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Sample records for 2-d device simulation

  1. Mixed-RKDG Finite Element Methods for the 2-D Hydrodynamic Model for Semiconductor Device Simulation

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Zhangxin; Cockburn, Bernardo; Jerome, Joseph W.; ...

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a new method for numerically solving the equations of the hydrodynamic model for semiconductor devices in two space dimensions. The method combines a standard mixed finite element method, used to obtain directly an approximation to the electric field, with the so-called Runge-Kutta Discontinuous Galerkin (RKDG) method, originally devised for numerically solving multi-dimensional hyperbolic systems of conservation laws, which is applied here to the convective part of the equations. Numerical simulations showing the performance of the new method are displayed, and the results compared with those obtained by using Essentially Nonoscillatory (ENO) finite difference schemes. Frommore » the perspective of device modeling, these methods are robust, since they are capable of encompassing broad parameter ranges, including those for which shock formation is possible. The simulations presented here are for Gallium Arsenide at room temperature, but we have tested them much more generally with considerable success.« less

  2. 2D Semiconductor Device Simulations by WENO-Boltzmann Schemes: Efficiency, Boundary Conditions and Comparison to Monte Carlo Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    choice is asymptotically equivalent to have fixed V on the MESFET gate region depending on Vgate and the oxide thickness δ in such a way that ∆y = κ̃ δ...the Poisson equation modeling semiconductor devices such as the MESFET and MOSFET. We compare the simulation results with those obtained by a direct...Essentially Non-Oscillatory (WENO) schemes; Boltzmann Tran- sport Equation (BTE); semiconductor device simulation; MESFET ; MOSFET; Direct Sim

  3. Realistic and efficient 2D crack simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadegar, Jacob; Liu, Xiaoqing; Singh, Abhishek

    2010-04-01

    Although numerical algorithms for 2D crack simulation have been studied in Modeling and Simulation (M&S) and computer graphics for decades, realism and computational efficiency are still major challenges. In this paper, we introduce a high-fidelity, scalable, adaptive and efficient/runtime 2D crack/fracture simulation system by applying the mathematically elegant Peano-Cesaro triangular meshing/remeshing technique to model the generation of shards/fragments. The recursive fractal sweep associated with the Peano-Cesaro triangulation provides efficient local multi-resolution refinement to any level-of-detail. The generated binary decomposition tree also provides efficient neighbor retrieval mechanism used for mesh element splitting and merging with minimal memory requirements essential for realistic 2D fragment formation. Upon load impact/contact/penetration, a number of factors including impact angle, impact energy, and material properties are all taken into account to produce the criteria of crack initialization, propagation, and termination leading to realistic fractal-like rubble/fragments formation. The aforementioned parameters are used as variables of probabilistic models of cracks/shards formation, making the proposed solution highly adaptive by allowing machine learning mechanisms learn the optimal values for the variables/parameters based on prior benchmark data generated by off-line physics based simulation solutions that produce accurate fractures/shards though at highly non-real time paste. Crack/fracture simulation has been conducted on various load impacts with different initial locations at various impulse scales. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed system has the capability to realistically and efficiently simulate 2D crack phenomena (such as window shattering and shards generation) with diverse potentials in military and civil M&S applications such as training and mission planning.

  4. Simulation of Yeast Cooperation in 2D.

    PubMed

    Wang, M; Huang, Y; Wu, Z

    2016-03-01

    Evolution of cooperation has been an active research area in evolutionary biology in decades. An important type of cooperation is developed from group selection, when individuals form spatial groups to prevent them from foreign invasions. In this paper, we study the evolution of cooperation in a mixed population of cooperating and cheating yeast strains in 2D with the interactions among the yeast cells restricted to their small neighborhoods. We conduct a computer simulation based on a game theoretic model and show that cooperation is increased when the interactions are spatially restricted, whether the game is of a prisoner's dilemma, snow drifting, or mutual benefit type. We study the evolution of homogeneous groups of cooperators or cheaters and describe the conditions for them to sustain or expand in an opponent population. We show that under certain spatial restrictions, cooperator groups are able to sustain and expand as group sizes become large, while cheater groups fail to expand and keep them from collapse.

  5. Development of a MEMS 2D separations device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloschock, Kristen P.; Flyer, Jonathan N.; Schneider, Thomas W.; Hussam, Abul; Van Keuren, Edward R.

    2004-12-01

    A polymer based biochip for rapid 2D separations of peptides, proteins, and other biomedically relevant molecules was designed and fabricated. Like traditional 2D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) methods, the device will allow molecules to separate based on isoelectric point (pI) and molecular weight (MW). Our design, however, integrates both an initial capillary isoelectric focusing (cIEF) step followed by capillary electrophoresis (CE) in multiple parallel channels, all on a single microfluidic chip. Not only is the "lab-on-a-chip" design easier to use and less expensive, but the miniaturization of the device produces very rapid separations. Compared to traditional 2D-PAGE, which can take hours to complete, we estimate separation times on the order of seconds. Fluorescence detection will be used in the preliminary stages of testing, but the device also is equipped with integrated electrodes in the electrophoresis channels to perform multiplexed electrochemical detection for quantitative analysis. We will present preliminary results of the chip development and testing.

  6. 2-D Clinostat for Simulated Microgravity Experiments with Arabidopsis Seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Li, Xugang; Krause, Lars; Görög, Mark; Schüler, Oliver; Hauslage, Jens; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Kircher, Stefan; Lasok, Hanna; Haser, Thomas; Rapp, Katja; Schmidt, Jürgen; Yu, Xin; Pasternak, Taras; Aubry-Hivet, Dorothée; Tietz, Olaf; Dovzhenko, Alexander; Palme, Klaus; Ditengou, Franck Anicet

    2016-04-01

    Ground-based simulators of microgravity such as fast rotating 2-D clinostats are valuable tools to study gravity related processes. We describe here a versatile g-value-adjustable 2-D clinostat that is suitable for plant analysis. To avoid seedling adaptation to 1 g after clinorotation, we designed chambers that allow rapid fixation. A detailed protocol for fixation, RNA isolation and the analysis of selected genes is described. Using this clinostat we show that mRNA levels of LONG HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5), MIZU-KUSSEI 1 (MIZ1) and microRNA MIR163 are down-regulated in 5-day-old Arabidopsis thaliana roots after 3 min and 6 min of clinorotation using a maximal reduced g-force of 0.02 g, hence demonstrating that this 2-D clinostat enables the characterization of early transcriptomic events during root response to microgravity. We further show that this 2-D clinostat is able to compensate the action of gravitational force as both gravitropic-dependent statolith sedimentation and subsequent auxin redistribution (monitoring D R5 r e v :: G F P reporter) are abolished when plants are clinorotated. Our results demonstrate that 2-D clinostats equipped with interchangeable growth chambers and tunable rotation velocity are suitable for studying how plants perceive and respond to simulated microgravity.

  7. Anodic bonded 2D semiconductors: from synthesis to device fabrication.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhesheng; Gacem, Karim; Boukhicha, Mohamed; Biscaras, Johan; Shukla, Abhay

    2013-10-18

    Two-dimensional semiconductors are increasingly relevant for emergent applications and devices, notably for hybrid heterostructures with graphene. We fabricate few-layer, large-area (a few tens of microns across) samples of the III-VI semiconductors GaS, GaSe and InSe using the anodic bonding method and characterize them by simultaneous use of optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Two-terminal devices with a gate are constructed to show the feasibility of applications based on these.

  8. Anodic bonded 2D semiconductors: from synthesis to device fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhesheng; Gacem, Karim; Boukhicha, Mohamed; Biscaras, Johan; Shukla, Abhay

    2013-10-01

    Two-dimensional semiconductors are increasingly relevant for emergent applications and devices, notably for hybrid heterostructures with graphene. We fabricate few-layer, large-area (a few tens of microns across) samples of the III-VI semiconductors GaS, GaSe and InSe using the anodic bonding method and characterize them by simultaneous use of optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Two-terminal devices with a gate are constructed to show the feasibility of applications based on these.

  9. TMD 2D Materials: Defects, Passivation, Functionalization and Device Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Robert

    Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) such as MoS2 have become popular in ``beyond CMOS'' device concepts and research due to their band structure in two-dimensional layers - viz. a significant band gap. Various device demonstrations have been reported utilizing exfoliated and synthesized single/few layer TMDs for possible electronic and photonic applications. The performance of such devices will also necessarily depend upon the TMD layer quality. The impact of defects and impurities on device transport characteristics is of interest, as well as methods to passivate and minimize their effects. The interaction of the TMDs with component materials, such as dielectrics and contacts, is also an important aspect. This talk will present our recent work using in-situ and ex-situ methods to understand the physics and chemistry of TMDs and their associated interfaces. This work was supported in part by the LEAST Center, one of the six SRC STARnet Centers, sponsored by MARCO and DARPA; the SWAN Center sponsored by the SRC NRI and NIST, and the NSF under Award ECCS-1407765.

  10. Numerical simulation of rock cutting using 2D AUTODYN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woldemichael, D. E.; Rani, A. M. Abdul; Lemma, T. A.; Altaf, K.

    2015-12-01

    In a drilling process for oil and gas exploration, understanding of the interaction between the cutting tool and the rock is important for optimization of the drilling process using polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) cutters. In this study the finite element method in ANSYS AUTODYN-2D is used to simulate the dynamics of cutter rock interaction, rock failure, and fragmentation. A two-dimensional single PDC cutter and rock model were used to simulate the orthogonal cutting process and to investigate the effect of different parameters such as depth of cut, and back rake angle on two types of rocks (sandstone and limestone). In the simulation, the cutting tool was dragged against stationary rock at predetermined linear velocity and the depth of cut (1,2, and 3 mm) and the back rake angles(-10°, 0°, and +10°) were varied. The simulation result shows that the +10° back rake angle results in higher rate of penetration (ROP). Increasing depth of cut leads to higher ROP at the cost of higher cutting force.

  11. 2D materials for renewable energy storage devices: Outlook and challenges.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Ramkrishna; Pal, Anjali; Pal, Tarasankar

    2016-11-15

    Scientists are looking for cost-effective, clean and durable alternative energy devices. Superior charge storage devices can easily meet the demands of our daily needs. In this respect, a material with suitable dimensions for charge storage devices has been considered to be very important. Improved performance of charge storage devices has been derived from whole-body participation and the best are from 2D materials, which provide a viable and acceptable solution.

  12. Comparative modeling of vertical and planar organic phototransistors with 2D drift-diffusion simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezzeccheri, E.; Colasanti, S.; Falco, A.; Liguori, R.; Rubino, A.; Lugli, P.

    2016-05-01

    Vertical Organic Transistors and Phototransistors have been proven to be promising technologies due to the advantages of reduced channel length and larger sensitive area with respect to planar devices. Nevertheless, a real improvement of their performance is subordinate to the quantitative description of their operation mechanisms. In this work, we present a comparative study on the modeling of vertical and planar Organic Phototransistor (OPT) structures. Computer-based simulations of the devices have been carried out with Synopsys Sentaurus TCAD in a 2D Drift-Diffusion framework. The photoactive semiconductor material has been modeled using the virtual semiconductor approach as the archetypal P3HT:PC61BM bulk heterojunction. It has been found that both simulated devices have comparable electrical and optical characteristics, accordingly to recent experimental reports on the subject.

  13. Device and methods for "gold standard" registration of clinical 3D and 2D cerebral angiograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madan, Hennadii; Likar, Boštjan; Pernuš, Franjo; Å piclin, Žiga

    2015-03-01

    Translation of any novel and existing 3D-2D image registration methods into clinical image-guidance systems is limited due to lack of their objective validation on clinical image datasets. The main reason is that, besides the calibration of the 2D imaging system, a reference or "gold standard" registration is very difficult to obtain on clinical image datasets. In the context of cerebral endovascular image-guided interventions (EIGIs), we present a calibration device in the form of a headband with integrated fiducial markers and, secondly, propose an automated pipeline comprising 3D and 2D image processing, analysis and annotation steps, the result of which is a retrospective calibration of the 2D imaging system and an optimal, i.e., "gold standard" registration of 3D and 2D images. The device and methods were used to create the "gold standard" on 15 datasets of 3D and 2D cerebral angiograms, whereas each dataset was acquired on a patient undergoing EIGI for either aneurysm coiling or embolization of arteriovenous malformation. The use of the device integrated seamlessly in the clinical workflow of EIGI. While the automated pipeline eliminated all manual input or interactive image processing, analysis or annotation. In this way, the time to obtain the "gold standard" was reduced from 30 to less than one minute and the "gold standard" of 3D-2D registration on all 15 datasets of cerebral angiograms was obtained with a sub-0.1 mm accuracy.

  14. Nano-scale electronic and optoelectronic devices based on 2D crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wenjuan

    In the last few years, the research community has been rapidly growing interests in two-dimensional (2D) crystals and their applications. The properties of these 2D crystals are diverse -- ranging from semi-metal such as graphene, semiconductors such as MoS2, to insulator such as boron nitride. These 2D crystals have many unique properties as compared to their bulk counterparts due to their reduced dimensionality and symmetry. A key difference is the band structures, which lead to distinct electronic and photonic properties. The 2D nature of the material also plays an important role in defining their exceptional properties of mechanical strength, surface sensitivity, thermal conductivity, tunable band-gap and their interaction with light. These unique properties of 2D crystals open up a broad territory of applications in computing, communication, energy, and medicine. In this talk, I will present our work on understanding the electrical properties of graphene and MoS2, in particular current transport and band-gap engineering in graphene, interface between gate dielectrics and graphene, and gap states in MoS2. I will also present our work on the nano-scale electronic devices (RF and logic devices) and photonic devices (plasmonic devices and photo-detectors) based on these 2D crystals.

  15. Nanoelectronic Device Simulator Nanodev

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novik, E. G.; Sheremet, I. V.; Ivashkevich, S. S.; Abramov, I. I.

    In this paper the models for simulation of single-electron (Coulomb blockade) and resonant tunneling structures are described. To calculate various parameters and characteristics (current-voltage characteristics, parameters of operation and others) of these structures algorithms and programs have been developed. The simulator NANODEV consists of two modeling units for Coulomb blockade and for resonant tunneling devices. Some calculation results are also present. The simulator was developed for PC computers.

  16. 2D and 3D Numerical Simulations of Flux Cancellation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karpen, Judith T.; DeVore, C.; Antiochos, S. K.; Linton, M. G.

    2009-01-01

    Cancellation of magnetic flux in the solar photosphere and chromosphere has been linked observationally and theoretically to a broad range of solar activity, from filament channel formation to CME initiation. Because this phenomenon is typically measured at only a single layer in the atmosphere, in the radial (line of sight) component of the magnetic field, the actual processes behind this observational signature are ambiguous. It is clear that reconnection is involved in some way, but the location of the reconnection sites and associated connectivity changes remain uncertain in most cases. We are using numerical modeling to demystify flux cancellation, beginning with the simplest possible configuration: a subphotospheric Lundquist flux tube surrounded by a potential field, immersed in a gravitationally stratified atmosphere, spanning many orders of magnitude in plasma beta. In this system, cancellation is driven slowly by a 2-cell circulation pattern imposed in the convection zone, such that the tops of the cells are located around the beta=1 level (i.e., the photosphere) and the flows converge and form a downdraft at the polarity inversion line; note however that no flow is imposed along the neutral line. We will present the results of 2D and 3D MHD-AMR simulations of flux cancellation, in which the flux at the photosphere begins in either an unsheared or sheared state. In all cases, a low-lying flux rope is formed by reconnection at the polarity inversion line within a few thousand seconds. The flux rope remains stable and does not rise, however, in contrast to models which do not include the presence of significant mass loading.

  17. Modeling and simulation of ultrasound fields generated by 2D phased array transducers for medical applications.

    PubMed

    Matrone, G; Quaglia, F; Magenes, G

    2010-01-01

    Modern ultrasound imaging instrumentation for clinical applications allows real-time volumetric scanning of the patients' body. 4D imaging has been made possible thanks to the development of new echographic probes which consist in 2D phased arrays of piezoelectric transducers. In these new devices it is the system electronics which properly drives the matrix elements and focuses the beam in order to obtain a sequence of volumetric images. This paper introduces an ultrasound field simulator based on the Spatial Impulse Response method which is being properly developed to analyze the characteristics of the ultrasound field generated by a 2D phased array of transducers. Thanks to its high configurability by the user, it will represent a very useful tool for electronics designers in developing 4D ultrasound imaging systems components.

  18. Simulations of two-particle interactions with 2D quantum walks in time

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, A.; Laiho, K.; Silberhorn, C.; Rohde, P. P.; Štefaňak, M.; Potoček, V.; Hamilton, C.; Jex, I.

    2014-12-04

    We present the experimental implementation of a quantum walk on a two-dimensional lattice and show how to employ the optical system to simulate the quantum propagation of two interacting particles. Our quantum walk in time transfers the spatial spread of a quantum walk into the time domain, which guarantees a high stability and scalability of the setup. We present with our device quantum walks over 12 steps on a 2D lattice. By changing the properties of the driving quantum coin, we investigate different kinds of two-particle interactions and reveal their impact on the occurring quantum propagation.

  19. A 2D simulation model for urban flood management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Roland; van der Wielen, Jonathan; Velickov, Slavco; Galvao, Diogo

    2014-05-01

    The European Floods Directive, which came into force on 26 November 2007, requires member states to assess all their water courses and coast lines for risk of flooding, to map flood extents and assets and humans at risk, and to take adequate and coordinated measures to reduce the flood risk in consultation with the public. Flood Risk Management Plans are to be in place by 2015. There are a number of reasons for the promotion of this Directive, not least because there has been much urban and other infrastructural development in flood plains, which puts many at risk of flooding along with vital societal assets. In addition there is growing awareness that the changing climate appears to be inducing more frequent extremes of rainfall with a consequent increases in the frequency of flooding. Thirdly, the growing urban populations in Europe, and especially in the developing countries, means that more people are being put at risk from a greater frequency of urban flooding in particular. There are urgent needs therefore to assess flood risk accurately and consistently, to reduce this risk where it is important to do so or where the benefit is greater than the damage cost, to improve flood forecasting and warning, to provide where necessary (and possible) flood insurance cover, and to involve all stakeholders in decision making affecting flood protection and flood risk management plans. Key data for assessing risk are water levels achieved or forecasted during a flood. Such levels should of course be monitored, but they also need to be predicted, whether for design or simulation. A 2D simulation model (PriceXD) solving the shallow water wave equations is presented specifically for determining flood risk, assessing flood defense schemes and generating flood forecasts and warnings. The simulation model is required to have a number of important properties: -Solve the full shallow water wave equations using a range of possible solutions; -Automatically adjust the time step and

  20. Nanohole-array-based device for 2D snapshot multispectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Najiminaini, Mohamadreza; Vasefi, Fartash; Kaminska, Bozena; Carson, Jeffrey J L

    2013-01-01

    We present a two-dimensional (2D) snapshot multispectral imager that utilizes the optical transmission characteristics of nanohole arrays (NHAs) in a gold film to resolve a mixture of input colors into multiple spectral bands. The multispectral device consists of blocks of NHAs, wherein each NHA has a unique periodicity that results in transmission resonances and minima in the visible and near-infrared regions. The multispectral device was illuminated over a wide spectral range, and the transmission was spectrally unmixed using a least-squares estimation algorithm. A NHA-based multispectral imaging system was built and tested in both reflection and transmission modes. The NHA-based multispectral imager was capable of extracting 2D multispectral images representative of four independent bands within the spectral range of 662 nm to 832 nm for a variety of targets. The multispectral device can potentially be integrated into a variety of imaging sensor systems.

  1. Simulation of Ultra-Small MOSFETs Using a 2-D Quantum-Corrected Drift-Diffusion Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biegal, Bryan A.; Rafferty, Connor S.; Yu, Zhiping; Ancona, Mario G.; Dutton, Robert W.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The continued down-scaling of electronic devices, in particular the commercially dominant MOSFET, will force a fundamental change in the process of new electronics technology development in the next five to ten years. The cost of developing new technology generations is soaring along with the price of new fabrication facilities, even as competitive pressure intensifies to bring this new technology to market faster than ever before. To reduce cost and time to market, device simulation must become a more fundamental, indeed dominant, part of the technology development cycle. In order to produce these benefits, simulation accuracy must improve markedly. At the same time, device physics will become more complex, with the rapid increase in various small-geometry and quantum effects. This work describes both an approach to device simulator development and a physical model which advance the effort to meet the tremendous electronic device simulation challenge described above. The device simulation approach is to specify the physical model at a high level to a general-purpose (but highly efficient) partial differential equation solver (in this case PROPHET, developed by Lucent Technologies), which then simulates the model in 1-D, 2-D, or 3-D for a specified device and test regime. This approach allows for the rapid investigation of a wide range of device models and effects, which is certainly essential for device simulation to catch up with, and then stay ahead of, electronic device technology of the present and future. The physical device model used in this work is the density-gradient (DG) quantum correction to the drift-diffusion model [Ancona, Phys. Rev. B 35(5), 7959 (1987)]. This model adds tunneling and quantum smoothing of carrier density profiles to the drift-diffusion model. We used the DG model in 1-D and 2-D (for the first time) to simulate both bipolar and unipolar devices. Simulations of heavily-doped, short-base diodes indicated that the DG quantum

  2. Crab Chitin-Based 2D Soft Nanomaterials for Fully Biobased Electric Devices.

    PubMed

    You, Jun; Li, Mingjie; Ding, Beibei; Wu, Xiaochen; Li, Chaoxu

    2017-03-17

    2D nanomaterials have various size/morphology-dependent properties applicable in electronics, optics, sensing, and actuating. However, intensively studied inorganic 2D nanomaterials are frequently hindered to apply in some particular and industrial fields, owing to harsh synthesis, high-cost, cytotoxicity, and nondegradability. Endeavor has been made to search for biobased 2D nanomaterials with biocompatibility, sustainability, and biodegradability. A method of hydrophobization-induced interfacial-assembly is reported to produce an unprecedented type of nanosheets from marine chitin. During this process, two layers of chitin aggregations assemble into nanosheets with high aspect ratio. With super stability and amphiphilicity, these nanosheets have super ability in creating highly stable Pickering emulsions with internal phase up to 83.4% and droplet size up to 140 μm, in analogue to graphene oxide. Combining emulsifying and carbonization can further convert these 2D precursors to carbon nanosheets with thickness as low as ≈3.8 nm. Having biologic origin, conductivity, and dispersibility in various solvents, resultant carbon nanosheets start a new scenario of exploiting marine resources for fully biobased electric devices with sustainability and biodegradability, e.g., supercapacitor, flexible circuits, and electronic sensors. Hybrid films of chitin and carbon nanosheets also offer low-cost and environment-friendly alternative of conductive components desirable in green electronics, wearable electronics, biodegradable circuits, and biologic devices.

  3. Development of a MEMS-fabricated SU-8 device for 2D separations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloschock, K. P.; Schneider, T. W.; Hussam, Abul; Van Keuren, E. R.

    2006-10-01

    A polymer based biochip for rapid 2-D separations of peptides, proteins, and other biomedically relevant molecules was designed and fabricated. Like traditional 2D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) methods, the device will allow molecules to separate based on isoelectric point (pI) and molecular weight (MW). The design, however, integrates both an initial capillary isoelectric focusing (cIEF) step followed by capillary electrophoresis (CE) in multiple parallel channels, all on a single microfluidic chip. Not only is the "lab-on-a-chip" design easier to use and less expensive, but the miniaturization of the device produces very rapid separations, on the order of seconds. Fluorescence detection will be used in the preliminary stages of testing, but the device is also equipped with integrated electrodes in the electrophoresis channels to perform multiplexed electrochemical detection for quantitative analysis. We present the chip design and fabrication, as well as the initial test results demonstrating cIEF and CE with one analyte. Furthermore, we introduce preliminary work on the use of a polyacrylamide gel in the electrophoresis channels.

  4. A microfluidic device for 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D cell navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamloo, Amir; Amirifar, Leyla

    2016-01-01

    Microfluidic devices have received wide attention and shown great potential in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Investigating cell response to various stimulations is much more accurate and comprehensive with the aid of microfluidic devices. In this study, we introduced a microfluidic device by which the matrix density as a mechanical property and the concentration profile of a biochemical factor as a chemical property could be altered. Our microfluidic device has a cell tank and a cell culture chamber to mimic both 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D migration of three types of cells. Fluid shear stress is negligible on the cells and a stable concentration gradient can be obtained by diffusion. The device was designed by a numerical simulation so that the uniformity of the concentration gradients throughout the cell culture chamber was obtained. Adult neural cells were cultured within this device and they showed different branching and axonal navigation phenotypes within varying nerve growth factor (NGF) concentration profiles. Neural stem cells were also cultured within varying collagen matrix densities while exposed to NGF concentrations and they experienced 3D to 3D collective migration. By generating vascular endothelial growth factor concentration gradients, adult human dermal microvascular endothelial cells also migrated in a 2D to 3D manner and formed a stable lumen within a specific collagen matrix density. It was observed that a minimum absolute concentration and concentration gradient were required to stimulate migration of all types of the cells. This device has the advantage of changing multiple parameters simultaneously and is expected to have wide applicability in cell studies.

  5. Reactor2D: A tool for simulation of shock deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, Eugeny I.; Shabalin, Ivan I.

    2016-10-01

    The basic steps for creating a numerical tool to simulate the deformation and failure processes of complex technical objects (CTO) are presented. Calculations of shock loading of CTO both at low and high speeds, showing the efficiency of the numerical tools created are carried out.

  6. Simulation of subgrid orographic precipitation with an embedded 2-D cloud-resolving model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Joon-Hee; Arakawa, Akio

    2016-03-01

    By explicitly resolving cloud-scale processes with embedded two-dimensional (2-D) cloud-resolving models (CRMs), superparameterized global atmospheric models have successfully simulated various atmospheric events over a wide range of time scales. Up to now, however, such models have not included the effects of topography on the CRM grid scale. We have used both 3-D and 2-D CRMs to simulate the effects of topography with prescribed "large-scale" winds. The 3-D CRM is used as a benchmark. The results show that the mean precipitation can be simulated reasonably well by using a 2-D representation of topography as long as the statistics of the topography such as the mean and standard deviation are closely represented. It is also shown that the use of a set of two perpendicular 2-D grids can significantly reduce the error due to a 2-D representation of topography.

  7. Representativeness of 2D models to simulate 3D unstable variable density flow in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knorr, Bastian; Xie, Yueqing; Stumpp, Christine; Maloszewski, Piotr; Simmons, Craig T.

    2016-11-01

    Variable density flow in porous media has been studied primarily using numerical models because it is a semi-chaotic and transient process. Most of these studies have been 2D, owing to the computational restrictions on 3D simulations, and the ability to observe variable density flow in 2D experimentation. However, it is recognised that variable density flow is a three-dimensional process. A 3D system may cause weaker variable density flow than a 2D system due to stronger dispersion, but may also result in bigger fingers and hence stronger variable density flow because of more space for fingers to coalesce. This study aimed to determine the representativeness of 2D modelling to simulate 3D variable density flow. 3D homogeneous sand column experiments were conducted at three different water flow velocities with three different bromide tracer solutions mixed with methanol resulting in different density ratios. Both 2D axisymmetric and 3D numerical simulations were performed to reproduce experimental data. Experimental results showed that the magnitude of variable density flow increases with decreasing flow rates and decreasing density ratios. The shapes of the observed breakthrough curves differed significantly from those produced by 2D axisymmetric and 3D simulations. Compared to 2D simulations, the onset of instabilities was delayed but the growth was more pronounced in 3D simulations. Despite this difference, both 2D axisymmetric and 3D models successfully simulated mass recovery with high efficiency (between 77% and 99%). This study indicates that 2D simulations are sufficient to understand integrated features of variable density flow in homogeneous sand column experiments.

  8. Active 2D and carbon-based materials: physics and devices (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorger, Volker J.

    2016-09-01

    In nanophotonics we create material-systems, which are structured at length scales smaller than the wavelength of light. When light propagates inside such effective materials numerous novel physics phenomena emerge including thresholdless lasing, atto-joule per bit efficient modulators, and exciton-polariton effects. However, in order to make use of these opportunities, synergistic device designs have to be applied to include materials, electric and photonic constrains - all at the nanoscale. In this talk, I present our recent progress in exploring 2D and TCO materials for active optoelectronics. I highlight nanoscale device demonstrations including their physical operation principle and performance benchmarks. Details include epsilon-bear-zero tuning of thin-film ITO, Graphene electro-static gating via Pauli-blocking, plasmonic electro-optic modulation, and hetero-integrated III-V and carbon-based plasmon lasers on Silicon photonics.

  9. Optimization of hybrid organic-inorganic interdigitated photovoltaic device structure using a 2D diffusion model.

    PubMed

    Krali, Emiljana; Curry, Richard J

    2011-04-26

    To improve the efficiency of organic photovoltaic devices the inclusion of semiconducting nanoparticles such as PbS has been used to enhance near-infrared absorption. Additionally the use of interdigitated heterojunctions has been explored as a means of improving charge extraction. In this paper we provide a two-dimensional model taking into account these approaches with the aim of predicting an optimized device geometry to maximize the efficiency. The steady-state exciton population has been calculated in each of the active regions taking into account the full optical response based on using a finite difference approach to obtain approximate numerical solutions to the 2D exciton diffusion equation. On the basis of this we calculate the contribution of each active material to the device short circuit current and power conversion efficiency. We show that optimized structures can lead to power conversions efficiencies of ∼50% compared to a maximum of ∼17% for planar heterojunction devices. To achieve this the interdigitated region thickness should be ∼800 nm with PbS and C(60) widths of ∼60 and 20 nm, respectively. Even modest nanopatterning using much thinner active regions provides improvements in efficiency and may be approached using a variety of methods including nanoimprinting lithography, nanotemplating, or the incorporation of presynthesized nanorod structures.

  10. 2-D simulation of a waveguide free electron laser having a helical undulator

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.K.; Lee, B.C.; Jeong, Y.U.

    1995-12-31

    We have developed a 2-D simulation code for the calculation of output power from an FEL oscillator having a helical undulator and a cylindrical waveguide. In the simulation, the current and the energy of the electron beam is 2 A and 400 keV, respectively. The parameters of the permanent-magnet helical undulator are : period = 32 mm, number of periods = 20, magnetic field = 1.3 kG. The gain per pass is 10 and the output power is calculated to be higher than 10 kW The results of the 2-D simulation are compared with those of 1-D simulation.

  11. 2D Kinetic Particle in Cell Simulations of a Shear-Flow Stabilized Z-Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tummel, Kurt; Higginson, Drew; Schmidt, Andrea; Link, Anthony; McLean, Harry; Shumlak, Uri; Nelson, Brian; Golingo, Raymond; Claveau, Elliot; Lawrence Livermore National Lab Team; University of Washington Team

    2016-10-01

    The Z-pinch is a relatively simple and attractive potential fusion reactor design, but attempts to develop such a reactor have consistently struggled to overcome Z-pinch instabilities. The ``sausage'' and ``kink'' modes are among the most robust and prevalent Z-pinch instabilities, but theory and simulations suggest that axial flow-shear, dvz / dr ≠ 0 , can suppress these modes. Experiments have confirmed that Z-pinch plasmas with embedded axial flow-shear display a significantly enhanced resilience to the sausage and kink modes at a demonstration current of 50kAmps. A new experiment is under way to test the concept at higher current, and efforts to model these plasmas are being expanded. The performance and stability of these devices will depend on features like the plasma viscosity, anomalous resistivity, and finite Larmor radius effects, which are most accurately characterized in kinetic models. To predict these features, kinetic simulations using the particle in cell code LSP are now in development, and initial benchmarking and 2D stability analyses of the sausage mode are presented here. These results represent the first kinetic modeling of the flow-shear stabilized Z-pinch. This work is funded by the USDOE/ARPAe Alpha Program. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  12. Preliminary abatement device evaluation: 1D-2D KGM cyclone design

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cyclones are predominately used in controlling cotton gin particulate matter (PM) emissions. The most commonly used cyclone designs are the 2D-2D and 1D-3D; however other designs such as the 1D-2D KGM have or are currently being used. A 1D-2D cyclone has a barrel length equal to the barrel diamete...

  13. Simulation and calculation of particle trapping using a quasistatic 2D simulation code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morshed, Sepehr; Antonsen, Thomas; Huang, Chengkun; Mori, Warren

    2008-11-01

    In LWFA schemes the laser pulse must propagate several centimeters and maintain its coherence over this distance, which corresponds to many Rayleigh lengths. These Wakefields and their effect on the laser can be simulated in quasistatic approximation [1, 2]. In this approximation the assumption is that the driver (laser) does not change shape during the time it takes for it to pass by a plasma particle. As a result the particles that are trapped and moving with near-luminal velocity can not be treated with this approximation. Here we have modified the 2D code WAKE with an alternate algorithm so that when a plasma particle gains sufficient energy from wakefields it is promoted to beam particle status which later on may become trapped in the wakefields of laser. Similar implementations have been made in the 3D code QUICKPIC [2]. We also have done comparison between WAKE and results from 200 TW laser simulations using OSIRIS [3]. These changes in WAKE will give users a tool that can be used on a desk top machine to simulate GeV acceleration.[0pt] [1] P. Mora and T. M. Antonsen Jr., Phys Plasma 4, 217 (1997)[0pt] [2] C. Huang et al. Comp Phys. 217 (2006)[0pt] [3] W. Lu et al. PRST, Accelerators and Beams 10, 061301 (2007)

  14. Red-green-blue 2 D tuneable liquid crystal laser devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coles, H. J.; Morris, S. M.; Ford, A. D.; Hands, P. J. W.; Wilkinson, T. D.

    2009-08-01

    In this paper, we review our recent experimental work on coherent and blue phase liquid crystal lasers.We will present results on thin-film photonic band edge lasing devices using dye-doped low molar mass liquid crystals in self-organised chiral nematic and blue phases. We show that high Q-factor lasers can be achieved in these materials and demonstrate that a single mode output with a very narrow line width can be readily achievable in well-aligned mono-domain samples. Further, we have found that the performance of the laser, i.e. the slope efficiency and the excitation threshold, are dependent upon the physical parameters of the low molar mass chiral nematic liquid crystals. Specifically, slope efficiencies greater than 60% could be achieved depending upon the materials used and the device geometry employed. We will discuss the important parameters of the liquid crystal host/dye guest materials and device configuration that are needed to achieve such high slope efficiencies. Further we demonstrate how the wavelength of the laser can be tuned using an in-plane electric field in a direction perpendicular to the helix axis via a flexoelectric mechanism as well as thermally using thermochromic effects. We will then briefly outline data on room temperature blue phase lasers and further show how liquid crystal/lenslet arrays have been used to demonstrate 2D laser emission of any desired wavelength. Finally, we present preliminary data on LED/incoherent pumping of RG liquid crystal lasers leading to a continuous wave output.

  15. A 2D spring model for the simulation of ultrasonic wave propagation in nonlinear hysteretic media.

    PubMed

    Delsanto, P P; Gliozzi, A S; Hirsekorn, M; Nobili, M

    2006-07-01

    A two-dimensional (2D) approach to the simulation of ultrasonic wave propagation in nonclassical nonlinear (NCNL) media is presented. The approach represents the extension to 2D of a previously proposed one dimensional (1D) Spring Model, with the inclusion of a PM space treatment of the intersticial regions between grains. The extension to 2D is of great practical relevance for its potential applications in the field of quantitative nondestructive evaluation and material characterization, but it is also useful, from a theoretical point of view, to gain a better insight of the interaction mechanisms involved. The model is tested by means of virtual 2D experiments. The expected NCNL behaviors are qualitatively well reproduced.

  16. The simulation of 3D microcalcification clusters in 2D digital mammography and breast tomosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Shaheen, Eman; Van Ongeval, Chantal; Zanca, Federica; Cockmartin, Lesley; Marshall, Nicholas; Jacobs, Jurgen; Young, Kenneth C.; Dance, David R.; Bosmans, Hilde

    2011-12-15

    Purpose: This work proposes a new method of building 3D models of microcalcification clusters and describes the validation of their realistic appearance when simulated into 2D digital mammograms and into breast tomosynthesis images. Methods: A micro-CT unit was used to scan 23 breast biopsy specimens of microcalcification clusters with malignant and benign characteristics and their 3D reconstructed datasets were segmented to obtain 3D models of microcalcification clusters. These models were then adjusted for the x-ray spectrum used and for the system resolution and simulated into 2D projection images to obtain mammograms after image processing and into tomographic sequences of projection images, which were then reconstructed to form 3D tomosynthesis datasets. Six radiologists were asked to distinguish between 40 real and 40 simulated clusters of microcalcifications in two separate studies on 2D mammography and tomosynthesis datasets. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to test the ability of each observer to distinguish between simulated and real microcalcification clusters. The kappa statistic was applied to assess how often the individual simulated and real microcalcification clusters had received similar scores (''agreement'') on their realistic appearance in both modalities. This analysis was performed for all readers and for the real and the simulated group of microcalcification clusters separately. ''Poor'' agreement would reflect radiologists' confusion between simulated and real clusters, i.e., lesions not systematically evaluated in both modalities as either simulated or real, and would therefore be interpreted as a success of the present models. Results: The area under the ROC curve, averaged over the observers, was 0.55 (95% confidence interval [0.44, 0.66]) for the 2D study, and 0.46 (95% confidence interval [0.29, 0.64]) for the tomosynthesis study, indicating no statistically significant difference between real and simulated

  17. Single crystal diamond boron 'delta doped' nanometric layers for 2D electronic devices (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, James

    2016-10-01

    Use of diamond as a semiconductor material suffers from the high activation energy of all known impurity dopants (0.37 eV for Boron, 0.6 eV for Phosphorous). To achieve the simultaneous carrier concentration and mobility desired for devices operating at room temperature, growth of a nanometric thick `delta' layer doped to above the metal insulator transition adjacent to high mobility intrinsic material can provide a 2D high mobility conduction layer. Critical to obtaining the enhanced mobility of the carriers in the layer next to the `delta' doped layer is the abruptness of the doping interface. Single and multiple nanometer thick epitaxial layers of heavily boron `delta' doped diamond have been grown on high quality, intrinsic lab grown diamond single crystals. These layers were grown in a custom microwave plasma activated chemical vapor deposition reactor based on a rapid reactant switching technique. Characterization of the `delta' layers by various analytical techniques will be presented. Electrical measurements demonstrating enhanced hole mobility (100 to 800 cm2/V sec) as well as other electrical characterizations will be presented.

  18. 2D Mesoscale Simulations of Quasielastic Reloading and Unloading in Shock Compressed Aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, S. K.

    2007-06-01

    2D mesoscale simulations of planar shock compression, followed by either reloading or unloading, are presented that predict quasi-elastic (QE) response observed experimentally in shocked polycrystalline aluminum. The representative volume element (RVE) of the plate impact experiments included a realistic representation of a grain ensemble with apparent heterogeneities in the polycrystalline sample. Simulations were carried out using a 2D updated Lagrangian finite element code ISP-TROTP incorporating elastic-plastic deformation in grain interior and contact/cohesive methodology to analyze finite strength grain boundaries. Local heterogeneous response was quantified by calculating appropriate material variables along in-situ Lagrangian tracer lines and comparing the temporal variation of their mean values with results from 2D continuum simulations. Simulations were carried out by varying a large number of individual heterogeneities to predict QE response on reloading and unloading from shock state. The heterogeneities important for simulating the QE response identified from these simulations were: hardened grain boundaries, hard inclusions, and micro-porosity. It is shown that the shock-deformed state of polycrystalline aluminum in the presence of these effects is strongly heterogeneous with considerable variations in lateral stresses. This distributed stress state unloads the shear stress from flow stress causing QE response on reloading as well as unloading. The simulated velocity profiles and calculated shear strength and shear stresses for a representative reloading and unloading experimental configuration were found to agree well with the reported experimental data. Work supported by DOE.

  19. Simulation of 2D Brain's Potential Distribution Based on Two Electrodes ECVT Using Finite Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirait, S. H.; Edison, R. E.; Baidillah, M. R.; Taruno, W. P.; Haryanto, F.

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to simulate the potential distribution of 2D brain geometry based on two electrodes ECVT. ECVT (electrical capacitance tomography) is a tomography modality which produces dielectric distribution image of a subject from several capacitance electrodes measurements. This study begins by producing the geometry of 2D brain based on MRI image and then setting the boundary conditions on the boundaries of the geometry. The values of boundary conditions follow the potential values used in two electrodes brain ECVT, and for this reason the first boundary is set to 20 volt and 2.5 MHz signal and another boundary is set to ground. Poisson equation is implemented as the governing equation in the 2D brain geometry and finite element method is used to solve the equation. Simulated Hodgkin-Huxley action potential is applied as disturbance potential in the geometry. We divide this study into two which comprises simulation without disturbance potential and simulation with disturbance potential. From this study, each of time dependent potential distributions from non-disturbance and disturbance potential of the 2D brain geometry has been generated.

  20. Transverse instability of electron plasma waves study via direct 2 +2D Vlasov simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silantyev, Denis; Lushnikov, Pavel; Rose, Harvey

    2016-10-01

    Transverse instability can be viewed as initial stage of electron plasma waves (EPWs) filamentation. We performed direct 2 +2D Vlasov-Poisson simulations of collisionless plasma to systematically study the growth rates of oblique modes of finite-amplitude EPW depending on its amplitude, wavenumber, angle of the oblique mode wavevector relative to the EPW's wavevector and the configuration of the trapped electrons in the EPW. Simulation results are compared to the predictions of theoretical models.

  1. 2-D MHD numerical simulations of EML plasma armatures with ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boynton, G. C.; Huerta, M. A.; Thio, Y. C.

    1993-01-01

    We use a 2-D) resistive MHD code to simulate an EML plasma armature. The energy equation includes Ohmic heating, radiation heat transport and the ideal gas equation of state, allowing for variable ionization using the Saha equations. We calculate rail ablation taking into account the flow of heat into the interior of the rails. Our simulations show the development of internal convective flows and secondary arcs. We use an explicit Flux Corrected Transport algorithm to advance all quantities in time.

  2. The simulation of 3D mass models in 2D digital mammography and breast tomosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Shaheen, Eman De Keyzer, Frederik; Bosmans, Hilde; Ongeval, Chantal Van; Dance, David R.; Young, Kenneth C.

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: This work proposes a new method of building 3D breast mass models with different morphological shapes and describes the validation of the realism of their appearance after simulation into 2D digital mammograms and breast tomosynthesis images. Methods: Twenty-five contrast enhanced MRI breast lesions were collected and each mass was manually segmented in the three orthogonal views: sagittal, coronal, and transversal. The segmented models were combined, resampled to have isotropic voxel sizes, triangularly meshed, and scaled to different sizes. These masses were referred to as nonspiculated masses and were then used as nuclei onto which spicules were grown with an iterative branching algorithm forming a total of 30 spiculated masses. These 55 mass models were projected into 2D projection images to obtain mammograms after image processing and into tomographic sequences of projection images, which were then reconstructed to form 3D tomosynthesis datasets. The realism of the appearance of these mass models was assessed by five radiologists via receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis when compared to 54 real masses. All lesions were also given a breast imaging reporting and data system (BIRADS) score. The data sets of 2D mammography and tomosynthesis were read separately. The Kendall's coefficient of concordance was used for the interrater observer agreement assessment for the BIRADS scores per modality. Further paired analysis, using the Wilcoxon signed rank test, of the BIRADS assessment between 2D and tomosynthesis was separately performed for the real masses and for the simulated masses. Results: The area under the ROC curves, averaged over all observers, was 0.54 (95% confidence interval [0.50, 0.66]) for the 2D study, and 0.67 (95% confidence interval [0.55, 0.79]) for the tomosynthesis study. According to the BIRADS scores, the nonspiculated and the spiculated masses varied in their degrees of malignancy from normal (BIRADS 1) to highly

  3. 2D-3D hybrid stabilized finite element method for tsunami runup simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takase, S.; Moriguchi, S.; Terada, K.; Kato, J.; Kyoya, T.; Kashiyama, K.; Kotani, T.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a two-dimensional (2D)-three-dimensional (3D) hybrid stabilized finite element method that enables us to predict a propagation process of tsunami generated in a hypocentral region, which ranges from offshore propagation to runup to urban areas, with high accuracy and relatively low computational costs. To be more specific, the 2D shallow water equation is employed to simulate the propagation of offshore waves, while the 3D Navier-Stokes equation is employed for the runup in urban areas. The stabilized finite element method is utilized for numerical simulations for both of the 2D and 3D domains that are independently discretized with unstructured meshes. The multi-point constraint and transmission methods are applied to satisfy the continuity of flow velocities and pressures at the interface between the resulting 2D and 3D meshes, since neither their spatial dimensions nor node arrangements are consistent. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the performance of the proposed hybrid method to simulate tsunami behavior, including offshore propagation and runup to urban areas, with substantially lower computation costs in comparison with full 3D computations.

  4. PFC2D simulation of thermally induced cracks in concrete specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xinghong; Chang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Wei; Li, Shuirong

    2013-06-01

    The appearance of cracks exposed to severe environmental conditions can be critical for concrete structures. The research is to validate Particle Flow Code(PFC2D) method in the context of concrete thermally-induced cracking simulations. First, concrete was discreted as meso-level units of aggregate, cement mortar and the interfaces between them. Parallel bonded-particle model in PFC2D was adapted to describe the constitutive relation of the cementing material. Then, the concrete mechanics meso-parameters were obtained through several groups of biaxial tests, in order to make the numerical results comply with the law of the indoor test. The concrete thermal meso-parameters were determined by compared with the parameters in the empirical formula through the simulations imposing a constant heat flow to the left margin of concrete specimens. At last, a case of 1000mm×500mm concrete specimen model was analyzed. It simulated the formation and development process of the thermally-induced cracks under the cold waves of different durations and temperature decline. Good agreements in fracture morphology and process were observed between the simulations, previous studies and laboratory data. The temperature decline limits during cold waves were obtained when its tensile strength was given as 3MPa. And it showed the feasibility of using PFC2D to simulate concrete thermally-induced cracking.

  5. FRANC2D: A two-dimensional crack propagation simulator. Version 2.7: User's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wawrzynek, Paul; Ingraffea, Anthony

    1994-01-01

    FRANC 2D (FRacture ANalysis Code, 2 Dimensions) is a menu driven, interactive finite element computer code that performs fracture mechanics analyses of 2-D structures. The code has an automatic mesh generator for triangular and quadrilateral elements. FRANC2D calculates the stress intensity factor using linear elastic fracture mechanics and evaluates crack extension using several methods that may be selected by the user. The code features a mesh refinement and adaptive mesh generation capability that is automatically developed according to the predicted crack extension direction and length. The code also has unique features that permit the analysis of layered structure with load transfer through simulated mechanical fasteners or bonded joints. The code was written for UNIX workstations with X-windows graphics and may be executed on the following computers: DEC DecStation 3000 and 5000 series, IBM RS/6000 series, Hewlitt-Packard 9000/700 series, SUN Sparc stations, and most Silicon Graphics models.

  6. Simulation of Cardiac Arrhythmias Using a 2D Heterogeneous Whole Heart Model

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, Minimol; Chakravarthy, V. Srinivasa; Guhathakurta, Soma

    2015-01-01

    Simulation studies of cardiac arrhythmias at the whole heart level with electrocardiogram (ECG) gives an understanding of how the underlying cell and tissue level changes manifest as rhythm disturbances in the ECG. We present a 2D whole heart model (WHM2D) which can accommodate variations at the cellular level and can generate the ECG waveform. It is shown that, by varying cellular-level parameters like the gap junction conductance (GJC), excitability, action potential duration (APD) and frequency of oscillations of the auto-rhythmic cell in WHM2D a large variety of cardiac arrhythmias can be generated including sinus tachycardia, sinus bradycardia, sinus arrhythmia, sinus pause, junctional rhythm, Wolf Parkinson White syndrome and all types of AV conduction blocks. WHM2D includes key components of the electrical conduction system of the heart like the SA (Sino atrial) node cells, fast conducting intranodal pathways, slow conducting atriovenctricular (AV) node, bundle of His cells, Purkinje network, atrial, and ventricular myocardial cells. SA nodal cells, AV nodal cells, bundle of His cells, and Purkinje cells are represented by the Fitzhugh-Nagumo (FN) model which is a reduced model of the Hodgkin-Huxley neuron model. The atrial and ventricular myocardial cells are modeled by the Aliev-Panfilov (AP) two-variable model proposed for cardiac excitation. WHM2D can prove to be a valuable clinical tool for understanding cardiac arrhythmias. PMID:26733873

  7. Simulation of Cardiac Arrhythmias Using a 2D Heterogeneous Whole Heart Model.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Minimol; Chakravarthy, V Srinivasa; Guhathakurta, Soma

    2015-01-01

    Simulation studies of cardiac arrhythmias at the whole heart level with electrocardiogram (ECG) gives an understanding of how the underlying cell and tissue level changes manifest as rhythm disturbances in the ECG. We present a 2D whole heart model (WHM2D) which can accommodate variations at the cellular level and can generate the ECG waveform. It is shown that, by varying cellular-level parameters like the gap junction conductance (GJC), excitability, action potential duration (APD) and frequency of oscillations of the auto-rhythmic cell in WHM2D a large variety of cardiac arrhythmias can be generated including sinus tachycardia, sinus bradycardia, sinus arrhythmia, sinus pause, junctional rhythm, Wolf Parkinson White syndrome and all types of AV conduction blocks. WHM2D includes key components of the electrical conduction system of the heart like the SA (Sino atrial) node cells, fast conducting intranodal pathways, slow conducting atriovenctricular (AV) node, bundle of His cells, Purkinje network, atrial, and ventricular myocardial cells. SA nodal cells, AV nodal cells, bundle of His cells, and Purkinje cells are represented by the Fitzhugh-Nagumo (FN) model which is a reduced model of the Hodgkin-Huxley neuron model. The atrial and ventricular myocardial cells are modeled by the Aliev-Panfilov (AP) two-variable model proposed for cardiac excitation. WHM2D can prove to be a valuable clinical tool for understanding cardiac arrhythmias.

  8. Nonlinear soil-structure interaction calculations simulating the SIMQUAKE experiment using STEALTH 2D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, H. T.; Hofmann, R.; Yee, G.; Vaughan, D. K.

    1980-01-01

    Transient, nonlinear soil-structure interaction simulations of an Electric Power Research Institute, SIMQUAKE experiment were performed using the large strain, time domain STEALTH 2D code and a cyclic, kinematically hardening cap soil model. Results from the STEALTH simulations were compared to identical simulations performed with the TRANAL code and indicate relatively good agreement between all the STEALTH and TRANAL calculations. The differences that are seen can probably be attributed to: (1) large (STEALTH) vs. small (TRANAL) strain formulation and/or (2) grid discretization differences.

  9. Momentum Transport: 2D and 3D Cloud Resolving Model Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2001-01-01

    The major objective of this study is to investigate the momentum budgets associated with several convective systems that developed during the TOGA COARE IOP (west Pacific warm pool region) and GATE (east Atlantic region). The tool for this study is the improved Goddard Cumulas Ensemble (GCE) model which includes a 3-class ice-phase microphysical scheme, explicit cloud radiative interactive processes and air-sea interactive surface processes. The model domain contains 256 x 256 grid points (with 2 km resolution) in the horizontal and 38 grid points (to a depth of 22 km) in the vertical. The 2D domain has 1024 grid points. The simulations were performed over a 7-day time period (December 19-26, 1992, for TOGA COARE and September 1-7, 1994 for GATE). Cyclic literal boundary conditions are required for this type of long-term integration. Two well organized squall systems (TOGA, COARE February 22, 1993, and GATE September 12, 1994) were also simulated using the 3D GCE model. Only 9 h simulations were required to cover the life time of the squall systems. the lateral boundary conditions were open for these two squall systems simulations. the following will be examined: (1) the momentum budgets in the convective and stratiform regions, (2) the relationship between momentum transport and cloud organization (i.e., well organized squall lines versus less organized convective), (3) the differences and similarities in momentum transport between 2D and 3D simulated convective systems, and (4) the differences and similarities in momentum budgets between cloud systems simulated with open and cyclic lateral boundary conditions. Preliminary results indicate that there are only small differences between 2D and 3D simulated momentum budgets. Major differences occur, however, between momentum budgets associated with squall systems simulated using different lateral boundary conditions.

  10. 2D Crystal Semiconductors New Materials for GHz-THz Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-02

    frequency operation. 4) Identify methods to improve carrier transport in 2D Crystal semiconductors. 5) Compare FETs made from naturally occuring and... chemically synthesized 2D Crystal semic???ductors. 6) Elucidate the effect of contact resistance, and gauge the challenges for GHz-THz electronics by... chemical doping, which involved replac- ing a small number of atoms of the 3-D semiconductor by those with higher or lower valence. The next advance

  11. Long ranged interactions in computer simulations and for quasi-2D systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazars, Martial

    2011-03-01

    Taking correctly into account long ranged interactions in molecular simulations of molecular models based on classical atomistic representations are essential to obtain reliable results on model systems and in simulations of biological systems. A lot of numerical methods have been developed to this end; the most important of them are reviewed in this paper. Particular attention is paid to the analytical relations between the methods, this allows comparisons on efficiency and accuracy between them and also to proceed to precise implementations of these techniques. While most of the methods have been developed for Coulomb interactions, we give also some analytical details to apply these methods to screened Coulomb (Yukawa interactions), inverse power law and dipolar interactions. Particular types of systems, the quasi-2D systems, are also considered in this paper. Quasi-2D systems represent a large class of physical systems where the spatial extension in one direction of the space is very small by comparison to the other two. These representations are very useful to describe the properties of interfaces, surfaces, fluids confined in slab geometry, etc. In computer simulations, these systems are studied with partial periodic boundary conditions: periodic boundary conditions are taken in directions where spatial extensions are large and some other boundary conditions are taken in directions with smaller extensions. In this review, we describe also the numerical methods developed to handle long ranged interactions in numerical simulations of quasi-2D systems. The properties of quasi-2D systems depend strongly on interactions between components; more specifically electrostatic and magnetic interactions and interactions with external fields are of particular interest in these systems.

  12. Modeling and 2-D discrete simulation of dislocation dynamics for plastic deformation of metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Juan; Cui, Zhenshan; Ou, Hengan; Ruan, Liqun

    2013-05-01

    Two methods are employed in this paper to investigate the dislocation evolution during plastic deformation of metal. One method is dislocation dynamic simulation of two-dimensional discrete dislocation dynamics (2D-DDD), and the other is dislocation dynamics modeling by means of nonlinear analysis. As screw dislocation is prone to disappear by cross-slip, only edge dislocation is taken into account in simulation. First, an approach of 2D-DDD is used to graphically simulate and exhibit the collective motion of a large number of discrete dislocations. In the beginning, initial grains are generated in the simulation cells according to the mechanism of grain growth and the initial dislocation is randomly distributed in grains and relaxed under the internal stress. During the simulation process, the externally imposed stress, the long range stress contribution of all dislocations and the short range stress caused by the grain boundaries are calculated. Under the action of these forces, dislocations begin to glide, climb, multiply, annihilate and react with each other. Besides, thermal activation process is included. Through the simulation, the distribution of dislocation and the stress-strain curves can be obtained. On the other hand, based on the classic dislocation theory, the variation of the dislocation density with time is described by nonlinear differential equations. Finite difference method (FDM) is used to solve the built differential equations. The dislocation evolution at a constant strain rate is taken as an example to verify the rationality of the model.

  13. 2D Quantum Simulation of MOSFET Using the Non Equilibrium Green's Function Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svizhenko, Alexel; Anantram, M. P.; Govindan, T. R.; Yan, Jerry (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The objectives this viewgraph presentation summarizes include: (1) the development of a quantum mechanical simulator for ultra short channel MOSFET simulation, including theory, physical approximations, and computer code; (2) explore physics that is not accessible by semiclassical methods; (3) benchmarking of semiclassical and classical methods; and (4) study other two-dimensional devices and molecular structure, from discretized Hamiltonian to tight-binding Hamiltonian.

  14. 2-D and 3-D PIC simulations of a SLAC Klystrino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Thomas; Luginsland, John; Hackett, Kirk; Haworth, Michael; Song, Liqun; Scheitrum, Glenn

    2000-10-01

    The Air Force Research Laboratory is collaborating with the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center in performing 3-D PIC simulations using ARGUS and ICEPIC on a klystrino with the following parameters: voltage of 110 kV, current of 2.4 A, frequency of 94 GHz, peak magnetic field of 4 kG. Results wll be presented and will be compared to 2-D MAGIC simulations, as well as to experimental test data. This work is supported in part by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

  15. Penetration of tungsten-alloy rods into composite ceramic targets: Experiments and 2-D simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, Z.; Dekel, E.; Hohler, V.; Stilp, A. J.; Weber, K.

    1998-07-01

    A series of terminal ballistics experiments, with scaled tungsten-alloy penetrators, was performed on composite targets consisting of ceramic tiles glued to thick steel backing plates. Tiles of silicon-carbide, aluminum nitride, titanium-dibroide and boron-carbide were 20-80 mm thick, and impact velocity was 1.7 km/s. 2-D numerical simulations, using the PISCES code, were performed in order to simulate these shots. It is shown that a simplified version of the Johnson-Holmquist failure model can account for the penetration depths of the rods but is not enough to capture the effect of lateral release waves on these penetrations.

  16. An interactive 2-D power-line modeling and simulation tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, David; Adelman, Ross

    2012-06-01

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory's Power-Line unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) Modeling and Simulation (ARL-PLUMS) is a tool for estimating and analyzing quasi-static electric and magnetic fields due to power lines. This tool consists of an interactive 2-D graphical user interface (GUI) and a compute engine that can be used to calculate and visualize the E-Field and H-Field due to as many as seven conductors (two 3-phase circuits and a ground wire). ARL-PLUMS allows the user to set the geometry of the lines and the load conditions on those lines, and then calculate Ey, Ez, Hy, or Hz along a linear path or cutting plane, or in the form of a movie. The path can be along the ground or in the air to simulate the fields that might be observed, for example, by a robotic vehicle or a UAV. ARL-PLUMS makes several simplifying assumptions in order to allow simulations to be completed on a laptop PC interactively. In most cases, the results are excellent, providing a "90% solution" in just a few minutes of total modeling and simulation time. This paper describes the physics used by ARL-PLUMS, including the simplifying assumptions and the 2-D Method of Moments solver. Examples of electric and magnetic fields for different wire configurations, including typical 3-phase distribution and transmissions lines, are provided. Comparisons to similar results using a full 3-D model are also shown, and a discussion of errors that may be expected from the 2-D simulations is provided.

  17. Quantum simulation of 2D topological physics in a 1D array of optical cavities.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xi-Wang; Zhou, Xingxiang; Li, Chuan-Feng; Xu, Jin-Shi; Guo, Guang-Can; Zhou, Zheng-Wei

    2015-07-06

    Orbital angular momentum of light is a fundamental optical degree of freedom characterized by unlimited number of available angular momentum states. Although this unique property has proved invaluable in diverse recent studies ranging from optical communication to quantum information, it has not been considered useful or even relevant for simulating nontrivial physics problems such as topological phenomena. Contrary to this misconception, we demonstrate the incredible value of orbital angular momentum of light for quantum simulation by showing theoretically how it allows to study a variety of important 2D topological physics in a 1D array of optical cavities. This application for orbital angular momentum of light not only reduces required physical resources but also increases feasible scale of simulation, and thus makes it possible to investigate important topics such as edge-state transport and topological phase transition in a small simulator ready for immediate experimental exploration.

  18. A faster method for 3D/2D medical image registration—a simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkfellner, Wolfgang; Wirth, Joachim; Burgstaller, Wolfgang; Baumann, Bernard; Staedele, Harald; Hammer, Beat; Claudius Gellrich, Niels; Jacob, Augustinus Ludwig; Regazzoni, Pietro; Messmer, Peter

    2003-08-01

    3D/2D patient-to-computed-tomography (CT) registration is a method to determine a transformation that maps two coordinate systems by comparing a projection image rendered from CT to a real projection image. Iterative variation of the CT's position between rendering steps finally leads to exact registration. Applications include exact patient positioning in radiation therapy, calibration of surgical robots, and pose estimation in computer-aided surgery. One of the problems associated with 3D/2D registration is the fact that finding a registration includes solving a minimization problem in six degrees of freedom (dof) in motion. This results in considerable time requirements since for each iteration step at least one volume rendering has to be computed. We show that by choosing an appropriate world coordinate system and by applying a 2D/2D registration method in each iteration step, the number of iterations can be grossly reduced from n6 to n5. Here, n is the number of discrete variations around a given coordinate. Depending on the configuration of the optimization algorithm, this reduces the total number of iterations necessary to at least 1/3 of it's original value. The method was implemented and extensively tested on simulated x-ray images of a tibia, a pelvis and a skull base. When using one projective image and a discrete full parameter space search for solving the optimization problem, average accuracy was found to be 1.0 +/- 0.6(°) and 4.1 +/- 1.9 (mm) for a registration in six parameters, and 1.0 +/- 0.7(°) and 4.2 +/- 1.6 (mm) when using the 5 + 1 dof method described in this paper. Time requirements were reduced by a factor 3.1. We conclude that this hardware-independent optimization of 3D/2D registration is a step towards increasing the acceptance of this promising method for a wide number of clinical applications.

  19. A faster method for 3D/2D medical image registration--a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Birkfellner, Wolfgang; Wirth, Joachim; Burgstaller, Wolfgang; Baumann, Bernard; Staedele, Harald; Hammer, Beat; Gellrich, Niels Claudius; Jacob, Augustinus Ludwig; Regazzoni, Pietro; Messmer, Peter

    2003-08-21

    3D/2D patient-to-computed-tomography (CT) registration is a method to determine a transformation that maps two coordinate systems by comparing a projection image rendered from CT to a real projection image. Iterative variation of the CT's position between rendering steps finally leads to exact registration. Applications include exact patient positioning in radiation therapy, calibration of surgical robots, and pose estimation in computer-aided surgery. One of the problems associated with 3D/2D registration is the fact that finding a registration includes solving a minimization problem in six degrees of freedom (dof) in motion. This results in considerable time requirements since for each iteration step at least one volume rendering has to be computed. We show that by choosing an appropriate world coordinate system and by applying a 2D/2D registration method in each iteration step, the number of iterations can be grossly reduced from n6 to n5. Here, n is the number of discrete variations around a given coordinate. Depending on the configuration of the optimization algorithm, this reduces the total number of iterations necessary to at least 1/3 of it's original value. The method was implemented and extensively tested on simulated x-ray images of a tibia, a pelvis and a skull base. When using one projective image and a discrete full parameter space search for solving the optimization problem, average accuracy was found to be 1.0 +/- 0.6(degrees) and 4.1 +/- 1.9 (mm) for a registration in six parameters, and 1.0 +/- 0.7(degrees) and 4.2 +/- 1.6 (mm) when using the 5 + 1 dof method described in this paper. Time requirements were reduced by a factor 3.1. We conclude that this hardware-independent optimization of 3D/2D registration is a step towards increasing the acceptance of this promising method for a wide number of clinical applications.

  20. Optical method of measuring angular displacement using a 2-D charge coupled device.

    PubMed

    Sato, K; Yamamoto, S; Ami, M; Fukushima, K

    1990-08-10

    We investigated a quick noncontact method of measuring angular displacement with a simple system comprising a 2-D CCD and a personal computer. According to this method the angular displacement can be measured even when the rotational axis is not known, and even when the system moves parallel to the plane.

  1. Spatially Resolved Synthetic Spectra from 2D Simulations of Stainless Steel Wire Array Implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R. W.; Giuliani, J. L.; Thornhill, J. W.; Chong, Y. K.; Dasgupta, A.; Davis, J.

    2009-01-21

    A 2D radiation MHD model has been developed to investigate stainless steel wire array implosion experiments on the Z and refurbished Z machines. This model incorporates within the Mach2 MHD code a self-consistent calculation of the non-LTE kinetics and ray trace based radiation transport. Such a method is necessary in order to account for opacity effects in conjunction with ionization kinetics of K-shell emitting plasmas. Here the model is used to investigate multi-dimensional effects of stainless steel wire implosions. In particular, we are developing techniques to produce non-LTE, axially and/or radially resolved synthetic spectra based upon snapshots of our 2D simulations. Comparisons between experimental spectra and these synthetic spectra will allow us to better determine the state of the experimental pinches.

  2. Application of 2-D simulations to hollow z-pinch implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, D.L.; Bowers, R.L.; Brownell, J.H.

    1997-12-01

    The application of simulations of z-pinch implosions should have at least two goals: first, to properly model the most important physical processes occurring in the pinch allowing for a better understanding of the experiments and second, provide a design capability for future experiments. Beginning with experiments fielded at Los Alamos on the Pegasus 1 and Pegasus 2 capacitor banks, the authors have developed a methodology for simulating hollow z-pinches in two dimensions which has reproduced important features of the measured experimental current drive, spectrum, radiation pulse shape, peak power and total radiated energy. This methodology employs essentially one free parameter, the initial level of the random density perturbations imposed at the beginning of the 2-D simulation, but in general no adjustments to other parameters are required. Currently the authors are applying this capability to the analysis of recent Saturn and PBFA-Z experiments. The code results provide insight into the nature of the pinch plasma prior to arrival on-axis, during thermalization and development after peak pinch time. Among other things, the simulation results provide an explanation for the production of larger amounts of radiated energy than would be expected from a simple slug-model kinetic energy analysis and the appearance of multiple peaks in the radiation power. The 2-D modeling has also been applied to the analysis of Saturn dynamic hohlraum experiments and is being used in the design of this and other Z-Pinch applications on PBFA-Z.

  3. 2D PIC simulations of a curved supercritical shock: dynamics of the whistler precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stienlet, Joël.; Savoini, Philippe; Lembege, Bertrand

    2010-05-01

    The whistler precursor emitted from the curved terrestrial shock front plays an important role in pre-decelerating and heating the incoming solar wind. Most previous works have mainly analyzed the features of the whistler precursor emission for a 1D planar shock where it is forced to propagate along the shock normal (Liewer and al, 1991) or to propagate obliquely with respect to a fixed shock normal direction in 2D planar shock simulation (Krauss-Varban et al., 1995). In the present case, the dynamics of the precursor is analyzed with the help of a 2D full particle simulation for a continuously curved shock within the angular range 90o ≥ ?Bn ≥ 45o where ?Bn is the angle between the shock normal and the upstream magnetostatic field. Both electrons and ions dynamics are described by a self consistent approach. Our results show that (i) the whistler precursor extends far from the shock front mainly along the magnetostatic field (projected on the simulation plane) and not along the shock normal; (ii) the width of these curved wave fronts (precursor) strongly decreases when moving far from the shock front; (iii) at the shock front, the precursor is emitted within an angular range much larger than that predicted by linear theory; (iv) the damping rate of the whistler precursor is analyzed for different directions of the shock normal. Wave particle energy transfer is analysed, and these results will be discussed and compared with previous 1D and 2D simulations of planar shocks; (v) the whistler precursor is not monochromatic, and interferences between modes are evidenced by beats and wave-packets in front of the shock. The impact of this effect on damping rate measurements will be discussed.

  4. Two-dimensional B-C-O alloys: a promising class of 2D materials for electronic devices.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Si; Zhao, Jijun

    2016-04-28

    Graphene, a superior 2D material with high carrier mobility, has limited application in electronic devices due to zero band gap. In this regard, boron and nitrogen atoms have been integrated into the graphene lattice to fabricate 2D semiconducting heterostructures. It is an intriguing question whether oxygen can, as a replacement of nitrogen, enter the sp2 honeycomb lattice and form stable B-C-O monolayer structures. Here we explore the atomic structures, energetic and thermodynamic stability, and electronic properties of various 2D B-C-O alloys using first-principles calculations. Our results show that oxygen can be stably incorporated into the graphene lattice by bonding with boron. The B and O species favor forming alternate patterns into the chain- or ring-like structures embedded in the pristine graphene regions. These B-C-O hybrid sheets can be either metals or semiconductors depending on the B : O ratio. The semiconducting (B2O)nCm and (B6O3)nCm phases exist under the B- and O-rich conditions, and possess a tunable band gap of 1.0-3.8 eV and high carrier mobility, retaining ∼1000 cm2 V(-1) s(-1) even for half coverage of B and O atoms. These B-C-O alloys form a new class of 2D materials that are promising candidates for high-speed electronic devices.

  5. Wide-viewing-angle 3D/2D convertible display system using two display devices and a lens array.

    PubMed

    Choi, Heejin; Park, Jae-Hyeung; Kim, Joohwan; Cho, Seong-Woo; Lee, Byoungho

    2005-10-17

    A wide-viewing-angle 3D/2D convertible display system with a thin structure is proposed that is able to display three-dimensional and two-dimensional images. With the use of a transparent display device in front of a conventional integral imaging system, it is possible to display planar images using the conventional system as a backlight source. By experiments, the proposed method is proven and compared with the conventional one.

  6. A simple method to produce 2D and 3D microfluidic paper-based analytical devices for clinical analysis.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Ricardo A G; Camargo, Fiamma; Pesquero, Naira C; Faria, Ronaldo Censi

    2017-03-08

    This paper describes the fabrication of 2D and 3D microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) for monitoring glucose, total protein, and nitrite in blood serum and artificial urine. A new method of cutting and sealing filter paper to construct μPADs was demonstrated. Using an inexpensive home cutter printer soft cellulose-based filter paper was easily and precisely cut to produce pattern hydrophilic microchannels. 2D and 3D μPADs were designed with three detection zones each for the colorimetric detection of the analytes. A small volume of samples was added to the μPADs, which was photographed after 15 min using a digital camera. Both μPADs presented an excellent analytical performance for all analytes. The 2D device was applied in artificial urine samples and reached limits of detection (LODs) of 0.54 mM, 5.19 μM, and 2.34 μM for glucose, protein, and nitrite, respectively. The corresponding LODs of the 3D device applied for detecting the same analytes in artificial blood serum were 0.44 mM, 1.26 μM, and 4.35 μM.

  7. Novel silicon compatible p-WS2 2D/3D heterojunction devices exhibiting broadband photoresponse and superior detectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Rup K.; Maiti, Rishi; Ghorai, Arup; Midya, Anupam; Ray, Samit K.

    2016-07-01

    We report for the first time, the fabrication of novel two-dimensional (2D) p-WS2/n-Si vertical heterostructures with superior junction and photoresponse characteristics. Few layer WS2 has been synthesized by a lithium-ion intercalation technique in hexane and coated on Si substrates for realization of CMOS compatible devices. Atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy have been used to confirm the 2D nature of WS2 layers. Sharp band-edge absorption and emission peaks have indicated the formation of mono-to-few-layers thick direct band gap WS2 films. The electrical and optical responses of the heterostructures have exhibited superior properties revealing the formation of an abrupt heterojunction. The fabricated photodetector device depicts a peak responsivity of 1.11 A W-1 at -2 V with a broadband spectral response of 400-1100 nm and a moderate photo-to-dark current ratio of ~103. The optical switching characteristics have been studied as a function of applied bias and illuminated power density. A comparative study of the reported results on 2D transition metal chalcogenides indicates the superior characteristics of WS2/n-Si heterostructures for future photonic devices.

  8. Fast Acceleration of 2D Wave Propagation Simulations Using Modern Computational Accelerators

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Xu, Lifan; Cavazos, John; Huang, Howie H.; Kay, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Recent developments in modern computational accelerators like Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) and coprocessors provide great opportunities for making scientific applications run faster than ever before. However, efficient parallelization of scientific code using new programming tools like CUDA requires a high level of expertise that is not available to many scientists. This, plus the fact that parallelized code is usually not portable to different architectures, creates major challenges for exploiting the full capabilities of modern computational accelerators. In this work, we sought to overcome these challenges by studying how to achieve both automated parallelization using OpenACC and enhanced portability using OpenCL. We applied our parallelization schemes using GPUs as well as Intel Many Integrated Core (MIC) coprocessor to reduce the run time of wave propagation simulations. We used a well-established 2D cardiac action potential model as a specific case-study. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to study auto-parallelization of 2D cardiac wave propagation simulations using OpenACC. Our results identify several approaches that provide substantial speedups. The OpenACC-generated GPU code achieved more than speedup above the sequential implementation and required the addition of only a few OpenACC pragmas to the code. An OpenCL implementation provided speedups on GPUs of at least faster than the sequential implementation and faster than a parallelized OpenMP implementation. An implementation of OpenMP on Intel MIC coprocessor provided speedups of with only a few code changes to the sequential implementation. We highlight that OpenACC provides an automatic, efficient, and portable approach to achieve parallelization of 2D cardiac wave simulations on GPUs. Our approach of using OpenACC, OpenCL, and OpenMP to parallelize this particular model on modern computational accelerators should be applicable to other computational models of wave propagation in

  9. High-resolution 2D3V simulations of forced hybrid-kinetic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerri, Silvio Sergio; Califano, Francesco; Rincon, Francois; Told, Daniel; Jenko, Frank; Pegoraro, Francesco

    2016-10-01

    The understanding of the kinetic processes at play in plasma turbulence is a frontier problem in plasma physics and among the topics currently of most interest in space plasma research. Here we investigate the properties of turbulence from the end of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) cascade to scales well below the ion gyroradius (i.e., the so-called ``dissipation'' or ``dispersion'' range) by means of unprecedented high-resolution simulations of forced hybrid-kinetic turbulence in a 2D3V phase-space (two real-space and three velocity-space dimensions). Different values of the plasma beta parameter typical of the solar wind (SW) are investigated. Several aspects of turbulence at small-scales emerging from the simulations are presented and discussed. Even within the limitations of the hybrid approach in 2D3V, a reasonable agreement with SW observations and with theory is found. Finally, we identify possible implications and questions related to SW turbulence which arise from this study. This research has been funded by European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013)/ERC Grant Agreement No.277870 and by Euratom research and training programme 2014-2018. Simulations were performed on Fermi (CINECA, IT) and Hydra (MPCDF, DE).

  10. Bernstein copula approach to model direction-length dependency for 2D discrete fracture network simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza-Torres, F.; Diaz-Viera, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    In many natural fractured porous media, such as aquifers, soils, oil and geothermal reservoirs, fractures play a crucial role in their flow and transport properties. An approach that has recently gained popularity for modeling fracture systems is the Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) model. This approach consists in applying a stochastic boolean simulation method, also known as object simulation method, where fractures are represented as simplified geometric objects (line segments in 2D and polygons in 3D). One of the shortcomings of this approach is that it usually does not consider the dependency relationships that may exist between the geometric properties of fractures (direction, length, aperture, etc), that is, each property is simulated independently. In this work a method for modeling such dependencies by copula theory is introduced. In particular, a nonparametric model using Bernstein copulas for direction-length fracture dependency in 2D is presented. The application of this method is illustrated in a case study for a fractured rock sample from a carbonate reservoir outcrop.

  11. Tuning and simulating a 193-nm resist for 2D applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, William B.; Wiaux, Vincent; Ercken, Monique; Bui, Bang; Byers, Jeff D.; Pochkowski, Mike

    2002-07-01

    For some applications, the usefulness of lithography simulation results depends strongly on the matching between experimental conditions and the simulation input parameters. If this matching is optimized and other sources of error are minimized, then the lithography model can be used to explain printed wafer experimental results. Further, simulation can be useful in predicting the results or in choosing the correct set of experiments. In this paper, PROLITH and ProDATA AutoTune were used to systematically vary simulation input parameters to match measured results on printed wafers used in a 193 nm process. The validity of the simulation parameters was then checked using 3D simulation compared to 2D top-down SEM images. The quality of matching was evaluated using the 1D metrics of average gate CD and Line End Shortening (LES). To ensure the most accurate simulation, a new approach was taken to create a compound mask from GDSII contextual information surrounding an accurate SEM image of the reticle region of interest. Corrections were made to account for all metrology offsets.

  12. 2-D/3-D ECE imaging data for validation of turbulence simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Minjun; Lee, Jaehyun; Yun, Gunsu; Lee, Woochang; Park, Hyeon K.; Park, Young-Seok; Sabbagh, Steve A.; Wang, Weixing; Luhmann, Neville C., Jr.

    2015-11-01

    The 2-D/3-D KSTAR ECEI diagnostic can provide a local 2-D/3-D measurement of ECE intensity. Application of spectral analysis techniques to the ECEI data allows local estimation of frequency spectra S (f) , wavenumber spectra S (k) , wavernumber and frequency spectra S (k , f) , and bispectra b (f1 ,f2) of ECE intensity over the 2-D/3-D space, which can be used to validate turbulence simulations. However, the minimum detectable fluctuation amplitude and the maximum detectable wavenumber are limited by the temporal and spatial resolutions of the diagnostic system, respectively. Also, the finite measurement area of the diagnostic channel could introduce uncertainty in the spectra estimation. The limitations and accuracy of the ECEI estimated spectra have been tested by a synthetic ECEI diagnostic with the model and/or fluctuations calculated by GTS. Supported by the NRF of Korea under Contract No. NRF-2014M1A7A1A03029881 and NRF-2014M1A7A1A03029865 and by U.S. DOE grant DE-FG02-99ER54524.

  13. Comparison between Adaptive and Uniform Discontinuous Galerkin Simulations in Dry 2D Bubble Experiments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-08

    Comparison between adaptive and uniform discontinuous Galerkin simulations in dry 2D bubble experiments Andreas Müllera,∗, Jörn Behrensb, Francis X...joern.behrens@zmaw.de (Jörn Behrens), fxgirald@nps.edu ( Francis X. Giraldo), vwirth@uni-mainz.de (Volkmar Wirth) Accepted by Journal of Computational...Mon. Weather Rev. 120 (1992) 1675–1706. [3] D. P. Bacon , N. N. Ahmad, Z. Boybeyi, T. J. Dunn, M. S. Hall, P. C. S. Lee, R. A. Sarma, M. D. Turner, K. T

  14. Solution of the field equations for 2-D electromagnetic direct implicit plasma simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewett, D. W.; Langdon, A. B.

    1985-01-01

    A direct implicit particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation model with full electromagnetic (EM) effects has been implemented in 2-D Cartesian geometry. The model, implemented with the D1 time differencing scheme, was first implemented in a 1-D electrostatic (ES) version to gain some experience with spatial differencing in forms suitable for extension to the full EM field in two dimensions. The implicit EM field solve is considerably different from the implicit ES code. The EM field calculation requires an inductive part as well as the electrostatic and the B field must be self-consistently advanced.

  15. Smart time-pulse coding photoconverters as basic components 2D-array logic devices for advanced neural networks and optical computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasilenko, Vladimir G.; Nikolsky, Alexander I.; Lazarev, Alexander A.; Michalnichenko, Nikolay N.

    2004-04-01

    The article deals with a conception of building arithmetic-logic devices (ALD) with a 2D-structure and optical 2D-array inputs-outputs as advanced high-productivity parallel basic operational training modules for realization of basic operation of continuous, neuro-fuzzy, multilevel, threshold and others logics and vector-matrix, vector-tensor procedures in neural networks, that consists in use of time-pulse coding (TPC) architecture and 2D-array smart optoelectronic pulse-width (or pulse-phase) modulators (PWM or PPM) for transformation of input pictures. The input grayscale image is transformed into a group of corresponding short optical pulses or time positions of optical two-level signal swing. We consider optoelectronic implementations of universal (quasi-universal) picture element of two-valued ALD, multi-valued ALD, analog-to-digital converters, multilevel threshold discriminators and we show that 2D-array time-pulse photoconverters are the base elements for these devices. We show simulation results of the time-pulse photoconverters as base components. Considered devices have technical parameters: input optical signals power is 200nW_200μW (if photodiode responsivity is 0.5A/W), conversion time is from tens of microseconds to a millisecond, supply voltage is 1.5_15V, consumption power is from tens of microwatts to a milliwatt, conversion nonlinearity is less than 1%. One cell consists of 2-3 photodiodes and about ten CMOS transistors. This simplicity of the cells allows to carry out their integration in arrays of 32x32, 64x64 elements and more.

  16. Ion acoustic wave collapse via two-ion wave decay: 2D Vlasov simulation and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Thomas; Berger, Richard; Banks, Jeffrey; Brunner, Stephan

    2015-11-01

    The decay of ion acoustic waves (IAWs) via two-ion wave decay may transfer energy from the electric field of the IAWs to the particles, resulting in a significant heating of resonant particles. This process has previously been shown in numerical simulations to decrease the plasma reflectivity due to stimulated Brillouin scattering. Two-ion wave decay is a fundamental property of ion acoustic waves that occurs over most if not all of the parameter space of relevance to inertial confinement fusion experiments, and can lead to a sudden collapse of IAWs. The treatment of all species kinetically, and in particular the electrons, is required to describe the decay process correctly. We present fully kinetic 2D+2V Vlasov simulations of IAWs undergoing decay to a highly nonlinear turbulent state using the code LOKI. The scaling of the decay rate with characteristic plasma parameters and wave amplitude is shown. A new theory describing two-ion wave decay in 2D, that incorporates key kinetic properties of the electrons, is presented and used to explain quantitatively for the first time the observed decay of IAWs. Work performed under auspices of U.S. DoE by LLNL, Contract DE-AC52-07NA2734. Funded by LDRD 15-ERD-038 and supported by LLNL Grand Challenge allocation.

  17. GMC COLLISIONS AS TRIGGERS OF STAR FORMATION. I. PARAMETER SPACE EXPLORATION WITH 2D SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Benjamin; Loo, Sven Van; Tan, Jonathan C.; Bruderer, Simon

    2015-09-20

    We utilize magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations to develop a numerical model for giant molecular cloud (GMC)–GMC collisions between nearly magnetically critical clouds. The goal is to determine if, and under what circumstances, cloud collisions can cause pre-existing magnetically subcritical clumps to become supercritical and undergo gravitational collapse. We first develop and implement new photodissociation region based heating and cooling functions that span the atomic to molecular transition, creating a multiphase ISM and allowing modeling of non-equilibrium temperature structures. Then in 2D and with ideal MHD, we explore a wide parameter space of magnetic field strength, magnetic field geometry, collision velocity, and impact parameter and compare isolated versus colliding clouds. We find factors of ∼2–3 increase in mean clump density from typical collisions, with strong dependence on collision velocity and magnetic field strength, but ultimately limited by flux-freezing in 2D geometries. For geometries enabling flow along magnetic field lines, greater degrees of collapse are seen. We discuss observational diagnostics of cloud collisions, focussing on {sup 13}CO(J = 2–1), {sup 13}CO(J = 3–2), and {sup 12}CO(J = 8–7) integrated intensity maps and spectra, which we synthesize from our simulation outputs. We find that the ratio of J = 8–7 to lower-J emission is a powerful diagnostic probe of GMC collisions.

  18. Well-posedness and generalized plane waves simulations of a 2D mode conversion model

    SciTech Connect

    Imbert-Gérard, Lise-Marie

    2015-12-15

    Certain types of electro-magnetic waves propagating in a plasma can undergo a mode conversion process. In magnetic confinement fusion, this phenomenon is very useful to heat the plasma, since it permits to transfer the heat at or near the plasma center. This work focuses on a mathematical model of wave propagation around the mode conversion region, from both theoretical and numerical points of view. It aims at developing, for a well-posed equation, specific basis functions to study a wave mode conversion process. These basis functions, called generalized plane waves, are intrinsically based on variable coefficients. As such, they are particularly adapted to the mode conversion problem. The design of generalized plane waves for the proposed model is described in detail. Their implementation within a discontinuous Galerkin method then provides numerical simulations of the process. These first 2D simulations for this model agree with qualitative aspects studied in previous works.

  19. Superclusters of galaxies from the 2dF redshift survey. 2. Comparison with simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Einasto, Jaan; Einasto, M.; Saar, E.; Tago, E.; Liivamagi, L.J.; Joeveer, M.J; Suhhonenko, I.; Hutsi, G.; Jaaniste, J.; Heinamaki, P.; Muller, V.; Knebe, A.; Tucker, D.; /Fermilab

    2006-04-01

    We investigate properties of superclusters of galaxies found on the basis of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey, and compare them with properties of superclusters from the Millennium Simulation.We study the dependence of various characteristics of superclusters on their distance from the observer, on their total luminosity, and on their multiplicity. The multiplicity is defined by the number of Density Field (DF) clusters in superclusters. Using the multiplicity we divide superclusters into four richness classes: poor, medium, rich and extremely rich.We show that superclusters are asymmetrical and have multi-branching filamentary structure, with the degree of asymmetry and filamentarity being higher for the more luminous and richer superclusters. The comparison of real superclusters with Millennium superclusters shows that most properties of simulated superclusters agree very well with real data, the main differences being in the luminosity and multiplicity distributions.

  20. Highly-resolved 2D HYDRA simulations of Double-Shell Ignition Designs

    SciTech Connect

    Milovich, J L; Amendt, P; Hamza, A; Marinak, M; Robey, H

    2006-06-30

    Double-shell (DS) targets (Amendt, P. A. et al., 2002) offer a complementary approach to the cryogenic baseline design (Lindl, J. et al., 2004) for achieving ignition on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Among the expected benefits are the ease of room temperature preparation and fielding, the potential for lower laser backscatter and the reduced need for careful shock timing. These benefits are offset, however, by demanding fabrication tolerances, e.g., shell concentricity and shell surface smoothness. In particular, the latter is of paramount importance since DS targets are susceptible to the growth of interface perturbations from impulsive and time-dependent accelerations. Previous work (Milovich, J. L. et al., 2004) has indicated that the growth of perturbations on the outer surface of the inner shell is potentially disruptive. To control this instability new designs have been proposed requiring bimetallic inner shells and material-matching mid-Z nanoporous foam. The challenges in manufacturing such exotic foams have led to a further evaluation of the densities and pore sizes needed to reduce the seeding of perturbations on the outer surface of the inner shell, thereby guiding the ongoing material science research efforts. Highly-resolved 2D simulations of porous foams have been performed to establish an upper limit on the allowable pore sizes for instability growth. Simulations indicate that foams with higher densities than previously thought are now possible. Moreover, while at the present time we are only able to simulate foams with average pore sizes larger than 1 micron (due to computational limitations), we can conclude that these pore sizes are potentially problematic. Furthermore, the effect of low-order hohlraum radiation asymmetries on the growth of intrinsic surface perturbations is also addressed. Highly-resolved 2D simulations indicate that the transverse flows that are set up by these low-order mode features (which can excite Kelvin

  1. Spot size variation FCS in simulations of the 2D Ising model.

    PubMed

    Burns, Margaret C; Nouri, Mariam; Veatch, Sarah L

    2016-06-02

    Spot variation fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (svFCS) was developed to study the movement and organization of single molecules in plasma membranes. This experimental technique varies the size of an illumination area while measuring correlations in time using standard fluorescence correlation methods. Frequently, this data is interpreted using the assumption that correlation measurements reflect the dynamics of single molecule motions, and not motions of the average composition. Here, we explore how svFCS measurements report on the dynamics of components diffusing within simulations of a 2D Ising model with a conserved order parameter. Simulated correlation functions report on both the fast dynamics of single component mobility and the slower dynamics of the average composition. Over a range of simulation conditions, a conventional svFCS analysis suggests the presence of anomalous diffusion even though single molecule motions are nearly Brownian in these simulations. This misinterpretation is most significant when the surface density of the fluorescent label is elevated, therefore we suggest future measurements be made over a range of tracer densities. Some simulation conditions reproduce qualitative features of published svFCS experimental data. Overall, this work emphasizes the need to probe membranes using multiple complimentary experimental methodologies in order to draw conclusions regarding the nature of spatial and dynamical heterogeneity in these systems.

  2. Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Simulation of a 2D Circulation Control Wind Tunnel Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allan, Brian G.; Jones, Greg; Lin, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Numerical simulations are performed using a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) flow solver for a circulation control airfoil. 2D and 3D simulation results are compared to a circulation control wind tunnel test conducted at the NASA Langley Basic Aerodynamics Research Tunnel (BART). The RANS simulations are compared to a low blowing case with a jet momentum coefficient, C(sub u), of 0:047 and a higher blowing case of 0.115. Three dimensional simulations of the model and tunnel walls show wall effects on the lift and airfoil surface pressures. These wall effects include a 4% decrease of the midspan sectional lift for the C(sub u) 0.115 blowing condition. Simulations comparing the performance of the Spalart Allmaras (SA) and Shear Stress Transport (SST) turbulence models are also made, showing the SST model compares best to the experimental data. A Rotational/Curvature Correction (RCC) to the turbulence model is also evaluated demonstrating an improvement in the CFD predictions.

  3. Tropical Oceanic Precipitation Processes over Warm Pool: 2D and 3D Cloud Resolving Model Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, W.- K.; Johnson, D.

    1998-01-01

    Rainfall is a key link in the hydrologic cycle as well as the primary heat source for the atmosphere, The vertical distribution of convective latent-heat release modulates the large-scale circulations of the tropics, Furthermore, changes in the moisture distribution at middle and upper levels of the troposphere can affect cloud distributions and cloud liquid water and ice contents. How the incoming solar and outgoing longwave radiation respond to these changes in clouds is a major factor in assessing climate change. Present large-scale weather and climate models simulate cloud processes only crudely, reducing confidence in their predictions on both global and regional scales. One of the most promising methods to test physical parameterizations used in General Circulation Models (GCMS) and climate models is to use field observations together with Cloud Resolving Models (CRMs). The CRMs use more sophisticated and physically realistic parameterizations of cloud microphysical processes, and allow for their complex interactions with solar and infrared radiative transfer processes. The CRMs can reasonably well resolve the evolution, structure, and life cycles of individual clouds and cloud systems, The major objective of this paper is to investigate the latent heating, moisture and momenti,im budgets associated with several convective systems developed during the TOGA COARE IFA - westerly wind burst event (late December, 1992). The tool for this study is the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (CCE) model which includes a 3-class ice-phase microphysical scheme, The model domain contains 256 x 256 grid points (using 2 km resolution) in the horizontal and 38 grid points (to a depth of 22 km depth) in the vertical, The 2D domain has 1024 grid points. The simulations are performed over a 7 day time period. We will examine (1) the precipitation processes (i.e., condensation/evaporation) and their interaction with warm pool; (2) the heating and moisture budgets in the convective and

  4. 2D spatial profile measurements of potential fluctuation with heavy ion beam probe on the Large Helical Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, A.; Ido, T.; Nishiura, M.; Kato, S.; Ogawa, K.; Takahashi, H.; Igami, H.; Yoshimura, Y.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.

    2016-11-01

    Two-dimensional spatial profiles of potential fluctuation were measured with the heavy ion beam probe (HIBP) in the Large Helical Device (LHD). For 2D spatial profile measurements, the probe beam energy has to be changed, which requires the adjustment of many deflectors in the beam transport line to optimize the beam trajectory, since the transport line of LHD-HIBP system is long. The automatic beam adjustment system was developed, which allows us to adjust the beam trajectory easily. By analyzing coherence between potential fluctuation and magnetic probe signal, the noise level of the mode power spectrum of the potential fluctuation can be reduced. By using this method, the 2D spatial profile of potential fluctuation profile was successfully obtained.

  5. Application of X-Y Separable 2-D Array Beamforming for Increased Frame Rate and Energy Efficiency in Handheld Devices

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Kevin; Fuller, Michael I.; Hossack, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional arrays present significant beamforming computational challenges because of their high channel count and data rate. These challenges are even more stringent when incorporating a 2-D transducer array into a battery-powered hand-held device, placing significant demands on power efficiency. Previous work in sonar and ultrasound indicates that 2-D array beamforming can be decomposed into two separable line-array beamforming operations. This has been used in conjunction with frequency-domain phase-based focusing to achieve fast volume imaging. In this paper, we analyze the imaging and computational performance of approximate near-field separable beamforming for high-quality delay-and-sum (DAS) beamforming and for a low-cost, phaserotation-only beamforming method known as direct-sampled in-phase quadrature (DSIQ) beamforming. We show that when high-quality time-delay interpolation is used, separable DAS focusing introduces no noticeable imaging degradation under practical conditions. Similar results for DSIQ focusing are observed. In addition, a slight modification to the DSIQ focusing method greatly increases imaging contrast, making it comparable to that of DAS, despite having a wider main lobe and higher side lobes resulting from the limitations of phase-only time-delay interpolation. Compared with non-separable 2-D imaging, up to a 20-fold increase in frame rate is possible with the separable method. When implemented on a smart-phone-oriented processor to focus data from a 60 × 60 channel array using a 40 × 40 aperture, the frame rate per C-mode volume slice increases from 16 to 255 Hz for DAS, and from 11 to 193 Hz for DSIQ. Energy usage per frame is similarly reduced from 75 to 4.8 mJ/ frame for DAS, and from 107 to 6.3 mJ/frame for DSIQ. We also show that the separable method outperforms 2-D FFT-based focusing by a factor of 1.64 at these data sizes. This data indicates that with the optimal design choices, separable 2-D beamforming can

  6. Application of X-Y separable 2-D array beamforming for increased frame rate and energy efficiency in handheld devices.

    PubMed

    Owen, Kevin; Fuller, Michael; Hossack, John

    2012-07-01

    Two-dimensional arrays present significant beamforming computational challenges because of their high channel count and data rate. These challenges are even more stringent when incorporating a 2-D transducer array into a battery-powered hand-held device, placing significant demands on power efficiency. Previous work in sonar and ultrasound indicates that 2-D array beamforming can be decomposed into two separable line-array beamforming operations. This has been used in conjunction with frequency-domain phase-based focusing to achieve fast volume imaging. In this paper, we analyze the imaging and computational performance of approximate near-field separable beamforming for high-quality delay-and-sum (DAS) beamforming and for a low-cost, phase-rotation-only beamforming method known as direct-sampled in-phase quadrature (DSIQ) beamforming. We show that when high-quality time-delay interpolation is used, separable DAS focusing introduces no noticeable imaging degradation under practical conditions. Similar results for DSIQ focusing are observed. In addition, a slight modification to the DSIQ focusing method greatly increases imaging contrast, making it comparable to that of DAS, despite having a wider main lobe and higher side lobes resulting from the limitations of phase-only time-delay interpolation. Compared with non-separable 2-D imaging, up to a 20-fold increase in frame rate is possible with the separable method. When implemented on a smart-phone-oriented processor to focus data from a 60 x 60 channel array using a 40 x 40 aperture, the frame rate per C-mode volume slice increases from 16 to 255 Hz for DAS, and from 11 to 193 Hz for DSIQ. Energy usage per frame is similarly reduced from 75 to 4.8 mJ/ frame for DAS, and from 107 to 6.3 mJ/frame for DSIQ. We also show that the separable method outperforms 2-D FFT-based focusing by a factor of 1.64 at these data sizes. This data indicates that with the optimal design choices, separable 2-D beamforming can

  7. Numerical simulation of 2D buoyant jets in ice-covered and temperature-stratified water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Ruochuan

    A two-dimensional (2D) unsteady simulation model is applied to the problem of a submerged warm water discharge into a stratified lake or reservoir with an ice cover. Numerical simulations and analyses are conducted to gain insight into large-scale convective recirculation and flow processes in a cold waterbody induced by a buoyant jet. Jet behaviors under various discharge temperatures are captured by directly modeling flow and thermal fields. Flow structures and processes are described by the simulated spatial and temporal distributions of velocity and temperature in various regions: deflection, recirculation, attachment, and impingement. Some peculiar hydrothermal and dynamic features, e.g. reversal of buoyancy due to the dilution of a warm jet by entraining cold ambient water, are identified and examined. Simulation results show that buoyancy is the most important factor controlling jet behavior and mixing processes. The inflow boundary is treated as a liquid wall from which the jet is offset. Similarity and difference in effects of boundaries perpendicular and parallel to flow, and of buoyancy on jet attachment and impingement, are discussed. Symmetric flow configuration is used to de-emphasize the Coanda effect caused by offset.

  8. Rise characteristics of gas bubbles in a 2D rectangular column: VOF simulations vs experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Krishna, R.; Baten, J.M. van

    1999-10-01

    About five centuries ago, Leonardo da Vinci described the sinuous motion of gas bubbles rising in water. The authors have attempted to simulate the rise trajectories of bubbles of 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 12, and 20 mm in diameter rising in a 2D rectangular column filled with water. The simulations were carried out using the volume-of-fluid (VOF) technique developed by Hirt and Nichols (J. Computational Physics, 39, 201--225 (1981)). To solve the Navier-Stokes equations of motion the authors used a commercial solver, CFX 4.1c of AEA Technology, UK. They developed their own bubble-tracking algorithm to capture sinuous bubble motions. The 4 and 5 mm bubbles show large lateral motions observed by Da Vinci. The 7, 8 and 9 mm bubble behave like jellyfish. The 12 mm bubble flaps its wings like a bird. The extent of lateral motion of the bubbles decreases with increasing bubble size. Bubbles larger than 20 mm in size assume a spherical cap form and simulations of the rise characteristics match experiments exactly. VOF simulations are powerful tools for a priori determination of the morphology and rise characteristics of bubbles rising in a liquid. Bubble-bubble interactions are also properly modeled by the VOF technique.

  9. Atomistic simulations of J-integral in 2D graphene nanosystems.

    PubMed

    Jin, Y; Yuan, F G

    2005-12-01

    The J-integral is investigated in discrete atomic systems using molecular mechanics simulations. A method of calculating J-integral in specified atomic domains is developed. Two cases, a semiinfinite crack in an infinite domain under the remote K-field deformation and a finite crack length in a finite geometry under the tensile and shear deformation prescribed on the boundary, are studied in the two-dimensional graphene sheets and the values of J-integral are obtained under small-strain deformation. The comparison with energy release rates in Mode I and Mode II based on continuum theory of linear elastic fracture mechanics show good agreements. Meanwhile, the nonlinear strain and stress relation of a 2D graphene sheet is evaluated and is fitted with a power law curve. With necessary modifications on the Tersoff-Brenner potential, the critical values of J-integral of 2D graphene systems, which denoted as Jc, are eventually obtained. The results are then compared with those from the relevant references.

  10. CHEM2D: a two-dimensional, three-phase, nine-component chemical flood simulator. Volume I. CHEM2D technical description and FORTRAN code

    SciTech Connect

    Fanchi, J.R.

    1985-04-01

    Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy, a publicly available chemical simulator has been evaluated and substantially enhanced to serve as a useful tool for projecting polymer or chemical flood performance. The program, CHEM2D, is a two-dimensional, three-phase, nine-component finite-difference numerical simulator. It can model primary depletion, waterfloods, polymer floods, and micellar/polymer floods using heterogeneous linear, areal, or cross-sectional reservoir descriptions. The user may specify well performance as either pressure or rate constrained. Both a constant time step size and a variable time step size based on extrapolation of concentration changes are available as options. A solution technique which is implicit in pressure and explicit in saturations and concentrations is used. The major physical mechanisms that are modeled include adsorption, capillary trapping, cation exchange, dilution, dispersion, interfacial tension, binary or ternary phase behavior, non-Newtonian polymer rheology, and two-phase or three-phase relative permeability. Typical components include water, oil, surfactant, polymer, and three ions (chloride, calcium, and sodium). Components may partition amongst the aqueous, oleic, and microemulsion phases. Volume I of this report provides a discussion of the formulation and algorithms used within CHEM2D. Included in Volume I are a number of validation and illustrative examples, as well as the FORTRAN code. The CHEM2D user's manual, Volume II, contains both the input data sets for the examples presented in Volume I and an example output. All appendices and a phase behavior calculation program are collected in Volume III. 20 references.

  11. Simulating ultrasound fields for 2D phased-array probes design optimization.

    PubMed

    Matrone, Giulia; Quaglia, Fabio; Magenes, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, ultrasound diagnostic imaging is one of the non-invasive techniques mostly used in the clinical practice. Recent advances in this field have brought to the development of small and portable systems. New bidimensional probes consisting of 2D phased arrays, allow to obtain real-time 3D representations of moving organs and blood vessels anatomy. Being the complexity of such 4D ultrasound imaging systems significantly increased, new challenges concerning electronics integration arise for designers. In this paper a software simulator is described, which has been developed in order to model ultrasound wave generation, pressure field distribution and echoes reception, with the aim to become a useful tool for optimizing the probe design. The paper mainly focuses on linear ultrasound field modeling; preliminary results on non-linear interactions with contrast agents are also here introduced.

  12. Multiple Frequency Contrast Source Inversion Method for Vertical Electromagnetic Profiling: 2D Simulation Results and Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jinghe; Song, Linping; Liu, Qing Huo

    2016-02-01

    A simultaneous multiple frequency contrast source inversion (CSI) method is applied to reconstructing hydrocarbon reservoir targets in a complex multilayered medium in two dimensions. It simulates the effects of a salt dome sedimentary formation in the context of reservoir monitoring. In this method, the stabilized biconjugate-gradient fast Fourier transform (BCGS-FFT) algorithm is applied as a fast solver for the 2D volume integral equation for the forward computation. The inversion technique with CSI combines the efficient FFT algorithm to speed up the matrix-vector multiplication and the stable convergence of the simultaneous multiple frequency CSI in the iteration process. As a result, this method is capable of making quantitative conductivity image reconstruction effectively for large-scale electromagnetic oil exploration problems, including the vertical electromagnetic profiling (VEP) survey investigated here. A number of numerical examples have been demonstrated to validate the effectiveness and capacity of the simultaneous multiple frequency CSI method for a limited array view in VEP.

  13. Catalog of velocity distributions around a reconnection site in 2D PIC simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechner, Lukas; Bourdin, Philippe-A.; Nakamura, Takuma K. M.; Nakamura, Rumi; Narita, Yasuhito

    2016-04-01

    The velocity distribution of electrons and ions are known to be a marker for regions where magnetic reconnection develops. Past theoretical and computational works demonstrated that non-gyrotropic and anisotropic distributions depending on particle meandering motions and accelerations are seen around the reconnection point. The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission is expected to resolve such kinetic scale reconnection regions. We present a catalog of velocity distribution functions that can give hints on the location within the current sheet relative to the reconnection point, which is sometimes unclear from pure spacecraft observations. We use 2D PIC simulations of anti-parallel magnetic reconnection to obtain velocity distributions at different locations, like in the center of the reconnection site, the ion and electron diffusion regions, or the reconnection inflow and outflow regions. With sufficiently large number of particles we resolve the distribution functions also in rather small regions. Such catalog may be compared with future MMS observations of the Earth's magnetotail.

  14. Hall-Effect Thruster Simulations with 2-D Electron Transport and Hydrodynamic Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Hofer, Richard H.; Goebel, Dan M.

    2009-01-01

    A computational approach that has been used extensively in the last two decades for Hall thruster simulations is to solve a diffusion equation and energy conservation law for the electrons in a direction that is perpendicular to the magnetic field, and use discrete-particle methods for the heavy species. This "hybrid" approach has allowed for the capture of bulk plasma phenomena inside these thrusters within reasonable computational times. Regions of the thruster with complex magnetic field arrangements (such as those near eroded walls and magnets) and/or reduced Hall parameter (such as those near the anode and the cathode plume) challenge the validity of the quasi-one-dimensional assumption for the electrons. This paper reports on the development of a computer code that solves numerically the 2-D axisymmetric vector form of Ohm's law, with no assumptions regarding the rate of electron transport in the parallel and perpendicular directions. The numerical challenges related to the large disparity of the transport coefficients in the two directions are met by solving the equations in a computational mesh that is aligned with the magnetic field. The fully-2D approach allows for a large physical domain that extends more than five times the thruster channel length in the axial direction, and encompasses the cathode boundary. Ions are treated as an isothermal, cold (relative to the electrons) fluid, accounting for charge-exchange and multiple-ionization collisions in the momentum equations. A first series of simulations of two Hall thrusters, namely the BPT-4000 and a 6-kW laboratory thruster, quantifies the significance of ion diffusion in the anode region and the importance of the extended physical domain on studies related to the impact of the transport coefficients on the electron flow field.

  15. A new model for two-dimensional numerical simulation of pseudo-2D gas-solids fluidized beds

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tingwen; Zhang, Yongmin

    2013-10-11

    Pseudo-two dimensional (pseudo-2D) fluidized beds, for which the thickness of the system is much smaller than the other two dimensions, is widely used to perform fundamental studies on bubble behavior, solids mixing, or clustering phenomenon in different gas-solids fluidization systems. The abundant data from such experimental systems are very useful for numerical model development and validation. However, it has been reported that two-dimensional (2D) computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations of pseudo-2D gas-solids fluidized beds usually predict poor quantitative agreement with the experimental data, especially for the solids velocity field. In this paper, a new model is proposed to improve the 2D numerical simulations of pseudo-2D gas-solids fluidized beds by properly accounting for the frictional effect of the front and back walls. Two previously reported pseudo-2D experimental systems were simulated with this model. Compared to the traditional 2D simulations, significant improvements in the numerical predictions have been observed and the predicted results are in better agreement with the available experimental data.

  16. Simulation of abrasive flow machining process for 2D and 3D mixture models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, Rupalika; Maity, Kalipada

    2015-12-01

    Improvement of surface finish and material removal has been quite a challenge in a finishing operation such as abrasive flow machining (AFM). Factors that affect the surface finish and material removal are media viscosity, extrusion pressure, piston velocity, and particle size in abrasive flow machining process. Performing experiments for all the parameters and accurately obtaining an optimized parameter in a short time are difficult to accomplish because the operation requires a precise finish. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation was employed to accurately determine optimum parameters. In the current work, a 2D model was designed, and the flow analysis, force calculation, and material removal prediction were performed and compared with the available experimental data. Another 3D model for a swaging die finishing using AFM was simulated at different viscosities of the media to study the effects on the controlling parameters. A CFD simulation was performed by using commercially available ANSYS FLUENT. Two phases were considered for the flow analysis, and multiphase mixture model was taken into account. The fluid was considered to be a

  17. What Can We Learn about Magnetotail Reconnection from 2D PIC Harris-Sheet Simulations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, M. V.; Newman, D. L.; Lapenta, G.

    2016-03-01

    The Magnetosphere Multiscale Mission (MMS) will provide the first opportunity to probe electron-scale physics during magnetic reconnection in Earth's magnetopause and magnetotail. This article will address only tail reconnection—as a non-steady-state process in which the first reconnected field lines advance away from the x-point in flux pile-up fronts directed Earthward and anti-Earthward. An up-to-date microscopic physical picture of electron and ion-scale collisionless tail reconnection processes is presented based on 2-D Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulations initiated from a Harris current sheet and on Cluster and Themis measurements of tail reconnection. The successes and limitations of simulations when compared to measured reconnection are addressed in detail. The main focus is on particle and field diffusion region signatures in the tail reconnection geometry. The interpretation of these signatures is vital to enable spacecraft to identify physically significant reconnection events, to trigger meaningful data transfer from MMS to Earth and to construct a useful overall physical picture of tail reconnection. New simulation results and theoretical interpretations are presented for energy transport of particles and fields, for the size and shape of electron and ion diffusion regions, for processes occurring near the fronts and for the j × B (Hall) electric field.

  18. A hybrid Boundary Element Unstructured Transmission-line (BEUT) method for accurate 2D electromagnetic simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Daniel; Cools, Kristof; Sewell, Phillip

    2016-11-01

    Time domain electromagnetic simulation tools have the ability to model transient, wide-band applications, and non-linear problems. The Boundary Element Method (BEM) and the Transmission Line Modeling (TLM) method are both well established numerical techniques for simulating time-varying electromagnetic fields. The former surface based method can accurately describe outwardly radiating fields from piecewise uniform objects and efficiently deals with large domains filled with homogeneous media. The latter volume based method can describe inhomogeneous and non-linear media and has been proven to be unconditionally stable. Furthermore, the Unstructured TLM (UTLM) enables modelling of geometrically complex objects by using triangular meshes which removes staircasing and unnecessary extensions of the simulation domain. The hybridization of BEM and UTLM which is described in this paper is named the Boundary Element Unstructured Transmission-line (BEUT) method. It incorporates the advantages of both methods. The theory and derivation of the 2D BEUT method is described in this paper, along with any relevant implementation details. The method is corroborated by studying its correctness and efficiency compared to the traditional UTLM method when applied to complex problems such as the transmission through a system of Luneburg lenses and the modelling of antenna radomes for use in wireless communications.

  19. Advancing Nucleosynthesis in Core-Collapse Supernovae Models Using 2D CHIMERA Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, J. A.; Hix, W. R.; Chertkow, M. A.; Bruenn, S. W.; Lentz, E. J.; Messer, O. B.; Mezzacappa, A.; Blondin, J. M.; Marronetti, P.; Yakunin, K.

    2014-01-01

    The deaths of massive stars as core-collapse supernovae (CCSN) serve as a crucial link in understanding galactic chemical evolution since the birth of the universe via the Big Bang. We investigate CCSN in polar axisymmetric simulations using the multidimensional radiation hydrodynamics code CHIMERA. Computational costs have traditionally constrained the evolution of the nuclear composition in CCSN models to, at best, a 14-species α-network. However, the limited capacity of the α-network to accurately evolve detailed composition, the neutronization and the nuclear energy generation rate has fettered the ability of prior CCSN simulations to accurately reproduce the chemical abundances and energy distributions as known from observations. These deficits can be partially ameliorated by "post-processing" with a more realistic network. Lagrangian tracer particles placed throughout the star record the temporal evolution of the initial simulation and enable the extension of the nuclear network evolution by incorporating larger systems in post-processing nucleosynthesis calculations. We present post-processing results of the four ab initio axisymmetric CCSN 2D models of Bruenn et al. (2013) evolved with the smaller α-network, and initiated from stellar metallicity, non-rotating progenitors of mass 12, 15, 20, and 25 M⊙ from Woosley & Heger (2007). As a test of the limitations of post-processing, we provide preliminary results from an ongoing simulation of the 15 M⊙ model evolved with a realistic 150 species nuclear reaction network in situ. With more accurate energy generation rates and an improved determination of the thermodynamic trajectories of the tracer particles, we can better unravel the complicated multidimensional "mass-cut" in CCSN simulations and probe for less energetically significant nuclear processes like the νp-process and the r-process, which require still larger networks.

  20. Transport simulations of the C-2 and C-2U Field Reversed Configurations with the Q2D code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onofri, Marco; Dettrick, Sean; Barnes, Daniel; Tajima, Toshiki; TAE Team

    2016-10-01

    The Q2D code is a 2D MHD code, which includes a neutral fluid and separate ion and electron temperatures, coupled with a 3D Monte Carlo code, which is used to calculate source terms due to neutral beams. Q2D has been benchmarked against the 1D transport code Q1D and is used to simulate the evolution of the C-2 and C-2U field reversed configuration experiments [1]. Q2D simulations start from an initial equilibrium and transport coefficients are chosen to match C-2 experimental data. C-2U is an upgrade of C-2, with more beam power and angled beam injection, which demonstrates plasma sustainment for 5 + ms. The simulations use the same transport coefficients for C-2 and C-2U, showing the formation of a steady state in C-2U, sustained by fast ion pressure and current drive.

  1. 2D PIC simulations of a curved supercritical shock: dynamics of the whistler precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stienlet, J.; Lembege, B.; Savoini, P.

    2009-12-01

    The whistler precursor emitted from the curved terrestrial shock front plays an important role in pre-decelerating and heating the incoming solar wind. Most previous works have mainly analyzed the features of the whistler precursor emission for a 1D planar shock where it is forced to propagate along the shock normal (Liewer and al, 1991) or to propagate obliquely with respect to a fixed shock normal direction in 2D planar shock simulation (Krauss-Varban et al., 1995). In the present case, the dynamics of the precursor is analyzed for a full curved shock with the help of a 2D full particle simulation where full curvature effects and both electrons and ions dynamics are described by a self consistent approach. Curvature effects continously cover all shock normal directions within the angular range 90° ≤ θBn ≤ 45° where θBn is the angle between the shock normal and the upstream magnetostatic field. This approach allows a free accessibility of the whistler precursor to a large angular range without any constraint. Preliminary results show that : (i) the whistler precursor strongly extends far from the shock front mainly along the magnetostatic field (projected on the simulation plane) but this extension is progressively reduced outside this privileged direction; (ii) wave fronts of the whistler precursor have a curvature similar to that of the main curved shock front but the width of these curved wave fronts strongly decreases when moving far from the shock front; (iii) near the shock front, the precursor is emitted within an angular range much larger than that predicted by linear theory; (iv) the critical angle of occurrence of the precursor fits with the theoretical value expected from Krasnoselskikh et al. (2002) model but this angle is not associated to a transition between stationary and non-stationary shocks in contrast with a statement announced by this theoretical model; and (v) the damping rate of the whistler precursor is analyzed for different

  2. 1D and 2D simulations of seismic wave propagation in fractured media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, Thomas; Friederich, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Fractures and cracks have a significant influence on the propagation of seismic waves. Their presence causes reflections and scattering and makes the medium effectively anisotropic. We present a numerical approach to simulation of seismic waves in fractured media that does not require direct modelling of the fracture itself, but uses the concept of linear slip interfaces developed by Schoenberg (1980). This condition states that at an interface between two imperfectly bonded elastic media, stress is continuous across the interface while displacement is discontinuous. It is assumed that the jump of displacement is proportional to stress which implies a jump in particle velocity at the interface. We use this condition as a boundary condition to the elastic wave equation and solve this equation in the framework of a Nodal Discontinuous Galerkin scheme using a velocity-stress formulation. We use meshes with tetrahedral elements to discretise the medium. Each individual element face may be declared as a slip interface. Numerical fluxes have been derived by solving the 1D Riemann problem for slip interfaces with elastic and viscoelastic rheology. Viscoelasticity is realised either by a Kelvin-Voigt body or a Standard Linear Solid. These fluxes are not limited to 1D and can - with little modification - be used for simulations in higher dimensions as well. The Nodal Discontinuous Galerkin code "neXd" developed by Lambrecht (2013) is used as a basis for the numerical implementation of this concept. We present examples of simulations in 1D and 2D that illustrate the influence of fractures on the seismic wavefield. We demonstrate the accuracy of the simulation through comparison to an analytical solution in 1D.

  3. Self-Consistent, 2D Magneto-Hydrodynamic Simulations of Magnetically Driven Flyer Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemke, Raymond W.

    2002-11-01

    The intense magnetic field generated in the 20 MA Z-machine is used to accelerate flyer plates to high velocity for equation of state experiments. A peak magnetic drive pressure on the order of 2 Mbar can be generated, which accelerates an approximately 0.2 g aluminum disc to 21 km/s [1]. We have used 2D magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) simulation to investigate the physics of accelerating flyer plates using multi-megabar magnetic drive pressures. A typical shock physics load is formed by a rectangular slab cathode enclosed by a hollow rectangular duct (the anode). The anode and cathode are connected (shorted) at one end. The electrodes are highly compressible at multi-megabar pressures. Electrode deformation that occurs during the rise time of the current pulse causes significant inductance increase, which reduces the peak current (drive pressure) relative to a static geometry. This important dynamic effect is modeled self-consistently by driving the MHD simulation with a circuit model of Z. Comparison of simulation results with highly accurate velocity interferometry measurements shows that the drive pressure waveform is affected by current losses and short circuiting in the machine, in conjunction with time varying load inductance. The understanding gained from these comparisons has allowed us to optimize shock physics loads using simulation. In this way a load was designed to produce a flyer velocity of 28 km/s, which was achieved experimentally on Z. We have identified paths to producing a flyer velocity of 40 km/s and peak isentropic pressure of 10 Mbar on the refurbished Z-machine [2]. Details of the modeling, the physics and comparisons with experiment are presented. [1] M. D. Knudson et al., Phys. Rev. Letters 87 (22), 22550-1 (2002). [2] R. W. Lemke et al., to be published in Proc. of the Int. Conf. on High Power Particle Beams and Dense Z-Pinches, Albuquerque, NM, June 23-28, 2002.

  4. Simulation and analysis of solute transport in 2D fracture/pipe networks: the SOLFRAC program.

    PubMed

    Bodin, Jacques; Porel, Gilles; Delay, Fred; Ubertosi, Fabrice; Bernard, Stéphane; de Dreuzy, Jean-Raynald

    2007-01-05

    The Time Domain Random Walk (TDRW) method has been recently developed by Delay and Bodin [Delay, F. and Bodin, J., 2001. Time domain random walk method to simulate transport by advection-dispersion and matrix diffusion in fracture networks. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28(21): 4051-4054.] and Bodin et al. [Bodin, J., Porel, G. and Delay, F., 2003c. Simulation of solute transport in discrete fracture networks using the time domain random walk method. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 6566: 1-8.] for simulating solute transport in discrete fracture networks. It is assumed that the fracture network can reasonably be represented by a network of interconnected one-dimensional pipes (i.e. flow channels). Processes accounted for are: (1) advection and hydrodynamic dispersion in the channels, (2) matrix diffusion, (3) diffusion into stagnant zones within the fracture planes, (4) sorption reactions onto the fracture walls and in the matrix, (5) linear decay, and (6) mass sharing at fracture intersections. The TDRW method is handy and very efficient in terms of computation costs since it allows for the one-step calculation of the particle residence time in each bond of the network. This method has been programmed in C++, and efforts have been made to develop an efficient and user-friendly software, called SOLFRAC. This program is freely downloadable at the URL (labo.univ-poitiers.fr/hydrasa/intranet/telechargement.htm). It calculates solute transport into 2D pipe networks, while considering different types of injections and different concepts of local dispersion within each flow channel. Post-simulation analyses are also available, such as the mean velocity or the macroscopic dispersion at the scale of the entire network. The program may be used to evaluate how a given transport mechanism influences the macroscopic transport behaviour of fracture networks. It may also be used, as is the case, e.g., with analytical solutions, to interpret laboratory or field tracer test experiments performed

  5. Extended MHD simulations of Rayleigh-Taylor instability with real frequency in a 2D slab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Ryosuke; Miura, Hideaki; Ito, Atsushi; Sato, Masahiko; Hatori, Tomoharu

    2014-10-01

    Small scale effects such as the Finite Larmor Radius (FLR) effect and the Hall term can change the linear and non-linear growth of the high wave number unstable modes of the pressure driven instability considerably. Here we consider a simple Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instability in a 2D slab, and study the effect of the Hall term and the FLR effect to the R-T instability by means of numerical simulations of the Braginskii-type extended MHD equations. As we have reported earlier, the linear growth rates of the high wave number modes are highly reduced when the Hall term and the FLR effect are added simultaneously. However, there appears little real frequency in the previous work. Since the diamagnetic drift associated with the real frequency is considered to affect the growth of the linear and nonlinear evolutions, we provide a new equilibrium in which appearance of the real frequency is expected and carry out numerical simulations. Influences of the real frequency on the growth rates as well as on the nonlinear mixing width for some combinations of the Hall and the FLR parameters are going to be presented.

  6. 2D IR spectra of cyanide in water investigated by molecular dynamics simulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Myung Won; Carr, Joshua K.; Göllner, Michael; Hamm, Peter; Meuwly, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Using classical molecular dynamics simulations, the 2D infrared (IR) spectroscopy of CN− solvated in D2O is investigated. Depending on the force field parametrizations, most of which are based on multipolar interactions for the CN− molecule, the frequency-frequency correlation function and observables computed from it differ. Most notably, models based on multipoles for CN− and TIP3P for water yield quantitatively correct results when compared with experiments. Furthermore, the recent finding that T 1 times are sensitive to the van der Waals ranges on the CN− is confirmed in the present study. For the linear IR spectrum, the best model reproduces the full widths at half maximum almost quantitatively (13.0 cm−1 vs. 14.9 cm−1) if the rotational contribution to the linewidth is included. Without the rotational contribution, the lines are too narrow by about a factor of two, which agrees with Raman and IR experiments. The computed and experimental tilt angles (or nodal slopes) α as a function of the 2D IR waiting time compare favorably with the measured ones and the frequency fluctuation correlation function is invariably found to contain three time scales: a sub-ps, 1 ps, and one on the 10-ps time scale. These time scales are discussed in terms of the structural dynamics of the surrounding solvent and it is found that the longest time scale (≈10 ps) most likely corresponds to solvent exchange between the first and second solvation shell, in agreement with interpretations from nuclear magnetic resonance measurements.

  7. 2D properties of core turbulence on DIII-D and comparison to gyrokinetic simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, Morgan W; Fonck, R. J.; McKee, G. R.; Holland, Chris; White, A. E.; Schlossberg, D J

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative 2D characteristics of localized density fluctuations are presented over the range of 0.3 < r/a < 0.9 in L-mode plasmas on DIII-D [J. L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)]. Broadband density fluctuations increase in amplitude from (n) over tilde/n < 0.5% in the deep core to (n) over tilde/n similar to 2.5% near the outer region. The observed Doppler-shift due to the E x B velocity matches well with the measured turbulence group and phase velocities (in toroidally rotating neutral beam heated plasmas). Turbulence decorrelation rates are found to be similar to 200 kHz at the edge and to decrease toward the core (0.45 < r/a < 0.9) where they approach the E x B shearing rate (similar to 50 kHz). Radial and poloidal correlation lengths are found to scale with the ion gyroradius and exhibit an asymmetric poloidally elongated eddy structure. The ensemble-averaged turbulent eddy structure changes its tilt with respect to the radial-poloidal coordinates in the core, consistent with an E x B shear mechanism. The 2D spatial correlation and wavenumber spectra [S(k(r); k(theta))] are presented and compared to nonlinear flux-tube GYRO simulations at two radii, r/a = 0.5 and r/a = 0.75, showing reasonable overall agreement, but the GYRO spectrum exhibits a peak at finite kr for r/a = 0.75 that is not observed experimentally; E x B shear may cause this discrepancy. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  8. A Framework to Simulate Semiconductor Devices Using Parallel Computer Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Gaurav; Singh, Mandeep; Bulusu, Anand; Trivedi, Gaurav

    2016-10-01

    Device simulations have become an integral part of semiconductor technology to address many issues (short channel effects, narrow width effects, hot-electron effect) as it goes into nano regime, helping us to continue further with the Moore's Law. TCAD provides a simulation environment to design and develop novel devices, thus a leap forward to study their electrical behaviour in advance. In this paper, a parallel 2D simulator for semiconductor devices using Discontinuous Galerkin Finite Element Method (DG-FEM) is presented. Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method is used to discretize essential device equations and later these equations are analyzed by using a suitable methodology to find the solution. DG method is characterized to provide more accurate solution as it efficiently conserve the flux and easily handles complex geometries. OpenMP is used to parallelize solution of device equations on manycore processors and a speed of 1.4x is achieved during assembly process of discretization. This study is important for more accurate analysis of novel devices (such as FinFET, GAAFET etc.) on a parallel computing platform and will help us to develop a parallel device simulator which will be able to address this issue efficiently. A case study of PN junction diode is presented to show the effectiveness of proposed approach.

  9. Simulation of Subgrid Orographic Convection and Precipitation with 2-D Cloud-Resolving Models Embedded in a GCM Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, J.; Arakawa, A.

    2015-12-01

    Through explicitly resolved cloud-scale processes by embedded 2-D cloud-resolving models (CRMs), the Multiscale Modeling Framework (MMF) known as the superparameterization has been reasonably successful to simulate various atmospheric events over a wide range of time scales. One thing to be justified is, however, if the influence of complex 3-D topography can be adequately represented by the embedded 2-D CRMs. In this study, simulations are performed in the presence of a variety of topography with embedded 3-D and 2-D CRMs in a single-column inactive GCM. Through the comparison between these simulations, it is demonstrated that the 2-D representation of topography is able to simulate the statistics of precipitation due to 3-D topography reasonably well as long as the topographic characteristics, such as the mean and standard deviation, are closely recognized. It is also shown that the use of two perpendicular sets of 2-D representations tends to reduce the error due to a 2-D representation.

  10. Library Analog Semiconductor Devices SPICE Simulators

    SciTech Connect

    Deveney, Michael F.; Archer, Wendel; Bogdan, Carolyn W.

    1996-07-23

    SPICE-SANDIA.LIB is a library of parameter sets and macromodels of semiconductor devices. They are used with Spice-based (SPICE is a program for electronic circuit analysis) simulators to simulate electronic circuits.

  11. Modelling toolkit for simulation of maglev devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña-Roche, J.; Badía-Majós, A.

    2017-01-01

    A stand-alone App1 has been developed, focused on obtaining information about relevant engineering properties of magnetic levitation systems. Our modelling toolkit provides real time simulations of 2D magneto-mechanical quantities for superconductor (SC)/permanent magnet structures. The source code is open and may be customised for a variety of configurations. Ultimately, it relies on the variational statement of the critical state model for the superconducting component and has been verified against experimental data for YBaCuO/NdFeB assemblies. On a quantitative basis, the values of the arising forces, induced superconducting currents, as well as a plot of the magnetic field lines are displayed upon selection of an arbitrary trajectory of the magnet in the vicinity of the SC. The stability issues related to the cooling process, as well as the maximum attainable forces for a given material and geometry are immediately observed. Due to the complexity of the problem, a strategy based on cluster computing, database compression, and real-time post-processing on the device has been implemented.

  12. Simulation of bootstrap current in 2D and 3D ideal magnetic fields in tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghunathan, M.; Graves, J. P.; Cooper, W. A.; Pedro, M.; Sauter, O.

    2016-09-01

    We aim to simulate the bootstrap current for a MAST-like spherical tokamak using two approaches for magnetic equilibria including externally caused 3D effects such as resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs), the effect of toroidal ripple, and intrinsic 3D effects such as non-resonant internal kink modes. The first approach relies on known neoclassical coefficients in ideal MHD equilibria, using the Sauter (Sauter et al 1999 Phys. Plasmas 6 2834) expression valid for all collisionalities in axisymmetry, and the second approach being the quasi-analytic Shaing-Callen (Shaing and Callen 1983 Phys. Fluids 26 3315) model in the collisionless regime for 3D. Using the ideal free-boundary magnetohydrodynamic code VMEC, we compute the flux-surface averaged bootstrap current density, with the Sauter and Shaing-Callen expressions for 2D and 3D ideal MHD equilibria including an edge pressure barrier with the application of resonant magnetic perturbations, and equilibria possessing a saturated non-resonant 1/1 internal kink mode with a weak internal pressure barrier. We compare the applicability of the self-consistent iterative model on the 3D applications and discuss the limitations and advantages of each bootstrap current model for each type of equilibrium.

  13. Numerical simulation of transport and sequential biodegradation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons using CHAIN_2D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaerlaekens, J.; Mallants, D.; Imûnek, J.; van Genuchten, M. Th.; Feyen, J.

    1999-12-01

    Microbiological degradation of perchloroethylene (PCE) under anaerobic conditions follows a series of chain reactions, in which, sequentially, trichloroethylene (TCE), cis-dichloroethylene (c-DCE), vinylchloride (VC) and ethene are generated. First-order degradation rate constants, partitioning coefficients and mass exchange rates for PCE, TCE, c-DCE and VC were compiled from the literature. The parameters were used in a case study of pump-and-treat remediation of a PCE-contaminated site near Tilburg, The Netherlands. Transport, non-equilibrium sorption and biodegradation chain processes at the site were simulated using the CHAIN_2D code without further calibration. The modelled PCE compared reasonably well with observed PCE concentrations in the pumped water. We also performed a scenario analysis by applying several increased reductive dechlorination rates, reflecting different degradation conditions (e.g. addition of yeast extract and citrate). The scenario analysis predicted considerably higher concentrations of the degradation products as a result of enhanced reductive dechlorination of PCE. The predicted levels of the very toxic compound VC were now an order of magnitude above the maximum permissible concentration levels.

  14. Simulated KWAJEX Convective Systems Using a 2D and 3D Cloud Resolving Model and Their Comparisons with Radar Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shie, Chung-Lin; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Simpson, Joanne

    2003-01-01

    The 1999 Kwajalein Atoll field experiment (KWAJEX), one of several major TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) field experiments, has successfully obtained a wealth of information and observation data on tropical convective systems over the western Central Pacific region. In this paper, clouds and convective systems that developed during three active periods (Aug 7-12, Aug 17-21, and Aug 29-Sep 13) around Kwajalein Atoll site are simulated using both 2D and 3D Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) models. Based on numerical results, the clouds and cloud systems are generally unorganized and short lived. These features are validated by radar observations that support the model results. Both the 2D and 3D simulated rainfall amounts and their stratiform contribution as well as the heat, water vapor, and moist static energy budgets are examined for the three convective episodes. Rainfall amounts are quantitatively similar between the two simulations, but the stratiform contribution is considerably larger in the 2D simulation. Regardless of dimension, fo all three cases, the large-scale forcing and net condensation are the two major physical processes that account for the evolution of the budgets with surface latent heat flux and net radiation solar and long-wave radiation)being secondary processes. Quantitative budget differences between 2D and 3D as well as between various episodes will be detailed.Morover, simulated radar signatures and Q1/Q2 fields from the three simulations are compared to each other and with radar and sounding observations.

  15. Direct numerical simulation of a 2D-stented aortic heart valve at physiological flow rates.

    PubMed

    Dimakopoulos, Y; Bogaerds, A C B; Anderson, P D; Hulsen, M A; Baaijens, F P T

    2012-01-01

    We study the nonlinear interaction of an aortic heart valve, composed of hyperelastic corrugated leaflets of finite density attached to a stented vessel under physiological flow conditions. In our numerical simulations, we use a 2D idealised representation of this arrangement. Blood flow is caused by a time-varying pressure gradient that mimics that of the aortic valve and corresponds to a peak Reynolds number equal to 4050. Here, we fully account for the shear-thinning behaviour of the blood and large deformations and contact between the leaflets by solving the momentum and mass balances for blood and leaflets. The mixed finite element/Galerkin method along with linear discontinuous Lagrange multipliers for coupling the fluid and elastic domains is adopted. Moreover, a series of challenging numerical issues such as the finite length of the computational domain and the conditions that should be imposed on its inflow/outflow boundaries, the accurate time integration of the parabolic and hyperbolic momentum equations, the contact between the leaflets and the non-conforming mesh refinement in part of the domain are successfully resolved. Calculations for the velocity and the shear stress fields of the blood reveal that boundary layers appear on both sides of a leaflet. The one along the ventricular side transfers blood with high momentum from the core region of the vessel to the annulus or the sinusoidal expansion, causing the continuous development of flow instabilities. At peak systole, vortices are convected in the flow direction along the annulus of the vessel, whereas during the closure stage of the valve, an extremely large vortex develops in each half of the flow domain.

  16. Simulation of Degraded Properties of 2D plain Woven C/SiC Composites under Preloading Oxidation Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xihui; Sun, Zhigang; Sun, Jianfen; Song, Yingdong

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, a numerical model which incorporates the oxidation damage model and the finite element model of 2D plain woven composites is presented for simulation of the oxidation behaviors of 2D plain woven C/SiC composite under preloading oxidation atmosphere. The equal proportional reduction method is firstly proposed to calculate the residual moduli and strength of unidirectional C/SiC composite. The multi-scale method is developed to simulate the residual elastic moduli and strength of 2D plain woven C/SiC composite. The multi-scale method is able to accurately predict the residual elastic modulus and strength of the composite. Besides, the simulated residual elastic moduli and strength of 2D plain woven C/SiC composites under preloading oxidation atmosphere show good agreements with experimental results. Furthermore, the preload, oxidation time, temperature and fiber volume fractions of the composite are investigated to show their influences upon the residual elastic modulus and strength of 2D plain woven C/SiC composites.

  17. Numerical Simulation of Supersonic Compression Corners and Hypersonic Inlet Flows Using the RPLUS2D Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kapoor, Kamlesh; Anderson, Bernhard H.; Shaw, Robert J.

    1994-01-01

    A two-dimensional computational code, PRLUS2D, which was developed for the reactive propulsive flows of ramjets and scramjets, was validated for two-dimensional shock-wave/turbulent-boundary-layer interactions. The problem of compression corners at supersonic speeds was solved using the RPLUS2D code. To validate the RPLUS2D code for hypersonic speeds, it was applied to a realistic hypersonic inlet geometry. Both the Baldwin-Lomax and the Chien two-equation turbulence models were used. Computational results showed that the RPLUS2D code compared very well with experimentally obtained data for supersonic compression corner flows, except in the case of large separated flows resulting from the interactions between the shock wave and turbulent boundary layer. The computational results compared well with the experiment results in a hypersonic NASA P8 inlet case, with the Chien two-equation turbulence model performing better than the Baldwin-Lomax model.

  18. Stability and accuracy of 3D neutron transport simulations using the 2D/1D method in MPACT

    DOE PAGES

    Collins, Benjamin; Stimpson, Shane; Kelley, Blake W.; ...

    2016-08-25

    We derived a consistent “2D/1D” neutron transport method from the 3D Boltzmann transport equation, to calculate fuel-pin-resolved neutron fluxes for realistic full-core Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) problems. The 2D/1D method employs the Method of Characteristics to discretize the radial variables and a lower order transport solution to discretize the axial variable. Our paper describes the theory of the 2D/1D method and its implementation in the MPACT code, which has become the whole-core deterministic neutron transport solver for the Consortium for Advanced Simulations of Light Water Reactors (CASL) core simulator VERA-CS. We also performed several applications on both leadership-class and industry-classmore » computing clusters. Results are presented for whole-core solutions of the Watts Bar Nuclear Power Station Unit 1 and compared to both continuous-energy Monte Carlo results and plant data.« less

  19. Stability and accuracy of 3D neutron transport simulations using the 2D/1D method in MPACT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Benjamin; Stimpson, Shane; Kelley, Blake W.; Young, Mitchell T. H.; Kochunas, Brendan; Graham, Aaron; Larsen, Edward W.; Downar, Thomas; Godfrey, Andrew

    2016-12-01

    A consistent "2D/1D" neutron transport method is derived from the 3D Boltzmann transport equation, to calculate fuel-pin-resolved neutron fluxes for realistic full-core Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) problems. The 2D/1D method employs the Method of Characteristics to discretize the radial variables and a lower order transport solution to discretize the axial variable. This paper describes the theory of the 2D/1D method and its implementation in the MPACT code, which has become the whole-core deterministic neutron transport solver for the Consortium for Advanced Simulations of Light Water Reactors (CASL) core simulator VERA-CS. Several applications have been performed on both leadership-class and industry-class computing clusters. Results are presented for whole-core solutions of the Watts Bar Nuclear Power Station Unit 1 and compared to both continuous-energy Monte Carlo results and plant data.

  20. Stability and accuracy of 3D neutron transport simulations using the 2D/1D method in MPACT

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Benjamin; Stimpson, Shane; Kelley, Blake W.; Young, Mitchell T. H.; Kochunas, Brendan; Graham, Aaron; Larsen, Edward W.; Downar, Thomas; Godfrey, Andrew

    2016-08-25

    We derived a consistent “2D/1D” neutron transport method from the 3D Boltzmann transport equation, to calculate fuel-pin-resolved neutron fluxes for realistic full-core Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) problems. The 2D/1D method employs the Method of Characteristics to discretize the radial variables and a lower order transport solution to discretize the axial variable. Our paper describes the theory of the 2D/1D method and its implementation in the MPACT code, which has become the whole-core deterministic neutron transport solver for the Consortium for Advanced Simulations of Light Water Reactors (CASL) core simulator VERA-CS. We also performed several applications on both leadership-class and industry-class computing clusters. Results are presented for whole-core solutions of the Watts Bar Nuclear Power Station Unit 1 and compared to both continuous-energy Monte Carlo results and plant data.

  1. SmaggIce 2D Version 1.8: Software Toolkit Developed for Aerodynamic Simulation Over Iced Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choo, Yung K.; Vickerman, Mary B.

    2005-01-01

    SmaggIce 2D version 1.8 is a software toolkit developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center that consists of tools for modeling the geometry of and generating the grids for clean and iced airfoils. Plans call for the completed SmaggIce 2D version 2.0 to streamline the entire aerodynamic simulation process--the characterization and modeling of ice shapes, grid generation, and flow simulation--and to be closely coupled with the public-domain application flow solver, WIND. Grid generated using version 1.8, however, can be used by other flow solvers. SmaggIce 2D will help researchers and engineers study the effects of ice accretion on airfoil performance, which is difficult to do with existing software tools because of complex ice shapes. Using SmaggIce 2D, when fully developed, to simulate flow over an iced airfoil will help to reduce the cost of performing flight and wind-tunnel tests for certifying aircraft in natural and simulated icing conditions.

  2. 2D fluid simulations of discharges at atmospheric pressure in reactive gas mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdon, Anne

    2015-09-01

    Since a few years, low-temperature atmospheric pressure discharges have received a considerable interest as they efficiently produce many reactive chemical species at a low energy cost. This potential is of great interest for a wide range of applications as plasma assisted combustion or biomedical applications. Then, in current simulations of atmospheric pressure discharges, there is the need to take into account detailed kinetic schemes. It is interesting to note that in some conditions, the kinetics of the discharge may play a role on the discharge dynamics itself. To illustrate this, we consider the case of the propagation of He-N2 discharges in long capillary tubes, studied for the development of medical devices for endoscopic applications. Simulation results put forward that the discharge dynamics and structure depend on the amount of N2 in the He-N2 mixture. In particular, as the amount of N2 admixture increases, the discharge propagation velocity in the tube increases, reaches a maximum for about 0 . 1 % of N2 and then decreases, in agreement with experiments. For applications as plasma assisted combustion with nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharges, there is the need to handle the very different timescales of the nanosecond discharge with the much longer (micro to millisecond) timescales of combustion processes. This is challenging from a computational point of view. It is also important to better understand the coupling of the plasma induced chemistry and the gas heating. To illustrate this, we present the simulation of the flame ignition in lean mixtures by a nanosecond pulsed discharge between two point electrodes. In particular, among the different discharge regimes of nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharges, a ``spark'' regime has been put forward in the experiments, with an ultra-fast local heating of the gas. For other discharge regimes, the gas heating is much weaker. We have simulated the nanosecond spark regime and have observed shock waves

  3. FLAC/SPECFEM2D coupled numerical simulation of wavefields near excavation boundaries in underground mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Cai, M.

    2016-11-01

    A nonlinear velocity model that considers the influence of confinement and rock mass failure on wave velocity is developed. A numerical method, which couples FLAC and SPECFEM2D, is developed for ground motion modeling near excavation boundaries in underground mines. The motivation of developing the FLAC/SPECFEM2D coupled approach is to take merits of each code, such as the stress analysis capability in FLAC and the powerful wave propagation analysis capability in SPECFEM2D. Because stress redistribution and failure of the rock mass around an excavation are considered, realistic non-uniform velocity fields for the SPECFEM2D model can be obtained, and this is a notable feature of this study. Very large differences in wavefields and ground motion are observed between the results from the non-uniform and the uniform velocity models. If the non-uniform velocity model is used, the ground motion around a stope can be amplified up to five times larger than that given by the design scaling law. If a uniform velocity model is used, the amplification factor is only about three. Using the FLAC/SPECFEM2D coupled modeling approach, accurate velocity models can be constructed and this in turn will assist in predicting ground motions accurately around underground excavations.

  4. Analog device simulates physiological waveforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickman, D. M.

    1964-01-01

    An analog physiological simulator generates representative waveforms for a wide range of physiological conditions. Direct comparison of these waveforms with those from telemetric inputs permits quick detection of signal parameter degradation.

  5. Simulation study of 2D spectrum of molecular aggregates coupled to correlated vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramavicius, Darius; Butkus, Vytautas; Valkunas, Leonas; Mukamel, Shaul

    2011-03-01

    Oscillatory dynamics of two-dimensional (2D) spectra of photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes raise the questions of how to disentangle various origins of these oscillations, which may include quantum beats, quantum transport, or molecular vibrations. We study the effects of correlated overdamped fluctuations and under-damped vibrations on the 2D spectra of Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) aggregate, which has well-resolved exciton resonances, and a circular porphyrin aggregate (P6), whose absorption shows vibrational progression. We use a generic exciton Hamiltonian coupled to a bath, characterized by a spectral density. Fluctuations have smooth, while vibtations have δ -type spectral densities. We show how various scenarios of correlated molecular fluctuations lead to some highly oscillatory crosspeaks. Molecular vibrations cause progression of diagonal peaks in the 2D spectrum and make their corresponding cross-peaks highly oscillatory. We, thus, demonstrate that bath fluctuations and molecular vibrations of realistic molecular aggregates are highly entangled in 2D spectroscopy. DA acknowledges grant VP1-3.1-SMM-07-V, SM - the grants CHE0745892 (NSF), DRPA BAA-10-40 QUBE.

  6. Special nuclear material simulation device

    DOEpatents

    Leckey, John H.; DeMint, Amy; Gooch, Jack; Hawk, Todd; Pickett, Chris A.; Blessinger, Chris; York, Robbie L.

    2014-08-12

    An apparatus for simulating special nuclear material is provided. The apparatus typically contains a small quantity of special nuclear material (SNM) in a configuration that simulates a much larger quantity of SNM. Generally the apparatus includes a spherical shell that is formed from an alloy containing a small quantity of highly enriched uranium. Also typically provided is a core of depleted uranium. A spacer, typically aluminum, may be used to separate the depleted uranium from the shell of uranium alloy. A cladding, typically made of titanium, is provided to seal the source. Methods are provided to simulate SNM for testing radiation monitoring portals. Typically the methods use at least one primary SNM spectral line and exclude at least one secondary SNM spectral line.

  7. Comparison of 2-D model simulations of ozone and nitrous oxide at high latitudes with stratospheric measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proffitt, M. H.; Solomon, S.; Loewenstein, M.

    1992-01-01

    A linear reference relationship between O3 and N2O has been used to estimate polar winter O3 loss from aircraft data taken in the lower stratosphere. Here, this relationship is evaluated at high latitudes by comparing it with a 2D model simulation and with NIMBUS 7 satellite measurements. Although comparisons with satellite measurements are limited to January through May, the model simulations are compared during other seasons. The model simulations and the satellite data are found to be consistent with the winter O3 loss analysis. It is shown that such analyses are likely to be inappropriate during other seasons.

  8. 2D Numerical simulations of intraoceanic subduction: the case study of the Ligurian Alps.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malatesta, Cristina; Gerya, Taras; Federico, Laura; Scambelluri, Marco; Crispini, Laura; Capponi, Giovanni

    2010-05-01

    Intraoceanic subduction is an important part of the present and past subduction systems, and some features of such process are not yet fully understood. We therefore studied intraoceanic subduction zones with the help of 2D numerical models, analyzing the parameters influencing their evolution in time and space. We applied the finite differences method on a rectangular grid, to calculate properties such as pressure, temperatures and velocities inside the models solving a set of equations. The latter comprise the Stokes equation of motion, the continuity equation and the heat transport equation. Temperature and velocities are computed on the nodes of the grid whereas pressures are calculated for the geometrical centers of the cells. We defined material properties such as density or viscosity on marker points, initially positioned on a regular rectangular grid. The markers and therefore the material properties are moved through the mesh according to the velocity field using the forth order Runge-Kutta method (Gerya et al. 2002). Subduction is forced to begin at a weak zone in the lithospheric mantle within an oceanic basin of prescribed width. The effect of different arrangements of rock bodies inside the subducting lithosphere on the evolution of the process was carefully analyzed. In particular we reproduced two distinct structures of the oceanic lithosphere: i) the layered oceanic crust made up of a stratified succession typical of fast-spreading ridges and ii) the oceanic lithosphere typical of slow and ultra-slow spreading centers, where an incomplete sequence is observable. The latter structure lacks a sheeted dike complex, has a low volume of gabbros and basalts and gabbros form discrete intrusions in variably serpentinized peridotites (Lagabrielle et al., 1997; Mével, 2003). Such an "heterogeneous" structure is characteristic of the Alpine and Appennine ophiolites that characterized the Mesozoic Ligurian Tethys located between Europe and Adria. The depth of

  9. Mach number validation of a new zonal CFD method (ZAP2D) for airfoil simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strash, Daniel J.; Summa, Michael; Yoo, Sungyul

    1991-01-01

    A closed-loop overlapped velocity coupling procedure has been utilized to combine a two-dimensional potential-flow panel code and a Navier-Stokes code. The fully coupled two-zone code (ZAP2D) has been used to compute the flow past a NACA 0012 airfoil at Mach numbers ranging from 0.3 to 0.84 near the two-dimensional airfoil C(lmax) point for a Reynolds number of 3 million. For these cases, the grid domain size can be reduced to 3 chord lengths with less than 3-percent loss in accuracy for freestream Mach numbers through 0.8. Earlier validation work with ZAP2D has demonstrated a reduction in the required Navier-Stokes computation time by a factor of 4 for subsonic Mach numbers. For this more challenging condition of high lift and Mach number, the saving in CPU time is reduced to a factor of 2.

  10. EDGE2D Simulations of JET{sup 13}C Migration Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    J.D. Strachan; J.P. Coad; G. Corrigan; G.F. Matthews; J. Spence

    2004-06-16

    Material migration has received renewed interest due to tritium retention associated with carbon transport to remote vessel locations. Those results influence the desirability of carbon usage on ITER. Subsequently, additional experiments have been performed, including tracer experiments attempting to identify material migration from specific locations. In this paper, EDGE2D models a well-diagnosed JET{sup 13}C tracer migration experiment. The role of SOL flows upon the migration patterns is identified.

  11. Simulation of multi-steps thermal transition in 2D spin-crossover nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jureschi, Catalin-Maricel; Pottier, Benjamin-Louis; Linares, Jorge; Richard Dahoo, Pierre; Alayli, Yasser; Rotaru, Aurelian

    2016-04-01

    We have used an Ising like model to study the thermal behavior of a 2D spin crossover (SCO) system embedded in a matrix. The interaction parameter between edge SCO molecules and its local environment was included in the standard Ising like model as an additional term. The influence of the system's size and the ratio between the number of edge molecules and the other molecules were also discussed.

  12. Numerical Simulation of Slinger Combustor Using 2-D Axisymmetric Computational Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Semin; Park, Soo Hyung; Lee, Donghun

    2010-06-01

    Small-size turbojet engines have difficulties in maintaining the chemical reaction due to the limitation of chamber size. The combustion chamber is generally designed to improve the reaction efficiency by the generation of vortices in the chamber and to enhance air-fuel mixing characteristics. In the initial stage of designing the combustor, analysis of the 3-D full configuration is not practical due to the huge time consuming computation and grid generation followed by modifications of the geometry. In the present paper, an axisymmetric model maintaining geometric similarity and flow characteristic of 3-D configuration is developed. Based on numerical results from the full 3-D configuration, model reduction is achieved toward 2-D axisymmetric configuration. In the modeling process, the area and location of each hole in 3-D full configuration are considered reasonably and replaced to the 2-D axisymmetric model. By using the 2-D axisymmetric model, the factor that can affect the performance is investigated with the assumption that the flow is non-reacting and turbulent. Numerical results from the present model show a good agreement with numerical results from 3-D full configuration model such as existence of vortex pair in forward region and total pressure loss. By simplifying the complex 3-D model, computing time can be remarkably reduced and it makes easy to find effects of geometry modification.

  13. Simulator scene display evaluation device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, R. F. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    An apparatus for aligning and calibrating scene displays in an aircraft simulator has a base on which all of the instruments for the aligning and calibrating are mounted. Laser directs beam at double right prism which is attached to pivoting support on base. The pivot point of the prism is located at the design eye point (DEP) of simulator during the aligning and calibrating. The objective lens in the base is movable on a track to follow the laser beam at different angles within the field of vision at the DEP. An eyepiece and a precision diopter are movable into a position behind the prism during the scene evaluation. A photometer or illuminometer is pivotable about the pivot into and out of position behind the eyepiece.

  14. Intraoperative evaluation of device placement in spine surgery using known-component 3D-2D image registration.

    PubMed

    Uneri, A; De Silva, T; Goerres, J; Jacobson, M W; Ketcha, M D; Reaungamornrat, S; Kleinszig, G; Vogt, S; Khanna, A J; Osgood, G M; Wolinsky, J-P; Siewerdsen, J H

    2017-04-21

    Intraoperative x-ray radiography/fluoroscopy is commonly used to assess the placement of surgical devices in the operating room (e.g. spine pedicle screws), but qualitative interpretation can fail to reliably detect suboptimal delivery and/or breach of adjacent critical structures. We present a 3D-2D image registration method wherein intraoperative radiographs are leveraged in combination with prior knowledge of the patient and surgical components for quantitative assessment of device placement and more rigorous quality assurance (QA) of the surgical product. The algorithm is based on known-component registration (KC-Reg) in which patient-specific preoperative CT and parametric component models are used. The registration performs optimization of gradient similarity, removes the need for offline geometric calibration of the C-arm, and simultaneously solves for multiple component bodies, thereby allowing QA in a single step (e.g. spinal construct with 4-20 screws). Performance was tested in a spine phantom, and first clinical results are reported for QA of transpedicle screws delivered in a patient undergoing thoracolumbar spine surgery. Simultaneous registration of ten pedicle screws (five contralateral pairs) demonstrated mean target registration error (TRE) of 1.1  ±  0.1 mm at the screw tip and 0.7  ±  0.4° in angulation when a prior geometric calibration was used. The calibration-free formulation, with the aid of component collision constraints, achieved TRE of 1.4  ±  0.6 mm. In all cases, a statistically significant improvement (p  <  0.05) was observed for the simultaneous solutions in comparison to previously reported sequential solution of individual components. Initial application in clinical data in spine surgery demonstrated TRE of 2.7  ±  2.6 mm and 1.5  ±  0.8°. The KC-Reg algorithm offers an independent check and quantitative QA of the surgical product using radiographic/fluoroscopic views

  15. Two Dimensional Electrostrictive Field Effect Transistor (2D-EFET): A sub-60mV/decade Steep Slope Device with High ON current

    PubMed Central

    Das, Saptarshi

    2016-01-01

    This article proposes a disruptive device concept which meets both low power and high performance criterion for post-CMOS computing and at the same time enables aggressive channel length scaling. This device, hereafter refer to as two-dimensional electrostrictive field effect transistor or 2D-EFET, allows sub-60 mV/decade subthreshold swing and considerably higher ON current compared to any state of the art FETs. Additionally, by the virtue of its ultra-thin body nature and electrostatic integrity, the 2D-EFET enjoys scaling beyond 10 nm technology node. The 2D-EFET works on the principle of voltage induced strain transduction. It uses an electrostrictive material as gate oxide which expands in response to an applied gate bias and thereby transduces an out-of-plane stress on the 2D channel material. This stress reduces the inter-layer distance between the consecutive layers of the semiconducting 2D material and dynamically reduces its bandgap to zero i.e. converts it into a semi-metal. Thus the device operates with a large bandgap in the OFF state and a small or zero bandgap in the ON state. As a consequence of this transduction mechanism, internal voltage amplification takes place which results in sub-60 mV/decade subthreshold swing (SS). PMID:27721489

  16. Two Dimensional Electrostrictive Field Effect Transistor (2D-EFET): A sub-60mV/decade Steep Slope Device with High ON current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Saptarshi

    2016-10-01

    This article proposes a disruptive device concept which meets both low power and high performance criterion for post-CMOS computing and at the same time enables aggressive channel length scaling. This device, hereafter refer to as two-dimensional electrostrictive field effect transistor or 2D-EFET, allows sub-60 mV/decade subthreshold swing and considerably higher ON current compared to any state of the art FETs. Additionally, by the virtue of its ultra-thin body nature and electrostatic integrity, the 2D-EFET enjoys scaling beyond 10 nm technology node. The 2D-EFET works on the principle of voltage induced strain transduction. It uses an electrostrictive material as gate oxide which expands in response to an applied gate bias and thereby transduces an out-of-plane stress on the 2D channel material. This stress reduces the inter-layer distance between the consecutive layers of the semiconducting 2D material and dynamically reduces its bandgap to zero i.e. converts it into a semi-metal. Thus the device operates with a large bandgap in the OFF state and a small or zero bandgap in the ON state. As a consequence of this transduction mechanism, internal voltage amplification takes place which results in sub-60 mV/decade subthreshold swing (SS).

  17. Sensitivity of 2D IR Spectra to Peptide Helicity: A Concerted Experimental and Simulation Study of an Octapeptide

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Neelanjana; Maekawa, Hiroaki; Zhuang, Wei; Toniolo, Claudio; Mukamel, Shaul; Tobias, Douglas J.; Ge, Nien-Hui

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated the sensitivity of two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectroscopy to peptide helicity with an experimental and theoretical study of Z-[L-(αMe)Val]8-OtBu in CDCl3. 2D IR experiments were carried out in the amide-I region under the parallel and the double-crossed polarization configurations. In the latter polarization configuration, the 2D spectra taken with the rephasing and nonrephasing pulse sequences exhibit a doublet feature and a single peak, respectively. These cross-peak patterns are highly sensitive to the underlying peptide structure. Spectral calculations were performed on the basis of a vibrational exciton model, with the local mode frequencies and couplings calculated from snapshots of molecular dynamics (MD) simulation trajectories using six different models for the Hamiltonian. Conformationally variant segments of the MD trajectory, while reproducing the main features of the experimental spectra, are characterized by extraneous features, suggesting that the structural ensembles sampled by the simulation are too broad. By imposing periodic restraints on the peptide dihedral angles with the crystal structure as a reference, much better agreement between the measured and the calculated spectra was achieved. The result indicates that the structure of Z-[L-(αMe)Val]8-OtBu in CDCl3 is a fully developed 310-helix with only a small fraction of α-helical or nonhelical conformations in the middle of the peptide. Of the four different combinations of pulse sequences and polarization configurations, the nonrephasing double-crossed polarization 2D IR spectrum exhibits the highest sensitivity in detecting conformational variation. Of the six local mode frequency models tested, the electrostatic maps of Mukamel and Cho perform the best. Our results show that the high sensitivity of 2D IR spectroscopy can provide a useful basis for developing methods to improve the sampling accuracy of force fields and for characterizing the relative merits of

  18. Enhanced job control language procedures for the SIMSYS2D two-dimensional water-quality simulation system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karavitis, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    The SIMSYS2D two-dimensional water-quality simulation system is a large-scale digital modeling software system used to simulate flow and transport of solutes in freshwater and estuarine environments. Due to the size, processing requirements, and complexity of the system, there is a need to easily move the system and its associated files between computer sites when required. A series of job control language (JCL) procedures was written to allow transferability between IBM and IBM-compatible computers. (USGS)

  19. Understanding the colloidal dispersion stability of 1D and 2D materials: Perspectives from molecular simulations and theoretical modeling.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shangchao; Shih, Chih-Jen; Sresht, Vishnu; Govind Rajan, Ananth; Strano, Michael S; Blankschtein, Daniel

    2016-08-03

    The colloidal dispersion stability of 1D and 2D materials in the liquid phase is critical for scalable nano-manufacturing, chemical modification, composites production, and deployment as conductive inks or nanofluids. Here, we review recent computational and theoretical studies carried out by our group to model the dispersion stability of 1D and 2D materials, including single-walled carbon nanotubes, graphene, and graphene oxide in aqueous surfactant solutions or organic solvents. All-atomistic (AA) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations can probe the molecular level details of the adsorption morphology of surfactants and solvents around these materials, as well as quantify the interaction energy between the nanomaterials mediated by surfactants or solvents. Utilizing concepts from reaction kinetics and diffusion, one can directly predict the rate constants for the aggregation kinetics and dispersion life times using MD outputs. Furthermore, the use of coarse-grained (CG) MD simulations allows quantitative prediction of surfactant adsorption isotherms. Combined with the Poisson-Boltzmann equation, the Langmuir isotherm, and the DLVO theory, one can directly use CGMD outputs to: (i) predict electrostatic potentials around the nanomaterial, (ii) correlate surfactant surface coverages with surfactant concentrations in the bulk dispersion medium, and (iii) determine energy barriers against coagulation. Finally, we discuss challenges associated with studying emerging 2D materials, such as, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), phosphorene, and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), including molybdenum disulfide (MoS2). An outlook is provided to address these challenges with plans to develop force-field parameters for MD simulations to enable predictive modeling of emerging 2D materials in the liquid phase.

  20. HEAT.PRO - THERMAL IMBALANCE FORCE SIMULATION AND ANALYSIS USING PDE2D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vigue, Y.

    1994-01-01

    HEAT.PRO calculates the thermal imbalance force resulting from satellite surface heating. The heated body of a satellite re-radiates energy at a rate that is proportional to its temperature, losing the energy in the form of photons. By conservation of momentum, this momentum flux out of the body creates a reaction force against the radiation surface, and the net thermal force can be observed as a small perturbation that affects long term orbital behavior of the satellite. HEAT.PRO calculates this thermal imbalance force and then determines its effects on satellite orbits, especially where the Earth's shadowing of an orbiting satellite causes periodic changes in the spacecraft's thermal environment. HEAT.PRO implements a finite element method routine called PDE2D which incorporates material properties to determine the solar panel surface temperatures. The nodal temperatures are computed at specified time steps and are used to determine the magnitude and direction of the thermal force on the spacecraft. These calculations are based on the solar panel orientation and satellite's position with respect to the earth and sun. It is necessary to have accurate, current knowledge of surface emissivity, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, and material density. These parameters, which may change due to degradation of materials in the environment of space, influence the nodal temperatures that are computed and thus the thermal force calculations. HEAT.PRO was written in FORTRAN 77 for Cray series computers running UNICOS. The source code contains directives for and is used as input to the required partial differential equation solver, PDE2D. HEAT.PRO is available on a 9-track 1600 BPI magnetic tape in UNIX tar format (standard distribution medium) or a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format. An electronic copy of the documentation in Macintosh Microsoft Word format is included on the distribution tape. HEAT.PRO was developed in 1991. Cray and UNICOS are

  1. Implementation, study and calibration of a modified ASM2d for the simulation of SBR processes.

    PubMed

    Marsili Libelli, S; Ratini, P; Spagni, A; Bortone, G

    2001-01-01

    An enhanced process model for SBRs has been developed. Though the basic mechanism largely draws on the Activated Sludge Model n. 2d, its new features are the splitting of the nitrification stage in a two-step process, according to the well known Nitrosomonas-Nitrobacter oxidation sequence, and an improved XPAO dynamics, involved in the anaerobic/aerobic phosphorus removal process. The model was implemented through the DLL technique allowing complied C++ modules to be linked to an ordinary Simulink block diagram. The static sensitivity study revealed that if the parameter vector is partitioned into subsets of biologically related parameters and calibrated separately, the calibration procedure does not present particularly difficult aspects. Trajectory sensitivity showed also to which extent data collection could be optimised in order to improve calibration accuracy. The study of the shape of the error functional generated by parameters couples allows a much more effective calibration strategy.

  2. Capacitive Deionization: a coupled 2D electro-adsorption/convective-diffusive simulation for various system configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidrovo, Carlos; Salamat, Yasamin

    2016-11-01

    Capacitive Deionization (CDI) is a relatively new electrically based desalination method that uses porous media to adsorb ions in solution from water, with the potential to recover part of the energy used during the desalination process. Previous studies have investigated the physics underlying the electro-adsorption process in the electrical double layers in the CDI porous electrodes. In order to improve CDI performance in terms of minimum average concentration, total amount of water treated, and duration of the desalination process, herein we propose and evaluate different CDI architectures. Two previously validated 2D and 1D models are used alongside each other to study different CDI system configurations based on various convective-diffusive layer regimes. Moreover, the effects of micro pore and macro pore capacities on the total number of ions adsorbed in the porous media is investigated. This will open new opportunities for further researches toward engineered CDI units for better desalination.

  3. Charge balancing in GaN-based 2-D electron gas devices employing an additional 2-D hole gas and its influence on dynamic behaviour of GaN-based heterostructure field effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, Herwig Reuters, Benjamin; Geipel, Sascha; Schauerte, Meike; Kalisch, Holger; Vescan, Andrei; Benkhelifa, Fouad; Ambacher, Oliver

    2015-03-14

    GaN-based heterostructure FETs (HFETs) featuring a 2-D electron gas (2DEG) can offer very attractive device performance for power-switching applications. This performance can be assessed by evaluation of the dynamic on-resistance R{sub on,dyn} vs. the breakdown voltage V{sub bd}. In literature, it has been shown that with a high V{sub bd}, R{sub on,dyn} is deteriorated. The impairment of R{sub on,dyn} is mainly driven by electron injection into surface, barrier, and buffer traps. Electron injection itself depends on the electric field which typically peaks at the gate edge towards the drain. A concept suitable to circumvent this issue is the charge-balancing concept which employs a 2-D hole gas (2DHG) on top of the 2DEG allowing for the electric field peak to be suppressed. Furthermore, the 2DEG concentration in the active channel cannot decrease by a change of the surface potential. Hence, beside an improvement in breakdown voltage, also an improvement in dynamic behaviour can be expected. Whereas the first aspect has already been demonstrated, the second one has not been under investigation so far. Hence, in this report, the effect of charge-balancing is discussed and its impact on the dynamic characteristics of HFETs is evaluated. It will be shown that with appropriate device design, the dynamic behaviour of HFETs can be improved by inserting an additional 2DHG.

  4. Numerical Simulations of High-Frequency Respiratory Flows in 2D and 3D Lung Bifurcation Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zixi; Parameswaran, Shamini; Hu, Yingying; He, Zhaoming; Raj, Rishi; Parameswaran, Siva

    2014-07-01

    To better understand the human pulmonary system and optimize the high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) design, numerical simulations were conducted under normal breathing frequency and HFOV condition using a CFD code Ansys Fluent and its user-defined C programs. 2D and 3D double bifurcating lung models were created, and the geometry corresponds to fifth to seventh generations of airways with the dimensions based on the Weibel's pulmonary model. Computations were carried out for different Reynolds numbers (Re = 400 and 1000) and Womersley numbers (α = 4 and 16) to study the air flow fields, gas transportation, and wall shear stresses in the lung airways. Flow structure was compared with experimental results. Both 2D and 3D numerical models successfully reproduced many results observed in the experiment. The oxygen concentration distribution in the lung model was investigated to analyze the influence of flow oscillation on gas transport inside the lung model.

  5. Tracer dispersion simulation in low wind speed conditions with a new 2D Langevin equation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anfossi, D.; Alessandrini, S.; Trini Castelli, S.; Ferrero, E.; Oettl, D.; Degrazia, G.

    The simulation of atmospheric dispersion in low wind speed conditions (LW) is still recognised as a challenge for modellers. Recently, a new system of two coupled Langevin equations that explicitly accounts for meandering has been proposed. It is based on the study of turbulence and dispersion properties in LW. The new system was implemented in the Lagrangian stochastic particle models LAMBDA and GRAL. In this paper we present simulations with this new approach applying it to the tracer experiments carried out in LW by Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL, USA) in 1974 and by the Graz University of Technology and CNR-Torino near Graz in 2003. To assess the improvement obtained with the present model with respect to previous models not taking into account the meandering effect, the simulations for the INEL experiments were also performed with the old version of LAMBDA. The results of the comparisons clearly indicate that the new approach improves the simulation results.

  6. A quasi-2D flood modeling approach to simulate substance transport in polder systems for environment flood risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Lindenschmidt, Karl-Erich; Huang, Shaochun; Baborowski, Martina

    2008-07-01

    In flood modeling, many one-dimensional (1D) hydrodynamic and water quality models are too restricted in capturing the spatial differentiation of processes within a polder or system of polders and two-dimensional (2D) models are too demanding in data requirements and computational resources, especially if Monte-Carlo techniques are to be used for model uncertainty analyses. The first goal of this paper is to show the successful development of a quasi-2D modeling approach which still calculates the dynamic wave in 1D but the discretisation of the computational units is in 2D, allowing a better spatial representation of the flow and substance transport processes in the polders without a large additional expenditure on data pre-processing and simulation processing. The models DYNHYD (1D hydrodynamics) and TOXI (sediment and micro-pollutant transport) were used as a basis for the hydrodynamic and water quality simulations. An extreme flood event on the Elbe River, Germany, with a proposed polder system variant was used as a test case. The results show a plausible differentiation of suspended sediment and zinc concentrations within the polders both spatially and temporally. This fulfills the second goal of this research. The third goal of this work is to provide an example methodology of carrying out an environmental risk assessment in inundated areas by flood waters, as required by the European Union floods directive. The deposition of zinc in polders was used for this example, due to its high contamination potential in the Elbe River. The extended quasi-2D modeling system incorporates a Monte-Carlo uncertainty analysis to assess the environmental impact of heavy metal deposition in the polders during extreme flooding. The environmental risk computed gives a 48% chance of exceeding the inspection value of 500 mg zinc/kg sediment for a flood such as the August 2002 event.

  7. Monte Carlo Simulations of Charge Transport in 2D Organic Photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Gagorik, Adam G; Mohin, Jacob W; Kowalewski, Tomasz; Hutchison, Geoffrey R

    2013-01-03

    The effect of morphology on charge transport in organic photovoltaics is assessed using Monte Carlo. In isotopic two-phase morphologies, increasing the domain size from 6.3 to 18.3 nm improves the fill factor by 11.6%, a result of decreased tortuosity and relaxation of Coulombic barriers. Additionally, when small aggregates of electron acceptors are interdispersed into the electron donor phase, charged defects form in the system, reducing fill factors by 23.3% on average, compared with systems without aggregates. In contrast, systems with idealized connectivity show a 3.31% decrease in fill factor when domain size was increased from 4 to 64 nm. We attribute this to a decreased rate of exciton separation at donor-acceptor interfaces. Finally, we notice that the presence of Coulomb interactions increases device performance as devices become smaller. The results suggest that for commonly found isotropic morphologies the Coulomb interactions between charge carriers dominates exciton separation effects.

  8. Simulations of the infrared, Raman, and 2D-IR photon echo spectra of water in nanoscale silica pores

    SciTech Connect

    Burris, Paul C.; Laage, Damien; Thompson, Ward H.

    2016-05-20

    Vibrational spectroscopy is frequently used to characterize nanoconfined liquids and probe the effect of the confining framework on the liquid structure and dynamics relative to the corresponding bulk fluid. However, it is still unclear what molecular-level information can be obtained from such measurements. In this Paper, we address this question by using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to reproduce the linear infrared (IR), Raman, and two-dimensional IR (2D-IR) photon echo spectra for water confined within hydrophilic (hydroxyl-terminated) silica mesopores. To simplify the spectra the OH stretching region of isotopically dilute HOD in D2O is considered. An empirical mapping approach is used to obtain the OH vibrational frequencies, transition dipoles, and transition polarizabilities from the MD simulations. The simulated linear IR and Raman spectra are in good general agreement with measured spectra of water in mesoporous silica reported in the literature. The key effect of confinement on the water spectrum is a vibrational blueshift for OH groups that are closest to the pore interface. The blueshift can be attributed to the weaker hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) formed between the OH groups and silica oxygen acceptors. Non-Condon effects greatly diminish the contribution of these OH moieties to the linear IR spectrum, but these weaker H-bonds are readily apparent in the Raman spectrum. The 2D-IR spectra have not yet been measured and thus the present results represent a prediction. Lastly, the simulated spectra indicate that it should be possible to probe the slower spectral diffusion of confined water compared to the bulk liquid by analysis of the 2D-IR spectra.

  9. Simulations of the infrared, Raman, and 2D-IR photon echo spectra of water in nanoscale silica pores.

    PubMed

    Burris, Paul C; Laage, Damien; Thompson, Ward H

    2016-05-21

    Vibrational spectroscopy is frequently used to characterize nanoconfined liquids and probe the effect of the confining framework on the liquid structure and dynamics relative to the corresponding bulk fluid. However, it is still unclear what molecular-level information can be obtained from such measurements. In this paper, we address this question by using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to reproduce the linear infrared (IR), Raman, and two-dimensional IR (2D-IR) photon echo spectra for water confined within hydrophilic (hydroxyl-terminated) silica mesopores. To simplify the spectra the OH stretching region of isotopically dilute HOD in D2O is considered. An empirical mapping approach is used to obtain the OH vibrational frequencies, transition dipoles, and transition polarizabilities from the MD simulations. The simulated linear IR and Raman spectra are in good general agreement with measured spectra of water in mesoporous silica reported in the literature. The key effect of confinement on the water spectrum is a vibrational blueshift for OH groups that are closest to the pore interface. The blueshift can be attributed to the weaker hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) formed between the OH groups and silica oxygen acceptors. Non-Condon effects greatly diminish the contribution of these OH moieties to the linear IR spectrum, but these weaker H-bonds are readily apparent in the Raman spectrum. The 2D-IR spectra have not yet been measured and thus the present results represent a prediction. The simulated spectra indicates that it should be possible to probe the slower spectral diffusion of confined water compared to the bulk liquid by analysis of the 2D-IR spectra.

  10. Simulations of the infrared, Raman, and 2D-IR photon echo spectra of water in nanoscale silica pores

    DOE PAGES

    Burris, Paul C.; Laage, Damien; Thompson, Ward H.

    2016-05-20

    Vibrational spectroscopy is frequently used to characterize nanoconfined liquids and probe the effect of the confining framework on the liquid structure and dynamics relative to the corresponding bulk fluid. However, it is still unclear what molecular-level information can be obtained from such measurements. In this Paper, we address this question by using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to reproduce the linear infrared (IR), Raman, and two-dimensional IR (2D-IR) photon echo spectra for water confined within hydrophilic (hydroxyl-terminated) silica mesopores. To simplify the spectra the OH stretching region of isotopically dilute HOD in D2O is considered. An empirical mapping approach is usedmore » to obtain the OH vibrational frequencies, transition dipoles, and transition polarizabilities from the MD simulations. The simulated linear IR and Raman spectra are in good general agreement with measured spectra of water in mesoporous silica reported in the literature. The key effect of confinement on the water spectrum is a vibrational blueshift for OH groups that are closest to the pore interface. The blueshift can be attributed to the weaker hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) formed between the OH groups and silica oxygen acceptors. Non-Condon effects greatly diminish the contribution of these OH moieties to the linear IR spectrum, but these weaker H-bonds are readily apparent in the Raman spectrum. The 2D-IR spectra have not yet been measured and thus the present results represent a prediction. Lastly, the simulated spectra indicate that it should be possible to probe the slower spectral diffusion of confined water compared to the bulk liquid by analysis of the 2D-IR spectra.« less

  11. Impact of uncertainties in parameterized cloud-microphysical processes on the simulated development of an idealized 2-D squall line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelson, Sara; Bao, Jian-Wen; Grell, Evelyn

    2016-04-01

    In this study, numerical model simulations of an idealized 2-D squall line are investigated using microphysics budget analysis. Four commonly-used microphysics schemes of various complexity are used in the simulations. Diagnoses of the source and sink terms of the hydrometeor budget equations reveal that the differences related to the assumptions of hydrometeor size-distributions between the schemes lead to the differences in the simulations due to the net effect of various microphysical processes on the interaction between latent heating/evaporative cooling and flow dynamics as the squall line develops. Results from this study also highlight the possibility that the advantage of double-moment formulations can be overshadowed by the uncertainties in the spectral definition of individual hydrometeor categories and spectrum-dependent microphysical processes.

  12. The 2-D simulations of the NRL (Naval Research Laboratory) laser experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, J. G.

    1985-05-01

    Two-dimensional gas-dynamic simulations of the NRL laser experiment have been performed to study the formation of aneurysms in the blast wave and to study the formation of structure internal to the blast front itself. In one set of simulations the debris shell was perturbed sinusoidally in mass and position and also perturbed to mimic the action of a slow jet of material leaving the target at slower speeds than the bulk of the debris. In all cases the blast wave remained stable to any aneurysm-like instability. Internal structure, however, was quite easily produced and grew as a function of time. In the other set of simulations the effect of a pre-heated channel upon the propagation of the blast wave was examined. Bulges in the blast wave shock front were produced in these simulations that could be the beginning of the aneurysm phenomenon, but the preheated channel by itself appears to be insufficient to produce the observed aneurysm.

  13. Possibilities and limitations of 2D and 3D rockfall simulations - which kinds of uncertainties do we have to consider?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellmeier, B.; Thuro, K.

    2012-04-01

    In between the last years rock falls seem to occur more often in high mountainous regions. Linked with the climate change problem, this topic is mentioned in the media more and more frequently. As a consequence, especially in populated alpine regions in Europe, public authorities have to act more and more towards prevention of rock fall events. Important questions in that context are how events can be predicted more precisely in the future and how mitigation methods can be improved in endangered areas. On that purpose, a research project has been established giving an input in different ways by means of a project site which is situated along the federal road B 305 between Unterjettenberg and Schwarzbachwacht near Berchtesgaden in the Bavarian Alps, Germany. In that context the uncertainties concerning field work in difficult terrain are considered with regard to the subsequent simulations. It is often the case that not every part of the rock fall site can be examined in the same way. A further origin of uncertainty is the variation of the initial parameters in between a certain period of time. For example the variation of forest stands parameters because of windbreakage or avalanches. Consequently the factors of uncertainty and their possible consequences for the simulations will be analyzed. As further aspects of the project it is intended to compare the possibilities and limitations of 2D and 3D rock fall simulations concerning the runout zones. In particular the application ranges of both methods will be analyzed using the 2 dimensional simulation codes Rockfall (Dr. Spang) and Rofmod 2D (Geotest) in comparison with the 3 dimensional simulation code Rofmod 3D (Geotest). In this contribution the results of the field work, the analyses of the uncertainties concerning the initial parameters of rockfall simulations will be presented. (SELLMEIER & THURO 2011)

  14. 3-D heterogeneous field data versus 2-D simulations. How can it be accomplished in a sedimentary porous formation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darvini, G.; Salandin, P.

    2009-12-01

    To analyze the impact of the hydraulic conductivity K spatial variability in a real field case (as an example to delimitate a well catchment), numerical simulations can be reasonably developed in a two-dimensional vertical average context. Nevertheless the plume evolution is a consequence of a more complex three-dimensional heterogeneous structure whose vertical variability dominates the dispersion phenomena at local scale. In larger domains, the effect of the vertical heterogeneity combines itself with that one due to the horizontal variability of K, and only when the plume has travelled a large number of (horizontal) integral scales, its evolution can be analyzed in a regional context, under the hypothesis that the transmissivity spatial distribution prevails. Until this limit is reached, the vertical and horizontal variability of K are combined to give a fully 3-D dispersion process. In all these situations, to successfully accomplish the 3-D heterogeneous structure of the aquifer in 2-D simulations, more than the planimetric depth-averaged variability of K must be accounted for. To define the uncertainty related to the use of different planimetric schematizations of the real hydraulic conductivity spatial distribution, we present here the results of some numerical experiments that compare the 3-D plume evolution with 2-D simulations developed by tacking into account different hydraulic conductivity distribution schematization, by considering a hierarchical architecture of media also. This description of a sedimentary formation combined with the finite size of the plume requires theoretical and numerical tools able to take into account the flow field inhomogeneity and the ergodicity lack that characterize the transport phenomena. Following this way it will be possible to quantify / reduce the uncertainty related to a 2-D schematization in a large number of real cases where the domain spans between the local and the regional scale and whose dimension may lead to

  15. Numerical simulation of turbulent heat transfer past a backward-facing step: 2D/3D RANS versus IDDES solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, E. M.; Smirnovsky, A. A.; Schur, N. A.; Zaitsev, D. K.; Smirnov, P. E.

    2016-09-01

    The contribution covers results of numerical study of air flow and heat transfer past a backward-facing step at the Reynolds number of 28,000. The numerical simulation was carried out under conditions of the experiments of Vogel&Eaton (1985), where nominally 2D fluid dynamics and heat transfer in a channel with expansion ratio of 1.25 was investigated. Two approaches were used for turbulence modelling. First, the Menter SST turbulence model was used to perform refined 2D and 3D RANS steady-state computations. The 3D analysis was undertaken to evaluate effects of boundary layers developing on the sidewalls of the experimental channel. Then, 3D time-dependent computations were carried out using the vortex-resolving IDDES method and applying the spanwise-periodicity conditions. Comparative computations were performed using an in-house finite-volume code SINF/Flag-S and the ANSYS Fluent. The codes produced practically identical RANS solutions, showing in particular a difference of 4% in the central-line peak Stanton number calculated in 2D and 3D cases. The IDDES results obtained with two codes are in a satisfactory agreement. Comparing with the experimental data, the IDDES produces the best agreement for the wall friction, whereas the RANS solutions show superiority in predictions of the local Stanton number distribution.

  16. Reliability of astrophysical jet simulations in 2D. On inter-code reliability and numerical convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, M.; Camenzind, M.

    2001-12-01

    In the present paper, we examine the convergence behavior and inter-code reliability of astrophysical jet simulations in axial symmetry. We consider both pure hydrodynamic jets and jets with a dynamically significant magnetic field. The setups were chosen to match the setups of two other publications, and recomputed with the MHD code NIRVANA. We show that NIRVANA and the two other codes give comparable, but not identical results. We explain the differences by the different application of artificial viscosity in the three codes and numerical details, which can be summarized in a resolution effect, in the case without magnetic field: NIRVANA turns out to be a fair code of medium efficiency. It needs approximately twice the resolution as the code by Lind (Lind et al. 1989) and half the resolution as the code by Kössl (Kössl & Müller 1988). We find that some global properties of a hydrodynamical jet simulation, like e.g. the bow shock velocity, converge at 100 points per beam radius (ppb) with NIRVANA. The situation is quite different after switching on the toroidal magnetic field: in this case, global properties converge even at 10 ppb. In both cases, details of the inner jet structure and especially the terminal shock region are still insufficiently resolved, even at our highest resolution of 70 ppb in the magnetized case and 400 ppb for the pure hydrodynamic jet. The magnetized jet even suffers from a fatal retreat of the Mach disk towards the inflow boundary, which indicates that this simulation does not converge, in the end. This is also in definite disagreement with earlier simulations, and challenges further studies of the problem with other codes. In the case of our highest resolution simulation, we can report two new features: first, small scale Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities are excited at the contact discontinuity next to the jet head. This slows down the development of the long wavelength Kelvin-Helmholtz instability and its turbulent cascade to smaller

  17. Analysis and Comparison of 2-D Hemodynamic Numerical Simulation of Elastic Aneurysm and Rigid Aneurysm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, J. W.; Ding, G. H.; Yin, W. Y.; Yang, X. J.; Shi, W. C.; Zhang, X. L.

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of hemodynamic parameters on the formation, growth and rupture of an aneurysm. Our simulation of the elastic and rigid aneurysm is based on a DSA or other clinic image. The simulatied results are that there are great differences in the distribution of velocity magnitude at some sections which are predicted by the two models. For the elastic wall model, the distribution of velocity magnitude of one outlet is obviously off-center, which influences the distribution of wall shear stress (WSS) and exchange of substance through the vessel wall. The currents of the distributions of WSS along the wall of aneurysm for the two models are similar. But there are obvious differences between the two models in the values especially at the neck of aneurysm. This study demonstrates obviously that the elastic wall model suits the simulation for growth and rupture of an aneurysm better.

  18. Generalized source method in curvilinear coordinates for 2D grating diffraction simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakov, Alexey A.; Tishchenko, Alexandre V.

    2017-01-01

    The article presents a curvilinear coordinate Fourier space integral method for linear optical rigorous grating diffraction simulation in 3D (crossed grating diffraction). The presented formulation extends our previous work on a related method for 1D periodic grating diffraction. Following this previous work we exploit a concept of the generalized metric sources to efficiently solve the Maxwell's equations. The article provides a general description of the method together with a detailed formulation and analysis of sinusoidal corrugation crossed grating diffraction.

  19. Comparisons between tokamak fueling of gas puffing and supersonic molecular beam injection in 2D simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Y. L.; Wang, Z. H.; Xu, X. Q.; Li, H. D.; Feng, H.; Sun, W. G.

    2015-01-09

    Plasma fueling with high efficiency and deep injection is very important to enable fusion power performance requirements. It is a powerful and efficient way to study neutral transport dynamics and find methods of improving the fueling performance by doing large scale simulations. Furthermore, two basic fueling methods, gas puffing (GP) and supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI), are simulated and compared in realistic divertor geometry of the HL-2A tokamak with a newly developed module, named trans-neut, within the framework of BOUT++ boundary plasma turbulence code [Z. H. Wang et al., Nucl. Fusion 54, 043019 (2014)]. The physical model includes plasma density, heat and momentum transport equations along with neutral density, and momentum transport equations. In transport dynamics and profile evolutions of both plasma and neutrals are simulated and compared between GP and SMBI in both poloidal and radial directions, which are quite different from one and the other. It finds that the neutrals can penetrate about four centimeters inside the last closed (magnetic) flux surface during SMBI, while they are all deposited outside of the LCF during GP. Moreover, it is the radial convection and larger inflowing flux which lead to the deeper penetration depth of SMBI and higher fueling efficiency compared to GP.

  20. Comparisons between tokamak fueling of gas puffing and supersonic molecular beam injection in 2D simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Y. L.; Wang, Z. H.; Xu, X. Q.; Li, H. D.; Feng, H.; Sun, W. G.

    2015-01-15

    Plasma fueling with high efficiency and deep injection is very important to enable fusion power performance requirements. It is a powerful and efficient way to study neutral transport dynamics and find methods of improving the fueling performance by doing large scale simulations. Two basic fueling methods, gas puffing (GP) and supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI), are simulated and compared in realistic divertor geometry of the HL-2A tokamak with a newly developed module, named trans-neut, within the framework of BOUT++ boundary plasma turbulence code [Z. H. Wang et al., Nucl. Fusion 54, 043019 (2014)]. The physical model includes plasma density, heat and momentum transport equations along with neutral density, and momentum transport equations. Transport dynamics and profile evolutions of both plasma and neutrals are simulated and compared between GP and SMBI in both poloidal and radial directions, which are quite different from one and the other. It finds that the neutrals can penetrate about four centimeters inside the last closed (magnetic) flux surface during SMBI, while they are all deposited outside of the LCF during GP. It is the radial convection and larger inflowing flux which lead to the deeper penetration depth of SMBI and higher fueling efficiency compared to GP.

  1. Comparisons between tokamak fueling of gas puffing and supersonic molecular beam injection in 2D simulations

    DOE PAGES

    Zhou, Y. L.; Wang, Z. H.; Xu, X. Q.; ...

    2015-01-09

    Plasma fueling with high efficiency and deep injection is very important to enable fusion power performance requirements. It is a powerful and efficient way to study neutral transport dynamics and find methods of improving the fueling performance by doing large scale simulations. Furthermore, two basic fueling methods, gas puffing (GP) and supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI), are simulated and compared in realistic divertor geometry of the HL-2A tokamak with a newly developed module, named trans-neut, within the framework of BOUT++ boundary plasma turbulence code [Z. H. Wang et al., Nucl. Fusion 54, 043019 (2014)]. The physical model includes plasma density,more » heat and momentum transport equations along with neutral density, and momentum transport equations. In transport dynamics and profile evolutions of both plasma and neutrals are simulated and compared between GP and SMBI in both poloidal and radial directions, which are quite different from one and the other. It finds that the neutrals can penetrate about four centimeters inside the last closed (magnetic) flux surface during SMBI, while they are all deposited outside of the LCF during GP. Moreover, it is the radial convection and larger inflowing flux which lead to the deeper penetration depth of SMBI and higher fueling efficiency compared to GP.« less

  2. Development of a 2-D large-scale micellar/polymer simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, B.

    1982-01-01

    A large-scale, two-dimensional, multicomponent, multiphase, compositional simulator for micellar/polymer flooding has been developed and applied. It can be used to calculate the areal sweep with any well pattern and any irregular reservoir boundary. This model involves both streamline and finite-difference techniques. Time invariant streamlines without transverse dispersion are assumed. The change in the flow rates into each streamline is accounted for as a function of mobility ratio. The sensitivity of the oil recovery for micellar/polymer flood to several reservoir and process variables was investigated. The reservoir variables included the well spacing, pattern type, pattern orientation in an anisotropic reservoir, and degree of confinement. The process variables included the salinity gradient, surfactant content of the slug, slug and polymer bank sizes, mobility ratio of polymer drive to oil bank, and polymer shear thinning effect. In order to demonstrate that this model is capable of handling large field problems, a large-scale simulation of the north lease of the El Dorado micellar/polymer pilot test was made. The simulated final oil recovery and the production histories of each producer are illustrated.

  3. A GPU Simulation Tool for Training and Optimisation in 2D Digital X-Ray Imaging.

    PubMed

    Gallio, Elena; Rampado, Osvaldo; Gianaria, Elena; Bianchi, Silvio Diego; Ropolo, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Conventional radiology is performed by means of digital detectors, with various types of technology and different performance in terms of efficiency and image quality. Following the arrival of a new digital detector in a radiology department, all the staff involved should adapt the procedure parameters to the properties of the detector, in order to achieve an optimal result in terms of correct diagnostic information and minimum radiation risks for the patient. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a software capable of simulating a digital X-ray imaging system, using graphics processing unit computing. All radiological image components were implemented in this application: an X-ray tube with primary beam, a virtual patient, noise, scatter radiation, a grid and a digital detector. Three different digital detectors (two digital radiography and a computed radiography systems) were implemented. In order to validate the software, we carried out a quantitative comparison of geometrical and anthropomorphic phantom simulated images with those acquired. In terms of average pixel values, the maximum differences were below 15%, while the noise values were in agreement with a maximum difference of 20%. The relative trends of contrast to noise ratio versus beam energy and intensity were well simulated. Total calculation times were below 3 seconds for clinical images with pixel size of actual dimensions less than 0.2 mm. The application proved to be efficient and realistic. Short calculation times and the accuracy of the results obtained make this software a useful tool for training operators and dose optimisation studies.

  4. A GPU Simulation Tool for Training and Optimisation in 2D Digital X-Ray Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Gallio, Elena; Rampado, Osvaldo; Gianaria, Elena; Bianchi, Silvio Diego; Ropolo, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Conventional radiology is performed by means of digital detectors, with various types of technology and different performance in terms of efficiency and image quality. Following the arrival of a new digital detector in a radiology department, all the staff involved should adapt the procedure parameters to the properties of the detector, in order to achieve an optimal result in terms of correct diagnostic information and minimum radiation risks for the patient. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a software capable of simulating a digital X-ray imaging system, using graphics processing unit computing. All radiological image components were implemented in this application: an X-ray tube with primary beam, a virtual patient, noise, scatter radiation, a grid and a digital detector. Three different digital detectors (two digital radiography and a computed radiography systems) were implemented. In order to validate the software, we carried out a quantitative comparison of geometrical and anthropomorphic phantom simulated images with those acquired. In terms of average pixel values, the maximum differences were below 15%, while the noise values were in agreement with a maximum difference of 20%. The relative trends of contrast to noise ratio versus beam energy and intensity were well simulated. Total calculation times were below 3 seconds for clinical images with pixel size of actual dimensions less than 0.2 mm. The application proved to be efficient and realistic. Short calculation times and the accuracy of the results obtained make this software a useful tool for training operators and dose optimisation studies. PMID:26545097

  5. Ultrafast 2D-IR and simulation investigations of preferential solvation and cosolvent exchange dynamics.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, Josef A; Arthur, Evan J; White, Aaron M; Kubarych, Kevin J

    2015-05-21

    Using a derivative of the vitamin biotin labeled with a transition-metal carbonyl vibrational probe in a series of aqueous N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) solutions, we observe a striking slowdown in spectral diffusion dynamics with decreased DMF concentration. Equilibrium solvation dynamics, measured with the rapidly acquired spectral diffusion (RASD) technique, a variant of heterodyne-detected photon-echo peak shift experiments, range from 1 ps in neat DMF to ∼3 ps in 0.07 mole fraction DMF/water solution. Molecular dynamics simulations of the biotin-metal carbonyl solute in explicit aqueous DMF solutions show marked preferential solvation by DMF, which becomes more pronounced at lower DMF concentrations. The simulations and the experimental data are consistent with an interpretation where the slowdown in spectral diffusion is due to solvent exchange involving distinct cosolvent species. A simple two-component model reproduces the observed spectral dynamics as well as the DMF concentration dependence, enabling the extraction of the solvent exchange time scale of 8 ps. This time scale corresponds to the diffusive motion of a few Å, consistent with a solvent-exchange mechanism. Unlike most previous studies of solvation dynamics in binary mixtures of polar solvents, our work highlights the ability of vibrational probes to sense solvent exchange as a new, slow component in the spectral diffusion dynamics.

  6. Real-time 2D floating-point fast Fourier transforms for seeker simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlain, Richard; Lord, Eric; Shand, David J.

    2002-07-01

    The floating point Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is one of the most useful basic functions available to the image and signal processing engineer allowing many complex and detailed special functions to be implemented more simply in the frequency domain. In the Hardware-in-the-Loop field an image transformed using FFT would allow the designer to think about accurate frequency based simulation of seeker lens effects, motion blur, detector transfer functions and much more. Unfortunately, the transform requires many hundreds of thousands or millions of floating point operations on a single modest sized image making it impractical for realtime Hardware-in-the-Loop systems. .until now. This paper outlines the development, by Nallatech, of an FPGA based IEEE floating point core. It traces the subsequent use of this core to develop a full 256 X 256 FFT and filter process implemented on COTS hardware at frame rates up to 150Hz. This transform can be demonstrated to model optical transfer functions at a far greater accuracy than the current spatial models. Other applications and extensions of this technique will be discussed such as filtering for image tracking algorithms and in the simulation of radar processing in the frequency domain.

  7. Simulation of 2D Kinetic Effects in Plasmas using the Grid Based Continuum Code LOKI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Jeffrey; Berger, Richard; Chapman, Tom; Brunner, Stephan

    2016-10-01

    Kinetic simulation of multi-dimensional plasma waves through direct discretization of the Vlasov equation is a useful tool to study many physical interactions and is particularly attractive for situations where minimal fluctuation levels are desired, for instance, when measuring growth rates of plasma wave instabilities. However, direct discretization of phase space can be computationally expensive, and as a result there are few examples of published results using Vlasov codes in more than a single configuration space dimension. In an effort to fill this gap we have developed the Eulerian-based kinetic code LOKI that evolves the Vlasov-Poisson system in 2+2-dimensional phase space. The code is designed to reduce the cost of phase-space computation by using fully 4th order accurate conservative finite differencing, while retaining excellent parallel scalability that efficiently uses large scale computing resources. In this poster I will discuss the algorithms used in the code as well as some aspects of their parallel implementation using MPI. I will also overview simulation results of basic plasma wave instabilities relevant to laser plasma interaction, which have been obtained using the code.

  8. Quantitative comparisons between experimentally measured 2-D carbon radiation and Monte Carlo impurity (MCI) code simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, T.E.; Leonard, A.W.; West, W.P.; Finkenthal, D.F.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Porter, G.D.

    1998-08-01

    Experimentally measured carbon line emissions and total radiated power distributions from the DIII-D divertor and Scrape-Off Layer (SOL) are compared to those calculated with the Monte Carlo Impurity (MCI) model. A UEDGE background plasma is used in MCI with the Roth and Garcia-Rosales (RG-R) chemical sputtering model and/or one of six physical sputtering models. While results from these simulations do not reproduce all of the features seen in the experimentally measured radiation patterns, the total radiated power calculated in MCI is in relatively good agreement with that measured by the DIII-D bolometric system when the Smith78 physical sputtering model is coupled to RG-R chemical sputtering in an unaltered UEDGE plasma. Alternatively, MCI simulations done with UEDGE background ion temperatures along the divertor target plates adjusted to better match those measured in the experiment resulted in three physical sputtering models which when coupled to the RG-R model gave a total radiated power that was within 10% of measured value.

  9. The cone penetration test and 2D imaging resistivity as tools to simulate the distribution of hydrocarbons in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Corona, M.; García, J. A.; Taller, G.; Polgár, D.; Bustos, E.; Plank, Z.

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of geophysical electrical surveys is to determine the subsurface resistivity distribution by making measurements on the ground surface. From these measurements, the true resistivity of the subsurface can be estimated. The ground resistivity is related to various geological parameters, such as the mineral and fluid content, porosity and degree of water saturation in the rock. Electrical resistivity surveys have been used for many decades in hydrogeological, mining and geotechnical investigations. More recently, they have been used for environmental surveys. To obtain a more accurate subsurface model than is possible with a simple 1-D model, a more complex model must be used. In a 2-D model, the resistivity values are allowed to vary in one horizontal direction (usually referred to as the x direction) but are assumed to be constant in the other horizontal (the y) direction. A more realistic model would be a fully 3-D model where the resistivity values are allowed to change in all three directions. In this research, a simulation of the cone penetration test and 2D imaging resistivity are used as tools to simulate the distribution of hydrocarbons in soil.

  10. Simulation of a pulsatile non-Newtonian flow past a stenosed 2D artery with atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Tian, Fang-Bao; Zhu, Luoding; Fok, Pak-Wing; Lu, Xi-Yun

    2013-09-01

    Atherosclerotic plaque can cause severe stenosis in the artery lumen. Blood flow through a substantially narrowed artery may have different flow characteristics and produce different forces acting on the plaque surface and artery wall. The disturbed flow and force fields in the lumen may have serious implications on vascular endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and circulating blood cells. In this work a simplified model is used to simulate a pulsatile non-Newtonian blood flow past a stenosed artery caused by atherosclerotic plaques of different severity. The focus is on a systematic parameter study of the effects of plaque size/geometry, flow Reynolds number, shear-rate dependent viscosity and flow pulsatility on the fluid wall shear stress and its gradient, fluid wall normal stress, and flow shear rate. The computational results obtained from this idealized model may shed light on the flow and force characteristics of more realistic blood flow through an atherosclerotic vessel.

  11. Simulating HFIR Core Thermal Hydraulics Using 3D-2D Model Coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, Adam R; Freels, James D; Ekici, Kivanc

    2013-01-01

    A model utilizing interdimensional variable coupling is presented for simulating the thermal hydraulic interactions of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) core at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The model s domain consists of a single, explicitly represented three-dimensional fuel plate and a simplified two-dimensional coolant channel slice. In simplifying the coolant channel, and thus the number of mesh points in which the Navier-Stokes equations must be solved, the computational cost and solution time are both greatly reduced. In order for the reduced-dimension coolant channel to interact with the explicitly represented fuel plate, however, interdimensional variable coupling must be enacted along all shared boundaries. The primary focus of this paper is in detailing the collection, storage, passage, and application of variables across this interdimensional interface. Comparisons are made showing the general speed-up associated with this simplified coupled model.

  12. Electrophysiological and Structural Remodeling in Heart Failure Modulate Arrhythmogenesis. 2D Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Juan F.; Cardona, Karen; Martinez, Laura; Saiz, Javier; Trenor, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Background Heart failure is operationally defined as the inability of the heart to maintain blood flow to meet the needs of the body and it is the final common pathway of various cardiac pathologies. Electrophysiological remodeling, intercellular uncoupling and a pro-fibrotic response have been identified as major arrhythmogenic factors in heart failure. Objective In this study we investigate vulnerability to reentry under heart failure conditions by incorporating established electrophysiological and anatomical remodeling using computer simulations. Methods The electrical activity of human transmural ventricular tissue (5 cm×5 cm) was simulated using the human ventricular action potential model Grandi et al. under control and heart failure conditions. The MacCannell et al. model was used to model fibroblast electrical activity, and their electrotonic interactions with myocytes. Selected degrees of diffuse fibrosis and variations in intercellular coupling were considered and the vulnerable window (VW) for reentry was evaluated following cross-field stimulation. Results No reentry was observed in normal conditions or in the presence of HF ionic remodeling. However, defined amount of fibrosis and/or cellular uncoupling were sufficient to elicit reentrant activity. Under conditions where reentry was generated, HF electrophysiological remodeling did not alter the width of the VW. However, intermediate fibrosis and cellular uncoupling significantly widened the VW. In addition, biphasic behavior was observed, as very high fibrotic content or very low tissue conductivity hampered the development of reentry. Detailed phase analysis of reentry dynamics revealed an increase of phase singularities with progressive fibrotic components. Conclusion Structural remodeling is a key factor in the genesis of vulnerability to reentry. A range of intermediate levels of fibrosis and intercellular uncoupling can combine to favor reentrant activity. PMID:25054335

  13. A hierarchical lattice spring model to simulate the mechanics of 2-D materials-based composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brely, Lucas; Bosia, Federico; Pugno, Nicola

    2015-07-01

    In the field of engineering materials, strength and toughness are typically two mutually exclusive properties. Structural biological materials such as bone, tendon or dentin have resolved this conflict and show unprecedented damage tolerance, toughness and strength levels. The common feature of these materials is their hierarchical heterogeneous structure, which contributes to increased energy dissipation before failure occurring at different scale levels. These structural properties are the key to exceptional bioinspired material mechanical properties, in particular for nanocomposites. Here, we develop a numerical model in order to simulate the mechanisms involved in damage progression and energy dissipation at different size scales in nano- and macro-composites, which depend both on the heterogeneity of the material and on the type of hierarchical structure. Both these aspects have been incorporated into a 2-dimensional model based on a Lattice Spring Model, accounting for geometrical nonlinearities and including statistically-based fracture phenomena. The model has been validated by comparing numerical results to continuum and fracture mechanics results as well as finite elements simulations, and then employed to study how structural aspects impact on hierarchical composite material properties. Results obtained with the numerical code highlight the dependence of stress distributions on matrix properties and reinforcement dispersion, geometry and properties, and how failure of sacrificial elements is directly involved in the damage tolerance of the material. Thanks to the rapidly developing field of nanocomposite manufacture, it is already possible to artificially create materials with multi-scale hierarchical reinforcements. The developed code could be a valuable support in the design and optimization of these advanced materials, drawing inspiration and going beyond biological materials with exceptional mechanical properties.

  14. Tropical Oceanic Precipitation Processes Over Warm Pool: 2D and 3D Cloud Resolving Model Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, W.-K.; Johnson, D.; Simpson, J.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Rainfall is a key link in the hydrologic cycle as well as the primary heat source for the atmosphere. The vertical distribution of convective latent-heat release modulates the large-scale circulations of the topics. Furthermore, changes in the moisture distribution at middle and upper levels of the troposphere can affect cloud distributions and cloud liquid water and ice contents. How the incoming solar and outgoing longwave radiation respond to these changes in clouds is a major factor in assessing climate change. Present large-scale weather and climate model simulate processes only crudely, reducing confidence in their predictions on both global and regional scales. One of the most promising methods to test physical parameterizations used in General Circulation Models (GCMs) and climate models is to use field observations together with Cloud Resolving Models (CRMs). The CRMs use more sophisticated and physically realistic parameterizations of cloud microphysical processes, and allow for their complex interactions with solar and infrared radiative transfer processes. The CRMs can reasonably well resolve the evolution, structure, and life cycles of individual clouds and clouds systems. The major objective of this paper is to investigate the latent heating, moisture and momentum budgets associated with several convective systems developed during the TOGA COARE IFA - westerly wind burst event (late December, 1992). The tool for this study is the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model which includes a 3-class ice-phase microphysics scheme.

  15. A Parallel 2D Numerical Simulation of Tumor Cells Necrosis by Local Hyperthermia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, R. F.; Loureiro, F. S.; Lobosco, M.

    2014-03-01

    Hyperthermia has been widely used in cancer treatment to destroy tumors. The main idea of the hyperthermia is to heat a specific region like a tumor so that above a threshold temperature the tumor cells are destroyed. This can be accomplished by many heat supply techniques and the use of magnetic nanoparticles that generate heat when an alternating magnetic field is applied has emerged as a promise technique. In the present paper, the Pennes bioheat transfer equation is adopted to model the thermal tumor ablation in the context of magnetic nanoparticles. Numerical simulations are carried out considering different injection sites for the nanoparticles in an attempt to achieve better hyperthermia conditions. Explicit finite difference method is employed to solve the equations. However, a large amount of computation is required for this purpose. Therefore, this work also presents an initial attempt to improve performance using OpenMP, a parallel programming API. Experimental results were quite encouraging: speedups around 35 were obtained on a 64-core machine.

  16. The Plasma Wake Downstream of Lunar Topographic Obstacles: Preliminary Results from 2D Particle Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Michael I.; Farrell, W. M.; Snubbs, T. J.; Halekas, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    Anticipating the plasma and electrical environments in permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) of the moon is critical in understanding local processes of space weathering, surface charging, surface chemistry, volatile production and trapping, exo-ion sputtering, and charged dust transport. In the present study, we have employed the open-source XOOPIC code [I] to investigate the effects of solar wind conditions and plasma-surface interactions on the electrical environment in PSRs through fully two-dimensional pattic1e-in-cell simulations. By direct analogy with current understanding of the global lunar wake (e.g., references) deep, near-terminator, shadowed craters are expected to produce plasma "mini-wakes" just leeward of the crater wall. The present results (e.g., Figure I) are in agreement with previous claims that hot electrons rush into the crater void ahead of the heavier ions, fanning a negative cloud of charge. Charge separation along the initial plasma-vacuum interface gives rise to an ambipolar electric field that subsequently accelerates ions into the void. However, the situation is complicated by the presence of the dynamic lunar surface, which develops an electric potential in response to local plasma currents (e.g., Figure Ia). In some regimes, wake structure is clearly affected by the presence of the charged crater floor as it seeks to achieve current balance (i.e. zero net current to the surface).

  17. Study of liquid water by computer simulations. I. Static properties of a 2D model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okazaki, Keiji; Nosé, Shuichi; Kataoka, Yosuke; Yamamoto, Tsunenobu

    1981-12-01

    A computer-simulation study of a water-like system is carried out by making use of a two-dimensional version of the Ben-Naim and Stillinger potential. The pair potential is set up such that at 0 K it yields a square net structure at low pressures and an interpretation of two square nets at high pressures. The liquid state is surveyed over a wide range of temperature and pressure. Various kinds of molecular distribution functions are derived to see how the hydrogen-bond network structure depends on temperature and density. The pressure and thermal equations of state are ''experimentally'' determined by a least square fitting to the pressures and energies calculated for about 200 different state points. The well-known anomalous behavior of liquid water is reproduced at least in a semiquantitative way. The singular properties of supercooled water also are reproduced and their origin is ascribed to the thermodynamical instability. New anomalies are predicted at high temperatures and pressures.

  18. The 1963 Vajont landslide (Italy) simulated through a numerical 2D code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaniboni, Filippo; Ausilia Paparo, Maria; Elsen, Katharina; Tinti, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    On October 9th, 1963, a huge mass of about 260 million m3 collapsed along Mt. Toc flank into the artificial lake called Vajont and generated a gigantic wave that invested the town of Longarone (North-East Italy, about 100 km north of Venice), provoking about 2000 casualties. The event started a public debate on the responsibilities for the disaster, and also raised crucial issues for the scientific and engineering community, regarding reservoir flank instability and safety of the hydroelectric plant. The peculiar features of the event were immediately evident. The clay layers remained uncovered in the upper part of the detachment niche, supporting the hypothesis of a well-defined pre-existing sliding surface, that could explain the high falling velocity (around 20 m/s as a maximum) and the compactness of the deposit layers that were found to sit almost unperturbed on the bottom of the valley. The numerical study presented here contributes to the understanding of dynamics of the Vajont landslide. It is found that the accurate knowledge of the pre- and post-slide morphology provides tight constraints on the parameters of the numerical model, that are tuned to fit the observed deposit. Numerical simulations are carried out by means of the in-house built code UBO-BLOCK2. The initial sliding body is divided into a mesh of interacting volume-conserving blocks, whose motion is computed numerically. The friction coefficient at the base of the landslide is determined through a best fit search by maximizing the degree of overlapping between the calculated and observed deposits. Our best solution is also able to account for the observed slight easterly rotation of the mass, the different behaviors of the eastern and western part of the sliding surface and the retrogressive motion of the slide that after climbing up the opposite flank of the valley reverted velocity to settle down on the bottom of the valley.

  19. Origin of energetic ions observed in the terrestrial ion foreshock : 2D full-particle simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savoini, Philippe; Lembege, bertrand

    2016-04-01

    Collisionless shocks are well-known structures in astrophysical environments which dissipate bulk flow kinetic energy and accelerate large fraction of particle. Spacecrafts have firmly established the existence of the so-called terrestrial foreshock region magnetically connected to the shock and filled by two distinct populations in the quasi-perpendicular shock region (i.e. for 45r{ } ≤ quad θ Bn quad ≤ 90r{ }, where θ Bn is the angle between the shock normal and the upstream magnetic field) : (i) the field-aligned ion beams or `` FAB '' characterized by a gyrotropic distributionsout{,} and (ii) the gyro-phase bunched ions or `` GPB '' characterized by a NON gyrotropic distribution. The present work is based on the use of two dimensional PIC simulation of a curved shock and associated foreshock region where full curvature effects, time of flight effects and both electrons and ions dynamics are fully described by a self consistent approach. Our previous analysis (Savoini et Lembège, 2015) has evidenced that these two types of backstreaming populations can originate from the shock front itself without invoking any local diffusion by ion beam instabilities. Present results are focussed on individual ion trajectories and evidence that "FAB" population is injected into the foreshock mainly along the shock front whereas the "GPB" population penetrates more deeply the shock front. Such differences explain why the "FAB" population loses their gyro-phase coherency and become gyrotropic which is not the case for the "GPB". The impact of these different injection features on the energy gain for each ion population will be presented in détails. Savoini, P. and B. Lembège (2015), `` Production of nongyrotropic and gyrotropic backstreaming ion distributions in the quasi-perpendicular ion foreshock région '', J. Geophys. Res., 120, pp 7154-7171, doi = 10.1002/2015JA021018.

  20. Observation and simulation of heterogeneous 2D water and solute flow processes in ditch beds for subsequent catchment modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dages, Cecile; Samouelian, Anatja; Lanoix, Marthe; Dollinger, Jeanne; Chakkour, Sara; Chovelon, Gabrielle; Trabelsi, Khouloud; Voltz, Marc

    2015-04-01

    Ditches are involved in the transfer of pesticide to surface and groundwaters (e.g. Louchart et al., 2001). Soil horizons underlying ditch beds may present specific soil characteristics compared to neighbouring field soils due to erosion/deposition processes, to the specific biological activities (rooting dynamic and animal habitat) in the ditches (e.g. Vaughan et al., 2008) and to management practices (burning, dredging, mowing,...). Moreover, in contrast to percolation processes in field soils that can be assumed to be mainly 1D vertical, those occurring in the ditch beds are by essence 2D or even 3D. Nevertheless, due to a lake of knowledge, these specific aspects of transfer within ditch beds are generally omitted for hydrological simulation at the catchment scale (Mottes et al., 2014). Accordingly, the aims of this study were i) to characterize subsurface solute transfer through ditch beds and ii) to determine equivalent hydraulic parameters of the ditch beds for use in catchment scale hydrological simulations. A complementary aim was to evaluate the error in predictions performed when percolation in ditches is assumed to be similar to that in the neighbouring field soil. First, bromide transfer experiments were performed on undisturbed soil column (15 cm long with a 15 cm inner-diameter), horizontally and vertically sampled within each soil horizon underlying a ditch bed and within the neighboring field. Columns were sampled at the Roujan catchment (Hérault, France), which belongs to the long term Mediterranean hydrological observatory OMERE (Voltz and Albergel, 2002). Second, for each column, a set of parameters was determined by inverse optimization with mobile-immobile or dual permeability models, with CXTFIT (Toride et al., 1999) or with HYDRUS (Simunek et al., 1998). Third, infiltration and percolation in the ditch was simulated by a 2D flow domain approach considering the 2D variation in hydraulic properties of the cross section of a ditch bed. Last

  1. Walking simulator for evaluation of ophthalmic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barabas, James; Woods, Russell L.; Peli, Eli

    2005-03-01

    Simulating mobility tasks in a virtual environment reduces risk for research subjects, and allows for improved experimental control and measurement. We are currently using a simulated shopping mall environment (where subjects walk on a treadmill in front of a large projected video display) to evaluate a number of ophthalmic devices developed at the Schepens Eye Research Institute for people with vision impairment, particularly visual field defects. We have conducted experiments to study subject's perception of "safe passing distance" when walking towards stationary obstacles. The subject's binary responses about potential collisions are analyzed by fitting a psychometric function, which gives an estimate of the subject's perceived safe passing distance, and the variability of subject responses. The system also enables simulations of visual field defects using head and eye tracking, enabling better understanding of the impact of visual field loss. Technical infrastructure for our simulated walking environment includes a custom eye and head tracking system, a gait feedback system to adjust treadmill speed, and a handheld 3-D pointing device. Images are generated by a graphics workstation, which contains a model with photographs of storefronts from an actual shopping mall, where concurrent validation experiments are being conducted.

  2. Simulating the mobility of meteoric 10Be in the landscape through a coupled soil-hillslope model (Be2D)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campforts, Benjamin; Vanacker, Veerle; Vanderborght, Jan; Baken, Stijn; Smolders, Erik; Govers, Gerard

    2016-04-01

    Meteoric 10Be allows for the quantification of vertical and lateral soil fluxes over long time scales (103-105 yr). However, the mobility of meteoric 10Be in the soil system makes a translation of meteoric 10Be inventories into erosion and deposition rates complex. Here, we present a spatially explicit 2D model simulating the behaviour of meteoric 10Be on a hillslope. The model consists of two parts. The first component deals with advective and diffusive mobility of meteoric 10Be within the soil profile, and the second component describes lateral soil and meteoric 10Be fluxes over the hillslope. Soil depth is calculated dynamically, accounting for soil production through weathering as well as downslope fluxes of soil due to creep, water and tillage erosion. Synthetic model simulations show that meteoric 10Be inventories can be related to erosion and deposition across a wide range of geomorphological and pedological settings. Our results also show that meteoric 10Be can be used as a tracer to detect human impact on soil fluxes for soils with a high affinity for meteoric 10Be. However, the quantification of vertical mobility is essential for a correct interpretation of the observed variations in meteoric 10Be profiles and inventories. Application of the Be2D model to natural conditions using data sets from the Southern Piedmont (Bacon et al., 2012) and Appalachian Mountains (Jungers et al., 2009; West et al., 2013) allows to reliably constrain parameter values. Good agreement between simulated and observed meteoric 10Be concentrations and inventories is obtained with realistic parameter values. Furthermore, our results provide detailed insights into the processes redistributing meteoric 10Be at the soil-hillslope scale.

  3. FireStem2D--a two-dimensional heat transfer model for simulating tree stem injury in fires.

    PubMed

    Chatziefstratiou, Efthalia K; Bohrer, Gil; Bova, Anthony S; Subramanian, Ravishankar; Frasson, Renato P M; Scherzer, Amy; Butler, Bret W; Dickinson, Matthew B

    2013-01-01

    FireStem2D, a software tool for predicting tree stem heating and injury in forest fires, is a physically-based, two-dimensional model of stem thermodynamics that results from heating at the bark surface. It builds on an earlier one-dimensional model (FireStem) and provides improved capabilities for predicting fire-induced mortality and injury before a fire occurs by resolving stem moisture loss, temperatures through the stem, degree of bark charring, and necrotic depth around the stem. We present the results of numerical parameterization and model evaluation experiments for FireStem2D that simulate laboratory stem-heating experiments of 52 tree sections from 25 trees. We also conducted a set of virtual sensitivity analysis experiments to test the effects of unevenness of heating around the stem and with aboveground height using data from two studies: a low-intensity surface fire and a more intense crown fire. The model allows for improved understanding and prediction of the effects of wildland fire on injury and mortality of trees of different species and sizes.

  4. FireStem2D – A Two-Dimensional Heat Transfer Model for Simulating Tree Stem Injury in Fires

    PubMed Central

    Chatziefstratiou, Efthalia K.; Bohrer, Gil; Bova, Anthony S.; Subramanian, Ravishankar; Frasson, Renato P. M.; Scherzer, Amy; Butler, Bret W.; Dickinson, Matthew B.

    2013-01-01

    FireStem2D, a software tool for predicting tree stem heating and injury in forest fires, is a physically-based, two-dimensional model of stem thermodynamics that results from heating at the bark surface. It builds on an earlier one-dimensional model (FireStem) and provides improved capabilities for predicting fire-induced mortality and injury before a fire occurs by resolving stem moisture loss, temperatures through the stem, degree of bark charring, and necrotic depth around the stem. We present the results of numerical parameterization and model evaluation experiments for FireStem2D that simulate laboratory stem-heating experiments of 52 tree sections from 25 trees. We also conducted a set of virtual sensitivity analysis experiments to test the effects of unevenness of heating around the stem and with aboveground height using data from two studies: a low-intensity surface fire and a more intense crown fire. The model allows for improved understanding and prediction of the effects of wildland fire on injury and mortality of trees of different species and sizes. PMID:23894599

  5. Terasonic Excitations in 2D Gold Nanoparticle Arrays in a Water Matrix as Revealed by Atomistic Simulations

    DOE PAGES

    Bolmatov, Dima; Zhernenkov, Mikhail; Zav’yalov, Dmitry; ...

    2016-08-19

    Here in this work we report on terahertz phononic excitations in 2D gold nanoparticle arrays in a water matrix through a series of large-scale molecular dynamics simulations. For the first time, we observe acoustic Dirac-like crossings in H (H2O) atomic (molecular) networks which emerge due to an intraband phononic scattering. These crossings are the phononic fingerprints of ice-like arrangements of H (H2O) atomic (molecular) networks at nanometer scale. We reveal how phononic excitations in metallic nanoparticles and the water matrix reciprocally impact on one another providing the mechanism for the THz phononics manipulation via structural engineering. In addition, we showmore » that by tuning the arrangement of 2D gold nanoparticle assemblies the Au phononic polarizations experience sub-terahertz hybridization (Kohn anomaly) due to surface electron-phonon relaxation processes. This opens the way for the sound control and manipulation in soft matter metamaterials at nanoscale.« less

  6. Terasonic Excitations in 2D Gold Nanoparticle Arrays in a Water Matrix as Revealed by Atomistic Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Bolmatov, Dima; Zhernenkov, Mikhail; Zav’yalov, Dmitry; Cai, Yong Q.; Cunsolo, Alessandro

    2016-08-19

    Here in this work we report on terahertz phononic excitations in 2D gold nanoparticle arrays in a water matrix through a series of large-scale molecular dynamics simulations. For the first time, we observe acoustic Dirac-like crossings in H (H2O) atomic (molecular) networks which emerge due to an intraband phononic scattering. These crossings are the phononic fingerprints of ice-like arrangements of H (H2O) atomic (molecular) networks at nanometer scale. We reveal how phononic excitations in metallic nanoparticles and the water matrix reciprocally impact on one another providing the mechanism for the THz phononics manipulation via structural engineering. In addition, we show that by tuning the arrangement of 2D gold nanoparticle assemblies the Au phononic polarizations experience sub-terahertz hybridization (Kohn anomaly) due to surface electron-phonon relaxation processes. This opens the way for the sound control and manipulation in soft matter metamaterials at nanoscale.

  7. MONTE GENEROSO ROCKFALL FIELD TEST (SWITZERLAND): Real size experiment to constraint 2D and 3D rockfall simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humair, F.; Matasci, B.; Carrea, D.; Pedrazzini, A.; Loye, A.; Pedrozzi, G.; Nicolet, P.; Jaboyedoff, M.

    2012-04-01

    account the results of the experimental testing are performed and compared with the a-priori simulations. 3D simulations were performed using a software that takes into account the effect of the forest cover in the blocky trajectory (RockyFor 3D) and an other that neglects this aspect (Rotomap; geo&soft international). 2D simulation (RocFall; Rocscience) profiles were located in the blocks paths deduced from 3D simulations. The preliminary results show that: (1) high speed movies are promising and allow us to track the blocks using video software, (2) the a-priori simulations tend to overestimate the runout distance which is certainly due to an underestimation of the obstacles as well as the breaking of the failing rocks which is not taken into account in the models, (3) the trajectories deduced from both a-priori simulation and real size experiment highlights the major influence of the channelized slope morphology on rock paths as it tends to follow the flow direction. This indicates that the 2D simulation have to be performed along the line of flow direction.

  8. Analysis of Highly-Resolved Simulations of 2-D Humps Toward Improvement of Second-Moment Closures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeyapaul, Elbert; Rumsey Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Fully resolved simulation data of flow separation over 2-D humps has been used to analyze the modeling terms in second-moment closures of the Reynolds-averaged Navier- Stokes equations. Existing models for the pressure-strain and dissipation terms have been analyzed using a priori calculations. All pressure-strain models are incorrect in the high-strain region near separation, although a better match is observed downstream, well into the separated-flow region. Near-wall inhomogeneity causes pressure-strain models to predict incorrect signs for the normal components close to the wall. In a posteriori computations, full Reynolds stress and explicit algebraic Reynolds stress models predict the separation point with varying degrees of success. However, as with one- and two-equation models, the separation bubble size is invariably over-predicted.

  9. Simulator for Testing Spacecraft Separation Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Nick; Gaines, Joe; Bryan, Tom

    2006-01-01

    A report describes the main features of a system for testing pyrotechnic and mechanical devices used to separate spacecraft and modules of spacecraft during flight. The system includes a spacecraft simulator [also denoted a large mobility base (LMB)] equipped with air thrusters, sensors, and data-acquisition equipment. The spacecraft simulator floats on air bearings over an epoxy-covered concrete floor. This free-flotation arrangement enables simulation of motion in outer space in three degrees of freedom: translation along two orthogonal horizontal axes and rotation about a vertical axis. The system also includes a static stand. In one application, the system was used to test a bolt-retraction system (BRS) intended for separation of the lifting-body and deorbit-propulsion stages of the X- 38 spacecraft. The LMB was connected via the BRS to the static stand, then pyrotechnic devices that actuate the BRS were fired. The separation distance and acceleration were measured. The report cites a document, not yet published at the time of reporting the information for this article, that is said to present additional detailed information.

  10. Spectrum simulation of rough and nanostructured targets from their 2D and 3D image by Monte Carlo methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiettekatte, François; Chicoine, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Corteo is a program that implements Monte Carlo (MC) method to simulate ion beam analysis (IBA) spectra of several techniques by following the ions trajectory until a sufficiently large fraction of them reach the detector to generate a spectrum. Hence, it fully accounts for effects such as multiple scattering (MS). Here, a version of Corteo is presented where the target can be a 2D or 3D image. This image can be derived from micrographs where the different compounds are identified, therefore bringing extra information into the solution of an IBA spectrum, and potentially significantly constraining the solution. The image intrinsically includes many details such as the actual surface or interfacial roughness, or actual nanostructures shape and distribution. This can for example lead to the unambiguous identification of structures stoichiometry in a layer, or at least to better constraints on their composition. Because MC computes in details the trajectory of the ions, it simulates accurately many of its aspects such as ions coming back into the target after leaving it (re-entry), as well as going through a variety of nanostructures shapes and orientations. We show how, for example, as the ions angle of incidence becomes shallower than the inclination distribution of a rough surface, this process tends to make the effective roughness smaller in a comparable 1D simulation (i.e. narrower thickness distribution in a comparable slab simulation). Also, in ordered nanostructures, target re-entry can lead to replications of a peak in a spectrum. In addition, bitmap description of the target can be used to simulate depth profiles such as those resulting from ion implantation, diffusion, and intermixing. Other improvements to Corteo include the possibility to interpolate the cross-section in angle-energy tables, and the generation of energy-depth maps.

  11. Large eddy simulations for quasi-2D turbulence in shallow flows: A comparison between different subgrid scale models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awad, Esam; Toorman, Erik; Lacor, Chris

    2009-06-01

    In this study, the performance of the horizontal large eddy simulation module, developed at the University of Leuven (HLES-KULeuven module) is assessed. A comparison between different subgrid scale models has been carried out. The study is concerned with the non-rotating and unstratified flows. The results of the simulation for an oscillatory backward facing (BFS) flow are presented in case of an expanding flume based on a one-length scale approach and a two-length scale approach. Three subgrid scale (SGS) models have been tested: Smagorinsky SGS model (Smagorinsky, J., (1963). General circulation experiments with the primitive equations, I. the basic experiments. Monthly Weather Review, 91(3), 99-164), Uittenbogaard SGS model (Uittenbogaard, R.E., and van Vossen, B., (2004). Subgrid-scale model for quasi-2D turbulence in shallow water. Shallow Flows. Jirka and Uijttewaal (Eds.), Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 90 5809 700 5) and a proposed two-length scale approach. The first two models are considered to be a one-length scale models. A simulation without a subgrid scale model for the horizontal mixing has also been conducted. In all simulations, a quadratic friction model parameterizes the dissipation produced by the 3D-subdepth scale turbulence. The two-length scale concept uses a newly mixing length formulation for the quasi-2D turbulence and doesn't depend on the filter width in contrast to the one-length scale approach, in which the mixing length is function of the filter width. The outputs of the HLES-KULeuven module have been compared with the experimental data taken from Stelling, G.S., and Wang, L.X., (1984). Experiments and computations on separating flow in an expanding flume. Dept. Civil Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Report 2-84.). The two-length scale approach has been validated with experimental data from SERC Flood Channel Facility at HR Wallingford. In general, there is a qualitative agreement with the experimental data. It has

  12. Simulation of Ultra-Small MOSFETs Using a 2-D Quantum-Corrected Drift-Diffusion Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biegel, Bryan A.; Rafferty, Conor S.; Yu, Zhiping; Dutton, Robert W.; Ancona, Mario G.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    We describe an electronic transport model and an implementation approach that respond to the challenges of device modeling for gigascale integration. We use the density-gradient (DG) transport model, which adds tunneling and quantum smoothing of carrier density profiles to the drift-diffusion model. We present the current implementation of the DG model in PROPHET, a partial differential equation solver developed by Lucent Technologies. This implementation approach permits rapid development and enhancement of models, as well as run-time modifications and model switching. We show that even in typical bulk transport devices such as P-N diodes and BJTs, DG quantum effects can significantly modify the I-V characteristics. Quantum effects are shown to be even more significant in small, surface transport devices, such as sub-0.1 micron MOSFETs. In thin-oxide MOS capacitors, we find that quantum effects may reduce gate capacitance by 25% or more. The inclusion of quantum effects in simulations dramatically improves the match between C-V simulations and measurements. Significant quantum corrections also occur in the I-V characteristics of short-channel MOSFETs due to the gate capacitance correction.

  13. Electromagnetic 2D/3D Particle-in-Cell simulations of the solar wind interaction with lunar crustal anomalies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deca, Jan; Lapenta, Giovanni; Lembège, Bertrand; Divin, Andrey; Markidis, Stefano; Amaya, Jorge

    2013-04-01

    We present the first 2D/3D fully kinetic Particle-in-Cell simulations of the solar wind interaction with lunar crustal magnetic anomalies. The simulations are performed using the implicit electromagnetic Particle-in-Cell code iPIC3D [Markidis, Lapenta & Rizwan-uddin, 2010]. Multiscale physics is resolved for all plasma components (heavy ions, protons and electrons) in the code, recently updated with a set of open boundary conditions designed for solar wind-body interactions. We use a dipole to model the crustal anomaly. The dipole center is located outside the computational domain and the boundary representing the lunar surface is modeled as a particle-absorbing plane. Photo-emission from the lunar surface is at this point not included, but will be in future work. We study the behaviour of the dipole model with variable surface magnetic field strength under changing solar wind conditions and confirm that lunar crustal magnetic fields may indeed be strong enough to stand off the solar wind and form a mini-magnetosphere, as suggested by MHD simulations [Harnett & Winglee, 2000, 2002, 2003] and spacecraft observations [Kurata et al., 2005; Halekas et al., 2008; Wieser et al., 2010]. 3D-PIC simulations reveal to be very helpful to analyze the diversion/braking of the particle flux and the characteristics of the resulting particles accumulation. The particle flux to the surface is significantly reduced at the magnetic anomaly, surrounded by a region of enhanced density due to the magnetic mirror effect. Finally we will present preliminary results on the interaction of the solar wind with weaker magnetic anomalies in which highly non-adiabatic interactions are expected.

  14. Simulating Dynamic Stall in a 2D VAWT: Modeling strategy, verification and validation with Particle Image Velocimetry data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simão Ferreira, C. J.; Bijl, H.; van Bussel, G.; van Kuik, G.

    2007-07-01

    The implementation of wind energy conversion systems in the built environment renewed the interest and the research on Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWT), which in this application present several advantages over Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWT). The VAWT has an inherent unsteady aerodynamic behavior due to the variation of angle of attack with the angle of rotation, perceived velocity and consequentially Reynolds number. The phenomenon of dynamic stall is then an intrinsic effect of the operation of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine at low tip speed ratios, having a significant impact in both loads and power. The complexity of the unsteady aerodynamics of the VAWT makes it extremely attractive to be analyzed using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models, where an approximation of the continuity and momentum equations of the Navier-Stokes equations set is solved. The complexity of the problem and the need for new design approaches for VAWT for the built environment has driven the authors of this work to focus the research of CFD modeling of VAWT on: •comparing the results between commonly used turbulence models: URANS (Spalart-Allmaras and k-epsilon) and large eddy models (Large Eddy Simulation and Detached Eddy Simulation) •verifying the sensitivity of the model to its grid refinement (space and time), •evaluating the suitability of using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) experimental data for model validation. The 2D model created represents the middle section of a single bladed VAWT with infinite aspect ratio. The model simulates the experimental work of flow field measurement using Particle Image Velocimetry by Simão Ferreira et al for a single bladed VAWT. The results show the suitability of the PIV data for the validation of the model, the need for accurate simulation of the large eddies and the sensitivity of the model to grid refinement.

  15. Simulations of P-SV wave scattering due to cracks by the 2-D finite difference method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Yuji; Shiina, Takahiro; Kawahara, Jun; Okamoto, Taro; Miyashita, Kaoru

    2013-12-01

    We simulate P-SV wave scattering by 2-D parallel cracks using the finite difference method (FDM). Here, special emphasis is put on simplicity; we apply a standard FDM (second-order velocity-stress scheme with a staggered grid) to media including traction-free, infinitesimally thin cracks, which are expressed in a simple manner. As an accuracy test of the present method, we calculate the displacement discontinuity along an isolated crack caused by harmonic waves using the method, which is compared with the corresponding results based on a reliable boundary integral equation method. The test resultantly indicates that the present method yields sufficient accuracy. As an application of this method, we also simulate wave propagation in media with randomly distributed cracks. We experimentally determine the attenuation and velocity dispersion induced by scattering from the synthetic seismograms, using a waveform averaging technique. It is shown that the results are well explained by a theory based on the Foldy approximation, if the crack density is sufficiently low. The theory appears valid with a crack density up to at least 0.1 for SV wave incidence, whereas the validity limit appears lower for P wave incidence.

  16. Efficient simulation of 2+2-D multi-species plasmas waves using an Eulerian Vlasov code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Jeffrey; Berger, Richard; Chapman, Thomas; Hittinger, Jeffrey; Bruner, Stephan

    2013-10-01

    We discuss multi-species aspects of the Eulerian-based kinetic code LOKI that evolves the Vlasov-Poisson system in 2+2-dimensional phase space (Banks et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 052102 (2011)). In order to control the inherent cost associated with phase-space simulation, our approach uses a minimally diffuse, fourth-order-accurate finite-volume discretization (Banks and Hittinger, IEEE T. Plasma Sci. 39, 2198-2207). The scheme is discretely conservative and controls unphysical oscillations. The details of the numerical scheme will be presented, and the implementation on modern highly concurrent parallel computers will be discussed. We will present results of 2D simulations of propagating ion acoustic waves (IAWs) created using an external driving potential. The evolution of the plasma wave field and associated self-consistent distribution of trapped electrons and ions is studied after the external drive is turned off. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and funded by the Laboratory Research and Development Program at LLNL under project tracking code 12-ERD-061.

  17. Thermal influence on the groundwater fluid dynamics of the shallow Santiago forearc basin: 2D numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gramusset, Anneli; Herrera, Paulo; Parada, Miguel Angel

    2014-05-01

    A thorough understanding of the thermal processes that occur in aquifers is essential to assess local and regional low enthalpy geothermal resources. The relationship between heat convection and heat conduction has been widely studied in basins around the world at a regional scale. However, few studies have focused on smaller, shallower basins containing free aquifers hosted in unconsolidated fluvial-alluvial sediments, like Santiago Basin. We use numerical modeling to simulate the fluid dynamics of the Santiago basin groundwater system under different thermal conditions. Despite the current computational advances, modeling such a complex system with a full 3D approach is still numerically time demanding and unstable. Besides, the basin has irregular geometry and variable hydraulic and thermal features. Thus, we performed a 2D model comprising a thin water saturated slice of sediments beneath the central part of the city, where the basin morphology is well constrained. We simulate coupled groundwater and heat flow throughout this vertical slice and we compare results for different scenarios that comprise different hydraulic, thermal and geometric parameters. Results obtained with certain hydraulic conductivities show that instabilities appear giving rise to free thermal convection in the deepest parts of the basin. If the system is split into several hydrogeological units, the onset of these instabilities is inhibited. Consequently, we suggest that the stratigraphic complexities of a fluvial-alluvial deposit should be considered to better understanding the thermal-driven groundwater fluid dynamics.

  18. 2D simulation of active species and ozone production in a multi-tip DC air corona discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meziane, M.; Eichwald, O.; Sarrette, J. P.; Ducasse, O.; Yousfi, M.

    2011-11-01

    The present paper shows for the first time in the literature a complete 2D simulation of the ozone production in a DC positive multi-tip to plane corona discharge reactor crossed by a dry air flow at atmospheric pressure. The simulation is undertaken until 1 ms and involves tens of successive discharge and post-discharge phases. The air flow is stressed by several monofilament corona discharges generated by a maximum of four anodic tips distributed along the reactor. The nonstationary hydrodynamics model for reactive gas mixture is solved using the commercial FLUENT software. During each discharge phase, thermal and vibrational energies as well as densities of radical and metastable excited species are locally injected as source terms in the gas medium surrounding each tip. The chosen chemical model involves 10 neutral species reacting following 24 reactions. The obtained results allow us to follow the cartography of the temperature and the ozone production inside the corona reactor as a function of the number of high voltage anodic tips.

  19. Upgrade of the tangentially viewing vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) telescope system for 2D fluctuation measurement in the large helical device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. J.; Ming, T. F.; Gao, X.; Du, X. D.; Ohdachi, S.

    2016-11-01

    A high-speed tangentially viewing vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) telescope system, using an inverse Schwarzschild-type optic system was developed to study fluctuations in the Large Helical Device (LHD). However, for the original system, the sampling rate was restricted to below 2000 Hz due to the low signal to noise (S/N) ratio in the experiment. In order to improve the S/N ratio, upgrade of the system was made. With this upgraded optical system, the maximum framing rate is improved to 6000 fps with a similar spatial resolution. Rotation of the m = 2 structure caused by the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instability is measured by the upgraded system. The spatial structure of the image is consistent with the synthetic image assuming the interchange mode type displacement of the flux surfaces.

  20. Debris Flow Simulation using FLO-2D on the 2004 Landslide Area of Real, General Nakar, and Infanta, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llanes, F.; dela Resma, M.; Ferrer, P.; Realino, V.; Aquino, D. T.; Eco, R. C.; Lagmay, A.

    2013-12-01

    From November 14 to December 3, 2004, Luzon Island was ravaged by 4 successive typhoons: Typhoon Mufia, Tropical Storm Merbok, Tropical Depression Winnie, and Super Typhoon Nanmadol. Tropical Depression Winnie was the most destructive of the four when it triggered landslides on November 29 that devastated the municipalities of Infanta, General Nakar, and Real in Quezon Province, southeast Luzon. Winnie formed east of Central Luzon on November 27 before it moved west-northwestward over southeastern Luzon on November 29. A total of 1,068 lives were lost and more than USD 170 million worth of damages to crops and infrastructure were incurred from the landslides triggered by Typhoon Winnie on November 29 and the flooding caused by the 4 typhoons. FLO-2D, a flood routing software for generating flood and debris flow hazard maps, was utilized to simulate the debris flows that could potentially affect the study area. Based from the rainfall intensity-duration-frequency analysis, the cumulative rainfall from typhoon Winnie on November 29 which was approximately 342 mm over a 9-hour period was classified within a 100-year return period. The Infanta station of the Philippine Atmospheric Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) was no longer able to measure the amount of rainfall after this period because the rain gauge in that station was washed away by floods. Rainfall data with a 100-year return period was simulated over the watersheds delineated from a SAR-derived digital elevation model. The resulting debris flow hazard map was compared with results from field investigation and previous studies made on the landslide event. The simulation identified 22 barangays (villages) with a total of 45,155 people at risk of turbulent flow and flooding.

  1. Assessment of a 2D electronic portal imaging devices-based dosimetry algorithm for pretreatment and in-vivo midplane dose verification

    PubMed Central

    Jomehzadeh, Ali; Shokrani, Parvaneh; Mohammadi, Mohammad; Amouheidari, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Background: The use of electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) is a method for the dosimetric verification of radiotherapy plans, both pretreatment and in vivo. The aim of this study is to test a 2D EPID-based dosimetry algorithm for dose verification of some plans inside a homogenous and anthropomorphic phantom and in vivo as well. Materials and Methods: Dose distributions were reconstructed from EPID images using a 2D EPID dosimetry algorithm inside a homogenous slab phantom for a simple 10 × 10 cm2 box technique, 3D conformal (prostate, head-and-neck, and lung), and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) prostate plans inside an anthropomorphic (Alderson) phantom and in the patients (one fraction in vivo) for 3D conformal plans (prostate, head-and-neck and lung). Results: The planned and EPID dose difference at the isocenter, on an average, was 1.7% for pretreatment verification and less than 3% for all in vivo plans, except for head-and-neck, which was 3.6%. The mean γ values for a seven-field prostate IMRT plan delivered to the Alderson phantom varied from 0.28 to 0.65. For 3D conformal plans applied for the Alderson phantom, all γ1% values were within the tolerance level for all plans and in both anteroposterior and posteroanterior (AP-PA) beams. Conclusion: The 2D EPID-based dosimetry algorithm provides an accurate method to verify the dose of a simple 10 × 10 cm2 field, in two dimensions, inside a homogenous slab phantom and an IMRT prostate plan, as well as in 3D conformal plans (prostate, head-and-neck, and lung plans) applied using an anthropomorphic phantom and in vivo. However, further investigation to improve the 2D EPID dosimetry algorithm for a head-and-neck case, is necessary. PMID:28028511

  2. The effect of bone fracture unevenness on ultrasound axial transmission measurements: A pilot 2D simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, Christiano B.; Pereira, Wagner C. A.; Padilla, Frédéric; Laugier, Pascal

    2012-05-01

    Ultrasound axial transmission (UAT) has been proposed to the diagnosis and follow-up of fracture healing. Some researchers have already pointed out the influence of fracture length, geometry and callus composition on the ultrasound time-of-flight and attenuation, with experimental and simulation studies. The aim of this work was to develop a pilot study on the effect of bone fracture unevenness on UAT measurements. Two-dimensional (2D) numerical simulations of ultrasound wave propagation were run using a custom-made finite-difference time domain code (SimSonic2D). Numerical models were composed of two 4-mm thick bone plates, with fracture lengths varying from 0 to 4 mm. For each case, an upward (UWun) and downward (DWun) unevenness of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mm was implemented in the second plate. The 1-MHz emitter and receptor transducers were placed at 40 mm from each other, 20 mm apart from the center fracture. Two configurations were considered: 1.5 mm above the plates (for the 0-mm unevenness case) and transducers in contact with bone plate. For each situation, the time-of-flight of the first arriving signal (TOFFAS) and the FAS energy amplitude loss measured by the sound pressure level (SPLFAS) were computed. Results showed that there was a linear increase in TOFFAS with increasing fracture length, and a decrease of SPLFAS with the presence of a discontinuity. TOFFAS values were decreased with UWun (-0.87 μs for UWun = 1.5 mm), and increased with DWun (+0.99 μs for DWun = 1.5 mm). The SPLFAS increased with both UWun (+3.54 dB for UWun = 1.5 mm) and DWun (+8.15 dB for DWun = 1.5 mm). Both parameters showed the same variability. When transducers were put in contact with bone surface, fracture unevenness had no influence on TOF and SPL estimates. Previous works have already demonstrated that a fracture of 3 mm can increase TOFFAS in an order of 1 μs. Considering these preliminary results, it can be concluded that, although the variable fracture unevenness (until 1

  3. Design optimization of pixel sensors using device simulations for the phase-II CMS tracker upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, G.; Bhardwaj, A.; Dalal, R.; Eber, R.; Eichorn, T.; Fernandez, M.; Lalwani, K.; Messineo, A.; Palomo, F. R.; Peltola, T.; Printz, M.; Ranjan, K.; Villa, I.; Hidalgo, S.

    2016-07-01

    In order to address the problems caused by the harsh radiation environment during the high luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC), all silicon tracking detectors (pixels and strips) in the CMS experiment will undergo an upgrade. And so to develop radiation hard pixel sensors, simulations have been performed using the 2D TCAD device simulator, SILVACO, to obtain design parameters. The effect of various design parameters like pixel size, pixel depth, implant width, metal overhang, p-stop concentration, p-stop depth and bulk doping density on the leakage current and critical electric field are studied for both non-irradiated as well as irradiated pixel sensors. These 2D simulation results of planar pixels are useful for providing insight into the behaviour of non-irradiated and irradiated silicon pixel sensors and further work on 3D simulation is underway.

  4. Interaction Between Tropical Convection and its Embedding Environment: An Energetics Analysis of a 2-D Cloud Resolving Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Xiaofan; Sui, C.-H.; Lau, K.-M.

    1999-01-01

    The phase relation between the perturbation kinetic energy (K') associated with the tropical convection and the horizontal-mean moist available potential energy (bar-P) associated with environmental conditions is investigated by an energetics analysis of a numerical experiment. This experiment is performed using a 2-D cloud resolving model forced by the TOGA-COARE derived vertical velocity. The imposed upward motion leads to a decrease of bar-P directly through the associated vertical advective cooling, and to an increase of K' directly through cloud related processes, feeding the convection. The maximum K' and its maximum growth rate lags and leads, respectively, the maximum imposed large-scale upward motion by about 1-2 hours, indicating that convection is phase locked with large-scale forcing. The dominant life cycle of the simulated convection is about 9 hours, whereas the time scales of the imposed large-scale forcing are longer than the diurnal cycle. In the convective events, maximum growth of K' leads maximum decay of the perturbation moist available potential energy (P') by about 3 hours through vertical heat transport by perturbation circulation, and perturbation cloud heating. Maximum decay of P' leads maximum decay of bar-P by about one hour through the perturbation radiative, processes, the horizontal-mean cloud heating, and the large-scale vertical advective cooling. Therefore, maximum gain of K' occurs about 4-5 hours before maximum decay of bar-P.

  5. Reconnection and small-scale fields in 2D-3V hybrid-kinetic driven turbulence simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerri, S. S.; Califano, F.

    2017-02-01

    The understanding of the fundamental properties of turbulence in collisionless plasmas, such as the solar wind, is a frontier problem in plasma physics. In particular, the occurrence of magnetic reconnection in turbulent plasmas and its interplay with a fully-developed turbulent state is still a matter of great debate. Here we investigate the properties of small-scale electromagnetic fluctuations and the role of fast magnetic reconnection in the development of a quasi-steady turbulent state by means of 2D-3V high-resolution Vlasov–Maxwell simulations. At the largest scales turbulence is fed by external random forcing. We show that large-scale turbulent motions establish a -5/3 spectrum at {k}\\perp {d}i< 1 and, at the same time, feed the formation of current sheets where magnetic reconnection occurs. As a result coherent magnetic structures are generated which, together with the rise of the associated small-scale non-ideal electric field, mediate the transition between the inertial and the subproton-scale spectrum. A mechanism that boosts the magnetic reconnection process is identified, making the generation of coherent structures rapid enough to be competitive with wave mode interactions and leading to the formation of a fully-developed turbulent spectrum across the so-called ion break.

  6. Estimation and application of 2-D scattering matrices for sparse array imaging of simulated damage in composite panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Westin B.; Michaels, Thomas E.; Michaels, Jennifer E.

    2017-02-01

    Reliable detection of damage in composites is critically important for failure prevention in the aerospace industry since these materials are more frequently being used in high stress applications. Structural health monitoring (SHM) via guided wave sensors mounted on or embedded within a composite structure can help detect and localize damage in real-time while potentially reducing overall maintenance costs. One approach to guided wave SHM is sparse array imaging via the minimum variance algorithm, and it has been shown in prior work that incorporating expected scattering from defects of interest can improve the quality of damage localization and characterization. For this study, simulated damage in the form of attached magnets was used for estimating scattering from recorded wavefield data. Data were recorded on a circle centered at the damage location from multiple incident directions before and after the magnets were attached. Baseline subtraction is used to estimate scattering patterns for each incident direction, and these patterns are combined and interpolated to form a full 2-D scattering matrix. This matrix is then incorporated into the minimum variance imaging algorithm, and the efficacy of this scattering estimation methodology is evaluated by comparing the resulting sparse array images to those generated using simpler scattering assumptions.

  7. A 2D simulation study of Langmuir, whistler, and cyclotron maser instabilities induced by an electron ring-beam distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K. H.; Lee, L. C.; Omura, Y.

    2011-09-15

    We carried out a series of 2D simulations to study the beam instability and cyclotron maser instability (CMI) with the initial condition that a population of tenuous energetic electrons with a ring-beam distribution is present in a magnetized background plasma. In this paper, weakly relativistic cases are discussed with the ring-beam kinetic energy ranging from 25 to 100 keV. The beam component leads to the two-stream or beam instability at an earlier stage, and the beam mode is coupled with Langmuir or whistler mode, leading to excitation of beam-Langmuir or beam-whistler waves. When the beam velocity is large with a strong beam instability, the initial ring-beam distribution is diffused in the parallel direction rapidly. The diffused distribution may still support CMI to amplify the X1 mode (the fundamental X mode). On the contrary, when the beam velocity is small and the beam instability is weak, CMI can amplify the Z1 (the fundamental Z mode) effectively while the O1 (the fundamental O mode) and X2 (the second harmonic X mode) modes are very weak and the X1 mode is not excited. In this report, different cases with various parameters are presented and discussed for a comprehensive understanding of ring-beam instabilities.

  8. TITAN2D simulations of pyroclastic flows at Cerro Machín Volcano, Colombia: Hazard implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murcia, H. F.; Sheridan, M. F.; Macías, J. L.; Cortés, G. P.

    2010-03-01

    Cerro Machín is a dacitic tuff ring located in the central part of the Colombian Andes. It lies at the southern end of the Cerro Bravo-Cerro Machín volcanic belt. This volcano has experienced at least six major explosive eruptions during the last 5000 years. These eruptions have generated pyroclastic flows associated with Plinian activity that have traveled up to 8 km from the crater, and pyroclastic flows associated with Vulcanian activity with shorter runouts of 5 km from the source. Today, some 21,000 people live within a 8 km radius of Cerro Machín. The volcano is active with fumaroles and has shown increasing seismic activity since 2004, and therefore represents a potentially increasing threat to the local population. To evaluate the possible effects of future eruptions that may generate pyroclastic density currents controlled by granular flow dynamics we performed flow simulations with the TITAN2D code. These simulations were run in all directions around the volcano, using the input parameters of the largest eruption reported. The results show that an eruption of 0.3 km 3 of pyroclastic flows from a collapsing Plinian column would travel up to 9 km from the vent, emplacing a deposit thicker than 60 m within the Toche River valley. Deposits >45 m thick can be expected in the valleys of San Juan, Santa Marta, and Azufral creeks, while 30 m thick deposits could accumulate within the drainages of the Tochecito, Bermellón, and Coello Rivers. A minimum area of 56 km 2 could be affected directly by this kind of eruption. In comparison, Vulcanian column-collapse pyroclastic flows of 0.1 km 3 would travel up to 6 km from the vent depositing >45 m thick debris inside the Toche River valley and more than 30 m inside the valleys of San Juan, Santa Marta, and Azufral creeks. The minimum area that could be affected directly by this kind of eruption is 33 km 2. The distribution and thickness of the deposits obtained by these simulations are consistent with the hazard

  9. Perfectly Matched Layers versus discrete transparent boundary conditions in quantum device simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Mennemann, Jan-Frederik Jüngel, Ansgar

    2014-10-15

    Discrete transparent boundary conditions (DTBC) and the Perfectly Matched Layers (PML) method for the realization of open boundary conditions in quantum device simulations are compared, based on the stationary and time-dependent Schrödinger equation. The comparison includes scattering state, wave packet, and transient scattering state simulations in one and two space dimensions. The Schrödinger equation is discretized by a second-order Crank–Nicolson method in case of DTBC. For the discretization with PML, symmetric second-, fourth-, and sixth-order spatial approximations as well as Crank–Nicolson and classical Runge–Kutta time-integration methods are employed. In two space dimensions, a ring-shaped quantum waveguide device is simulated in the stationary and transient regime. As an application, a simulation of the Aharonov–Bohm effect in this device is performed, showing the excitation of bound states localized in the ring region. The numerical experiments show that the results obtained from PML are comparable to those obtained using DTBC, while keeping the high numerical efficiency and flexibility as well as the ease of implementation of the former method. -- Highlights: •In-depth comparison between discrete transparent boundary conditions (DTBC) and PML. •First 2-D transient scattering state simulations using DTBC. •First 2-D transient scattering state simulations of the Aharonov–Bohm effect.

  10. Influence of Transport on Two-Dimensional Model Simulation. Tracer Sensitivity to 2-D Model Transport. 1; Long Lived Tracers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, Eric L.; Jackman, Charles H.; Considine, David B.; Stolarski, Richard S.

    1999-01-01

    In this study, we examine the sensitivity of long lived tracers to changes in the base transport components in our 2-D model. Changes to the strength of the residual circulation in the upper troposphere and stratosphere and changes to the lower stratospheric K(sub zz) had similar effects in that increasing the transport rates decreased the overall stratospheric mean age, and increased the rate of removal of material from the stratosphere. Increasing the stratospheric K(sub yy) increased the mean age due to the greater recycling of air parcels through the middle atmosphere, via the residual circulation, before returning to the troposphere. However, increasing K(sub yy) along with self-consistent increases in the corresponding planetary wave drive, which leads to a stronger residual circulation, more than compensates for the K(sub yy)-effect, and produces significantly younger ages throughout the stratosphere. Simulations with very small tropical stratospheric K(sub yy) decreased the globally averaged age of air by as much as 25% in the middle and upper stratosphere, and resulted in substantially weaker vertical age gradients above 20 km in the extratropics. We found only very small stratospheric tracer sensitivity to the magnitude of the horizontal mixing across the tropopause, and to the strength of the mesospheric gravity wave drag and diffusion used in the model. We also investigated the transport influence on chemically active tracers and found a strong age-tracer correlation, both in concentration and calculated lifetimes. The base model transport gives the most favorable overall comparison with a variety of inert tracer observations, and provides a significant improvement over our previous 1995 model transport. Moderate changes to the base transport were found to provide modest agreement with some of the measurements. Transport scenarios with residence times ranging from moderately shorter to slightly longer relative to the base case simulated N2O lifetimes

  11. Synthesis of wavelet envelope in 2-D random media having power-law spectra: comparison with FD simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Haruo; Fehler, Michael C.

    2016-10-01

    The envelope broadening and the peak delay of the S-wavelet of a small earthquake with increasing travel distance are results of scattering by random velocity inhomogeneities in the earth medium. As a simple mathematical model, Sato proposed a new stochastic synthesis of the scalar wavelet envelope in 3-D von Kármán type random media when the centre wavenumber of the wavelet is in the power-law spectral range of the random velocity fluctuation. The essential idea is to split the random medium spectrum into two components using the centre wavenumber as a reference: the long-scale (low-wavenumber spectral) component produces the peak delay and the envelope broadening by multiple scattering around the forward direction; the short-scale (high-wavenumber spectral) component attenuates wave amplitude by wide angle scattering. The former is calculated by the Markov approximation based on the parabolic approximation and the latter is calculated by the Born approximation. Here, we extend the theory for the envelope synthesis of a wavelet in 2-D random media, which makes it easy to compare with finite difference (FD) simulation results. The synthetic wavelet envelope is analytically written by using the random medium parameters in the angular frequency domain. For the case that the power spectral density function of the random velocity fluctuation has a steep roll-off at large wavenumbers, the envelope broadening is small and frequency independent, and scattering attenuation is weak. For the case of a small roll-off, however, the envelope broadening is large and increases with frequency, and the scattering attenuation is strong and increases with frequency. As a preliminary study, we compare synthetic wavelet envelopes with the average of FD simulation wavelet envelopes in 50 synthesized random media, which are characterized by the RMS fractional velocity fluctuation ε = 0.05, correlation scale a = 5 km and the background wave velocity V0 = 4 km s-1. We use the radiation

  12. The modular approach enables a fully ab initio simulation of the contacts between 3D and 2D materials.

    PubMed

    Fediai, Artem; Ryndyk, Dmitry A; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio

    2016-10-05

    Up to now, the electrical properties of the contacts between 3D metals and 2D materials have never been computed at a fully ab initio level due to the huge number of atomic orbitals involved in a current path from an electrode to a pristine 2D material. As a result, there are still numerous open questions and controversial theories on the electrical properties of systems with 3D/2D interfaces-for example, the current path and the contact length scalability. Our work provides a first-principles solution to this long-standing problem with the use of the modular approach, a method which rigorously combines a Green function formalism with the density functional theory (DFT) for this particular contact type. The modular approach is a general approach valid for any 3D/2D contact. As an example, we apply it to the most investigated among 3D/2D contacts-metal/graphene contacts-and show its abilities and consistency by comparison with existing experimental data. As it is applicable to any 3D/2D interface, the modular approach allows the engineering of 3D/2D contacts with the pre-defined electrical properties.

  13. Analysis of the terrestrial ion foreshock: 2D Full-Particle simulation of a curved supercritical shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lembege, B.; Savoini, P.; Stienlet, J.

    2013-05-01

    Two distinct ion populations backstreaming into the solar wind have been clearly evidenced by various space missions within the quasi-perpendicular region of the ion foreshock located upstream of the Earth's Bow shock (i.e. for 45° ≤ Theta_Bn ≤ 90°, where Theta_Bn is the angle between the shock normal and the upstream magnetostatic field): (i) field-aligned ion beams (« FAB ») characterized by a gyrotropic distribution, and (ii) gyro-phase bunched ions («GPB »), characterized by a NON gyrotropic distribution. The origin of these backstreaming ions has not been clearly identified and is presently analyzed with the help of 2D PIC simulation of a curved shock, where full curvature effects, time of flight effects and both electrons and ions dynamics are fully described within a self consistent approach. Present simulations evidence that these two populations can be effectively created directly by the shock front without invoking microinstabilities. The analysis of both individual and statistical ion trajectories evidences that: (i) two new parameters, namely the interaction time DT_inter and distance of penetration L_depth into the shock wave, play a key role and allow to discriminate these two populations. "GPB" population is characterized by a very short interaction time (DT_inter = 1 to 2 Tci) in comparison to the "FAB" population (DT_inter = 2 Tci to 10 Tci) which moves back and forth between the upstream edge of the shock front and the overshoot, where tci is the upstream ion gyroperiod. (ii) the importance of the injection angle (i.e. the angle between the normal of the shock front and the gyration velocity when ions reach the shock) to understand how the reflection process takes place. (iii) "FAB" population drifts along the curved shock front scanning a large Theta_Bn range from 90°. (iv) "GPB" population is embedded within the "FAB" population near the shock front which explains the difficulty to identify such a population in the experimental

  14. SPICE-SANDIA.LIB. Library Analog Semiconductor Devices SPICE Simulators

    SciTech Connect

    Deveney, M.F.; Archer, W.; Bogdan, C.

    1996-06-06

    SPICE-SANDIA.LIB is a library of parameter sets and macromodels of semiconductor devices. They are used with Spice-based (SPICE is a program for electronic circuit analysis) simulators to simulate electronic circuits.

  15. Volcanic flood simulation of magma effusion using FLO-2D for drainage of a caldera lake at the Mt. Baekdusan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Khil-Ha; Kim, Sung-Wook; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2014-05-01

    model, called FLO-2D runs to simulate channel routing downstream to give the maximum water level. Once probable inundation areas are identified by the huge volume of water in the caldera lake, the unique geography, and the limited control capability, a potential hazard assessment can be represented. The study will contribute to build a geohazard map for the decision-makers and practitioners. Keywords: Volcanic flood, Caldera lake, Hazard assessment, Magma effusion Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant [NEMA-BAEKDUSAN-2012-1-2] from the Volcanic Disaster Preparedness Research Center sponsored by National Emergency Management Agency of Korea.

  16. Origin of the different energetic ion populations in the quasi-perpendicular Ion Foreshock: 2D Full-particle simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savoini, P.; Lembege, B.; Stienlet, J.

    2012-04-01

    The foreshock region is located upstream of the terrestrial bow shock and is characterized by energetic backstreaming particles (electrons and ions) issued from the shock and by an important wave activity as observed by many space missions. In order to analyse the foreshock region, a curved shock is simulated with the help of a 2 - D full particle (PIC) code, where full curvature and time of flight effects, and where both electrons and ions dynamics are fully described by a self consistent approach. The analysis is presently restricted to the quasi-perpendicular angular range defined by 45°≤ θBn ≤ 90°, where θBn is the angle between the shock normal and the upstream magnetostatic field, and we focus only on the ion foreshock. In a good agreement with experimental data, present preliminary results evidence two distinct ion populations collimated along the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF): (i) the Field-Aligned Beam population (hereafter named "FAB") and (ii) the gyro-phase bunch population (hereafter named "GPB") which differ from each other by their gyrotropic or non-gyrotropic behavior, respectively. Additionally, the "FAB" population is observed at the edge of the ion foreshock and near the curved shock front, while the "'GPB" population is observed deeper in the foreshock and further from the shock front. The analysis shows that no pitch angle scattering mechanism needs to be invoked to account for the generation of the "GPB", but rather additional criteria are necessary namely: the interaction time Δtint of backstreaming ions with the shock front and their downstream penetration depth. These criteria allow to evidence that (i) the "FAB" population corresponds to particles which move back and forth between the upstream edge of the front and the overshoot, and are characterized by a quite large Δtint (covering several local gyro-periods, 4 ≤ τci ≤ 12). In contrast, (ii) the "GPB" ions have suffered a very short interaction time (i.e. Δtint < 1

  17. Allosteric pathway identification through network analysis: from molecular dynamics simulations to interactive 2D and 3D graphs.

    PubMed

    Allain, Ariane; Chauvot de Beauchêne, Isaure; Langenfeld, Florent; Guarracino, Yann; Laine, Elodie; Tchertanov, Luba

    2014-01-01

    Allostery is a universal phenomenon that couples the information induced by a local perturbation (effector) in a protein to spatially distant regulated sites. Such an event can be described in terms of a large scale transmission of information (communication) through a dynamic coupling between structurally rigid (minimally frustrated) and plastic (locally frustrated) clusters of residues. To elaborate a rational description of allosteric coupling, we propose an original approach - MOdular NETwork Analysis (MONETA) - based on the analysis of inter-residue dynamical correlations to localize the propagation of both structural and dynamical effects of a perturbation throughout a protein structure. MONETA uses inter-residue cross-correlations and commute times computed from molecular dynamics simulations and a topological description of a protein to build a modular network representation composed of clusters of residues (dynamic segments) linked together by chains of residues (communication pathways). MONETA provides a brand new direct and simple visualization of protein allosteric communication. A GEPHI module implemented in the MONETA package allows the generation of 2D graphs of the communication network. An interactive PyMOL plugin permits drawing of the communication pathways between chosen protein fragments or residues on a 3D representation. MONETA is a powerful tool for on-the-fly display of communication networks in proteins. We applied MONETA for the analysis of communication pathways (i) between the main regulatory fragments of receptors tyrosine kinases (RTKs), KIT and CSF-1R, in the native and mutated states and (ii) in proteins STAT5 (STAT5a and STAT5b) in the phosphorylated and the unphosphorylated forms. The description of the physical support for allosteric coupling by MONETA allowed a comparison of the mechanisms of (a) constitutive activation induced by equivalent mutations in two RTKs and (b) allosteric regulation in the activated and non

  18. Computational Simulation of Explosively Generated Pulsed Power Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-21

    COMPUTATIONAL SIMULATION OF EXPLOSIVELY GENERATED PULSED POWER DEVICES THESIS Mollie C. Drumm, Captain, USAF AFIT-ENY-13-M-11 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR...copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENY-13-M-11 COMPUTATIONAL SIMULATION OF EXPLOSIVELY GENERATED PULSED POWER DEVICES THESIS Presented to the...OF EXPLOSIVELY GENERATED PULSED POWER DEVICES Mollie C. Drumm, BS Captain, USAF Approved: Dr. Robert B. Greendyke (Chairman) Date Capt. David Liu

  19. SIMULATIONS OF 2D AND 3D THERMOCAPILLARY FLOWS BY A LEAST-SQUARES FINITE ELEMENT METHOD. (R825200)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerical results for time-dependent 2D and 3D thermocapillary flows are presented in this work. The numerical algorithm is based on the Crank-Nicolson scheme for time integration, Newton's method for linearization, and a least-squares finite element method, together with a matri...

  20. Tools for Modeling & Simulation of Molecular and Nanoelectronics Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-14

    1) Tools for Modeling & Simulation of Molecular and Nanoelectronics Devices 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...parallel algorithms to allow for simulations of realistic device structures. In Phase II, these methods will be developed and will be integrated into...the integration of other simulation engines into the ATK package. This allows these codes, which are all of academic origin to date, to be driven from

  1. Modeling and simulation of graphene devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, Jyotsna

    Graphene has been explored as one of the promising materials to sustain Moore's law especially with silicon approaching its limits. The extraordinary electronic properties of graphene like high mobility, high saturation velocity etc. have created a gold rush for graphene based electronics. The numerical study in this dissertation provides valuable insights into device physics and characteristics of graphene Field Effect Transistors (FETs). First part of dissertation studies the effect of inelastic phonon scattering in graphene FETs using semi classical approach. A kink behavior due to ambipolar transport is observed. Even the low field mobility is affected by inelastic phonon scattering in recent graphene FET experiments reporting high mobilities. Physical mechanisms for good linearity are explained. The high frequency performance limits of graphene FETs are studied by running quantum simulations. Although Klein band-to-band tunneling is significant for sub-100nm graphene FETs, it is possible to achieve a good transconductance and ballistic on-off ratio larger than 3 even at a channel length of 20nm. At a channel length of 20nm, the intrinsic cut-off frequency remains at a couple of THz for various gate insulator thickness values, but a thin gate insulator is necessary for a good transconductance and smaller degradation of cut-off frequency in the presence of parasitic capacitance. With a thin high-kappa gate insulator, the intrinsic ballistic fT is above 5THz for gate length of 10nm. The source and drain resistance severely degrade RF parameters, fMAX and f T. It is found that the intrinsic fT is close to the LC characteristic frequency set by graphene kinetic inductance and quantum capacitance. Graphene on silicon contacts are modeled. Graphene on silicon forms Schottky contact with a flexibility to tune the Schottky barrier height (SBH) by silicon doping and gate voltage. Multiple layers of graphene at the interface as well as donor type interface states reduce

  2. Simulating FinFET Self-Heating for Device Reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, James; Carr, Lincoln; Graas, Carole

    2014-03-01

    The continual scaling of transistors has led to sharp gradients in temperature (from ballistic transport of carriers) that result in new difficulties modeling device reliability. Current device-level thermal simulations do not track phonon populations, which are necessary to understand damage from high temperatures in scaled devices. A model for simulating highly localized hot spots due to an optical phonon bottle-neck near the channel/drain interface of a device operating in a ballistic transport regime will be presented. Various expansions of the Boltzmann transport equation (spherical harmonic expansion and methods of moments) are compared to a hydrodynamic model for device thermal simulations. We will discuss the post-processing technique for arriving at phonon populations from technology computer aided design (TCAD) simulations.

  3. Parasitic extraction and magnetic analysis for transformers, inductors and igbt bridge busbar with maxwell 2d and maxwell 3d simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ning

    This thesis presents the parasitic extraction and magnetic analysis for transformers, inductors, and IGBT bridge busbars with Maxwell 2D and Maxwell 3D simulation. In the first chapter, the magnetic field of a transformer in Maxwell 2D is analyzed. The parasitic capacitance between each winding of the transformer are extracted by Maxwell 2D. According to the actual dimensions, the parasitic capacitances are calculated. The results are verified by comparing with the measurement results from 4395A impedance analyzer. In the second chapter, two CM inductors are simulated in Maxwell 3D. One is the conventional winding inductor, the other one is the proposed one. The magnetic field distributions of different winding directions are analyzed. The analysis is verified by the simulation result. The last chapter introduces a technique to analyze, extract, and measure the parasitic inductance of planar busbars. With this technique, the relationship between self-inductance and mutual-inductance is analyzed. Secondly, a total inductance is calculated based on the developed technique. Thirdly, the current paths and the inductance on a planar busbar are investigated with DC-link capacitors. Furthermore, the analysis of the inductance is addressed. Ansys Q3D simulation and analysis are presented. Finally, the experimental verification is shown by the S-parameter measurement.

  4. Compatibility study of a parenteral microdose polyethylene glycol formulation in medical devices and identification of degradation impurity by 2D-LC/MS.

    PubMed

    Dai, Lulu; Yeh, Geoffrey K; Ran, Yingqing; Yehl, Peter; Zhang, Kelly

    2017-04-15

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) based formulation and polyvinylchloride (PVC) tubing are frequently used for drug delivery and administration. The compatibility of a parenteral drug microdose formulation in intravenous infusion (IV) devices was studied to support the clinical determination of absolute bioavailability by the microdosing method. The investigational microdose formulation containing PEG was found prone to significant loss of potency within hours of storage in the PVC IV tubing due to degradation. Degradation occurred only when both PEG and PVC tubing were present. The degradation product could not be detected by LC/MS due to the significant interference from the high concentration of PEG (4%) matrix and the extremely low level of drug (0.6ppm). To obtain structural information of the degradation impurity and understand the cause of the degradation, a simple heart-cutting 2D-LC/MS approach was utilized to effectively separate the impurity from the complex PEG oligomers and overcome the matrix interference, enabling mass spectrometric analysis of the impurity. An oxidation- dominated mechanism was proposed in which the combination of PEG auto-oxidation and dehydrochlorination of the PVC tubing yielded an oxidative environment that enhanced radical propagation and accelerated degradation of the investigational parent drug.

  5. Acentric 2-D Ensembles of D-br-A Electron-Transfer Chromophores via Vectorial Orientation within Amphiphilic n-Helix Bundle Peptides for Photovoltaic Device Applications

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Jaseung; Park, Jaehong; Tronin, Andrey; Zhang, Ruili; Krishnan, Venkata; Strzalka, Joseph; Kuzmenko, Ivan; Fry, H. Christopher; Therien, Michael J.; Blasie, J. Kent

    2012-01-01

    We show that simply designed amphiphilic 4-helix bundle peptides can be utilized to vectorially-orient a linearly-extended Donor-bridge-Acceptor (D-br-A) electron transfer (ET) chromophore within its core. The bundle’s interior is shown to provide a unique solvation environment for the D-br-A assembly not accessible in conventional solvents, and thereby control the magnitudes of both light-induced ET and thermal charge recombination rate constants. The amphiphilicity of the bundle’s exterior was employed to vectorially-orient the peptide-chromophore complex at a liquid-gas interface, and its ends tailored for subsequent covalent attachment to an inorganic surface, via a “directed assembly” approach. Structural data, combined with evaluation of the excited state dynamics exhibited by these peptide-chromophore complexes, demonstrates that densely-packed, acentrically ordered 2-D monolayer ensembles of such complexes at high in-plane chromophore densities approaching 1/200Å2 offer unique potential as active layers in binary heterojucntion photovoltaic devices. PMID:22242787

  6. Analytical modeling of seismic wave scattered from a 2D fracture simulated by a low-aspect ratio elliptical cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, T.; Wang, P.; Fehler, M.; Zhang, Y.; Burns, D.

    2009-12-01

    Localizing subsurface fractures and estimating their mechanical parameters and geometric properties are very important in oil and gas industry as well as geothermal energy research. It is essential to quantitatively understand how the elastic wave propagation is affected by these fractures. In this paper, an analytical expression for the scattered P- and SV waves from a 2D fracture is formulated based on a normal mode method, where the 2D fracture is modeled by a low-aspect ratio elliptical cylinder. The scatter function of this 2D fracture are expressed in terms of the incident angle, the orientation and aspect ratio of the fracture as well as the elastic impedance contrast between the surrounding medium and the inhomogeneity inside the fracture. Results from this analytical solution match well with those from a finite-difference approach. Solutions of this analytical model at two limiting cases (a circular cylinder with aspect ratio equal to one and a strip with aspect ratio equal to zero) are also compared to analytical solutions directly derived for the circular cylinder and strip by other studies.

  7. Enhancing medical device training with hybrid physical-virtual simulators: smart peripherals for virtual devices.

    PubMed

    Samosky, Joseph T; Thornburg, Andrew; Karkhanis, Tushar; Petraglia, Frank; Strickler, Elise; Nelson, Douglas A; Weaver, Robert A; Robinson, Evan

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a novel platform for medical device training: hybrid physical-virtual simulators of medical devices, combining touchscreen-enabled virtual emulations of real devices with sensorized physical peripherals to enable tactile, hands-on interaction between the trainee, simulated device and standardized patients or mannequins. The system enables objective measurement and recording of trainee performance, including interactions with both the virtual device elements and the physical components, and can include metrics and feedback not available in the real device. The system also includes an integrated wireless signaling device for use with standardized patients. We present the implementation of an example system, a virtual defibrillator with sensorized paddles and wireless signaling of successful defibrillator operation.

  8. Unraveling the dynamics and structure of functionalized self-assembled monolayers on gold using 2D IR spectroscopy and MD simulations

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Chang; Yuan, Rongfeng; Pfalzgraff, William C.; Nishida, Jun; Wang, Lu; Markland, Thomas E.; Fayer, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Functionalized self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) are the focus of ongoing investigations because they can be chemically tuned to control their structure and dynamics for a wide variety of applications, including electrochemistry, catalysis, and as models of biological interfaces. Here we combine reflection 2D infrared vibrational echo spectroscopy (R-2D IR) and molecular dynamics simulations to determine the relationship between the structures of functionalized alkanethiol SAMs on gold surfaces and their underlying molecular motions on timescales of tens to hundreds of picoseconds. We find that at higher head group density, the monolayers have more disorder in the alkyl chain packing and faster dynamics. The dynamics of alkanethiol SAMs on gold are much slower than the dynamics of alkylsiloxane SAMs on silica. Using the simulations, we assess how the different molecular motions of the alkyl chain monolayers give rise to the dynamics observed in the experiments. PMID:27044113

  9. Monte Carlo simulations of intragrain spin effects in a quasi-2D Heisenberg model with uniaxial anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, M D; Whitehead, J P; Plumer, M L

    2013-05-15

    A combination of Metropolis and modified Wolff cluster algorithms is used to examine the impact of uniaxial single-ion anisotropy on the phase transition to ferromagnetic order of Heisenberg macrospins on a 2D square lattice. This forms the basis of a model for granular perpendicular recording media where macrospins represent the magnetic moment of grains. The focus of this work is on the interplay between anisotropy D, intragrain exchange J' and intergrain exchange J on the ordering temperature T(C) and extends our previous reported analysis of the granular Ising model. The role of intragrain degrees of freedom in heat assisted magnetic recording is discussed.

  10. Monte Carlo simulations of intragrain spin effects in a quasi-2D Heisenberg model with uniaxial anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, M. D.; Whitehead, J. P.; Plumer, M. L.

    2013-05-01

    A combination of Metropolis and modified Wolff cluster algorithms is used to examine the impact of uniaxial single-ion anisotropy on the phase transition to ferromagnetic order of Heisenberg macrospins on a 2D square lattice. This forms the basis of a model for granular perpendicular recording media where macrospins represent the magnetic moment of grains. The focus of this work is on the interplay between anisotropy D, intragrain exchange J‧ and intergrain exchange J on the ordering temperature TC and extends our previous reported analysis of the granular Ising model. The role of intragrain degrees of freedom in heat assisted magnetic recording is discussed.

  11. Quantum Mechanical Balance Equation Approach to Semiconductor Device Simulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    inexpensive way to analyze and design the semiconductor devices before expensive device processing. Since traditional equivalent circuit models and...are described, along with representative simulation results for various devices, such as Si- MESFET , Si-MOSFET and GaAs- MESFET . ^CQTJM^1^^0^ 8... determined by how accurately carrier transport is described. Generally, the more sophisticated the approach, the heavier the computational burden

  12. 2D semiconductor optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novoselov, Kostya

    The advent of graphene and related 2D materials has recently led to a new technology: heterostructures based on these atomically thin crystals. The paradigm proved itself extremely versatile and led to rapid demonstration of tunnelling diodes with negative differential resistance, tunnelling transistors, photovoltaic devices, etc. By taking the complexity and functionality of such van der Waals heterostructures to the next level we introduce quantum wells engineered with one atomic plane precision. Light emission from such quantum wells, quantum dots and polaritonic effects will be discussed.

  13. Electronic device simulates respiration rate and depth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, J. A.

    1964-01-01

    An oscillator circuit and a thermistor, in close proximity to a light bulb, periodically alter the heat output of the bulb by varying the voltage across its filament. Use of this simulator permits checkout tests on pneumographs.

  14. Simulation using HYDRUS-2D for Soil Water and Heat Transfer under Drip Irrigation with 95oC Hot Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Y.; Noborio, K.

    2015-12-01

    In Japan, soil disinfection with hot water has been popular since the use of methyl bromide was restricted in 2005. Decreasing the amount of hot water applied may make farmers reduce the operation cost. To determine the appropriate amount of hot water needed for soil disinfection, HYDRUS-2D was evaluated. A field experiment was conducted and soil water content and soil temperature were measured at 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 cm deep when 95oC hot water was applied. Irrigation tubing equipped with drippers every 30 cm were laid at the soil surface, z=0 cm. An irrigation rate for each dripper was 0.83 cm min-1 between t=0 and 120 min, and thereafter it was zero. Temperature of irrigation water was 95oC. Total simulation time with HYDRUS-2D was 720 min for a homogeneous soil. A simulating domain was selected as x=60 cm and z=100 cm. A potential evaporation rate was assumed to be 0 cm min-1 because the soil surface was covered with a plastic sheet. The boundary condition at the bottom was free drainage and those of both sides were no-flux conditions. Hydraulic properties and bulk densities measured at each depth were used for simulation. It was assumed that there was no organic matter contained. Soil thermal properties were adopted from previous study and HYDRUS 2D. Simulated temperatures at 5, 10, 20 and 40 cm deep agreed well with those measured although simulated temperatures at 60, 80, and 100 cm deep were overly estimated. Estimates of volumetric water content at 5 cm deep agreed well with measured values. Simulated values at 10 to 100 cm deep were overly estimated by 0.1 to 0.3 (m3 m-3). The deeper the soil became, the more the simulated wetting front lagged behind the measured one. It was speculated that water viscosity estimated smaller at high temperature might attributed to the slower advances of wetting front simulated with HYDRUS 2-D.

  15. Modeling and Simulation of Marine Hydrokinetic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoele, K.; Previsic, M.

    2012-12-01

    To accurately design a wave energy conversion system, the time domain numerical model is necessary. This is due to nonlinearities in the system from different sources such as hydrodynamic forces, device dynamics, control mechanisms, and mooring lines. Combining model accuracy with efficient and fast calculation of hydrodynamic forces in time domain is challenging and time-consuming. This article describes an easy to use and unified computational framework that handles those challenges efficiently for different types of wave energy converters. The framework has been generated as a Matlab toolbox that contains the key components of a wave to wire model. It can be used for initial performance evaluation of wave energy converters as well as detailed nonlinear analysis in the time domain. The preprocessing, post-processing, and standard modeling procedure are among the unique capabilities of the toolbox that enable users to check different device concepts and optimize device performance without dealing with modeling troubles. The hydrodynamic parameters are initially computed using the three-dimensional panel method and transformed to time domain by systematic identification techniques to accelerate computation of the hydrodynamic radiation forces. The dynamics of the whole system including nonlinear viscous forces, multi-body dynamics, mooring lines, and power takeoff units is then modeled in Matlab Simulink interface. Validation of the model with experimental studies is described and the responses of different wave energy conversion systems, especially their converted power, are presented.

  16. The influence of the IMRT QA set-up error on the 2D and 3D gamma evaluation method as obtained by using Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyeong-Hyeon; Kim, Dong-Su; Kim, Tae-Ho; Kang, Seong-Hee; Cho, Min-Seok; Suh, Tae Suk

    2015-11-01

    The phantom-alignment error is one of the factors affecting delivery quality assurance (QA) accuracy in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Accordingly, a possibility of inadequate use of spatial information in gamma evaluation may exist for patient-specific IMRT QA. The influence of the phantom-alignment error on gamma evaluation can be demonstrated experimentally by using the gamma passing rate and the gamma value. However, such experimental methods have a limitation regarding the intrinsic verification of the influence of the phantom set-up error because experimentally measuring the phantom-alignment error accurately is impossible. To overcome this limitation, we aimed to verify the effect of the phantom set-up error within the gamma evaluation formula by using a Monte Carlo simulation. Artificial phantom set-up errors were simulated, and the concept of the true point (TP) was used to represent the actual coordinates of the measurement point for the mathematical modeling of these effects on the gamma. Using dose distributions acquired from the Monte Carlo simulation, performed gamma evaluations in 2D and 3D. The results of the gamma evaluations and the dose difference at the TP were classified to verify the degrees of dose reflection at the TP. The 2D and the 3D gamma errors were defined by comparing gamma values between the case of the imposed phantom set-up error and the TP in order to investigate the effect of the set-up error on the gamma value. According to the results for gamma errors, the 3D gamma evaluation reflected the dose at the TP better than the 2D one. Moreover, the gamma passing rates were higher for 3D than for 2D, as is widely known. Thus, the 3D gamma evaluation can increase the precision of patient-specific IMRT QA by applying stringent acceptance criteria and setting a reasonable action level for the 3D gamma passing rate.

  17. Simulation of heterojunction organic thin film devices and exciton diffusion analysis in stacked-hetero device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamohara, Itaru; Townsend, Mark; Cottle, Bob

    2005-01-01

    A two-dimensional device simulation methodology for organic heterojunction thin film devices has been developed. Multilayer organic light emitting diodes, organic thin film heterojunction field effect transistors, and stacked heterojunction organic complementary devices were simulated. Heterojunction organic layer devices have been analyzed using a two-dimensional simulator with heterointerface models and organic material specific models. The stacked heterojunction organic double carrier device exhibits both horizontal and vertical carrier flow in the organic thin film. This unique dual-directional carrier flow shows efficient electron-hole recombination resulting in exciton generation in the organic heterojunction layers. Furthermore, the enhanced behavior of the generated excitons has been analyzed using a self-consistent exciton diffusion model. The vertical (thickness) diffusion of the excitons and the lateral (along heterointerface) diffusion (accompanied by exciton hopping) were simulated. The exciton diffusion model is applicable to electroluminescent characteristics in organic devices. This feature is one of the essential differences between the present model for high-injected polymer devices and conventional drift-diffusion transport in nonpolymer semiconductor devices.

  18. Protein folding simulations of 2D HP model by the genetic algorithm based on optimal secondary structures.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chenhua; Yang, Xiangbo; He, Zhihong

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, based on the evolutionary Monte Carlo (EMC) algorithm, we have made four points of ameliorations and propose a so-called genetic algorithm based on optimal secondary structure (GAOSS) method to predict efficiently the protein folding conformations in the two-dimensional hydrophobic-hydrophilic (2D HP) model. Nine benchmarks are tested to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach and the results show that for the listed benchmarks GAOSS can find the best solutions so far. It means that reasonable, effective and compact secondary structures (SSs) can avoid blind searches and can reduce time consuming significantly. On the other hand, as examples, we discuss the diversity of protein GSC for the 24-mer and 85-mer sequences. Several GSCs have been found by GAOSS and some of the conformations are quite different from each other. It would be useful for the designing of protein molecules. GAOSS would be an efficient tool for the protein structure predictions (PSP).

  19. CONFIG: Qualitative simulation tool for analyzing behavior of engineering devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Basham, Bryan D.; Harris, Richard A.

    1987-01-01

    To design failure management expert systems, engineers mentally analyze the effects of failures and procedures as they propagate through device configurations. CONFIG is a generic device modeling tool for use in discrete event simulation, to support such analyses. CONFIG permits graphical modeling of device configurations and qualitative specification of local operating modes of device components. Computation requirements are reduced by focussing the level of component description on operating modes and failure modes, and specifying qualitative ranges of variables relative to mode transition boundaries. Simulation processing occurs only when modes change or variables cross qualitative boundaries. Device models are built graphically, using components from libraries. Components are connected at ports by graphical relations that define data flow. The core of a component model is its state transition diagram, which specifies modes of operation and transitions among them.

  20. 14 CFR 121.921 - Training devices and simulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Line Operational Simulations (LOS). (b) Approval of other training equipment. (1) Any training... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Training devices and simulators. 121.921... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Advanced Qualification Program § 121.921...

  1. 14 CFR 121.921 - Training devices and simulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) Line Operational Simulations (LOS). (b) Approval of other training equipment. (1) Any training... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Training devices and simulators. 121.921... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Advanced Qualification Program § 121.921...

  2. A MODFLOW Infiltration Device Package for Simulating Storm Water Infiltration.

    PubMed

    Jeppesen, Jan; Christensen, Steen

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a MODFLOW Infiltration Device (INFD) Package that can simulate infiltration devices and their two-way interaction with groundwater. The INFD Package relies on a water balance including inflow of storm water, leakage-like seepage through the device faces, overflow, and change in storage. The water balance for the device can be simulated in multiple INFD time steps within a single MODFLOW time step, and infiltration from the device can be routed through the unsaturated zone to the groundwater table. A benchmark test shows that the INFD Package's analytical solution for stage computes exact results for transient behavior. To achieve similar accuracy by the numerical solution of the MODFLOW Surface-Water Routing (SWR1) Process requires many small time steps. Furthermore, the INFD Package includes an improved representation of flow through the INFD sides that results in lower infiltration rates than simulated by SWR1. The INFD Package is also demonstrated in a transient simulation of a hypothetical catchment where two devices interact differently with groundwater. This simulation demonstrates that device and groundwater interaction depends on the thickness of the unsaturated zone because a shallow groundwater table (a likely result from storm water infiltration itself) may occupy retention volume, whereas a thick unsaturated zone may cause a phase shift and a change of amplitude in groundwater table response to a change of infiltration. We thus find that the INFD Package accommodates the simulation of infiltration devices and groundwater in an integrated manner on small as well as large spatial and temporal scales.

  3. Application of rank-ordered multifractal analysis (ROMA) to intermittent fluctuations in 3D turbulent flows, 2D MHD simulation and solar wind data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C.; Chang, T.

    2010-12-01

    A new method in describing the multifractal characteristics of intermittent events was introduced by Cheng and Wu [Chang T. and Wu C.C., Physical Rev, E77, 045401(R), 2008]. The procedure provides a natural connection between the rank-ordered spectrum and the idea of one-parameter scaling for monofractals. This technique has been demonstrated using results obtained from a 2D MHD simulation. It has also been successfully applied to in-situ solar wind observations [Chang T., Wu, C.C. and Podesta, J., AIP Conf Proc. 1039, 75, 2008], and the broadband electric field oscillations from the auroral zone [Tam, S.W.Y. et al., Physical Rev, E81, 036414, 2010]. We take the next step in this procedure. By using the ROMA spectra and the scaled probability distribution functions (PDFs), raw PDFs can be calculated, which can be compared directly with PDFs from observations or simulation results. In addition to 2D MHD simulation results and in-situ solar wind observation, we show clearly using the ROMA analysis the multifractal character of the 3D fluid simulation data obtained from the JHU turbulence database cluster at http://turbulence.pha.jhu.edu. In particular, we show the scaling of the non-symmetrical PDF for the parallel-velocity fluctuations of this 3D fluid data.

  4. 2D Particle-In-Cell simulations of the electron-cyclotron instability and associated anomalous transport in Hall-Effect Thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croes, Vivien; Lafleur, Trevor; Bonaventura, Zdenek; Péchereau, François; Bourdon, Anne; Chabert, Pascal

    2016-09-01

    This work studies the electron-cyclotron instability in Hall-Effect Thrusters (HETs) using a 2D Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulation. The simulation is configured with a Cartesian coordinate system where a magnetic field, B0, is aligned along the X-axis (radial direction, including absorbing walls), a constant electric field, E0, along the Z-axis (axial direction, perpendicular to simulation plane), and the E0xB0 direction along the Y-axis (O direction, with periodic boundaries). Although for low plasma densities classical electron-neutral collisions theory describes well electron transport, at sufficiently high densities (as measured in HETs) a strong instability can be observed that enhances the electron mobility, even in the absence of collisions. The instability generates high frequency ( MHz) and short wavelength ( mm) fluctuations in both the electric field and charged particle densities. We investigate the correlation between these fluctuations and their role with anomalous electron transport; complementing previous 1D simulations. Plasma is self-consistently heated by the instability, but since the latter does not reach saturation in an infinitely long 2D system, saturation is achieved through implementation of a finite axial length that models convection in E0 direction. With support of Safran Aircraft Engines.

  5. Numerical simulations of hydrodynamic instabilities: Perturbation codes PANSY, PERLE, and 2D code CHIC applied to a realistic LIL target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallo, L.; Olazabal-Loumé, M.; Maire, P. H.; Breil, J.; Morse, R.-L.; Schurtz, G.

    2006-06-01

    This paper deals with ablation front instabilities simulations in the context of direct drive ICF. A simplified DT target, representative of realistic target on LIL is considered. We describe here two numerical approaches: the linear perturbation method using the perturbation codes Perle (planar) and Pansy (spherical) and the direct simulation method using our Bi-dimensional hydrodynamic code Chic. Numerical solutions are shown to converge, in good agreement with analytical models.

  6. Energy Efficiency of D2D Multi-User Cooperation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zufan; Wang, Lu; Zhang, Jie

    2017-03-28

    The Device-to-Device (D2D) communication system is an important part of heterogeneous networks. It has great potential to improve spectrum efficiency, throughput and energy efficiency cooperation of multiple D2D users with the advantage of direct communication. When cooperating, D2D users expend extraordinary energy to relay data to other D2D users. Hence, the remaining energy of D2D users determines the life of the system. This paper proposes a cooperation scheme for multiple D2D users who reuse the orthogonal spectrum and are interested in the same data by aiming to solve the energy problem of D2D users. Considering both energy availability and the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) of each D2D user, the Kuhn-Munkres algorithm is introduced in the cooperation scheme to solve relay selection problems. Thus, the cooperation issue is transformed into a maximum weighted matching (MWM) problem. In order to enhance energy efficiency without the deterioration of Quality of Service (QoS), the link outage probability is derived according to the Shannon Equation by considering the data rate and delay. The simulation studies the relationships among the number of cooperative users, the length of shared data, the number of data packets and energy efficiency.

  7. Combustion Devices CFD Simulation Capability Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, Jeff; Tucker, P. Kevin; Williams, Robert W.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this roadmap is to enable the use of CFD for simulation of pre-burners, ducting, thrust chamber assembly and supporting infrastructure in terms of performance, life, and stability so as to affect the design process in a timely fashion. To enable flange to exit analysis of real(3D) propulsion hardware within the last 5 years (2008). To meet this objective all model problems must be sufficiently mastered.

  8. A 2D Simulation of the Flow Separation Control over a NACA0015 Airfoil Using a Synthetic Jet Actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boukenkoul, M. A.; Li, F. C.; Aounallah, M.

    2017-03-01

    The present study aims to investigate numerically the flow control possibility using a synthetic jet actuation over a bi-dimensional NACA0015 airfoil manoeuvring at a highly turbulent flow (8.9e105 Reynolds to chord number). The 2-D flow behaviour was computed using the ANSYS Fluent commercial code. The so-called Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stocks (RANS) approach has been tested for one (Spalat-Allmaras S-A) and two (K-ε) transport equations for the turbulence modelling. Both present a weakness to predict the stall angle effectively. The S-A lift coefficient slope seems to be the closest to the experimental data. The synthetic jet control exhibits an extraordinary lift coefficient enhancement at high Angles Of Attack (AOA) but seems to be less obvious at low AOA, where the flow is still attached. A synthetic jet of a Strouhal (St = 2) and momentum (Cμ of 0.56%), delays the stall onset from 15 to 19deg with enhancing the lift coefficient by 40%. The actual work has been enriched by studying the effect of the jet’s frequency and momentum on the lift temporal signal. Also, the interaction between the mean flow and the synthetic jet structures topology was undertaken.

  9. Meshing Preprocessor for the Mesoscopic 3D Finite Element Simulation of 2D and Interlock Fabric Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendling, A.; Daniel, J. L.; Hivet, G.; Vidal-Sallé, E.; Boisse, P.

    2015-12-01

    Numerical simulation is a powerful tool to predict the mechanical behavior and the feasibility of composite parts. Among the available numerical approaches, as far as woven reinforced composites are concerned, 3D finite element simulation at the mesoscopic scale leads to a good compromise between realism and complexity. At this scale, the fibrous reinforcement is modeled by an interlacement of yarns assumed to be homogeneous that have to be accurately represented. Among the numerous issues induced by these simulations, the first one consists in providing a representative meshed geometrical model of the unit cell at the mesoscopic scale. The second one consists in enabling a fast data input in the finite element software (contacts definition, boundary conditions, elements reorientation, etc.) so as to obtain results within reasonable time. Based on parameterized 3D CAD modeling tool of unit-cells of dry fabrics already developed, this paper presents an efficient strategy which permits an automated meshing of the models with 3D hexahedral elements and to accelerate of several orders of magnitude the simulation data input. Finally, the overall modeling strategy is illustrated by examples of finite element simulation of the mechanical behavior of fabrics.

  10. Fabrication and simulation of nanopore optoelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, J. J.; Dias, N. L.; Reddy, U.; Garg, A.; Young, J. D.; Verma, V. B.; Elarde, V. C.

    2010-07-01

    Nanopores are a new class of low dimensional semiconductor nanostructures which have been recently proposed for use in lasers and other photonic applications. This paper provides an overview of patterned nanopore lattices with an emphasis on their electronic and optical properties. The ability to control nanopore properties by geometry and material composition are demonstrated. Two methods for controlled nanopore fabrication are presented and compared. Spectral characteristics of nanopore lasers are presented. Finite element numerical simulations are also performed to determine the band structure and emission properties of nanopores.

  11. Fabrication and simulation of nanopore optoelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, J. J.; Dias, N. L.; Reddy, U.; Garg, A.; Young, J. D.; Verma, V. B.; Elarde, V. C.

    2011-03-01

    Nanopores are a new class of low dimensional semiconductor nanostructures which have been recently proposed for use in lasers and other photonic applications. This paper provides an overview of patterned nanopore lattices with an emphasis on their electronic and optical properties. The ability to control nanopore properties by geometry and material composition are demonstrated. Two methods for controlled nanopore fabrication are presented and compared. Spectral characteristics of nanopore lasers are presented. Finite element numerical simulations are also performed to determine the band structure and emission properties of nanopores.

  12. Numerical simulations - Some results for the 2- and 3-D Hubbard models and a 2-D electron phonon model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scalapino, D. J.; Sugar, R. L.; White, S. R.; Bickers, N. E.; Scalettar, R. T.

    1989-01-01

    Numerical simulations on the half-filled three-dimensional Hubbard model clearly show the onset of Neel order. Simulations of the two-dimensional electron-phonon Holstein model show the competition between the formation of a Peierls-CDW state and a superconducting state. However, the behavior of the partly filled two-dimensional Hubbard model is more difficult to determine. At half-filling, the antiferromagnetic correlations grow as T is reduced. Doping away from half-filling suppresses these correlations, and it is found that there is a weak attractive pairing interaction in the d-wave channel. However, the strength of the pair field susceptibility is weak at the temperatures and lattice sizes that have been simulated, and the nature of the low-temperature state of the nearly half-filled Hubbard model remains open.

  13. Computer simulation of topological evolution in 2-d grain growth using a continuum diffuse-interface field model

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, D.; Geng, C.; Chen, L.Q.

    1997-03-01

    The local kinetics and topological phenomena during normal grain growth were studied in two dimensions by computer simulations employing a continuum diffuse-interface field model. The relationships between topological class and individual grain growth kinetics were examined, and compared with results obtained previously from analytical theories, experimental results and Monte Carlo simulations. It was shown that both the grain-size and grain-shape (side) distributions are time-invariant and the linear relationship between the mean radii of individual grains and topological class n was reproduced. The moments of the shape distribution were determined, and the differences among the data from soap froth. Potts model and the present simulation were discussed. In the limit when the grain size goes to zero, the average number of grain edges per grain is shown to be between 4 and 5, implying the direct vanishing of 4- and 5-sided grains, which seems to be consistent with recent experimental observations on thin films. Based on the simulation results, the conditions for the applicability of the familiar Mullins-Von Neumann law and the Hillert`s equation were discussed.

  14. Comparison and analysis of 2-D simulation results with two implosion radiation experiments on the Los Alamos Pegasus I and Pegasus II capacitor banks

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, D.L.; Bowers, R.L.; Lebeda, C.F.; Matuska, W.; Benage, J.; Idzorek, G.; Oona, H.; Stokes, J.; Roderick, N.F.

    1995-09-01

    Two experiments, PegI-41, conducted on the Los Alamos Pegasus I capacitor bank, and PegII-25, on the Pegasus II bank, consisted of the implosions of 13 mg (nominal), 5 cm radius, 2 cm high thin cylindrical aluminum foils resulting in soft x-ray radiation pulses from the plasma thermalization on axis. The implosions were conducted in direct-drive (no intermediate switching) mode with peak currents of about 4 MA and 5 MA respectively, and implosion times of about 2.5 {micro}s and 2.0 {micro}s. A radiation yield of about 250 kJ was measured for PegII-25. The purpose of these experiments was to examine the physics of the implosion and relate this physics to the production of the radiation pulse and to provide detailed experimental data which could be compared with 2-D radiation-magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) simulations. Included in the experimental diagnostic suites were faraday rotation and dB/dt current measurements, a visible framing camera, an x-ray stripline camera, time-dependent spectroscopy, bolometers and XRD`S. A comparison of the results from these experiments shows agreement with 2-D simulation results in the instability development, current, and radiation pulse data, including the pulsewidth, shape, peak power and total radiation yield as measured by bolometry. Instabilities dominate the behavior of the implosion and largely determine the properties of the resulting radiation pulse. The 2-D simulations can be seen to be an important tool in understanding the implosion physics.

  15. Destabilization of a cylindrically confined electron cloud by impact ionization of background neutrals: 2D3v PIC simulation with Monte-Carlo-collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, M.; Ganesh, R.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we have investigated, through simulation, the process of destabilization of a cylindrically confined electron cloud due to the presence of a single species of neutral atoms, Ar in the background of the trap at a pressure relevant to experiments. The destabilization occurs because of a gradual accumulation of Ar+ in the cloud by the electron-impact ionization of the background neutrals. The trapped ions gradually collectively form a sizeable ion cloud which engages in a rotational two-stream instability (the ion resonance instability) with the electron cloud. The instability excites a growing fundamental diocotron mode on both components of the mixed non-neutral cloud. With the help of a set of numerical diagnostics, we have investigated the nonlinear evolution of the excited fundamental mode under the combined influence of two ongoing processes viz, (i) the changing electron and ion populations caused by electron impact ionization of the background Ar, and also by the radial loss of both charged species to the grounded trap wall at later stages and (ii) the elastic scattering of electrons and ions that make non-ionizing collisions with the background neutrals. The 2D collisionless dynamics of the instability has been simulated using a 2D Particle-in-Cell code operating on a Cartesian grid laid out on the cylindrical trap's cross-section, and the 3D ionizing and non-ionizing collisions between charged particles and background neutrals have been simulated using the technique of Monte-Carlo-Collisions.

  16. Evaluation of the Performance of HYDRUS-2D in Simulating Effects of Shading and Irrigation on Soil Water Content and Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fares, A.; Simunek, J.; Parsons, L. R.; van Genuchten, T. M.; Wheaton, T. A.; Morgan, K. T.

    2001-12-01

    Citrus root systems are exposed to different thermal and hydrologic conditions as a result of tree canopy shading and undertree microirrigation. Because microsprinklers wet only part of the soil surface and are located under the tree, roots under the canopy usually receive more water than those outside the tree canopy. The combined effects of different soil temperature and water input on water redistribution under field conditions have not been fully studied in Florida sandy soils. The objective of this study was to investigate shading and irrigation effects on spatial distribution of water content and soil temperature at different soil depths. Real-time capacitance probe systems (EnviroSCAN, SENTEK, Ltd. South Australia) and thermocouples were used to monitor soil water content and temperature at depths of 0, 10, 20, 40, 80 and 150 cm. Weather parameters were monitored simultaneously at the same location. HYDRUS-2D, a two dimensional computer package for simulating movement of water, heat, and multiple solutes in variably saturated media, was used to simulate water flow and heat transport under such conditions. The predicted water contents and soil temperatures compared favorably with their corresponding observed parameters. Shading substantially influenced hydraulic and thermal regimes of the system as shown by both predicted and measured water content and soil temperature. In addition to its accuracy in simulating this system, HYDRUS-2D helped to improve the analysis of this research project.

  17. Data of the recombination loss mechanisms analysis on Al2O3 PERC cell using PC1D and PC2D simulations.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haibing; Lv, Jun; Bao, Yameng; Xuan, Rongwei; Sun, Shenghua; Sneck, Sami; Li, Shuo; Modanese, Chiara; Savin, Hele; Wang, Aihua; Zhao, Jianhua

    2017-04-01

    This data article is related to our recently published article ('20.8% industrial PERC solar cell: ALD Al2O3 rear surface passivation, efficiency loss mechanisms analysis and roadmap to 24%', Huang et al., 2017 [1]) where we have presented a systematic evaluation of the overall cell processing and a cost-efficient industrial roadmap for PERC cells. Aside from the information already presented in Huang et al., 2017 [1], here we provide data related to Sectin 3 in Huang et al., 2017 [1] concerning the analysis of the recombination losses׳ mechanisms by PC1D V5.9 and PC2D simulations (Clugston and Basore, 1997, Basore and Cabanas-Holmen, 2011, Cabanas-Holmen and Basore, 2012 and Cabanas-Holmen and Basore, 2012.) [2], [3], [4], [5] on our current industrial Al2O3 PERC cell. The data include: i) PC2D simulations on J02, ii) the calculation of series resistance and back surface recombination velocity (BSRV) on the rear side metallization of PERC cell for the case of a point contact, and iii) the PC1D simulation on the cumulative photo-generation and recombination along the distance from the front surface. Finally, the roadmap of the solar cell efficiency for an industrial PERC technology up to 24% is presented, with the aim of providing a potential guideline for industrial researchers.

  18. Fractal dimension as a measure of altered actin cytoskeleton in MC3T3-E1 cells under simulated microgravity using 3-D/2-D clinostats.

    PubMed

    Qian, A R; Li, D; Han, J; Gao, X; Di, S M; Zhang, W; Hu, L F; Shang, Peng

    2012-05-01

    Osteoblasts, the bone-forming cells, respond to various mechanical forces, such as stretch and fluid shear force in essentially similar ways. The cytoskeleton, as the load-bearing architecture of the cell, is sensitive to altered inertial forces. Disruption of the cytoskeleton will result in alteration of cellular structure and function. However, it is difficult to quantitatively illustrate cytoskeletal rearrangement because of the complexity of cytoskeletal structure. Usually, the morphological changes in actin organization caused by external stimulus are basically descriptive. In this study, fractal dimensions (D) analysis was used to quantify the morphological changes in the actin cytoskeleton of osteoblast-like cells (MC3T3-E1) under simulated microgravity using 3-D/2-D clinostats. The ImageJ software was used to count the fractal dimension of actin cytoskeleton by box-counting methods. Real-time PCR and immunofluroscent assays were used to further confirm the results obtained by fractal dimension analysis. The results showed significant decreases in D value of actin cytoskeleton, β-actin mRNA expression, and the mean fluorescence intensity of F-actin in osteoblast-like cells after 24 or 48 h of incubation under 3-D/2-D clinorotation condition compared with control. The findings indicate that 3-D/2-D clinorotation affects both actin cytoskeleton architecture and mRNA expression, and fractal may be a promising approach for quantitative analysis of the changes in cytoskeleton in different environments.

  19. Boundary conditions for simulating large SAW devices using ANSYS.

    PubMed

    Peng, Dasong; Yu, Fengqi; Hu, Jian; Li, Peng

    2010-08-01

    In this report, we propose improved substrate left and right boundary conditions for simulating SAW devices using ANSYS. Compared with the previous methods, the proposed method can greatly reduce computation time. Furthermore, the longer the distance from the first reflector to the last one, the more computation time can be reduced. To verify the proposed method, a design example is presented with device center frequency 971.14 MHz.

  20. Design, modelling and simulation aspects of an ankle rehabilitation device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racu, C. M.; Doroftei, I.

    2016-08-01

    Ankle injuries are amongst the most common injuries of the lower limb. Besides initial treatment, rehabilitation of the patients plays a crucial role for future activities and proper functionality of the foot. Traditionally, ankle injuries are rehabilitated via physiotherapy, using simple equipment like elastic bands and rollers, requiring intensive efforts of therapists and patients. Thus, the need of robotic devices emerges. In this paper, the design concept and some modelling and simulation aspects of a novel ankle rehabilitation device are presented.

  1. Effects of various types of molecular dynamics on 1D and 2D (2)H NMR studied by random walk simulations

    PubMed

    Vogel; Rossler

    2000-11-01

    By carrying out random walk simulations we systematically study the effects of various types of complex molecular dynamics on (2)H NMR experiments in solids. More precisely, we calculate one-dimensional (1D) (2)H NMR spectra and the results of two dimensional (2D) (2)H NMR experiments in time domain, taking into account isotropic as well as highly restricted motions which involve rotational jumps about different finite angles. Although the dynamical models are chosen to mimic the primary and secondary relaxation in supercooled liquids and glasses, we do not intend to describe experimental results quantitatively but rather to show general effects appearing for complex reorientations. We carefully investigate whether 2D (2)H NMR in time domain, which was originally designed to measure correlation times of ultraslow motions (tau >/= 1 ms), can be used to obtain shorter tau, too. It is demonstrated that an extension of the time window to tau >/= 10 &mgr;s is possible when dealing with exponential relaxation, but that it will fail if there is a distribution of correlation times G(lgtau). Vice versa, we show that 1D (2)H NMR spectra, usually recorded to look at dynamics with tau in the microsecond regime, are also applicable for studying ultraslow motions provided that the loss of correlation is achieved step by step. Therefore, it is useful to carry out 1D and 2D NMR experiments simultaneously in order to reveal the mechanism of complex molecular motions. In addition, we demonstrate that highly restricted dynamics can be clearly observed in 1D spectra and in 2D NMR in time domain if long solid-echo delays and large evolution times are applied, respectively. Finally, unexpected observations are described which appear in the latter experiment when considering very broad distributions G(lgtau). Because of these effects, time scale and geometry of a considered motion cannot be extracted from a straightforward analysis of experimental results. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  2. Investigation of the Triggering Mechanism of Magnetospheric Substorm via 2-1/2 D Full-Particle Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchino, H.; Machida, S.

    2012-12-01

    A physical process of the substorm triggering in the Earth's Magnetotail is thought to be closely related to the magnetic reconnection and the tearing instability. Recently we proposed a new scheme of the substorm onset called "Catapult Current Sheet Relaxation (CCSR) Model " to physically understand the results from GEOTAIL and THEMIS data. The CCSR Model has characters that are the decrease of the total pressure and thinning of the current sheet at the distance about -12Re in the magnetotail a few minutes before the substorm onset, and the simultaneous occurrence of the dipolarization at X~-10Re and the magnetic reconnection at X~-20Re at the time of the onset. In this study, we investigate a stability of the current sheet and the particle acceleration via particle simulation in order to assess the validity of the CCSR model and to clarify the mechanism of substorm onset. We give an initial magnetic field structure which is akin to the Earth's dipole magnetic field together with a stretched magnetic field by thin current sheet, and further add a weak northward magnetic field at the place where Near-Earth Neutral Line is expected to be formed. The results of simulation contain similar features that characterize the CCSR Model. A physically interpretation of the simulation result with the linear instability theory as well as comparison with observations will be given.

  3. 2D Ultrasound Sparse Arrays Multi-Depth Radiation Optimization Using Simulated Annealing and Spiral-Array Inspired Energy Functions.

    PubMed

    Roux, Emmanuel; Ramalli, Alessandro; Tortoli, Piero; Cachard, Christian; Robini, Marc; Liebgott, Herve

    2016-08-24

    Full matrix arrays are excellent tools for 3D ultrasound imaging, but the required number of active elements is too high to be individually controlled by an equal number of scanner channels. The number of active elements is significantly reduced by the sparse array techniques, but the position of the remaining elements must be carefully optimized. This issue is here faced by introducing novel energy functions in the simulated annealing algorithm. At each iteration step of the optimization process, one element is freely translated and the associated radiated pattern is simulated. To control the pressure field behavior at multiple depths, three energy functions inspired by the pressure field radiated by a Blackman-tapered spiral array are introduced. Such energy functions aim at limiting the main lobe width while lowering the side lobe and grating lobe levels at multiple depths. Numerical optimization results illustrate the influence of the number of iterations, pressure measurement points and depths as well as the influence of the energy function definition on the optimized layout. It is also shown that performance close to- or even better than the one provided by a spiral array, here assumed as reference, may be obtained. The finite-time convergence properties of simulated annealing allow the duration of the optimization process to be set in advance.

  4. 2D hybrid simulations of super-diffusion at the magnetopause driven by Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

    SciTech Connect

    Cowee, Misa M; Winske, Dan; Gary, S Peter

    2009-01-01

    This manuscript describes the self-consistent simulation of diffusion at the magnetopause driven by Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability. Two-dimensional hybrid (kinetic ions, fluid electrons) simulations of the most KH-unstable configuration where the shear flow is oriented perpendicular to the uniform magnetic field are carried out. The motion of the simulation particles are tracked during the run and their mean-square displacement normal to the magnetopause is calculated from which diffusion coefficients are determined. The diffusion coefficients are found to be time dependent, with D{sub x} {proportional_to} t{sup {alpha}}, where {alpha} > 1. Additionally, the probability distribution functions (PDF) of the 'jump lengths' the particles make over time are found to be non-gaussian. Such time-dependent diffusion coefficients and non-gaussian PDF's have been associated with so-called 'super-diffusion', in which diffusive mixing of particles is enhanced over classical diffusion. The results indicate that while turbulence associated with the break-down of vortices contributes to this enhanced diffusion, it is the growth of large-scale, coherent vortices is the more important process in facilitating it.

  5. On the accuracy of simulations of a 2D boundary layer with RANS models implemented in OpenFoam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, Benjamin J.; Gomez, Sebastian; Poroseva, Svetlana V.

    2013-11-01

    The OpenFoam software is an attractive Computational Fluid Dynamics solver for evaluating new turbulence models due to the open-source nature, and the suite of existing standard model implementations. Before interpreting results obtained with a new model, a baseline for performance of the OpenFoam solver and existing models is required. In the current study we analyze the RANS models in the OpenFoam incompressible solver for two planar (two-dimensional mean flow) benchmark cases generated by the AIAA Turbulence Model Benchmarking Working Group (TMBWG): a zero-pressure-gradient flat plate and a bump-in-channel. The OpenFoam results are compared against both experimental data and simulation results obtained with the NASA CFD codes CFL3D and FUN3D. Sensitivity of simulation results to the grid resolution and model implementation are analyzed. Testing is conducted using the Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model, Wilcox's two-equation k-omega model, and the Launder-Reece-Rodi Reynolds-stress model. Simulations using both wall functions and wall-resolved (low Reynolds number) formulations are considered. The material is based upon work supported by NASA under award NNX12AJ61A.

  6. Hyporheic Exchange: Analysis of Aquifer Heterogeneity, Channel Morphology and Bedforms- 2D and 3D Simulations Using MODFLOW and MODPATH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matos, J. R.; Welty, C.; Packman, A.

    2005-12-01

    The main purpose of the simulations in this research is the analysis of three-dimensional surface-groundwater interchange in heterogeneous systems. The effects of channel pattern, bed forms and aquifer heterogeneity on flow interactions between stream and groundwater systems are examined in order to contribute for a better understanding of the hyporheic process. A two-dimensional approach was also adopted to allow comparisons with the three-dimensional results. The grid was designed using the correlation scales of the heterogeneous fields and the scale of the stream meanders. MODFLOW and MODPATH were used to evaluate magnitude, direction and spatial distribution of the exchange flow. PMWIN and PMPATH were used as pre and post-processors during the construction of the models and analysis of results. Gaining and losing streams as well as parallel flow and flow across streams were simulated as idealized cases intended to describe how properties of the streambed and aquifer in low-gradient lowland streams contribute to hyporheic exchange. At first a straight river was analyzed then meandering streams were created with a sine curve and variations on wavelength and amplitude. Bed forms were simulated assuming a sinusoidal distribution of pressure head in the bed surface. Aspects of the influence of bedforms on mechanisms such as "pumping" and "turnover" are expected to be addressed with simulations. Flow velocities between 20 and 40 cm/s in the channel were tested with the objective of showing the influence of river morphology and natural bed forms on the flow exchange in the hyporheic zone. Several meander cycles and four levels of hydraulic conductivity variance were analyzed. Results of flow variances along the cross-sections and wetted perimeter show the increasing on hyporheic exchange as the degree of heterogeneity increases. Particle tracking was performed to define hyporheic residence time distributions. When comparing the homogeneous fields with all degrees of

  7. Comparison of Non-Parabolic Hydrodynamic Simulations for Semiconductor Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A. W.; Brennan, K. F.

    1996-01-01

    Parabolic drift-diffusion simulators are common engineering level design tools for semiconductor devices. Hydrodynamic simulators, based on the parabolic band approximation, are becoming more prevalent as device dimensions shrink and energy transport effects begin to dominate device characteristic. However, band structure effects present in state-of-the-art devices necessitate relaxing the parabolic band approximation. This paper presents simulations of ballistic diodes, a benchmark device, of Si and GaAs using two different non-parabolic hydrodynamic formulations. The first formulation uses the Kane dispersion relationship in the derivation of the conservation equations. The second model uses a power law dispersion relation {(hk)(exp 2)/2m = xW(exp Y)}. Current-voltage relations show that for the ballistic diodes considered. the non-parabolic formulations predict less current than the parabolic case. Explanations of this will be provided by examination of velocity and energy profiles. At low bias, the simulations based on the Kane formulation predict greater current flow than the power law formulation. As the bias is increased this trend changes and the power law predicts greater current than the Kane formulation. It will be shown that the non-parabolicity and energy range of the hydrodynamic model based on the Kane dispersion relation are limited due to the binomial approximation which was utilized in the derivation.

  8. Section 1. Simulation of surface-water integrated flow and transport in two-dimensions: SWIFT2D user's manual

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaffranek, Raymond W.

    2004-01-01

    A numerical model for simulation of surface-water integrated flow and transport in two (horizontal-space) dimensions is documented. The model solves vertically integrated forms of the equations of mass and momentum conservation and solute transport equations for heat, salt, and constituent fluxes. An equation of state for salt balance directly couples solution of the hydrodynamic and transport equations to account for the horizontal density gradient effects of salt concentrations on flow. The model can be used to simulate the hydrodynamics, transport, and water quality of well-mixed bodies of water, such as estuaries, coastal seas, harbors, lakes, rivers, and inland waterways. The finite-difference model can be applied to geographical areas bounded by any combination of closed land or open water boundaries. The simulation program accounts for sources of internal discharges (such as tributary rivers or hydraulic outfalls), tidal flats, islands, dams, and movable flow barriers or sluices. Water-quality computations can treat reactive and (or) conservative constituents simultaneously. Input requirements include bathymetric and topographic data defining land-surface elevations, time-varying water level or flow conditions at open boundaries, and hydraulic coefficients. Optional input includes the geometry of hydraulic barriers and constituent concentrations at open boundaries. Time-dependent water level, flow, and constituent-concentration data are required for model calibration and verification. Model output consists of printed reports and digital files of numerical results in forms suitable for postprocessing by graphical software programs and (or) scientific visualization packages. The model is compatible with most mainframe, workstation, mini- and micro-computer operating systems and FORTRAN compilers. This report defines the mathematical formulation and computational features of the model, explains the solution technique and related model constraints, describes the

  9. Simulation of neutron radiation damage in silicon semiconductor devices.

    SciTech Connect

    Shadid, John Nicolas; Hoekstra, Robert John; Hennigan, Gary Lee; Castro, Joseph Pete Jr.; Fixel, Deborah A.

    2007-10-01

    A code, Charon, is described which simulates the effects that neutron damage has on silicon semiconductor devices. The code uses a stabilized, finite-element discretization of the semiconductor drift-diffusion equations. The mathematical model used to simulate semiconductor devices in both normal and radiation environments will be described. Modeling of defect complexes is accomplished by adding an additional drift-diffusion equation for each of the defect species. Additionally, details are given describing how Charon can efficiently solve very large problems using modern parallel computers. Comparison between Charon and experiment will be given, as well as comparison with results from commercially-available TCAD codes.

  10. 2D/3D quench simulation using ANSYS for epoxy impregnated Nb3Sn high field magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Ryuji Yamada et al.

    2002-09-19

    A quench program using ANSYS is developed for the high field collider magnet for three-dimensional analysis. Its computational procedure is explained. The quench program is applied to a one meter Nb{sub 3}Sn high field model magnet, which is epoxy impregnated. The quench simulation program is used to estimate the temperature and mechanical stress inside the coil as well as over the whole magnet. It is concluded that for the one meter magnet with the presented cross section and configuration, the thermal effects due to the quench is tolerable. But we need much more quench study and improvements in the design for longer magnets.

  11. 2-D Ultrasound Sparse Arrays Multidepth Radiation Optimization Using Simulated Annealing and Spiral-Array Inspired Energy Functions.

    PubMed

    Roux, Emmanuel; Ramalli, Alessandro; Tortoli, Piero; Cachard, Christian; Robini, Marc C; Liebgott, Herve

    2016-12-01

    Full matrix arrays are excellent tools for 3-D ultrasound imaging, but the required number of active elements is too high to be individually controlled by an equal number of scanner channels. The number of active elements is significantly reduced by the sparse array techniques, but the position of the remaining elements must be carefully optimized. This issue is faced here by introducing novel energy functions in the simulated annealing (SA) algorithm. At each iteration step of the optimization process, one element is freely translated and the associated radiated pattern is simulated. To control the pressure field behavior at multiple depths, three energy functions inspired by the pressure field radiated by a Blackman-tapered spiral array are introduced. Such energy functions aim at limiting the main lobe width while lowering the side lobe and grating lobe levels at multiple depths. Numerical optimization results illustrate the influence of the number of iterations, pressure measurement points, and depths, as well as the influence of the energy function definition on the optimized layout. It is also shown that performance close to or even better than the one provided by a spiral array, here assumed as reference, may be obtained. The finite-time convergence properties of SA allow the duration of the optimization process to be set in advance.

  12. Microplasma fabrication: from semiconductor technology for 2D-chips and microfluidic channels to rapid prototyping and 3D-printing of microplasma devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shatford, R.; Karanassios, Vassili

    2014-05-01

    Microplasmas are receiving attention in recent conferences and current scientific literature. In our laboratory, microplasmas-on-chips proved to be particularly attractive. The 2D- and 3D-chips we developed became hybrid because they were fitted with a quartz plate (quartz was used due to its transparency to UV). Fabrication of 2D- and 3D-chips for microplasma research is described. The fabrication methods described ranged from semiconductor fabrication technology, to Computer Numerical Control (CNC) machining, to 3D-printing. These methods may prove to be useful for those contemplating in entering microplasma research but have no access to expensive semiconductor fabrication equipment.

  13. Insights into the growth rate of spatially evolving plane turbulent free-shear layers from 2D vortex-gas simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryanarayanan, Saikishan; Narasimha, Roddam

    2017-02-01

    Although the free-shear or mixing layer has been a subject of extensive research over nearly a century, there are certain fundamental issues that remain controversial. These include the influence of initial and downstream conditions on the flow, the effect of velocity ratio across the layer, and the nature of any possible coupling between small scale dynamics and the large scale evolution of layer thickness. In the spirit of the temporal vortex-gas simulations of Suryanarayanan et al. ["Free turbulent shear layer in a point vortex gas as a problem in nonequilibrium statistical mechanics," Phys. Rev. E 89, 013009 (2014)], we revisit the simple 2D inviscid vortex-gas model with extensive computations and detailed analysis, in order to gain insights into some of the above issues. Simulations of the spatially evolving vortex-gas shear layer are carried out at different velocity ratios using a computational model based on the work of Basu et al. ["Vortex sheet simulation of a plane canonical mixing layer," Comput. Fluids 21, 1-30 (1992) and "Modelling plane mixing layers using vortex points and sheets," Appl. Math. Modell. 19, 66-75 (1995)], but with a crucial improvement that ensures conservation of global circulation. The simulations show that the conditions imposed at the origin of the free shear layer and at the exit to the computational domain can affect flow evolution in their respective downstream and upstream neighbourhoods, the latter being particularly strong in the single stream limit. In between these neighbourhoods at the ends is a regime of universal self-preserving growth rate given by a universal function of velocity ratio. The computed growth rates are generally located within the scatter of experimental data on plane mixing layers and closely agree with recent high Reynolds number experiments and 3D large eddy simulation studies. These findings support the view that observed free-shear layer growth can be largely explained by the 2D vortex dynamics of

  14. Influence of atomic physics on EDGE2D-EIRENE simulations of JET divertor detachment with carbon and beryllium/tungsten plasma-facing components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillemaut, C.; Pitts, R. A.; Kukushkin, A. S.; Gunn, J. P.; Bucalossi, J.; Arnoux, G.; Belo, P.; Brezinsek, S.; Brix, M.; Corrigan, G.; Devaux, S.; Flanagan, J.; Groth, M.; Harting, D.; Huber, A.; Jachmich, S.; Kruezi, U.; Lehnen, M.; Marchetto, C.; Marsen, S.; Meigs, A. G.; Meyer, O.; Stamp, M.; Strachan, J. D.; Wiesen, S.; Wischmeier, M.; EFDA Contributors, JET

    2014-09-01

    The EDGE2D-EIRENE code is applied for simulation of divertor detachment during matched density ramp experiments in high triangularity, L-mode plasmas in both JET-Carbon (JET-C) and JET-ITER-Like Wall (JET-ILW). The code runs without drifts and includes either C or Be as impurity, but not W, assuming that the W targets have been coated with Be via main chamber migration. The simulations reproduce reasonably well the observed particle flux detachment as density is raised in both JET-C and JET-ILW experiments and can better match the experimental in-out divertor target power asymmetry if the heat flux entering the outer divertor is artificially set at around 2-3 times that entering the inner divertor. A careful comparison between different sets of atomic physics processes used in EIRENE shows that the detachment modelled by EDGE2D-EIRENE relies only on an increase of the particle sinks and not on a decrease of the ionization source. For the rollover and the beginning of the partially detached phase, the particle losses by perpendicular transport and the molecular activated recombination processes are mainly involved. For a deeper detachment with significant target ion flux reduction, volume recombination appears to be the main contributor. The elastic molecule-ion collisions are also important to provide good neutral confinement in the divertor and thus stabilize the simulations at low electron temperature (Te), when the sink terms are strong. Comparison between EDGE2D-EIRENE and SOLPS4.3 simulations of the density ramp in C shows similar detachment trends, but the importance of the elastic ion-molecule collisions is reduced in SOLPS4.3. Both codes suggest that any process capable of increasing the neutral confinement in the divertor should help to improve the modelling of the detachment. A further outcome of this work has been to demonstrate that key JET divertor diagnostic signals—Langmuir probe Te and bolometric tomographic reconstructions—are running beyond

  15. Evolving detectors of 2D patterns on a simulated CAM-Brain machine: an evolvable hardware tool for building a 75-million-neuron artificial brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Garis, Hugo; Korkin, Michael; Guttikonda, Padma; Cooley, Donald

    2000-11-01

    This paper presents some simulation results of the evolution of 2D visual pattern recognizers to be implemented very shortly on real hardware, namely the 'CAM-Brain Machine' (CBM), an FPGA based piece of evolvable hardware which implements a genetic algorithm (GA) to evolve a 3D cellular automata (CA) based neural network circuit module, of approximately 1,000 neurons, in about a second, i.e. a complete run of a GA, with 10,000s of circuit growths and performance evaluations. Up to 65,000 of these modules, each of which is evolved with a humanly specified function, can be downloaded into a large RAM space, and interconnected according to humanly specified gvdvips -o SPIE-2000.ps SPIE-2000 artificial brain architectures. This RAM, containing an artificial brain with up to 75 million neurons, is then updated by the CBM at a rate of 130 billion CA cells per second. Such speeds will enable real time control of robots and hopefully the birth of a new research field that we call 'brain building.' The first such artificial brain, to be built at STARLAB in 2000 and beyond, will be used to control the behaviors of a life sized kitten robot called 'Robokitty.' This kitten robot will need 2D pattern recognizers in the visual section of its artificial brain. This paper presents simulation results on the evolvability and generalization properties of such recognizers.

  16. Simulation of decay heat removal by natural convection in a pool type fast reactor model-ramona-with coupled 1D/2D thermal hydraulic code system

    SciTech Connect

    Kasinathan, N.; Rajakumar, A.; Vaidyanathan, G.; Chetal, S.C.

    1995-09-01

    Post shutdown decay heat removal is an important safety requirement in any nuclear system. In order to improve the reliability of this function, Liquid metal (sodium) cooled fast breeder reactors (LMFBR) are equipped with redundant hot pool dipped immersion coolers connected to natural draught air cooled heat exchangers through intermediate sodium circuits. During decay heat removal, flow through the core, immersion cooler primary side and in the intermediate sodium circuits are also through natural convection. In order to establish the viability and validate computer codes used in making predictions, a 1:20 scale experimental model called RAMONA with water as coolant has been built and experimental simulation of decay heat removal situation has been performed at KfK Karlsruhe. Results of two such experiments have been compiled and published as benchmarks. This paper brings out the results of the numerical simulation of one of the benchmark case through a 1D/2D coupled code system, DHDYN-1D/THYC-2D and the salient features of the comparisons. Brief description of the formulations of the codes are also included.

  17. Improved EDGE2D-EIRENE simulations of JET ITER-like wall L-mode discharges utilising poloidal VUV/visible spectral emission profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, K. D.; Groth, M.; Belo, P.; Brezinsek, S.; Corrigan, G.; Czarnecka, A.; Delabie, E.; Drewelow, P.; Harting, D.; Książek, I.; Maggi, C. F.; Marchetto, C.; Meigs, A. G.; Menmuir, S.; Stamp, M. F.; Wiesen, S.

    2015-08-01

    A discrepancy in the divertor radiated powers between EDGE2D-EIRENE simulations, both with and without drifts, and JET-ILW experiments employing a set of NBI-heated L-mode discharges with step-wise density variation is investigated. Results from a VUV/visible poloidally scanning spectrometer are used together with bolometric measurements to determine the radiated power and its composition. The analysis shows the importance of D line radiation in contributing to the divertor radiated power, while contributions from D radiative recombination are smaller than expected. Simulations with W divertor plates underestimate the Be content in the divertor, since no allowance is made for Be previously deposited on the plates being re-eroded. An improved version of EDGE2D-EIRENE is used to test the importance of the deposited layer in which the sputtering yield from supposed pure Be divertor plates is reduced to match the spectroscopic signals, while keeping the sputtering yield for the Be main chamber walls unchanged.

  18. Optimization of Metal Coverage on the Emitter in n-Type Interdigitated Back Contact Solar Cells Using a PC2D Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Chen; Jia, Rui; Janssen, G. J. M.; Zhang, Dai-Sheng; Xing, Zhao; Bronsveld, P. C. P.; Weeber, A. W.; Jin, Zhi; Liu, Xin-Yu

    2013-07-01

    In interdigitated back contact (IBC) solar cells, the metal-electrode coverage on a p-type emitter is optimized by a PC2D simulation. The result shows that the variation of the metal coverage ratio (MCR) will affect both the surface passivation and the electrode-contact properties for the p-type emitter in IBC solar cells. We find that when Rc ranges from 0.08 to 0.16Ω·cm2, the MCR is optimized with a value of 25% and 33%, resulting in a highest energy-conversion efficiency. The dependences of both Voc and fill factor on MCR are simulated in order to explore the mechanism of the IBC solar cells.

  19. Uncertainty Assessments of 2D and Axisymmetric Hypersonic Shock Wave - Turbulent Boundary Layer Interaction Simulations at Compression Corners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.; Berry, Scott A.; VanNorman, John W.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is one of a series of five papers in a special session organized by the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program that addresses uncertainty assessments for CFD simulations in hypersonic flow. Simulations of a shock emanating from a compression corner and interacting with a fully developed turbulent boundary layer are evaluated herein. Mission relevant conditions at Mach 7 and Mach 14 are defined for a pre-compression ramp of a scramjet powered vehicle. Three compression angles are defined, the smallest to avoid separation losses and the largest to force a separated flow engaging more complicated flow physics. The Baldwin-Lomax and the Cebeci-Smith algebraic models, the one-equation Spalart-Allmaras model with the Catrix-Aupoix compressibility modification and two-equation models including Menter SST, Wilcox k-omega 98, and Wilcox k-omega 06 turbulence models are evaluated. Each model is fully defined herein to preclude any ambiguity regarding model implementation. Comparisons are made to existing experimental data and Van Driest theory to provide preliminary assessment of model form uncertainty. A set of coarse grained uncertainty metrics are defined to capture essential differences among turbulence models. Except for the inability of algebraic models to converge for some separated flows there is no clearly superior model as judged by these metrics. A preliminary metric for the numerical component of uncertainty in shock-turbulent-boundary-layer interactions at compression corners sufficiently steep to cause separation is defined as 55%. This value is a median of differences with experimental data averaged for peak pressure and heating and for extent of separation captured in new, grid-converged solutions presented here. This value is consistent with existing results in a literature review of hypersonic shock-turbulent-boundary-layer interactions by Roy and Blottner and with more recent computations of MacLean.

  20. Techniques utilized in the simulated altitude testing of a 2D-CD vectoring and reversing nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Block, H. Bruce; Bryant, Lively; Dicus, John H.; Moore, Allan S.; Burns, Maureen E.; Solomon, Robert F.; Sheer, Irving

    1988-01-01

    Simulated altitude testing of a two-dimensional, convergent-divergent, thrust vectoring and reversing exhaust nozzle was accomplished. An important objective of this test was to develop test hardware and techniques to properly operate a vectoring and reversing nozzle within the confines of an altitude test facility. This report presents detailed information on the major test support systems utilized, the operational performance of the systems and the problems encountered, and test equipment improvements recommended for future tests. The most challenging support systems included the multi-axis thrust measurement system, vectored and reverse exhaust gas collection systems, and infrared temperature measurement systems used to evaluate and monitor the nozzle. The feasibility of testing a vectoring and reversing nozzle of this type in an altitude chamber was successfully demonstrated. Supporting systems performed as required. During reverser operation, engine exhaust gases were successfully captured and turned downstream. However, a small amount of exhaust gas spilled out the collector ducts' inlet openings when the reverser was opened more than 60 percent. The spillage did not affect engine or nozzle performance. The three infrared systems which viewed the nozzle through the exhaust collection system worked remarkably well considering the harsh environment.

  1. Baryon acoustic oscillations in 2D. II. Redshift-space halo clustering in N-body simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimichi, Takahiro; Taruya, Atsushi

    2011-08-01

    We measure the halo power spectrum in redshift space from cosmological N-body simulations, and test the analytical models of redshift distortions particularly focusing on the scales of baryon acoustic oscillations. Remarkably, the measured halo power spectrum in redshift space exhibits a large-scale enhancement in amplitude relative to the real-space clustering, and the effect becomes significant for the massive or highly biased halo samples. These findings cannot be simply explained by the so-called streaming model frequently used in the literature. By contrast, a physically motivated perturbation theory model developed in the previous paper reproduces the halo power spectrum very well, and the model combining a simple linear scale-dependent bias can accurately characterize the clustering anisotropies of halos in two dimensions, i.e., line-of-sight and its perpendicular directions. The results highlight the significance of nonlinear coupling between density and velocity fields associated with two competing effects of redshift distortions, i.e., Kaiser and Finger-of-God effects, and a proper account of this effect would be important in accurately characterizing the baryon acoustic oscillations in two dimensions.

  2. New insights into the generalized Rutherford equation for nonlinear neoclassical tearing mode growth from 2D reduced MHD simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerhof, E.; de Blank, H. J.; Pratt, J.

    2016-03-01

    Two dimensional reduced MHD simulations of neoclassical tearing mode growth and suppression by ECCD are performed. The perturbation of the bootstrap current density and the EC drive current density perturbation are assumed to be functions of the perturbed flux surfaces. In the case of ECCD, this implies that the applied power is flux surface averaged to obtain the EC driven current density distribution. The results are consistent with predictions from the generalized Rutherford equation using common expressions for Δ \\text{bs}\\prime and Δ \\text{ECCD}\\prime . These expressions are commonly perceived to describe only the effect on the tearing mode growth of the helical component of the respective current perturbation acting through the modification of Ohm’s law. Our results show that they describe in addition the effect of the poloidally averaged current density perturbation which acts through modification of the tearing mode stability index. Except for modulated ECCD, the largest contribution to the mode growth comes from this poloidally averaged current density perturbation.

  3. Abdominal Palpation Haptic Device for Colonoscopy Simulation Using Pneumatic Control.

    PubMed

    Cheng, M; Marinovic, W; Watson, M; Ourselin, S; Passenger, J; De Visser, H; Salvado, O; Riek, S

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the development of a haptic device to be used in a simulator aiming to train the skills of gastroenterology assistants in abdominal palpation during colonoscopy, as well as to train team interaction skills for the colonoscopy team. To understand the haptic feedback forces to be simulated by the haptic device, we conducted an experiment with five participants of varying BMI. The applied forces and displacements were measured and hysteresis modeling was used to characterize the experimental data. These models were used to determine the haptic feedback forces required to simulate a BMI case in response to the real-time user interactions. The pneumatic haptic device consisted of a sphygmomanometer bladder as the haptic interface and a fuzzy controller to regulate the bladder pressure. The haptic device showed good steady state and dynamic response was adequate for simulating haptic interactions. Tracking accuracy averaged 94.2 percent within 300 ms of the reference input while the user was actively applying abdominal palpation and minor repositioning.

  4. Scalable processes for fabricating non-volatile memory devices using self-assembled 2D arrays of gold nanoparticles as charge storage nodes.

    PubMed

    Muralidharan, Girish; Bhat, Navakanta; Santhanam, Venugopal

    2011-11-01

    We propose robust and scalable processes for the fabrication of floating gate devices using ordered arrays of 7 nm size gold nanoparticles as charge storage nodes. The proposed strategy can be readily adapted for fabricating next generation (sub-20 nm node) non-volatile memory devices.

  5. BET_VH probabilistic assessment of pyroclastic flows hazard at El Misti volcano, South Peru, based on geological record and numerical simulations with TITAN2D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantinescu, R.; Thouret, J. C.; Sandri, L.; Irimus, I. A.; Stefanescu, R.

    2012-04-01

    Pyroclastic density currents, which include pyroclastic surges and pyroclastic flows (PFs), are among the most dangerous volcanic phenomena. We present a probabilistic hazard assessment of the PFs generated from eruptive column collapse at El Misti volcano (5822 m) in South Peru. The high relief of the cone, the location of the city of Arequipa (~1,000,000 people) on two large volcanoclastic fans and the H (3.5 km)/L (17 km) ratio (0.2) between the summit and the city center, make PFs a direct threat. We consider three eruption scenario sizes: small Vulcanian/Phreatomagmatic (VEI 2), medium Sub-Plinian (VEI 3-4), and large Plinian (VEI 4+). We use the Event-Tree approach in a Bayesian scheme with BET_VH (Bayesian Event Tree for Volcanic Hazard) software. Quantitative data that stem from numerical simulations from TITAN2D (termed prior models) and from stratigraphic record (termed past data) are input to BET_VH, which enables us to compute the probabilities (in a 1-year time window) of (i) having an eruption (ii) in a selected location/vent (iii) of a specific size, (iv) and that this eruption will produce PFs (v) that will reach a location of interest around El Misti. TITAN2D simulation runs, expressed as color-coded thicknesses of PDC deposits, fit well the extent of past PFs deposits, including thick confined deposits (0.5-7 m) in the Rio Chili canyon and its tributary ravines (Quebradas San Lazaro, Huarangal and Agua Salada).The unconfined, thinner (≤10cm) deposits, as displayed by simulation runs on the interfluves, is attributed to ash-cloud surges. Such thin, fine ash deposits have not been emphasized in geological maps either because they have been removed away or remain yet unrecognized. The simulated Vulcanian flows, restricted to the upper part of the cone, become confined (0.1-1m thick) in the ravines which converge towards each of the three Quebradas. The simulated Subplinian PF deposits reach 0.1 to 1 m thick in the Quebradas and 1-4 m WNW of El

  6. A pseudo-spectral method for the simulation of poro-elastic seismic wave propagation in 2D polar coordinates using domain decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Sidler, Rolf; Carcione, José M.; Holliger, Klaus

    2013-02-15

    We present a novel numerical approach for the comprehensive, flexible, and accurate simulation of poro-elastic wave propagation in 2D polar coordinates. An important application of this method and its extensions will be the modeling of complex seismic wave phenomena in fluid-filled boreholes, which represents a major, and as of yet largely unresolved, computational problem in exploration geophysics. In view of this, we consider a numerical mesh, which can be arbitrarily heterogeneous, consisting of two or more concentric rings representing the fluid in the center and the surrounding porous medium. The spatial discretization is based on a Chebyshev expansion in the radial direction and a Fourier expansion in the azimuthal direction and a Runge–Kutta integration scheme for the time evolution. A domain decomposition method is used to match the fluid–solid boundary conditions based on the method of characteristics. This multi-domain approach allows for significant reductions of the number of grid points in the azimuthal direction for the inner grid domain and thus for corresponding increases of the time step and enhancements of computational efficiency. The viability and accuracy of the proposed method has been rigorously tested and verified through comparisons with analytical solutions as well as with the results obtained with a corresponding, previously published, and independently benchmarked solution for 2D Cartesian coordinates. Finally, the proposed numerical solution also satisfies the reciprocity theorem, which indicates that the inherent singularity associated with the origin of the polar coordinate system is adequately handled.

  7. Huygen-Fresnel Diffraction Model H-Fdm for the Simulation of Ultrasonic Time-Of Diffraction Technique in 2d Geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, K. Sanjeeva; Krishnamurthy, C. V.; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Balasubramanian, T.

    2010-02-01

    This paper discusses the evaluation of diffracted signals from cracks in 2D based on a new Huygen-Fresnel Diffraction Model (H-FDM). The model employs the frequency-domain far-field displacement expressions derived by Miller & Pursey [1] in 2D for a line source located on the free surface of a semi-infinite elastic medium. At each frequency in the bandwidth of a pulsed excitation, the complex diffracted field is obtained by summing over the unblocked virtual sources located in the section containing a vertical crack. The time-domain diffracted signal is obtained using standard FFT procedures. The effect of beam refraction from a wedge-based finite transducer has been modeled by treating the finite transducer as an array of line sources. The model has been used for predicting diffracted signals in time-of-flight from the crack like defect. The model allows the evaluation of back wall signal amplitude and lateral wave amplitude as well. Experiments have been carried out on 10 mm thick aluminum sample with surface breaking crack of lengths 2 mm and 4 mm using shear probe shoe. The simulated A-Scan results for the aluminum sample with 2 mm and 4 mm surface breaking lengths compare very well in relative amplitudes and time of arrivals with experiments. The H-FDM model offers a tool to evaluate diffraction and related phenomena quantitatively with modest computational resources.

  8. A Review of Simulators with Haptic Devices for Medical Training.

    PubMed

    Escobar-Castillejos, David; Noguez, Julieta; Neri, Luis; Magana, Alejandra; Benes, Bedrich

    2016-04-01

    Medical procedures often involve the use of the tactile sense to manipulate organs or tissues by using special tools. Doctors require extensive preparation in order to perform them successfully; for example, research shows that a minimum of 750 operations are needed to acquire sufficient experience to perform medical procedures correctly. Haptic devices have become an important training alternative and they have been considered to improve medical training because they let users interact with virtual environments by adding the sense of touch to the simulation. Previous articles in the field state that haptic devices enhance the learning of surgeons compared to current training environments used in medical schools (corpses, animals, or synthetic skin and organs). Consequently, virtual environments use haptic devices to improve realism. The goal of this paper is to provide a state of the art review of recent medical simulators that use haptic devices. In particular we focus on stitching, palpation, dental procedures, endoscopy, laparoscopy, and orthopaedics. These simulators are reviewed and compared from the viewpoint of used technology, the number of degrees of freedom, degrees of force feedback, perceived realism, immersion, and feedback provided to the user. In the conclusion, several observations per area and suggestions for future work are provided.

  9. Optoelectronics with 2D semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) atomic crystals, such as graphene and layered transition-metal dichalcogenides, are currently receiving a lot of attention for applications in electronics and optoelectronics. In this talk, I will review our research activities on electrically driven light emission, photovoltaic energy conversion and photodetection in 2D semiconductors. In particular, WSe2 monolayer p-n junctions formed by electrostatic doping using a pair of split gate electrodes, type-II heterojunctions based on MoS2/WSe2 and MoS2/phosphorene van der Waals stacks, 2D multi-junction solar cells, and 3D/2D semiconductor interfaces will be presented. Upon optical illumination, conversion of light into electrical energy occurs in these devices. If an electrical current is driven, efficient electroluminescence is obtained. I will present measurements of the electrical characteristics, the optical properties, and the gate voltage dependence of the device response. In the second part of my talk, I will discuss photoconductivity studies of MoS2 field-effect transistors. We identify photovoltaic and photoconductive effects, which both show strong photoconductive gain. A model will be presented that reproduces our experimental findings, such as the dependence on optical power and gate voltage. We envision that the efficient photon conversion and light emission, combined with the advantages of 2D semiconductors, such as flexibility, high mechanical stability and low costs of production, could lead to new optoelectronic technologies.

  10. Simulating charge transport in organic semiconductors and devices: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groves, C.

    2017-02-01

    Charge transport simulation can be a valuable tool to better understand, optimise and design organic transistors (OTFTs), photovoltaics (OPVs), and light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). This review presents an overview of common charge transport and device models; namely drift-diffusion, master equation, mesoscale kinetic Monte Carlo and quantum chemical Monte Carlo, and a discussion of the relative merits of each. This is followed by a review of the application of these models as applied to charge transport in organic semiconductors and devices, highlighting in particular the insights made possible by modelling. The review concludes with an outlook for charge transport modelling in organic electronics.

  11. Fluid Structure Interaction Simulations of Pediatric Ventricular Assist Device Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Chris; Marsden, Alison; Bazilevs, Yuri

    2011-11-01

    Pediatric ventricular assist devices (PVADs) are used for mechanical circulatory support in children with failing hearts. They can be used to allow the heart to heal naturally or to extend the life of the patient until transplant. A PVAD has two chambers, blood and air, separated by a flexible membrane. The air chamber is pressurized, which drives the membrane and pumps the blood. The primary risk associated with these devices is stroke or embolism from thrombogenesis. Simulation of these devices is difficult due to a complex coupling of two fluid domains and a thin membrane, requiring fluid-structure interaction modeling. The goal of this work is to accurately simulate the hemodynamics of a PVAD. We perform FSI simulations using an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) finite element framework to account for large motions of the membrane and the fluid domains. The air, blood, and membrane are meshed as distinct subdomains, and a method for non-matched discretizations at the fluid-structure interface is presented. The use of isogeometric analysis to model the membrane mechanics is also discussed, and the results of simulations are presented.

  12. Respiratory motion compensation for simultaneous PET/MR based on a 3D-2D registration of strongly undersampled radial MR data: a simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rank, Christopher M.; Heußer, Thorsten; Flach, Barbara; Brehm, Marcus; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2015-03-01

    We propose a new method for PET/MR respiratory motion compensation, which is based on a 3D-2D registration of strongly undersampled MR data and a) runs in parallel with the PET acquisition, b) can be interlaced with clinical MR sequences, and c) requires less than one minute of the total MR acquisition time per bed position. In our simulation study, we applied a 3D encoded radial stack-of-stars sampling scheme with 160 radial spokes per slice and an acquisition time of 38 s. Gated 4D MR images were reconstructed using a 4D iterative reconstruction algorithm. Based on these images, motion vector fields were estimated using our newly-developed 3D-2D registration framework. A 4D PET volume of a patient with eight hot lesions in the lungs and upper abdomen was simulated and MoCo 4D PET images were reconstructed based on the motion vector fields derived from MR. For evaluation, average SUVmean values of the artificial lesions were determined for a 3D, a gated 4D, a MoCo 4D and a reference (with ten-fold measurement time) gated 4D reconstruction. Compared to the reference, 3D reconstructions yielded an underestimation of SUVmean values due to motion blurring. In contrast, gated 4D reconstructions showed the highest variation of SUVmean due to low statistics. MoCo 4D reconstructions were only slightly affected by these two sources of uncertainty resulting in a significant visual and quantitative improvement in terms of SUVmean values. Whereas temporal resolution was comparable to the gated 4D images, signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio were close to the 3D reconstructions.

  13. VIBA-Lab 3.0: Computer program for simulation and semi-quantitative analysis of PIXE and RBS spectra and 2D elemental maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlić, Ivica; Mekterović, Darko; Mekterović, Igor; Ivošević, Tatjana

    2015-11-01

    VIBA-Lab is a computer program originally developed by the author and co-workers at the National University of Singapore (NUS) as an interactive software package for simulation of Particle Induced X-ray Emission and Rutherford Backscattering Spectra. The original program is redeveloped to a VIBA-Lab 3.0 in which the user can perform semi-quantitative analysis by comparing simulated and measured spectra as well as simulate 2D elemental maps for a given 3D sample composition. The latest version has a new and more versatile user interface. It also has the latest data set of fundamental parameters such as Coster-Kronig transition rates, fluorescence yields, mass absorption coefficients and ionization cross sections for K and L lines in a wider energy range than the original program. Our short-term plan is to introduce routine for quantitative analysis for multiple PIXE and XRF excitations. VIBA-Lab is an excellent teaching tool for students and researchers in using PIXE and RBS techniques. At the same time the program helps when planning an experiment and when optimizing experimental parameters such as incident ions, their energy, detector specifications, filters, geometry, etc. By "running" a virtual experiment the user can test various scenarios until the optimal PIXE and BS spectra are obtained and in this way save a lot of expensive machine time.

  14. 2D particle-in-cell simulations of the electron drift instability and associated anomalous electron transport in Hall-effect thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croes, Vivien; Lafleur, Trevor; Bonaventura, Zdeněk; Bourdon, Anne; Chabert, Pascal

    2017-03-01

    In this work we study the electron drift instability in Hall-effect thrusters (HETs) using a 2D electrostatic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. The simulation is configured with a Cartesian coordinate system modeling the radial-azimuthal (r{--}θ ) plane for large radius thrusters. A magnetic field, {{B}}0, is aligned along the Oy axis (r direction), a constant applied electric field, {{E}}0, along the Oz axis (perpendicular to the simulation plane), and the {{E}}0× {{B}}0 direction is along the Ox axis (θ direction). Although electron transport can be well described by electron–neutral collisions for low plasma densities, at high densities (similar to those in typical HETs), a strong instability is observed that enhances the electron cross-field mobility; even in the absence of electron–neutral collisions. The instability generates high frequency (of the order of MHz) and short wavelength (of the order of mm) fluctuations in both the azimuthal electric field and charged particle densities, and propagates in the {{E}}0× {{B}}0 direction with a velocity close to the ion sound speed. The correlation between the electric field and density fluctuations (which leads to an enhanced electron–ion friction force) is investigated and shown to be directly responsible for the increased electron transport. Results are compared with a recent kinetic theory, showing good agreement with the instability properties and electron transport.

  15. Simulation and training of lumbar punctures using haptic volume rendering and a 6DOF haptic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Färber, Matthias; Heller, Julika; Handels, Heinz

    2007-03-01

    The lumbar puncture is performed by inserting a needle into the spinal chord of the patient to inject medicaments or to extract liquor. The training of this procedure is usually done on the patient guided by experienced supervisors. A virtual reality lumbar puncture simulator has been developed in order to minimize the training costs and the patient's risk. We use a haptic device with six degrees of freedom (6DOF) to feedback forces that resist needle insertion and rotation. An improved haptic volume rendering approach is used to calculate the forces. This approach makes use of label data of relevant structures like skin, bone, muscles or fat and original CT data that contributes information about image structures that can not be segmented. A real-time 3D visualization with optional stereo view shows the punctured region. 2D visualizations of orthogonal slices enable a detailed impression of the anatomical context. The input data consisting of CT and label data and surface models of relevant structures is defined in an XML file together with haptic rendering and visualization parameters. In a first evaluation the visible human male data has been used to generate a virtual training body. Several users with different medical experience tested the lumbar puncture trainer. The simulator gives a good haptic and visual impression of the needle insertion and the haptic volume rendering technique enables the feeling of unsegmented structures. Especially, the restriction of transversal needle movement together with rotation constraints enabled by the 6DOF device facilitate a realistic puncture simulation.

  16. Experimental and simulated control of lift using trailing edge devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooperman, A.; Blaylock, M.; van Dam, C. P.

    2014-12-01

    Two active aerodynamic load control (AALC) devices coupled with a control algorithm are shown to decrease the change in lift force experienced by an airfoil during a change in freestream velocity. Microtabs are small (1% chord) surfaces deployed perpendicular to an airfoil, while microjets are pneumatic jets with flow perpendicular to the surface of the airfoil near the trailing edge. Both devices are capable of producing a rapid change in an airfoil's lift coefficient. A control algorithm for microtabs has been tested in a wind tunnel using a modified S819 airfoil, and a microjet control algorithm has been simulated for a NACA 0012 airfoil using OVERFLOW. In both cases, the AALC devices have shown the ability to mitigate the changes in lift during a gust.

  17. A compact inflow control device for simulating flight fan noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homyak, L.; Mcardle, J. G.; Heidelberg, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    Inflow control device (ICD's) of various shapes and sizes have been used to simulate inflight fan tone noise during ground static tests. A small, simple inexpensive ICD design was optimized from previous design and fabrication techniques. This compact two-fan-diameter ICD exhibits satisfactory acoustic performance characteristics without causing noise attenuation or redirection. In addition, it generates no important new noise sources. Design and construction details of the compact ICD are discussed and acoustic performance test results are presented.

  18. Charge carrier transport and lifetimes in n-type and p-type phosphorene as 2D device active materials: an ab initio study.

    PubMed

    Tea, E; Hin, C

    2016-08-10

    In this work, we provide a detailed analysis of phosphorene's performance as an n-type and p-type active material. This study is based on first principles calculations of the phosphorene electronic structure, and the resulting electron and hole scattering rates and lifetimes. Emphasis is put on extreme regimes commonly found in semiconductor devices, i.e. high electric fields and heavy doping, where impact ionization and Auger recombination can occur. We found that electron-initiated impact ionization is weaker than the hole-initiated process, when compared to carrier-phonon interaction rates, suggesting resilience to impact ionization initiated breakdown. Moreover, calculated minority electron lifetimes are limited by radiative recombination only, not by Auger processes, suggesting that phosphorene could achieve good quantum efficiencies in optoelectronic devices. The provided scattering rates and lifetimes are critical input data for the modeling and understanding of phosphorene-based device physics.

  19. SU-E-T-35: An Investigation of the Accuracy of Cervical IMRT Dose Distribution Using 2D/3D Ionization Chamber Arrays System and Monte Carlo Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y; Yang, J; Liu, H; Liu, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to compare the verification results of three solutions (2D/3D ionization chamber arrays measurement and Monte Carlo simulation), the results will help make a clinical decision as how to do our cervical IMRT verification. Methods: Seven cervical cases were planned with Pinnacle 8.0m to meet the clinical acceptance criteria. The plans were recalculated in the Matrixx and Delta4 phantom with the accurate plans parameters. The plans were also recalculated by Monte Carlo using leaf sequences and MUs for individual plans of every patient, Matrixx and Delta4 phantom. All plans of Matrixx and Delta4 phantom were delivered and measured. The dose distribution of iso slice, dose profiles, gamma maps of every beam were used to evaluate the agreement. Dose-volume histograms were also compared. Results: The dose distribution of iso slice and dose profiles from Pinnacle calculation were in agreement with the Monte Carlo simulation, Matrixx and Delta4 measurement. A 95.2%/91.3% gamma pass ratio was obtained between the Matrixx/Delta4 measurement and Pinnacle distributions within 3mm/3% gamma criteria. A 96.4%/95.6% gamma pass ratio was obtained between the Matrixx/Delta4 measurement and Monte Carlo simulation within 2mm/2% gamma criteria, almost 100% gamma pass ratio within 3mm/3% gamma criteria. The DVH plot have slightly differences between Pinnacle and Delta4 measurement as well as Pinnacle and Monte Carlo simulation, but have excellent agreement between Delta4 measurement and Monte Carlo simulation. Conclusion: It was shown that Matrixx/Delta4 and Monte Carlo simulation can be used very efficiently to verify cervical IMRT delivery. In terms of Gamma value the pass ratio of Matrixx was little higher, however, Delta4 showed more problem fields. The primary advantage of Delta4 is the fact it can measure true 3D dosimetry while Monte Carlo can simulate in patients CT images but not in phantom.

  20. Vlasov simulation of 2D Modulational Instability of Ion Acoustic Waves and Prospects for Modeling such instabilities in Laser Propagation Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Richard; Chapman, T.; Banks, J. W.; Brunner, S.

    2015-11-01

    We present 2D+2V Vlasov simulations of Ion Acoustic waves (IAWs) driven by an external traveling-wave potential, ϕ0 (x , t) , with frequency, ω, and wavenumber, k, obeying the kinetic dispersion relation. Both electrons and ions are treated kinetically. Simulations with ϕ0 (x , t) , localized transverse to the propagation direction, model IAWs driven in a laser speckle. The waves bow with a positive or negative curvature of the wave fronts that depends on the sign of the nonlinear frequency shift ΔωNL , which is in turn determined by the magnitude of ZTe /Ti where Z is the charge state and Te , i is the electron, ion temperature. These kinetic effects result can cause modulational and self-focusing instabilities that transfer wave energy to kinetic energy. Linear dispersion properties of IAWs are used in laser propagation codes that predict the amount of light reflected by stimulated Brillouin scattering. At high enough amplitudes, the linear dispersion is invalid and these kinetic effects should be incorporated. Including the spatial and time scales of these instabilities is computationally prohibitive. We report progress including kinetic models in laser propagation codes. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344 and funded by the Laboratory Research and Development Program at LLNL under project tracking code 15.

  1. Responses of Microcrustaceans to Simulated Microgravity (2D-Clinorotation) - Preliminary Assessments for the Development of Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Jessica; Schoppmann, Kathrin; Knie, Miriam; Laforsch, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSS) are an endeavor to create environments able to maintain human life e.g. on future long-duration space missions like flights to Mars. Based on cyclic biological processes, these systems will be independent from material resupply (such as food, water and oxygen). Due to their central role in limnic ecosystems, herbivorous microcrustaceans could act as key player in aquatic BLSS as they link oxygen liberating, autotrophic producers like algae to higher trophic levels, such as fish. However, before such BLSS can be utilized in space, organisms inhabiting these systems have to be studied thoroughly to disclose the gravitational impact on the biological processes. This is possible in real microgravity, but requires high financial resources, is opportunity-limited or periods of microgravity are very short. Yet, cost-effective and almost permanently accessible tools for gravitational research are ground-based facilities (GBFs), providing simulated microgravity. Among those GBFs is the so called 2D-clinostat. In the present study we demonstrate, that rotation of clinostat tubes does not generate acceleration in form of (predator resembling) small scale turbulence, which can be perceived by Daphnia cucullata. Additionally, embryonal development is not disturbed in subitaneous eggs of Daphnia magna and resting eggs of the ostracod Heterocypris incongruens (besides through restrictions in space within the narrow clinostat tubes), just as subsequent hatching from the respective eggs. Hence, our results indicate that clinorotation is a suitable method to simulate microgravity for microcrustaceans.

  2. Finding the best combination of numerical schemes for 2-D SPH simulation of wedge water entry for a wide range of deadrise angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farsi, Mohammad; Ghadimi, Parviz

    2014-09-01

    Main aim of this paper is to find the best combination of numerical schemes for 2-D SPH simulation of wedge water entry. Diffusion term is considered as laminar, turbulent, and artificial viscosity. Density filter that seriously affects the pressure distribution is investigated by adopting no filter, first order filter, and second order filter. Validation of the results indicates that turbulent model and first order density filter can lead to more reasonable solutions. This simulation was then conducted for wedge water entry with wide range of deadrise angles including 10 degrees, 20 degrees, 30 degrees, 45 degrees, 60 degrees and 81 degrees, with extreme deadrise angles of 10 degrees, 60 degrees and 81 degrees being considered. Comparison of SPH results with BEM solutions has displayed favorable agreement. In two particular cases where experimental data are available, the SPH results are shown to be closer to the experiments than BEM solution. While, accuracy of the obtained results for moderate deadrise angles is desirable, numerical findings for very small or very large deadrise angles are also very reasonable

  3. Non-native side chain IR probe in peptides: ab initio computation and 1D and 2D IR spectral simulation.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Michael L; Zheng, David C; Wang, Jianping

    2010-02-18

    Infrared frequency region of 2000-2600 cm(-1) (i.e., ca. 4-5 microm in wavelength) is a well-known open spectral window for peptides and proteins. In this work, six unnatural amino acids (unAAs) were designed to have characteristic absorption bands located in this region. Key chemical groups that served as side chains in these unAAs are C[triple bond]C, Phe-C[triple bond]C, N=C=O, N=C=S, P-H, and Si-H, respectively. Cysteine (a natural AA having S-H in side chain) was also studied for comparison. The anharmonic vibrational properties, including frequencies, anharmonicities, and intermode couplings, were examined using the density functional theory. Broadband linear infrared (IR) and two-dimensional (2D) IR spectra were simulated for each molecule. It is found that all of the side chain modes have significant overtone diagonal anharmonicities. All have moderate transition dipole strengths except the C[triple bond]C and S-H stretching modes, in comparison with the C=O stretching mode. In each case, a collection of 2D IR cross peaks were predicted to appear due to the presence of the side chain groups, whose strengths are closely related to the intramolecular anharmonic interactions, and to the transition dipole strengths of the coupled vibrators. Further, potential energy distribution analysis and high-order anharmonic constant computation showed that these IR probes possess a varying degree of mode localization. The results suggest that these IR probes are potentially useful in complementing the well-studied amide-I mode, to investigate structures and dynamics of peptides and proteins.

  4. Effects of Precipitation on Ocean Mixed-Layer Temperature and Salinity as Simulated in a 2-D Coupled Ocean-Cloud Resolving Atmosphere Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Xiaofan; Sui, C.-H.; Lau, K-M.; Adamec, D.

    1999-01-01

    A two-dimensional coupled ocean-cloud resolving atmosphere model is used to investigate possible roles of convective scale ocean disturbances induced by atmospheric precipitation on ocean mixed-layer heat and salt budgets. The model couples a cloud resolving model with an embedded mixed layer-ocean circulation model. Five experiment are performed under imposed large-scale atmospheric forcing in terms of vertical velocity derived from the TOGA COARE observations during a selected seven-day period. The dominant variability of mixed-layer temperature and salinity are simulated by the coupled model with imposed large-scale forcing. The mixed-layer temperatures in the coupled experiments with 1-D and 2-D ocean models show similar variations when salinity effects are not included. When salinity effects are included, however, differences in the domain-mean mixed-layer salinity and temperature between coupled experiments with 1-D and 2-D ocean models could be as large as 0.3 PSU and 0.4 C respectively. Without fresh water effects, the nocturnal heat loss over ocean surface causes deep mixed layers and weak cooling rates so that the nocturnal mixed-layer temperatures tend to be horizontally-uniform. The fresh water flux, however, causes shallow mixed layers over convective areas while the nocturnal heat loss causes deep mixed layer over convection-free areas so that the mixed-layer temperatures have large horizontal fluctuations. Furthermore, fresh water flux exhibits larger spatial fluctuations than surface heat flux because heavy rainfall occurs over convective areas embedded in broad non-convective or clear areas, whereas diurnal signals over whole model areas yield high spatial correlation of surface heat flux. As a result, mixed-layer salinities contribute more to the density differences than do mixed-layer temperatures.

  5. A multiscale quantum mechanics/electromagnetics method for device simulations.

    PubMed

    Yam, ChiYung; Meng, Lingyi; Zhang, Yu; Chen, GuanHua

    2015-04-07

    Multiscale modeling has become a popular tool for research applying to different areas including materials science, microelectronics, biology, chemistry, etc. In this tutorial review, we describe a newly developed multiscale computational method, incorporating quantum mechanics into electronic device modeling with the electromagnetic environment included through classical electrodynamics. In the quantum mechanics/electromagnetics (QM/EM) method, the regions of the system where active electron scattering processes take place are treated quantum mechanically, while the surroundings are described by Maxwell's equations and a semiclassical drift-diffusion model. The QM model and the EM model are solved, respectively, in different regions of the system in a self-consistent manner. Potential distributions and current densities at the interface between QM and EM regions are employed as the boundary conditions for the quantum mechanical and electromagnetic simulations, respectively. The method is illustrated in the simulation of several realistic systems. In the case of junctionless field-effect transistors, transfer characteristics are obtained and a good agreement between experiments and simulations is achieved. Optical properties of a tandem photovoltaic cell are studied and the simulations demonstrate that multiple QM regions are coupled through the classical EM model. Finally, the study of a carbon nanotube-based molecular device shows the accuracy and efficiency of the QM/EM method.

  6. Fractal and fractional calculus to model hydrological processes with application to particle-based 2D and 3D landslide simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martelloni, Gianluca; Bagnoli, Franco; Di Cintio, Pierfrancesco

    2015-04-01

    We integrate existing soil infiltration modeling with particle based methods in order to simulate two and three-dimensional setups of triggered landslides. Commonly, the infiltration models are based on continuum schemes (e.g. Eulerian approach) by means of which it is possible to define the field of the pore pressure within a soil. By contrast, the particle based methods follow a Lagrangian scheme that allows one to identify the particle trajectories and their dynamical properties. In this work, in order to simulate the triggering mechanism, we apply the classical, fractal and fractional Richards equations and the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion, adapted to the molecular dynamics technique. In our scheme the (local) positive pore pressure is simply implemented as a perturbation of the rest state of each grain. Therefore, the pore pressure function can be interpreted as a time-space dependent scalar field acting on each particle. To initialize the system we generate, using a molecular dynamics based algorithm, a mechanically stable disk (2D) or sphere (3D) packing simulating the consolidated soil. In this way, we can built the micro and macro pore structure related to different infiltration time scales. The inter-particle interactions are modeled with a Lennard-Jones like potential. The particle positions are updated in time, after and during a rainfall, with standard molecular dynamics. We analyze the sensitivity of the model with respect to the variation of some parameters such as hydraulic conductivity, cohesion, slope and friction angle, soil depth and fractional order of the generalized infiltration model. In addition, we consider both regular and random particle configurations. The results of our simulations are found to be in agreement with real landslides. In particular, the mean velocity patterns of the simulated landslides appear extremely similar to the observed ones. Moreover, it is possible to apply the method of the inverse surface displacement

  7. Simulations of Plasma Sources for Semiconductor Device Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventzek, Peter

    2012-10-01

    First being applied to etching [1] and deposition [2] more than four decades ago, plasma unit processes are now ubiquitous in the semiconductor industry. However, in many cases the use of plasma discharges for semiconductor process development has far outpaced our fundamental understanding of plasma unit processes. Fortunately, state-of-the-art modeling and simulation is now applied both in the capitol equipment and device manufacturing sectors fortified by close relationships with academic institutions and national laboratories globally. The simulation tableau, modeling and simulation for semiconductor device manufacturing community may be broken into the following categories: new concept development, new process development, equipment physics and equipment engineering. This presentation will focus on simulation modalities that highlight how the physics of production equipment result in beneficial processes. Two classes of examples with be provided. [3] The first will illustrate the behavior of microwave plasma source; the second will explore the electron kinetics associated of capacitively coupled plasma sources. The common thread linking these topics is the importance of the frequency dependence of the electron energy distribution function (eedf) to the fidelity of the simulation results. With respect to the microwave driven plasma sources, in addition to comparing predictions of different modeling approaches to experimental data, the relationship between the microwave network and the plasma dynamics in addition will be highlighted. While the criticality of the eedf to all of capacitively coupled systems will be discussed, particular focus is paid to dc augmented capacitively coupled sources where management of how the ballistic electron population reaches the substrate is critical to process results. Fluid, test particle and full particle-in-cell Monte Carlo simulations will be used to illustrate different discharge behavior.[4pt] [1] H. Abe et al. Jpn. J. Appl

  8. Detrimental influence of catalyst seeding on the device properties of CVD-grown 2D layered materials: A case study on MoSe{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Utama, M. Iqbal Bakti; Lu, Xin; Yuan, Yanwen; Xiong, Qihua

    2014-12-22

    Seed catalyst such as perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic acid tetrapotassium (PTAS) salt has been used for promoting the growth of atomically thin layered materials in chemical vapor deposition (CVD) synthesis. However, the ramifications from the usage of such catalyst are not known comprehensively. Here, we report the influence of PTAS seeding on the transistor device performance from few-layered CVD-grown molybdenum diselenide (MoSe{sub 2}) flakes. While better repeatability and higher yield can be obtained with the use of PTAS seeds in synthesis, we observed that PTAS-seeded flakes contain particle impurities. Moreover, devices from PTAS-seeded MoSe{sub 2} flakes consistently displayed poorer field-effect mobility, current on-off ratio, and subthreshold swing as compared to unseeded flakes.

  9. V2O5 encapsulated MWCNTs in 2D surface architecture: Complete solid-state bendable highly stabilized energy efficient supercapacitor device

    PubMed Central

    Pandit, Bidhan; Dubal, Deepak P.; Gómez-Romero, Pedro; Kale, Bharat B.; Sankapal, Babasaheb R.

    2017-01-01

    A simple and scalable approach has been reported for V2O5 encapsulation over interconnected multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) network using chemical bath deposition method. Chemically synthesized V2O5/MWCNTs electrode exhibited excellent charge-discharge capability with extraordinary cycling retention of 93% over 4000 cycles in liquid-electrolyte. Electrochemical investigations have been performed to evaluate the origin of capacitive behavior from dual contribution of surface-controlled and diffusion-controlled charge components. Furthermore, a complete flexible solid-state, flexible symmetric supercapacitor (FSS-SSC) device was assembled with V2O5/MWCNTs electrodes which yield remarkable values of specific power and energy densities along with enhanced cyclic stability over liquid configuration. As a practical demonstration, the constructed device was used to lit the ‘VNIT’ acronym assembled using 21 LED’s. PMID:28256550

  10. V2O5 encapsulated MWCNTs in 2D surface architecture: Complete solid-state bendable highly stabilized energy efficient supercapacitor device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandit, Bidhan; Dubal, Deepak P.; Gómez-Romero, Pedro; Kale, Bharat B.; Sankapal, Babasaheb R.

    2017-03-01

    A simple and scalable approach has been reported for V2O5 encapsulation over interconnected multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) network using chemical bath deposition method. Chemically synthesized V2O5/MWCNTs electrode exhibited excellent charge-discharge capability with extraordinary cycling retention of 93% over 4000 cycles in liquid-electrolyte. Electrochemical investigations have been performed to evaluate the origin of capacitive behavior from dual contribution of surface-controlled and diffusion-controlled charge components. Furthermore, a complete flexible solid-state, flexible symmetric supercapacitor (FSS-SSC) device was assembled with V2O5/MWCNTs electrodes which yield remarkable values of specific power and energy densities along with enhanced cyclic stability over liquid configuration. As a practical demonstration, the constructed device was used to lit the ‘VNIT’ acronym assembled using 21 LED’s.

  11. Two-fluid biasing simulations of the large plasma device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Dustin M.; Rogers, Barrett N.

    2017-02-01

    External biasing of the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) and its impact on plasma flows and turbulence are explored for the first time in 3D simulations using the Global Braginskii Solver code. Without external biasing, the LAPD plasma spontaneously rotates in the ion diamagnetic direction. The application of a positive bias increases the plasma rotation in the simulations, which show the emergence of a coherent Kelvin Helmholtz (KH) mode outside of the cathode edge with poloidal mode number m ≃ 6 . Negative biasing reduces the rotation in the simulations, which exhibit KH turbulence modestly weaker than but otherwise similar to unbiased simulations. Biasing either way, but especially positively, forces the plasma potential inside the cathode edge to a spatially constant, KH-stable profile, leading to a more quiescent core plasma than the unbiased case. A moderate increase in plasma confinement and an associated steepening of the profiles are seen in the biasing runs. The simulations thus show that the application of external biasing can improve confinement while also driving a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. Ion-neutral collisions have only a weak effect in the biased or unbiased simulations.

  12. Monte Carlo simulation of the dose response of a novel 2D silicon diode array for use in hybrid MRI–LINAC systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gargett, Maegan Rosenfeld, Anatoly; Oborn, Brad; Metcalfe, Peter

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: MRI-guided radiation therapy systems (MRIgRT) are being developed to improve online imaging during treatment delivery. At present, the operation of single point dosimeters and an ionization chamber array have been characterized in such systems. This work investigates a novel 2D diode array, named “magic plate,” for both single point calibration and 2D positional performance, the latter being a key element of modern radiotherapy techniques that will be delivered by these systems. Methods: GEANT4 Monte Carlo methods have been employed to study the dose response of a silicon diode array to 6 MV photon beams, in the presence of in-line and perpendicularly aligned uniform magnetic fields. The array consists of 121 silicon diodes (dimensions 1.5 × 1.5 × 0.38 mm{sup 3}) embedded in kapton substrate with 1 cm pitch, spanning a 10 × 10 cm{sup 2} area in total. A geometrically identical, water equivalent volume was simulated concurrently for comparison. The dose response of the silicon diode array was assessed for various photon beam field shapes and sizes, including an IMRT field, at 1 T. The dose response was further investigated at larger magnetic field strengths (1.5 and 3 T) for a 4 × 4 cm{sup 2} photon field size. Results: The magic plate diode array shows excellent correspondence (< ± 1%) to water dose in the in-line orientation, for all beam arrangements and magnetic field strengths investigated. The perpendicular orientation, however, exhibits a dose shift with respect to water at the high-dose-gradient beam edge of jaw-defined fields [maximum (4.3 ± 0.8)% over-response, maximum (1.8 ± 0.8)% under-response on opposing side for 1 T, uncertainty 1σ]. The trend is not evident in areas with in-field dose gradients typical of IMRT dose maps. Conclusions: A novel 121 pixel silicon diode array detector has been characterized by Monte Carlo simulation for its performance inside magnetic fields representative of current prototype and proposed MRI

  13. UNIPIC code for simulations of high power microwave devices

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Jianguo; Zhang Dianhui; Wang Yue; Qiao Hailiang; Li Xiaoze; Liu Chunliang; Li Yongdong; Wang Hongguang

    2009-03-15

    In this paper, UNIPIC code, a new member in the family of fully electromagnetic particle-in-cell (PIC) codes for simulations of high power microwave (HPM) generation, is introduced. In the UNIPIC code, the electromagnetic fields are updated using the second-order, finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, and the particles are moved using the relativistic Newton-Lorentz force equation. The convolutional perfectly matched layer method is used to truncate the open boundaries of HPM devices. To model curved surfaces and avoid the time step reduction in the conformal-path FDTD method, CP weakly conditional-stable FDTD (WCS FDTD) method which combines the WCS FDTD and CP-FDTD methods, is implemented. UNIPIC is two-and-a-half dimensional, is written in the object-oriented C++ language, and can be run on a variety of platforms including WINDOWS, LINUX, and UNIX. Users can use the graphical user's interface to create the geometric structures of the simulated HPM devices, or input the old structures created before. Numerical experiments on some typical HPM devices by using the UNIPIC code are given. The results are compared to those obtained from some well-known PIC codes, which agree well with each other.

  14. Simulating Pediatric Ventricular Assist Device Operation Using Fluid Structure Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Chris; Bazilevs, Yuri; Marsden, Alison

    2012-11-01

    Ventricular Assist Devices (VADs) provide mechanical circulatory support to patients in heart failure. They are primarily used to extend life until cardiac transplant, but also show promise as a ``bridge-to-recovery'' device in pediatric patients. Commercially available pediatric pumps are pulsatile displacement pumps, with two distinct chambers for air and blood separated by a thin, flexible membrane. The air chamber pneumatically drives the membrane, which drives blood through the other chamber via displacement. The primary risk factor associated with these devices is stroke or embolism due to thrombogenesis in the blood chamber, occurring in as many as 40% of patients. Our goal is to perform simulations that accurately model the hemodynamics of the device, as well as the non-linear membrane buckling. We apply a finite-element based fluid solver, with an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) framework to account for mesh motion. Isogeometric Analysis with a Kirchhoff-Love shell formulation is used on the membrane, and two distinct fluid subdomains are used for the air and blood chambers. The Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) problem is solved simultaneously, using a Matrix Free method to model the interactions at the fluid-structure boundary. Methods and results are presented.

  15. 2D design rule and layout analysis using novel large-area first-principles-based simulation flow incorporating lithographic and stress effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prins, Steven L.; Blatchford, James; Olubuyide, Oluwamuyiwa; Riley, Deborah; Chang, Simon; Hong, Qi-Zhong; Kim, T. S.; Borges, Ricardo; Lin, Li

    2009-03-01

    As design rules and corresponding logic standard cell layouts continue to shrink node-on-node in accordance with Moore's law, complex 2D interactions, both intra-cell and between cells, become much more prominent. For example, in lithography, lack of scaling of λ/NA implies aggressive use of resolution enhancement techniques to meet logic scaling requirements-resulting in adverse effects such as 'forbidden pitches'-and also implies an increasing range of optical influence relative to cell size. These adverse effects are therefore expected to extend well beyond the cell boundary, leading to lithographic marginalities that occur only when a given cell is placed "in context" with other neighboring cells in a variable design environment [1]. This context dependence is greatly exacerbated by increased use of strain engineering techniques such as SiGe and dual-stress liners (DSL) to enhance transistor performance, both of which also have interaction lengths on the order of microns. The use of these techniques also breaks the formerly straightforward connection between lithographic 'shapes' and end-of-line electrical performance, thus making the formulation of design rules that are robust to process variations and complex 2D interactions more difficult. To address these issues, we have developed a first-principles-based simulation flow to study contextdependent electrical effects in layout, arising not only from lithography, but also from stress and interconnect parasitic effects. This flow is novel in that it can be applied to relatively large layout clips- required for context-dependent analysis-without relying on semi-empirical or 'black-box' models for the fundamental electrical effects. The first-principles-based approach is ideal for understanding contextdependent effects early in the design phase, so that they can be mitigated through restrictive design rules. The lithographic simulations have been discussed elsewhere [1] and will not be presented in detail. The

  16. TID Simulation of Advanced CMOS Devices for Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajid, Muhammad

    2016-07-01

    This paper focuses on Total Ionizing Dose (TID) effects caused by accumulation of charges at silicon dioxide, substrate/silicon dioxide interface, Shallow Trench Isolation (STI) for scaled CMOS bulk devices as well as at Buried Oxide (BOX) layer in devices based on Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) technology to be operated in space radiation environment. The radiation induced leakage current and corresponding density/concentration electrons in leakage current path was presented/depicted for 180nm, 130nm and 65nm NMOS, PMOS transistors based on CMOS bulk as well as SOI process technologies on-board LEO and GEO satellites. On the basis of simulation results, the TID robustness analysis for advanced deep sub-micron technologies was accomplished up to 500 Krad. The correlation between the impact of technology scaling and magnitude of leakage current with corresponding total dose was established utilizing Visual TCAD Genius program.

  17. Direct noise simulation of a canonical high lift device and comparison with an analytical model.

    PubMed

    Salas, Pablo; Fauquembergue, Guillaume; Moreau, Stéphane

    2016-09-01

    The noise of a canonical main-element/flap high-lift device (HLD) is computed directly using compressible wall-resolved Large Eddy Simulation. An experimental database for the chosen configuration allows us to successfully validate the chosen numerical approach. Both the noise sources and the far-field acoustic pressure are shown to be well predicted. Although the two elements trailing-edge noise can be observed in the near field, the flap remains as the dominant source in the far-field. The simplicity of the studied configuration enables the comparison of the validated numerical results with a recently developed analytical model that takes into account the diffraction of the flap noise by the main-element. A two-dimensional (2D) (with and without Kutta condition) and a three-dimensional (without Kutta correction) analytical formulations are compared with the numerical results. All formulations compare favorably with the numerical reference in terms of noise levels and directivities. However, the 2D formulation with a Kutta correction provides the best quantitative agreement as expected from the narrow span of the numerical domain. The recently developed analytical model is therefore a good predictive tool for HLD, showing that it can properly account for the diffraction effect of the main element on the flap main noise source.

  18. Simulation and visualization of velocity fields in simple electrokinetic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahanti, Prasun; Taylor, Thomas; Cochran, Douglas; Keebaugh, Michael; Hayes, Mark A.

    2013-12-01

    Capillary electrophoresis and similar techniques which use an electrified contracting-flow interface (gradient elution moving boundary electrophoresis, electrophoretic exclusion, for examples) are widely used, but the detailed flow dynamics and local electric field effects within this zone have only recently been quantitatively investigated. The motivating force behind this work is establishing particle flow based visualization tools enabling advances for arbitrary interfacial designs beyond this traditional flow/electric field interface. These tools work with pre-computed 2-dimensional fundamental interacting fields which govern particle and(or) fluid flow and can now be obtained from various computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software packages. The particle-flow visualization calculations implemented in the tool and are built upon a solid foundation in fluid dynamics. The module developed in here provides a simulated video particle observation tool which generates a fast check for legitimacy. Further, estimating the accuracy and precision of full 2-D and 3-D simulation is notoriously difficult and a centerline estimation is used to quickly and easily quantitate behaviors in support of decision points. This tool and the recent quantitative assessment of particle behavior within the interfacial area have set the stage for new designs which can emphasize advantageous behaviors not offered by the traditional configuration.

  19. Device characterization and optimization of small molecule organic solar cells assisted by modelling simulation of the current-voltage characteristics.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Yi; Wan, Xiangjian; Long, Guankui; Kan, Bin; Ni, Wang; Zhang, Hongtao; Chen, Yongsheng

    2015-07-15

    In order to understand the photovoltaic performance differences between the recently reported DR3TBTT-HD and DR3TBDT2T based solar cells, a modified two-diode model with Hecht equation was built to simulate the corresponding current-voltage characteristics. The simulation results reveal that the poor device performance of the DR3TBDTT-HD based device mainly originated from its insufficient charge transport ability, where an average current of 5.79 mA cm(-2) was lost through this pathway at the maximum power point for the DR3TBDTT-HD device, nearly three times as large as that of the DR3TBDT2T based device under the same device fabrication conditions. The morphology studies support these simulation results, in which both Raman and 2D-GIXD data reveal that DR3TBTT-HD based blend films exhibit lower crystallinity. Spin coating at low temperature was used to increase the crystallinity of DR3TBDTT-HD based blend films, and the average current loss through insufficient charge transport at maximum power point was suppressed to 2.08 mA cm(-2). As a result, the average experimental power conversion efficiency of DR3TBDTT-HD based solar cells increased by over 40%.

  20. Icarus: A 2D direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) code for parallel computers. User`s manual - V.3.0

    SciTech Connect

    Bartel, T.; Plimpton, S.; Johannes, J.; Payne, J.

    1996-10-01

    Icarus is a 2D Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) code which has been optimized for the parallel computing environment. The code is based on the DSMC method of Bird and models from free-molecular to continuum flowfields in either cartesian (x, y) or axisymmetric (z, r) coordinates. Computational particles, representing a given number of molecules or atoms, are tracked as they have collisions with other particles or surfaces. Multiple species, internal energy modes (rotation and vibration), chemistry, and ion transport are modelled. A new trace species methodology for collisions and chemistry is used to obtain statistics for small species concentrations. Gas phase chemistry is modelled using steric factors derived from Arrhenius reaction rates. Surface chemistry is modelled with surface reaction probabilities. The electron number density is either a fixed external generated field or determined using a local charge neutrality assumption. Ion chemistry is modelled with electron impact chemistry rates and charge exchange reactions. Coulomb collision cross-sections are used instead of Variable Hard Sphere values for ion-ion interactions. The electrostatic fields can either be externally input or internally generated using a Langmuir-Tonks model. The Icarus software package includes the grid generation, parallel processor decomposition, postprocessing, and restart software. The commercial graphics package, Tecplot, is used for graphics display. The majority of the software packages are written in standard Fortran.

  1. Numerical simulation on the thermal radiative properties of a 2D SiO2/W/SiO2/W layered grating for thermophotovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yi; Fu, Ceji

    2016-10-01

    Tailoring the spectrum of thermal emission from the emitter is important for improving the performance of a thermophotovoltaic (TPV) system. In this work, a two-dimensional (2D) layered grating structure made of SiO2 and tungsten (W), which can realize wavelength-selective control of thermal emission, was proposed for a potential emitter in TPV applications. Numerical simulations of the spectral emissivity of the structure from the ultraviolet (UV) to the mid-infrared region reveals that the spectral-normal emissivity of the structure is enhanced to above 0.95 in the wavelength region from 0.55 μm to 1.9 μm for both TE and TM waves, but drops sharply at wavelength larger than 2 μm. Physical mechanisms responsible for the wavelength-selective emissivity were elucidated as due to resonance of magnetic polaritons (MPs) in the SiO2 spacer and in the grooves of the tungsten grating, Wood's anomaly (WA), excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and wave interference. Furthermore, the structure was found to exhibit quasi-diffuse and polarization-insensitive features of thermal emission, suggesting that the proposed structure can serve as the emitter in the design of high performance TPV systems.

  2. Expression of transcription factors after short-term exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana cell cultures to hypergravity and simulated microgravity (2-D/3-D clinorotation, magnetic levitation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babbick, M.; Dijkstra, C.; Larkin, O. J.; Anthony, P.; Davey, M. R.; Power, J. B.; Lowe, K. C.; Cogoli-Greuter, M.; Hampp, R.

    Gravity is an important environmental factor that controls plant growth and development. Studies have shown that the perception of gravity is not only a property of specialized cells, but can also be performed by undifferentiated cultured cells. In this investigation, callus of Arabidopsis thaliana cv. Columbia was used to investigate the initial steps of gravity-related signalling cascades, through altered expression of transcription factors (TFs). TFs are families of small proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific promoter sequences. Based on microarray studies, members of the gene families WRKY, MADS-box, MYB, and AP2/EREBP were selected for investigation, as well as members of signalling chains, namely IAA 19 and phosphoinositol-4-kinase. Using qRT-PCR, transcripts were quantified within a period of 30 min in response to hypergravity (8 g), clinorotation [2-D clinostat and 3-D random positioning machine (RPM)] and magnetic levitation (ML). The data indicated that (1) changes in gravity induced stress-related signalling, and (2) exposure in the RPM induced changes in gene expression which resemble those of magnetic levitation. Two dimensional clinorotation resulted in responses similar to those caused by hypergravity. It is suggested that RPM and ML are preferable to simulate microgravity than clinorotation.

  3. Melt-rock reaction in the asthenospheric mantle: Perspectives from high-order accurate numerical simulations in 2D and 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirupathi, S.; Schiemenz, A. R.; Liang, Y.; Parmentier, E.; Hesthaven, J.

    2013-12-01

    The style and mode of melt migration in the mantle are important to the interpretation of basalts erupted on the surface. Both grain-scale diffuse porous flow and channelized melt migration have been proposed. To better understand the mechanisms and consequences of melt migration in a heterogeneous mantle, we have undertaken a numerical study of reactive dissolution in an upwelling and viscously deformable mantle where solubility of pyroxene increases upwards. Our setup is similar to that described in [1], except we use a larger domain size in 2D and 3D and a new numerical method. To enable efficient simulations in 3D through parallel computing, we developed a high-order accurate numerical method for the magma dynamics problem using discontinuous Galerkin methods and constructed the problem using the numerical library deal.II [2]. Linear stability analyses of the reactive dissolution problem reveal three dynamically distinct regimes [3] and the simulations reported in this study were run in the stable regime and the unstable wave regime where small perturbations in porosity grows periodically. The wave regime is more relevant to melt migration beneath the mid-ocean ridges but computationally more challenging. Extending the 2D simulations in the stable regime in [1] to 3D using various combinations of sustained perturbations in porosity at the base of the upwelling column (which may result from a viened mantle), we show the geometry and distribution of dunite channel and high-porosity melt channels are highly correlated with inflow perturbation through superposition. Strong nonlinear interactions among compaction, dissolution, and upwelling give rise to porosity waves and high-porosity melt channels in the wave regime. These compaction-dissolution waves have well organized but time-dependent structures in the lower part of the simulation domain. High-porosity melt channels nucleate along nodal lines of the porosity waves, growing downwards. The wavelength scales

  4. Development of quantum device simulator NEMO-VN1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hien, Dinh Sy; Thi Luong, Nguyen; Hoang Minh, Le; Tien Phuc, Tran; Thanh Trung, Pham; Dong, Bui An; Thu Thao, Huynh Lam; Van Le Thanh, Nguyen; Tuan, Thi Tran Anh; Hoang Trung, Huynh; Thi Thanh Nhan, Nguyen; Viet Nga, Dinh

    2009-09-01

    We have developed NEMO-VN1 (NanoElectronic MOdelling), a new modelling tool that simulates a wide variety of quantum devices including Quantum Dot (QD), Resonant Tunneling Diode (RTD), Resonant Tunneling Transistor (RTT), Single Electron Transistor (SET), Molecular FET (MFET), Carbon Nanotube FET (CNTFET), Spin FET (SPINFET). It has a collection of models that allow user to trade off between calculation speed and accuracy. NEMO-VN1 also includes a graphic user interface of Matlab that enables parameter entry, calculation control, intuitive display of calculation results, and in-situ data analysis methods.

  5. Advanced Tsunami Numerical Simulations and Energy Considerations by use of 3D-2D Coupled Models: The October 11, 1918, Mona Passage Tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Venegas, Alberto M.; Horrillo, Juan; Pampell-Manis, Alyssa; Huérfano, Victor; Mercado, Aurelio

    2015-06-01

    The most recent tsunami observed along the coast of the island of Puerto Rico occurred on October 11, 1918, after a magnitude 7.2 earthquake in the Mona Passage. The earthquake was responsible for initiating a tsunami that mostly affected the northwestern coast of the island. Runup values from a post-tsunami survey indicated the waves reached up to 6 m. A controversy regarding the source of the tsunami has resulted in several numerical simulations involving either fault rupture or a submarine landslide as the most probable cause of the tsunami. Here we follow up on previous simulations of the tsunami from a submarine landslide source off the western coast of Puerto Rico as initiated by the earthquake. Improvements on our previous study include: (1) higher-resolution bathymetry; (2) a 3D-2D coupled numerical model specifically developed for the tsunami; (3) use of the non-hydrostatic numerical model NEOWAVE (non-hydrostatic evolution of ocean WAVE) featuring two-way nesting capabilities; and (4) comprehensive energy analysis to determine the time of full tsunami wave development. The three-dimensional Navier-Stokes model tsunami solution using the Navier-Stokes algorithm with multiple interfaces for two fluids (water and landslide) was used to determine the initial wave characteristic generated by the submarine landslide. Use of NEOWAVE enabled us to solve for coastal inundation, wave propagation, and detailed runup. Our results were in agreement with previous work in which a submarine landslide is favored as the most probable source of the tsunami, and improvement in the resolution of the bathymetry yielded inundation of the coastal areas that compare well with values from a post-tsunami survey. Our unique energy analysis indicates that most of the wave energy is isolated in the wave generation region, particularly at depths near the landslide, and once the initial wave propagates from the generation region its energy begins to stabilize.

  6. Quantitative simulation of ultrasonic time of flight diffraction technique in 2D geometries using Huygens-Fresnel diffraction model: theory and experimental comparison.

    PubMed

    Kolkoori, Sanjeevareddy; Chitti Venkata, Krishnamurthy; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an analytical approach for simulation of ultrasonic diffracted wave signals from cracks in two-dimensional geometries based on a novel Huygens-Fresnel Diffraction Model (HFDM). The model employs the frequency domain far-field displacement expressions derived by Miller and Pursey in 2D for a line source located on the free surface boundary of a semi-infinite elastic medium. At each frequency in the bandwidth of a pulsed excitation, the complex diffracted field is obtained by summation of displacements due to the unblocked virtual sources located in the section containing a vertical crack. The time-domain diffracted wave signal amplitudes in a general isotropic solid are obtained by standard Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) procedures. The wedge based finite aperture transducer refracted beam profiles were modelled by treating the finite dimension transducer as an array of line sources. The proposed model is able to evaluate back-wall signal amplitude and lateral wave signal amplitude, quantitatively. The model predicted range-dependent diffracted amplitudes from the edge of a bottom surface-breaking crack in the isotropic steel specimen were compared with Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD) results. The good agreement confirms the validity of the HFDM method. The simulated ultrasonic time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD) A-scan signals for surface-breaking crack lengths 2 mm and 4 mm in a 10 mm thick aluminium specimen were compared quantitatively with the experimental results. Finally, important applications of HFDM method to the ultrasonic quantitative non-destructive evaluation are discussed.

  7. S2DS: Physics-based compact model for circuit simulation of two-dimensional semiconductor devices including non-idealities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryavanshi, Saurabh V.; Pop, Eric

    2016-12-01

    We present a physics-based compact model for two-dimensional (2D) field-effect transistors (FETs) based on monolayer semiconductors such as MoS2. A semi-classical transport approach is appropriate for the 2D channel, enabling simplified analytical expressions for the drain current. In addition to intrinsic FET behavior, the model includes contact resistance, traps and impurities, quantum capacitance, fringing fields, high-field velocity saturation, and self-heating, the latter being found to play an important role. The model is calibrated with state-of-the-art experimental data for n- and p-type 2D-FETs, and it can be used to analyze device properties for sub-100 nm gate lengths. Using the experimental fit, we demonstrate the feasibility of circuit simulations using properly scaled devices. The complete model is implemented in SPICE-compatible Verilog-A, and a downloadable version is freely available at the nanoHUB.org.

  8. 2D potential measurements by applying automatic beam adjustment system to heavy ion beam probe diagnostic on the Large Helical Device

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, A. Ido, T.; Kato, S.; Hamada, Y.; Kurachi, M.; Makino, R.; Nishiura, M.; Nishizawa, A.

    2014-11-15

    Two-dimensional potential profiles in the Large Helical Device (LHD) were measured with heavy ion beam probe (HIBP). To measure the two-dimensional profile, the probe beam energy has to be changed. However, this task is not easy, because the beam transport line of LHD-HIBP system is very long (∼20 m), and the required beam adjustment consumes much time. To reduce the probe beam energy adjustment time, an automatic beam adjustment system has been developed. Using this system, required time to change the probe beam energy is dramatically reduced, such that two-dimensional potential profiles were able to be successfully measured with HIBP by changing the probe beam energy shot to shot.

  9. New simulation and measurement results on gateable DEPFET devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bähr, Alexander; Aschauer, Stefan; Hermenau, Katrin; Herrmann, Sven; Lechner, Peter H.; Lutz, Gerhard; Majewski, Petra; Miessner, Danilo; Porro, Matteo; Richter, Rainer H.; Schaller, Gerhard; Sandow, Christian; Schnecke, Martina; Schopper, Florian; Stefanescu, Alexander; Strüder, Lothar; Treis, Johannes

    2012-07-01

    To improve the signal to noise level, devices for optical and x-ray astronomy use techniques to suppress background events. Well known examples are e.g. shutters or frame-store Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs). Based on the DEpleted P-channel Field Effect Transistor (DEPFET) principle a so-called Gatebale DEPFET detector can be built. Those devices combine the DEPFET principle with a fast built-in electronic shutter usable for optical and x-ray applications. The DEPFET itself is the basic cell of an active pixel sensor build on a fully depleted bulk. It combines internal amplification, readout on demand, analog storage of the signal charge and a low readout noise with full sensitivity over the whole bulk thickness. A Gatebale DEPFET has all these benefits and obviates the need for an external shutter. Two concepts of Gatebale DEPFET layouts providing a built-in shutter will be introduced. Furthermore proof of principle measurements for both concepts are presented. Using recently produced prototypes a shielding of the collection anode up to 1 • 10-4 was achieved. Predicted by simulations, an optimized geometry should result in values of 1 • 10-5 and better. With the switching electronic currently in use a timing evaluation of the shutter opening and closing resulted in rise and fall times of 100ns.

  10. How to qualify and validate wear simulation devices and methods.

    PubMed

    Heintze, S D

    2006-08-01

    The clinical significance of increased wear can mainly be attributed to impaired aesthetic appearance and/or functional restrictions. Little is known about the systemic effects of swallowed or inhaled worn particles that derive from restorations. As wear measurements in vivo are complicated and time-consuming, wear simulation devices and methods had been developed without, however, systematically looking at the factors that influence important wear parameters. Wear simulation devices shall simulate processes that occur in the oral cavity during mastication, namely force, force profile, contact time, sliding movement, clearance of worn material, etc. Different devices that use different force actuator principles are available. Those with the highest citation frequency in the literature are - in descending order - the Alabama, ACTA, OHSU, Zurich and MTS wear simulators. When following the FDA guidelines on good laboratory practice (GLP) only the expensive MTS wear simulator is a qualified machine to test wear in vitro; the force exerted by the hydraulic actuator is controlled and regulated during all movements of the stylus. All the other simulators lack control and regulation of force development during dynamic loading of the flat specimens. This may be an explanation for the high coefficient of variation of the results in some wear simulators (28-40%) and the poor reproducibility of wear results if dental databases are searched for wear results of specific dental materials (difference of 22-72% for the same material). As most of the machines are not qualifiable, wear methods applying the machine may have a sound concept but cannot be validated. Only with the MTS method have wear parameters and influencing factors been documented and verified. A good compromise with regard to costs, practicability and robustness is the Willytec chewing simulator, which uses weights as force actuator and step motors for vertical and lateral movements. The Ivoclar wear method run on

  11. Highly crystalline 2D superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yu; Nojima, Tsutomu; Iwasa, Yoshihiro

    2016-12-01

    Recent advances in materials fabrication have enabled the manufacturing of ordered 2D electron systems, such as heterogeneous interfaces, atomic layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy, exfoliated thin flakes and field-effect devices. These 2D electron systems are highly crystalline, and some of them, despite their single-layer thickness, exhibit a sheet resistance more than an order of magnitude lower than that of conventional amorphous or granular thin films. In this Review, we explore recent developments in the field of highly crystalline 2D superconductors and highlight the unprecedented physical properties of these systems. In particular, we explore the quantum metallic state (or possible metallic ground state), the quantum Griffiths phase observed in out-of-plane magnetic fields and the superconducting state maintained in anomalously large in-plane magnetic fields. These phenomena are examined in the context of weakened disorder and/or broken spatial inversion symmetry. We conclude with a discussion of how these unconventional properties make highly crystalline 2D systems promising platforms for the exploration of new quantum physics and high-temperature superconductors.

  12. 2D Simulations of Earthquake Cycles at a Subduction Zone Based on a Rate and State Friction Law -Effects of Pore Fluid Pressure Changes-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsui, Y.; Hirahara, K.

    2006-12-01

    There have been a lot of studies that simulate large earthquakes occurring quasi-periodically at a subduction zone, based on the laboratory-derived rate-and-state friction law [eg. Kato and Hirasawa (1997), Hirose and Hirahara (2002)]. All of them assume that pore fluid pressure in the fault zone is constant. However, in the fault zone, pore fluid pressure changes suddenly, due to coseismic pore dilatation [Marone (1990)] and thermal pressurization [Mase and Smith (1987)]. If pore fluid pressure drops and effective normal stress rises, fault slip is decelerated. Inversely, if pore fluid pressure rises and effective normal stress drops, fault slip is accelerated. The effect of pore fluid may cause slow slip events and low-frequency tremor [Kodaira et al. (2004), Shelly et al. (2006)]. For a simple spring model, how pore dilatation affects slip instability was investigated [Segall and Rice (1995), Sleep (1995)]. When the rate of the slip becomes high, pore dilatation occurs and pore pressure drops, and the rate of the slip is restrained. Then the inflow of pore fluid recovers the pore pressure. We execute 2D earthquake cycle simulations at a subduction zone, taking into account such changes of pore fluid pressure following Segall and Rice (1995), in addition to the numerical scheme in Kato and Hirasawa (1997). We do not adopt hydrostatic pore pressure but excess pore pressure for initial condition, because upflow of dehydrated water seems to exist at a subduction zone. In our model, pore fluid is confined to the fault damage zone and flows along the plate interface. The smaller the flow rate is, the later pore pressure recovers. Since effective normal stress keeps larger, the fault slip is decelerated and stress drop becomes smaller. Therefore the smaller flow rate along the fault zone leads to the shorter earthquake recurrence time. Thus, not only the frictional parameters and the subduction rate but also the fault zone permeability affects the recurrence time of

  13. Formation of gyrotropic and non gyrotropic field-aligned beams in the Earth's quasi-perpendicular Ion Foreshock: Full-particle 2D simulation results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savoini, P.; Lembege, B.

    2013-12-01

    The ion foreshock located upstream of the Earth's bow shock is populated with ions reflected back by the shock front with an high energy gain. In-situ spacecraft measurements have clearly established the existence of two distinct populations in the foreshock upstream of quasi-perpendicular shock region (i.e. for 45° ≤ ΘBn≤ 90°, where ΘBn is the angle between the shock normal and the upstream magnetostatic field): (i) field-aligned (';FAB') ion beams characterized by a gyrotropic distribution, and (ii) gyro-phase bunched (';GPB') ions characterized by a NON gyrotropic distribution, which exhibits a non-vanishing perpendicular bulk velocity. The purpose of the present work is to identify the possible sources of the different backstreaming ions and is based on the use of 2D PIC simulations of a curved shock, where full curvature effects, time of flight effects and both electrons and ions dynamics are fully described by a self consistent approach. Our analysis evidences that the two populations mentionned above may have different origins identified both in terms of interaction time and distance of penetration within the shock front. In particular, ours simulations evidence that "GPB" and ';FAB' populations are characterized by a short (Δinter= 1 to 2 tci) and much larger (Δinter= 1 to 10 tci) interaction time respectively, where τci is the ion upstream gyroperiod. In addition, a deeper statistical analysis of ion trajectories evidences that: (i) both populations can be discriminated in terms of injection angle into the shock front (i.e. defined between the local normal to the shock front and the gyration velocity vector at the time ions reach the front). Such a behavior explains how reflected ions can be splitted in the observed two populations "FAB" and "GPB". (ii) ion trajectories strongly differ between the "FAB" and "GPB" populations at the shock front. In particular, ';FAB' ions suffer multi-bounces whereas ';GPB '; ions make only one bounce. Such

  14. Grid-Free 2D Plasma Simulations of the Complex Interaction Between the Solar Wind and Small, Near-Earth Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, M. I.; Farrell, W. M.; Poppe, A. R.

    2014-01-01

    We present results from a new grid-free 2D plasma simulation code applied to a small, unmagnetized body immersed in the streaming solar wind plasma. The body was purposely modeled as an irregular shape in order to examine photoemission and solar wind plasma flow in high detail on the dayside, night-side, terminator and surface-depressed 'pocket' regions. Our objective is to examine the overall morphology of the various plasma interaction regions that form around a small body like a small near-Earth asteroid (NEA). We find that the object obstructs the solar wind flow and creates a trailing wake region downstream, which involves the interplay between surface charging and ambipolar plasma expansion. Photoemission is modeled as a steady outflow of electrons from illuminated portions of the surface, and under direct illumination the surface forms a non-monotonic or ''double-sheath'' electric potential upstream of the body, which is important for understanding trajectories and equilibria of lofted dust grains in the presence of a complex asteroid geometry. The largest electric fields are found at the terminators, where ambipolar plasma expansion in the body-sized night-side wake merges seamlessly with the thin photoelectric sheath on the dayside. The pocket regions are found to be especially complex, with nearby sunlit regions of positive potential electrically connected to unlit negative potentials and forming adjacent natural electric dipoles. For objects near the surface, we find electrical dissipation times (through collection of local environmental solar wind currents) that vary over at least 5 orders of magnitude: from 39 Micro(s) inside the near-surface photoelectron cloud under direct sunlight to less than 1 s inside the particle-depleted night-side wake and shadowed pocket regions

  15. Automated 3D-2D registration of X-ray microcomputed tomography with histological sections for dental implants in bone using chamfer matching and simulated annealing.

    PubMed

    Becker, Kathrin; Stauber, Martin; Schwarz, Frank; Beißbarth, Tim

    2015-09-01

    We propose a novel 3D-2D registration approach for micro-computed tomography (μCT) and histology (HI), constructed for dental implant biopsies, that finds the position and normal vector of the oblique slice from μCT that corresponds to HI. During image pre-processing, the implants and the bone tissue are segmented using a combination of thresholding, morphological filters and component labeling. After this, chamfer matching is employed to register the implant edges and fine registration of the bone tissues is achieved using simulated annealing. The method was tested on n=10 biopsies, obtained at 20 weeks after non-submerged healing in the canine mandible. The specimens were scanned with μCT 100 and processed for hard tissue sectioning. After registration, we assessed the agreement of bone to implant contact (BIC) using automated and manual measurements. Statistical analysis was conducted to test the agreement of the BIC measurements in the registered samples. Registration was successful for all specimens and agreement of the respective binary images was high (median: 0.90, 1.-3. Qu.: 0.89-0.91). Direct comparison of BIC yielded that automated (median 0.82, 1.-3. Qu.: 0.75-0.85) and manual (median 0.61, 1.-3. Qu.: 0.52-0.67) measures from μCT were significant positively correlated with HI (median 0.65, 1.-3. Qu.: 0.59-0.72) between μCT and HI groups (manual: R(2)=0.87, automated: R(2)=0.75, p<0.001). The results show that this method yields promising results and that μCT may become a valid alternative to assess osseointegration in three dimensions.

  16. 2D Quantum Mechanical Study of Nanoscale MOSFETs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svizhenko, Alexei; Anantram, M. P.; Govindan, T. R.; Biegel, B.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    With the onset of quantum confinement in the inversion layer in nanoscale MOSFETs, behavior of the resonant level inevitably determines all device characteristics. While most classical device simulators take quantization into account in some simplified manner, the important details of electrostatics are missing. Our work addresses this shortcoming and provides: (a) a framework to quantitatively explore device physics issues such as the source-drain and gate leakage currents, DIBL, and threshold voltage shift due to quantization, and b) a means of benchmarking quantum corrections to semiclassical models (such as density-gradient and quantum-corrected MEDICI). We have developed physical approximations and computer code capable of realistically simulating 2-D nanoscale transistors, using the non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) method. This is the most accurate full quantum model yet applied to 2-D device simulation. Open boundary conditions and oxide tunneling are treated on an equal footing. Electrons in the ellipsoids of the conduction band are treated within the anisotropic effective mass approximation. We present the results of our simulations of MIT 25, 50 and 90 nm "well-tempered" MOSFETs and compare them to those of classical and quantum corrected models. The important feature of quantum model is smaller slope of Id-Vg curve and consequently higher threshold voltage. Surprisingly, the self-consistent potential profile shows lower injection barrier in the channel in quantum case. These results are qualitatively consistent with ID Schroedinger-Poisson calculations. The effect of gate length on gate-oxide leakage and subthreshold current has been studied. The shorter gate length device has an order of magnitude smaller current at zero gate bias than the longer gate length device without a significant trade-off in on-current. This should be a device design consideration.

  17. 2D Quantum Transport Modeling in Nanoscale MOSFETs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svizhenko, Alexei; Anantram, M. P.; Govindan, T. R.; Biegel, Bryan

    2001-01-01

    With the onset of quantum confinement in the inversion layer in nanoscale MOSFETs, behavior of the resonant level inevitably determines all device characteristics. While most classical device simulators take quantization into account in some simplified manner, the important details of electrostatics are missing. Our work addresses this shortcoming and provides: (a) a framework to quantitatively explore device physics issues such as the source-drain and gate leakage currents, DIBL, and threshold voltage shift due to quantization, and b) a means of benchmarking quantum corrections to semiclassical models (such as density- gradient and quantum-corrected MEDICI). We have developed physical approximations and computer code capable of realistically simulating 2-D nanoscale transistors, using the non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) method. This is the most accurate full quantum model yet applied to 2-D device simulation. Open boundary conditions, oxide tunneling and phase-breaking scattering are treated on equal footing. Electrons in the ellipsoids of the conduction band are treated within the anisotropic effective mass approximation. Quantum simulations are focused on MIT 25, 50 and 90 nm "well- tempered" MOSFETs and compared to classical and quantum corrected models. The important feature of quantum model is smaller slope of Id-Vg curve and consequently higher threshold voltage. These results are quantitatively consistent with I D Schroedinger-Poisson calculations. The effect of gate length on gate-oxide leakage and sub-threshold current has been studied. The shorter gate length device has an order of magnitude smaller current at zero gate bias than the longer gate length device without a significant trade-off in on-current. This should be a device design consideration.

  18. Comparison between 1D and 1 1/2D Eulerian Vlasov codes for the numerical simulation of stimulated Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghizzo, A.; Bertrand, P.; Lebas, J.; Shoucri, M.; Johnston, T.; Fijalkow, E.; Feix, M. R.

    1992-10-01

    The present 1 1/2D relativistic Euler-Vlasov code has been used to check the validity of a hydrodynamic description used in a 1D version of the Vlasov code. By these means, detailed numerical results can be compared; good agreement furnishes full support for the 1D electromagnetic Vlasov code, which runs faster than the 1 1/2D code. The results obtained assume a nonrelativistic v(y) velocity.

  19. Physics and simulation study of nanoscale electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrotra, Saumitra R.

    Silicon based CMOS technology has seen continuous scaling of device dimensions for past three decades. There is a lot of focus on incorporating different high mobility channel materials and new device architectures for post-Si CMOS logic technology, making it a multifaceted problem. In this thesis some of the multiple challenges concerning new CMOS technologies are addressed. High carrier mobility alloyed channel materials like SiGe and InGaAs suffer from scattering due to disorder called, alloy scattering. The current theory of alloy scattering present in literature/text books can be called rudimentary at the best due to lack of a strong theoretical foundation and/or use of fitting parameters to explain experimental measurements. We present a new atomistic approach based on tight-binding parameters to understanding the alloy disorder. Using this approach we are able to provide new insights into the theory of alloy scattering and explain the experimental measurements in bulk SiGe and InGaAs that were till now based on just fitting parameters. With an updated understanding of alloy scattering, hole mobility in SiGe nanowires is calculated using a linearized Boltzmann formalism. Bulk Ge exhibits high hole mobility makeing it ideal for PMOS devices. Nano patterning of Ge/SiGe leads to Ge nanofins with both uniaxial and biaxial strain components, making it a device architecture design problem. Fully atomistic simulations involving molecular dynamics (ReaxFF force field) based relaxation for strain relaxation; tight-binding based bandstructure calculations and a linearized Boltzmann transport model for mobility calculations are performed. Final phonon mobility calculations reveal nearly 3.5 X improvements compared to biaxial strained Ge in Ge nanofins with width reduction. High electron mobility III--V's are projected to be a material of choice for post-Si NMOS. These low electron mass materials suffer from the 'DOS bottleneck' issue. Transistor designs based on using

  20. WN4 longitudinal structure in the O (5S - 3P) and O+ (2P - 2D) ionospheric emissions as simulated by the C-IAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martynenko, Oleg; Ward, William E.; Shepherd, Gordon; Cho, Young-Min; Namgaladze, Alexander; Fomichev, Victor; McConnell, John; Semeniuk, Kirill; Beagley, Stephen

    A newly developed Canadian Ionosphere and Atmosphere Model (C-IAM) is introduced. It is being developed on the basis of two existing first principle models: the extended Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model (CMAM) and the ionospheric part of the Upper Atmosphere Model (UAM). The model extends from the surface to the inner magnetosphere and hence, is able to describe in a self-consistent way how lower atmosphere dynamical variability propagates into and affects the upper atmosphere and ionosphere. The C-IAM was applied to model the spatial structure of two different ionospheric emissions: the nighttime 135.6 nm O ( (5) S - (3) P) and daytime 732 nm O (+) ( (2) P - (2) D) emissions. The IMAGE satellite observations showed a wave number 4 (WN4) longitudinal structure in the 135.6 nm ionospheric emission emanating from the equatorial ionization anomaly at 350-400 km near 20:00 local time at each longitude. C-IAM simulations are in a good agreement with the observations. Model result analysis reveals that the main mechanism for generating the WN4 structure in the 135.6 nm emission is a modification of the ionospheric dynamo field caused by longitudinal variation of the zonal wind due to waves penetrating from the lower atmosphere. It was also shown, that during geomagnetic storms and substorms the high-latitudinal electric field fully suppresses the dynamo, so that the emission intensity dramatically decreases and the WN4 structure does not appear. The 732 nm emission simulated with the C-IAM also reveals the WN4 structure. Similar to the 135.6 nm emission, this structure is caused by waves penetrating from the lower atmosphere. However, the mechanism of excitation is quite different. The 732 nm emission is produced by the instant local ionization and excitation, and, hence, its variation is caused by the neutral density variability in the F2 region (above 200 km) without any involvement of the electric field effects. Correspondingly, latitudinal distribution of this

  1. Origin and acceleration mechanisms of gyrotropic/non gyrotropic ion populations in the Earth's quasi-perpendicular Ion Foreshock: Full-particle 2D simulation results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savoini, Philippe; Lembege, Bertrand

    The ion foreshock located upstream of the Earth's bow shock is populated with ions reflected back by the shock front with an high energy gain. In-situ spacecraft measurements have clearly established the existence of two distinct populations in the foreshock upstream of the quasi-perpendicular shock region (i.e. for 45(o) ≤ Theta_{Bn} ≤ 90(o) , where Theta_{Bn} is the angle between the shock normal and the upstream magnetostatic field): (i) field-aligned ion beams (or ‘FAB’) characterized by a gyrotropic distribution, and (ii) gyro-phase bunched ions (or ‘GPB’) characterized by a NON gyrotropic distribution and with a non-vanishing perpendicular bulk velocity. The use of 2D PIC simulations of a curved shock, where full curvature effects and time of flight effects are fully described, has evidenced that the shock front itself can be the possible source of the different backstreaming ions. Our analysis evidences that both populations can be discriminated in terms of interaction time (Δinter) and distance of penetration within the shock front, in particular that "GPB" and ‘FAB’ populations are characterized by a short (Delta_{inter}= 1 to 2 tau_{ci}) and much larger (Delta_{inter}= 1 to 10 tau_{ci}) interaction time respectively, where tau_{ci} is the ion upstream gyroperiod. This discrimination allows a deeper statistical analysis which evidences that: (i) backstreaming ions are splitted into both "FAB" and "GPB populations" depending on their injection angle when hitting the shock front (i.e. defined between the local normal to the shock front and the gyration velocity vector at the time ions hit the front). (ii) As a consequence, ion trajectories strongly differ between the "FAB" and "GPB" populations at the shock front. In particular, "FAB" ions suffer multi-bounces along the curved front whereas "GPB" ions make only one bounce. Such differences can explain why the "FAB" population loses their gyro-phase coherency and become gyrotropic which is

  2. Origin and acceleration mechanisms of backstreaming ion populations in the Earth's quasi-perpendicular Ion Foreshock: Full-particle 2D simulation results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savoini, Philippe; Lembege, Bertrand

    2014-05-01

    The ion foreshock located upstream of the Earth's bow shock is populated with ions reflected back by the shock front with an high energy gain. In-situ spacecraft measurements have clearly established the existence of two distinct populations in the foreshock upstream of the quasi-perpendicular shock region (i.e. for 45° ≤ ΘBn ≤ 90° , where ΘBnis the angle between the shock normal and the upstream magnetostatic field): (i) field-aligned ion beams (or ' FAB ') characterized by a gyrotropic distribution, and (ii) gyro-phase bunched ions (or ' GPB ') characterized by a NON gyrotropic distribution, which exhibits a non-vanishing perpendicular bulk velocity. The use of 2D PIC simulations of a curved shock, where full curvature effects, time of flight effects and both electrons and ions dynamics are fully described, has evidenced that the shock front itself can be the possible source of the different backstreaming ions. Our analysis evidences the importance of the interaction time (Δinter) with the shock front, in particular ' GPB ' and ' FAB ' populations are characterized by a short (Δinter= 1 to 2 τci) and much larger (Δinter= 1 to 10 τci) interaction time respectively, where τci is the ion upstream gyroperiod. This discrimination allows a deeper statistical analysis: (i) backstreaming ions are splitted into both ' FAB ' and ' GPB ' populations depending on their injection angle when hitting the shock front (i.e. defined between the local normal to the shock front and the gyration velocity vector at the time ions hit the front). (ii) As a consequence, ion trajectories strongly differ between the ' FAB ' and ' GPB ' populations at the shock front. In particular, ' FAB ' ions suffer multi-bounces along the curved front whereas ' GPB ' ions make only one bounce. Such differences can explain why the ' FAB ' population loses their gyro-phase coherency and become gyrotropic which is not the case for the ' GPB '. As also evidenced by these simulations, the

  3. Influence of electron-neutral elastic collisions on the instability of an ion-contaminated cylindrical electron cloud: 2D3V PIC-with-MCC simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, M.; Ganesh, R.

    2016-10-01

    This paper is a simulation based investigation of the effect of elastic collisions and effectively elastic-like excitation collisions between electrons and background neutrals on the dynamics of a cylindrically trapped electron cloud that also has an ion contaminant mixed in it. A cross section of the trapped non neutral cloud composed of electrons mixed uniformly with a fractional population of ions is loaded on a 2D PIC grid with the plasma in a state of unstable equilibrium due to differential rotation between the electron and the ion component. The electrons are also loaded with an axial velocity component, vz, that mimics their bouncing motion between the electrostatic end plugs of a Penning-Malmberg trap. This vz loading facilitates 3D elastic and excitation collisions of the electrons with background neutrals under a MCC scheme. In the present set of numerical experiments, the electrons do not ionize the neutrals. This helps in separating out only the effect of non-ionizing collisions of electrons on the dynamics of the cloud. Simulations reveal that these non-ionizing collisions indirectly influence the ensuing collisionless ion resonance instability of the contaminated electron cloud by a feedback process. The collisional relaxation reduces the average density of the electron cloud and thereby increases the fractional density of the ions mixed in it. The dynamically changing electron density and fractional density of ions feed back on the ongoing ion-resonance (two-stream) instability between the two components of the nonneutral cloud and produce deviations in the paths of progression of the instability that are uncorrelated at different background gas pressures. Effects of the collisions on the instability are evident from alteration in the growth rate and energetics of the instability caused by the presence of background neutrals as compared to a vacuum background. Further in order to understand if the non-ionizing collisions can independently be a cause

  4. Large Eddy Simulation of FDA's Idealized Medical Device.

    PubMed

    Delorme, Yann T; Anupindi, Kameswararao; Frankel, Steven H

    2013-12-01

    A hybrid large eddy simulation (LES) and immersed boundary method (IBM) computational approach is used to make quantitative predictions of flow field statistics within the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) idealized medical device. An in-house code is used, hereafter (W enoHemo(™) ), that combines high-order finite-difference schemes on structured staggered Cartesian grids with an IBM to facilitate flow over or through complex stationary or rotating geometries and employs a subgrid-scale (SGS) turbulence model that more naturally handles transitional flows [2]. Predictions of velocity and wall shear stress statistics are compared with previously published experimental measurements from Hariharan et al. [6] for the four Reynolds numbers considered.

  5. Numerical simulation of strained Si/SiGe devices: the hierarchical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinerzhagen, B.; Jungemann, C.; Neinhüs, B.; Bartels, M.

    2004-03-01

    Performance predictions for 25 nm strained Si CMOS devices which are based on full-band Monte Carlo (FBMC) device simulations and which are in good agreement with the most recent experimental trends are presented. The FBMC simulator itself is part of a hierarchical device simulation system which allows to perform time-efficient hierarchical hydrodynamic (HD) device simulations of modern SiGe HBTs. As demonstrated below, the accuracy of a such a hydrodynamic-based dc, ac, transient, and noise analysis is comparable to FBMC device simulations. In addition, the new hierarchical numerical noise simulation method is experimentally verified based on a modern rf-CMOS technology of Philips Research. The MC-enhanced simulation accuracy of the hierarchical hydrodynamic and drift diffusion (DD) models can be also exploited for mixed-mode circuit simulations, which is shown by typical power sweep simulations of an industrial rf power amplifier.

  6. Simulation of push-pull inverter using wide bandgap devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-badri, Mustafa; Matin, Mohammed A.

    2016-09-01

    This paper discusses the use of wide bandgap devices (SiC-MOSFET) in the design of a push-pull inverter which provides inexpensive low power dc-ac inverters. The parameters used were 1200V SiC MOSFET(C2M0040120D) made by power company ROHM. This modeling was created using parameters that were provided from a device datasheet. The spice model is provided by this company to study the effect of adding this component on push-pull inverter ordinary circuit and compared results between SiC MOSFET and silicon MOSFET (IRFP260M). The results focused on Vout and Vmos stability as well as on output power and MOSFET power loss because it is a very crucial aspect on DC-AC inverter design. These results are done using the National Instrument simulation program (Multisim 14). It was found that power loss is better in the 12 and 15 vdc inverter. The Vout in the SIC MOSFET circuit shows more stability in the high current low resistance load in comparison to the Silicon MOSFET circuit and this will improve the overall performance of the circuit.

  7. 2-D numerical simulations of groundwater flow, heat transfer and 4He transport — implications for the He terrestrial budget and the mantle helium heat imbalance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Maria Clara; Patriarche, Delphine; Goblet, Patrick

    2005-09-01

    Because helium and heat production results from a common source, a continental 4He crustal flux of 4.65 * 10 - 14 mol m - 2 s - 1 has been estimated based on heat flow considerations. In addition, because the observed mantle He / heat flux ratio at the proximity of mid-ocean ridges (6.6 * 10 - 14 mol J - 1 ) is significantly lower than the radiogenic production ratio (1.5 * 10 - 12 mol J - 1 ), the presence of a terrestrial helium-heat imbalance was suggested. The latter could be explained by the presence of a layered mantle in which removal of He is impeded from the lower mantle [R.K. O'Nions, E.R. Oxburgh, Heat and helium in the Earth, Nature 306 (1983) 429-431; E.R. Oxburgh, R.K. O'Nions, Helium loss, tectonics, and the terrestrial heat budget, Science 237 (1987) 1583-1588]. van Keken et al. [P.E. van Keken, C.J. Ballentine, D. Porcelli, A dynamical investigation of the heat and helium imbalance, Earth Planet, Sci. Lett. 188 (2001) 421-434] have recently claimed that the helium-heat imbalance remains a robust observation. Such conclusions, however, were reached under the assumption that a steady-state regime was in place for both tracers and that their transport properties are similar at least in the upper portion of the crust. Here, through 2-D simulations of groundwater flow, heat transfer and 4He transport carried out simultaneously in the Carrizo aquifer and surrounding formations in southwest Texas, we assess the legitimacy of earlier assumptions. Specifically, we show that the driving transport mechanisms for He and heat are of a fundamentally different nature for a high range of permeabilities ( k ≤ 10 - 16 m 2) found in metamorphic and volcanic rocks at all depths in the crust. The assumption that transport properties for these two tracers are similar in the crust is thus unsound. We also show that total 4He / heat flux ratios lower than radiogenic production ratios do not reflect a He deficit in the crust or mantle original reservoir. Instead, they

  8. Full-particle 2-D Simulations of the Ion Foreshock associated to a Supercritical Quasi-perpendicular Curved Collisionless Shock : Origin of Backstreaming Energetic Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savoini, P.; Lembege, B.

    2014-12-01

    The ion foreshock located upstream of the Earth's bow shock is populated with ions reflected back by the shock front. In-situ spacecraft measurements have clearly established the existence of two distinct populations in the upstream of the quasi-perpendicular shock region (i.e. for 45o ≤ ΘBn≤ 90o, where ΘBn is the angle between the shock normal and the upstream magnetostatic field): (i) field-aligned ion beams (or 'FAB') characterized by a gyrotropic distribution, and (ii) gyro-phase bunched ions (or 'GPB') characterized by a NON gyrotropic distribution, which exhibits a non-vanishing perpendicular bulk velocity. The use of 2D PIC simulations where full curvature effects, time of flight effects and both electrons and ions dynamics are fully described, has evidenced that the shock front itself can be the possible source of these two characteristic populations. A recent analysis has evidenced that both populations can be discriminated in terms of interaction time (Δtinter) with the shock front. 'GPB' and 'FAB' populations are characterized by a short (Δtinter ~ 1 τci) and much larger (Δtinter ≥ 2 τci) interaction time respectively, where τci is the ion upstream gyroperiod. In addition, present statistical results evidence that: (i) backstreaming ions are splitted into 'FAB' and 'GPB' populations depending on their injection angle when hitting the shock front (defined between the local normal to the shock front and the gyration velocity vector). (ii) As a consequence, ion trajectories strongly differ between the 'FAB' and 'GPB' populations at the shock front. In particular, 'FAB' ions suffer multi-bounces along the curved front whereas 'GPB' ions make only one bounce. Such differences may explain why the 'FAB' population loses their gyro-phase coherency and become gyrotropic which is not the case for the 'GPB'. Then, the differences observed between 'FAB' and 'GPB' populations do not involve some distinct reflection processes as often claimed in the

  9. A generalized Poisson solver for first-principles device simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Bani-Hashemian, Mohammad Hossein; VandeVondele, Joost; Brück, Sascha; Luisier, Mathieu

    2016-01-28

    Electronic structure calculations of atomistic systems based on density functional theory involve solving the Poisson equation. In this paper, we present a plane-wave based algorithm for solving the generalized Poisson equation subject to periodic or homogeneous Neumann conditions on the boundaries of the simulation cell and Dirichlet type conditions imposed at arbitrary subdomains. In this way, source, drain, and gate voltages can be imposed across atomistic models of electronic devices. Dirichlet conditions are enforced as constraints in a variational framework giving rise to a saddle point problem. The resulting system of equations is then solved using a stationary iterative method in which the generalized Poisson operator is preconditioned with the standard Laplace operator. The solver can make use of any sufficiently smooth function modelling the dielectric constant, including density dependent dielectric continuum models. For all the boundary conditions, consistent derivatives are available and molecular dynamics simulations can be performed. The convergence behaviour of the scheme is investigated and its capabilities are demonstrated.

  10. Modeling the uniform transport in thin film SOI MOSFETs with a Monte-Carlo simulator for the 2D electron gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucci, Luca; Palestri, Pierpaolo; Esseni, David; Selmi, Luca

    2005-09-01

    In this paper, we present simulations of some of the most relevant transport properties of the inversion layer of ultra-thin film SOI devices with a self-consistent Monte-Carlo transport code for a confined electron gas. We show that size induced quantization not only decreases the low-field mobility (as experimentally found in [Uchida K, Koga J, Ohba R, Numata T, Takagi S. Experimental eidences of quantum-mechanical effects on low-field mobility, gate-channel capacitance and threshold voltage of ultrathin body SOI MOSFETs, IEEE IEDM Tech Dig 2001;633-6; Esseni D, Mastrapasqua M, Celler GK, Fiegna C, Selmi L, Sangiorgi E. Low field electron and hole mobility of SOI transistors fabricated on ultra-thin silicon films for deep sub-micron technology application. IEEE Trans Electron Dev 2001;48(12):2842-50; Esseni D, Mastrapasqua M, Celler GK, Fiegna C, Selmi L, Sangiorgi E, An experimental study of mobility enhancement in ultra-thin SOI transistors operated in double-gate mode, IEEE Trans Electron Dev 2003;50(3):802-8. [1-3

  11. Valleytronics in 2D materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaibley, John R.; Yu, Hongyi; Clark, Genevieve; Rivera, Pasqual; Ross, Jason S.; Seyler, Kyle L.; Yao, Wang; Xu, Xiaodong

    2016-11-01

    Semiconductor technology is currently based on the manipulation of electronic charge; however, electrons have additional degrees of freedom, such as spin and valley, that can be used to encode and process information. Over the past several decades, there has been significant progress in manipulating electron spin for semiconductor spintronic devices, motivated by potential spin-based information processing and storage applications. However, experimental progress towards manipulating the valley degree of freedom for potential valleytronic devices has been limited until very recently. We review the latest advances in valleytronics, which have largely been enabled by the isolation of 2D materials (such as graphene and semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides) that host an easily accessible electronic valley degree of freedom, allowing for dynamic control.

  12. 14 CFR 121.409 - Training courses using airplane simulators and other training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Training courses using airplane simulators... Program § 121.409 Training courses using airplane simulators and other training devices. (a) Training courses utilizing airplane simulators and other training devices may be included in the certificate...

  13. 14 CFR 121.409 - Training courses using airplane simulators and other training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Training courses using airplane simulators... Program § 121.409 Training courses using airplane simulators and other training devices. (a) Training courses utilizing airplane simulators and other training devices may be included in the certificate...

  14. Advanced Simulation Technology to Design Etching Process on CMOS Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuboi, Nobuyuki

    2015-09-01

    Prediction and control of plasma-induced damage is needed to mass-produce high performance CMOS devices. In particular, side-wall (SW) etching with low damage is a key process for the next generation of MOSFETs and FinFETs. To predict and control the damage, we have developed a SiN etching simulation technique for CHxFy/Ar/O2 plasma processes using a three-dimensional (3D) voxel model. This model includes new concepts for the gas transportation in the pattern, detailed surface reactions on the SiN reactive layer divided into several thin slabs and C-F polymer layer dependent on the H/N ratio, and use of ``smart voxels''. We successfully predicted the etching properties such as the etch rate, polymer layer thickness, and selectivity for Si, SiO2, and SiN films along with process variations and demonstrated the 3D damage distribution time-dependently during SW etching on MOSFETs and FinFETs. We confirmed that a large amount of Si damage was caused in the source/drain region with the passage of time in spite of the existing SiO2 layer of 15 nm in the over etch step and the Si fin having been directly damaged by a large amount of high energy H during the removal step of the parasitic fin spacer leading to Si fin damage to a depth of 14 to 18 nm. By analyzing the results of these simulations and our previous simulations, we found that it is important to carefully control the dose of high energy H, incident energy of H, polymer layer thickness, and over-etch time considering the effects of the pattern structure, chamber-wall condition, and wafer open area ratio. In collaboration with Masanaga Fukasawa and Tetsuya Tatsumi, Sony Corporation. We thank Mr. T. Shigetoshi and Mr. T. Kinoshita of Sony Corporation for their assistance with the experiments.

  15. 2D Quantum Transport Modeling in Nanoscale MOSFETs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svizhenko, Alexei; Anantram, M. P.; Govindan, T. R.; Biegel, B.

    2001-01-01

    We have developed physical approximations and computer code capable of realistically simulating 2-D nanoscale transistors, using the non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) method. This is the most accurate full quantum model yet applied to 2-D device simulation. Open boundary conditions, oxide tunneling and phase-breaking scattering are treated on an equal footing. Electron bandstructure is treated within the anisotropic effective mass approximation. We present the results of our simulations of MIT 25 and 90 nm "well-tempered" MOSFETs and compare them to those of classical and quantum corrected models. The important feature of quantum model is smaller slope of Id-Vg curve and consequently higher threshold voltage. These results are consistent with 1D Schroedinger-Poisson calculations. The effect of gate length on gate-oxide leakage and subthreshold current has been studied. The shorter gate length device has an order of magnitude smaller leakage current than the longer gate length device without a significant trade-off in on-current.

  16. Vertical 2D Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotsch, Bettina V.

    2015-07-01

    Graphene's legacy has become an integral part of today's condensed matter science and has equipped a whole generation of scientists with an armory of concepts and techniques that open up new perspectives for the postgraphene area. In particular, the judicious combination of 2D building blocks into vertical heterostructures has recently been identified as a promising route to rationally engineer complex multilayer systems and artificial solids with intriguing properties. The present review highlights recent developments in the rapidly emerging field of 2D nanoarchitectonics from a materials chemistry perspective, with a focus on the types of heterostructures available, their assembly strategies, and their emerging properties. This overview is intended to bridge the gap between two major—yet largely disjunct—developments in 2D heterostructures, which are firmly rooted in solid-state chemistry or physics. Although the underlying types of heterostructures differ with respect to their dimensions, layer alignment, and interfacial quality, there is common ground, and future synergies between the various assembly strategies are to be expected.

  17. Two Dimensional Numerical Simulator for Modeling NDC Region in SNDC Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Dheeraj Kumar; Chatterjee, Amitabh; Trivedi, Gaurav

    2016-10-01

    This paper deals about making a numerical simulator for observing the self-organization phenomenon like current filament formation in the negative differential conductivity (NDC) region of operation in a device using MATLAB environment. Emphasis is laid on choosing the appropriate boundary conditions in simulator to observe the NDC part of the device Current-Voltage (I — V) characteristics along with the appropriate isothermal physical models are included for mobility and the recombination-generation. The simulator used in this paper is designed to observe NDC region in S-shaped NDC (SNDC) devices like BJT and similar conditions can be used to observe the field domains in the N-shaped NDC (NNDC) devices with appropriate changes. Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions are applied to BJT and I — V characteristics of the developed device simulator are compared with the commercial available TCAD device simulator (i.e., Sentaurus).

  18. Advanced numerical methods and software approaches for semiconductor device simulation

    SciTech Connect

    CAREY,GRAHAM F.; PARDHANANI,A.L.; BOVA,STEVEN W.

    2000-03-23

    In this article the authors concisely present several modern strategies that are applicable to drift-dominated carrier transport in higher-order deterministic models such as the drift-diffusion, hydrodynamic, and quantum hydrodynamic systems. The approaches include extensions of upwind and artificial dissipation schemes, generalization of the traditional Scharfetter-Gummel approach, Petrov-Galerkin and streamline-upwind Petrov Galerkin (SUPG), entropy variables, transformations, least-squares mixed methods and other stabilized Galerkin schemes such as Galerkin least squares and discontinuous Galerkin schemes. The treatment is representative rather than an exhaustive review and several schemes are mentioned only briefly with appropriate reference to the literature. Some of the methods have been applied to the semiconductor device problem while others are still in the early stages of development for this class of applications. They have included numerical examples from the recent research tests with some of the methods. A second aspect of the work deals with algorithms that employ unstructured grids in conjunction with adaptive refinement strategies. The full benefits of such approaches have not yet been developed in this application area and they emphasize the need for further work on analysis, data structures and software to support adaptivity. Finally, they briefly consider some aspects of software frameworks. These include dial-an-operator approaches such as that used in the industrial simulator PROPHET, and object-oriented software support such as those in the SANDIA National Laboratory framework SIERRA.

  19. Advanced Numerical Methods and Software Approaches for Semiconductor Device Simulation

    DOE PAGES

    Carey, Graham F.; Pardhanani, A. L.; Bova, S. W.

    2000-01-01

    In this article we concisely present several modern strategies that are applicable to driftdominated carrier transport in higher-order deterministic models such as the driftdiffusion, hydrodynamic, and quantum hydrodynamic systems. The approaches include extensions of “upwind” and artificial dissipation schemes, generalization of the traditional Scharfetter – Gummel approach, Petrov – Galerkin and streamline-upwind Petrov Galerkin (SUPG), “entropy” variables, transformations, least-squares mixed methods and other stabilized Galerkin schemes such as Galerkin least squares and discontinuous Galerkin schemes. The treatment is representative rather than an exhaustive review and several schemes are mentioned only briefly with appropriate reference to the literature. Some of themore » methods have been applied to the semiconductor device problem while others are still in the early stages of development for this class of applications. We have included numerical examples from our recent research tests with some of the methods. A second aspect of the work deals with algorithms that employ unstructured grids in conjunction with adaptive refinement strategies. The full benefits of such approaches have not yet been developed in this application area and we emphasize the need for further work on analysis, data structures and software to support adaptivity. Finally, we briefly consider some aspects of software frameworks. These include dial-an-operator approaches such as that used in the industrial simulator PROPHET, and object-oriented software support such as those in the SANDIA National Laboratory framework SIERRA.« less

  20. Design and characterization of low-loss 2D grating couplers for silicon photonics integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacava, C.; Carrol, L.; Bozzola, A.; Marchetti, R.; Minzioni, P.; Cristiani, I.; Fournier, M.; Bernabe, S.; Gerace, D.; Andreani, L. C.

    2016-03-01

    We present the characterization of Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) photonic-crystal based 2D grating-couplers (2D-GCs) fabricated by CEA-Leti in the frame of the FP7 Fabulous project, which is dedicated to the realization of devices and systems for low-cost and high-performance passives-optical-networks. On the analyzed samples different test structures are present, including 2D-GC connected to another 2D-GC by different waveguides (in a Mach-Zehnder like configuration), and 2D-GC connected to two separate 2D-GCs, so as to allow a complete assessment of different parameters. Measurements were carried out using a tunable laser source operating in the extended telecom bandwidth and a fiber-based polarization controlling system at the input of device-under-test. The measured data yielded an overall fiber-to-fiber loss of 7.5 dB for the structure composed by an input 2D-GC connected to two identical 2D-GCs. This value was obtained at the peak wavelength of the grating, and the 3-dB bandwidth of the 2D-GC was assessed to be 43 nm. Assuming that the waveguide losses are negligible, so as to make a worst-case analysis, the coupling efficiency of the single 2D-GC results to be equal to -3.75 dB, constituting, to the best of our knowledge, the lowest value ever reported for a fully CMOS compatible 2D-GC. It is worth noting that both the obtained values are in good agreement with those expected by the numerical simulations performed using full 3D analysis by Lumerical FDTD-solutions.

  1. 14 CFR 121.407 - Training program: Approval of airplane simulators and other training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Training program: Approval of airplane... Program § 121.407 Training program: Approval of airplane simulators and other training devices. (a) Each airplane simulator and other training device that is used in a training course permitted under §...

  2. 14 CFR 121.407 - Training program: Approval of airplane simulators and other training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Training program: Approval of airplane... Program § 121.407 Training program: Approval of airplane simulators and other training devices. (a) Each airplane simulator and other training device that is used in a training course permitted under §...

  3. Simulation and Recording Device for Research in Programmed Instruction. Paper No. 5. The Prospectus Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Ted; Levine, S. Joseph

    The SimulaR, a portable tabletop instructional simulator and response recording device has been designed to aid research in development of programed instruction and is scheduled for a field test involving instructional simulation of remedial reading. Major components consist of a two channel audio playback device, a visual component incorporating…

  4. New Specimen Access Device for the Large Space Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzarini, P.; Ratti, F.

    2004-08-01

    The Large Space Simulator (LSS) is used to simulate in- orbit environmental conditions for spacecraft (S/C) testing. The LSS is intended to be a flexible facility: it can accommodate test articles that can differ significantly in shape and weight and carry various instruments. To improve the accessibility to the S/C inside the LSS chamber a new Specimen Access Device (SAD) has been procured. The SAD provides immediate and easy access to the S/C, thus reducing the amount of time necessary for the installations of set-ups in the LSS. The SAD has been designed as bridge crane carrying a basket to move the operator into the LSS. Such a crane moves on parallel rails on the top floor of the LSS building. The SAD is composed by three subsystems: the main bridge, the trolley that moves along the main bridge and the telescopic mast. A trade off analysis has been carried out for what concerns the telescopic mast design. The choice between friction pads vs rollers, to couple the different sections of the mast, has been evaluated. The resulting design makes use of a four sections square mast, with rollers driven deployment. This design has been chosen for the higher stiffness of the mast, due to the limited number of sections, and because it reduces radically the risk of contamination related to a solution based on sliding bushings. Analyses have been performed to assess the mechanical behaviour both in static and in dynamic conditions. In particular the telescopic mast has been studied in detail to optimise its stiffness and to check the safety margins in the various operational conditions. To increase the safety of the operations an anticollision system has been implemented by positioning on the basket two kind of sensors, ultrasonic and contact ones. All the translations are regulated by inverters with acceleration and deceleration ramps controlled by a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). An absolute encoder is installed on each motor to provide the actual position of the

  5. Application of experimental and numerical simulation techniques to microscale devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somashekar, Vishwanath

    Two of the areas that have become relevant recently are the areas of mixing in micro-scale devices, and manufacturing of functional nanoparticles. MicroPIV experiments were performed on two different mixers, one a wide microchannel with the surface grooves, in the laminar regime, and the other, a confined impinging jets reactor, in the laminar and turbulent regimes. In the wide microchannel with surface grooves, microPIV data were collected at the interface and the midplane at the Reynolds numbers of 0.08, 0.8, and 8. The experiments were performed on three internal angles of the chevrons, namely 135°, 90°, and 45°. The normalized transverse velocity generated in the midplane due to the presence of the grooves, is the strongest for the internal angle of 135°, and in that, the normalized transverse velocity is maximum at the Reynolds numbers of 0.08 and 0.8. MicroPIV experiments were performed in a confined impinging jets reactors at Reynolds numbers of 200, 1000, and 1500. The data was collected in the midplane, and turbulent statistics were further computed. The high velocity jets impinge along the centerline of the reactor. Upon impinging, part of the fluid turns towards the top wall and the majority of it turn towards the outlet. This high velocity impingement causes and unstable zone called the impingement zone, which moves about the centerline line, causing the jets to flap back and forth. Spatial correlations were computed to get an estimate of the size of the coherent structures. Large eddy simulation was performed on the CIJR for the Reynolds numbers of 1000 and 1500, using OpenFOAM. The Reynolds number is based on the inlet jet hydraulic diameter. Excellent agreement was found with the experimental and simulation data. Turbulent reactive mixing in a rectangular microscale confined impinging-jets reactor (CIJR) was investigated using the pH indicator phenolphthalein in this study for three different jet Reynolds numbers of 25, 1000 and 1500. Laminar

  6. Simulation of electron transport in quantum well devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, D. R.; Gullapalli, K. K.; Reddy, V. R.; Neikirk, D. P.

    1992-01-01

    Double barrier resonant tunneling diodes (DBRTD) have received much attention as possible terahertz devices. Despite impressive experimental results, the specifics of the device physics (i.e., how the electrons propagate through the structure) are only qualitatively understood. Therefore, better transport models are warranted if this technology is to mature. In this paper, the Lattice Wigner function is used to explain the important transport issues associated with DBRTD device behavior.

  7. The 2D versus 3D imaging trade-off: The impact of over- or under-estimating small throats for simulating permeability in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, C. A.; Crandell, L. E.; Um, W.; Jones, K. W.; Lindquist, W. B.

    2011-12-01

    Geochemical reactions in the subsurface can alter the porosity and permeability of a porous medium through mineral precipitation and dissolution. While effects on porosity are relatively well understood, changes in permeability are more difficult to estimate. In this work, pore-network modeling is used to estimate the permeability of a porous medium using pore and throat size distributions. These distributions can be determined from 2D Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images of thin sections or from 3D X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) images of small cores. Each method has unique advantages as well as unique sources of error. 3D CT imaging has the advantage of reconstructing a 3D pore network without the inherent geometry-based biases of 2D images but is limited by resolutions around 1 μm. 2D SEM imaging has the advantage of higher resolution, and the ability to examine sub-grain scale variations in porosity and mineralogy, but is limited by the small size of the sample of pores that are quantified. A pore network model was created to estimate flow permeability in a sand-packed experimental column investigating reaction of sediments with caustic radioactive tank wastes in the context of the Hanford, WA site. Before, periodically during, and after reaction, 3D images of the porous medium in the column were produced using the X2B beam line facility at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Lab. These images were interpreted using 3DMA-Rock to characterize the pore and throat size distributions. After completion of the experiment, the column was sectioned and imaged using 2D SEM in backscattered electron mode. The 2D images were interpreted using erosion-dilation to estimate the pore and throat size distributions. A bias correction was determined by comparison with the 3D image data. A special image processing method was developed to infer the pore space before reaction by digitally removing the precipitate. The different sets of pore

  8. Towards the Identification of the Keeper Erosion Cause(s): Numerical Simulations of the Plasma and Neutral Gas Using the Global Cathode Model OrCa2D-II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Goebel, Dan M.; Jameson, Kristina K.

    2006-01-01

    Numerical simulations with the time-dependent Orificed Cathode (OrCa2D-II) computer code show that classical enhancements of the plasma resistivity can not account for the elevated electron temperatures and steep plasma potential gradients measured in the plume of a 25-27.5 A discharge hollow cathode. The cathode, which employs a 0.11-in diameter orifice, was operated at 5.5 sccm without an applied magnetic field using two different anode geometries. It is found that anomalous resistivity based on electron-driven instabilities improves the comparison between theory and experiment. It is also estimated that other effects such as the Hall-effect from the self-induced magnetic field, not presently included in OrCa2D-II, may contribute to the constriction of the current density streamlines thus explaining the higher plasma densities observed along the centerline.

  9. Simulation of Mean Flow and Turbulence over a 2D Building Array Using High-Resolution CFD and a Distributed Drag Force Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-16

    Journal of Wind Engineering ELSEVIER and Industrial Aerodynamics 92 (2004) 117-158 www.elsevier.com/locate/jweia Simulation of mean flow and...detailed and comprehensive wind tunnel data set. Vertical profiles of the mean streamwise velocity and the turbulence kinetic energy are presented and...compared to those measured in the wind tunnel simulation. It is found that the performance of all the turbulence models investigated is generally

  10. Mathematical Modeling and Simulation of an Occlusion Device in a Blood Vessel.

    PubMed

    Sonetha, Vaibhavi A; Bellare, Jayesh R

    2016-12-01

    An occlusion device is placed in an abnormal opening of the heart or its surrounding vessels to regain normal blood flow. There are various occlusion devices available for treatment of various congenital heart defects like PDA, ASD, etc. However, they have limitations like residual shunting, erosion of tissue, displacement and breakage of device, thrombus formation and sudden death. To improve efficiency and to reduce failure of occlusion devices, it is important to simulate blood flow through defect before and after placement of device. It is also important to evaluate stresses and forces exerted by blood flow on device and by the device on the vessel wall. Contact friction between device and vessel wall plays a crucial role in anchoring the device. The objective is to develop a framework to determine conditions to restrict dislocation of device in terms of contact friction. Typical occlusion devices are porous initially and later due to thrombogenesis, their porosity reduces until eventually it acts as a natural permanent plug. Thus, a porous sponge is a good model for an occlusion device. The mathematical model developed here is for differential pressure causing incipient movement of device, and minimum value of contact friction for restricting movement of the device for two shapes, cylindrical and conical, in uncompressed as well as pre compressed forms. The model for differential pressure is fitted by conducting physical experiment with sponge. Mathematically, porosity is modeled using viscous resistance and inertial resistance which are calculated by experiment and simulation with ANSYS. We perform computer experiments (simulations) on a cylindrical device in a cylindrical vessel and on a conical device in a tapered vessel to determine the differential pressure across the device and hence contact friction with varied porosity under boundary conditions as in body. The contact friction required to retain device is lesser in case of conical device compared to

  11. gpuSPHASE-A shared memory caching implementation for 2D SPH using CUDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Daniel; Meister, Michael; Rezavand, Massoud; Rauch, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    Smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) is a meshless Lagrangian method that has been successfully applied to computational fluid dynamics (CFD), solid mechanics and many other multi-physics problems. Using the method to solve transport phenomena in process engineering requires the simulation of several days to weeks of physical time. Based on the high computational demand of CFD such simulations in 3D need a computation time of years so that a reduction to a 2D domain is inevitable. In this paper gpuSPHASE, a new open-source 2D SPH solver implementation for graphics devices, is developed. It is optimized for simulations that must be executed with thousands of frames per second to be computed in reasonable time. A novel caching algorithm for Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) shared memory is proposed and implemented. The software is validated and the performance is evaluated for the well established dambreak test case.

  12. Rectification magnetoresistance device: Experimental realization and theoretical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kun; Huang, Qikun; Yan, Yi; Wang, Xiaolin; Wang, Jing; Kang, Shishou; Tian, Yufeng

    2016-11-01

    A unique technique has been proposed to realize rectification magnetoresistance (RMR) by combining a commercial diode and a magnetoresistance component in parallel. The observed RMR could be greatly tuned in a wide range by applying direct current and alternating current simultaneously to the device. Moreover, a quantitative theoretical model has been established, which well explained both the observed RMR and the electrical manipulation behavior. The highly tunable RMR and the correlated magnetoelectric functionalities provide an alternative route for developing multi-functional spintronics devices.

  13. 2D/3D switchable displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekker, T.; de Zwart, S. T.; Willemsen, O. H.; Hiddink, M. G. H.; IJzerman, W. L.

    2006-02-01

    A prerequisite for a wide market acceptance of 3D displays is the ability to switch between 3D and full resolution 2D. In this paper we present a robust and cost effective concept for an auto-stereoscopic switchable 2D/3D display. The display is based on an LCD panel, equipped with switchable LC-filled lenticular lenses. We will discuss 3D image quality, with the focus on display uniformity. We show that slanting the lenticulars in combination with a good lens design can minimize non-uniformities in our 20" 2D/3D monitors. Furthermore, we introduce fractional viewing systems as a very robust concept to further improve uniformity in the case slanting the lenticulars and optimizing the lens design are not sufficient. We will discuss measurements and numerical simulations of the key optical characteristics of this display. Finally, we discuss 2D image quality, the switching characteristics and the residual lens effect.

  14. 14 CFR 135.335 - Approval of aircraft simulators and other training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... training devices. 135.335 Section 135.335 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Training § 135.335 Approval of aircraft simulators and other training devices....

  15. 14 CFR 135.335 - Approval of aircraft simulators and other training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... training devices. 135.335 Section 135.335 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Training § 135.335 Approval of aircraft simulators and other training devices....

  16. 14 CFR 135.335 - Approval of aircraft simulators and other training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... training devices. 135.335 Section 135.335 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Training § 135.335 Approval of aircraft simulators and other training devices....

  17. 14 CFR 135.335 - Approval of aircraft simulators and other training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... training devices. 135.335 Section 135.335 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Training § 135.335 Approval of aircraft simulators and other training devices....

  18. 14 CFR 135.335 - Approval of aircraft simulators and other training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... training devices. 135.335 Section 135.335 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Training § 135.335 Approval of aircraft simulators and other training devices....

  19. A benchmark study of 2D and 3D finite element calculations simulating dynamic pulse buckling tests of cylindrical shells under axial impact

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, E.L.; Ammerman, D.J.

    1993-08-01

    A series of tests investigating dynamic pulse buckling of a cylindrical shell under axial impact is compared to several finite element simulations of the event. The purpose of the study is to compare the performance of the various analysis codes and element types with respect to a problem which is applicable to radioactive material transport packages, and ultimately to develop a benchmark problem to qualify finite element analysis codes for the transport package design industry.

  20. Multi-Scale Approach to Semiconductor Device Simulation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    based on Schroedinger’s equation for simulating dissipative quantum transport , a method that bridges the gap between phase-incoherent semiclassical transport and phase-coherent quantum transport .

  1. Knowledge system and method for simulating chemical controlled release device performance

    DOEpatents

    Cowan, Christina E.; Van Voris, Peter; Streile, Gary P.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Burton, Frederick G.

    1991-01-01

    A knowledge system for simulating the performance of a controlled release device is provided. The system includes an input device through which the user selectively inputs one or more data parameters. The data parameters comprise first parameters including device parameters, media parameters, active chemical parameters and device release rate; and second parameters including the minimum effective inhibition zone of the device and the effective lifetime of the device. The system also includes a judgemental knowledge base which includes logic for 1) determining at least one of the second parameters from the release rate and the first parameters and 2) determining at least one of the first parameters from the other of the first parameters and the second parameters. The system further includes a device for displaying the results of the determinations to the user.

  2. Pointing device usage guidelines for people with quadriplegia: a simulation and validation study utilizing an integrated pointing device apparatus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsieh-Ching; Chen, Chia-Ling; Lu, Chang-Ching; Wu, Ching-Yi

    2009-06-01

    This study undertakes a simulation and validation experiment to provide guidelines regarding pointing device usage for quadriplegic individuals assisted by a newly developed integrated pointing device apparatus (IPDA). The simulation experiment involving 30 normal subjects whose upper limb movement was restricted by splints. Another 15 subjects with high level cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) were recruited for the validation study. All normal subjects employed six control modes for target-acquisition and drag-and-drop tasks using an IPDA to integrate common pointing devices. A previously designed software was used to evaluate the operational efficiency (OE), expressed as "able performance" (%AP), of the subjects. The experimental results indicated that the OE of normal subjects for controlling the pointing devices were dominated first by using the unilateral hand (69-100 %AP), then by using the wrist/hand (65-73 %AP), and finally by using either bilateral body parts or the combination of limb and chin (45-53 %AP). The OE for operating an orientation-rotated mouse using the dominant wrist/hand via IPDA in both tasks was equivalent to that for operating a trackball using the dominant hand. The experimental results obtained by subjects with SCI also demonstrated similar findings, although the OEs in each control mode were lower than in normal subjects. Results of this study provide valuable guidelines for selecting and integrating common pointing devices using IPDA for quadriplegic individuals. The priority for selecting which body part should control the pointing devices was as follows: unilateral hands, unilateral wrist/hands, and either bilateral body parts or a limb and chin/head/neck in combination.

  3. Plasma Beta Dependence of the Ion-scale Spectral Break of Solar Wind Turbulence: High-resolution 2D Hybrid Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franci, Luca; Landi, Simone; Matteini, Lorenzo; Verdini, Andrea; Hellinger, Petr

    2016-12-01

    We investigate properties of the ion-scale spectral break of solar wind turbulence by means of two-dimensional high-resolution hybrid particle-in-cell simulations. We impose an initial ambient magnetic field perpendicular to the simulation box and add a spectrum of in-plane, large-scale, magnetic and kinetic fluctuations. We perform a set of simulations with different values of the plasma β, distributed over three orders of magnitude, from 0.01 to 10. In all cases, once turbulence is fully developed, we observe a power-law spectrum of the fluctuating magnetic field on large scales (in the inertial range) with a spectral index close to -5/3, while in the sub-ion range we observe another power-law spectrum with a spectral index systematically varying with β (from around -3.6 for small values to around -2.9 for large ones). The two ranges are separated by a spectral break around ion scales. The length scale at which this transition occurs is found to be proportional to the ion inertial length, d i , for β ≪ 1 and to the ion gyroradius, {ρ }i={d}i\\sqrt{β }, for β ≫ 1, i.e., to the larger between the two scales in both the extreme regimes. For intermediate cases, i.e., β ˜ 1, a combination of the two scales is involved. We infer an empiric relation for the dependency of the spectral break on β that provides a good fit over the whole range of values. We compare our results with in situ observations in the solar wind and suggest possible explanations for such a behavior.

  4. Coherent 2D-IR Spectroscopy of a Cyclic Decapeptide Antamanide. A Simulation Study of the Amide-I and A Bands

    PubMed Central

    Falvo, Cyril; Hayashi, Tomoyuki; Zhuang, Wei; Mukamel, Shaul

    2009-01-01

    The two dimensional infrared photon echo spectrum of Antamanide (-1Val-2Pro-3Pro-4Ala-5Phe-6Phe-7Pro-8Pro-9Phe-10Pro-) in chloroform is calculated using an explicit solvent MD simulation combined with a DFT map for the effective vibrational Hamiltonian. Evidence for a strong intramolecular hydrogen bonding network is found. Comparison with experimental absorption allows to identify the dominant conformation. Multidimensional spectroscopy reveals intramolecular couplings and gives information on its dynamics. A two color amide-I and amide-A cross peak is predicted and analyzed in term of local structure. PMID:18781709

  5. Note: Device for underwater laboratory simulation of unconfined blast waves.

    PubMed

    Courtney, Elijah; Courtney, Amy; Courtney, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Shock tubes simulate blast waves to study their effects in air under laboratory conditions; however, few experimental models exist for simulating underwater blast waves that are needed for facilitating experiments in underwater blast transmission, determining injury thresholds in marine animals, validating numerical models, and exploring mitigation strategies for explosive well removals. This method incorporates an oxy-acetylene driven underwater blast simulator which creates peak blast pressures of about 1860 kPa. Shot-to-shot consistency was fair, with an average standard deviation near 150 kPa. Results suggest that peak blast pressures from 460 kPa to 1860 kPa are available by adjusting the distance from the source.

  6. Note: Device for underwater laboratory simulation of unconfined blast waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtney, Elijah; Courtney, Amy; Courtney, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Shock tubes simulate blast waves to study their effects in air under laboratory conditions; however, few experimental models exist for simulating underwater blast waves that are needed for facilitating experiments in underwater blast transmission, determining injury thresholds in marine animals, validating numerical models, and exploring mitigation strategies for explosive well removals. This method incorporates an oxy-acetylene driven underwater blast simulator which creates peak blast pressures of about 1860 kPa. Shot-to-shot consistency was fair, with an average standard deviation near 150 kPa. Results suggest that peak blast pressures from 460 kPa to 1860 kPa are available by adjusting the distance from the source.

  7. Description of a digital computer simulation of an Annular Momentum Control Device (AMCD) laboratory test model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolley, C. T.; Groom, N. J.

    1981-01-01

    A description of a digital computer simulation of an Annular Momentum Control Device (AMCD) laboratory model is presented. The AMCD is a momentum exchange device which is under development as an advanced control effector for spacecraft attitude control systems. The digital computer simulation of this device incorporates the following models: six degree of freedom rigid body dynamics; rim warp; controller dynamics; nonlinear distributed element axial bearings; as well as power driver and power supply current limits. An annotated FORTRAN IV source code listing of the computer program is included.

  8. HEXAGONAL ARRAY STRUCTURE FOR 2D NDE APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Dziewierz, J.; Ramadas, S. N.; Gachagan, A.; O'Leary, R. L.

    2010-02-22

    This paper describes a combination of simulation and experimentation to evaluate the advantages offered by utilizing a hexagonal shaped array element in a 2D NDE array structure. The active material is a 1-3 connectivity piezoelectric composite structure incorporating triangular shaped pillars--each hexagonal array element comprising six triangular pillars. A combination of PZFlex, COMSOL and Matlab has been used to simulate the behavior of this device microstructure, for operation around 2.25 MHz, with unimodal behavior and low levels of mechanical cross-coupling predicted. Furthermore, the application of hexagonal array elements enables the array aperture to increase by approximately 30%, compared to a conventional orthogonal array matrix and hence will provide enhanced volumetric coverage and SNR. Prototype array configurations demonstrate good corroboration of the theoretically predicted mechanical cross-coupling between adjacent array elements (approx23 dB).

  9. Simulating Ideal Assistive Devices to Reduce the Metabolic Cost of Running

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Thomas K.; Seth, Ajay; Pouya, Soha; Dembia, Christopher L.; Hicks, Jennifer L.; Delp, Scott L.

    2016-01-01

    Tools have been used for millions of years to augment the capabilities of the human body, allowing us to accomplish tasks that would otherwise be difficult or impossible. Powered exoskeletons and other assistive devices are sophisticated modern tools that have restored bipedal locomotion in individuals with paraplegia and have endowed unimpaired individuals with superhuman strength. Despite these successes, designing assistive devices that reduce energy consumption during running remains a substantial challenge, in part because these devices disrupt the dynamics of a complex, finely tuned biological system. Furthermore, designers have hitherto relied primarily on experiments, which cannot report muscle-level energy consumption and are fraught with practical challenges. In this study, we use OpenSim to generate muscle-driven simulations of 10 human subjects running at 2 and 5 m/s. We then add ideal, massless assistive devices to our simulations and examine the predicted changes in muscle recruitment patterns and metabolic power consumption. Our simulations suggest that an assistive device should not necessarily apply the net joint moment generated by muscles during unassisted running, and an assistive device can reduce the activity of muscles that do not cross the assisted joint. Our results corroborate and suggest biomechanical explanations for similar effects observed by experimentalists, and can be used to form hypotheses for future experimental studies. The models, simulations, and software used in this study are freely available at simtk.org and can provide insight into assistive device design that complements experimental approaches. PMID:27656901

  10. 2D modeling and simulation of the flow dynamics, electric field and reactions in a low-temperature, atmospheric-pressure nitrogen plasma sharp-end plate-to-plane configuration and CVD reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Wilde, Juray; Lorant, Christophe; Descamps, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    In atmospheric-pressure plasma reactors, the flow dynamics can be complex, determine the reactor performance and complicate scale-up. Coupling computational fluid dynamics to the calculation of the electric field and plasma chemistry is challenging because of the numerical stiffness introduced by the difference in time scale of the different phenomena involved. Focusing on low-temperature, atmospheric-pressure pure nitrogen plasma, a model and model reduction based solution strategy to deal with the numerical stiffness are presented and evaluated. The influence of the electric field on the flow dynamics and species concentration fields is first qualitatively studied by means of 2D simulations of a sharp-end plate-to-plane configuration. Next, a specific reactor prototype for low-temperature, atmospheric-pressure plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition for in-line surface treatments is simulated to illustrate the importance of accounting for the detailed flow dynamics.

  11. Simulation Design of the Spiral Groove Precision Seed-Metering Device for Small Grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dongguang; Guo, Yuming

    At present, most of small grain crops such as millet and forage seeds are sown by external force feed in mainland China, which has some problems of wasting seeds, uneven seed distribution and so on. Therefore, it is needed to design a precise feed device for small grain corps. The author's of this paper seed-metering device using Pro/Engineer. The movement simulation and module. According to the analysis results, the defaults of the feed device were showed that this device is simple and suitable and suitable for the seeding requirements of small grains.

  12. Atmospheric Simulation Using a Liquid Crystal Wavefront Controlling Device

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-23

    Atmospheric Refraction Index, Atmospheric Turbulence, Turbulence, Aberration, Laser Applications, Wave Propagation, Infrared Early Warning Systems, Simulation... signed / 2/27/04 Matthew E. Goda, Ph.D...Date Thesis Advisor / signed / 2/24/04 Won B. Roh, Ph.D

  13. Origin of the Ion Foreshock in a Quasi-perpendicular Curved Collisionless Shock: Particles Trajectory Analysis in 2D PIC Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savoini, P.; Lembege, B.

    2015-12-01

    The ion foreshock located upstream of the Earth's shock wave is populated with ions having interacted with the shock, and then, reflected back with an high energy gain. Spacecrafts have clearly established the existence of two distinct populations in the quasi-perpendicular shock region (i.e. for 45° ≤ ΘBn ≤ 90°, where ΘBn is the angle between the shock normal and the upstream magnetic field) : (i) field-aligned ion beams or « FAB » characterized by a gyrotropic distribution, and (ii) gyro-phase bunched ions or « GPB » characterized by a NON gyrotropic distribution. One of the important unresolved problem is the exact origin of the particles contributing to these two populations. To our knowledge, it was the first time that full-particle simulations have been performed including self-consistently the shock front curvature and nonstationarity, and the time-of-flight effects. Our analysis evidences that these two backstreaming populations may be reflected by the front itself and can be differentiated both in terms of interaction time and trajectory within the shock front. In particular, simulations evidence that "GPB" population is characterized by a short interaction time (ΔTinter = 1 to 2 τci) while the "FAB" population corresponds to a much larger time range (from 1 τci to 10 τci), where tci is the upstream ion gyroperiod. Present individual ion trajectories evidence that "FAB" population shows a strong perpendicular drift at the shock front (i.e. strong dependence of the pitch angle to the perpendicular velocity) whereas the "GPB" population shows no perpendicular drift (i.e. its pitch angle is mainly driven by the parallel velocity). Such differences explain why the "FAB" population loses their gyro-phase coherency and become gyrotropic which is not the case for the "GPB". This important result was not expected and greatly simplifies the question of their origin.

  14. SPECT Imaging of 2-D and 3-D Distributed Sources with Near-Field Coded Aperture Collimation: Computer Simulation and Real Data Validation.

    PubMed

    Mu, Zhiping; Dobrucki, Lawrence W; Liu, Yi-Hwa

    The imaging of distributed sources with near-field coded aperture (CA) remains extremely challenging and is broadly considered unsuitable for single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT). This study proposes a novel CA SPECT reconstruction approach and evaluates the feasibilities of imaging and reconstructing distributed hot sources and cold lesions using near-field CA collimation and iterative image reconstruction. Computer simulations were designed to compare CA and pinhole collimations in two-dimensional radionuclide imaging. Digital phantoms were created and CA images of the phantoms were reconstructed using maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM). Errors and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated and image resolution was evaluated. An ex vivo rat heart with myocardial infarction was imaged using a micro-SPECT system equipped with a custom-made CA module and a commercial 5-pinhole collimator. Rat CA images were reconstructed via the three-dimensional (3-D) MLEM algorithm developed for CA SPECT with and without correction for a large projection angle, and 5-pinhole images were reconstructed using the commercial software provided by the SPECT system. Phantom images of CA were markedly improved in terms of image quality, quantitative root-mean-squared error, and CNR, as compared to pinhole images. CA and pinhole images yielded similar image resolution, while CA collimation resulted in fewer noise artifacts. CA and pinhole images of the rat heart were well reconstructed and the myocardial perfusion defects could be clearly discerned from 3-D CA and 5-pinhole SPECT images, whereas 5-pinhole SPECT images suffered from severe noise artifacts. Image contrast of CA SPECT was further improved after correction for the large projection angle used in the rat heart imaging. The computer simulations and small-animal imaging study presented herein indicate that the proposed 3-D CA SPECT imaging and reconstruction approaches worked reasonably

  15. Acoustofluidics 19: ultrasonic microrobotics in cavities: devices and numerical simulation.

    PubMed

    Dual, Jürg; Hahn, Philipp; Leibacher, Ivo; Möller, Dirk; Schwarz, Thomas; Wang, Jingtao

    2012-10-21

    Acoustic radiation forces are increasingly used for the handling of micron sized particles (cells, functionalized beads, etc.) suspended in a fluid in the chamber of a manipulation device. The primary radiation forces arise as a nonlinear effect when an acoustic wave interacts with a particle. For specific robotic applications, precise control of the acoustic field in the cavity is important, which is excited, for example, by piezoelectric transducers attached to the device. Based on Gor'kov's potential the relevant forces on spherical particles can be computed. The field can be controlled by varying the excitation parameters: chamber and electrode configuration, as well as frequency, amplitude and phase of the excitation and their modulation. In the first part of the present tutorial, a number of examples are described: displacement and rotation of particles in micro machined chambers and macroscopic transport of particles in a larger chamber. In the second part, numerical tools (Finite Volume Method, COMSOL) are used to model the interaction of the acoustic field with a particle beyond a Gor'kov potential: viscosity, effects of walls near particles and acoustic radiation torque to rotate the particle. Excellent agreement between the various methods has been found.

  16. 14 CFR 125.297 - Approval of flight simulators and flight training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approval of flight simulators and flight... MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Crewmember Requirements § 125.297 Approval of flight simulators and flight training devices....

  17. 14 CFR 125.297 - Approval of flight simulators and flight training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Approval of flight simulators and flight... MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Crewmember Requirements § 125.297 Approval of flight simulators and flight training devices....

  18. 14 CFR 125.297 - Approval of flight simulators and flight training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Approval of flight simulators and flight... MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Crewmember Requirements § 125.297 Approval of flight simulators and flight training devices....

  19. 14 CFR 125.297 - Approval of flight simulators and flight training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Approval of flight simulators and flight... MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Crewmember Requirements § 125.297 Approval of flight simulators and flight training devices....

  20. 14 CFR 125.297 - Approval of flight simulators and flight training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Approval of flight simulators and flight... MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Crewmember Requirements § 125.297 Approval of flight simulators and flight training devices....

  1. 14 CFR Appendix F to Part 60 - Definitions and Abbreviations for Flight Simulation Training Devices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Quality Management Systems for Flight Simulation Training Devices; and Appendix F, for Definitions and... the FSTD against the applicable regulatory criteria. Quality Management System (QMS)—a flight... definition of “sideslip.”) Simulation Quality Management System (SQMS)—the elements of a quality...

  2. 14 CFR Appendix F to Part 60 - Definitions and Abbreviations for Flight Simulation Training Devices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Quality Management Systems for Flight Simulation Training Devices; and Appendix F, for Definitions and... the FSTD against the applicable regulatory criteria. Quality Management System (QMS)—a flight... definition of “sideslip.”) Simulation Quality Management System (SQMS)—the elements of a quality...

  3. 14 CFR Appendix F to Part 60 - Definitions and Abbreviations for Flight Simulation Training Devices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Quality Management Systems for Flight Simulation Training Devices; and Appendix F, for Definitions and... the FSTD against the applicable regulatory criteria. Quality Management System (QMS)—a flight... definition of “sideslip.”) Simulation Quality Management System (SQMS)—the elements of a quality...

  4. 14 CFR Appendix F to Part 60 - Definitions and Abbreviations for Flight Simulation Training Devices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Quality Management Systems for Flight Simulation Training Devices; and Appendix F, for Definitions and... the FSTD against the applicable regulatory criteria. Quality Management System (QMS)—a flight... definition of “sideslip.”) Simulation Quality Management System (SQMS)—the elements of a quality...

  5. 14 CFR 121.409 - Training courses using airplane simulators and other training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Training courses using airplane simulators and other training devices. 121.409 Section 121.409 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... in an airplane simulator as provided in § 121.424(d); or (2) A course of flight engineer training...

  6. 14 CFR 121.409 - Training courses using airplane simulators and other training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Training courses using airplane simulators and other training devices. 121.409 Section 121.409 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... in an airplane simulator as provided in § 121.424(d); or (2) A course of flight engineer training...

  7. 14 CFR 121.409 - Training courses using airplane simulators and other training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Training courses using airplane simulators and other training devices. 121.409 Section 121.409 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... in an airplane simulator as provided in § 121.424(d); or (2) A course of flight engineer training...

  8. Effects of Head-Supported Devices on Female Aviators during Simulated Helicopter Missions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-05-01

    addressed. 14. SUBJECT TERMS . , . . Helmets, Head-mounted displays, Head-supported devices, Night-vision goggles, Whole-body vibration , helicopter ...Training Phase 1" Simulated Helicopter Vibration 16 Subject Preparation 17 Maximum Voluntary Contraction and EMG Calibration 17 Sub-maximal Endurance 17...exposure of female military subjects to simulated helicopter vibration signatures and different helmet configurations. Ultimately, these limits must

  9. Schottky diodes from 2D germanane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Nanda Gopal; Esteves, Richard J.; Punetha, Vinay Deep; Pestov, Dmitry; Arachchige, Indika U.; McLeskey, James T.

    2016-07-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of a Schottky diode made using 2D germanane (hydrogenated germanene). When compared to germanium, the 2D structure has higher electron mobility, an optimal band-gap, and exceptional stability making germanane an outstanding candidate for a variety of opto-electronic devices. One-atom-thick sheets of hydrogenated puckered germanium atoms have been synthesized from a CaGe2 framework via intercalation and characterized by XRD, Raman, and FTIR techniques. The material was then used to fabricate Schottky diodes by suspending the germanane in benzonitrile and drop-casting it onto interdigitated metal electrodes. The devices demonstrate significant rectifying behavior and the outstanding potential of this material.

  10. Application of 2D Non-Graphene Materials and 2D Oxide Nanostructures for Biosensing Technology

    PubMed Central

    Shavanova, Kateryna; Bakakina, Yulia; Burkova, Inna; Shtepliuk, Ivan; Viter, Roman; Ubelis, Arnolds; Beni, Valerio; Starodub, Nickolaj; Yakimova, Rositsa; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of graphene and its unique properties has inspired researchers to try to invent other two-dimensional (2D) materials. After considerable research effort, a distinct “beyond graphene” domain has been established, comprising the library of non-graphene 2D materials. It is significant that some 2D non-graphene materials possess solid advantages over their predecessor, such as having a direct band gap, and therefore are highly promising for a number of applications. These applications are not limited to nano- and opto-electronics, but have a strong potential in biosensing technologies, as one example. However, since most of the 2D non-graphene materials have been newly discovered, most of the research efforts are concentrated on material synthesis and the investigation of the properties of the material. Applications of 2D non-graphene materials are still at the embryonic stage, and the integration of 2D non-graphene materials into devices is scarcely reported. However, in recent years, numerous reports have blossomed about 2D material-based biosensors, evidencing the growing potential of 2D non-graphene materials for biosensing applications. This review highlights the recent progress in research on the potential of using 2D non-graphene materials and similar oxide nanostructures for different types of biosensors (optical and electrochemical). A wide range of biological targets, such as glucose, dopamine, cortisol, DNA, IgG, bisphenol, ascorbic acid, cytochrome and estradiol, has been reported to be successfully detected by biosensors with transducers made of 2D non-graphene materials. PMID:26861346

  11. Application of 2D Non-Graphene Materials and 2D Oxide Nanostructures for Biosensing Technology.

    PubMed

    Shavanova, Kateryna; Bakakina, Yulia; Burkova, Inna; Shtepliuk, Ivan; Viter, Roman; Ubelis, Arnolds; Beni, Valerio; Starodub, Nickolaj; Yakimova, Rositsa; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr

    2016-02-06

    The discovery of graphene and its unique properties has inspired researchers to try to invent other two-dimensional (2D) materials. After considerable research effort, a distinct "beyond graphene" domain has been established, comprising the library of non-graphene 2D materials. It is significant that some 2D non-graphene materials possess solid advantages over their predecessor, such as having a direct band gap, and therefore are highly promising for a number of applications. These applications are not limited to nano- and opto-electronics, but have a strong potential in biosensing technologies, as one example. However, since most of the 2D non-graphene materials have been newly discovered, most of the research efforts are concentrated on material synthesis and the investigation of the properties of the material. Applications of 2D non-graphene materials are still at the embryonic stage, and the integration of 2D non-graphene materials into devices is scarcely reported. However, in recent years, numerous reports have blossomed about 2D material-based biosensors, evidencing the growing potential of 2D non-graphene materials for biosensing applications. This review highlights the recent progress in research on the potential of using 2D non-graphene materials and similar oxide nanostructures for different types of biosensors (optical and electrochemical). A wide range of biological targets, such as glucose, dopamine, cortisol, DNA, IgG, bisphenol, ascorbic acid, cytochrome and estradiol, has been reported to be successfully detected by biosensors with transducers made of 2D non-graphene materials.

  12. Atomistic simulation of transport phenomena in nanoelectronic devices.

    PubMed

    Luisier, Mathieu

    2014-07-07

    Computational chemistry deals with the first-principles calculation of electronic and crystal structures, phase diagrams, charge distributions, vibrational frequencies, or ion diffusivity in complex molecules and solids. Typically, none of these numerical experiments allows for the calculation of electrical currents under the influence of externally applied voltages. To address this issue, there is an imperative need for an advanced simulation approach capable of treating all kind of transport phenomena (electron, energy, momentum) at a quantum mechanical level. The goal of this tutorial review is to give an overview of the "quantum transport" (QT) research activity, introduce specific techniques such as the Non-equilibrium Green's Function (NEGF) formalism, describe their basic features, and underline their strengths and weaknesses. Three examples from the nanoelectronics field have been selected to illustrate the insight provided by quantum transport simulations. Details are also given about the numerical algorithms to solve the NEGF equations and about strategies to parallelize the workload on supercomputers.

  13. Modeling and Simulation of a Helicopter Slung Load Stabilization Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cicolani, Luigi S.; Ehlers, George E.

    2002-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of simulation and stabilization of the yaw motions of a cargo container slung load. The study configuration is a UH-60 helicopter carrying a 6ft x 6 ft x 8 ft CONEX container. This load is limited to 60 KIAS in operations and flight testing indicates that it starts spinning in hover and that spin rate increases with airspeed. The simulation reproduced the load yaw motions seen in the flight data after augmenting the load model with terms representing unsteady load yaw moment effects acting to reinforce load oscillations, and augmenting the hook model to include yaw resistance at the hook. The use of a vertical fin to stabilize the load is considered. Results indicate that the CONEX airspeed can be extended to 110 kts using a 3x5 ft fin.

  14. E-2D Advanced Hawkeye Aircraft (E-2D AHE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-364 E-2D Advanced Hawkeye Aircraft (E-2D AHE) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense...Office Estimate RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAR - Selected Acquisition Report SCP - Service Cost Position TBD - To Be Determined

  15. Application of the order-of-magnitude analysis to a fourth-order RANS closure for simulating a 2D boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poroseva, Svetlana V.

    2013-11-01

    Simulations of turbulent boundary-layer flows are usually conducted using a set of the simplified Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations obtained by order-of-magnitude analysis (OMA) of the original RANS equations. The resultant equations for the mean-velocity components are closed using the Boussinesq approximation for the Reynolds stresses. In this study OMA is applied to the fourth-order RANS (FORANS) set of equations. The FORANS equations are chosen as they can be closed on the level of the 5th-order correlations without using unknown model coefficients, i.e. no turbulent diffusion modeling is required. New models for the 2nd-, 3rd- and 4th-order velocity-pressure gradient correlations are derived for the current FORANS equations. This set of FORANS equations and models are analyzed for the case of two-dimensional mean flow. The equations include familiar transport terms for the mean-velocity components along with algebraic expressions for velocity correlations of different orders specific to the FORANS approach. Flat plate DNS data (Spalart, 1988) are used to verify these expressions and the areas of the OMA applicability within the boundary layer. The material is based upon work supported by NASA under award NNX12AJ61A.

  16. Numerical simulations of a pulsed detonation wave augmentation device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cambier, Jean-Luc; Adelman, Henry; Menees, Gene P.

    1993-01-01

    We present here the concept of a hybrid engine for Single Stage To Orbit (SSTO) air-breathing hypersonic vehicle. This concept relies on the use of pulsed detonation waves, both for thrust generation and mixing/combustion augmentation. We describe the principles behind the engine concept, which we call the Pulsed Detonation Wave Augmentor (PDWA). We demonstrate the principles of operation for two possible configurations through numerical simulations. We also attempt a first approximation to engine design, and propose various applications.

  17. Simulation of Enhanced-Explosive Devices in Chambers and Tunnels

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, J B; Kuhl, A L; Beckner, V E

    2007-06-05

    Introduction: Shock-dispersed fuel (SDF) explosives use a small chemical charge to disperse a combustible fuel that burns in the post-detonation environment. The energy released in the combustion process has the potential for generating higher pressures and temperatures than conventional explosives. However, the development of these types of novel explosive systems requires a detailed understanding of all of the modes of energy release. Objective: The objective of this project is develop a simulation capability for predicting explosion and combustion phase of SDF charges and apply that capability to quantifying the behavior of these types of explosives. Methodology: We approximate the dynamics of an SDF charge using high Reynolds number, fast chemistry model that effectively captures the thermodynamic behavior of SDF charges and accurately models the key modes of energy release. The overall computational model is combined with Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) , implemented in a parallel adaptive framework suited to the massively parallel computer systems. Results: We have developed a multiphase version of the model and used it to simulate an SDF charge in which the dispersed fuel is aluminum flakes. Flow visualizations show that the combustion field is turbulent for the chamber and tunnel cases studied. During the 3 milli-seconds of simulation, over 90% of the Al fuel was consumed for the chamber case, while about 40% was consumed in the tunnel case in agreement with Al-SDF experiments. Significance to DoD: DoD has a requirement to develop enhanced energetic materials to support future military systems. The SDF charges described here utilize the combustion mechanism to increase energy per gram of fuel by a factor of 7 to 10 over conventional (detonating) charges, and increase the temperature of the explosion cloud to 2,000-4,000 K (depending on the SDF fuel). Accurate numerical simulation of such SDF explosions allows one to understand the energy release mechanism

  18. Electron Transport Simulations of 4-Terminal Crossed Graphene Nanoribbons Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandimarte, Pedro; Papior, Nick R.; Engelund, Mads; Garcia-Lekue, Aran; Frederiksen, Thomas; Sánchez-Portal, Daniel

    Recently, it has been reported theoretically a current switching mechanism by voltage control in a system made by two perpendicular 14-armchair graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). In order to investigate the possibilities of using crossed GNRs as ON/OFF devices, we have studied their electronic and transport properties as function structural parameters determining the crossing. Our calculations were performed with TranSIESTA code, which has been recently generalized to consider N >= 1 arbitrarily distributed electrodes at finite bias. We find that the transmission along each individual GNR and among them strongly depends on the stacking. For a 60° rotation angle, the lattice matching in the crossing region provokes a strong scattering effect that translates into an increased interlayer transmission. FP7 FET-ICT PAMS-project (European Commission, contract 610446), MINECO (Grant MAT2013-46593-C6-2-P) and Basque Dep. de Educación, UPV/EHU (Grant IT-756-13).

  19. 2D materials and van der Waals heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Novoselov, K S; Mishchenko, A; Carvalho, A; Castro Neto, A H

    2016-07-29

    The physics of two-dimensional (2D) materials and heterostructures based on such crystals has been developing extremely fast. With these new materials, truly 2D physics has begun to appear (for instance, the absence of long-range order, 2D excitons, commensurate-incommensurate transition, etc.). Novel heterostructure devices--such as tunneling transistors, resonant tunneling diodes, and light-emitting diodes--are also starting to emerge. Composed from individual 2D crystals, such devices use the properties of those materials to create functionalities that are not accessible in other heterostructures. Here we review the properties of novel 2D crystals and examine how their properties are used in new heterostructure devices.

  20. Intrusive Magmatism on Venus can lead to a weak crust and episodic overturn events: Spherical 2D and 3D Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tackley, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Here we extend the numerical convection models of Venus models of [1], which included melting, magmatism, decaying heat-producing elements, core cooling, realistic temperature-dependent viscosity and either stagnant lid or episodic lithospheric overturn. In [1] it was found that for stagnant lid convection the dominant mode of heat loss is magmatic heat pipe, which requires massive magmatism and produces very thick, cold crust, inconsistent with observations. In contrast, episodic lid overturn interspersed by periods of quiescence effectively loses Venus's heat while giving lower rates of volcanism and a thinner crust. Calculations predict 5-8 overturn events over Venus's history, each lasting ˜150 Myr, initiating in one place and then spreading globally. Venus-like amplitudes of topography and geoid can be produced in either stagnant or episodic modes, with a viscosity profile that is Earth-like but shifted to higher values. Here we extend [1] by considering intrusive magmatism as an alternative to the purely extrusive magmatism previously assumed. Intrusive magmatism warms and weakens the crust, resulting in substantial surface deformation and a thinner crust. This is further enhanced by using a basaltic rheology for the crust instead of assuming the same rheological parameters as for the mantle. In some cases massive intrusive magmatism can even lead to episodic lithospheric overturn events without plastic yielding. Here we quantitatively analyse the resulting surface deformation and other signatures, and compare to observations in order to constrain the likely ratio of intrusive to extrusive magmatism. [1] Armann, M., and P. J. Tackley (2012), Simulating the thermochemical magmatic and tectonic evolution of Venus's mantle and lithosphere: Two-dimensional models, J. Geophys. Res., 117, E12003, doi:10.1029/2012JE004231.

  1. Influence of Intrusive vs. Extrusive Magmatism on Venus' Tectonics and long-term Mantle Evolution: 2D and 3D Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tackley, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    Here we extend the numerical convection models of Venus models of [1], which included melting, magmatism, decaying heat-producing elements, core cooling, realistic temperature-dependent viscosity and either stagnant lid or episodic lithospheric overturn. In [1] it was found that for stagnant lid convection the dominant mode of heat loss is magmatic heat pipe, which requires massive magmatism and produces very thick, cold crust, inconsistent with observations. In contrast, episodic lid overturn interspersed by periods of quiescence effectively loses Venus's heat while giving lower rates of volcanism and a thinner crust. Calculations predict 5-8 overturn events over Venus's history, each lasting ˜150 Myr, initiating in one place and then spreading globally. Venus-like amplitudes of topography and geoid can be produced in either stagnant or episodic modes, with a viscosity profile that is Earth-like but shifted to higher values. Here we extend [1] by considering intrusive magmatism as an alternative to the purely extrusive magmatism previously assumed. Intrusive magmatism warms and weakens the crust, resulting in substantial surface deformation and a thinner crust. This is further enhanced by using a basaltic rheology for the crust instead of assuming the same rheological parameters as for the mantle. In some cases massive intrusive magmatism can even lead to episodic lithospheric overturn events without plastic yielding. Here we quantitatively analyse the resulting surface deformation and other signatures, and compare to observations in order to constrain the likely ratio of intrusive to extrusive magmatism. [1] Armann, M., and P. J. Tackley (2012), Simulating the thermochemical magmatic and tectonic evolution of Venus's mantle and lithosphere: Two-dimensional models, J. Geophys. Res., 117, E12003, doi:10.1029/2012JE004231.

  2. The Effect of the AGN Feedback on the Interstellar Medium of Early-Type Galaxies:2D Hydrodynamical Simulations of the Low-Rotation Case.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciotti, Luca; Pellegrini, Silvia; Negri, Andrea; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    2017-01-01

    We present two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations for the evolution of early-type galaxies containing central massive black holes (MBHs), starting at an age of ≃ 2 {Gyr}. The code contains accurate and physically consistent radiative and mechanical active galactic nucleus (AGN) wind feedback, with parsec-scale central resolution. Mass input comes from stellar evolution; energy input includes Type Ia (SNIa) and II supernovae and stellar heating; star formation (SF) is included. Realistic, axisymmetric dynamical galaxy models are built solving the Jeans’ equations. The lowest mass models ({M}\\star =8 {10}10 {M}ȯ ) develop global outflows sustained by SNIa heating, ending with a lower amount of hot gas and new stars. In more massive models, nuclear outbursts last to the present epoch, with large and frequent fluctuations in nuclear emission and from the gas ({L}{{X}}). Each burst lasts ∼ {10}7.5 years, during which cold, inflowing, and hot, outflowing gas phases coexist. The {L}{{X}}{--}{T}{{X}} relation for the gas matches that of local galaxies. AGN activity causes positive feedback for SF. Roughly half of the total mass loss is recycled into new stars ({{Δ }}{M}\\star ), just ≃3% of it is accreted on the MBH, the remainder being ejected from the galaxy. The ratio between the mass of gas expelled to that in new stars, the load factor, is ≃ 0.6. Rounder galaxy shapes lead to larger final MBH masses, {{Δ }}{M}\\star , and {L}{{X}}. Almost all of the time is spent at very low nuclear luminosities, yet one quarter of the total energy is emitted at an Eddington ratio > 0.1. The duty-cycle of AGN activity is approximately 4%.

  3. Pitot survey of exhaust flow field of a 2-D scramjet nozzle at Mach 6 with air or freon and argon used for exhaust simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monta, William J.

    1992-01-01

    A pitot-rake survey of the simulated exhaust of a half-span scramjet nozzle model was conducted in the Langley 20-Inch Mach 6 Tunnel to provide an additional data set for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code comparisons. A wind-tunnel model was tested with a 26-tube pitot rake that could be manually positioned along the mid-semispan plane of the model. The model configuration had an external expansion surface of 20 degrees and an internal cowl expansion of 12 degrees; tests were also performed with a flow fence. Tests were conducted at a free-stream Reynolds number of approximately 6.5 x 10(exp 6) per foot and a model angle of attack of -0.75 degrees. The two exhaust gas mediums that were tested were air and a Freon 12-argon mixture. Each medium was tested at two jet total pressures at approximately 28 and 14 psia. This document presents the flow-field survey results in graphical as well as tabular form, and several observations concerning the results are discussed. The surveys reveal the major expected flow-field characteristics for each test configuration. For a 50-percent freon 12 and 50-percent argon mixture by volume (Fr-Ar), the exhaust jet pressures were slightly higher than those for air. The addition of a flow fence slightly raised the pitot pressure for the Fr-Ar mixture, but it produced little change for air. For the Fr-Ar exhaust, the plume was larger and the region between the shock wave and plume was smaller.

  4. Influence of Intrusive vs. Extrusive Magmatism on Venus' Tectonics and long-term Mantle Evolution: 2D and 3D Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tackley, Paul

    2014-05-01

    magmatism as an alternative to the purely extrusive magmatism assumed in [1]. Intrusive magmatism warms and weakens the crust, resulting in substantial surface deformation and a thinner crust. This is further enhanced by using a basaltic rheology for the crust instead of assuming the same rheological parameters as for the mantle. Here we quantitatively analyse the resulting surface deformation and other signatures, and compare to observations in order to constrain the likely ratio of intrusive to extrusive magmatism. [1] Armann, M., and P. J. Tackley (2012), Simulating the thermochemical magmatic and tectonic evo- lution of Venus's mantle and lithosphere: Two-dimensional models, J. Geophys. Res., 117, E12003, doi:10.1029/2012JE004231.

  5. Simulating ecological changes caused by marine energy devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuchert, Pia; Elsaesser, Bjoern; Pritchard, Daniel; Kregting, Louise

    2015-04-01

    Marine renewable energy from wave and tidal technology has the potential to contribute significantly globally to energy security for future generations. However common to both tidal and wave energy extraction systems is concern regarding the potential environmental consequences of the deployment of the technology as environmental and ecological effects are so far poorly understood. Ecological surveys and studies to investigate the environmental impacts are time consuming and costly and are generally reactive; a more efficient approach is to develop 2 and 3D linked hydrodynamic-ecological modelling which has the potential to be proactive and to allow forecasting of the effects of array installation. The objective of the study was to explore tools which can help model and evaluate possible far- and near field changes in the environment and ecosystem caused by the introduction of arrays of marine energy devices. Using the commercial software, MIKE by DHI, we can predict and model possible changes in the ecosystem. MIKE21 and ECOLab modelling software provide the opportunity to couple high level hydrodynamic models with process based ecological models and/or agent based models (ABM). The flow solutions of the model were determined in an idealised tidal basin with the dimensions similar to that of Strangford Lough, Northern Ireland, a body of water renowned for the location of the first grid-connected tidal turbine, SeaGen. In the first instance a simple process oriented ecological NPZD model was developed which are used to model marine and freshwater systems describing four state variables, Nutrient, Phytoplankton, Zooplankton and Detritus. The ecological model was run and evaluated under two hydrodynamic scenarios of the idealised basin. This included no tidal turbines (control) and an array of 55 turbines, an extreme scenario. Whilst an array of turbines has an effect on the hydrodynamics of the Lough, it is unlikely to see an extreme effect on the NPZD model

  6. Vertical Drop Testing and Simulation of Anthropomorphic Test Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polanco, Michael A.; Littell, Justin D.

    2011-01-01

    A series of 14 vertical impact tests were conducted using Hybrid III 50th Percentile and Hybrid II 50th Percentile Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs) at NASA Langley Research Center. The purpose of conducting these tests was threefold: to compare and contrast the impact responses of Hybrid II and Hybrid III ATDs under two different loading conditions, to compare the impact responses of the Hybrid III configured with a nominal curved lumbar spine to that of a Hybrid III configured with a straight lumbar spine, and to generate data for comparison with predicted responses from two commercially available ATD finite element models. The two loading conditions examined were a high magnitude, short duration acceleration pulse, and a low magnitude, long duration acceleration pulse, each created by using different paper honeycomb blocks as pulse shape generators in the drop tower. The test results show that the Hybrid III results differ from the Hybrid II results more for the high magnitude, short duration pulse case. The comparison of the lumbar loads for each ATD configuration show drastic differences in the loads seen in the spine. The analytical results show major differences between the responses of the two finite element models. A detailed discussion of possible sources of the discrepancies between the two analytical models is also provided.

  7. Grid FriendlyTM Device Model Development and Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ning; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Patrick, Stasha N.

    2009-12-30

    In late 2007, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) contracted Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to complete a research project titled Grid-Responsive Demand-Side Control Using Grid Friendly Appliance Technologies [Hammerstrom 2009, DeSteese and Hammerstrom 2009]. Cosponsors included Portland General Electric (PGE) and Puget Sound Energy (PSE). The project focused on applications of the Grid Friendly Appliance (GFA) controller, which is an autonomous controller that was designed to advise devices like appliances concerning valuable demand-side grid services that should be conducted. The controller bases its advice on observations it makes from the ac voltage signal. Electric tank water heaters were selected to be controlled by the GFA controller in this project. Two autonomous responses are addressed herein. First, an under-voltage-responsive water heater is able to recognize sudden reductions in feeder circuit voltage at each water heater and may curtail any electric load that is being consumed by the water heater. These under-voltage events are usually induced by nearby electrical faults. An under-voltage response is necessarily specified by the set of voltage thresholds at which the responsive water heaters would respond. The set of voltages at which the curtailment would be released must also be specified. Additionally, any delays prior to the water heater load becoming curtailed or again released must be specified. For example, a delay may be intentionally imposed prior to curtailing water heater loads to avoid responses during the fault itself. Much longer and randomized delays should be imposed prior to the release of curtailments in order to re-establish diversity of the water heater loads and soften what could otherwise be an abrupt reintroduction of a large aggregated electrical load into the already stressed grid region.

  8. A modular simulation framework for colonoscopy using a new haptic device.

    PubMed

    Hellier, David; Samur, Evren; Passenger, Josh; Spälter, Ulrich; Frimmel, Hans; Appleyard, Mark; Bleuler, Hannes; Ourselin, Sébastien

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a multi-threaded framework for colonoscopy simulation utilising OpenGL with an interface to a real-time prototype colonoscopy haptic device. A modular framework has enabled us to support multiple haptic devices and efficiently integrate new research into physically based modelling of the colonoscope, colon and surrounding organs. The framework supports GPU accelerated algorithms as runtime modules, allowing the real-time calculations required for haptic feedback.

  9. Simulating The Technological Movements Of The Equipment Used For Manufacturing Prosthetic Devices Using 3D Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicea, Anca-Lucia

    2015-09-01

    The paper presents the process of building geometric and kinematic models of a technological equipment used in the process of manufacturing devices. First, the process of building the model for a six axes industrial robot is presented. In the second part of the paper, the process of building the model for a five-axis CNC milling machining center is also shown. Both models can be used for accurate cutting processes simulation of complex parts, such as prosthetic devices.

  10. Development of NASA-DeBakey Ventricular Assist Device Using Numerical Aerospace Simulation Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwak, Dochan

    2000-01-01

    Over three million Americans and 20 million people worldwide suffer from some form of heart failure. Mechanical heart assist devices are being used as a temporary support to sick ventricle and valves as a bridge-to-transplant or bridge-to-recovery. This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the development of NASA-DeBakey Ventricular Assist Device (VAD) using numerical aerospace simulation technology.

  11. Simulation of ion beam induced current in radiation detectors and microelectronic devices.

    SciTech Connect

    Vizkelethy, Gyorgy

    2009-10-01

    Ionizing radiation is known to cause Single Event Effects (SEE) in a variety of electronic devices. The mechanism that leads to these SEEs is current induced by the radiation in these devices. While this phenomenon is detrimental in ICs, this is the basic mechanism behind the operation of semiconductor radiation detectors. To be able to predict SEEs in ICs and detector responses we need to be able to simulate the radiation induced current as the function of time. There are analytical models, which work for very simple detector configurations, but fail for anything more complex. On the other end, TCAD programs can simulate this process in microelectronic devices, but these TCAD codes costs hundreds of thousands of dollars and they require huge computing resources. In addition, in certain cases they fail to predict the correct behavior. A simulation model based on the Gunn theorem was developed and used with the COMSOL Multiphysics framework.

  12. Simulation of ion beam induced current in radiation detectors and microelectronic devices.

    SciTech Connect

    Vizkelethy, Gyorgy

    2010-07-01

    Ionizing radiation is known to cause Single Event Effects (SEE) in a variety of electronic devices. The mechanism that leads to these SEEs is current induced by the radiation in these devices. While this phenomenon is detrimental in ICs, this is the basic mechanism behind the operation of semiconductor radiation detectors. To be able to predict SEEs in ICs and detector responses we need to be able to simulate the radiation induced current as the function of time. There are analytical models, which work for very simple detector configurations, but fail for anything more complex. On the other end, TCAD programs can simulate this process in microelectronic devices, but these TCAD codes costs hundreds of thousands of dollars and they require huge computing resources. In addition, in certain cases they fail to predict the correct behavior. A simulation model based on the Gunn theorem was developed and used with the COMSOL Multiphysics framework.

  13. Non-parabolic hydrodynamic formulations for the simulation of inhomogeneous semiconductor devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Arlynn W.; Brennan, Kevin F.

    1995-01-01

    Hydrodynamic models are becoming prevalent design tools for small scale devices and other devices in which high energy effects can dominate transport. Most current hydrodynamic models use a parabolic band approximation to obtain fairly simple conservation equations. Interest in accounting for band structure effects in hydrodynamic device simulation has begun to grow since parabolic models can not fully describe the transport in state of the art devices due to the distribution populating non-parabolic states within the band. This paper presents two different non-parabolic formulations of the hydrodynamic model suitable for the simulation of inhomogeneous semiconductor devices. The first formulation uses the Kane dispersion relationship (hk)(exp 2)/2m = W(1 + alpha(W)). The second formulation makes use of a power law ((hk)(exp 2)/2m = xW(sup y)) for the dispersion relation. Hydrodynamic models which use the first formulation rely on the binomial expansion to obtain moment equations with closed form coefficients. This limits the energy range over which the model is valid. The power law formulation readily produces closed form coefficients similar to those obtained using the parabolic band approximation. However, the fitting parameters (x,y) are only valid over a limited energy range. The physical significance of the band non-parabolicity is discussed as well as the advantages/disadvantages and approximations of the two non-parabolic models. A companion paper describes device simulations based on the three dispersion relationships: parabolic, Kane dispersion, and power low dispersion.

  14. Non-Parabolic Hydrodynamic Formulations for the Simulation of Inhomogeneous Semiconductor Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A. W.; Brennan, K. F.

    1996-01-01

    Hydrodynamic models are becoming prevalent design tools for small scale devices and other devices in which high energy effects can dominate transport. Most current hydrodynamic models use a parabolic band approximation to obtain fairly simple conservation equations. Interest in accounting for band structure effects in hydrodynamic device simulation has begun to grow since parabolic models cannot fully describe the transport in state of the art devices due to the distribution populating non-parabolic states within the band. This paper presents two different non-parabolic formulations or the hydrodynamic model suitable for the simulation of inhomogeneous semiconductor devices. The first formulation uses the Kane dispersion relationship ((hk)(exp 2)/2m = W(1 + alphaW). The second formulation makes use of a power law ((hk)(exp 2)/2m = xW(exp y)) for the dispersion relation. Hydrodynamic models which use the first formulation rely on the binomial expansion to obtain moment equations with closed form coefficients. This limits the energy range over which the model is valid. The power law formulation readily produces closed form coefficients similar to those obtained using the parabolic band approximation. However, the fitting parameters (x,y) are only valid over a limited energy range. The physical significance of the band non-parabolicity is discussed as well as the advantages/disadvantages and approximations of the two non-parabolic models. A companion paper describes device simulations based on the three dispersion relationships; parabolic, Kane dispersion and power law dispersion.

  15. Simulation of scalp cooling by external devices for prevention of chemotherapy-induced alopecia.

    PubMed

    Pliskow, Bradley; Mitra, Kunal; Kaya, Mehmet

    2016-02-01

    Hypothermia of the scalp tissue during chemotherapy treatment (scalp cooling) has been shown to reduce or prevent chemotherapy-induced hair loss. In this study, numerical models are developed to investigate the interaction between different types of external scalp cooling devices and the human scalp tissue. This work focuses on improving methods of modeling scalp cooling devices as it relates specifically to the prevention of chemotherapy-induced alopecia. First, the cooling power needed for any type of device to achieve therapeutic levels of scalp hypothermia is investigated. Subsequently, two types of scalp cooling devices are simulated: a pre-cooled/frozen cap design and a liquid-cooled cap design. For an average patient, simulations show that 38.5W of heat must be extracted from the scalp tissue for this therapy in order to cool the hair follicle to 22°C. In practice, the cooling power must be greater than this amount to account for thermal losses of the device. Simulations show that pre-cooled and liquid-cooled cap designs result in different tissue temperatures over the course of the procedure. However, it is the temperature of the coolant that largely determines the resulting tissue temperature. Simulations confirm that the thermal resistance of the hair/air layer has a large impact on the resulting tissue temperatures. The results should be correlated with experimental data as an effort to determine the optimal parameter choices for this model.

  16. The Effect of Using Simulation for Training Pharmacy Students on Correct Device Technique

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To assess the effect of using simulation in pharmacy student training on correct device technique. Methods. A single-blinded, repeated measures, parallel group design study was conducted in 2011, involving all final-year pharmacy students in year 5 (final year) enrolled in the Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics course. Students were assessed on device technique at baseline based on previously published checklists for Diskus (DIS), Turbuhaler (TH), and pressurized Metered Dose Inhaler (pMDI). Students were randomly assigned to 2 groups: Intervention A, which included supervised hands-on education in groups and peer assessment/education; and Intervention B, which included supervised hands-on education in groups, peer assessment/education, and a simulated scenario counseling real asthma patients. The simulation involved groups of 6 students counseling 3 asthma patients on inhaler device technique. The counseling involved verbal information and physical demonstration until the patient performed all steps correctly. Student assessments on device technique were repeated 1 week postintervention. Results. At baseline, none of the students in Intervention A (n=54) or Intervention B (n=55) performed correct technique for any of the 3 devices. One week following the intervention, a significantly higher proportion of students in Intervention B demonstrated correct technique for the Diskus, Turbuhaler, and pMDI (60.0%, 70.9%, and 69.1%, respectively) than did students in Intervention A (27.8%, 40.7%, and 42.6%, respectively, p<0.005). Conclusion. Engaging pharmacy students with real asthma patients in a simulated scenario involving correct device technique education resulted in better device technique demonstration skills among students. PMID:25657364

  17. Large-eddy simulation of a turbulent flow over a heavy vehicle with drag reduction devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sangseung; Kim, Myeongkyun; You, Donghyun

    2015-11-01

    Aerodynamic drag contributes to a considerable amount of energy loss of heavy vehicles. To reduce the energy loss, drag reduction devices such as side skirts and boat tails, are often installed to the side and the rear of a heavy vehicle. In the present study, turbulent flow around a heavy vehicle with realistic geometric details is simulated using large-eddy simulation (LES), which is capable of providing unsteady flow physics responsible for aerodynamic in sufficient detail. Flow over a heavy vehicle with and without a boat tail and side skirts as drag reduction devices is simulated. The simulation results are validated against accompanying in-house experimental measurements. Effects of a boat tail and side skirts on drag reduction are discussed in detail. Supported by the Korea Agency for Infrastructure Technology Advancement (KAIA) Grant NTIS 1615007940.

  18. Alloyed 2D Metal-Semiconductor Atomic Layer Junctions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ah Ra; Kim, Yonghun; Nam, Jaewook; Chung, Hee-Suk; Kim, Dong Jae; Kwon, Jung-Dae; Park, Sang Won; Park, Jucheol; Choi, Sun Young; Lee, Byoung Hun; Park, Ji Hyeon; Lee, Kyu Hwan; Kim, Dong-Ho; Choi, Sung Mook; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Hahm, Myung Gwan; Cho, Byungjin

    2016-03-09

    Heterostructures of compositionally and electronically variant two-dimensional (2D) atomic layers are viable building blocks for ultrathin optoelectronic devices. We show that the composition of interfacial transition region between semiconducting WSe2 atomic layer channels and metallic NbSe2 contact layers can be engineered through interfacial doping with Nb atoms. WxNb1-xSe2 interfacial regions considerably lower the potential barrier height of the junction, significantly improving the performance of the corresponding WSe2-based field-effect transistor devices. The creation of such alloyed 2D junctions between dissimilar atomic layer domains could be the most important factor in controlling the electronic properties of 2D junctions and the design and fabrication of 2D atomic layer devices.

  19. 14 CFR 91.1087 - Approval of aircraft simulators and other training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approval of aircraft simulators and other training devices. 91.1087 Section 91.1087 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Fractional Ownership...

  20. 14 CFR 141.41 - Flight simulators, flight training devices, and training aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., and training aids. 141.41 Section 141.41 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... aids. An applicant for a pilot school certificate or a provisional pilot school certificate must show that its flight simulators, flight training devices, training aids, and equipment meet the...

  1. 14 CFR 141.41 - Flight simulators, flight training devices, and training aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., and training aids. 141.41 Section 141.41 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... aids. An applicant for a pilot school certificate or a provisional pilot school certificate must show that its flight simulators, flight training devices, training aids, and equipment meet the...

  2. 14 CFR 141.41 - Flight simulators, flight training devices, and training aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., and training aids. 141.41 Section 141.41 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... aids. An applicant for a pilot school certificate or a provisional pilot school certificate must show that its flight simulators, flight training devices, training aids, and equipment meet the...

  3. 14 CFR 141.41 - Flight simulators, flight training devices, and training aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., and training aids. 141.41 Section 141.41 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... aids. An applicant for a pilot school certificate or a provisional pilot school certificate must show that its flight simulators, flight training devices, training aids, and equipment meet the...

  4. 14 CFR 141.41 - Flight simulators, flight training devices, and training aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., and training aids. 141.41 Section 141.41 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... aids. An applicant for a pilot school certificate or a provisional pilot school certificate must show that its flight simulators, flight training devices, training aids, and equipment meet the...

  5. Non-equilibrium Green function method: theory and application in simulation of nanometer electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, Van-Nam

    2014-09-01

    We review fundamental aspects of the non-equilibrium Green function method in the simulation of nanometer electronic devices. The method is implemented into our recently developed computer package OPEDEVS to investigate transport properties of electrons in nano-scale devices and low-dimensional materials. Concretely, we present the definition of the four real-time Green functions, the retarded, advanced, lesser and greater functions. Basic relations among these functions and their equations of motion are also presented in detail as the basis for the performance of analytical and numerical calculations. In particular, we review in detail two recursive algorithms, which are implemented in OPEDEVS to solve the Green functions defined in finite-size opened systems and in the surface layer of semi-infinite homogeneous ones. Operation of the package is then illustrated through the simulation of the transport characteristics of a typical semiconductor device structure, the resonant tunneling diodes.

  6. A Neural-FEM tool for the 2-D magnetic hysteresis modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardelli, E.; Faba, A.; Laudani, A.; Lozito, G. M.; Riganti Fulginei, F.; Salvini, A.

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work is to present a new tool for the analysis of magnetic field problems considering 2-D magnetic hysteresis. In particular, this tool makes use of the Finite Element Method to solve the magnetic field problem in real device, and fruitfully exploits a neural network (NN) for the modeling of 2-D magnetic hysteresis of materials. The NS has as input the magnetic inductions components B at the k-th simulation step and returns as output the corresponding values of the magnetic field H corresponding to the input pattern. It is trained by vector measurements performed on the magnetic material to be modeled. This input/output scheme is directly implemented in a FEM code employing the magnetic potential vector A formulation. Validations through measurements on a real device have been performed.

  7. Documentation and verification of VST2D; a model for simulating transient, Variably Saturated, coupled water-heat-solute Transport in heterogeneous, anisotropic 2-Dimensional, ground-water systems with variable fluid density

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedel, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    This report describes a model for simulating transient, Variably Saturated, coupled water-heatsolute Transport in heterogeneous, anisotropic, 2-Dimensional, ground-water systems with variable fluid density (VST2D). VST2D was developed to help understand the effects of natural and anthropogenic factors on quantity and quality of variably saturated ground-water systems. The model solves simultaneously for one or more dependent variables (pressure, temperature, and concentration) at nodes in a horizontal or vertical mesh using a quasi-linearized general minimum residual method. This approach enhances computational speed beyond the speed of a sequential approach. Heterogeneous and anisotropic conditions are implemented locally using individual element property descriptions. This implementation allows local principal directions to differ among elements and from the global solution domain coordinates. Boundary conditions can include time-varying pressure head (or moisture content), heat, and/or concentration; fluxes distributed along domain boundaries and/or at internal node points; and/or convective moisture, heat, and solute fluxes along the domain boundaries; and/or unit hydraulic gradient along domain boundaries. Other model features include temperature and concentration dependent density (liquid and vapor) and viscosity, sorption and/or decay of a solute, and capability to determine moisture content beyond residual to zero. These features are described in the documentation together with development of the governing equations, application of the finite-element formulation (using the Galerkin approach), solution procedure, mass and energy balance considerations, input requirements, and output options. The VST2D model was verified, and results included solutions for problems of water transport under isohaline and isothermal conditions, heat transport under isobaric and isohaline conditions, solute transport under isobaric and isothermal conditions, and coupled water

  8. Modeling and simulation of electronic structure, material interface and random doping in nano electronic devices

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Duan; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2010-01-01

    The miniaturization of nano-scale electronic devices, such as metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs), has given rise to a pressing demand in the new theoretical understanding and practical tactic for dealing with quantum mechanical effects in integrated circuits. Modeling and simulation of this class of problems have emerged as an important topic in applied and computational mathematics. This work presents mathematical models and computational algorithms for the simulation of nano-scale MOSFETs. We introduce a unified two-scale energy functional to describe the electrons and the continuum electrostatic potential of the nano-electronic device. This framework enables us to put microscopic and macroscopic descriptions in an equal footing at nano scale. By optimization of the energy functional, we derive consistently-coupled Poisson-Kohn-Sham equations. Additionally, layered structures are crucial to the electrostatic and transport properties of nano transistors. A material interface model is proposed for more accurate description of the electrostatics governed by the Poisson equation. Finally, a new individual dopant model that utilizes the Dirac delta function is proposed to understand the random doping effect in nano electronic devices. Two mathematical algorithms, the matched interface and boundary (MIB) method and the Dirichlet-to-Neumann mapping (DNM) technique, are introduced to improve the computational efficiency of nano-device simulations. Electronic structures are computed via subband decomposition and the transport properties, such as the I-V curves and electron density, are evaluated via the non-equilibrium Green's functions (NEGF) formalism. Two distinct device configurations, a double-gate MOSFET and a four-gate MOSFET, are considered in our three-dimensional numerical simulations. For these devices, the current fluctuation and voltage threshold lowering effect induced by the discrete dopant model are explored. Numerical convergence

  9. Modeling and simulation of electronic structure, material interface and random doping in nano electronic devices.

    PubMed

    Chen, Duan; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2010-06-20

    The miniaturization of nano-scale electronic devices, such as metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs), has given rise to a pressing demand in the new theoretical understanding and practical tactic for dealing with quantum mechanical effects in integrated circuits. Modeling and simulation of this class of problems have emerged as an important topic in applied and computational mathematics. This work presents mathematical models and computational algorithms for the simulation of nano-scale MOSFETs. We introduce a unified two-scale energy functional to describe the electrons and the continuum electrostatic potential of the nano-electronic device. This framework enables us to put microscopic and macroscopic descriptions in an equal footing at nano scale. By optimization of the energy functional, we derive consistently-coupled Poisson-Kohn-Sham equations. Additionally, layered structures are crucial to the electrostatic and transport properties of nano transistors. A material interface model is proposed for more accurate description of the electrostatics governed by the Poisson equation. Finally, a new individual dopant model that utilizes the Dirac delta function is proposed to understand the random doping effect in nano electronic devices. Two mathematical algorithms, the matched interface and boundary (MIB) method and the Dirichlet-to-Neumann mapping (DNM) technique, are introduced to improve the computational efficiency of nano-device simulations. Electronic structures are computed via subband decomposition and the transport properties, such as the I-V curves and electron density, are evaluated via the non-equilibrium Green's functions (NEGF) formalism. Two distinct device configurations, a double-gate MOSFET and a four-gate MOSFET, are considered in our three-dimensional numerical simulations. For these devices, the current fluctuation and voltage threshold lowering effect induced by the discrete dopant model are explored. Numerical convergence

  10. Modeling and simulation of electronic structure, material interface and random doping in nano-electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Duan; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2010-06-01

    The miniaturization of nano-scale electronic devices, such as metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs), has given rise to a pressing demand in the new theoretical understanding and practical tactic for dealing with quantum mechanical effects in integrated circuits. Modeling and simulation of this class of problems have emerged as an important topic in applied and computational mathematics. This work presents mathematical models and computational algorithms for the simulation of nano-scale MOSFETs. We introduce a unified two-scale energy functional to describe the electrons and the continuum electrostatic potential of the nano-electronic device. This framework enables us to put microscopic and macroscopic descriptions in an equal footing at nano-scale. By optimization of the energy functional, we derive consistently coupled Poisson-Kohn-Sham equations. Additionally, layered structures are crucial to the electrostatic and transport properties of nano-transistors. A material interface model is proposed for more accurate description of the electrostatics governed by the Poisson equation. Finally, a new individual dopant model that utilizes the Dirac delta function is proposed to understand the random doping effect in nano-electronic devices. Two mathematical algorithms, the matched interface and boundary (MIB) method and the Dirichlet-to-Neumann mapping (DNM) technique, are introduced to improve the computational efficiency of nano-device simulations. Electronic structures are computed via subband decomposition and the transport properties, such as the I- V curves and electron density, are evaluated via the non-equilibrium Green's functions (NEGF) formalism. Two distinct device configurations, a double-gate MOSFET and a four-gate MOSFET, are considered in our three-dimensional numerical simulations. For these devices, the current fluctuation and voltage threshold lowering effect induced by the discrete dopant model are explored. Numerical

  11. Simulation of SEU Cross-sections using MRED under Conditions of Limited Device Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauenstein, J. M.; Reed, R. A.; Weller, R. A.; Mendenhall, M. H.; Warren, K. M.; Pellish, J. A.; Schrimpf, R. D.; Sierawski, B. D.; Massengill, L. W.; Dodd, P. E.; Shaneyfelt, M. R.; Felix, J. A.; Schwank, J. R.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the simulation of Single Event Upset (SEU) cross sections using the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) resistance and electrode diffusion (MRED) tool using "Best guess" assumptions about the process and geometry, and direct ionization, low-energy beam test results. This work will also simulate SEU cross-sections including angular and high energy responses and compare the simulated results with beam test data for the validation of the model. Using MRED, we produced a reasonably accurate upset response model of a low-critical charge SRAM without detailed information about the circuit, device geometry, or fabrication process

  12. Scalable Iterative Solvers Applied to 3D Parallel Simulation of Advanced Semiconductor Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Loureiro, A. J.; Aldegunde, M.; Seoane, N.

    2009-08-01

    We have studied the performance of a preconditioned iterative solver to speed up a 3D semiconductor device simulator. Since 3D simulations necessitate large computing resources, the choice of algorithms and their parameters become of utmost importance. This code uses a density gradient drift-diffusion semiconductor transport model based on the finite element method which is one of the most general and complex discretisation techniques. It has been implemented for a distributed memory multiprocessor environment using the Message Passing Interface (MPI) library. We have applied this simulator to a 67 nm effective gate length Si MOSFET.

  13. Predictive atomistic simulations of electronic properties of realistic nanoscale devices: A multiscale modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedula, Ravi Pramod Kumar

    Scaling of CMOS towards its ultimate limits, where quantum effects and atomistic variability due to fabrication, along with recent emphasis on heterogeneous integration of non-digital devices for increasing the functional diversification presents us with fundamentally new challenges. A comprehensive understanding of design and operation of these nanoscale transistors, and other electronic devices like RF-MEMS, requires an insight into their electronic and mechanical properties that are strongly influenced by underlying atomic structure. Hence, continuum descriptions of materials and use of empirical models at these scales become questionable. This increase in complexity of electronic devices necessitates an understanding at a more fundamental level to accurately predict the performance and reliability of these devices. The objective of this thesis is to outline the application of multiscale predictive modeling methods, ranging from atoms to devices, for addressing these challenges. This capability is demonstrated using two examples: characterization of (i) dielectric charging in RF-MEMS, and (ii) transport properties of Ge-nanofins. For characterizing the dielectric charging phenomenon, a continuum dielectric charging model, augmented by first principles informed trap distributions, is used to predict current transient measurements across a broad range of voltages and temperatures. These simulations demonstrate using ab initio informed model not only reduces the empiricism (number of adjustable parameters) in the model but also leads to a more accurate model over a broad range of operating conditions, and enable the precise determination of additional material parameters. These atomistic calculations also provide detailed information about the nature of charge traps and their trapping mechanisms that are not accessible experimentally; such information could prove invaluable in defect engineering. The second problem addresses the effect of the in-homogeneous strain

  14. Heart pump system in "heart-mural coronary artery-myocardial bridge" simulative device.

    PubMed

    Ding, H; Chen, Z; Shen, L; Xu, M; Zhou, Y; Xu, S; Zeng, Y

    2009-06-01

    The myocardial tissue covering the artery is termed a myocardial bridge. But so far many researches on the myocardial bridge have been involved with clinical patients or animals, which have some limitations (e.g. lack of systematicness, difficulties in measuring the flow in the mural coronary artery and so on). Designing a "Heart-Mural coronary artery-Myocardial Bridge" Simulative Device provides a good approach to solve above problems; however, documents on this subject have seldom been reported until now. The heart pump as the key part of the whole simulative device should be able to simulate the waveform of blood pressure, adjust blood flow and regulate heart rate. Our experimental results basically met above requirements. The heart pump proposed in the paper presented an alternative experimental method to go further into other issues about the cardiovascular circulation system.

  15. Interactive 2D to 3D stereoscopic image synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, Mark H.; Lipton, Lenny

    2005-03-01

    Advances in stereoscopic display technologies, graphic card devices, and digital imaging algorithms have opened up new possibilities in synthesizing stereoscopic images. The power of today"s DirectX/OpenGL optimized graphics cards together with adapting new and creative imaging tools found in software products such as Adobe Photoshop, provide a powerful environment for converting planar drawings and photographs into stereoscopic images. The basis for such a creative process is the focus of this paper. This article presents a novel technique, which uses advanced imaging features and custom Windows-based software that utilizes the Direct X 9 API to provide the user with an interactive stereo image synthesizer. By creating an accurate and interactive world scene with moveable and flexible depth map altered textured surfaces, perspective stereoscopic cameras with both visible frustums and zero parallax planes, a user can precisely model a virtual three-dimensional representation of a real-world scene. Current versions of Adobe Photoshop provide a creative user with a rich assortment of tools needed to highlight elements of a 2D image, simulate hidden areas, and creatively shape them for a 3D scene representation. The technique described has been implemented as a Photoshop plug-in and thus allows for a seamless transition of these 2D image elements into 3D surfaces, which are subsequently rendered to create stereoscopic views.

  16. Controllable design of solid-state perovskite solar cells by SCAPS device simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Kai; Lin, Peng; Wang, Gang; Liu, Yan; Xu, Zongchang; Lin, Yixin

    2016-12-01

    The highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) of solid-state perovskite solar cells (ssPSCs) has achieved 20.1% recently. There is reason to believe that ssPSCs is a strong competitor with silicon and CIGS solar cells in photovoltaic field. The deep understanding of operation mechanism of ssPSCs is essential and required to furtherly improve device performance. The configuration and excition type are similar to inorganic semiconductor solar cells. Therefore, Solar Cell Capacitance Simulator (SCAPS), a device simulator widely using in inorganic solar cells, was employed to controllably design ssPSCs. The validity of device simulation was verified by comparing with real devices from reported literatures. The influence of absorber thickness on device property was discussed, which indicate that it exists an optimal thickness range. Two hypothetical interface layers, TiO2/perovskite layer and perovskite/HTM layer, were introduced into the construction model to consider the effects of interfaces defect density on device performance. It revealed TiO2/perovskite has stronger impact than perovskite/HTM, because higher excess carrier density existing at TiO2/perovskite will cause more recombination rate. In addition, hole transport materials (HTM) parameters, hole mobility and acceptor density, were chosen to study the impact of HTM characteristics on PCE. The analysis illuminate that the design of HTM layer should balance hole mobility and acceptor density. Meanwhile, different HTM candidates were selected and replaced typical HTM layer. The discussion about the function of candidates on solar cells performance demonstrated that a thiophene group hole-transporting polymer (PTAA) and a copper-based conductor (CuI) both have relatively high PCE, which is due to their wide bandgap, high conductivity, and better chemical interaction with perovskite absorber.

  17. Engineering light outcoupling in 2D materials.

    PubMed

    Lien, Der-Hsien; Kang, Jeong Seuk; Amani, Matin; Chen, Kevin; Tosun, Mahmut; Wang, Hsin-Ping; Roy, Tania; Eggleston, Michael S; Wu, Ming C; Dubey, Madan; Lee, Si-Chen; He, Jr-Hau; Javey, Ali

    2015-02-11

    When light is incident on 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), it engages in multiple reflections within underlying substrates, producing interferences that lead to enhancement or attenuation of the incoming and outgoing strength of light. Here, we report a simple method to engineer the light outcoupling in semiconducting TMDCs by modulating their dielectric surroundings. We show that by modulating the thicknesses of underlying substrates and capping layers, the interference caused by substrate can significantly enhance the light absorption and emission of WSe2, resulting in a ∼11 times increase in Raman signal and a ∼30 times increase in the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of WSe2. On the basis of the interference model, we also propose a strategy to control the photonic and optoelectronic properties of thin-layer WSe2. This work demonstrates the utilization of outcoupling engineering in 2D materials and offers a new route toward the realization of novel optoelectronic devices, such as 2D LEDs and solar cells.

  18. Cost minimization analysis of different growth hormone pen devices based on time-and-motion simulations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Numerous pen devices are available to administer recombinant Human Growth Hormone (rhGH), and both patients and health plans have varying issues to consider when selecting a particular product and device for daily use. Therefore, the present study utilized multi-dimensional product analysis to assess potential time involvement, required weekly administration steps, and utilization costs relative to daily rhGH administration. Methods Study objectives were to conduct 1) Time-and-Motion (TM) simulations in a randomized block design that allowed time and steps comparisons related to rhGH preparation, administration and storage, and 2) a Cost Minimization Analysis (CMA) relative to opportunity and supply costs. Nurses naïve to rhGH administration and devices were recruited to evaluate four rhGH pen devices (2 in liquid form, 2 requiring reconstitution) via TM simulations. Five videotaped and timed trials for each product were evaluated based on: 1) Learning (initial use instructions), 2) Preparation (arrange device for use), 3) Administration (actual simulation manikin injection), and 4) Storage (maintain product viability between doses), in addition to assessment of steps required for weekly use. The CMA applied micro-costing techniques related to opportunity costs for caregivers (categorized as wages), non-drug medical supplies, and drug product costs. Results Norditropin® NordiFlex and Norditropin® NordiPen (NNF and NNP, Novo Nordisk, Inc., Bagsværd, Denmark) took less weekly Total Time (p < 0.05) to use than either of the comparator products, Genotropin® Pen (GTP, Pfizer, Inc, New York, New York) or HumatroPen® (HTP, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, Indiana). Time savings were directly related to differences in new package Preparation times (NNF (1.35 minutes), NNP (2.48 minutes) GTP (4.11 minutes), HTP (8.64 minutes), p < 0.05)). Administration and Storage times were not statistically different. NNF (15.8 minutes) and NNP (16.2 minutes) also

  19. Simulation and control system of a power harvesting device for railroad track health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Kyle J.; Nelson, Carl A.; Fateh, Mahmood

    2011-04-01

    With the vastness of existing railroad infrastructure, there exist numerous road crossings which are lacking warning light systems and/or crossing gates due to their remoteness from existing electrical infrastructure. Along with lacking warning light systems, these areas also tend to lack distributed sensor networks used for railroad track health monitoring applications. With the power consumption required by these systems being minimal, extending electrical infrastructure into these areas would not be an economical use of resources. This motivated the development of an energy harvesting solution for remote railroad deployment. This paper describes a computer simulation created to validate experimental on-track results for different mechanical prototypes designed for harvesting mechanical power from passing railcar traffic. Using the Winkler model for beam deflection as its basis, the simulation determines the maximum power potential for each type of prototype for various railcar loads and speeds. Along with calculating the maximum power potential of a single device, the simulation also calculates the optimal number and position of the devices needed to power a standard railroad crossing light signal. A control system was also designed to regulate power to a battery, monitor and record power production, and make adjustments to the duty cycle of the crossing lights accordingly. On-track test results are compared and contrasted with results from the simulation, discrepancies between the two are examined and explained, and conclusions are drawn regarding suitability of the device for powering high-efficiency LED lights at railroad crossings and powering track-health sensor networks.

  20. Static & Dynamic Response of 2D Solids

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jerry

    1996-07-15

    NIKE2D is an implicit finite-element code for analyzing the finite deformation, static and dynamic response of two-dimensional, axisymmetric, plane strain, and plane stress solids. The code is fully vectorized and available on several computing platforms. A number of material models are incorporated to simulate a wide range of material behavior including elasto-placicity, anisotropy, creep, thermal effects, and rate dependence. Slideline algorithms model gaps and sliding along material interfaces, including interface friction, penetration and single surface contact. Interactive-graphics and rezoning is included for analyses with large mesh distortions. In addition to quasi-Newton and arc-length procedures, adaptive algorithms can be defined to solve the implicit equations using the solution language ISLAND. Each of these capabilities and more make NIKE2D a robust analysis tool.

  1. Extensions of 2D gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Sevrin, A.

    1993-06-01

    After reviewing some aspects of gravity in two dimensions, I show that non-trivial embeddings of sl(2) in a semi-simple (super) Lie algebra give rise to a very large class of extensions of 2D gravity. The induced action is constructed as a gauged WZW model and an exact expression for the effective action is given.

  2. Ensemble Monte Carlo simulation of velocity modulation transistors (VMT) and real space transfer (NERFET, CHINT) devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kizilyalli, Isik C.; Hess, Karl

    Numerical simulation of velocity-modulation field effect transistors and real-space transfer transistors are presented. Using self-consistent particle-field Monte Carlo analyses, we assess possible advantages of these novel device structures with respect to their switching speed. Our study shows that current switching can be achieved by the velocity modulation concept. The simulations performed for real space transfer devices are in agreement with experiments and reproduce all prominent features of real space transfer structures such as, negative differential resistance, saturation of drain and substrate (injection) current at high source-to-drain voltages, and the negative transconductance ( {Δ I D,sat}/{Δ V sub<0 }) in the saturated drain current.

  3. Development of FDTD simulation tool for designing micro-nanostructured based optical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Anil; Mizuno, Genki; Oduor, Patrick; Islam, Saif; Dutta, Achyut K.; Dhar, Nibir K.

    2016-05-01

    The use of Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) for computational work has revolutionized how complex electromagnetic problems are solved. Complex problems which required supercomputers in the past for analysis can now be tackled and solved using personal computers by channeling the computational work towards GPUs instead of the traditional computer Central Processing Unit (CPU). Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) analysis, which is a computationally expensive method of solving electromagnetic problems is highly parallel in nature and can be readily executed in a GPU. We have developed an algorithm for three dimensional FDTD analysis of optical devices with micro and nano-structures using Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA). The developed algorithm exploits the benefits of multiple cores of GPU chips and boosts the speed of simulation without sacrificing its accuracy. We achieved a 25-fold speed up of simulation using CUDA compared to MATLAB code in CPU.

  4. Atomistic methodologies for material properties of 2D materials at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhen

    Research on two dimensional (2D) materials, such as graphene and MoS2, now involves thousands of researchers worldwide cutting across physics, chemistry, engineering and biology. Due to the extraordinary properties of 2D materials, research extends from fundamental science to novel applications of 2D materials. From an engineering point of view, understanding the material properties of 2D materials under various conditions is crucial for tailoring the electrical and mechanical properties of 2D-material-based devices at the nanoscale. Even at the nanoscale, molecular systems typically consist of a vast number of atoms. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations enable us to understand the properties of assemblies of molecules in terms of their structure and the microscopic interactions between them. From a continuum approach, mechanical properties and thermal properties, such as strain, stress, and heat capacity, are well defined and experimentally measurable. In MD simulations, material systems are considered to be discrete, and only interatomic potential, interatomic forces, and atom positions are directly obtainable. Besides, most of the fracture mechanics concepts, such as stress intensity factors, are not applicable since there is no singularity in MD simulations. However, energy release rate still remains to be a feasible and crucial physical quantity to characterize the fracture mechanical property of materials at the nanoscale. Therefore, equivalent definition of a physical quantity both in atomic scale and macroscopic scale is necessary in order to understand molecular and continuum scale phenomena concurrently. This work introduces atomistic simulation methodologies, based on interatomic potential and interatomic forces, as a tool to unveil the mechanical properties, thermal properties and fracture mechanical properties of 2D materials at the nanoscale. Among many 2D materials, graphene and MoS2 have attracted intense interest. Therefore, we applied our

  5. A simultaneous 2D/3D autostereo workstation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, Dennis; McGinnis, Bradley; Talandis, Jonas; Leigh, Jason; Peterka, Tom; Knoll, Aaron; Sumer, Aslihan; Papka, Michael; Jellinek, Julius

    2012-03-01

    We present a novel immersive workstation environment that scientists can use for 3D data exploration and as their everyday 2D computer monitor. Our implementation is based on an autostereoscopic dynamic parallax barrier 2D/3D display, interactive input devices, and a software infrastructure that allows client/server software modules to couple the workstation to scientists' visualization applications. This paper describes the hardware construction and calibration, software components, and a demonstration of our system in nanoscale materials science exploration.

  6. Simulating of the measurement-device independent quantum key distribution with phase randomized general sources

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qin; Wang, Xiang-Bin

    2014-01-01

    We present a model on the simulation of the measurement-device independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) with phase randomized general sources. It can be used to predict experimental observations of a MDI-QKD with linear channel loss, simulating corresponding values for the gains, the error rates in different basis, and also the final key rates. Our model can be applicable to the MDI-QKDs with arbitrary probabilistic mixture of different photon states or using any coding schemes. Therefore, it is useful in characterizing and evaluating the performance of the MDI-QKD protocol, making it a valuable tool in studying the quantum key distributions. PMID:24728000

  7. Nanoscale Tunable Strong Carrier Density Modulation of 2D Materials for Metamaterials and Other Tunable Optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Cheng; Efetov, Dmitri; Shiue, Ren-Jye; Nanot, Sebastien; Hempel, Marek; Kong, Jing; Koppens, Frank; Englund, Dirk

    Strong spatial tunability of the charge carrier density at nanoscale is essential to many 2D-material-based electronic and optoelectronic applications. As an example, plasmonic metamaterials with nanoscale dimensions would make graphene plasmonics at visible and near-infrared wavelengths possible. However, existing gating techniques based on conventional dielectric gating geometries limit the spatial resolution and achievable carrier concentration, strongly restricting the available wavelength, geometry, and quality of the devices. Here, we present a novel spatially selective electrolyte gating approach that allows for in-plane spatial Fermi energy modulation of 2D materials of more than 1 eV (carrier density of n = 1014 cm-2) across a length of 2 nm. We present electrostatic simulations as well as electronic transport, photocurrent, cyclic voltammetry and optical spectroscopy measurements to characterize the performance of the gating technique applied to graphene devices. The high spatial resolution, high doping capacity, full tunability and self-aligned device geometry of the presented technique opens a new venue for nanoscale metamaterial engineering of 2D materials for complete optical absorption, nonlinear optics and sensing, among other applications.

  8. Numerical simulation of 3D boundary-driven acoustic streaming in microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Lei, Junjun; Hill, Martyn; Glynne-Jones, Peter

    2014-02-07

    This article discusses three-dimensional (3D) boundary-driven streaming in acoustofluidic devices. Firstly, the 3D Rayleigh streaming pattern in a microchannel is simulated and its effect on the movement of microparticles of various sizes is demonstrated. The results obtained from this model show good comparisons with 3D experimental visualisations and demonstrate the fully 3D nature of the acoustic streaming field and the associated acoustophoretic motion of microparticles in acoustofluidic devices. This method is then applied to another acoustofluidic device in order to gain insights into an unusual in-plane streaming pattern. The origin of this streaming has not been fully described and its characteristics cannot be explained from the classical theory of Rayleigh streaming. The simulated in-plane streaming pattern was in good agreement with the experimental visualisation. The mechanism behind it is shown to be related to the active sound intensity field, which supports our previous findings on the mechanism of the in-plane acoustic streaming pattern visualised and modelled in a thin-layered capillary device.

  9. Simulations of Thermal Quantum Annealing on the D-Wave Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albash, Tameem; Vinci, Walter; Mishra, Anurag; Warburton, Paul; Lidar, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    We report on classical and quantum simulations to model the open-system dynamics of the D-Wave programmable annealer as we increase the thermal noise level on the device. We consider three models for the device: (1) the evolution is described by a classical simulated annealer acting on the final-time Ising Hamiltonian; (2) the evolution is described by an O(3) model with a time-dependent Hamiltonian; (3) the evolution is described by a quantum adiabatic Markovian master equation with a time dependent Hamiltonian. We increase the thermal noise level by either decreasing the overall energy scale of the final-time Ising Hamiltonian or by increasing the total annealing time. Using a benchmark Ising Hamiltonian, we show that all three models give distinct predictions for the behavior of the system as the noise level on the device is increased. The only model that captures the results of the device over the entire range of noise levels studied is the quantum master equation, ruling out the two classical models considered here.

  10. Recent advances in computational methodology for simulation of mechanical circulatory assist devices

    PubMed Central

    Marsden, Alison L.; Bazilevs, Yuri; Long, Christopher C.; Behr, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Ventricular assist devices (VADs) provide mechanical circulatory support to offload the work of one or both ventricles during heart failure. They are used in the clinical setting as destination therapy, as bridge to transplant, or more recently as bridge to recovery to allow for myocardial remodeling. Recent developments in computational simulation allow for detailed assessment of VAD hemodynamics for device design and optimization for both children and adults. Here, we provide a focused review of the recent literature on finite element methods and optimization for VAD simulations. As VAD designs typically fall into two categories, pulsatile and continuous flow devices, we separately address computational challenges of both types of designs, and the interaction with the circulatory system with three representative case studies. In particular, we focus on recent advancements in finite element methodology that has increased the fidelity of VAD simulations. We outline key challenges, which extend to the incorporation of biological response such as thrombosis and hemolysis, as well as shape optimization methods and challenges in computational methodology. PMID:24449607

  11. 3D printing of tissue-simulating phantoms for calibration of biomedical optical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zuhua; Zhou, Ximing; Shen, Shuwei; Liu, Guangli; Yuan, Li; Meng, Yuquan; Lv, Xiang; Shao, Pengfei; Dong, Erbao; Xu, Ronald X.

    2016-10-01

    Clinical utility of many biomedical optical devices is limited by the lack of effective and traceable calibration methods. Optical phantoms that simulate biological tissues used for optical device calibration have been explored. However, these phantoms can hardly simulate both structural and optical properties of multi-layered biological tissue. To address this limitation, we develop a 3D printing production line that integrates spin coating, light-cured 3D printing and Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) for freeform fabrication of optical phantoms with mechanical and optical heterogeneities. With the gel wax Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and colorless light-curable ink as matrix materials, titanium dioxide (TiO2) powder as the scattering ingredient, graphite powder and black carbon as the absorption ingredient, a multilayer phantom with high-precision is fabricated. The absorption and scattering coefficients of each layer are measured by a double integrating sphere system. The results demonstrate that the system has the potential to fabricate reliable tissue-simulating phantoms to calibrate optical imaging devices.

  12. Irreversibility-inversions in 2D turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragg, Andrew; de Lillo, Filippo; Boffetta, Guido

    2016-11-01

    We consider a recent theoretical prediction that for inertial particles in 2D turbulence, the nature of the irreversibility of their pair dispersion inverts when the particle inertia exceeds a certain value. In particular, when the particle Stokes number, St , is below a certain value, the forward-in-time (FIT) dispersion should be faster than the backward-in-time (BIT) dispersion, but for St above this value, this should invert so that BIT becomes faster than FIT dispersion. This non-trivial behavior arises because of the competition between two physically distinct irreversibility mechanisms that operate in different regimes of St . In 3D turbulence, both mechanisms act to produce faster BIT than FIT dispersion, but in 2D, the two mechanisms have opposite effects because of the inverse energy cascade in the turbulent velocity field. We supplement the qualitative argument given by Bragg et al. by deriving quantitative predictions of this effect in the short-time dispersion limit. These predictions are then confirmed by results of inertial particle dispersion in a direct numerical simulation of 2D turbulence.

  13. Periodically sheared 2D Yukawa systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kovács, Anikó Zsuzsa; Hartmann, Peter; Donkó, Zoltán

    2015-10-15

    We present non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation studies on the dynamic (complex) shear viscosity of a 2D Yukawa system. We have identified a non-monotonic frequency dependence of the viscosity at high frequencies and shear rates, an energy absorption maximum (local resonance) at the Einstein frequency of the system at medium shear rates, an enhanced collective wave activity, when the excitation is near the plateau frequency of the longitudinal wave dispersion, and the emergence of significant configurational anisotropy at small frequencies and high shear rates.

  14. Numerical simulation of ISFET structures for biosensing devices with TCAD tools

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Ion Sensitive Field Effect Transistors (ISFETs) are one of the primitive structures for the fabrication of biosensors (BioFETs). Aiming at the optimization of the design and fabrication processes of BioFETs, the correlation between technological parameters and device electrical response can be obtained by means of an electrical device-level simulation. In this work we present a numerical simulation approach to the study of ISFET structures for bio-sensing devices (BioFET) using Synopsys Sentaurus Technology Computer-Aided Design (TCAD) tools. Methods The properties of a custom-defined material were modified in order to reproduce the electrolyte behavior. In particular, the parameters of an intrinsic semiconductor material have been set in order to reproduce an electrolyte solution. By replacing the electrolyte solution with an intrinsic semiconductor, the electrostatic solution of the electrolyte region can therefore be calculated by solving the semiconductor equation within this region. Results The electrostatic behaviour (transfer characteristics) of a general BioFET structure has been simulated when the captured target number increases from 1 to 10. The ID current as a function of the VDS voltage for different positions of a single charged block and for different values of the reference electrode have been calculated. The electrical potential distribution along the electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor structure has been evaluated for different molar concentrations of the electrolyte solution. Conclusions We presented a numerical simulation approach to the study of Ion-Sensitive Field Effect Transistor (ISFET) structures for biosensing devices (BioFETs) using the Synopsys Sentaurus Technology Computer-Aided Design (TCAD) tools. A powerful framework for the design and optimization of biosensor has been devised, thus helping in reducing technology development time and cost. The main finding of the analysis of a general reference BioFET shows that there is

  15. Development and evaluation of a device to simulate a sonic boom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rash, L. C.; Barrett, R. F.; Hart, F. D.

    1972-01-01

    A device to simulate the vibrational and acoustical properties of a sonic boom was developed and evaluated. The design employed a moving circular diaphragm which produced pressure variations by altering the volume of an air-tight enclosure that was located adjacent to an acoustical test chamber. A review of construction oriented problems, along with their solutions, is presented. The simulator is shown to produce the effects of sonic booms having pressure signatures with rise times as low as 5 milliseconds, durations as short as 80 milliseconds, and overpressures as high as 2.5 pounds per square foot. Variations in the signatures are possible by independent adjustments of the simulator. The energy spectral density is also shown to be in agreement with theory and with actual measurements for aircraft.

  16. 2-D Modeling of Nanoscale MOSFETs: Non-Equilibrium Green's Function Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svizhenko, Alexei; Anantram, M. P.; Govindan, T. R.; Biegel, Bryan

    2001-01-01

    We have developed physical approximations and computer code capable of realistically simulating 2-D nanoscale transistors, using the non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) method. This is the most accurate full quantum model yet applied to 2-D device simulation. Open boundary conditions and oxide tunneling are treated on an equal footing. Electrons in the ellipsoids of the conduction band are treated within the anisotropic effective mass approximation. Electron-electron interaction is treated within Hartree approximation by solving NEGF and Poisson equations self-consistently. For the calculations presented here, parallelization is performed by distributing the solution of NEGF equations to various processors, energy wise. We present simulation of the "benchmark" MIT 25nm and 90nm MOSFETs and compare our results to those from the drift-diffusion simulator and the quantum-corrected results available. In the 25nm MOSFET, the channel length is less than ten times the electron wavelength, and the electron scattering time is comparable to its transit time. Our main results are: (1) Simulated drain subthreshold current characteristics are shown, where the potential profiles are calculated self-consistently by the corresponding simulation methods. The current predicted by our quantum simulation has smaller subthreshold slope of the Vg dependence which results in higher threshold voltage. (2) When gate oxide thickness is less than 2 nm, gate oxide leakage is a primary factor which determines off-current of a MOSFET (3) Using our 2-D NEGF simulator, we found several ways to drastically decrease oxide leakage current without compromising drive current. (4) Quantum mechanically calculated electron density is much smaller than the background doping density in the poly silicon gate region near oxide interface. This creates an additional effective gate voltage. Different ways to. include this effect approximately will be discussed.

  17. Vertical accelerator device to apply loads simulating blast environments in the military to human surrogates.

    PubMed

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A; Schlick, Michael; Humm, John R; Voo, Liming; Merkle, Andrew; Kleinberger, Michael

    2015-09-18

    The objective of the study was to develop a simple device, Vertical accelerator (Vertac), to apply vertical impact loads to Post Mortem Human Subject (PMHS) or dummy surrogates because injuries sustained in military conflicts are associated with this vector; example, under-body blasts from explosive devices/events. The two-part mechanically controlled device consisted of load-application and load-receiving sections connected by a lever arm. The former section incorporated a falling weight to impact one end of the lever arm inducing a reaction at the other/load-receiving end. The "launch-plate" on this end of the arm applied the vertical impact load/acceleration pulse under different initial conditions to biological/physical surrogates, attached to second section. It is possible to induce different acceleration pulses by using varying energy absorbing materials and controlling drop height and weight. The second section of Vertac had the flexibility to accommodate different body regions for vertical loading experiments. The device is simple and inexpensive. It has the ability to control pulses and flexibility to accommodate different sub-systems/components of human surrogates. It has the capability to incorporate preloads and military personal protective equipment (e.g., combat helmet). It can simulate vehicle roofs. The device allows for intermittent specimen evaluations (x-ray and palpation, without changing specimen alignment). The two free but interconnected sections can be used to advance safety to military personnel. Examples demonstrating feasibilities of the Vertac device to apply vertical impact accelerations using PMHS head-neck preparations with helmet and booted Hybrid III dummy lower leg preparations under in-contact and launch-type impact experiments are presented.

  18. Analysis of factors affecting milking claw vacuum levels using a simulated milking device.

    PubMed

    Enokidani, Masafumi; Kuruhara, Kana; Kawai, Kazuhiro

    2016-06-01

    Bovine mastitis is typically caused by microbial infection of the udder, but the factors responsible for this condition are varied. One potential cause is the milking system, and although previous studies have investigated various methods for inspecting these devices, most have not assessed methods for evaluating the milking units. With this in mind, we analyzed the factors that affect the vacuum inside the milking claw by using a simulated milking device and by measuring milking claw vacuum when adjusting the flow rate in five stages. The factors analyzed in each milking system were the vacuum pressure settings (high and low line system) , milk tube length (200-328 cm), aperture diameter (14-22.2 mm), constricted aperture diameter (12 mm), tubing configurations, lift formation (0-80 cm), claw type (bottom and top flow) and use or non-use of a milk sampler. The study findings demonstrated that all of these variables had a significant impact on claw vacuum and suggest that a diagnostic method using a simulated milking device should be considered when inspecting modern milking systems.

  19. A positioning QA procedure for 2D/2D (kV/MV) and 3D/3D (CT/CBCT) image matching for radiotherapy patient setup.

    PubMed

    Guan, Huaiqun; Hammoud, Rabih; Yin, Fang-Fang

    2009-10-06

    A positioning QA procedure for Varian's 2D/2D (kV/MV) and 3D/3D (planCT/CBCT) matching was developed. The procedure was to check: (1) the coincidence of on-board imager (OBI), portal imager (PI), and cone beam CT (CBCT)'s isocenters (digital graticules) to a linac's isocenter (to a pre-specified accuracy); (2) that the positioning difference detected by 2D/2D (kV/MV) and 3D/3D(planCT/CBCT) matching can be reliably transferred to couch motion. A cube phantom with a 2 mm metal ball (bb) at the center was used. The bb was used to define the isocenter. Two additional bbs were placed on two phantom surfaces in order to define a spatial location of 1.5 cm anterior, 1.5 cm inferior, and 1.5 cm right from the isocenter. An axial scan of the phantom was acquired from a multislice CT simulator. The phantom was set at the linac's isocenter (lasers); either AP MV/R Lat kV images or CBCT images were taken for 2D/2D or 3D/3D matching, respectively. For 2D/2D, the accuracy of each device's isocenter was obtained by checking the distance between the central bb and the digital graticule. Then the central bb in orthogonal DRRs was manually moved to overlay to the off-axis bbs in kV/MV images. For 3D/3D, CBCT was first matched to planCT to check the isocenter difference between the two CTs. Manual shifts were then made by moving CBCT such that the point defined by the two off-axis bbs overlay to the central bb in planCT. (PlanCT can not be moved in the current version of OBI1.4.) The manual shifts were then applied to remotely move the couch. The room laser was used to check the accuracy of the couch movement. For Trilogy (or Ix-21