gascoyne, Randy D.; Ge, Kai; Shilatifard, Ali; Elemento, Olivier; Nussenzweig, Andre; Melnick, Ari M.; Wendel, Hans-Guido

    2015-01-01

    The lysine-specific histone methyltransferase KMT2D has emerged as one of the most frequently mutated genes in follicular lymphoma (FL) and diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). However, the biological consequences of KMT2D mutations on lymphoma development are not known. Here we show that KMT2D functions as a bona fide tumor suppressor and that its genetic ablation in B cells promotes lymphoma development in mice. KMT2D deficiency also delays germinal center (GC) involution, impedes B cell differentiation and class switch recombination (CSR). Integrative genomic analyses indicate that KMT2D affects H3K4 methylation and expression of a specific set of genes including those in the CD40, JAK-STAT, Toll-like receptor, and B cell receptor pathways. Notably, other KMT2D target genes include frequently mutated tumor suppressor genes such as TNFAIP3, SOCS3, and TNFRSF14. Therefore, KMT2D mutations may promote malignant outgrowth by perturbing the expression of tumor suppressor genes that control B cell activating pathways. PMID:26366710

  16. The histone lysine methyltransferase KMT2D sustains a gene expression program that represses B cell lymphoma development.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Molina, Ana; Boss, Isaac W; Canela, Andres; Pan, Heng; Jiang, Yanwen; Zhao, Chunying; Jiang, Man; Hu, Deqing; Agirre, Xabier; Niesvizky, Itamar; Lee, Ji-Eun; Chen, Hua-Tang; Ennishi, Daisuke; Scott, David W; Mottok, Anja; Hother, Christoffer; Liu, Shichong; Cao, Xing-Jun; Tam, Wayne; Shaknovich, Rita; Garcia, Benjamin A; Gascoyne, Randy D; Ge, Kai; Shilatifard, Ali; Elemento, Olivier; Nussenzweig, Andre; Melnick, Ari M; Wendel, Hans-Guido

    2015-10-01

    The gene encoding the lysine-specific histone methyltransferase KMT2D has emerged as one of the most frequently mutated genes in follicular lymphoma and diffuse large B cell lymphoma; however, the biological consequences of KMT2D mutations on lymphoma development are not known. Here we show that KMT2D functions as a bona fide tumor suppressor and that its genetic ablation in B cells promotes lymphoma development in mice. KMT2D deficiency also delays germinal center involution and impedes B cell differentiation and class switch recombination. Integrative genomic analyses indicate that KMT2D affects methylation of lysine 4 on histone H3 (H3K4) and expression of a set of genes, including those in the CD40, JAK-STAT, Toll-like receptor and B cell receptor signaling pathways. Notably, other KMT2D target genes include frequently mutated tumor suppressor genes such as TNFAIP3, SOCS3 and TNFRSF14. Therefore, KMT2D mutations may promote malignant outgrowth by perturbing the expression of tumor suppressor genes that control B cell-activating pathways.

  17. Changes in gene expression, protein content and morphology of chondrocytes cultured on a 3D Random Positioning Machine and 2D rotating clinostat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleshcheva, Ganna; Hauslage, Jens; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Infanger, Manfred; Bauer, Johann; Grimm, Daniela; Sahana, Jayashree

    Chondrocytes are the only cell type found in human cartilage consisting of proteoglycans and type II collagen. Several studies on chondrocytes cultured either in Space or on a ground-based facility for simulation of microgravity revealed that these cells are very resistant to adverse effects and stress induced by altered gravity. Tissue engineering of chondrocytes is a new strategy for cartilage regeneration. Using a three-dimensional Random Positioning Machine and a 2D rotating clinostat, devices designed to simulate microgravity on Earth, we investigated the early effects of microgravity exposure on human chondrocytes of six different donors after 30 min, 2 h, 4 h, 16 h, and 24 h and compared the results with the corresponding static controls cultured under normal gravity conditions. As little as 30 min of exposure resulted in increased expression of several genes responsible for cell motility, structure and integrity (beta-actin); control of cell growth, cell proliferation, cell differentiation and apoptosis; and cytoskeletal components such as microtubules (beta-tubulin) and intermediate filaments (vimentin). After 4 hours disruptions in the vimentin network were detected. These changes were less dramatic after 16 hours, when human chondrocytes appeared to reorganize their cytoskeleton. However, the gene expression and protein content of TGF-β1 was enhanced for 24 h. Based on the results achieved, we suggest that chondrocytes exposed to simulated microgravity seem to change their extracellular matrix production behavior while they rearrange their cytoskeletal proteins prior to forming three-dimensional aggregates.

  18. Basic cell culture.

    PubMed

    Pollard, J W

    1990-01-01

    This article will describe the basic techniques required for successful cell culture. It will also act to introduce some of the other chapters in this volume. It is not intended, as this volume is not, to describe the establishment of a tissue culture laboratory, nor to provide a historical or theoretical survey of cell culture. There are several books that adequately cover these areas, including the now somewhat dated but still valuable volume by Paul (1), the multi-authored Methods in Enzymology volume edited by Jakoby and Pastan (2), and the new edition of Freshney (3). Instead, this chapter's focus will be on the techniques for establishing primary rodent cell cultures from embryos and adult skin, maintaining and subculturing these fibro-blasts and their transformed derivatives, and the isolation of genetically pure strains. The cells described are all derived from Chinese hamsters since, to date, these cells, have proved to be the most useful for somatic cell genetics (4,5). The techniques, however, are generally applicable to most fibroblastic cell types.

  19. IDENTIFICATION OF NOVEL MEDIATORS OF VITAMIN D SIGNALING AND 1,25(OH)2D3 RESISTANCE IN MAMMARY CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Belinda; Welsh, JoEllen

    2007-01-01

    Since the discovery of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in mammary cells, the role of the vitamin D signaling pathway in normal glandular function and in breast cancer has been extensively explored. In vitro studies have demonstrated that the VDR ligand, 1,25(OH)2D3, modulates key proteins involved in signaling proliferation, differentiation and survival of normal mammary epithelial cells. Anti-proliferative and pro-differentiating effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 have also been observed in VDR positive breast cancer cells, indicating that transformation per se does not abolish vitamin D signaling. However, many breast cancer cell lines are less sensitive to 1,25(OH)2D3 than normal mammary epithelial cells. Reduced sensitivity to 1,25(OH)2D3 has been linked to alterations in vitamin D metabolizing enzymes as well as down regulation of VDR expression or function. In this report, we describe results from a proteomics screening approach used to search for proteins involved in dictating sensitivity or resistance to vitamin D mediated apoptosis in breast cancer cells. Several proteins not previously linked to 1,25(OH)2D3 signaling were identified with this approach, and a distinct subset of proteins was linked to 1,25(OH)2D3 resistance. Follow-up studies to determine the relevance of these proteins to vitamin D signaling in general are in progress. PMID:17254776

  20. Cell Culturing of Cytoskeleton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Biomedical research offers hope for a variety of medical problems, from diabetes to the replacement of damaged bone and tissues. Bioreactors, which are used to grow cells and tissue cultures, play a major role in such research and production efforts. Cell culturing, such as this bone cell culture, is an important part of biomedical research. The BioDyn payload includes a tissue engineering investigation. The commercial affiliate, Millenium Biologix, Inc. has been conducting bone implant experiments to better understand how synthetic bone can be used to treat bone-related illnesses and bone damaged in accidents. On STS-95, the BioDyn payload will include a bone cell culture aimed to help develop this commercial synthetic bone product. Millenium Biologix, Inc. is exploring the potential for making human bone implantable materials by seeding its proprietary artificial scaffold material with human bone cells. The product of this tissue engineering experiment using the Bioprocessing Modules (BPMs) on STS-95 is space-grown bone implants, which could have potential for dental implants, long bone grafts, and coating for orthopedic implants such as hip replacements.

  1. Cell Culturing of Cytoskeleton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Biomedical research offers hope for a variety of medical problems, from diabetes to the replacement of damaged bone and tissues. Bioreactors, which are used to grow cells and tissue cultures, play a major role in such research and production efforts. Cell culturing, such as this bone cell culture, is an important part of biomedical research. The BioDyn payload includes a tissue engineering investigation. The commercial affiliate, Millenium Biologix, Inc., has been conducting bone implant experiments to better understand how synthetic bone can be used to treat bone-related illnesses and bone damaged in accidents. On STS-95, the BioDyn payload will include a bone cell culture aimed to help develop this commercial synthetic bone product. Millenium Biologix, Inc., is exploring the potential for making human bone implantable materials by seeding its proprietary artificial scaffold material with human bone cells. The product of this tissue engineering experiment using the Bioprocessing Modules (BPMs) on STS-95 is space-grown bone implants, which could have potential for dental implants, long bone grafts, and coating for orthopedic implants such as hip replacements.

  2. Oscillating Cell Culture Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Lisa E.; Cheng, Mingyu; Moretti, Matteo G.

    2010-01-01

    To better exploit the principles of gas transport and mass transport during the processes of cell seeding of 3D scaffolds and in vitro culture of 3D tissue engineered constructs, the oscillatory cell culture bioreactor provides a flow of cell suspensions and culture media directly through a porous 3D scaffold (during cell seeding) and a 3D construct (during subsequent cultivation) within a highly gas-permeable closed-loop tube. This design is simple, modular, and flexible, and its component parts are easy to assemble and operate, and are inexpensive. Chamber volume can be very low, but can be easily scaled up. This innovation is well suited to work with different biological specimens, particularly with cells having high oxygen requirements and/or shear sensitivity, and different scaffold structures and dimensions. The closed-loop changer is highly gas permeable to allow efficient gas exchange during the cell seeding/culturing process. A porous scaffold, which may be seeded with cells, is fixed by means of a scaffold holder to the chamber wall with scaffold/construct orientation with respect to the chamber determined by the geometry of the scaffold holder. A fluid, with/without biological specimens, is added to the chamber such that all, or most, of the air is displaced (i.e., with or without an enclosed air bubble). Motion is applied to the chamber within a controlled environment (e.g., oscillatory motion within a humidified 37 C incubator). Movement of the chamber induces relative motion of the scaffold/construct with respect to the fluid. In case the fluid is a cell suspension, cells will come into contact with the scaffold and eventually adhere to it. Alternatively, cells can be seeded on scaffolds by gel entrapment prior to bioreactor cultivation. Subsequently, the oscillatory cell culture bioreactor will provide efficient gas exchange (i.e., of oxygen and carbon dioxide, as required for viability of metabolically active cells) and controlled levels of fluid

  3. NKG2D is required for NK cell activation and function in response to E1-deleted adenovirus.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiangao; Huang, Xiaopei; Yang, Yiping

    2010-12-15

    Despite high transduction efficiency in vivo, the application of recombinant E1-deleted adenoviral vectors for in vivo gene therapy has been limited by the attendant innate and adaptive immune responses to adenoviral vectors. NK cells have been shown to play an important role in innate immune elimination of adenoviral vectors in vivo. However, the mechanisms underlying NK cell activation and function in response to adenoviral vectors remain largely undefined. In this study, we showed that NK cell activation upon adenoviral infection was dependent on accessory cells such as dendritic cells and macrophages and that cell contact-dependent signals from the accessory cells are necessary for NK cell activation. We further demonstrated that ligands of the NK activating receptor NKG2D were upregulated in accessory cells upon adenoviral infection and that blockade of NKG2D inhibited NK cell activation upon adenoviral infection, leading to a delay in adenoviral clearance in vivo. In addition, NKG2D was required for NK cell-mediated cytolysis on adenovirus-infected targets. Taken together, these results suggest that efficient NK cell activation and function in response to adenoviral infection is critically dependent on the NKG2D pathway, which understanding may assist in the design of effective strategies to improve the outcome of adenovirus-mediated gene therapy.

  4. Skeletal muscle satellite cells cultured in simulated microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molnar, Greg; Hartzell, Charles R.; Schroedl, Nancy A.; Gonda, Steve R.

    1993-01-01

    Satellite cells are postnatal myoblasts responsible for providing additional nuclei to growing or regenerating muscle cells. Satellite cells retain the capacity to proliferate and differentiate in vitro and therefore provide a useful model to study postnatal muscle development. Most culture systems used to study postnatal muscle development are limited by the two-dimensional (2-D) confines of the culture dish. Limiting proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells in 2-D could potentially limit cell-cell contacts important for developing the level of organization in skeletal muscle obtained in vivo. Culturing satellite cells on microcarrier beads suspended in the High-Aspect-Ratio-Vessel (HARV) designed by NASA provides a low shear, three-dimensional (3-D) environment to study muscle development. Primary cultures established from anterior tibialis muscles of growing rats (approximately 200 gm) were used for all studies and were composed of greater than 75 % satellite cells. Different inoculation densities did not affect the proliferative potential of satellite cells in the HARV. Plating efficiency, proliferation, and glucose utilization were compared between 2-D flat culture and 3-D HARV culture. Plating efficiency (cells attached - cells plated x 100) was similar between the two culture systems. Proliferation was reduced in HARV cultures and this reduction was apparent for both satellite cells and non-satellite cells. Furthermore, reduction in proliferation within the HARV could not be attributed to reduced substrate availability since glucose levels in media from HARV and 2-D cell culture were similar. Morphologically, microcarrier beads within the HARVS were joined together by cells into three-dimensional aggregates composed of greater than 10 beads/aggregate. Aggregation of beads did not occur in the absence of cells. Myotubes were often seen on individual beads or spanning the surface of two beads. In summary, proliferation and differentiation of

  5. Decline in peripheral blood NKG2D+CD3+CD56+ NKT cells in metastatic colorectal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Gharagozloo, M; Rezaei, A; Kalantari, H; Bahador, A; Hassannejad, N; Maracy, M; Nouri, N; Sedghi, M; Ghazanfari, H; Bayat, B

    2018-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the main causes of cancer deaths in the world. This cancer can be divided into non-metastatic and metastatic CRC stages. CD3+CD56+ NKT cell subsets are a minor T cell subset in peripheral blood and conduct the killing of tumor cells in direct manner. Little is obvious about levels and surface markers of these cells such as NKG2D in different cancers, especially in CRC. We included 15 non-metastatic (low-grade), 11 non-metastatic (high-grade), 10 metastatic colorectal cancer patients and 18 healthy controls. The percentages of CD3+CD56+ NKT cells and NKG2D+CD56+ NKT cells from samples were analyzed by flow cytometry in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of samples. We found that there was a significantly lower number of NKG2D+CD3+CD56+ cells in peripheral blood of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer compared with normal controls (77.53 ± 5.79 % vs 90.74 ± 9.84 %; p<0.01). The fact that frequency of NKG2D+CD56+ NKT cells was significantly lower in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer compared to healthy controls strengthens the hypothesis that NKT cells can play a substantial role in the protection against human colorectal cancer, and this opens up avenues for novel studies about elucidating the other aspects of tumor surveillance in CRC progression and immunotherapy (Tab. 2, Fig. 2, Ref. 46).

  6. Three dimensional spheroid cell culture for nanoparticle safety testing.

    PubMed

    Sambale, Franziska; Lavrentieva, Antonina; Stahl, Frank; Blume, Cornelia; Stiesch, Meike; Kasper, Cornelia; Bahnemann, Detlef; Scheper, Thomas

    2015-07-10

    Nanoparticles are widely employed for many applications and the number of consumer products, incorporating nanotechnology, is constantly increasing. A novel area of nanotechnology is the application in medical implants. The widespread use of nanoparticles leads to their higher prevalence in our environment. This, in turn, raises concerns regarding potential risks to humans. Previous studies have shown possible hazardous effects of some nanoparticles on mammalian cells grown in two-dimensional (2D) cultures. However, 2D in vitro cell cultures display several disadvantages such as changes in cell shape, cell function, cell responses and lack of cell-cell contacts. For this reason, the development of better models for mimicking in vivo conditions is essential. In the present work, we cultivated A549 cells and NIH-3T3 cells in three-dimensional (3D) spheroids and investigated the effects of zinc oxide (ZnO-NP) and titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NP). The results were compared to cultivation in 2D monolayer culture. A549 cells in 3D cell culture formed loose aggregates which were more sensitive to the toxicity of ZnO-NP in comparison to cells grown in 2D monolayers. In contrast, NIH-3T3 cells showed a compact 3D spheroid structure and no differences in the sensitivity of the NIH-3T3 cells to ZnO-NP were observed between 2D and 3D cultures. TiO2-NP were non-toxic in 2D cultures but affected cell-cell interaction during 3D spheroid formation of A549 and NIH-3T3 cells. When TiO2-NP were directly added during spheroid formation in the cultures of the two cell lines tested, several smaller spheroids were formed instead of a single spheroid. This effect was not observed if the nanoparticles were added after spheroid formation. In this case, a slight decrease in cell viability was determined only for A549 3D spheroids. The obtained results demonstrate the importance of 3D cell culture studies for nanoparticle safety testing, since some effects cannot be revealed in 2D

  7. 2D and 3D CT Radiomics Features Prognostic Performance Comparison in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chen; Liu, Zhenyu; Guan, Min; Song, Jiangdian; Lian, Yucheng; Wang, Shuo; Tang, Zhenchao; Dong, Di; Kong, Lingfei; Wang, Meiyun; Shi, Dapeng; Tian, Jie

    2017-12-01

    To compare 2D and 3D radiomics features prognostic performance differences in CT images of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We enrolled 588 NSCLC patients from three independent cohorts. Two sets of 463 patients from two different institutes were used as the training cohort. The remaining cohort with 125 patients was set as the validation cohort. A total of 1014 radiomics features (507 2D features and 507 3D features correspondingly) were assessed. Based on the dichotomized survival data, 2D and 3D radiomics indicators were calculated for each patient by trained classifiers. We used the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) to assess the prediction performance of trained classifiers (the support vector machine and logistic regression). Kaplan-Meier and Cox hazard survival analyses were also employed. Harrell's concordance index (C-Index) and Akaike's information criteria (AIC) were applied to assess the trained models. Radiomics indicators were built and compared by AUCs. In the training cohort, 2D_AUC=0.653, 3D_AUC=0.671. In the validation cohort, 2D_AUC=0.755, 3D_AUC=0.663. Both 2D and 3D trained indicators achieved significant results (P<.05) in the Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression. In the validation cohort, 2D Cox model had a C-Index=0.683 and AIC=789.047; 3D Cox model obtained a C-Index=0.632 and AIC=799.409. Both 2D and 3D CT radiomics features have a certain prognostic ability in NSCLC, but 2D features showed better performance in our tests. Considering the cost of the radiomics features calculation, 2D features are more recommended for use in the current study. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. 2D Kinetic Particle in Cell Simulations of a Flow-Shear Stabilized Z-Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tummel, Kurt; Higginson, Drew; Link, Anthony; Schmidt, Andrea; McLean, Harry; Shumlak, Uri; Nelson, Brian; Golingo, Ray; Claveau, Elliot; Forbes, Eleanor; Weber, Tobin; Zhang, Yue; Stepanov, Anton; LLNL Team; UW Team

    2017-10-01

    The lifetime of Z-pinch plasmas is typically limited by MHD instabilities, e.g. the m = 0 ``sausage'' and m = 1 ``kink'' modes. An attractive strategy to suppress these and related instabilities and extend the lifetime of a Z-pinch is to drive sheared axial flows in the plasma, dvz / dr ≠ 0 . This stabilization was demonstrated in a series of experiments at the UW and these long-lived Z-pinches may offer viable sources of ion beams, neutrons and radiation, or potentially, a fusion reactor. LLNL is running 2D simulations using the particle-in-cell(PIC) code, LSP, to study flow-shear Z-pinch stability and performance. The suppression of the sausage mode by axial flow-shear is seen under the present experimental conditions as well as at reactor scales, with multiple shear-flow profiles. The longevity of these sheared-flows depends on the plasma viscosity, and a preliminary viscosity and shear-flow longevity analysis is also presented. This work represents the first fully-kinetic modeling results for the flow-shear stabilized Z-pinch. This work funded by USDOE ARPA-E and performed under the auspices of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA23744. LLNL-ABS-734820.

  9. 2D black phosphorous nanosheets as a hole transporting material in perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muduli, Subas Kumar; Varrla, Eswaraiah; Kulkarni, Sneha Avinash; Han, Guifang; Thirumal, Krishnamoorthy; Lev, Ovadia; Mhaisalkar, Subodh; Mathews, Nripan

    2017-12-01

    We demonstrate for the first-time liquid exfoliated few layers of 2D Black phosphorus (BP) nanosheets as a hole transporting material (HTM) for perovskite based solar cells. The photoelectron spectroscopy in air (PESA) measurements confirm the low laying valence band level of BP nanosheets (-5.2 eV) favourable for hole injection from CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3). Our results show that ∼25% improvement in power conversion efficiency (PCE) of η = 16.4% for BP nanosheets + Spiro-OMeTAD as an HTM as compared to spiro-OMeTAD (η = 13.1%). When BP nanosheets are exclusively utilised as an HTM, a PCE of η = 7.88% is noted, an improvement over the 4% PCE values observed for HTM free devices. Photoluminescence (PL) quenching of MAPbI3 and impedance measurements further confirm the charge extraction ability of BP nanosheets. The structural and optical characterization of liquid exfoliated BP nanosheets is discussed in detail with the aid of transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, absorption spectroscopy and photo-electron spectroscopy.

  10. 2D Kinetic Particle in Cell Simulations of a Shear-Flow Stabilized Z-Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tummel, Kurt; Higginson, Drew; Schmidt, Andrea; Link, Anthony; McLean, Harry; Shumlak, Uri; Nelson, Brian; Golingo, Raymond; Claveau, Elliot; Lawrence Livermore National Lab Team; University of Washington Team

    2016-10-01

    The Z-pinch is a relatively simple and attractive potential fusion reactor design, but attempts to develop such a reactor have consistently struggled to overcome Z-pinch instabilities. The ``sausage'' and ``kink'' modes are among the most robust and prevalent Z-pinch instabilities, but theory and simulations suggest that axial flow-shear, dvz / dr ≠ 0 , can suppress these modes. Experiments have confirmed that Z-pinch plasmas with embedded axial flow-shear display a significantly enhanced resilience to the sausage and kink modes at a demonstration current of 50kAmps. A new experiment is under way to test the concept at higher current, and efforts to model these plasmas are being expanded. The performance and stability of these devices will depend on features like the plasma viscosity, anomalous resistivity, and finite Larmor radius effects, which are most accurately characterized in kinetic models. To predict these features, kinetic simulations using the particle in cell code LSP are now in development, and initial benchmarking and 2D stability analyses of the sausage mode are presented here. These results represent the first kinetic modeling of the flow-shear stabilized Z-pinch. This work is funded by the USDOE/ARPAe Alpha Program. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  11. The activating receptor NKG2D of natural killer cells promotes resistance against enterovirus-mediated inflammatory cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Klingel, Karin; Fabritius, Cornelia; Sauter, Martina; Göldner, Katrin; Stauch, Diana; Kandolf, Reinhard; Ettischer, Nicole; Gahlen, Sabine; Schönberger, Tanja; Ebner, Susanne; Makrigiannis, Andrew P; Bélanger, Simon; Diefenbach, Andreas; Polić, Bojan; Pratschke, Johann; Kotsch, Katja

    2014-10-01

    In enterovirus-induced cardiomyopathy, information regarding the detailed impact of natural killer (NK) cells on the outcome of the disease is limited. We therefore hypothesized that NK cells and certain NK cell receptors determine the different outcome of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) myocarditis. Here, we demonstrate in murine models that resistance to chronic CVB3 myocarditis in immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice is characterized by significantly more mature CD11b(high) NK cells, the presence of NKG2D on NK cells, and enhanced NKG2D-dependent cytotoxicity compared to CVB3-susceptible A.BY/SnJ mice. The highly protective role of NKG2D in myocarditis was further proven by in vivo neutralization of NKG2D as well as in NKG2D-deficient mice but was shown to be independent of CD8(+) T-cell-dependent immunity. Moreover, the adoptive transfer of immunocompetent C57BL/6 NK cells pre- (day -1) as well as post-infectionem (day +2) displayed the potential to prevent permissive A.BY/SnJ mice from a progressive outcome of CVB3 myocarditis reflected by significantly improved cardiopathology and heart function. Altogether, our results provide firm evidence for a protective role of NKG2D-activated NK cells in CVB3 myocarditis leading to an effective virus clearance, thus offering novel therapeutic options in the treatment of virus-induced myocarditis. Copyright © 2014 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. 1α,25(OH)2D3 differentially regulates miRNA expression in human bladder cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yingyu; Hu, Qiang; Luo, Wei; Pratt, Rachel N; Glenn, Sean T; Liu, Song; Trump, Donald L; Johnson, Candace S

    2015-04-01

    Bladder cancer is the fourth most commonly diagnosed cancer in men and eighth leading cause of cancer-related death in the US. Epidemiological and experimental studies strongly suggest a role for 1α,25(OH)2D3 in cancer prevention and treatment. The antitumor activities of 1α,25(OH)2D3 are mediated by the induction of cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, differentiation and the inhibition of angiogenesis and metastasis. miRNAs play important regulatory roles in cancer development and progression. However, the role of 1α,25(OH)2D3 in the regulation of miRNA expression and the potential impact in bladder cancer has not been investigated. Therefore, we studied 1α,25(OH)2D3-regulated miRNA expression profiles in human bladder cancer cell line 253J and the highly tumorigenic and metastatic derivative line 253J-BV by miRNA qPCR panels. 253J and 253J-BV cells express endogenous vitamin D receptor (VDR), which can be further induced by 1α,25(OH)2D3. VDR target gene 24-hydroxylase was induced by 1α,25(OH)2D3 in both cell lines, indicating functional 1α,25(OH)2D3 signaling. The miRNA qPCR panel assay results showed that 253J and 253J-BV cells have distinct miRNA expression profiles. Further, 1α,25(OH)2D3 differentially regulated miRNA expression profiles in 253J and 253J-BV cells in a dynamic manner. Pathway analysis of the miRNA target genes revealed distinct patterns of contribution to the molecular functions and biological processes in the two cell lines. In conclusion, 1α,25(OH)2D3 differentially regulates the expression of miRNAs, which may contribute to distinct biological functions, in human bladder 253J and 253J-BV cells. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '17th Vitamin D Workshop'. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Expression of green fluorescent protein in human foreskin fibroblasts for use in 2D and 3D culture models.

    PubMed

    Chao, Jie; Peña, Tiffany; Heimann, Dean G; Hansen, Chris; Doyle, David A; Yanala, Ujwal R; Guenther, Timothy M; Carlson, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    The availability of fibroblasts that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) would be of interest for the monitoring of cell growth, migration, contraction, and other processes within the fibroblast-populated collagen matrix and other culture systems. A plasmid lentiviral vector-GFP (pLV-GFP) was utilized for gene delivery to produce primary human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs) that stably express GFP. Cell morphology, cell migration, and collagen contraction were compared between nontransduced HFFs and transduced GFP-HFFs; no differences were observed. Immunocytochemical staining showed no differences in cell morphology between nontransduced and GFP-HFFs in both two-dimensional and three-dimensional culture systems. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in cellular population growth within the collagen matrix populated with nontransduced vs. GFP-HFFs. Within the limits of our assays, we conclude that transduction of GFP into HFFs did not alter the observed properties of HFFs compared with nontransduced fibroblasts. The GFP-HFFs may represent a new tool for the convenient monitoring of living primary fibroblast processes in two-dimensional or three-dimensional culture. © 2014 by the Wound Healing Society.

  14. IDH mutant gliomas escape natural killer cell immune surveillance by downregulation of NKG2D ligand expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoran; Rao, Aparana; Sette, Paola; Deibert, Christopher; Pomerantz, Alexander; Kim, Wi Jin; Kohanbash, Gary; Chang, Yigang; Park, Yongseok; Engh, Johnathan; Choi, Jaehyuk; Chan, Timothy; Okada, Hideho; Lotze, Michael; Grandi, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Background Diffuse gliomas are poorly immunogenic, fatal brain tumors. The basis for insufficient antitumor immunity in diffuse gliomas is unknown. Gain-of-function mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenases (IDH1 and IDH2) promote diffuse glioma formation through epigenetic reprogramming of a number of genes, including immune-related genes. Here, we identify epigenetic dysregulation of natural killer (NK) cell ligand genes as significant contributors to immune escape in glioma. Methods We analyzed the database of The Cancer Genome Atlas for immune gene expression patterns in IDH mutant or wild-type gliomas and identified differentially expressed immune genes. NKG2D ligand expression levels and NK cell–mediated lysis were measured in IDH mutant and wild-type patient-derived glioma stem cells and genetically engineered astrocytes. Finally, we assessed the impact of hypomethylating agent 5-aza-2′deoxycytodine (decitabine) as a potential NK cell sensitizing agent in IDH mutant cells. Results IDH mutant glioma stemlike cell lines exhibited significantly lower expression of NKG2D ligands compared with IDH wild-type cells. Consistent with these findings, IDH mutant glioma cells and astrocytes are resistant to NK cell–mediated lysis. Decitabine increases NKG2D ligand expression and restores NK-mediated lysis of IDH mutant cells in an NKG2D-dependent manner. Conclusions IDH mutant glioma cells acquire resistance to NK cells through epigenetic silencing of NKG2D ligands ULBP1 and ULBP3. Decitabine-mediated hypomethylation restores ULBP1 and ULBP3 expression in IDH mutant glioma cells and may provide a clinically useful method to sensitize IDH mutant gliomas to NK cell–mediated immune surveillance in patients with IDH mutated diffuse gliomas. PMID:27116977

  15. Overcoming multidrug resistance in 2D and 3D culture models by controlled drug chitosan-graft poly(caprolactone)-based nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wei-Bin; Le, Van-Minh; Gu, Chun-Hua; Zheng, Yuan-Hong; Lang, Mei-Dong; Lu, Yan-Hua; Liu, Jian-Wen

    2014-04-01

    The principal limitations of chemotherapy are dose-limiting systemic toxicity and the development of multidrug-resistant phenotypes. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of a new sustained drug delivery system based on chitosan and ε-caprolactone to overcome multidrug resistance in monolayer and drug resistance associated with the three-dimensional (3D) tumor microenvironment in our established 3D models. The 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-loaded nanoparticles (NPs) were characterized by transmission electron microscope and dynamic light scattering, and its released property was determined at different pH values. 5-FU/NPs exhibited well-sustained release properties and markedly enhanced the cytotoxicity of 5-FU against HCT116/L-OHP or HCT8/VCR MDR cells in two-dimensional (2D) and its parental cells in 3D collagen gel culture with twofold to threefold decrease in the IC50 values, as demonstrated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, Hoechst/propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry analysis. Furthermore, the possible mechanism was explored by high-performance liquid chromatography and rhodamine 123 accumulation experiment. Overall, the results demonstrated that 5-FU/NPs increase intracellular concentration of 5-FU and enhance its anticancer efficiency by inducing apoptosis. It was suggested that this novel NPs are a promising carrier to decrease toxic of 5-FU and has the potential to reverse the forms of both intrinsic and acquired drug resistance in 2D and 3D cultures. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  16. Microfluidic Cell Culture Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takayama, Shuichi (Inventor); Cabrera, Lourdes Marcella (Inventor); Heo, Yun Seok (Inventor); Smith, Gary Daniel (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic devices for cell culturing and methods for using the same are disclosed. One device includes a substrate and membrane. The substrate includes a reservoir in fluid communication with a passage. A bio-compatible fluid may be added to the reservoir and passage. The reservoir is configured to receive and retain at least a portion of a cell mass. The membrane acts as a barrier to evaporation of the bio-compatible fluid from the passage. A cover fluid may be added to cover the bio-compatible fluid to prevent evaporation of the bio-compatible fluid.

  17. Restricted exchange microenvironments for cell culture.

    PubMed

    Hoh, Jan H; Werbin, Jeffrey L; Heinz, William F

    2018-03-01

    Metabolite diffusion in tissues produces gradients and heterogeneous microenvironments that are not captured in standard 2D cell culture models. Here we describe restricted exchange environment chambers (REECs) in which diffusive gradients are formed and manipulated on length scales approximating those found in vivo. In REECs, cells are grown in 2D in an asymmetric chamber (<50 μL) formed between a coverglass and a glass bottom cell culture dish separated by a thin (~100 μm) gasket. Diffusive metabolite exchange between the chamber and bulk media occurs through one or more openings micromachined into the coverglass. Cell-generated concentration gradients form radially in REECs with a single round opening (~200 μm diameter). At steady state only cells within several hundred micrometers of the opening experience metabolite concentrations that permit survival which is analogous to diffusive exchange near a capillary in tissue. The chamber dimensions, the openings' shape, size, and number, and the cellular density and metabolic activity define the gradient structure. For example, two parallel slots above confluent cells produce the 1D equivalent of a spheroid. Using REECs, we found that fibroblasts align along the axis of diffusion while MDCK cells do not. MDCK cells do, however, exhibit significant morphological variations along the diffusive gradient.

  18. Rat CD4+CD8+ macrophages kill tumor cells through an NKG2D- and granzyme/perforin-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Baba, Tomohisa; Iwasaki, Sari; Maruoka, Takako; Suzuki, Akira; Tomaru, Utano; Ikeda, Hitoshi; Yoshiki, Takashi; Kasahara, Masanori; Ishizu, Akihiro

    2008-03-01

    We previously identified a subpopulation of monocyte/macrophage lineage cells expressing both CD4 and CD8. This subpopulation was expanded in rat peripheral blood and spleen after immunization with adjuvants containing killed tuberculosis germs. CD4+CD8+ monocytes/macrophages obtained from preimmunized rats exhibited a Th1-type cytokine/chemokine profile, expressed high levels of Fas ligand, perforin, granzyme B, and NKR-P2 (rat ortholog of human NKG2D), and killed certain tumor cells. In the present study, we confirmed that CD4+CD8+ monocytes/macrophages are distinct from splenic dendritic cells (DCs) or IFN-producing killer DCs. In vitro cytotoxic assays revealed that CD4+CD8+ macrophages killed tumor cells in a cell-cell contact-dependent manner and that expression of the retinoic acid early transcript 1 (a ligand for NKG2D) made tumor cells susceptible to killing by CD4+CD8+ macrophages. Furthermore, inhibitors of granzyme and perforin significantly decreased cytotoxic activities of CD4+CD8+ macrophages. Consistent with these in vitro findings, preimmunization with adjuvants containing killed tuberculosis germs elevated the expression of granzyme B in tumor-infiltrating CD4+CD8+ macrophages and significantly inhibited the growth of inoculated tumor cells. Our current work demonstrates that CD4+CD8+ macrophages are a unique subpopulation of monocyte/macrophage lineage cells that kill tumor cells in an NKG2D- and granzyme/perforin-dependent mechanism.

  19. Ganoderma lucidum stimulates NK cell cytotoxicity by inducing NKG2D/NCR activation and secretion of perforin and granulysin.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Jung; Chen, Yi-Yuan M; Lu, Chia-Chen; Lin, Chuan-Sheng; Martel, Jan; Tsai, Sheng-Hui; Ko, Yun-Fei; Huang, Tsung-Teng; Ojcius, David M; Young, John D; Lai, Hsin-Chih

    2014-04-01

    Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) is a medicinal mushroom long used in Asia as a folk remedy to promote health and longevity. Recent studies indicate that G. lucidum activates NK cells, but the molecular mechanism underlying this effect has not been studied so far. To address this question, we prepared a water extract of G. lucidum and examined its effect on NK cells. We observed that G. lucidum treatment increases NK cell cytotoxicity by stimulating secretion of perforin and granulysin. The mechanism of activation involves an increased expression of NKG2D and natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCRs), as well as increased phosphorylation of intracellular MAPKs. Our results indicate that G. lucidum induces NK cell cytotoxicity against various cancer cell lines by activating NKG2D/NCR receptors and MAPK signaling pathways, which together culminate in exocytosis of perforin and granulysin. These observations provide a cellular and molecular mechanism to account for the reported anticancer effects of G. lucidum extracts in humans.

  20. Differential gene expression by 1,25(OH)2D3 in an endometriosis stromal cell line.

    PubMed

    Ingles, Sue Ann; Wu, Liang; Liu, Benjamin T; Chen, Yibu; Wang, Chun-Yeh; Templeman, Claire; Brueggmann, Doerthe

    2017-10-01

    Endometriosis is a common female reproductive disease characterized by invasion of endometrial cells into other organs, frequently causing pelvic pain and infertility. Alterations of the vitamin D system have been linked to endometriosis incidence and severity. To shed light on the potential mechanism for these associations, we examined the effects of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 on gene expression in endometriosis cells. Stromal cell lines derived from endometriosis tissue were treated with 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 , and RNA-seq was used to identify genes differentially expressed between treated and untreated cells. Gene ontology and pathway analyses were carried out using Partek Flow and Ingenuity software suites, respectively. We identified 1627 genes that were differentially expressed (886 down-regulated and 741 up-regulated) by 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 . Only one gene, CYP24A1, was strongly up-regulated (369-fold). Many genes were strongly down-regulated. 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 treatment down-regulated several genetic pathways related to neuroangiogenesis, cellular motility, and invasion, including pathways for axonal guidance, Rho GDP signaling, and matrix metalloprotease inhibition. These findings support a role for vitamin D in the pathophysiology of endometriosis, and provide new targets for investigation into possible causes and treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 1α,25(OH)2D3Analog, MART-10, Inhibits Neuroendocrine Tumor Cell Metastasis After VEGF-A Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Kun-Chun; Yeh, Chun-Nan; Pang, Jong-Hwei S; Hsu, Jun-Te; Yeh, Ta-Sen; Chen, Li-Wei; Kuo, Sheng-Fong; Takano, Masashi; Chen, Tai C; Kittaka, Atsushi; Hsieh, Po-Jen; Juang, Horng-Heng

    2017-11-01

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) are usually diagnosed in an advanced stage. Most patients with PanNETs die of metastasis. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is a strong stimulator of angiogenesis and tumor metastasis. We aimed to investigate the effect of MART-10 [19-nor-2α-(3-hydroxypropyl)-1α,25(OH) 2 D 3 ], a 1α,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D3 (1α,25(OH) 2 D 3 ) analog, on PanNET cell metastasis after VEGF-A stimulation. Migration and invasion assays, western blot, and immunofluorescent staining were applied in this study. VEGF-A increased PanNET cell migration and invasion, which was attenuated by 1α,25(OH) 2 D 3 and MART-10. VEGF-A treatment stimulated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of PanNET cells. During this process, expression of snail family transcriptional repressor 1 and 2, and fibronectin was up-regulated. 1α,25(OH) 2 D 3 and MART-10 counteracted VEGF-A-induced EMT. In addition, expression of neuropilin 1, a key protein in VEGF-A signaling, was down-regulated by 1α,25(OH) 2 D 3 and MART-10. Furthermore, synthesis of F-actin was increased by VEGF-A and reduced by 1α,25(OH) 2 D 3 and MART-10. Our data indicate that MART-10 could be deemed a promising drug for PanNET treatment. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  2. Mammalian Cell Tissue Culture Techniques.

    PubMed

    Phelan, Katy; May, Kristin M

    2016-06-01

    Cultured tissues and cells are used extensively in physiological and pharmacological studies. In vitro cultures provide a means of examining cells and tissues without the complex interactions that would be present if the whole organism were studied. A number of special skills are required in order to preserve the structure, function, behavior, and biology of cells in culture. This unit describes the basic skills required to maintain and preserve cell cultures: maintaining aseptic technique, preparing media with the appropriate characteristics, passaging, freezing and storage, recovering frozen stocks, and counting viable cells. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  3. Self-assembly 2D zinc-phthalocyanine heterojunction: An ideal platform for high efficiency solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xue; Jiang, Zhou; Zhao, Jijun

    2017-12-01

    As an alternative to silicon-based solar cells, organic photovoltaic cells emerge for their easy manufacture, low cost, and light weight but are limited by their less stability, low power conversion efficiencies, and low charge carrier mobilities. Here, we design a series of two-dimensional (2D) organic materials incorporating zinc-phthalocyanine (ZnPc) based building blocks which can inherit their excellent intrinsic properties but overcome those shortcomings. Our first-principles calculation shows that such 2D ZnPc-based materials exhibit excellent thermal stabilities, suitable bandgaps, small effective masses, and good absorption properties. The additional benzene rings and nitrogen atoms incorporated between ZnPc molecules are mainly responsible for the modifications of electronic and optical properties. Moreover, some heterojunction solar cells constructed using those 2D ZnPc monolayers as the donor and acceptor have an appropriate absorber gap and interface band alignment. Among them, a power conversion efficiency up to 14.04% is achieved, which is very promising for the next-generation organic solar cells.

  4. VDR independent induction of acid-sphingomyelinase by 1,23(OH)2 D3 in gastric cancer cells: Impact on apoptosis and cell morphology.

    PubMed

    Albi, Elisabetta; Cataldi, Samuela; Ferri, Ivana; Sidoni, Angelo; Traina, Giovanna; Fettucciari, Katia; Ambesi-Impiombato, Francesco Saverio; Lazzarini, Andrea; Curcio, Francesco; Ceccarini, Maria Rachele; Beccari, Tommaso; Codini, Michela

    2018-03-01

    1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 (1,23(OH) 2 D 3 ) is known to play a dual role in cancer, by promoting or inhibiting carcinogenesis via 1,23(OH) 2 D 3 receptor (VDR) and phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN). Fok I polymorphism of VDR may indirectly influence the receptor levels through autoregulation. The involvement of neutral sphingomyelinase in the non-classic VDR-mediated genomic pathway response to 1,23(OH) 2 D 3 treatment has been reported. Until now no information were reported about Fok I polymorphism of VDR in NCI-N87 human gastric cancer cells and the relation between acid sphingomyelinase and 1,23(OH) 2 D 3 . Herein, we showed that NCI-N87 human gastric cancer cells are homozygous for the Fok I 'C' allele; resulting in a three amino acid-truncated protein form of the VDR. Surprisingly 1,23(OH) 2 D 3 treatments strongly down-regulated the expression of VDR whereas acid sphingomyelinase and PTEN expression were upregulated. No changes of neutral sphingomyelinase expression were observed after 1,23(OH) 2 D 3 treatment, whereas acid sphingomyelinase activity increased. Furthermore 1,23(OH) 2 D 3 induced over-expression of caspase 8, CDKN2B, MAP3K5, cytochrome C apoptotic genes. Morphological analysis highlighted some very large round or oval cells and small cells with angular or fusiform extensions, confirmed by MIB-1 immunodetection and Hercep test. Taken together our results indicated that the action of 1,23(OH) 2 D 3 in gastric cancer cells was independent on 1,23(OH) 2 D 3 receptor and suggested the acid sphingomyelinase as a possible target to induce molecular events. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Preservation of the 3D Phenotype Upon Dispersal of Cultured Cell Spheroids Into Monolayer Cultures.

    PubMed

    Koshkin, Vasilij; Ailles, Laurie E; Liu, Geoffrey; Krylov, Sergey N

    2017-01-01

    In functional cytometric studies, cultured cells are exposed to effectors (e.g., drugs), and the heterogeneity of cell responses are studied using cytometry techniques (e.g., image cytometry). Such studies are difficult to perform on 3D cell cultures. A solution is to disperse 3D clusters and transfer the cells to the 2D state before applying effectors and using cytometry. This approach requires that the lifetime of the 3D phenotype be longer than the duration of the experiment. Here we studied the dynamics of phenotype transformation from 3D to 2D and searched for means of slowing this transformation down in dispersed spheroids of MCF7 cells. We found three functional biomarkers of the 3D phenotype in MCF7 cell spheroids that are absent in the 2D cell culture: (i) the presence of a subpopulation with an elevated drug-expelling capacity; (ii) the presence of a subpopulation with an elevated cytoprotective capacity; and (iii) the accumulation of cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Monitoring these biomarkers in cells transferred from the 3D state to the 2D state revealed their gradual extinction. We found that the combined application of an elevated cell density and thiol-containing medium supplements increased the lifetime of the 3D phenotype by several fold to as long as 96 h. Our results suggest that extending the lifetime of the 3D phenotype in the cells transferred from the 3D state to the 2D state can facilitate detailed functional cytometric studies, such as measurements of population heterogeneity of cytotoxicity, chemosensitivity, and radiosensitivity. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 154-162, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Redirecting T Cells to Ewing's Sarcoma Family of Tumors by a Chimeric NKG2D Receptor Expressed by Lentiviral Transduction or mRNA Transfection

    PubMed Central

    Proff, Julia; Schaft, Niels; Dörrie, Jan; Full, Florian; Ensser, Armin; Muller, Yves A.; Cerwenka, Adelheid; Abken, Hinrich; Parolini, Ornella; Ambros, Peter F.; Kovar, Heinrich; Holter, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    We explored the possibility to target Ewing's sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT) by redirecting T cells. To this aim, we considered NKG2D-ligands (NKG2D-Ls) as possible target antigens. Detailed analysis of the expression of MICA, MICB, ULBP-1, -2, and -3 in fourteen ESFT cell lines revealed consistent expression of at least one NKG2D-L. Thus, for redirecting T cells, we fused a CD3ζ/CD28-derived signaling domain to the ectodomain of NKG2D, however, opposite transmembrane orientation of this signaling domain and NKG2D required inverse orientation fusion of either of them. We hypothesized that the particularly located C-terminus of the NKG2D ectodomain should allow reengineering of the membrane anchoring from a native N-terminal to an artificial C-terminal linkage. Indeed, the resulting chimeric NKG2D receptor (chNKG2D) was functional and efficiently mediated ESFT cell death triggered by activated T cells. Notably, ESFT cells with even low NKG2D-L expression were killed by CD8pos and also CD4pos cells. Both, mRNA transfection and lentiviral transduction resulted in high level surface expression of chNKG2D. However, upon target-cell recognition receptor surface levels were maintained by tranfected RNA only during the first couple of hours after transfection. Later, target-cell contact resulted in strong and irreversible receptor down-modulation, whereas lentivirally mediated expression of chNKG2D remained constant under these conditions. Together, our study defines NKG2D-Ls as targets for a CAR-mediated T cell based immunotherapy of ESFT. A comparison of two different methods of gene transfer reveals strong differences in the susceptibility to ligand-induced receptor down-modulation with possible implications for the applicability of RNA transfection. PMID:22355347

  7. NKG2D stimulation of CD8+T cells during priming promotes their capacity to produce cytokines in response to viral infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Kavazović, Inga; Lenartić, Maja; Jelenčić, Vedrana; Jurković, Slaven; Lemmermann, Niels A W; Jonjić, Stipan; Polić, Bojan; Wensveen, Felix M

    2017-07-01

    Natural killer group 2 member D (NKG2D) is an activating receptor that is expressed on most cytotoxic cells of the immune system, including NK cells, γδ, and CD8 + T cells. It is still a matter of debate whether and how NKG2D mediates priming of CD8 + T cells in vivo, due to a lack of studies where NKG2D is eliminated exclusively in these cells. Here, we studied the impact of NKG2D on effector CD8 + T-cell formation. NKG2D deficiency that is restricted to murine CD8 + T cells did not impair antigen-specific T-cell expansion following mouse CMV and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection, but reduced their capacity to produce cytokines. Upon infection, conventional dendritic cells induce NKG2D ligands, which drive cytokine production on CD8 + T cells via the Dap10 signaling pathway. T-cell development, homing, and proliferation were not affected by NKG2D deficiency and cytotoxicity was only impaired when strong T-cell receptor (TCR) stimuli were used. Transfer of antigen-specific CD8 + T cells demonstrated that NKG2D deficiency attenuated their capacity to reduce viral loads. The inability of NKG2D-deficient cells to produce cytokines could be overcome with injection of IL-15 superagonist during priming. In summary, our data show that NKG2D has a nonredundant role in priming of CD8 + T cells to produce antiviral cytokines. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Exploiting natural killer group 2D receptors for CAR T-cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Demoulin, Benjamin; Cook, W James; Murad, Joana; Graber, David J; Sentman, Marie-Louise; Lonez, Caroline; Gilham, David E; Sentman, Charles L; Agaugue, Sophie

    2017-08-01

    Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are genetically engineered proteins that combine an extracellular antigen-specific recognition domain with one or several intracellular T-cell signaling domains. When expressed in T cells, these CARs specifically trigger T-cell activation upon antigen recognition. While the clinical proof of principle of CAR T-cell therapy has been established in hematological cancers, CAR T cells are only at the early stages of being explored to tackle solid cancers. This special report discusses the concept of exploiting natural killer cell receptors as an approach that could broaden the specificity of CAR T cells and potentially enhance the efficacy of this therapy against solid tumors. New data demonstrating feasibility of this approach in humans and supporting the ongoing clinical trial are also presented.

  9. Human NK cells kill resting but not activated microglia via NKG2D and NKp46 mediated recognition

    PubMed Central

    Lünemann, Anna; Lünemann, Jan D.; Roberts, Susanne; Messmer, Brady; da Silva, Rosa Barreira; Raine, Cedric S.; Münz, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Microglia are resident macrophage-like antigen presenting cells of the central nervous system (CNS). To avoid escalation of inflammatory processes and bystander damage within the CNS, microglia-driven inflammatory responses need to be tightly regulated and both spatially and temporally restricted. Following traumatic, infectious and autoimmune-mediated brain injury, natural killer (NK) cells have been found in the CNS, but the functional significance of NK cell recruitment and their mechanisms of action during brain inflammation are not well understood. Here, we investigated whether and by which mechanisms human NK cells might edit resting and activated human microglial cells via cytotoxicity. IL-2 activated NK cells efficiently killed both resting allogeneic and autologous microglia in a cell-contact dependent manner. In addition they produced IFN-γ upon microglia recognition. Activated NK cells rapidly formed synapses with human microglial cells, polarizing perforin to the cellular interface. Antibody-mediated NKG2D and NKp46, but not DNAM-1 and NKp30 blockade decreased killing of human microglia by activated NK cells. Up-regulation of MHC class I surface expression by TLR4 stimulation protected microglia from NK cell mediated cytotoxicity These data suggest that brain-infiltrating NK cells might restrict innate and adaptive immune responses within the human CNS via elimination of resting microglia. PMID:18941207

  10. 2D mapping of strongly deformed cell nuclei based on contour warping.

    PubMed

    De Vylder, Jonas; Douterloigne, Koen; De Vos, Winnok; Philips, Wilfried

    2010-01-01

    The dynamics of genome regions are associated to the functional or dysfunctional behaviour of the human cell. In order to study these dynamics it is necessary to remove perturbations coming from movement and deformation of the nucleus, i.e. the container holding the genome. In literature models have been proposed to cope with the transformations corresponding to nuclear dynamics of healthy cells. However for pathological cells, the nucleus deforms in an apparently random way, making the use of such models a non trivial task. In this paper we propose a mapping of the cell nucleus which is based on the matching of the nuclear contours. The proposed method does not put constraints on the possible shapes nor on the possible deformations, making this method suited for the analysis of pathological nuclei.

  11. High density cell culture system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An annular culture vessel for growing mammalian cells is constructed in a one piece integral and annular configuration with an open end which is closed by an endcap. The culture vessel is rotatable about a horizontal axis by use of conventional roller systems commonly used in culture laboratories. The end wall of the endcap has tapered access ports to frictionally and sealingly receive the ends of hypodermic syringes. The syringes permit the introduction of fresh nutrient and withdrawal of spent nutrients. The walls are made of conventional polymeric cell culture material and are subjected to neutron bombardment to form minute gas permeable perforations in the walls.

  12. PPARγ suppresses the proliferation of cardiac myxoma cells through downregulation of MEF2D in a miR-122-dependent manner

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Youzhu; Yang, Jie; Bian, Shizhu

    2016-06-03

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), a multiple functional transcription factor, has been reported to have anti-tumor effects through inhibition of cells proliferation. However, its effects on cardiac myxoma (CM) cells and the underlying signaling mechanism is unclear. In the present study, we demonstrated that the level of PPARγ is inversely correlated with that of myocyte enhancer factor 2D (MEF2D), a biomarker of CM. We found that activation of PPARγ inhibit MEF2D expression via upregulation of miR-122, which can target the 3′-UTR of MEF2D and inhibit MEF2D expression, by directly binding to the PPRE in the miR-122 promoter region. Functional experimentsmore » further showed that miR-122-dependent downregulation of MEF2D by PPARγ suppress the proliferation of CM cells. These results suggest that PPARγ may exert its antiproliferative effects by negatively regulating the MEF2D in CM cells, which through upregulation of miR-122, and PPARγ/miR-122/MEF2D signaling pathway may be a novel target for treatment of CM. -- Highlights: •PPARγ expression is inversely correlated with MEF2D expression in CM tissues. •PPARγ downregulates MEF2D expression in CM cells. •PPARγ inhibits MEF2D expression via upregulation of miR-122. •miR-122-dependent downregulation of MEF2D by PPARγ suppresses the proliferation of CM cells.« less

  13. Parameters optimization of CIGS solar cell using 2D physical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabbabi, Samar; Nasr, Tarek Ben; Kamoun-Turki, Najoua

    In this study, the CIGS thin film solar cell has been investigated using the two-dimensional device simulator Silvaco-Atlas. Thickness and carrier concentration effects of the cell structure were studied to optimize the solar cell performances. Our results revealed high efficiency for a cell structure of 0.15 μm ZnO:Al, 0.06 μm i-ZnO, 0.04 μm CdS and 3 μm CIGS. The carrier concentration effects of the different layers were also studied revealing a better performance for CIGS doping concentration of 1018 cm-3. The optimized CIGS solar cell characteristics were a current density of short circuit Jsc = 38.75 mA/cm2, an open-circuit voltage V0C = 804.03 mV, a fill factor FF = 74.48% and an efficiency η = 23.20%. This result is in good agreement with experimental efficiencies found in literature.

  14. Infiltration of H-2d-specific cytotoxic macrophage with unique morphology into rejection site of allografted meth A (H-2d) tumor cells in C57BL/6 (H-2b) mice.

    PubMed

    Nomi, Hayahito; Tashiro-Yamaji, Junko; Miura-Takeda, Sayako; Shimizu, Tetsunosuke; Azuma, Haruhito; Ueda, Haruhiko; Katsuoka, Yoji; Kubota, Takahiro; Yoshida, Ryotaro

    2007-01-01

    It is assumed that CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) mediate direct lysis of allografts and that their growth, differentiation, and activation are dependent upon cytokine production by CD4(+) helper T lymphocytes. In the present study, the effector cells responsible for the rejection of i.p. allografted, CTL-resistant Meth A tumor cells from C57BL/6 mice were characterized. The cytotoxic activity was associated exclusively with peritoneal exudate cells and not with the cells in lymphoid organs or blood. On day 8, when the cytotoxic activity reached a peak, 3 types of cells (i.e., lymphocytes, granulocytes, and macrophages) infiltrated into the rejection site; and allograft-induced macrophages (AIM) were cytotoxic against the allograft. Bacterially-elicited macrophages also exhibited cytotoxic activity (approximately 1/2 of that of AIM) against Meth A cells, whereas the cytotoxic activity of AIM against these cells but not that of bacterially-elicited macrophages was completely inhibited by the addition of donor (H-2(d))-type lymphoblasts, suggesting H-2(d)-specific cytotoxicity of AIM against Meth A cells. In contrast, resident macrophages were inactive toward Meth A cells. Morphologically, the three-dimensional appearance of AIM showed them to be unique large elongated cells having radiating peripheral filopodia and long cord-like extensions arising from their cytoplasmic surfaces. The ultrastructural examination of AIM revealed free ribosomes in their cytoplasm, which was often deformed by numerous large digestive vacuoles. These results indicate that AIM are the H-2(d)-specific effector cells for allografted Meth A cells and are a more fully activated macrophage with unique morphological features.

  15. Suspension culture of pluripotent stem cells: effect of shear on stem cell fate.

    PubMed

    Keller, Kevin C; Rodrigues, Beatriz; zur Nieden, Nicole I

    2014-01-01

    Despite significant promise, the routine usage of suspension cell culture to manufacture stem cell-derived differentiated cells has progressed slowly. Suspension culture is an innovative way of either expanding or differentiating cells and sometimes both are combined into a single bioprocess. Its advantages over static 2D culturing include a homogeneous and controllable culture environment and producing a large quantity of cells in a fraction of time. This feature makes suspension cell culture ideal for use in stem cell research and eventually ideal in the large-scale production of differentiated cells for regenerative medicine. Because of their tremendous differentiation capacities and unlimited growth properties, pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) in particular are considered potential sources for future cell-replacement therapies. Currently, expansion of PSCs is accomplished in 2D, which only permits a limited amount of cell growth per culture flask before cells need to be passaged. However, before stem cells can be applied clinically, several aspects of their expansion, such as directed growth, but also differentiation, need to be better controlled. This review will summarize recent advantages in suspension culture of PSCs, while at the same time highlighting current challenges.

  16. Accurate and reproducible functional maps in 127 human cell types via 2D genome segmentation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Hardison, Ross C

    2017-09-29

    The Roadmap Epigenomics Consortium has published whole-genome functional annotation maps in 127 human cell types by integrating data from studies of multiple epigenetic marks. These maps have been widely used for studying gene regulation in cell type-specific contexts and predicting the functional impact of DNA mutations on disease. Here, we present a new map of functional elements produced by applying a method called IDEAS on the same data. The method has several unique advantages and outperforms existing methods, including that used by the Roadmap Epigenomics Consortium. Using five categories of independent experimental datasets, we compared the IDEAS and Roadmap Epigenomics maps. While the overall concordance between the two maps is high, the maps differ substantially in the prediction details and in their consistency of annotation of a given genomic position across cell types. The annotation from IDEAS is uniformly more accurate than the Roadmap Epigenomics annotation and the improvement is substantial based on several criteria. We further introduce a pipeline that improves the reproducibility of functional annotation maps. Thus, we provide a high-quality map of candidate functional regions across 127 human cell types and compare the quality of different annotation methods in order to facilitate biomedical research in epigenomics. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  17. Accurate and reproducible functional maps in 127 human cell types via 2D genome segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Hardison, Ross C.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The Roadmap Epigenomics Consortium has published whole-genome functional annotation maps in 127 human cell types by integrating data from studies of multiple epigenetic marks. These maps have been widely used for studying gene regulation in cell type-specific contexts and predicting the functional impact of DNA mutations on disease. Here, we present a new map of functional elements produced by applying a method called IDEAS on the same data. The method has several unique advantages and outperforms existing methods, including that used by the Roadmap Epigenomics Consortium. Using five categories of independent experimental datasets, we compared the IDEAS and Roadmap Epigenomics maps. While the overall concordance between the two maps is high, the maps differ substantially in the prediction details and in their consistency of annotation of a given genomic position across cell types. The annotation from IDEAS is uniformly more accurate than the Roadmap Epigenomics annotation and the improvement is substantial based on several criteria. We further introduce a pipeline that improves the reproducibility of functional annotation maps. Thus, we provide a high-quality map of candidate functional regions across 127 human cell types and compare the quality of different annotation methods in order to facilitate biomedical research in epigenomics. PMID:28973456

  18. A three-dimensional collagen scaffold cell culture system for screening anti-glioma therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Donglai; Yu, Shi-cang; Ping, Yi-fang; Wu, Haibo; Zhao, Xilong; Zhang, Huarong; Cui, Youhong; Chen, Bing; Zhang, Xia; Dai, Jianwu

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) culture, which can simulate in vivo microenvironments, has been increasingly used to study tumor cell biology. Since most preclinical anti-glioma drug tests still rely on conventional 2D cell culture, we established a collagen scaffold for 3D glioma cell culture. Glioma cells cultured on these 3D scaffolds showed greater degree of dedifferentiation and quiescence than cells in 2D culture. 3D-cultured cells also exhibited enhanced resistance to chemotherapeutic alkylating agents, with a much higher proportion of glioma stem cells and upregulation of O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT). Importantly, tumor cells in 3D culture showed chemotherapy resistance patterns similar to those observed in glioma patients. Our results suggest that 3D collagen scaffolds are promising in vitro research platforms for screening new anti-glioma therapeutics. PMID:27486877

  19. Epigenetic regulation of human SOX3 gene expression during early phases of neural differentiation of NT2/D1 cells.

    PubMed

    Topalovic, Vladanka; Krstic, Aleksandar; Schwirtlich, Marija; Dolfini, Diletta; Mantovani, Roberto; Stevanovic, Milena; Mojsin, Marija

    2017-01-01

    Sox3/SOX3 is one of the earliest neural markers in vertebrates. Together with the Sox1/SOX1 and Sox2/SOX2 genes it is implicated in the regulation of stem cell identity. In the present study, we performed the first analysis of epigenetic mechanisms (DNA methylation and histone marks) involved in the regulation of the human SOX3 gene expression during RA-induced neural differentiation of NT2/D1 cells. We show that the promoter of the human SOX3 gene is extremely hypomethylated both in undifferentiated NT2/D1 cells and during the early phases of RA-induced neural differentiation. By employing chromatin immunoprecipitation, we analyze several histone modifications across different regions of the SOX3 gene and their dynamics following initiation of differentiation. In the same timeframe we investigate profiles of selected histone marks on the promoters of human SOX1 and SOX2 genes. We demonstrate differences in histone signatures of SOX1, SOX2 and SOX3 genes. Considering the importance of SOXB1 genes in the process of neural differentiation, the present study contributes to a better understanding of epigenetic mechanisms implicated in the regulation of pluripotency maintenance and commitment towards the neural lineage.

  20. 25-Hydroxylation of vitamin D3 in primary cultures of pig hepatocytes: evidence for a role of both CYP2D25 and CYP27A1.

    PubMed

    Hosseinpour, Fardin; Ibranovic, Ines; Tang, Wanjin; Wikvall, Kjell

    2003-04-11

    There has been some controversy over whether the 25-hydroxylation of vitamin D(3) is carried out by one enzyme or two and whether this cytochrome P450 enzyme is found in the mitochondrial or microsomal fractions of liver. The pig is currently the only species in which both the microsomal 25-hydroxylase (CYP2D25) and the mitochondrial 25-hydroxylase (CYP27A1) have been cloned and characterized. In this paper, the roles of the two enzymes in 25-hydroxylation of vitamin D(3) are examined in primary cultures of hepatocytes. Inhibition experiments indicated that tolterodine and 7 alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one were selective inhibitors of the CYP2D25- and CYP27A-mediated 25-hydroxylation of vitamin D(3), respectively. Addition of each inhibitor to primary hepatocytes decreased the total 25-hydroxylation of vitamin D(3) to about the same extent. No inhibition of other hydroxylase activities tested was found. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate down-regulated the expression of both CYP2D25 and CYP27A1 as well as the 25-hydroxylase activity of the hepatocytes. The results implicate that both CYP2D25 and CYP27A1 contribute to the 25-hydroxylation in hepatocytes and are important in the bioactivation of vitamin D(3).

  1. Electrocatalytic Activity of a 2D Phosphorene-Based Heteroelectrocatalyst for Photoelectrochemical Cells.

    PubMed

    Batmunkh, Munkhbayar; Shrestha, Aabhash; Bat-Erdene, Munkhjargal; Nine, Md Julker; Shearer, Cameron J; Gibson, Christopher T; Slattery, Ashley D; Tawfik, Sherif Abdulkader; Ford, Michael J; Dai, Sheng; Qiao, Shizhang; Shapter, Joseph G

    2018-03-01

    Research into efficient synthesis, fundamental properties, and potential applications of phosphorene is currently the subject of intense investigation. Herein, solution-processed phosphorene or few-layer black phosphorus (FL-BP) sheets are prepared using a microwave exfoliation method and used in photoelectrochemical cells. Based on experimental and theoretical (DFT) studies, the FL-BP sheets are found to act as catalytically active sites and show excellent electrocatalytic activity for triiodide reduction in dye-sensitized solar cells. Importantly, the device fabricated based on the newly designed cobalt sulfide (CoS x ) decorated nitrogen and sulfur co-doped carbon nanotube heteroelectrocatalyst coated with FL-BP (FL-BP@N,S-doped CNTs-CoS x ) displayed an impressive photovoltaic efficiency of 8.31 %, outperforming expensive platinum based cells. This work paves the way for using phosphorene-based electrocatalysts for next-generation energy-storage systems. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Vector-averaged gravity-induced changes in cell signaling and vitamin D receptor activity in MG-63 cells are reversed by a 1,25-(OH)2D3 analog, EB1089

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, R.; Smith, C. L.; Weigel, N. L.

    2002-01-01

    Skeletal unloading in an animal hindlimb suspension model and microgravity experienced by astronauts or as a result of prolonged bed rest causes site-specific losses in bone mineral density of 1%-2% per month. This is accompanied by reductions in circulating levels of 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3), the active metabolite of vitamin D. 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3), the ligand for the vitamin D receptor (VDR), is important for calcium absorption and plays a role in differentiation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. To examine the responses of cells to activators of the VDR in a simulated microgravity environment, we used slow-turning lateral vessels (STLVs) in a rotating cell culture system. We found that, similar to cells grown in microgravity, MG-63 cells grown in the STLVs produce less osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, and collagen Ialpha1 mRNA and are less responsive to 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3). In addition, expression of VDR was reduced. Moreover, growth in the STLV caused activation of the stress-activated protein kinase pathway (SAPK), a kinase that inhibits VDR activity. In contrast, the 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) analog, EB1089, was able to compensate for some of the STLV-associated responses by reducing SAPK activity, elevating VDR levels, and increasing expression of osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase. These studies suggest that, not only does simulated microgravity reduce differentiation of MG-63 cells, but the activity of the VDR, an important regulator of bone metabolism, is reduced. Use of potent, less calcemic analogs of 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) may aid in overcoming this defect. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Inc.

  3. Rapid authentication of different ages of tissue-cultured and wild Dendrobium huoshanense as well as wild Dendrobium henanense using FTIR and 2D-COS IR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Nai-Dong; Chen, Nai-Fu; Li, Jun; Cao, Cai-Yun; Wang, Jin-Mei

    2015-12-01

    The accumulating of pharmaceutical chemicals in medicinal plants would greatly be affected by their ages and establishing a fast quality-identification method to evaluate the similarity of medicinal herbs at different cultivated ages is a critical step for assurance of quality and safety in the TCM industry. In this work, tri-step IR macro-fingerprinting and 2D-COS IR spectrum techniques combined with statistical pattern recognition were applied for discrimination and similarity evaluation of different ages of tissue-cultured and wild Dendrobium huoshanense C. Z. Tang et S. J. Cheng as well as Dendrobium henanense J.L.Lu et L.X Gao. Both tissue-cultured and wild D. huoshanense were easily differentiated from D. henanense by FTIR and SD-IR spectra, while it's quite difficult to discriminate different cultivated years of the three investigated Dendrobiums. In 2D-COS IR spectra, 1-5 auto-peaks with different indensity and positions were located in the region 1160-1030 cm-1 of the twelve Dendrobium samples and thus could be used to identify Dendrobium samples at different ages. Principle component analysis (PCA) of synchronous 2D-COS data showed that the twelve samples were effectively identified and evaluated. The results indicated that the tri-step infrared macro-fingerprinting combined with PCA method was suitable to differentiate the cultivated ages of Dendrobiums with species and orgins rapidly and nondestructively.

  4. Synthesizing 2D MoS2 Nanofins on carbon nanospheres as catalyst support for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yan; Chua, Daniel H. C.

    2016-01-01

    Highly dense 2D MoS2 fin-like nanostructures on carbon nanospheres were fabricated and formed the main catalyst support structure in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) for polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. These nanofins were observed growing perpendicular to the carbon nanosphere surface in random orientations and high resolution transmission electron microscope confirmed 2D layers. The PEM fuel cell test showed enhanced electrochemical activity with good stability, generating over 8.5 W.mgPt−1 as compared to standard carbon black of 7.4 W.mgPt−1 under normal operating conditions. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy confirmed that the performance improvement is highly due to the excellent water management of the MoS2 lamellar network, which facilitates water retention at low current density and flood prevention at high current density. Reliability test further demonstrated that these nanofins are highly stable in the electrochemical reaction and is an excellent ORR catalyst support. PMID:27302135

  5. Design of broadband absorber using 2-D materials for thermo-photovoltaic cell application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Sajal; Prajapati, Y. K.

    2018-04-01

    Present study is done to analyze a nano absorber for thermo-photovoltaic cell application. Optical absorbance of two-dimensional materials is exploited to achieve high absorbance. It is found that few alternating layers of graphene/transition metal dichalcogenide provide high absorbance of electromagnetic wave in visible as well as near infrared region. Four transition metal dichalcogenides are considered and found that most of these provide perfect absorbance for almost full considered wavelength range i.e. 200-1000 nm. Demonstrated results confirm the extended operating region and improved absorbance of the proposed absorber in comparison to the existing absorbers made of different materials. Further, absorber performance is improved by using thin layers of gold and chromium. Simple geometry of the proposed absorber also ensures easy fabrication.

  6. Cytochrome P450 2D6 enzyme neuroprotects against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium toxicity in SH-SY5Y neuronal cells

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Amandeep; Tyndale, Rachel F.

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 is an enzyme that is expressed in liver and brain. It can inactivate neurotoxins such as 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline and β-carbolines. Genetically slow CYP2D6 metabolizers are at higher risk for developing Parkinson’s disease, a risk that increases with exposure to pesticides. The goal of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective role of CYP2D6 in an in-vitro neurotoxicity model. SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells express CYP2D6 as determined by western blotting, immunocytochemistry and enzymatic activity. CYP2D6 metabolized 3-[2-(N,N-diethyl-N-methylammonium)ethyl]-7-methoxy-4-methylcoumarin and the CYP2D6-specific inhibitor quinidine (1 μM) blocked 96 ± 1% of this metabolism, indicating that CYP2D6 is functional in this cell line. Treatment of cells with CYP2D6 inhibitors (quinidine, propanolol, metoprolol or timolol) at varying concentrations significantly increased the neurotoxicity caused by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) at 10 and 25 μM by between 9 ± 1 and 22 ± 5% (P < 0.01). We found that CYP3A is also expressed in SH-SY5Y cells and inhibiting CYP3A with ketoconazole significantly increased the cell death caused by 10 and 25 μM of MPP+ by between 8 ± 1 and 30 ± 3% (P < 0.001). Inhibiting both CYP2D6 and CYP3A showed an additive effect on MPP+ neurotoxicity. These data further support a possible role for CYP2D6 in neuroprotection from Parkinson’s disease-causing neurotoxins, especially in the human brain where expression of CYP2D6 is high in some regions (e.g. substantia nigra). PMID:20345925

  7. Complex regulation of human NKG2D-DAP10 cell surface expression: opposing roles of the γc cytokines and TGF-β1.

    PubMed

    Park, Yuk Pheel; Choi, Seung-Chul; Kiesler, Patricia; Gil-Krzewska, Aleksandra; Borrego, Francisco; Weck, Jennifer; Krzewski, Konrad; Coligan, John E

    2011-09-15

    Natural killer (NK) cells help protect the host against viral infections and tumors. NKG2D is a vital activating receptor, also expressed on subsets of T cells, whose ligands are up-regulated by cells in stress. Ligation of NKG2D leads to phosphorylation of the associated DAP10 adaptor protein, thereby activating immune cells. Understanding how the expression of NKG2D-DAP10 is regulated has implications for immunotherapy. We show that IL-2 and TGF-β1 oppositely regulate NKG2D-DAP10 expression by NK cells. IL-2 stimulation increases NKG2D surface expression despite a decrease in NKG2D mRNA levels. Stimulation with IL-2 results in a small increase of DAP10 mRNA and a large up-regulation of DAP10 protein synthesis, indicating that IL-2-mediated effects are mostly posttranscriptional. Newly synthesized DAP10 undergoes glycosylation that is required for DAP10 association with NKG2D and stabilization of NKG2D expression. TGF-β1 has an opposite and dominant effect to IL-2. TGF-β1 treatment decreases DAP10, as its presence inhibits the association of RNA polymerase II with the DAP10 promoter, but not NKG2D mRNA levels. This leads to the down-regulation of DAP10 expression and, as a consequence, NKG2D protein as well. Finally, we show that other γ(c) cytokines act similarly to IL-2 in up-regulating DAP10 expression and NKG2D-DAP10 surface expression.

  8. Complex regulation of human NKG2D-DAP10 cell surface expression: opposing roles of the γc cytokines and TGF-β1

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yuk Pheel; Choi, Seung-Chul; Kiesler, Patricia; Gil-Krzewska, Aleksandra; Borrego, Francisco; Weck, Jennifer; Krzewski, Konrad

    2011-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells help protect the host against viral infections and tumors. NKG2D is a vital activating receptor, also expressed on subsets of T cells, whose ligands are up-regulated by cells in stress. Ligation of NKG2D leads to phosphorylation of the associated DAP10 adaptor protein, thereby activating immune cells. Understanding how the expression of NKG2D-DAP10 is regulated has implications for immunotherapy. We show that IL-2 and TGF-β1 oppositely regulate NKG2D-DAP10 expression by NK cells. IL-2 stimulation increases NKG2D surface expression despite a decrease in NKG2D mRNA levels. Stimulation with IL-2 results in a small increase of DAP10 mRNA and a large up-regulation of DAP10 protein synthesis, indicating that IL-2–mediated effects are mostly posttranscriptional. Newly synthesized DAP10 undergoes glycosylation that is required for DAP10 association with NKG2D and stabilization of NKG2D expression. TGF-β1 has an opposite and dominant effect to IL-2. TGF-β1 treatment decreases DAP10, as its presence inhibits the association of RNA polymerase II with the DAP10 promoter, but not NKG2D mRNA levels. This leads to the down-regulation of DAP10 expression and, as a consequence, NKG2D protein as well. Finally, we show that other γc cytokines act similarly to IL-2 in up-regulating DAP10 expression and NKG2D-DAP10 surface expression. PMID:21816829

  9. 2D ratiometric fluorescent pH sensor for tracking of cells proliferation and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jun; Ding, Changqin; Zhou, Jie; Tian, Yang

    2015-08-15

    Extracellular pH plays a vital role no matter in physiological or pathological studies. In this work, a hydrogel, CD@Nile-FITC@Gel (Gel sensor), entrapping the ratiometric fluorescent probe CD@Nile-FITC was developed. The Gel sensor was successfully used for real-time extracellular pH monitoring. In the case of CD@Nile-FITC, pH-sensitive fluorescent dye fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) was chosen as the response signal for H(+) and Nile blue chloride (Nile) as the reference signal. The developed fluorescent probe exhibited high selectivity for pH over other metal ions and amino acids. Meanwhile, the carbon-dots-based inorganic-organic probe demonstrated excellent photostability against long-term light illumination. In order to study the extracellular pH change in processes of cell proliferation and metabolism, CD@Nile-FITC probe was entrapped in sodium alginate gel and consequently formed CD@Nile-FITC@Gel. The MTT assay showed low cytotoxicity of the Gel and the pH titration indicated that it could monitor the pH fluctuations linearly and rapidly within the pH range of 6.0-9.0, which is valuable for physiological pH determination. As expected, the real-time bioimaging of the probe was successfully achieved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Organotypic culture in three dimensions prevents radiation-induced transformation in human lung epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Ashmawy, Mariam; Coquelin, Melissa; Luitel, Krishna; Batten, Kimberly; Shay, Jerry W.

    2016-08-01

    The effects of radiation in two-dimensional (2D) cell culture conditions may not recapitulate tissue responses as modeled in three-dimensional (3D) organotypic culture. In this study, we determined if the frequency of radiation-induced transformation and cancer progression differed in 3D compared to 2D culture. Telomerase immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) with shTP53 and mutant KRas expression were exposed to various types of radiation (gamma, +H, 56Fe) in either 2D or 3D culture. After irradiation, 3D structures were dissociated and passaged as a monolayer followed by measurement of transformation, cell growth and expression analysis. Cells irradiated in 3D produced significantly fewer and smaller colonies in soft agar than their 2D-irradiated counterparts (gamma P = 0.0004 +H P = 0.049 56Fe P < 0.0001). The cell culture conditions did not affect cell killing, the ability of cells to survive in a colony formation assay, and proliferation rates after radiation—implying there was no selection against cells in or dissociated from 3D conditions. However, DNA damage repair and apoptosis markers were increased in 2D cells compared to 3D cells after radiation. Ideally, expanding the utility of 3D culture will allow for a better understanding of the biological consequences of radiation exposure.

  11. Magnetic 3D Cell Culturing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-11

    iss052e014201 (7/11/2017) --- NASA astronaut Peggy Whitson uses a microscope to view Magnetic 3D Biocells. This investigation uses magnetized cells and tools to make it easier to handle cells and cultures and to improve the reproducibility of experiments.

  12. Physical enviroment of 2-D animal cell aggregates formed in a short pathlength ultrasound standing wave trap.

    PubMed

    Bazou, Despina; Kuznetsova, Larisa A; Coakley, W Terence

    2005-03-01

    2-D mammalian cell aggregates can be formed and levitated in a 1.5 MHz single half wavelength ultrasound standing wave trap. The physical environment of cells in such a trap has been examined. Attention was paid to parameters such as temperature, acoustic streaming, cavitation and intercellular forces. The extent to which these factors might be intrusive to a neural cell aggregate levitated in the trap was evaluated. Neural cells were exposed to ultrasound at a pressure amplitude of 0.54 MPa for 30 s; a small aggregate had been formed at the center of the trap. The pressure amplitude was then decreased to 0.27 MPa for 2 min, at which level the aggregation process continued at a slower rate. The pressure amplitude was then decreased to 0.06 MPa for 1 h. Temperature measurements that were conducted in situ with a 200 microm thermocouple over a 30 min period showed that the maximum temperature rise was less than 0.5 K. Acoustic streaming was measured by the particle image velocimetry method (PIV). It was shown that the hydrodynamic stress imposed on cells by acoustic streaming is less than that imposed by gentle preparative centrifugation procedures. Acoustic spectrum analysis showed that cavitation activity does not occur in the cell suspensions sonicated at the above pressures. White noise was detected only at a pressure amplitude of 1.96 MPa. Finally, it was shown that the attractive acoustic force between ultrasonically agglomerated cells is small compared with the normal attractive van der Waals force that operates at close cell surface separations. It is concluded that the standing wave trap operates only to concentrate cells locally, as in tissue, and does not modify the in vitro expression of surface receptor interactions.

  13. Development of 2D dynamic model for hydrogen-fed and methane-fed solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, X. J.; Fong, K. F.

    2016-10-01

    A new two-dimensional (2D) dynamic model is developed in Fortran to study the mass and energy transport, the velocity field and the electrochemical phenomena of high-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The key feature of this model is that gas properties, reaction heat, open circuit voltage, ohmic voltage and exchange current density are temperature-dependent. Based on this, the change of gas temperature and related characteristics can be evaluated in this study. The transient performances of SOFC, like heat-up and start-up processes, are therefore assessed accordingly. In this 2D dynamic SOFC model, chemical and electrochemical reaction, flow field, mass and energy transfer models are coupled in order to determine the current density, the mass fraction and the temperature of gas species. Mass, momentum and energy balance equations are discretized by finite difference method. Performance evaluation in current density, electrical efficiency and overall efficiency is conducted for the effects of different operating parameters in SOFC. The present model can serve as a valuable tool for in-depth performance evaluation of other design and operating parameters of SOFC unit, as well as further dynamic simulation and optimization of SOFC as a prime mover in cogeneration or trigeneration system.

  14. Histochemical examination of adipose derived stem cells combined with β-TCP for bone defects restoration under systemic administration of 1α,25(OH)2D3.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wei; Lv, Shengyu; Cui, Jian; Han, Xiuchun; Du, Juan; Sun, Jing; Wang, Kefeng; Wang, Zhenming; Lu, Xiong; Guo, Jie; Oda, Kimimitsu; Amizuka, Norio; Xu, Xin; Li, Minqi

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of osteogenic differentiated adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC) loaded beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) in the restoration of bone defects under intraperitoneal administration of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3(1α,25(OH)2D3). ADSCs were isolated from the fat tissue of 8 week old Wister rats and co-cultured with β-TCP for 21 days under osteogenic induction. Then the ADSC-β-TCP complexes were implanted into bone defects in the femora of rats. 1α,25(OH)2D3 (VD) or normal saline (NS) was administrated intraperitoneally every other day after the surgery. Femora were harvested at day 7, day 14 and day 28 post-surgery. There were 4 groups for all specimens: β-TCP-NS group; β-TCP-ADSC-NS group; β-TCP-VD group and β-TCP-ADSC-VD group. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was up-regulated obviously in ADSC groups compared with non-ADSC groups at day 7, day 14 and day 28, although high expression of runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) was only seen at day 7. Furthermore, the number of TRAP-positive osteoclasts and the expression of cathepsin K (CK) were significantly decreased in VD groups compared with non-VD groups at day 7 and day 14. As a most significant finding, the β-TCP-ADSC-VD group showed the highest BV/TV ratio compared with the other three groups at day 28. Taken together, ADSC-loaded β-TCP under the administration of 1α,25(OH)2D3 made a promising therapy for bone defects restoration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Downregulation of miR-522 suppresses proliferation and metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer cells by directly targeting DENN/MADD domain containing 2D

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tianze; Hu, Yingying; Ju, Jin; Hou, Liangyu; Li, Zhange; Xiao, Dan; Li, Yongchao; Yao, Jianyu; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Linyou

    2016-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), one of the most common causes of cancer-related death, is a worldwide public health problem. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently been identified as a novel class of regulators of carcinogenesis and tumor progression, including miRNAs associated with NSCLC. This study aimed to explore the role of miR-522 in NSCLC and the mechanisms underlying this role. We report here that miR-522 expression was significantly increased in both human NSCLC tissues and cell lines. Furthermore, an MTT assay, 5-Ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU) assay kit and flow cytometry confirmed that the inhibition of miR-522 suppressed NSCLC cells proliferation and induced apoptosis. Compared with miR-522 overexpression, miR-522 inhibitor markedly reduced cells migration and invasion, as indicated by wound-healing and transwell assays. In addition, a luciferase assay identified DENN/MADD domain containing 2D (DENND2D) as a direct target of miR-522. qRT-PCR and western blot analyses indicated the reciprocal expression of miR-522 and DENND2D in NSCLC tissue samples. DENND2D was involved in miR-522 induced proliferation and metastasis of NSCLC cells by a miRNA-masking antisense oligonucleotides (miR-mask) technology. These data highlight a novel molecular interaction between miR-522 and DENND2D, which indicates that targeting miR-522 may constitute a potential therapy for NSCLC. PMID:26783084

  16. Downregulation of miR-522 suppresses proliferation and metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer cells by directly targeting DENN/MADD domain containing 2D.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tianze; Hu, Yingying; Ju, Jin; Hou, Liangyu; Li, Zhange; Xiao, Dan; Li, Yongchao; Yao, Jianyu; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Linyou

    2016-01-19

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), one of the most common causes of cancer-related death, is a worldwide public health problem. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently been identified as a novel class of regulators of carcinogenesis and tumor progression, including miRNAs associated with NSCLC. This study aimed to explore the role of miR-522 in NSCLC and the mechanisms underlying this role. We report here that miR-522 expression was significantly increased in both human NSCLC tissues and cell lines. Furthermore, an MTT assay, 5-Ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) assay kit and flow cytometry confirmed that the inhibition of miR-522 suppressed NSCLC cells proliferation and induced apoptosis. Compared with miR-522 overexpression, miR-522 inhibitor markedly reduced cells migration and invasion, as indicated by wound-healing and transwell assays. In addition, a luciferase assay identified DENN/MADD domain containing 2D (DENND2D) as a direct target of miR-522. qRT-PCR and western blot analyses indicated the reciprocal expression of miR-522 and DENND2D in NSCLC tissue samples. DENND2D was involved in miR-522 induced proliferation and metastasis of NSCLC cells by a miRNA-masking antisense oligonucleotides (miR-mask) technology. These data highlight a novel molecular interaction between miR-522 and DENND2D, which indicates that targeting miR-522 may constitute a potential therapy for NSCLC.

  17. Role of NKG2D, DNAM-1 and natural cytotoxicity receptors in cytotoxicity toward rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines mediated by resting and IL-15-activated human natural killer cells.

    PubMed

    Boerman, Gerharda H; van Ostaijen-ten Dam, Monique M; Kraal, Kathelijne C J M; Santos, Susy J; Ball, Lynne M; Lankester, Arjan C; Schilham, Marco W; Egeler, R Maarten; van Tol, Maarten J D

    2015-05-01

    Children with advanced stages (relapsed/refractory and stage IV) of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) have a poor prognosis despite intensive chemotherapy and autologous stem cell rescue, with 5-year survival rates ranging from 5 to 35 %. Development of new, additional treatment modalities is necessary to improve the survival rate. In this preclinical study, we investigated the potential of resting and cytokine-activated natural killer (NK) cells to lyse RMS cell lines, as well as the pathways involved, to explore the eventual clinical application of (activated) NK cell immunotherapy. RMS cell lines (n = 3 derived from embryonal RMS and n = 2 derived from alveolar RMS) were susceptible to cytolysis mediated by resting NK cells, and this susceptibility was significantly increased using IL-15-activated NK cells. Flow cytometry and cytolytic assays were used to define the activating and inhibitory pathways of NK cells involved in recognizing and lysing RMS cells. NKG2D and DNAM-1 receptor-ligand interactions were essential in cytolysis by resting NK cells, as simultaneous blocking of both pathways resulted in almost complete abrogation of the cytotoxicity. In contrast, combined blocking of DNAM-1 and NKG2D only led to partial reduction of the lytic activity of IL-15-activated NK cells. In this respect, residual lysis was, at least partly, mediated by pathways involving the natural cytotoxicity receptors NKp30 and NKp46. These findings support further exploration of NK cell-based immunotherapy as adjuvant modality in current treatment strategies of RMS.

  18. Madin-Darby canine kidney cells are increased in aerobic glycolysis when cultured on flat and stiff collagen-coated surfaces rather than in physiological 3-D cultures.

    PubMed

    Pampaloni, Francesco; Stelzer, Ernst H K; Leicht, Stefan; Marcello, Marco

    2010-10-01

    We investigate the influence of the dimensionality and the biochemistry of the culture system on the cellular functionality by analyzing the protein expression levels in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells grown in 3-D and 2-D substrates. We cultured MDCK cells on a hard and flat 2-D uncoated plastic surface, on a 2-D collagen-coated plastic surface and in 3-D collagen gel and employed 2-D gel electrophoresis, MALDI-TOF-MS, and LC-MS/MS analysis to identify the differentially regulated proteins. We found significant differences in the expression of antioxidant proteins, actin-binding proteins, glycolytic enzymes, and heat-shock proteins/chaperons among the three types of cultures. While MDCK cells cultured in 3-D collagen up-regulate antioxidant proteins and proteins involved in the dynamic remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton, 2-D collagen-coated plastic surfaces induce the up-regulation of glycolytic enzymes. Our data shows that the culture conditions have profound effects on the physiology of the cell. Culture in 3-D collagen induces a differentiated polarized phenotype. In contrast, collagen-coated 2-D substrates favor a tumor-like phenotype with increased glycolysis. Thus, the suitability of 2-D cultures to study the physiological behavior of cells, especially in drug discovery, bioprocessing, and toxicology, should be carefully reconsidered.

  19. Expression and Function of NKG2D Is Impaired in CD8+ T Cells of Chronically HIV-1-Infected Patients Without ART.

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Erica; Vassena, Lia; Desimio, Maria Giovanna; Buonomini, Anna Rita; Malagnino, Vincenzo; Andreoni, Massimo; Doria, Margherita

    2015-12-01

    Increasing line of evidence indicates that the NKG2D-activating receptor plays a relevant role in the effector functions of cytotoxic lymphocytes. In this study, we investigated the expression and function of NKG2D in CD8⁺ T cells from chronically HIV-1-infected patients with or without antiretroviral therapy (ART). We measured by flow cytometry the expression of NKG2D on CD8⁺ T-cell subsets of ART-naive and ART patients as well as seronegative healthy subjects (HIV-neg). An intrapatient analysis before and after ART initiation was also performed. Results were correlated with viral load, CD4⁺ T-cell counts, markers of immune activation (CD38, sCD14), and soluble NKG2D ligands (sMICA and sULBP2). The function of NKG2D on CD8⁺ T cell cytotoxicity was tested by ex vivo degranulation assays. We showed that NKG2D was downregulated on all CD8⁺ T-cell subsets of ART-naive patients. The expression of NKG2D on CD8⁺ T cells inversely correlated with viral load and CD38 expression but not with plasma levels of sMICA and sULBP2. Importantly, we found that NKG2D-mediated costimulation of CD8⁺ T-cell lytic activity was strongly reduced in ART-naive patients if compared with HIV-neg and ART subjects. Finally, intrapatient analysis demonstrated that effective anti-HIV-1 therapy restores NKG2D expression and NKG2D-induced cytotoxicity by CD8⁺ T cells. These data underscore that NKG2D downregulation contributes to impaired CD8⁺ T-cell responses in untreated HIV-1 infection and have implications for monitoring immune functions and response to treatments, and for the development of novel anti-HIV-1 strategies combining ART with drugs that stimulate NKG2D expression and function.

  20. Application of cell co-culture system to study fat and muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Pandurangan, Muthuraman; Hwang, Inho

    2014-09-01

    Animal cell culture is a highly complex process, in which cells are grown under specific conditions. The growth and development of these cells is a highly unnatural process in vitro condition. Cells are removed from animal tissues and artificially cultured in various culture vessels. Vitamins, minerals, and serum growth factors are supplied to maintain cell viability. Obtaining result homogeneity of in vitro and in vivo experiments is rare, because their structure and function are different. Living tissues have highly ordered complex architecture and are three-dimensional (3D) in structure. The interaction between adjacent cell types is quite distinct from the in vitro cell culture, which is usually two-dimensional (2D). Co-culture systems are studied to analyze the interactions between the two different cell types. The muscle and fat co-culture system is useful in addressing several questions related to muscle modeling, muscle degeneration, apoptosis, and muscle regeneration. Co-culture of C2C12 and 3T3-L1 cells could be a useful diagnostic tool to understand the muscle and fat formation in animals. Even though, co-culture systems have certain limitations, they provide a more realistic 3D view and information than the individual cell culture system. It is suggested that co-culture systems are useful in evaluating the intercellular communication and composition of two different cell types.

  1. Cell culture compositions

    DOEpatents

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yiao, Jian

    2014-03-18

    The present invention provides a novel endoglucanase nucleic acid sequence, designated egl6 (SEQ ID NO:1 encodes the full length endoglucanase; SEQ ID NO:4 encodes the mature form), and the corresponding endoglucanase VI amino acid sequence ("EGVI"; SEQ ID NO:3 is the signal sequence; SEQ ID NO:2 is the mature sequence). The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding EGVI, recombinant EGVI proteins and methods for producing the same.

  2. Cultured Human Renal Cortical Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    During the STS-90 shuttle flight in April 1998, cultured renal cortical cells revealed new information about genes. Timothy Hammond, an investigator in NASA's microgravity biotechnology program was interested in culturing kidney tissue to study the expression of proteins useful in the treatment of kidney diseases. Protein expression is linked to the level of differentiation of the kidney cells, and Hammond had difficulty maintaining differentiated cells in vitro. Intrigued by the improvement in cell differentiation that he observed in rat renal cells cultured in NASA's rotating wall vessel (a bioreactor that simulates some aspects of microgravity) and during an experiment performed on the Russian Space Station Mir, Hammond decided to sleuth out which genes were responsible for controlling differentiation of kidney cells. To do this, he compared the gene activity of human renal cells in a variety of gravitational environments, including the microgravity of the space shuttle and the high-gravity environment of a centrifuge. Hammond found that 1,632 genes out of 10,000 analyzed changed their activity level in microgravity, more than in any of the other environments. These results have important implications for kidney research as well as for understanding the basic mechanism for controlling cell differentiation.

  3. Cytokine-induced killer cells efficiently kill stem-like cancer cells of nasopharyngeal carcinoma via the NKG2D-ligands recognition

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Li-Ting; Wang, Hui-Yan; Qin, Yu-Juan; Chen, Lin; Shen, Hong-Fen; Lin, Xiao-Lin; Yang, Jie; Yang, Sheng; Hao, Wei-Chao; Chen, Yan; Xiao, Sheng-Jun; Zhou, Hui-Rong; Lin, Tao-Yan; Chen, Yu-Shuang; Sun, Yan; Yao, Kai-Tai; Xiao, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are considered to be the root cause for cancer treatment failure. Thus, there remains an urgent need for more potent and safer therapies against CSCs for curing cancer. In this study, the antitumor activity of cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells against putative CSCs of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) was fully evaluated in vitro and in vivo. To visualize putative CSCs in vitro by fluorescence imaging, and image and quantify putative CSCs in tumor xenograft-bearing mice by in vivo bioluminescence imaging, NPC cells were engineered with CSC detector vector encoding GFP and luciferase (Luc) under control of Nanog promoter. Our study reported in vitro intense tumor-killing activity of CIK cells against putative CSCs of NPC, as revealed by percentage analysis of side population cells, tumorsphere formation assay and Nanog-promoter-GFP-Luc reporter gene strategy plus time-lapse recording. Additionally, time-lapse imaging firstly illustrated that GFP-labeled or PKH26-labeled putative CSCs or tumorspheres were usually attacked simultaneously by many CIK cells and finally killed by CIK cells, suggesting the necessity of achieving sufficient effector-to-target ratios. We firstly confirmed that NKG2D blockade by anti-NKG2D antibody significantly but partially abrogated CIK cell-mediated cytolysis against putative CSCs. More importantly, intravenous infusion of CIK cells significantly delayed tumor growth in NOD/SCID mice, accompanied by a remarkable reduction in putative CSC number monitored by whole-body bioluminescence imaging. Taken together, our findings suggest that CIK cells demonstrate the intense tumor-killing activity against putative CSCs of NPC, at least in part, by NKG2D-ligands recognition. These results indicate that CIK cell-based therapeutic strategy against CSCs presents a promising and safe approach for cancer treatment. PMID:26418951

  4. A novel three-dimensional cell culture method enhances antiviral drug screening in primary human cells.

    PubMed

    Koban, Robert; Neumann, Markus; Daugs, Aila; Bloch, Oliver; Nitsche, Andreas; Langhammer, Stefan; Ellerbrok, Heinz

    2018-02-01

    Gefitinib is a specific inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and FDA approved for treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. In a previous study we could show the in vitro efficacy of gefitinib for treatment of poxvirus infections in monolayer (2D) cultivated cell lines. Permanent cell lines and 2D cultures, however, are known to be rather unphysiological; therefore it is difficult to predict whether determined effective concentrations or the drug efficacy per se are transferable to the in vivo situation. 3D cell cultures, which meanwhile are widely distributed across all fields of research, are a promising tool for more predictive in vitro investigations of antiviral compounds. In this study the spreading of cowpox virus and the antiviral efficacy of gefitinib were analyzed in primary human keratinocytes (NHEK) grown in a novel 3D extracellular matrix-based cell culture model and compared to the respective monolayer culture. 3D-cultivated NHEK grew in a polarized and thus a more physiological manner with altered morphology and close cell-cell contact. Infected cultures showed a strongly elevated sensitivity towards gefitinib. EGFR phosphorylation, cell proliferation, and virus replication were significantly reduced in 3D cultures at gefitinib concentrations which were at least 100-fold lower than those in monolayer cultures and well below the level of cytotoxicity. Our newly established 3D cell culture model with primary human cells is an easy-to-handle alternative to conventional monolayer cell cultures and previously described more complex 3D cell culture systems. It can easily be adapted to other cell types and a broad spectrum of viruses for antiviral drug screening and many other aspects of virus research under more in vivo-like conditions. In consequence, it may contribute to a more targeted realization of necessary in vivo experiments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Identification of H-2d Restricted T Cell Epitope of Foot-and-mouth Disease Virus Structural Protein VP1

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and devastating disease affecting livestock that causes significant financial losses. Therefore, safer and more effective vaccines are required against Foot-and-mouth disease virus(FMDV). The purpose of this study is to screen and identify an H-2d restricted T cell epitope from the virus structural protein VP1, which is present with FMD. We therefore provide a method and basis for studying a specific FMDV T cell epitope. Results A codon-optimized expression method was adopted for effective expression of VP1 protein in colon bacillus. We used foot-and-mouth disease standard positive serum was used for Western blot detection of its immunogenicity. The VP1 protein was used for immunizing BALB/c mice, and spleen lymphocytes were isolated. Then, a common in vitro training stimulus was conducted for potential H-2Dd, H-2Kd and H-2Ld restricted T cell epitope on VP1 proteins that were predicted and synthesized by using a bioinformatics method. The H-2Kd restricted T cell epitope pK1 (AYHKGPFTRL) and the H-2Dd restricted T cell epitope pD7 (GFIMDRFVKI) were identified using lymphocyte proliferation assays and IFN-γ ELISPOT experiments. Conclusions The results of this study lay foundation for studying the FMDV immune process, vaccine development, among other things. These results also showed that, to identify viral T cell epitopes, the combined application of bioinformatics and molecular biology methods is effective. PMID:21896206

  6. Radiation alters PD-L1/NKG2D ligand levels in lung cancer cells and leads to immune escape from NK cell cytotoxicity via IL-6-MEK/Erk signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Ming Jing; Xu, Li Jun; Yang, Li; Tsai, Ying; Keng, Peter C.; Chen, Yongbing; Lee, Soo Ok; Chen, Yuhchyau

    2017-01-01

    We investigated whether radiation influences the susceptibility of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells to NK cell mediated cytotoxicity. We found radiation treatment increased expression of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1), but decreased NK group 2, member D (NKG2D) ligand expressions in A549 and H157 NSCLC cells. Both types of changes would have protected tumor cells from the cytotoxic action of NK cells. Consistently, we detected similar alteration in these molecules in radioresistant A549R26-1 and H157R24-1 subline cells. Higher PD-L1 level was also observed in tumors of A549R26-1 cell-derived xenografts than tumors of parental A549 (A549P) cell-derived xenografts. Accordingly, we found radioresistant cells were more resistant to the cytotoxic action of NK cells than parental cells, and such resistance was decreased when neutralizing antibody (Ab) of PD-L1 was added to the radioresistant cell/NK cell co-cultures. In mechanism studies, we found that IL-6-MEK/Erk signaling contributed most significantly to the up-regulation of PD-L1/down-regulation of NKG2D ligands in radioresistant cells. The addition of the MEK/Erk inhibitor increased the susceptibility of A549R26-1 and H157R24-1 cells to NK-cell cytotoxicity while no significant effect was observed in parental cells. Moreover, we detected enhanced NK-cell cytotoxicity to radioresistant cells when PD-L1 Ab and MEK/Erk inhibitor were added together to co-cultures of tumor/NK cells compared to when PD-L1 Ab was used alone. We suggest that combined use of PD-L1 Ab and MEK/Erk inhibitor may offer better therapeutic benefits than PD-L1 Ab alone to treat NSCLC patients who are receiving radiotherapy or who are at the radioresistant stage. PMID:29113321

  7. The histone deacetylase inhibitor SAHA simultaneously reactivates HIV-1 from latency and up-regulates NKG2D ligands sensitizing for natural killer cell cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Desimio, Maria Giovanna; Giuliani, Erica; Doria, Margherita

    2017-10-01

    In pilot HIV-1 eradication studies, patients' immune responses were ineffective at killing viral reservoirs reactivated through latency reversing agents (LRAs) like suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA). We hypothesized that T cells harboring reactivated HIV-1 express MIC and ULBP ligands for the activating NKG2D receptor of natural killer (NK) cells. Here, we demonstrated that MICA/B and ULBP2 are induced by SAHA on primary T cells harboring reactivated virus. Using latently HIV-1-infected J-Lat 6.3/8.4/9.2 and J1.1 cell lines, we showed that SAHA reverts latency and, simultaneously, up-regulates MICA/B and ULBP2 acting at the transcriptional level and through ATR activation, thus sensitizing T cells with reactivated virus to NKG2D-mediated killing by NK cells. Moreover, IL-2 and IL-15 potently boosted NKG2D expression and cytotoxicity of NK cells against SAHA-reactivated p24 + target cells. Therefore, immunotherapy with cytokines enhancing NKG2D-mediated NK-cell cytotoxicity combined with administration of LRAs up-modulating NKG2D ligands, represents a promising approach towards HIV-1 eradication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of Hypericum perforatum extract and its main bioactive compounds on the cytotoxicity and expression of CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 in hepatic cells.

    PubMed

    Silva, Sara M; Martinho, Ana; Moreno, Ivo; Silvestre, Samuel; Granadeiro, Luiza Breitenfeld; Alves, Gilberto; Duarte, Ana Paula; Domingues, Fernanda; Gallardo, Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    Hypericum perforatum (H. perforatum) is one of the most used medicinal plants. However, it has been associated with relevant interactions with several drugs. This situation is probably mediated by cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP450), namely the 1A2 (CYP1A2) and 2D6 (CYP2D6) isoforms This study aims to assess the cytotoxic and CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 inductive and/or inhibitory effects of a H. perforatum extract and its main bioactive components in hepatic cell lines. A MTT proliferation assay was performed in WRL-68, HepG2 and HepaRG cells after exposition to different concentrations of H. perforatum extract, hypericin and hyperforin for 24 and 72 h. Then, a real-time PCR analysis was accomplished after incubating the cells with these products evaluating the relative CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 expression. These products have relevant cytotoxicity at a 10 μM concentration and it was also demonstrated for the first time that H. perforatum can lead to a significant CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 induction in all cell lines. Moreover, hypericin seems to induce CYP1A2 in HepG2 cells and to inhibit its expression in HepaRG cells while hyperforin induced CYP1A2 in HepG2 and in WRL-68 cells. Additionally, hypericin and hyperforin induce CYP2D6 in HepG2 cells but inhibits its expression in HepaRG and in WRL-68 cells. This study not only evidenced that H. perforatum extract and two of its bioactive components can have toxic effects in hepatic cell lines but also emphasized the potential risk of the consumption of H. perforatum with CYP1A2- and CYP2D6-metabolized drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Endothelial cell function on 2D and 3D micro-fabricated polymer scaffolds: applications in cardiovascular tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, F; Vassalle, C; Simonetti, M; Vozzi, G; Domenici, C; Ahluwalia, A

    2006-01-01

    Polymeric structures of a polylactide-polycaprolactone blend were micro-fabricated using the Pressure Assisted Microsyringe (PAM) system. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were cultured on the scaffolds, and apoptosis, cell adhesion, proliferation and metabolism were evaluated. In addition, more specific indicators of endothelial cell function, namely nitric oxide and endothelin production, were also assessed. Thin films of the blend, as well as gelatine-coated glass slides (as controls) were used. The results show that as far as adhesion, apoptosis and metabolism are concerned, the scaffolds do not interfere with cell function compared with gelatin controls. However, the nitric oxide/endothelin ratio was higher than that observed on the gelatin films, suggesting that the scaffolds could be used for engineering small diameter blood vessels without risk of occlusion.

  10. Characterization and elimination of undesirable protein residues in plant cell walls for enhancing lignin analysis by solution-state 2D gel-NMR methods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Proteins exist in every plant cell wall. Certain protein residues interfere with lignin characterization and quantification. The current solution-state 2D-NMR technique (gel-NMR) for whole plant cell wall structural profiling provides detailed information regarding cell walls and proteins. However, ...

  11. Substantial increase in the frequency of circulating CD4+NKG2D+ T cells in patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The NKG2D receptor confers important activating signals to NK cells via ligands expressed during cellular stress and viral infection. This receptor has generated great interest because not only is it expressed on NK cells, but it is also seen in virtually all CD8+ cytotoxic T cells and is classically considered absent in CD4+ T cells. However, recent studies have identified a distinctive population of CD4+ T cells that do express NKG2D, which could represent a particular cytotoxic effector population involved in viral infections and chronic diseases. On the other hand, increased incidence of human papillomavirus-associated lesions in CD4+ T cell-immunocompromised individuals suggests that CD4+ T cells play a key role in controlling the viral infection. Therefore, this study was focused on identifying the frequency of NKG2D-expressing CD4+ T cells in patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 1. Additionally, factors influencing CD4+NKG2D+ T cell expansion were also measured. Results Close to 50% of patients with CIN 1 contained at least one of the 37 HPV types detected by our genotyping system. A tendency for increased CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells and decreased NK cells was found in CIN 1 patients. The percentage of circulating CD4+ T cells co-expressing the NKG2D receptor significantly increased in women with CIN 1 versus control group. Interestingly, the increase of CD4+NKG2D+ T cells was seen in patients with CIN 1, despite the overall levels of CD4+ T cells did not significantly increase. We also found a significant increase of soluble MICB in CIN 1 patients; however, no correlation with the presence of CD4+NKG2D+ T cells was seen. While TGF-beta was significantly decreased in the group of CIN 1 patients, both TNF-alpha and IL-15 showed a tendency to increase in this group. Conclusions Taken together, our results suggest that the significant increase within the CD4+NKG2D+ T cell population in CIN 1 patients might be the result of a

  12. Regulatory role of NKG2D+ NK cells in intestinal lamina propria by secreting double-edged Th1 cytokines in ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fan; Peng, Pai-Lan; Lin, Xue; Chang, Ying; Liu, Jing; Zhou, Rui; Nie, Jia-Yan; Dong, Wei-Guo; Zhao, Qiu; Li, Jin

    2017-11-17

    The role of intestinal lamina propria (LP) NKG2D+ NK cells is unclear in regulating Th1/Th2 balance in ulcerative colitis (UC). In this study, we investigated the frequency of LP NKG2D+ NK cells in DSS-induced colitis model and intestinal mucosal samples of UC patients, as well as the secretion of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines in NK cell lines after MICA stimulation. The role of Th1 cytokines in UC was validated by bioinformatics analysis. We found that DSS-induced colitis in mice was characterized by a Th2-mediated process. In acute phrase, the frequency of LP NKG2D+ lymphocytes increased significantly and decreased in remission, while the frequency of LP NKG2D+ NK cells decreased significantly in acute phase and increased in remission. No obvious change was found in the frequency of total LP NK cells. Similarly, severe UC patients had a higher expression of mucosal NKG2D and a lower number of NKG2D+ NK cells than mild to moderate UC. In NK cell lines, the MICA stimulation could induce a predominant secretion of Th1 cytokines (TNF, IFN-γ). Furthermore, in bioinformatics analysis, mucosal Th1 cytokine of TNF, showed a double-edged role in UC when compared to the Th1-mediated disease of Crohn's colitis. In conclusion, LP NKG2D+ NK cells partially played a regulatory role in UC through secreting Th1 cytokines to regulate the Th2-predominant Th1/Th2 imbalance, despite of the concomitant pro-inflammatory effects of Th1 cytokines.

  13. 9 CFR 101.6 - Cell cultures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cell cultures. 101.6 Section 101.6..., SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS DEFINITIONS § 101.6 Cell cultures. When used in conjunction with or in reference to cell cultures, which may be referred to as tissue cultures...

  14. 9 CFR 101.6 - Cell cultures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cell cultures. 101.6 Section 101.6..., SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS DEFINITIONS § 101.6 Cell cultures. When used in conjunction with or in reference to cell cultures, which may be referred to as tissue cultures...

  15. 9 CFR 101.6 - Cell cultures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cell cultures. 101.6 Section 101.6..., SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS DEFINITIONS § 101.6 Cell cultures. When used in conjunction with or in reference to cell cultures, which may be referred to as tissue cultures...

  16. 9 CFR 101.6 - Cell cultures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cell cultures. 101.6 Section 101.6..., SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS DEFINITIONS § 101.6 Cell cultures. When used in conjunction with or in reference to cell cultures, which may be referred to as tissue cultures...

  17. 9 CFR 101.6 - Cell cultures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cell cultures. 101.6 Section 101.6..., SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS DEFINITIONS § 101.6 Cell cultures. When used in conjunction with or in reference to cell cultures, which may be referred to as tissue cultures...

  18. 11.4% Efficiency non-fullerene polymer solar cells with trialkylsilyl substituted 2D-conjugated polymer as donor

    PubMed Central

    Bin, Haijun; Gao, Liang; Zhang, Zhi-Guo; Yang, Yankang; Zhang, Yindong; Zhang, Chunfeng; Chen, Shanshan; Xue, Lingwei; Yang, Changduk; Xiao, Min; Li, Yongfang

    2016-01-01

    Simutaneously high open circuit voltage and high short circuit current density is a big challenge for achieving high efficiency polymer solar cells due to the excitonic nature of organic semdonductors. Herein, we developed a trialkylsilyl substituted 2D-conjugated polymer with the highest occupied molecular orbital level down-shifted by Si–C bond interaction. The polymer solar cells obtained by pairing this polymer with a non-fullerene acceptor demonstrated a high power conversion efficiency of 11.41% with both high open circuit voltage of 0.94 V and high short circuit current density of 17.32 mA cm−2 benefitted from the complementary absorption of the donor and acceptor, and the high hole transfer efficiency from acceptor to donor although the highest occupied molecular orbital level difference between the donor and acceptor is only 0.11 eV. The results indicate that the alkylsilyl substitution is an effective way in designing high performance conjugated polymer photovoltaic materials. PMID:27905397

  19. Propionic acid secreted from propionibacteria induces NKG2D ligand expression on human-activated T lymphocytes and cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Andresen, Lars; Hansen, Karen Aagaard; Jensen, Helle; Pedersen, Stine Falsig; Stougaard, Peter; Hansen, Helle Rüsz; Jurlander, Jesper; Skov, Søren

    2009-07-15

    We found that propionic acid secreted from propionibacteria induces expression of the NKG2D ligands MICA/B on activated T lymphocytes and different cancer cells, without affecting MICA/B expression on resting peripheral blood cells. Growth supernatant from propionibacteria or propionate alone could directly stimulate functional MICA/B surface expression and MICA promoter activity by a mechanism dependent on intracellular calcium. Deletion and point mutations further demonstrated that a GC-box motif around -110 from the MICA transcription start site is essential for propionate-mediated MICA promoter activity. Other short-chain fatty acids such as lactate, acetate, and butyrate could also induce MICA/B expression. We observed a striking difference in the molecular signaling pathways that regulate MICA/B. A functional glycolytic pathway was essential for MICA/B expression after exposure to propionate and CMV. In contrast, compounds with histone deacetylase-inhibitory activity such as butyrate and FR901228 stimulated MICA/B expression through a pathway that was not affected by inhibition of glycolysis, clearly suggesting that MICA/B is regulated through different molecular mechanisms. We propose that propionate, produced either by bacteria or during cellular metabolism, has significant immunoregulatory function and may be cancer prophylactic.

  20. Seismic wavefront evolution of multiply reflected, transmitted, and converted phases in 2D/3D triangular cell model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Chao-Ying; Li, Xiao-Ling; Tang, Xiao-Ping

    2011-10-01

    Conventionally grid-cell-based schemes for simulating seismic wavefront propagation, such as the finite difference eikonal equation solver or the shortest-path method, usually adopt regular grids or cells in model parameterization to obtaining (but not exclusively) first arrivals only. However, later arrivals, which often result from the velocity interfaces or discontinuities, can be prevalent and significant (sometimes of large amplitude), making them potentially important additional information to use in practical applications. To better approximate the data acquisition geometry and the irregular interfaces, we exploit a triangular shortest-path method (TSPM; that is to use triangular cells in model parameterization) to simulate seismic wavefront evolution, comprising any kind of transmissions, reflections (or refractions), mode conversions, and combinations thereof, in 2D/3D heterogeneous media. A practical procedure, known as the multistage scheme, was incorporated with the TSPM to propagate seismic wavefronts from one interface (or subsurface in 3D) to the next. By treating each separate layer that the wavefront enters as an independent computational domain, one can simulate wavefront transmission and mode conversion by reinitializing it in the adjacent layer and wavefront reflection (and/or conversion) by reinitializing it in the incident layer. To further improve the computational accuracy, a second level of forward star scheme, previously defined in the grid model, is introduced into the triangular cell model. Several examples (including the Marmousi model) are used to demonstrate the viability and versatility of the multistage TSPM in heterogeneous media, even in the presence of high-velocity contrasts involving interfaces of relatively high curvature. With the introduction of the second level of forward star scheme, the total numbers of nodes are reduced sufficiently, and hereafter the computer memory is less required. Most important is that the computing

  1. Overexpression of LLT1 (OCIL, CLEC2D) on prostate cancer cells inhibits NK cell-mediated killing through LLT1-NKRP1A (CD161) interaction.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Stephen O; Chaudhary, Pankaj; Powers, Sheila B; Vishwanatha, Jamboor K; Mathew, Porunelloor A

    2016-10-18

    Prostate cancer is the most common type of cancer diagnosed and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in American men. Natural Killer (NK) cells are the first line of defense against cancer and infections. NK cell function is regulated by a delicate balance between signals received through activating and inhibitory receptors. Previously, we identified Lectin-like transcript-1 (LLT1/OCIL/CLEC2D) as a counter-receptor for the NK cell inhibitory receptor NKRP1A (CD161). Interaction of LLT1 expressed on target cells with NKRP1A inhibits NK cell activation. In this study, we have found that LLT1 was overexpressed on prostate cancer cell lines (DU145, LNCaP, 22Rv1 and PC3) and in primary prostate cancer tissues both at the mRNA and protein level. We further showed that LLT1 is retained intracellularly in normal prostate cells with minimal cell surface expression. Blocking LLT1 interaction with NKRP1A by anti-LLT1 mAb on prostate cancer cells increased the NK-mediated cytotoxicity of prostate cancer cells. The results indicate that prostate cancer cells may evade immune attack by NK cells by expressing LLT1 to inhibit NK cell-mediated cytolytic activity through LLT1-NKRP1A interaction. Blocking LLT1-NKRP1A interaction will make prostate cancer cells susceptible to killing by NK cells and therefore may be a new therapeutic option for treatment of prostate cancer.

  2. Alginate as a cell culture substrate for growth and differentiation of human retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Heidari, Razeih; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Samiei, Shahram; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Davari, Maliheh; Nazemroaya, Fatemeh; Bagheri, Abouzar; Deezagi, Abdolkhalegh

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells' behavior in alginate beads that establish 3D environment for cellular growth and mimic extracellular matrix versus the conventional 2D monolayer culture. RPE cells were encapsulated in alginate beads by dripping alginate cell suspension into CaCl2 solution. Beads were suspended in three different media including Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM)/F12 alone, DMEM/F12 supplemented with 10 % fetal bovine serum (FBS), and DMEM/F12 supplemented with 30 % human amniotic fluid (HAF). RPE cells were cultivated on polystyrene under the same conditions as controls. Cell phenotype, cell proliferation, cell death, and MTT assay, immunocytochemistry, and real-time RT-PCR were performed to evaluate the effect of alginate on RPE cells characteristics and integrity. RPE cells can survive and proliferate in alginate matrixes. Immunocytochemistry analysis exhibited Nestin, RPE65, and cytokeratin expressions in a reasonable number of cultured cells in alginate beads. Real-time PCR data demonstrated high levels of Nestin, CHX10, RPE65, and tyrosinase gene expressions in RPE cells immobilized in alginate when compared to 2D monolayer culture systems. The results suggest that alginate can be used as a reliable scaffold for maintenance of RPE cells' integrity and in vitro propagation of human retinal progenitor cells for cell replacement therapies in retinal diseases.

  3. A novel 3-D model for cell culture and tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xulang; Xie, Yubing; Koh, Chee Guan; James Lee, L

    2009-08-01

    A novel method of making microcapsules in a macrocapsule is demonstrated as a 3-D culture system in this article. Mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells as model cells were used in the 3-D culture space, and the cell viability and histological observation were conducted. Furthermore, Oct4 gene expression was evaluated for the undifferentiated status of mES cells in this 3-D model. The results showed that mES cells can grow in this 3-D model and retain their normal viability and morphology. This 3-D model allows mES cells to stay in the undifferentiated state better than 2-D culture systems. This work demonstrates a new 3-D tissue model which can provide an in vivo like microenvironment for non-differentiated mES cells with good immunoisolation. This approach may bridge the gap between traditional 2-D cell culture and animal models.

  4. NKG2D ligand overexpression in lupus nephritis correlates with increased NK cell activity and differentiation in kidneys but not in the periphery

    PubMed Central

    Spada, Roberto; Rojas, José M.; Pérez-Yagüe, Sonia; Mulens, Vladimir; Cannata-Ortiz, Pablo; Bragado, Rafael; Barber, Domingo F.

    2015-01-01

    NK cells are a major component of the immune system, and alterations in their activity are correlated with various autoimmune diseases. In the present work, we observed an increased expression of the NKG2D ligand MICA in SLE patients’ kidneys but not healthy subjects. We also show glomerulus-specific expression of the NKG2D ligands Rae-1 and Mult-1 in various murine SLE models, which correlated with a higher number of glomerular-infiltrating NK cells. As the role of NK cells in the immunopathogenesis of SLE is poorly understood, we explored NK cell differentiation and activity in tissues and organs in SLE-prone murine models by use of diseased and prediseased MRL/MpJ and MRL/lpr mice. We report here that phenotypically iNK cells accumulate only in the spleen but not in BM or kidneys of diseased mice. Infiltrating NK cells in kidneys undergoing a lupus nephritic process showed a more mature, activated phenotype compared with kidney, as well as peripheral NK cells from prediseased mice, as determined by IFN-γ and STAT5 analysis. These findings and the presence of glomerulus-specific NKG2D ligands in lupus-prone mice identify a role for NK cells and NKG2D ligands in the lupus nephritic process, which could aid in understanding their role in human SLE. PMID:25583577

  5. Porcine spermatogonial stem cells self-renew effectively in a three dimensional culture microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji Eun; Park, Min Hee; Kim, Min Seong; Park, Yeo Reum; Yun, Jung Im; Cheong, Hee Tae; Kim, Minseok; Choi, Jung Hoon; Lee, Eunsong; Lee, Seung Tae

    2017-12-01

    Generally, self-renewal of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) is maintained in vivo in a three-dimensional (3D) microenvironment consisting of the seminiferous tubule basement membrane, indicating the importance of the 3D microenvironment for in vitro culture of SSCs. Here, we report a 3D culture microenvironment that effectively maintains porcine SSC self-renewal during culture. Porcine SSCs were cultured in an agarose-based 3D hydrogel and in 2D culture plates either with or without feeder cells. Subsequently, the effects of 3D culture on the maintenance of undifferentiated SSCs were identified by analyzing cell colony formation and morphology, AP activity, and transcriptional and translational regulation of self-renewal-related genes and the effects on proliferation by analyzing cell viability and single cell-derived colony number. The 3D culture microenvironment constructed using a 0.2% (w/v) agarose-based 3D hydrogel showed the strongest maintenance of porcine SSC self-renewal and induced significant improvements in proliferation compared with 2D culture microenvironments. These results demonstrate that self-renewal of porcine SSCs can be maintained more effectively in a 3D than in a 2D culture microenvironment. Moreover, this will play a significant role in developing novel culture systems for SSCs derived from diverse species in the future, which will contribute to SSC-related research. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  6. Low NKp30, NKp46 and NKG2D expression and reduced cytotoxic activity on NK cells in cervical cancer and precursor lesions.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Iglesias, Trinidad; Del Toro-Arreola, Alicia; Albarran-Somoza, Benibelks; Del Toro-Arreola, Susana; Sanchez-Hernandez, Pedro E; Ramirez-Dueñas, Maria Guadalupe; Balderas-Peña, Luz Ma Adriana; Bravo-Cuellar, Alejandro; Ortiz-Lazareno, Pablo C; Daneri-Navarro, Adrian

    2009-06-16

    Persistent high risk HPV infection can lead to cervical cancer, the second most common malignant tumor in women worldwide. NK cells play a crucial role against tumors and virus-infected cells through a fine balance between activating and inhibitory receptors. Expression of triggering receptors NKp30, NKp44, NKp46 and NKG2D on NK cells correlates with cytolytic activity against tumor cells, but these receptors have not been studied in cervical cancer and precursor lesions. The aim of the present work was to study NKp30, NKp46, NKG2D, NKp80 and 2B4 expression in NK cells from patients with cervical cancer and precursor lesions, in the context of HPV infection. NKp30, NKp46, NKG2D, NKp80 and 2B4 expression was analyzed by flow cytometry on NK cells from 59 patients with cervical cancer and squamous intraepithelial lesions. NK cell cytotoxicity was evaluated in a 4 hour CFSE/7-AAD flow cytometry assay. HPV types were identified by PCR assays. We report here for the first time that NK cell-activating receptors NKp30 and NKp46 are significantly down-regulated in cervical cancer and high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HGSIL) patients. NCRs down-regulation correlated with low cytolytic activity, HPV-16 infection and clinical stage. NKG2D was also down-regulated in cervical cancer patients. Our results suggest that NKp30, NKp46 and NKG2D down-regulation represent an evasion mechanism associated to low NK cell activity, HPV-16 infection and cervical cancer progression.

  7. 2D map of proteins from human renal stone matrix and evaluation of their effect on oxalate induced renal tubular epithelial cell injury.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, K P; Tandon, S; Singh, S K; Tandon, C

    2013-01-01

    Proteins constitute a major portion of the organic matrix of human calcium oxalate (CaOx) renal stones and the matrix is considered to be important in stone formation and growth. The present study evaluates the effect of these proteins on oxalate injured renal epithelial cells accompanied by a 2D map of these proteins. Proteins were isolated from the matrix of kidney stones containing CaOx as the major constituent using EGTA as a demineralizing agent. The effect of more than 3kDa proteins from matrix of human renal (calcium oxalate) CaOx stones was investigated on oxalate induced cell injury of MDCK renal tubular epithelial cells. A 2D map of >3kDa proteins was also generated followed by protein identification using MALDI-TOF MS. The >3kDa proteins enhanced the injury caused by oxalate on MDCK cells. Also, the 2D map of proteins having MW more than 3kDa suggested the abundance of proteins in the matrix of renal stone. Studies indicate that the mixture of >3kDa proteins in the matrix of human renal stones acts as promoter of calcium oxalate crystal nucleation and growth as it augments the renal epithelial cell injury induced by oxalate. The effect of promoters masks the inhibitors in the protein mixture thereby leading to enhanced renal cell injury. 2D map throws light on the nature of proteins present in the kidney stones.

  8. Cell sources for in vitro human liver cell culture models.

    PubMed

    Zeilinger, Katrin; Freyer, Nora; Damm, Georg; Seehofer, Daniel; Knöspel, Fanny

    2016-09-01

    In vitro liver cell culture models are gaining increasing importance in pharmacological and toxicological research. The source of cells used is critical for the relevance and the predictive value of such models. Primary human hepatocytes (PHH) are currently considered to be the gold standard for hepatic in vitro culture models, since they directly reflect the specific metabolism and functionality of the human liver; however, the scarcity and difficult logistics of PHH have driven researchers to explore alternative cell sources, including liver cell lines and pluripotent stem cells. Liver cell lines generated from hepatomas or by genetic manipulation are widely used due to their good availability, but they are generally altered in certain metabolic functions. For the past few years, adult and pluripotent stem cells have been attracting increasing attention, due their ability to proliferate and to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells in vitro However, controlling the differentiation of these cells is still a challenge. This review gives an overview of the major human cell sources under investigation for in vitro liver cell culture models, including primary human liver cells, liver cell lines, and stem cells. The promises and challenges of different cell types are discussed with a focus on the complex 2D and 3D culture approaches under investigation for improving liver cell functionality in vitro Finally, the specific application options of individual cell sources in pharmacological research or disease modeling are described. © 2016 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  9. Cell sources for in vitro human liver cell culture models

    PubMed Central

    Freyer, Nora; Damm, Georg; Seehofer, Daniel; Knöspel, Fanny

    2016-01-01

    In vitro liver cell culture models are gaining increasing importance in pharmacological and toxicological research. The source of cells used is critical for the relevance and the predictive value of such models. Primary human hepatocytes (PHH) are currently considered to be the gold standard for hepatic in vitro culture models, since they directly reflect the specific metabolism and functionality of the human liver; however, the scarcity and difficult logistics of PHH have driven researchers to explore alternative cell sources, including liver cell lines and pluripotent stem cells. Liver cell lines generated from hepatomas or by genetic manipulation are widely used due to their good availability, but they are generally altered in certain metabolic functions. For the past few years, adult and pluripotent stem cells have been attracting increasing attention, due their ability to proliferate and to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells in vitro. However, controlling the differentiation of these cells is still a challenge. This review gives an overview of the major human cell sources under investigation for in vitro liver cell culture models, including primary human liver cells, liver cell lines, and stem cells. The promises and challenges of different cell types are discussed with a focus on the complex 2D and 3D culture approaches under investigation for improving liver cell functionality in vitro. Finally, the specific application options of individual cell sources in pharmacological research or disease modeling are described. PMID:27385595

  10. Loqs depends on R2D2 to localize in D2 body-like granules and functions in RNAi pathways in silkworm cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li; Tatsuke, Tsuneyuki; Xu, Jian; Li, Zhiqing; Mon, Hiroaki; Lee, Jae Man; Kusakabe, Takahiro

    2015-09-01

    The phenomenon of RNA interference (RNAi) has been found in various organisms. However, the proteins implicated in RNAi pathway in different species show distinct roles. Knowledge on the underlying mechanism of lepidopteron RNAi is quite lacking such as the roles of Loquacious (Loqs) and R2D2, the dsRNA-binding proteins in silkworm RNAi pathway. Here, we report that Loqs and R2D2 protein depletion affected efficiency of dsRNA-mediated RNAi pathway. Besides, Loqs was found to co-localize with Dicer2 to some specific cytoplasmic foci, which were looked like D2-bodies marked by R2D2 and Dicer2 in Fly cells, thereby calling the foci as D2 body-like granules. Using RNAi methods, Loqs was found to be the key protein in these granules, although R2D2 determined the localization of Loqs in D2 body-like granules. Interestingly, in the R2D2-depeted silkworm cells, the formation of processing bodies, another cytoplasmic foci, was affected. These data indicated R2D2 regulated these two kinds of cytoplasmic foci. Domain deletion analysis demonstrated that dsRBD 1 and 2 were required for Loqs in D2 body-like granules and dsRBD 2 and 3 were required for Loqs to interact with R2D2 and Ago1, respectively. Altogether, our observations provide important information for further study on D2 body-like granules, the newly found cytoplasmic foci in silkworm cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 1,25(OH)2D3 induces regulatory T cell differentiation by influencing the VDR/PLC-γ1/TGF-β1/pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qiang; Qin, Shengying; Zhang, Jinyan; Zhon, Lin; Pen, Zhihai; Xing, Tonghai

    2017-11-01

    Vitamin D has been recommended as an immune modulator in recent years, in addition to regulating calcium-phosphorous-bone metabolism. Clinical studies on organ transplantation found that vitamin D sufficiency patients were less likely to develop acute cellular rejection within one year after transplantation compared to those with vitamin D deficiency. Thus, a high percentage of regulatory T cells might play a key role in preventing acute cellular rejection (ACR). In this report, we studied the specific effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 on human T cell diff ;erentiation, and determined the potential molecule mechanism behind. Results showed that 1,25(OH)2D3 induced the differentiation of T-regulatory cells (Treg cells), while inhibiting Th17 cell proliferation. In addition, 1,25(OH)2D3 promoted secretion of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, transforming Growth Factor beta1 (TGF-β1) but suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-17 (IL-17). Phospholipase C gamma 1 (PLC-γ1) is an indispensable signaling protein downstream of the classical TCR signaling pathway and was shown to play a crucial role in T cell activation, while Naive T cells expressed less PLC-γ1. Here we showed that Vitamin D could significantly upregulate PLC-γ1 expression, which then induced expression of TGF-β1. In summary, 1,25(OH)2D3 indirectly modulates the differentiation of Treg/Th17 cells by aff ;ecting the VDR/PLC-γ1/TGF-β1pathway. These results indicate that administration 1,25(OH)2D3 supplements may be a beneficial treatment for organ transplantation recipients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Basic Techniques in Mammalian Cell Tissue Culture.

    PubMed

    Phelan, Katy; May, Kristin M

    2016-11-01

    Cultured mammalian cells are used extensively in cell biology studies. It requires a number of special skills in order to be able to preserve the structure, function, behavior, and biology of the cells in culture. This unit describes the basic skills required to maintain and preserve cell cultures: maintaining aseptic technique, preparing media with the appropriate characteristics, passaging, freezing and storage, recovering frozen stocks, and counting viable cells. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  13. Basic techniques in mammalian cell tissue culture.

    PubMed

    Phelan, Mary C

    2007-09-01

    Cultured mammalian cells are used extensively in cell biology studies. It requires a number of special skills in order to be able to preserve the structure, function, behavior, and biology of the cells in culture. This unit describes the basic skills required to maintain and preserve cell cultures: maintaining aseptic technique, preparing media with the appropriate characteristics, passaging, freezing and storage, recovering frozen stocks, and counting viable cells. (c) 2007 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  14. Basic techniques in mammalian cell tissue culture.

    PubMed

    Phelan, Katy; May, Kristin M

    2015-03-02

    Cultured mammalian cells are used extensively in cell biology studies. It requires a number of special skills in order to be able to preserve the structure, function, behavior, and biology of the cells in culture. This unit describes the basic skills required to maintain and preserve cell cultures: maintaining aseptic technique, preparing media with the appropriate characteristics, passaging, freezing and storage, recovering frozen stocks, and counting viable cells. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  15. Poly(amido amine)-based multilayered thin films on 2D and 3D supports for surface-mediated cell transfection.

    PubMed

    Hujaya, Sry D; Marchioli, Giulia; Roelofs, Karin; van Apeldoorn, Aart A; Moroni, Lorenzo; Karperien, Marcel; Paulusse, Jos M J; Engbersen, Johan F J

    2015-05-10

    Two linear poly(amido amine)s, pCABOL and pCHIS, prepared by polyaddition of cystamine bisacrylamide (C) with 4-aminobutanol (ABOL) or histamine (HIS), were explored to form alternating multilayer thin films with DNA to obtain functionalized materials with transfection capacity in 2D and 3D. Therefore, COS-7 cells were cultured on top of multilayer films formed by layer-by-layer dipcoating of these polymers with GFP-encoded pDNA, and the effect of the number of layers and cell seeding density on the transfection efficiency was evaluated. Multilayer films with pCABOL were found to be superior to pCHIS in facilitating transfection, which was attributed to higher incorporation of pDNA and release of the transfection agent. High amounts of transfected cells were obtained on pCABOL films, correlating proportionally over a wide range with seeding density. Optimal transfection efficiency was obtained with pCABOL films composed of 10 bilayers. Further increase in the number of bilayers only marginally increased transfection efficiency. Using the optimal multilayer and cell seeding conditions, pCABOL multilayers were fabricated on poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), heparinized PCL (PCL-HEP), and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) disks as examples of common biomedical supports. The multilayers were found to completely mask the properties of the original substrates, with significant improvement in cell adhesion, which is especially pronounced for PCL and PLA disks. With all these substrates, transfection efficiency was found to be in the range of 25-50% transfected cells. The pCABOL/pDNA multilayer films can also conveniently add transfection capability to 3D scaffolds. Significant improvement in cell adhesion was observed after multilayer coating of 3D-plotted fibers of PCL (with and without an additional covalent heparin layer), especially for the PCL scaffold without heparin layer and transfection was observed on both 3D PCL and PCL-HEP scaffolds. These results show that layer

  16. [Non-small cell lung cancer 95D cells co-cultured with 3D-bioprinted scaffold to construct a lung cancer model in vitro].

    PubMed

    Mou, Hao; Wang, Jian; Hu, Huizhen; Xu, Wei; Chen, Qingyong

    2015-10-01

    To fabricate an innovative scaffold for lung cancer cell culture and establish a three-dimensional lung cancer model in vitro, and to reveal the differences in biological functions of lung cancer cells under the two-dimensional and three-dimensional culture conditions. We chose agarose and alginate as the scaffold materials, and 3D printing technique was applied to construct cell culture scaffold. 95D cells were co-cultured with this scaffold. The differences of cell morphology, proliferation ability, protein expression, etc. in the cells cultured under 2D and 3D cultural conditions were evaluated by light microscopy using HE staining, MTT assay, scanning electron microscopy, and Western blot analysis. Cells cultured in 2D wells displayed a spindle and polygonal morphology, whereas those grown in the 3D culture aggregated into spheroids, which invaded, migrated and disseminated into the surrounding scaffold. MTT assay showed that the proliferation rates of the 3D-cultured cells for 2-6 days were significantly lower than, but those cultured for 8-9 days were significantly higher than that of the 2D-cultured cells, indicating that proliferative activity of the cells grown in 2D cultures for 8-9 days was inhibited. In contrast, cells grown on 3D scaffolds still maintained a higher proliferation. The Western blot assay showed that the expression of Cdc42, p53, mTOR were significantly down-regulated in 3D scaffold-cultured group (0.529±0.103, 0.820±0.038 vs. 1.967±0.066), compared with that of the 2D-cultured group (3.063±0.139, 1.738±0.122 vs. 2.472±0.151) (P<0.05 for all), while the expression of MMP-2 was up-regulated in the 3D-cultured cells (1.110±0.029), significantly higher than that of the 2D-cultured cells (0.017±0.001) (P<0.05). The cell morphology, proliferation and associated protein expression of lung cancer cells in 3D-culture systems are distinctively different as compared to those of the 2D-cultural cells. 3D-bioprinted agarose-alginate scaffold

  17. 1,25(OH)2D3 disrupts glucose metabolism in prostate cancer cells leading to a truncation of the TCA cycle and inhibition of TXNIP expression.

    PubMed

    Abu El Maaty, Mohamed A; Alborzinia, Hamed; Khan, Shehryar J; Büttner, Michael; Wölfl, Stefan

    2017-10-01

    Prostate cell metabolism exhibits distinct profiles pre- and post-malignancy. The malignant metabolic shift converts prostate cells from "citrate-producing" to "citrate-oxidizing" cells, thereby enhancing glucose metabolism, a phenotype that contrasts classical tumoral Warburg metabolism. An on-line biosensor chip system (BIONAS 2500) was used to monitor metabolic changes (glycolysis and respiration) in response to the putative anti-cancer nutraceutical 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 [1,25(OH) 2 D 3 ], in different prostate cancer (PCa) cell lines (LNCaP, VCaP, DU145 and PC3). LNCaP cells exhibited profound metabolic responsiveness to the treatment and thus extensive analysis of metabolism-modulating effects of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 were performed, including mRNA expression analysis of key metabolic genes (e.g. GLUT1 and PDHK1), analysis of TCA cycle metabolites, glucose uptake/consumption measurements, ATP production, and mitochondrial biogenesis/activity. Altogether, data demonstrate a vivid disruption of glucose metabolism by 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 , illustrated by a decreased glucose uptake and an accumulation of citrate/isocitrate due to TCA cycle truncation. Depletion of glycolytic intermediates led to a consistent decrease in TXNIP expression in response to 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 , an effect that coincided with the activation of AMPK signaling and a reduction in c-MYC expression. Reduction in TXNIP levels in response to 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 was rescued by an AMPK signaling inhibitor and mimicked by a MYC inhibitor highlighting the possible involvement of both pathways in mediating 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 's metabolic effects in PCa cells. Furthermore, pharmacological and genetic modulation of the androgen receptor showed similar and disparate effects on metabolic parameters compared to 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 treatment, highlighting the AR-independent nature of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 's metabolism-modulating effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induced by 1α,25(OH)2D3 and TX 527 in Kaposi sarcoma is VDR dependent.

    PubMed

    González-Pardo, Verónica; Suares, Alejandra; Verstuyf, Annemieke; De Clercq, Pierre; Boland, Ricardo; de Boland, Ana Russo

    2014-10-01

    We have previously shown that 1α,25(OH)2-Vitamin D3 [1α,25(OH)2D3] and its less calcemic analog TX 527 inhibit the proliferation of endothelial cells transformed by the viral G protein-coupled receptor associated to Kaposi sarcoma (vGPCR) and this could be partially explained by the inhibition of the NF-κB pathway. In this work, we further explored the mechanism of action of both vitamin D compounds in Kaposi sarcoma. We investigated whether the cell cycle arrest and subsequent apoptosis of endothelial cells (SVEC) and SVEC transformed by vGPCR (SVEC-vGPCR) elicited by 1α,25(OH)2D3 and TX 527 were mediated by the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Cell cycle analysis of SVEC and SVEC-vGPCR treated with 1α,25(OH)2D3 (10nM, 48h) revealed that 1α,25(OH)2D3 increased the percentage of cells in the G0/G1 phase and diminished the percentage of cells in the S phase of the cell cycle. Moreover, the number of cells in the S phase was higher in SVEC-vGPCR than in SVEC due to vGPCR expression. TX 527 exerted similar effects on growth arrest in SVEC-vGPCR cells. The cell cycle changes were suppressed when the expression of the VDR was blocked by a stable transfection of shRNA against VDR. Annexin V-PI staining demonstrated apoptosis in both SVEC and SVEC-vGPCR after 1α,25(OH)2D3 and TX 527 treatment (10nM, 24h). Cleavage of caspase-3 detected by Western blot analysis was increased to a greater extent in SVEC than in SVEC-vGPCR cells, and this effect was also blocked in VDR knockdown cells. Altogether, these results suggest that 1α,25(OH)2D3 and TX 527 inhibit the proliferation of SVEC and SVEC-vGPCR and induce apoptosis by a mechanism that involves the VDR. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 1α,25(OH) 2D3 Sensitive Cytosolic pH Regulation and Glycolytic Flux in Human Endometrial Ishikawa Cells.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ni; Zhou, Yuetao; Zhang, Shaqiu; Singh, Yogesh; Shi, Bing; Salker, Madhuri S; Lang, Florian

    2017-01-01

    Tumor cell proliferation is modified by 1,25-Dihydroxy-Vitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), a steroid hormone predominantly known for its role in calcium and phosphorus metabolism. Key properties of tumor cells include enhanced glycolytic flux with excessive consumption of glucose and formation of lactate. As glycolysis is highly sensitive to cytosolic pH, maintenance of glycolysis requires export of H+ ions and lactate, which is in part accomplished by Na+/H+ exchangers, such as NHE1 and monocarboxylate transporters, such as MCT4. An effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on those transport processes has, however, never been reported. As cytosolic pH impacts on apoptosis, the study further explored the effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on apoptosis and on the apoptosis regulating kinase AKT, transcription factor Forkhead box O-3 (FOXO3A) and B-cell lymphoma protein BCL-2. In human endometrial adenocarcinoma (Ishikawa) cells, cytosolic pH (pHi) was determined utilizing (2',7'-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein [BCECF] fluorescence, Na+/H+ exchanger activity from Na+ dependent realkalinization after an ammonium pulse, NHE1 and MCT4 transcript levels using qRT-PCR, NHE1, MCT4, total & phospho AKT, total & phospho-FOXO3A and BCL-2 protein abundance by Western blotting, lactate concentration in the supernatant utilizing a colorimetric enzyme assay and cell death quantification using CytoTox 96®, Annexin V and Propidium Iodide staining. A 24 hours treatment with 1,25(OH)2D3 (100 nM) significantly increased cytosolic pH (pHi), significantly decreased Na+/H+ exchanger activity, NHE1 and MCT4 transcript levels as well as protein abundance and significantly increased lactate concentration in the supernatant. Treatment of Ishikawa cells with 1,25(OH)2D3 (100 nM) further triggered apoptosis, an effect paralleled by decreased phosphorylation of AKT and FOXO3A as well as decreased abundance of BCL-2. In Ishikawa cells 1,25(OH)2D3 is a powerful stimulator of glycolysis, an effect presumably due to

  20. Histone deacetylase inhibitors enhance expression of NKG2D ligands in Ewing sarcoma and sensitize for natural killer cell-mediated cytolysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ewing sarcoma patients have a poor prognosis despite multimodal therapy. Integration of combination immunotherapeutic strategies into first-/second-line regimens represents promising treatment options, particularly for patients with intrinsic or acquired resistance to conventional therapies. We evaluated the susceptibility of Ewing sarcoma to natural killer cell-based combination immunotherapy, by assessing the capacity of histone deacetylase inhibitors to improve immune recognition and sensitize for natural killer cell cytotoxicity. Methods Using flow cytometry, ELISA and immunohistochemistry, expression of natural killer cell receptor ligands was assessed in chemotherapy-sensitive/-resistant Ewing sarcoma cell lines, plasma and tumours. Natural killer cell cytotoxicity was evaluated in Chromium release assays. Using ATM/ATR inhibitor caffeine, the contribution of the DNA damage response pathway to histone deacetylase inhibitor-induced ligand expression was assessed. Results Despite comparable expression of natural killer cell receptor ligands, chemotherapy-resistant Ewing sarcoma exhibited reduced susceptibility to resting natural killer cells. Interleukin-15-activation of natural killer cells overcame this reduced sensitivity. Histone deacetylase inhibitor-pretreatment induced NKG2D-ligand expression in an ATM/ATR-dependent manner and sensitized for NKG2D-dependent cytotoxicity (2/4 cell lines). NKG2D-ligands were expressed in vivo, regardless of chemotherapy-response and disease stage. Soluble NKG2D-ligand plasma concentrations did not differ between patients and controls. Conclusion Our data provide a rationale for combination immunotherapy involving immune effector and target cell manipulation in first-/second-line treatment regimens for Ewing sarcoma. PMID:22587892

  1. Dacarbazine-mediated upregulation of NKG2D ligands on tumor cells activates NK and CD8 T cells and restrains melanoma growth.

    PubMed

    Hervieu, Alice; Rébé, Cédric; Végran, Frédérique; Chalmin, Fanny; Bruchard, Mélanie; Vabres, Pierre; Apetoh, Lionel; Ghiringhelli, François; Mignot, Grégoire

    2013-02-01

    Dacarbazine (DTIC) is a cytotoxic drug widely used for melanoma treatment. However, the putative contribution of anticancer immune responses in the efficacy of DTIC has not been evaluated. By testing how DTIC affects host immune responses to cancer in a mouse model of melanoma, we unexpectedly found that both natural killer (NK) and CD8(+) T cells were indispensable for DTIC therapeutic effect. Although DTIC did not directly affect immune cells, it triggered the upregulation of NKG2D ligands on tumor cells, leading to NK cell activation and IFNγ secretion in mice and humans. NK cell-derived IFNγ subsequently favored upregulation of major histocompatibility complex class I molecules on tumor cells, rendering them sensitive to cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells. Accordingly, DTIC markedly enhanced cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 inhibition efficacy in vivo in an NK-dependent manner. These results underscore the immunogenic properties of DTIC and provide a rationale to combine DTIC with immunotherapeutic agents that relieve immunosuppression in vivo.

  2. CD155 on HIV-Infected Cells Is Not Modulated by HIV-1 Vpu and Nef but Synergizes with NKG2D Ligands to Trigger NK Cell Lysis of Autologous Primary HIV-Infected Cells.

    PubMed

    Davis, Zachary B; Sowrirajan, Bharatwaj; Cogswell, Andrew; Ward, Jeffery P; Planelles, Vicente; Barker, Edward

    2017-02-01

    Activation of primary CD4 + T cells induces the CD155, but not the CD112 ligands for the natural killer (NK) cell activation receptor (aNKR) CD226 [DNAX accessory molecule-1 (DNAM-1)]. We hypothesize that HIV productively infects activated CD4 + T cells and makes itself vulnerable to NK cell-mediated lysis when CD155 on infected T cells engages DNAM-1. The primary objective of this study is to determine whether CD155 alone or together with NKG2D ligands triggers autologous NK cell lysis of HIV-infected T cells and whether HIV modulates CD155. To determine whether HIV modulates this activation ligand, we infected "activated" CD4 + T cells with HIV in the absence or presence of Nef and/or Vpu and determined by flow cytometry whether they modulated CD155. To determine if CD155 alone, or together with NKG2D ligands, triggered NK cell lysis of autologous HIV-infected T cells, we treated purified NK cells with DNAM-1 and/or NKG2D blocking antibodies before the addition of purified autologous HIV-infected cells in cytolytic assays. Finally, we determined whether DNAM-1 works together with NKG2D as an NK cell coactivation receptor (caNKR) or whether they work independently as aNKRs to induce an NK cell lytic response. We demonstrate that HIV and specifically Nef and/or Vpu do not modulate CD155 on infected primary T cells; and both CD155 and NKG2D ligands synergize as aNKRs to trigger NK cell lysis of the infected cell.

  3. Automation of 3-dimensional cell culture in arrayed microfluidic devices

    PubMed Central

    Montanez-Sauri, Sara I.; Sung, Kyung Eun; Puccinelli, John P.; Pehlke, Carolyn; Beebe, David J.

    2011-01-01

    The increasing interest in studying the interactions between cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM) has created a need for high throughput low cost three-dimensional (3D) culture systems. The recent development of tubeless microfluidics via passive pumping provides a high throughput microchannel culture platform compatible with existing high throughput infrastructures (e.g. automated liquid handlers). Here we build on a previously reported high throughput two-dimensional (2D) system to create a robust automated system for 3D culture. Operational controls including temperature and sample handling have been characterized and automated. Human mammary fibroblasts (HMFs) suspended in type-I collagen are loaded and cultured in microchannel arrays, and used to optimize the system operational parameters. A Peltier cooler maintains the collagen as a liquid at 4°C during cell seeding, followed by polymerization at 37°C. Optimization of this platform is discussed (e.g. controlling collagen contraction, increasing cell viability, preventing the removal of microchannel contents), and 3D distribution of HMFs is examined by fluorescent microscopy. Finally, we validate the platform by automating a previously developed 3D breast carcinoma co-culture assay. The platform allows more efficient 3D culture experiments and lays the foundation for high throughput studies of cell-ECM interactions. PMID:21609700

  4. Proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in a three- dimensional culture system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, S.; Hu, J.; Long, M.; Tao, Z.

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have multi-differentiation potential and retain the capacity to proliferate and differentiate in vitro, which in turn holds the promise of being able to repair or replace damaged cells or tissues. Since MSCs are rare in amount in vivo, abundant cells usually need be obtained in time in clinic. T herefore, proliferation and differentiation of MSCs in vitro are necessary and important for future applications. Most current studies o MSCs are focused on the cellular andn molecular biology using a two-dimension (2-D) static culture system at unit gravity. The gravity-induced 2D culture of MSCs could potentially not reflect cell-cell- contacts important for proliferation and differentiation of MSCs in vivo. Here we developed a method to proliferate MSCs by using the rotating three-dimensional (3- D) culture system, which can provide low shear, 3-D environment with simulated microgravity. MSCs from human bone marrow were prepared on microcarrier beads and then were seeded in the 3-D culture system. Various rotation conditions were tested to screen out the most suitable one for proliferation of MSCs. 2-D cultures were prepared in routine cell culture dishes as a control. All cultures were uniformly inoculated and medium exchanged at standard intervals. Results were compared with microscopic and immunochemistrical techniques. The differentiation capacity of proliferated MSCs were also tested through induced differentiation experiments. It is found that simulated microgravity and three-dimensional culture condition is an active factor for proliferation of MSCs.

  5. The UL16-binding proteins, a novel family of MHC class I-related ligands for NKG2D, activate natural killer cell functions.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, C L; Chalupny, N J; Cosman, D

    2001-06-01

    The UL16-binding proteins (ULBPs) are a novel family of MHC class I-related molecules (MICs) that were identified based on their ability to bind to the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) glycoprotein UL16. UL16 also binds to a member of another family of MHC class I-like molecules, MICB. The ULBPs and MICs are ligands for NKG2D/DAP10, an activating receptor expressed by natural killer (NK) cells and other immune effector cells, and this interaction can be blocked by UL16. Engagement of NKG2D/DAP10 by ULBPs or MICs expressed on a target cell can overcome an inhibitory signal generated by NK-cell recognition of MHC class I molecules and trigger NK cytotoxicity. ULBPs elicit their effects on NK cells by activating the janus kinase 2, signal transducer and activator of transcription 5, extracellular-signal-regulated kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase and Akt/protein kinase B signal transduction pathways. Although ULBPs alone activate multiple signaling pathways and induce modest cytokine production, ULBPs synergize strongly with interleukin-12 for production of interferon-gamma by NK cells. This finding is consistent with reports in T cells that NKG2D/DAP10 can act as a co-stimulatory receptor in a similar manner as CD28. The possible roles of ULBPs in mediating immune responses to viruses and tumors and the potential mechanisms by which UL16 may allow HCMV to evade immune detection are areas of active investigation.

  6. Increased sMICA and TGFβ1levels in HNSCC patients impair NKG2D-dependent functionality of activated NK cells.

    PubMed

    Klöß, Stephan; Chambron, Nicole; Gardlowski, Tanja; Arseniev, Lubomir; Koch, Joachim; Esser, Ruth; Glienke, Wolfgang; Seitz, Oliver; Köhl, Ulrike

    2015-11-01

    Disseminated head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) escapes immune surveillance and thus frequently manifests as fatal disease. Here, we report on the distribution of distinct immune cell subpopulations, natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and tumor immune escape mechanisms (TIEMs) in 55 HNSCC patients, either at initial diagnosis or present with tumor relapse. Compared to healthy controls, the regulatory NK cells and the ratio of pro/anti-inflammatory cytokines were decreased in HNSCC patients, while soluble major histocompatibility complex Class I chain-related peptide A (sMICA) and transforming growth factor β 1 (TGFβ 1 ) plasma levels were markedly elevated. Increased sMICA and TGFβ 1 concentrations correlated with tumor progression and staging characteristics in 7 follow-up HNSCC patients, with significantly elevated levels of both soluble factors from the time of initial diagnosis to that of relapse. Patient plasma containing elevated sMICA and TGFβ 1 markedly impaired NKG2D-dependent cytotoxicity against HNSCC cells upon incubation with patient-derived and IL-2 activated NK cells vs. those derived from healthy donors. Decreased antitumor recognition was accompanied by reduced NKG2D expression on the NK cell surface and an enhanced caspase-3 activity. In-vitro blocking and neutralization experiments demonstrated a synergistic negative impact of sMICA and TGFβ 1 on NK cell functionality. Although we previously showed the feasibility and safety of transfer of allogeneic donor NK cells in a prior clinical study encompassing various leukemia and tumor patients, our present results suggest the need for caution regarding the sole use of adoptive NK cell transfer. The presence of soluble NKG2D ligands in the plasma of HNSCC patients and the decreased NK cell cytotoxicity due to several factors, especially TGFβ 1 , indicates timely depletion of these immunosuppressing molecules may promote NK cell-based immunotherapy.

  7. Activation of intervertebral disc cells by co-culture with notochordal cells, conditioned medium and hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Gantenbein, Benjamin; Calandriello, Elena; Wuertz-Kozak, Karin; Benneker, Lorin M; Keel, Marius J B; Chan, Samantha C W

    2014-12-11

    Notochordal cells (NC) remain in the focus of research for regenerative therapy for the degenerated intervertebral disc (IVD) due to their progenitor status. Recent findings suggested their regenerative action on more mature disc cells, presumably by the secretion of specific factors, which has been described as notochordal cell conditioned medium (NCCM). The aim of this study was to determine NC culture conditions (2D/3D, fetal calf serum, oxygen level) that lead to significant IVD cell activation in an indirect co-culture system under normoxia and hypoxia (2% oxygen). Porcine NC was kept in 2D monolayer and in 3D alginate bead culture to identify a suitable culture system for these cells. To test stimulating effects of NC, co-cultures of NC and bovine derived coccygeal IVD cells were conducted in a 1:1 ratio with no direct cell contact between NC and bovine nucleus pulposus cell (NPC) or annulus fibrosus cells (AFC) in 3D alginate beads under normoxia and hypoxia (2%) for 7 and 14 days. As a positive control, NPC and AFC were stimulated with NC-derived conditioned medium (NCCM). Cell activity, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content, DNA content and relative gene expression was measured. Mass spectrometry analysis of the NCCM was conducted. We provide evidence by flow cytometry that monolayer culture is not favorable for NC culture with respect to maintaining NC phenotype. In 3D alginate culture, NC activated NPC either in indirect co-culture or by addition of NCCM as indicated by the gene expression ratio of aggrecan/collagen type 2. This effect was strongest with 10% fetal calf serum and under hypoxia. Conversely, AFC seemed unresponsive to co-culture with pNC or to the NCCM. Further, the results showed that hypoxia led to decelerated metabolic activity, but did not lead to a significant change in the GAG/DNA ratio. Mass spectrometry identified connective tissue growth factor (CTGF, syn. CCN2) in the NCCM. Our results confirm the requirement to culture NC in 3D to best

  8. Antigen-Induced but Not Innate Memory CD8 T Cells Express NKG2D and Are Recruited to the Lung Parenchyma upon Viral Infection.

    PubMed

    Grau, Morgan; Valsesia, Séverine; Mafille, Julien; Djebali, Sophia; Tomkowiak, Martine; Mathieu, Anne-Laure; Laubreton, Daphné; de Bernard, Simon; Jouve, Pierre-Emmanuel; Ventre, Erwan; Buffat, Laurent; Walzer, Thierry; Leverrier, Yann; Marvel, Jacqueline

    2018-04-09

    The pool of memory-phenotype CD8 T cells is composed of Ag-induced (AI) and cytokine-induced innate (IN) cells. IN cells have been described as having properties similar to those of AI memory cells. However, we found that pathogen-induced AI memory cells can be distinguished in mice from naturally generated IN memory cells by surface expression of NKG2D. Using this marker, we described the increased functionalities of AI and IN memory CD8 T cells compared with naive cells, as shown by comprehensive analysis of cytokine secretion and gene expression. However, AI differed from IN memory CD8 T cells by their capacity to migrate to the lung parenchyma upon inflammation or infection, a process dependent on their expression of ITGA1/CD49a and ITGA4/CD49d integrins. Copyright © 2018 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  9. Augmented anti-tumor activity of NK-92 cells expressing chimeric receptors of TGF-βR II and NKG2D.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongjuan; Guo, Linghua; Song, Yuan; Zhang, Yinsheng; Lin, Dandan; Hu, Bo; Mei, Yu; Sandikin, Dedy; Liu, Haiyan

    2017-04-01

    The capacity of natural killer (NK) cells to kill tumor cells without specific antigen recognition provides an advantage over T cells and makes them potential effectors for tumor immunotherapy. However, the efficacy of NK cell adoptive therapy can be limited by the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a potent immunosuppressive cytokine that can suppress NK cell function. To convert the suppressive signal induced by TGF-β to an activating signal, we genetically modified NK-92 cells to express a chimeric receptor with TGF-β type II receptor extracellular and transmembrane domains and the intracellular domain of NK cell-activating receptor NKG2D (TN chimeric receptor). NK-92 cells expressing TN receptors were resistant to TGF-β-induced suppressive signaling and did not down-regulate NKG2D. These modified NK-92 cells had higher killing capacity and interferon γ (IFN-γ) production against tumor cells compared with the control cells and their cytotoxicity could be further enhanced by TGF-β. More interestingly, the NK-92 cells expressing TN receptors were better chemo-attracted to the tumor cells expressing TGF-β. The presence of these modified NK-92 cells significantly inhibited the differentiation of human naïve CD4 + T cells to regulatory T cells. NK-92-TN cells could also inhibit tumor growth in vivo in a hepatocellular carcinoma xenograft tumor model. Therefore, TN chimeric receptors can be a novel strategy to augment anti-tumor efficacy in NK cell adoptive therapy.

  10. Cell Culture as an Alternative in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nardone, Roland M.

    1990-01-01

    Programs that are intended to inform and provide "hands-on" experience for students and to facilitate the introduction of cell culture-based laboratory exercises into the high school and college laboratory are examined. The components of the CellServ Program and the Cell Culture Toxicology Training Programs are described. (KR)

  11. Cell culture techniques in honey bee research

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cell culture techniques are indispensable in most if not all life science disciplines to date. Wherever cell culture models are lacking scientific development is hampered. Unfortunately this has been and still is the case in honey bee research because permanent honey bee cell lines have not yet been...

  12. Sensor Access to the Cellular Microenvironment Using the Sensing Cell Culture Flask.

    PubMed

    Kieninger, Jochen; Tamari, Yaara; Enderle, Barbara; Jobst, Gerhard; Sandvik, Joe A; Pettersen, Erik O; Urban, Gerald A

    2018-04-26

    The Sensing Cell Culture Flask (SCCF) is a cell culture monitoring system accessing the cellular microenvironment in 2D cell culture using electrochemical microsensors. The system is based on microfabricated sensor chips embedded in standard cell culture flasks. Ideally, the sensor chips could be equipped with any electrochemical sensor. Its transparency allows optical inspection of the cells during measurement. The surface of the sensor chip is in-plane with the flask surface allowing undisturbed cell growth on the sensor chip. A custom developed rack system allows easy usage of multiple flasks in parallel within an incubator. The presented data demonstrates the application of the SCCF with brain tumor (T98G) and breast cancer (T-47D) cells. Amperometric oxygen sensors were used to monitor cellular respiration with different incubation conditions. Cellular acidification was accessed with potentiometric pH sensors using electrodeposited iridium oxide films. The system itself provides the foundation for electrochemical monitoring systems in 3D cell culture.

  13. Cell culture models in microfluidic systems.

    PubMed

    Meyvantsson, Ivar; Beebe, David J

    2008-01-01

    Microfluidic technology holds great promise for the creation of advanced cell culture models. In this review, we discuss the characterization of cell culture in microfluidic systems, describe important biochemical and physical features of the cell microenvironment, and review studies of microfluidic cell manipulation in the context of these features. Finally, we consider the integration of analytical elements, ways to achieve high throughput, and the design constraints imposed by cell biology applications.

  14. Effect of silibinin-loaded nano-niosomal coated with trimethyl chitosan on miRNAs expression in 2D and 3D models of T47D breast cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Yazdi Rouholamini, Seyede Elmira; Moghassemi, Saeid; Maharat, Zahra; Hakamivala, Amirhossien; Kashanian, Susan; Omidfar, Kobra

    2018-05-01

    Silibinin is a natural flavonoid with a strong antioxidant property and weak cytotoxic activity. It has demonstrated anti-tumoural activity against many types of malignancies; however, due to its hydrophobic structure, it has poor water solubility, bioavailability and permeability across intestinal epithelial cells. To improve the effect of silibinin, we have vehiculated silibinin by a highly stable niosomal nanostructure based on a Span 60/cholesterol (CH)/N-trimethyl chitosan (TMC) system in order to study its potential application for the delivery of silibinin in T47D cultured under three-dimensional (3D) and two-dimensional (2D) conditions. To study the effect of nanodrug on miRNAs expression, we evaluated quantitative expression of miRNA-21 and miRNA-15a as well as miR-141 and miR-200c which act as oncogene and tumour suppressors by real-time PCR. Results demonstrated that the mechanism of nanodrug action as well as the response of tumour cells differed in 3D culture as compared to 2D. Delivery of silibinin-loaded niosomes coated with TMC was found to be more effective in inhibiting the growth of tumour cells and inducing apoptosis than free silibinin administration. In silibinin-treated cells, death occurred in a dose- and time- dependent manner by induction of apoptosis and alteration of the cell cycle. Real-time PCR analysis revealed a decrease in miR-21, miR-15a and miR-141while increase in miR-200c expression levels was observed in silibinin-treated cells relative to the levels in the untreated cells. The results show that nanodrug delivery was more effective than free silibinin administration in changing the level of miRNAs expression in cancer cells. Therefore, niosomal nanostructure with TMC could be a suitable vehicle for hydrophobic compounds, such as silibinin, by improving their action in cancer therapy.

  15. NKG2D performs two functions in invariant NKT cells: direct TCR-independent activation of NK-like cytolysis and co-stimulation of activation by CD1d.

    PubMed

    Kuylenstierna, Carlotta; Björkström, Niklas K; Andersson, Sofia K; Sahlström, Peter; Bosnjak, Lidija; Paquin-Proulx, Dominic; Malmberg, Karl-Johan; Ljunggren, Hans-Gustaf; Moll, Markus; Sandberg, Johan K

    2011-07-01

    Invariant NKT cells are important in the activation and regulation of immune responses. They can also function as CD1d-restricted killer cells. However, the role of activating innate NK-cell receptors expressed on NKT cells in triggering cytolytic function is poorly characterized. Here, we initially confirmed that the cellular stress-ligand receptor NKG2D is expressed on CD4- NKT cells, whereas most CD4+ NKT cells lack this receptor. Interestingly, NKG2D+ NKT cells frequently expressed perforin, and both NKG2D and perforin localized at the site of contact with NKG2D ligand-expressing target cells. CD4- NKT cells degranulated in response to NKG2D engagement in a redirected activation assay independent of stimulation via their invariant TCR. NKT cells killed P815 cells coated with anti-NKG2D mAb and CD1d-negative K562 tumor target cells in an NKG2D-dependent manner. Furthermore, NKG2D engagement co-stimulated TCR-mediated NKT-cell activation in response to endogenous CD1d-presented ligands or suboptimal levels of anti-CD3 triggering. These data indicate that the CD4- subset of human NKT cells can mediate direct lysis of target cells via NKG2D engagement independent of CD1d, and that NKG2D also functions as a co-stimulatory receptor in these cells. NKG2D thus plays both a direct and a co-stimulatory role in the activation of NKT cells. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Culture of Cells from Amphibian Embryos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanisstreet, Martin

    1983-01-01

    Describes a method for in vitro culturing of cells from amphibian early embryos. Such cells can be used to demonstrate such properties of eukaryote cells as cell motility, adhesion, differentiation, and cell sorting into tissues. The technique may be extended to investigate other factors. (Author/JN)

  17. Stem cell marker CD271 is expressed by vasculogenic mimicry-forming uveal melanoma cells in three-dimensional cultures.

    PubMed

    Valyi-Nagy, Klara; Kormos, Bernadett; Ali, Mohamed; Shukla, Deepak; Valyi-Nagy, Tibor

    2012-01-01

    Cancer stem cells have increased resistance against a variety of anti-tumor treatment modalities. Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) patterns are present in numerous malignant tumor types, represent the formation of perfusion pathways by tumor cells, and their presence in tumors is associated with adverse outcome. Earlier we have shown that VM-forming tumor cells in three-dimensional (3D) uveal melanoma cultures have increased resistance against cytotoxic agents and oncolytic herpes simplex virus-mediated destruction. The purpose of the current study was to explore the possibility that this increased resistance of VM-forming tumor cells is due to a cancer stem cell phenotype. The expression of cancer stem cell marker cluster of differentiation 271 (CD271) was determined in traditional two-dimensional (2D) and 3D cultures of C918 uveal melanoma cells by fluorescent immunocytochemistry. We found that the VM-forming tumor cell subpopulation in 3D cultures expressed CD271. In contrast, cells grown in 2D cultures and tumor cell subpopulations not participating in VM formation in 3D cultures were negative for CD271. These findings suggest that VM-forming uveal melanoma cells acquire a cancer stem cell-like phenotype that may play a role in the increased therapy resistance of these cells.

  18. Human (HLA-A and HLA-B) and murine (H-2K and H-2D) histocompatibility antigens are cell surface receptors for Semliki Forest virus.

    PubMed Central

    Helenius, A; Morein, B; Fries, E; Simons, K; Robinson, P; Schirrmacher, V; Terhorst, C; Strominger, J L

    1978-01-01

    The proteins coded for by the HLA-A and HLA-B loci in man and the H-2K and H-2D loci in mice were identified as cell surface receptors for Semliki Forest virus. This conclusion is based on the following observations: (i) Water-soluble octamers of viral coat proteins inhibit the complement-dependent cytotoxicity of antibodies directed against H-2K and H-2D antigens in mouse cells. (ii) Isolated detergent-soluble HLA-A and HLA-B antigens reconstituted in lipid vesicles inhibit the binding of viral proteins to human cells (as do the water-soluble antigens to a lesser extent). (iii) Reconstituted HLA-A and HLA-B vesicles interact in solution with Semliki Forest virus (or with vesicles containing viral spike proteins), as demonstrated by coprecipitation with antisera. (iv) Complexes between viral spoke proteins and HLA-A and HLA-B antigens or H-2K and H-2D antigens can be isolated from the cell surface by utilizing affinity chromatography or immunoprecipitation. Images PMID:278998

  19. A high frequency of peripheral blood NKG2D+NK and NKT cells in euthyroid patients with new onset hashimoto's thyroiditis--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hui; Xu, Bingchuan; Yang, Xige; Wang, Ye; Liu, Xiaobo; Cui, Chengri; Jiang, Yanfang

    2014-01-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease. However, little is known about the role of different subsets of natural killer (NK) and natural killer T (NKT) cells at the early stage of the HT process. A total of 45 euthyroid patients with new onset HT and 40 age/gender-matched healthy controls (HC) were examined for the frequency of different subsets of NK and NKT cells and their function by flow cytometry. In comparison with that in HC, significantly higher percentages of peripheral blood CD3-CD56+ NK, NKG2D+, NKp30+ NK and NKT cells, but significantly lower percentages of NKG2A+, KIR2DL3+ inhibitory NK and NKT cells were detected in the HT patients. Furthermore, the percentages of NKG2D+ NK cells were correlated positively with the concentrations of serum anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) in the HT patients. Moreover, the percentages of inducible IFN-γ and CD107a+ NK cells in the HT patients were significantly higher than those in HC. Our data suggest that activated NK cells may participate in the early pathogenic process of HT.

  20. H-2 compatability requirement for T-cell-mediated lysis of target cells infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Different cytotoxic T- cell specificities are associated with structures coded for in H-2K or H-2D;

    PubMed Central

    1975-01-01

    Use of syngeneic, allogeneic, F1, AND H-2 recombinatn mice has shown that animals injected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM) virus generate T cells which are cytotoxic for H-2K or H-2D compatible, but not H-2 different, virus-infected target cells. Three separate lines of evidence are presented which indicate that these immune T cells are sensitized to "altered-self," the self antigens involved being coded for in the H-2K or H-2d regions. Firstly, cytotoxic activity associated with mutuality at H-2D iy, lysis mediated by immune T cells from F1 or H-2 recombinant mice is specifically inhibited only by presence of unlabeled, virus-infected cells that are H-2 compatible with the targets. Thirdly, LCM-immune F1 and H-2 recombinant T cells inoculated into irradiated, virus-infected recipients proliferate only to kill target cells that are H-2 compatible with both the donor and the recipient. All of these experiments establish that there is a dissociation of T-cell activities between parental haplotypes in F1 mice, and between H-2K and H-2D in recombinants. It would thus seem that there are at least two specificities of tlcm-immune T cells in homozygotes, associated with either H-2K or H-2D, and four specificities in F1 hybrids. The significance of these findings, with respect both to gene duplication and to the marked polymorphism in the H-2 system, is discussed. PMID:47901

  1. Fine tuning a well-oiled machine: Influence of NK1.1 and NKG2D on NKT cell development and function.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Sunil K; Lang, Mark L

    2013-10-01

    Natural killer T cells (NKT) represent a group of CD1d-restricted T-lineage cells that provide a functional interface between innate and adaptive immune responses in infectious disease, cancer, allergy and autoimmunity. There have been remarkable advances in understanding the molecular events that underpin NKT development in the thymus and in the complex array of functions in the periphery. Most functional studies have focused on activation of T cell antigen receptors expressed by NKT cells and their responses to CD1d presentation of glycolipid and related antigens. Receiving less attention has been several molecules that are hallmarks of Natural Killer (NK) cells, but nonetheless expressed by NKT cells. These include several activating and inhibitory receptors that may fine-tune NKT development and survival, as well as activation via antigen receptors. Herein, we review the possible roles of the NK1.1 and NKG2D receptors in regulating development and function of NKT cells in health and disease. We suggest that pharmacological alteration of NKT activity should consider the potential complexities commensurate with NK1.1 and NKG2D expression. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Characterization of primary human mammary epithelial cells isolated and propagated by conditional reprogrammed cell culture.

    PubMed

    Jin, Liting; Qu, Ying; Gomez, Liliana J; Chung, Stacey; Han, Bingchen; Gao, Bowen; Yue, Yong; Gong, Yiping; Liu, Xuefeng; Amersi, Farin; Dang, Catherine; Giuliano, Armando E; Cui, Xiaojiang

    2018-02-20

    Conditional reprogramming methods allow for the inexhaustible in vitro proliferation of primary epithelial cells from human tissue specimens. This methodology has the potential to enhance the utility of primary cell culture as a model for mammary gland research. However, few studies have systematically characterized this method in generating in vitro normal human mammary epithelial cell models. We show that cells derived from fresh normal breast tissues can be propagated and exhibit heterogeneous morphologic features. The cultures are composed of CK18, desmoglein 3, and CK19-positive luminal cells and vimentin, p63, and CK14-positive myoepithelial cells, suggesting the maintenance of in vivo heterogeneity. In addition, the cultures contain subpopulations with different CD49f and EpCAM expression profiles. When grown in 3D conditions, cells self-organize into distinct structures that express either luminal or basal cell markers. Among these structures, CK8-positive cells enclosing a lumen are capable of differentiation into milk-producing cells in the presence of lactogenic stimulus. Furthermore, our short-term cultures retain the expression of ERα, as well as its ability to respond to estrogen stimulation. We have investigated conditionally reprogrammed normal epithelial cells in terms of cell type heterogeneity, cellular marker expression, and structural arrangement in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) systems. The conditional reprogramming methodology allows generation of a heterogeneous culture from normal human mammary tissue in vitro . We believe that this cell culture model will provide a valuable tool to study mammary cell function and malignant transformation.

  3. Closing the Phenotypic Gap between Transformed Neuronal Cell Lines in Culture and Untransformed Neurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Tereance A.; Nickerson, Cheryl A.; Kaushal, Deepak; Ott, C. Mark; HonerzuBentrup, Kerstin; Ramamurthy, Rajee; Nelman-Gonzales, Mayra; Pierson, Duane L.; Philipp, Mario T.

    2008-01-01

    Studies of neuronal dysfunction in the central nervous system (CNS) are frequently limited by the failure of primary neurons to propagate in vitro. Neuronal cell lines can be substituted for primary cells but they often misrepresent normal conditions. We hypothesized that a dimensional (3-D) cell culture system would drive the phenotype of transformed neurons closer to that of untransformed cells. In our studies comparing 3-D versus 2-dimensional (2-D) culture, neuronal SH-SY5Y (SY) cells underwent distinct morphological changes combined with a significant drop in their rate of cell division. Expression of the proto-oncogene N-myc and the RNA binding protein HuD was decreased in 3-D culture as compared to standard 2-D conditions. We observed a decline in the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 in 3-D culture, coupled with increased expression of the pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and Bak. Moreover, thapsigargin (TG)-induced apoptosis was enhanced in the 3-D cells. Microarray analysis demonstrated significantly differing mRNA levels for over 700 genes in the cells of each culture type. These results indicate that a 3-D culture approach narrows the phenotypic gap between neuronal cell lines and primary neurons. The resulting cells may readily be used for in vitro research of neuronal pathogenesis.

  4. Holographic intravital microscopy for 2-D and 3-D imaging intact circulating blood cells in microcapillaries of live mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyoohyun; Choe, Kibaek; Park, Inwon; Kim, Pilhan; Park, Yongkeun

    2016-09-01

    Intravital microscopy is an essential tool that reveals behaviours of live cells under conditions close to natural physiological states. So far, although various approaches for imaging cells in vivo have been proposed, most require the use of labelling and also provide only qualitative imaging information. Holographic imaging approach based on measuring the refractive index distributions of cells, however, circumvent these problems and offer quantitative and label-free imaging capability. Here, we demonstrate in vivo two- and three-dimensional holographic imaging of circulating blood cells in intact microcapillaries of live mice. The measured refractive index distributions of blood cells provide morphological and biochemical properties including three-dimensional cell shape, haemoglobin concentration, and haemoglobin contents at the individual cell level. With the present method, alterations in blood flow dynamics in live healthy and sepsis-model mice were also investigated.

  5. Emulsions Containing Perfluorocarbon Support Cell Cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ju, Lu-Kwang; Lee, Jaw Fang; Armiger, William B.

    1990-01-01

    Addition of emulsion containing perfluorocarbon liquid to aqueous cell-culture medium increases capacity of medium to support mammalian cells. FC-40 Fluorinert (or equivalent) - increases average density of medium so approximately equal to that of cells. Cells stay suspended in medium without mechanical stirring, which damages them. Increases density enough to prevent cells from setting, and increases viscosity of medium so oxygen bubbled through it and nutrients stirred in with less damage to delicate cells.

  6. Three-dimensional culture system can induce expression of casein in immortalized bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Kang; Lin, Miao; Liu, MingMei; Sui, YangNan; Babekir, Haitham Mohammed; Zhao, GuoQi

    2017-05-01

    Primary bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs) are not ideal models for long-term studies of lactation mechanisms because these cells in a monolayer culture system cannot be polarized to simulate the physiological functions in vitro. We investigate the effects of different culture models and karyotypes on casein expression in a three-dimensional (3D) culture system. The immortalized cells' karyotypes were analyzed at passages 10, 20, 30 and 40 to detect the effects of chromosome stability. Western blotting examined that whether or not the immortalized cells at passages 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 could induce expression of casein in a 3D culture system. The proper polarization of the acinar structures was monitored. BMECs were successfully immortalized. The cell karyotype at passage 30 remained at 60 chromosomes and the average value was 57.1 ± 0.40 after passage 40. The polarized protein's levels were up-regulated in 3D culture compared to 2D culture. Expression of αs1, β and κ-casein could be detectable in a passage range in 3D culture. Expression of αs2-casein was undetectable in all experimental groups. However, all casein expressions were barely detectable in traditional 2D culture system. Therefore, 3D culture system is an important tool for the long-term study of lactation mechanisms in vitro. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  7. Cell Culture for Production of Insecticidal Viruses.

    PubMed

    Reid, Steven; Chan, Leslie C L; Matindoost, Leila; Pushparajan, Charlotte; Visnovsky, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    While large-scale culture of insect cells will need to be conducted using bioreactors up to 10,000 l scale, many of the main challenges for cell culture-based production of insecticidal viruses can be studied using small-scale (20-500 ml) shaker/spinner flasks, either in free suspension or using microcarrier-based systems. These challenges still relate to the development of appropriate cell lines, stability of virus strains in culture, enhancing virus yields per cell, and the development of serum-free media and feeds for the desired production systems. Hence this chapter presents mainly the methods required to work with and analyze effectively insect cell systems using small-scale cultures. Outlined are procedures for quantifying cells and virus and for establishing frozen cells and virus stocks. The approach for maintaining cell cultures and the multiplicity of infection (MOI) and time of infection (TOI) parameters that should be considered for conducting infections are discussed.The methods described relate, in particular, to the suspension culture of Helicoverpa zea and Spodoptera frugiperda cell lines to produce the baculoviruses Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus, HearNPV, and Anticarsia gemmatalis multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus, AgMNPV, respectively, and the production of the nonoccluded Oryctes nudivirus, OrNV, using an adherent coleopteran cell line.

  8. Cytomegalovirus-Associated CD4(+) CD28(null) Cells in NKG2D-Dependent Glomerular Endothelial Injury and Kidney Allograft Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Shabir, S; Smith, H; Kaul, B; Pachnio, A; Jham, S; Kuravi, S; Ball, S; Chand, S; Moss, P; Harper, L; Borrows, R

    2016-04-01

    Emerging data suggest that expansion of a circulating population of atypical, cytotoxic CD4(+) T cells lacking costimulatory CD28 (CD4(+) CD28(null) cells) is associated with latent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. The purpose of the current study was to increase the understanding of the relevance of these cells in 100 unselected kidney transplant recipients followed prospectively for a median of 54 months. Multicolor flow cytometry of peripheral blood mononuclear cells before transplantation and serially posttransplantation was undertaken. CD4(+) CD28(null) cells were found predominantly in CMV-seropositive patients and expanded in the posttransplantation period. These cells were predominantly effector-memory phenotype and expressed markers of endothelial homing (CX3CR1) and cytotoxicity (NKG2D and perforin). Isolated CD4(+) CD27(-) CD28(null) cells proliferated in response to peripheral blood mononuclear cells previously exposed to CMV-derived (but not HLA-derived) antigens and following such priming incubation with glomerular endothelium resulted in signs of endothelial damage and apoptosis (release of fractalkine and von Willebrand factor; increased caspase 3 expression). This effect was mitigated by NKG2D-blocking antibody. Increased CD4(+) CD28(null) cell frequencies were associated with delayed graft function and lower estimated glomerular filtration rate at end follow-up. This study suggests an important role for this atypical cytotoxic CD4(+) CD28(null) cell subset in kidney transplantation and points to strategies that may minimize the impact on clinical outcomes. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  9. Constructing a High Density Cell Culture System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An annular culture vessel for growing mammalian cells is constructed in a one piece integral and annular configuration with an open end which is closed by an endcap. The culture vessel is rotatable about a horizontal axis by use of conventional roller systems commonly used in culture laboratories. The end wall of the endcap has tapered access ports to frictionally and sealingly receive the ends of hypodermic syringes. The syringes permit the introduction of fresh nutrient and withdrawal of spent nutrients. The walls are made of conventional polymeric cell culture material and are subjected to neutron bombardment to form minute gas permeable perforations in the walls.

  10. A novel 3D human glioblastoma cell culture system for modeling drug and radiation responses.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Roman, Natividad; Stevenson, Katrina; Gilmour, Lesley; Hamilton, Graham; Chalmers, Anthony J

    2017-02-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor, with dismal prognosis. The failure of drug-radiation combinations with promising preclinical data to translate into effective clinical treatments may relate to the use of simplified 2-dimensional in vitro GBM cultures. We developed a customized 3D GBM culture system based on a polystyrene scaffold (Alvetex) that recapitulates key histological features of GBM and compared it with conventional 2D cultures with respect to their response to radiation and to molecular targeted agents for which clinical data are available. In 3 patient-derived GBM lines, no difference in radiation sensitivity was observed between 2D and 3D cultures, as measured by clonogenic survival. Three different molecular targeted agents, for which robust clinical data are available were evaluated in 2D and 3D conditions: (i) temozolomide, which improves overall survival and is standard of care for GBM, exhibited statistically significant effects on clonogenic survival in both patient-derived cell lines when evaluated in the 3D model compared with only one cell line in 2D cells; (ii) bevacizumab, which has been shown to increase progression-free survival when added to standard chemoradiation in phase III clinical trials, exhibited marked radiosensitizing activity in our 3D model but had no effect on 2D cells; and (iii) erlotinib, which had no efficacy in clinical trials, displayed no activity in our 3D GBM model, but radiosensitized 2D cells. Our 3D model reliably predicted clinical efficacy, strongly supporting its clinical relevance and potential value in preclinical evaluation of drug-radiation combinations for GBM. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology.

  11. A novel 3D human glioblastoma cell culture system for modeling drug and radiation responses

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Katrina; Gilmour, Lesley; Hamilton, Graham; Chalmers, Anthony J

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background. Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor, with dismal prognosis. The failure of drug–radiation combinations with promising preclinical data to translate into effective clinical treatments may relate to the use of simplified 2-dimensional in vitro GBM cultures. Methods. We developed a customized 3D GBM culture system based on a polystyrene scaffold (Alvetex) that recapitulates key histological features of GBM and compared it with conventional 2D cultures with respect to their response to radiation and to molecular targeted agents for which clinical data are available. Results. In 3 patient-derived GBM lines, no difference in radiation sensitivity was observed between 2D and 3D cultures, as measured by clonogenic survival. Three different molecular targeted agents, for which robust clinical data are available were evaluated in 2D and 3D conditions: (i) temozolomide, which improves overall survival and is standard of care for GBM, exhibited statistically significant effects on clonogenic survival in both patient-derived cell lines when evaluated in the 3D model compared with only one cell line in 2D cells; (ii) bevacizumab, which has been shown to increase progression-free survival when added to standard chemoradiation in phase III clinical trials, exhibited marked radiosensitizing activity in our 3D model but had no effect on 2D cells; and (iii) erlotinib, which had no efficacy in clinical trials, displayed no activity in our 3D GBM model, but radiosensitized 2D cells. Conclusions. Our 3D model reliably predicted clinical efficacy, strongly supporting its clinical relevance and potential value in preclinical evaluation of drug–radiation combinations for GBM. PMID:27576873

  12. RGD-conjugated rod-like viral nanoparticles on 2D scaffold improved bone differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qian; Pongkwan, Sitasuwan; Lee, L.; Li, Kai; Nguyen, Huong

    2014-05-01

    Viral nanoparticles have uniform and well-defined nano-structures and can be produced in large quantities. Several plant viral nanoparticles have been tested in biomedical applications due to the lack of mammalian cell infectivity. We are particularly interested in using Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), which has been demonstrated to enhance bone tissue regeneration, as a tuneable nanoscale building block for biomaterials development. Unmodified TMV particles have been shown to accelerate osteogenic differentiation of adult stem cells by synergistically upregulating BMP2 and IBSP expression with dexamethasone. However, the lack of affinity to mammalian cell surface resulted in low initial cell adhesion. In this study, to increase cell binding capacity of TMV based material the chemical functionalization of TMV with arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide was explored. An azide-derivatized RGD peptide was “clicked” to tyrosine residues on TMV outer surface via an efficient copper(I) catalysed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction. The ligand spacing is calculated to be 2-4 nm, which could offer a polyvalent ligand clustering effect for enhanced cell receptor signalling, further promoting the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells.

  13. Cell density affects cell motility in P. carterae cultures.

    PubMed

    Montufar-Solis, Dina; Marsh, Mary E; Duke, P Jackie

    2002-07-01

    The swimming, calcifying alga P. carterae provides an excellent model to study the relationship of biomineralization and morphology to motility and gravitaxis. In preparation for a spaceflight experiment, cell motility was analyzed in cultures grown under various conditions. Cells in young growing cultures with low cell concentration swam randomly. As cell density increased, bioconvection was established, with distinct areas of cells swimming up, narrow streams of cells moving down, and random cell movement in less concentrated pockets of the culture. Aging of the culture may increase cell adhesiveness and sedimentation that depletes the number of swimmers in the population. Motility was maintained for two months in some of the conditions tested, indicating that an equilibrium that allows swimming behavior studies can be established in a closed system. Cell concentration seems to be responsible for the oriented movement in P. carterae, due to its effect on the establishment of bioconvection.

  14. Cell-centered particle weighting algorithm for PIC simulations in a non-uniform 2D axisymmetric mesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, Samuel J.; Wirz, Richard E.

    2014-09-01

    Standard area weighting methods for particle-in-cell simulations result in systematic errors on particle densities for a non-uniform mesh in cylindrical coordinates. These errors can be significantly reduced by using weighted cell volumes for density calculations. A detailed description on the corrected volume calculations and cell-centered weighting algorithm in a non-uniform mesh is provided. The simple formulas for the corrected volume can be used for any type of quadrilateral and/or triangular mesh in cylindrical coordinates. Density errors arising from the cell-centered weighting algorithm are computed for radial density profiles of uniform, linearly decreasing, and Bessel function in an adaptive Cartesian mesh and an unstructured mesh. For all the density profiles, it is shown that the weighting algorithm provides a significant improvement for density calculations. However, relatively large density errors may persist at outermost cells for monotonically decreasing density profiles. A further analysis has been performed to investigate the effect of the density errors in potential calculations, and it is shown that the error at the outermost cell does not propagate into the potential solution for the density profiles investigated.

  15. Methods for Maintaining Insect Cell Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Lynn, Dwight E.

    2002-01-01

    Insect cell cultures are now commonly used in insect physiology, developmental biology, pathology, and molecular biology. As the field has advanced from methods development to a standard procedure, so has the diversity of scientists using the technique. This paper describes methods that are effective for maintaining various insect cell lines. The procedures are differentiated between loosely or non-attached cell strains, attached cell strains, and strongly adherent cell strains. PMID:15455043

  16. NKG2D- and T-cell receptor-dependent lysis of malignant glioma cell lines by human γδ T cells: Modulation by temozolomide and A disintegrin and metalloproteases 10 and 17 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Chitadze, Guranda; Lettau, Marcus; Luecke, Stefanie; Wang, Ting; Janssen, Ottmar; Fürst, Daniel; Mytilineos, Joannis; Wesch, Daniela; Oberg, Hans-Heinrich; Held-Feindt, Janka; Kabelitz, Dieter

    2016-04-01

    The interaction of the MHC class I-related chain molecules A and B (MICA and MICB) and UL-16 binding protein (ULBP) family members expressed on tumor cells with the corresponding NKG2D receptor triggers cytotoxic effector functions in NK cells and γδ T cells. However, as a mechanism of tumor immune escape, NKG2D ligands (NKG2DLs) can be released from the cell surface. In this study, we investigated the NKG2DL system in different human glioblastoma (GBM) cell lines, the most lethal brain tumor in adults. Flow cytometric analysis and ELISA revealed that despite the expression of various NKG2DLs only ULBP2 is released as a soluble protein via the proteolytic activity of "a disintegrin and metalloproteases" (ADAM) 10 and 17. Moreover, we report that temozolomide (TMZ), a chemotherapeutic agent in clinical use for the treatment of GBM, increases the cell surface expression of NKG2DLs and sensitizes GBM cells to γδ T cell-mediated lysis. Both NKG2D and the T-cell receptor (TCR) are involved. The cytotoxic activity of γδ T cells toward GBM cells is strongly enhanced in a TCR-dependent manner by stimulation with pyrophosphate antigens. These data clearly demonstrate the complexity of mechanisms regulating NKG2DL expression in GBM cells and further show that treatment with TMZ can increase the immunogenicity of GBM. Thus, TMZ might enhance the potential of the adoptive transfer of ex vivo expanded γδ T cells for the treatment of malignant glioblastoma.

  17. NKG2D- and T-cell receptor-dependent lysis of malignant glioma cell lines by human γδ T cells: Modulation by temozolomide and A disintegrin and metalloproteases 10 and 17 inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Chitadze, Guranda; Lettau, Marcus; Luecke, Stefanie; Wang, Ting; Janssen, Ottmar; Fürst, Daniel; Mytilineos, Joannis; Wesch, Daniela; Oberg, Hans-Heinrich; Held-Feindt, Janka; Kabelitz, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The interaction of the MHC class I-related chain molecules A and B (MICA and MICB) and UL-16 binding protein (ULBP) family members expressed on tumor cells with the corresponding NKG2D receptor triggers cytotoxic effector functions in NK cells and γδ T cells. However, as a mechanism of tumor immune escape, NKG2D ligands (NKG2DLs) can be released from the cell surface. In this study, we investigated the NKG2DL system in different human glioblastoma (GBM) cell lines, the most lethal brain tumor in adults. Flow cytometric analysis and ELISA revealed that despite the expression of various NKG2DLs only ULBP2 is released as a soluble protein via the proteolytic activity of “a disintegrin and metalloproteases” (ADAM) 10 and 17. Moreover, we report that temozolomide (TMZ), a chemotherapeutic agent in clinical use for the treatment of GBM, increases the cell surface expression of NKG2DLs and sensitizes GBM cells to γδ T cell-mediated lysis. Both NKG2D and the T-cell receptor (TCR) are involved. The cytotoxic activity of γδ T cells toward GBM cells is strongly enhanced in a TCR-dependent manner by stimulation with pyrophosphate antigens. These data clearly demonstrate the complexity of mechanisms regulating NKG2DL expression in GBM cells and further show that treatment with TMZ can increase the immunogenicity of GBM. Thus, TMZ might enhance the potential of the adoptive transfer of ex vivo expanded γδ T cells for the treatment of malignant glioblastoma. PMID:27141377

  18. The Effect of Primary Cancer Cell Culture Models on the Results of Drug Chemosensitivity Assays: The Application of Perfusion Microbioreactor System as Cell Culture Vessel

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Dao; Huang, Shiang-Fu; Wang, Hung-Ming

    2015-01-01

    To precisely and faithfully perform cell-based drug chemosensitivity assays, a well-defined and biologically relevant culture condition is required. For the former, a perfusion microbioreactor system capable of providing a stable culture condition was adopted. For the latter, however, little is known about the impact of culture models on the physiology and chemosensitivity assay results of primary oral cavity cancer cells. To address the issues, experiments were performed. Results showed that minor environmental pH change could significantly affect the metabolic activity of cells, demonstrating the importance of stable culture condition for such assays. Moreover, the culture models could also significantly influence the metabolic activity and proliferation of cells. Furthermore, the choice of culture models might lead to different outcomes of chemosensitivity assays. Compared with the similar test based on tumor-level assays, the spheroid model could overestimate the drug resistance of cells to cisplatin, whereas the 2D and 3D culture models might overestimate the chemosensitivity of cells to such anticancer drug. In this study, the 3D culture models with same cell density as that in tumor samples showed comparable chemosensitivity assay results as the tumor-level assays. Overall, this study has provided some fundamental information for establishing a precise and faithful drug chemosensitivity assay. PMID:25654105

  19. Culture and Manipulation of Embryonic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Edgar, Lois G.; Goldstein, Bob

    2012-01-01

    The direct manipulation of embryonic cells is an important tool for addressing key questions in cell and developmental biology. C. elegans is relatively unique among genetic model systems in being amenable to manipulation of embryonic cells. Embryonic cell manipulation has allowed the identification of cell interactions by direct means, and it has been an important technique for dissecting mechanisms by which cell fates are specified, cell divisions are oriented, and morphogenesis is accomplished. Here, we present detailed methods for isolating, manipulating and culturing embryonic cells of C. elegans. PMID:22226523

  20. Advances in cell culture: anchorage dependence

    PubMed Central

    Merten, Otto-Wilhelm

    2015-01-01

    Anchorage-dependent cells are of great interest for various biotechnological applications. (i) They represent a formidable production means of viruses for vaccination purposes at very large scales (in 1000–6000 l reactors) using microcarriers, and in the last decade many more novel viral vaccines have been developed using this production technology. (ii) With the advent of stem cells and their use/potential use in clinics for cell therapy and regenerative medicine purposes, the development of novel culture devices and technologies for adherent cells has accelerated greatly with a view to the large-scale expansion of these cells. Presently, the really scalable systems—microcarrier/microcarrier-clump cultures using stirred-tank reactors—for the expansion of stem cells are still in their infancy. Only laboratory scale reactors of maximally 2.5 l working volume have been evaluated because thorough knowledge and basic understanding of critical issues with respect to cell expansion while retaining pluripotency and differentiation potential, and the impact of the culture environment on stem cell fate, etc., are still lacking and require further studies. This article gives an overview on critical issues common to all cell culture systems for adherent cells as well as specifics for different types of stem cells in view of small- and large-scale cell expansion and production processes. PMID:25533097

  1. 1,25(OH)2D3 attenuates TGF-β1/β2-induced increased migration and invasion via inhibiting epithelial–mesenchymal transition in colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Shanwen; Zhu, Jing; Zuo, Shuai

    2015-12-04

    1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) has been reported to inhibit proliferation and migration of multiple types of cancer cells. However, the mechanism underlying its anti-metastasis effect is not fully illustrated. In this study, the effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on TGF-β1/β2-induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) is tested in colon cancer cells. The results suggest that 1,25(OH)2D3 inhibited TGF-β1/β2-induced increased invasion and migration of in SW-480 and HT-29 cells. 1,25(OH)2D3 also inhibited the cadherin switch in SW-480 and HT-29 cells. TGF-β1/β2-induced increased expression of EMT-related transcription factors was also inhibited by 1,25(OH)2D3. 1,25(OH)2D3 also inhibited the secretion of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and increased expression of F-actinmore » induced by TGF-β1/β2 in SW-480 cells. Taken together, this study suggests that the suppression of EMT might be one of the mechanisms underlying the anti-metastasis effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 in colon cancer cells. - Highlights: • TGF-β1/β2-induced model of EMT was used in this study to test the effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on EMT in colon cancer cells. • 1,25(OH)2D3 inhibited TGF-β1/β2-induced increased migration and invasion. • 1,25(OH)2D3 inhibited TGF-β1/β2-induced increased level of EMT-related transcription factors. • 1,25(OH)2D3 inhibited TGF-β1/β2-induced increased expression of F-actin in SW-480 cells.« less

  2. Single molecule microscopy in 3D cell cultures and tissues.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Florian M; Kaemmerer, Elke; Meckel, Tobias

    2014-12-15

    From the onset of the first microscopic visualization of single fluorescent molecules in living cells at the beginning of this century, to the present, almost routine application of single molecule microscopy, the method has well-proven its ability to contribute unmatched detailed insight into the heterogeneous and dynamic molecular world life is composed of. Except for investigations on bacteria and yeast, almost the entire story of success is based on studies on adherent mammalian 2D cell cultures. However, despite this continuous progress, the technique was not able to keep pace with the move of the cell biology community to adapt 3D cell culture models for basic research, regenerative medicine, or drug development and screening. In this review, we will summarize the progress, which only recently allowed for the application of single molecule microscopy to 3D cell systems and give an overview of the technical advances that led to it. While initially posing a challenge, we finally conclude that relevant 3D cell models will become an integral part of the on-going success of single molecule microscopy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cell culture processes for monoclonal antibody production.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Vijayasankaran, Natarajan; Shen, Amy Yijuan; Kiss, Robert; Amanullah, Ashraf

    2010-01-01

    Animal cell culture technology has advanced significantly over the last few decades and is now generally considered a reliable, robust and relatively mature technology. A range of biotherapeutics are currently synthesized using cell culture methods in large scale manufacturing facilities that produce products for both commercial use and clinical studies. The robust implementation of this technology requires optimization of a number of variables, including 1) cell lines capable of synthesizing the required molecules at high productivities that ensure low operating cost; 2) culture media and bioreactor culture conditions that achieve both the requisite productivity and meet product quality specifications; 3) appropriate on-line and off-line sensors capable of providing information that enhances process knowledge; and 4) good understanding of culture performance at different scales to ensure smooth scale-up. Successful implementation also requires appropriate strategies for process development, scale-up and process characterization and validation that enable robust operation that is compliant with current regulations. This review provides an overview of the state-of-the art technology in key aspects of cell culture, e.g., engineering of highly productive cell lines and optimization of cell culture process conditions. We also summarize the current thinking on appropriate process development strategies and process advances that might affect process development.

  4. Cell culture processes for monoclonal antibody production

    PubMed Central

    Li, Feng; Vijayasankaran, Natarajan; Shen, Amy (Yijuan); Kiss, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Animal cell culture technology has advanced significantly over the last few decades and is now generally considered a reliable, robust and relatively mature technology. A range of biotherapeutics are currently synthesized using cell culture methods in large scale manufacturing facilities that produce products for both commercial use and clinical studies. The robust implementation of this technology requires optimization of a number of variables, including (1) cell lines capable of synthesizing the required molecules at high productivities that ensure low operating cost; (2) culture media and bioreactor culture conditions that achieve both the requisite productivity and meet product quality specifications; (3) appropriate on-line and off-line sensors capable of providing information that enhances process control; and (4) good understanding of culture performance at different scales to ensure smooth scale-up. Successful implementation also requires appropriate strategies for process development, scale-up and process characterization and validation that enable robust operation and ensure compliance with current regulations. This review provides an overview of the state-of-the art technology in key aspects of cell culture, e.g., generation of highly productive cell lines and optimization of cell culture process conditions. We also summarize the current thinking on appropriate process development strategies and process advances that might affect process development. PMID:20622510

  5. Validated hemoglobin-depletion approach for red blood cell lysate proteome analysis by means of 2D PAGE and Orbitrap MS.

    PubMed

    Walpurgis, Katja; Kohler, Maxie; Thomas, Andreas; Wenzel, Folker; Geyer, Hans; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2012-08-01

    The analysis of the cytosolic red blood cell (RBC) proteome is negatively affected by the high intracellular amount of hemoglobin complicating the detection of low-abundant cytosolic proteins. In this study, an alternative approach for the preparation of hemoglobin-depleted RBC lysates is presented, which was established in combination with downstream 2D PAGE analysis and Orbitrap MS. Hemoglobin removal was accomplished by using HemoVoid(TM) depletion reagent, which enabled a very efficient enrichment of low-abundant proteins by simultaneously reducing the hemoglobin concentration of the sample. After defining selected sample preparation protocol characteristics including specificity/selectivity, precision and linearity, a 2D reference map (pH 4-7) of the cytosolic RBC proteome was generated and a total of 189 different proteins were identified. Thus, the presented approach proved to be highly suitable to prepare reproducible high-resolution 2D protein maps of the RBC cytosol and provides a helpful tool for future studies investigating disease- or storage-induced changes of the cytosolic RBC proteome. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Differentiation patterns of embryonic stem cells in two- versus three-dimensional culture.

    PubMed

    Pineda, Emma T; Nerem, Robert M; Ahsan, Tabassum

    2013-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells are attractive candidates as a cell source for regenerative medicine and tissue engineering therapies. Current methods of differentiation result in low yields and impure populations of target phenotypes, with attempts for improved efficiency often comparing protocols that vary multiple parameters. This basic science study focused on a single variable to understand the effects of two-dimensional (2D) versus three-dimensional (3D) culture on directed differentiation. We compared mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) differentiated on collagen type I-coated surfaces (SLIDEs), embedded in collagen type I gels (GELs), and in suspension as embryoid bodies (EBs). For a systematic analysis in these studies, key parameters were kept identical to allow for direct comparison across culture configurations. We determined that all three configurations supported differentiation of ESCs and that the kinetics of differentiation differed greatly for cells cultured in 2D versus 3D. SLIDE cultures induced overall differentiation more quickly than 3D configurations, with earlier expression of cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix proteins. For 3D culture as GELs or EBs, cells clustered similarly, formed complex structures and promoted differentiation towards cardiovascular phenotypes. GEL culture, however, also allowed for contraction of the collagen matrix. For differentiation towards fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells which actively remodel their environment, GEL culture may be particularly beneficial. Overall, this study determined the effects of dimensionality on differentiation and helps in the rational design of protocols to generate phenotypes needed for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. 31P NMR 2D Mapping of Creatine Kinase Forward Flux Rate in Hearts with Postinfarction Left Ventricular Remodeling in Response to Cell Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ling; Cui, Weina; Zhang, Pengyuan; Jang, Albert; Zhu, Wuqiang; Zhang, Jianyi

    2016-01-01

    Utilizing a fast 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) 2-dimensional chemical shift imaging (2D-CSI) method, this study examined the heterogeneity of creatine kinase (CK) forward flux rate of hearts with postinfarction left ventricular (LV) remodeling. Immunosuppressed Yorkshire pigs were assigned to 4 groups: 1) A sham-operated normal group (SHAM, n = 6); 2) A 60 minutes distal left anterior descending coronary artery ligation and reperfusion (MI, n = 6); 3) Open patch group; ligation injury plus open fibrin patch over the site of injury (Patch, n = 6); and 4) Cell group, hiPSCs-cardiomyocytes, -endothelial cells, and -smooth muscle cells (2 million, each) were injected into the injured myocardium pass through a fibrin patch (Cell+Patch, n = 5). At 4 weeks, the creatine phosphate (PCr)/ATP ratio, CK forward flux rate (Flux PCr→ATP), and k constant of CK forward flux rate (kPCr→ATP) were severely decreased at border zone myocardium (BZ) adjacent to MI. Cell treatment results in significantly increase of PCr/ATP ratio and improve the value of kPCr→ATP and Flux PCr→ATP in BZ myocardium. Moreover, the BZ myocardial CK total activity and protein expression of CK mitochondria isozyme and CK myocardial isozyme were significantly reduced, but recovered in response to cell treatment. Thus, cell therapy results in improvement of BZ bioenergetic abnormality in hearts with postinfarction LV remodeling, which is accompanied by significantly improvements in BZ CK activity and CK isozyme expression. The fast 2D 31P MR CSI mapping can reliably measure the heterogeneity of bioenergetics in hearts with post infarction LV remodeling. PMID:27606901

  8. Optoelectronics with 2D semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) atomic crystals, such as graphene and layered transition-metal dichalcogenides, are currently receiving a lot of attention for applications in electronics and optoelectronics. In this talk, I will review our research activities on electrically driven light emission, photovoltaic energy conversion and photodetection in 2D semiconductors. In particular, WSe2 monolayer p-n junctions formed by electrostatic doping using a pair of split gate electrodes, type-II heterojunctions based on MoS2/WSe2 and MoS2/phosphorene van der Waals stacks, 2D multi-junction solar cells, and 3D/2D semiconductor interfaces will be presented. Upon optical illumination, conversion of light into electrical energy occurs in these devices. If an electrical current is driven, efficient electroluminescence is obtained. I will present measurements of the electrical characteristics, the optical properties, and the gate voltage dependence of the device response. In the second part of my talk, I will discuss photoconductivity studies of MoS2 field-effect transistors. We identify photovoltaic and photoconductive effects, which both show strong photoconductive gain. A model will be presented that reproduces our experimental findings, such as the dependence on optical power and gate voltage. We envision that the efficient photon conversion and light emission, combined with the advantages of 2D semiconductors, such as flexibility, high mechanical stability and low costs of production, could lead to new optoelectronic technologies.

  9. Simple suspension culture system of human iPS cells maintaining their pluripotency for cardiac cell sheet engineering.

    PubMed

    Haraguchi, Yuji; Matsuura, Katsuhisa; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a simple three-dimensional (3D) suspension culture method for the expansion and cardiac differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) is reported. The culture methods were easily adapted from two-dimensional (2D) to 3D culture without any additional manipulations. When hiPSCs were directly applied to 3D culture from 2D in a single-cell suspension, only a few aggregated cells were observed. However, after 3 days, culture of the small hiPSC aggregates in a spinner flask at the optimal agitation rate created aggregates which were capable of cell passages from the single-cell suspension. Cell numbers increased to approximately 10-fold after 12 days of culture. The undifferentiated state of expanded hiPSCs was confirmed by flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR, and the hiPSCs differentiated into three germ layers. When the hiPSCs were subsequently cultured in a flask using cardiac differentiation medium, expression of cardiac cell-specific genes and beating cardiomyocytes were observed. Furthermore, the culture of hiPSCs on Matrigel-coated dishes with serum-free medium containing activin A, BMP4 and FGF-2 enabled it to generate robust spontaneous beating cardiomyocytes and these cells expressed several cardiac cell-related genes, including HCN4, MLC-2a and MLC-2v. This suggests that the expanded hiPSCs might maintain the potential to differentiate into several types of cardiomyocytes, including pacemakers. Moreover, when cardiac cell sheets were fabricated using differentiated cardiomyocytes, they beat spontaneously and synchronously, indicating electrically communicative tissue. This simple culture system might enable the generation of sufficient amounts of beating cardiomyocytes for use in cardiac regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. RAPID 2D NMR METHOD FOR DETERMINING P-COUMARATE AND FERULATE LEVELS IN CORN (AND OTHER GRASS) CELL WALLS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Grass cell wall components are acylated by the hydroxycinnamates p-coumarate and ferulate. p-Coumarates largely acylate lignin sidechains, exclusively at the gamma-position, whereas ferulates primarily acylate the arabinosyl C5-position of arabinoxylans. Such components can be quantified as the corr...

  11. NKG2D ligands as therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Paul; Wu, Ming-Ru; Sentman, Marie-Louise; Sentman, Charles L.

    2013-01-01

    The Natural Killer Group 2D (NKG2D) receptor plays an important role in protecting the host from infections and cancer. By recognizing ligands induced on infected or tumor cells, NKG2D modulates lymphocyte activation and promotes immunity to eliminate ligand-expressing cells. Because these ligands are not widely expressed on healthy adult tissue, NKG2D ligands may present a useful target for immunotherapeutic approaches in cancer. Novel therapies targeting NKG2D ligands for the treatment of cancer have shown preclinical success and are poised to enter into clinical trials. In this review, the NKG2D receptor and its ligands are discussed in the context of cancer, infection, and autoimmunity. In addition, therapies targeting NKG2D ligands in cancer are also reviewed. PMID:23833565

  12. Organic Solar Cells Based on a 2D Benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']difuran-Conjugated Polymer with High-Power Conversion Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Huo, Lijun; Liu, Tao; Fan, Bingbing; Zhao, Zhiyuan; Sun, Xiaobo; Wei, Donghui; Yu, Mingming; Liu, Yunqi; Sun, Yanming

    2015-11-18

    A novel 2D benzodifuran (BDF)-based copolymer (PBDF-T1) is synthesized. Polymer solar cells fabricated with PBDF-T1 show high power conversion efficiency of 9.43% and fill factor of 77.4%, which is higher than the performance of its benzothiophene (BDT) counterpart (PBDT-T1). These results provide important progress for BDF-based copolymers and demonstrate that BDF-based copolymers can be competitive with the well-studied BDT counterparts via molecular structure design and device optimization. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Contextualizing Hepatocyte Functionality of Cryopreserved HepaRG Cell Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Jonathan P.; Li, Linhou; Chamberlain, Erica D.; Wang, Hongbing

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade HepaRG cells have emerged as a promising alternative to primary human hepatocytes (PHH) and have been featured in over 300 research publications. Most of these reports employed freshly differentiated HepaRG cells that require time-consuming culture (∼28 days) for full differentiation. Recently, a cryopreserved, predifferentiated format of HepaRG cells (termed here “cryo-HepaRG”) has emerged as a new model that improves global availability and experimental flexibility; however, it is largely unknown whether HepaRG cells in this format fully retain their hepatic characteristics. Therefore, we systematically investigated the hepatocyte functionality of cryo-HepaRG cultures in context with the range of interindividual variation observed with PHH in both sandwich-culture and suspension formats. These evaluations uncovered a novel adaptation period for the cryo-HepaRG format and demonstrated the impact of extracellular matrix on cryo-HepaRG functionality. Pharmacologically important drug-metabolizing alleles were genotyped in HepaRG cells and poor metabolizer alleles for CYP2D6, CYP2C9, and CYP3A5 were identified and consistent with higher frequency alleles found in individuals of Caucasian decent. We observed liver enzyme inducibility with aryl hydrocarbon receptor, constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), and pregnane X receptor activators comparable to that of sandwich-cultured PHH. Finally, we show for the first time that cryo-HepaRG supports proper CAR cytosolic sequestration and translocation to hepatocyte nuclei in response to phenobarbital treatment. Taken together, these data reveal important considerations for the use of this cell model and demonstrate that cryo-HepaRG are suitable for metabolism and toxicology screening. PMID:27338863

  14. Enriching the Housing Environment for Mice Enhances Their NK Cell Antitumor Immunity via Sympathetic Nerve-Dependent Regulation of NKG2D and CCR5.

    PubMed

    Song, Yanfang; Gan, Yu; Wang, Qing; Meng, Zihong; Li, Guohua; Shen, Yuling; Wu, Yufeng; Li, Peiying; Yao, Ming; Gu, Jianren; Tu, Hong

    2017-04-01

    Mice housed in an enriched environment display a tumor-resistant phenotype due to eustress stimulation. However, the mechanisms underlying enriched environment-induced protection against cancers remain largely unexplained. In this study, we observed a significant antitumor effect induced by enriched environment in murine pancreatic cancer and lung cancer models. This effect remained intact in T/B lymphocyte-deficient Rag1 -/- mice, but was nearly eliminated in natural killer (NK) cell-deficient Beige mice or in antibody-mediated NK-cell-depleted mice, suggesting a predominant role of NK cells in enriched environment-induced tumor inhibition. Exposure to enriched environment enhanced NK-cell activity against tumors and promoted tumoral infiltration of NK cells. Enriched environment increased the expression levels of CCR5 and NKG2D (KLRK1) in NK cells; blocking their function effectively blunted the enriched environment-induced enhancement of tumoral infiltration and cytotoxic activity of NK cells. Moreover, blockade of β-adrenergic signaling or chemical sympathectomy abolished the effects of enriched environment on NK cells and attenuated the antitumor effect of enriched environment. Taken together, our results provide new insight into the mechanism by which eustress exerts a beneficial effect against cancer. Cancer Res; 77(7); 1611-22. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Interactions of 1D- and 2D-layered inorganic nanoparticles with fibroblasts and human mesenchymal stem cells

    DOE PAGES

    Rashkow, Jason Thomas; Talukdar, Yahfi; Lalwani, Gaurav; ...

    2015-06-01

    Here, this study investigates the effects of tungsten disulfide nanotubes (WSNTs) and molybdenum disulfide nanoplatelets (MSNPs) on fibroblasts (NIH-3T3) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to determine safe dosages for potential biomedical applications. Cytotoxicity of MSNPs and WSNTs (5–300 μg/ml) on NIH-3T3 and MSCs was assessed at 6, 12 or 24 h. MSC differentiation to adipocytes and osteoblasts was assessed following treatment for 24 h. Only NIH-3T3 cells treated with MSNPs showed dose or time dependent increase in cytotoxicity. Differentiation markers of MSCs in treated groups were unaffected compared with untreated controls. In conclusion, MSNPs and WSNTs at concentrations less thanmore » 50 μg/ml are potentially safe for treatment of fibroblasts or MSCs for up to 24 h.« less

  16. A 2D/3D image analysis system to track fluorescently labeled structures in rod-shaped cells: application to measure spindle pole asymmetry during mitosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is frequently used as a model for studying the cell cycle. The cells are rod-shaped and divide by medial fission. The process of cell division, or cytokinesis, is controlled by a network of signaling proteins called the Septation Initiation Network (SIN); SIN proteins associate with the SPBs during nuclear division (mitosis). Some SIN proteins associate with both SPBs early in mitosis, and then display strongly asymmetric signal intensity at the SPBs in late mitosis, just before cytokinesis. This asymmetry is thought to be important for correct regulation of SIN signaling, and coordination of cytokinesis and mitosis. In order to study the dynamics of organelles or large protein complexes such as the spindle pole body (SPB), which have been labeled with a fluorescent protein tag in living cells, a number of the image analysis problems must be solved; the cell outline must be detected automatically, and the position and signal intensity associated with the structures of interest within the cell must be determined. Results We present a new 2D and 3D image analysis system that permits versatile and robust analysis of motile, fluorescently labeled structures in rod-shaped cells. We have designed an image analysis system that we have implemented as a user-friendly software package allowing the fast and robust image-analysis of large numbers of rod-shaped cells. We have developed new robust algorithms, which we combined with existing methodologies to facilitate fast and accurate analysis. Our software permits the detection and segmentation of rod-shaped cells in either static or dynamic (i.e. time lapse) multi-channel images. It enables tracking of two structures (for example SPBs) in two different image channels. For 2D or 3D static images, the locations of the structures are identified, and then intensity values are extracted together with several quantitative parameters, such as length, width, cell orientation, background

  17. Effects of Culture Dimensions on Maintenance of Porcine Inner Cell Mass-Derived Cell Self-Renewal.

    PubMed

    Baek, Song; Han, Na Rae; Yun, Jung Im; Hwang, Jae Yeon; Kim, Minseok; Park, Choon Keun; Lee, Eunsong; Lee, Seung Tae

    2017-02-01

    Despite the fact that porcine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are a practical study tool, in vitro long-term maintenance of these cells is difficult in a two-dimensional (2D) microenvironment using cellular niche or extracellular matrix proteins. However, a three-dimensional (3D) microenvironment, similar to that enclosing the inner cell mass of the blastocyst, may improve in vitro maintenance of self-renewal. Accordingly, as a first step toward constructing a 3D microenvironment optimized to maintain porcine ESC self-renewal, we investigated different culture dimensions for porcine ICM-derived cells to enhance the maintenance of self-renewal. Porcine ICM-derived cells were cultured in agarose-based 3D hydrogel with self-renewal-friendly mechanics and in 2D culture plates with or without feeder cells. Subsequently, the effects of the 3D microenvironment on maintenance of self-renewal were identified by analyzing colony formation and morphology, alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity, and transcriptional and translational regulation of self-renewal-related genes. The 3D microenvironment using a 1.5% (w/v) agarose-based 3D hydrogel resulted in significantly more colonies with stereoscopic morphology, significantly improved AP activity, and increased protein expression of self-renewal-related genes compared to those in the 2D microenvironment. These results demonstrate that self-renewal of porcine ICM-derived cells can be maintained more effectively in a 3D microenvironment than in a 2D microenvironment. These results will help develop novel culture systems for ICM-derived cells derived from diverse species, which will contribute to stimulating basic and applicable studies related to ESCs.

  18. Isolation and culture of pulmonary endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ryan, U S

    1984-06-01

    Methods for isolation, identification and culture of pulmonary endothelial cells are now routine. In the past, methods of isolation have used proteolytic enzymes to detach cells; thereafter, traditional methods for cell passaging have used trypsin/EDTA mixtures. Cells isolated and passaged using proteolytic enzymes have been useful in establishing the field and in verifying certain endothelial properties. However, there is a growing awareness of the role of endothelial cells in processing vasoactive substances, in responding to hormones and other agonists and in cell-cell interactions with other cell types of the vascular wall, with blood cells and with cellular products. Consequently, a new requirement has arisen for cells in vitro that maintain the differentiated properties of their counterparts in vivo. The deleterious effects of trypsin and other proteolytic enzymes commonly used in cell culture on surface structures of endothelial cells such as enzymes, receptors and junctional proteins, as well as on extracellular layers such as the glycocalyx or "endothelial fuzz," have led to the development of methods that avoid use of proteolytic enzymes at both the isolation step and during subsequent subculture. This chapter describes traditional methods for isolating pulmonary endothelial cells but emphasizes newer approaches using mechanical harvest and scale-up using microcarriers. The new methods allow maintenance of long-term, large-scale cultures of cells that retain the full complement of surface properties and that maintain the cobblestone monolayer morphology and differentiated functional properties. Methods for identification of isolated cells are therefore also considered as methods for validation of cultures during their in vitro lifespan.

  19. Isolation and culture of pulmonary endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, U S

    1984-01-01

    Methods for isolation, identification and culture of pulmonary endothelial cells are now routine. In the past, methods of isolation have used proteolytic enzymes to detach cells; thereafter, traditional methods for cell passaging have used trypsin/EDTA mixtures. Cells isolated and passaged using proteolytic enzymes have been useful in establishing the field and in verifying certain endothelial properties. However, there is a growing awareness of the role of endothelial cells in processing vasoactive substances, in responding to hormones and other agonists and in cell-cell interactions with other cell types of the vascular wall, with blood cells and with cellular products. Consequently, a new requirement has arisen for cells in vitro that maintain the differentiated properties of their counterparts in vivo. The deleterious effects of trypsin and other proteolytic enzymes commonly used in cell culture on surface structures of endothelial cells such as enzymes, receptors and junctional proteins, as well as on extracellular layers such as the glycocalyx or "endothelial fuzz," have led to the development of methods that avoid use of proteolytic enzymes at both the isolation step and during subsequent subculture. This chapter describes traditional methods for isolating pulmonary endothelial cells but emphasizes newer approaches using mechanical harvest and scale-up using microcarriers. The new methods allow maintenance of long-term, large-scale cultures of cells that retain the full complement of surface properties and that maintain the cobblestone monolayer morphology and differentiated functional properties. Methods for identification of isolated cells are therefore also considered as methods for validation of cultures during their in vitro lifespan. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. PMID:6090112

  20. 3D aggregate culture improves metabolic maturation of human pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Correia, Cláudia; Koshkin, Alexey; Duarte, Patrícia; Hu, Dongjian; Carido, Madalena; Sebastião, Maria J; Gomes-Alves, Patrícia; Elliott, David A; Domian, Ibrahim J; Teixeira, Ana P; Alves, Paula M; Serra, Margarida

    2018-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) cultures of human pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs) hold great promise for drug discovery, providing a better approximation to the in vivo physiology over standard two-dimensional (2D) monolayer cultures. However, the transition of CM differentiation protocols from 2D to 3D cultures is not straightforward. In this work, we relied on the aggregation of hPSC-derived cardiac progenitors and their culture under agitated conditions to generate highly pure cardiomyocyte aggregates. Whole-transcriptome analysis and 13 C-metabolic flux analysis allowed to demonstrate at both molecular and fluxome levels that such 3D culture environment enhances metabolic maturation of hiPSC-CMs. When compared to 2D, 3D cultures of hiPSC-CMs displayed down-regulation of genes involved in glycolysis and lipid biosynthesis and increased expression of genes involved in OXPHOS. Accordingly, 3D cultures of hiPSC-CMs had lower fluxes through glycolysis and fatty acid synthesis and increased TCA-cycle activity. Importantly, we demonstrated that the 3D culture environment reproducibly improved both CM purity and metabolic maturation across different hPSC lines, thereby providing a robust strategy to derive enriched hPSC-CMs with metabolic features closer to that of adult CMs. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. 1D-2D carbon heterostructure with low Pt loading as a superior cathode electrode for dye-sensitized solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nechiyil, Divya; Ramaprabhu, S.

    2017-02-01

    Cost-effective counter electrode (CE) with high electrocatalytic performance is very much essential for the wide application of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The 1D-2D carbon heterostructure (Pt/GR@CNT) with low platinum (Pt) loading has been synthesized by a facile in situ microwave-assisted polyol-reduction method. The excellent electrocatalytic activity as well as photovoltaic performance was achieved due to the combination of 2D graphene nanoribbons (GR) and 1D multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT) with high catalytically active Pt nanoparticles. Microwave-assisted longitudinal unzipping of few outer layers of CNTs along with co-reduction of Pt nanoparticles is an effective method to create electrochemically active defective edge sites, which have a crucial role in enhancing electrochemical performance. Synergistic effect of ultra-fine Pt nanoparticles, partially unzipped graphene nanoribbons and inner core tubes of CNTs modulates the power conversion efficiency of solar cell to 5.57% ± 0.03 as compared with 4.73% ± 0.13 of CNTs. Pt/GR@CNT CE even with low Pt loading of 14 μg cm-2 showcases equivalent performance with that of pure Pt counter electrode.

  2. Evaluation of cell binding to collagen and gelatin: a study of the effect of 2D and 3D architecture and surface chemistry.

    PubMed

    Davidenko, Natalia; Schuster, Carlos F; Bax, Daniel V; Farndale, Richard W; Hamaia, Samir; Best, Serena M; Cameron, Ruth E

    2016-10-01

    Studies of cell attachment to collagen-based materials often ignore details of the binding mechanisms-be they integrin-mediated or non-specific. In this work, we have used collagen and gelatin-based substrates with different dimensional characteristics (monolayers, thin films and porous scaffolds) in order to establish the influence of composition, crosslinking (using carbodiimide) treatment and 2D or 3D architecture on integrin-mediated cell adhesion. By varying receptor expression, using cells with collagen-binding integrins (HT1080 and C2C12 L3 cell lines, expressing α2β1, and Rugli expressing α1β1) and a parent cell line C2C12 with gelatin-binding receptors (αvβ3 and α5β1), the nature of integrin binding sites was studied in order to explain the bioactivity of different protein formulations. We have shown that alteration of the chemical identity, conformation and availability of free binding motifs (GxOGER and RGD), resulting from addition of gelatin to collagen and crosslinking, have a profound effect on the ability of cells to adhere to these formulations. Carbodiimide crosslinking ablates integrin-dependent cell activity on both two-dimensional and three-dimensional architectures while the three-dimensional scaffold structure also leads to a high level of non-specific interactions remaining on three-dimensional samples even after a rigorous washing regime. This phenomenon, promoted by crosslinking, and attributed to cell entrapment, should be considered in any assessment of the biological activity of three-dimensional substrates. Spreading data confirm the importance of integrin-mediated cell engagement for further cell activity on collagen-based compositions. In this work, we provide a simple, but effective, means of deconvoluting the effects of chemistry and dimensional characteristics of a substrate, on the cell activity of protein-derived materials, which should assist in tailoring their biological properties for specific tissue engineering

  3. [CO-CULTURE OF BOAR SPERMATOGONIAL CELLS WITH SERTOLI CELLS].

    PubMed

    Savchenkova, I P; Vasil'eva, S A

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we developed in vitro culture conditions using co-culture of boar spermatogonial cells with Sertoli cells. Testes from 60-day-old crossbred boar were used. A spermatogonia-enriched culture was achieved by enzymatic digestion method and purification by density gradient centrifugation using a discontinuous Percoll gradient and differentiated adherence technique. Lipid drops were detected in isolated Sertoli cells by Oil Red O staining. We have found that the cultivation of boar spermatogonia in the presence of Sertoli cells (up to 35 days) leads to their differentiation as well as in vivo in testis. Association of cells in groups, formation of chains and suspension clusters of the spermatogenic cells were observed on the 10th day. Spermatogonial cellular colonies were noted at the same time. These cellular colonies were analyzed for the expression of genes: Nanog and Plzf in RT PCR. The expression of the Nanog gene in the experimental cellular clones obtained by short-term culture of spermatogonial cells in the presence of Sertoli cells was 200 times higher than the expression of this gene in the freshly isolated spermatogonial cells expression was found in freshly isolated germ cells and in cellular clones derived in vitro. We have found that, in the case of longer cultivation of these cells on Sertoli cells, in vitro process of differentiation of germ cells and formation of single mobile boar spermatozoa occurs at 30-33 days. Cellular population is heterogeneous at this stage. Spermatogenic differentiation in vitro without Sertoli cells stays on the 7th day of cultivation. The results show that co-culture of boar spermatogonia-enriched cells with Sertoli cells can induce their differentiation into spermatozoa in vitro and facilitate obtaining of porcine germ cell culture.

  4. Henrietta Lacks, HeLa cells, and cell culture contamination.

    PubMed

    Lucey, Brendan P; Nelson-Rees, Walter A; Hutchins, Grover M

    2009-09-01

    Henrietta Lacks died in 1951 of an aggressive adenocarcinoma of the cervix. A tissue biopsy obtained for diagnostic evaluation yielded additional tissue for Dr George O. Gey's tissue culture laboratory at Johns Hopkins (Baltimore, Maryland). The cancer cells, now called HeLa cells, grew rapidly in cell culture and became the first human cell line. HeLa cells were used by researchers around the world. However, 20 years after Henrietta Lacks' death, mounting evidence suggested that HeLa cells contaminated and overgrew other cell lines. Cultures, supposedly of tissues such as breast cancer or mouse, proved to be HeLa cells. We describe the history behind the development of HeLa cells, including the first published description of Ms Lacks' autopsy, and the cell culture contamination that resulted. The debate over cell culture contamination began in the 1970s and was not harmonious. Ultimately, the problem was not resolved and it continues today. Finally, we discuss the philosophical implications of the immortal HeLa cell line.

  5. Human cell culture in a space bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R.

    1988-01-01

    Microgravity offers new ways of handling fluids, gases, and growing mammalian cells in efficient suspension cultures. In 1976 bioreactor engineers designed a system using a cylindrical reactor vessel in which the cells and medium are slowly mixed. The reaction chamber is interchangeable and can be used for several types of cell cultures. NASA has methodically developed unique suspension type cell and recovery apparatus culture systems for bioprocess technology experiments and production of biological products in microgravity. The first Space Bioreactor was designed for microprocessor control, no gaseous headspace, circulation and resupply of culture medium, and slow mixing in very low shear regimes. Various ground based bioreactors are being used to test reactor vessel design, on-line sensors, effects of shear, nutrient supply, and waste removal from continuous culture of human cells attached to microcarriers. The small Bioreactor is being constructed for flight experiments in the Shuttle Middeck to verify systems operation under microgravity conditions and to measure the efficiencies of mass transport, gas transfer, oxygen consumption and control of low shear stress on cells.

  6. Growth Inhibition of Osteosarcoma Cell Lines in 3D Cultures: Role of Nitrosative and Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Gorska, Magdalena; Krzywiec, Pawel Bieniasz; Kuban-Jankowska, Alicja; Zmijewski, Michal; Wozniak, Michal; Wierzbicka, Justyna; Piotrowska, Anna; Siwicka, Karolina

    2016-01-01

    3D cell cultures have revolutionized the understanding of cell behavior, allowing culture of cells with the possibility of resembling in vivo intercellular signaling and cell-extracellular matrix interaction. The effect of limited oxygen penetration into 3D culture of highly metastatic osteosarcoma 143B cells in terms of expression of nitro-oxidative stress markers was investigated and compared to standard 2D cell culture. Human osteosarcoma (143B cell line) cells were cultured as monolayers, in collagen and Matrigel. Cell viability, gene expression of nitro-oxidative stress markers, and vascular endothelial growth factor were determined using Trypan blue assay, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Three-dimensional environments modify nitro-oxidative stress and influence gene expression and cell proliferation of OS 143B cells. Commercial cell lines might not constitute a good model of 3D cultures for bone tissue engineering, as they are highly sensitive to hypoxia, and hypoxic conditions can induce oxidation of the cellular environment. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  7. 1,25(OH)2D3 attenuates TGF-β1/β2-induced increased migration and invasion via inhibiting epithelial-mesenchymal transition in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shanwen; Zhu, Jing; Zuo, Shuai; Ma, Ju; Zhang, Junling; Chen, Guowei; Wang, Xin; Pan, Yisheng; Liu, Yucun; Wang, Pengyuan

    1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) has been reported to inhibit proliferation and migration of multiple types of cancer cells. However, the mechanism underlying its anti-metastasis effect is not fully illustrated. In this study, the effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on TGF-β1/β2-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is tested in colon cancer cells. The results suggest that 1,25(OH)2D3 inhibited TGF-β1/β2-induced increased invasion and migration of in SW-480 and HT-29 cells. 1,25(OH)2D3 also inhibited the cadherin switch in SW-480 and HT-29 cells. TGF-β1/β2-induced increased expression of EMT-related transcription factors was also inhibited by 1,25(OH)2D3. 1,25(OH)2D3 also inhibited the secretion of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and increased expression of F-actin induced by TGF-β1/β2 in SW-480 cells. Taken together, this study suggests that the suppression of EMT might be one of the mechanisms underlying the anti-metastasis effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 in colon cancer cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Novel regulations of MEF2-A, MEF2-D, and CACNA1S in the functional incompetence of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells by induced indoxyl sulfate in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Thi Do, Duyen; Phan, Nam Nhut; Wang, Chih-Yang; Sun, Zhengda; Lin, Yen-Chang

    2016-12-01

    Indoxyl sulfate (IS) is a digestive intermediate product that is a known indicator of chronic kidney disease. Its toxicity has also been suggested to accelerate chronic kidney disease. Recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been confirmed as a potential treatment in kidney regeneration. To determine the universal alteration in gene expression, we combined high-throughput microarray technology and in vitro culture of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells at different doses of IS (20, 40, 60 mg/l). We found that indoxyl sulfate has a remarkable interconnection with stem cell and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase pathways. In vitro results showed that indoxyl sulfate exerts anti-proliferation and anti-migration effects on ADMSCs. In addition, IS effects lead to increase in apoptotic cells and cells arrested at the G1 phase. Moreover, MEF2-A, MEF2-D and CACNA1S expression significantly decreased after indoxyl sulfate treatment. It can be speculated that following treatment with indoxyl sulfate, the function of ADMSCs is decreased and ADMSCs' ability to support renal tubule regeneration in chronic kidney disease patients may be lower.

  9. The consensus mechanics of cultured mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Brenton D.; Massiera, Gladys; Van Citters, Kathleen M.; Crocker, John C.

    2006-01-01

    Although understanding cells' responses to mechanical stimuli is seen as increasingly important for understanding cell biology, how to best measure, interpret, and model cells' mechanical properties remains unclear. We determine the frequency-dependent shear modulus of cultured mammalian cells by using four different methods, both unique and well established. This approach clarifies the effects of cytoskeletal heterogeneity, ATP-dependent processes, and cell regional variations on the interpretation of such measurements. Our results clearly indicate two qualitatively similar, but distinct, mechanical responses, corresponding to the cortical and intracellular networks, each having an unusual, weak power-law form at low frequency. The two frequency-dependent responses we observe are remarkably similar to those reported for a variety of cultured mammalian cells measured with different techniques, suggesting it is a useful consensus description. Finally, we discuss possible physical explanations for the observed mechanical response. PMID:16793927

  10. Isolation and culture of mouse intestinal cells.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Charles Frederick

    2010-01-01

    Complex cell signal transduction mechanisms regulate intestinal epithelial shape, polarity, motility, organelles, cell membrane components as well as physical and mechanical properties to influence alimentary digestion, absorption, secretion, detoxification and fluid balance. Interactions between the epithelial cells and adjacent mesenchyme are central to intestinal homeostasis although the key regulatory molecules of specific differentiation steps remain unclear. Isolation and primary culture of heterotypic murine intestinal cells provides a model system for elucidation of essential molecular cross-talk between epithelium and mesenchyme that may provide several biological and practical advantages over transformed cell lines. An in vitro primary culture system for neonatal rat or mouse intestinal cells has been established that forms monolayers, expresses intestine-specific epithelial features including intestinal brush borders and appropriate hydrolase enzymes. Our studies confirm the promise of this method which may advance our understanding of heterotypic cellular interactions implicated in intestinal function and may provide important insights into the pathobiology of disease.

  11. mTOR-inhibitor treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma: contribution of Choi and modified Choi criteria assessed in 2D or 3D to evaluate tumor response.

    PubMed

    Lamuraglia, M; Raslan, S; Elaidi, R; Oudard, S; Escudier, B; Slimane, K; Penna, R Renard; Wagner, M; Lucidarme, O

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether 2D or 3D Choi and modified Choi (mChoi) criteria could assess the efficacy of everolimus against metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). RECIST-1.1, Choi, and mChoi criteria were applied retrospectively to analyse baseline and 2-month contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) images in 48 patients with mRCC enrolled in the everolimus arm of the French randomized double-blind multicentre phase III trial comparing everolimus versus placebo (RECORD-1). The primary endpoint was centrally reviewed progression-free survival (PFS) calculated from the initial RECORD-1 analysis. Mean attenuation was determined for 2D target lesion regions of interest drawn on CECT sections whose largest diameters had been measured, and for the 3D whole target lesion. The median PFS was 5.5 months. The median PFS for everolimus responders defined using 3D mChoi criteria was significantly longer than for non-responders (7.6 versus 5.4 months, respectively), corresponding to a hazard ratio for progression of 0.45 (95 % CI: 0.22-0.92), with respective 1-year survival rates of 31 % and 9 %. No other 2D or 3D imaging criteria at 2 months identified patients who would benefit from everolimus. At 2 months, only 3D mChoi criteria were able to identify mRCC patients with a PFS benefit from everolimus. Choi criteria could not identify everolimus-treated patients with significantly prolonged PFS. mCHOI enabled identification of everolimus-treated mRCC patients with a PFS benefit. 3D attenuation measurement criteria appeared to perform better than single-slice measurement.

  12. Increasing cell culture population doublings for long-term growth of finite life span human cell cultures

    DOEpatents

    Stampfer, Martha R.; Garbe, James C.

    2016-06-28

    Cell culture media formulations for culturing human epithelial cells are herein described. Also described are methods of increasing population doublings in a cell culture of finite life span human epithelial cells and prolonging the life span of human cell cultures. Using the cell culture media disclosed alone and in combination with addition to the cell culture of a compound associated with anti-stress activity achieves extended growth of pre-stasis cells and increased population doublings and life span in human epithelial cell cultures.

  13. Increasing cell culture population doublings for long-term growth of finite life span human cell cultures

    DOEpatents

    Stampfer, Martha R; Garbe, James C

    2015-02-24

    Cell culture media formulations for culturing human epithelial cells are herein described. Also described are methods of increasing population doublings in a cell culture of finite life span human epithelial cells and prolonging the life span of human cell cultures. Using the cell culture media disclosed alone and in combination with addition to the cell culture of a compound associated with anti-stress activity achieves extended growth of pre-stasis cells and increased population doublings and life span in human epithelial cell cultures.

  14. Marine invertebrate cell cultures: new millennium trends.

    PubMed

    Rinkevich, Baruch

    2005-01-01

    This review analyzes activities in the field of marine invertebrate cell culture during the years 1999 to 2004 and compares the outcomes with those of the preceding decade (1988 to 1998). During the last 5 years, 90 reports of primary cell culture studies of marine organisms belonging to only 6 taxa (Porifera, Cnidaria, Crustacea, Mollusca, Echinodermata, and Urochordata) have been published. This figure represents a 2-fold increase in the annual number of publications over the decade 1988 to 1998. Three other trends distinguish the two reviewed periods. First, in recent years studies attempting to improve cell culture methodologies have decreased, while interest in applications of already existing methodologies has increased. This reflects the effects of short-term cultures in attracting new researchers and scientific disciplines to the field. Second, only 17.8% of the recent publications used long-term cultures, compared with 30.0% of the publications in the previous decade. Third, during recent years research in cell cultures has studied fewer model species more extensively (mainly, Botryllus schlosseri, Crassostrea, Mytilus, Penaeus, and Suberites domuncula), signifying a shift from previous investigations that had studied a more diverse range of organisms. From 1988 to 1998 the phylum Mollusca was the most studied taxon (34.4%), but recent years have seen more studies of Porifera and Crustacea (30.0% and 32.2% of publications) than of Mollusca (21.1%). Still, not even a single established cell line from any marine invertebrate has yet been made available. However, the use of new cellular, genomic, and proteomic tools may fundamentally change our strategy for the development of cell cultures from marine invertebrates.

  15. Biochemical Assays of Cultured Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barlow, G. H.

    1985-01-01

    Subpopulations of human embryonic kidney cells isolated from continuous flow electrophoresis experiments performed at McDonnell Douglas and on STS-8 have been analyzed. These analyses have included plasminogen activator assays involving indirect methodology on fibrin plated and direct methodology using chromogenic substrates. Immunological studies were performed and the conditioned media for erythropoietin activity and human granulocyte colony stimulating (HGCSF) activity was analyzed.

  16. 2D Particle-In-Cell simulations of the electron-cyclotron instability and associated anomalous transport in Hall-Effect Thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croes, Vivien; Lafleur, Trevor; Bonaventura, Zdenek; Péchereau, François; Bourdon, Anne; Chabert, Pascal

    2016-09-01

    This work studies the electron-cyclotron instability in Hall-Effect Thrusters (HETs) using a 2D Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulation. The simulation is configured with a Cartesian coordinate system where a magnetic field, B0, is aligned along the X-axis (radial direction, including absorbing walls), a constant electric field, E0, along the Z-axis (axial direction, perpendicular to simulation plane), and the E0xB0 direction along the Y-axis (O direction, with periodic boundaries). Although for low plasma densities classical electron-neutral collisions theory describes well electron transport, at sufficiently high densities (as measured in HETs) a strong instability can be observed that enhances the electron mobility, even in the absence of collisions. The instability generates high frequency ( MHz) and short wavelength ( mm) fluctuations in both the electric field and charged particle densities. We investigate the correlation between these fluctuations and their role with anomalous electron transport; complementing previous 1D simulations. Plasma is self-consistently heated by the instability, but since the latter does not reach saturation in an infinitely long 2D system, saturation is achieved through implementation of a finite axial length that models convection in E0 direction. With support of Safran Aircraft Engines.

  17. 2D DIGE analysis of the bursa of Fabricius reveals characteristic proteome profiles for different stages of chicken B-cell development.

    PubMed

    Korte, Julia; Fröhlich, Thomas; Kohn, Marina; Kaspers, Bernd; Arnold, Georg J; Härtle, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    Antibody producing B-cells are an essential component of the immune system. In contrast to human and mice where B-cells develop in the bone marrow, chicken B-cells develop in defined stages in the bursa of Fabricius, a gut associated lymphoid tissue. In order to gain a better understanding of critical biological processes like immigration of B-cell precursors into the bursa anlage, their differentiation and final emigration from the bursa we analyzed the proteome dynamics of this organ during embryonic and posthatch development. Samples were taken from four representative developmental stages (embryonic day (ED) 10, ED18, day 2, and day 28) and compared in an extensive 2D DIGE approach comprising six biological replicates per time point. Cluster analysis and PCA demonstrated high reliability and reproducibility of the obtained data set and revealed distinctive proteome profiles for the selected time points, which precisely reflect the differentiation processes. One hundred fifty three protein spots with significantly different intensities were identified by MS. We detected alterations in the abundance of several proteins assigned to retinoic acid metabolism (e.g. retinal-binding protein 5) and the actin-cytoskeleton (e.g. vinculin and gelsolin). By immunohistochemistry, desmin was identified as stromal cell protein associated with the maturation of B-cell follicles. Strongest protein expression difference (10.8-fold) was observed for chloride intracellular channel 2. This protein was thus far not associated with B-cell biology but our data suggest an important function in bursa B-cell development. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. A study of electrochemical biosensor for analysis of three-dimensional (3D) cell culture.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Se Hoon; Lee, Dong Woo; Kim, Sanghyo; Kim, Jhingook; Ku, Bosung

    2012-05-15

    Cell culture has a fundamental role not only in regenerative medicine but also in biotechnology, pharmacology, impacting both drug discovery and manufacturing. Although cell culture has been generally developed for only two-dimensional (2D) culture systems, three-dimensional (3D) culture is being spotlighted as the means to mimic in vivo cellular conditions. In this study, a method for cytotoxicity assay using an electrochemical biosensor applying 3D cell culture is presented. In order to strengthen the advantage of a 3D cell culture, the experimental condition of gelation between several types of sol-gels (alginate, collagen, matrigel) and cancer cells can be optimized to make a 3D cell structure on the electrode, which will show the reproducibility of electrical measurement for long-term monitoring. Moreover, cytotoxicity test results applying this method showed IC(50) value of A549 lung cancer cells to erlotinib. Thus, this study evaluates the feasibility of application of the electrochemical biosensor for 3D cell culture to cytotoxicity assay for investigation of 3D cell response to drug compounds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. 21 CFR 864.2280 - Cultured animal and human cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cultured animal and human cells. 864.2280 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products § 864.2280 Cultured animal and human cells. (a) Identification. Cultured animal and human cells are in vitro...

  20. 21 CFR 864.2280 - Cultured animal and human cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cultured animal and human cells. 864.2280 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products § 864.2280 Cultured animal and human cells. (a) Identification. Cultured animal and human cells are in vitro...

  1. 21 CFR 864.2280 - Cultured animal and human cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cultured animal and human cells. 864.2280 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products § 864.2280 Cultured animal and human cells. (a) Identification. Cultured animal and human cells are in vitro...

  2. 21 CFR 864.2280 - Cultured animal and human cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cultured animal and human cells. 864.2280 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products § 864.2280 Cultured animal and human cells. (a) Identification. Cultured animal and human cells are in vitro...

  3. 21 CFR 864.2280 - Cultured animal and human cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cultured animal and human cells. 864.2280 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products § 864.2280 Cultured animal and human cells. (a) Identification. Cultured animal and human cells are in vitro...

  4. Cell culture experiments planned for the space bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R.; Cross, John H.

    1987-01-01

    Culturing of cells in a pilot-scale bioreactor remains to be done in microgravity. An approach is presented based on several studies of cell culture systems. Previous and current cell culture research in microgravity which is specifically directed towards development of a space bioprocess is described. Cell culture experiments planned for a microgravity sciences mission are described in abstract form.

  5. Cell Culture on MEMS Platforms: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Ming; Tong, Wen Hao; Choudhury, Deepak; Rahim, Nur Aida Abdul; Iliescu, Ciprian; Yu, Hanry

    2009-01-01

    Microfabricated systems provide an excellent platform for the culture of cells, and are an extremely useful tool for the investigation of cellular responses to various stimuli. Advantages offered over traditional methods include cost-effectiveness, controllability, low volume, high resolution, and sensitivity. Both biocompatible and bio-incompatible materials have been developed for use in these applications. Biocompatible materials such as PMMA or PLGA can be used directly for cell culture. However, for bio-incompatible materials such as silicon or PDMS, additional steps need to be taken to render these materials more suitable for cell adhesion and maintenance. This review describes multiple surface modification strategies to improve the biocompatibility of MEMS materials. Basic concepts of cell-biomaterial interactions, such as protein adsorption and cell adhesion are covered. Finally, the applications of these MEMS materials in Tissue Engineering are presented. PMID:20054478

  6. Wnt-Dependent Control of Cell Polarity in Cultured Cells.

    PubMed

    Runkle, Kristin B; Witze, Eric S

    2016-01-01

    The secreted ligand Wnt5a regulates cell polarity and polarized cell movement during development by signaling through the poorly defined noncanonical Wnt pathway. Cell polarity regulates most aspects of cell behavior including the organization of apical/basolateral membrane domains of epithelial cells, polarized cell divisions along a directional plane, and front rear polarity during cell migration. These characteristics of cell polarity allow coordinated cell movements required for tissue formation and organogenesis during embryonic development. Genetic model organisms have been used to identify multiple signaling pathways including Wnt5a that are required to establish cell polarity and regulate polarized cell behavior. However, the downstream signaling events that regulate these complex cellular processes are still poorly understood. The methods below describe assays to study Wnt5a-induced cell polarity in cultured cells, which may facilitate our understanding of these complex signaling pathways.

  7. Ethylene Production by Plant Cell Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Larue, T. A. G.; Gamborg, O. L.

    1971-01-01

    Suspension cultures of Rosa sp., soybean (Glycine max L.), wheat (Triticum monococcum L.), sweet clover (Melilotus alba Desc.), Haplopappus gracilis Nutt., and rue (Ruta graveolens) produced ethylene. The amount varied with the species. The rate of formation in rose and Haplopappus cells paralleled growth but accelerated when the stationary phase was reached, after which the rate declined sharply. Light was not required for ethylene production. Exogenous ethylene could not replace 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid or naphthalineacetic acid in the cell cultures, and there was no stimulation of growth in the normal medium. Ethylene at 20 mm reduced growth of Ruta and rose cells by 30 and 20%, respectively. The amounts of ethylene produced by the cultures do not affect growth. Images PMID:16657806

  8. Cell Cycle Progression of Human Cells Cultured in Rotating Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, Kelsey

    2009-01-01

    Space flight has been shown to alter the astronauts immune systems. Because immune performance is complex and reflects the influence of multiple organ systems within the host, scientists sought to understand the potential impact of microgravity alone on the cellular mechanisms critical to immunity. Lymphocytes and their differentiated immature form, lymphoblasts, play an important and integral role in the body's defense system. T cells, one of the three major types of lymphocytes, play a central role in cell-mediated immunity. They can be distinguished from other lymphocyte types, such as B cells and natural killer cells by the presence of a special receptor on their cell surface called T cell receptors. Reported studies have shown that spaceflight can affect the expression of cell surface markers. Cell surface markers play an important role in the ability of cells to interact and to pass signals between different cells of the same phenotype and cells of different phenotypes. Recent evidence suggests that cell-cycle regulators are essential for T-cell function. To trigger an effective immune response, lymphocytes must proliferate. The objective of this project is to investigate the changes in growth of human cells cultured in rotating bioreactors and to measure the growth rate and the cell cycle distribution for different human cell types. Human lymphocytes and lymphoblasts will be cultured in a bioreactor to simulate aspects of microgravity. The bioreactor is a cylindrical culture vessel that incorporates the aspects of clinostatic rotation of a solid fluid body around a horizontal axis at a constant speed, and compensates gravity by rotation and places cells within the fluid body into a sustained free-fall. Cell cycle progression and cell proliferation of the lymphocytes will be measured for a number of days. In addition, RNA from the cells will be isolated for expression of genes related in cell cycle regulations.

  9. Magnetic Cell Labeling and Manipulation in Cell Cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Vincent H. B.; Barcza, Alexander; Chen, Rongjun; Slater, Nigel K. H.

    2010-12-01

    Magnetic cell labeling has numerous applications in cell separation and sorting, tissue engineering and magnetic resonance imaging. Mammalian cells can be magnetically labeled by first biotinylating their cell membrane proteins and then binding streptavidin-coated paramagnetic particles onto the biotinylated proteins. Characterization studies indicated that the extent of cell biotinylation could be controlled by varying the biotinylating reagent concentration. Since the paramagnetic particles have high mass magnetization, the labeled cells were very responsive to magnetic field gradients and they could be targeted and patterned precisely using magnets. Magnetic multicellular spheroids were generated from these labeled cells and the constituent cells were found to be viable. These spheroids could be patterned using magnetic fields in a few seconds. This cell labeling methodology can be adapted to a wide variety of mammalian cell types. The labeled cells can then be manipulated in two dimensional cell culture or as three dimensional magnetic spheroids.

  10. Retinol esterification in cultured rat liver cells.

    PubMed Central

    Drevon, C A; Blomhoff, R; Rasmussen, M; Kindberg, G M; Berg, T; Norum, K R

    1985-01-01

    Retinol esterification was examined in cultured hepatocytes and stellate cells from the rat. Esterification of [3H]retinol was linear for 2 h in both cell types. By increasing the concentration of retinol in the medium, there was a marked increase in retinol esterification in both cell types. The capacity for esterification of retinol was in the same order of magnitude in the two cell types at 3.5 microM-retinol in the medium. This represents a rate of retinol esterification which far exceeds that required to esterify the amount of retinol absorbed in the intestine. It was demonstrated in particulate homogenates from cultured hepatocytes that the esterification of retinol was dependent on acyl-CoA. Addition of 25-hydroxycholesterol or mevalonolactone promoted an increase in cholesterol esterification, whereas retinol esterification was unaffected, suggesting that cholesterol and retinol are esterified by two different enzymes. Some 80% of vitamin A in cultured hepatocytes is retinyl esters, mostly retinyl palmitate. By adding 87 microM-retinol in the medium the cells accumulated 100-fold free retinol and 2.5-3.0-fold retinyl esters within 1 h. When retinol-loaded cells were incubated without retinol, there was a marked decrease especially in free but also in esterified retinol. In the presence of 1 mM-oleic acid in the medium the amount of retinyl oleate was twice that in control cells. PMID:4062867

  11. Efficient hepatic differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells in a three-dimensional microscale culture.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ran-Ran; Takebe, Takanori; Miyazaki, Leina; Takayama, Maho; Koike, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Masaki; Enomura, Masahiro; Zheng, Yun-Wen; Sekine, Keisuke; Taniguchi, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) represent a novel source of hepatocytes for drug development, disease modeling studies, and regenerative therapy for the treatment of liver diseases. A number of protocols for generating functional hepatocytes have been reported worldwide; however, reproducible and efficient differentiation remained challenging under conventional two-dimensional (2D) culture. In this study, we describe an efficient differentiation protocol for generating functional hepatocyte-like cells from human iPSC-derived homogenous hepatic endoderm cells combined with three-dimensional (3D) microscale culture system. First, hepatic endoderm cells (iPSC-HEs) were directly differentiated using two-step approaches, and then cultured in the 3D micropattern plate. Human iPSC-HEs quickly reaggregated and formed hundreds of round-shaped spheroids at day 4 of cell plating. The size distribution of iPSC-HEs derived spheroids was relatively uniform around 100-200 μm in diameter. After 14 days, iPSC-HEs efficiently differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells in terms of hepatic maker gene expression compared with conventional 2D approach. We conclude that our scalable and three-dimensional culture system would be one promising approach to generate a huge number of hepatocyte-like cells from human iPSCs aiming at future industrial and clinical applications.

  12. 2D semiconductor optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novoselov, Kostya

    The advent of graphene and related 2D materials has recently led to a new technology: heterostructures based on these atomically thin crystals. The paradigm proved itself extremely versatile and led to rapid demonstration of tunnelling diodes with negative differential resistance, tunnelling transistors, photovoltaic devices, etc. By taking the complexity and functionality of such van der Waals heterostructures to the next level we introduce quantum wells engineered with one atomic plane precision. Light emission from such quantum wells, quantum dots and polaritonic effects will be discussed.

  13. 3D culture for cardiac cells.

    PubMed

    Zuppinger, Christian

    2016-07-01

    This review discusses historical milestones, recent developments and challenges in the area of 3D culture models with cardiovascular cell types. Expectations in this area have been raised in recent years, but more relevant in vitro research, more accurate drug testing results, reliable disease models and insights leading to bioartificial organs are expected from the transition to 3D cell culture. However, the construction of organ-like cardiac 3D models currently remains a difficult challenge. The heart consists of highly differentiated cells in an intricate arrangement.Furthermore, electrical “wiring”, a vascular system and multiple cell types act in concert to respond to the rapidly changing demands of the body. Although cardiovascular 3D culture models have been predominantly developed for regenerative medicine in the past, their use in drug screening and for disease models has become more popular recently. Many sophisticated 3D culture models are currently being developed in this dynamic area of life science. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes Abriel.

  14. Peripheral nerve regeneration using a three dimensionally cultured schwann cell conduit.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soung-Min; Lee, Suk-Keun; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2007-05-01

    The use of artificial nerve conduit containing viable Schwann cells is one of the most promising strategies to repair peripheral nerve injury. To fabricate an effective nerve conduit whose microstructure and internal environment are more favorable in nerve regeneration than those currently existing, a new three-dimensional (3D) Schwann cell culture technique using Matrigel and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) was developed. Nerve conduit of 3D arranged Schwann cells was fabricated using direct seeding of freshly harvested DRG into Matrigel-filled silicone tubes (inner diameter 1.98 mm, 14 mm length) and in vitro rafting culture for 2 weeks. The nerve regeneration efficacy of 3D cultured Schwann cell conduit (3D conduit group, n = 6) was assessed using an Sprague-Dawley rat sciatic nerve defect of 10 mm and compared with that of a silicone conduit filled with Matrigel and Schwann cells prepared with the conventional plain culture method (two-dimensional [2D] conduit group, n = 6). After 12 weeks, sciatic function was evaluated with sciatic function index (SFI) and gait analysis, and histomorphology of nerve conduit and the innervated tissues of sciatic nerve were examined using image analyzer and electromicroscopic methods. The SFI and ankle stance angle in the functional evaluation were -60.1 +/- 13.9, 37.9 degrees +/- 5.4 degrees in the 3D conduit group (n = 5) and -87.0 +/- 12.9, 32.2 degrees +/- 4.8 degrees in the 2D conduit group (n = 4). The myelinated axon was 44.91% +/- 0.13% in the 3D conduit group and 13.05% +/- 1.95% in the 2D conduit group. In the transmission electron microscope study, the 3D conduit group showed more abundant myelinated nerve fibers with well-organized and thickened extracellular collagen than the 2D conduit group, and the gastrocnemius muscle and biceps femoris tendon in the 3D conduit group were less atrophied and showed decreased fibrosis with less fatty infiltration than the 2D conduit group. A new 3D Schwann cell culture technique was

  15. The ducky(2J) mutation in Cacna2d2 results in reduced spontaneous Purkinje cell activity and altered gene expression.

    PubMed

    Donato, Roberta; Page, Karen M; Koch, Dietlind; Nieto-Rostro, Manuela; Foucault, Isabelle; Davies, Anthony; Wilkinson, Tonia; Rees, Michele; Edwards, Frances A; Dolphin, Annette C

    2006-11-29

    The mouse mutant ducky and its allele ducky(2J) represent a model for absence epilepsy characterized by spike-wave seizures and cerebellar ataxia. These mice have mutations in Cacna2d2, which encodes the alpha2delta-2 calcium channel subunit. Of relevance to the ataxic phenotype, alpha2delta-2 mRNA is strongly expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs). The Cacna2d2(du2J) mutation results in a 2 bp deletion in the coding region and a complete loss of alpha2delta-2 protein. Here we show that du(2J)/du(2J) mice have a 30% reduction in somatic calcium current and a marked fall in the spontaneous PC firing rate at 22 degrees C, accompanied by a decrease in firing regularity, which is not affected by blocking synaptic input to PCs. At 34 degrees C, du(2J)/du(2J) PCs show no spontaneous intrinsic activity. Du(2J)/du(2J) mice also have alterations in the cerebellar expression of several genes related to PC function. At postnatal day 21, there is an elevation of tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA and a reduction in tenascin-C gene expression. Although du(2J)/+ mice have a marked reduction in alpha2delta-2 protein, they show no fall in PC somatic calcium currents or increase in cerebellar tyrosine hydroxylase gene expression. However, du(2J)/+ PCs do exhibit a significant reduction in firing rate, correlating with the reduction in alpha2delta-2. A hypothesis for future study is that effects on gene expression occur as a result of a reduction in somatic calcium currents, whereas effects on PC firing occur as a long-term result of loss of alpha2delta-2 and/or a reduction in calcium currents and calcium-dependent processes in regions other than the soma.

  16. Non-Fullerene Polymer Solar Cells Based on Alkylthio and Fluorine Substituted 2D-Conjugated Polymers Reach 9.5% Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Bin, Haijun; Zhang, Zhi-Guo; Gao, Liang; Chen, Shanshan; Zhong, Lian; Xue, Lingwei; Yang, Changduk; Li, Yongfang

    2016-04-06

    Non-fullerene polymer solar cells (PSCs) with solution-processable n-type organic semiconductor (n-OS) as acceptor have seen rapid progress recently owing to the synthesis of new low bandgap n-OS, such as ITIC. To further increase power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the devices, it is of a great challenge to develop suitable polymer donor material that matches well with the low bandgap n-OS acceptors thus providing complementary absorption and nanoscaled blend morphology, as well as suppressed recombination and minimized energy loss. To address this challenge, we synthesized three medium bandgap 2D-conjugated bithienyl-benzodithiophene-alt-fluorobenzotriazole copolymers J52, J60, and J61 for the application as donor in the PSCs with low bandgap n-OS ITIC as acceptor. The three polymers were designed with branched alkyl (J52), branched alkylthio (J60), and linear alkylthio (J61) substituent on the thiophene conjugated side chain of the benzodithiophene (BDT) units for studying effect of the substituents on the photovoltaic performance of the polymers. The alkylthio side chain, red-shifted absorption down-shifted the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level and improved crystallinity of the 2D conjugated polymers. With linear alkylthio side chain, the tailored polymer J61 exhibits an enhanced JSC of 17.43 mA/cm(2), a high VOC of 0.89 V, and a PCE of 9.53% in the best non-fullerene PSCs with the polymer as donor and ITIC as acceptor. To the best of our knowledge, the PCE of 9.53% is one of the highest values reported in literature to date for the non-fullerene PSCs. The results indicate that J61 is a promising medium bandgap polymer donor in non-fullerene PSCs.

  17. The ducky2J mutation in Cacna2d2 results in reduced spontaneous Purkinje cell activity and altered gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Donato, Roberta; Page, Karen M.; Koch, Dietlind; Nieto-Rostro, Manuela; Foucault, Isabelle; Davies, Anthony; Wilkinson, Tonia; Rees, Michele; Edwards, Frances A.; Dolphin, Annette C.

    2006-01-01

    The mouse mutant ducky and its allele ducky2J represent a model for absence epilepsy characterized by spike-wave seizures, and cerebellar ataxia. These mice have mutations in Cacna2d2, which encodes the α2δ-2 calcium channel subunit. Of relevance to the ataxic phenotype, α2δ-2 mRNA is strongly expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs). The Cacna2d2du2J mutation results in a two base-pair deletion in the coding region and a complete loss of α2δ-2 protein. Here we show that du2J/du2J mice have a 30% reduction in somatic calcium current, and a marked fall in the spontaneous PC firing rate at 22°C, accompanied by a decrease in firing regularity, which is not affected by blocking synaptic input to PCs. At 34°C du2J/du2J PCs show no spontaneous intrinsic activity. Du2J/du2J mice also have alterations in the cerebellar expression of several genes related to PC function. At P21 there is an elevation of tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA and a reduction in tenascin-C gene expression. Although du2J/+ mice have a marked reduction in α2δ-2 protein, they show no fall in PC somatic calcium currents or increase in cerebellar tryrosine hydroxylase gene expression. However, du2J/+ PCs do exhibit a significant reduction in firing rate, correlating with the reduction in α2δ-2. A hypothesis for future study is that effects on gene expression occur as a result of a reduction in somatic calcium currents, whereas effects on PC firing occur as a long-term result of loss of α2δ-2 and/or a reduction in calcium currents and calcium-dependent processes in regions other than the soma. PMID:17135419

  18. Migration ability and Toll-like receptor expression of human mesenchymal stem cells improves significantly after three-dimensional culture.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Panpan; Liu, Zilin; Li, Xue; Zhang, Bing; Wang, Xiaoyuan; Lan, Jing; Shi, Qing; Li, Dong; Ju, Xiuli

    2017-09-16

    While the conventional two-dimensional (2D) culture protocol is well accepted for the culture of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), this method fails to recapitulate the in vivo native three-dimensional (3D) cellular microenvironment, and may result in phenotypic changes, and homing and migration capacity impairments. MSC preparation in 3D culture systems has been considered an attractive preparatory and delivery method recently. We seeded human umbilical cord-derived MSCs (hUCMSCs) in a 3D culture system with porcine acellular dermal matrix (PADM), and investigated the phenotypic changes, the expression changes of some important receptors, including Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) when hUCMSCs were transferred from 2D to 3D systems, as well as the alterations in in vivo homing and migration potential. It was found that the percentage of CD105-positive cells decreased significantly, whereas that of CD34- and CD271-positive cells increased significantly in 3D culture, compared to that in 2D culture. The mRNA and protein expression levels of TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR6, and CXCR4 in hUCMSCs were increased significantly upon culturing with PADM for 3 days, compared to the levels in 2D culture. The numbers of migratory 3D hUCMSCs in the heart, liver, spleen, and bone marrow were significantly greater than the numbers of 2D hUCMSCs, and the worst migration occurred in 3D + AMD3100 (CXCR4 antagonist) hUCMSCs. These results suggested that 3D culture of hUCMSCs with PADM could alter the phenotypic characteristics of hUCMSCs, increase their TLR and CXCR4 expression levels, and promote their migratory and homing capacity in which CXCR4 plays an important role. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cell Culture Assay for Human Noroviruses [response

    SciTech Connect

    Straub, Tim M.; Honer Zu Bentrup, Kerstin; Orosz Coghlan, Patricia

    2007-07-01

    We appreciate the comments provided by Leung et al., in response to our recently published article “In Vitro Cell Culture Infectivity Assay for Human Noroviruses” by Straub et al. (1). The specific aim of our project was to develop an in vitro cell culture infectivity assay for human noroviruses (hNoV) to enhance risk assessments when they are detected in water supplies. Reverse transcription (RT) qualitative or quantitative PCR are the primary assays for waterborne NoV monitoring. However, these assays cannot distinguish between infectious vs. non-infectious virions. When hNoV is detected in water supplies, information provided by our infectivity assay willmore » significantly improve risk assessment models and protect human health, regardless of whether we are propagating NoV. Indeed, in vitro cell culture infectivity assays for the waterborne pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum that supplement approved fluorescent microscopy assays, do not result in amplification of the environmentally resistant hard-walled oocysts (2). However, identification of life cycle stages in cell culture provides evidence of infectious oocysts in a water supply. Nonetheless, Leung et al.’s assertion regarding the suitability of our method for the in vitro propagation of high titers of NoV is valid for the medical research community. In this case, well-characterized challenge pools of virus would be useful for developing and testing diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines. As further validation of our published findings, we have now optimized RT quantitative PCR to assess the level of viral production in cell culture, where we are indeed finding significant increases in viral titer. The magnitude and time course of these increases is dependent on both virus strain and multiplicity of infection. We are currently preparing a manuscript that will discuss these findings in greater detail, and the implications this may have for creating viral challenge pools« less

  20. Establishment of an in vitro culture model of theca cells from hierarchical follicles in ducks.

    PubMed

    Gan, Xiang; Chen, Da; Deng, Yan; Yuan, Jusong; Kang, Bo; Qiu, Jiamin; Sun, Wenqiang; Han, Chunchun; Hu, Jiwei; Li, Liang; Wang, Jiwen

    2017-06-30

    Theca cells, including theca interna cells and theca externa cells, are vital components of ovarian follicles. The aim of the present study is to identify a reliable method for the in vitro culture of theca cells from duck ovarian hierarchical (F4-F2) follicles. We improved the method for cell separation by using trypsin to further remove granular cells, and we increased the concentration of fetal bovine serum used in in vitro culture to improve cytoactivity. Cell antibody immunofluorescence (IF) showed that all inoculated cells could be stained by the CYP17A1/19A1 antibody but not by the FSHR antibody, which could stain granulosa cells. Furthermore, morphological differences were observed between the outlines of theca interna and externa cells and in their nuclei. Growth curve and CYP17A1/19A1 mRNA relative expression analyses suggested that the growth profile of theca interna cells may have been significantly different from that of theca externa cells in vitro Theca interna cells experienced the logarithmic phase on d1-d2, the plateau phase on d2-d3, and the senescence phase after d3, while theca externa cells experienced the logarithmic phase on d1-d3, the plateau phase on d3-d5, and the senescence phase after d5. Taken together, these results suggested that we have successfully established a reliable theca cell culture model and further defined theca cell characteristics in vitro . © 2017 The Author(s).

  1. Cellulose Structural Polymorphism in Plant Primary Cell Walls Investigated by High-Field 2D Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy and Density Functional Theory Calculations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tuo; Yang, Hui; Kubicki, James D.; Hong, Mei

    2017-01-01

    The native cellulose of bacterial, algal, and animal origins has been well studied structurally using X-ray and neutron diffraction and solid-state NMR spectroscopy, and is known to consist of varying proportions of two allomorphs, Iα and Iβ, which differ in hydrogen bonding, chain packing, and local conformation. In comparison, cellulose structure in plant primary cell walls is much less understood because plant cellulose has lower crystallinity and extensive interactions with matrix polysaccharides. Here we have combined two-dimensional magic-angle-spinning (MAS) solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (solid-state NMR) spectroscopy at high magnetic fields with density functional theory (DFT) calculations to obtain detailed information about the structural polymorphism and spatial distributions of plant primary-wall cellulose. 2D 13C-13C correlation spectra of uniformly 13C-labeled cell walls of several model plants resolved seven sets of cellulose chemical shifts. Among these, five sets (denoted a-e) belong to cellulose in the interior of the microfibril while two sets (f and g) can be assigned to surface cellulose. Importantly, most of the interior cellulose 13C chemical shifts differ significantly from the 13C chemical shifts of the Iα and Iβ allomorphs, indicating that plant primary-wall cellulose has different conformations, packing and hydrogen bonding from celluloses of other organisms. 2D 13C-13C correlation experiments with long mixing times and with water polarization transfer revealed the spatial distributions and matrix-polysaccharide interactions of these cellulose structures. Cellulose f and g are well mixed chains on the microfibril surface, cellulose a and b are interior chains that are in molecular contact with the surface chains, while cellulose c resides in the core of the microfibril, outside spin diffusion contact with the surface. Interestingly, cellulose d, whose chemical shifts differ most significantly from those of bacterial, algal

  2. Cellulose Structural Polymorphism in Plant Primary Cell Walls Investigated by High-Field 2D Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy and Density Functional Theory Calculations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tuo; Yang, Hui; Kubicki, James D; Hong, Mei

    2016-06-13

    The native cellulose of bacterial, algal, and animal origins has been well studied structurally using X-ray and neutron diffraction and solid-state NMR spectroscopy, and is known to consist of varying proportions of two allomorphs, Iα and Iβ, which differ in hydrogen bonding, chain packing, and local conformation. In comparison, cellulose structure in plant primary cell walls is much less understood because plant cellulose has lower crystallinity and extensive interactions with matrix polysaccharides. Here we have combined two-dimensional magic-angle-spinning (MAS) solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (solid-state NMR) spectroscopy at high magnetic fields with density functional theory (DFT) calculations to obtain detailed information about the structural polymorphism and spatial distributions of plant primary-wall cellulose. 2D (13)C-(13)C correlation spectra of uniformly (13)C-labeled cell walls of several model plants resolved seven sets of cellulose chemical shifts. Among these, five sets (denoted a-e) belong to cellulose in the interior of the microfibril while two sets (f and g) can be assigned to surface cellulose. Importantly, most of the interior cellulose (13)C chemical shifts differ significantly from the (13)C chemical shifts of the Iα and Iβ allomorphs, indicating that plant primary-wall cellulose has different conformations, packing, and hydrogen bonding from celluloses of other organisms. 2D (13)C-(13)C correlation experiments with long mixing times and with water polarization transfer revealed the spatial distributions and matrix-polysaccharide interactions of these cellulose structures. Celluloses f and g are well mixed chains on the microfibril surface, celluloses a and b are interior chains that are in molecular contact with the surface chains, while cellulose c resides in the core of the microfibril, outside spin diffusion contact with the surface. Interestingly, cellulose d, whose chemical shifts differ most significantly from those of

  3. Plastid transformation of tobacco suspension cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Staub, Jeffrey M

    2014-01-01

    Chloroplast transformation has been extremely valuable for the study of plastid biology and gene expression, but the tissue culture methodology involved can be laborious, and it can take several months to obtain homoplasmic regenerated plants useful for molecular or physiological studies. In contrast, transformation of tobacco suspension cell plastids provides an easy and efficient system to rapidly evaluate the efficacy of multiple constructs prior to plant regeneration. Suspension cell cultures can be initiated from many cell types, and once established, can be maintained by subculture for more than a year with no loss of transformation efficiency. Using antibiotic selection, homoplasmy is readily achieved in uniform cell colonies useful for comparative gene expression analyses, with the added flexibility to subsequently regenerate plants for in planta studies. Plastids from suspension cells grown in the dark are similar in size and cellular morphology to those in embryogenic culture systems of monocot species, thus providing a useful model for understanding the steps leading to plastid transformation in those recalcitrant species.

  4. Cell attachment to microcarriers affects growth, metabolic activity, and culture productivity in bioreactor culture.

    PubMed

    Nam, Jong Hyun; Ermonval, Myriam; Sharfstein, Susan T

    2007-01-01

    It is not well understood how changes from suspension to microcarrier cultures affect cell growth, metabolism, and yield of recombinant proteins. To investigate the effects of culture conditions on cell characteristics, fed-batch bioreactor cultures were performed under different culture conditions (suspension cultures, cultures attached to Cytodex 3 and Cytopore 1 microcarriers) using two different Chinese hamster ovary cell lines producing either secreted human placental alkaline phosphatase (TR2-255) or tissue plasminogen activator (CHO 1-15-500). In controlled, agitated bioreactors, suspension cultures reached cell densities and product titers higher than those in microcarrier cultures, in contrast to the results in static flask cultures. Growth and metabolic activities showed similar trends in suspension and microcarrier culture regardless of cell line. However, the responses of the specific productivities to the different culture conditions differed significantly between the cell lines.

  5. Electrochemical and impedance characterization of Microbial Fuel Cells based on 2D and 3D anodic electrodes working with seawater microorganisms under continuous operation.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, D; Sacco, A; Hernández, S; Tommasi, T

    2015-11-01

    A mixed microbial population naturally presents in seawater was used as active anodic biofilm of two Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs), employing either a 2D commercial carbon felt or 3D carbon-coated Berl saddles as anode electrodes, with the aim to compare their electrochemical behavior under continuous operation. After an initial increase of the maximum power density, the felt-based cell reduced its performance at 5 months (from 7 to 4 μW cm(-2)), while the saddle-based MFC exceeds 9 μW cm(-2) (after 2 months) and maintained such performance for all the tests. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to identify the MFCs controlling losses and indicates that the mass-transport limitations at the biofilm-electrolyte interface have the main contribution (>95%) to their internal resistance. The activation resistance was one order of magnitude lower with the Berl saddles than with carbon felt, suggesting an enhanced charge-transfer in the high surface-area 3D electrode, due to an increase in bacteria population growth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. l-Asparaginase-mediated downregulation of c-Myc promotes 1,25(OH)2 D3 -induced myeloid differentiation in acute myeloid leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Ju Han; Park, Eunchong; Kim, Myun Soo; Cho, Kyung-Min; Park, Su-Ho; Lee, Arim; Song, Jiseon; Kim, Hyeoung-Joon; Koh, Jeong-Tae; Kim, Tae Sung

    2017-05-15

    Treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) largely depends on chemotherapy, but current regimens have been unsatisfactory for long-term remission. Although differentiation induction therapy utilizing 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 (VD3) has shown great promise for the improvement of AML treatment efficacy, severe side effects caused by its supraphysiological dose limit its clinical application. Here we investigated the combinatorial effect of l-asparaginase (ASNase)-mediated amino acid depletion and the latent alternation of VD3 activity on the induction of myeloid differentiation. ASNase treatment enhanced VD3-driven phenotypic and functional differentiation of three-different AML cell lines into monocyte/macrophages, along with c-Myc downregulation. Using gene silencing with shRNA and a chemical blocker, we found that reduced c-Myc is a critical factor for improving VD3 efficacy. c-Myc-dependent inhibition of mTORC1 signaling and induction of autophagy were involved in the enhanced AML cell differentiation. In addition, in a postculture of AML cells after each treatment, ASNase supports the antileukemic effect of VD3 by inhibiting cell growth and inducing apoptosis. Finally, we confirmed that the administration of ASNase significantly improved VD3 efficacy in the prolongation of survival time in mice bearing tumor xenograft. Our results are the first to demonstrate the extended application of ASNase, which is currently used for acute lymphoid leukemia, in VD3-mediated differentiation induction therapy for AML, and suggest that this drug combination may be a promising novel strategy for curing AML. © 2017 UICC.

  7. Use of an adaptable cell culture kit for performing lymphocyte and monocyte cell cultures in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatton, J. P.; Lewis, M. L.; Roquefeuil, S. B.; Chaput, D.; Cazenave, J. P.; Schmitt, D. A.

    1998-01-01

    The results of experiments performed in recent years on board facilities such as the Space Shuttle/Spacelab have demonstrated that many cell systems, ranging from simple bacteria to mammalian cells, are sensitive to the microgravity environment, suggesting gravity affects fundamental cellular processes. However, performing well-controlled experiments aboard spacecraft offers unique challenges to the cell biologist. Although systems such as the European 'Biorack' provide generic experiment facilities including an incubator, on-board 1-g reference centrifuge, and contained area for manipulations, the experimenter must still establish a system for performing cell culture experiments that is compatible with the constraints of spaceflight. Two different cell culture kits developed by the French Space Agency, CNES, were recently used to perform a series of experiments during four flights of the 'Biorack' facility aboard the Space Shuttle. The first unit, Generic Cell Activation Kit 1 (GCAK-1), contains six separate culture units per cassette, each consisting of a culture chamber, activator chamber, filtration system (permitting separation of cells from supernatant in-flight), injection port, and supernatant collection chamber. The second unit (GCAK-2) also contains six separate culture units, including a culture, activator, and fixation chambers. Both hardware units permit relatively complex cell culture manipulations without extensive use of spacecraft resources (crew time, volume, mass, power), or the need for excessive safety measures. Possible operations include stimulation of cultures with activators, separation of cells from supernatant, fixation/lysis, manipulation of radiolabelled reagents, and medium exchange. Investigations performed aboard the Space Shuttle in six different experiments used Jurkat, purified T-cells or U937 cells, the results of which are reported separately. We report here the behaviour of Jurkat and U937 cells in the GCAK hardware in ground

  8. Dynamic cell culture system (7-IML-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cogoli, Augusto

    1992-01-01

    This experiment is one of the Biorack experiments being flown on the International Microgravity Laboratory 1 (MIL-1) mission as part of an investigation studying cell proliferation and performance in space. One of the objectives of this investigation is to assess the potential benefits of bioprocessing in space with the ultimate goal of developing a bioreactor for continuous cell cultures in space. This experiment will test the operation of an automated culture chamber that was designed for use in a Bioreactor in space. The device to be tested is called the Dynamic Cell Culture System (DCCS). It is a simple device in which media are renewed or chemicals are injected automatically, by means of osmotic pumps. This experiment uses four Type I/O experiment containers. One DCCS unit, which contains a culture chamber with renewal of medium and a second chamber without a medium supply fits in each container. Two DCCS units are maintained under zero gravity conditions during the on-orbit period. The other two units are maintained under 1 gh conditions in a 1 g centrifuge. The schedule for incubator transfer is given.

  9. Plant cell cultures: bioreactors for industrial production.

    PubMed

    Ruffoni, Barbara; Pistelli, Laura; Bertoli, Alessandra; Pistelli, Luisa

    2010-01-01

    The recent biotechnology boom has triggered increased interest in plant cell cultures, since a number of firms and academic institutions investigated intensively to rise the production of very promising bioactive compounds. In alternative to wild collection or plant cultivation, the production of useful and valuable secondary metabolites in large bioreactors is an attractive proposal; it should contribute significantly to future attempts to preserve global biodiversity and alleviate associated ecological problems. The advantages of such processes include the controlled production according to demand and a reduced man work requirement. Plant cells have been grown in different shape bioreactors, however, there are a variety of problems to be solved before this technology can be adopted on a wide scale for the production of useful plant secondary metabolites. There are different factors affecting the culture growth and secondary metabolite production in bioreactors: the gaseous atmosphere, oxygen supply and CO2 exchange, pH, minerals, carbohydrates, growth regulators, the liquid medium rheology and cell density. Moreover agitation systems and sterilization conditions may negatively influence the whole process. Many types ofbioreactors have been successfully used for cultivating transformed root cultures, depending on both different aeration system and nutrient supply. Several examples of medicinal and aromatic plant cultures were here summarized for the scale up cultivation in bioreactors.

  10. Augmented serum level of major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain A (MICA) protein and reduced NKG2D expression on NK and T cells in patients with cervical cancer and precursor lesions.

    PubMed

    Arreygue-Garcia, Naela A; Daneri-Navarro, Adrian; del Toro-Arreola, Alicia; Cid-Arregui, Angel; Gonzalez-Ramella, Oscar; Jave-Suarez, Luis F; Aguilar-Lemarroy, Adriana; Troyo-Sanroman, Rogelio; Bravo-Cuellar, Alejandro; Delgado-Rizo, Vidal; Garcia-Iglesias, Trinidad; Hernandez-Flores, Georgina; Del Toro-Arreola, Susana

    2008-01-21

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide. NK and cytotoxic T cells play an important role in the elimination of virus-infected and tumor cells through NKG2D activating receptors, which can promote the lysis of target cells by binding to the major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain A (MICA) proteins. Increased serum levels of MICA have been found in patients with epithelial tumors. The aim of this study was to compare the levels of soluble MICA (sMICA) and NKG2D-expressing NK and T cells in blood samples from patients with cervical cancer or precursor lesions with those from healthy donors. Peripheral blood with or without heparin was collected to obtain mononuclear cells or sera, respectively. Serum sMICA levels were measured by ELISA and NKG2D-expressing immune cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. Also, a correlation analysis was performed to associate sMICA levels with either NKG2D expression or with the stage of the lesion. Significant amounts of sMICA were detected in sera from nearly all patients. We found a decrease in the number of NKG2D-expressing NK and T cells in both cervical cancer and lesion groups when compared to healthy donors. Pearson analysis showed a negative correlation between sMICA and NKG2D-expressing T cells; however, we did not find a significant correlation when the analysis was applied to sMICA and NKG2D expression on NK cells. Our results show for the first time that high sMICA levels are found in sera from patients with both cervical cancer and precursor lesions when compared with healthy donors. We also observed a diminution in the number of NKG2D-expressing NK and T cells in the patient samples; however, a significant negative correlation between sMICA and NKG2D expression was only seen in T cells.

  11. Comparison of spectroscopy technologies for improved monitoring of cell culture processes in miniature bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Rowland-Jones, Ruth C; van den Berg, Frans; Racher, Andrew J; Martin, Elaine B; Jaques, Colin

    2017-03-01

    Cell culture process development requires the screening of large numbers of cell lines and process conditions. The development of miniature bioreactor systems has increased the throughput of such studies; however, there are limitations with their use. One important constraint is the limited number of offline samples that can be taken compared to those taken for monitoring cultures in large-scale bioreactors. The small volume of miniature bioreactor cultures (15 mL) is incompatible with the large sample volume (600 µL) required for bioanalysers routinely used. Spectroscopy technologies may be used to resolve this limitation. The purpose of this study was to compare the use of NIR, Raman, and 2D-fluorescence to measure multiple analytes simultaneously in volumes suitable for daily monitoring of a miniature bioreactor system. A novel design-of-experiment approach is described that utilizes previously analyzed cell culture supernatant to assess metabolite concentrations under various conditions while providing optimal coverage of the desired design space. Multivariate data analysis techniques were used to develop predictive models. Model performance was compared to determine which technology is more suitable for this application. 2D-fluorescence could more accurately measure ammonium concentration (RMSE CV 0.031 g L -1 ) than Raman and NIR. Raman spectroscopy, however, was more robust at measuring lactate and glucose concentrations (RMSE CV 1.11 and 0.92 g L -1 , respectively) than the other two techniques. The findings suggest that Raman spectroscopy is more suited for this application than NIR and 2D-fluorescence. The implementation of Raman spectroscopy increases at-line measuring capabilities, enabling daily monitoring of key cell culture components within miniature bioreactor cultures. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:337-346, 2017. © 2017 The Authors Biotechnology Progress published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on

  12. Post-translational modification of the NKG2D ligand RAET1G leads to cell surface expression of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked isoform.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Maki; Eagle, Robert A; Trowsdale, John

    2010-05-28

    NKG2D is an important activating receptor on lymphocytes. In human, it interacts with two groups of ligands: the major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related A/B (MICA/B) family and the UL-16 binding protein (ULBP) family, also known as retinoic acid early transcript (RAET1). MIC proteins are membrane-anchored, but all of the ULBP/RAET1 proteins, except for RAET1E and RAET1G, are glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored. To address the reason for these differences we studied the association of RAET1G with the membrane. Using epitope-tagged RAET1G protein in conjunction with antibodies to different parts of the molecule and in pulse-chase experiments, we showed that the C terminus of the protein was cleaved soon after protein synthesis. Endoglycosidase H and peptide N-glycosidase treatment and cell surface immunoprecipitation indicated that most of the protein stayed in the endoplasmic reticulum, but some of the cleaved form was modified in the Golgi and transported to the cell surface. We examined the possibility of GPI anchoring of the protein in three ways: (i) Phosphatidylinositol (PI)-specific phospholipase C released the PI-linked form of the protein. (ii) The surface expression pattern of RAET1G decreased in cells defective in GPI anchoring through mutant GPI-amidase. (iii) Site-directed mutagenesis, to disrupt residues predicted to facilitate GPI-anchoring, resulted in diminished surface expression of RAET1G. Thus, a form of RAET1G is GPI-anchored, in line with most other ULBP/RAET1 family proteins. The cytoplasmic tail and transmembrane domains appear to result from gene duplication and frameshift mutation. Together with our previous results, our data suggest that RAET1G is regulated post-translationally to produce a GPI-anchored isoform.

  13. Post-translational Modification of the NKG2D Ligand RAET1G Leads to Cell Surface Expression of a Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked Isoform*

    PubMed Central

    Ohashi, Maki; Eagle, Robert A.; Trowsdale, John

    2010-01-01

    NKG2D is an important activating receptor on lymphocytes. In human, it interacts with two groups of ligands: the major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related A/B (MICA/B) family and the UL-16 binding protein (ULBP) family, also known as retinoic acid early transcript (RAET1). MIC proteins are membrane-anchored, but all of the ULBP/RAET1 proteins, except for RAET1E and RAET1G, are glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored. To address the reason for these differences we studied the association of RAET1G with the membrane. Using epitope-tagged RAET1G protein in conjunction with antibodies to different parts of the molecule and in pulse-chase experiments, we showed that the C terminus of the protein was cleaved soon after protein synthesis. Endoglycosidase H and peptide N-glycosidase treatment and cell surface immunoprecipitation indicated that most of the protein stayed in the endoplasmic reticulum, but some of the cleaved form was modified in the Golgi and transported to the cell surface. We examined the possibility of GPI anchoring of the protein in three ways: (i) Phosphatidylinositol (PI)-specific phospholipase C released the PI-linked form of the protein. (ii) The surface expression pattern of RAET1G decreased in cells defective in GPI anchoring through mutant GPI-amidase. (iii) Site-directed mutagenesis, to disrupt residues predicted to facilitate GPI-anchoring, resulted in diminished surface expression of RAET1G. Thus, a form of RAET1G is GPI-anchored, in line with most other ULBP/RAET1 family proteins. The cytoplasmic tail and transmembrane domains appear to result from gene duplication and frameshift mutation. Together with our previous results, our data suggest that RAET1G is regulated post-translationally to produce a GPI-anchored isoform. PMID:20304922

  14. Culture in embryonic kidney serum and xeno-free media as renal cell carcinoma and renal cell carcinoma cancer stem cells research model.

    PubMed

    Krawczyk, Krzysztof M; Matak, Damian; Szymanski, Lukasz; Szczylik, Cezary; Porta, Camillo; Czarnecka, Anna M

    2018-04-01

    The use of fetal bovine serum hinders obtaining reproducible experimental results and should also be removed in hormone and growth factor studies. In particular hormones found in FBS act globally on cancer cell physiology and influence transcriptome and metabolome. The aim of our study was to develop a renal carcinoma serum free culture model optimized for (embryonal) renal cells in order to select the best study model for downstream auto-, para- or endocrine research. Secondary aim was to verify renal carcinoma stem cell culture for this application. In the study, we have cultured renal cell carcinoma primary tumour cell line (786-0) as well as human kidney cancer stem cells in standard 2D monolayer cultures in Roswell Park Memorial Institute Medium or Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium and Complete Human Kidney Cancer Stem Cell Medium, respectively. Serum-free, animal-component free Human Embryonic Kidney 293 media were tested. Our results revealed that xeno-free embryonal renal cells optimized culture media provide a useful tool in RCC cancer biology research and at the same time enable effective growth of RCC. We propose bio-mimic RCC cell culture model with specific serum-free and xeno-free medium that promote RCC cell viability.

  15. Porous microscaffolds for 3D culture of dental pulp mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Bhuptani, Ronak S; Patravale, Vandana B

    2016-12-30

    The collective power of stem cells due to their evident advantages is incessantly investigated in regenerative medicine to be the next generation exceptional remedy for tissue regeneration and treatment of diseases. Stem cells are highly sensitive and a 3D culture environment is a requisite for its successful transplantation and integration with tissues. Porous microscaffolds can create a 3D microenvironment for growing stems cells, controlling their fate both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, interconnected porous PLGA microscaffolds were fabricated, characterized and employed to propagate human dental pulp mesenchymal stem cells (DPMSCs) in vitro. The porous topography was investigated by scanning electron microscopy and the pore size was controlled by fabrication conditions such as the concentration of porogen. DPMSCs were cultured on microscaffolds and were evaluated for their morphology, attachment, proliferation, cell viability via MTT and molecular expression (RT-PCR). DPMSCs were adequately proliferated and adhered over the microscaffolds forming a 3D cell-microscaffold construct. The average number of DPMSCs grown on PLGA microscaffolds was significantly higher than monolayer 2D culture during 5th and 7th day. Moreover, cell viability and gene expression results together corroborated that microscaffolds maintained the viability, stemness and plasticity of the cultured dental pulp mesenchymal stem cells. The novel porous microscaffold developed acts as promising scaffold for 3D culture and survival and transplantation of stem cells for tissue engineering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of Simulated Microgravity Environments Induced by Diamagnetic Levitation of Plant Cell Suspension Cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamal, Khaled Y.; Herranz, Raúl; van Loon, Jack J. W. A.; Christianen, Peter C. M.; Medina, F. Javier

    2016-06-01

    Ground-Based Facilities (GBF) are essetial tools to understand the physical and biological effects of the absence of gravity and they are necessary to prepare and complement space experiments. It has been shown previously that a real microgravity environment induces the dissociation of cell proliferation from cell growth in seedling root meristems, which are limited populations of proliferating cells. Plant cell cultures are large and homogeneous populations of proliferating cells, so that they are a convenient model to study the effects of altered gravity on cellular mechanisms regulating cell proliferation and associated cell growth. Cell suspension cultures of the Arabidopsis thaliana cell line MM2d were exposed to four altered gravity and magnetic field environments in a magnetic levitation facility for 3 hours, including two simulated microgravity and Mars-like gravity levels obtained with different magnetic field intensities. Samples were processed either by quick freezing, to be used in flow cytometry for cell cycle studies, or by chemical fixation for microscopy techniques to measure parameters of the nucleolus. Although the trend of the results was the same as those obtained in real microgravity on meristems (increased cell proliferation and decreased cell growth), we provide a technical discussion in the context of validation of proper conditions to achieve true cell levitation inside a levitating droplet. We conclude that the use of magnetic levitation as a simulated microgravity GBF for cell suspension cultures is not recommended.

  17. A Rapid Filter Insert-based 3D Culture System for Primary Prostate Cell Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Tricoli, Lucas; Berry, Deborah L; Albanese, Chris

    2017-02-13

    Conditionally reprogrammed cells (CRCs) provide a sustainable method for primary cell culture and the ability to develop extensive "living biobanks" of patient derived cell lines. For many types of epithelial cells, various three dimensional (3D) culture approaches have been described that support an improved differentiated state. While CRCs retain their lineage commitment to the tissue from which they are isolated, they fail to express many of the differentiation markers associated with the tissue of origin when grown under normal two dimensional (2D) culture conditions. To enhance the application of patient-derived CRCs for prostate cancer research, a 3D culture format has been defined that enables a rapid (2 weeks total) luminal cell differentiation in both normal and tumor-derived prostate epithelial cells. Herein, a filter insert-based format is described for the culturing and differentiation of both normal and malignant prostate CRCs. A detailed description of the procedures required for cell collection and processing for immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent staining are provided. Collectively the 3D culture format described, combined with the primary CRC lines, provides an important medium- to high- throughput model system for biospecimen-based prostate research.

  18. A high-throughput 2D-analytical technique to obtain single protein parameters from complex cell lysates for in silico process development of ion exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kröner, Frieder; Elsäßer, Dennis; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2013-11-29

    The accelerating growth of the market for biopharmaceutical proteins, the market entry of biosimilars and the growing interest in new, more complex molecules constantly pose new challenges for bioseparation process development. In the presented work we demonstrate the application of a multidimensional, analytical separation approach to obtain the relevant physicochemical parameters of single proteins in a complex mixture for in silico chromatographic process development. A complete cell lysate containing a low titre target protein was first fractionated by multiple linear salt gradient anion exchange chromatography (AEC) with varying gradient length. The collected fractions were subsequently analysed by high-throughput capillary gel electrophoresis (HT-CGE) after being desalted and concentrated. From the obtained data of the 2D-separation the retention-volumes and the concentration of the single proteins were determined. The retention-volumes of the single proteins were used to calculate the related steric-mass action model parameters. In a final evaluation experiment the received parameters were successfully applied to predict the retention behaviour of the single proteins in salt gradient AEC. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Bifurcation structure of the special class of nonstationary regimes emerging in the 2D inertially coupled, unit-cell model: Analytical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorotnikov, K.; Starosvetsky, Y.

    2016-09-01

    Present work is devoted to the analytical investigation of the bifurcation structure of special class of nonstationary low-energy regimes emerging in the locally resonant unit-cell model. System under consideration comprises an outer mass with internal rotator and subject to the 2D, nonlinear local potential. These regimes are characterized by the slow, purely rotational motion of the rotator synchronized with the periodic energy beats between the axial and the lateral vibrations of the outer element. Thus the angular speed of the rotator and the beating frequency of the outer element satisfy the 1:2 resonance condition. In the present study these regimes are referred to as regimes of synchronous nonlinear beats (RSNB). Using the regular muti-scale analysis in the limit of low energy excitation we derive the slow-flow model. To showcase the evolution of RSNBs we used the special Poincaré map technique applied on the slow-flow model. Results of the Poincaré sections unveiled some interesting local bifurcations undergone by these regimes. Further analysis of the slow-flow model enabled us to describe the RSNBs analytically as well as exposed their entire bifurcation structure. The bifurcation analysis has shown the coexistence of several branches of RSNBs corresponding to the regimes of weak and strong, two-dimensional, recurrent energy channeling. We substantiate the results of the analytical study with numerical simulations of the full model and find them to be in the very good agreement.

  20. 2D particle-in-cell simulations of the electron drift instability and associated anomalous electron transport in Hall-effect thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croes, Vivien; Lafleur, Trevor; Bonaventura, Zdeněk; Bourdon, Anne; Chabert, Pascal

    2017-03-01

    In this work we study the electron drift instability in Hall-effect thrusters (HETs) using a 2D electrostatic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. The simulation is configured with a Cartesian coordinate system modeling the radial-azimuthal (r{--}θ ) plane for large radius thrusters. A magnetic field, {{B}}0, is aligned along the Oy axis (r direction), a constant applied electric field, {{E}}0, along the Oz axis (perpendicular to the simulation plane), and the {{E}}0× {{B}}0 direction is along the Ox axis (θ direction). Although electron transport can be well described by electron-neutral collisions for low plasma densities, at high densities (similar to those in typical HETs), a strong instability is observed that enhances the electron cross-field mobility; even in the absence of electron-neutral collisions. The instability generates high frequency (of the order of MHz) and short wavelength (of the order of mm) fluctuations in both the azimuthal electric field and charged particle densities, and propagates in the {{E}}0× {{B}}0 direction with a velocity close to the ion sound speed. The correlation between the electric field and density fluctuations (which leads to an enhanced electron-ion friction force) is investigated and shown to be directly responsible for the increased electron transport. Results are compared with a recent kinetic theory, showing good agreement with the instability properties and electron transport.

  1. Gonococcal and meningococcal pathogenesis as defined by human cell, cell culture, and organ culture assays.

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, D S

    1989-01-01

    Human cells, cell cultures, and organ cultures have been extremely useful for studying the events that occur when gonococci and meningococci encounter human mucosal surfaces. The specificity and selectivity of these events for human cells are striking and correlate with the adaptation of these pathogens for survival on human mucous membranes. To colonize these sites, meningococci and gonococci have developed mechanisms to damage local host defenses such as the mucociliary blanket, to attach to epithelial cells, and to invade these cells. Attachment to epithelial cells mediated by pili, and to some types of cells mediated by PIIs, serves to anchor the organism close to sources of nutrition and allows multiplication. Intracellular invasion, possibly initiated by the major porin protein, may provide additional nutritional support and protection from host defenses. Mucosal invasion may also result in access of gonococci and meningococci to the bloodstream, leading to dissemination. Images PMID:2497953

  2. Cultured epidermal stem cells in regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Catherine J; Tønseth, Kim Alexander; Utheim, Tor Paaske

    2017-07-04

    Transplantation of cultured epidermal cell sheets (CES) has long been used to treat patients with burns, chronic wounds, and stable vitiligo. In patients with large area burns this can be a life-saving procedure. The ultimate goal, however, is to restore all normal functions of the skin and prevent scar formation. Increased focus on the incorporation of epidermal stem cells (EpiSCs) within CES transplants may ultimately prove to be key to achieving this. Transplanted EpiSCs contribute to restoring the complete epidermis and provide long-term renewal.Maintenance of the regenerative potential of EpiSCs is anchorage-dependent. The extracellular matrix (ECM) provides physical cues that are interpreted by EpiSCs and reciprocal signaling between cells and ECM are integrated to determine cell fate. Thus, the carrier scaffold chosen for culture and transplant influences maintenance of EpiSC phenotype and may enhance or detract from regenerative healing following transfer.Long-term effectiveness and safety of genetically modified EpiSCs to correct the severe skin blistering disease epidermolysis bullosa has been shown clinically. Furthermore, skin is gaining interest as an easily accessible source of adult epithelial stem cells potentially useful for restoration of other types of epithelia. This review highlights the role of EpiSCs in the current treatment of skin injury and disease, as well as their potential in novel regenerative medicine applications involving other epithelia.

  3. Differentiation of mammalian skeletal muscle cells cultured on microcarrier beads in a rotating cell culture system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torgan, C. E.; Burge, S. S.; Collinsworth, A. M.; Truskey, G. A.; Kraus, W. E.

    2000-01-01

    The growth and repair of adult skeletal muscle are due in part to activation of muscle precursor cells, commonly known as satellite cells or myoblasts. These cells are responsive to a variety of environmental cues, including mechanical stimuli. The overall goal of the research is to examine the role of mechanical signalling mechanisms in muscle growth and plasticity through utilisation of cell culture systems where other potential signalling pathways (i.e. chemical and electrical stimuli) are controlled. To explore the effects of decreased mechanical loading on muscle differentiation, mammalian myoblasts are cultured in a bioreactor (rotating cell culture system), a model that has been utilised to simulate microgravity. C2C12 murine myoblasts are cultured on microcarrier beads in a bioreactor and followed throughout differentiation as they form a network of multinucleated myotubes. In comparison with three-dimensional control cultures that consist of myoblasts cultured on microcarrier beads in teflon bags, myoblasts cultured in the bioreactor exhibit an attenuation in differentiation. This is demonstrated by reduced immunohistochemical staining for myogenin and alpha-actinin. Western analysis shows a decrease, in bioreactor cultures compared with control cultures, in levels of the contractile proteins myosin (47% decrease, p < 0.01) and tropomyosin (63% decrease, p < 0.01). Hydrodynamic measurements indicate that the decrease in differentiation may be due, at least in part, to fluid stresses acting on the myotubes. In addition, constraints on aggregate size imposed by the action of fluid forces in the bioreactor affect differentiation. These results may have implications for muscle growth and repair during spaceflight.

  4. A Versatile Bioreactor for Dynamic Suspension Cell Culture. Application to the Culture of Cancer Cell Spheroids

    PubMed Central

    Madeddu, Denise; Cerino, Giulia; Falco, Angela; Frati, Caterina; Gallo, Diego; Deriu, Marco A.; Falvo D’Urso Labate, Giuseppe; Quaini, Federico; Audenino, Alberto; Morbiducci, Umberto

    2016-01-01

    A versatile bioreactor suitable for dynamic suspension cell culture under tunable shear stress conditions has been developed and preliminarily tested culturing cancer cell spheroids. By adopting simple technological solutions and avoiding rotating components, the bioreactor exploits the laminar hydrodynamics establishing within the culture chamber enabling dynamic cell suspension in an environment favourable to mass transport, under a wide range of tunable shear stress conditions. The design phase of the device has been supported by multiphysics modelling and has provided a comprehensive analysis of the operating principles of the bioreactor. Moreover, an explanatory example is herein presented with multiphysics simulations used to set the proper bioreactor operating conditions for preliminary in vitro biological tests on a human lung carcinoma cell line. The biological results demonstrate that the ultralow shear dynamic suspension provided by the device is beneficial for culturing cancer cell spheroids. In comparison to the static suspension control, dynamic cell suspension preserves morphological features, promotes intercellular connection, increases spheroid size (2.4-fold increase) and number of cycling cells (1.58-fold increase), and reduces double strand DNA damage (1.5-fold reduction). It is envisioned that the versatility of this bioreactor could allow investigation and expansion of different cell types in the future. PMID:27144306

  5. Repression of multiple CYP2D genes in mouse primary hepatocytes with a single siRNA construct.

    PubMed

    Elraghy, Omaima; Baldwin, William S

    2015-01-01

    The Cyp2d subfamily is the second most abun-dant subfamily of hepatic drug-metabolizing CYPs. In mice, there are nine Cyp2d members that are believed to have redundant catalytic activity. We are testing and optimizing the ability of one short interfering RNA (siRNA) construct to knockdown the expression of multiple mouse Cyp2ds in primary hepatocytes. Expression of Cyp2d10, Cyp2d11, Cyp2d22, and Cyp2d26 was observed in the primary male mouse hepatocytes. Cyp2d9, which is male-specific and growth hormone-dependent, was not expressed in male primary hepatocytes, potentially because of its dependence on pulsatile growth hormone release from the anterior pituitary. Several different siRNAs at different concentrations and with different reagents were used to knockdown Cyp2d expression. siRNA constructs designed to repress only one construct often mildly repressed several Cyp2d isoforms. A construct designed to knockdown every Cyp2d isoform provided the best results, especially when incubated with transfection reagents designed specifically for primary cell culture. Interestingly, a construct designed to knockdown all Cyp2d isoforms, except Cyp2d10, caused a 2.5× increase in Cyp2d10 expression, presumably because of a compensatory response. However, while RNA expression is repressed 24 h after siRNA treatment, associated changes in Cyp2d-mediated metabolism are tenuous. Overall, this study provides data on the expression of murine Cyp2ds in primary cell lines, valuable information on designing siRNAs for silencing multiple murine CYPs, and potential pros and cons of using siRNA as a tool for repressing Cyp2d and estimating Cyp2d's role in murine xenobiotic metabolism.

  6. Human airway smooth muscle maintain in situ cell orientation and phenotype when cultured on aligned electrospun scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Morris, G. E.; Bridge, J. C.; Eltboli, O. M. I.; Lewis, M. P.; Knox, A. J.; Aylott, J. W.; Brightling, C. E.; Ghaemmaghami, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Human airway smooth muscle (HASM) contraction plays a central role in regulating airway resistance in both healthy and asthmatic bronchioles. In vitro studies that investigate the intricate mechanisms that regulate this contractile process are predominantly conducted on tissue culture plastic, a rigid, 2D geometry, unlike the 3D microenvironment smooth muscle cells are exposed to in situ. It is increasingly apparent that cellular characteristics and responses are altered between cells cultured on 2D substrates compared with 3D topographies. Electrospinning is an attractive method to produce 3D topographies for cell culturing as the fibers produced have dimensions within the nanometer range, similar to cells' natural environment. We have developed an electrospun scaffold using the nondegradable, nontoxic, polymer polyethylene terephthalate (PET) composed of uniaxially orientated nanofibers and have evaluated this topography's effect on HASM cell adhesion, alignment, and morphology. The fibers orientation provided contact guidance enabling the formation of fully aligned sheets of smooth muscle. Moreover, smooth muscle cells cultured on the scaffold present an elongated cell phenotype with altered contractile protein levels and distribution. HASM cells cultured on this scaffold responded to the bronchoconstrictor bradykinin. The platform presented provides a novel in vitro model that promotes airway smooth muscle cell development toward a more in vivo-like phenotype while providing topological cues to ensure full cell alignment. PMID:24793171

  7. Recombinant protein production and insect cell culture and process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaulding, Glenn (Inventor); Prewett, Tacey (Inventor); Goodwin, Thomas (Inventor); Francis, Karen (Inventor); Andrews, Angela (Inventor); Oconnor, Kim (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process has been developed for recombinant production of selected polypeptides using transformed insect cells cultured in a horizontally rotating culture vessel modulated to create low shear conditions. A metabolically transformed insect cell line is produced using the culture procedure regardless of genetic transformation. The recombinant polypeptide can be produced by an alternative process using the cultured insect cells as host for a virus encoding the described polypeptide such as baculovirus. The insect cells can also be a host for viral production.

  8. 1,25(OH)2D3 induced apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro and inhibited their growth in a nude mouse xenograft model by regulating histone deacetylase 2.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian; Yang, Guozhen; Huang, Yunzhu; Zhang, Shu

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 on the apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. The effects of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 on the proliferation and apoptosis of human HCC cells by regulating histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) were assessed by MTT assay and flow cytometry. The effects of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 on the expressions of related proteins in the apoptosis pathway by regulating HDAC2 as well as the mechanism were studied by Western blot and quantitative real-time PCR. A nude mouse model of HCC xenograft was established. A control group, a 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 treatment group, a 1,25(OH) 2 D 3  + HDAC2 overexpression group, an HDAC2 interference group and an HDAC2 overexpression group were set. The tumor volume was recorded, and histopathological changes were observed by HE staining. 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells and induced their apoptosis. Overexpression of HDAC2 attenuated the inhibitory effects of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 on the proliferation of HepG2 cells and its ability to induce apoptosis. In the 1,25(OH) 2 D 3  + HDAC2 overexpression group, the expressions of p53, Bax, DR5 and caspase 8 were significantly lower but the expression of Bcl-2 was significantly higher than those of the 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 treatment group (P < 0.05). Compared with the control group, 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 treatment and HDAC2 interference groups had significantly decreased tumor volumes and promoted apoptosis of HCC cells in tumor tissues. Overexpression of HDAC2 weakened the inhibitory effects of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 on tumor volume and its ability to induce apoptosis in tissues. A large area of tumor cells underwent necrosis in 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 treatment and HDAC2 interference groups. In the 1,25(OH) 2 D 3  + HDAC2 overexpression group, both the area of necrosis and cell volume decreased. In conclusion, 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 inhibited the proliferation of HCC cells and induced their apoptosis by down-regulating the expression of HDAC2, up-regulating p53

  9. Developing cell culture-derived pandemic vaccines.

    PubMed

    Barrett, P Noel; Portsmouth, Daniel; Ehrlich, Hartmut J

    2010-02-01

    The growing prospect of avian influenza viruses achieving sustained interhuman transmission, combined with the recent emergence of a novel swine-origin A/H1N1 influenza strain, has brought the issue of influenza vaccine production capacity into sharp focus. It is becoming increasingly clear that traditional egg-based manufacturing processes may be insufficient to meet global vaccine demands in a pandemic situation that is caused by a highly pathogenic influenza virus. This review introduces the concepts of modern, cell culture-derived influenza vaccines and their manufacture, and explains the advantages of these vaccines in terms of both speed and efficiency of production as well as immunogenic efficacy. Vaccine production technologies using the mammalian cell lines Vero, MDCK and PER.C6, as well as the baculovirus/insect cell platform, are described in detail. Clinical data are provided from cell culture-derived vaccines that are at an advanced stage of development, and insights are provided into recent developments in the preclinical evaluation of more experimental technologies.

  10. An Introductory Undergraduate Course Covering Animal Cell Culture Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mozdziak, Paul E.; Petitte, James N.; Carson, Susan D.

    2004-01-01

    Animal cell culture is a core laboratory technique in many molecular biology, developmental biology, and biotechnology laboratories. Cell culture is a relatively old technique that has been sparingly taught at the undergraduate level. The traditional methodology for acquiring cell culture training has been through trial and error, instruction when…

  11. Three-dimensional hydrogel cell culture systems for modeling neural tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frampton, John

    Two-dimensional (2-D) neural cell culture systems have served as physiological models for understanding the cellular and molecular events that underlie responses to physical and chemical stimuli, control sensory and motor function, and lead to the development of neurological diseases. However, the development of three-dimensional (3-D) cell culture systems will be essential for the advancement of experimental research in a variety of fields including tissue engineering, chemical transport and delivery, cell growth, and cell-cell communication. In 3-D cell culture, cells are provided with an environment similar to tissue, in which they are surrounded on all sides by other cells, structural molecules and adhesion ligands. Cells grown in 3-D culture systems display morphologies and functions more similar to those observed in vivo, and can be cultured in such a way as to recapitulate the structural organization and biological properties of tissue. This thesis describes a hydrogel-based culture system, capable of supporting the growth and function of several neural cell types in 3-D. Alginate hydrogels were characterized in terms of their biomechanical and biochemical properties and were functionalized by covalent attachment of whole proteins and peptide epitopes. Methods were developed for rapid cross-linking of alginate hydrogels, thus permitting the incorporation of cells into 3-D scaffolds without adversely affecting cell viability or function. A variety of neural cell types were tested including astrocytes, microglia, and neurons. Cells remained viable and functional for longer than two weeks in culture and displayed process outgrowth in 3-D. Cell constructs were created that varied in cell density, type and organization, providing experimental flexibility for studying cell interactions and behavior. In one set of experiments, 3-D glial-endothelial cell co-cultures were used to model blood-brain barrier (BBB) structure and function. This co-culture system was

  12. Reversible gelling culture media for in-vitro cell culture in three-dimensional matrices

    DOEpatents

    An, Yuehuei H.; Mironov, Vladimir A.; Gutowska, Anna

    2000-01-01

    A gelling cell culture medium useful for forming a three dimensional matrix for cell culture in vitro is prepared by copolymerizing an acrylamide derivative with a hydrophilic comonomer to form a reversible (preferably thermally reversible) gelling linear random copolymer in the form of a plurality of linear chains having a plurality of molecular weights greater than or equal to a minimum gelling molecular weight cutoff, mixing the copolymer with an aqueous solvent to form a reversible gelling solution and adding a cell culture medium to the gelling solution to form the gelling cell culture medium. Cells such as chondrocytes or hepatocytes are added to the culture medium to form a seeded culture medium, and temperature of the medium is raised to gel the seeded culture medium and form a three dimensional matrix containing the cells. After propagating the cells in the matrix, the cells may be recovered by lowering the temperature to dissolve the matrix and centrifuging.

  13. Microfluidic devices for cell culture and handling in organ-on-a-chip applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Holger; Schulz, Ingo; Mosig, Alexander; Jahn, Tobias; Gärtner, Claudia

    2014-03-01

    For many problems in system biology or pharmacology, in-vivo-like models of cell-cell interactions or organ functions are highly sought after. Conventional stationary cell culture in 2D plates quickly reaches its limitations with respect to an in-vivo like expression and function of individual cell types. Microfabrication technologies and microfluidics offer an attractive solution to these problems. The ability to generate flow as well as geometrical conditions for cell culture and manipulation close to the in-vivo situation allows for an improved design of experiments and the modeling of organ-like functionalities. Furthermore, reduced internal volumes lead to a reduction in reagent volumes necessary as well as an increased assay sensitivity. In this paper we present a range of microfluidic devices designed for the co-culturing of a variety of cells. The influence of substrate materials and surface chemistry on the cell morphology and viability for long-term cell culture has been investigated as well as strategies and medium supply for on-chip cell cultivation.

  14. Comparison of growth kinetics between static and dynamic cultures of human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yuma; Kim, Mee-Hae; Kino-Oka, Masahiro

    2018-02-02

    Understanding the fundamental mechanisms that govern the growth kinetics of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) contributes to culture design strategies to improve large-scale production. Two hiPSC lines (Tic and 253G1) were cultured under static and dynamic suspension conditions, and growth kinetics were compared during early (24-48 h), middle (48-72 h), and late (72-96 h) stages. In 2D static culture, similar growth profiles were observed for both hiPSC lines. However, there were significant differences in growth profile patterns and aggregate morphologies between hiPSC lines grown in 3D static and dynamic cultures. Based on immunostaining comparing the two hiPSC lines, surface distribution of collagen type I was observed in aggregates of the Tic line, but not in those of the 253G1 line. Compared to that in 3D static culture, the numbers of cells at 96 h were significantly decreased in 3D dynamic culture. The apparent specific growth rate (μ app ) of the Tic line was maintained continuously throughout culture, whereas that of the 253G1 line decreased gradually with culture until the late phase, at which time this parameter was reduced to μ app  = (0.85 ± 0.71) × 10 -2  h -1 . This indicates that during the growth of hiPSCs in 3D dynamic culture, cells were damaged by liquid flow, which disrupted the cell-synthesized extracellular matrix (ECM). These results demonstrate that cell-synthesized ECM is an important factor affecting cell growth and morphology, and that changes to the ECM within aggregates lead to reduced growth abilities in dynamic culture. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Preparation of 3D fibrin scaffolds for stem cell culture applications.

    PubMed

    Kolehmainen, Kathleen; Willerth, Stephanie M

    2012-03-02

    Stem cells are found in naturally occurring 3D microenvironments in vivo, which are often referred to as the stem cell niche. Culturing stem cells inside of 3D biomaterial scaffolds provides a way to accurately mimic these microenvironments, providing an advantage over traditional 2D culture methods using polystyrene as well as a method for engineering replacement tissues. While 2D tissue culture polystrene has been used for the majority of cell culture experiments, 3D biomaterial scaffolds can more closely replicate the microenvironments found in vivo by enabling more accurate establishment of cell polarity in the environment and possessing biochemical and mechanical properties similar to soft tissue. A variety of naturally derived and synthetic biomaterial scaffolds have been investigated as 3D environments for supporting stem cell growth. While synthetic scaffolds can be synthesized to have a greater range of mechanical and chemical properties and often have greater reproducibility, natural biomaterials are often composed of proteins and polysaccharides found in the extracelluar matrix and as a result contain binding sites for cell adhesion and readily support cell culture. Fibrin scaffolds, produced by polymerizing the protein fibrinogen obtained from plasma, have been widely investigated for a variety of tissue engineering applications both in vitro and in vivo. Such scaffolds can be modified using a variety of methods to incorporate controlled release systems for delivering therapeutic factors. Previous work has shown that such scaffolds can be used to successfully culture embryonic stem cells and this scaffold-based culture system can be used to screen the effects of various growth factors on the differentiation of the stem cells seeded inside. This protocol details the process of polymerizing fibrin scaffolds from fibrinogen solutions using the enzymatic activity of thrombin. The process takes 2 days to complete, including an overnight dialysis step for the

  16. Rotating bio-reactor cell culture apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, Ray P. (Inventor); Wolf, David A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A bioreactor system is described in which a tubular housing contains an internal circularly disposed set of blade members and a central tubular filter all mounted for rotation about a common horizontal axis and each having independent rotational support and rotational drive mechanisms. The housing, blade members and filter preferably are driven at a constant slow speed for placing a fluid culture medium with discrete microbeads and cell cultures in a discrete spatial suspension in the housing. Replacement fluid medium is symmetrically input and fluid medium is symmetrically output from the housing where the input and the output are part of a loop providing a constant or intermittent flow of fluid medium in a closed loop.

  17. Good cell culture practices &in vitro toxicology.

    PubMed

    Eskes, Chantra; Boström, Ann-Charlotte; Bowe, Gerhard; Coecke, Sandra; Hartung, Thomas; Hendriks, Giel; Pamies, David; Piton, Alain; Rovida, Costanza

    2017-12-01

    Good Cell Culture Practices (GCCP) is of high relevance to in vitro toxicology. The European Society of Toxicology In Vitro (ESTIV), the Center for Alternatives for Animal Testing (CAAT) and the In Vitro Toxicology Industrial Platform (IVTIP) joined forces to address by means of an ESTIV 2016 pre-congress session the different aspects and applications of GCCP. The covered aspects comprised the current status of the OECD guidance document on Good In Vitro Method Practices, the importance of quality assurance for new technological advances in in vitro toxicology including stem cells, and the optimized implementation of Good Manufacturing Practices and Good Laboratory Practices for regulatory testing purposes. General discussions raised the duality related to the difficulties in implementing GCCP in an academic innovative research framework on one hand, and on the other hand, the need for such GCCP principles in order to ensure reproducibility and robustness of in vitro test methods for toxicity testing. Indeed, if good cell culture principles are critical to take into consideration for all uses of in vitro test methods for toxicity testing, the level of application of such principles may depend on the stage of development of the test method as well as on the applications of the test methods, i.e., academic innovative research vs. regulatory standardized test method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Loss of CD28 within CD4+ T cell subsets from cervical cancer patients is accompanied by the acquisition of intracellular perforin, and is further enhanced by NKG2D expression.

    PubMed

    Escarra-Senmarti, Marta; Bueno-Topete, Miriam Ruth; Jave-Suarez, Luis Felipe; Gomez-Bañuelos, Eduardo; Gutierrez-Franco, Jorge; Vega-Magaña, Natali; Aguilar-Lemarroy, Adriana; Pereira-Suarez, Ana Laura; Haramati, Jesse; Del Toro-Arreola, Susana

    2017-02-01

    CD28 is well characterized as an essential co-stimulatory receptor critical for activation, proliferation and survival processes in CD4 + T cells. Populations of CD4 + CD28 null T cells, with apparently contradictory physiological roles, have recently been reported, along with the co-expression of the NK activating receptor NKG2D, in autoimmune diseases and chronic viral inflammation. Paradoxically, studies in cancer suggest that an expanded CD4 + NKG2D + population may be armed with immunosuppressive properties. We have recently reported the existence of two separate CD4 + NKG2D + T cell populations, which were defined by the presence or absence of the co-stimulatory molecule CD28, with the CD4 + CD28 null NKG2D + population more frequently observed in women with cervical cancer. This has led to the present effort to further characterize this population and to determine if the loss of CD28 influences the acquisition of cytotoxic or regulatory markers. In the present work, a multicolor flow cytometry protocol was used to analyze the expression of cytotoxic and immunoregulatory markers on circulating CD4 + T cells characterized by the presence or absence of CD28 and NKG2D in patients with invasive cervical carcinoma and age/gender-matched healthy controls. A noticeable expansion of CD4 + CD28 null cells, many of them NKG2D + , were observed in selected cervical cancer samples. This CD4 + CD28 null T cell population was characterized by a lack of immunoregulatory markers, as well as very low basal levels of intracellular IFN-γ, TNF-α, TGF-β, and IL-10. Intracellular perforin, however, was found to be significantly increased in this CD4 + CD28 null population, and increases in the mean fluorescence intensity of perforin were found to be enhanced by the presence of NKG2D. In conclusion, our data provide the first evidence of a strict link between the absence of CD28 and the expression of perforin, which is likewise enhanced by the expression of NKG2D, within

  19. Innovation in Cell Banking, Expansion, and Production Culture.

    PubMed

    Kshirsagar, Rashmi; Ryll, Thomas

    2018-04-11

    Cell culture-based production processes enable the development and commercial supply of recombinant protein products. Such processes consist of the following elements: thaw and initiation of culture, seed expansion, and production culture. A robust cell source storage system in the form of a cell bank is developed and cells are thawed to initiate the cell culture process. Seed culture expansion generates sufficient cell mass to initiate the production culture. The production culture provides an environment where the cells can synthesize the product and is optimized to deliver the highest possible product concentration with acceptable product quality. This chapter describes the significant innovations made in these process elements and the resulting improvements in the overall efficiency, robustness, and safety of the processes and products.

  20. Cardiac Cells Beating in Culture: A Laboratory Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Debora

    2007-01-01

    This article describes how to establish a primary tissue culture, where cells are taken directly from an organ of a living animal. Cardiac cells are taken from chick embryos and transferred to culture dishes. These cells are not transformed and therefore have a limited life span. However, the unique characteristics of cardiac cells are maintained…

  1. Equipment for large-scale mammalian cell culture.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Sadettin S

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides information on commonly used equipment in industrial mammalian cell culture, with an emphasis on bioreactors. The actual equipment used in the cell culture process can vary from one company to another, but the main steps remain the same. The process involves expansion of cells in seed train and inoculation train processes followed by cultivation of cells in a production bioreactor. Process and equipment options for each stage of the cell culture process are introduced and examples are provided. Finally, the use of disposables during seed train and cell culture production is discussed.

  2. E-2D Advanced Hawkeye Aircraft (E-2D AHE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report ( SAR ) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-364 E-2D Advanced Hawkeye Aircraft (E-2D AHE) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense...Acquisition Management Information Retrieval (DAMIR) March 23, 2016 15:17:43 UNCLASSIFIED E-2D AHE December 2015 SAR March 23, 2016 15:17:43...Requirements Document OSD - Office of the Secretary of Defense O&S - Operating and Support PAUC - Program Acquisition Unit Cost E-2D AHE December 2015 SAR March

  3. [Research progress of cell co-culture method].

    PubMed

    Qin, Yanqin; Chen, Yulong; Li, Jiansheng

    2016-08-01

    Cell culture technology is the most commonly used method in the in vitro experiments at present. However, monolayer cell culture technology has been unable to meet the demand of the researchers. This is because that monolayer cell culture cannot mimic the cellular environment in which multiple cells interact with each other in the body. We cannot discuss the relationship of many cells, because we do not know the relationship between cells through a single kind of cell. So cell co-culture medicine arises at the historic moment for the demand. With the development of research method in recent years, cell co-culture method also has been improved in practice: from direct contact co-cultures to indirect contact co-cultures, from two-dimensional co-cultures to three-dimensional co-cultures. Cell co-culture method is closer to the human body. It is also more advantageous to study the interaction among cells. Nowadays, there are more researchers tend to select this method to study the physiological and pathological in vitro model, tissue engineering, and cell differentiation research. At the same time, it has become the focus of drug research and development, drug analysis, mechanism of drug action, and drug targets. This article will review the studies of cell co-culture method, summarize advantages and disadvantages of various methods, so as to promote improvement of cell culture methods, to build cells co-culture system that more close to human body, and build the in vitro model that simulate internal circulation of human body further.

  4. Effect of LLLT on endothelial cells culture.

    PubMed

    Góralczyk, Krzysztof; Szymańska, Justyna; Łukowicz, Małgorzata; Drela, Ewelina; Kotzbach, Roman; Dubiel, Mariusz; Michalska, Małgorzata; Góralczyk, Barbara; Zając, Andrzej; Rość, Danuta

    2015-01-01

    Growth factors as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), produced by the endothelial cells, take an essential part in pathological and physiological angiogenesis. The possibility of angiogenesis modulation by application of laser radiation may contribute to the improvement of its use in this process. Thus, the aim of the study was to investigate the influence of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the proliferation of endothelial cells, secretion of VEGF-A and presence of soluble VEGF receptors (sVEGFR-1 and sVEGFR-2) in the medium after in vitro culture. Isolated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were irradiated using a diode laser at a wavelength of 635 nm and power density of 1,875 mW/cm(2). Depending on radiation energy density, the experiment was conducted in four groups: I 0 J/cm(2) (control group), II 2 J/cm(2), III 4 J/cm(2), and IV 8 J/cm(2). The use of laser radiation wavelength of 635 nm, was associated with a statistically significant increase in proliferation of endothelial cells (p = 0.0041). Moreover, at 635-nm wavelength, all doses of radiation significantly reduced the concentration of sVEGFR-1 (p = 0.0197).

  5. Polyamine Uptake in Carrot Cell Cultures 1

    PubMed Central

    Pistocchi, Rossella; Bagni, Nello; Creus, José A.

    1987-01-01

    Putrescine and spermidine uptake into carrot (Daucus carota L.) cells in culture was studied. The time course of uptake showed that the two polyamines were very quickly transported into the cells, reaching a maximum absorption within 1 minute. Increasing external polyamine concentrations up to 100 millimolar showed the existence of a biphasic system with different affinities at low and high polyamine concentrations. The cellular localization of absorbed polyamines was such that a greater amount of putrescine was present in the cytoplasmic soluble fraction, while spermidine was mostly present in cell walls. The absorbed polyamines were released into the medium in the presence of increasing external concentrations of the corresponding polyamine or Ca2+. The effects of Ca2+ were different for putrescine and spermidine; putrescine uptake was slightly stimulated by 10 micromolar Ca2+ and inhibited by higher concentrations, while for spermidine uptake there was an increasing stimulation in the Ca2+ concentration range between 10 micromolar and 1 millimolar. La3+ nullified the stimulatory effect of 10 micromolar Ca2+ on putrescine uptake and that of 1 millimolar Ca2+ on spermidine uptake. La3+ at 0.5 to 1 millimolar markedly inhibited the uptake of both polyamines, suggesting that it interferes with the sites of polyamine uptake. Putrescine uptake was affected to a lesser extent by metabolic inhibitors than was spermidine uptake. It is proposed that the entry of polyamines into the cells is driven by the transmembrane electrical gradient, with a possible antiport mechanism between external and internal polyamine molecule. PMID:16665446

  6. A comprehensive analysis of human dental pulp cell spheroids in a three-dimensional pellet culture system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Siyuan; Buttler-Buecher, Patricia; Denecke, Bernd; Arana-Chavez, Victor E; Apel, Christian

    2018-02-15

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture methods are of high importance to studies of biological processes. This is particularly the case with spheroid cultures, which create 3D cell aggregates without the use of exogenous materials. Compared to conventional monolayer cultures, cellular spheroid cultures have been demonstrated to improve multilineage potential and extracellular matrix production. To address this issue in depth, we present a more comprehensive analysis of 3D human dental pulp cell (hDPC) spheroids. hDPC spheroids were fabricated by the pellet culture method and were cultured without adding any reagent to induce differentiation. The gene-expression profiles of the 3D and two-dimensional (2D) cultured hDPCs were compared by complementary DNA microarray analysis. Odontoblastic and osteoblastic differentiation marker gene expression was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were applied to examine the morphology of hDPC spheroids and extracellular matrix components. Compared with 2D monolayer culture, microarray analysis identified 405 genes and 279 genes with twofold or greater differential expression after 3 days and 28 days of 3D culture, respectively. In 3D hDPC spheroids, gene ontology analysis revealed upregulation of extracellular matrix-related genes and downregulation of cell growth-related genes. RT-qPCR analysis showed higher expression levels of osteocalcin, dentin sialophosphoprotein, and alkaline phosphatase. TEM revealed the morphological characteristics of the fibrillar collagen-rich matrix and cell-cell interactions. The present findings provide clues to understanding the mechanisms of pellet-cultured hDPCs and contribute to future research in the comparative studies of different 3D culture methods. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Recombinant Protein Production and Insect Cell Culture and Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor); Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); OConnor, Kim C. (Inventor); Francis, Karen M. (Inventor); Andrews, Angela D. (Inventor); Prewett, Tracey L. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A process has been developed for recombinant production of selected polypeptides using transformed insect cells cultured in a horizontally rotating culture vessel modulated to create low shear conditions. A metabolically transformed insect cell line is produced using the culture procedure regardless of genetic transformation. The recombinant polypeptide can be produced by an alternative process using virtually infected or stably transformed insect cells containing a gene encoding the described polypeptide. The insect cells can also be a host for viral production.

  8. High divergent 2D grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin; Ma, Jianyong; Zhou, Changhe

    2014-11-01

    A 3×3 high divergent 2D-grating with period of 3.842μm at wavelength of 850nm under normal incidence is designed and fabricated in this paper. This high divergent 2D-grating is designed by the vector theory. The Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis (RCWA) in association with the simulated annealing (SA) is adopted to calculate and optimize this 2D-grating.The properties of this grating are also investigated by the RCWA. The diffraction angles are more than 10 degrees in the whole wavelength band, which are bigger than the traditional 2D-grating. In addition, the small period of grating increases the difficulties of fabrication. So we fabricate the 2D-gratings by direct laser writing (DLW) instead of traditional manufacturing method. Then the method of ICP etching is used to obtain the high divergent 2D-grating.

  9. Enhanced Adipogenic Differentiation of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells in an In Vitro Microenvironment: The Preparation of Adipose-Like Microtissues Using a Three-Dimensional Culture.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Yoshitaka; Ikeuchi, Masashi; Noguchi, Hirofumi; Yagi, Tohru; Hayashi, Shuji

    2017-01-08

    The application of stem cells for cell therapy has been extensively studied in recent years. Among the various types of stem cells, human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) can be obtained in large quantities with relatively few passages, and they possess a stable quality. ASCs can differentiate into a number of cell types, such as adipose cells and ectodermal cells. We therefore focused on the in vitro microenvironment required for such differentiation and attempted to induce the differentiation of human stem cells into microtissues using a microelectromechanical system. We first evaluated the adipogenic differentiation of human ASC spheroids in a three-dimensional (3D) culture. We then created the in vitro microenvironment using a 3D combinatorial TASCL device and attempted to induce the adipogenic differentiation of human ASCs. The differentiation of human ASC spheroids cultured in maintenance medium and those cultured in adipocyte differentiation medium was evaluated via Oil red O staining using lipid droplets based on the quantity of accumulated triglycerides. The differentiation was confirmed in both media, but the human ASCs in the 3D cultures contained higher amounts of triglycerides than those in the 2D cultures. In the short culture period, greater adipogenic differentiation was observed in the 3D cultures than in the 2D cultures. The 3D culture using the TASCL device with adipogenic differentiation medium promoted greater differentiation of human ASCs into adipogenic lineages than either a 2D culture or a culture using a maintenance medium. In summary, the TASCL device created a hospitable in vitro microenvironment and may therefore be a useful tool for the induction of differentiation in 3D culture. The resultant human ASC spheroids were "adipose-like microtissues" that formed spherical aggregation perfectly and are expected to be applicable in regenerative medicine as well as cell transplantation.

  10. Magnetic Macroporous Hydrogels as a Novel Approach for Perfused Stem Cell Culture in 3D Scaffolds via Contactless Motion Control.

    PubMed

    Rödling, Lisa; Volz, Esther Magano; Raic, Annamarija; Brändle, Katharina; Franzreb, Matthias; Lee-Thedieck, Cornelia

    2018-01-19

    There is an urgent need for 3D cell culture systems that avoid the oversimplifications and artifacts of conventional culture in 2D. However, 3D culture within the cavities of porous biomaterials or large 3D structures harboring high cell numbers is limited by the needs to nurture cells and to remove growth-limiting metabolites. To overcome the diffusion-limited transport of such soluble factors in 3D culture, mixing can be improved by pumping, stirring or shaking, but this in turn can lead to other problems. Using pumps typically requires custom-made accessories that are not compatible with conventional cell culture disposables, thus interfering with cell production processes. Stirring or shaking allows little control over movement of scaffolds in media. To overcome these limitations, magnetic, macroporous hydrogels that can be moved or positioned within media in conventional cell culture tubes in a contactless manner are presented. The cytocompatibility of the developed biomaterial and the applied magnetic fields are verified for human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). The potential of this technique for perfusing 3D cultures is demonstrated in a proof-of-principle study that shows that controlled contactless movement of cell-laden magnetic hydrogels in culture media can mimic the natural influence of differently perfused environments on HSPCs. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Density gradient electrophoresis of cultured human embryonic kidney cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plank, L. D.; Kunze, M. E.; Giranda, V.; Todd, P. W.

    1985-01-01

    Ground based confirmation of the electrophoretic heterogeneity of human embryonic kidney cell cultures, the general characterization of their electrophoretic migration, and observations on the general properties of cultures derived from electrophoretic subpopulations were studied. Cell migration in a density gradient electrophoresis column and cell electrophoretic mobility was determined. The mobility and heterogeneity of cultured human embryonic kidney cells with those of fixed rat erythrocytes as model test particle was compared. Electrophoretically separated cell subpopulations with respect to size, viability, and culture characteristics were examined.

  12. Gravity, chromosomes, and organized development in aseptically cultured plant cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krikorian, Abraham D.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of the PCR experiment are: to test the hypothesis that microgravity will in fact affect the pattern and developmental progression of embryogenically competent plant cells from one well-defined, critical stage to another; to determine the effects of microgravity in growth and differentiation of embryogenic carrot cells grown in cell culture; to determine whether microgravity or the space environment fosters an instability of the differentiated state; and to determine whether mitosis and chromosome behavior are adversely affected by microgravity. The methods employed will consist of the following: special embryogenically competent carrot cell cultures will be grown in cell culture chambers provided by NASDA; four cell culture chambers will be used to grow cells in liquid medium; two dishes (plant cell culture dishes) will be used to grow cells on a semi-solid agar support; progression to later embryonic stages will be induced in space via crew intervention and by media manipulation in the case of liquid grown cell cultures; progression to later stages in case of semi-solid cultures will not need crew intervention; embryo stages will be fixed at a specific interval (day 6) in flight only in the case of liquid-grown cultures; and some living cells and somatic embryos will be returned for continued post-flight development and 'grown-out.' These will derive from the semi-solid grown cultures.

  13. Biolistic transformation of cotton embryogenic cell suspension cultures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genetic transformation of cotton is highly dependent on the ability to regenerate fertile plants from transgenic cells through somatic embryogenesis. Induction of embryogenic cell cultures is genotype-dependant. However, once embryogenic cell cultures are available, they can be effectively used fo...

  14. Cholera toxin stimulation of human mammary epithelial cells in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Stampfer, M.R.

    1982-06-01

    Addition of cholera toxin to human mammary epithelial cultures derived from reduction mammoplasties and primary carcinomas greatly stimulated cell growth and increased the number of times the cells could be successfully subcultured. Other agents known to increase intracellular cAMP levels were also growth stimulatory. The increased growth potential conferred by cholera toxin enhances the usefulness of this cell culture system.

  15. Establishment and characterization of American elm cell suspension cultures

    Treesearch

    Steven M. Eshita; Joseph C. Kamalay; Vicki M. Gingas; Daniel A. Yaussy

    2000-01-01

    Cell suspension cultures of Dutch elm disease (DED)-tolerant and DED-susceptible American elms clones have been established and characterized as prerequisites for contrasts of cellular responses to pathogen-derived elicitors. Characteristics of cultured elm cell growth were monitored by A700 and media conductivity. Combined cell growth data for all experiments within a...

  16. Three-Dimensional Cell Culture: A Breakthrough in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Antoni, Delphine; Burckel, Hélène; Josset, Elodie; Noel, Georges

    2015-01-01

    Cell culture is an important tool for biological research. Two-dimensional cell culture has been used for some time now, but growing cells in flat layers on plastic surfaces does not accurately model the in vivo state. As compared to the two-dimensional case, the three-dimensional (3D) cell culture allows biological cells to grow or interact with their surroundings in all three dimensions thanks to an artificial environment. Cells grown in a 3D model have proven to be more physiologically relevant and showed improvements in several studies of biological mechanisms like: cell number monitoring, viability, morphology, proliferation, differentiation, response to stimuli, migration and invasion of tumor cells into surrounding tissues, angiogenesis stimulation and immune system evasion, drug metabolism, gene expression and protein synthesis, general cell function and in vivo relevance. 3D culture models succeed thanks to technological advances, including materials science, cell biology and bioreactor design. PMID:25768338

  17. Cell and tissue culture of Miscanthus Sacchariflorus

    SciTech Connect

    Godovikova, V.A.; Moiseyeva, E.A.; Shumny, V.K.

    1995-11-01

    Since recent time search and introduction of new species of plants have paid attention. More perspective are perennial low maintenance landscape plants from genera Phragmites L. and Miscanthus Anderss. known as high speed growing and great amount of cellulose`s containing. Absence of seeds production and limited distribution area prevent from immediately introduction the plants of this species. The main goal of our investigation is the scientific development of the cell and tissue culture methods to get changing clones, salt and cold tolerant plants and their micropogation. At present there are collection of biovariety represented by subspecies, ecotypes and plant regenerantsmore » of two species - Miscanthus purpurascens (Anders.) and Miscanthus sacchariflorus (Maxim.). Successful results have been achieved in screening of culture media, prepared on MS base medium and contained a row of tropic components to protect the explant and callus tissue from oxidation and necrosis. Initially the callus was induced from stem segments, apical and nodular meristem of vegetative shoots of elulalia, growing in hydroponic greenhouse. Morphological and cytologic analysis of plant-regenerants have been done.« less

  18. In situ gelation for cell immobilization and culture in alginate foam scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Therese; Markussen, Christine; Dornish, Michael; Heier-Baardson, Helene; Melvik, Jan Egil; Alsberg, Eben; Christensen, Bjørn E

    2014-02-01

    Essential cellular functions are often lost under culture in traditional two-dimensional (2D) systems. Therefore, biologically more realistic three-dimensional (3D) cell culture systems are needed that provide mechanical and biochemical cues which may otherwise be unavailable in 2D. For the present study, an alginate-based hydrogel system was used in which cells in an alginate solution were seeded onto dried alginate foams. A uniform distribution of NIH:3T3 and NHIK 3025 cells entrapped within the foam was achieved by in situ gelation induced by calcium ions integrated in the foam. The seeding efficiency of the cells was about 100% for cells added in a seeding solution containing 0.1-1.0% alginate compared with 18% when seeded without alginate. The NHIK 3025 cells were allowed to proliferate and form multi-cellular structures inside the transparent gel that were later vital stained and evaluated by confocal microscopy. Gels were de-gelled at different time points to isolate the multi-cellular structures and to determine the spheroid growth rate. It was also demonstrated that the mechanical properties of the gel could largely be varied through selection of type and concentration of the applied alginate and by immersing the already gelled disks in solutions providing additional gel-forming ions. Cells can efficiently be incorporated into the gel, and single cells and multi-cellular structures that may be formed inside can be retrieved without influencing cell viability or contaminating the sample with enzymes. The data show that the current system may overcome some limitations of current 3D scaffolds such as cell retrieval and in situ cell staining and imaging.

  19. In Situ Gelation for Cell Immobilization and Culture in Alginate Foam Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Markussen, Christine; Dornish, Michael; Heier-Baardson, Helene; Melvik, Jan Egil; Alsberg, Eben; Christensen, Bjørn E.

    2014-01-01

    Essential cellular functions are often lost under culture in traditional two-dimensional (2D) systems. Therefore, biologically more realistic three-dimensional (3D) cell culture systems are needed that provide mechanical and biochemical cues which may otherwise be unavailable in 2D. For the present study, an alginate-based hydrogel system was used in which cells in an alginate solution were seeded onto dried alginate foams. A uniform distribution of NIH:3T3 and NHIK 3025 cells entrapped within the foam was achieved by in situ gelation induced by calcium ions integrated in the foam. The seeding efficiency of the cells was about 100% for cells added in a seeding solution containing 0.1–1.0% alginate compared with 18% when seeded without alginate. The NHIK 3025 cells were allowed to proliferate and form multi-cellular structures inside the transparent gel that were later vital stained and evaluated by confocal microcopy. Gels were de-gelled at different time points to isolate the multi-cellular structures and to determine the spheroid growth rate. It was also demonstrated that the mechanical properties of the gel could largely be varied through selection of type and concentration of the applied alginate and by immersing the already gelled disks in solutions providing additional gel-forming ions. Cells can efficiently be incorporated into the gel, and single cells and multi-cellular structures that may be formed inside can be retrieved without influencing cell viability or contaminating the sample with enzymes. The data show that the current system may overcome some limitations of current 3D scaffolds such as cell retrieval and in situ cell staining and imaging. PMID:24125496

  20. Potential and limitations of microscopy and Raman spectroscopy for live-cell analysis of 3D cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Charwat, Verena; Schütze, Karin; Holnthoner, Wolfgang; Lavrentieva, Antonina; Gangnus, Rainer; Hofbauer, Pablo; Hoffmann, Claudia; Angres, Brigitte; Kasper, Cornelia

    2015-07-10

    Today highly complex 3D cell culture formats that closely mimic the in vivo situation are increasingly available. Despite their wide use, the development of analytical methods and tools that can work within the depth of 3D-tissue constructs lags behind. In order to get the most information from a 3D cell sample, adequate and reliable assays are required. However, the majority of tools and methods used today have been originally designed for 2D cell cultures and translation to a 3D environment is in general not trivial. Ideally, an analytical method should be non-invasive and allow for repeated observation of living cells in order to detect dynamic changes in individual cells within the 3D cell culture. Although well-established laser confocal microscopy can be used for these purposes, this technique has serious limitations including penetration depth and availability. Focusing on two relevant analytical methods for live-cell monitoring, we discuss the current challenges of analyzing living 3D samples: microscopy, which is the most widely used technology to observe and examine cell cultures, has been successfully adapted for 3D samples by recording of so-called "z-stacks". However the required equipment is generally very expensive and therefore access is often limited. Consequently alternative and less advanced approaches are often applied that cannot capture the full structural complexity of a 3D sample. Similarly, image analysis tools for quantification of microscopic images range from highly specialized and costly to simplified and inexpensive. Depending on the actual sample composition and scientific question the best approach needs to be assessed individually. Another more recently introduced technology for non-invasive cell analysis is Raman micro-spectroscopy. It enables label-free identification of cellular metabolic changes with high sensitivity and has already been successful applied to 2D and 3D cell cultures. However, its future significance for cell

  1. [Effects on proliferation ability of vascular smooth muscle cells by static and/or dynamic cell culture: utility of pre-seeding technique for dynamic cell culture].

    PubMed

    Yokomuro, Hiroki; Ozawa, Tsukasa; Fujii, Takeshiro; Shiono, Noritsugu; Watanabe, Yoshinori; Yoshihara, Katsunori; Koyama, Nobuya; Okada, Mitsumasa

    2007-11-01

    Conventional biomaterials are not viable, do not grow, and do not provide contractile effects in cardiac tissue. Foreign synthetic material may become thrombogenic or infected. The most recent cardiac constructs consist of biodegradable material which has the potential to solve these problems. However, dynamic three-dimensional cell culture is necessary because conventional culture is limited to construct tough biografts. Vascular smooth muscle cells derived from rat aorta were seeded to poly-L-lactide-epsilon-capro-lactone copolymer in three groups; static culture group (static cell seeding + static cell culture), dynamic culture group (dynamic cell seeding + dynamic cell culture), and pre-seeding group [static cell seeding and culture for 1 week (pre-seeding) + dynamic cell culture]. The dynamic cell culture system used an original spinner flask. The pre-seeding technique used static cell seeding and culture before dynamic culture. The three groups were evaluated by cell proliferation and histologic studies. Vascular smooth muscle cells could be proliferated in/on the biodegradable materials. The pre-seeding group cells grew much more efficiently than the other groups. Very few cells were found in the biodegradable materials with the dynamic groups. However, there were many cells in the materials with the static culture group and pre-seeding group, especially the pre-seeding group. Dynamic culture is useful for constructing tough biografts by the pre-seeding technique.

  2. Comparison of Human Dermal Fibroblasts and HaCat Cells Cultured in Medium with or without Serum via a Generic Tissue Engineering Research Platform

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Tao

    2018-01-01

    A generic research platform with 2-dimensional (2D) cell culture technology, a 3-dimensional (3D) in vitro tissue model, and a scaled-down cell culture and imaging system in between, was utilized to address the problematic issues associated with the use of serum in skin tissue engineering. Human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) and immortalized keratinocytes (HaCat cells) mono- or co-cultured in serum or serum-free medium were compared and analyzed via the platform. It was demonstrated that serum depletion had significant influence on the attachment of HaCat cells onto tissue culture plastic (TCP), porous substrates and cellulosic scaffolds, which was further enhanced by the pre-seeded HDFs. The complex structures formed by the HDFs colonized within the porous substrates and scaffolds not only prevented the seeded HaCat cells from filtering through the open pores, but also acted as cellular substrates for HaCat cells to attach onto. When mono-cultured on TCP, both HDFs and HaCat cells were less proliferative in medium without serum than with serum. However, both cell types were successfully co-cultured in 2D using serum-free medium if the initial cell seeding density was higher than 80,000 cells/cm2 (with 1:1 ratio). Based on the results from 2D cultures, co-culture of both cell types on modular substrates with small open pores (125 μm) and cellulosic scaffolds with open pores of varying sizes (50–300 µm) were then conducted successfully in serum-free medium. This study demonstrated that the generic research platform had great potential for in-depth understanding of HDFs and HaCat cells cultivated in serum-free medium, which could inform the processes for manufacturing skin cells or tissues for clinical applications. PMID:29382087

  3. Particle Trajectories in Rotating Wall Cell Culture Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran N.; Downey, J. P.

    1999-01-01

    Cell cultures are extremely important to the medical community since such cultures provide an opportunity to perform research on human tissue without the concerns inherent in experiments on individual humans. Development of cells in cultures has been found to be greatly influenced by the conditions of the culture. Much work has focused on the effect of the motions of cells in the culture relative to the solution. Recently rotating wall vessels have been used with success in achieving improved cellular cultures. Speculation and limited research have focused on the low shear environment and the ability of rotating vessels to keep cells suspended in solution rather than floating or sedimenting as the primary reasons for the improved cellular cultures using these devices. It is widely believed that the cultures obtained using a rotating wall vessel simulates to some degree the effect of microgravity on cultures. It has also been speculated that the microgravity environment may provide the ideal acceleration environment for culturing of cellular tissues due to the nearly negligible levels of sedimentation and shear possible. This work predicts particle trajectories of cells in rotating wall vessels of cylindrical and annular design consistent with the estimated properties of typical cellular cultures. Estimates of the shear encountered by cells in solution and the interactions with walls are studied. Comparisons of potential experiments in ground and microgravity environments are performed.

  4. Eliminating acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells from human testicular cell cultures: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sadri-Ardekani, Hooman; Homburg, Christa H; van Capel, Toni M M; van den Berg, Henk; van der Veen, Fulco; van der Schoot, C Ellen; van Pelt, Ans M M; Repping, Sjoerd

    2014-04-01

    To study whether acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells survive in a human testicular cell culture system. Experimental laboratory study. Reproductive biology laboratory, academic medical center. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells from three patients and testicular cells from three other patients. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells were cultured alone or in combination with testicular cells, at various concentrations, in a system that has recently been developed to propagate human spermatogonial stem cells. Viability of ALL and testicular cells during culture was evaluated by flow cytometry using markers for live/dead cells. Furthermore, the presence of ALL cells among testicular cells was determined by highly sensitive (1:10,000 to 1:100,000 cells) patient-specific antigen-receptor minimal residual disease polymerase chain reaction. The presence of spermatogonia at the end of culture was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for ZBTB16, UCHL1, and GPR125. The ALL cells cultured separately did not survive beyond 14 days of culture. When cultured together with testicular cells, even at extremely high initial concentrations (40% ALL cells), ALL cells were undetectable beyond 26 days of culture. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction confirmed the presence of spermatogonia at the end of the culture period. Our pilot study shows that the described testicular cell culture system not only allows for efficient propagation of spermatogonial stem cells but also eliminates contaminating ALL cells. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Intra-hydrogel culture prevents transformation of mesenchymal stem cells induced by monolayer expansion.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tongmeng; Liu, Junting; Ouyang, Yiqiang; Wu, Huayu; Zheng, Li; Zhao, Jinmin; Zhang, Xingdong

    2018-03-22

    In this study, we report that the intra-hydrogel culture system mitigates the transformation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) induced by two-dimensional (2D) expansion. MSCs expanded in monolayer culture prior to encapsulation in collagen hydrogels (group eMSCs-CH) featured impaired stemness in chondrogenesis, comparing with the freshly isolated bone marrow mononuclear cells seeded directly in collagen hydrogels (group fMSCs-CH). The molecular mechanism of the in vitro expansion-triggered damage to MSCs was detected through genome-wide microarray analysis. Results indicated that pathways such as proteoglycans in cancer and pathways in cancer expansion were highly enriched in eMSCs-CH. And multiple up-regulated oncoma-associated genes were verified in eMSCs-CH compared with fMSCs-CH, indicating that expansion in vitro triggered cellular transformation was associated with signaling pathways related to tumorigenicity. Besides, focal adhesion (FA) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways were also involved in in vitro expansion, indicating restructuring of the cell architecture. Thus, monolayer expansion in vitro may contribute to vulnerability of MSCs through the regulation of FA and MAPK. This study indicates that intra-hydrogel culture can mitigate the monolayer expansion induced transformation of MSCs and maintain the uniformity of the stem cells, which is a viable in vitro culture system for stem cell therapy.

  6. 21 CFR 876.5885 - Tissue culture media for human ex vivo tissue and cell culture processing applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... cell culture processing applications. 876.5885 Section 876.5885 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5885 Tissue culture media for human ex vivo tissue and cell culture processing applications. (a) Identification. Tissue culture media for human ex vivo tissue and cell culture...

  7. 21 CFR 876.5885 - Tissue culture media for human ex vivo tissue and cell culture processing applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... cell culture processing applications. 876.5885 Section 876.5885 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5885 Tissue culture media for human ex vivo tissue and cell culture processing applications. (a) Identification. Tissue culture media for human ex vivo tissue and cell culture...

  8. 21 CFR 876.5885 - Tissue culture media for human ex vivo tissue and cell culture processing applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... cell culture processing applications. 876.5885 Section 876.5885 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5885 Tissue culture media for human ex vivo tissue and cell culture processing applications. (a) Identification. Tissue culture media for human ex vivo tissue and cell culture...

  9. 21 CFR 876.5885 - Tissue culture media for human ex vivo tissue and cell culture processing applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... cell culture processing applications. 876.5885 Section 876.5885 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5885 Tissue culture media for human ex vivo tissue and cell culture processing applications. (a) Identification. Tissue culture media for human ex vivo tissue and cell culture...

  10. 21 CFR 876.5885 - Tissue culture media for human ex vivo tissue and cell culture processing applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... cell culture processing applications. 876.5885 Section 876.5885 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5885 Tissue culture media for human ex vivo tissue and cell culture processing applications. (a) Identification. Tissue culture media for human ex vivo tissue and cell culture...

  11. Micro and nano-scale in vitro 3D culture system for cardiac stem cells.

    PubMed

    Hosseinkhani, Hossein; Hosseinkhani, Mohsen; Hattori, Shunji; Matsuoka, Rumiko; Kawaguchi, Nanako

    2010-07-01

    Despite the success to prevent or limit cardiovascular diseases, the restoration of the function of a damaged heart remains a formidable challenge. Cardiac stem cells (CSCs), with the capacity to differentiate into cardiomyocytes, hold great potential as a source of cells for regenerative medicine. A major challenge facing the clinical application of differentiated CSCs, however, is theability to generate sufficient numbers of cells with the desired phenotype. We previously established cell lines of CSCs using a c-kit antibody from adult rat hearts for use in regenerative medicine. C-kit -positive cardiac cells are well recognized as CSCs and have the potential to differentiate into cardiomyocytes. Here, before implant these cells in vivo, we first developed three-dimensional culture system (3D) using micro- and nano-scaled material. Sheets of poly(glycolic acid) (PGA) were fabricated by electrospinning. Composites of collagen-PGA were prepared that contained 0, 1.5, 3 or 6 mg of electrospun PGA nanofibers. The nanofibers were added as a sheet that formed a layer within the collagen sponge. The sponges were freeze-dried and then dehydrothermally crosslinked. A scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-based analysis of the surface of the sponges demonstrated a uniform collagenous structure regardless of the amount of PGA nanofibres included. The PGA nanofibers significantly enhanced the compressive strength of the collagen sponge. More CSCs attached to the collagen sponge incorporating 6 mg of PGA nanofibers than the sponge without PGA nanofibers. The attachment and proliferation of CSCs in the 3D culture was enhanced by incubation in a bioreactor perfusion system compared with 3D static and two-dimensional (2D; i.e. tissue culture plates) culture systems. The use of micro- and nano-scale materials in the fabrication of composites together with a 3D culture system is a very promising way to promote the culture of stem cells. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater

  12. Three-dimensional (3D)- computed tomography bronchography and angiography combined with 3D-video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) versus conventional 2D-VATS anatomic pulmonary segmentectomy for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    She, Xiao-Wei; Gu, Yun-Bin; Xu, Chun; Li, Chang; Ding, Cheng; Chen, Jun; Zhao, Jun

    2018-02-01

    Compared to the pulmonary lobe, the anatomical structure of the pulmonary segment is relatively complex and prone to variation, thus the risk and difficulty of segmentectomy is increased. We compared three-dimensional computed tomography bronchography and angiography (3D-CTBA) combined with 3D video-assisted thoracic surgery (3D-VATS) to perform segmentectomy to conventional two-dimensional (2D)-VATS for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We retrospectively reviewed the data of randomly selected patients who underwent 3D-CTBA combined with 3D-VATS (3D-CTBA-VATS) or 2D-VATS at the Department of Thoracic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University Hospital, from January 2014 to May 2017. The operative duration of 3D group was significantly shorter than the 2D group (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the number of dissected lymph nodes between the two groups (P > 0.05). The extent of intraoperative bleeding and postoperative drainage in the 3D group was significantly lower than in the 2D group (P < 0.05). Chest tube duration in the 3D group was shorter than in the 2D group (P < 0.05). Incidences of pulmonary infection, atelectasis, and arrhythmia were not statistically different between the two groups (P > 0.05). However, hemoptysis and pulmonary air leakage (>3d) occurred significantly less frequently in the 3D than in the 2D group (P < 0.05). 3D-CTBA-VATS is a more accurate and smooth technique and leads to reduced intraoperative and postoperative complications. © 2018 The Authors. Thoracic Cancer published by China Lung Oncology Group and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Systems Biology for Organotypic Cell Cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Grego, Sonia; Dougherty, Edward R.; Alexander, Francis J.

    2016-08-04

    Translating in vitro biological data into actionable information related to human health holds the potential to improve disease treatment and risk assessment of chemical exposures. While genomics has identified regulatory pathways at the cellular level, translation to the organism level requires a multiscale approach accounting for intra-cellular regulation, inter-cellular interaction, and tissue/organ-level effects. Tissue-level effects can now be probed in vitro thanks to recently developed systems of three-dimensional (3D), multicellular, “organotypic” cell cultures, which mimic functional responses of living tissue. However, there remains a knowledge gap regarding interactions across different biological scales, complicating accurate prediction of health outcomes from molecular/genomicmore » data and tissue responses. Systems biology aims at mathematical modeling of complex, non-linear biological systems. We propose to apply a systems biology approach to achieve a computational representation of tissue-level physiological responses by integrating empirical data derived from organotypic culture systems with computational models of intracellular pathways to better predict human responses. Successful implementation of this integrated approach will provide a powerful tool for faster, more accurate and cost-effective screening of potential toxicants and therapeutics. On September 11, 2015, an interdisciplinary group of scientists, engineers, and clinicians gathered for a workshop in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, to discuss this ambitious goal. Participants represented laboratory-based and computational modeling approaches to pharmacology and toxicology, as well as the pharmaceutical industry, government, non-profits, and academia. Discussions focused on identifying critical system perturbations to model, the computational tools required, and the experimental approaches best suited to generating key data. This consensus report summarizes the

  14. [Nicotinamide desamidase in the culture medium of neuroblastoma cells].

    PubMed

    Dierich, A; Wintzerith, M; Mandel, P

    1978-10-02

    Important amounts of nicotinic acid appear in the growth medium of neuroblastoma cell cultures. It is shown that an enzyme released by the cells into the growth medium deamidates the nicotinamide supplied by the growth medium to nicotinic acid.

  15. Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma hyorhinis Isolated from Cell Cultures.

    PubMed

    Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Siqueira, Franciele Maboni; Teixeira, Thais Fumaco; Mayer, Fabiana Quoos; Almeida, Luiz Gonzaga; Roehe, Paulo Michel

    2016-10-13

    Mycoplasmas are major contaminants of mammalian cell cultures. Here, the complete genome sequence of Mycoplasma hyorhinis recovered from Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells is reported. Copyright © 2016 Cibulski et al.

  16. Using Tissue Culture To Investigate Plant Cell Differentiation and Dedifferentiation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozzone, Donna M.

    1997-01-01

    Describes an experimental project that uses plant tissue culture techniques to examine cell differentiation in the carrot. Allows students to gain experience in some important techniques and to explore fundamental questions about cell differentiation. (DDR)

  17. Isolation and culture of embryonic stem cells from porcine blastocysts.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Zhang, Dong; Hou, Yi; Jiao, Lihong; Zheng, Xing; Wang, Wei-Hua

    2003-08-01

    This study was conducted to establish embryonic stem (ES) cell lines from porcine blastocysts. Blastocysts were collected from China miniature pigs at day 7-9 of pregnancy. Embryos were either directly (intact embryos) cultured on mitomysin C-inactivated murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) as feeder layers, or were used to isolate the inner cell masses (ICM) by enzyme digestive method and then cultured. It was found that enzyme digestive method could isolate ICMs without any damages of cells in all blastocysts (28). All ICMs attached to the feeder layers. Primary cell colonies were formed in 68% of ICM culture and 28% of intact blastocyst culture. Two ES cell lines derived from ICM passed six subcultures (passages). These cells morphologically resembled mouse ES cells and consistently expressed alkaline phosphatase activity. When the ES cells were cultured in a medium without feeder layer and leukemin inhibitory factor, they differentiated into several types of cells including neuron-like, smooth muscle-like, and epithelium-like cells. Some cells formed embryoid bodies in a suspension culture. These results indicate that porcine ES cell line can be established under the present experimental conditions and these ES cells are pluripotent. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. 2D-DIGE and MALDI TOF/TOF MS analysis reveal that small GTPase signaling pathways may play an important role in cadmium-induced colon cell malignant transformation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jian; Zhou, Zhongping; Zheng, Jianzhou; Zhang, Zhuyi; Lu, Rongzhu; Liu, Hanqing; Shi, Haifeng; Tu, Zhigang

    2015-10-01

    Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal present in the environment and in industrial materials. Cadmium has demonstrated carcinogenic activity that induces cell transformation, but how this occurs is unclear. We used 2D-DIGE and MALDI TOF/TOF MS combined with bioinformatics and immunoblotting to investigate the molecular mechanism of cadmium transformation. We found that small GTPases were critical for transformation. Additionally, proteins involved in mitochondrial transcription, DNA repair, and translation also had altered expression patterns in cadmium treated cells. Collectively, our results suggest that activation of small GTPases contributes to cadmium-induced transformation of colon cells. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Development of a microfluidic perfusion 3D cell culture system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, D. H.; Jeon, H. J.; Kim, M. J.; Nguyen, X. D.; Morten, K.; Go, J. S.

    2018-04-01

    Recently, 3-dimensional in vitro cell cultures have gained much attention in biomedical sciences because of the closer relevance between in vitro cell cultures and in vivo environments. This paper presents a microfluidic perfusion 3D cell culture system with consistent control of long-term culture conditions to mimic an in vivo microenvironment. It consists of two sudden expansion reservoirs to trap incoming air bubbles, gradient generators to provide a linear concentration, and microchannel mixers. Specifically, the air bubbles disturb a flow in the microfluidic channel resulting in the instability of the perfusion cell culture conditions. For long-term stable operation, the sudden expansion reservoir is designed to trap air bubbles by using buoyancy before they enter the culture system. The performance of the developed microfluidic perfusion 3D cell culture system was examined experimentally and compared with analytical results. Finally, it was applied to test the cytotoxicity of cells infected with Ewing’s sarcoma. Cell death was observed for different concentrations of H2O2. For future work, the developed microfluidic perfusion 3D cell culture system can be used to examine the behavior of cells treated with various drugs and concentrations for high-throughput drug screening.

  20. A method for culturing human hair follicle cells.

    PubMed

    Weterings, P J; Vermorken, A J; Bloemendal, H

    1981-01-01

    For the first time a method for culturing human hair follicle cells is described. The bovine eye lens capsule, a basement membrane-like structure, is used as the substrate for the cultures. In a culture medium supplemented with hydrocortisone and insulin about 70% of the original follicles will form growing colonies of diploid keratinocytes.

  1. SDN-controlled topology-reconfigurable optical mobile fronthaul architecture for bidirectional CoMP and low latency inter-cell D2D in the 5G mobile era.

    PubMed

    Cvijetic, Neda; Tanaka, Akihiro; Kanonakis, Konstantinos; Wang, Ting

    2014-08-25

    We demonstrate the first SDN-controlled optical topology-reconfigurable mobile fronthaul (MFH) architecture for bidirectional coordinated multipoint (CoMP) and low latency inter-cell device-to-device (D2D) connectivity in the 5G mobile networking era. SDN-based OpenFlow control is used to dynamically instantiate the CoMP and inter-cell D2D features as match/action combinations in control plane flow tables of software-defined optical and electrical switching elements. Dynamic re-configurability is thereby introduced into the optical MFH topology, while maintaining back-compatibility with legacy fiber deployments. 10 Gb/s peak rates with <7 μs back-to-back transmission latency and 29.6 dB total power budget are experimentally demonstrated, confirming the attractiveness of the new approach for optical MFH of future 5G mobile systems.

  2. Regulation of ligands for the NKG2D activating receptor

    PubMed Central

    Raulet, David H.; Gasser, Stephan; Gowen, Benjamin G.; Deng, Weiwen; Jung, Heiyoun

    2014-01-01

    NKG2D is an activating receptor expressed by all NK cells and subsets of T cells. It serves as a major recognition receptor for detection and elimination of transformed and infected cells and participates in the genesis of several inflammatory diseases. The ligands for NKG2D are self-proteins that are induced by pathways that are active in certain pathophysiological states. NKG2D ligands are regulated transcriptionally, at the level of mRNA and protein stability, and by cleavage from the cell surface. In some cases, ligand induction can be attributed to pathways that are activated specifically in cancer cells or infected cells. We review the numerous pathways that have been implicated in the regulation of NKG2D ligands, discuss the pathologic states in which those pathways are likely to act, and attempt to synthesize the findings into general schemes of NKG2D ligand regulation in NK cell responses to cancer and infection. PMID:23298206

  3. Polysaccharide-based hydrogels with tunable composition as 3D cell culture systems.

    PubMed

    Gentilini, Roberta; Munarin, Fabiola; Bloise, Nora; Secchi, Eleonora; Visai, Livia; Tanzi, Maria Cristina; Petrini, Paola

    2018-04-01

    To date, cell cultures have been created either on 2-dimensional (2D) polystyrene surfaces or in 3-dimensional (3D) systems, which do not offer a controlled chemical composition, and which lack the soft environment encountered in vivo and the chemical stimuli that promote cell proliferation and allow complex cellular behavior. In this study, pectin-based hydrogels were developed and are proposed as versatile cell culture systems. Pectin-based hydrogels were produced by internally crosslinking pectin with calcium carbonate at different initial pH, aiming to control crosslinking kinetics and degree. Additionally, glucose and glutamine were added as additives, and their effects on the viscoelastic properties of the hydrogels and on cell viability were investigated. Pectin hydrogels showed in high cell viability and shear-thinning behavior. Independently of hydrogel composition, an initial swelling was observed, followed by a low percentage of weight variation and a steady-state stage. The addition of glucose and glutamine to pectin-based hydrogels rendered higher cell viability up to 90%-98% after 1 hour of incubation, and these hydrogels were maintained for up to 7 days of culture, yet no effect on viscoelastic properties was detected. Pectin-based hydrogels that offer tunable composition were developed successfully. They are envisioned as synthetic extracellular matrix (ECM) either to study complex cellular behaviors or to be applied as tissue engineering substitutes.

  4. Class 3 semaphorins are transcriptionally regulated by 1,25(OH)2D3in osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Ryynänen, Jussi; Kriebitzsch, Carsten; Meyer, Mark B; Janssens, Iris; Pike, J Wesley; Verlinden, Lieve; Verstuyf, Annemieke

    2017-10-01

    The vitamin D endocrine system is essential for calcium metabolism and skeletal integrity. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 [1,25(OH) 2 D 3 ] regulates bone mineral homeostasis and acts directly on osteoblasts. In the present study we characterized the transcriptional regulation of the class 3 semaphorin (Sema3) gene family by 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 in osteoblastic cells. Class 3 semaphorins are secreted proteins that regulate cell growth, morphology and migration, and were recently shown to be involved in bone homeostasis. In ST2, MC3T3-E1 and primary calvarial osteoblast cell cultures we found that all members of the Sema3 gene family were expressed, and that Sema3e and Sema3f were the most strongly induced 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 target genes among the studied cell types. In addition, transcription of Sema3b and Sema3c was upregulated, whereas Sema3d and Sema3g was downregulated by 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 in different osteoblastic cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis linked to DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq analysis) revealed the presence of the vitamin D receptor at multiple genomic loci in the proximity of Sema3 genes, demonstrating that the genes are primary 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 targets. Furthermore, we showed that recombinant SEMA3E and SEMA3F protein were able to inhibit osteoblast proliferation. However, recombinant SEMA3s did not affect ST2 cell migration. The expression of class 3 semaphorins in osteoblasts together with their regulation by 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 suggests that these genes, involved in the regulation of bone homeostasis, are additional mediators for 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 signaling in osteoblasts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Photonics of 2D materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Han; Wang, Junzhuan; Hasan, Tawfique; Bao, Qiaoliang

    2018-01-01

    The emergence of graphene and graphene-like two dimensional (2D) materials has attracted a strong interest from the photonics community in recent decade. Apart from zero-gap graphene, insulating hexagonal boron nitride and semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides and phosphorene/black phosphorus are being intensively investigated because of their fascinating photonic and optoelectronic properties. Compared to traditional bulk photonic materials such as Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) and Silicon (Si), 2D materials exhibit many unique properties important for device applications in nanophotonics. Firstly, quantum confinement in the direction perpendicular to 2D plane leads to novel electronic and optical features that are distinctively different from their bulk counterparts. Secondly, their surfaces are naturally passivated without any dangling bonds making them readily compatible for integration with photonic structures such as waveguides and cavities. It is also possible to construct vertical hetero-structures by using different 2D materials, without considering lattice mismatch issues that are common in bulk semiconductors. This is because the 2D layers with different lattice constants in heterostructures are only weakly bounded by van der Waals force. Thirdly, despite being atomically thin, many 2D materials interact very strongly with light.

  6. High-Aspect-Ratio Rotating Cell-Culture Vessel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, David A.; Sams, Clarence; Schwarz, Ray P.

    1992-01-01

    Cylindrical rotating cell-culture vessel with thin culture-medium layer of large surface area provides exchange of nutrients and products of metabolism with minimal agitation. Rotation causes averaging of buoyant forces otherwise separating components of different densities. Vessel enables growth of cells in homogeneous distribution with little agitation and little shear stress.

  7. Viable Cell Culture Banking for Biodiversity Characterization and Conservation.

    PubMed

    Ryder, Oliver A; Onuma, Manabu

    2018-02-15

    Because living cells can be saved for indefinite periods, unprecedented opportunities for characterizing, cataloging, and conserving biological diversity have emerged as advanced cellular and genetic technologies portend new options for preventing species extinction. Crucial to realizing the potential impacts of stem cells and assisted reproductive technologies on biodiversity conservation is the cryobanking of viable cell cultures from diverse species, especially those identified as vulnerable to extinction in the near future. The advent of in vitro cell culture and cryobanking is reviewed here in the context of biodiversity collections of viable cell cultures that represent the progress and limitations of current efforts. The prospects for incorporating collections of frozen viable cell cultures into efforts to characterize the genetic changes that have produced the diversity of species on Earth and contribute to new initiatives in conservation argue strongly for a global network of facilities for establishing and cryobanking collections of viable cells.

  8. Horizontally rotated cell culture system with a coaxial tubular oxygenator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, David A. (Inventor); Schwarz, Ray P. (Inventor); Trinh, Tinh T. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The present invention relates to a horizontally rotating bioreactor useful for carrying out cell and tissue culture. For processing of mammalian cells, the system is sterilized and fresh fluid medium, microcarrier beads, and cells are admitted to completely fill the cell culture vessel. An oxygen containing gas is admitted to the interior of the permeable membrane which prevents air bubbles from being introduced into the medium. The cylinder is rotated at a low speed within an incubator so that the circular motion of the fluid medium uniformly suspends the microbeads throughout the cylinder during the cell growth period. The unique design of this cell and tissue culture device was initially driven by two requirements imposed by its intended use for feasibility studies for three dimensional culture of living cells and tissues in space by JSC. They were compatible with microgravity and simulation of microgravity in one G. The vessels are designed to approximate the extremely quiescent low shear environment obtainable in space.

  9. Long-term maintenance of human induced pluripotent stem cells by automated cell culture system.

    PubMed

    Konagaya, Shuhei; Ando, Takeshi; Yamauchi, Toshiaki; Suemori, Hirofumi; Iwata, Hiroo

    2015-11-17

    Pluripotent stem cells, such as embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, are regarded as new sources for cell replacement therapy. These cells can unlimitedly expand under undifferentiated conditions and be differentiated into multiple cell types. Automated culture systems enable the large-scale production of cells. In addition to reducing the time and effort of researchers, an automated culture system improves the reproducibility of cell cultures. In the present study, we newly designed a fully automated cell culture system for human iPS maintenance. Using an automated culture system, hiPS cells maintained their undifferentiated state for 60 days. Automatically prepared hiPS cells had a potency of differentiation into three germ layer cells including dopaminergic neurons and pancreatic cells.

  10. Mono- and Diterpenes from Cell Cultures of Thuja occidentalis.

    PubMed

    Witte, L; Berlin, J; Wray, V; Schubert, W; Kohl, W; Höfle, G; Hammer, J

    1983-12-01

    Cell cultures of THUJA OCCIDENTIALIS L. were found to biosynthesize various mono- and diterpenes when grown on B5-medium. The identification of the constituents was achieved mainly by capillary GLC-MS using fused silica columns and E.I.-mass spectrometry. Monoterpenes of the menthane type were only isolated from the culture medium whereas diterpenes were found in the cell extracts. Thujaplicin derivatives, monoterpenes of an irregular type, were detected in the medium as well as in the cells. Major differences were found between the terpene composition of the cell culture extracts and those from THUJA leaves. The cell cultures accumulated some compounds which are presently unknown as constituents of THUJA plants. On the other hand, the cultures were evidently unable to synthesize the thujone type of monoterpenes.

  11. Biona-C Cell Culture pH Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedericks, C.

    1999-01-01

    Sensors 2000! is developing a system to demonstrate the ability to perform accurate, real-time measurements of pH and CO2 in a cell culture media in Space. The BIONA-C Cell Culture pH Monitoring System consists of S2K! developed ion selective sensors and control electronics integrated with the fluidics of a cell culture system. The integrated system comprises a "rail" in the Cell Culture Module (CCM) of WRAIR (Space Biosciences of Walter Read Army Institute of Research). The CCM is a Space Shuttle mid-deck locker experiment payload. The BIONA-C is displayed along with associated graphics and text explanations. The presentation will stimulate interest in development of sensor technology for real-time cell culture measurements. The transfer of this technology to other applications will also be of interest. Additional information is contained in the original document.

  12. Optical Oxygen Sensors for Applications in Microfluidic Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Grist, Samantha M.; Chrostowski, Lukas; Cheung, Karen C.

    2010-01-01

    The presence and concentration of oxygen in biological systems has a large impact on the behavior and viability of many types of cells, including the differentiation of stem cells or the growth of tumor cells. As a result, the integration of oxygen sensors within cell culture environments presents a powerful tool for quantifying the effects of oxygen concentrations on cell behavior, cell viability, and drug effectiveness. Because microfluidic cell culture environments are a promising alternative to traditional cell culture platforms, there is recent interest in integrating oxygen-sensing mechanisms with microfluidics for cell culture applications. Optical, luminescence-based oxygen sensors, in particular, show great promise in their ability to be integrated with microfluidics and cell culture systems. These sensors can be highly sensitive and do not consume oxygen or generate toxic byproducts in their sensing process. This paper presents a review of previously proposed optical oxygen sensor types, materials and formats most applicable to microfluidic cell culture, and analyzes their suitability for this and other in vitro applications. PMID:22163408

  13. Acceleration of cell growth by xyloglucan oligosaccharides in suspension-cultured tobacco cells.

    PubMed

    Kaida, Rumi; Sugawara, Satoko; Negoro, Kanako; Maki, Hisae; Hayashi, Takahisa; Kaneko, Takako S

    2010-05-01

    The incorporation of xyloglucan oligosaccharide (XXXG) into the walls of suspension-cultured tobacco cells accelerated cell expansion followed by cell division, changed cell shape from cylindrical to spherical, decreased cell size, and caused cell aggregation. Fluorescent XXXG added to the culture medium was found to be incorporated into the surface of the entire wall, where strong incorporation occurred not only on the surface, but also in the interface walls between cells during cell division. Cell expansion was always greater in the transverse direction than in the longitudinal direction and then, immediately, expansion led to cell division in the presence of XXXG; this process might result in the high level of cell aggregation seen in cultured tobacco cells. We concluded that the integration of this oligosaccharide into the walls could accelerate not only cell expansion, but also cell division in cultured cells.

  14. Activated human primary NK cells efficiently kill colorectal cancer cells in 3D spheroid cultures irrespectively of the level of PD-L1 expression.

    PubMed

    Lanuza, Pilar M; Vigueras, Alan; Olivan, Sara; Prats, Anne C; Costas, Santiago; Llamazares, Guillermo; Sanchez-Martinez, Diego; Ayuso, José María; Fernandez, Luis; Ochoa, Ignacio; Pardo, Julián

    2018-01-01

    Haploidentical Natural Killer (NK) cells have been shown as an effective and safe alternative for the treatment of haematological malignancies with poor prognosis for which traditional therapies are ineffective. In contrast to haematological cancer cells, that mainly grow as single suspension cells, solid carcinomas are characterised by a tridimensional (3D) architecture that provide specific surviving advantages and resistance against chemo- and radiotherapy. However, little is known about the impact of 3D growth on solid cancer immunotherapy especially adoptive NK cell transfer. We have recently developed a protocol to activate ex vivo human primary NK cells using B lymphoblastic cell lines, which generates NK cells able to overcome chemoresistance in haematological cancer cells. Here we have analysed the activity of these allogeneic NK cells against colorectal (CRC) human cell lines growing in 3D spheroid culture and correlated with the expression of some of the main ligands regulating NK cell activity. Our results indicate that activated NK cells efficiently kill colorectal tumour cell spheroids in both 2D and 3D cultures. Notably, although 3D CRC cell cultures favoured the expression of the inhibitory immune checkpoint PD-L1, it did not correlate with increased resistance to NK cells. Finally, we have analysed in detail the infiltration of NK cells in 3D spheroids by microscopy and found that at low NK cell density, cell death is not observed although NK cells are able to infiltrate into the spheroid. In contrast, higher densities promote tumoural cell death before infiltration can be detected. These findings show that highly dense activated human primary NK cells efficiently kill colorectal carcinoma cells growing in 3D cultures independently of PD-L1 expression and suggest that the use of allogeneic activated NK cells could be beneficial for the treatment of colorectal carcinoma.

  15. [Application of cell co-culture techniques in medical studies].

    PubMed

    Luo, Yun; Sun, Gui-Bo; Qin, Meng; Yao, Fan; Sun, Xiao-Bo

    2012-11-01

    As the cell co-culture techniques can better imitate an in vivo environment, it is helpful in observing the interactions among cells and between cells and the culture environment, exploring the effect mechanisms of drugs and their possible targets and filling the gaps between the mono-layer cell culture and the whole animal experiments. In recently years, they has attracted much more attention from the medical sector, and thus becoming one of research hotspots in drug research and development and bio-pharmaceutical fields. The cell co-culture techniques, including direct and indirect methods, are mainly used for studying pathological basis, new-type treatment methods and drug activity screening. Existing cell co-culture techniques are used for more pharmacological studies on single drug and less studies on interaction of combined drugs, such as collaborative compatibility and attenuation and synergistic effect among traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). In line with the action characteristics of multi-component and multi-target, the cell co-culture techniques provide certain reference value for future studies on the effect and mechanism of combined TCMs on organisms as well as new methods for studies on TCMs and their compounds. This essay summarizes cell co-culture methods and their application and look into the future of their application in studies on TCMs and compounds.

  16. Three-dimensional culture systems for the expansion of pluripotent embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Storm, Michael P; Orchard, Craig B; Bone, Heather K; Chaudhuri, Julian B; Welham, Melanie J

    2010-01-01

    Mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC) lines, and more recently human ESC lines, have become valuable tools for studying early mammalian development. Increasing interest in ESCs and their differentiated progeny in drug discovery and as potential therapeutic agents has highlighted the fact that current two-dimensional (2D) static culturing techniques are inadequate for large-scale production. The culture of mammalian cells in three-dimensional (3D) agitated systems has been shown to overcome many of the restrictions of 2D and is therefore likely to be effective for ESC proliferation. Using murine ESCs as our initial model, we investigated the effectiveness of different 3D culture environments for the expansion of pluripotent ESCs. Solohill Collagen, Solohill FACT, and Cultispher-S microcarriers were employed and used in conjunction with stirred bioreactors. Initial seeding parameters, including cell number and agitation conditions, were found to be critical in promoting attachment to microcarriers and minimizing the size of aggregates formed. While all microcarriers supported the growth of undifferentiated mESCs, Cultispher-S out-performed the Solohill microcarriers. When cultured for successive passages on Cultispher-S microcarriers, mESCs maintained their pluripotency, demonstrated by self-renewal, expression of pluripotency markers and the ability to undergo multi-lineage differentiation. When these optimized conditions were applied to unweaned human ESCs, Cultispher-S microcarriers supported the growth of hESCs that retained expression of pluripotency markers including SSEA4, Tra-1–60, NANOG, and OCT-4. Our study highlights the importance of optimization of initial seeding parameters and provides proof-of-concept data demonstrating the utility of microcarriers and bioreactors for the expansion of hESCs. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2010;107:683–695. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:20589846

  17. Three-dimensional culture systems for the expansion of pluripotent embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Storm, Michael P; Orchard, Craig B; Bone, Heather K; Chaudhuri, Julian B; Welham, Melanie J

    2010-11-01

    Mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC) lines, and more recently human ESC lines, have become valuable tools for studying early mammalian development. Increasing interest in ESCs and their differentiated progeny in drug discovery and as potential therapeutic agents has highlighted the fact that current two-dimensional (2D) static culturing techniques are inadequate for large-scale production. The culture of mammalian cells in three-dimensional (3D) agitated systems has been shown to overcome many of the restrictions of 2D and is therefore likely to be effective for ESC proliferation. Using murine ESCs as our initial model, we investigated the effectiveness of different 3D culture environments for the expansion of pluripotent ESCs. Solohill Collagen, Solohill FACT, and Cultispher-S microcarriers were employed and used in conjunction with stirred bioreactors. Initial seeding parameters, including cell number and agitation conditions, were found to be critical in promoting attachment to microcarriers and minimizing the size of aggregates formed. While all microcarriers supported the growth of undifferentiated mESCs, Cultispher-S out-performed the Solohill microcarriers. When cultured for successive passages on Cultispher-S microcarriers, mESCs maintained their pluripotency, demonstrated by self-renewal, expression of pluripotency markers and the ability to undergo multi-lineage differentiation. When these optimized conditions were applied to unweaned human ESCs, Cultispher-S microcarriers supported the growth of hESCs that retained expression of pluripotency markers including SSEA4, Tra-1-60, NANOG, and OCT-4. Our study highlights the importance of optimization of initial seeding parameters and provides proof-of-concept data demonstrating the utility of microcarriers and bioreactors for the expansion of hESCs. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Proper selection of 1 g controls in simulated microgravity research as illustrated with clinorotated plant cell suspension cultures.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Khaled Y; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Medina, F Javier; Herranz, Raúl

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the physical and biological effects of the absence of gravity is necessary to conduct operations on space environments. It has been previously shown that the microgravity environment induces the dissociation of cell proliferation from cell growth in young seedling root meristems, but this source material is limited to few cells in each row of meristematic layers. Plant cell cultures, composed by a large and homogeneous population of proliferating cells, are an ideal model to study the effects of altered gravity on cellular mechanisms regulating cell proliferation and associated cell growth. Cell suspension cultures of Arabidopsis thaliana cell line (MM2d) were exposed to 2D-clinorotation in a pipette clinostat for 3.5 or 14 h, respectively, and were then processed either by quick freezing, to be used in flow cytometry, or by chemical fixation, for microscopy techniques. After long-term clinorotation, the proportion of cells in G1 phase was increased and the nucleolus area, as revealed by immunofluorescence staining with anti-nucleolin, was decreased. Despite the compatibility of these results with those obtained in real microgravity on seedling meristems, we provide a technical discussion in the context of clinorotation and proper 1 g controls with respect to suspension cultures. Standard 1 g procedure of sustaining the cell suspension is achieved by continuously shaking. Thus, we compare the mechanical forces acting on cells in clinorotated samples, in a control static sample and in the standard 1 g conditions of suspension cultures in order to define the conditions of a complete and reliable experiment in simulated microgravity with corresponding 1 g controls. Copyright © 2015 The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 2D Necklace Flower Constellations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnas, David; Casanova, Daniel; Tresaco, Eva

    2018-01-01

    The 2D Necklace Flower Constellation theory is a new design framework based on the 2D Lattice Flower Constellations that allows to expand the possibilities of design while maintaining the number of satellites in the configuration. The methodology presented is a generalization of the 2D Lattice design, where the concept of necklace is introduced in the formulation. This allows to assess the problem of building a constellation in orbit, or the study of the reconfiguration possibilities in a constellation. Moreover, this work includes three counting theorems that allow to know beforehand the number of possible configurations that the theory can provide. This new formulation is especially suited for design and optimization techniques.

  20. Multizone Paper Platform for 3D Cell Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Derda, Ratmir; Hong, Estrella; Mwangi, Martin; Mammoto, Akiko; Ingber, Donald E.; Whitesides, George M.

    2011-01-01

    In vitro 3D culture is an important model for tissues in vivo. Cells in different locations of 3D tissues are physiologically different, because they are exposed to different concentrations of oxygen, nutrients, and signaling molecules, and to other environmental factors (temperature, mechanical stress, etc). The majority of high-throughput assays based on 3D cultures, however, can only detect the average behavior of cells in the whole 3D construct. Isolation of cells from specific regions of 3D cultures is possible, but relies on low-throughput techniques such as tissue sectioning and micromanipulation. Based on a procedure reported previously (“cells-in-gels-in-paper” or CiGiP), this paper describes a simple method for culture of arrays of thin planar sections of tissues, either alone or stacked to create more complex 3D tissue structures. This procedure starts with sheets of paper patterned with hydrophobic regions that form 96 hydrophilic zones. Serial spotting of cells suspended in extracellular matrix (ECM) gel onto the patterned paper creates an array of 200 micron-thick slabs of ECM gel (supported mechanically by cellulose fibers) containing cells. Stacking the sheets with zones aligned on top of one another assembles 96 3D multilayer constructs. De-stacking the layers of the 3D culture, by peeling apart the sheets of paper, “sections” all 96 cultures at once. It is, thus, simple to isolate 200-micron-thick cell-containing slabs from each 3D culture in the 96-zone array. Because the 3D cultures are assembled from multiple layers, the number of cells plated initially in each layer determines the spatial distribution of cells in the stacked 3D cultures. This capability made it possible to compare the growth of 3D tumor models of different spatial composition, and to examine the migration of cells in these structures. PMID:21573103

  1. Feeding Frequency Affects Cultured Rat Pituitary Cells in Low Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hymer, W. C.; Grindeland, R. E.; Salada, T.; Cenci, R.; Krishnan, K.; Mukai, C.; Nagaoka, S.

    1996-01-01

    In this report, we describe the results of a rat pituitary cell culture experiment done on STS-65 in which the effect of cell feeding on the release of the six anterior pituitary hormones was studied. We found complex microgravity related interactions between the frequency of cell feeding and the quantity and quality (i.e. biological activity) of some of the six hormones released in flight. Analyses of growth hormone (GH) released from cells into culture media on different mission days using gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography yielded qualitatively similar results between ground and flight samples. Lack of cell feeding resulted in extensive cell clumping in flight (but not ground) cultures. Vigorous fibroblast growth occurred in both ground and flight cultures fed 4 times. These results are interpreted within the context of autocrine and or paracrine feedback interactions. Finally the payload specialist successfully prepared a fresh trypsin solution in microgravity, detached the cells from their surface and reinserted them back into the culture chamber. These cells reattached and continued to release hormone in microgravity. In summary, this experiment shows that pituitary cells are microgravity sensitive and that coupled operations routinely associated with laboratory cel1 culture can also be accomplished in low gravity.

  2. Human retinal endothelial cells and astrocytes cultured on 3-D scaffolds for ocular drug discovery and development.

    PubMed

    Beharry, Kay D; Cai, Charles L; Valencia, Gloria B; Lazzaro, Douglas; Valencia, Arwin M; Salomone, Fabrizio; Aranda, Jacob V

    2018-01-01

    Topical ocular ketorolac improves the outcomes of severe retinopathy of prematurity and when administered with systemic caffeine, decreases the severity of oxygen-induced retinopathy. We tested the hypothesis that co-cultures of human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs) and human retinal astrocytes (HRAs) on 3-dimensional (3-D) hydrogel scaffolds is a more representative biomimetic paradigm of the blood-retinal-barrier (BRB) than 2-D cultures, and should be utilized for preclinical drug discovery and development. Mono- and co-cultures of HRECs and HRAs were treated with standard doses of ketorolac, ibuprofen, and/or caffeine, and exposed to hyperoxia, intermittent hypoxia (IH), or normoxia on 2-D surfaces or 3-D biodegradable hydrogel scaffolds (AlgiMatrix or Geltrex). Media and cells were collected at 72h post treatment for arachidonic acid metabolites. Cells cultured on 3-D scaffolds exhibited less oxidative stress and variability in drug responses. HRAs enhanced the responses of HRECs to drugs and changes in oxygen environment. PGE 2 and PGI 2 were the predominant prostanoids produced in response to IH, reflecting COX-2 immunoreactivity. We conclude that HRECs and HRAs co-cultured on 3-D scaffolds may recapitulate drug responses of the dynamic BRB and therefore should be implemented for preclinical ocular drug discovery and development. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. A Platform for High-Throughput Testing of the Effect of Soluble Compounds on 3D Cell Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Deiss, Frédérique; Mazzeo, Aaron; Hong, Estrella; Ingber, Donald E.; Derda, Ratmir; Whitesides, George M.

    2013-01-01

    In vitro 3D culture could provide an important model of tissues in vivo, but assessing the effects of chemical compounds on cells in specific regions of 3D culture requires physical isolation of cells, and thus currently relies mostly on delicate and low-throughput methods. This paper describes a technique (“cells-in-gels-in-paper” CiGiP) that permits rapid assembly of arrays of 3D cell cultures, and convenient isolation of cells from specific regions of these cultures. The 3D cultures were generated by stacking sheets of 200-μm-thick paper, each sheet supporting 96 individual “spots” (thin circular slabs) of hydrogels containing cells, separated by hydrophobic material (wax, PDMS) impermeable to aqueous solutions, and hydrophilic and most hydrophobic solutes. A custom-made 96-well holder isolated the cell-containing zones from each other. Each well contained media to which a different compound could be added. After culture, and disassembly of the holder, peeling the layers apart ‘sectioned’ the individual 3D cultures into 200-μm-thick sections which were easy to analyze using 2D imaging (e.g., with a commercial gel scanner). This 96-well holder brings new utilities to high-throughput, cell-based screening, by combining the simplicity of CiGiP with the convenience of a microtiter plate. This work demonstrated the potential of this type of assays by examining the cytotoxic effects of phenylarsine oxide (PAO) and cyclophosphamide (CPA) on human breast cancer cells positioned at different separations from culture media in 3D cultures. PMID:23952342

  4. Primary Cell Culture Systems for Human Thyroid Studies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanqiang; Li, Wei; Phay, John E; Shen, Rulong; Pellegata, Natalia S; Saji, Motoyasu; Ringel, Matthew D; de la Chapelle, Albert; He, Huiling

    2016-08-01

    Cell models are key instruments for in vitro studies of the thyroid. Permanent thyroid cell lines that are widely used in laboratory research typically originate from tumors. For many purposes, it is desirable to compare tumor cells with cells originating from normal tissue. However, such cultures grow slowly, have a highly limited life-span, and are known to lose their thyroid characteristics. The aim of the present study was to type coding and noncoding thyroid markers in different culture systems in an attempt to determine the optimal conditions for in vitro experimentation. Human primary thyroid cells were isolated from histologically non-tumorous tissues. Two alternative media (6H and h7H) were used. The morphology and behavior of the ensuing monolayer (two-dimensional) cultures was monitored by microscopy. The expression of key thyroid-related genes (n = 9) was monitored by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction on days 8, 21, and 43 after initiation. As a pilot study, the same markers were studied in a three-dimensional hanging-drop culture system. In the cultures with 6H or h7H medium, the primary thyroid cells displayed growth in numbers and size. Most cells retained the main morphological characteristics of thyroid cells throughout the first two weeks of culture, and fibroblast-like cells appeared around day 19. By day 21, most thyroid gene markers were retained, but by day 43, several markers were no longer present. The lncRNA transcripts PTCSC2 (spliced) and PTCSC3 were the first to disappear. There were no fundamental differences between the two media in the early period of culture. In the three-dimensional system, most thyroid markers were retained by day 21. Cultures of thyroid cells retain many thyroid characteristics up to day 21. Thereafter, fibroblast-like dedifferentiated cells begin to dominate.

  5. Urokinase production by electrophoretically separated cultured human embryonic kidney cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunze, M. E.; Plank, L. D.; Giranda, V.; Sedor, K.; Todd, P. W.

    1985-01-01

    Urokinase is a plasminogen activator found in urine. Relatively pure preparations have been tested in Europe, Japan and the United States for the treatment of deep vein thrombosis and other dangerous blood clots. Human embryonic kidney cell cultures have been found to produce urokinase at much higher concentrations, but less than 5% of the cells in typical cultures are producers. Since human diploid cells become senescent in culture the selection of clones derived from single cells will not provide enough material to be useful, so a bulk purification method is needed for the isolation of urokinase producing cell populations. Preparative cell electrophoresis was chosen as the method, since evidence exists that human embryonic cell cultures are richly heterogeneous with respect to electrophoretic mobility, and preliminary electrophoretic separations on the Apollo-Soyuz space flight produced cell populations that were rich in urokinase production. Similarly, erythropoietin is useful in the treatment of certain anemias and is a kidney cell duct, and electrophoretically enriched cell populations producing this product have been reported. Thus, there is a clear need for diploid human cells that produce these products, and there is evidence that such cells should be separable by free-flow cell electrophoresis.

  6. Numerical analysis of acoustic impedance microscope utilizing acoustic lens transducer to examine cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Gunawan, Agus Indra; Hozumi, Naohiro; Takahashi, Kenta; Yoshida, Sachiko; Saijo, Yoshifumi; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Yamamoto, Seiji

    2015-12-01

    A new technique is proposed for non-contact quantitative cell observation using focused ultrasonic waves. This technique interprets acoustic reflection intensity into the characteristic acoustic impedance of the biological cell. The cells are cultured on a plastic film substrate. A focused acoustic beam is transmitted through the substrate to its interface with the cell. A two-dimensional (2-D) reflection intensity profile is obtained by scanning the focal point along the interface. A reference substance is observed under the same conditions. These two reflections are compared and interpreted into the characteristic acoustic impedance of the cell based on a calibration curve that was created prior to the observation. To create the calibration curve, a numerical analysis of the sound field is performed using Fourier Transforms and is verified using several saline solutions. Because the cells are suspended by two plastic films, no contamination is introduced during the observation. In a practical observation, a sapphire lens transducer with a center frequency of 300 MHz was employed using ZnO thin film. The objects studied were co-cultured rat-derived glial (astrocyte) cells and glioma cells. The result was the clear observation of the internal structure of the cells. The acoustic impedance of the cells was spreading between 1.62 and 1.72 MNs/m(3). Cytoskeleton was indicated by high acoustic impedance. The introduction of cytochalasin-B led to a significant reduction in the acoustic impedance of the glioma cells; its effect on the glial cells was less significant. It is believed that this non-contact observation method will be useful for continuous cell inspections. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Cell culture on hydrophilicity-controlled silicon nitride surfaces.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Yuriko; Inami, Wataru; Miyakawa, Atsuo; Kawata, Yoshimasa

    2015-12-01

    Cell culture on silicon nitride membranes is required for atmospheric scanning electron microscopy, electron beam excitation assisted optical microscopy, and various biological sensors. Cell adhesion to silicon nitride membranes is typically weak, and cell proliferation is limited. We increased the adhesion force and proliferation of cultured HeLa cells by controlling the surface hydrophilicity of silicon nitride membranes. We covalently coupled carboxyl groups on silicon nitride membranes, and measured the contact angles of water droplets on the surfaces to evaluate the hydrophilicity. We cultured HeLa cells on the coated membranes and evaluated stretch of the cell. Cell migration and confluence were observed on the coated silicon nitride films. We also demonstrated preliminary observation result with direct electron beam excitation-assisted optical microscope.

  8. Quantitative volumetric Raman imaging of three dimensional cell cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallepitis, Charalambos; Bergholt, Mads S.; Mazo, Manuel M.; Leonardo, Vincent; Skaalure, Stacey C.; Maynard, Stephanie A.; Stevens, Molly M.

    2017-03-01

    The ability to simultaneously image multiple biomolecules in biologically relevant three-dimensional (3D) cell culture environments would contribute greatly to the understanding of complex cellular mechanisms and cell-material interactions. Here, we present a computational framework for label-free quantitative volumetric Raman imaging (qVRI). We apply qVRI to a selection of biological systems: human pluripotent stem cells with their cardiac derivatives, monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages in conventional cell culture systems and mesenchymal stem cells inside biomimetic hydrogels that supplied a 3D cell culture environment. We demonstrate visualization and quantification of fine details in cell shape, cytoplasm, nucleus, lipid bodies and cytoskeletal structures in 3D with unprecedented biomolecular specificity for vibrational microspectroscopy.

  9. A practical guide to hydrogels for cell culture.

    PubMed

    Caliari, Steven R; Burdick, Jason A

    2016-04-28

    There is growing appreciation of the role that the extracellular environment plays in regulating cell behavior. Mechanical, structural, and compositional cues, either alone or in concert, can drastically alter cell function. Biomaterials, and particularly hydrogels, have been developed and implemented to present defined subsets of these cues for investigating countless cellular processes as a means of understanding morphogenesis, aging, and disease. Although most scientists concede that standard cell culture materials (tissue culture plastic and glass) do a poor job of recapitulating native cellular milieus, there is currently a knowledge barrier for many researchers in regard to the application of hydrogels for cell culture. Here, we introduce hydrogels to those who may be unfamiliar with procedures to culture and study cells with these systems, with a particular focus on commercially available hydrogels.

  10. The ultrastructure of separated and cultured cell of Porphyra yezoensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun-Xue, Mei; Xiu-Geng, Fei

    2001-03-01

    There are many reports that cells (protoplasts) separated from the thallus of Porphyra by enzyme can develop to normal leafy thalli in the same way as monospores. But there are few investigations on the subcellular structure of the isolated vegetative cell for comparison with the subcellular structure of monospores. To clarify whether the separated and cultured cells undergo the same or similar ultrastructure changes during culture and germination as monospores undergo in their formation and germination, we observed their ultrastructure, compared them with those of the monospore and found that the ultrastructure of separated and cultured cells did not have the characteristic feature as that of monospore formation, such as production of small and large fibrous vesicles, but was accompanied by vacuolation and starch mobilization like that in monospore germination. The paper also discusses the relations between monospores and separated and cultured cells.

  11. Nylon-3 Polymers that Enable Selective Culture of Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Runhui; Chen, Xinyu; Gellman, Samuel H.; Masters, Kristyn S.

    2014-01-01

    Substrates that selectively encourage the growth of specific cell types are valuable for the engineering of complex tissues. Some cell-selective peptides have been identified from extracellular matrix proteins; these peptides have proven useful for biomaterials-based approaches to tissue repair or regeneration. However, there are very few examples of synthetic materials that display selectivity in supporting cell growth. We describe nylon-3 polymers that support in vitro culture of endothelial cells, but do not support the culture of smooth muscle cells or fibroblasts. These materials may be promising for vascular biomaterials applications. PMID:24156536

  12. Nylon-3 polymers that enable selective culture of endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Runhui; Chen, Xinyu; Gellman, Samuel H; Masters, Kristyn S

    2013-11-06

    Substrates that selectively encourage the growth of specific cell types are valuable for the engineering of complex tissues. Some cell-selective peptides have been identified from extracellular matrix proteins; these peptides have proven useful for biomaterials-based approaches to tissue repair or regeneration. However, there are very few examples of synthetic materials that display selectivity in supporting cell growth. We describe nylon-3 polymers that support in vitro culture of endothelial cells but do not support the culture of smooth muscle cells or fibroblasts. These materials may be promising for vascular biomaterials applications.

  13. Monitoring of cell cultures with LTCC microelectrode array.

    PubMed

    Ciosek, P; Zawadzki, K; Łopacińska, J; Skolimowski, M; Bembnowicz, P; Golonka, L J; Brzózka, Z; Wróblewski, W

    2009-04-01

    Monitoring of cell cultures in microbioreactors is a crucial task in cell bioassays and toxicological tests. In this work a novel tool based on a miniaturized sensor array fabricated using low-temperature cofired ceramics (LTCC) technology is presented. The developed device is applied to the monitoring of cell-culture media change, detection of the growth of various species, and in toxicological studies performed with the use of cells. Noninvasive monitoring performed with the LTCC microelectrode array can be applied for future cell-engineering purposes.

  14. Fundamentals of microfluidic cell culture in controlled microenvironments†

    PubMed Central

    Young, Edmond W. K.; Beebe, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Microfluidics has the potential to revolutionize the way we approach cell biology research. The dimensions of microfluidic channels are well suited to the physical scale of biological cells, and the many advantages of microfluidics make it an attractive platform for new techniques in biology. One of the key benefits of microfluidics for basic biology is the ability to control parameters of the cell microenvironment at relevant length and time scales. Considerable progress has been made in the design and use of novel microfluidic devices for culturing cells and for subsequent treatment and analysis. With the recent pace of scientific discovery, it is becoming increasingly important to evaluate existing tools and techniques, and to synthesize fundamental concepts that would further improve the efficiency of biological research at the microscale. This tutorial review integrates fundamental principles from cell biology and local microenvironments with cell culture techniques and concepts in microfluidics. Culturing cells in microscale environments requires knowledge of multiple disciplines including physics, biochemistry, and engineering. We discuss basic concepts related to the physical and biochemical microenvironments of the cell, physicochemical properties of that microenvironment, cell culture techniques, and practical knowledge of microfluidic device design and operation. We also discuss the most recent advances in microfluidic cell culture and their implications on the future of the field. The goal is to guide new and interested researchers to the important areas and challenges facing the scientific community as we strive toward full integration of microfluidics with biology. PMID:20179823

  15. Surface modified alginate microcapsules for 3D cell culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi-Wen; Kuo, Chiung Wen; Chueh, Di-Yen; Chen, Peilin

    2016-06-01

    Culture as three dimensional cell aggregates or spheroids can offer an ideal platform for tissue engineering applications and for pharmaceutical screening. Such 3D culture models, however, may suffer from the problems such as immune response and ineffective and cumbersome culture. This paper describes a simple method for producing microcapsules with alginate cores and a thin shell of poly(L-lysine)-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLL-g-PEG) to encapsulate mouse induced pluripotent stem (miPS) cells, generating a non-fouling surface as an effective immunoisolation barrier. We demonstrated the trapping of the alginate microcapsules in a microwell array for the continuous observation and culture of a large number of encapsulated miPS cells in parallel. miPS