Science.gov

Sample records for 2-d diffusion heat

  1. 2D FEM Heat Transfer & E&M Field Code

    SciTech Connect

    1992-04-02

    TOPAZ and TOPAZ2D are two-dimensional implicit finite element computer codes for heat transfer analysis. TOPAZ2D can also be used to solve electrostatic and magnetostatic problems. The programs solve for the steady-state or transient temperature or electrostatic and magnetostatic potential field on two-dimensional planar or axisymmetric geometries. Material properties may be temperature or potential-dependent and either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time and temperature-dependent boundary conditions can be specified including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation. By implementing the user subroutine feature, users can model chemical reaction kinetics and allow for any type of functional representation of boundary conditions and internal heat generation. The programs can solve problems of diffuse and specular band radiation in an enclosure coupled with conduction in the material surrounding the enclosure. Additional features include thermal contact resistance across an interface, bulk fluids, phase change, and energy balances.

  2. 2D FEM Heat Transfer & E&M Field Code

    1992-04-02

    TOPAZ and TOPAZ2D are two-dimensional implicit finite element computer codes for heat transfer analysis. TOPAZ2D can also be used to solve electrostatic and magnetostatic problems. The programs solve for the steady-state or transient temperature or electrostatic and magnetostatic potential field on two-dimensional planar or axisymmetric geometries. Material properties may be temperature or potential-dependent and either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time and temperature-dependent boundary conditions can be specified including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation.more » By implementing the user subroutine feature, users can model chemical reaction kinetics and allow for any type of functional representation of boundary conditions and internal heat generation. The programs can solve problems of diffuse and specular band radiation in an enclosure coupled with conduction in the material surrounding the enclosure. Additional features include thermal contact resistance across an interface, bulk fluids, phase change, and energy balances.« less

  3. ORMDIN. 2-D Nonlinear Inverse Heat Conduction

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, B.R.

    1990-05-01

    ORMDIN is a finite-element program developed for two-dimensional nonlinear inverse heat conduction analysis as part of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Pressurized Water Reactor Blowdown Heat Transfer (BDHT) program. One of the primary objectives of the program was to determine the transient surface temperature and surface heat flux of fuel pin simulators from internal thermocouple signals obtained during a loss-of-coolant accident experiment in the Thermal-Hydraulic Test Facility (THTF). ORMDIN was designed primarily to perform a transient two-dimensional nonlinear inverse heat conduction analysis of the THTF bundle 3 heater rod; however, it can be applied to other cylindrical geometries for which the thermophysical properties are prescribed functions of temperature. The program assumes that discretized temperature histories are provided at three thermocouple locations in the interior of the cylinder. Concurrent with the two-dimensional analysis, ORMDIN also generates one-dimensional solutions for each of the three thermocouple radial planes.

  4. Nonlinear Heat Transfer 2d Structure

    1987-09-01

    DOT-BPMD is a general-purpose, finite-element, heat-transfer program used to predict thermal environments. The code considers linear and nonlinear transient or steady-state heat conduction in two-dimensional planar or axisymmetric representations of structures. Capabilities are provided for modeling anisotropic heterogeneous materials with temperature-dependent thermal properties and time-dependent temperature, heat flux, convection and radiation boundary conditions, together with time-dependent internal heat generation. DOT-BPMD may be used in the evaluation of steady-state geothermal gradients as well as in themore » transient heat conduction analysis of repository and waste package subsystems. Strengths of DOT-BPMD include its ability to account for a wide range of possible boundary conditions, nonlinear material properties, and its efficient equation solution algorithm. Limitations include the lack of a three-dimensional analysis capability, no radiative or convective internal heat transfer, and the need to maintain a constant time-step in each program execution.« less

  5. 2-D Finite Element Heat Conduction

    1989-10-30

    AYER is a finite element program which implicitly solves the general two-dimensional equation of thermal conduction for plane or axisymmetric bodies. AYER takes into account the effects of time (transient problems), in-plane anisotropic thermal conductivity, a three-dimensional velocity distribution, and interface thermal contact resistance. Geometry and material distributions are arbitrary, and input is via subroutines provided by the user. As a result, boundary conditions, material properties, velocity distributions, and internal power generation may be mademore » functions of, e.g., time, temperature, location, and heat flux.« less

  6. Experimental identification of diffusive coupling using 2D NMR.

    PubMed

    Song, Y-Q; Carneiro, G; Schwartz, L M; Johnson, D L

    2014-12-01

    Spin relaxation based nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods have been used extensively to determine pore size distributions in a variety of materials. This approach is based on the assumption that each pore is in the fast diffusion limit but that diffusion between pores can be neglected. However, in complex materials these assumptions may be violated and the relaxation time distribution is not easily interpreted. We present a 2D NMR technique and an associated data analysis that allow us to work directly with the time dependent experimental data without Laplace inversion to identify the signature of diffusive coupling between different pores. Measurements on microporous glass beads and numerical simulations are used to illustrate the technique. PMID:25526135

  7. Measurements of Shear Reduction of 2D Vortex Diffusion.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driscoll, C. F.; Anderegg, F.; Dubin, D. H. E.

    2001-11-01

    Experiments with magnetized ion columns in the 2-dimensional regime demonstrate shear reduction of vortex diffusion, in close correspondence with recent theory.(D.H.E. Dubin, Phys. Lett. A 284), 112 (2001). Here, the ions move in ( r, θ ) as point vortices, and we can accurately control the vorticity ζ (r), fluid rotation Ω (r), and shear S (r) ≡ r ; partial Ω / partial r. Moreover, individual ions can be ``tagged,'' so that the vortex diffusion rate D can be measured directly. For flows with low shear, i.e. S / Ω <= 10-3, the measured diffusion is close to the Taylor-McNamara prediction for a homogeneous gas of N point vortices.(J.B. Taylor and B. McNamara, Phys. Fluids 14), 1492 (1971). As the shear is increased, the measured diffusion decreases by up to 100×, in factor-of-three correspondence with the predicted D ∝ S-1. For very large shear, the ions can no longer be treated as 2D point vortices, since their shear separation is faster than their axial transversal of the trap. In this limit, the measured diffusion agrees quantitatively with the theory of long-range 3D Coulomb collisions.

  8. Radiative heat transfer in 2D Dirac materials.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-López, Pablo; Tse, Wang-Kong; Dalvit, Diego A R

    2015-06-01

    We compute the radiative heat transfer between two sheets of 2D Dirac materials, including topological Chern insulators and graphene, within the framework of the local approximation for the optical response of these materials. In this approximation, which neglects spatial dispersion, we derive both numerically and analytically the short-distance asymptotic of the near-field heat transfer in these systems, and show that it scales as the inverse of the distance between the two sheets. Finally, we discuss the limitations to the validity of this scaling law imposed by spatial dispersion in 2D Dirac materials. PMID:25965703

  9. Radiative heat transfer in 2D Dirac materials

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rodriguez-López, Pablo; Tse, Wang -Kong; Dalvit, Diego A. R.

    2015-05-12

    We compute the radiative heat transfer between two sheets of 2D Dirac materials, including topological Chern insulators and graphene, within the framework of the local approximation for the optical response of these materials. In this approximation, which neglects spatial dispersion, we derive both numerically and analytically the short-distance asymptotic of the near-field heat transfer in these systems, and show that it scales as the inverse of the distance between the two sheets. In conclusion, we discuss the limitations to the validity of this scaling law imposed by spatial dispersion in 2D Dirac materials.

  10. TOPAZ2D heat transfer code users manual and thermal property data base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, A. B.; Edwards, A. L.

    1990-05-01

    TOPAZ2D is a two dimensional implicit finite element computer code for heat transfer analysis. This user's manual provides information on the structure of a TOPAZ2D input file. Also included is a material thermal property data base. This manual is supplemented with The TOPAZ2D Theoretical Manual and the TOPAZ2D Verification Manual. TOPAZ2D has been implemented on the CRAY, SUN, and VAX computers. TOPAZ2D can be used to solve for the steady state or transient temperature field on two dimensional planar or axisymmetric geometries. Material properties may be temperature dependent and either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time and temperature dependent boundary conditions can be specified including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation. Time or temperature dependent internal heat generation can be defined locally be element or globally by material. TOPAZ2D can solve problems of diffuse and specular band radiation in an enclosure coupled with conduction in material surrounding the enclosure. Additional features include thermally controlled reactive chemical mixtures, thermal contact resistance across an interface, bulk fluid flow, phase change, and energy balances. Thermal stresses can be calculated using the solid mechanics code NIKE2D which reads the temperature state data calculated by TOPAZ2D. A three dimensional version of the code, TOPAZ3D is available.

  11. TOPAZ2D heat transfer code users manual and thermal property data base

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, A.B.; Edwards, A.L.

    1990-05-01

    TOPAZ2D is a two dimensional implicit finite element computer code for heat transfer analysis. This user's manual provides information on the structure of a TOPAZ2D input file. Also included is a material thermal property data base. This manual is supplemented with The TOPAZ2D Theoretical Manual and the TOPAZ2D Verification Manual. TOPAZ2D has been implemented on the CRAY, SUN, and VAX computers. TOPAZ2D can be used to solve for the steady state or transient temperature field on two dimensional planar or axisymmetric geometries. Material properties may be temperature dependent and either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time and temperature dependent boundary conditions can be specified including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation. Time or temperature dependent internal heat generation can be defined locally be element or globally by material. TOPAZ2D can solve problems of diffuse and specular band radiation in an enclosure coupled with conduction in material surrounding the enclosure. Additional features include thermally controlled reactive chemical mixtures, thermal contact resistance across an interface, bulk fluid flow, phase change, and energy balances. Thermal stresses can be calculated using the solid mechanics code NIKE2D which reads the temperature state data calculated by TOPAZ2D. A three dimensional version of the code, TOPAZ3D is available. The material thermal property data base, Chapter 4, included in this manual was originally published in 1969 by Art Edwards for use with his TRUMP finite difference heat transfer code. The format of the data has been altered to be compatible with TOPAZ2D. Bob Bailey is responsible for adding the high explosive thermal property data.

  12. PARCEQ2D heat transfer grid sensitivity analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Saladino, A.J.; Praharaj, S.C.; Collins, F.G. Tennessee Univ., Tullahoma )

    1991-01-01

    The material presented in this paper is an extension of two-dimensional Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) results shown previously. This study has focused on the heating rate calculations to the AFE obtained from an equilibrium real gas code, with attention placed on the sensitivity of grid dependence and wall temperature. Heat transfer results calculated by the PARCEQ2D code compare well with those computed by other researchers. Temperature convergence in the case of kinetic transport has been accomplished by increasing the wall temperature gradually from 300 K to the wall temperature of 1700 K. 28 refs.

  13. PARCEQ2D heat transfer grid sensitivity analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saladino, Anthony J.; Praharaj, Sarat C.; Collins, Frank G.

    1991-01-01

    The material presented in this paper is an extension of two-dimensional Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) results shown previously. This study has focused on the heating rate calculations to the AFE obtained from an equilibrium real gas code, with attention placed on the sensitivity of grid dependence and wall temperature. Heat transfer results calculated by the PARCEQ2D code compare well with those computed by other researchers. Temperature convergence in the case of kinetic transport has been accomplished by increasing the wall temperature gradually from 300 K to the wall temperature of 1700 K.

  14. A novel improved method for analysis of 2D diffusion-relaxation data--2D PARAFAC-Laplace decomposition.

    PubMed

    Tønning, Erik; Polders, Daniel; Callaghan, Paul T; Engelsen, Søren B

    2007-09-01

    This paper demonstrates how the multi-linear PARAFAC model can with advantage be used to decompose 2D diffusion-relaxation correlation NMR spectra prior to 2D-Laplace inversion to the T(2)-D domain. The decomposition is advantageous for better interpretation of the complex correlation maps as well as for the quantification of extracted T(2)-D components. To demonstrate the new method seventeen mixtures of wheat flour, starch, gluten, oil and water were prepared and measured with a 300 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer using a pulsed gradient stimulated echo (PGSTE) pulse sequence followed by a Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) pulse echo train. By varying the gradient strength, 2D diffusion-relaxation data were recorded for each sample. From these double exponentially decaying relaxation data the PARAFAC algorithm extracted two unique diffusion-relaxation components, explaining 99.8% of the variation in the data set. These two components were subsequently transformed to the T(2)-D domain using 2D-inverse Laplace transformation and quantitatively assigned to the oil and water components of the samples. The oil component was one distinct distribution with peak intensity at D=3 x 10(-12) m(2) s(-1) and T(2)=180 ms. The water component consisted of two broad populations of water molecules with diffusion coefficients and relaxation times centered around correlation pairs: D=10(-9) m(2) s(-1), T(2)=10 ms and D=3 x 10(-13) m(2) s(-1), T(2)=13 ms. Small spurious peaks observed in the inverse Laplace transformation of original complex data were effectively filtered by the PARAFAC decomposition and thus considered artefacts from the complex Laplace transformation. The oil-to-water ratio determined by PARAFAC followed by 2D-Laplace inversion was perfectly correlated with known oil-to-water ratio of the samples. The new method of using PARAFAC prior to the 2D-Laplace inversion proved to have superior potential in analysis of diffusion-relaxation spectra, as it

  15. A novel improved method for analysis of 2D diffusion relaxation data—2D PARAFAC-Laplace decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tønning, Erik; Polders, Daniel; Callaghan, Paul T.; Engelsen, Søren B.

    2007-09-01

    This paper demonstrates how the multi-linear PARAFAC model can with advantage be used to decompose 2D diffusion-relaxation correlation NMR spectra prior to 2D-Laplace inversion to the T2- D domain. The decomposition is advantageous for better interpretation of the complex correlation maps as well as for the quantification of extracted T2- D components. To demonstrate the new method seventeen mixtures of wheat flour, starch, gluten, oil and water were prepared and measured with a 300 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer using a pulsed gradient stimulated echo (PGSTE) pulse sequence followed by a Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) pulse echo train. By varying the gradient strength, 2D diffusion-relaxation data were recorded for each sample. From these double exponentially decaying relaxation data the PARAFAC algorithm extracted two unique diffusion-relaxation components, explaining 99.8% of the variation in the data set. These two components were subsequently transformed to the T2- D domain using 2D-inverse Laplace transformation and quantitatively assigned to the oil and water components of the samples. The oil component was one distinct distribution with peak intensity at D = 3 × 10 -12 m 2 s -1 and T2 = 180 ms. The water component consisted of two broad populations of water molecules with diffusion coefficients and relaxation times centered around correlation pairs: D = 10 -9 m 2 s -1, T2 = 10 ms and D = 3 × 10 -13 m 2 s -1, T2 = 13 ms. Small spurious peaks observed in the inverse Laplace transformation of original complex data were effectively filtered by the PARAFAC decomposition and thus considered artefacts from the complex Laplace transformation. The oil-to-water ratio determined by PARAFAC followed by 2D-Laplace inversion was perfectly correlated with known oil-to-water ratio of the samples. The new method of using PARAFAC prior to the 2D-Laplace inversion proved to have superior potential in analysis of diffusion-relaxation spectra, as it

  16. Latent heat induced rotation limited aggregation in 2D ice nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Bampoulis, Pantelis; Siekman, Martin H; Kooij, E Stefan; Lohse, Detlef; Zandvliet, Harold J W; Poelsema, Bene

    2015-07-21

    The basic science responsible for the fascinating shapes of ice crystals and snowflakes is still not understood. Insufficient knowledge of the interaction potentials and the lack of relevant experimental access to the growth process are to blame for this failure. Here, we study the growth of fractal nanostructures in a two-dimensional (2D) system, intercalated between mica and graphene. Based on our scanning tunneling spectroscopy data, we provide compelling evidence that these fractals are 2D ice. They grow while they are in material contact with the atmosphere at 20 °C and without significant thermal contact to the ambient. The growth is studied in situ, in real time and space at the nanoscale. We find that the growing 2D ice nanocrystals assume a fractal shape, which is conventionally attributed to Diffusion Limited Aggregation (DLA). However, DLA requires a low mass density mother phase, in contrast to the actual currently present high mass density mother phase. Latent heat effects and consequent transport of heat and molecules are found to be key ingredients for understanding the evolution of the snow (ice) flakes. We conclude that not the local availability of water molecules (DLA), but rather them having the locally required orientation is the key factor for incorporation into the 2D ice nanocrystal. In combination with the transport of latent heat, we attribute the evolution of fractal 2D ice nanocrystals to local temperature dependent rotation limited aggregation. The ice growth occurs under extreme supersaturation, i.e., the conditions closely resemble the natural ones for the growth of complex 2D snow (ice) flakes and we consider our findings crucial for solving the "perennial" snow (ice) flake enigma. PMID:26203037

  17. Latent heat induced rotation limited aggregation in 2D ice nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bampoulis, Pantelis; Siekman, Martin H.; Kooij, E. Stefan; Lohse, Detlef; Zandvliet, Harold J. W.; Poelsema, Bene

    2015-07-01

    The basic science responsible for the fascinating shapes of ice crystals and snowflakes is still not understood. Insufficient knowledge of the interaction potentials and the lack of relevant experimental access to the growth process are to blame for this failure. Here, we study the growth of fractal nanostructures in a two-dimensional (2D) system, intercalated between mica and graphene. Based on our scanning tunneling spectroscopy data, we provide compelling evidence that these fractals are 2D ice. They grow while they are in material contact with the atmosphere at 20 °C and without significant thermal contact to the ambient. The growth is studied in situ, in real time and space at the nanoscale. We find that the growing 2D ice nanocrystals assume a fractal shape, which is conventionally attributed to Diffusion Limited Aggregation (DLA). However, DLA requires a low mass density mother phase, in contrast to the actual currently present high mass density mother phase. Latent heat effects and consequent transport of heat and molecules are found to be key ingredients for understanding the evolution of the snow (ice) flakes. We conclude that not the local availability of water molecules (DLA), but rather them having the locally required orientation is the key factor for incorporation into the 2D ice nanocrystal. In combination with the transport of latent heat, we attribute the evolution of fractal 2D ice nanocrystals to local temperature dependent rotation limited aggregation. The ice growth occurs under extreme supersaturation, i.e., the conditions closely resemble the natural ones for the growth of complex 2D snow (ice) flakes and we consider our findings crucial for solving the "perennial" snow (ice) flake enigma.

  18. BOXER: Fine-flux Cross Section Condensation, 2D Few Group Diffusion and Transport Burnup Calculations

    2010-02-01

    Neutron transport, calculation of multiplication factor and neutron fluxes in 2-D configurations: cell calculations, 2-D diffusion and transport, and burnup. Preparation of a cross section library for the code BOXER from a basic library in ENDF/B format (ETOBOX).

  19. Heat transfer, diffusion, and evaporation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nusselt, Wilhelm

    1954-01-01

    Although it has long been known that the differential equations of the heat-transfer and diffusion processes are identical, application to technical problems has only recently been made. In 1916 it was shown that the speed of oxidation of the carbon in iron ore depends upon the speed with which the oxygen of the combustion air diffuses through the core of gas surrounding the carbon surface. The identity previously referred to was then used to calculate the amount of oxygen diffusing to the carbon surface on the basis of the heat transfer between the gas stream and the carbon surface. Then in 1921, H. Thoma reversed that procedure; he used diffusion experiments to determine heat-transfer coefficients. Recently Lohrisch has extended this work by experiment. A technically very important application of the identity of heat transfer and diffusion is that of the cooling tower, since in this case both processes occur simultaneously.

  20. GEO2D - Two-Dimensional Computer Model of a Ground Source Heat Pump System

    DOE Data Explorer

    James Menart

    2013-06-07

    This file contains a zipped file that contains many files required to run GEO2D. GEO2D is a computer code for simulating ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems in two-dimensions. GEO2D performs a detailed finite difference simulation of the heat transfer occurring within the working fluid, the tube wall, the grout, and the ground. Both horizontal and vertical wells can be simulated with this program, but it should be noted that the vertical wall is modeled as a single tube. This program also models the heat pump in conjunction with the heat transfer occurring. GEO2D simulates the heat pump and ground loop as a system. Many results are produced by GEO2D as a function of time and position, such as heat transfer rates, temperatures and heat pump performance. On top of this information from an economic comparison between the geothermal system simulated and a comparable air heat pump systems or a comparable gas, oil or propane heating systems with a vapor compression air conditioner. The version of GEO2D in the attached file has been coupled to the DOE heating and cooling load software called ENERGYPLUS. This is a great convenience for the user because heating and cooling loads are an input to GEO2D. GEO2D is a user friendly program that uses a graphical user interface for inputs and outputs. These make entering data simple and they produce many plotted results that are easy to understand. In order to run GEO2D access to MATLAB is required. If this program is not available on your computer you can download the program MCRInstaller.exe, the 64 bit version, from the MATLAB website or from this geothermal depository. This is a free download which will enable you to run GEO2D..

  1. Brownian Motion of 2D Vacancy Islands by Adatom Terrace Diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Morgenstern, Karina; L {ae}gsgaard, Erik; Besenbacher, Flemming

    2001-06-18

    We have studied the Brownian motion of two-dimensional (2D) vacancy islands on Ag(110) at temperatures between 175 and 215K. While the detachment of adatoms from the island and their diffusion on the terrace are permitted in this temperature range, the periphery diffusion of single adatoms is prohibited. The present scanning tunneling microscopy results provide the first direct experimental proof that the Brownian motion of the islands follows a simple scaling law with terrace diffusion being the rate limiting process. The activation energy of the vacancy island motion is determined to 0.41eV.

  2. A 2-D imaging heat-flux gauge

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, B.W.; Borella, H.M. ); Beshears, D.L.; Sartory, W.K.; Tobin, K.W.; Williams, R.K. ); Turley, W.D. . Santa Barbara Operations)

    1991-07-01

    This report describes a new leadless two-dimensional imaging optical heat-flux gauge. The gauge is made by depositing arrays of thermorgraphic-phosphor (TP) spots onto the faces of a polymethylpentene is insulator. In the first section of the report, we describe several gauge configurations and their prototype realizations. A satisfactory configuration is an array of right triangles on each face that overlay to form squares when the gauge is viewed normal to the surface. The next section of the report treats the thermal conductivity of TPs. We set up an experiment using a comparative longitudinal heat-flow apparatus to measure the previously unknown thermal conductivity of these materials. The thermal conductivity of one TP, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu, is 0.0137 W/cm{center dot}K over the temperature range from about 300 to 360 K. The theories underlying the time response of TP gauges and the imaging characteristics are discussed in the next section. Then we discuss several laboratory experiments to (1) demonstrate that the TP heat-flux gauge can be used in imaging applications; (2) obtain a quantum yield that enumerates what typical optical output signal amplitudes can be obtained from TP heat-flux gauges; and (3) determine whether LANL-designed intensified video cameras have sufficient sensitivity to acquire images from the heat-flux gauges. We obtained positive results from all the measurements. Throughout the text, we note limitations, areas where improvements are needed, and where further research is necessary. 12 refs., 25 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Quantum Diffusion on Molecular Tubes: Universal Scaling of the 1D to 2D Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Chern; Lee, Chee Kong; Moix, Jeremy M.; Knoester, Jasper; Cao, Jianshu

    2016-05-01

    The transport properties of disordered systems are known to depend critically on dimensionality. We study the diffusion coefficient of a quantum particle confined to a lattice on the surface of a tube, where it scales between the 1D and 2D limits. It is found that the scaling relation is universal and independent of the temperature, disorder, and noise parameters, and the essential order parameter is the ratio between the localization length in 2D and the circumference of the tube. Phenomenological and quantitative expressions for transport properties as functions of disorder and noise are obtained and applied to real systems: In the natural chlorosomes found in light-harvesting bacteria the exciton transfer dynamics is predicted to be in the 2D limit, whereas a family of synthetic molecular aggregates is found to be in the homogeneous limit and is independent of dimensionality.

  4. Quantum Diffusion on Molecular Tubes: Universal Scaling of the 1D to 2D Transition.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Chern; Lee, Chee Kong; Moix, Jeremy M; Knoester, Jasper; Cao, Jianshu

    2016-05-13

    The transport properties of disordered systems are known to depend critically on dimensionality. We study the diffusion coefficient of a quantum particle confined to a lattice on the surface of a tube, where it scales between the 1D and 2D limits. It is found that the scaling relation is universal and independent of the temperature, disorder, and noise parameters, and the essential order parameter is the ratio between the localization length in 2D and the circumference of the tube. Phenomenological and quantitative expressions for transport properties as functions of disorder and noise are obtained and applied to real systems: In the natural chlorosomes found in light-harvesting bacteria the exciton transfer dynamics is predicted to be in the 2D limit, whereas a family of synthetic molecular aggregates is found to be in the homogeneous limit and is independent of dimensionality. PMID:27232033

  5. 2 D patterns of soil gas diffusivity , soil respiration, and methane oxidation in a soil profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Martin; Schack-Kirchner, Helmer; Lang, Friederike

    2015-04-01

    The apparent gas diffusion coefficient in soil (DS) is an important parameter describing soil aeration, which makes it a key parameter for root growth and gas production and consumption. Horizontal homogeneity in soil profiles is assumed in most studies for soil properties - including DS. This assumption, however, is not valid, even in apparently homogeneous soils, as we know from studies using destructive sampling methods. Using destructive methods may allow catching a glimpse, but a large uncertainty remains, since locations between the sampling positions cannot be analyzed, and measurements cannot be repeated. We developed a new method to determine in situ the apparent soil gas diffusion coefficient in order to examine 2 D pattern of DS and methane oxidation in a soil profile. Different tracer gases (SF6, CF4, C2H6) were injected continuously into the subsoil and measured at several locations in the soil profile. These data allow for modelling inversely the 2 D patterns of DS using Finite Element Modeling. The 2D DS patterns were then combined with naturally occurring CH4 and CO2 concentrations sampled at the same locations to derive the 2D pattern of soil respiration and methane oxidation in the soil profile. We show that methane oxidation and soil respiration zones shift within the soil profile while the gas fluxes at the surface remain rather stable during a the 3 week campaign.

  6. A functional technique based on the Euclidean algorithm with applications to 2-D acoustic diffractal diffusers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortés-Vega, Luis

    2015-09-01

    We built, based on the Euclidean algorithm, a functional technique, which allows to discover a direct proof of Chinese Remainder Theorem. Afterwards, by using this functional approach, we present some applications to 2-D acoustic diffractal diffusers. The novelty of the method is their functional algorithmic character, which improves ideas, as well as, other results of the author and his collaborators in a previous work.

  7. Translational and Rotational Diffusion of Nanoparticle Aggregates of Irregular Shape in 2D Fluid Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meienberg, Kyle; Papaioannou, John; Park, Cheol; Glaser, Matt; Maclennan, Joe; Clark, Noel; Kuriabova, Tatiana; Powers, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    We observe directly the diffusion and aggregation of nanoparticles (buckyballs) embedded in thin, freely suspended smectic A liquid crystal films of 8CB using reflected light microscopy Individual buckyballs, initially homogeneously dispersed in the film, are too small to see but after some hours form nanoscale clusters. These, in turn, aggregate to form extended, micron-scale objects which diffuse in the film, enabling the measurement of 2D rotational and translational mobilities of inclusions with a wide variety of different shapes. The experimental mobilities are compared with predictions of the extended Saffman-Delbrück (SD) model used successfully to describe the diffusion of micron-sized objects in thin fluid membranes in a variety of experimental systems. This work was supported by NASA Grant No. NNX-13AQ81G, NSF MRSEC Grant No. DMR-0820579, and by NSF Grant No. CBET-0854108.

  8. Generalized Diffuse Field Within a 2d Alluvial Basin: a Numerical Example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina Villegas, J.; Baena, M.; Piña, J.; Perton, M.; Suarez, M.; Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.

    2013-05-01

    Since the pioneering work of Aki (1957), the seismic noise has been used to infer the wave velocity distribution of soil formations. Later, diffuse-field concepts from room acoustics began to be used in elastodynamics by Weaver (1982) and flourished in many applications thanks to the contributions of Campillo and coworkers. It was established that diffusion like regimes are obtained when the field is produced by equipartitioned, uniform illumination. Within an elastodynamic diffuse-field the average correlation of the displacement field between two stations is proportional to the Green function of the system for those points. Usually, the surface waves can be interpreted by means of the retrieved Green function, from which very important information about the properties in depth can be obtained. Seismic noise and coda are frequently considered as diffuse-fields. This assumption is well supported by ideas of multiple scattering of waves and the resultant energy equipartition. There are few examples of numerically generated diffuse-fields. Some are based on random distributed forces (e.g. Sánchez-Sesma et al., 2006), while others used a set of plane waves with varying incidence angles and polarization (e.g. Sánchez-Sesma and Campillo 2006; Kawase et al. 2011). In this work we generate numerically a diffuse field within the Kawase and Aki (1989) 2D model using a random set of independent and uncorrelated incident plane P, SV and Rayleigh waves. For the simulations we use the indirect boundary element method (IBEM). Thus, we obtained the Green function for pairs of receivers by averaging correlations between different stations on the surface. In order to validate our results we compute the model's Green function as the response for a unit point load using the IBEM. Our numerical experiment provides guidelines for actual calculations of earthquakes in real alluvial basins.

  9. Analysis of heat conductivity in a 2D hard disk system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Pozo, J.; Garrido, P. L.

    2009-01-01

    Using numerical simulations, we study the heat conductivity in a 2d Hard Disk system. We find nonlinear temperature profiles for diferent gradients, and use this profiles to obtain the empirical expresion of heat conductivity κ(T,ρ). We compare our results with predictions based on the Enskog theory, finding good agreement even for large gradients. Also we find that Henderson state equation for Hard Disk stands for our system.

  10. Comparative modeling of vertical and planar organic phototransistors with 2D drift-diffusion simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezzeccheri, E.; Colasanti, S.; Falco, A.; Liguori, R.; Rubino, A.; Lugli, P.

    2016-05-01

    Vertical Organic Transistors and Phototransistors have been proven to be promising technologies due to the advantages of reduced channel length and larger sensitive area with respect to planar devices. Nevertheless, a real improvement of their performance is subordinate to the quantitative description of their operation mechanisms. In this work, we present a comparative study on the modeling of vertical and planar Organic Phototransistor (OPT) structures. Computer-based simulations of the devices have been carried out with Synopsys Sentaurus TCAD in a 2D Drift-Diffusion framework. The photoactive semiconductor material has been modeled using the virtual semiconductor approach as the archetypal P3HT:PC61BM bulk heterojunction. It has been found that both simulated devices have comparable electrical and optical characteristics, accordingly to recent experimental reports on the subject.

  11. Time-resolved diffusion tomographic 2D and 3D imaging in highly scattering turbid media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfano, Robert R. (Inventor); Cai, Wei (Inventor); Liu, Feng (Inventor); Lax, Melvin (Inventor); Das, Bidyut B. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A method for imaging objects in highly scattering turbid media. According to one embodiment of the invention, the method involves using a plurality of intersecting source/detectors sets and time-resolving equipment to generate a plurality of time-resolved intensity curves for the diffusive component of light emergent from the medium. For each of the curves, the intensities at a plurality of times are then inputted into the following inverse reconstruction algorithm to form an image of the medium: ##EQU1## wherein W is a matrix relating output at source and detector positions r.sub.s and r.sub.d, at time t, to position r, .LAMBDA. is a regularization matrix, chosen for convenience to be diagonal, but selected in a way related to the ratio of the noise, to fluctuations in the absorption (or diffusion) X.sub.j that we are trying to determine: .LAMBDA..sub.ij =.lambda..sub.j .delta..sub.ij with .lambda..sub.j =/<.DELTA.Xj.DELTA.Xj> Y is the data collected at the detectors, and X.sup.k is the kth iterate toward the desired absoption information. An algorithm, which combines a two dimensional (2D) matrix inversion with a one-dimensional (1D) Fourier transform inversion is used to obtain images of three dimensional hidden objects in turbid scattering media.

  12. Time-resolved diffusion tomographic 2D and 3D imaging in highly scattering turbid media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfano, Robert R. (Inventor); Cai, Wei (Inventor); Gayen, Swapan K. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A method for imaging objects in highly scattering turbid media. According to one embodiment of the invention, the method involves using a plurality of intersecting source/detectors sets and time-resolving equipment to generate a plurality of time-resolved intensity curves for the diffusive component of light emergent from the medium. For each of the curves, the intensities at a plurality of times are then inputted into the following inverse reconstruction algorithm to form an image of the medium: wherein W is a matrix relating output at source and detector positions r.sub.s and r.sub.d, at time t, to position r, .LAMBDA. is a regularization matrix, chosen for convenience to be diagonal, but selected in a way related to the ratio of the noise, to fluctuations in the absorption (or diffusion) X.sub.j that we are trying to determine: .LAMBDA..sub.ij =.lambda..sub.j .delta..sub.ij with .lambda..sub.j =/<.DELTA.Xj.DELTA.Xj> Y is the data collected at the detectors, and X.sup.k is the kth iterate toward the desired absorption information. An algorithm, which combines a two dimensional (2D) matrix inversion with a one-dimensional (1D) Fourier transform inversion is used to obtain images of three dimensional hidden objects in turbid scattering media.

  13. Heat Diffusion with Frozen Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florescu, Laura; Ganguly, Shirshendu; Peres, Yuval; Spencer, Joel

    2015-11-01

    Consider "frozen random walk" on Z: n particles start at the origin. At any discrete time, the leftmost and rightmost lfloor {n/4}rfloor particles are "frozen" and do not move. The rest of the particles in the "bulk" independently jump to the left and right uniformly. The goal of this note is to understand the limit of this process under scaling of mass and time. To this end we study the following deterministic mass splitting process: start with mass 1 at the origin. At each step the extreme quarter mass on each side is "frozen". The remaining "free" mass in the center evolves according to the discrete heat equation. We establish diffusive behavior of this mass evolution and identify the scaling limit under the assumption of its existence. It is natural to expect the limit to be a truncated Gaussian. A naive guess for the truncation point might be the 1 / 4 quantile points on either side of the origin. We show that this is not the case and it is in fact determined by the evolution of the second moment of the mass distribution.

  14. Heat Flow Partitioning Between Continents and Oceans - from 2D to 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moresi, L. N.; Cooper, C. M.; Lenardic, A.

    2010-12-01

    Scalings derived from thermal network theory explain how the presence of continents can influence the Earth’s overall heat loss. Intuitively, it may seem that increasing the proportion of a planet’s surface area covered by continents would decrease the efficiency of heat transfer given that continents do not participate in convective overturn. However, this ignores the potential feedback between the insulating effect of continents and the temperature-dependent viscosity of the mantle (Lenardic et al, 2005, Cooper et al, 2007). When this feedback is considered, a clear regime exists in which the partial stagnation and insulation of the surface by buoyant continental crust can lead to an increase in heat flow compared to the uninsulated case. The numerical results used to verify the scalings have mostly been conducted in two dimensions in order to cover a very wide range of Rayleigh number, fraction of continental coverage, and continental thickness. However as more recent results show that the configuration of the crust also plays a role in determining the heat flow partitioning and global heat flow (See Lenardic et al, “Continents, Super-Continents, Mantle Thermal Mixing, and Mantle Thermal Isolation” in this session), we have begun to repeat this exhaustive and exhausting 2D study in 3D. Cooper, C.M., A. Lenardic, and L.-N. Moresi "Effects of continental insulation and the partioning of heat producing elements on the Earth's heat loss." Geophys. Res. Lett., 33 ,10.1029, 2006. Lenardic, A., L.-N. Moresi, A.M. Jellinek, and M. Manga "Continental insulation, mantle cooling, and the surface area of oceans and continents." Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 234 ,317-333, 2005.

  15. A 2D inverse problem of predicting boiling heat transfer in a long fin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orzechowski, Tadeusz

    2016-10-01

    A method for the determination of local values of the heat transfer coefficient on non-isothermal surfaces was analyzed on the example of a long smooth-surfaced fin made of aluminium. On the basis of the experimental data, two cases were taken into consideration: one-dimensional model for Bi < 0.1 and two-dimensional model for thicker elements. In the case when the drop in temperature over the thickness could be omitted, the rejected local values of heat fluxes were calculated from the integral of the equation describing temperature distribution on the fin. The corresponding boiling curve was plotted on the basis of temperature gradient distribution as a function of superheat. For thicker specimens, where Bi > 0.1, the problem was modelled using a 2-D heat conduction equation, for which the boundary conditions were posed on the surface observed with a thermovision camera. The ill-conditioned inverse problem was solved using a method of heat polynomials, which required validation.

  16. Anomalous diffusion of an ellipsoid in quasi-2D active fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yi; Yang, Ou; Tang, Chao; Cheng, Xiang

    Enhanced diffusion of a tracer particle is a unique feature in active fluids. Here, we studied the diffusion of an ellipsoid in a free-standing film of E. coli. Particle diffusion is linearly enhanced at low bacterial concentrations, whereas a non-linear enhancement is observed at high bacterial concentrations due to the giant fluctuation. More importantly, we uncover an anomalous coupling between the translational and rotational degrees of freedom that is strictly prohibited in the classical Brownian diffusion. Combining experiments with theoretical modeling, we show that such an anomaly arises from the stretching flow induced by the force dipole of swimming bacteria. Our work illustrates a novel universal feature of active matter and transforms the understanding of fundamental transport processes in microbiological systems. ACS Petroleum Research Fund #54168-DNI9, NSF Faculty Early Career Development Program, DMR-1452180.

  17. An exact and efficient first passage time algorithm for reaction-diffusion processes on a 2D-lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezzola, Andri; Bales, Benjamin B.; Alkire, Richard C.; Petzold, Linda R.

    2014-01-01

    We present an exact and efficient algorithm for reaction-diffusion-nucleation processes on a 2D-lattice. The algorithm makes use of first passage time (FPT) to replace the computationally intensive simulation of diffusion hops in KMC by larger jumps when particles are far away from step-edges or other particles. Our approach computes exact probability distributions of jump times and target locations in a closed-form formula, based on the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the corresponding 1D transition matrix, maintaining atomic-scale resolution of resulting shapes of deposit islands. We have applied our method to three different test cases of electrodeposition: pure diffusional aggregation for large ranges of diffusivity rates and for simulation domain sizes of up to 4096×4096 sites, the effect of diffusivity on island shapes and sizes in combination with a KMC edge diffusion, and the calculation of an exclusion zone in front of a step-edge, confirming statistical equivalence to standard KMC simulations. The algorithm achieves significant speedup compared to standard KMC for cases where particles diffuse over long distances before nucleating with other particles or being captured by larger islands.

  18. Detailed temporally resolved 2-D Velocity Measurements in a Novel Heat Exchanger Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guezennec, Yann G.; Ko, Jang-Hyok; Choi, Woong-Chul

    1998-11-01

    Using flow visualization as a primary tool, a novel, high-performance heat transfer surface for compact heat exchangers was designed, specifically for low Reynolds number applications. This geometry was specifically created to enhance or generate strong three-dimensional transport even at low Reynolds number. It consists of a staggered array of "pin" mounted normal to the fins. A 15:1 model of this heat exchanger surface core was built out of Plexiglas to provide optical access and this model was placed in a 1'x1' water channel. The flow speed was adjusted to match the Reynolds based on the hydraulic diameter based on the fin pitch. The flow was seeded with small polystyrene particles and illuminated by a laser sheet from an Argon Ion laser. The fluid motion was recorded using a CCD camera and an S-VHS video recorder. In post-processing, the video records were automatically digitized and processed using a cinematographic PIV technique. The temporal evolution of the 2-D flow field (side view) clearly shows the presence of unsteady, shed vortical regions behind the pins, modulated by the spatially-periodic acceleration/deceleration and meandering of the mean flow between the periodic array of staggered pins. In the perpendicular view (top view), the results show the presence of two strong cross-stream transport mechanisms, mainly the horse-shoe vortex near the pin-fin junctions and the very strong spanwise transport in the separated wake region of the pins. This transport is most likely associated with the strong interaction of the longitudinal vortices (emanating form the horseshoe) and the spanwise vortices from the pin wake. This vortex interaction sets up a strong spanwise pressure gradient inducing large cross-stream transport from the fin to the core flow. Animation of the results illustrating these effects will be presented.

  19. A New 2D-Transport, 1D-Diffusion Approximation of the Boltzmann Transport equation

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Edward

    2013-06-17

    The work performed in this project consisted of the derivation, implementation, and testing of a new, computationally advantageous approximation to the 3D Boltz- mann transport equation. The solution of the Boltzmann equation is the neutron flux in nuclear reactor cores and shields, but solving this equation is difficult and costly. The new “2D/1D” approximation takes advantage of a special geometric feature of typical 3D reactors to approximate the neutron transport physics in a specific (ax- ial) direction, but not in the other two (radial) directions. The resulting equation is much less expensive to solve computationally, and its solutions are expected to be sufficiently accurate for many practical problems. In this project we formulated the new equation, discretized it using standard methods, developed a stable itera- tion scheme for solving the equation, implemented the new numerical scheme in the MPACT code, and tested the method on several realistic problems. All the hoped- for features of this new approximation were seen. For large, difficult problems, the resulting 2D/1D solution is highly accurate, and is calculated about 100 times faster than a 3D discrete ordinates simulation.

  20. An exact and efficient first passage time algorithm for reaction–diffusion processes on a 2D-lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Bezzola, Andri; Bales, Benjamin B.; Alkire, Richard C.; Petzold, Linda R.

    2014-01-01

    We present an exact and efficient algorithm for reaction–diffusion–nucleation processes on a 2D-lattice. The algorithm makes use of first passage time (FPT) to replace the computationally intensive simulation of diffusion hops in KMC by larger jumps when particles are far away from step-edges or other particles. Our approach computes exact probability distributions of jump times and target locations in a closed-form formula, based on the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the corresponding 1D transition matrix, maintaining atomic-scale resolution of resulting shapes of deposit islands. We have applied our method to three different test cases of electrodeposition: pure diffusional aggregation for large ranges of diffusivity rates and for simulation domain sizes of up to 4096×4096 sites, the effect of diffusivity on island shapes and sizes in combination with a KMC edge diffusion, and the calculation of an exclusion zone in front of a step-edge, confirming statistical equivalence to standard KMC simulations. The algorithm achieves significant speedup compared to standard KMC for cases where particles diffuse over long distances before nucleating with other particles or being captured by larger islands.

  1. An Asymptotic Analysis of a 2-D Model of Dynamically Active Compartments Coupled by Bulk Diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gou, J.; Ward, M. J.

    2016-08-01

    A class of coupled cell-bulk ODE-PDE models is formulated and analyzed in a two-dimensional domain, which is relevant to studying quorum-sensing behavior on thin substrates. In this model, spatially segregated dynamically active signaling cells of a common small radius ɛ ≪ 1 are coupled through a passive bulk diffusion field. For this coupled system, the method of matched asymptotic expansions is used to construct steady-state solutions and to formulate a spectral problem that characterizes the linear stability properties of the steady-state solutions, with the aim of predicting whether temporal oscillations can be triggered by the cell-bulk coupling. Phase diagrams in parameter space where such collective oscillations can occur, as obtained from our linear stability analysis, are illustrated for two specific choices of the intracellular kinetics. In the limit of very large bulk diffusion, it is shown that solutions to the ODE-PDE cell-bulk system can be approximated by a finite-dimensional dynamical system. This limiting system is studied both analytically, using a linear stability analysis and, globally, using numerical bifurcation software. For one illustrative example of the theory, it is shown that when the number of cells exceeds some critical number, i.e., when a quorum is attained, the passive bulk diffusion field can trigger oscillations through a Hopf bifurcation that would otherwise not occur without the coupling. Moreover, for two specific models for the intracellular dynamics, we show that there are rather wide regions in parameter space where these triggered oscillations are synchronous in nature. Unless the bulk diffusivity is asymptotically large, it is shown that a diffusion-sensing behavior is possible whereby more clustered spatial configurations of cells inside the domain lead to larger regions in parameter space where synchronous collective oscillations between the small cells can occur. Finally, the linear stability analysis for these cell

  2. 2D Model for Diffusion of Oxygen with Biochemical Reaction During Biofilm Formation Process in Static Aqueous Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puyate, Y. T.; Rim-Rukeh, A.

    A 2D model that describes diffusion of oxygen with biochemical reaction during biofilm formation process in static aqueous medium is presented. The analysis is based on X60 steel placed at the bottom of a container containing produced water inoculated with Leptothrix discophora (iron-oxidizing bacteria). These bacteria form biofilms on the exposed surfaces of the metal. The biofilm-microorganisms absorb oxygen from the produced water through biochemical reaction, resulting in transfer of oxygen from the bulk liquid phase to the biofilm. Predictions of the model are compared with experimental data and good agreement is obtained.

  3. Diffusive heat blanketing envelopes of neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beznogov, M. V.; Potekhin, A. Y.; Yakovlev, D. G.

    2016-06-01

    We construct new models of outer heat blanketing envelopes of neutron stars composed of binary ion mixtures (H-He, He-C, C-Fe) in and out of diffusive equilibrium. To this aim, we generalize our previous work on diffusion of ions in isothermal gaseous or Coulomb liquid plasmas to handle non-isothermal systems. We calculate the relations between the effective surface temperature Ts and the temperature Tb at the bottom of heat blanketing envelopes (at a density ρb ˜ 108 - 1010 g cm-3) for diffusively equilibrated and non-equilibrated distributions of ion species at different masses ΔM of lighter ions in the envelope. Our principal result is that the Ts-Tb relations are fairly insensitive to detailed distribution of ion fractions over the envelope (diffusively equilibrated or not) and depend almost solely on ΔM. The obtained relations are approximated by analytic expressions which are convenient for modelling the evolution of neutron stars.

  4. Application and further development of diffusion based 2D chemical imaging techniques in the rhizosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoefer, Christoph; Santner, Jakob; Borisov, Sergey; Kreuzeder, Andreas; Wenzel, Walter; Puschenreiter, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Two dimensional chemical imaging of root processes refers to novel in situ methods to investigate and map solutes at a high spatial resolution (sub-mm). The visualization of these solutes reveals new insights in soil biogeochemistry and root processes. We derive chemical images by using data from DGT-LA-ICP-MS (Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films and Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry) and POS (Planar Optode Sensors). Both technologies have shown promising results when applied in aqueous environment but need to be refined and improved for imaging at the soil-plant interface. Co-localized mapping using combined DGT and POS technologies and the development of new gel combinations are in our focus. DGTs are smart and thin (<0.4 mm) hydrogels; containing a binding resin for the targeted analytes (e.g. trace metals, phosphate, sulphide or radionuclides). The measurement principle is passive and diffusion based. The present analytes are diffusing into the gel and are bound by the resin. Thereby, the resin acts as zero sink. After application, DGTs are retrieved, dried, and analysed using LA-ICP-MS. The data is then normalized by an internal standard (e.g. 13C), calibrated using in-house standards and chemical images of the target area are plotted using imaging software. POS are, similar to DGT, thin sensor foils containing a fluorophore coating depending on the target analyte. The measurement principle is based on excitation of the flourophore by a specific wavelength and emission of the fluorophore depending on the presence of the analyte. The emitted signal is captured using optical filters and a DSLR camera. While DGT analysis is destructive, POS measurements can be performed continuously during the application. Both semi-quantitative techniques allow an in situ application to visualize chemical processes directly at the soil-plant interface. Here, we present a summary of results from rhizotron experiments with different plants in metal

  5. 2-D numerical simulations of groundwater flow, heat transfer and 4He transport — implications for the He terrestrial budget and the mantle helium heat imbalance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Maria Clara; Patriarche, Delphine; Goblet, Patrick

    2005-09-01

    Because helium and heat production results from a common source, a continental 4He crustal flux of 4.65 * 10 - 14 mol m - 2 s - 1 has been estimated based on heat flow considerations. In addition, because the observed mantle He / heat flux ratio at the proximity of mid-ocean ridges (6.6 * 10 - 14 mol J - 1 ) is significantly lower than the radiogenic production ratio (1.5 * 10 - 12 mol J - 1 ), the presence of a terrestrial helium-heat imbalance was suggested. The latter could be explained by the presence of a layered mantle in which removal of He is impeded from the lower mantle [R.K. O'Nions, E.R. Oxburgh, Heat and helium in the Earth, Nature 306 (1983) 429-431; E.R. Oxburgh, R.K. O'Nions, Helium loss, tectonics, and the terrestrial heat budget, Science 237 (1987) 1583-1588]. van Keken et al. [P.E. van Keken, C.J. Ballentine, D. Porcelli, A dynamical investigation of the heat and helium imbalance, Earth Planet, Sci. Lett. 188 (2001) 421-434] have recently claimed that the helium-heat imbalance remains a robust observation. Such conclusions, however, were reached under the assumption that a steady-state regime was in place for both tracers and that their transport properties are similar at least in the upper portion of the crust. Here, through 2-D simulations of groundwater flow, heat transfer and 4He transport carried out simultaneously in the Carrizo aquifer and surrounding formations in southwest Texas, we assess the legitimacy of earlier assumptions. Specifically, we show that the driving transport mechanisms for He and heat are of a fundamentally different nature for a high range of permeabilities ( k ≤ 10 - 16 m 2) found in metamorphic and volcanic rocks at all depths in the crust. The assumption that transport properties for these two tracers are similar in the crust is thus unsound. We also show that total 4He / heat flux ratios lower than radiogenic production ratios do not reflect a He deficit in the crust or mantle original reservoir. Instead, they

  6. Discontinuous diffusion synthetic acceleration for S{sub n} transport on 2D arbitrary polygonal meshes

    SciTech Connect

    Turcksin, Bruno Ragusa, Jean C.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, a Diffusion Synthetic Acceleration (DSA) technique applied to the S{sub n} radiation transport equation is developed using Piece-Wise Linear Discontinuous (PWLD) finite elements on arbitrary polygonal grids. The discretization of the DSA equations employs an Interior Penalty technique, as is classically done for the stabilization of the diffusion equation using discontinuous finite element approximations. The penalty method yields a system of linear equations that is Symmetric Positive Definite (SPD). Thus, solution techniques such as Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient (PCG) can be effectively employed. Algebraic MultiGrid (AMG) and Symmetric Gauss–Seidel (SGS) are employed as conjugate gradient preconditioners for the DSA system. AMG is shown to be significantly more efficient than SGS. Fourier analyses are carried out and we show that this discontinuous finite element DSA scheme is always stable and effective at reducing the spectral radius for iterative transport solves, even for grids with high-aspect ratio cells. Numerical results are presented for different grid types: quadrilateral, hexagonal, and polygonal grids as well as grids with local mesh adaptivity.

  7. Discontinuous diffusion synthetic acceleration for Sn transport on 2D arbitrary polygonal meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turcksin, Bruno; Ragusa, Jean C.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, a Diffusion Synthetic Acceleration (DSA) technique applied to the Sn radiation transport equation is developed using Piece-Wise Linear Discontinuous (PWLD) finite elements on arbitrary polygonal grids. The discretization of the DSA equations employs an Interior Penalty technique, as is classically done for the stabilization of the diffusion equation using discontinuous finite element approximations. The penalty method yields a system of linear equations that is Symmetric Positive Definite (SPD). Thus, solution techniques such as Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient (PCG) can be effectively employed. Algebraic MultiGrid (AMG) and Symmetric Gauss-Seidel (SGS) are employed as conjugate gradient preconditioners for the DSA system. AMG is shown to be significantly more efficient than SGS. Fourier analyses are carried out and we show that this discontinuous finite element DSA scheme is always stable and effective at reducing the spectral radius for iterative transport solves, even for grids with high-aspect ratio cells. Numerical results are presented for different grid types: quadrilateral, hexagonal, and polygonal grids as well as grids with local mesh adaptivity.

  8. 2D coherent charge transport in highly ordered conducting polymers doped by solid state diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Keehoon; Watanabe, Shun; Broch, Katharina; Sepe, Alessandro; Brown, Adam; Nasrallah, Iyad; Nikolka, Mark; Fei, Zhuping; Heeney, Martin; Matsumoto, Daisuke; Marumoto, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Hisaaki; Kuroda, Shin-Ichi; Sirringhaus, Henning

    2016-08-01

    Doping is one of the most important methods to control charge carrier concentration in semiconductors. Ideally, the introduction of dopants should not perturb the ordered microstructure of the semiconducting host. In some systems, such as modulation-doped inorganic semiconductors or molecular charge transfer crystals, this can be achieved by spatially separating the dopants from the charge transport pathways. However, in conducting polymers, dopants tend to be randomly distributed within the conjugated polymer, and as a result the transport properties are strongly affected by the resulting structural and electronic disorder. Here, we show that in the highly ordered lamellar microstructure of a regioregular thiophene-based conjugated polymer, a small-molecule p-type dopant can be incorporated by solid state diffusion into the layers of solubilizing side chains without disrupting the conjugated layers. In contrast to more disordered systems, this allows us to observe coherent, free-electron-like charge transport properties, including a nearly ideal Hall effect in a wide temperature range, a positive magnetoconductance due to weak localization and the Pauli paramagnetic spin susceptibility.

  9. Lattice Boltzmann methods for some 2-D nonlinear diffusion equations:Computational results

    SciTech Connect

    Elton, B.H.; Rodrigue, G.H. . Dept. of Applied Science Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA ); Levermore, C.D. . Dept. of Mathematics)

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we examine two lattice Boltzmann methods (that are a derivative of lattice gas methods) for computing solutions to two two-dimensional nonlinear diffusion equations of the form {partial derivative}/{partial derivative}t u = v ({partial derivative}/{partial derivative}x D(u){partial derivative}/{partial derivative}x u + {partial derivative}/{partial derivative}y D(u){partial derivative}/{partial derivative}y u), where u = u({rvec x},t), {rvec x} {element of} R{sup 2}, v is a constant, and D(u) is a nonlinear term that arises from a Chapman-Enskog asymptotic expansion. In particular, we provide computational evidence supporting recent results showing that the methods are second order convergent (in the L{sub 1}-norm), conservative, conditionally monotone finite difference methods. Solutions computed via the lattice Boltzmann methods are compared with those computed by other explicit, second order, conservative, monotone finite difference methods. Results are reported for both the L{sub 1}- and L{sub {infinity}}-norms.

  10. Heat diffusion: Thermodynamic depth complexity of networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escolano, Francisco; Hancock, Edwin R.; Lozano, Miguel A.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper we use the Birkhoff-von Neumann decomposition of the diffusion kernel to compute a polytopal measure of graph complexity. We decompose the diffusion kernel into a series of weighted Birkhoff combinations and compute the entropy associated with the weighting proportions (polytopal complexity). The maximum entropy Birkhoff combination can be expressed in terms of matrix permanents. This allows us to introduce a phase-transition principle that links our definition of polytopal complexity to the heat flowing through the network at a given diffusion time. The result is an efficiently computed complexity measure, which we refer to as flow complexity. Moreover, the flow complexity measure allows us to analyze graphs and networks in terms of the thermodynamic depth. We compare our method with three alternative methods described in the literature (Estrada's heterogeneity index, the Laplacian energy, and the von Neumann entropy). Our study is based on 217 protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks including histidine kinases from several species of bacteria. We find a correlation between structural complexity and phylogeny (more evolved species have statistically more complex PPIs). Although our methods outperform the alternatives, we find similarities with Estrada's heterogeneity index in terms of network size independence and predictive power.

  11. Extensions of Fixed-Node Diffusion Monte Carlo to the Study of the Rotationally Excited States of H_2D^+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellen, Bethany A.; Petit, Andrew S.; McCoy, Anne B.

    2012-06-01

    Diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) has been shown to be a highly successful technique for treating quantum zero-point effects of very floppy molecules and clusters. Our group has developed a fixed-node DMC methodology that allows us to expand the application of the approach to studies of rotationally excited states of such systems. We recently applied this approach to the study of H_3^+. We chose this system because of the availability of a global potential energy surface of spectroscopic accuracy, and the results of converged variational calculations have been reported that can be used to assess the accuracy of the DMC calculations. As a symmetric top molecule, the nodal structures of the rotationally excited states of H_3^+ are well known and can be used in fixed-node DMC calculations. We have recently extended this methodology to asymmetric top molecules, using H_2D^+ as a test system for these types of molecules as it has a κ value near zero. Here, we describe these extensions and present the results of DMC calculations of representative rotationally excited states of H_2D^+. A. S. Petit, B. A. Wellen, and A. B. McCoy, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 074101 (2012).

  12. Simulation of Ultra-Small MOSFETs Using a 2-D Quantum-Corrected Drift-Diffusion Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biegal, Bryan A.; Rafferty, Connor S.; Yu, Zhiping; Ancona, Mario G.; Dutton, Robert W.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The continued down-scaling of electronic devices, in particular the commercially dominant MOSFET, will force a fundamental change in the process of new electronics technology development in the next five to ten years. The cost of developing new technology generations is soaring along with the price of new fabrication facilities, even as competitive pressure intensifies to bring this new technology to market faster than ever before. To reduce cost and time to market, device simulation must become a more fundamental, indeed dominant, part of the technology development cycle. In order to produce these benefits, simulation accuracy must improve markedly. At the same time, device physics will become more complex, with the rapid increase in various small-geometry and quantum effects. This work describes both an approach to device simulator development and a physical model which advance the effort to meet the tremendous electronic device simulation challenge described above. The device simulation approach is to specify the physical model at a high level to a general-purpose (but highly efficient) partial differential equation solver (in this case PROPHET, developed by Lucent Technologies), which then simulates the model in 1-D, 2-D, or 3-D for a specified device and test regime. This approach allows for the rapid investigation of a wide range of device models and effects, which is certainly essential for device simulation to catch up with, and then stay ahead of, electronic device technology of the present and future. The physical device model used in this work is the density-gradient (DG) quantum correction to the drift-diffusion model [Ancona, Phys. Rev. B 35(5), 7959 (1987)]. This model adds tunneling and quantum smoothing of carrier density profiles to the drift-diffusion model. We used the DG model in 1-D and 2-D (for the first time) to simulate both bipolar and unipolar devices. Simulations of heavily-doped, short-base diodes indicated that the DG quantum

  13. Large structure rearrangement of colicin ia channel domain after membrane binding from 2D 13C spin diffusion NMR.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wenbin; Yao, Xiaolan; Hong, Mei

    2005-05-01

    One of the main mechanisms of membrane protein folding is by spontaneous insertion into the lipid bilayer from the aqueous environment. The bacterial toxin, colicin Ia, is one such protein. To shed light on the conformational changes involved in this dramatic transfer from the polar to the hydrophobic milieu, we carried out 2D magic-angle spinning (13)C NMR experiments on the water-soluble and membrane-bound states of the channel-forming domain of colicin Ia. Proton-driven (13)C spin diffusion spectra of selectively (13)C-labeled protein show unequivocal attenuation of cross-peaks after membrane binding. This attenuation can be assigned to distance increases but not reduction of the diffusion coefficient. Analysis of the statistics of the interhelical and intrahelical (13)C-(13)C distances in the soluble protein structure indicates that the observed cross-peak reduction is well correlated with a high percentage of short interhelical contacts in the soluble protein. This suggests that colicin Ia channel domain becomes open and extended upon membrane binding, thus lengthening interhelical distances. In comparison, cross-peaks with similar intensities between the two states are dominated by intrahelical contacts in the soluble state. This suggests that the membrane-bound structure of colicin Ia channel domain may be described as a "molten globule", in which the helical secondary structure is retained while the tertiary structure is unfolded. This study demonstrates that (13)C spin diffusion NMR is a valuable tool for obtaining qualitative long-range distance constraints on membrane protein folding. PMID:15853348

  14. A fast and conformal heating scheme for producing large thermal lesions using a 2D ultrasound phased array.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao-Li; Lin, Win-Li; Chen, Yung-Yaw

    2007-02-01

    The treatment conformability and the total treatment time of large tumors are both important issues in ultrasound thermal therapy. Previous heating strategies all show their restrictions in achieving these two issues to satisfactory levels simultaneously. This work theoretically presents a new heating strategy which is capable of both increasing the treatment conformability and shortening the treatment time, when using a 2D ultrasound phased array transducer. To perform this, a set of the multiple-foci patterns (considered the basic heating units) were temporally switched to steer the beam at different focal planes with the lesion length being well-controlled. Then, to conformally cover an irregular target volume, the 2D phased array was laterally shifted by a positioning system to deposit a suitable heating unit to cover a subvolume part. Results demonstrated that the totally treatment time can be largely reduced. The heating rate can be increased up to 0.96 cm3/min compared to the previously reported 0.26 cm3/min. Also, the proposed scheme showed that the tumor regions can be completely treated with the normal tissue damage at satisfactory level. The feasibility of the proposed strategy for irregular tumor treatment was also demonstrated. This study offers useful information in large tumor treatment in ultrasound thermal therapy.

  15. FireStem2D--a two-dimensional heat transfer model for simulating tree stem injury in fires.

    PubMed

    Chatziefstratiou, Efthalia K; Bohrer, Gil; Bova, Anthony S; Subramanian, Ravishankar; Frasson, Renato P M; Scherzer, Amy; Butler, Bret W; Dickinson, Matthew B

    2013-01-01

    FireStem2D, a software tool for predicting tree stem heating and injury in forest fires, is a physically-based, two-dimensional model of stem thermodynamics that results from heating at the bark surface. It builds on an earlier one-dimensional model (FireStem) and provides improved capabilities for predicting fire-induced mortality and injury before a fire occurs by resolving stem moisture loss, temperatures through the stem, degree of bark charring, and necrotic depth around the stem. We present the results of numerical parameterization and model evaluation experiments for FireStem2D that simulate laboratory stem-heating experiments of 52 tree sections from 25 trees. We also conducted a set of virtual sensitivity analysis experiments to test the effects of unevenness of heating around the stem and with aboveground height using data from two studies: a low-intensity surface fire and a more intense crown fire. The model allows for improved understanding and prediction of the effects of wildland fire on injury and mortality of trees of different species and sizes.

  16. FireStem2D – A Two-Dimensional Heat Transfer Model for Simulating Tree Stem Injury in Fires

    PubMed Central

    Chatziefstratiou, Efthalia K.; Bohrer, Gil; Bova, Anthony S.; Subramanian, Ravishankar; Frasson, Renato P. M.; Scherzer, Amy; Butler, Bret W.; Dickinson, Matthew B.

    2013-01-01

    FireStem2D, a software tool for predicting tree stem heating and injury in forest fires, is a physically-based, two-dimensional model of stem thermodynamics that results from heating at the bark surface. It builds on an earlier one-dimensional model (FireStem) and provides improved capabilities for predicting fire-induced mortality and injury before a fire occurs by resolving stem moisture loss, temperatures through the stem, degree of bark charring, and necrotic depth around the stem. We present the results of numerical parameterization and model evaluation experiments for FireStem2D that simulate laboratory stem-heating experiments of 52 tree sections from 25 trees. We also conducted a set of virtual sensitivity analysis experiments to test the effects of unevenness of heating around the stem and with aboveground height using data from two studies: a low-intensity surface fire and a more intense crown fire. The model allows for improved understanding and prediction of the effects of wildland fire on injury and mortality of trees of different species and sizes. PMID:23894599

  17. Space processing applications payload equipment study. Volume 2D: SPA supplemental power and heat rejection kit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammel, R. L. (Editor); Smith, A. G. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    The design and application of a supplementary power and heat rejection kit for the Spacelab are discussed. Two subsystems of electric power and thermal control were analyzed to define the requirements for the power and heat rejection kit (PHRK). Twelve exemplary experiments were defined and power timelines were developed. From these timeline, the experiment requirements for sustained power, peak power, and energy were determined. The electrical power subsystem of the PHRK will consist of two fuel cells, oxygen and hydrogen reactant tank assemblies, water storage tanks, plumbing, cabling, and inverters to convert the nominal 28 volt dc fuel cell output to ac power.

  18. Cumulative Heat Diffusion Using Volume Gradient Operator for Volume Analysis.

    PubMed

    Gurijala, K C; Wang, Lei; Kaufman, A

    2012-12-01

    We introduce a simple, yet powerful method called the Cumulative Heat Diffusion for shape-based volume analysis, while drastically reducing the computational cost compared to conventional heat diffusion. Unlike the conventional heat diffusion process, where the diffusion is carried out by considering each node separately as the source, we simultaneously consider all the voxels as sources and carry out the diffusion, hence the term cumulative heat diffusion. In addition, we introduce a new operator that is used in the evaluation of cumulative heat diffusion called the Volume Gradient Operator (VGO). VGO is a combination of the LBO and a data-driven operator which is a function of the half gradient. The half gradient is the absolute value of the difference between the voxel intensities. The VGO by its definition captures the local shape information and is used to assign the initial heat values. Furthermore, VGO is also used as the weighting parameter for the heat diffusion process. We demonstrate that our approach can robustly extract shape-based features and thus forms the basis for an improved classification and exploration of features based on shape.

  19. TOPAZ - a finite element heat conduction code for analyzing 2-D solids

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, A.B.

    1984-03-01

    TOPAZ is a two-dimensional implicit finite element computer code for heat conduction analysis. This report provides a user's manual for TOPAZ and a description of the numerical algorithms used. Sample problems with analytical solutions are presented. TOPAZ has been implemented on the CRAY and VAX computers.

  20. SU-E-T-196: Heat Diffusion Modeling for Digital Holographic Interferometry Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Cavan, A; Meyer, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: We have previously demonstrated that with Digital Holographic Interferometry (DHI) 2D spatial calorimetric measurements of high dose rate radiation sources can be obtained. The impact of heat transfer must be considered when undertaking any form of calorimetric measurement, as the radiation induced temperature distributions are subject to degradation due to heat diffusion. Unaccounted for, this limits the accuracy of the approach especially for long delivery times. Methods: 3D modelling of the heat diffusion in water was undertaken, and two different approaches developed to account for this effect. The mathematical framework to describe heat diffusion in 3D was applied, with the differential equations solved numerically using an implicit method. The first approach involved the comparison of the DHI measurements to an independent dose model of the source. The model was forward modeled to account for the heat diffusion during irradiation, allowing a direct comparison to validate the measured results. The second approach involved the correction of the measured data directly, by comparing the temperature distribution of two instances and subtracting the effects of heat diffusion of the first distribution from the second instance. This required the use of the Abel transform to approximate the 3D dose distribution from the 2D DHI results, thus limiting the approach to radiation applications possessing cylindrical symmetry. Results: The first approach resulted in higher accuracy and was more straightforward, but has a major limitation in that the measured results are only able to be utilized in comparison with an independent dose model. The applicability of the second approach is affected by noise in the measurement data and introduces higher uncertainties, but results in higher usability of the final data. Conclusion: Both approaches were implemented, and if used in conjunction would provide the most utility for the interpretation and use of DHI measurements.

  1. Chaotic advection and heat transfer in two similar 2-D periodic flows and in their corresponding 3-D periodic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinsard, G.; Dufour, S.; Saatdjian, E.; Mota, J. P. B.

    2016-03-01

    Chaotic advection can effectively enhance the heat transfer rate between a boundary and fluids with high Prandtl number. These fluids are usually highly viscous and thus turbulent agitation is not a viable solution since the energy required to mix the fluid would be prohibitive. Here, we analyze previously obtained results on chaotic advection and heat transfer in two similar 2-D periodic flows and on their corresponding 3-D periodic flows when an axial velocity component is superposed. The two flows studied are the flow between eccentric rotating cylinders and the flow between confocal ellipses. For both of these flows the analysis is simplified because the Stokes equations can be solved analytically to obtain a closed form solution. For both 2-D periodic flows, we show that chaotic heat transfer is enhanced by the displacement of the saddle point location during one period. Furthermore, the enhancement by chaotic advection in the elliptical geometry is approximately double that obtained in the cylindrical geometry because there are two saddle points instead of one. We also explain why, for high eccentricity ratios, there is no heat transfer enhancement in the cylindrical geometry. When an axial velocity component is added to both of these flows so that they become 3-D, previous work has shown that there is an optimum modulation frequency for which chaotic advection and heat transfer enhancement is a maximum. Here we show that the optimum modulation frequency can be derived from results without an axial flow. We also explain by physical arguments other previously unanswered questions in the published data.

  2. Solution of the stationary 2D inverse heat conduction problem by Treffetz method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cialkowski, Michael J.; Frąckowiak, Andrzej

    2002-05-01

    The paper presents analysis of a solution of Laplace equation with the use of FEM harmonic basic functions. The essence of the problem is aimed at presenting an approximate solution based on possibly large finite element. Introduction of harmonic functions allows to reduce the order of numerical integration as compared to a classical Finite Element Method. Numerical calculations conform good efficiency of the use of basic harmonic functions for resolving direct and inverse problems of stationary heat conduction. Further part of the paper shows the use of basic harmonic functions for solving Poisson’s equation and for drawing up a complete system of biharmonic and polyharmonic basic functions

  3. A 2-D oscillating flow analysis in Stirling engine heat exchangers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahn, Kyung H.; Ibrahim, Mounir B.

    1991-01-01

    A two-dimensional oscillating flow analysis was conducted, simulating the gas flow inside Stirling heat exchangers. Both laminar and turbulent oscillating pipe flow were investigated numerically for Re(max) = 1920 (Va = 80), 10800 (Va = 272), 19300 (Va = 272), and 60800 (Va = 126). The results are compared with experimental results of previous investigators. Also, predictions of the flow regime on present oscillating flow conditions were checked by comparing velocity amplitudes and phase differences with those from laminar theory and quasi-steady profile. A high Reynolds number k-epsilon turbulence model was used for turbulent oscillating pipe flow. Finally, performance evaluation of the K-epsilon model was made to explore the applicability of quasi-steady turbulent models to unsteady oscillating flow analysis.

  4. A 2-D oscillating flow analysis in Stirling engine heat exchangers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahn, Kyung H.; Ibrahim, Mounir B.

    1991-01-01

    A two dimensional oscillating flow analysis was conducted, simulating the gas flow inside Stirling heat exchangers. Both laminar and turbulent oscillating pipe flow were investigated numerically for Re(max) = 1920 (Va = 80), 10800 (Va = 272), 19300 (Va = 272), and 60800 (Va = 126). The results are compared with experimental results of previous investigators. Also, predictions of the flow regime on present oscillating flow conditions were checked by comparing velocity amplitudes and phase differences with those from laminar theory and quasi-steady profile. A high Reynolds number k-epsilon turbulence model was used for turbulent oscillating pipe flow. Finally, performance evaluation of the K-epsilon model was made to explore the applicability of quasi-steady turbulent models to unsteady oscillating flow analysis.

  5. Measurement of residual radioactive surface contamination by 2-D laser heated TLD

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, S.C.

    1997-06-01

    The feasibility of applying and adapting a two-dimensional laser heated thermoluminescence dosimetry system to the problem of surveying for radioactive surface contamination was studied. The system consists of a CO{sub 2} laser-based reader and monolithic arrays of thin dosimeter elements. The arrays consist of 10,201 thermoluminescent phosphor elements of 40 micron thickness, covering a 900 cm{sup 2} area. Array substrates are 125 micron thick polyimide sheets, enabling them to easily conform to regular surface shapes, especially for survey of surfaces that are inaccessible for standard survey instruments. The passive, integrating radiation detectors are sensitive to alpha and beta radiation at contamination levels below release guideline limits. Required contact times with potentially contaminated surfaces are under one hour to achieve detection of transuranic alpha emission at 100 dpm/100 cm{sup 2}. Positional information obtained from array evaluation is useful for locating contamination zones. Unique capabilities of this system for survey of sites, facilities and material include measurement inside pipes and other geometrical configurations that prevent standard surveys, and below-surface measurement of alpha and beta emitters in contaminated soils. These applications imply a reduction of material that must be classified as radioactive waste by virtue of its possibility of contamination, and cost savings in soil sampling at contaminated sites.

  6. Heat transfer enhancement of PCM melting in 2D horizontal elliptical tube using metallic porous matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jourabian, Mahmoud; Farhadi, Mousa; Rabienataj Darzi, Ahmad Ali

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the melting process of ice as a phase-change material (PCM) saturated with a nickel-steel porous matrix inside a horizontal elliptical tube is investigated. Due to the low thermal conductivity of the PCM, it is motivated to augment the heat transfer performance of the system simultaneously by finding an optimum value of the aspect ratio and impregnating a metallic porous matrix into the base PCM. The lattice Boltzmann method with a double distribution function formulated based on the enthalpy method, is applied at the representative elementary volume scale under the local thermal equilibrium assumption between the PCM and porous matrix in the composite. While reducing or increasing the aspect ratio of the circular tubes leads to the expedited melting, the 90° inclination of each elliptical tube in the case of the pure PCM melting does not affect the melting rate. With the reduction in the porosity, the effective thermal conductivity and melting rate in all tubes promoted. Although the natural convection is fully suppressed due to the significant flow blockage in the porous structure, the melting rates are generally increased in all cases.

  7. Adaptive and nonadaptive feedback control of global instabilities with application to a heated 2-D jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monkewitz, Peter A.; Mingori, D. L.

    1992-04-01

    Close to the onset of self-excited fluid oscillations the generic complex Ginzburg-Landau is proposed as the lowest order model for the plant. Its linear part which provides the stability boundaries is derived from first principles for both doubly-infinite and semi-infinite flow domains. Concentrating on a single global mode, the model is further simplified to the Stuart-Landau equation. For this latter model, a methodology is developed for the design of single-input single-output controllers. The so designed controllers have been implemented on a self-excited, heated two-dimensional jet with one hot wire as sensor and an acoustic speaker as actuator, and are shown to be effective within their limitations in suppressing or enhancing limit-cycle oscillations. Finally, the effect of of a controller designed to suppress the most unstable global mode on other modes is investigated experimentally in the wake of a cylinder at low Reynolds number, where an encouraging semi-quantitative correspondence to the Ginzburg-Landau model is found.

  8. Critical Heat Flux Experiments on the Reactor Vessel Wall Using 2-D Slice Test Section

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Yong Hoon; Chang, Soon Heung; Baek, Won-Pil

    2005-11-15

    The critical heat flux (CHF) on the reactor vessel outer wall was measured using the two-dimensional slice test section. The radius and the channel area of the test section were 2.5 m and 10 cm x 15 cm, respectively. The flow channel area and the heater width were smaller than those of the ULPU experiments, but the radius was greater than that of the ULPU. The CHF data under the inlet subcooling of 2 to 25 deg. C and the mass flux 0 to 300 kg/m{sup 2}.s had been acquired. The measured CHF value was generally slightly lower than that of the ULPU. The difference possibly comes from the difference of the test section material and the thickness. However, the general trend of CHF according to the mass flux was similar with that of the ULPU. The experimental CHF data were compared with the predicted values by SULTAN correlation. The SULTAN correlation predicted well this study's data only for the mass flux higher than 200 kg/m{sup 2}.s, and for the exit quality lower than 0.05. The local condition-based correlation was developed, and it showed good prediction capability for broad quality (-0.01 to 0.5) and mass flux (<300 kg/m{sup 2}.s) conditions with a root-mean-square error of 2.4%. There were increases in the CHF with trisodium phosphate-added water.

  9. Thermal stability of Ag, Al, Sn, Pb, and Hg films reinforced by 2D (C, Si) crystals and the formation of interfacial fluid states in them upon heating. MD experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polukhin, V. A.; Kurbanova, E. D.

    2016-02-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation is used to study the thermal stability of the interfacial states of metallic Al, Ag, Sn, Pb, and Hg films (i.e., the structural elements of superconductor composites and conducting electrodes) reinforced by 2D graphene and silicene crystals upon heating up to disordering and to analyze the formation of nonautonomous fluid pseudophases in interfaces. The effect of perforation defects in reinforcing 2D-C and 2D-Si planes with passivated edge covalent bonds on the atomic dynamics is investigated. As compared to Al and Ag, the diffusion coefficients in Pd and Hg films increase monotonically with temperature during thermally activated disordering processes, the interatomic distances decrease, the sizes decrease, drops form, and their density profile grows along the normal. The coagulation of Pb and Hg drops is accompanied by a decrease in the contact angle, the reduction of the interface contact with graphene, and the enhancement of its corrugation (waviness).

  10. Heat diffusion in the disordered electron gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwiete, G.; Finkel'stein, A. M.

    2016-03-01

    We study the thermal conductivity of the disordered two-dimensional electron gas. To this end, we analyze the heat density-heat density correlation function concentrating on the scattering processes induced by the Coulomb interaction in the subtemperature energy range. These scattering processes are at the origin of logarithmic corrections violating the Wiedemann-Franz law. Special care is devoted to the definition of the heat density in the presence of the long-range Coulomb interaction. To clarify the structure of the correlation function, we present details of a perturbative calculation. While the conservation of energy strongly constrains the general form of the heat density-heat density correlation function, the balance of various terms turns out to be rather different from that for the correlation functions of other conserved quantities such as the density-density or spin density-spin density correlation function.

  11. Self-diffusion of polycrystalline ice Ih under confining pressure: Hydrogen isotope analysis using 2-D Raman imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, Naoki; Kubo, Tomoaki; Durham, William B.; Kagi, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Ichiko

    2016-08-01

    We have developed a high-resolution technique based on micro Raman spectroscopy to measure hydrogen isotope diffusion profiles in ice Ih. The calibration curve for quantitative analysis of deuterium in ice Ih was constructed using micro Raman spectroscopy. Diffusion experiments using diffusion couples composed of dense polycrystalline H2O and D2O ice were carried out under a gas confining pressure of 100 MPa (to suppress micro-fracturing and pore formation) at temperatures from 235 K to 245 K and diffusion times from 0.2 to 94 hours. Two-dimensional deuterium profiles across the diffusion couples were determined by Raman imaging. The location of small spots of frost from room air could be detected from the shapes of the Raman bands of OH and OD stretching modes, which change because of the effect of the molar ratio of deuterium on the molecular coupling interaction. We emphasize the validity for screening the impurities utilizing the coupling interaction. Some recrystallization and grain boundary migration occurred in recovered diffusion couples, but analysis of two-dimensional diffusion profiles of regions not affected by grain boundary migration allowed us to measure a volume diffusivity for ice at 100 MPa of (2.8 ± 0.4) ×10-3exp[ -57.0±15.4kJ/mol/RT ] m2 /s (R is the gas constant, T is temperature). Based on ambient pressure diffusivity measurements by others, this value indicates a high (negative) activation volume for volume diffusivity of -29.5 cm3/mol or more. We can also constrain the value of grain boundary diffusivity in ice at 100 MPa to be <104 that of volume diffusivity.

  12. Heat Diffusion in Gases, Including Effects of Chemical Reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, C. Frederick

    1960-01-01

    The diffusion of heat through gases is treated where the coefficients of thermal conductivity and diffusivity are functions of temperature. The diffusivity is taken proportional to the integral of thermal conductivity, where the gas is ideal, and is considered constant over the temperature interval in which a chemical reaction occurs. The heat diffusion equation is then solved numerically for a semi-infinite gas medium with constant initial and boundary conditions. These solutions are in a dimensionless form applicable to gases in general, and they are used, along with measured shock velocity and heat flux through a shock reflecting surface, to evaluate the integral of thermal conductivity for air up to 5000 degrees Kelvin. This integral has the properties of a heat flux potential and replaces temperature as the dependent variable for problems of heat diffusion in media with variable coefficients. Examples are given in which the heat flux at the stagnation region of blunt hypersonic bodies is expressed in terms of this potential.

  13. 2D hybrid simulations of super-diffusion at the magnetopause driven by Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

    SciTech Connect

    Cowee, Misa M; Winske, Dan; Gary, S Peter

    2009-01-01

    This manuscript describes the self-consistent simulation of diffusion at the magnetopause driven by Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability. Two-dimensional hybrid (kinetic ions, fluid electrons) simulations of the most KH-unstable configuration where the shear flow is oriented perpendicular to the uniform magnetic field are carried out. The motion of the simulation particles are tracked during the run and their mean-square displacement normal to the magnetopause is calculated from which diffusion coefficients are determined. The diffusion coefficients are found to be time dependent, with D{sub x} {proportional_to} t{sup {alpha}}, where {alpha} > 1. Additionally, the probability distribution functions (PDF) of the 'jump lengths' the particles make over time are found to be non-gaussian. Such time-dependent diffusion coefficients and non-gaussian PDF's have been associated with so-called 'super-diffusion', in which diffusive mixing of particles is enhanced over classical diffusion. The results indicate that while turbulence associated with the break-down of vortices contributes to this enhanced diffusion, it is the growth of large-scale, coherent vortices is the more important process in facilitating it.

  14. Shape-Based Image Matching Using Heat Kernels and Diffusion Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vizilter, Yu. V.; Gorbatsevich, V. S.; Rubis, A. Yu.; Zheltov, S. Yu.

    2014-08-01

    2D image matching problem is often stated as an image-to-shape or shape-to-shape matching problem. Such shape-based matching techniques should provide the matching of scene image fragments registered in various lighting, weather and season conditions or in different spectral bands. Most popular shape-to-shape matching technique is based on mutual information approach. Another wellknown approach is a morphological image-to-shape matching proposed by Pytiev. In this paper we propose the new image-to-shape matching technique based on heat kernels and diffusion maps. The corresponding Diffusion Morphology is proposed as a new generalization of Pytiev morphological scheme. The fast implementation of morphological diffusion filtering is described. Experimental comparison of new and aforementioned shape-based matching techniques is reported applying to the TV and IR image matching problem.

  15. Structural modifications of Tilia cordata wood during heat treatment investigated by FT-IR and 2D IR correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, Maria-Cristina; Froidevaux, Julien; Navi, Parviz; Popescu, Carmen-Mihaela

    2013-02-01

    It is known that heat treatment of wood combined with a low percent of relative humidity causes transformations in the chemical composition of it. The modifications and/or degradation of wood components occur by hydrolysis, oxidation, and decarboxylation reactions. The aim of this study was to give better insights on wood chemical modifications during wood heat treatment under low temperature at about 140 °C and 10% percentage of relative humidity, by infrared, principal component analysis and two dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy. For this purpose, hardwood samples of lime (Tilia cordata) were investigated and analysed. The infrared spectra of treated samples were compared with the reference ones, the most important differences being observed in the "fingerprint" region. Due to the complexity of this region, which have contributions from all the wood constituents the chemical changes during hydro-thermal treatment were examined in detail using principal component analysis and 2D IR correlation spectroscopy. By hydro-thermal treatment of wood results the formation of acetic acid, which catalyse the hydrolysis reactions of hemicelluloses and amorphous cellulose. The cleavage of the β-O-4 linkages and splitting of the aliphatic methoxyl chains from the aromatic lignin ring was also observed. For the first treatment interval, a higher extent of carbohydrates degradation was observed, then an increase of the extent of the lignin degradation also took place.

  16. Numerical Modeling of Particle Heating and Diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Eester, D. van

    2004-03-15

    A short overview is given of methods available to solve the (partial) differential equations describing plasma heating and current drive. Weakness and strength of each method is briefly discussed, and references are provided where the interested reader can find in depth discussions.

  17. Diffusion of Heat from a Line Source in Isotropic Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uberoi, Mahinder S; Corrsin, Stanley

    1953-01-01

    An experimental and analytical study has been made of some features of the turbulent heat diffusion behind a line heated wire stretched perpendicular to a flowing isotropic turbulence. The mean temperature distributions have been measured with systematic variations in wind speed, size of turbulence-producing grid, and downstream location of heat source. The nature of the temperature fluctuation field has been studied. A comparison of Lagrangian and Eulerian analyses for diffusion in a nondecaying turbulence yields an expression for turbulent-heat-transfer coefficient in terms of turbulence velocity and a Lagrangian "scale." the ratio of Eulerian to Lagrangian microscale has been determined theoretically by generalization of a result of Heisenberg and with arbitrary constants taken from independent sources, shows rough agreement with experimental results. A convenient form has been deduced for the criterion of interchangeability of instantaneous space and time derivatives in a flowing turbulence.

  18. Study of non-axisymmetric divertor footprints using 2-D IR and visible cameras and a 3-D heat conduction solver in NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, J-W.; Gan, K. F.; Scotti, F.; Lore, J. D.; Maingi, R.; Canik, J. M.; Gray, T. K.; McLean, A. G.; Roquemore, A. L.; Soukhanovskii, V. A.

    2013-01-12

    Toroidally non-axisymmetric divertor profiles during the 3-D field application and for ELMs are studied with simultaneous observation by a new wide angle visible camera and a high speed IR camera. A newly implemented 3-D heat conduction code, TACO, is used to obtain divertor heat flux. The wide angle camera data confirmed the previously reported result on the validity of vacuum field line tracing on the prediction of split strike point pattern by 3-D fields as well as the phase locking of ELM heat flux to the 3-D fields. TACO calculates the 2- D heat flux distribution allowing assessment of toroidal asymmetry of peak heat flux and heat flux width. Lastly, the degree of asymmetry (εDA) is defined to quantify the asymmetric heat deposition on the divertor surface and is found to have a strong positive dependence on peak heat flux.

  19. Spatially selective 2D RF inner field of view (iFOV) diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) of the pediatric spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Conklin, Chris J.; Middleton, Devon M.; Alizadeh, Mahdi; Finsterbusch, Jürgen; Raunig, David L.; Faro, Scott H.; Shah, Pallav; Krisa, Laura; Sinko, Rebecca; Delalic, Joan Z.; Mulcahey, M.J.; Mohamed, Feroze B.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance based diffusion imaging has been gaining more utility and clinical relevance over the past decade. Using conventional echo planar techniques, it is possible to acquire and characterize water diffusion within the central nervous system (CNS); namely in the form of Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI) and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI). While each modality provides valuable clinical information in terms of the presence of diffusion and its directionality, both techniques are limited to assuming an ideal Gaussian distribution for water displacement with no intermolecular interactions. This assumption neglects pathological processes that are not Gaussian therefore reducing the amount of potentially clinically relevant information. Additions to the Gaussian distribution measured by the excess kurtosis, or peakedness, of the probabilistic model provide a better understanding of the underlying cellular structure. The objective of this work is to provide mathematical and experimental evidence that Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging (DKI) can offer additional information about the micromolecular environment of the pediatric spinal cord. This is accomplished by a more thorough characterization of the nature of random water displacement within the cord. A novel DKI imaging sequence based on a tilted 2D spatially selective radio frequency pulse providing reduced field of view (FOV) imaging was developed, implemented, and optimized on a 3 Tesla MRI scanner, and tested on pediatric subjects (healthy subjects: 15; patients with spinal cord injury (SCI):5). Software was developed and validated for post processing of the DKI images and estimation of the tensor parameters. The results show statistically significant differences in mean kurtosis (p < 0.01) and radial kurtosis (p < 0.01) between healthy subjects and subjects with SCI. DKI provides incremental and novel information over conventional diffusion acquisitions when coupled with higher order estimation algorithms

  20. Spatially selective 2D RF inner field of view (iFOV) diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) of the pediatric spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Conklin, Chris J; Middleton, Devon M; Alizadeh, Mahdi; Finsterbusch, Jürgen; Raunig, David L; Faro, Scott H; Shah, Pallav; Krisa, Laura; Sinko, Rebecca; Delalic, Joan Z; Mulcahey, M J; Mohamed, Feroze B

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance based diffusion imaging has been gaining more utility and clinical relevance over the past decade. Using conventional echo planar techniques, it is possible to acquire and characterize water diffusion within the central nervous system (CNS); namely in the form of Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI) and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI). While each modality provides valuable clinical information in terms of the presence of diffusion and its directionality, both techniques are limited to assuming an ideal Gaussian distribution for water displacement with no intermolecular interactions. This assumption neglects pathological processes that are not Gaussian therefore reducing the amount of potentially clinically relevant information. Additions to the Gaussian distribution measured by the excess kurtosis, or peakedness, of the probabilistic model provide a better understanding of the underlying cellular structure. The objective of this work is to provide mathematical and experimental evidence that Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging (DKI) can offer additional information about the micromolecular environment of the pediatric spinal cord. This is accomplished by a more thorough characterization of the nature of random water displacement within the cord. A novel DKI imaging sequence based on a tilted 2D spatially selective radio frequency pulse providing reduced field of view (FOV) imaging was developed, implemented, and optimized on a 3 Tesla MRI scanner, and tested on pediatric subjects (healthy subjects: 15; patients with spinal cord injury (SCI):5). Software was developed and validated for post processing of the DKI images and estimation of the tensor parameters. The results show statistically significant differences in mean kurtosis (p < 0.01) and radial kurtosis (p < 0.01) between healthy subjects and subjects with SCI. DKI provides incremental and novel information over conventional diffusion acquisitions when coupled with higher order estimation algorithms

  1. Theoretical description of spin-selective reactions of radical pairs diffusing in spherical 2D and 3D microreactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, Konstantin L. Lukzen, Nikita N.; Sadovsky, Vladimir M.

    2015-08-28

    In this work, we treat spin-selective recombination of a geminate radical pair (RP) in a spherical “microreactor,” i.e., of a RP confined in a micelle, vesicle, or liposome. We consider the microreactor model proposed earlier, in which one of the radicals is located at the center of the micelle and the other one undergoes three-dimensional diffusion inside the micelle. In addition, we suggest a two-dimensional model, in which one of the radicals is located at the “pole” of the sphere, while the other one diffuses on the spherical surface. For this model, we have obtained a general analytical expression for the RP recombination yield in terms of the free Green function of two-dimensional diffusion motion. In turn, this Green function is expressed via the Legendre functions and thus takes account of diffusion over a restricted spherical surface and its curvature. The obtained expression allows one to calculate the RP recombination efficiency at an arbitrary magnetic field strength. We performed a comparison of the two models taking the same geometric parameters (i.e., the microreactor radius and the closest approach distance of the radicals), chemical reactivity, magnetic interactions in the RP and diffusion coefficient. Significant difference between the predictions of the two models is found, which is thus originating solely from the dimensionality effect: for different dimensionality of space, the statistics of diffusional contacts of radicals becomes different altering the reaction yield. We have calculated the magnetic field dependence of the RP reaction yield and chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization of the reaction products at different sizes of the microreactor, exchange interaction, and spin relaxation rates. Interestingly, due to the intricate interplay of diffusional contacts of reactants and spin dynamics, the dependence of the reaction yield on the microreactor radius is non-monotonous. Our results are of importance for (i) interpreting

  2. A turbulence indicator utilizing the diffusion of heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubauer, G B

    1936-01-01

    This report describes a method of determining the turbulence in wind tunnels. The effect of turbulence upon the diffusion of heat from a small electrically heated wire in an air stream was investigated. The turbulence of the stream was introduced by a series of geometrically similar screens placed one at a time across the upstream section of the tunnel. With the wire set at various distances from the screens, curves of temperature distribution were obtained by traversing the heated wake at a distance of 2 inches behind the wire with a small thermocouple.

  3. Progress Report for Diffusion Welding of the NGNP Process Application Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    R.E. Mizia; D.E. Clark; M.V. Glazoff; T.E. Lister; T.L. Trowbridge

    2011-04-01

    The NGNP Project is currently investigating the use of metallic, diffusion welded, compact heat exchangers to transfer heat from the primary (reactor side) heat transport system to the secondary heat transport system. The intermediate heat exchanger will transfer this heat to downstream applications such as hydrogen production, process heat, and electricity generation. The channeled plates that make up the heat transfer surfaces of the intermediate heat exchanger will have to be assembled into an array by diffusion welding.

  4. A finite analytic method for solving the 2-D time-dependent advection diffusion equation with time-invariant coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, Thomas; Li, Shu-Guang

    2005-02-01

    Difficulty in solving the transient advection-diffusion equation (ADE) stems from the relationship between the advection derivatives and the time derivative. For a solution method to be viable, it must account for this relationship by being accurate in both space and time. This research presents a unique method for solving the time-dependent ADE that does not discretize the derivative terms but rather solves the equation analytically in the space-time domain. The method is computationally efficient and numerically accurate and addresses the common limitations of numerical dispersion and spurious oscillations that can be prevalent in other solution methods. The method is based on the improved finite analytic (IFA) solution method [Lowry TS, Li S-G. A characteristic based finite analytic method for solving the two-dimensional steady-state advection-diffusion equation. Water Resour Res 38 (7), 10.1029/2001WR000518] in space coupled with a Laplace transformation in time. In this way, the method has no Courant condition and maintains accuracy in space and time, performing well even at high Peclet numbers. The method is compared to a hybrid method of characteristics, a random walk particle tracking method, and an Eulerian-Lagrangian Localized Adjoint Method using various degrees of flow-field heterogeneity across multiple Peclet numbers. Results show the IFALT method to be computationally more efficient while producing similar or better accuracy than the other methods.

  5. 2D coherent charge transport in highly ordered conducting polymers doped by solid state diffusion.

    PubMed

    Kang, Keehoon; Watanabe, Shun; Broch, Katharina; Sepe, Alessandro; Brown, Adam; Nasrallah, Iyad; Nikolka, Mark; Fei, Zhuping; Heeney, Martin; Matsumoto, Daisuke; Marumoto, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Hisaaki; Kuroda, Shin-Ichi; Sirringhaus, Henning

    2016-08-01

    Doping is one of the most important methods to control charge carrier concentration in semiconductors. Ideally, the introduction of dopants should not perturb the ordered microstructure of the semiconducting host. In some systems, such as modulation-doped inorganic semiconductors or molecular charge transfer crystals, this can be achieved by spatially separating the dopants from the charge transport pathways. However, in conducting polymers, dopants tend to be randomly distributed within the conjugated polymer, and as a result the transport properties are strongly affected by the resulting structural and electronic disorder. Here, we show that in the highly ordered lamellar microstructure of a regioregular thiophene-based conjugated polymer, a small-molecule p-type dopant can be incorporated by solid state diffusion into the layers of solubilizing side chains without disrupting the conjugated layers. In contrast to more disordered systems, this allows us to observe coherent, free-electron-like charge transport properties, including a nearly ideal Hall effect in a wide temperature range, a positive magnetoconductance due to weak localization and the Pauli paramagnetic spin susceptibility.

  6. 2D coherent charge transport in highly ordered conducting polymers doped by solid state diffusion.

    PubMed

    Kang, Keehoon; Watanabe, Shun; Broch, Katharina; Sepe, Alessandro; Brown, Adam; Nasrallah, Iyad; Nikolka, Mark; Fei, Zhuping; Heeney, Martin; Matsumoto, Daisuke; Marumoto, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Hisaaki; Kuroda, Shin-Ichi; Sirringhaus, Henning

    2016-08-01

    Doping is one of the most important methods to control charge carrier concentration in semiconductors. Ideally, the introduction of dopants should not perturb the ordered microstructure of the semiconducting host. In some systems, such as modulation-doped inorganic semiconductors or molecular charge transfer crystals, this can be achieved by spatially separating the dopants from the charge transport pathways. However, in conducting polymers, dopants tend to be randomly distributed within the conjugated polymer, and as a result the transport properties are strongly affected by the resulting structural and electronic disorder. Here, we show that in the highly ordered lamellar microstructure of a regioregular thiophene-based conjugated polymer, a small-molecule p-type dopant can be incorporated by solid state diffusion into the layers of solubilizing side chains without disrupting the conjugated layers. In contrast to more disordered systems, this allows us to observe coherent, free-electron-like charge transport properties, including a nearly ideal Hall effect in a wide temperature range, a positive magnetoconductance due to weak localization and the Pauli paramagnetic spin susceptibility. PMID:27159015

  7. Simulation of Ultra-Small MOSFETs Using a 2-D Quantum-Corrected Drift-Diffusion Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biegel, Bryan A.; Rafferty, Conor S.; Yu, Zhiping; Dutton, Robert W.; Ancona, Mario G.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    We describe an electronic transport model and an implementation approach that respond to the challenges of device modeling for gigascale integration. We use the density-gradient (DG) transport model, which adds tunneling and quantum smoothing of carrier density profiles to the drift-diffusion model. We present the current implementation of the DG model in PROPHET, a partial differential equation solver developed by Lucent Technologies. This implementation approach permits rapid development and enhancement of models, as well as run-time modifications and model switching. We show that even in typical bulk transport devices such as P-N diodes and BJTs, DG quantum effects can significantly modify the I-V characteristics. Quantum effects are shown to be even more significant in small, surface transport devices, such as sub-0.1 micron MOSFETs. In thin-oxide MOS capacitors, we find that quantum effects may reduce gate capacitance by 25% or more. The inclusion of quantum effects in simulations dramatically improves the match between C-V simulations and measurements. Significant quantum corrections also occur in the I-V characteristics of short-channel MOSFETs due to the gate capacitance correction.

  8. Computer simulation of topological evolution in 2-d grain growth using a continuum diffuse-interface field model

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, D.; Geng, C.; Chen, L.Q.

    1997-03-01

    The local kinetics and topological phenomena during normal grain growth were studied in two dimensions by computer simulations employing a continuum diffuse-interface field model. The relationships between topological class and individual grain growth kinetics were examined, and compared with results obtained previously from analytical theories, experimental results and Monte Carlo simulations. It was shown that both the grain-size and grain-shape (side) distributions are time-invariant and the linear relationship between the mean radii of individual grains and topological class n was reproduced. The moments of the shape distribution were determined, and the differences among the data from soap froth. Potts model and the present simulation were discussed. In the limit when the grain size goes to zero, the average number of grain edges per grain is shown to be between 4 and 5, implying the direct vanishing of 4- and 5-sided grains, which seems to be consistent with recent experimental observations on thin films. Based on the simulation results, the conditions for the applicability of the familiar Mullins-Von Neumann law and the Hillert`s equation were discussed.

  9. Diffusion in mixed solvents. II - The heat of mixing parameter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carapellucci, P. A.

    1975-01-01

    Correlation of second-order rate constants for many reactions involving electron transfer between organic molecules, solvated electron reactions, iodine diffusion coefficients, and triplet state electron transfer reactions has been made with the heat of mixing parameter (HMP) for the aqueous binary solvent systems. The aqueous binary solvents studied are those containing methanol or ethanol (type I solvent); 1-propanol or tert-butyl alcohol (type II solvent); or sucrose or glycerol (type III solvent). A plot of the HMP vs. the diffusion parameter for each reaction yields superimposable curves for these reactions in a particular solvent mixture over the entire solvent mixture range, irrespective of the value of the reaction's rate constant or diffusion coefficient in water.

  10. A diffusion model for drying of a heat sensitive solid under multiple heat input modes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lan; Islam, Md Raisul; Ho, J C; Mujumdar, A S

    2005-09-01

    To obtain optimal drying kinetics as well as quality of the dried product in a batch dryer, the energy required may be supplied by combining different modes of heat transfer. In this work, using potato slice as a model heat sensitive drying object, experimental studies were conducted using a batch heat pump dryer designed to permit simultaneous application of conduction and radiation heat. Four heat input schemes were compared: pure convection, radiation-coupled convection, conduction-coupled convection and radiation-conduction-coupled convection. A two-dimensional drying model was developed assuming the drying rate to be controlled by liquid water diffusion. Both drying rates and temperatures within the slab during drying under all these four heat input schemes showed good accord with measurements. Radiation-coupled convection is the recommended heat transfer scheme from the viewpoint of high drying rate and low energy consumption.

  11. Global Regularity and Long-time Behavior of the Solutions to the 2D Boussinesq Equations without Diffusivity in a Bounded Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Ning

    2016-07-01

    New results are obtained for global regularity and long-time behavior of the solutions to the 2D Boussinesq equations for the flow of an incompressible fluid with positive viscosity and zero diffusivity in a smooth bounded domain. Our first result for global boundedness of the solution {(u, θ)} in {D(A)× H^1} improves considerably the main result of the recent article (Hu et al. in J Math Phys 54(8):081507, 2013). Our second result on global boundedness of the solution {(u, θ)} in {V× H^1} for both bounded domain and the whole space {{R}2} is a new one. It has been open and also seems much more challenging than the first result. Global regularity of the solution {(u, θ)} in {D(A)× H2} is also proved.

  12. A microscale thermophoretic turbine driven by external diffusive heat flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Mingcheng; Liu, Rui; Ripoll, Marisol; Chen, Ke

    2014-10-01

    We propose a theoretical prototype of a micro-scale turbine externally driven by diffusive heat flux without the need for macroscopic particle flux, which is in sharp contrast to conventional turbines. The prototypes are described analytically and validated by computer simulations. Our results indicate that a micro-scale turbine composed of anisotropic blades can rotate unidirectionally in an external temperature gradient due to the anisotropic thermophoresis effect. The rotational direction and speed depend on the temperature gradient, the geometry and the thermophoretic properties of the turbine. The proposed thermophoretic turbines can be experimentally realized and implemented on micro-devices such as computer-chips to recover waste heat or to facilitate cooling.We propose a theoretical prototype of a micro-scale turbine externally driven by diffusive heat flux without the need for macroscopic particle flux, which is in sharp contrast to conventional turbines. The prototypes are described analytically and validated by computer simulations. Our results indicate that a micro-scale turbine composed of anisotropic blades can rotate unidirectionally in an external temperature gradient due to the anisotropic thermophoresis effect. The rotational direction and speed depend on the temperature gradient, the geometry and the thermophoretic properties of the turbine. The proposed thermophoretic turbines can be experimentally realized and implemented on micro-devices such as computer-chips to recover waste heat or to facilitate cooling. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr03990d

  13. Chain packing in glassy polymers by natural-abundance 13C-13C spin diffusion using 2D centerband-only detection of exchange.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manmilan; Schaefer, Jacob

    2011-03-01

    The proximities of specific subgroups of nearest-neighbor chains in glassy polymers are revealed by distance-dependent (13)C-(13)C dipolar couplings and spin diffusion. The measurement of such proximities is practical even with natural-abundance levels of (13)C using a 2D version of centerband-only detection of exchange (CODEX). Two-dimensional CODEX is a relaxation-compensated experiment that avoids the problems associated with variations in T(1)(C)'s due to dynamic site heterogeneity in the glass. Isotropic chemical shifts are encoded in the t(1) preparation times before and after mixing, and variations in T(2)'s are compensated by an S(0) reference (no mixing). Data acquisition involves acquisition of an S(0) reference signal on alternate scans, and the active control of power amplifiers, to achieve stability and accuracy over long accumulation times. The model system to calibrate spin diffusion is the polymer itself. For a mixing time of 200 ms, only (13)C-(13)C pairs separated by one or two bonds (2.5 Å) show cross peaks, which therefore identify reference intrachain proximities. For a mixing time of 1200 ms, 5 Å interchain proximities appear. The resulting cross peaks are used in a simple and direct way to compare nonrandom chain packing for two commercial polycarbonates with decidedly different mechanical properties.

  14. A 2D model of axial symmetry for proximal tubule of an average human nephron: indicative results of diffusion, convection and absorption processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Insfrán, J. F.; Ubal, S.; Di Paolo, y. J.

    2016-04-01

    A simplified model of a proximal convoluted tubule of an average human nephron is presented. The model considers the 2D axisymmetric flow of the luminal solution exchanging matter with the tubule walls and the peritubular fluid by means of 0D models for the epithelial cells. The tubule radius is considered to vary along the conduit due to the trans-epithelial pressure difference. The fate of more than ten typical solutes is tracked down by the model. The Navier-Stokes and Reaction-Diffusion-Advection equations (considering the electro-neutrality principle) are solved in the lumen, giving a detailed picture of the velocity, pressure and concentration fields, along with trans-membrane fluxes and tubule deformation, via coupling with the 0D model for the tubule wall. The calculations are carried out numerically by means of the finite element method. The results obtained show good agreement with those published by other authors using models that ignore the diffusive transport and disregard a detailed calculation of velocity, pressure and concentrations. This work should be seen as a first approach towards the development of a more comprehensive model of the filtration process taking place in the kidneys, which ultimately helps in devising a device that can mimic/complement the renal function.

  15. A microscale thermophoretic turbine driven by external diffusive heat flux.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mingcheng; Liu, Rui; Ripoll, Marisol; Chen, Ke

    2014-11-21

    We propose a theoretical prototype of a micro-scale turbine externally driven by diffusive heat flux without the need for macroscopic particle flux, which is in sharp contrast to conventional turbines. The prototypes are described analytically and validated by computer simulations. Our results indicate that a micro-scale turbine composed of anisotropic blades can rotate unidirectionally in an external temperature gradient due to the anisotropic thermophoresis effect. The rotational direction and speed depend on the temperature gradient, the geometry and the thermophoretic properties of the turbine. The proposed thermophoretic turbines can be experimentally realized and implemented on micro-devices such as computer-chips to recover waste heat or to facilitate cooling.

  16. A microscale thermophoretic turbine driven by external diffusive heat flux.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mingcheng; Liu, Rui; Ripoll, Marisol; Chen, Ke

    2014-11-21

    We propose a theoretical prototype of a micro-scale turbine externally driven by diffusive heat flux without the need for macroscopic particle flux, which is in sharp contrast to conventional turbines. The prototypes are described analytically and validated by computer simulations. Our results indicate that a micro-scale turbine composed of anisotropic blades can rotate unidirectionally in an external temperature gradient due to the anisotropic thermophoresis effect. The rotational direction and speed depend on the temperature gradient, the geometry and the thermophoretic properties of the turbine. The proposed thermophoretic turbines can be experimentally realized and implemented on micro-devices such as computer-chips to recover waste heat or to facilitate cooling. PMID:25268245

  17. Simulation of decay heat removal by natural convection in a pool type fast reactor model-ramona-with coupled 1D/2D thermal hydraulic code system

    SciTech Connect

    Kasinathan, N.; Rajakumar, A.; Vaidyanathan, G.; Chetal, S.C.

    1995-09-01

    Post shutdown decay heat removal is an important safety requirement in any nuclear system. In order to improve the reliability of this function, Liquid metal (sodium) cooled fast breeder reactors (LMFBR) are equipped with redundant hot pool dipped immersion coolers connected to natural draught air cooled heat exchangers through intermediate sodium circuits. During decay heat removal, flow through the core, immersion cooler primary side and in the intermediate sodium circuits are also through natural convection. In order to establish the viability and validate computer codes used in making predictions, a 1:20 scale experimental model called RAMONA with water as coolant has been built and experimental simulation of decay heat removal situation has been performed at KfK Karlsruhe. Results of two such experiments have been compiled and published as benchmarks. This paper brings out the results of the numerical simulation of one of the benchmark case through a 1D/2D coupled code system, DHDYN-1D/THYC-2D and the salient features of the comparisons. Brief description of the formulations of the codes are also included.

  18. Ballistic to diffusive crossover of heat flow in graphene ribbons.

    PubMed

    Bae, Myung-Ho; Li, Zuanyi; Aksamija, Zlatan; Martin, Pierre N; Xiong, Feng; Ong, Zhun-Yong; Knezevic, Irena; Pop, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Heat flow in nanomaterials is an important area of study, with both fundamental and technological implications. However, little is known about heat flow in two-dimensional devices or interconnects with dimensions comparable to the phonon mean free path. Here we find that short, quarter-micron graphene samples reach ~35% of the ballistic thermal conductance limit up to room temperature, enabled by the relatively large phonon mean free path (~100 nm) in substrate-supported graphene. In contrast, patterning similar samples into nanoribbons leads to a diffusive heat-flow regime that is controlled by ribbon width and edge disorder. In the edge-controlled regime, the graphene nanoribbon thermal conductivity scales with width approximately as ~W(1.8)(0.3), being about 100 W m(-1) K(-1) in 65-nm-wide graphene nanoribbons, at room temperature. These results show how manipulation of two-dimensional device dimensions and edges can be used to achieve full control of their heat-carrying properties, approaching fundamentally limited upper or lower bounds. PMID:23591901

  19. Effect of random structure on permeability and heat transfer characteristics for flow in 2D porous medium based on MRT lattice Boltzmann method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, PeiPei; Wen, Zhi; Dou, RuiFeng; Liu, Xunliang

    2016-08-01

    Flow and heat transfer through a 2D random porous medium are studied by using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). For the random porous medium, the influence of disordered cylinder arrangement on permeability and Nusselt number are investigated. Results indicate that the permeability and Nusselt number for different cylinder locations are unequal even with the same number and size of cylinders. New correlations for the permeability and coefficient b‧Den of the Forchheimer equation are proposed for random porous medium composed of Gaussian distributed circular cylinders. Furthermore, a general set of heat transfer correlations is proposed and compared with existing experimental data and empirical correlations. Our results show that the Nu number increases with the increase of the porosity, hence heat transfer is found to be accurate considering the effect of porosity.

  20. Mechanisms of folate losses during processing: diffusion vs. heat degradation.

    PubMed

    Delchier, Nicolas; Ringling, Christiane; Maingonnat, Jean-François; Rychlik, Michael; Renard, Catherine M G C

    2014-08-15

    Though folates are sensitive to heat treatments, leaching appears to be a major mechanism involved in folate losses in vegetables during processing. The aim of our study was to study folate diffusivity and degradation from spinach and green beans, in order to determine the proportion of each mechanism involved in folate losses. Folate diffusivity constant, calculated according to Fick's second law (Crank, 1975), was 7.4×10(-12) m(2)/s for spinach and 5.8×10(-10) m(2)/s for green beans, which is the same order of magnitude as for sugars and acids for each vegetable considered. Folate thermal degradation kinetics was not monotonous in spinach and green beans especially at 45 °C and did not follow a first order reaction. The proportion of vitamers changed markedly after thermal treatment, with a better retention of formyl derivatives. For spinach, folate losses were mainly due to diffusion while for green beans thermal degradation seemed to be preponderant.

  1. A 2D transient numerical model combining heat/mass transport effects in a tubular solid oxide fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollayi Barzi, Y.; Ghassemi, M.; Hamedi, M. H.

    The purpose of this study is to present a 2D transient numerical model to predict the dynamic behavior of a tubular SOFC. In this model, the transient conservation equations (momentum, species and energy equations) are solved numerically and electrical and electrochemical outputs are calculated with an equivalent electrical circuit for the cell. The developed model determines the cell electrical and thermal responses to the variation of load current. Also it predicts the local EMF, state variables (pressure, temperature and species concentration) and cell performance for different cell load currents. Using this comprehensive model the dynamic behavior of Tubular SOFC is studied. First an initial steady state operating condition is set for the SOFC model and then the time response of the fuel cell to changes of some interested input parameters (like electrical load) is analyzed. The simulation starts when the cell is at the steady state in a specific output load. When the load step change takes place, the solution continues to reach to the new steady state condition. Then the cell transient behavior is analyzed. The results show that when the load current is stepped up, the output voltage decreases to a new steady state voltage in about 67 min.

  2. Transport simulations of ITER with empirical heat diffusivity scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, G.

    1998-02-01

    Radiative mantle scenarios of the ignited ITER Engineering Design Activity (EDA) with argon and neon influxing are explored by computer experiments using special versions of the 1.5 dimensional (1.5-D) BALDUR predictive transport code. An empirical scaling law for the effective heat diffusivity, compatible with the ITERH92-P ELMy H mode scaling and validated against experiments, is applied. The prescribed flat density profiles, conductive heat loss across the separatrix of 200 MW and ratio τ*He/ τE,r of 10 are reached in the simulations. Self-sustained thermonuclear burn is achieved for at least 485 s. The helium ash concentrations of up to 9.5% are found to cause significant fuel dilution. Owing to the high electron density, only small argon and neon fractions of 0.07 and 0.27%, respectively, are needed. In the argon scenario, the required radiation corrected thermal energy confinement time τE,r is 4.8 s. The confinement time predicted by the local scaling law is 1.4 times longer and agrees with the global scaling prediction. With argon, the design parameters are reached by radiating 128 MW within the separatrix, thus reducing the energy flow to the divertor to 73 MW. In the neon case with its more peripheral radiation, the radiative loss within the separatrix has to be diminished. Owing to the flat profile of the fuel ion density, the neoclassical drift velocities of argon and neon are directed outwards in the whole plasma. In the argon scenario, the sensitivity of transport to the density profile shape is studied. It is found that τE,r remains almost unchanged, varying between 4.5 and 4.8 s, which is explained by an analytic expression for the thermal energy. Peaking of the electron and impurity densities does not alter the required argon concentration but causes a peaking of the radiation profiles and reduction in the temperatures. Sufficiently narrow fuel ion density profiles are shown to cause inward directed neoclassical drift velocities of argon in the

  3. Defect characterisation based on heat diffusion using induction thermography testing.

    PubMed

    He, Yunze; Pan, Mengchun; Luo, Feilu

    2012-10-01

    Pulsed eddy current (PEC) thermography (a.k.a. induction thermography) has been successfully applied to detect defects (corrosion, cracks, impact, and delamination) in metal alloy and carbon fiber reinforced plastic. During these applications, the defect detection mechanism is mainly investigated based on the eddy current interaction with defect. In this paper, defect characterisation for wall thinning defect and inner defect in steel is investigated based on heat diffusion. The paper presents the PEC thermography testing, which integrates the reflection mode and transmission mode by means of configuring two cameras on both sides of sample. The defect characterisation methods under transmission mode and reflection mode are investigated and compared through 1D analytical analysis, 3D numerical studies, and experimental studies. The suitable detection mode for wall thinning and inner defects quantification is concluded.

  4. Defect characterisation based on heat diffusion using induction thermography testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yunze; Pan, Mengchun; Luo, Feilu

    2012-10-01

    Pulsed eddy current (PEC) thermography (a.k.a. induction thermography) has been successfully applied to detect defects (corrosion, cracks, impact, and delamination) in metal alloy and carbon fiber reinforced plastic. During these applications, the defect detection mechanism is mainly investigated based on the eddy current interaction with defect. In this paper, defect characterisation for wall thinning defect and inner defect in steel is investigated based on heat diffusion. The paper presents the PEC thermography testing, which integrates the reflection mode and transmission mode by means of configuring two cameras on both sides of sample. The defect characterisation methods under transmission mode and reflection mode are investigated and compared through 1D analytical analysis, 3D numerical studies, and experimental studies. The suitable detection mode for wall thinning and inner defects quantification is concluded.

  5. Evaluation of gas radiation heat transfer in a 2D axisymmetric geometry using the line-by-line integration and WSGG models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Centeno, Felipe Roman; Brittes, Rogério; França, Francis. H. R.; Ezekoye, Ofodike A.

    2015-05-01

    The weighted-sum-of-gray-gases (WSGG) model is widely used in engineering computations of radiative heat transfer due to its relative simplicity, robustness and flexibility. This paper presents the computation of radiative heat transfer in a 2D axisymmetric chamber using two WSGG models to compute radiation in H2O and CO2 mixtures. The first model considers a fixed ratio between the molar concentrations of H2O and CO2, while the second allows the solution for arbitrary ratios. The correlations for both models are based on the HITEMP2010 database. The test case considers typical conditions found in turbulent methane flames, with steep variations in the temperature field as well as in the molar concentrations of the participating species. To assess the accuracy of the WSGG model, the results are compared with a solution obtained by line-by-line integration (LBL) of the spectrum.

  6. Optical cell with periodic resistive heating for the measurement of heat, mass, and thermal diffusions in liquid mixtures.

    PubMed

    Hartung, M; Köhler, W

    2007-08-01

    A new technique for the measurement of heat, mass, and thermal diffusions in liquids has been developed. Similar to laser induced dynamic gratings, a temperature grating is created in the sample. Thermal expansion transforms the temperature into a refractive-index grating, which is read by diffraction of a readout laser beam. In a multicomponent mixture an additional concentration grating is formed by thermal diffusion driven by the temperature gradients of the temperature grating. Differently to laser induced dynamic grating experiments we use Joule heating instead of optical heating. For that purpose we have built cuvettes which have a grating of transparent conducting strips on the inner side of one of their windows. If heated by an electric current a temperature grating will build up in the sample. Both the heat equation and the extended diffusion equation have been solved in two dimensions to allow for quantitative data analysis. Our apparatus and method of analysis have been validated by measurements of heat, mass, and thermal diffusions in pure and binary liquids. Heat diffusion can be correctly determined as was shown for pure toluene, pure dodecane, and the symmetric mixture of isobutylbenzene dodecane. Mass and thermal diffusions were studied in the three symmetric mixtures of dodecane, isobutylbenzene, and tetralin. The obtained diffusion and Soret coefficients agree with the literature values within the experimental errors. Uncompensated transient heating effects limit the resolution of the experimental technique.

  7. A novel 1D/2D model for simulating conjugate heat transfer applied to flow boiling in tubes with external fins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocłoń, Paweł; Łopata, Stanisław; Nowak, Marzena

    2014-09-01

    This study presents a novel, simplified model for the time-efficient simulation of transient conjugate heat transfer in round tubes. The flow domain and the tube wall are modeled in 1D and 2D, respectively and empirical correlations are used to model the flow domain in 1D. The model is particularly useful when dealing with complex physics, such as flow boiling, which is the main focus of this study. The tube wall is assumed to have external fins. The flow is vertical upwards. Note that straightforward computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of conjugate heat transfer in a system of tubes, leads to 3D modeling of fluid and solid domains. Because correlation is used and dimensionality reduced, the model is numerically more stable and computationally more time-efficient compared to the CFD approach. The benefit of the proposed approach is that it can be applied to large systems of tubes as encountered in many practical applications. The modeled equations are discretized in space using the finite volume method, with central differencing for the heat conduction equation in the solid domain, and upwind differencing of the convective term of the enthalpy transport equation in the flow domain. An explicit time discretization with forward differencing was applied to the enthalpy transport equation in the fluid domain. The conduction equation in the solid domain was time discretized using the Crank-Nicholson scheme. The model is applied in different boundary conditions and the predicted boiling patterns and temperature fields are discussed.

  8. A novel 1D/2D model for simulating conjugate heat transfer applied to flow boiling in tubes with external fins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocłoń, Paweł; Łopata, Stanisław; Nowak, Marzena

    2015-04-01

    This study presents a novel, simplified model for the time-efficient simulation of transient conjugate heat transfer in round tubes. The flow domain and the tube wall are modeled in 1D and 2D, respectively and empirical correlations are used to model the flow domain in 1D. The model is particularly useful when dealing with complex physics, such as flow boiling, which is the main focus of this study. The tube wall is assumed to have external fins. The flow is vertical upwards. Note that straightforward computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of conjugate heat transfer in a system of tubes, leads to 3D modeling of fluid and solid domains. Because correlation is used and dimensionality reduced, the model is numerically more stable and computationally more time-efficient compared to the CFD approach. The benefit of the proposed approach is that it can be applied to large systems of tubes as encountered in many practical applications. The modeled equations are discretized in space using the finite volume method, with central differencing for the heat conduction equation in the solid domain, and upwind differencing of the convective term of the enthalpy transport equation in the flow domain. An explicit time discretization with forward differencing was applied to the enthalpy transport equation in the fluid domain. The conduction equation in the solid domain was time discretized using the Crank-Nicholson scheme. The model is applied in different boundary conditions and the predicted boiling patterns and temperature fields are discussed.

  9. Progress Report for Diffusion Welding of the NGNP Process Application Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    R.E. Mizia; D.E. Clark; M.V. Glazoff; T.E. Lister; T.L. Trowbridge

    2011-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy selected the high temperature gas-cooled reactor as the basis for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity, hydrogen production, and process heat applications. The NGNP Project is currently investigating the use of metallic, diffusion welded, compact heat exchangers to transfer heat from the primary (reactor side) heat transport system to the secondary heat transport system. An intermediate heat exchanger will transfer this heat to downstream applications such as hydrogen production, process heat, and electricity generation. The channeled plates that make up the heat transfer surfaces of the intermediate heat exchanger will have to be assembled into an array by diffusion welding. This report describes the preliminary results of a scoping study that evaluated the diffusion welding process parameters and the resultant mechanical properties of diffusion welded joints using Alloy 800H. The long-term goal of the program is to progress towards demonstration of small heat exchanger unit cells fabricated with diffusion welds. Demonstration through mechanical testing of the unit cells will support American Society of Mechanical Engineers rules and standards development, reduce technical risk, and provide proof of concept for heat exchanger fabrication methods needed to deploy heat exchangers in several potential NGNP configurations.1 Researchers also evaluated the usefulness of modern thermodynamic and diffusion computational tools (Thermo-Calc and Dictra) in optimizing the parameters for diffusion welding of Alloy 800H. The modeling efforts suggested a temperature of 1150 C for 1 hour with an applied pressure of 5 MPa using 15 {micro}m nickel foil as joint filler to reduce chromium oxidation on the welded surfaces. Good agreement between modeled and experimentally determined concentration gradients was achieved

  10. [Gemology characterization and identification of beryllium diffused, heated and untreated bicolor sapphires from Changle City, China].

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Yang, Ming-xing

    2012-03-01

    Be-diffused, heated and untreated bicolor sapphires (blue and yellow) from Changle City, Shandong Province, China were studied by using standard gemological methods, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, electron microprobe, and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to obtain the spectra characterization, and to suggest identification methods for them. Only Fe(3+)-Fe3+ absorption bands formed in ultraviolet region appear in Be-diffused bicolor sapphire, which is especially strong at 377 nm. In IR absorption spectra, absorption peak at 3 310 cm(-1) appears in heated and untreated bicolor sapphires, while it disappears in Be-diffused bicolor sapphire. Therefore, UV-Vis and IR absorption spectra can be used to identify Be-diffused, heated and untreated bicolor sapphires. On the other hand, methylene iodide immersion observation also can be used to identify Be-diffused bicolor sapphire. PMID:22582625

  11. [Gemology characterization and identification of beryllium diffused, heated and untreated bicolor sapphires from Changle City, China].

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Yang, Ming-xing

    2012-03-01

    Be-diffused, heated and untreated bicolor sapphires (blue and yellow) from Changle City, Shandong Province, China were studied by using standard gemological methods, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, electron microprobe, and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to obtain the spectra characterization, and to suggest identification methods for them. Only Fe(3+)-Fe3+ absorption bands formed in ultraviolet region appear in Be-diffused bicolor sapphire, which is especially strong at 377 nm. In IR absorption spectra, absorption peak at 3 310 cm(-1) appears in heated and untreated bicolor sapphires, while it disappears in Be-diffused bicolor sapphire. Therefore, UV-Vis and IR absorption spectra can be used to identify Be-diffused, heated and untreated bicolor sapphires. On the other hand, methylene iodide immersion observation also can be used to identify Be-diffused bicolor sapphire.

  12. Estimating diffusivity from the mixed layer heat and salt balances in the North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cronin, M. F.; Pelland, N.; Emerson, S. R.; Crawford, W. R.

    2015-12-01

    Data from two National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) surface moorings in the North Pacific, in combination with data from satellite, Argo floats and glider (when available), are used to evaluate the residual diffusive flux of heat across the base of the mixed layer from the surface mixed layer heat budget. The diffusion coefficient (i.e., diffusivity) is then computed by dividing the diffusive flux by the temperature gradient in the 20-m transition layer just below the base of the mixed layer. At Station Papa in the NE Pacific subpolar gyre, this diffusivity is 1×10-4 m2/s during summer, increasing to ~3×10-4 m2/s during fall. During late winter and early spring, diffusivity has large errors. At other times, diffusivity computed from the mixed layer salt budget at Papa correlate with those from the heat budget, giving confidence that the results are robust for all seasons except late winter-early spring and can be used for other tracers. In comparison, at the Kuroshio Extension Observatory (KEO) in the NW Pacific subtropical recirculation gyre, somewhat larger diffusivity are found based upon the mixed layer heat budget: ~ 3×10-4 m2/s during the warm season and more than an order of magnitude larger during the winter, although again, wintertime errors are large. These larger values at KEO appear to be due to the increased turbulence associated with the summertime typhoons, and weaker wintertime stratification.

  13. Estimating diffusivity from the mixed layer heat and salt balances in the North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cronin, Meghan F.; Pelland, Noel A.; Emerson, Steven R.; Crawford, William R.

    2015-11-01

    Data from two National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) surface moorings in the North Pacific, in combination with data from satellite, Argo floats and glider (when available), are used to evaluate the residual diffusive flux of heat across the base of the mixed layer from the surface mixed layer heat budget. The diffusion coefficient (i.e., diffusivity) is then computed by dividing the diffusive flux by the temperature gradient in the 20 m transition layer just below the base of the mixed layer. At Station Papa in the NE Pacific subpolar gyre, this diffusivity is 1 × 10-4 m2/s during summer, increasing to ˜3 × 10-4 m2/s during fall. During late winter and early spring, diffusivity has large errors. At other times, diffusivity computed from the mixed layer salt budget at Papa correlate with those from the heat budget, giving confidence that the results are robust for all seasons except late winter-early spring and can be used for other tracers. In comparison, at the Kuroshio Extension Observatory (KEO) in the NW Pacific subtropical recirculation gyre, somewhat larger diffusivities are found based upon the mixed layer heat budget: ˜ 3 × 10-4 m2/s during the warm season and more than an order of magnitude larger during the winter, although again, wintertime errors are large. These larger values at KEO appear to be due to the increased turbulence associated with the summertime typhoons, and weaker wintertime stratification.

  14. Diffusion Welding of Compact Heat Exchangers for Nuclear Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Denis Clark; Ron Mizia; Dr. Michael V. Glazoff; Mr. Michael W. Patterson

    2012-06-01

    The next-­-generation nuclear plant (NGNP) is designed to be a flexible source of energy, producing various mixes of electrical energy and process heat (for example, for hydrogen generation) on demand. Compact heat exchangers provide an attractive way to move energy from the helium primary reactor coolant to process heat uses. For process heat efficiency, reactor outlet temperatures of 750-­-900°C are desirable. There are minor but deleterious components in the primary coolant; the number of alloys that can handle this environment is small. The present work concentrates on Alloys 800H and 617.

  15. Heat Diffusion in a Non-Local Tokomak Stochastic Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Hong; Yao, Li; Zhong, Haiyang; Liu, Wei; Yang, Kun; Shao, Ying; Xia, Wenwen; li, Qian

    2011-04-01

    Heat transport across a non-local stochastic magnetic field was studied for the first time. Eleven incompact low m perturbed magnetic islands were used in our calculation. Parallel heat diffusion coefficient to the perpendicular coefficient was found still to be a key factor in influencing the effective radial heat conductivity and the results in this paper were compared with earlier studies in a local stochastic magnetic field.

  16. The Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem of Colloidal Particle's energy on 2D Periodic Substrates: A Monte Carlo Study of thermal noise-like fluctuation and diffusion like Brownian motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najafi, Amin

    2014-05-01

    Using the Monte Carlo simulations, we have calculated mean-square fluctuations in statistical mechanics, such as those for colloids energy configuration are set on square 2D periodic substrates interacting via a long range screened Coulomb potential on any specific and fixed substrate. Random fluctuations with small deviations from the state of thermodynamic equilibrium arise from the granular structure of them and appear as thermal diffusion with Gaussian distribution structure as well. The variations are showing linear form of the Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem on the energy of particles constitutive a canonical ensemble with continuous diffusion process of colloidal particle systems. The noise-like variation of the energy per particle and the order parameter versus the Brownian displacement of sum of large number of random steps of particles at low temperatures phase are presenting a markovian process on colloidal particles configuration, too.

  17. Perturbation of the Heat Lateral Diffusion by Interface Resistance in Layered Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frétigny, C.; Duquesne, J.-Y.; Fournier, D.

    2015-06-01

    It is well established that interface resistances do usually exist in layered structures, and their values strongly depend on their origin. They may arise from different vibrational properties of the layers, nonharmonic processes at the interface, surface chemical contamination, interfacial defects, etc. Numerous studies have been published to evaluate their values, most of the time, in a perpendicular heat diffusion scheme. In this paper, the effect of interface resistances on the lateral modulated surface temperature of a layered structure for cylindrical symmetry heat diffusion is studied. The thermoreflectance microscope is a particularly convenient tool to record heat lateral diffusion from a surface modulated heated point and thus to evidence the presence of such resistance interfaces. In a first part, the theoretical model of heat diffusion in cylindrical symmetry, in a layered structure exhibiting an interface resistance between the layer and the substrate, is briefly described. In a second part, the C/I configuration (good conductive layer deposited on an insulating substrate, with an interface resistance) is investigated. Experimental results illustrate the theory. In the third part, the reverse case I/C (insulating layer deposited on a conductive substrate, with an interface resistance) is discussed. To conclude, all the cases and the ability of the lateral diffusion to recover interface thermal resistances are compared.

  18. Going beyond 2D: following membrane diffusion and topography in the IgE-Fc[epsilon]RI system using 3-dimensional tracking microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Nathan P.; Lessard, Guillaume A.; Phipps, Mary E.; Goodwin, Peter M.; Lidke, Diane S.; Wilson, Bridget S.; Werner, James H.

    2009-02-01

    The ability to follow and observe single molecules as they function in live cells represents a major milestone for molecular-cellular biology. Here we present a tracking microscope that is able to track quantum dots in three dimensions and simultaneously record time-resolved emission statistics from a single dot. This innovative microscopy approach is based on four spatial filters and closed loop feedback to constantly keep a single quantum dot in the focal spot. Using this microscope, we demonstrate the ability to follow quantum dot labeled IgE antibodies bound to FcɛRI membrane receptors in live RBL-2H3 cells. The results are consistent with prior studies of two dimensional membrane diffusion (Andrews et al., Nat. Cell Biol., 10, 955, 2008). In addition, the microscope captures motion in the axial (Z) direction, which permits tracking of diffusing receptors relative to the "hills and valleys" of the dynamically changing membrane landscape. This approach is uniquely capable of following single molecule dynamics on live cells with three dimensional spatial resolution.

  19. Going beyond 2D: following membrane diffusion and topography in the IgE-Fc[epsilon]RI system using 3-dimensional tracking microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, Nathan P; Lessard, Guillaume A; Phipps, Marry E; Goodwin, Peter M; Werner, James H; Lidke, Diane S; Wilson, Bridget S

    2008-01-01

    The ability to follow and observe single molecules as they function in live cells would represent a major milestone for molecular-cellular biology. Here we present a tracking microscope that is able to track quantum dots in 3 dimensions and simultaneously record time-resolved emission statistics from a single dot. This innovative microscopy approach is based on four spatial filters and closed loop feedback to constantly keep a single quantum dot in the focal spot. Using this microscope, we demonstrate the ability to follow quantum dot-labeled IgE antibodies bound to Fc{epsilon}Rl membrane receptors in live RBL-2H3 cells. The results are consistent with prior studies of 2 dimensional membrane diffusion (Andrews et al., Nat. Cell Biol., 10, 955, 2008). In addition, the microscope captures motion in the axial (Z) direction, which permits tracking of diffusing receptors relative the 'hills and valley' of the dynamically changing membrane landscape. Our novel approach is uniquely capable of following single-molecule dynamics on live cells with 3 dimensional spatial resolution.

  20. Transformed Fourier and Fick equations for the control of heat and mass diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Guenneau, S.; Petiteau, D.; Zerrad, M.; Amra, C.; Puvirajesinghe, T.

    2015-05-15

    We review recent advances in the control of diffusion processes in thermodynamics and life sciences through geometric transforms in the Fourier and Fick equations, which govern heat and mass diffusion, respectively. We propose to further encompass transport properties in the transformed equations, whereby the temperature is governed by a three-dimensional, time-dependent, anisotropic heterogeneous convection-diffusion equation, which is a parabolic partial differential equation combining the diffusion equation and the advection equation. We perform two dimensional finite element computations for cloaks, concentrators and rotators of a complex shape in the transient regime. We precise that in contrast to invisibility cloaks for waves, the temperature (or mass concentration) inside a diffusion cloak crucially depends upon time, its distance from the source, and the diffusivity of the invisibility region. However, heat (or mass) diffusion outside cloaks, concentrators and rotators is unaffected by their presence, whatever their shape or position. Finally, we propose simplified designs of layered cylindrical and spherical diffusion cloaks that might foster experimental efforts in thermal and biochemical metamaterials.

  1. Transformed Fourier and Fick equations for the control of heat and mass diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenneau, S.; Petiteau, D.; Zerrad, M.; Amra, C.; Puvirajesinghe, T.

    2015-05-01

    We review recent advances in the control of diffusion processes in thermodynamics and life sciences through geometric transforms in the Fourier and Fick equations, which govern heat and mass diffusion, respectively. We propose to further encompass transport properties in the transformed equations, whereby the temperature is governed by a three-dimensional, time-dependent, anisotropic heterogeneous convection-diffusion equation, which is a parabolic partial differential equation combining the diffusion equation and the advection equation. We perform two dimensional finite element computations for cloaks, concentrators and rotators of a complex shape in the transient regime. We precise that in contrast to invisibility cloaks for waves, the temperature (or mass concentration) inside a diffusion cloak crucially depends upon time, its distance from the source, and the diffusivity of the invisibility region. However, heat (or mass) diffusion outside cloaks, concentrators and rotators is unaffected by their presence, whatever their shape or position. Finally, we propose simplified designs of layered cylindrical and spherical diffusion cloaks that might foster experimental efforts in thermal and biochemical metamaterials.

  2. Electron currents and heating in the ion diffusion region of asymmetric reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, D. B.; Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.; Norgren, C.; Vaivads, A.; André, M.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Marklund, G. T.; Ergun, R. E.; Paterson, W. R.; Gershman, D. J.; Giles, B. L.; Pollock, C. J.; Dorelli, J. C.; Avanov, L. A.; Lavraud, B.; Saito, Y.; Magnes, W.; Russell, C. T.; Strangeway, R. J.; Torbert, R. B.; Burch, J. L.

    2016-05-01

    In this letter the structure of the ion diffusion region of magnetic reconnection at Earth's magnetopause is investigated using the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft. The ion diffusion region is characterized by a strong DC electric field, approximately equal to the Hall electric field, intense currents, and electron heating parallel to the background magnetic field. Current structures well below ion spatial scales are resolved, and the electron motion associated with lower hybrid drift waves is shown to contribute significantly to the total current density. The electron heating is shown to be consistent with large-scale parallel electric fields trapping and accelerating electrons, rather than wave-particle interactions. These results show that sub-ion scale processes occur in the ion diffusion region and are important for understanding electron heating and acceleration.

  3. Diffusion, Fluxes, Friction Forces, and Joule Heating in Two-Temperature Multicomponent Magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, C. H.

    1999-01-01

    The relationship between Joule heating, diffusion fluxes, and friction forces has been studied for both total and electron thermal energy equations, using general expressions for multicomponent diffusion in two-temperature plasmas with the velocity dependent Lorentz force acting on charged species in a magnetic field. It is shown that the derivation of Joule heating terms requires both diffusion fluxes and friction between species which represents the resistance experienced by the species moving at different relative velocities. It is also shown that the familiar Joule heating term in the electron thermal energy equation includes artificial effects produced by switching the convective velocity from the species velocity to the mass-weighted velocity, and thus should not be ignored even when there is no net energy dissipation.

  4. Analysis of Structure Destroyed Metal after Diffusion Heat Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apasov, A. M.; Kozlov, E. V.; Fedoseev, S. N.

    2016-08-01

    It was accomplished research of the structure steel which carbonitriding and subsequent heat treatment was exposed for its cause's destruction to discover. For measure quality field of metal were used methods optical, appearing electronic microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Therefore one of the principal problems were research phase composition, grain and dislocation structure of a metal the gear teeth. Mechanism of rising hear cracks in the gear teeth on different stages her making and their trajectories of evolution were determined.

  5. Accurate determination of specific heat at high temperatures using the flash diffusivity method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandersande, J. W.; Zoltan, A.; Wood, C.

    1989-01-01

    The flash diffusivity method of Parker et al. (1961) was used to measure accurately the specific heat of test samples simultaneously with thermal diffusivity, thus obtaining the thermal conductivity of these materials directly. The accuracy of data obtained on two types of materials (n-type silicon-germanium alloys and niobium), was + or - 3 percent. It is shown that the method is applicable up to at least 1300 K.

  6. Diffusion in mixed solvents. III - The heat of mixing parameter and the Soret coefficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carapellucci, P. A.

    1976-01-01

    New evidence is presented that for aqueous glycerol solutions, the Soret coefficient of glycerol, sigma sub 1 = D sub 1 T/D sub 1 (where D sub 1 T and D sub 1 are the thermal and self-diffusion coefficients, respectively, of glycerol in aqueous solutions), is an integral part of the heat of mixing parameter. Expressions are presented indicating the importance of the Soret coefficients to correlations for diffusion processes in glycerol water solvents.

  7. Estimating thermal diffusivity and specific heat from needle probe thermal conductivity data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waite, W.F.; Gilbert, L.Y.; Winters, W.J.; Mason, D.H.

    2006-01-01

    Thermal diffusivity and specific heat can be estimated from thermal conductivity measurements made using a standard needle probe and a suitably high data acquisition rate. Thermal properties are calculated from the measured temperature change in a sample subjected to heating by a needle probe. Accurate thermal conductivity measurements are obtained from a linear fit to many tens or hundreds of temperature change data points. In contrast, thermal diffusivity calculations require a nonlinear fit to the measured temperature change occurring in the first few tenths of a second of the measurement, resulting in a lower accuracy than that obtained for thermal conductivity. Specific heat is calculated from the ratio of thermal conductivity to diffusivity, and thus can have an uncertainty no better than that of the diffusivity estimate. Our thermal conductivity measurements of ice Ih and of tetrahydrofuran (THF) hydrate, made using a 1.6 mm outer diameter needle probe and a data acquisition rate of 18.2 pointss, agree with published results. Our thermal diffusivity and specific heat results reproduce published results within 25% for ice Ih and 3% for THF hydrate. ?? 2006 American Institute of Physics.

  8. Self-diffusion in a stochastically heated two-dimensional dusty plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, T. E.

    2016-09-01

    Diffusion in a two-dimensional dusty plasma liquid (i.e., a Yukawa liquid) is studied experimentally. The dusty plasma liquid is heated stochastically by a surrounding three-dimensional toroidal dusty plasma gas which acts as a thermal reservoir. The measured dust velocity distribution functions are isotropic Maxwellians, giving a well-defined kinetic temperature. The mean-square displacement for dust particles is found to increase linearly with time, indicating normal diffusion. The measured diffusion coefficients increase approximately linearly with temperature. The effective collision rate is dominated by collective dust-dust interactions rather than neutral gas drag, and is comparable to the dusty-plasma frequency.

  9. Self-diffusion in a stochastically heated two-dimensional dusty plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, T. E.

    2016-09-01

    Diffusion in a two-dimensional dusty plasma liquid (i.e., a Yukawa liquid) is studied experimentally. The dusty plasma liquid is heated stochastically by a surrounding three-dimensional toroidal dusty plasma gas which acts as a thermal reservoir. The measured dust velocity distribution functions are isotropic Maxwellians, giving a well-defined kinetic temperature. The mean-square displacement for dust particles is found to increase linearly with time, indicating normal diffusion. The measured diffusion coefficients increase approximately linearly with temperature. The effective collision rate is dominated by collective dust–dust interactions rather than neutral gas drag, and is comparable to the dusty-plasma frequency.

  10. Effect of temperature on rectified diffusion during ultrasound-induced heating.

    PubMed

    Webb, Ian R; Payne, Stephen J; Coussios, Constantin-C

    2011-11-01

    Experimental observations of delayed-onset cavitation during ultrasound insonation have been suggested as being caused by a change in the size distribution of the bubble population due to rectified diffusion. To investigate this hypothesis, a single bubble model is used here to explore the effect of heating and the subsequent elevated temperatures on the rectified diffusion process. Numerical solution of the model, which includes the temperature dependences of seven relevant physical parameters, allows quantification of the change in the pressure threshold for rectified diffusion, as well as the importance of the bulk liquid saturation concentration in determining bubble evolution. Although elevated temperatures and liquid supersaturation reduce the rectified diffusion threshold, it remains coincident with the inertial cavitation thresholds at submicron bubble sizes at all temperatures. This observation suggests that changes in the nucleation environment, rather than bubble growth due to rectified diffusion, is a more likely cause of delayed-onset cavitation events.

  11. Multi-scale analysis of collective behavior in 2D self-propelled particle models of swarms: An Advection-Diffusion with Memory Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghib, Michael; Levin, Simon; Kevrekidis, Ioannis

    2010-05-01

    2. The long-time behavior of the msd of the centroid walk scales linearly with time for naïve groups (diffusion), but shows a sharp transition to quadratic scaling (advection) for informed ones. These observations suggest that the mesoscopic variables of interest are the magnitude of the drift, the diffusion coefficient and the time-scales at which the anomalous and the asymptotic behavior respectively dominate transport, the latter being linked to the time scale at which the group reaches a decision. In order to estimate these summary statistics from the msd, we assumed that the configuration centroid follows an uncoupled Continuous Time Random Walk (CTRW) with smooth jump and waiting time pdf's. The mesoscopic transport equation for this type of random walk corresponds to an Advection-Diffusion Equation with Memory (ADEM). The introduction of the memory, and thus non-Markovian effects, is necessary in order to correctly account for the two time scales present. Although we were not able to calculate the memory directly from the individual-level rules, we show that it can estimated from a single, relatively short, simulation run using a Mittag-Leffler function as template. With this function it is possible to predict accurately the behavior of the msd, as well as the full pdf for the position of the centroid. The resulting ADEM is self-consistent in the sense that transport parameters estimated from the memory via a Kubo relationship coincide with those estimated from the moments of the jump size pdf of the associated CTRW for a large number of group sizes, proportions of informed individuals, and degrees of bias along the preferred direction. We also discuss the phase diagrams for the transport coefficients estimated from this method, where we notice velocity-precision trade-offs, where precision is a measure of the deviation of realized group orientations with respect to the informed direction. We also note that the time scale to collective decision is invariant

  12. Determination of temperature-dependent heat conductivity and thermal diffusivity of waste glass melter feed

    SciTech Connect

    Pokorny, Richard; Rice, Jarrett A.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2013-06-01

    The cold cap is a layer of reacting glass batch floating on the surface of melt in an all-electric continuous glass melter. The heat needed for the conversion of the melter feed to molten glass must be transferred to and through the cold cap. Since the heat flux into the cold cap determines the rate of melting, the heat conductivity is a key property of the reacting feed. We designed an experimental setup consisting of a large cylindrical crucible with an assembly of thermocouples that monitors the evolution of the temperature field while the crucible is heated at a constant rate. Then we used two methods to calculate the heat conductivity and thermal diffusivity of the reacting feed: the approximation of the temperature field by polynomial functions and the finite-volume method coupled with least-squares analysis. Up to 680°C, the heat conductivity of the reacting melter feed was represented by a linear function of temperature.

  13. Imaging Local Heating and Thermal Diffusion of Nanomaterials with Plasmonic Thermal Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zixuan; Shan, Xiaonan; Guan, Yan; Wang, Shaopeng; Zhu, Jun-Jie; Tao, Nongjian

    2015-12-22

    Measuring local heat generation and dissipation in nanomaterials is critical for understanding the basic properties and developing applications of nanomaterials, including photothermal therapy and joule heating of nanoelectronics. Several technologies have been developed to probe local temperature distributions in nanomaterials, but a sensitive thermal imaging technology with high temporal and spatial resolution is still lacking. Here, we describe plasmonic thermal microscopy (PTM) to image local heat generation and diffusion from nanostructures in biologically relevant aqueous solutions. We demonstrate that PTM can detect local temperature change as small as 6 mK with temporal resolution of 10 μs and spatial resolution of submicrons (diffraction limit). With PTM, we have successfully imaged photothermal generation from single nanoparticles and graphene pieces, studied spatiotemporal distribution of temperature surrounding a heated nanoparticle, and observed heating at defect sites in graphene. We further show that the PTM images are in quantitative agreement with theoretical simulations based on heat transport theories. PMID:26435320

  14. Verification and benchmarking of MAGNUM-2D: a finite element computer code for flow and heat transfer in fractured porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Eyler, L.L.; Budden, M.J.

    1985-03-01

    The objective of this work is to assess prediction capabilities and features of the MAGNUM-2D computer code in relation to its intended use in the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP). This objective is accomplished through a code verification and benchmarking task. Results are documented which support correctness of prediction capabilities in areas of intended model application. 10 references, 43 figures, 11 tables.

  15. TOPAZ2D validation status report, August 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, B.

    1990-08-01

    Analytic solutions to two heat transfer problems were used to partially evaluate the performance TOPAZ, and LLNL finite element heat transfer code. The two benchmark analytic solutions were for: 2D steady state slab, with constant properties, constant uniform temperature boundary conditions on three sides, and constant temperature distribution according to a sine function on the fourth side; 1D transient non-linear, with temperature dependent conductivity and specific heat (varying such that the thermal diffusivity remained constant), constant heat flux on the front face and adiabatic conditions on the other face. The TOPAZ solution converged to the analytic solution in both the transient and the steady state problem. Consistent mass matrix type of analysis yielded best performance for the transient problem, in the late-time response; but notable unnatural anomalies were observed in the early-time temperature response at nodal locations near the front face. 5 refs., 22 figs.

  16. Mixed double-diffusive convection in gas-loaded heat pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, P.F. ); Tien, C.L. )

    1990-02-01

    This study examines mixed double-diffusive convection in gas-loaded heat pipes and two-phase thermosyphons. The numerical simulation and experiments show that steady, laminar natural convection due to the combined effects of temperature and concentration gradients can greatly redistribute the noncondensable gas within the condenser. This change of the gas distribution, however, does not significantly alter the overall condensation heat transfer. This interesting result implies that even with natural convection present, much simpler integral models can still be applied with confidence for the design of variable-conductance heat pipes and thermosyphons.

  17. Partial heating and partial salting on double-diffusive convection in an open cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbin, N.; Hashim, I.

    2014-09-01

    Double-diffusive natural convection in an open top square cavity and partially heated from the side is studied numerically. Constant temperatures and concentration are imposed along the right and left walls while the heat balance at the surface is assumed to obey Newton's law of cooling. The finite difference method is used to solve the dimensionless governing equations. The numerical results are reported for the effects of Marangoni number and different heater locations on the contours of streamlines, temperature and concentration. The heat and mass transfer rate in the cavity are measured in terms of the average Nusselt and Sherwood numbers.

  18. Analogies between optical propagation and heat diffusion: applications to microcavities, gratings and cloaks

    PubMed Central

    Amra, C.; Petiteau, D.; Zerrad, M.; Guenneau, S.; Soriano, G.; Gralak, B.; Bellieud, M.; Veynante, D.; Rolland, N.

    2015-01-01

    A new analogy between optical propagation and heat diffusion in heterogeneous anisotropic media has been proposed recently by three of the present authors. A detailed derivation of this unconventional correspondence is presented and developed. In time harmonic regime, all thermal parameters are related to optical ones in artificial metallic media, thus making possible to use numerical codes developed for optics. Then, the optical admittance formalism is extended to heat conduction in multilayered structures. The concepts of planar microcavities, diffraction gratings and planar transformation optics for heat conduction are addressed. Results and limitations of the analogy are emphasized. PMID:26730214

  19. Radiative heating of interstellar grains falling toward the solar nebula: 1-D diffusion calculations.

    PubMed

    Simonelli, D P; Pollack, J B; McKay, C P

    1997-02-01

    As the dense molecular cloud that was the precursor of our Solar System was collapsing to form a protosun and the surrounding solar-nebula accretion disk, infalling interstellar grains were heated much more effectively by radiation from the forming protosun than by radiation from the disk's accretion shock. Accordingly, we have estimated the temperatures experienced by these infalling grains using radiative diffusion calculations whose sole energy source is radiation from the protosun. Although the calculations are 1-dimensional, they make use of 2-D, cylindrically symmetric models of the density structure of a collapsing, rotating cloud. The temperature calculations also utilize recent models for the composition and radiative properties of interstellar grains (Pollack et al. 1994. Astrophys. J. 421, 615-639), thereby allowing us to estimate which grain species might have survived, intact, to the disk accretion shock and what accretion rates and molecular-cloud rotation rates aid that survival. Not surprisingly, we find that the large uncertainties in the free parameter values allow a wide range of grain-survival results: (1) For physically plausible high accretion rates or low rotation rates (which produce small accretion disks), all of the infalling grain species, even the refractory silicates and iron, will vaporize in the protosun's radiation field before reaching the disk accretion shock. (2) For equally plausible low accretion rates or high rotation rates (which produce large accretion disks), all non-ice species, even volatile organics, will survive intact to the disk accretion shock. These grain-survival conclusions are subject to several limitations which need to be addressed by future, more sophisticated radiative-transfer models. Nevertheless, our results can serve as useful inputs to models of the processing that interstellar grains undergo at the solar nebula's accretion shock, and thus help address the broader question of interstellar inheritance in

  20. Analysis of thermal diffusivity of Ti thin film by thermoreflectance and periodic heating technique.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Genzou; Kato, Hideyuki

    2011-03-01

    Thermal diffusivity of Ti thin film with several hundred nanometers thickness has been measured by means of thermoreflectance (TR) technique and periodic heating using front heating and front detection configuration. Ti thin films were prepared on Si substrates by dc sputtering method. Then thin Mo layers as reflection layers were coated on Ti thin films. Surface of the Mo layer is irradiated by sinusoidally intensity modulated heating laser. Temperature response at the heated area is measured by a probe laser beam with constant intensity, as a TR signal. Phase lag between the phase of TR signal and that of heating laser beam was obtained from 100 kHz to 2.6 MHz. To analyze thermal diffusivity of Ti thin films using the phase lag data, we developed a three-layer analytical model such as Mo coating (100 nm)∕thin film∕semi-infinite substrate. The calculated phase lag using analytical model is in good agreement with the experimental data for the whole frequency range. The thermal diffusivity of two Ti thin films is determined to be 5 × 10(-6) m(2)∕s, which is 53% of the bulk one.

  1. Analysis of thermal diffusivity of Ti thin film by thermoreflectance and periodic heating technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, Genzou; Kato, Hideyuki

    2011-03-01

    Thermal diffusivity of Ti thin film with several hundred nanometers thickness has been measured by means of thermoreflectance (TR) technique and periodic heating using front heating and front detection configuration. Ti thin films were prepared on Si substrates by dc sputtering method. Then thin Mo layers as reflection layers were coated on Ti thin films. Surface of the Mo layer is irradiated by sinusoidally intensity modulated heating laser. Temperature response at the heated area is measured by a probe laser beam with constant intensity, as a TR signal. Phase lag between the phase of TR signal and that of heating laser beam was obtained from 100 kHz to 2.6 MHz. To analyze thermal diffusivity of Ti thin films using the phase lag data, we developed a three-layer analytical model such as Mo coating (100 nm)/thin film/semi-infinite substrate. The calculated phase lag using analytical model is in good agreement with the experimental data for the whole frequency range. The thermal diffusivity of two Ti thin films is determined to be 5 × 10-6 m2/s, which is 53% of the bulk one.

  2. Influence of a Simple Heat Loss Profile on a Pure Diffusion Flame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Anjan; Wichman, Indrek S.

    1996-01-01

    The presence of soot on the fuel side of a diffusion flame results in significant radiative heat losses. The influence of a fuel side heat loss zone on a pure diffusion flame established between a fuel and an oxidizer wall is investigated by assuming a hypothetical sech(sup 2) heat loss profile. The intensity and width of the loss zone are parametrically varied. The loss zone is placed at different distances from the Burke-Schumann flame location. The migration of the temperature and reactivity peaks are examined for a variety of situations. For certain cases the reaction zone breaks through the loss zone and relocates itself on the fuel side of the loss zone. In all cases the temperature and reactivity peaks move toward the fuel side with increased heat losses. The flame structure reveals that the primary balance for the energy equation is between the reaction term and the diffusion term. Extinction plots are generated for a variety of situations. The heat transfer from the flame to the walls and the radiative fraction is also investigated, and an analytical correlation formula, derived in a previous study, is shown to produce excellent predictions of our numerical results when an O(l) numerical multiplicative constant is employed.

  3. Stretch diffusion and heat conduction in one-dimensional nonlinear lattices.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhibin; Li, Nianbei; Li, Baowen

    2016-03-01

    For heat conduction in one-dimensional (1D) nonlinear Hamiltonian lattices, it has been known that conserved quantities play an important role in determining the actual heat conduction behavior. In closed or microcanonical Hamiltonian systems, the total energy and stretch are always conserved. Depending on the existence of external on-site potential, the total momentum can be conserved or not. All the momentum-conserving lattices have anomalous heat conduction except the 1D coupled rotator lattice. It was recently claimed that "whenever stretch (momentum) is not conserved in a 1D model, the momentum (stretch) and energy fields exhibit normal diffusion." The stretch in a coupled rotator lattice was also argued to be nonconserved due to the requirement of a finite partition function, which enables the coupled rotator lattice to fulfill this claim. In this work, we will systematically investigate stretch diffusion and heat conduction in terms of energy diffusion for typical 1D nonlinear lattices. Contrary to what was claimed, no clear connection between conserved quantities and heat conduction can be established. The actual situation might be more complicated than what was proposed. PMID:27078315

  4. Thermal conductivity and diffusivity of biomaterials measured with self-heated thermistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valvano, J. W.; Cochran, J. R.; Diller, K. R.

    1985-05-01

    This paper presents an experimental method to measure the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of biomaterials. Self-heated thermistor probes, inserted into the tissue of interest, are used to deliver heat as well as to monitor the rate of heat removal. An empirical calibration procedure allows accurate thermal-property measurements over a wide range of tissue temperatures. Operation of the instrument in three media with known thermal properties shows the uncertainty of measurements to be about 2%. The reproducibility is 0.5% for the thermal-conductivity measurements and 2% for the thermal-diffusivity measurements. Thermal properties were measured in dog, pig, rabbit, and human tissues. The tissues included kidney, spleen, liver, brain, heart, lung, pancreas, colon cancer, and breast cancer. Thermal properties were measured for 65 separate tissue samples at 3, 10, 17, 23, 30, 37, and 45°C. The results show that the temperature coefficient of biomaterials approximates that of water.

  5. LATERAL HEAT FLOW INFRARED THERMOGRAPHY FOR THICKNESS INDEPENDENT DETERMINATION OF THERMAL DIFFUSIVITY IN CFRP

    SciTech Connect

    Tralshawala, Nilesh; Howard, Don; Knight, Bryon; Plotnikov, Yuri; Ringermacher, Harry

    2008-02-28

    In conventional infrared thermography, determination of thermal diffusivity requires thickness information. Recently GE has been experimenting with the use of lateral heat flow to determine thermal diffusivity without thickness information. This work builds on previous work at NASA Langley and Wayne State University but we incorporate thermal time of flight (tof) analysis rather than curve fitting to obtain quantitative information. We have developed appropriate theoretical models and a tof based data analysis framework to experimentally determine all components of thermal diffusivity from the time-temperature measurements. Initial validation was carried out using finite difference simulations. Experimental validation was done using anisotropic carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites. We found that in the CFRP samples used, the in-plane component of diffusivity is about eight times larger than the through-thickness component.

  6. Series solution to coupled nonlinear heat and moisture transfer in slabs with temperature-dependent diffusivities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Ryoichi

    2014-12-01

    The two-dimensional differential transform method (DTM) is applied to solve the one-dimensional coupled heat and moisture diffusion problem for a slab with temperature-dependent thermal and moisture diffusivities, which are expressed by a linear function and an exponential function of temperature, respectively. One surface of the slab is subjected to convective hygrothermal loading and the other has constant prescribed temperature and moisture. Approximate analytical (series) solutions for the temperature and moisture profiles in the slab are derived. The transformed functions included in the solutions are obtained through a simple recursive procedure. Numerical results for a slab subjected to a sudden change in surface temperature illustrate the effects of temperature-dependent diffusivities on the transient temperature and moisture profiles of the slab. The results indicate that the nonlinear effect originating from the varying moisture diffusivity is not negligible for resin composites. The DTMis a useful new analytical method for solving nonlinear coupled transient problems.

  7. Eddy Diffusivities for Sensible Heat, Ozone and Momentum from Eddy Correlation and Gradient Measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeller, Karl Frederick

    Micrometeorological field measurements of the fluxes and the gradients of momentum, sensible heat and ozone are presented and discussed. The eddy-correlation measurement technique was used to obtain the flux data at the heights of three and eight meters. A method to accurately measure mass (ozone) gradients from surface -layer based meteorological towers was developed and used. Both flux and gradient measurements are used for the determination of eddy diffusivities. Exploratory analyses were made with the data to investigate similarity relationships between the eddy diffusivities of momentum K_{ rm m}, sensible heat K_ {rm h}, and mass K_ {rm c}, where ozone was used as the mass tracer. Eddy-diffusivity ratios were computed using dimensionless -gradient ratios classified from the data and from regression models. These ratios were classified by atmospheric stability determined at the geometric mean of the measurement heights. The assumption of similarity between the eddy diffusivities of ozone and sensible heat, K_ {rm c} = K_{ rm h}, based on scalar turbulent transfer theory, was verified for unstable atmospheric conditions. The results for eddy diffusivities of sensible heat and ozone for stable atmospheric conditions however, show that diffusivities of sensible heat are 50% greater than diffusivities of ozone. Chemical reaction of ozone, and/or the need for flux-measurement corrections, decrease the resulting values for ozone diffusivities during stable periods. Established eddy-diffusivity ratios for water vapor and momentum are valid for ozone and momentum under stable-atmospheric conditions over smooth-terrain but not under unstable conditions for flow disturbed by irregular terrain. The relationships between the eddy diffusivities of momentum and the eddy diffusivities of ozone, as well as those between momentum and sensible heat are controlled by free-convection conditions, K_{ rm m} < K_ {rm c} and K_{ rm m} < K_ {rm h}; these results are inconclusive for

  8. Spin-heat relaxation and thermospin diffusion in atomic Bose and Fermi gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Clement H.; Stoof, H. T. C.; Duine, R. A.

    2015-04-01

    We study spin-dependent heat transport in quantum gases, focusing on transport phenomena related to pure spin currents and spin-dependent temperatures. Using the Boltzmann equation, we compute the coupled spin-heat transport coefficients as a function of temperature and interaction strength for energy-dependent s -wave scattering. We address the issue of whether spin-dependent temperatures can be sustained on a time and length scale relevant for experiments by computing the spin-heat relaxation time and diffusion length. We find that the time scale for spin-heat relaxation time diverges at low temperatures for both bosons and fermions, indicating that the concept of spin-heat accumulation is well defined for degenerate gases. For bosons, we find power-law behavior on approach to Bose condensation above the critical temperature, as expected from the theory of dynamical critical phenomena.

  9. NONINVASIVE MEASUREMENT OF LOCAL THERMAL DIFFUSIVITY USING BACKSCATTERED ULTRASOUND AND FOCUSED ULTRASOUND HEATING

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Ajay; Kaczkowski, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    Previously, noninvasive methods of estimating local tissue thermal and acoustic properties using backscattered ultrasound have been proposed in the literature. In this article, a noninvasive method of estimating local thermal diffusivity in situ during focused ultrasound heating using beamformed acoustic backscatter data and applying novel signal processing techniques is developed. A high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) transducer operating at subablative intensities is employed to create a brief local temperature rise of no more than 10°C. Beamformed radio-frequency (RF) data are collected during heating and cooling using a clinical ultrasound scanner. Measurements of the time-varying “acoustic strain”, that is, spatiotemporal variations in the RF echo shifts induced by the temperature related sound speed changes, are related to a solution of the heat transfer equation to estimate the thermal diffusivity in the heated zone. Numerical simulations and experiments performed in vitro in tissue mimicking phantoms and excised turkey breast muscle tissue demonstrate agreement between the ultrasound derived thermal diffusivity estimates and independent estimates made by a traditional hot-wire technique. The new noninvasive ultrasonic method has potential applications in thermal therapy planning and monitoring, physiological monitoring and as a means of noninvasive tissue characterization. PMID:18450361

  10. On flow induced kinetic diffusion and rotary kiln bed burden heat transport

    SciTech Connect

    Boateng, A.A.

    1997-07-01

    The cross-section of a partially-filled cylindrical kiln rotating on its horizontal axis and processing granular solids produces a shear zone (active layer) at the free surface which grows with the kiln's rotational rate. The active layer, although relatively thin, compared with the rest of the bed burden, drives all physical/chemical reactions. This is because of the high rate of surface renewal which, in turn, promotes heat exchange between the exposed surface and the higher temperature freeboard gas. Unlike packed beds, particulate diffusion induced by the flow of granules, adds a significant component to the overall heat transfer in the bed. Problem formulation and modeling of heat conduction using flow fields derived from experiments suggest that at slow kiln speeds the diffusion effect may not be recognized due to long term duration of particle contacts and hence packed-bed heat conduction models may provide adequate characterization. However, at moderate and high kiln speeds particle collisions are short-termed and kinetic diffusion contributes to the effective thermal conductivity by as much as tenfold thereby resulting in a well-mixed conditions and a homogeneous bed temperature. Industrial processing ramifications such as kiln speed control and product quality are discussed hereafter.

  11. Phase-field modeling of binary alloy solidification with coupled heat and solute diffusion.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, J C; Beckermann, C; Karma, A; Diepers, H-J

    2004-05-01

    A phase-field model is developed for simulating quantitatively microstructural pattern formation in solidification of dilute binary alloys with coupled heat and solute diffusion. The model reduces to the sharp-interface equations in a computationally tractable thin-interface limit where (i). the width of the diffuse interface is about one order of magnitude smaller than the radius of curvature of the interface but much larger than the real microscopic width of a solid-liquid interface, and (ii). kinetic effects are negligible. A recently derived antitrapping current [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 115701 (2001)

  12. Simulation using HYDRUS-2D for Soil Water and Heat Transfer under Drip Irrigation with 95oC Hot Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Y.; Noborio, K.

    2015-12-01

    In Japan, soil disinfection with hot water has been popular since the use of methyl bromide was restricted in 2005. Decreasing the amount of hot water applied may make farmers reduce the operation cost. To determine the appropriate amount of hot water needed for soil disinfection, HYDRUS-2D was evaluated. A field experiment was conducted and soil water content and soil temperature were measured at 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 cm deep when 95oC hot water was applied. Irrigation tubing equipped with drippers every 30 cm were laid at the soil surface, z=0 cm. An irrigation rate for each dripper was 0.83 cm min-1 between t=0 and 120 min, and thereafter it was zero. Temperature of irrigation water was 95oC. Total simulation time with HYDRUS-2D was 720 min for a homogeneous soil. A simulating domain was selected as x=60 cm and z=100 cm. A potential evaporation rate was assumed to be 0 cm min-1 because the soil surface was covered with a plastic sheet. The boundary condition at the bottom was free drainage and those of both sides were no-flux conditions. Hydraulic properties and bulk densities measured at each depth were used for simulation. It was assumed that there was no organic matter contained. Soil thermal properties were adopted from previous study and HYDRUS 2D. Simulated temperatures at 5, 10, 20 and 40 cm deep agreed well with those measured although simulated temperatures at 60, 80, and 100 cm deep were overly estimated. Estimates of volumetric water content at 5 cm deep agreed well with measured values. Simulated values at 10 to 100 cm deep were overly estimated by 0.1 to 0.3 (m3 m-3). The deeper the soil became, the more the simulated wetting front lagged behind the measured one. It was speculated that water viscosity estimated smaller at high temperature might attributed to the slower advances of wetting front simulated with HYDRUS 2-D.

  13. Report of the 1988 2-D Intercomparison Workshop, chapter 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackman, Charles H.; Brasseur, Guy; Soloman, Susan; Guthrie, Paul D.; Garcia, Rolando; Yung, Yuk L.; Gray, Lesley J.; Tung, K. K.; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Isaken, Ivar

    1989-01-01

    Several factors contribute to the errors encountered. With the exception of the line-by-line model, all of the models employ simplifying assumptions that place fundamental limits on their accuracy and range of validity. For example, all 2-D modeling groups use the diffusivity factor approximation. This approximation produces little error in tropospheric H2O and CO2 cooling rates, but can produce significant errors in CO2 and O3 cooling rates at the stratopause. All models suffer from fundamental uncertainties in shapes and strengths of spectral lines. Thermal flux algorithms being used in 2-D tracer tranport models produce cooling rates that differ by as much as 40 percent for the same input model atmosphere. Disagreements of this magnitude are important since the thermal cooling rates must be subtracted from the almost-equal solar heating rates to derive the net radiative heating rates and the 2-D model diabatic circulation. For much of the annual cycle, the net radiative heating rates are comparable in magnitude to the cooling rate differences described. Many of the models underestimate the cooling rates in the middle and lower stratosphere. The consequences of these errors for the net heating rates and the diabatic circulation will depend on their meridional structure, which was not tested here. Other models underestimate the cooling near 1 mbar. Suchs errors pose potential problems for future interactive ozone assessment studies, since they could produce artificially-high temperatures and increased O3 destruction at these levels. These concerns suggest that a great deal of work is needed to improve the performance of thermal cooling rate algorithms used in the 2-D tracer transport models.

  14. Experimental study of surface tension, specific heat and thermal diffusivity of liquid and solid titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, K.; Wang, H. P.; Chang, J.; Wei, B.

    2015-10-01

    The thermophysical properties of liquid and solid titanium such as the surface tension, specific heat and thermal diffusivity have been investigated over a wide temperature range. By using electromagnetic levitation and oscillating drop method, the surface tension of liquid titanium was measured in the temperature range of 1802-2188 K. The viscosity and density of undercooled liquid titanium were calculated by some well-known models using the measured data as input. In addition, the specific heat of liquid titanium was determined over the experimental range using electromagnetic levitation and drop calorimetry obtaining the value of 33.64 J mol-1 K-1. In addition, the thermal diffusivity of solid titanium was measured by laser flash method in the temperature range of 171-1080 K.

  15. Three dimensional coupled simulation of thermomechanics, heat, and oxygen diffusion in UO2 nuclear fuel rods

    SciTech Connect

    Chris Newman; Glen Hansen; Derek Gaston

    2009-07-01

    The simulation of nuclear reactor fuel performance involves complex thermomechanical processes between fuel pellets, made of fissile material, and the protective cladding barrier that surrounds the pellets. This paper examines asubset of phenomena that are important in the development of a predictive capability for fuel performance calculations, focusing on thermomechanics and diffusion within UO2 fuel pellets. In this study, correlations from the literature are used for thermal conductivity, specific heat, and oxygen diffusion. This study develops a three dimensional thermomechanical model fully-coupled to an oxygen diffusion model. Both steady state and transient results are examined to compare this three dimensional model with the literature. Further, this equation system is solved in a parallel, fully-coupled, fully-implicit manner using a preconditioned Jacobian-free Newton Krylov method. Numerical results are presented to explore the efficacy of this approach for examining selected fuel performance problems. INL’s BISON fuels performance code is used to perform this analysis.

  16. Fabrication and Design Aspects of High-Temperature Compact Diffusion Bonded Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Mylavarapu, Sai K.; Sun, Xiaodong; Christensen, Richard N.; Glosup, Richard E.; Unocic, Raymond R

    2012-01-01

    The very high temperature reactor (VHTR), using gas-cooled reactor technology, is one of the six reactor concepts selected by the Generation IV International Forum and is anticipated to be the reactor type for the next generation nuclear plant (NGNP). In this type of reactor with an indirect power cycle system, a high-temperature and high integrity intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) with high effectiveness is required to efficiently transfer the core thermal output to secondary fluid for electricity production, process heat, or hydrogen cogeneration. The current Technology Readiness Level status issued by NGNP to all components associated with the IHX for reactor core outlet temperatures of 750-800oC is 3 on a scale of 1 to 10 with 10 being the most ready. At present, there is no proven high-temperature IHX concept for VHTRs. Amongst the various potential IHX concepts available, diffusion bonded heat exchangers (henceforth called printed circuit heat exchangers, or PCHEs) appear promising for NGNP applications. The design and fabrication of this key component of NGNP is the primary focus of this paper. In the current study, two PCHEs were fabricated using Alloy 617 plates and will be experimentally investigated for their thermal-hydraulic performance in a high-temperature helium test facility (HTHF). The HTHF was primarily designed and constructed to test the thermal-hydraulic performance of PCHEs The test facility is primarily of Alloy 800H construction and is designed to facilitate experiments at temperatures and pressures up to 800oC and 3 MPa, respectively. The PCHE fabrication related processes, i.e., photochemical machining and diffusion bonding are briefly discussed for Alloy 617 plates. Diffusion bonding of Alloy 617 plates with and without a Ni interlayer is discussed. Furthermore, preliminary microstructural and mechanical characterization studies of representative diffusion bonded Alloy 617 specimens are presented.

  17. Implicit Solution of Non-Equilibrium Radiation Diffusion Including Reactive Heating Source in Material Energy Equation

    SciTech Connect

    Shumaker, D E; Woodward, C S

    2005-05-03

    In this paper, the authors investigate performance of a fully implicit formulation and solution method of a diffusion-reaction system modeling radiation diffusion with material energy transfer and a fusion fuel source. In certain parameter regimes this system can lead to a rapid conversion of potential energy into material energy. Accuracy in time integration is essential for a good solution since a major fraction of the fuel can be depleted in a very short time. Such systems arise in a number of application areas including evolution of a star and inertial confinement fusion. Previous work has addressed implicit solution of radiation diffusion problems. Recently Shadid and coauthors have looked at implicit and semi-implicit solution of reaction-diffusion systems. In general they have found that fully implicit is the most accurate method for difficult coupled nonlinear equations. In previous work, they have demonstrated that a method of lines approach coupled with a BDF time integrator and a Newton-Krylov nonlinear solver could efficiently and accurately solve a large-scale, implicit radiation diffusion problem. In this paper, they extend that work to include an additional heating term in the material energy equation and an equation to model the evolution of the reactive fuel density. This system now consists of three coupled equations for radiation energy, material energy, and fuel density. The radiation energy equation includes diffusion and energy exchange with material energy. The material energy equation includes reaction heating and exchange with radiation energy, and the fuel density equation includes its depletion due to the fuel consumption.

  18. THEMIS Observations of the Magnetopause Electron Diffusion Region: Large Amplitude Waves and Heated Electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Xiangwei; Cattell, Cynthia; Dombeck, John; Dai, Lei; Wilson, Lynn B. III; Breneman, Aaron; Hupack, Adam

    2013-01-01

    We present the first observations of large amplitude waves in a well-defined electron diffusion region based on the criteria described by Scudder et al at the subsolar magnetopause using data from one Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) satellite. These waves identified as whistler mode waves, electrostatic solitary waves, lower hybrid waves, and electrostatic electron cyclotron waves, are observed in the same 12 s waveform capture and in association with signatures of active magnetic reconnection. The large amplitude waves in the electron diffusion region are coincident with abrupt increases in electron parallel temperature suggesting strong wave heating. The whistler mode waves, which are at the electron scale and which enable us to probe electron dynamics in the diffusion region were analyzed in detail. The energetic electrons (approx. 30 keV) within the electron diffusion region have anisotropic distributions with T(sub e(right angle))/T(sub e(parallel)) > 1 that may provide the free energy for the whistler mode waves. The energetic anisotropic electrons may be produced during the reconnection process. The whistler mode waves propagate away from the center of the "X-line" along magnetic field lines, suggesting that the electron diffusion region is a possible source region of the whistler mode waves.

  19. Documentation and verification of VST2D; a model for simulating transient, Variably Saturated, coupled water-heat-solute Transport in heterogeneous, anisotropic 2-Dimensional, ground-water systems with variable fluid density

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedel, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    This report describes a model for simulating transient, Variably Saturated, coupled water-heatsolute Transport in heterogeneous, anisotropic, 2-Dimensional, ground-water systems with variable fluid density (VST2D). VST2D was developed to help understand the effects of natural and anthropogenic factors on quantity and quality of variably saturated ground-water systems. The model solves simultaneously for one or more dependent variables (pressure, temperature, and concentration) at nodes in a horizontal or vertical mesh using a quasi-linearized general minimum residual method. This approach enhances computational speed beyond the speed of a sequential approach. Heterogeneous and anisotropic conditions are implemented locally using individual element property descriptions. This implementation allows local principal directions to differ among elements and from the global solution domain coordinates. Boundary conditions can include time-varying pressure head (or moisture content), heat, and/or concentration; fluxes distributed along domain boundaries and/or at internal node points; and/or convective moisture, heat, and solute fluxes along the domain boundaries; and/or unit hydraulic gradient along domain boundaries. Other model features include temperature and concentration dependent density (liquid and vapor) and viscosity, sorption and/or decay of a solute, and capability to determine moisture content beyond residual to zero. These features are described in the documentation together with development of the governing equations, application of the finite-element formulation (using the Galerkin approach), solution procedure, mass and energy balance considerations, input requirements, and output options. The VST2D model was verified, and results included solutions for problems of water transport under isohaline and isothermal conditions, heat transport under isobaric and isohaline conditions, solute transport under isobaric and isothermal conditions, and coupled water-heat

  20. Ballistic vs. diffusive heat transfer across nanoscopic films of layered crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Meng; Keblinski, Pawel

    2014-04-14

    We use non-equilibrium molecular dynamics to study the heat transfer mechanism across sandwich interfacial structures of Si/n-atomic-layers/Si, with 1 ≤ n ≤ 20 and atomic layers composed of WSe{sub 2} and/or graphene. In the case of WSe{sub 2} sheets, we observe that the thermal resistance of the sandwich structure is increasing almost linearly with the number of WSe{sub 2} sheets, n, indicating a diffusive phonon transport mechanism. By contrast in the case of n graphene layers, the interfacial thermal resistance is more or less independent on the number of layers for 1 ≤ n ≤ 10, and is associated with ballistic phonon transport mechanism. We attribute the diffusive heat transfer mechanism across WSe{sub 2} sheets to abundant low frequency and low group velocity optical modes that carry most of the heat across the interface. By contrast, in graphene, acoustic modes dominate the thermal transport across the interface and render a ballistic heat flow mechanism.

  1. Visualization by neutron diffraction of 2D oxygen diffusion in the Sr(0.7)Ho(0.3)CoO(3-δ) cathode for solid-oxide fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Cascos, V; Martínez-Coronado, R; Alonso, J A; Fernández-Díaz, M T

    2014-06-25

    Sr0.7Ho0.3CoO3-δ oxide has been recently described as an excellent cathode material (1274 mW cm(-2) at 850 °C with pure H2 as fuel1) for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) with LSGM as electrolyte. In this work, we describe a detailed study of its crystal structure conducted to find out the correlation between the excellent performance as a cathode and the structural features. The tetragonal crystal structure (e.g., I4/mmm) basically contains layers of octahedrally coordinated Co2O6 units alternated with layers of Co1O4 tetrahedra sharing corners. An "in situ" neutron power diffraction (NPD) experiment, between 25 and 800 °C, reveals the presence of a high oxygen deficiency affecting O4 oxygen atoms, with large displacement factors that suggest a large lability and mobility. Difference Fourier maps allow the visualization at high temperatures of the 2D diffusion pathways within the tetrahedral layers, where O3 and O4 oxygens participate. The measured thermal expansion coefficient is 16.61 × 10(-6) K(-1) between 300 and 850 °C, exhibiting an excellent chemical compatibility with the electrolyte. PMID:24873238

  2. Indirect Versus Direct Heating of Sheet Materials: Superplastic Forming and Diffusion Bonding Using Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jocelyn, Alan; Kar, Aravinda; Fanourakis, Alexander; Flower, Terence; Ackerman, Mike; Keevil, Allen; Way, Jerome

    2010-06-01

    Many from within manufacturing industry consider superplastic forming (SPF) to be ‘high tech’, but it is often criticized as too complicated, expensive, slow and, in general, an unstable process when compared to other methods of manipulating sheet materials. Perhaps, the fundamental cause of this negative perception of SPF, and also of diffusion bonding (DB), is the fact that the current process of SPF/DB relies on indirect sources of heating to produce the conditions necessary for the material to be formed. Thus, heat is usually derived from the electrically heated platens of hydraulic presses, to a lesser extent from within furnaces and, sometimes, from heaters imbedded in ceramic moulds. Recent evaluations of these isothermal methods suggest they are slow, thermally inefficient and inappropriate for the process. In contrast, direct heating of only the material to be formed by modern, electrically efficient, lasers could transform SPF/DB into the first choice of designers in aerospace, automotive, marine, medical, architecture and leisure industries. Furthermore, ‘variable temperature’ direct heating which, in theory, is possible with a laser beam(s) may provide a means to control material thickness distribution, a goal of enormous importance as fuel efficient, lightweight structures for transportation systems are universally sought. This paper compares, and contrasts, the two systems and suggests how a change to laser heating might be achieved.

  3. Aniso2D

    2005-07-01

    Aniso2d is a two-dimensional seismic forward modeling code. The earth is parameterized by an X-Z plane in which the seismic properties Can have monoclinic with x-z plane symmetry. The program uses a user define time-domain wavelet to produce synthetic seismograms anrwhere within the two-dimensional media.

  4. Towards 2D nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Hyun-Sook; Yu, Changqian; Hayes, Robert; Granick, Steve

    2015-03-01

    Polymer vesicles (``polymersomes'') are an intriguing class of soft materials, commonly used to encapsulate small molecules or particles. Here we reveal they can also effectively incorporate nanoparticles inside their polymer membrane, leading to novel ``2D nanocomposites.'' The embedded nanoparticles alter the capacity of the polymersomes to bend and to stretch upon external stimuli.

  5. Existence and Uniqueness of Solutions to Heat Equations with Hysteresis Coupled with Navier-Stokes Equations in 2D and 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuzuki, Yutaka

    2015-09-01

    This paper is concerned with a system of heat equations with hysteresis and Navier-Stokes equations. In Tsuzuki (J Math Anal Appl 423:877-897, 2015) an existence result is obtained for the problem in a 2-dimensional domain with the Navier-Stokes equation in a weak sense. However the result does not include uniqueness for the problem due to the low regularity for solutions. This paper establishes existence and uniqueness in 2- and 3-dimensional domains with the Navier-Stokes equation in a stronger sense. Moreover this work decides required height of regularity for the initial data by introducing the fractional power of the Stokes operator.

  6. Calibration of High Temperature Thermal Conductivity System: New Algorithm to Measure Heat Capacity Using Flash Thermal Diffusivity in Thermoelectric Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deb, Rahul; Snyder, Jeff G.

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing thermoelectric materials, an algorithm for heat capacity measurements and the process of flash thermal diffusivity. The contents include: 1) What are Thermoelectrics?; 2) Thermoelectric Applications; 3) Improving Thermoelectrics; 4) Research Goal; 5) Flash Thermal Diffusivity; 6) Background Effects; 7) Stainless Steel Comparison; 8) Pulse Max Integral; and 9) Graphite Comparison Algorithm.

  7. Simultaneous determination of thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat in sI methane hydrate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waite, W.F.; Stern, L.A.; Kirby, S.H.; Winters, W.J.; Mason, D.H.

    2007-01-01

    Thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat of sI methane hydrate were measured as functions of temperature and pressure using a needle probe technique. The temperature dependence was measured between −20°C and 17°C at 31.5 MPa. The pressure dependence was measured between 31.5 and 102 MPa at 14.4°C. Only weak temperature and pressure dependencies were observed. Methane hydrate thermal conductivity differs from that of water by less than 10 per cent, too little to provide a sensitive measure of hydrate content in water-saturated systems. Thermal diffusivity of methane hydrate is more than twice that of water, however, and its specific heat is about half that of water. Thus, when drilling into or through hydrate-rich sediment, heat from the borehole can raise the formation temperature more than 20 per cent faster than if the formation's pore space contains only water. Thermal properties of methane hydrate should be considered in safety and economic assessments of hydrate-bearing sediment.

  8. The heat released during catalytic turnover enhances the diffusion of an enzyme.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Clement; Gabizon, Ronen; Wilson, Christian A M; Hamadani, Kambiz; Tsekouras, Konstantinos; Marqusee, Susan; Pressé, Steve; Bustamante, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the diffusivity of enzymes increases in a substrate-dependent manner during catalysis. Although this observation has been reported and characterized for several different systems, the precise origin of this phenomenon is unknown. Calorimetric methods are often used to determine enthalpies from enzyme-catalysed reactions and can therefore provide important insight into their reaction mechanisms. The ensemble averages involved in traditional bulk calorimetry cannot probe the transient effects that the energy exchanged in a reaction may have on the catalyst. Here we obtain single-molecule fluorescence correlation spectroscopy data and analyse them within the framework of a stochastic theory to demonstrate a mechanistic link between the enhanced diffusion of a single enzyme molecule and the heat released in the reaction. We propose that the heat released during catalysis generates an asymmetric pressure wave that results in a differential stress at the protein-solvent interface that transiently displaces the centre-of-mass of the enzyme (chemoacoustic effect). This novel perspective on how enzymes respond to the energy released during catalysis suggests a possible effect of the heat of reaction on the structural integrity and internal degrees of freedom of the enzyme. PMID:25487146

  9. The heat released during catalytic turnover enhances the diffusion of an enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Riedel, Clement; Gabizon, Ronen; Wilson, Christian A. M.; Hamadani, Kambiz; Tsekouras, Konstantinos; Marqusee, Susan; Pressé, Steve; Bustamante, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the diffusivity of enzymes increases in a substrate-dependent manner during catalysis1,2. Although this observation has been reported and characterized for several different systems3–10, the precise origin of this phenomenon is unknown. Calorimetric methods are often used to determine enthalpies from enzyme-catalysed reactions and can therefore provide important insight into their reaction mechanisms11,12. The ensemble averages involved in traditional bulk calorimetry cannot probe the transient effects that the energy exchanged in a reaction may have on the catalyst. Here we obtain single-molecule fluorescence correlation spectroscopy data and analyse them within the framework of a stochastic theory to demonstrate a mechanistic link between the enhanced diffusion of a single enzyme molecule and the heat released in the reaction. We propose that the heat released during catalysis generates an asymmetric pressure wave that results in a differential stress at the protein–solvent interface that transiently displaces the centre-of-mass of the enzyme (chemoacoustic effect). This novel perspective on how enzymes respond to the energy released during catalysis suggests a possible effect of the heat of reaction on the structural integrity and internal degrees of freedom of the enzyme. PMID:25487146

  10. The heat released during catalytic turnover enhances the diffusion of an enzyme

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Riedel, Clement; Gabizon, Ronen; Wilson, Christian A. M.; Hamadani, Kambiz; Tsekouras, Konstantinos; Marqusee, Susan; Pressé, Steve; Bustamante, Carlos

    2014-12-10

    Recent studies have shown that the diffusivity of enzymes increases in a substrate-dependent manner during catalysis. Although this observation has been reported and characterized for several different systems, the precise origin of this phenomenon is unknown. Calorimetric methods are often used to determine enthalpies from enzyme-catalysed reactions and can therefore provide important insight into their reaction mechanisms. The ensemble averages involved in traditional bulk calorimetry cannot probe the transient effects that the energy exchanged in a reaction may have on the catalyst. Here we obtain single-molecule fluorescence correlation spectroscopy data and analyse them within the framework of a stochastic theorymore » to demonstrate a mechanistic link between the enhanced diffusion of a single enzyme molecule and the heat released in the reaction. We propose that the heat released during catalysis generates an asymmetric pressure wave that results in a differential stress at the protein-solvent interface that transiently displaces the centre-of-mass of the enzyme (chemoacoustic effect). We find this novel perspective on how enzymes respond to the energy released during catalysis suggests a possible effect of the heat of reaction on the structural integrity and internal degrees of freedom of the enzyme.« less

  11. The heat released during catalytic turnover enhances the diffusion of an enzyme

    SciTech Connect

    Riedel, Clement; Gabizon, Ronen; Wilson, Christian A. M.; Hamadani, Kambiz; Tsekouras, Konstantinos; Marqusee, Susan; Pressé, Steve; Bustamante, Carlos

    2014-12-10

    Recent studies have shown that the diffusivity of enzymes increases in a substrate-dependent manner during catalysis. Although this observation has been reported and characterized for several different systems, the precise origin of this phenomenon is unknown. Calorimetric methods are often used to determine enthalpies from enzyme-catalysed reactions and can therefore provide important insight into their reaction mechanisms. The ensemble averages involved in traditional bulk calorimetry cannot probe the transient effects that the energy exchanged in a reaction may have on the catalyst. Here we obtain single-molecule fluorescence correlation spectroscopy data and analyse them within the framework of a stochastic theory to demonstrate a mechanistic link between the enhanced diffusion of a single enzyme molecule and the heat released in the reaction. We propose that the heat released during catalysis generates an asymmetric pressure wave that results in a differential stress at the protein-solvent interface that transiently displaces the centre-of-mass of the enzyme (chemoacoustic effect). We find this novel perspective on how enzymes respond to the energy released during catalysis suggests a possible effect of the heat of reaction on the structural integrity and internal degrees of freedom of the enzyme.

  12. The heat released during catalytic turnover enhances the diffusion of an enzyme.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Clement; Gabizon, Ronen; Wilson, Christian A M; Hamadani, Kambiz; Tsekouras, Konstantinos; Marqusee, Susan; Pressé, Steve; Bustamante, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the diffusivity of enzymes increases in a substrate-dependent manner during catalysis. Although this observation has been reported and characterized for several different systems, the precise origin of this phenomenon is unknown. Calorimetric methods are often used to determine enthalpies from enzyme-catalysed reactions and can therefore provide important insight into their reaction mechanisms. The ensemble averages involved in traditional bulk calorimetry cannot probe the transient effects that the energy exchanged in a reaction may have on the catalyst. Here we obtain single-molecule fluorescence correlation spectroscopy data and analyse them within the framework of a stochastic theory to demonstrate a mechanistic link between the enhanced diffusion of a single enzyme molecule and the heat released in the reaction. We propose that the heat released during catalysis generates an asymmetric pressure wave that results in a differential stress at the protein-solvent interface that transiently displaces the centre-of-mass of the enzyme (chemoacoustic effect). This novel perspective on how enzymes respond to the energy released during catalysis suggests a possible effect of the heat of reaction on the structural integrity and internal degrees of freedom of the enzyme.

  13. Mesh2d

    2011-12-31

    Mesh2d is a Fortran90 program designed to generate two-dimensional structured grids of the form [x(i),y(i,j)] where [x,y] are grid coordinates identified by indices (i,j). The x(i) coordinates alone can be used to specify a one-dimensional grid. Because the x-coordinates vary only with the i index, a two-dimensional grid is composed in part of straight vertical lines. However, the nominally horizontal y(i,j0) coordinates along index i are permitted to undulate or otherwise vary. Mesh2d also assignsmore » an integer material type to each grid cell, mtyp(i,j), in a user-specified manner. The complete grid is specified through three separate input files defining the x(i), y(i,j), and mtyp(i,j) variations.« less

  14. Determination of heat conductivity and thermal diffusivity of waste glass melter feed: Extension to high temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, Jarrett A.; Pokorny, Richard; Schweiger, Michael J.; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2014-06-01

    The heat conductivity ({lambda}) and the thermal diffusivity (a) of reacting glass batch, or melter feed, control the heat flux into and within the cold cap, a layer of reacting material floating on the pool of molten glass in an all-electric continuous waste glass melter. After previously estimating {lambda} of melter feed at temperatures up to 680 deg C, we focus in this work on the {lambda}(T) function at T > 680 deg C, at which the feed material becomes foamy. We used a customized experimental setup consisting of a large cylindrical crucible with an assembly of thermocouples, which monitored the evolution of the temperature field while the crucible with feed was heated at a constant rate from room temperature up to 1100°C. Approximating measured temperature profiles by polynomial functions, we used the heat transfer equation to estimate the {lambda}(T) approximation function, which we subsequently optimized using the finite-volume method combined with least-squares analysis. The heat conductivity increased as the temperature increased until the feed began to expand into foam, at which point the conductivity dropped. It began to increase again as the foam turned into a bubble-free glass melt. We discuss the implications of this behavior for the mathematical modeling of the cold cap.

  15. Radiation Heat Transfer Between Diffuse-Gray Surfaces Using Higher Order Finite Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, Dana C.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents recent work on developing methods for analyzing radiation heat transfer between diffuse-gray surfaces using p-version finite elements. The work was motivated by a thermal analysis of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) wing structure which showed the importance of radiation heat transfer throughout the structure. The analysis also showed that refining the finite element mesh to accurately capture the temperature distribution on the internal structure led to very large meshes with unacceptably long execution times. Traditional methods for calculating surface-to-surface radiation are based on assumptions that are not appropriate for p-version finite elements. Two methods for determining internal radiation heat transfer are developed for one and two-dimensional p-version finite elements. In the first method, higher-order elements are divided into a number of sub-elements. Traditional methods are used to determine radiation heat flux along each sub-element and then mapped back to the parent element. In the second method, the radiation heat transfer equations are numerically integrated over the higher-order element. Comparisons with analytical solutions show that the integration scheme is generally more accurate than the sub-element method. Comparison to results from traditional finite elements shows that significant reduction in the number of elements in the mesh is possible using higher-order (p-version) finite elements.

  16. Effects of heat treatments on the thermal diffusivity of Uranium-Molybdenum alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camarano, D. M.; Mansur, F. A.; Santos, A. M. M.; Ferraz, W. B.; Pedrosa, T. A.

    2016-07-01

    U-Mo alloys are the most investigated nuclear fuel material to be used in research reactors. The addition of molybdenum stabilizes the gamma phase of uranium and increases its melting point. A research program under development at Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN) aims the obtaining of uranium-molybdenum alloys to enable the high enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU) conversions. U-Mo ingots with 10% by weight were induction melted and heat treated at 300 °C for 72 h, 120 h and 240 h. Thermal diffusivity was determined by the laser flash method and thermal quadrupole method, from room temperature to 300 oC and 400oC. It was observed that the thermal diffusivity tends to increase with increasing temperature.

  17. The influence of state-to-state kinetics on diffusion and heat transfer behind shock waves

    SciTech Connect

    Kunova, O.; Kustova, E.; Mekhonoshina, M.; Nagnibeda, E.

    2014-12-09

    In the paper, the influence of vibrational and chemical kinetics on heat transfer and diffusion in hypersonic flows of N{sub 2}/N mixture in the relaxation zone behind shock waves is studied on the basis of the state-to-state kinetic theory approach. The results of calculations of vibrational level populations ni, gas temperature T, total energy flux q, diffusion velocities of molecules at different vibrational states V{sub i} and atoms V{sub a} in the relaxation zone behind a shock front are presented for the free stream Mach number M = 10, 15. The contribution of different dissipative processes to the total energy flux is estimated for various flow conditions. The impact of non-equilibrium vibrational distributions in the free stream on molecular level populations and transport properties in the relaxation zone is shown.

  18. Optimization of Heating Schedules for Measurement of Helium Diffusion in Monazite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, C.; Grove, M.; Peterman, E.

    2010-12-01

    Minerals accumulate alpha particles (4-He) as radioactive thorium and uranium contained within them decay to lead. Mineral such as monazite, a rare-earth-element-bearing phosphate, contain significant amounts of U and Th and thus build up significant concentrations of He over geologic time. Depending upon temperature and other factors, some of this helium escapes from the mineral by intracrystalline diffusion. Although the balance between radiogenic in-growth and diffusive loss of He is a sensitive monitor of the rates and magnitude of geologic processes, such as crustal deformation and erosion, experimental calibration is required. A major goal of this project was to help develop practical temperature-time (T-t) schedules for measuring diffusive release of helium from monazite. Although activation energy (E) and frequency factor (Do) are intrinsic properties of a given monazite composition, diffusive length scale (r) is determined by the dimensions of the crystals and can be varied in the experiment by selecting grains of different size. To determine optimum T-t schedules for a given experiment, appropriate solutions of the diffusion equation were used to calculate the fraction of helium loss and diffusion coefficients as a function of measured r and estimated E and Do. For ease of measurement, the heating schedule had to satisfy the following criteria: (1) the helium loss per step should never be lower than about 0.5 femtomoles; (2) the average helium loss should be around 0.1 to 1.0 picomoles. The results of these calculations lead to the following conclusions: (1) both E and T significantly impact the amount of He release at a given stage of the experiment. In the diffusion equation, E and T occur within the exponential term exp(-E/RT)where R is the gas law constant. Increasing E retards release of He while increasing T has the opposite effect. Exponential dependence means that a large amount of He will be released from the sample over a narrow range of T

  19. Selecting the kernel in a peridynamic formulation: A study for transient heat diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ziguang; Bobaru, Florin

    2015-12-01

    The kernel in a peridynamic diffusion model represents the detailed interaction between points inside the nonlocal region around each material point. Several versions of the kernel function have been proposed. Although solutions associated with different kernels may all converge, under the appropriate discretization scheme, to the classical model when the horizon goes to zero, their convergence behavior varies. In this paper, we focus on the particular one-point Gauss quadrature method of spatial discretization of the peridynamic diffusion model and study the convergence properties of different kernels with respect to convergence to the classical, local, model for transient heat transfer equation in 1D, where exact representation of geometry is available. The one-point Gauss quadrature is the preferred method for discretizing peridynamic models because it leads to a meshfree model, well suited for problems with damage and fracture. We show the equivalency of two definitions for the peridynamic heat flux. We explain an apparent paradox and discuss a common pitfall in numerical approximations of nonlocal models and their convergence to local models. We also analyze the influence of two ways of imposing boundary conditions and that of the "skin effect" on the solution. We explain an interesting behavior of the peridynamic solutions for different horizon sizes, the crossing of m-convergence curves at the classical solution value that happens for one of the ways of implementing the classical boundary conditions. The results presented here provide practical guidance in selecting the appropriate peridynamic kernel that makes the one-point Gauss quadrature an "asymptotically compatible" scheme. These results are directly applicable to any diffusion-type model, including mass diffusion problems.

  20. Coupled light transport-heat diffusion model for laser dosimetry with dynamic optical properties

    SciTech Connect

    London, R.A.; Glinsky, M.E.; Zimmerman, G.B.; Eder, D.C.; Jacques, S.L.

    1995-03-01

    The effect of dynamic optical properties on the spatial distribution of light in laser therapy is studied via numerical simulations. A two-dimensional, time dependent computer program called LATIS is used. Laser light transport is simulated with a Monte Carlo technique including anisotropic scattering and absorption. Thermal heat transport is calculated with a finite difference algorithm. Material properties are specified on a 2-D mesh and can be arbitrary functions of space and time. Arrhenius rate equations are solved for tissue damage caused by elevated temperatures. Optical properties are functions of tissue damage, as determined by previous measurements. Results are presented for the time variation of the light distribution and damage within the tissue as the optical properties of the tissue are altered.

  1. Two-stage bulk electron heating in the diffusion region of anti-parallel symmetric reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, A.; Egedal, J.; Daughton, W.

    2016-10-01

    Electron bulk energization in the diffusion region during anti-parallel symmetric reconnection entails two stages. First, the inflowing electrons are adiabatically trapped and energized by an ambipolar parallel electric field. Next, the electrons gain energy from the reconnection electric field as they undergo meandering motion. These collisionless mechanisms have been described previously, and they lead to highly structured electron velocity distributions. Nevertheless, a simplified control-volume analysis gives estimates for how the net effective heating scales with the upstream plasma conditions in agreement with fully kinetic simulations and spacecraft observations.

  2. Laser-induced heat diffusion limited tissue coagulation as a laser therapy mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubashevsky, Ihor A.; Priezzhev, Alexander V.; Gafiychuk, Vasyl V.

    2000-11-01

    Previously we have developed a free boundary model for local thermal coagulation induced by laser light absorption when the tissue region affected directly by laser light is sufficiently small and heat diffusion into the surrounding tissue governs the necrosis growth. In the present paper keeping in mind the obtained results we state the point of view on the necrosis formation under these conditions as the basis of an individual laser therapy mode exhibiting specific properties. In particular, roughly speaking, the size of the resulting necrosis domain is determined by the physical characteristics of the tissue and its response to local heating, and by the applicator form rather than the treatment duration and the irradiation power.

  3. Laser-induced heat diffusion limited tissue coagulation as a laser therapy mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubashevsky, Ihor A.; Priezzhev, Alexander V.; Gafiychuk, Vasyl V.

    2000-06-01

    Previously we have developed a free boundary model for local thermal coagulation induced by laser light absorption when the tissue region affected directly by laser light is sufficiently small and heat diffusion into the surrounding tissue governs the necrosis growth. In the present paper keeping in mind the obtained results we state the point of view on the necrosis formation under these conditions as the basis of an individual layer therapy mode exhibiting specific properties. In particular, roughly speaking, the size of the resulting necrosis domain is determined by the physical characteristics of the tissue and its response to local heating, and by the applicator form rather than the treatment duration and the irradiation power.

  4. Heat diffusion across magnetic islands and ergodized plasma regions in realistic tokamak geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Hoelzl, M.; Guenter, S.

    2008-07-15

    Heat diffusion in magnetized plasmas is investigated numerically for tokamak geometry and realistic plasma parameters. Heat transport across single and overlapping magnetic islands is studied. As an application, the influence of an (n+1,m+1) helical perturbation onto the temperature perturbation caused by an (n,m) neoclassical tearing mode is examined. It is shown that the resulting ergodization of the magnetic field structure is able to reduce the resonant bootstrap current perturbation of a neoclassical tearing mode. This might explain the drop in the mode amplitude observed in the frequently interrupted regime. Furthermore, the influence of edge ergodization as generated by external perturbation coils onto the electron temperature is studied. It is shown that ergodization of the plasma boundary can decrease the pedestal temperature gradient significantly. This effect might be one element in the mitigation effects of edge-localized modes achieved by external resonant perturbation fields.

  5. The 21 cm signature of shock heated and diffuse cosmic string wakes

    SciTech Connect

    Hernández, Oscar F.; Brandenberger, Robert H. E-mail: rhb@physics.mcgill.ca

    2012-07-01

    The analysis of the 21 cm signature of cosmic string wakes is extended in several ways. First we consider the constraints on Gμ from the absorption signal of shock heated wakes laid down much later than matter radiation equality. Secondly we analyze the signal of diffuse wake, that is those wakes in which there is a baryon overdensity but which have not shock heated. Finally we compare the size of these signals to the expected thermal noise per pixel which dominates over the background cosmic gas brightness temperature and find that the cosmic string signal will exceed the thermal noise of an individual pixel in the Square Kilometre Array for string tensions Gμ > 2.5 × 10{sup −8}.

  6. Gyrokinetic study of the impact of the electron to ion heating ratio on the turbulent diffusion of highly charged impurities

    SciTech Connect

    Angioni, C.

    2015-10-15

    A gyrokinetic study based on numerical and analytical calculations is presented, which computes the dependence of the turbulent diffusion of highly charged impurities on the ratio of the electron to the ion heat flux of the plasma. Nonlinear simulations show that the size of the turbulent diffusion of heavy impurities can vary by one order of magnitude with fixed total heat flux and is an extremely sensitive function of the electron to ion heat flux ratio. Numerical linear calculations are found to reproduce the nonlinear results. Thereby, a quasi-linear analytical approach is used to explain the origin of this dependence.

  7. LETTER: Empirical scaling law for the effective heat diffusivity in ELMy H mode plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, G.

    1996-04-01

    Predictive code simulations of high density scenarios of ITER and other reactor-grade devices require an experimentally validated scaling relation for the one-fluid effective heat diffusivity chi in the ELMy H mode regime. A comprehensive empirical chi scaling compatible with the ITERH92-P ELMy H mode scaling of the thermal energy confinement time is presented. It follows from a power law ansatz for chi and integration of the single-fluid energy equation and recovers all the exponents of the global confinement law. The numerical factor of the global scaling is used to calibrate the heat diffusivity. The dependences of chi on the temperature and temperature gradient, connected with the power degradation of confinement, are inferred from profile information of a high density H mode discharge. The scaling law obtained is successfully tested against JET, ASDEX and ASDEX Upgrade H mode discharges covering a wide parameter range. It is found to predict the strong rise of the experimental chi profiles with increasing effective radius

  8. Antibodies directed to the gram-negative bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae cross-react with the 60 kDa heat shock protein and lead to impaired neurite outgrowth in NTera2/D1 cells.

    PubMed

    Reuss, B; Asif, A R

    2014-09-01

    Children of mothers with prenatal gonococcal infections are of increased risk to develop schizophrenic psychosis in later life. The present study hypothesizes an autoimmune mechanism for this, investigating interactions of a commercial rabbit antiserum directed to Neisseria gonorrhoeae (α-NG) with human NTera2/D1 cells, an established in vitro model for human neuronal differentiation. Immunocytochemistry demonstrated α-NG to label antigens on an intracellular organelle, which by Western blot analysis showed a molecular weight shortly below 72 kDa. An antiserum directed to Neisseria meningitidis (α-NM) reacts with an antigen shortly below 95 kDa, confirming antibody specificity of these interactions. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and partial Western transfer, allowed to localize an α-NG reactive protein spot which was identified by LC-Q-TOF MS/MS analysis as mitochondrial heat shock protein Hsp60. This was confirmed by Western blot analysis of α-NG immunoreactivity with a commercial Hsp60 protein sample, with which α-NM failed to interact. Finally, analysis of neurite outgrowth in retinoic acid-stimulated differentiating NTera2-D1 cells, demonstrates that α-NG but not α-NM treatment reduces neurite length. These results demonstrate that α-NG can interact with Hsp60 in vitro, whereas pathogenetic relevance of this interaction for psychotic symptomatology remains to be clarified. PMID:24577885

  9. Heat stress preconditioning improves cognitive outcome after diffuse axonal injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Su, Zhangjie; Han, Dadong; Sun, Bo; Qiu, Jiaheng; Li, Ying; Li, Mu; Zhang, Tao; Yang, Zhuo

    2009-10-01

    This study investigates the influence of heat stress preconditioning on cognitive outcome for rats with diffuse axonal injury (DAI), and attempts to examine the underlying mechanisms. Wistar rats were divided into four groups: rats subjected to heat stress preconditioning 24 h before induction of DAI (n = 10; HSDAI group), a DAI alone group (n = 10), a heat stress alone group (n = 10), and a sham-injury group (n = 10). From day 14 post-injury, the rats' learning abilities and memory were tested using the Morris water maze (MWM) task, followed by long-term potentiation (LTP) recording of the hippocampus. In addition, hematoxylin and eosin staining (H&E) and immunohistochemical staining (IHC) were conducted to determine the presence of brain lesions and expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) at 24 h, and on days 14 and 20 post-injury. The rats in the DAI group displayed impaired MWM performance and attenuated LTP compared to the sham group (p < 0.05); the rats in the HSDAI and HS groups showed significant improvement in both MWM and LTP compared with the DAI group (p < 0.05), and no significant differences with the sham group (p > 0.05). Following injury, retraction balls, shrunken neurons, and HSP70 expression were visible in the brains of rats from the DAI and HSDAI groups; recovery was expedited in the rats belonging to the HSDAI group, as these pathological changes were alleviated, coincident with higher expression of HSP70. The rats' abilities for learning and memory were impaired following DAI; this may be due to the disconnection of brain regions, damage to neurons in the hippocampus, and a decrease in synaptic plasticity. Heat stress preconditioning is able to significantly attenuate this cognitive impairment, possibly mediated by the neuroprotective effect of HSP70.

  10. 2-d Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    1996-07-15

    ORION is an interactive program that serves as a postprocessor for the analysis programs NIKE2D, DYNA2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. ORION reads binary plot files generated by the two-dimensional finite element codes currently used by the Methods Development Group at LLNL. Contour and color fringe plots of a large number of quantities may be displayed on meshes consisting of triangular and quadrilateral elements. ORION can compute strain measures, interface pressures along slide lines, reaction forcesmore » along constrained boundaries, and momentum. ORION has been applied to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.« less

  11. Generates 2D Input for DYNA NIKE & TOPAZ

    SciTech Connect

    Hallquist, J. O.; Sanford, Larry

    1996-07-15

    MAZE is an interactive program that serves as an input and two-dimensional mesh generator for DYNA2D, NIKE2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. MAZE also generates a basic template for ISLAND input. MAZE has been applied to the generation of input data to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.

  12. MAZE96. Generates 2D Input for DYNA NIKE & TOPAZ

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, L.; Hallquist, J.O.

    1992-02-24

    MAZE is an interactive program that serves as an input and two-dimensional mesh generator for DYNA2D, NIKE2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. MAZE also generates a basic template for ISLAND input. MAZE has been applied to the generation of input data to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.

  13. Numerical Calculation and Exergy Equations of Spray Heat Exchanger Attached to a Main Fan Diffuser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, H.; Wang, H.; Chen, S.

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, the energy depreciation rule of spray heat exchanger, which is attached to a main fan diffuser, is analyzed based on the second law of thermodynamics. Firstly, the exergy equations of the exchanger are deduced. The equations are numerically calculated by the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method, and the exergy destruction is quantitatively effected by the exchanger structure parameters, working fluid (polluted air, i.e., PA; sprayed water, i.e., SW) initial state parameters and the ambient reference parameters. The results are showed: (1) heat transfer is given priority to latent transfer at the bottom of the exchanger, and heat transfer of convection and is equivalent to that of condensation in the upper. (2) With the decrease of initial temperature of SW droplet, the decrease of PA velocity or the ambient reference temperature, and with the increase of a SW droplet size or initial PA temperature, exergy destruction both increase. (3) The exergy efficiency of the exchanger is 72.1 %. An approach to analyze the energy potential of the exchanger may be provided for engineering designs.

  14. Heat diffusion in the disordered Fermi and electron liquids: the role of inelastic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwiete, Georg; Finkel'Stein, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    We study thermal transport in the disordered Fermi and electron liquids at low temperatures. Gravitational potentials are used as sources for finding the heat density and its correlation function. For a comprehensive study, we extend the renormalization group (RG) analysis developed for electric transport by including the gravitational potentials into the RG scheme. The analysis reveals that for the disordered Fermi liquid the Wiedemann-Franz law remains valid even in the presence of quantum corrections caused by the interplay of diffusion modes and the electron-electron interaction. In the present scheme this fundamental relation is closely connected with a fixed point in the multi-parametric RG flow of the gravitational potentials. For the disordered electron liquid we additionally analyze inelastic processes induced by the Coulomb interaction at sub-temperature energies. While the general form of the correlation function has to be compatible with energy conservation, these inelastic processes are at the origin of logarithmic corrections violating the Wiedemann-Franz law. The interplay of various terms in the heat density-heat density correlation function therefore differs from that for densities of other conserved quantities, such as total number of particles or spin. A. F. and G. S. acknowledge support by the Alexander von Humboldt foundation. A.F. is supported by the National Science Foundation Grant NSF-DMR-1006752.

  15. Nodal predictive error model and Bayesian approach for thermal diffusivity and heat source mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massard, H.; Fudym, Olivier; Orlande, H. R. B.; Batsale, J. C.

    2010-07-01

    This article aims at solving a two-dimensional inverse heat conduction problem in order to retrieve both the thermal diffusivity and heat source field in a thin plate. A spatial random heat pulse is applied to the plate and the thermal response is analysed. The inverse approach is based on the minimisation of a nodal predictive error model, which yields a linear estimation problem. As a result of this approach, the sensitivity matrix is directly filled with experimental data, and thus is partially noisy. Bayesian estimators, such as the Maximum A Posteriori and a Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach (Metropolis-Hastings), are implemented and compared with the Ordinary Least Squares solution. Simulated temperature measurements are used in the inverse analysis. The nodal strategy relies on the availability of temperature measurements with fine spatial resolution and high frequency, typical of nowadays infrared cameras. The effects of both the measurement errors and of the model errors on the inverse problem solution are also analysed.

  16. Heat conduction and energy diffusion in momentum-conserving one-dimensional full-lattice ding-a-ling model.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhibin; Li, Nianbei; Li, Baowen

    2016-02-01

    The ding-a-ling model is a kind of half lattice and half hard-point-gas (HPG) model. The original ding-a-ling model proposed by Casati et al. does not conserve total momentum and has been found to exhibit normal heat conduction behavior. Recently, a modified ding-a-ling model which conserves total momentum has been studied and normal heat conduction has also been claimed. In this work, we propose a full-lattice ding-a-ling model without hard point collisions where total momentum is also conserved. We investigate the heat conduction and energy diffusion of this full-lattice ding-a-ling model with three different nonlinear inter-particle potential forms. For symmetrical potential lattices, the thermal conductivities diverges with lattice length and their energy diffusions are superdiffusive signaturing anomalous heat conduction. For asymmetrical potential lattices, although the thermal conductivity seems to converge as the length increases, the energy diffusion is definitely deviating from normal diffusion behavior indicating anomalous heat conduction as well. No normal heat conduction behavior can be found for the full-lattice ding-a-ling model.

  17. Heat conduction and energy diffusion in momentum-conserving one-dimensional full-lattice ding-a-ling model.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhibin; Li, Nianbei; Li, Baowen

    2016-02-01

    The ding-a-ling model is a kind of half lattice and half hard-point-gas (HPG) model. The original ding-a-ling model proposed by Casati et al. does not conserve total momentum and has been found to exhibit normal heat conduction behavior. Recently, a modified ding-a-ling model which conserves total momentum has been studied and normal heat conduction has also been claimed. In this work, we propose a full-lattice ding-a-ling model without hard point collisions where total momentum is also conserved. We investigate the heat conduction and energy diffusion of this full-lattice ding-a-ling model with three different nonlinear inter-particle potential forms. For symmetrical potential lattices, the thermal conductivities diverges with lattice length and their energy diffusions are superdiffusive signaturing anomalous heat conduction. For asymmetrical potential lattices, although the thermal conductivity seems to converge as the length increases, the energy diffusion is definitely deviating from normal diffusion behavior indicating anomalous heat conduction as well. No normal heat conduction behavior can be found for the full-lattice ding-a-ling model. PMID:26986283

  18. Enhanced heat conductivity in stochastic magnetic field of tokomak affected by the ratio of the parallel to the perpendicular heat diffusivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, H.

    2012-11-01

    Electron heat transport across stochastic magnetic fields is studied numerically in order to find out how the ratio of the parallel to the perpendicular heat diffusivity affects the enhanced heat conductivity and its radial profile in tokomak plasma physics. To find out the details of profile, non-local stochastic magnetic fields, in which the perturbed magnetic islands are separated with each other but very close to in the minor radius of tokomak, are chosen as research objects in our simulation work. Our numerical results indicate that the ratio of the parallel to the perpendicular heat diffusivity is a very important effective factor, which dominate how far the enhanced conductivity contributed by a perturbed magnetic field approach to zero from the rational surface in minor radius. Besides that, a theoretical analysis was provided and compared with the numerical results in this article.

  19. Integral solutions to transient nonlinear heat (mass) diffusion with a power-law diffusivity: a semi-infinite medium with fixed boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristov, Jordan

    2016-03-01

    Closed form approximate solutions to nonlinear heat (mass) diffusion equation with power-law nonlinearity of the thermal (mass) diffusivity have been developed by the integral-balance method avoiding the commonly used linearization by the Kirchhoff transformation. The main improvement of the solution is based on the double-integration technique and a new approach to the space derivative. Solutions to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary condition problems have been developed and benchmarked against exact numerical and approximate analytical solutions available in the literature.

  20. Spatial interactions in a modified Daisyworld model: Heat diffusivity and greenhouse effects.

    PubMed

    Alberti, T; Primavera, L; Vecchio, A; Lepreti, F; Carbone, V

    2015-11-01

    In this work we investigate a modified version of the Daisyworld model, originally introduced by Lovelock and Watson to describe in a simple way the interactions between an Earth-like planet, its biosphere, and the incoming solar radiation. Here a spatial dependency on latitude is included, and both a variable heat diffusivity along latitudes and a simple greenhouse effect description are introduced in the model. We show that the spatial interactions between the variables of the system can locally stabilize the coexistence of the two vegetation types. The feedback on albedo is able to generate equilibrium solutions which can efficiently self-regulate the planet climate, even for values of the solar luminosity relatively far from the current Earth conditions.

  1. Experimental thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and specific heat values for mixtures of nitrogen, oxygen, and argon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, R. A.; Cieszkiewicz, M. T.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental measurements of thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity obtained with a transient hot-wire apparatus are reported for three mixtures of nitrogen, oxygen, and argon. Values of the specific heat, Cp, are calculated from these measured values and the density calculated with an equation of state. The measurements were made at temperatures between 65 and 303 K with pressures between 0.1 and 70 MPa. The data cover the vapor, liquid, and supercritical gas phases for the three mixtures. The total reported points are 1066 for the air mixture (78.11 percent nitrogen, 20.97 percent oxygen, and 0.92 percent argon), 1058 for the 50 percent nitrogen, 50 percent oxygen mixture, and 864 for the 25 percent nitrogen, 75 oxygen mixture. Empirical thermal conductivity correlations are provided for the three mixtures.

  2. LETTER: Scaling law for effective heat diffusivity in ELMy H-mode plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, G.

    2004-11-01

    Transport simulations of high density scenarios of ITER and other reactor-grade devices require a scaling law for the effective heat diffusivity, χ, in the ELMy H-mode regime. A comprehensive empirical scaling, χH98, compatible with the ITER reference scaling, ITERH-98P(y, 2), for the thermal energy confinement time has been set up. It follows from a power law ansatz for χ and integration of the single-fluid energy equation and recovers all the exponents of the global confinement law. The dependences on temperature and temperature gradient are consistent with the power degradation of confinement and the experimental χ profiles. The χH98 scaling is validated by JET, DIII-D, ASDEX Upgrade and ASDEX discharges covering a wide parameter range. Simulations of the inductive scenario of ITER with χH98 yield an energy confinement time which agrees with the global scaling prediction.

  3. Theoretical analysis of oxygen diffusion at startup in an alkali metal heat pipe with gettered alloy walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tower, L. K.

    1973-01-01

    The diffusion of oxygen into, or out of, a gettered alloy exposed to oxygenated alkali liquid metal coolant, a situation arising in some high temperature heat transfer systems, was analyzed. The relation between the diffusion process and the thermochemistry of oxygen in the alloy and in the alkali metal was developed by making several simplifying assumptions. The treatment is therefore theoretical in nature. However, a practical example pertaining to the startup of a heat pipe with walls of T-111, a tantalum alloy, and lithium working fluid illustrates the use of the figures contained in the analysis.

  4. An implicit scheme for solving the anisotropic diffusion of heat and cosmic rays in the RAMSES code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, Yohan; Commerçon, Benoît

    2016-01-01

    Astrophysical plasmas are subject to a tight connection between magnetic fields and the diffusion of particles, which leads to an anisotropic transport of energy. Under the fluid assumption, this effect can be reduced to an advection-diffusion equation, thereby augmenting the equations of magnetohydrodynamics. We introduce a new method for solving the anisotropic diffusion equation using an implicit finite-volume method with adaptive mesh refinement and adaptive time-stepping in the ramses code. We apply this numerical solver to the diffusion of cosmic ray energy and diffusion of heat carried by electrons, which couple to the ion temperature. We test this new implementation against several numerical experiments and apply it to a simple supernova explosion with a uniform magnetic field.

  5. Ocean Turbulence. Paper 2; One-Point Closure Model Momentum, Heat and Salt Vertical Diffusivities in the Presence of Shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canuto, V. M.; Howard, A.; Cheng, Y.; Dubovikov, M. S.

    1999-01-01

    We develop and test a 1-point closure turbulence model with the following features: 1) we include the salinity field and derive the expression for the vertical turbulent diffusivities of momentum K(sub m) , heat K(sub h) and salt K(sub s) as a function of two stability parameters: the Richardson number R(sub i) (stratification vs. shear) and the Turner number R(sub rho) (salinity gradient vs. temperature gradient). 2) to describe turbulent mixing below the mixed layer (ML), all previous models have adopted three adjustable "background diffusivities" for momentum, heat and salt. We propose a model that avoids such adjustable diffusivities. We assume that below the ML, the three diffusivities have the same functional dependence on R( sub i) and R(sub rho) as derived from the turbulence model. However, in order to compute R(sub i) below the ML, we use data of vertical shear due to wave-breaking.measured by Gargett et al. The procedure frees the model from adjustable background diffusivities and indeed we employ the same model throughout the entire vertical extent of the ocean. 3) in the local model, the turbulent diffusivities K(sub m,h,s) are given as analytical functions of R(sub i) and R(sub rho). 5) the model is used in an O-GCM and several results are presented to exhibit the effect of double diffusion processes. 6) the code is available upon request.

  6. A diffusion-kinetic model for pulverized-coal combustion and heat-and-mass transfer in a gas stream

    SciTech Connect

    E.A. Boiko; S.V. Pachkovskii

    2008-12-15

    A diffusion-kinetic model for pulverized-coal combustion and heat-and-mass transfer in a gas stream is proposed, and the results of numerical simulation of the burnout dynamics of Kansk-Achinsk coals in the pulverized state at different treatment conditions and different model parameters are presented. The mathematical model describes the dynamics of thermochemical conversion of solid organic fuels with allowance for complex physicochemical phenomena of heat-and-mass exchange between coal particles and the gaseous environment.

  7. Continuous soil respiration at the Prairie Heating and Elevated CO2 site using forced diffusion chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendall, E.; Brennan, A. L.; Risk, D. A.; Carrillo, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Temporal variations in soil respiration are regulated by changes in soil temperature, moisture and plant phenological activity. These drivers are expected to vary with climate changes including elevated atmospheric CO2 and warming, but it is unknown whether the relationships between the drivers and soil CO2 efflux change with climate change. We studied diurnal to seasonal patterns of soil respiration and its drivers in mixed C3/C4 grassland at the Prairie Heating and CO2 Enrichment (PHACE) site near Cheyenne, WY, where Free-Air CO2 Enrichment is applied at 600 ppm during daytime in the growing season, and temperature is elevated by 1.5/3 deg C day/night all year. We deployed pairs of forced diffusion (FD) chambers in plots with intact and plant-free grassland, exposed to elevated CO2, warming, and ambient climate (six treatments total). Fluxes from intact grassland plots reflected contributions from root and microbial respiration (referred to as soil respiration), while those from plant-free plots reflected only microbial respiration. Non-dispersive infrared CO2 sensors (Vaisala GMT222, Helsinki, Finland) were installed inside the chambers, which had rims inserted 2-cm into the soil. Three sensors were installed in chambers that were not in contact with the soil surface, which recorded atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Soil respiration rates were calculated as the concentration difference between the soil and air chambers times the forced diffusivity factor, which was set by the semi-permeable membrane and calibrated for individual chambers. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the feasibility of this method for determination of continuous fluxes in semi-arid grassland by comparison with established methods, and to compare temporal dynamics and response functions of soil respiration to environmental drivers across the six treatments. We found that fluxes from the forced diffusion chambers compared well with those from an established, closed, dynamic

  8. QUENCH2D. Two-Dimensional IHCP Code

    SciTech Connect

    Osman, A.; Beck, J.V.

    1995-01-01

    QUENCH2D* is developed for the solution of general, non-linear, two-dimensional inverse heat transfer problems. This program provides estimates for the surface heat flux distribution and/or heat transfer coefficient as a function of time and space by using transient temperature measurements at appropriate interior points inside the quenched body. Two-dimensional planar and axisymmetric geometries such as turnbine disks and blades, clutch packs, and many other problems can be analyzed using QUENCH2D*.

  9. Study on Electron Heat Diffusion Across Stochastic Magnetic Field Affected by Magnitude of Perturbed Magnetic Field in Tokomak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Hong

    2013-04-01

    Electron heat diffusion across stochastic magnetic fields is studied numerically in order to find out how the magnitude of perturbed magnetic field affect the enhanced heat conductivity and its radial profile in tokomak plasma physics. For these purposes, non-local stochastic magnetic fields are chosen as research objects in our simulation work. From our numerical results, we can find that the effects of the perturbed magnetic field magnitude are dominated parameter on the enhance electron heat transport conductivity wherever the magnetic field is single island or full stochastic field. Also, a theoretical analysis is provided and compared with numerical results.

  10. Magnetic flux and heat losses by diffusive, advective, and Nernst effects in MagLIF-like plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Velikovich, A. L. Giuliani, J. L.; Zalesak, S. T.

    2014-12-15

    The MagLIF approach to inertial confinement fusion involves subsonic/isobaric compression and heating of a DT plasma with frozen-in magnetic flux by a heavy cylindrical liner. The losses of heat and magnetic flux from the plasma to the liner are thereby determined by plasma advection and gradient-driven transport processes, such as thermal conductivity, magnetic field diffusion and thermomagnetic effects. Theoretical analysis based on obtaining exact self-similar solutions of the classical collisional Braginskii's plasma transport equations in one dimension demonstrates that the heat loss from the hot plasma to the cold liner is dominated by the transverse heat conduction and advection, and the corresponding loss of magnetic flux is dominated by advection and the Nernst effect. For a large electron Hall parameter ω{sub e}τ{sub e} effective diffusion coefficients determining the losses of heat and magnetic flux are both shown to decrease with ω{sub e}τ{sub e} as does the Bohm diffusion coefficient, which is commonly associated with low collisionality and two-dimensional transport. This family of exact solutions can be used for verification of codes that model the MagLIF plasma dynamics.

  11. Magnetic flux and heat losses by diffusive, advective, and Nernst effects in magnetized liner inertial fusion-like plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velikovich, A. L.; Giuliani, J. L.; Zalesak, S. T.

    2015-04-01

    The magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) approach to inertial confinement fusion [Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010); Cuneo et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 40, 3222 (2012)] involves subsonic/isobaric compression and heating of a deuterium-tritium plasma with frozen-in magnetic flux by a heavy cylindrical liner. The losses of heat and magnetic flux from the plasma to the liner are thereby determined by plasma advection and gradient-driven transport processes, such as thermal conductivity, magnetic field diffusion, and thermomagnetic effects. Theoretical analysis based on obtaining exact self-similar solutions of the classical collisional Braginskii's plasma transport equations in one dimension demonstrates that the heat loss from the hot compressed magnetized plasma to the cold liner is dominated by transverse heat conduction and advection, and the corresponding loss of magnetic flux is dominated by advection and the Nernst effect. For a large electron Hall parameter ( ωeτe≫1 ), the effective diffusion coefficients determining the losses of heat and magnetic flux to the liner wall are both shown to decrease with ωeτe as does the Bohm diffusion coefficient c T /(16 e B ) , which is commonly associated with low collisionality and two-dimensional transport. We demonstrate how this family of exact solutions can be used for verification of codes that model the MagLIF plasma dynamics.

  12. Magnetic flux and heat losses by diffusive, advective, and Nernst effects in magnetized liner inertial fusion-like plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Velikovich, A. L.; Giuliani, J. L.; Zalesak, S. T.

    2015-04-15

    The magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) approach to inertial confinement fusion [Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010); Cuneo et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 40, 3222 (2012)] involves subsonic/isobaric compression and heating of a deuterium-tritium plasma with frozen-in magnetic flux by a heavy cylindrical liner. The losses of heat and magnetic flux from the plasma to the liner are thereby determined by plasma advection and gradient-driven transport processes, such as thermal conductivity, magnetic field diffusion, and thermomagnetic effects. Theoretical analysis based on obtaining exact self-similar solutions of the classical collisional Braginskii's plasma transport equations in one dimension demonstrates that the heat loss from the hot compressed magnetized plasma to the cold liner is dominated by transverse heat conduction and advection, and the corresponding loss of magnetic flux is dominated by advection and the Nernst effect. For a large electron Hall parameter (ω{sub e}τ{sub e}≫1), the effective diffusion coefficients determining the losses of heat and magnetic flux to the liner wall are both shown to decrease with ω{sub e}τ{sub e} as does the Bohm diffusion coefficient cT/(16eB), which is commonly associated with low collisionality and two-dimensional transport. We demonstrate how this family of exact solutions can be used for verification of codes that model the MagLIF plasma dynamics.

  13. Magnetic flux and heat losses by diffusive, advective, and Nernst effects in MagLIF-like plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velikovich, A. L.; Giuliani, J. L.; Zalesak, S. T.

    2014-12-01

    The MagLIF approach to inertial confinement fusion involves subsonic/isobaric compression and heating of a DT plasma with frozen-in magnetic flux by a heavy cylindrical liner. The losses of heat and magnetic flux from the plasma to the liner are thereby determined by plasma advection and gradient-driven transport processes, such as thermal conductivity, magnetic field diffusion and thermomagnetic effects. Theoretical analysis based on obtaining exact self-similar solutions of the classical collisional Braginskii's plasma transport equations in one dimension demonstrates that the heat loss from the hot plasma to the cold liner is dominated by the transverse heat conduction and advection, and the corresponding loss of magnetic flux is dominated by advection and the Nernst effect. For a large electron Hall parameter ωeτe effective diffusion coefficients determining the losses of heat and magnetic flux are both shown to decrease with ωeτe as does the Bohm diffusion coefficient, which is commonly associated with low collisionality and two-dimensional transport. This family of exact solutions can be used for verification of codes that model the MagLIF plasma dynamics.

  14. Axi-symmetric generalized thermoelastic diffusion problem with two-temperature and initial stress under fractional order heat conduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deswal, Sunita; Kalkal, Kapil Kumar; Sheoran, Sandeep Singh

    2016-09-01

    A mathematical model of fractional order two-temperature generalized thermoelasticity with diffusion and initial stress is proposed to analyze the transient wave phenomenon in an infinite thermoelastic half-space. The governing equations are derived in cylindrical coordinates for a two dimensional axi-symmetric problem. The analytical solution is procured by employing the Laplace and Hankel transforms for time and space variables respectively. The solutions are investigated in detail for a time dependent heat source. By using numerical inversion method of integral transforms, we obtain the solutions for displacement, stress, temperature and diffusion fields in physical domain. Computations are carried out for copper material and displayed graphically. The effect of fractional order parameter, two-temperature parameter, diffusion, initial stress and time on the different thermoelastic and diffusion fields is analyzed on the basis of analytical and numerical results. Some special cases have also been deduced from the present investigation.

  15. High divergent 2D grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin; Ma, Jianyong; Zhou, Changhe

    2014-11-01

    A 3×3 high divergent 2D-grating with period of 3.842μm at wavelength of 850nm under normal incidence is designed and fabricated in this paper. This high divergent 2D-grating is designed by the vector theory. The Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis (RCWA) in association with the simulated annealing (SA) is adopted to calculate and optimize this 2D-grating.The properties of this grating are also investigated by the RCWA. The diffraction angles are more than 10 degrees in the whole wavelength band, which are bigger than the traditional 2D-grating. In addition, the small period of grating increases the difficulties of fabrication. So we fabricate the 2D-gratings by direct laser writing (DLW) instead of traditional manufacturing method. Then the method of ICP etching is used to obtain the high divergent 2D-grating.

  16. The heating of diffuse dust at large scale in AGNs: a radiative transfer model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, Jacopo; De Looze, Ilse; Baes, Maarten; Camps, Peter; Saftly, Waad; Pérez Villegas, Angeles; Rivaz-Sánchez, Mariana; Stalevski, Marko; Hatziminaoglou, Evanthia

    2016-08-01

    The panchromatic, broad-band, spectral energy distribution (SED) of galaxies is usually modelled by combining together the theoretical spectra of its emission components: stars in the optical/near-infrared, and thermal emission by dust -heated by the stellar radiation field- in the infrared. SED fitting codes such as MAGPHYS and CIGALE are capable to automatically fit observed multiwavelength data of galaxies, providing a set of galactic properties as a result. The situation gets somehow complicated when Active Galaxies (both local, low-luminosity Seyferts, and the bright QSOs) are considered. Very often, in fact, their observed near- and mid-infrared (NIR and MIR, respectively) SED is dominated by the emission of hot dust located close to the supermassive, active black hole which powers the bulk of their luminosity. Hence, a third component must be added to the set of theoretical SEDs: that of the molecular torus which surrounds the disk of gas accreting onto the supermassive black hole. The standard way to do it, is to simply add such models to the observed SED, until the MIR gap is filled. This implicitly assumes that the AGN has no influence whatsoever on the dust properties on scales larger than that of the torus (~few pc). I am investigating whether this assumption is valid, in which cases, and under which circumstances the AGN provides a non negligible contribution to the interstellar radiation field heating the diffuse dust in galaxies. This is accomplished by means of radiative transfer models which take into account the most relevant characteristics of the problem: the relative dust-stars distribution and the very wide range of spatial scales involved.

  17. Determination of the thermal diffusivity of bulk and layered samples by time domain thermoreflectance: Interest of lateral heat diffusion investigation in nanoscale time range

    SciTech Connect

    Belliard, L. Charron, E.; Vincent, S.; Perrin, B.; Fournier, D.; Frétigny, C.

    2015-02-14

    We report on thermal investigations performed in a time resolved experimental scheme. The time domain thermoreflectance (TDTR) is applied in an unusual geometry where the pump and probe beams are not superimposed but focused and shifted. In this way, the determination of the in-plane thermal diffusivity is achieved from temperature snapshots at different time delays. In the first part, taking into account the specific generation process and the detection inherent to the time domain thermoreflectance approach, an analytical solution for the temperature field is obtained for bulk samples, and compared to experimental data. A comparison with the frequency domain thermoreflectance microscopy is also outlined. In Part II section, the lateral heat diffusion in a layered structure is investigated. The comparison of the heat diffusion spreading in case of a highly conductive layer deposited on an insulator substrate and the reverse situation are carefully studied. Finally, we show how the time dependence is efficient to probe and identify material thermal properties or thermal interfacial resistance.

  18. Determination of the thermal diffusivity of bulk and layered samples by time domain thermoreflectance: Interest of lateral heat diffusion investigation in nanoscale time range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belliard, L.; Frétigny, C.; Charron, E.; Vincent, S.; Perrin, B.; Fournier, D.

    2015-02-01

    We report on thermal investigations performed in a time resolved experimental scheme. The time domain thermoreflectance (TDTR) is applied in an unusual geometry where the pump and probe beams are not superimposed but focused and shifted. In this way, the determination of the in-plane thermal diffusivity is achieved from temperature snapshots at different time delays. In the first part, taking into account the specific generation process and the detection inherent to the time domain thermoreflectance approach, an analytical solution for the temperature field is obtained for bulk samples, and compared to experimental data. A comparison with the frequency domain thermoreflectance microscopy is also outlined. In Part II section, the lateral heat diffusion in a layered structure is investigated. The comparison of the heat diffusion spreading in case of a highly conductive layer deposited on an insulator substrate and the reverse situation are carefully studied. Finally, we show how the time dependence is efficient to probe and identify material thermal properties or thermal interfacial resistance.

  19. Homogenization and Upscaling for Diffusion, Heat Conduction, and Wave Propagation in Heterogeneous Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Zhi-Jie Xu

    2012-03-01

    We present a general homogenization method for diffusion, heat conduction, and wave propagation in a periodic heterogeneous material with piecewise constants. The method is relevant to the frequently encountered upscaling issues for heterogeneous materials. The dispersion relation for each problem is first expressed in the general form where the frequency w (or wavenumber k) is expanded in terms of the wavenumber k (or frequency w). A general homogenization model can be directly obtained with any given dispersion relation. Next step we study the unit cell of the heterogeneous material and derive the exact dispersion relation. The final homogenized equations include both leading order terms (effective properties) and high order contributions that represent the effect of the microscopic heterogeneity on the macroscopic behavior. That effect can be lumped into a single dimensionless heterogeneity parameter, which is bounded between -1/12 less than or equal to less than or equal to 0 and has a universal expression for all three problems. Numerical examples validate the proposed method and demonstrate a significant computational saving.

  20. Seasonal changes of thermal diffusivity and their effect on heat transfer in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dedecek, Petr; Correia, Antonio; Safanda, Jan; Cermak, Vladimir; Rajver, Dusan; Pechacova, Blanka

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the work is to describe the effects of seasonal changes of thermal diffusivity (TD) on the thermal regime in shallow subsurface soils. The long term temperature series from observatories at Prague (Czechia), Evora (Portugal) and Malence (Slovenia) were processed by newly improved code which enables a detailed calculation of time changes of TD of the soils. To determine the effect of climate warming of the recent years and to describe the possible effect of TD changes on the temperature-depth profiles, time dependent numerical models were computed. In the case of Evora, the effect of the TD changes on mean annual temperatures was confirmed. This observatory is located on bare sandy surface and TD in the upper soil layer significantly decreases (up to 50%) in summer months. It is due to local climate, which is typical by alternating winter/wet and summer/dry periods. The negative temperature gradient in the depth of 2-5 cm increases with TD decreasing, the coefficient of determination is 0.6 (2012). The TD decreasing during the summer months substitutes the effect of vegetation and controls the heat transfer to the subsurface. The climate in Prague and Malence is typical by rainy/snowy periods during the whole year and effect of TD changes in bare sandy soils is only short-term, or even insignificant under grassy surfaces.

  1. Thermal diffusivity of spinels at elevated temperature: implications for heat transfer in the transition zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmeister, A. M.

    2006-12-01

    The dependence of the vibrational component of thermal diffusivity (D) of spinel-family minerals on chemical composition, disorder, and temperature (T) is discerned using laser-flash measurements of single-crystals up to 1850 K, and used along with data on garnets and radiative transfer calculations to constrain heat transport in Earth's transition zone (TZ). Laser-flash analysis lacks the systematic errors associated with conventional methods, namely, corruption with radiative transfer, and thermal contact losses. Chemical compositions are synthetic disordered spinel, 4 natural samples near MgAl2O4; 4 natural hercynites (Mg,Fe,Al)3O4], nearly ZnAl2O4, and 2 magnetites [Fe3O4]. The magnetic transition is manifest as a lambda curve in 1/D, but otherwise, 1/D is described by low-order polynomial fits with temperature. Ordered, MgAl2O4 has D(298K) = 7.78 mm2/s, which should approximate that of γ-Mg2SiO4. At 298 K, D decreases strongly as cation substitution or Mg-Al disorder increases: D(298K) for ringwoodite is estimated as 5.8 mm2/s. However, above 1400 K, D becomes constant: this limit (Dsat=0.70-1.07 mm2/s) weakly depends on composition and disorder and is analogous to the Dulong-Petit limit in heat capacity (Cp). Mantle garnets have Dsat=0.65 mm2/s (Hofmeister 2006 Phys Chem Min.). To obtain TZ values, we use d(lnD)/dP= (4γth 2/3)KT, literature data on bulk modulus and thermal Gruneisen parameter, density from PREM, and Cp=1.3 J/g-K, which depends weakly on composition, T, and P. Average thermal conductivity (k)in the TZ is 5-6 W/m-K, depending on garnet proportion, and increase with P. Radiative transfer provides ca 1 W/m-K, depending on Fe content and grain-size (Hofmeister 2005 J. Geodyn.). Our estimate of large k = 6-7 W/m-K is twice recent estimates, and is a consequence of phonon saturation revealed by laser-flash measurements. Efficient vibrational transport of heat in the TZ and deeper stabilizes against convection, as does the positive temperature

  2. Self-diffusion of magnesium in spinel and in equilibrium melts: Constraints on flash heating of silicates

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, Y.J.; Wasserburg, G.J.; Hutcheon, I.D. )

    1992-06-01

    The authors have measured Mg self-diffusion in spinel and coexisting melt at bulk chemical equilibrium using an isotopic tracer. The diffusion coefficients were calculated from the measured isotope profiles using a model that includes the complementary diffusion of {sup 24}Mg, {sup 25}Mg, and {sup 26}Mg in both phases with the constraint that the Mg content of each phase is constant. The activation energy and pre-exponential factor for Mg self-diffusion in spinel are, respectively, 384 {plus minus} 7 kJ and 74.6 {plus minus} 1.1 cm{sup 2}/s. These data indicate Mg diffusion in spinel is much slower than previous estimates. The activation energy for Mg self-diffusion in coexisting melt is 343 {plus minus} 25 kJ and the pre-exponential factor is 7791.9 {plus minus} 1.3 cm{sup 2}/s. The results from this study were applied to evaluate cooling rates of Plagioclase-Olivine Inclusions (POI) in the Allende meteorite. Given a maximum melting temperature for POIs of {approximately} 1,500C, these results show that a 10 {mu}m radius spinel would equilibrate isotopically with a melt within about 60 min. To preserve Mg isotopic heterogeneity, the POIs must have initially cooled faster than 15 to 250C/h depending on the initial temperature of flash heating. The cooling rate must also be slow enough to generate the observed basaltic textures. The inferred cooling rate appears to be comparable or up to ten times greater than those inferred from experimental and textural studies of synthetic CAI systems. The nature of the heating process is thus required to be short with relatively rapid cooling, such as flash heating. However, the relatively rapid cooling cannot be due to radiation into a cold, {approximately} 400K nebula but would require radiation into a rather stable hot environment.

  3. Approximate series solution of multi-dimensional, time fractional-order (heat-like) diffusion equations using FRDTM

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Brajesh K.; Srivastava, Vineet K.

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to present a new approximate series solution of the multi-dimensional (heat-like) diffusion equation with time-fractional derivative in Caputo form using a semi-analytical approach: fractional-order reduced differential transform method (FRDTM). The efficiency of FRDTM is confirmed by considering four test problems of the multi-dimensional time fractional-order diffusion equation. FRDTM is a very efficient, effective and powerful mathematical tool which provides exact or very close approximate solutions for a wide range of real-world problems arising in engineering and natural sciences, modelled in terms of differential equations. PMID:26064639

  4. Approximate series solution of multi-dimensional, time fractional-order (heat-like) diffusion equations using FRDTM.

    PubMed

    Singh, Brajesh K; Srivastava, Vineet K

    2015-04-01

    The main goal of this paper is to present a new approximate series solution of the multi-dimensional (heat-like) diffusion equation with time-fractional derivative in Caputo form using a semi-analytical approach: fractional-order reduced differential transform method (FRDTM). The efficiency of FRDTM is confirmed by considering four test problems of the multi-dimensional time fractional-order diffusion equation. FRDTM is a very efficient, effective and powerful mathematical tool which provides exact or very close approximate solutions for a wide range of real-world problems arising in engineering and natural sciences, modelled in terms of differential equations.

  5. Large Thermal Diffusivity Database Reveals a New Mechanism for Heat Transport in Geomaterials: Diffusion of IR-Polaritons Substantially Augments Phonon-Phonon Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branlund, J. M.; Hofmeister, A.; Dong, J.

    2013-12-01

    Over the course of several years, we have measured heat transport to high temperatures for a large number (ca. 200) of minerals, rocks, glasses and melts using laser flash analysis which eliminates systematic errors (contact losses and boundary-to-boundary radiative transfer gains) that limit utility of conventional, contact techniques. The database is large enough to elucidate patterns. For most samples and particularly for our >60 non-metallic, large single-crystals, >30 glasses and >12 polycrystals, we show that thermal diffusivity is consistently represented by D(T) =F/T ^G + HT, permitting confident extrapolation from conditions in the laboratory to those in the mantle. The two distinct temperature terms describing D(T) suggest that two microscopic mechanisms of conduction exist in the electrical insulators explored. We propose that phonon scattering (the F/T^G term) sums with radiative diffusion of infrared (IR) light in the form of polaritons (the HT term). Speeds near that of sound over unit cell scale lengths exist for the polariton mechanism due to phonon-photon coupling, thereby distinguishing this proposed mechanism from high frequency diffusive radiative transfer which travels near the speed of light, and only is important following transient heating. For 63 single-crystals and many glasses unaffected by disordering or reconstructive phase transitions, G ranges from 0.3 to 2, depending on structure, and H is ~0.0001/ K, and so HT crosses F/T^G by ~1300 K (for most oxides), meaning that radiative diffusion of IR light is more important than phonon scattering inside the Earth. Importantly, the increase in heat transport due to elevated temperature is augmented by the increase due to high P inside planets, providing stability against convection. The popular view of a vigorously convecting interior needs revisiting, given known feedback in the temperature equation and the large size of the HT term. To understand the microscopic basis of HT term, we re

  6. Mathematical Model of the Processes of Heat and Mass Transfer and Diffusion of the Magnetic Field in an Induction Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perminov, A. V.; Nikulin, I. L.

    2016-03-01

    We propose a mathematical model describing the motion of a metal melt in a variable inhomogeneous magnetic field of a short solenoid. In formulating the problem, we made estimates and showed the possibility of splitting the complete magnetohydrodynamical problem into two subproblems: a magnetic field diffusion problem where the distributions of the external and induced magnetic fields and currents are determined, and a heat and mass transfer problem with known distributions of volume sources of heat and forces. The dimensionless form of the heat and mass transfer equation was obtained with the use of averaging and multiscale methods, which permitted writing and solving separately the equations for averaged flows and temperature fields and their oscillations. For the heat and mass transfer problem, the boundary conditions for a real technological facility are discussed. The dimensionless form of the magnetic field diffusion equation is presented, and the experimental computational procedure and results of the numerical simulation of the magnetic field structure in the melt for various magnetic Reynolds numbers are described. The extreme dependence of heat release on the magnetic Reynolds number has been interpreted.

  7. The role of waves and DC electric fields for electron heating and acceleration in the diffusion region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Daniel; Khotyaintsev, Yuri; Vaivads, Andris; Norgren, Cecilia; Andre, Mats; Lindqvist, Per-Arne; Le Contel, Olivier; Ergun, Robert; Goodrich, Katherine; Torbert, Roy; Burch, James; Russell, Christopher; Magnes, Werner; Giles, Barbara; Pollock, Craig; Mauk, Barry; Fuselier, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental process in solar and astrophysical plasmas. The processes operating at electron spatial-scales, which enable magnetic field lines to reconnect, are generally difficult to resolve and identify. However, the recently launched Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission is specifically designed to resolve electron spatial scales. We use the MMS spacecraft to investigate the process operating within the diffusion region to determine the causes of electron heating and acceleration. In particular, we investigate the type of electrostatic and electromagnetic waves that develop and how they affect the electron distributions. We also compare the roles of wave-particle interactions with DC electric fields to determine which is responsible for the electron heating observed in diffusion regions.

  8. Ultrafast 2D IR microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Baiz, Carlos R.; Schach, Denise; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    We describe a microscope for measuring two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectra of heterogeneous samples with μm-scale spatial resolution, sub-picosecond time resolution, and the molecular structure information of 2D IR, enabling the measurement of vibrational dynamics through correlations in frequency, time, and space. The setup is based on a fully collinear “one beam” geometry in which all pulses propagate along the same optics. Polarization, chopping, and phase cycling are used to isolate the 2D IR signals of interest. In addition, we demonstrate the use of vibrational lifetime as a contrast agent for imaging microscopic variations in molecular environments. PMID:25089490

  9. Confining interparticle potential makes both heat transport and energy diffusion anomalous in one-dimensional phononic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosevich, Yuriy A.; Savin, Alexander V.

    2016-10-01

    We provide molecular dynamics simulation of heat transport and energy diffusion in one-dimensional molecular chains with different interparticle pair potentials at zero and non-zero temperature. We model the thermal conductivity (TC) and energy diffusion (ED) in the chain of coupled rotators and in the Lennard-Jones chain either without or with the confining parabolic interparticle potential. The considered chains without the confining potential have normal TC and ED at non-zero temperature, while the corresponding chains with the confining potential are characterized by anomalous (diverging with the system length) TC and superdiffusion of energy. Similar effect is produced by the anharmonic quartic confining pair potential. We confirm in such a way that, surprisingly, the confining pair potential makes both heat transport and energy diffusion anomalous in one-dimensional phononic systems. We show that the normal TC is always accompanied by the normal ED in the thermalized anharmonic chains, while the superdiffusion of energy occurs in the thermalized chains with only anomalous heat transport.

  10. MAGNUM-2D computer code: user's guide

    SciTech Connect

    England, R.L.; Kline, N.W.; Ekblad, K.J.; Baca, R.G.

    1985-01-01

    Information relevant to the general use of the MAGNUM-2D computer code is presented. This computer code was developed for the purpose of modeling (i.e., simulating) the thermal and hydraulic conditions in the vicinity of a waste package emplaced in a deep geologic repository. The MAGNUM-2D computer computes (1) the temperature field surrounding the waste package as a function of the heat generation rate of the nuclear waste and thermal properties of the basalt and (2) the hydraulic head distribution and associated groundwater flow fields as a function of the temperature gradients and hydraulic properties of the basalt. MAGNUM-2D is a two-dimensional numerical model for transient or steady-state analysis of coupled heat transfer and groundwater flow in a fractured porous medium. The governing equations consist of a set of coupled, quasi-linear partial differential equations that are solved using a Galerkin finite-element technique. A Newton-Raphson algorithm is embedded in the Galerkin functional to formulate the problem in terms of the incremental changes in the dependent variables. Both triangular and quadrilateral finite elements are used to represent the continuum portions of the spatial domain. Line elements may be used to represent discrete conduits. 18 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. AnisWave 2D

    2004-08-01

    AnisWave2D is a 2D finite-difference code for a simulating seismic wave propagation in fully anisotropic materials. The code is implemented to run in parallel over multiple processors and is fully portable. A mesh refinement algorithm has been utilized to allow the grid-spacing to be tailored to the velocity model, avoiding the over-sampling of high-velocity materials that usually occurs in fixed-grid schemes.

  12. On the Influence of a Fuel Side Heat-Loss (Soot) Layer on a Planar Diffusion Flame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wichman, Indrek S.

    1994-01-01

    A model of the response of a diffusion flame (DF) to an adjacent heat loss or 'soot' layer on the fuel side is investigated. The thermal influence of the 'soot' or heat-loss layer on the DF occurs through the enthalpy sink it creates. A sink distribution in mixture-fraction space is employed to examine possible DF extinction. It is found that (1) the enthalpy sink (or soot layer) must touch the DF for radiation-induced quenching to occur; and (2) for fuel-rich conditions extinction is possible only for a progressively narrower range of values ot the characteristic heat-loss parameter, N(sub R)(Delta Z(sub R)) Various interpretations ot the model are discussed. An attempt is made to place this work into the context created by previous experimental and computational studies.

  13. Characterization of helium diffusion behavior from continuous heating experiments: Sample screening and identification of multiple 4He components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDannell, K. T.; Idleman, B. D.; Zeitler, P. K.

    2015-12-01

    Old, slowly cooled apatites often yield overdispersed helium ages due to factors such as parent zonation, He implantation, radiation damage, crystal defects, and fluid inclusions. Careful mineral selection and many replicate analyses can mitigate the impact of some of these effects. However, this approach adds unnecessary costs in time and resources when dating well-behaved apatites and is generally ineffective at identifying the root cause of age dispersion and providing suitable age corrections for poorly behaved samples. We assess a new technique utilizing static-gas measurement during continuous heating as a means to rapidly screen apatite samples. In about the time required for a conventional total-gas analysis, this method can discriminate between samples showing the volume-diffusion behavior expected for apatite and those showing anomalous release patterns, inconsistent with their use in thermochronologic applications. This method may also have the potential to quantify and discriminate between the radiogenic and extraneous 4He fractions released by a sample. Continuously heated samples that outgas by volume diffusion during a linear heating schedule should produce a characteristic sigmoidal 4He fractional loss profile, with the exact shape and position of these profiles (in loss vs. heating time space) controlled by sample kinetics, grain size, and heating rate. Secondary factors such as sample zoning and alpha-loss distribution have a relatively minor impact on such profiles. Well-behaved examples such as the Durango standard and other apatites with good age reproducibility show the expected smooth, sigmoidal gas release with complete exhaustion by temperatures predicted for volume diffusion using typical apatite kinetics (e.g., by ~900˚C for linear heating at 20˚C/minute). In contrast, "bad actor" samples that do not replicate well show significant degrees of helium release deferred to higher temperatures. We report on screening results for a range of

  14. Heat Diffusion in a Solid Sphere and Fourier Theory: An Elementary Practical Example.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unsworth, J.; Duarte, F. J.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a method to determine the thermal diffusivity of a polymer, which is suitable for the undergraduate laboratory. It serves as a practical demonstration of classical Fourier theory. (Author/HM)

  15. Diffusion permeability of yttrium-based heat-resistant ion-plasma coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncharov, V. S.; Goncharov, M. V.; Vasil'ev, E. V.

    2016-09-01

    The diffusion permeability of yttrium-containing ion-plasma coatings on substrates made of the low-alloy chromium-based Cr-0.7V-0.17La alloy has been studied. It has been found that protective coatings of this type have a strong barrier effect on diffusion fluxes in the substrate-coating-environment system and that YCr + YCrO3 coatings ensure the best protection of the substrates against gas saturation.

  16. Development of ultra-fast 2D ion Doppler tomography using image intensified CMOS fast camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanabe, Hiroshi; Kuwahata, Akihiro; Yamanaka, Haruki; Inomoto, Michiaki; Ono, Yasushi; TS-group Team

    2015-11-01

    The world fastest novel time-resolved 2D ion Doppler tomography diagnostics has been developed using fast camera with high-speed gated image intensifier (frame rate: 200kfps. phosphor decay time: ~ 1 μ s). Time evolution of line-integrated spectra are diffracted from a f=1m, F/8.3 and g=2400L/mm Czerny-Turner polychromator, whose output is intensified and recorded to a high-speed camera with spectral resolution of ~0.005nm/pixel. The system can accommodate up to 36 (9 ×4) spatial points recorded at 5 μs time resolution, tomographic reconstruction is applied for the line-integrated spectra, time-resolved (5 μs/frame) local 2D ion temperature measurement has been achieved without any assumption of shot repeatability. Ion heating during intermittent reconnection event which tends to happen during high guide field merging tokamak was measured around diffusion region in UTST. The measured 2D profile shows ion heating inside the acceleration channel of reconnection outflow jet, stagnation point and downstream region where reconnected field forms thick closed flux surface as in MAST. Achieved maximum ion temperature increases as a function of Brec2 and shows good fit with MAST experiment, demonstrating promising CS-less startup scenario for spherical tokamak. This work is supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 15H05750 and 15K20921.

  17. Heat diffusion and thermolastic vibration influence on the signal of an open photoacoustic cell for two layer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichardo-Molina, J. L.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.

    2004-06-01

    Thermal diffusion and thermoelastic vibration in two layer systems is studied using photoacoustic spectroscopy. Three different two layer systems, copper/lead-tin (Cu/Pb-Sn), aluminum/paint (Al/paint) and aluminum/polyvinyl-chloride (Al/PVC) are studied. A model is developed considering that both layers present thermoelastic vibration and heat diffusion. It is shown that our equations can be used to obtain the theoretical photoacoustic signal independent of the mechanical properties when the thermal and thermomechanical properties of the composing layers are similar. It is shown that this approximation is much better suited for the study of metal/metal systems where the coupling of the thermoelastic bending is smooth. The restrictions of this approach and the possible extensions to study systems with different thermal expansion and mechanical behavior are discussed.

  18. DYNA2D96. Explicit 2-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect

    Whirley, R.G.

    1992-04-01

    DYNA2D is a vectorized, explicit, two-dimensional, axisymmetric and plane strain finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic and hydrodynamic response of inelastic solids. DYNA2D contains 13 material models and 9 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented in all machine versions are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic elastic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, rubber, high explosive burn, isotropic elastic-plastic, temperature-dependent elastic-plastic. The isotropic and temperature-dependent elastic-plastic models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 9 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, and tabulated.

  19. Thermal expansion of UO2+x nuclear fuel rods from a model coupling heat transfer and oxygen diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Mihaila, Bogden; Zubelewicz, Aleksander; Stan, Marius; Ramirez, Juan

    2008-01-01

    We study the thermal expansion of UO{sub 2+x} nuclear fuel rod in the context of a model coupling heat transfer and oxygen diffusion discussed previously by J.C. Ramirez, M. Stan and P. Cristea [J. Nucl. Mat. 359 (2006) 174]. We report results of simulations performed for steady-state and time-dependent regimes in one-dimensional configurations. A variety of initial- and boundary-value scenarios are considered. We use material properties obtained from previously published correlations or from analysis of previously published data. All simulations were performed using the commercial code COMSOL Multiphysics{sup TM} and are readily extendable to include multidimensional effects.

  20. On the integral-balance approach to the transient heat conduction with linearly temperature-dependent thermal diffusivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabre, Antoine; Hristov, Jordan

    2016-04-01

    Closed form approximate solutions to nonlinear transient heat conduction with linearly temperature-dependent thermal diffusivity have been developed by the integral-balance integral method under transient conditions. The solutions uses improved direct approaches of the integral method and avoid the commonly used linearization by the Kirchhoff transformation. The main steps in the new solutions are improvements in the integration technique of the double-integration technique and the optimization of the exponent of the approximate parabolic profile with unspecified exponent. Solutions to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary condition problems have been developed as examples by the classical Heat-balance integral method (HBIM) and the Double-integration method (DIM). Additional examples with HBIM and DIM solutions to cases when the Kirchhoff transform is initially applied have been developed.

  1. Unified Heat Kernel Regression for Diffusion, Kernel Smoothing and Wavelets on Manifolds and Its Application to Mandible Growth Modeling in CT Images

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Moo K.; Qiu, Anqi; Seo, Seongho; Vorperian, Houri K.

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel kernel regression framework for smoothing scalar surface data using the Laplace-Beltrami eigenfunctions. Starting with the heat kernel constructed from the eigenfunctions, we formulate a new bivariate kernel regression framework as a weighted eigenfunction expansion with the heat kernel as the weights. The new kernel regression is mathematically equivalent to isotropic heat diffusion, kernel smoothing and recently popular diffusion wavelets. Unlike many previous partial differential equation based approaches involving diffusion, our approach represents the solution of diffusion analytically, reducing numerical inaccuracy and slow convergence. The numerical implementation is validated on a unit sphere using spherical harmonics. As an illustration, we have applied the method in characterizing the localized growth pattern of mandible surfaces obtained in CT images from subjects between ages 0 and 20 years by regressing the length of displacement vectors with respect to the template surface. PMID:25791435

  2. MOSS2D V1

    2001-01-31

    This software reduces the data from two-dimensional kSA MOS program, k-Space Associates, Ann Arbor, MI. Initial MOS data is recorded without headers in 38 columns, with one row of data per acquisition per lase beam tracked. The final MOSS 2d data file is reduced, graphed, and saved in a tab-delimited column format with headers that can be plotted in any graphing software.

  3. On Determining Wood Thermal Diffusivity and Probe Spacing for Sap Flow Measurements using In-Situ Heat Response Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Miller, G.; Baldocchi, D.; Rubin, Y.

    2008-12-01

    The heat pulse method is widely used to measure water flux in plants and soil; it works by inferring the velocity of water in a porous medium from the speed at which a heat pulse is propagated through the system. No systematic, non-destructive calibration procedure exists to determine the site-specific parameters necessary for calculating sap velocity: wood thermal diffusivity and probe spacing. Such parameter calibration is crucial to obtaining the correct transpiration amount from the sap flow measurements at the plant scale and consequently to the up-scaling of water flux to a larger scale and to the water cycle modeling along the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum. The purpose of this study is to present a statistical framework to simultaneously estimate these parameters from in-situ heat response curves collected by the implanted probes of heat ratio apparatus. Conditioned on the heat response data, the parameters are inferred using a Bayesian inversion technique with Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling method. The primary advantage of the proposed methodology is that, unlike most of the existing work, it does not require known probe spacing or any further intrusive sampling of sapwood. The Bayesian framework also enables direct quantification of uncertainty in estimated sap flow velocity. Experiments using synthetic data show that multiple tests on the same apparatus are essential to obtain reliable, accurate solutions. When applied to field conditions, these tests are conducted during different seasons and automated using the existing data logging system. The seasonality of wood thermal diffusivity is obtained as a by-product of the parameter estimation process, and it shows consistency with the seasonal change of tree diameters monitored using tree dendrometer. An empirical factor is adopted to account for flow deformation caused by the implanted probes, and it is also estimated in this study. The proposed methodology is ready to be applied to calibrate

  4. A simple Boltzmann transport equation for ballistic to diffusive transient heat transport

    SciTech Connect

    Maassen, Jesse Lundstrom, Mark

    2015-04-07

    Developing simplified, but accurate, theoretical approaches to treat heat transport on all length and time scales is needed to further enable scientific insight and technology innovation. Using a simplified form of the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE), originally developed for electron transport, we demonstrate how ballistic phonon effects and finite-velocity propagation are easily and naturally captured. We show how this approach compares well to the phonon BTE, and readily handles a full phonon dispersion and energy-dependent mean-free-path. This study of transient heat transport shows (i) how fundamental temperature jumps at the contacts depend simply on the ballistic thermal resistance, (ii) that phonon transport at early times approach the ballistic limit in samples of any length, and (iii) perceived reductions in heat conduction, when ballistic effects are present, originate from reductions in temperature gradient. Importantly, this framework can be recast exactly as the Cattaneo and hyperbolic heat equations, and we discuss how the key to capturing ballistic heat effects is to use the correct physical boundary conditions.

  5. Modeling Heat Conduction and Radiation Transport with the Diffusion Equation in NIF ALE-AMR

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, A C; Bailey, D S; Kaiser, T B; Gunney, B N; Masters, N D; Koniges, A E; Eder, D C; Anderson, R W

    2009-10-06

    The ALE-AMR code developed for NIF is a multi-material hydro-code that models target assembly fragmentation in the aftermath of a shot. The combination of ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian) hydro with AMR (Adaptive Mesh Refinement) allows the code to model a wide range of physical conditions and spatial scales. The large range of temperatures encountered in the NIF target chamber can lead to significant fluxes of energy due to thermal conduction and radiative transport. These physical effects can be modeled approximately with the aid of the diffusion equation. We present a novel method for the solution of the diffusion equation on a composite mesh in order to capture these physical effects.

  6. Diffusion-trapping modelling of hydrogen recycling in tungsten under ELM-like heat loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, K.

    2016-02-01

    The recycling of D ions impinging onto a W divertor surface is a key input parameter into the power and momentum balance at the target boundary during SOL modeling. It is described by the ratio R of the flux of recombining D2 molecules to the non-reflected incident ion flux. In steady-state plasmas where the surface is in equilibrium with the incident flux, R equals one due to particle conservation. However, during transient events such as edge localized modes (ELMs) the evolution of R with time is not straightforward to predict. Therefore, detailed diffusion-trapping calculations were performed taking into account the variations in power influx and particle energy during an ELM. They showed that in contrast to the naive expectation, that the ELM would deplete the surface and subsequently lead to ‘pumping’ (R \\ll 1) of the incident flux by the empty surface, R ≈ 1 or even R \\gt 1 occurs. This paper will first describe how the ELM was approximated in the 1D diffusion-trapping code and then discuss the evolution of R during an ELM and in the inter ELM phase. Also, an analytical picture of R will be developed which allows qualitatively understanding the evolution of R as calculated by the diffusion-trapping code.

  7. Calculation of thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat capacity of sedimentary rocks using petrophysical well logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Sven; Balling, Niels; Förster, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    In this study, equations are developed that predict for synthetic sedimentary rocks (clastics, carbonates and evapourates) thermal properties comprising thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity and thermal diffusivity. The rock groups are composed of mineral assemblages with variable contents of 15 major rock-forming minerals and porosities of 0-30 per cent. Petrophysical properties and their well-logging-tool-characteristic readings were assigned to these rock-forming minerals and to pore-filling fluids. Relationships are explored between each thermal property and other petrophysical properties (density, sonic interval transit time, hydrogen index, volume fraction of shale and photoelectric absorption index) using multivariate statistics. The application of these relations allows computing continuous borehole profiles for each rock thermal property. The uncertainties in the prediction of each property vary depending on the selected well-log combination. Best prediction is in the range of 2-8 per cent for the specific heat capacity, of 5-10 per cent for the thermal conductivity, and of 8-15 for the thermal diffusivity, respectively. Well-log derived thermal conductivity is validated by laboratory data measured on cores from deep boreholes of the Danish Basin, the North German Basin, and the Molasse Basin. Additional validation of thermal conductivity was performed by comparing predicted and measured temperature logs. The maximum deviation between these logs is <3 °C. The thermal-conductivity calculation allowed an evaluation of the depth range in which the palaeoclimatic effect on the subsurface temperature field can be observed in the North German Basin. This effect reduces the surface heat-flow density by 25 mW m-2.

  8. Double-diffusive convection as a mechanism for transferring heat and mass within the Salton Sea geothermal brine

    SciTech Connect

    Fournier, Robert O.

    1988-01-01

    H. C. Helgeson noted in 1968 that the salinity of the brine in the geothermal reservoir within the Salton Sea geothermal system generally increases from the top to the bottom and from the center to the sides. He also noted that pressure measurements at perforations in cased wells seemed to indicate that the formation fluids at the depths of production have a specific density about equal to 1, and that hot concentrated brines apparently exist in pressure equilibrium with comparatively cold dilute pore waters in the surrounding rocks. Since 1968 there have been no published reports that dispute these observations. However, a very high heat flux through the top of the system seems to require a substantial component of convective transfer of heat beneath an impermeable cap, whereas the apparent salinity gradient with depth seems to require little or no free convection of brine. This paradox may be resolved if double-diffusive convection is the main process that controls the depth-temperature-salinity relations. Such convection provides a mechanism for transferring heat from the bottom to the top of the hydrothermal system while maintaining vertical and horizontal salinity gradients—densities remaining close to unity. In 1981, Griffiths showed experimentally that layered double-diffusive convection cells may develop in porous media when hot saline waters underlie more dilute cooler waters. However, nagging questions remain about whether fluid densities within the Salton Sea geothermal system really adjust to unity in response to changing temperature and salinity at depths greater than about 1 km. The State 2-14 well, the Salton Sea Scientific Drill Hole, has provided one high-quality data point for a depth interval of 1,865-1,877 m, where the temperature is about 305º C. The calculated density of the pre-flashed reservoir fluid sampled from that depth is 1.0008 ± 0.0023.

  9. Effect of variable heating on double diffusive flow in a square porous cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badruddin, Irfan Anjum; Khan, T. M. Yunus; Salman Ahmed N., J.; Kamangar, Sarfaraz

    2016-05-01

    Investigation of heat and mass transfer due to variable heating at the left vertical surface of a square cavity filled with porous medium is carried out. The left surface of cavity is maintained at higher temperature and concentration as compared to right surface which has low temperature and concentration. Finite element method is used to convert the partial differential equations into simpler algebraic form of equations. The governing equations are solved in iterative manner to obtain the solution parameters.Results are presented in terms of isothermal lines, iso-concentration lines and streamlines for variable wall temperature at left surface.

  10. Time Series Measurements of Diffuse Hydrothermal Flow at the ASHES Vent Field Reveal Tidally Modulated Heat and Volume Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittelstaedt, E. L.; Fornari, D. J.; Crone, T. J.

    2015-12-01

    Existing time-series measurements of temperature and velocity of diffuse hydrothermal fluids exhibit variability over a range of periods from seconds to days. Frequency analysis of these measurements reveals differences between studies and field locations including nearly white spectra, as well as spectra with peaks at tidal and inertial periods. Based upon these results, previous authors have suggested several processes that may control diffuse flow rates, including tidally induced currents and 'tidal pumping', and have also suggested that there are no systematic controls. To further investigate the processes that control variability in diffuse flow, we use data from a new, deep-sea camera and temperature measurement system, the Diffuse Effluent Measurement System (DEMS), deployed during the July, 2014 cruise of the R/V Atlantis. The DEMS was deployed with DSV Alvin above a fracture network at the Phoenix vent within the ASHES vent field (Axial Seamount, 1541 mbsl). The system collected 20 seconds of imagery at 20 Hz and 24 seconds of temperature measurements at 1 Hz each hour over the period between July 22 and August 2nd. Velocities of the upwelling fluids were calculated using Diffuse Fluid Velocimetry (DFV; Mittelstaedt et al., 2010). DFV is a cross correlation technique that tracks moving index of refraction anomalies (i.e., hot parcels of fluid) through time. Over the ~12 day deployment, median flow rates ranged from 0.5 cm/s to 6 cm/s and mean fluid temperature anomalies from 0°C up to ~6.5°C, yielding an average heat flux density of 0.23 MW/m2. Spectral analysis of both the measured temperatures and calculated velocities yield a peak in normalized power at the semi-diurnal lunar period (M2, 12.4hrs), but no other spectral peaks above the 95% confidence level. Here, we present these results and discuss their implications for the tidal current and tidal pressure models of diffuse flow variability at the ASHES vent field.

  11. Ocean Turbulence. Paper 3; Two-Point Closure Model Momentum, Heat and Salt Vertical Diffusivities in the Presence of Shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canuto, V. M.; Dubovikov, M. S.; Howard, A.; Cheng, Y.

    1999-01-01

    In papers 1 and 2 we have presented the results of the most updated 1-point closure model for the turbulent vertical diffusivities of momentum, heat and salt, K(sub m,h,s). In this paper, we derive the analytic expressions for K(sub m,h,s) using a new 2-point closure model that has recently been developed and successfully tested against some approx. 80 turbulence statistics for different flows. The new model has no free parameters. The expressions for K(sub m, h. s) are analytical functions of two stability parameters: the Turner number R(sub rho) (salinity gradient/temperature gradient) and the Richardson number R(sub i) (temperature gradient/shear). The turbulent kinetic energy K and its rate of dissipation may be taken local or non-local (K-epsilon model). Contrary to all previous models that to describe turbulent mixing below the mixed layer (ML) have adopted three adjustable "background diffusivities" for momentum. heat and salt, we propose a model that avoids such adjustable diffusivities. We assume that below the ML, K(sub m,h,s) have the same functional dependence on R(sub i) and R(sub rho) derived from the turbulence model. However, in order to compute R(sub i) below the ML, we use data of vertical shear due to wave-breaking measured by Gargett et al. (1981). The procedure frees the model from adjustable background diffusivities and indeed we use the same model throughout the entire vertical extent of the ocean. Using the new K(sub m,h, s), we run an O-GCM and present a variety of results that we compare with Levitus and the KPP model. Since the traditional 1-point (used in papers 1 and 2) and the new 2-point closure models used here represent different modeling philosophies and procedures, testing them in an O-GCM is indispensable. The basic motivation is to show that the new 2-point closure model gives results that are overall superior to the 1-point closure in spite of the fact that the latter rely on several adjustable parameters while the new 2-point

  12. Microwave Assisted 2D Materials Exfoliation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanbin

    Two-dimensional materials have emerged as extremely important materials with applications ranging from energy and environmental science to electronics and biology. Here we report our discovery of a universal, ultrafast, green, solvo-thermal technology for producing excellent-quality, few-layered nanosheets in liquid phase from well-known 2D materials such as such hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), graphite, and MoS2. We start by mixing the uniform bulk-layered material with a common organic solvent that matches its surface energy to reduce the van der Waals attractive interactions between the layers; next, the solutions are heated in a commercial microwave oven to overcome the energy barrier between bulk and few-layers states. We discovered the minutes-long rapid exfoliation process is highly temperature dependent, which requires precise thermal management to obtain high-quality inks. We hypothesize a possible mechanism of this proposed solvo-thermal process; our theory confirms the basis of this novel technique for exfoliation of high-quality, layered 2D materials by using an as yet unknown role of the solvent.

  13. Experimental Methodology for Estimation of Local Heat Fluxes and Burning Rates in Steady Laminar Boundary Layer Diffusion Flames.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajay V; Gollner, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Modeling the realistic burning behavior of condensed-phase fuels has remained out of reach, in part because of an inability to resolve the complex interactions occurring at the interface between gas-phase flames and condensed-phase fuels. The current research provides a technique to explore the dynamic relationship between a combustible condensed fuel surface and gas-phase flames in laminar boundary layers. Experiments have previously been conducted in both forced and free convective environments over both solid and liquid fuels. A unique methodology, based on the Reynolds Analogy, was used to estimate local mass burning rates and flame heat fluxes for these laminar boundary layer diffusion flames utilizing local temperature gradients at the fuel surface. Local mass burning rates and convective and radiative heat feedback from the flames were measured in both the pyrolysis and plume regions by using temperature gradients mapped near the wall by a two-axis traverse system. These experiments are time-consuming and can be challenging to design as the condensed fuel surface burns steadily for only a limited period of time following ignition. The temperature profiles near the fuel surface need to be mapped during steady burning of a condensed fuel surface at a very high spatial resolution in order to capture reasonable estimates of local temperature gradients. Careful corrections for radiative heat losses from the thermocouples are also essential for accurate measurements. For these reasons, the whole experimental setup needs to be automated with a computer-controlled traverse mechanism, eliminating most errors due to positioning of a micro-thermocouple. An outline of steps to reproducibly capture near-wall temperature gradients and use them to assess local burning rates and heat fluxes is provided. PMID:27285827

  14. Experimental Methodology for Estimation of Local Heat Fluxes and Burning Rates in Steady Laminar Boundary Layer Diffusion Flames

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajay V.; Gollner, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Modeling the realistic burning behavior of condensed-phase fuels has remained out of reach, in part because of an inability to resolve the complex interactions occurring at the interface between gas-phase flames and condensed-phase fuels. The current research provides a technique to explore the dynamic relationship between a combustible condensed fuel surface and gas-phase flames in laminar boundary layers. Experiments have previously been conducted in both forced and free convective environments over both solid and liquid fuels. A unique methodology, based on the Reynolds Analogy, was used to estimate local mass burning rates and flame heat fluxes for these laminar boundary layer diffusion flames utilizing local temperature gradients at the fuel surface. Local mass burning rates and convective and radiative heat feedback from the flames were measured in both the pyrolysis and plume regions by using temperature gradients mapped near the wall by a two-axis traverse system. These experiments are time-consuming and can be challenging to design as the condensed fuel surface burns steadily for only a limited period of time following ignition. The temperature profiles near the fuel surface need to be mapped during steady burning of a condensed fuel surface at a very high spatial resolution in order to capture reasonable estimates of local temperature gradients. Careful corrections for radiative heat losses from the thermocouples are also essential for accurate measurements. For these reasons, the whole experimental setup needs to be automated with a computer-controlled traverse mechanism, eliminating most errors due to positioning of a micro-thermocouple. An outline of steps to reproducibly capture near-wall temperature gradients and use them to assess local burning rates and heat fluxes is provided. PMID:27285827

  15. Dimensional crossover of free exciton diffusion in etched GaAs wire structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieker, S.; Stühler, R.; Kiessling, T.; Ossau, W.; Molenkamp, L. W.

    2015-09-01

    We report on low-temperature spatially resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy to study the diffusion of free excitons in etched wire structures of high-purity GaAs. We assess the stationary diffusion profiles by the free exciton second LO-phonon replica to circumvent the inherent interpretation ambiguities of the previously investigated free exciton zero-phonon line. Moreover, strictly resonant optical excitation prevents the distortion of the diffusion profiles due to local heating in the carrier system. We observe a dimensional crossover from 2D to 1D exciton diffusion when the lateral wire width falls below the diffusion length.

  16. Spatiotemporal evolution of electron characteristics in the electron diffusion region of magnetic reconnection: Implications for acceleration and heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuster, J. R.; Chen, L.-J.; Hesse, M.; Argall, M. R.; Daughton, W.; Torbert, R. B.; Bessho, N.

    2015-04-01

    Based on particle-in-cell simulations of collisionless magnetic reconnection, the spatiotemporal evolution of electron velocity distributions in the electron diffusion region (EDR) is reported to illustrate how electrons are accelerated and heated. Approximately when the reconnection rate maximizes, electron distributions in the vicinity of the X line exhibit triangular structures with discrete striations and a temperature (Te) twice that of the inflow region. Te increases as the meandering EDR populations mix with inflowing electrons. As the distance from the X line increases within the electron outflow jet, the discrete populations swirl into arcs and gyrotropize by the end of the jet with Te about 3 times that of the X line. Two dominant processes increase Te and produce the spatially and temporally evolving EDR distributions: (1) electric field acceleration preferential to electrons which meander in the EDR for longer times and (2) cyclotron turning by the magnetic field normal to the reconnection layer.

  17. Unparticle example in 2D.

    PubMed

    Georgi, Howard; Kats, Yevgeny

    2008-09-26

    We discuss what can be learned about unparticle physics by studying simple quantum field theories in one space and one time dimension. We argue that the exactly soluble 2D theory of a massless fermion coupled to a massive vector boson, the Sommerfield model, is an interesting analog of a Banks-Zaks model, approaching a free theory at high energies and a scale-invariant theory with nontrivial anomalous dimensions at low energies. We construct a toy standard model coupling to the fermions in the Sommerfield model and study how the transition from unparticle behavior at low energies to free particle behavior at high energies manifests itself in interactions with the toy standard model particles.

  18. ORION96. 2-d Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, L.A.; Hallquist, J.O.

    1992-02-02

    ORION is an interactive program that serves as a postprocessor for the analysis programs NIKE2D, DYNA2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. ORION reads binary plot files generated by the two-dimensional finite element codes currently used by the Methods Development Group at LLNL. Contour and color fringe plots of a large number of quantities may be displayed on meshes consisting of triangular and quadrilateral elements. ORION can compute strain measures, interface pressures along slide lines, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. ORION has been applied to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.

  19. Effect of heat treatment on the bulk diffusion length of EFG ribbon silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, C. T.; Moeller, G.; Mathias, J. D.

    1983-03-01

    The effect of thermal anneal on the bulk minority carrier diffusion length L(n) of Edge-defined Film-fed Growth ribbon silicon has been investigated. Statistical distributions of L(n) were gathered after the thermally treated ribbons were fabricated into solor cells by a cold junction formation method (ion implant and pulsed electron beam anneal). The measurements were made by using a bifurcated optical guide arrangement which was specifically designed for ribbon samples with variable surface reflectance. The experimental results indicated that, after a medium temperature (800 C) thermal anneal in a neutral ambient, the form of the L(n) distribution changed in an overall degradation in the average value. With the same thermal anneal in a gettering ambient, the distribution also altered, but with an overall improvement. The observations are discussed in terms of the interaction of metallic impurities with the local structural and chemical defects contained in the ribbons.

  20. Periodic changes in shallow lunat crust caused by Sun's heating and thermal diffusivity near the surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimoto, T.; Eitzel, M.; Yano, T.

    2007-12-01

    Analysis of Apollo 17 data (continuous data from 1976 to 1977) by the cross-correlation approach for seismic noise led us to two new discoveries, one related to the source of noise and the other on the periodic changes in seismic parameters due to extreme temperature changes near the surface. It has been shown previously by Larose et al. (2005) that Green's functions, dominated by Rayleigh waves, can be retrieved from cross-correlation of seismic noise in Apollo 17 data. We first confirmed their correlation results and further analyzed the details in GreenA?"qfs functions. The first discovery is that the sources of noise that lead to construction of Green's functions are (most likely) thermal moonquakes. This is suggested in the Rayleigh-wave observations that show diurnal variation (29.5 days) in amplitudes, but one can directly confirm a correlation between the statistics of thermal moonquakes and Rayleigh wave amplitudes. This is in contrast to the terrestrial case where ocean-generated seismic noise plays a critical role in the cross-correlation approach. This has implications for future planetary seismology as many planets lack oceans but may have thermal quakes caused by drastic temperature changes near the surface. Second, diurnal temporal variations in group velocity are detected, showing a strong correlation with the temporal variation of lunar surface temperature. This can be explained by the Sun's thermal effects which cause changes in density and seismic velocities near the surface. These effects are measurable on the moon since surface temperature changes as much as 270 K within the diurnal period. Depending on the thermal diffusivity of the medium, the depth extent of this thermal effect varies considerably. Inversion for thermal diffusivity using the changes in group velocity dispersion resulted in an estimate 10**(-7) (m**2/s) for the upper few meters.

  1. Effect of microwave dielectric heating on intraparticle diffusion in reversed-phase liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Galinada, Wilmer; Guiochon, Georges A

    2005-08-01

    The influence of microwave (MW) irradiation on the mass transfer kinetics in reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) was studied by placing a column in a microwave oven and measuring the incremental change in the temperature of the column effluent stream at various microwave energies and mobile phase compositions. The microwave energy dissipated in the column was set between 15 and 200 W and the mobile phase composition used varied from 100 to 70, 50, and 10% methanol in water at 1.2 mL/min. At all the mobile phase compositions considered, the effluent temperature increased with increasing microwave energy. At 70% methanol, the mobile phase flow rate was set at 1.2, 2.0, and 2.8 mL/min. At 1.2 mL/min, the effluent temperatures at the lowest (15 W) and highest (200 W) microwave energy inputs were 25 {+-} 1 C and 41 {+-} 1 C for pure methanol, 25 {+-} 1 C and 48 {+-} 1 C for 70% methanol, 25 {+-} 1 C and 50 {+-} 1 C for 50% methanol, and, 25 {+-} 1 C and 52 {+-} 1 C for 10% methanol, respectively. With 70% methanol and microwave energy inputs of 15, 30, and 50 W, the effluent temperature did not change with increasing flow rate; a considerable change was observed at 100, 150, and 200 W between 1.2 and 2.0 mL/min and none between 2.0 and 2.8 mL/min. Chromatographic elution band profiles of propylbenzene were recorded under linear conditions, in 70% methanol solutions, for microwave energy inputs of 0, 15 and 30 W, at constant temperature. The intraparticle diffusion coefficient, D{sub e}, under microwave irradiation was ca. 20% higher than without irradiation. These preliminary results suggest that microwave irradiation may have a considerable influence on intraparticle diffusion in RPLC.

  2. Effect of microwave dielectric heating on intraparticle diffusion in reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Galinada, Wilmer A; Guiochon, Georges

    2005-09-30

    The influence of microwave (MW) irradiation on the mass transfer kinetics in reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) was studied by placing a column in a microwave oven and measuring the incremental change in the temperature of the column effluent stream at various microwave energies and mobile phase compositions. The microwave energy dissipated in the column was set between 15 and 200 W and the mobile phase composition used varied from 100 to 70, 50, and 10% methanol in water at 1.2 mL/min. At all the mobile phase compositions considered, the effluent temperature increased with increasing microwave energy. At 70% methanol, the mobile phase flow rate was set at 1.2, 2.0, and 2.8 mL/min. At 1.2 mL/min, the effluent temperatures at the lowest (15 W) and highest (200 W) microwave energy inputs were 25 +/- 1 degrees C and 41 +/- 1 degrees C for pure methanol, 25 +/- 1 degrees C and 48 +/- 1 degrees C for 70% methanol, 25 +/- 1 degrees C and 50 +/- 1 degrees C for 50% methanol, and, 25 +/- 1 degrees C and 52 +/- 1 degrees C for 10% methanol, respectively. With 70% methanol and microwave energy inputs of 15, 30, and 50 W, the effluent temperature did not change with increasing flow rate; a considerable change was observed at 100, 150, and 200 W between 1.2 and 2.0 mL/min and none between 2.0 and 2.8 mL/min. Chromatographic elution band profiles of propylbenzene were recorded under linear conditions, in 70% methanol solutions, for microwave energy inputs of 0, 15 and 30 W, at constant temperature. The intraparticle diffusion coefficient, De, under microwave irradiation was ca. 20% higher than without irradiation. These preliminary results suggest that microwave irradiation may have a considerable influence on intraparticle diffusion in RPLC.

  3. Effects of heat treatment on U-Mo fuel foils with a zirconium diffusion barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jue, Jan-Fong; Trowbridge, Tammy L.; Breckenridge, Cynthia R.; Moore, Glenn A.; Meyer, Mitchell K.; Keiser, Dennis D.

    2015-05-01

    A monolith fuel design based on U-Mo alloy has been selected as the fuel type for conversion of the United States' high performance research reactors (HPRRs) from highly enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU). In this fuel design, a thin layer of zirconium is used to eliminate the direct interaction between the U-Mo fuel meat and the aluminum-alloy cladding during irradiation. The co-rolling process used to bond the Zr barrier layer to the U-Mo foil during fabrication alters the microstructure of both the U-10Mo fuel meat and the U-Mo/Zr interface. This work studied the effects of post-rolling annealing treatment on the microstructure of the co-rolled U-Mo fuel meat and the U-Mo/Zr interaction layer. Microscopic characterization shows that the grain size of U-Mo fuel meat increases with the annealing temperature, as expected. The grain sizes were ∼9, ∼13, and ∼20 μm for annealing temperature of 650, 750, and 850 °C, respectively. No abnormal grain growth was observed. The U-Mo/Zr interaction-layer thickness increased with the annealing temperature with an Arrhenius constant for growth of 184 kJ/mole, consistent with a previous diffusion-couple study. The interaction layer thickness was 3.2 ± 0.5 μm, 11.1 ± 2.1 μm, 27.1 ± 0.9 μm for annealing temperature of 650, 750, to 850 °C, respectively. The homogeneity of Mo improves with post rolling annealing temperature and with U-Mo coupon homogenization. The phases in the Zr/U-Mo interaction layer produced by co-rolling, however, differ from those reported in the previous diffusion couple studies.

  4. Effects of heat treatment on U–Mo fuel foils with a zirconium diffusion barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Jue, Jan-Fong; Trowbridge, Tammy L.; Breckenridge, Cynthia R.; Moore, Glenn A.; Meyer, Mitchell K.; Keiser, Dennis D.

    2015-05-01

    A monolith fuel design based on U–Mo alloy has been selected as the fuel type for conversion of the United States’ high performance research reactors (HPRRs) from highly enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU). In this fuel design, a thin layer of zirconium is used to eliminate the direct interaction between the U–Mo fuel meat and the aluminum-alloy cladding during irradiation. The co-rolling process used to bond the Zr barrier layer to the U–Mo foil during fabrication alters the microstructure of both the U–10Mo fuel meat and the U–Mo/Zr interface. This work studied the effects of post-rolling annealing treatment on the microstructure of the co-rolled U–Mo fuel meat and the U–Mo/Zr interaction layer. Microscopic characterization shows that the grain size of U–Mo fuel meat increases with the annealing temperature, as expected. The grain sizes were ~9, ~13, and ~20 μm for annealing temperature of 650, 750, and 850 °C, respectively. No abnormal grain growth was observed. The U–Mo/Zr interaction-layer thickness increased with the annealing temperature with an Arrhenius constant for growth of 184 kJ/mole, consistent with a previous diffusion-couple study. The interaction layer thickness was 3.2 ± 0.5 μm, 11.1 ± 2.1 μm, 27.1 ± 0.9 μm for annealing temperature of 650, 750, to 850 °C, respectively. The homogeneity of Mo improves with post rolling annealing temperature and with U–Mo coupon homogenization. The phases in the Zr/U–Mo interaction layer produced by co-rolling, however, differ from those reported in the previous diffusion couple studies.

  5. Steady-state heat transport: Ballistic-to-diffusive with Fourier's law

    SciTech Connect

    Maassen, Jesse Lundstrom, Mark

    2015-01-21

    It is generally understood that Fourier's law does not describe ballistic phonon transport, which is important when the length of a material is similar to the phonon mean-free-path. Using an approach adapted from electron transport, we demonstrate that Fourier's law and the heat equation do capture ballistic effects, including temperature jumps at ideal contacts, and are thus applicable on all length scales. Local thermal equilibrium is not assumed, because allowing the phonon distribution to be out-of-equilibrium is important for ballistic and quasi-ballistic transport. The key to including the non-equilibrium nature of the phonon population is to apply the proper boundary conditions to the heat equation. Simple analytical solutions are derived, showing that (i) the magnitude of the temperature jumps is simply related to the material properties and (ii) the observation of reduced apparent thermal conductivity physically stems from a reduction in the temperature gradient and not from a reduction in actual thermal conductivity. We demonstrate how our approach, equivalent to Fourier's law, easily reproduces results of the Boltzmann transport equation, in all transport regimes, even when using a full phonon dispersion and mean-free-path distribution.

  6. Steady-state heat transport: Ballistic-to-diffusive with Fourier's law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maassen, Jesse; Lundstrom, Mark

    2015-01-01

    It is generally understood that Fourier's law does not describe ballistic phonon transport, which is important when the length of a material is similar to the phonon mean-free-path. Using an approach adapted from electron transport, we demonstrate that Fourier's law and the heat equation do capture ballistic effects, including temperature jumps at ideal contacts, and are thus applicable on all length scales. Local thermal equilibrium is not assumed, because allowing the phonon distribution to be out-of-equilibrium is important for ballistic and quasi-ballistic transport. The key to including the non-equilibrium nature of the phonon population is to apply the proper boundary conditions to the heat equation. Simple analytical solutions are derived, showing that (i) the magnitude of the temperature jumps is simply related to the material properties and (ii) the observation of reduced apparent thermal conductivity physically stems from a reduction in the temperature gradient and not from a reduction in actual thermal conductivity. We demonstrate how our approach, equivalent to Fourier's law, easily reproduces results of the Boltzmann transport equation, in all transport regimes, even when using a full phonon dispersion and mean-free-path distribution.

  7. Ocean Turbulence I: One-Point Closure Model Momentum and Heat Vertical Diffusivities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canuto, V. M.; Howard, A.; Cheng, Y.; Dubovikov, M. S.

    1999-01-01

    Since the early forties, one-point turbulence closure models have been the canonical tools used to describe turbulent flows in many fields. In geophysics, Mellor and Yamada applied such models using the 1980 state-of-the art. Since then, no improvements were introduced to alleviate two major difficulties: 1) closure of the pressure correlations, which affects the correct determination of the critical Richardson number Ri(sub cr) above which turbulent mixing is no longer possible and 2) the need to express the non-local third-order moments (TOM) in terms of lower order moments rather than via the down-gradient approximation as done thus far, since the latter seriously underestimates the TOMs. Since 1) and 2) are still being dealt with adjustable parameters which weaken the credibility of the models, alternative models, not based on turbulence modeling, have been suggested. The aim of this paper is to show that new information, partly derived from the newest 2-point closure model discussed, can be used to solve these shortcomings. The new one-point closure model, which in its simplest form is algebraic and thus simple to implement, is first shown to reproduce a variety of data. Then, it is used in a Ocean-General Circulation Model (O-GCM) where it reproduces well a large variety of ocean data. While phenomenological models are specifically tuned to ocean turbulence, the present model is not. It is first tested against laboratory data on stably stratified flows and then used in an O-GCM. It is more general, more predictive and more resilient, e.g., it can incorporate phenomena like wave-breaking at the surface, salinity diffusivity, non-locality, etc. One important feature that naturally comes out of the new model is that the predicted Richardson critical value Ri(sub cr) is Ri (sub cr approx. = 1) in agreement with both Large Eddy Simulations (LES) and empirical evidence while all previous models predicted Ri (sub cr approx. = 0.2) which led to a considerable

  8. Evaluation of 2D ceramic matrix composites in aeroconvective environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riccitiello, Salvatore R.; Love, Wendell L.; Balter-Peterson, Aliza

    1992-01-01

    An evaluation is conducted of a novel ceramic-matrix composite (CMC) material system for use in the aeroconvective-heating environments encountered by the nose caps and wing leading edges of such aerospace vehicles as the Space Shuttle, during orbit-insertion and reentry from LEO. These CMCs are composed of an SiC matrix that is reinforced with Nicalon, Nextel, or carbon refractory fibers in a 2D architecture. The test program conducted for the 2D CMCs gave attention to their subsurface oxidation.

  9. The inverse problem of argon diffusion from minerals: Determination of kinetic parameters from stepwise-heating experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brandt, Stephen B.; Rasskazov, S.V.; Brandt, I.S.; Ivanov, A.V.; Kunk, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    Results of two routine 40Ar/39Ar stepwise heating experiments on a biotite and a basanite are interpreted in terms of Fick's and Arrhenius' laws. Both patterns represent a saddle-shaped 39Ar release. Argon isotope spectra are suggested to be controlled by the activation energy of diffusion E and the frequency factor D(o). The activation energy of 39Ar is lower than the one of 40Ar. This results in a preferable release of 40Ar relatively to 39Ar at high-temperature steps and an increasing high-temperature wing in the saddle-shaped age spectrum. At low temperatures, considerable losses and irregularities in release of mainly 39Ar are observed, which cause the decreasing low-temperature wing in the 'saddle'. The suggestion of argon losses (mainly of 39Ar) from a loose, 'unstable' zone of the mineral structures becomes justified. The n-irradiation of the samples and the shift of E of 39Ar towards lower values seems to explain the saddle-shaped age-spectra often encountered in 40Ar/39Ar-geochronometry.

  10. Diffuse venting at the ASHES hydrothermal field: Heat flux and tidally modulated flow variability derived from in situ time-series measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittelstaedt, Eric; Fornari, Daniel J.; Crone, Timothy J.; Kinsey, James; Kelley, Deborah; Elend, Mitch

    2016-04-01

    Time-series measurements of diffuse exit-fluid temperature and velocity collected with a new, deep-sea camera, and temperature measurement system, the Diffuse Effluent Measurement System (DEMS), were examined from a fracture network within the ASHES hydrothermal field located in the caldera of Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca Ridge. The DEMS was installed using the HOV Alvin above a fracture near the Phoenix vent. The system collected 20 s of 20 Hz video imagery and 24 s of 1 Hz temperature measurements each hour between 22 July and 2 August 2014. Fluid velocities were calculated using the Diffuse Fluid Velocimetry (DFV) technique. Over the ˜12 day deployment, median upwelling rates and mean fluid temperature anomalies ranged from 0.5 to 6 cm/s and 0°C to ˜6.5°C above ambient, yielding a heat flux of 0.29 ± 0.22 MW m-2 and heat output of 3.1± 2.5 kW. Using a photo mosaic to measure fracture dimensions, the total diffuse heat output from cracks across ASHES field is estimated to be 2.05 ± 1.95 MW. Variability in temperatures and velocities are strongest at semidiurnal periods and show significant coherence with tidal height variations. These data indicate that periodic variability near Phoenix vent is modulated both by tidally controlled bottom currents and seafloor pressure, with seafloor pressures being the dominant influence. These results emphasize the importance of local permeability on diffuse hydrothermal venting at mid-ocean ridges and the need to better quantify heat flux associated with young oceanic crust.

  11. Simultaneous Measurement of Thermal Diffusivity and Thermal Conductivity by Means of Inverse Solution for One-Dimensional Heat Conduction (Anisotropic Thermal Properties of CFRP for FCEV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosaka, Masataka; Monde, Masanori

    2015-11-01

    For safe and fast fueling of hydrogen in a fuel cell electric vehicle at hydrogen fueling stations, an understanding of the heat transferred from the gas into the tank wall (carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) material) during hydrogen fueling is necessary. Its thermal properties are needed in estimating heat loss accurately during hydrogen fueling. The CFRP has anisotropic thermal properties, because it consists of an adhesive agent and layers of the CFRP which is wound with a carbon fiber. In this paper, the thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of the tank wall material were measured by an inverse solution for one-dimensional unsteady heat conduction. As a result, the thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity were 2.09 × 10^{-6}{ m}2{\\cdot }{s}^{-1} and 3.06{ W}{\\cdot }{m}{\\cdot }^{-1}{K}^{-1} for the axial direction, while they were 6.03 × 10^{-7} {m}2{\\cdot }{s}^{-1} and 0.93 {W}{\\cdot }{m}^{-1}{\\cdot }{K}^{-1} for the radial direction. The thermal conductivity for the axial direction was about three times higher than that for the radial direction. The thermal diffusivity shows the same trend in both directions because the thermal capacity, ρ c, is independent of direction, where ρ is the density and c is the heat capacity.

  12. Diffusion across the modified polyethylene separator GX in the heat-sterilizable AgO-Zn battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutwack, R.

    1973-01-01

    Models of diffusion across an inert membrane have been studied using the computer program CINDA. The models were constructed to simulate various conditions obtained in the consideration of the diffusion of Ag (OH)2 ions in the AgO-Zn battery. The effects on concentrations across the membrane at the steady state and on the fluxout as a function of time were used to examine the consequences of stepwise reducing the number of sources of ions, of stepwise blocking the source and sink surfaces, of varying the magnitude of the diffusion coefficient for a uniform membrane, of varying the diffusion coefficient across the membrane, and of excluding volumes to diffusion.

  13. Perspectives for spintronics in 2D materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Wei

    2016-03-01

    The past decade has been especially creative for spintronics since the (re)discovery of various two dimensional (2D) materials. Due to the unusual physical characteristics, 2D materials have provided new platforms to probe the spin interaction with other degrees of freedom for electrons, as well as to be used for novel spintronics applications. This review briefly presents the most important recent and ongoing research for spintronics in 2D materials.

  14. 2d PDE Linear Symmetric Matrix Solver

    1983-10-01

    ICCG2 (Incomplete Cholesky factorized Conjugate Gradient algorithm for 2d symmetric problems) was developed to solve a linear symmetric matrix system arising from a 9-point discretization of two-dimensional elliptic and parabolic partial differential equations found in plasma physics applications, such as resistive MHD, spatial diffusive transport, and phase space transport (Fokker-Planck equation) problems. These problems share the common feature of being stiff and requiring implicit solution techniques. When these parabolic or elliptic PDE''s are discretized withmore » finite-difference or finite-element methods,the resulting matrix system is frequently of block-tridiagonal form. To use ICCG2, the discretization of the two-dimensional partial differential equation and its boundary conditions must result in a block-tridiagonal supermatrix composed of elementary tridiagonal matrices. The incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient algorithm is used to solve the linear symmetric matrix equation. Loops are arranged to vectorize on the Cray1 with the CFT compiler, wherever possible. Recursive loops, which cannot be vectorized, are written for optimum scalar speed. For matrices lacking symmetry, ILUCG2 should be used. Similar methods in three dimensions are available in ICCG3 and ILUCG3. A general source containing extensions and macros, which must be processed by a pre-compiler to obtain the standard FORTRAN source, is provided along with the standard FORTRAN source because it is believed to be more readable. The pre-compiler is not included, but pre-compilation may be performed by a text editor as described in the UCRL-88746 Preprint.« less

  15. 2d PDE Linear Asymmetric Matrix Solver

    1983-10-01

    ILUCG2 (Incomplete LU factorized Conjugate Gradient algorithm for 2d problems) was developed to solve a linear asymmetric matrix system arising from a 9-point discretization of two-dimensional elliptic and parabolic partial differential equations found in plasma physics applications, such as plasma diffusion, equilibria, and phase space transport (Fokker-Planck equation) problems. These equations share the common feature of being stiff and requiring implicit solution techniques. When these parabolic or elliptic PDE''s are discretized with finite-difference or finite-elementmore » methods, the resulting matrix system is frequently of block-tridiagonal form. To use ILUCG2, the discretization of the two-dimensional partial differential equation and its boundary conditions must result in a block-tridiagonal supermatrix composed of elementary tridiagonal matrices. A generalization of the incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient algorithm is used to solve the matrix equation. Loops are arranged to vectorize on the Cray1 with the CFT compiler, wherever possible. Recursive loops, which cannot be vectorized, are written for optimum scalar speed. For problems having a symmetric matrix ICCG2 should be used since it runs up to four times faster and uses approximately 30% less storage. Similar methods in three dimensions are available in ICCG3 and ILUCG3. A general source, containing extensions and macros, which must be processed by a pre-compiler to obtain the standard FORTRAN source, is provided along with the standard FORTRAN source because it is believed to be more readable. The pre-compiler is not included, but pre-compilation may be performed by a text editor as described in the UCRL-88746 Preprint.« less

  16. Quantitative 2D liquid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    Giraudeau, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) liquid-state NMR has a very high potential to simultaneously determine the absolute concentration of small molecules in complex mixtures, thanks to its capacity to separate overlapping resonances. However, it suffers from two main drawbacks that probably explain its relatively late development. First, the 2D NMR signal is strongly molecule-dependent and site-dependent; second, the long duration of 2D NMR experiments prevents its general use for high-throughput quantitative applications and affects its quantitative performance. Fortunately, the last 10 years has witnessed an increasing number of contributions where quantitative approaches based on 2D NMR were developed and applied to solve real analytical issues. This review aims at presenting these recent efforts to reach a high trueness and precision in quantitative measurements by 2D NMR. After highlighting the interest of 2D NMR for quantitative analysis, the different strategies to determine the absolute concentrations from 2D NMR spectra are described and illustrated by recent applications. The last part of the manuscript concerns the recent development of fast quantitative 2D NMR approaches, aiming at reducing the experiment duration while preserving - or even increasing - the analytical performance. We hope that this comprehensive review will help readers to apprehend the current landscape of quantitative 2D NMR, as well as the perspectives that may arise from it.

  17. Energy level transitions of gas in a 2D nanopore

    SciTech Connect

    Grinyaev, Yurii V.; Chertova, Nadezhda V.; Psakhie, Sergei G.

    2015-10-27

    An analytical study of gas behavior in a 2D nanopore was performed. It is shown that the temperature dependence of gas energy can be stepwise due to transitions from one size-quantized subband to another. Taking into account quantum size effects results in energy level transitions governed by the nanopore size, temperature and gas density. This effect leads to an abrupt change of gas heat capacity in the nanopore at the above varying system parameters.

  18. Numerical investigation on heat transfer in power-law fluids with variable thermal diffusivity in the presence of viscous dissipation and radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Botong; Zheng, Liancun; Zhang, Xinxin

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents a numerical investigation on heat transfer in power-law fluids aligned with a semi-infinite plate in the presence of viscous dissipation and radiation. The effects of power-law viscosity on temperature field are taken into account by assuming that the thermal diffusivity varies as a function of velocity gradient. Since the problem is very complex to solve analytically, a similarity transformation based on the least square approximation principle and shooting technique may be a considerable approach. The effects of generalized Prandtl number, viscous dissipation and radiation on the heat transfer are tabulated.

  19. Staring 2-D hadamard transform spectral imager

    DOEpatents

    Gentry, Stephen M.; Wehlburg, Christine M.; Wehlburg, Joseph C.; Smith, Mark W.; Smith, Jody L.

    2006-02-07

    A staring imaging system inputs a 2D spatial image containing multi-frequency spectral information. This image is encoded in one dimension of the image with a cyclic Hadamarid S-matrix. The resulting image is detecting with a spatial 2D detector; and a computer applies a Hadamard transform to recover the encoded image.

  20. Driven microswimmers on a 2D substrate: A stochastic towed sled model

    SciTech Connect

    Marchegiani, Giampiero; Marchesoni, Fabio

    2015-11-14

    We investigate, both numerically and analytically, the diffusion properties of a stochastic sled sliding on a substrate, subject to a constant towing force. The problem is motivated by the growing interest in controlling transport of artificial microswimmers in 2D geometries at low Reynolds numbers. We simulated both symmetric and asymmetric towed sleds. Remarkable properties of their mobilities and diffusion constants include sidewise drifts and excess diffusion peaks. We interpret our numerical findings by making use of stochastic approximation techniques.

  1. 2D materials for nanophotonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Renjing; Yang, Jiong; Zhang, Shuang; Pei, Jiajie; Lu, Yuerui

    2015-12-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have become very important building blocks for electronic, photonic, and phononic devices. The 2D material family has four key members, including the metallic graphene, transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) layered semiconductors, semiconducting black phosphorous, and the insulating h-BN. Owing to the strong quantum confinements and defect-free surfaces, these atomically thin layers have offered us perfect platforms to investigate the interactions among photons, electrons and phonons. The unique interactions in these 2D materials are very important for both scientific research and application engineering. In this talk, I would like to briefly summarize and highlight the key findings, opportunities and challenges in this field. Next, I will introduce/highlight our recent achievements. We demonstrated atomically thin micro-lens and gratings using 2D MoS2, which is the thinnest optical component around the world. These devices are based on our discovery that the elastic light-matter interactions in highindex 2D materials is very strong. Also, I would like to introduce a new two-dimensional material phosphorene. Phosphorene has strongly anisotropic optical response, which creates 1D excitons in a 2D system. The strong confinement in phosphorene also enables the ultra-high trion (charged exciton) binding energies, which have been successfully measured in our experiments. Finally, I will briefly talk about the potential applications of 2D materials in energy harvesting.

  2. Internal Photoemission Spectroscopy of 2-D Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Nhan; Li, Mingda; Vishwanath, Suresh; Yan, Rusen; Xiao, Shudong; Xing, Huili; Cheng, Guangjun; Hight Walker, Angela; Zhang, Qin

    Recent research has shown the great benefits of using 2-D materials in the tunnel field-effect transistor (TFET), which is considered a promising candidate for the beyond-CMOS technology. The on-state current of TFET can be enhanced by engineering the band alignment of different 2D-2D or 2D-3D heterostructures. Here we present the internal photoemission spectroscopy (IPE) approach to determine the band alignments of various 2-D materials, in particular SnSe2 and WSe2, which have been proposed for new TFET designs. The metal-oxide-2-D semiconductor test structures are fabricated and characterized by IPE, where the band offsets from the 2-D semiconductor to the oxide conduction band minimum are determined by the threshold of the cube root of IPE yields as a function of photon energy. In particular, we find that SnSe2 has a larger electron affinity than most semiconductors and can be combined with other semiconductors to form near broken-gap heterojunctions with low barrier heights which can produce a higher on-state current. The details of data analysis of IPE and the results from Raman spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements will also be presented and discussed.

  3. 2D materials: to graphene and beyond.

    PubMed

    Mas-Ballesté, Rubén; Gómez-Navarro, Cristina; Gómez-Herrero, Julio; Zamora, Félix

    2011-01-01

    This review is an attempt to illustrate the different alternatives in the field of 2D materials. Graphene seems to be just the tip of the iceberg and we show how the discovery of alternative 2D materials is starting to show the rest of this iceberg. The review comprises the current state-of-the-art of the vast literature in concepts and methods already known for isolation and characterization of graphene, and rationalizes the quite disperse literature in other 2D materials such as metal oxides, hydroxides and chalcogenides, and metal-organic frameworks.

  4. Explicit approximations to estimate the perturbative diffusivity in the presence of convectivity and damping. III. Cylindrical approximations for heat waves traveling inwards

    SciTech Connect

    Berkel, M. van; Tamura, N.; Ida, K.; Hogeweij, G. M. D.; Zwart, H. J.; Inagaki, S.; Baar, M. R. de

    2014-11-15

    In this paper, a number of new explicit approximations are introduced to estimate the perturbative diffusivity (χ), convectivity (V), and damping (τ) in cylindrical geometry. For this purpose, the harmonic components of heat waves induced by localized deposition of modulated power are used. The approximations are based on the heat equation in cylindrical geometry using the symmetry (Neumann) boundary condition at the plasma center. This means that the approximations derived here should be used only to estimate transport coefficients between the plasma center and the off-axis perturbative source. If the effect of cylindrical geometry is small, it is also possible to use semi-infinite domain approximations presented in Part I and Part II of this series. A number of new approximations are derived in this part, Part III, based upon continued fractions of the modified Bessel function of the first kind and the confluent hypergeometric function of the first kind. These approximations together with the approximations based on semi-infinite domains are compared for heat waves traveling towards the center. The relative error for the different derived approximations is presented for different values of the frequency, transport coefficients, and dimensionless radius. Moreover, it is shown how combinations of different explicit formulas can be used to estimate the transport coefficients over a large parameter range for cases without convection and damping, cases with damping only, and cases with convection and damping. The relative error between the approximation and its underlying model is below 2% for the case, where only diffusivity and damping are considered. If also convectivity is considered, the diffusivity can be estimated well in a large region, but there is also a large region in which no suitable approximation is found. This paper is the third part (Part III) of a series of three papers. In Part I, the semi-infinite slab approximations have been treated. In Part II

  5. Matrix models of 2d gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsparg, P.

    1991-01-01

    These are introductory lectures for a general audience that give an overview of the subject of matrix models and their application to random surfaces, 2d gravity, and string theory. They are intentionally 1.5 years out of date.

  6. Matrix models of 2d gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsparg, P.

    1991-12-31

    These are introductory lectures for a general audience that give an overview of the subject of matrix models and their application to random surfaces, 2d gravity, and string theory. They are intentionally 1.5 years out of date.

  7. Brittle damage models in DYNA2D

    SciTech Connect

    Faux, D.R.

    1997-09-01

    DYNA2D is an explicit Lagrangian finite element code used to model dynamic events where stress wave interactions influence the overall response of the system. DYNA2D is often used to model penetration problems involving ductile-to-ductile impacts; however, with the advent of the use of ceramics in the armor-anti-armor community and the need to model damage to laser optics components, good brittle damage models are now needed in DYNA2D. This report will detail the implementation of four brittle damage models in DYNA2D, three scalar damage models and one tensor damage model. These new brittle damage models are then used to predict experimental results from three distinctly different glass damage problems.

  8. A statistical method for estimating wood thermal diffusivity and probe geometry using in situ heat response curves from sap flow measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xingyuan; Miller, Gretchen R.; Rubin, Yoram; Baldocchi, Dennis

    2012-09-13

    The heat pulse method is widely used to measure water flux through plants; it works by inferring the velocity of water through a porous medium from the speed at which a heat pulse is propagated through the system. No systematic, non-destructive calibration procedure exists to determine the site-specific parameters necessary for calculating sap velocity, e.g., wood thermal diffusivity and probe spacing. Such parameter calibration is crucial to obtain the correct transpiration flux density from the sap flow measurements at the plant scale; and consequently, to up-scale tree-level water fluxes to canopy and landscape scales. The purpose of this study is to present a statistical framework for estimating the wood thermal diffusivity and probe spacing simutaneously from in-situ heat response curves collected by the implanted probes of a heat ratio apparatus. Conditioned on the time traces of wood temperature following a heat pulse, the parameters are inferred using a Bayesian inversion technique, based on the Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling method. The primary advantage of the proposed methodology is that it does not require known probe spacing or any further intrusive sampling of sapwood. The Bayesian framework also enables direct quantification of uncertainty in estimated sap flow velocity. Experiments using synthetic data show that repeated tests using the same apparatus are essential to obtain reliable and accurate solutions. When applied to field conditions, these tests are conducted during different seasons and automated using the existing data logging system. The seasonality of wood thermal diffusivity is obtained as a by-product of the parameter estimation process, and it is shown to be affected by both moisture content and temperature. Empirical factors are often introduced to account for the influence of non-ideal probe geometry on the estimation of heat pulse velocity, and they are estimated in this study as well. The proposed methodology can be applied for

  9. Chemical Approaches to 2D Materials.

    PubMed

    Samorì, Paolo; Palermo, Vincenzo; Feng, Xinliang

    2016-08-01

    Chemistry plays an ever-increasing role in the production, functionalization, processing and applications of graphene and other 2D materials. This special issue highlights a selection of enlightening chemical approaches to 2D materials, which nicely reflect the breadth of the field and convey the excitement of the individuals involved in it, who are trying to translate graphene and related materials from the laboratory into a real, high-impact technology. PMID:27478083

  10. Chemical Approaches to 2D Materials.

    PubMed

    Samorì, Paolo; Palermo, Vincenzo; Feng, Xinliang

    2016-08-01

    Chemistry plays an ever-increasing role in the production, functionalization, processing and applications of graphene and other 2D materials. This special issue highlights a selection of enlightening chemical approaches to 2D materials, which nicely reflect the breadth of the field and convey the excitement of the individuals involved in it, who are trying to translate graphene and related materials from the laboratory into a real, high-impact technology.

  11. Glitter in a 2D monolayer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li-Ming; Dornfeld, Matthew; Frauenheim, Thomas; Ganz, Eric

    2015-10-21

    We predict a highly stable and robust atomically thin gold monolayer with a hexagonal close packed lattice stabilized by metallic bonding with contributions from strong relativistic effects and aurophilic interactions. We have shown that the framework of the Au monolayer can survive 10 ps MD annealing simulations up to 1400 K. The framework is also able to survive large motions out of the plane. Due to the smaller number of bonds per atom in the 2D layer compared to the 3D bulk we observe significantly enhanced energy per bond (0.94 vs. 0.52 eV per bond). This is similar to the increase in bond strength going from 3D diamond to 2D graphene. It is a non-magnetic metal, and was found to be the global minima in the 2D space. Phonon dispersion calculations demonstrate high kinetic stability with no negative modes. This 2D gold monolayer corresponds to the top monolayer of the bulk Au(111) face-centered cubic lattice. The close-packed lattice maximizes the aurophilic interactions. We find that the electrons are completely delocalized in the plane and behave as 2D nearly free electron gas. We hope that the present work can inspire the experimental fabrication of novel free standing 2D metal systems.

  12. 2d index and surface operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadde, Abhijit; Gukov, Sergei

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we compute the superconformal index of 2d (2, 2) supersymmetric gauge theories. The 2d superconformal index, a.k.a. flavored elliptic genus, is computed by a unitary matrix integral much like the matrix integral that computes the 4d superconformal index. We compute the 2d index explicitly for a number of examples. In the case of abelian gauge theories we see that the index is invariant under flop transition and under CY-LG correspondence. The index also provides a powerful check of the Seiberg-type duality for non-abelian gauge theories discovered by Hori and Tong. In the later half of the paper, we study half-BPS surface operators in = 2 super-conformal gauge theories. They are engineered by coupling the 2d (2, 2) supersymmetric gauge theory living on the support of the surface operator to the 4d = 2 theory, so that different realizations of the same surface operator with a given Levi type are related by a 2d analogue of the Seiberg duality. The index of this coupled system is computed by using the tools developed in the first half of the paper. The superconformal index in the presence of surface defect is expected to be invariant under generalized S-duality. We demonstrate that it is indeed the case. In doing so the Seiberg-type duality of the 2d theory plays an important role.

  13. Self-diffusion of magnesium in spinel and in equilibrium melts - Constraints on flash heating of silicates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheng, Y. J.; Wasserburg, G. J.; Hutcheon, I. D.

    1992-01-01

    An isotopic tracer is used to measure Mg self-diffusion in spinel and coexisting melt at bulk chemical equilibrium. The diffusion coefficients were calculated from the measured isotope profiles using a model that includes the complementary diffusion of Mg-24, Mg-25, and Mg-26 in both phases with the constraint that the Mg content of each phase is constant. The activation energy and preexponential factor for Mg self-diffusion in spinel are, respectively, 384 +/- 7 kJ and 74.6 +/- 1.1 sq cm/s. These data indicate Mg diffusion in spinel is much slower than previous estimates. The activation energy for Mg self-diffusion in coexisting melt is 343 +/- 25 kJ and the preexponential factor is 7791.9 +/- 1.3 sq cm/s. These results are used to evaluate cooling rates of plagioclase-olivine inclusions (POIs) in the Allende meteorite. Given a maximum melting temperature for POIs of about 1500 C, these results show that a 1-micron radius spinel would equilibrate isotopically with a melt within about 60 min.

  14. Heating with waste heat

    SciTech Connect

    Beabout, R.W.

    1986-09-02

    Most of the power consumed in the gaseous diffusion process is converted into heat of compression, which is removed from the process gas and rejected into the atmosphere by recirculating cooling water over cooling towers. The water being handled through the X-333 and X-330 Process Buildings can be heated to 140 to 150/sup 0/F for heating use. The Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant is provided with a recirculating heating water (RHW) system which uses X-330 water and wasted heat. The RHW flow is diagrammed. (DLC)

  15. Natural convection flows due to the combined buoyancy of heat and mass diffusion in a thermally stratified medium

    SciTech Connect

    Angirasa, D.; Srinivasan, J. )

    1989-08-01

    This paper presents a numerical study of laminar doubly diffusive free convection flows adjacent to a vertical surface in a stable thermally stratified medium. The two buoyant mechanisms are thermal diffusion and species diffusion. The species concentration is assumed to be small. Boussinesq approximations are incorporated and the governing conservation equations of mass, momentum, energy, and species are nondimensionalized. These equations are solved using a finite-difference method. The results are explained in terms of the basic physical mechanisms that govern these flows. It is observed that the ambient thermal stratification has a profound influence on the transport characteristics. The results show many interesting aspects of the complex interaction of the two buoyant mechanisms.

  16. Orthotropic Piezoelectricity in 2D Nanocellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Y.; Ruiz-Blanco, Yasser B.; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Sotomayor-Torres, C. M.

    2016-10-01

    The control of electromechanical responses within bonding regions is essential to face frontier challenges in nanotechnologies, such as molecular electronics and biotechnology. Here, we present Iβ-nanocellulose as a potentially new orthotropic 2D piezoelectric crystal. The predicted in-layer piezoelectricity is originated on a sui-generis hydrogen bonds pattern. Upon this fact and by using a combination of ab-initio and ad-hoc models, we introduce a description of electrical profiles along chemical bonds. Such developments lead to obtain a rationale for modelling the extended piezoelectric effect originated within bond scales. The order of magnitude estimated for the 2D Iβ-nanocellulose piezoelectric response, ~pm V‑1, ranks this material at the level of currently used piezoelectric energy generators and new artificial 2D designs. Such finding would be crucial for developing alternative materials to drive emerging nanotechnologies.

  17. Orthotropic Piezoelectricity in 2D Nanocellulose

    PubMed Central

    García, Y.; Ruiz-Blanco, Yasser B.; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Sotomayor-Torres, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    The control of electromechanical responses within bonding regions is essential to face frontier challenges in nanotechnologies, such as molecular electronics and biotechnology. Here, we present Iβ-nanocellulose as a potentially new orthotropic 2D piezoelectric crystal. The predicted in-layer piezoelectricity is originated on a sui-generis hydrogen bonds pattern. Upon this fact and by using a combination of ab-initio and ad-hoc models, we introduce a description of electrical profiles along chemical bonds. Such developments lead to obtain a rationale for modelling the extended piezoelectric effect originated within bond scales. The order of magnitude estimated for the 2D Iβ-nanocellulose piezoelectric response, ~pm V−1, ranks this material at the level of currently used piezoelectric energy generators and new artificial 2D designs. Such finding would be crucial for developing alternative materials to drive emerging nanotechnologies. PMID:27708364

  18. 2D microwave imaging reflectometer electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Spear, A. G.; Domier, C. W. Hu, X.; Muscatello, C. M.; Ren, X.; Luhmann, N. C.; Tobias, B. J.

    2014-11-15

    A 2D microwave imaging reflectometer system has been developed to visualize electron density fluctuations on the DIII-D tokamak. Simultaneously illuminated at four probe frequencies, large aperture optics image reflections from four density-dependent cutoff surfaces in the plasma over an extended region of the DIII-D plasma. Localized density fluctuations in the vicinity of the plasma cutoff surfaces modulate the plasma reflections, yielding a 2D image of electron density fluctuations. Details are presented of the receiver down conversion electronics that generate the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) reflectometer signals from which 2D density fluctuation data are obtained. Also presented are details on the control system and backplane used to manage the electronics as well as an introduction to the computer based control program.

  19. Optical modulators with 2D layered materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhipei; Martinez, Amos; Wang, Feng

    2016-04-01

    Light modulation is an essential operation in photonics and optoelectronics. With existing and emerging technologies increasingly demanding compact, efficient, fast and broadband optical modulators, high-performance light modulation solutions are becoming indispensable. The recent realization that 2D layered materials could modulate light with superior performance has prompted intense research and significant advances, paving the way for realistic applications. In this Review, we cover the state of the art of optical modulators based on 2D materials, including graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus. We discuss recent advances employing hybrid structures, such as 2D heterostructures, plasmonic structures, and silicon and fibre integrated structures. We also take a look at the future perspectives and discuss the potential of yet relatively unexplored mechanisms, such as magneto-optic and acousto-optic modulation.

  20. Heat and Mass Transfer of the Droplet Vacuum Freezing Process Based on the Diffusion-controlled Evaporation and Phase Transition Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhijun; Gao, Jingxin; Zhang, Shiwei

    2016-01-01

    A frozen phase transition model is developed to investigate the heat and mass transfer of a single water droplet during the vacuum freezing process. The model is based on the diffusion-controlled evaporation mechanism and phase transition characteristics. The droplet vacuum freezing process can be divided into three stages according to the droplet states and the time order. It includes the evaporation freezing stage, the isothermal freezing stage and the sublimation freezing stage. A numerical calculation is performed, and the result is analysed. The effects of the vacuum chamber pressure, initial droplet diameter and initial droplet temperature on the heat and mass transfer characteristics at each stage are studied. The droplet experiences supercooling breakdown at the end of the evaporation freezing stage before the isothermal freezing stage begins. The temperature is transiently raised as a result of the supercooling breakdown phenomenon, whose effects on the freezing process and freezing parameters are considered. PMID:27739466

  1. Heat and Mass Transfer of the Droplet Vacuum Freezing Process Based on the Diffusion-controlled Evaporation and Phase Transition Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhijun; Gao, Jingxin; Zhang, Shiwei

    2016-10-01

    A frozen phase transition model is developed to investigate the heat and mass transfer of a single water droplet during the vacuum freezing process. The model is based on the diffusion-controlled evaporation mechanism and phase transition characteristics. The droplet vacuum freezing process can be divided into three stages according to the droplet states and the time order. It includes the evaporation freezing stage, the isothermal freezing stage and the sublimation freezing stage. A numerical calculation is performed, and the result is analysed. The effects of the vacuum chamber pressure, initial droplet diameter and initial droplet temperature on the heat and mass transfer characteristics at each stage are studied. The droplet experiences supercooling breakdown at the end of the evaporation freezing stage before the isothermal freezing stage begins. The temperature is transiently raised as a result of the supercooling breakdown phenomenon, whose effects on the freezing process and freezing parameters are considered.

  2. Sensitivity of the interpretation of the experimental ion thermal diffusivity to the determination of the ion conductive heat flux

    SciTech Connect

    Stacey, W. M.

    2014-04-15

    A moments equation formalism for the interpretation of the experimental ion thermal diffusivity from experimental data is used to determine the radial ion thermal conduction flux that must be used to interpret the measured data. It is shown that the total ion energy flux must be corrected for thermal and rotational energy convection, for the work done by the flowing plasma against the pressure and viscosity, and for ion orbit loss of particles and energy, and expressions are presented for these corrections. Each of these factors is shown to have a significant effect on the interpreted ion thermal diffusivity in a representative DIII-D [J. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)] discharge.

  3. Inkjet printing of 2D layered materials.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiantong; Lemme, Max C; Östling, Mikael

    2014-11-10

    Inkjet printing of 2D layered materials, such as graphene and MoS2, has attracted great interests for emerging electronics. However, incompatible rheology, low concentration, severe aggregation and toxicity of solvents constitute critical challenges which hamper the manufacturing efficiency and product quality. Here, we introduce a simple and general technology concept (distillation-assisted solvent exchange) to efficiently overcome these challenges. By implementing the concept, we have demonstrated excellent jetting performance, ideal printing patterns and a variety of promising applications for inkjet printing of 2D layered materials. PMID:25169938

  4. Inkjet printing of 2D layered materials.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiantong; Lemme, Max C; Östling, Mikael

    2014-11-10

    Inkjet printing of 2D layered materials, such as graphene and MoS2, has attracted great interests for emerging electronics. However, incompatible rheology, low concentration, severe aggregation and toxicity of solvents constitute critical challenges which hamper the manufacturing efficiency and product quality. Here, we introduce a simple and general technology concept (distillation-assisted solvent exchange) to efficiently overcome these challenges. By implementing the concept, we have demonstrated excellent jetting performance, ideal printing patterns and a variety of promising applications for inkjet printing of 2D layered materials.

  5. 2-D and 3-D numerical simulation of a supersonic inlet flowfield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enomoto, Shunji; Arakawa, Chuichi

    The 2-D and 3-D steady, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations were numerically solved for the flowfields in an experimentally tested inlet model with bleed through a cavity. In the 2-D analysis, a normal shock was located at diffuser inlet instead of the position below the cavity. The normal shock in the middle of the diffuser caused a massive separation of the boundary layer and a large total pressure loss. In the 3-D analysis, the shock wave was distorted by the side wall boundary layer separation, and the complex flow structure was established. The result of the 3-D analysis agreed well with the experiment.

  6. Kinetics and mechanisms of oxidation of 2D woven C/SiC composites; 1: Experimental approach

    SciTech Connect

    Lamouroux, F.; Camus, G. . Lab. des Composites Thermostructuraux); Thebault, J. )

    1994-08-01

    The oxidation behavior of a 2D woven C/SiC composite partly protected with a SiC seal coating and heat-treated (stabilized) at 1,600 C in inert gas has been investigated through an experimental approach based on thermogravimetric analyses and optical/electron microscopy. Results of the tests, performed under flowing oxygen, have shown that the oxidation behavior of the composite material in terms of oxidation kinetics and morphological evolutions is related to the presence of thermal microcracks in the seal coating as well as in the matrix. Three different temperature domains exist. At low temperatures (< 800 C), the mechanisms of reaction between carbon and oxygen control the oxidation kinetics and are associated with a uniform degradation of the carbon reinforcement. At intermediate temperatures, (between 800 and 1,100 C), the oxidation kinetics are controlled by the gas-phase diffusion through a network of microcracks in the SiC coatings, resulting in a nonuniform degradation of the carbon phases. At high temperatures (> 1,100 C), such diffusion mechanisms are limited by sealing of the microcracks by silica; therefore, the degradation of the composite remains superficial. The study of the oxidation behavior of (i) the heat-treated composite in a lower oxygen content environment (dry air) and (ii) the as-processed (unstabilized) composite in dry oxygen confirms the different mechanisms proposed to explain the oxidation behavior of the composite material.

  7. Parallel stitching of 2D materials

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ling, Xi; Wu, Lijun; Lin, Yuxuan; Ma, Qiong; Wang, Ziqiang; Song, Yi; Yu, Lili; Huang, Shengxi; Fang, Wenjing; Zhang, Xu; et al

    2016-01-27

    Diverse parallel stitched 2D heterostructures, including metal–semiconductor, semiconductor–semiconductor, and insulator–semiconductor, are synthesized directly through selective “sowing” of aromatic molecules as the seeds in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Lastly, the methodology enables the large-scale fabrication of lateral heterostructures, which offers tremendous potential for its application in integrated circuits.

  8. Parallel Stitching of 2D Materials.

    PubMed

    Ling, Xi; Lin, Yuxuan; Ma, Qiong; Wang, Ziqiang; Song, Yi; Yu, Lili; Huang, Shengxi; Fang, Wenjing; Zhang, Xu; Hsu, Allen L; Bie, Yaqing; Lee, Yi-Hsien; Zhu, Yimei; Wu, Lijun; Li, Ju; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo; Dresselhaus, Mildred; Palacios, Tomás; Kong, Jing

    2016-03-23

    Diverse parallel stitched 2D heterostructures, including metal-semiconductor, semiconductor-semiconductor, and insulator-semiconductor, are synthesized directly through selective "sowing" of aromatic molecules as the seeds in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The methodology enables the large-scale fabrication of lateral heterostructures, which offers tremendous potential for its application in integrated circuits.

  9. Experimental determination of single-crystal halite thermal conductivity, diffusivity and specific heat from -75°C to 300°C

    SciTech Connect

    Urquhart, Alexander; Bauer, Stephen

    2015-05-19

    The thermal properties of halite have broad practical importance, from design and long-term modeling of nuclear waste repositories to analysis and performance assessment of underground natural gas, petroleum and air storage facilities. Using a computer-controlled transient plane source method, single-crystal halite thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat were measured from -75°C to 300°C. These measurements reproduce historical high-temperature experiments and extend the lower temperature extreme into cryogenic conditions. Measurements were taken in 25-degree increments from -75°C to 300°C. Over this temperature range, thermal conductivity decreases by a factor of 3.7, from 9.975 to 2.699 W/mK , and thermal diffusivity decreases by a factor of 3.6, from 5.032 to 1.396 mm²/s. Specific heat does not appear to be temperature dependent, remaining near 2.0 MJ/m³K at all temperatures. This work is intended to develop and expand the existing dataset of halite thermal properties, which are of particular value in defining the parameters of salt storage thermophysical models. The work was motivated by a need for thermal conductivity values in a mixture theory model used to determine bulk thermal conductivity of reconsolidating crushed salt.

  10. Exploring the Phase Transformation in β-Quenched Ti-55531 Alloy During Continuous Heating via Dilatometric Measurement, Microstructure Characterization, and Diffusion Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fuwen; Xu, Guanglong; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Zhou, Kechao

    2016-11-01

    Phase transformations of the β-quenched Ti-55531 alloy during continuous heating were studied by combining dilatometric measurement with phase analysis, microstructure observation, and local composition mapping. The corresponding transformation sequence can be verified as β → ω, β + ω → β + α, β → α, and α → β. By revisiting the individual phase transformations in the aforementioned transformation sequence, the variations of macro volume discovered in dilatometer test were reinterpreted based on three mechanisms, i.e., modification of crystallographic symmetry, thermodynamically partitioning, and diffusion kinetics. The interplay of different mechanisms was discussed for individual transformations, especially for the combinative partitioning and diffusion kinetic mechanisms of governed α ↔ β transformation. The pileups of Al atoms behind the growing α/ β interface during β → α and of Mo atoms in the β side of α/ β interface during α → β were observed and explained by incorporating the diffusion kinetic mechanism. All of these discoveries and discussions provided a deeper understanding of the phase transformations in Ti-55531 alloy.

  11. Exploring the Phase Transformation in β-Quenched Ti-55531 Alloy During Continuous Heating via Dilatometric Measurement, Microstructure Characterization, and Diffusion Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fuwen; Xu, Guanglong; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Zhou, Kechao

    2016-08-01

    Phase transformations of the β-quenched Ti-55531 alloy during continuous heating were studied by combining dilatometric measurement with phase analysis, microstructure observation, and local composition mapping. The corresponding transformation sequence can be verified as β → ω, β + ω → β + α, β → α, and α → β. By revisiting the individual phase transformations in the aforementioned transformation sequence, the variations of macro volume discovered in dilatometer test were reinterpreted based on three mechanisms, i.e., modification of crystallographic symmetry, thermodynamically partitioning, and diffusion kinetics. The interplay of different mechanisms was discussed for individual transformations, especially for the combinative partitioning and diffusion kinetic mechanisms of governed α ↔ β transformation. The pileups of Al atoms behind the growing α/β interface during β → α and of Mo atoms in the β side of α/β interface during α → β were observed and explained by incorporating the diffusion kinetic mechanism. All of these discoveries and discussions provided a deeper understanding of the phase transformations in Ti-55531 alloy.

  12. An Overview of Early Results from the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission: Acceleration and Heating at Electron Diffusion Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torbert, Roy; Burch, James

    2016-07-01

    The NASA Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission was launched on March 13, 2015 UT to investigate magnetic reconnection in near-Earth space. During the first dayside phase ( 1A ), the four MMS spacecraft were deployed in a tetrahedral configuration with separations ranging from 400 km down to 10 km, a scale close to that of electron reconnection diffusion regions. Data is available from very high time resolution 3D plasma measurements (<30 keV, with a cadence of 30 ms and 150 ms for electrons and ions, respectively), 3D magnetic and electric fields (greater than with 1 ms time resolution) and waves (<6 kHz), 3D energetic particles with composition up to 500 keV, and plasma ion composition (< 30 keV/q). This talk with review the results of the first dayside encounters with electron diffusion regions and the acceleration observed during these encounters, where the dissipation during reconnection appears to be significant.

  13. Application of 2D Non-Graphene Materials and 2D Oxide Nanostructures for Biosensing Technology

    PubMed Central

    Shavanova, Kateryna; Bakakina, Yulia; Burkova, Inna; Shtepliuk, Ivan; Viter, Roman; Ubelis, Arnolds; Beni, Valerio; Starodub, Nickolaj; Yakimova, Rositsa; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of graphene and its unique properties has inspired researchers to try to invent other two-dimensional (2D) materials. After considerable research effort, a distinct “beyond graphene” domain has been established, comprising the library of non-graphene 2D materials. It is significant that some 2D non-graphene materials possess solid advantages over their predecessor, such as having a direct band gap, and therefore are highly promising for a number of applications. These applications are not limited to nano- and opto-electronics, but have a strong potential in biosensing technologies, as one example. However, since most of the 2D non-graphene materials have been newly discovered, most of the research efforts are concentrated on material synthesis and the investigation of the properties of the material. Applications of 2D non-graphene materials are still at the embryonic stage, and the integration of 2D non-graphene materials into devices is scarcely reported. However, in recent years, numerous reports have blossomed about 2D material-based biosensors, evidencing the growing potential of 2D non-graphene materials for biosensing applications. This review highlights the recent progress in research on the potential of using 2D non-graphene materials and similar oxide nanostructures for different types of biosensors (optical and electrochemical). A wide range of biological targets, such as glucose, dopamine, cortisol, DNA, IgG, bisphenol, ascorbic acid, cytochrome and estradiol, has been reported to be successfully detected by biosensors with transducers made of 2D non-graphene materials. PMID:26861346

  14. Application of 2D Non-Graphene Materials and 2D Oxide Nanostructures for Biosensing Technology.

    PubMed

    Shavanova, Kateryna; Bakakina, Yulia; Burkova, Inna; Shtepliuk, Ivan; Viter, Roman; Ubelis, Arnolds; Beni, Valerio; Starodub, Nickolaj; Yakimova, Rositsa; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of graphene and its unique properties has inspired researchers to try to invent other two-dimensional (2D) materials. After considerable research effort, a distinct "beyond graphene" domain has been established, comprising the library of non-graphene 2D materials. It is significant that some 2D non-graphene materials possess solid advantages over their predecessor, such as having a direct band gap, and therefore are highly promising for a number of applications. These applications are not limited to nano- and opto-electronics, but have a strong potential in biosensing technologies, as one example. However, since most of the 2D non-graphene materials have been newly discovered, most of the research efforts are concentrated on material synthesis and the investigation of the properties of the material. Applications of 2D non-graphene materials are still at the embryonic stage, and the integration of 2D non-graphene materials into devices is scarcely reported. However, in recent years, numerous reports have blossomed about 2D material-based biosensors, evidencing the growing potential of 2D non-graphene materials for biosensing applications. This review highlights the recent progress in research on the potential of using 2D non-graphene materials and similar oxide nanostructures for different types of biosensors (optical and electrochemical). A wide range of biological targets, such as glucose, dopamine, cortisol, DNA, IgG, bisphenol, ascorbic acid, cytochrome and estradiol, has been reported to be successfully detected by biosensors with transducers made of 2D non-graphene materials.

  15. 2-D MHD numerical simulations of EML plasma armatures with ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boynton, G. C.; Huerta, M. A.; Thio, Y. C.

    1993-01-01

    We use a 2-D) resistive MHD code to simulate an EML plasma armature. The energy equation includes Ohmic heating, radiation heat transport and the ideal gas equation of state, allowing for variable ionization using the Saha equations. We calculate rail ablation taking into account the flow of heat into the interior of the rails. Our simulations show the development of internal convective flows and secondary arcs. We use an explicit Flux Corrected Transport algorithm to advance all quantities in time.

  16. Stochastic Inversion of 2D Magnetotelluric Data

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jinsong

    2010-07-01

    The algorithm is developed to invert 2D magnetotelluric (MT) data based on sharp boundary parametrization using a Bayesian framework. Within the algorithm, we consider the locations and the resistivity of regions formed by the interfaces are as unknowns. We use a parallel, adaptive finite-element algorithm to forward simulate frequency-domain MT responses of 2D conductivity structure. Those unknown parameters are spatially correlated and are described by a geostatistical model. The joint posterior probability distribution function is explored by Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling methods. The developed stochastic model is effective for estimating the interface locations and resistivity. Most importantly, it provides details uncertainty information on each unknown parameter. Hardware requirements: PC, Supercomputer, Multi-platform, Workstation; Software requirements C and Fortan; Operation Systems/version is Linux/Unix or Windows

  17. Explicit 2-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    1996-08-07

    DYNA2D* is a vectorized, explicit, two-dimensional, axisymmetric and plane strain finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic and hydrodynamic response of inelastic solids. DYNA2D* contains 13 material models and 9 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented in all machine versions are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic elastic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, rubber, high explosive burn, isotropic elastic-plastic, temperature-dependent elastic-plastic. Themore » isotropic and temperature-dependent elastic-plastic models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 9 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, and tabulated.« less

  18. Stochastic Inversion of 2D Magnetotelluric Data

    2010-07-01

    The algorithm is developed to invert 2D magnetotelluric (MT) data based on sharp boundary parametrization using a Bayesian framework. Within the algorithm, we consider the locations and the resistivity of regions formed by the interfaces are as unknowns. We use a parallel, adaptive finite-element algorithm to forward simulate frequency-domain MT responses of 2D conductivity structure. Those unknown parameters are spatially correlated and are described by a geostatistical model. The joint posterior probability distribution function ismore » explored by Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling methods. The developed stochastic model is effective for estimating the interface locations and resistivity. Most importantly, it provides details uncertainty information on each unknown parameter. Hardware requirements: PC, Supercomputer, Multi-platform, Workstation; Software requirements C and Fortan; Operation Systems/version is Linux/Unix or Windows« less

  19. Static & Dynamic Response of 2D Solids

    1996-07-15

    NIKE2D is an implicit finite-element code for analyzing the finite deformation, static and dynamic response of two-dimensional, axisymmetric, plane strain, and plane stress solids. The code is fully vectorized and available on several computing platforms. A number of material models are incorporated to simulate a wide range of material behavior including elasto-placicity, anisotropy, creep, thermal effects, and rate dependence. Slideline algorithms model gaps and sliding along material interfaces, including interface friction, penetration and single surfacemore » contact. Interactive-graphics and rezoning is included for analyses with large mesh distortions. In addition to quasi-Newton and arc-length procedures, adaptive algorithms can be defined to solve the implicit equations using the solution language ISLAND. Each of these capabilities and more make NIKE2D a robust analysis tool.« less

  20. Static & Dynamic Response of 2D Solids

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jerry

    1996-07-15

    NIKE2D is an implicit finite-element code for analyzing the finite deformation, static and dynamic response of two-dimensional, axisymmetric, plane strain, and plane stress solids. The code is fully vectorized and available on several computing platforms. A number of material models are incorporated to simulate a wide range of material behavior including elasto-placicity, anisotropy, creep, thermal effects, and rate dependence. Slideline algorithms model gaps and sliding along material interfaces, including interface friction, penetration and single surface contact. Interactive-graphics and rezoning is included for analyses with large mesh distortions. In addition to quasi-Newton and arc-length procedures, adaptive algorithms can be defined to solve the implicit equations using the solution language ISLAND. Each of these capabilities and more make NIKE2D a robust analysis tool.

  1. Explicit 2-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jerry

    1996-08-07

    DYNA2D* is a vectorized, explicit, two-dimensional, axisymmetric and plane strain finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic and hydrodynamic response of inelastic solids. DYNA2D* contains 13 material models and 9 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented in all machine versions are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic elastic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, rubber, high explosive burn, isotropic elastic-plastic, temperature-dependent elastic-plastic. The isotropic and temperature-dependent elastic-plastic models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 9 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, and tabulated.

  2. 2D photonic-crystal optomechanical nanoresonator.

    PubMed

    Makles, K; Antoni, T; Kuhn, A G; Deléglise, S; Briant, T; Cohadon, P-F; Braive, R; Beaudoin, G; Pinard, L; Michel, C; Dolique, V; Flaminio, R; Cagnoli, G; Robert-Philip, I; Heidmann, A

    2015-01-15

    We present the optical optimization of an optomechanical device based on a suspended InP membrane patterned with a 2D near-wavelength grating (NWG) based on a 2D photonic-crystal geometry. We first identify by numerical simulation a set of geometrical parameters providing a reflectivity higher than 99.8% over a 50-nm span. We then study the limitations induced by the finite value of the optical waist and lateral size of the NWG pattern using different numerical approaches. The NWG grating, pierced in a suspended InP 265-nm thick membrane, is used to form a compact microcavity involving the suspended nanomembrane as an end mirror. The resulting cavity has a waist size smaller than 10 μm and a finesse in the 200 range. It is used to probe the Brownian motion of the mechanical modes of the nanomembrane. PMID:25679837

  3. Compact 2-D graphical representation of DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randić, Milan; Vračko, Marjan; Zupan, Jure; Novič, Marjana

    2003-05-01

    We present a novel 2-D graphical representation for DNA sequences which has an important advantage over the existing graphical representations of DNA in being very compact. It is based on: (1) use of binary labels for the four nucleic acid bases, and (2) use of the 'worm' curve as template on which binary codes are placed. The approach is illustrated on DNA sequences of the first exon of human β-globin and gorilla β-globin.

  4. 2D materials: Graphene and others

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansal, Suneev Anil; Singh, Amrinder Pal; Kumar, Suresh

    2016-05-01

    Present report reviews the recent advancements in new atomically thick 2D materials. Materials covered in this review are Graphene, Silicene, Germanene, Boron Nitride (BN) and Transition metal chalcogenides (TMC). These materials show extraordinary mechanical, electronic and optical properties which make them suitable candidates for future applications. Apart from unique properties, tune-ability of highly desirable properties of these materials is also an important area to be emphasized on.

  5. Layer Engineering of 2D Semiconductor Junctions.

    PubMed

    He, Yongmin; Sobhani, Ali; Lei, Sidong; Zhang, Zhuhua; Gong, Yongji; Jin, Zehua; Zhou, Wu; Yang, Yingchao; Zhang, Yuan; Wang, Xifan; Yakobson, Boris; Vajtai, Robert; Halas, Naomi J; Li, Bo; Xie, Erqing; Ajayan, Pulickel

    2016-07-01

    A new concept for junction fabrication by connecting multiple regions with varying layer thicknesses, based on the thickness dependence, is demonstrated. This type of junction is only possible in super-thin-layered 2D materials, and exhibits similar characteristics as p-n junctions. Rectification and photovoltaic effects are observed in chemically homogeneous MoSe2 junctions between domains of different thicknesses. PMID:27136275

  6. Realistic and efficient 2D crack simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadegar, Jacob; Liu, Xiaoqing; Singh, Abhishek

    2010-04-01

    Although numerical algorithms for 2D crack simulation have been studied in Modeling and Simulation (M&S) and computer graphics for decades, realism and computational efficiency are still major challenges. In this paper, we introduce a high-fidelity, scalable, adaptive and efficient/runtime 2D crack/fracture simulation system by applying the mathematically elegant Peano-Cesaro triangular meshing/remeshing technique to model the generation of shards/fragments. The recursive fractal sweep associated with the Peano-Cesaro triangulation provides efficient local multi-resolution refinement to any level-of-detail. The generated binary decomposition tree also provides efficient neighbor retrieval mechanism used for mesh element splitting and merging with minimal memory requirements essential for realistic 2D fragment formation. Upon load impact/contact/penetration, a number of factors including impact angle, impact energy, and material properties are all taken into account to produce the criteria of crack initialization, propagation, and termination leading to realistic fractal-like rubble/fragments formation. The aforementioned parameters are used as variables of probabilistic models of cracks/shards formation, making the proposed solution highly adaptive by allowing machine learning mechanisms learn the optimal values for the variables/parameters based on prior benchmark data generated by off-line physics based simulation solutions that produce accurate fractures/shards though at highly non-real time paste. Crack/fracture simulation has been conducted on various load impacts with different initial locations at various impulse scales. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed system has the capability to realistically and efficiently simulate 2D crack phenomena (such as window shattering and shards generation) with diverse potentials in military and civil M&S applications such as training and mission planning.

  7. Heating-frequency-dependent thermal conductivity: An analytical solution from diffusive to ballistic regime and its relevance to phonon scattering measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fan; Dames, Chris

    2015-04-01

    The heating-frequency dependence of the apparent thermal conductivity in a semi-infinite body with periodic planar surface heating is explained by an analytical solution to the Boltzmann transport equation. This solution is obtained using a two-flux model and gray mean free time approximation and verified numerically with a lattice Boltzmann method and numerical results from the literature. Extending the gray solution to the nongray regime leads to an integral transform and accumulation-function representation of the phonon scattering spectrum, where the natural variable is mean free time rather than mean free path, as often used in previous work. The derivation leads to an approximate cutoff conduction similar in spirit to that of Koh and Cahill [Phys. Rev. B 76, 075207 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevB.76.075207] except that the most appropriate criterion involves the heater frequency rather than thermal diffusion length. The nongray calculations are consistent with Koh and Cahill's experimental observation that the apparent thermal conductivity shows a stronger heater-frequency dependence in a SiGe alloy than in natural Si. Finally these results are demonstrated using a virtual experiment, which fits the phase lag between surface temperature and heat flux to obtain the apparent thermal conductivity and accumulation function.

  8. Finite element analysis of double-diffusive natural convection in a porous triangular enclosure filled with Al2O3 -water nanofluid in presence of heat generation.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Raju; Parvin, Salma; Khan, Md Abdul Hakim

    2016-08-01

    The problem of double-diffusive natural convection of Al2O3 -water nanofluid in a porous triangular enclosure in presence of heat generation has been studied numerically in this paper. The bottom wall of the cavity is heated isothermally, the left inclined wall is non-isothermal and the right inclined wall is considered to be cold. The concentration is higher at bottom wall, lower at right inclined wall and non-isoconcentration at left inclined wall of the cavity. The governing equations are transformed to the dimensionless form and solved numerically using Galerkin weighted residual technique of finite element method. The results are obtained in terms of streamlines, isotherms, isoconcentrations, average Nueeslt number (Nu) and average Sherwood number (Sh) for the parameters thermal Rayleigh number (RaT ), dimensionless heat generation parameter (λ), solid volume fraction (ϕ) and Lewis number (Le) while Prandtl number (Pr), Buoyancy ratio (N) and Darcy number (Da) are considered to be fixed. It is observed that flow pattern, temperature fields and concentration fields are affected by the variation of above considered parameters. PMID:27579447

  9. 2D Spinodal Decomposition in Forced Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xiang; Diamond, Patrick; Chacon, Luis; Li, Hui

    2015-11-01

    Spinodal decomposition is a second order phase transition for binary fluid mixture, from one thermodynamic phase to form two coexisting phases. The governing equation for this coarsening process below critical temperature, Cahn-Hilliard Equation, is very similar to 2D MHD Equation, especially the conserved quantities have a close correspondence between each other, so theories for MHD turbulence are used to study spinodal decomposition in forced turbulence. Domain size is increased with time along with the inverse cascade, and the length scale can be arrested by a forced turbulence with direct cascade. The two competing mechanisms lead to a stabilized domain size length scale, which can be characterized by Hinze Scale. The 2D spinodal decomposition in forced turbulence is studied by both theory and simulation with ``pixie2d.'' This work focuses on the relation between Hinze scale and spectra and cascades. Similarities and differences between spinodal decomposition and MHD are investigated. Also some transport properties are studied following MHD theories. This work is supported by the Department of Energy under Award Number DE-FG02-04ER54738.

  10. Engineering light outcoupling in 2D materials.

    PubMed

    Lien, Der-Hsien; Kang, Jeong Seuk; Amani, Matin; Chen, Kevin; Tosun, Mahmut; Wang, Hsin-Ping; Roy, Tania; Eggleston, Michael S; Wu, Ming C; Dubey, Madan; Lee, Si-Chen; He, Jr-Hau; Javey, Ali

    2015-02-11

    When light is incident on 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), it engages in multiple reflections within underlying substrates, producing interferences that lead to enhancement or attenuation of the incoming and outgoing strength of light. Here, we report a simple method to engineer the light outcoupling in semiconducting TMDCs by modulating their dielectric surroundings. We show that by modulating the thicknesses of underlying substrates and capping layers, the interference caused by substrate can significantly enhance the light absorption and emission of WSe2, resulting in a ∼11 times increase in Raman signal and a ∼30 times increase in the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of WSe2. On the basis of the interference model, we also propose a strategy to control the photonic and optoelectronic properties of thin-layer WSe2. This work demonstrates the utilization of outcoupling engineering in 2D materials and offers a new route toward the realization of novel optoelectronic devices, such as 2D LEDs and solar cells.

  11. CAST2D: A finite element computer code for casting process modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, A.B.; Hallquist, J.O.

    1991-10-01

    CAST2D is a coupled thermal-stress finite element computer code for casting process modeling. This code can be used to predict the final shape and stress state of cast parts. CAST2D couples the heat transfer code TOPAZ2D and solid mechanics code NIKE2D. CAST2D has the following features in addition to all the features contained in the TOPAZ2D and NIKE2D codes: (1) a general purpose thermal-mechanical interface algorithm (i.e., slide line) that calculates the thermal contact resistance across the part-mold interface as a function of interface pressure and gap opening; (2) a new phase change algorithm, the delta function method, that is a robust method for materials undergoing isothermal phase change; (3) a constitutive model that transitions between fluid behavior and solid behavior, and accounts for material volume change on phase change; and (4) a modified plot file data base that allows plotting of thermal variables (e.g., temperature, heat flux) on the deformed geometry. Although the code is specialized for casting modeling, it can be used for other thermal stress problems (e.g., metal forming).

  12. Enhancement of biomixing by swimming cells in 2D films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gollub, Jerry; Kurtuldu, Huseyin; Guasto, Jeffrey; Johnson, Karl

    2011-11-01

    Fluid mixing in active suspensions of microorganisms is important to ecological phenomena and shows surprising statistical behavior. We investigate the mixing produced by swimming unicellular algal cells (Chlamydomonas) in quasi-2D films by tracking the motions of cells and of microscopic passive tracer particles advected by the fluid. The reduced spatial dimension of the system leads to long-range flows and a surprisingly strong dependence of tracer transport on the swimmer concentration. The mean square displacements are well described by a stochastic Langevin model, with an effective diffusion coefficient D growing as the 3/2 power of the swimmer concentration, due to the interaction of tracer particles with multiple swimmers. We also discuss the anomalous probability distributions of tracer displacements, which become Gaussian at high concentration, but show strong power-law tails at low concentration. Supported by NSF Grant DMR-0803153.

  13. Gint2D-T2 correlation NMR of porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Blümich, Bernhard

    2015-03-01

    The internal magnetic field gradient induced in porous media by magnetic susceptibility differences at material interfaces impacts diffusion measurements in particular at high magnetic field and can be used to probe the pore structure. Insight about the relationship between pore space and internal gradient Gint can be obtained from 2D Laplace NMR experiments. When measuring distributions of transverse relaxation times T2 in fluid filled porous media, relaxation and diffusion in internal gradients arise simultaneously and data are often interpreted with the assumption that one or the other parameter be constant throughout the sample. To examine this assumption we measure correlations of the distributions of Gint2D and T2 by 2D Laplace NMR for three different kinds of samples, glass beads with different bead diameters saturated with water, glass beads filled with oil and water, and a wet mortar sample. For the first two samples the cases where either the internal gradient or diffusion dominates were examined separately in order to better understand the relationship between Gint and D. These results are useful for assessing the impact of internal gradients and diffusion in unknown samples, such as the mortar sample. The experiments were performed at different magnetic field strengths corresponding to 300 MHz and 700 MHz 1H Larmor frequency to identify the impact of the magnetic field on the internal gradient. Subsequently, spatially resolved Gint2D-T2 maps were obtained to study the sample heterogeneity.

  14. Gint2D-T2 correlation NMR of porous media.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Blümich, Bernhard

    2015-03-01

    The internal magnetic field gradient induced in porous media by magnetic susceptibility differences at material interfaces impacts diffusion measurements in particular at high magnetic field and can be used to probe the pore structure. Insight about the relationship between pore space and internal gradient G(int) can be obtained from 2D Laplace NMR experiments. When measuring distributions of transverse relaxation times T(2) in fluid filled porous media, relaxation and diffusion in internal gradients arise simultaneously and data are often interpreted with the assumption that one or the other parameter be constant throughout the sample. To examine this assumption we measure correlations of the distributions of G(int)(2)D and T(2) by 2D Laplace NMR for three different kinds of samples, glass beads with different bead diameters saturated with water, glass beads filled with oil and water, and a wet mortar sample. For the first two samples the cases where either the internal gradient or diffusion dominates were examined separately in order to better understand the relationship between G(int) and D. These results are useful for assessing the impact of internal gradients and diffusion in unknown samples, such as the mortar sample. The experiments were performed at different magnetic field strengths corresponding to 300 MHz and 700 MHz (1)H Larmor frequency to identify the impact of the magnetic field on the internal gradient. Subsequently, spatially resolved Gint(2)D-T(2) maps were obtained to study the sample heterogeneity. PMID:25723135

  15. 2D foam coarsening in a microfluidic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchalot, J.; Lambert, J.; Cantat, I.; Tabeling, P.; Jullien, M.-C.

    2008-09-01

    We report an experimental study of 2D microfoam coarsening confined in a micrometer scale geometry, the typical bubbles diameter being of the order of 50-100 μm. These experiments raise both fundamental and applicative issues. For applicative issues: what is the typical time of foam ageing (for a polydisperse foam) in microsystems in scope of gas pocket storage in lab-on-a-chips? Experimental results show that a typical time of 2-3 mn is found, leading to the possibility of short-time storing, depending on the application. For fundamental interests, 2D foam ageing is generally described by von Neumann's law (von Neumann J., Metal Interfaces (American Society of Metals, Cleveland) 1952, p. 108) which is based on the hypothesis that bubbles are separated by thin films. Does this hypothesis still hold for foams confined in a 40 μm height geometry? This problematic is analyzed and it is shown that von Neumann's law still holds but that the diffusion coefficient involved in this law is modified by the confinement which imposes a curvature radius at Plateau borders. More precisely, it is shown that the liquid fraction is high on a film cross-section, in contrast with macrometric experiments where drainage occurs. An analytical description of the diffusion is developped taking into account the fact that soap film height is only a fraction of the cell height. While most of microfoams are flowing, the experimental set-up we describe leads to the achievement of a motionless confined microfoam.

  16. Mass transfer through laminar boundary layer in 2-d microchannels with nonuniform cross section: the effect of wall curvature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedacchia, Augusta; Adrover, Alessandra

    2012-11-01

    We provide an analytical solution for the combined diffusive and convective 2-d mass transport from a surface film (of arbitrary shape at a given uniform concentration) to a pure solvent flowing in creeping flow conditions into a microchannel, delimited by a flat no-slip surface and by the releasing film itself. Such a problem arises in the study of swelling and dissolution of polimeric thin films under the action of a solvent tangential flow simulating the oral thin film dissolution for drug relase towards the buccal mucosa or oral cavity. We present a similarity solution for laminar forced convection mass (or heat) transfer that generalizes the classical boundary layer solution of the Graetz-Nusselt problem (valid for straight channels or pipes) to a solvent flowing in creeping flow conditions into a 2-d channel with cross-section continuously varying along the axial coordinate x. Close to the releasing boundary, parametrized by a curvilinear abscissa s, both tangential and normal velocity components play a role and their scaling behavior, as a function of wall distance r, should be taken into account in order to have an accurate description of the concentration profile in the boundary layer and of the dependence of the Sherwood number on the curvilinear abscissa s.

  17. A Comparative Study of the Harmonic and Arithmetic Averaging of Diffusion Coefficients for Non-linear Heat Conduction Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Samet Y. Kadioglu; Robert R. Nourgaliev; Vincent A. Mousseau

    2008-03-01

    We perform a comparative study for the harmonic versus arithmetic averaging of the heat conduction coefficient when solving non-linear heat transfer problems. In literature, the harmonic average is the method of choice, because it is widely believed that the harmonic average is more accurate model. However, our analysis reveals that this is not necessarily true. For instance, we show a case in which the harmonic average is less accurate when a coarser mesh is used. More importantly, we demonstrated that if the boundary layers are finely resolved, then the harmonic and arithmetic averaging techniques are identical in the truncation error sense. Our analysis further reveals that the accuracy of these two techniques depends on how the physical problem is modeled.

  18. Thermal Diffusivity and Specific Heat Measurements of Titanium Potassium Perchlorate Titanium Subhydride Potassium Perchlorate 9013 Glass 7052 Glass SB-14 Glass and C-4000 Muscovite Mica Using the Flash Technique.

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, Paul Elliott; Cooper, Marcia A.

    2015-02-01

    The flash technique was used to measure the thermal diffusivity and specific heat of titanium potassium perchlorate (TKP) ignition powder (33wt% Ti - 67wt% KP) with Ventron sup- plied titanium particles, TKP ignition powder (33wt% Ti - 67wt% KP) with ATK supplied titanium particles, TKP output powder (41wt% Ti - 59wt% KP), and titanium subhydride potassium perchlorate (THKP) (33wt% TiH 1.65 - 67wt% KP) at 25 o C. The influence of density and temperature on the thermal diffusivity and specific heat of TKP with Ventron supplied titanium particles was also investigated. Lastly, the thermal diffusivity and specific heats of 9013 glass, 7052 glass, SB-14 glass, and C-4000 Muscovite mica are presented as a function of temperature up to 300 o C.

  19. Relationship between Entrainment and Static Pressure Field on 2-D Jets.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, M.; Ono, K.; Saima, A.

    1996-11-01

    It is well know that entrainment carried out in wakes and jets. This experimental study aimes at investigation the relationship between the entrainment and the pressure field in 2-D jet. The 2-D jet was generated by 2-D rectangular wind tunnel. The velocity and prressure fields were observed in order to investigate the free shear layer of jet. These value were measured by the x type hot-wire anemometer, LDV and the newly developed static pressure probe. Jet diffusion process is visualized by smoke wire method. The result of the experiment was that the static pressure fluctuated intensively, and was negative mean value because of the velocity intermittence in the free shear layer of the 2-D jet. It seems reasonable to suppose that entrainment occurs owing to the negative static pressure by the eddy motion and large scale convection in the free shear layer.

  20. On the origin of the heat capacity feature of annealed ices and ice clathrates, and interpreting water's diffusivity in terms of the entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johari, G. P.

    2000-08-01

    In order to investigate the origins of (i) the spontaneous temperature rise on annealing pure hexagonal and cubic ices and ice clathrates and (ii) the sigmoid-shape increase in the heat capacity, C p, on heating the annealed samples, the enthalpy and entropy decrease on annealing of pure cubic ice and one ice clathrate have been determined from their C p data. This decrease is found to be much higher than that expected from orientational relaxation of H 2O molecules and that calculated from the spontaneous decrease in the Bjerrum or orientational defects concentrations. On this basis and the known observation that dopants not only decrease the relaxation time of the ices and ice clathrates but also modify the shape of the C p-increase feature, it is concluded that the spontaneous temperature rise on annealing occurs when some of the H 2O molecules achieve a preferential orientation, which is equivalent to their partial proton ordering. The sigmoid-shape C p-feature observed on heating the annealed samples is therefore due to the time- and temperature-dependent recovery of their random orientations or complete proton disorder. This is fundamentally different from structural relaxation in glasses whose entropy of disorder itself increases on heating. In a second aspect of the study, the known temperature dependence of the self-diffusion coefficient of water is used to calculate two fundamental quantities of the configurational entropy theory: (i) the size of the cooperatively rearranging regions, which is 4.7 molecules at 150 K, and (ii) the temperature-invariant energy, which is 7.4 kJ mol -1. These seem plausible and similar to those observed for other liquids. Finally, it is pointed out that a comparison of bulk water's dielectric properties with those of the ions afflicted, two-molecule thick water layer between the platelets of sodium vermiculite clay [R. Bergman, J. Sweson, Nature 403 (2000) 283], is inappropriate on fundamental grounds.

  1. GBL-2D Version 1.0: a 2D geometry boolean library.

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, Cory L. (Elemental Technologies, American Fort, UT); Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Yarberry, Victor R.; Meyers, Ray J.

    2006-11-01

    This report describes version 1.0 of GBL-2D, a geometric Boolean library for 2D objects. The library is written in C++ and consists of a set of classes and routines. The classes primarily represent geometric data and relationships. Classes are provided for 2D points, lines, arcs, edge uses, loops, surfaces and mask sets. The routines contain algorithms for geometric Boolean operations and utility functions. Routines are provided that incorporate the Boolean operations: Union(OR), XOR, Intersection and Difference. A variety of additional analytical geometry routines and routines for importing and exporting the data in various file formats are also provided. The GBL-2D library was originally developed as a geometric modeling engine for use with a separate software tool, called SummitView [1], that manipulates the 2D mask sets created by designers of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS). However, many other practical applications for this type of software can be envisioned because the need to perform 2D Boolean operations can arise in many contexts.

  2. Seizure control with thermal energy? Modeling of heat diffusivity in brain tissue and computer-based design of a prototype mini-cooler.

    SciTech Connect

    Osario, I.; Chang, F.-C.; Gopalsami, N.; Nuclear Engineering Division; Univ. of Kansas

    2009-10-01

    Automated seizure blockage is a top priority in epileptology. Lowering nervous tissue temperature below a certain level suppresses abnormal neuronal activity, an approach with certain advantages over electrical stimulation, the preferred investigational therapy for pharmacoresistant seizures. A computer model was developed to identify an efficient probe design and parameters that would allow cooling of brain tissue by no less than 21 C in 30 s, maximum. The Pennes equation and the computer code ABAQUS were used to investigate the spatiotemporal behavior of heat diffusivity in brain tissue. Arrays of distributed probes deliver sufficient thermal energy to decrease, inhomogeneously, brain tissue temperature from 37 to 20 C in 30 s and from 37 to 15 C in 60 s. Tissue disruption/loss caused by insertion of this probe is considerably less than that caused by ablative surgery. This model may be applied for the design and development of cooling devices for seizure control.

  3. Disruption of KMT2D perturbs germinal center B cell development and promotes lymphomagenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiyuan; Dominguez-Sola, David; Hussein, Shafinaz; Lee, Ji-Eun; Holmes, Antony B; Bansal, Mukesh; Vlasevska, Sofija; Mo, Tongwei; Tang, Hongyan; Basso, Katia; Ge, Kai; Dalla-Favera, Riccardo; Pasqualucci, Laura

    2015-10-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding the KMT2D (or MLL2) methyltransferase are highly recurrent and occur early during tumorigenesis in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and follicular lymphoma (FL). However, the functional consequences of these mutations and their role in lymphomagenesis are unknown. Here we show that FL- and DLBCL-associated KMT2D mutations impair KMT2D enzymatic activity, leading to diminished global H3K4 methylation in germinal-center (GC) B cells and DLBCL cells. Conditional deletion of Kmt2d early during B cell development, but not after initiation of the GC reaction, results in an increase in GC B cells and enhances B cell proliferation in mice. Moreover, genetic ablation of Kmt2d in mice overexpressing Bcl2 increases the incidence of GC-derived lymphomas resembling human tumors. These findings suggest that KMT2D acts as a tumor suppressor gene whose early loss facilitates lymphomagenesis by remodeling the epigenetic landscape of the cancer precursor cells. Eradication of KMT2D-deficient cells may thus represent a rational therapeutic approach for targeting early tumorigenic events. PMID:26366712

  4. Periodically sheared 2D Yukawa systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kovács, Anikó Zsuzsa; Hartmann, Peter; Donkó, Zoltán

    2015-10-15

    We present non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation studies on the dynamic (complex) shear viscosity of a 2D Yukawa system. We have identified a non-monotonic frequency dependence of the viscosity at high frequencies and shear rates, an energy absorption maximum (local resonance) at the Einstein frequency of the system at medium shear rates, an enhanced collective wave activity, when the excitation is near the plateau frequency of the longitudinal wave dispersion, and the emergence of significant configurational anisotropy at small frequencies and high shear rates.

  5. ENERGY LANDSCAPE OF 2D FLUID FORMS

    SciTech Connect

    Y. JIANG; ET AL

    2000-04-01

    The equilibrium states of 2D non-coarsening fluid foams, which consist of bubbles with fixed areas, correspond to local minima of the total perimeter. (1) The authors find an approximate value of the global minimum, and determine directly from an image how far a foam is from its ground state. (2) For (small) area disorder, small bubbles tend to sort inwards and large bubbles outwards. (3) Topological charges of the same sign repel while charges of opposite sign attract. (4) They discuss boundary conditions and the uniqueness of the pattern for fixed topology.

  6. High accuracy determination of the thermal properties of supported 2D materials.

    PubMed

    Judek, Jarosław; Gertych, Arkadiusz P; Świniarski, Michał; Łapińska, Anna; Dużyńska, Anna; Zdrojek, Mariusz

    2015-07-16

    We present a novel approach for the simultaneous determination of the thermal conductivity κ and the total interface conductance g of supported 2D materials by the enhanced opto-thermal method. We harness the property of the Gaussian laser beam that acts as a heat source, whose size can easily and precisely be controlled. The experimental data for multi-layer graphene and MoS2 flakes are supplemented using numerical simulations of the heat distribution in the Si/SiO2/2D material system. The procedure of κ and g extraction is tested in a statistical approach, demonstrating the high accuracy and repeatability of our method.

  7. Defect formation and coarsening in hexagonal 2D curved crystals.

    PubMed

    García, Nicolás A; Pezzutti, Aldo D; Register, Richard A; Vega, Daniel A; Gómez, Leopoldo R

    2015-02-01

    In this work we study the processes of defect formation and coarsening of two-dimensional (2D) curved crystal structures. These processes are found to strongly deviate from their counterparts in flat systems. In curved backgrounds the process of defect formation is deeply affected by the curvature, and at the onset of a phase transition the early density of defects becomes highly inhomogeneous. We observe that even a single growing crystal can produce varying densities of defects depending on its initial position and local orientation with regard to the substrate. This process is completely different from flat space, where grain boundaries are formed due to the impingement of different propagating crystals. Quenching the liquid into the crystal phase leads to the formation of a curved polycrystalline structure, characterized by complex arrays of defects. During annealing, mechanisms of geodesic curvature-driven grain boundary motion and defect annihilation lead to increasing crystalline order. Linear arrays of defects diffuse to regions of high curvature, where they are absorbed by disclinations. At the early stage of coarsening the density of dislocations is insensitive to the geometry while the population of isolated disclinations is deeply affected by curvature. The regions with high curvature act as traps for the diffusion of different structures of defects, including disclinations and domain walls.

  8. WFR-2D: an analytical model for PWAS-generated 2D ultrasonic guided wave propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yanfeng; Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents WaveFormRevealer 2-D (WFR-2D), an analytical predictive tool for the simulation of 2-D ultrasonic guided wave propagation and interaction with damage. The design of structural health monitoring (SHM) systems and self-aware smart structures requires the exploration of a wide range of parameters to achieve best detection and quantification of certain types of damage. Such need for parameter exploration on sensor dimension, location, guided wave characteristics (mode type, frequency, wavelength, etc.) can be best satisfied with analytical models which are fast and efficient. The analytical model was constructed based on the exact 2-D Lamb wave solution using Bessel and Hankel functions. Damage effects were inserted in the model by considering the damage as a secondary wave source with complex-valued directivity scattering coefficients containing both amplitude and phase information from wave-damage interaction. The analytical procedure was coded with MATLAB, and a predictive simulation tool called WaveFormRevealer 2-D was developed. The wave-damage interaction coefficients (WDICs) were extracted from harmonic analysis of local finite element model (FEM) with artificial non-reflective boundaries (NRB). The WFR-2D analytical simulation results were compared and verified with full scale multiphysics finite element models and experiments with scanning laser vibrometer. First, Lamb wave propagation in a pristine aluminum plate was simulated with WFR-2D, compared with finite element results, and verified by experiments. Then, an inhomogeneity was machined into the plate to represent damage. Analytical modeling was carried out, and verified by finite element simulation and experiments. This paper finishes with conclusions and suggestions for future work.

  9. Multienzyme Inkjet Printed 2D Arrays.

    PubMed

    Gdor, Efrat; Shemesh, Shay; Magdassi, Shlomo; Mandler, Daniel

    2015-08-19

    The use of printing to produce 2D arrays is well established, and should be relatively facile to adapt for the purpose of printing biomaterials; however, very few studies have been published using enzyme solutions as inks. Among the printing technologies, inkjet printing is highly suitable for printing biomaterials and specifically enzymes, as it offers many advantages. Formulation of the inkjet inks is relatively simple and can be adjusted to a variety of biomaterials, while providing nonharmful environment to the enzymes. Here we demonstrate the applicability of inkjet printing for patterning multiple enzymes in a predefined array in a very straightforward, noncontact method. Specifically, various arrays of the enzymes glucose oxidase (GOx), invertase (INV) and horseradish peroxidase (HP) were printed on aminated glass surfaces, followed by immobilization using glutardialdehyde after printing. Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) was used for imaging the printed patterns and to ascertain the enzyme activity. The successful formation of 2D arrays consisting of enzymes was explored as a means of developing the first surface confined enzyme based logic gates. Principally, XOR and AND gates, each consisting of two enzymes as the Boolean operators, were assembled, and their operation was studied by SECM. PMID:26214072

  10. Chaotic advection in 2D anisotropic porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varghese, Stephen; Speetjens, Michel; Trieling, Ruben; Toschi, Federico

    2015-11-01

    Traditional methods for heat recovery from underground geothermal reservoirs employ a static system of injector-producer wells. Recent studies in literature have shown that using a well-devised pumping scheme, through actuation of multiple injector-producer wells, can dramatically enhance production rates due to the increased scalar / heat transport by means of chaotic advection. However the effect of reservoir anisotropy on kinematic mixing and heat transport is unknown and has to be incorporated and studied for practical deployment in the field. As a first step, we numerically investigate the effect of anisotropy (both magnitude and direction) on (chaotic) advection of passive tracers in a time-periodic Darcy flow within a 2D circular domain driven by periodically reoriented diametrically opposite source-sink pairs. Preliminary results indicate that anisotropy has a significant impact on the location, shape and size of coherent structures in the Poincare sections. This implies that the optimal operating parameters (well spacing, time period of well actuation) may vary strongly and must be carefully chosen so as to enhance subsurface transport. This work is part of the research program of the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter (FOM), which is part of Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO). This research program is co-financed by Shell Global Solutions International B.V.

  11. Determination of convective diffusion heat/mass transfer rates to burner rig test targets comparable in size to cross-stream jet diameter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokoglu, S. A.; Santoro, G. J.

    1985-01-01

    Two sets of experiments have been performed to be able to predict the convective diffusion heat/mass transfer rates to a cylindrical target whose height and diameter are comparable to, but less than, the diameter of the circular cross-stream jet, thereby simulating the same geometric configuration as a typical burner rig test specimen located in the cross-stream of the combustor exit nozzle. The first set exploits the naphthalene sublimation technique to determine the heat/mass transfer coefficient under isothermal conditions for various flow rates (Reynolds numbers). The second set, conducted at various combustion temperatures and Reynolds numbers, utilized the temperature variation along the surface of the above-mentioned target under steady-state conditions to estimate the effect of cooling (dilution) due to the entrainment of stagnant room temperature air. The experimental information obtained is used to predict high temperature, high velocity corrosive salt vapor deposition rates in burner rigs on collectors that are geometrically the same. The agreement with preliminary data obtained from Na2SO4 vapor deposition experiments is found to be excellent.

  12. Effects of soot absorption coefficient-Planck function correlation on radiative heat transfer in oxygen-enriched propane turbulent diffusion flame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Consalvi, J. L.; Nmira, F.

    2016-03-01

    The main objective of this article is to quantify the influence of the soot absorption coefficient-Planck function correlation on radiative loss and flame structure in an oxygen-enhanced propane turbulent diffusion flame. Calculations were run with and without accounting for this correlation by using a standard k-ε model and the steady laminar flamelet model (SLF) coupled to a joint Probability Density Function (PDF) of mixture fraction, enthalpy defect, scalar dissipation rate, and soot quantities. The PDF transport equation is solved by using a Stochastic Eulerian Field (SEF) method. The modeling of soot production is carried out by using a flamelet-based semi-empirical acetylene/benzene soot model. Radiative heat transfer is modeled by using a wide band correlated-k model and turbulent radiation interactions (TRI) are accounted for by using the Optically-Thin Fluctuation Approximation (OTFA). Predicted soot volume fraction, radiant wall heat flux distribution and radiant fraction are in good agreement with the available experimental data. Model results show that soot absorption coefficient and Planck function are negatively correlated in the region of intense soot emission. Neglecting this correlation is found to increase significantly the radiative loss leading to a substantial impact on flame structure in terms of mean and rms values of temperature. In addition mean and rms values of soot volume fraction are found to be less sensitive to the correlation than temperature since soot formation occurs mainly in a region where its influence is low.

  13. A NEW MODEL FOR MIXING BY DOUBLE-DIFFUSIVE CONVECTION (SEMI-CONVECTION). II. THE TRANSPORT OF HEAT AND COMPOSITION THROUGH LAYERS

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, T. S.; Garaud, P.; Stellmach, S.

    2013-05-10

    Regions of stellar and planetary interiors that are unstable according to the Schwarzschild criterion, but stable according to the Ledoux criterion, are subject to a form of oscillatory double-diffusive (ODD) convection often called ''semi-convection''. In this series of papers, we use an extensive suite of three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulations to quantify the transport of heat and composition by ODD convection, and ultimately propose a new 1D prescription that can be used in stellar and planetary structure and evolution models. The first paper in this series demonstrated that under certain conditions ODD convection spontaneously transitions from an initial homogeneous state of weak wave-breaking turbulence into a staircase of fully convective layers, which results in a substantial increase in the transport of heat and composition. Here, we present simulations of ODD convection in this layered regime, we describe the dynamical behavior of the layers, and we derive empirical scaling laws for the transport through layered convection.

  14. Experimental determination of single-crystal halite thermal conductivity, diffusivity and specific heat from -75°C to 300°C

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Urquhart, Alexander; Bauer, Stephen

    2015-05-19

    The thermal properties of halite have broad practical importance, from design and long-term modeling of nuclear waste repositories to analysis and performance assessment of underground natural gas, petroleum and air storage facilities. Using a computer-controlled transient plane source method, single-crystal halite thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat were measured from -75°C to 300°C. These measurements reproduce historical high-temperature experiments and extend the lower temperature extreme into cryogenic conditions. Measurements were taken in 25-degree increments from -75°C to 300°C. Over this temperature range, thermal conductivity decreases by a factor of 3.7, from 9.975 to 2.699 W/mK , and thermal diffusivitymore » decreases by a factor of 3.6, from 5.032 to 1.396 mm²/s. Specific heat does not appear to be temperature dependent, remaining near 2.0 MJ/m³K at all temperatures. This work is intended to develop and expand the existing dataset of halite thermal properties, which are of particular value in defining the parameters of salt storage thermophysical models. The work was motivated by a need for thermal conductivity values in a mixture theory model used to determine bulk thermal conductivity of reconsolidating crushed salt.« less

  15. Determination of convective diffusion heat/mass transfer rates to burner rig test targets comparable in size to cross-stream jet diameter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokoglu, S. A.; Santoro, G. J.

    1986-01-01

    Two sets of experiments have been performed to be able to predict the convective diffusion heat/mass transfer rates to a cylindrical target whose height and diameter are comparable to, but less than, the diameter of the circular cross-stream jet, thereby simulating the same geometric configuration as a typical burner rig test specimen located in the cross-stream of the combustor exit nozzlle. The first set exploits the naphthalene sublimation technique to detetermine the heat/mass transfer coefficient under isothermal conditions for various flow rates (Reynolds numbers). The second set, conducted at various combustion temperatures and Reynolds numbers, utilized the temperature variation along the surface of the above-mentioned target under steady-state conditions to estimate the effect of cooling (dilution) due to the entrainment of stagnant room temperature air. The experimental information obtained is used to predict high temperature, high velocity corrosive salt vapor deposition rates in burner rigs on collectors that are geometrically the same. The agreement with preliminary data obtained from Na2S04 vapor deposition experiments is found to be excellent.

  16. 2-D or not 2-D, that is the question: A Northern California test

    SciTech Connect

    Mayeda, K; Malagnini, L; Phillips, W S; Walter, W R; Dreger, D

    2005-06-06

    Reliable estimates of the seismic source spectrum are necessary for accurate magnitude, yield, and energy estimation. In particular, how seismic radiated energy scales with increasing earthquake size has been the focus of recent debate within the community and has direct implications on earthquake source physics studies as well as hazard mitigation. The 1-D coda methodology of Mayeda et al. has provided the lowest variance estimate of the source spectrum when compared against traditional approaches that use direct S-waves, thus making it ideal for networks that have sparse station distribution. The 1-D coda methodology has been mostly confined to regions of approximately uniform complexity. For larger, more geophysically complicated regions, 2-D path corrections may be required. The complicated tectonics of the northern California region coupled with high quality broadband seismic data provides for an ideal ''apples-to-apples'' test of 1-D and 2-D path assumptions on direct waves and their coda. Using the same station and event distribution, we compared 1-D and 2-D path corrections and observed the following results: (1) 1-D coda results reduced the amplitude variance relative to direct S-waves by roughly a factor of 8 (800%); (2) Applying a 2-D correction to the coda resulted in up to 40% variance reduction from the 1-D coda results; (3) 2-D direct S-wave results, though better than 1-D direct waves, were significantly worse than the 1-D coda. We found that coda-based moment-rate source spectra derived from the 2-D approach were essentially identical to those from the 1-D approach for frequencies less than {approx}0.7-Hz, however for the high frequencies (0.7{le} f {le} 8.0-Hz), the 2-D approach resulted in inter-station scatter that was generally 10-30% smaller. For complex regions where data are plentiful, a 2-D approach can significantly improve upon the simple 1-D assumption. In regions where only 1-D coda correction is available it is still preferable over 2

  17. Interpretive 2-D treatment of scrape-off-layer plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Umansky, M.; Allen, A.; Daughton, W.

    1996-12-31

    The width of the scrape-off-layer in a tokamak is determined by cross field transport. In Alcator C-mod the plasma parameters in the scrape-off-layer are measured at upstream and divertor plate locations. We solve a 2-D scrape-off-layer heat conduction equation in the flux geometry (as determined by EFIT) of the C-mod experiment. Bolometric measurements are utilized for the radiative loss term. We use the end wall probe measurements of electron temperature as a boundary condition and the fast scanning probe measurements of upstream temperature are treated as constraints to determine the cross field transport and thermal conductivity. Results are compared with 1-D onion-skin-model predictions.

  18. Characteristics of the motions, turbulence intensity, diffusivity, flux of momentum and sensible heat in the upper atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, S. K.; Lordi, N. J.

    1977-01-01

    Analyses of the meteorological rocket data obtained from an experiment conducted at 3-hour intervals at 8 western meridional rocket stations are presented. Large variations in the meridional wind contribute substantially to overall turbulence in the tropical stratosphere. The solar semidiurnal component of wind oscillations in the tropics was observed to be much higher than predicted by theory, often exceeding the magnitude of the diurnal amplitude throughout the stratosphere. The observed value of the solar diurnal amplitude in the stratosphere was in line with theoretical prediction. The solar terdiurnal amplitudes for temperature, meridional and zonal winds were non-negligible and must be considered in any harmonic analysis. Phase angle variation with height was rapid for all harmonics; however, there was general agreement between predicted and observed phase angles. Because of large changes in the mean winds in the mesosphere with season, harmonic determinations are difficult. There appear to be large zonal wind changes even within the same season as mentioned previously. Turbulence diffusivity in the upper stratosphere is greater near the equator than in the mid-latitudes.

  19. Canard configured aircraft with 2-D nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Child, R. D.; Henderson, W. P.

    1978-01-01

    A closely-coupled canard fighter with vectorable two-dimensional nozzle was designed for enhanced transonic maneuvering. The HiMAT maneuver goal of a sustained 8g turn at a free-stream Mach number of 0.9 and 30,000 feet was the primary design consideration. The aerodynamic design process was initiated with a linear theory optimization minimizing the zero percent suction drag including jet effects and refined with three-dimensional nonlinear potential flow techniques. Allowances were made for mutual interference and viscous effects. The design process to arrive at the resultant configuration is described, and the design of a powered 2-D nozzle model to be tested in the LRC 16-foot Propulsion Wind Tunnel is shown.

  20. 2D Electrostatic Actuation of Microshutter Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Devin E.; Oh, Lance H.; Li, Mary J.; Kelly, Daniel P.; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Moseley, Samuel H.

    2015-01-01

    Electrostatically actuated microshutter arrays consisting of rotational microshutters (shutters that rotate about a torsion bar) were designed and fabricated through the use of models and experiments. Design iterations focused on minimizing the torsional stiffness of the microshutters, while maintaining their structural integrity. Mechanical and electromechanical test systems were constructed to measure the static and dynamic behavior of the microshutters. The torsional stiffness was reduced by a factor of four over initial designs without sacrificing durability. Analysis of the resonant behavior of the microshutters demonstrates that the first resonant mode is a torsional mode occurring around 3000 Hz. At low vacuum pressures, this resonant mode can be used to significantly reduce the drive voltage necessary for actuation requiring as little as 25V. 2D electrostatic latching and addressing was demonstrated using both a resonant and pulsed addressing scheme.

  1. 2D Electrostatic Actuation of Microshutter Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Devin E.; Oh, Lance H.; Li, Mary J.; Jones, Justin S.; Kelly, Daniel P.; Zheng, Yun; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Moseley, Samuel H.

    2015-01-01

    An electrostatically actuated microshutter array consisting of rotational microshutters (shutters that rotate about a torsion bar) were designed and fabricated through the use of models and experiments. Design iterations focused on minimizing the torsional stiffness of the microshutters, while maintaining their structural integrity. Mechanical and electromechanical test systems were constructed to measure the static and dynamic behavior of the microshutters. The torsional stiffness was reduced by a factor of four over initial designs without sacrificing durability. Analysis of the resonant behavior of the microshutter arrays demonstrates that the first resonant mode is a torsional mode occurring around 3000 Hz. At low vacuum pressures, this resonant mode can be used to significantly reduce the drive voltage necessary for actuation requiring as little as 25V. 2D electrostatic latching and addressing was demonstrated using both a resonant and pulsed addressing scheme.

  2. 2D quantum gravity from quantum entanglement.

    PubMed

    Gliozzi, F

    2011-01-21

    In quantum systems with many degrees of freedom the replica method is a useful tool to study the entanglement of arbitrary spatial regions. We apply it in a way that allows them to backreact. As a consequence, they become dynamical subsystems whose position, form, and extension are determined by their interaction with the whole system. We analyze, in particular, quantum spin chains described at criticality by a conformal field theory. Its coupling to the Gibbs' ensemble of all possible subsystems is relevant and drives the system into a new fixed point which is argued to be that of the 2D quantum gravity coupled to this system. Numerical experiments on the critical Ising model show that the new critical exponents agree with those predicted by the formula of Knizhnik, Polyakov, and Zamolodchikov.

  3. Graphene suspensions for 2D printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soots, R. A.; Yakimchuk, E. A.; Nebogatikova, N. A.; Kotin, I. A.; Antonova, I. V.

    2016-04-01

    It is shown that, by processing a graphite suspension in ethanol or water by ultrasound and centrifuging, it is possible to obtain particles with thicknesses within 1-6 nm and, in the most interesting cases, 1-1.5 nm. Analogous treatment of a graphite suspension in organic solvent yields eventually thicker particles (up to 6-10 nm thick) even upon long-term treatment. Using the proposed ink based on graphene and aqueous ethanol with ethylcellulose and terpineol additives for 2D printing, thin (~5 nm thick) films with sheet resistance upon annealing ~30 MΩ/□ were obtained. With the ink based on aqueous graphene suspension, the sheet resistance was ~5-12 kΩ/□ for 6- to 15-nm-thick layers with a carrier mobility of ~30-50 cm2/(V s).

  4. First measurements with the Munich 2D-ACAR spectrometer on Cr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceeh, Hubert; Weber, Josef; Hugenschmidt, Christoph; Leitner, Michael; Böni, Peter

    2013-06-01

    The Munich 2D-ACAR spectrometer at the Maier-Leibnitz accelerator laboratory in Garching has recently become operational. In the present implementation a 2D-ACAR spectrometer is set up, with a baseline of 16.5 m, a conventional 22Na positron source and two Anger-type gamma-cameras. The positrons are guided onto the sample by a magnetic field generated by a normal conducting electromagnet. The sample can be either cooled by a standard closed-cycle-cryostat to low temperatures or heated by a resistive filament to temperatures up to 500 K. We present the key features of this new 2D-ACAR spectrometer and, in addition, discuss first measurements on the pure metal system Cr. The 2D-ACAR measurements have been performed on Cr at different temperatures: at 5 K and at room temperature in the anti-ferromagnetic phase and at 318K slightly above the paramagnetic phase transition.

  5. Metrology for graphene and 2D materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollard, Andrew J.

    2016-09-01

    The application of graphene, a one atom-thick honeycomb lattice of carbon atoms with superlative properties, such as electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and strength, has already shown that it can be used to benefit metrology itself as a new quantum standard for resistance. However, there are many application areas where graphene and other 2D materials, such as molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), may be disruptive, areas such as flexible electronics, nanocomposites, sensing and energy storage. Applying metrology to the area of graphene is now critical to enable the new, emerging global graphene commercial world and bridge the gap between academia and industry. Measurement capabilities and expertise in a wide range of scientific areas are required to address this challenge. The combined and complementary approach of varied characterisation methods for structural, chemical, electrical and other properties, will allow the real-world issues of commercialising graphene and other 2D materials to be addressed. Here, examples of metrology challenges that have been overcome through a multi-technique or new approach are discussed. Firstly, the structural characterisation of defects in both graphene and MoS2 via Raman spectroscopy is described, and how nanoscale mapping of vacancy defects in graphene is also possible using tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS). Furthermore, the chemical characterisation and removal of polymer residue on chemical vapour deposition (CVD) grown graphene via secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is detailed, as well as the chemical characterisation of iron films used to grow large domain single-layer h-BN through CVD growth, revealing how contamination of the substrate itself plays a role in the resulting h-BN layer. In addition, the role of international standardisation in this area is described, outlining the current work ongoing in both the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) and the

  6. 2D ESR image reconstruction from 1D projections using the modulated field gradient method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Páli, T.; Sass, L.; Horvat, L. I.; Ebert, B.

    A method for the reconstruction of 2D ESR images from 1 D projections which is based on the modulated field gradient method has been explored. The 2D distribution of spin-labeled stearic acid in oriented and unoriented dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine multilayers on a flat quartz support was determined. Such samples are potentially useful for the determination of lipid lateral diffusion in oriented multilayers by monitoring the spreading of a sharp concentration profile in one or two dimensions. The limitations of the method are discussed and the improvements which are needed for dynamic measurements are outlined.

  7. Diffusion bonding

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Robert C.

    1976-06-22

    1. A method for joining beryllium to beryllium by diffusion bonding, comprising the steps of coating at least one surface portion of at least two beryllium pieces with nickel, positioning a coated surface portion in a contiguous relationship with an other surface portion, subjecting the contiguously disposed surface portions to an environment having an atmosphere at a pressure lower than ambient pressure, applying a force upon the beryllium pieces for causing the contiguous surface portions to abut against each other, heating the contiguous surface portions to a maximum temperature less than the melting temperature of the beryllium, substantially uniformly decreasing the applied force while increasing the temperature after attaining a temperature substantially above room temperature, and maintaining a portion of the applied force at a temperature corresponding to about maximum temperature for a duration sufficient to effect the diffusion bond between the contiguous surface portions.

  8. Ocular temperature elevation induced by threshold in vivo exposure to 1090-nm infrared radiation and associated heat diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhaohua; Schulmeister, Karl; Talebizadeh, Nooshin; Kronschläger, Martin; Söderberg, Per G.

    2014-10-01

    An in vivo exposure to 197 W/cm2 1090-nm infrared radiation (IRR) requires a minimum 8 s for cataract induction. The present study aims to determine the ocular temperature evolution and the associated heat flow at the same exposure conditions. Two groups of 12 rats were unilaterally exposed within the dilated pupil with a close to collimated beam between lens and retina. Temperature was recorded with thermocouples. Within 5 min after exposure, the lens light scattering was measured. In one group, the temperature rise in the exposed eye, expressed as a confidence interval (0.95), was 11±3°C at the limbus, 16±6°C in the vitreous behind lens, and 16±7°C on the sclera next to the optic nerve, respectively. In the other group, the temperature rise in the exposed eye was 9±1°C at the limbus and 26±11°C on the sclera next to the optic nerve, respectively. The difference of forward light scattering between exposed and contralateral not exposed eye was 0.01±0.09 tEDC. An exposure to 197 W/cm2 1090-nm IRR for 8 s induces a temperature increase of 10°C at the limbus and 26°C close to the retina. IRR cataract is probably of thermal origin.

  9. Ocular temperature elevation induced by threshold in vivo exposure to 1090-nm infrared radiation and associated heat diffusion.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhaohua; Schulmeister, Karl; Talebizadeh, Nooshin; Kronschläger, Martin; Söderberg, Per G

    2014-01-01

    An in vivo exposure to 197  W/cm 2 1090-nm infrared radiation (IRR) requires a minimum 8 s for cataract induction. The present study aims to determine the ocular temperature evolution and the associated heat flow at the same exposure conditions. Two groups of 12 rats were unilaterally exposed within the dilated pupil with a close to collimated beam between lens and retina. Temperature was recorded with thermocouples. Within 5 min after exposure, the lens light scattering was measured. In one group, the temperature rise in the exposed eye, expressed as a confidence interval (0.95), was 11±3°C at the limbus, 16±6°C in the vitreous behind lens, and 16±7°C on the sclera next to the optic nerve, respectively. In the other group, the temperature rise in the exposed eye was 9±1°C at the limbus and 26±11°C on the sclera next to the optic nerve, respectively. The difference of forward light scattering between exposed and contralateral not exposed eye was 0.01±0.09 tEDC. An exposure to 197  W/cm 2 1090-nm IRR for 8 s induces a temperature increase of 10°C at the limbus and 26°C close to the retina. IRR cataract is probably of thermal origin.

  10. CYP2D6*36 gene arrangements within the cyp2d6 locus: association of CYP2D6*36 with poor metabolizer status.

    PubMed

    Gaedigk, Andrea; Bradford, L Dianne; Alander, Sarah W; Leeder, J Steven

    2006-04-01

    Unexplained cases of CYP2D6 genotype/phenotype discordance continue to be discovered. In previous studies, several African Americans with a poor metabolizer phenotype carried the reduced function CYP2D6*10 allele in combination with a nonfunctional allele. We pursued the possibility that these alleles harbor either a known sequence variation (i.e., CYP2D6*36 carrying a gene conversion in exon 9 along the CYP2D6*10-defining 100C>T single-nucleotide polymorphism) or novel sequences variation(s). Discordant cases were evaluated by long-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to test for gene rearrangement events, and a 6.6-kilobase pair PCR product encompassing the CYP2D6 gene was cloned and entirely sequenced. Thereafter, allele frequencies were determined in different study populations comprising whites, African Americans, and Asians. Analyses covering the CYP2D7 to 2D6 gene region established that CYP2D6*36 did not only exist as a gene duplication (CYP2D6*36x2) or in tandem with *10 (CYP2D6*36+*10), as previously reported, but also by itself. This "single" CYP2D6*36 allele was found in nine African Americans and one Asian, but was absent in the whites tested. Ultimately, the presence of CYP2D6*36 resolved genotype/phenotype discordance in three cases. We also discovered an exon 9 conversion-positive CYP2D6*4 gene in a duplication arrangement (CYP2D6*4Nx2) and a CYP2D6*4 allele lacking 100C>T (CYP2D6*4M) in two white subjects. The discovery of an allele that carries only one CYP2D6*36 gene copy provides unequivocal evidence that both CYP2D6*36 and *36x2 are associated with a poor metabolizer phenotype. Given a combined frequency of between 0.5 and 3% in African Americans and Asians, genotyping for CYP2D6*36 should improve the accuracy of genotype-based phenotype prediction in these populations.

  11. Water of Hydration Dynamics in Minerals Gypsum and Bassanite: Ultrafast 2D IR Spectroscopy of Rocks.

    PubMed

    Yan, Chang; Nishida, Jun; Yuan, Rongfeng; Fayer, Michael D

    2016-08-01

    Water of hydration plays an important role in minerals, determining their crystal structures and physical properties. Here ultrafast nonlinear infrared (IR) techniques, two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) and polarization selective pump-probe (PSPP) spectroscopies, were used to measure the dynamics and disorder of water of hydration in two minerals, gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) and bassanite (CaSO4·0.5H2O). 2D IR spectra revealed that water arrangement in freshly precipitated gypsum contained a small amount of inhomogeneity. Following annealing at 348 K, water molecules became highly ordered; the 2D IR spectrum became homogeneously broadened (motional narrowed). PSPP measurements observed only inertial orientational relaxation. In contrast, water in bassanite's tubular channels is dynamically disordered. 2D IR spectra showed a significant amount of inhomogeneous broadening caused by a range of water configurations. At 298 K, water dynamics cause spectral diffusion that sampled a portion of the inhomogeneous line width on the time scale of ∼30 ps, while the rest of inhomogeneity is static on the time scale of the measurements. At higher temperature, the dynamics become faster. Spectral diffusion accelerates, and a portion of the lower temperature spectral diffusion became motionally narrowed. At sufficiently high temperature, all of the dynamics that produced spectral diffusion at lower temperatures became motionally narrowed, and only homogeneous broadening and static inhomogeneity were observed. Water angular motions in bassanite exhibit temperature-dependent diffusive orientational relaxation in a restricted cone of angles. The experiments were made possible by eliminating the vast amount of scattered light produced by the granulated powder samples using phase cycling methods. PMID:27385320

  12. GRIZZLY Model of Multi-Reactive Species Diffusion, Moisture/Heat Transfer and Alkali-Silica Reaction for Simulating Concrete Aging and Degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Hai; Spencer, Benjamin W.; Cai, Guowei

    2015-09-01

    Concrete is widely used in the construction of nuclear facilities because of its structural strength and its ability to shield radiation. The use of concrete in nuclear power plants for containment and shielding of radiation and radioactive materials has made its performance crucial for the safe operation of the facility. As such, when life extension is considered for nuclear power plants, it is critical to have accurate and reliable predictive tools to address concerns related to various aging processes of concrete structures and the capacity of structures subjected to age-related degradation. The goal of this report is to document the progress of the development and implementation of a fully coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical model in GRIZZLY code with the ultimate goal to reliably simulate and predict long-term performance and response of aged NPP concrete structures subjected to a number of aging mechanisms including external chemical attacks and volume-changing chemical reactions within concrete structures induced by alkali-silica reactions and long-term exposure to irradiation. Based on a number of survey reports of concrete aging mechanisms relevant to nuclear power plants and recommendations from researchers in concrete community, we’ve implemented three modules during FY15 in GRIZZLY code, (1) multi-species reactive diffusion model within cement materials; (2) coupled moisture and heat transfer model in concrete; and (3) anisotropic, stress-dependent, alkali-silica reaction induced swelling model. The multi-species reactive diffusion model was implemented with the objective to model aging of concrete structures subjected to aggressive external chemical attacks (e.g., chloride attack, sulfate attack, etc.). It considers multiple processes relevant to external chemical attacks such as diffusion of ions in aqueous phase within pore spaces, equilibrium chemical speciation reactions and kinetic mineral dissolution/precipitation. The moisture/heat

  13. A new inversion method for (T2, D) 2D NMR logging and fluid typing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Maojin; Zou, Youlong; Zhou, Cancan

    2013-02-01

    One-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (1D NMR) logging technology has some significant limitations in fluid typing. However, not only can two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) provide some accurate porosity parameters, but it can also identify fluids more accurately than 1D NMR. In this paper, based on the relaxation mechanism of (T2, D) 2D NMR in a gradient magnetic field, a hybrid inversion method that combines least-squares-based QR decomposition (LSQR) and truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD) is examined in the 2D NMR inversion of various fluid models. The forward modeling and inversion tests are performed in detail with different acquisition parameters, such as magnetic field gradients (G) and echo spacing (TE) groups. The simulated results are discussed and described in detail, the influence of the above-mentioned observation parameters on the inversion accuracy is investigated and analyzed, and the observation parameters in multi-TE activation are optimized. Furthermore, the hybrid inversion can be applied to quantitatively determine the fluid saturation. To study the effects of noise level on the hybrid method and inversion results, the numerical simulation experiments are performed using different signal-to-noise-ratios (SNRs), and the effect of different SNRs on fluid typing using three fluid models are discussed and analyzed in detail.

  14. Increased serum NKG2D-ligands and downregulation of NKG2D in peripheral blood NK cells of patients with major burns.

    PubMed

    Haik, Josef; Nardini, Gil; Goldman, Noga; Galore-Haskel, Gilli; Harats, Moti; Zilinsky, Isaac; Weissman, Oren; Schachter, Jacob; Winkler, Eyal; Markel, Gal

    2016-01-19

    Immune suppression following major thermal injury directly impacts the recovery potential. Limited data from past reports indicate that natural killer cells might be suppressed due to a putative soluble factor that has remained elusive up to date. Here we comparatively study cohorts of patients with Major and Non-Major Burns as well as healthy donors. MICB and ULBP1 are stress ligands of NKG2D that can be induced by heat stress. Remarkably, serum concentration levels of MICB and ULBP1 are increased by 3-fold and 20-fold, respectively, already within 24h post major thermal injury, and are maintained high for 28 days. In contrast, milder thermal injuries do not similarly enhance the serum levels of MICB and ULBP1. This kinetics coincides with a significant downregulation of NKG2D expression among peripheral blood NK cells. Downregulation of NKG2D by high concentration of soluble MICB occurs in cancer patients and during normal pregnancy due to over production by cancer cells or extravillous trophoblasts, respectively, as an active immune-evasion mechanism. In burn patients this seems an incidental outcome of extensive thermal injury, leading to reduced NKG2D expression. Enhanced susceptibility of these patients to opportunistic viral infections, particularly herpes viruses, could be explained by the reduced NKG2D expression. Further studies are warranted for translation into innovative diagnostic or therapeutic technologies. PMID:26745675

  15. Steady-state thermal-solutal convection and diffusion in a simulated float zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, G. W.; Chait, A.

    1990-01-01

    Models describing the steady-state thermal diffusion in a pure system, the thermal-solutal diffusion in a binary system, and heat and momentum transverse in a pure system are presented. The geometry of the model is described by a 2D Cartesian coordinate system that is applicable for crystal sheets. The melting, solidifying, and melt/gas interfacial shapes as well as the thermal, flow, and solutal profiles are analytically evaluated as functions of the heat and ambient temperature profiles and material properties. The solution procedure involves a coupled asymptotic/numerical approach which reduces the coupled set of partial differential equations to ordinary type. The results should be applicable in situations where melt flows are not intense enough to change the thermal field in pure systems, or where the physical properties of the melt are such that the convective field is decoupled from the thermal field, the latter being established primarily by diffusion.

  16. Radiofrequency Spectroscopy and Thermodynamics of Fermi Gases in the 2D to Quasi-2D Dimensional Crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chingyun; Kangara, Jayampathi; Arakelyan, Ilya; Thomas, John

    2016-05-01

    We tune the dimensionality of a strongly interacting degenerate 6 Li Fermi gas from 2D to quasi-2D, by adjusting the radial confinement of pancake-shaped clouds to control the radial chemical potential. In the 2D regime with weak radial confinement, the measured pair binding energies are in agreement with 2D-BCS mean field theory, which predicts dimer pairing energies in the many-body regime. In the qausi-2D regime obtained with increased radial confinement, the measured pairing energy deviates significantly from 2D-BCS theory. In contrast to the pairing energy, the measured radii of the cloud profiles are not fit by 2D-BCS theory in either the 2D or quasi-2D regimes, but are fit in both regimes by a beyond mean field polaron-model of the free energy. Supported by DOE, ARO, NSF, and AFOSR.

  17. Competing coexisting phases in 2D water

    PubMed Central

    Zanotti, Jean-Marc; Judeinstein, Patrick; Dalla-Bernardina, Simona; Creff, Gaëlle; Brubach, Jean-Blaise; Roy, Pascale; Bonetti, Marco; Ollivier, Jacques; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Bellissent-Funel, Marie-Claire

    2016-01-01

    The properties of bulk water come from a delicate balance of interactions on length scales encompassing several orders of magnitudes: i) the Hydrogen Bond (HBond) at the molecular scale and ii) the extension of this HBond network up to the macroscopic level. Here, we address the physics of water when the three dimensional extension of the HBond network is frustrated, so that the water molecules are forced to organize in only two dimensions. We account for the large scale fluctuating HBond network by an analytical mean-field percolation model. This approach provides a coherent interpretation of the different events experimentally (calorimetry, neutron, NMR, near and far infra-red spectroscopies) detected in interfacial water at 160, 220 and 250 K. Starting from an amorphous state of water at low temperature, these transitions are respectively interpreted as the onset of creation of transient low density patches of 4-HBonded molecules at 160 K, the percolation of these domains at 220 K and finally the total invasion of the surface by them at 250 K. The source of this surprising behaviour in 2D is the frustration of the natural bulk tetrahedral local geometry and the underlying very significant increase in entropy of the interfacial water molecules. PMID:27185018

  18. Phase Engineering of 2D Tin Sulfides.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Zafer; Wu, Ryan J; Wickramaratne, Darshana; Shahrezaei, Sina; Liu, Chueh; Temiz, Selcuk; Patalano, Andrew; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Lake, Roger K; Mkhoyan, K A; Ozkan, Cengiz S

    2016-06-01

    Tin sulfides can exist in a variety of phases and polytypes due to the different oxidation states of Sn. A subset of these phases and polytypes take the form of layered 2D structures that give rise to a wide host of electronic and optical properties. Hence, achieving control over the phase, polytype, and thickness of tin sulfides is necessary to utilize this wide range of properties exhibited by the compound. This study reports on phase-selective growth of both hexagonal tin (IV) sulfide SnS2 and orthorhombic tin (II) sulfide SnS crystals with diameters of over tens of microns on SiO2 substrates through atmospheric pressure vapor-phase method in a conventional horizontal quartz tube furnace with SnO2 and S powders as the source materials. Detailed characterization of each phase of tin sulfide crystals is performed using various microscopy and spectroscopy methods, and the results are corroborated by ab initio density functional theory calculations. PMID:27099950

  19. Phase Engineering of 2D Tin Sulfides.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Zafer; Wu, Ryan J; Wickramaratne, Darshana; Shahrezaei, Sina; Liu, Chueh; Temiz, Selcuk; Patalano, Andrew; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Lake, Roger K; Mkhoyan, K A; Ozkan, Cengiz S

    2016-06-01

    Tin sulfides can exist in a variety of phases and polytypes due to the different oxidation states of Sn. A subset of these phases and polytypes take the form of layered 2D structures that give rise to a wide host of electronic and optical properties. Hence, achieving control over the phase, polytype, and thickness of tin sulfides is necessary to utilize this wide range of properties exhibited by the compound. This study reports on phase-selective growth of both hexagonal tin (IV) sulfide SnS2 and orthorhombic tin (II) sulfide SnS crystals with diameters of over tens of microns on SiO2 substrates through atmospheric pressure vapor-phase method in a conventional horizontal quartz tube furnace with SnO2 and S powders as the source materials. Detailed characterization of each phase of tin sulfide crystals is performed using various microscopy and spectroscopy methods, and the results are corroborated by ab initio density functional theory calculations.

  20. Competing coexisting phases in 2D water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanotti, Jean-Marc; Judeinstein, Patrick; Dalla-Bernardina, Simona; Creff, Gaëlle; Brubach, Jean-Blaise; Roy, Pascale; Bonetti, Marco; Ollivier, Jacques; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Bellissent-Funel, Marie-Claire

    2016-05-01

    The properties of bulk water come from a delicate balance of interactions on length scales encompassing several orders of magnitudes: i) the Hydrogen Bond (HBond) at the molecular scale and ii) the extension of this HBond network up to the macroscopic level. Here, we address the physics of water when the three dimensional extension of the HBond network is frustrated, so that the water molecules are forced to organize in only two dimensions. We account for the large scale fluctuating HBond network by an analytical mean-field percolation model. This approach provides a coherent interpretation of the different events experimentally (calorimetry, neutron, NMR, near and far infra-red spectroscopies) detected in interfacial water at 160, 220 and 250 K. Starting from an amorphous state of water at low temperature, these transitions are respectively interpreted as the onset of creation of transient low density patches of 4-HBonded molecules at 160 K, the percolation of these domains at 220 K and finally the total invasion of the surface by them at 250 K. The source of this surprising behaviour in 2D is the frustration of the natural bulk tetrahedral local geometry and the underlying very significant increase in entropy of the interfacial water molecules.

  1. Propagator-resolved 2D exchange in porous media in the inhomogeneous magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Burcaw, Lauren M; Hunter, Mark W; Callaghan, Paul T

    2010-08-01

    We present a propagator-resolved 2D exchange spectroscopy technique for observing fluid motion in a porous medium. The susceptibility difference between the matrix and the fluid is exploited to produce an inhomogeneous internal magnetic field, causing the Larmor frequency to change as molecules migrate. We test our method using a randomly packed monodisperse 100 microm diameter glass bead matrix saturated with distilled water. Building upon previous 2D exchange spectroscopy work we add a displacement dimension which allows us to obtain 2D exchange spectra that are defined by both mixing time and spatial displacement rather than by mixing time alone. We also simulate our system using a Monte Carlo process in a random nonpenetrating monodisperse bead pack, finding good agreement with experiment. A simple analytic model is used to interpret the NMR data in terms of a characteristic length scale over which molecules must diffuse to sample the inhomogeneous field distribution. PMID:20554230

  2. 2-D Animation's Not Just for Mickey Mouse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinman, Lynda

    1995-01-01

    Discusses characteristics of two-dimensional (2-D) animation; highlights include character animation, painting issues, and motion graphics. Sidebars present Silicon Graphics animations tools and 2-D animation programs for the desktop computer. (DGM)

  3. BILL2D - A software package for classical two-dimensional Hamiltonian systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solanpää, J.; Luukko, P. J. J.; Räsänen, E.

    2016-02-01

    We present BILL2D, a modern and efficient C++ package for classical simulations of two-dimensional Hamiltonian systems. BILL2D can be used for various billiard and diffusion problems with one or more charged particles with interactions, different external potentials, an external magnetic field, periodic and open boundaries, etc. The software package can also calculate many key quantities in complex systems such as Poincaré sections, survival probabilities, and diffusion coefficients. While aiming at a large class of applicable systems, the code also strives for ease-of-use, efficiency, and modularity for the implementation of additional features. The package comes along with a user guide, a developer's manual, and a documentation of the application program interface (API).

  4. Position control using 2D-to-2D feature correspondences in vision guided cell micromanipulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanliang; Han, Mingli; Shee, Cheng Yap; Ang, Wei Tech

    2007-01-01

    Conventional camera calibration that utilizes the extrinsic and intrinsic parameters of the camera and the objects has certain limitations for micro-level cell operations due to the presence of hardware deviations and external disturbances during the experimental process, thereby invalidating the extrinsic parameters. This invalidation is often neglected in macro-world visual servoing and affects the visual image processing quality, causing deviation from the desired position in micro-level cell operations. To increase the success rate of vision guided biological micromanipulations, a novel algorithm monitoring the changing image pattern of the manipulators including the injection micropipette and cell holder is designed and implemented based on 2 dimensional (2D)-to 2D feature correspondences and can adjust the manipulator and perform position control simultaneously. When any deviation is found, the manipulator is retracted to the initial focusing plane before continuing the operation.

  5. Assessment and improvement of the 2D/1D method stability in DeCART

    SciTech Connect

    Stimpson, S.; Young, M.; Collins, B.; Kelley, B.; Downar, T.

    2013-07-01

    As part of ongoing work with Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL), the 2D/1D code, DeCART, has demonstrated some of the advantages of the 2D/1D method with respect to realistic, full-core analysis, particularly over explicit 3D transport methods, which generally have higher memory and computation requirements. The 2D/1D method performs 2D-radial transport sweeps coupled with ID-axial diffusion calculations to provide a full 3D simulation. DeCART employs the 2D method of characteristics for the radial sweeps and ID one-node nodal diffusion for the axial sweeps, coupling the two methods with transverse leakages to ensure a more consistent representation of the transport equation. It has been observed that refinement of the axial plane thickness leads to instabilities in the calculation scheme. This work assesses the sources of these instabilities and the approaches to improve them, especially with respect to negative scattering cross sections and the tightness of the 2D-radial/ID-axial coupling schemes. Fourier analyses show that the existing iteration scheme is not unconditionally stable, suggesting a tighter coupling scheme is required. For this reason 3D-CMFD has been implemented, among other developments, to ensure more stable calculation. A matrix of test cases has been used to assess the convergence, with the primary parameter being the axial plane thickness, which has been refined down to 1 cm. These cases demonstrate the issues observed and how the modification improve the stability. However, it is apparent that more work is necessary to ensure unconditional stability. (authors)

  6. Moving finite elements in 2-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelinas, R. J.; Doss, S. K.; Vajk, J. P.; Djomehri, J.; Miller, K.

    1983-01-01

    The mathematical background regarding the moving finite element (MFE) method of Miller and Miller (1981) is discussed, taking into account a general system of partial differential equations (PDE) and the amenability of the MFE method in two dimensions to code modularization and to semiautomatic user-construction of numerous PDE systems for both Dirichlet and zero-Neumann boundary conditions. A description of test problem results is presented, giving attention to aspects of single square wave propagation, and a solution of the heat equation.

  7. Dynamics of double-diffusive lock-exchange gravity currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konopliv, Nathan; Meiburg, Eckart

    2015-11-01

    The dynamics of double-diffusive gravity currents exhibiting the fingering instability were examined using 2D simulations of a lock exchange initial configuration. Both the initial stability ratio and the diffusivity ratio were varied. It was found that although the spreading of the currents was governed by a balance of buoyancy and turbulent drag forces, currents with more intense fingering spread faster than those with less intense or no fingering. This was due to an increase in the buoyancy of the currents with stronger fingering, which had a stronger effect than the increased drag. The fingering also affected the thickness of the currents, with more fingering corresponding to thinner currents. The mechanism that caused the thinner currents was also responsible for the creation of secondary and tertiary currents after a long time in a simulation that had intense fingering. If no secondary or tertiary currents formed, the density of the current was governed by a balance of double-diffusive and diffusive fluxes. An energy budget analysis revealed that double diffusive currents released more potential energy, had more dissipation and converted a significant amount of internal energy into potential energy via the diffusion of heat and salinity.

  8. 2-D Model for Normal and Sickle Cell Blood Microcirculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tekleab, Yonatan; Harris, Wesley

    2011-11-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a genetic disorder that alters the red blood cell (RBC) structure and function such that hemoglobin (Hb) cannot effectively bind and release oxygen. Previous computational models have been designed to study the microcirculation for insight into blood disorders such as SCD. Our novel 2-D computational model represents a fast, time efficient method developed to analyze flow dynamics, O2 diffusion, and cell deformation in the microcirculation. The model uses a finite difference, Crank-Nicholson scheme to compute the flow and O2 concentration, and the level set computational method to advect the RBC membrane on a staggered grid. Several sets of initial and boundary conditions were tested. Simulation data indicate a few parameters to be significant in the perturbation of the blood flow and O2 concentration profiles. Specifically, the Hill coefficient, arterial O2 partial pressure, O2 partial pressure at 50% Hb saturation, and cell membrane stiffness are significant factors. Results were found to be consistent with those of Le Floch [2010] and Secomb [2006].

  9. Linking 3D and 2D binding kinetics of membrane proteins by multiscale simulations

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zhong-Ru; Chen, Jiawen; Wu, Yinghao

    2014-01-01

    Membrane proteins are among the most functionally important proteins in cells. Unlike soluble proteins, they only possess two translational degrees of freedom on cell surfaces, and experience significant constraints on their rotations. As a result, it is currently challenging to characterize the in situ binding of membrane proteins. Using the membrane receptors CD2 and CD58 as a testing system, we developed a multiscale simulation framework to study the differences of protein binding kinetics between 3D and 2D environments. The association and dissociation processes were implemented by a coarse-grained Monte-Carlo algorithm, while the dynamic properties of proteins diffusing on lipid bilayer were captured from all-atom molecular dynamic simulations. Our simulations show that molecular diffusion, linker flexibility and membrane fluctuations are important factors in adjusting binding kinetics. Moreover, by calibrating simulation parameters to the measurements of 3D binding, we derived the 2D binding constant which is quantitatively consistent with the experimental data, indicating that the method is able to capture the difference between 3D and 2D binding environments. Finally, we found that the 2D dissociation between CD2 and CD58 is about 100-fold slower than the 3D dissociation. In summary, our simulation framework offered a generic approach to study binding mechanisms of membrane proteins. PMID:25271078

  10. A Planar Quantum Transistor Based on 2D-2D Tunneling in Double Quantum Well Heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, W.E.; Blount, M.A.; Hafich, M.J.; Lyo, S.K.; Moon, J.S.; Reno, J.L.; Simmons, J.A.; Wendt, J.R.

    1998-12-14

    We report on our work on the double electron layer tunneling transistor (DELTT), based on the gate-control of two-dimensional -- two-dimensional (2D-2D) tunneling in a double quantum well heterostructure. While previous quantum transistors have typically required tiny laterally-defined features, by contrast the DELTT is entirely planar and can be reliably fabricated in large numbers. We use a novel epoxy-bond-and-stop-etch (EBASE) flip-chip process, whereby submicron gating on opposite sides of semiconductor epitaxial layers as thin as 0.24 microns can be achieved. Because both electron layers in the DELTT are 2D, the resonant tunneling features are unusually sharp, and can be easily modulated with one or more surface gates. We demonstrate DELTTs with peak-to-valley ratios in the source-drain I-V curve of order 20:1 below 1 K. Both the height and position of the resonant current peak can be controlled by gate voltage over a wide range. DELTTs with larger subband energy offsets ({approximately} 21 meV) exhibit characteristics that are nearly as good at 77 K, in good agreement with our theoretical calculations. Using these devices, we also demonstrate bistable memories operating at 77 K. Finally, we briefly discuss the prospects for room temperature operation, increases in gain, and high-speed.

  11. 'Brukin2D': a 2D visualization and comparison tool for LC-MS data

    PubMed Central

    Tsagkrasoulis, Dimosthenis; Zerefos, Panagiotis; Loudos, George; Vlahou, Antonia; Baumann, Marc; Kossida, Sophia

    2009-01-01

    Background Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) is a commonly used technique to resolve complex protein mixtures. Visualization of large data sets produced from LC-MS, namely the chromatogram and the mass spectra that correspond to its compounds is the focus of this work. Results The in-house developed 'Brukin2D' software, built in Matlab 7.4, which is presented here, uses the compound data that are exported from the Bruker 'DataAnalysis' program, and depicts the mean mass spectra of all the chromatogram compounds from one LC-MS run, in one 2D contour/density plot. Two contour plots from different chromatograph runs can then be viewed in the same window and automatically compared, in order to find their similarities and differences. The results of the comparison can be examined through detailed mass quantification tables, while chromatogram compound statistics are also calculated during the procedure. Conclusion 'Brukin2D' provides a user-friendly platform for quick, easy and integrated view of complex LC-MS data. The software is available at . PMID:19534737

  12. Inhibition of human cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) by methadone.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, D; Otton, S V; Sproule, B A; Busto, U; Inaba, T; Kalow, W; Sellers, E M

    1993-01-01

    1. In microsomes prepared from three human livers, methadone competitively inhibited the O-demethylation of dextromethorphan, a marker substrate for CYP2D6. The apparent Ki value of methadone ranged from 2.5 to 5 microM. 2. Two hundred and fifty-two (252) white Caucasians, including 210 unrelated healthy volunteers and 42 opiate abusers undergoing treatment with methadone were phenotyped using dextromethorphan as the marker drug. Although the frequency of poor metabolizers was similar in both groups, the extensive metabolizers among the opiate abusers tended to have higher O-demethylation metabolic ratios and to excrete less of the dose as dextromethorphan metabolites than control extensive metabolizer subjects. These data suggest inhibition of CYP2D6 by methadone in vivo as well. 3. Because methadone is widely used in the treatment of opiate abuse, inhibition of CYP2D6 activity in these patients might contribute to exaggerated response or unexpected toxicity from drugs that are substrates of this enzyme. PMID:8448065

  13. Integrated Coupling of Surface and Subsurface Flow with HYDRUS-2D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Anne; Šimůnek, Jirka; Wöhling, Thomas; Schütze, Niels

    2016-04-01

    of various model parameters on simulated overland flow (while considering or neglecting the effects of subsurface flow) was carried out to verify the applicability of the model to different problems. The model produced reasonable results in describing the diffusion wave approximation and its interactions with subsurface flow processes. The model could handle coupled surface-subsurface processes for conditions involving runoff generated by infiltration excess, saturation excess, or run-on, as well as a combination of these runoff generating processes. Several standard features of the HYDRUS 2D model, such as root water uptake and evaporation from the soil surface, as well as evaporation from runoff layer, can still be considered by the new model. The code required relatively small time steps when overland flow was active, resulting in long simulation times, and sometimes produced poor mass balance. The model nevertheless showed potential to be a useful tool for addressing various issues related to irrigation research and to natural generation of overland flow at the hillslope scale. Maxwell, R., Putti, M., Meyerhoff, S., Delf, J., Ferguson, I., Ivanov, V., Kim, J., Kolditz, O., Kollet, S., Kumar, M., Lopez, S., Niu, J., Paniconi, C., Park, Y.-J., Phanikumar, M., Shen, C., Sudicky, E., and Sulis, M. (2014). Surface-subsurface model intercomparison: A first set of benchmark results to diagnose integrated hydrology and feedbacks. Water Resourc. Res., 50:1531-1549. Šimůnek, J., van Genuchten, M. T., and Šejna, M. (2011). The HYDRUS Software Package for Simulating Two- and Three-Dimensional Movement of Water, Heat, and Multiple Solutes in Variably-Saturated Media. Technical Manual, Version 2.0, PC Progress, Prague, Czech Republic. Takizawa, K., Bazilevs Y., Tezduyar, T. E., Long, C.C., Marsden, A. L. and Schjodt.K., Patient-Specific Cardiovascular Fluid Mechanics Analysis with the ST and ALE-VMS Method in Idelsohn, S. R. (2014). Numerical Simulations of Coupled Problems

  14. Reaction Kernel Structure of a Slot Jet Diffusion Flame in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, F.; Katta, V. R.

    2001-01-01

    Diffusion flame stabilization in normal earth gravity (1 g) has long been a fundamental research subject in combustion. Local flame-flow phenomena, including heat and species transport and chemical reactions, around the flame base in the vicinity of condensed surfaces control flame stabilization and fire spreading processes. Therefore, gravity plays an important role in the subject topic because buoyancy induces flow in the flame zone, thus increasing the convective (and diffusive) oxygen transport into the flame zone and, in turn, reaction rates. Recent computations show that a peak reactivity (heat-release or oxygen-consumption rate) spot, or reaction kernel, is formed in the flame base by back-diffusion and reactions of radical species in the incoming oxygen-abundant flow at relatively low temperatures (about 1550 K). Quasi-linear correlations were found between the peak heat-release or oxygen-consumption rate and the velocity at the reaction kernel for cases including both jet and flat-plate diffusion flames in airflow. The reaction kernel provides a stationary ignition source to incoming reactants, sustains combustion, and thus stabilizes the trailing diffusion flame. In a quiescent microgravity environment, no buoyancy-induced flow exits and thus purely diffusive transport controls the reaction rates. Flame stabilization mechanisms in such purely diffusion-controlled regime remain largely unstudied. Therefore, it will be a rigorous test for the reaction kernel correlation if it can be extended toward zero velocity conditions in the purely diffusion-controlled regime. The objectives of this study are to reveal the structure of the flame-stabilizing region of a two-dimensional (2D) laminar jet diffusion flame in microgravity and develop a unified diffusion flame stabilization mechanism. This paper reports the recent progress in the computation and experiment performed in microgravity.

  15. Measuring the temperature dependent thermal diffusivity of geomaterials using high-speed differential scanning calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Aulock, Felix W.; Wadsworth, Fabian B.; Vasseur, Jeremie; Lavallée, Yan

    2016-04-01

    Heat diffusion in the Earth's crust is critical to fundamental geological processes, such as the cooling of magma, heat dissipation during and following transient heating events (e.g. during frictional heating along faults), and to the timescales of contact metamorphosis. The complex composition and multiphase nature of geomaterials prohibits the accurate modeling of thermal diffusivities and measurements over a range of temperatures are sparse due to the specialized nature of the equipment and lack of instrument availability. We present a novel method to measure the thermal diffusivity of geomaterials such as minerals and rocks with high precision and accuracy using a commercially available differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). A DSC 404 F1 Pegasus® equipped with a Netzsch high-speed furnace was used to apply a step-heating program to corundum single crystal standards of varying thicknesses. The standards were cylindrical discs of 0.25-1 mm thickness with 5.2-6 mm diameter. Heating between each 50 °C temperature interval was conducted at a rate of 100 °C/min over the temperature range 150-1050 °C. Such large heating rates induces temperature disequilibrium in the samples used. However, isothermal segments of 2 minutes were used during which the temperature variably equilibrated with the furnace between the heating segments and thus the directly-measured heat-flow relaxed to a constant value before the next heating step was applied. A finite-difference 2D conductive heat transfer model was used in cylindrical geometry for which the measured furnace temperature was directly applied as the boundary condition on the sample-cylinder surfaces. The model temperature was averaged over the sample volume per unit time and converted to heat-flow using the well constrained thermal properties for corundum single crystals. By adjusting the thermal diffusivity in the model solution and comparing the resultant heat-flow with the measured values, we obtain a model

  16. Quantum-Carnot engine for particle confined to 2D symmetric potential well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belfaqih, Idrus Husin; Sutantyo, Trengginas Eka Putra; Prayitno, T. B.; Sulaksono, Anto

    2015-09-01

    Carnot model of heat engine is the most efficient cycle consisting of isothermal and adiabatic processes which are reversible. Although ideal gas usually used as a working fluid in the Carnot engine, Bender used quantum particle confined in 1D potential well as a working fluid. In this paper, by following Bender we generalize the situation to 2D symmetric potential well. The efficiency is express as the ratio of the initial length of the system to the final length of the compressed system. The result then is shown that for the same ratio, 2D potential well is more efficient than 1D potential well.

  17. Quantum-Carnot engine for particle confined to 2D symmetric potential well

    SciTech Connect

    Belfaqih, Idrus Husin Sutantyo, Trengginas Eka Putra Prayitno, T. B.; Sulaksono, Anto

    2015-09-30

    Carnot model of heat engine is the most efficient cycle consisting of isothermal and adiabatic processes which are reversible. Although ideal gas usually used as a working fluid in the Carnot engine, Bender used quantum particle confined in 1D potential well as a working fluid. In this paper, by following Bender we generalize the situation to 2D symmetric potential well. The efficiency is express as the ratio of the initial length of the system to the final length of the compressed system. The result then is shown that for the same ratio, 2D potential well is more efficient than 1D potential well.

  18. Correlated Electron Phenomena in 2D Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, Joseph G.

    In this thesis, I present experimental results on coherent electron phenomena in layered two-dimensional materials: single layer graphene and van der Waals coupled 2D TiSe2. Graphene is a two-dimensional single-atom thick sheet of carbon atoms first derived from bulk graphite by the mechanical exfoliation technique in 2004. Low-energy charge carriers in graphene behave like massless Dirac fermions, and their density can be easily tuned between electron-rich and hole-rich quasiparticles with electrostatic gating techniques. The sharp interfaces between regions of different carrier densities form barriers with selective transmission, making them behave as partially reflecting mirrors. When two of these interfaces are set at a separation distance within the phase coherence length of the carriers, they form an electronic version of a Fabry-Perot cavity. I present measurements and analysis of multiple Fabry-Perot modes in graphene with parallel electrodes spaced a few hundred nanometers apart. Transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) TiSe2 is part of the family of materials that coined the term "materials beyond graphene". It contains van der Waals coupled trilayer stacks of Se-Ti-Se. Many TMD materials exhibit a host of interesting correlated electronic phases. In particular, TiSe2 exhibits chiral charge density waves (CDW) below TCDW ˜ 200 K. Upon doping with copper, the CDW state gets suppressed with Cu concentration, and CuxTiSe2 becomes superconducting with critical temperature of T c = 4.15 K. There is still much debate over the mechanisms governing the coexistence of the two correlated electronic phases---CDW and superconductivity. I will present some of the first conductance spectroscopy measurements of proximity coupled superconductor-CDW systems. Measurements reveal a proximity-induced critical current at the Nb-TiSe2 interfaces, suggesting pair correlations in the pure TiSe2. The results indicate that superconducting order is present concurrently with CDW in

  19. Cooperative dynamics in ultrasoft 2D crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprakel, Joris; van der Meer, Berend; Dijkstra, Marjolein; van der Gucht, Jasper

    2015-03-01

    The creation, annihilation, and diffusion of defects in crystal lattices play an important role during crystal melting and deformation. Although it is well understood how defects form and react when crystals are subjected to external stresses, it remains unclear how crystals cope with internal stresses. We report a study in which we create a highly localized internal stress, by means of optical tweezing, in a crystal formed from micrometer-sized colloidal spheres and directly observe how the solid reacts using microscopy. We find that, even though the excitation is highly localized, a collective dance of colloidal particles results; these collective modes take the form of closed rings or open-ended strings, depending on the sequence of events which nucleate the rearrangements. Surprisingly, we find from Brownian Dynamics simulations that these cooperative dynamics are thermally-activated modes inherent to the crystal, and can even occur through a single, sufficiently large thermal fluctuation, resulting in the irreversible displacement of 100s of particles from their lattice sites.

  20. CYP2D7 Sequence Variation Interferes with TaqMan CYP2D6*15 and *35 Genotyping

    PubMed Central

    Riffel, Amanda K.; Dehghani, Mehdi; Hartshorne, Toinette; Floyd, Kristen C.; Leeder, J. Steven; Rosenblatt, Kevin P.; Gaedigk, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    TaqMan™ genotyping assays are widely used to genotype CYP2D6, which encodes a major drug metabolizing enzyme. Assay design for CYP2D6 can be challenging owing to the presence of two pseudogenes, CYP2D7 and CYP2D8, structural and copy number variation and numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) some of which reflect the wild-type sequence of the CYP2D7 pseudogene. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism causing false-positive CYP2D6*15 calls and remediate those by redesigning and validating alternative TaqMan genotype assays. Among 13,866 DNA samples genotyped by the CompanionDx® lab on the OpenArray platform, 70 samples were identified as heterozygotes for 137Tins, the key SNP of CYP2D6*15. However, only 15 samples were confirmed when tested with the Luminex xTAG CYP2D6 Kit and sequencing of CYP2D6-specific long range (XL)-PCR products. Genotype and gene resequencing of CYP2D6 and CYP2D7-specific XL-PCR products revealed a CC>GT dinucleotide SNP in exon 1 of CYP2D7 that reverts the sequence to CYP2D6 and allows a TaqMan assay PCR primer to bind. Because CYP2D7 also carries a Tins, a false-positive mutation signal is generated. This CYP2D7 SNP was also responsible for generating false-positive signals for rs769258 (CYP2D6*35) which is also located in exon 1. Although alternative CYP2D6*15 and *35 assays resolved the issue, we discovered a novel CYP2D6*15 subvariant in one sample that carries additional SNPs preventing detection with the alternate assay. The frequency of CYP2D6*15 was 0.1% in this ethnically diverse U.S. population sample. In addition, we also discovered linkage between the CYP2D7 CC>GT dinucleotide SNP and the 77G>A (rs28371696) SNP of CYP2D6*43. The frequency of this tentatively functional allele was 0.2%. Taken together, these findings emphasize that regardless of how careful genotyping assays are designed and evaluated before being commercially marketed, rare or unknown SNPs underneath primer and/or probe regions can impact

  1. CYP2D7 Sequence Variation Interferes with TaqMan CYP2D6 (*) 15 and (*) 35 Genotyping.

    PubMed

    Riffel, Amanda K; Dehghani, Mehdi; Hartshorne, Toinette; Floyd, Kristen C; Leeder, J Steven; Rosenblatt, Kevin P; Gaedigk, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    TaqMan™ genotyping assays are widely used to genotype CYP2D6, which encodes a major drug metabolizing enzyme. Assay design for CYP2D6 can be challenging owing to the presence of two pseudogenes, CYP2D7 and CYP2D8, structural and copy number variation and numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) some of which reflect the wild-type sequence of the CYP2D7 pseudogene. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism causing false-positive CYP2D6 (*) 15 calls and remediate those by redesigning and validating alternative TaqMan genotype assays. Among 13,866 DNA samples genotyped by the CompanionDx® lab on the OpenArray platform, 70 samples were identified as heterozygotes for 137Tins, the key SNP of CYP2D6 (*) 15. However, only 15 samples were confirmed when tested with the Luminex xTAG CYP2D6 Kit and sequencing of CYP2D6-specific long range (XL)-PCR products. Genotype and gene resequencing of CYP2D6 and CYP2D7-specific XL-PCR products revealed a CC>GT dinucleotide SNP in exon 1 of CYP2D7 that reverts the sequence to CYP2D6 and allows a TaqMan assay PCR primer to bind. Because CYP2D7 also carries a Tins, a false-positive mutation signal is generated. This CYP2D7 SNP was also responsible for generating false-positive signals for rs769258 (CYP2D6 (*) 35) which is also located in exon 1. Although alternative CYP2D6 (*) 15 and (*) 35 assays resolved the issue, we discovered a novel CYP2D6 (*) 15 subvariant in one sample that carries additional SNPs preventing detection with the alternate assay. The frequency of CYP2D6 (*) 15 was 0.1% in this ethnically diverse U.S. population sample. In addition, we also discovered linkage between the CYP2D7 CC>GT dinucleotide SNP and the 77G>A (rs28371696) SNP of CYP2D6 (*) 43. The frequency of this tentatively functional allele was 0.2%. Taken together, these findings emphasize that regardless of how careful genotyping assays are designed and evaluated before being commercially marketed, rare or unknown SNPs underneath primer

  2. The expression and changes of heat shock protein 70, MDA and haemorheology in rat cortex after diffuse axonal injury with secondary insults.

    PubMed

    Zhou, F; Xiang, Z; Peiling, L; Junjie, J; Zhen, L X

    2001-05-01

    In the present study the role of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression, changes of malonyldialdehyde (MDA) in rat cortex and haemorheology with time after diffuse axonal injury (DAI) only and DAI with secondary insults (SI) were studied. The rat DAI and DAI with SI model were made according to our previous work and animals were divided into a control and another five injury groups with time after injury. Immunohistochemical assay was used to detect the neuronal expression of HSP70 at 0.5h, 3h, 12h, 24h, 72h after DAI or DAI with SI. In the meantime, the high (etah ) and low whole blood viscosity (etaL ), haematocrit (HCT) and RBC aggregation index (AI = etaL/etah ) were also detected and calculated. MDA in the homogenised brain tissue was assayed by thiobarbituric acid (TBA) reaction. The results showed that HSP70 positive neurons were not detected at 30 minutes, but the number of HSP70 positive neurons begin to increase obviously at 3 hours, reach a peak at 24 hours (P< 0.01), and decrease at 72 hours (P= 0.05) after brain injury. The trend of expression of HSP70 was alike for both DAI only or DAI with SI. Meanwhile, MDA, etah, etaL, HCT and AI changes showed the same tendency. Compared with DAI only group, MDA and blood viscosity indexes in DAI with SI were significantly higher at respective time points (P< 0.01). It is concluded that HSP70 expression, MDA and haemorheology indices increased after brain injury and brain injury with SI. Free radicals and haemorheological changes play an important role in the aggravation of brain damage and HSP70 expression upregulation. PMID:11386800

  3. MULTI2D - a computer code for two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramis, R.; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.; Ramírez, J.

    2009-06-01

    Simulation of radiation hydrodynamics in two spatial dimensions is developed, having in mind, in particular, target design for indirectly driven inertial confinement energy (IFE) and the interpretation of related experiments. Intense radiation pulses by laser or particle beams heat high-Z target configurations of different geometries and lead to a regime which is optically thick in some regions and optically thin in others. A diffusion description is inadequate in this situation. A new numerical code has been developed which describes hydrodynamics in two spatial dimensions (cylindrical R-Z geometry) and radiation transport along rays in three dimensions with the 4 π solid angle discretized in direction. Matter moves on a non-structured mesh composed of trilateral and quadrilateral elements. Radiation flux of a given direction enters on two (one) sides of a triangle and leaves on the opposite side(s) in proportion to the viewing angles depending on the geometry. This scheme allows to propagate sharply edged beams without ray tracing, though at the price of some lateral diffusion. The algorithm treats correctly both the optically thin and optically thick regimes. A symmetric semi-implicit (SSI) method is used to guarantee numerical stability. Program summaryProgram title: MULTI2D Catalogue identifier: AECV_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AECV_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 151 098 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 889 622 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C Computer: PC (32 bits architecture) Operating system: Linux/Unix RAM: 2 Mbytes Word size: 32 bits Classification: 19.7 External routines: X-window standard library (libX11.so) and corresponding heading files (X11/*.h) are

  4. Velocity distributions for 2D inelastic granular gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miracle, Dylan J.; Goldman, Daniel I.; Moon, Sung Joon; Rericha, Erin; Swift, J. B.; Swinney, Harry L.

    2002-11-01

    A previous study of a vertically vibrated 2D granular gas found a time-averaged horizontal velocity distribution function of the form P(v) exp(-C|v|^3/2) for the entire velocity range(F. Rouyer and N. Menon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85), 3676 (2000).. We examine the dependence of the velocity distribution function on phase in the cycle, height above the plate and air pressure in the container. We use 1.6 mm stainless steel balls confined to a vertical plane by a container 32σ tall, 48σ wide, and 1.15σ thick, where σ is the particle diameter. The container oscillates with peak acceleration 20g and frequency 50 Hz. We observe that a shock forms at collision of the plate with the layer and propagates through the layer, heating the grains. The shock rapidly decays over a distance of approximately 8σ above the plate; above this height the granular temperature and density are essentially independent of phase in the cycle. In this steady-state region, we compare the observed functional form of the velocity distribution to molecular dynamics simulations.

  5. Atomistic methodologies for material properties of 2D materials at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhen

    Research on two dimensional (2D) materials, such as graphene and MoS2, now involves thousands of researchers worldwide cutting across physics, chemistry, engineering and biology. Due to the extraordinary properties of 2D materials, research extends from fundamental science to novel applications of 2D materials. From an engineering point of view, understanding the material properties of 2D materials under various conditions is crucial for tailoring the electrical and mechanical properties of 2D-material-based devices at the nanoscale. Even at the nanoscale, molecular systems typically consist of a vast number of atoms. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations enable us to understand the properties of assemblies of molecules in terms of their structure and the microscopic interactions between them. From a continuum approach, mechanical properties and thermal properties, such as strain, stress, and heat capacity, are well defined and experimentally measurable. In MD simulations, material systems are considered to be discrete, and only interatomic potential, interatomic forces, and atom positions are directly obtainable. Besides, most of the fracture mechanics concepts, such as stress intensity factors, are not applicable since there is no singularity in MD simulations. However, energy release rate still remains to be a feasible and crucial physical quantity to characterize the fracture mechanical property of materials at the nanoscale. Therefore, equivalent definition of a physical quantity both in atomic scale and macroscopic scale is necessary in order to understand molecular and continuum scale phenomena concurrently. This work introduces atomistic simulation methodologies, based on interatomic potential and interatomic forces, as a tool to unveil the mechanical properties, thermal properties and fracture mechanical properties of 2D materials at the nanoscale. Among many 2D materials, graphene and MoS2 have attracted intense interest. Therefore, we applied our

  6. Mechanical characterization of 2D, 2D stitched, and 3D braided/RTM materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deaton, Jerry W.; Kullerd, Susan M.; Portanova, Marc A.

    1993-01-01

    Braided composite materials have potential for application in aircraft structures. Fuselage frames, floor beams, wing spars, and stiffeners are examples where braided composites could find application if cost effective processing and damage tolerance requirements are met. Another important consideration for braided composites relates to their mechanical properties and how they compare to the properties of composites produced by other textile composite processes being proposed for these applications. Unfortunately, mechanical property data for braided composites do not appear extensively in the literature. Data are presented in this paper on the mechanical characterization of 2D triaxial braid, 2D triaxial braid plus stitching, and 3D (through-the-thickness) braid composite materials. The braided preforms all had the same graphite tow size and the same nominal braid architectures, (+/- 30 deg/0 deg), and were resin transfer molded (RTM) using the same mold for each of two different resin systems. Static data are presented for notched and unnotched tension, notched and unnotched compression, and compression after impact strengths at room temperature. In addition, some static results, after environmental conditioning, are included. Baseline tension and compression fatigue results are also presented, but only for the 3D braided composite material with one of the resin systems.

  7. Computational Screening of 2D Materials for Photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Arunima K; Mathew, Kiran; Zhuang, Houlong L; Hennig, Richard G

    2015-03-19

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials exhibit a range of extraordinary electronic, optical, and mechanical properties different from their bulk counterparts with potential applications for 2D materials emerging in energy storage and conversion technologies. In this Perspective, we summarize the recent developments in the field of solar water splitting using 2D materials and review a computational screening approach to rapidly and efficiently discover more 2D materials that possess properties suitable for solar water splitting. Computational tools based on density-functional theory can predict the intrinsic properties of potential photocatalyst such as their electronic properties, optical absorbance, and solubility in aqueous solutions. Computational tools enable the exploration of possible routes to enhance the photocatalytic activity of 2D materials by use of mechanical strain, bias potential, doping, and pH. We discuss future research directions and needed method developments for the computational design and optimization of 2D materials for photocatalysis.

  8. Multiyear Statistics of 2-D Shortwave Radiative Effects at Three ARM Sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varnai, Tamas

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the importance of horizontal photon transport effects, which are not considered in the 1-D calculations of solar radiative heating used by most atmospheric dynamical models. In particular, the paper analyzes the difference between 2-D and 1-D radiative calculations for 2-D vertical cross-sections of clouds that were observed at three sites over 2- to 3-year periods. The results show that 2-D effects increase multiyear 24-hour average total solar absorption by about 4.1 W/sq m, 1.2 W/sq m, and 0.3 W/sq m at a tropical, mid-latitude, and arctic site, respectively. However, 2-D effects are often much larger than these average values, especially for high sun and for convective clouds. The results also reveal a somewhat unexpected behavior, that horizontal photon transport often enhances solar heating even for oblique sun. These findings underscore the need for fast radiation calculation methods that can allow atmospheric dynamical simulations to consider the inherently multidimensional nature of shortwave radiative processes.

  9. Critical island-size, stability, and morphology of 2D colloidal Au nanoparticle islands.

    PubMed

    Hubartt, Bradley C; Amar, Jacques G

    2015-01-14

    The critical island-size, stability, and morphology of 2D colloidal Au nanoparticle islands formed during drop-drying are studied using an empirical potential which takes into account core-core, ligand-ligand, and ligand-solvent interactions. Good agreement with experiment is obtained for the dependence of the critical island-size on nanoparticle diameter. Our results for the critical length-scale for smoothing via edge-diffusion are also consistent with the limited facet size and island-relaxation observed in experiments. In addition, the relatively high rate of monomer diffusion on an island as well as the low barrier for interlayer diffusion are consistent with experimental observations that second-layer growth does not occur until after the first layer is complete.

  10. A velocity-dependent anomalous radial transport model for (2-D, 2-V) kinetic transport codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodi, Kowsik; Krasheninnikov, Sergei; Cohen, Ron; Rognlien, Tom

    2008-11-01

    Plasma turbulence constitutes a significant part of radial plasma transport in magnetically confined plasmas. This turbulent transport is modeled in the form of anomalous convection and diffusion coefficients in fluid transport codes. There is a need to model the same in continuum kinetic edge codes [such as the (2-D, 2-V) transport version of TEMPEST, NEO, and the code being developed by the Edge Simulation Laboratory] with non-Maxwellian distributions. We present an anomalous transport model with velocity-dependent convection and diffusion coefficients leading to a diagonal transport matrix similar to that used in contemporary fluid transport models (e.g., UEDGE). Also presented are results of simulations corresponding to radial transport due to long-wavelength ExB turbulence using a velocity-independent diffusion coefficient. A BGK collision model is used to enable comparison with fluid transport codes.

  11. Weak-localization approach to a 2D electron gas with a spectral node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, K.; Sinner, A.

    2015-07-01

    We study a weakly disordered 2D electron gas with two bands and a spectral node within the weak-localization approach and compare its results with those of Gaussian fluctuations around the self-consistent Born approximation. The appearance of diffusive modes depends on the type of disorder. In particular, we find for a random gap a diffusive mode only from ladder contributions, whereas for a random scalar potential the diffusive mode is created by ladder and by maximally crossed contributions. The ladder (maximally crossed) contributions correspond to fermionic (bosonic) Gaussian fluctuations. We calculate the conductivity corrections from the density-density Kubo formula and find a good agreement with the experimentally observed V-shape conductivity of graphene.

  12. Synthetic Covalent and Non-Covalent 2D Materials.

    PubMed

    Boott, Charlotte E; Nazemi, Ali; Manners, Ian

    2015-11-16

    The creation of synthetic 2D materials represents an attractive challenge that is ultimately driven by their prospective uses in, for example, electronics, biomedicine, catalysis, sensing, and as membranes for separation and filtration. This Review illustrates some recent advances in this diverse field with a focus on covalent and non-covalent 2D polymers and frameworks, and self-assembled 2D materials derived from nanoparticles, homopolymers, and block copolymers.

  13. Casting process modeling using CAST2D: The part mold interface

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, A.B.

    1991-10-01

    Correctly modeling the physics across the part-mold interface is crucial in predicting the quality of a cast part. Most metals undergo a volume change on solidification (e.g., aluminum -6.6%) and shrinkage on cooling. As the cast metal shrinks, it pulls away from the mol wall creating a gap. This gap effects the thermal contact resistance between the part and mold. The thermal contact resistance increase as the gap widens. This directly effects the cooling rate and ultimately the final cast shape, stress state, and quality of the cast part. CAST2D is a coupled thermal-stress finite element computer code for casting process modeling. This code can be used to predict the final shape and stress state of cast parts. CAST2D couples the heat transfer code TOPAZ2D and solid mechanics code NIKE2D. CAST2D is a code in development. This report presents the status of a general purpose thermal-mechanical interface algorithm. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  14. A Geometric Boolean Library for 2D Objects

    2006-01-05

    The 2D Boolean Library is a collection of C++ classes -- which primarily represent 2D geometric data and relationships, and routines -- which contain algorithms for 2D geometric Boolean operations and utility functions. Classes are provided for 2D points, lines, arcs, edgeuses, loops, surfaces and mask sets. Routines are provided that incorporate the Boolean operations Union(OR), XOR, Intersection and Difference. Various analytical geometry routines and routines for importing and exporting the data in various filemore » formats, are also provided in the library.« less

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS) (2dFGRS Team, 1998-2003)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colless, M.; Dalton, G.; Maddox, S.; Sutherland, W.; Norberg, P.; Cole, S.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Bridges, T.; Cannon, R.; Collins, C.; Couch, W.; Cross, N.; Deeley, K.; de Propris, R.; Driver, S. P.; Efstathiou, G.; Ellis, R. S.; Frenk, C. S.; Glazebrook, K.; Jackson, C.; Lahav, O.; Lewis, I.; Lumsden, S.; Madgwick, D.; Peacock, J. A.; Peterson, B. A.; Price, I.; Seaborne, M.; Taylor, K.

    2007-11-01

    The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS) is a major spectroscopic survey taking full advantage of the unique capabilities of the 2dF facility built by the Anglo-Australian Observatory. The 2dFGRS is integrated with the 2dF QSO survey (2QZ, Cat. VII/241). The 2dFGRS obtained spectra for 245591 objects, mainly galaxies, brighter than a nominal extinction-corrected magnitude limit of bJ=19.45. Reliable (quality>=3) redshifts were obtained for 221414 galaxies. The galaxies cover an area of approximately 1500 square degrees selected from the extended APM Galaxy Survey in three regions: a North Galactic Pole (NGP) strip, a South Galactic Pole (SGP) strip, and random fields scattered around the SGP strip. Redshifts are measured from spectra covering 3600-8000 Angstroms at a two-pixel resolution of 9.0 Angstrom and a median S/N of 13 per pixel. All redshift identifications are visually checked and assigned a quality parameter Q in the range 1-5; Q>=3 redshifts are 98.4% reliable and have an rms uncertainty of 85 km/s. The overall redshift completeness for Q>=3 redshifts is 91.8% but this varies with magnitude from 99% for the brightest galaxies to 90% for objects at the survey limit. The 2dFGRS data base is available on the World Wide Web at http://www.mso.anu.edu.au/2dFGRS/. (6 data files).

  16. High accuracy determination of the thermal properties of supported 2D materials

    PubMed Central

    Judek, Jarosław; Gertych, Arkadiusz P.; Świniarski, Michał; Łapińska, Anna; Dużyńska, Anna; Zdrojek, Mariusz

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel approach for the simultaneous determination of the thermal conductivity κ and the total interface conductance g of supported 2D materials by the enhanced opto-thermal method. We harness the property of the Gaussian laser beam that acts as a heat source, whose size can easily and precisely be controlled. The experimental data for multi-layer graphene and MoS2 flakes are supplemented using numerical simulations of the heat distribution in the Si/SiO2/2D material system. The procedure of κ and g extraction is tested in a statistical approach, demonstrating the high accuracy and repeatability of our method. PMID:26179785

  17. Klassifikation von Standardebenen in der 2D-Echokardiographie mittels 2D-3D-Bildregistrierung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmeir, Christoph; Subramanian, Navneeth

    Zum Zweck der Entwicklung eines Systems, das einen unerfahrenen Anwender von Ultraschall (US) zur Aufnahme relevanter anatomischer Strukturen leitet, untersuchen wir die Machbarkeit von 2D-US zu 3D-CT Registrierung. Wir verwenden US-Aufnahmen von Standardebenen des Herzens, welche zu einem 3D-CT-Modell registriert werden. Unser Algorithmus unterzieht sowohl die US-Bilder als auch den CT-Datensatz Vorverarbeitungsschritten, welche die Daten durch Segmentierung auf wesentliche Informationen in Form von Labein für Muskel und Blut reduzieren. Anschließend werden diese Label zur Registrierung mittels der Match-Cardinality-Metrik genutzt. Durch mehrmaliges Registrieren mit verschiedenen Initialisierungen ermitteln wir die im US-Bild sichtbare Standardebene. Wir evaluierten die Methode auf sieben US-Bildern von Standardebenen. Fünf davon wurden korrekt zugeordnet.

  18. Epitaxial 2D SnSe2/ 2D WSe2 van der Waals Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Aretouli, Kleopatra Emmanouil; Tsoutsou, Dimitra; Tsipas, Polychronis; Marquez-Velasco, Jose; Aminalragia Giamini, Sigiava; Kelaidis, Nicolaos; Psycharis, Vassilis; Dimoulas, Athanasios

    2016-09-01

    van der Waals heterostructures of 2D semiconductor materials can be used to realize a number of (opto)electronic devices including tunneling field effect devices (TFETs). It is shown in this work that high quality SnSe2/WSe2 vdW heterostructure can be grown by molecular beam epitaxy on AlN(0001)/Si(111) substrates using a Bi2Se3 buffer layer. A valence band offset of 0.8 eV matches the energy gap of SnSe2 in such a way that the VB edge of WSe2 and the CB edge of SnSe2 are lined up, making this materials combination suitable for (nearly) broken gap TFETs. PMID:27537619

  19. CVMAC 2D Program: A method of converting 3D to 2D

    SciTech Connect

    Lown, J.

    1990-06-20

    This paper presents the user with a method of converting a three- dimensional wire frame model into a technical illustration, detail, or assembly drawing. By using the 2D Program, entities can be mapped from three-dimensional model space into two-dimensional model space, as if they are being traced. Selected entities to be mapped can include circles, arcs, lines, and points. This program prompts the user to digitize the view to be mapped, specify the layers in which the new two-dimensional entities will reside, and select the entities, either by digitizing or windowing. The new two-dimensional entities are displayed in a small view which the program creates in the lower left corner of the drawing. 9 figs.

  20. 2D Four-Channel Perfect Reconstruction Filter Bank Realized with the 2D Lattice Filter Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sezen, S.; Ertüzün, A.

    2006-12-01

    A novel orthogonal 2D lattice structure is incorporated into the design of a nonseparable 2D four-channel perfect reconstruction filter bank. The proposed filter bank is obtained by using the polyphase decomposition technique which requires the design of an orthogonal 2D lattice filter. Due to constraint of perfect reconstruction, each stage of this lattice filter bank is simply parameterized by two coefficients. The perfect reconstruction property is satisfied regardless of the actual values of these parameters and of the number of the lattice stages. It is also shown that a separable 2D four-channel perfect reconstruction lattice filter bank can be constructed from the 1D lattice filter and that this is a special case of the proposed 2D lattice filter bank under certain conditions. The perfect reconstruction property of the proposed 2D lattice filter approach is verified by computer simulations.

  1. A Single-Material Logical Junction Based on 2D Crystal PdS2.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani-Asl, Mahdi; Kuc, Agnieszka; Miró, Pere; Heine, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    A single-material logical junction with negligible contact resistance is designed by exploiting quantum-confinement effects in 1T PdS2 . The metallic bilayer serves as electrodes for the semiconducting channel monolayer, avoiding contact resistance. Heat dissipation is then governed by tunnel loss, which becomes negligible at channel lengths larger than 2.45 nm. This value marks the integration limit for a conventional 2D transistor.

  2. A Single-Material Logical Junction Based on 2D Crystal PdS2.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani-Asl, Mahdi; Kuc, Agnieszka; Miró, Pere; Heine, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    A single-material logical junction with negligible contact resistance is designed by exploiting quantum-confinement effects in 1T PdS2 . The metallic bilayer serves as electrodes for the semiconducting channel monolayer, avoiding contact resistance. Heat dissipation is then governed by tunnel loss, which becomes negligible at channel lengths larger than 2.45 nm. This value marks the integration limit for a conventional 2D transistor. PMID:26632273

  3. 2D exchange 31P NMR spectroscopy of bacteriophage M13 and tobacco mosaic virus.

    PubMed Central

    Magusin, P C; Hemminga, M A

    1995-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) exchange 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is used to study the slow overall motion of the rod-shaped viruses M13 and tobacco mosaic virus in concentrated gels. Even for short mixing times, observed diagonal spectra differ remarkably from projection spectra and one-dimensional spectra. Our model readily explains this to be a consequence of the T2e anisotropy caused by slow overall rotation of the viruses about their length axis. 2D exchange spectra recorded for 30% (w/w) tobacco mosaic virus with mixing times < 1 s do not show any off-diagonal broadening, indicating that its overall motion occurs in the sub-Hz frequency range. In contrast, the exchange spectra obtained for 30% M13 show significant off-diagonal intensity for mixing times of 0.01 s and higher. A log-gaussian distribution around 25 Hz of overall diffusion coefficients mainly spread between 1 and 10(3) Hz faithfully reproduces the 2D exchange spectra of 30% M13 recorded at various mixing times in a consistent way. A small but notable change in diagonal spectra at increasing mixing time is not well accounted for by our model and is probably caused by 31P spin diffusion. PMID:7756532

  4. Functional characterization of CYP2D6 enhancer polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Danxin; Papp, Audrey C.; Sun, Xiaochun

    2015-01-01

    CYP2D6 metabolizes nearly 25% of clinically used drugs. Genetic polymorphisms cause large inter-individual variability in CYP2D6 enzyme activity and are currently used as biomarker to predict CYP2D6 metabolizer phenotype. Previously, we had identified a region 115 kb downstream of CYP2D6 as enhancer for CYP2D6, containing two completely linked single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs133333 and rs5758550, associated with enhanced transcription. However, the enhancer effect on CYP2D6 expression, and the causative variant, remained to be ascertained. To characterize the CYP2D6 enhancer element, we applied chromatin conformation capture combined with the next-generation sequencing (4C assays) and chromatin immunoprecipitation with P300 antibody, in HepG2 and human primary culture hepatocytes. The results confirmed the role of the previously identified enhancer region in CYP2D6 expression, expanding the number of candidate variants to three highly linked SNPs (rs133333, rs5758550 and rs4822082). Among these, only rs5758550 demonstrated regulating enhancer activity in a reporter gene assay. Use of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats mediated genome editing in HepG2 cells targeting suspected enhancer regions decreased CYP2D6 mRNA expression by 70%, only upon deletion of the rs5758550 region. These results demonstrate robust effects of both the enhancer element and SNP rs5758550 on CYP2D6 expression, supporting consideration of rs5758550 for CYP2D6 genotyping panels to yield more accurate phenotype prediction. PMID:25381333

  5. Simulations of Diffusive Pb-, Ti- and REE-loss in Terrestrial and Lunar Zircon and Apatite as a Function of Impact Heating During Impact Bombardments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramov, O.; Mojzsis, S. J.

    2009-12-01

    Ultra-high spatial resolution ion microprobe depth-profiles of pre-3.9 Ga terrestrial zircons from the Jack Hills (Western Australia) have the potential to record a sharply elevated impactor flux to the inner planets at ca. 3.95 Ga termed the Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB). A putative signature of this is in the form of ~3.95 Ga, 2 to 4 μm mantles over the (oldest) igneous zircon cores (up to 4.3 Ga). These minute mantles show Pb-loss (up to 90% discordance) over narrow domains that could be the result of impact heating. Pre-3.9 Ga lunar zircon grains have not yet been depth-profiled, but it is evident from published spot analyses that grain cores preserve original igneous ages albeit with no clear super-imposition of later thermal events. However, the U-Pb systematics of apatites in the same lunar rocks were reset ca. 3.95 Ga. The motivation of this study is to explain the high degree of Pb (and other cation) loss over very short distances (<6 μm) in terrestrial zircons at ~3.9 Ga, the complete resetting of U-Pb isotope systematics of lunar apatites at approximately the same time, and to make predictions in preparation for depth-profile work on lunar samples. To accomplish these goals, we used existing models that simulate the thermal consequences of LHB, as well as established equations for cation diffusion in zircon and apatite. The main thermal model consists of (i) a stochastic cratering model which populates the surface with craters within constraints derived from the lunar cratering record, the size/frequency distribution of the asteroid belt, and dynamical models; (ii) analytical expressions that calculate a temperature field for each model crater; and (iii) three-dimensional thermal models of lunar and terrestrial lithospheres, where craters are allowed to cool by conduction in the subsurface and radiation at the surface. In addition, a high-resolution near-surface model was used to account for additional thermal pulses due to global deposition of hot

  6. An Incompressible 2D Didactic Model with Singularity and Explicit Solutions of the 2D Boussinesq Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, Dongho; Constantin, Peter; Wu, Jiahong

    2014-09-01

    We give an example of a well posed, finite energy, 2D incompressible active scalar equation with the same scaling as the surface quasi-geostrophic equation and prove that it can produce finite time singularities. In spite of its simplicity, this seems to be the first such example. Further, we construct explicit solutions of the 2D Boussinesq equations whose gradients grow exponentially in time for all time. In addition, we introduce a variant of the 2D Boussinesq equations which is perhaps a more faithful companion of the 3D axisymmetric Euler equations than the usual 2D Boussinesq equations.

  7. F2D users manual: A two-dimensional compressible gas flow code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suo-Anttila, A.

    1993-08-01

    The F2D computer code is a general purpose, two-dimensional, fully compressible thermal-fluids code that models most of the phenomena found in situations of coupled fluid flow and heat transfer. The code solves momentum, continuity, gas-energy, and structure-energy equations using a predictor-corrector solution algorithm. The corrector step includes a Poisson pressure equation. The finite difference form of the equation is presented along with a description of input and output. Several example problems are included that demonstrate the applicability of the code in problems ranging from free fluid flow, shock tubes, and flow in heated porous media.

  8. F2D. A Two-Dimensional Compressible Gas Flow Code

    SciTech Connect

    Suo-Anttila, A.

    1993-08-01

    F2D is a general purpose, two dimensional, fully compressible thermal-fluids code that models most of the phenomena found in situations of coupled fluid flow and heat transfer. The code solves momentum, continuity, gas-energy, and structure-energy equations using a predictor-correction solution algorithm. The corrector step includes a Poisson pressure equation. The finite difference form of the equation is presented along with a description of input and output. Several example problems are included that demonstrate the applicability of the code in problems ranging from free fluid flow, shock tubes and flow in heated porous media.

  9. F2D users manual: A two-dimensional compressible gas flow code

    SciTech Connect

    Suo-Anttila, A.

    1993-08-01

    The F2D computer code is a general purpose, two-dimensional, fully compressible thermal-fluids code that models most of the phenomena found in situations of coupled fluid flow and heat transfer. The code solves momentum, continuity, gas-energy, and structure-energy equations using a predictor-corrector solution algorithm. The corrector step includes a Poisson pressure equation. The finite difference form of the equation is presented along with a description of input and output. Several example problems are included that demonstrate the applicability of the code in problems ranging from free fluid flow, shock tubes and flow in heated porous media.

  10. Non-linear effects in quantitative 2D NMR of polysaccharides: pitfalls and how to avoid them.

    PubMed

    Martineau, Estelle; El Khantache, Kamel; Pupier, Marion; Sepulcri, Patricia; Akoka, Serge; Giraudeau, Patrick

    2015-04-10

    Quantitative 2D NMR is a powerful analytical tool which is widely used to determine the concentration of small molecules in complex samples. Due to the site-specific response of the 2D NMR signal, the determination of absolute concentrations requires the use of a calibration or standard addition approach, where the analyte acts as its own reference. Standard addition methods, where the targeted sample is gradually spiked with known amounts of the targeted analyte, are particularly well-suited for quantitative 2D NMR of small molecules. This paper explores the potential of such quantitative 2D NMR approaches for the quantitative analysis of a high molecular weight polysaccharide. The results highlight that the standard addition method leads to a strong under-estimation of the target concentration, whatever the 2D NMR pulse sequence. Diffusion measurements show that a change in the macromolecular organization of the studied polysaccharide is the most probable hypothesis to explain the non-linear evolution of the 2D NMR signal with concentration. In spite of this non-linearity--the detailed explanation of which is out of the scope of this paper--we demonstrate that accurate quantitative results can still be obtained provided that an external calibration is performed with a wide range of concentrations surrounding the target value. This study opens the way to a number of studies where 2D NMR is needed for the quantitative analysis of macromolecules.

  11. The histone lysine methyltransferase KMT2D sustains a gene expression program that represses B cell lymphoma development.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Molina, Ana; Boss, Isaac W; Canela, Andres; Pan, Heng; Jiang, Yanwen; Zhao, Chunying; Jiang, Man; Hu, Deqing; Agirre, Xabier; Niesvizky, Itamar; Lee, Ji-Eun; Chen, Hua-Tang; Ennishi, Daisuke; Scott, David W; Mottok, Anja; Hother, Christoffer; Liu, Shichong; Cao, Xing-Jun; Tam, Wayne; Shaknovich, Rita; Garcia, Benjamin A; Gascoyne, Randy D; Ge, Kai; Shilatifard, Ali; Elemento, Olivier; Nussenzweig, Andre; Melnick, Ari M; Wendel, Hans-Guido

    2015-10-01

    The gene encoding the lysine-specific histone methyltransferase KMT2D has emerged as one of the most frequently mutated genes in follicular lymphoma and diffuse large B cell lymphoma; however, the biological consequences of KMT2D mutations on lymphoma development are not known. Here we show that KMT2D functions as a bona fide tumor suppressor and that its genetic ablation in B cells promotes lymphoma development in mice. KMT2D deficiency also delays germinal center involution and impedes B cell differentiation and class switch recombination. Integrative genomic analyses indicate that KMT2D affects methylation of lysine 4 on histone H3 (H3K4) and expression of a set of genes, including those in the CD40, JAK-STAT, Toll-like receptor and B cell receptor signaling pathways. Notably, other KMT2D target genes include frequently mutated tumor suppressor genes such as TNFAIP3, SOCS3 and TNFRSF14. Therefore, KMT2D mutations may promote malignant outgrowth by perturbing the expression of tumor suppressor genes that control B cell-activating pathways. PMID:26366710

  12. The histone lysine methyltransferase KMT2D sustains a gene expression program that represses B cell lymphoma development

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Molina, Ana; Boss, Isaac W.; Canela, Andres; Pan, Heng; Jiang, Yanwen; Zhao, Chunying; Jiang, Man; Hu, Deqing; Agirre, Xabier; Niesvizky, Itamar; Lee, Ji-Eun; Chen, Hua-Tang; Ennishi, Daisuke; Scott, David W.; Mottok, Anja; Hother, Christoffer; Liu, Shichong; Cao, Xing-Jun; Tam, Wayne; Shaknovich, Rita; Garcia, Benjamin A.; Gascoyne, Randy D.; Ge, Kai; Shilatifard, Ali; Elemento, Olivier; Nussenzweig, Andre; Melnick, Ari M.; Wendel, Hans-Guido

    2015-01-01

    The lysine-specific histone methyltransferase KMT2D has emerged as one of the most frequently mutated genes in follicular lymphoma (FL) and diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). However, the biological consequences of KMT2D mutations on lymphoma development are not known. Here we show that KMT2D functions as a bona fide tumor suppressor and that its genetic ablation in B cells promotes lymphoma development in mice. KMT2D deficiency also delays germinal center (GC) involution, impedes B cell differentiation and class switch recombination (CSR). Integrative genomic analyses indicate that KMT2D affects H3K4 methylation and expression of a specific set of genes including those in the CD40, JAK-STAT, Toll-like receptor, and B cell receptor pathways. Notably, other KMT2D target genes include frequently mutated tumor suppressor genes such as TNFAIP3, SOCS3, and TNFRSF14. Therefore, KMT2D mutations may promote malignant outgrowth by perturbing the expression of tumor suppressor genes that control B cell activating pathways. PMID:26366710

  13. Adaptation algorithms for 2-D feedforward neural networks.

    PubMed

    Kaczorek, T

    1995-01-01

    The generalized weight adaptation algorithms presented by J.G. Kuschewski et al. (1993) and by S.H. Zak and H.J. Sira-Ramirez (1990) are extended for 2-D madaline and 2-D two-layer feedforward neural nets (FNNs).

  14. Integrating Mobile Multimedia into Textbooks: 2D Barcodes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uluyol, Celebi; Agca, R. Kagan

    2012-01-01

    The major goal of this study was to empirically compare text-plus-mobile phone learning using an integrated 2D barcode tag in a printed text with three other conditions described in multimedia learning theory. The method examined in the study involved modifications of the instructional material such that: a 2D barcode was used near the text, the…

  15. Efficient Visible Quasi-2D Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Byun, Jinwoo; Cho, Himchan; Wolf, Christoph; Jang, Mi; Sadhanala, Aditya; Friend, Richard H; Yang, Hoichang; Lee, Tae-Woo

    2016-09-01

    Efficient quasi-2D-structure perovskite light-emitting diodes (4.90 cd A(-1) ) are demonstrated by mixing a 3D-structured perovskite material (methyl ammonium lead bromide) and a 2D-structured perovskite material (phenylethyl ammonium lead bromide), which can be ascribed to better film uniformity, enhanced exciton confinement, and reduced trap density. PMID:27334788

  16. CYP2D6: novel genomic structures and alleles

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Whitney E.; Walker, Denise L.; O’Kane, Dennis J.; Mrazek, David A.; Fisher, Pamela K.; Dukek, Brian A.; Bruflat, Jamie K.; Black, John L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective CYP2D6 is a polymorphic gene. It has been observed to be deleted, to be duplicated and to undergo recombination events involving the CYP2D7 pseudogene and surrounding sequences. The objective of this study was to discover the genomic structure of CYP2D6 recombinants that interfere with clinical genotyping platforms that are available today. Methods Clinical samples containing rare homozygous CYP2D6 alleles, ambiguous readouts, and those with duplication signals and two different alleles were analyzed by long-range PCR amplification of individual genes, PCR fragment analysis, allele-specific primer extension assay, and DNA sequencing to characterize alleles and genomic structure. Results Novel alleles, genomic structures, and the DNA sequence of these structures are described. Interestingly, in 49 of 50 DNA samples that had CYP2D6 gene duplications or multiplications where two alleles were detected, the chromosome containing the duplication or multiplication had identical tandem alleles. Conclusion Several new CYP2D6 alleles and genomic structures are described which will be useful for CYP2D6 genotyping. The findings suggest that the recombination events responsible for CYP2D6 duplications and multiplications are because of mechanisms other than interchromosomal crossover during meiosis. PMID:19741566

  17. Efficient Visible Quasi-2D Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Byun, Jinwoo; Cho, Himchan; Wolf, Christoph; Jang, Mi; Sadhanala, Aditya; Friend, Richard H; Yang, Hoichang; Lee, Tae-Woo

    2016-09-01

    Efficient quasi-2D-structure perovskite light-emitting diodes (4.90 cd A(-1) ) are demonstrated by mixing a 3D-structured perovskite material (methyl ammonium lead bromide) and a 2D-structured perovskite material (phenylethyl ammonium lead bromide), which can be ascribed to better film uniformity, enhanced exciton confinement, and reduced trap density.

  18. 2D simulations of the line-driven instability in hot-star winds. II. Approximations for the 2D radiation force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessart, L.; Owocki, S. P.

    2005-07-01

    We present initial attempts to include the multi-dimensional nature of radiation transport in hydrodynamical simulations of the small-scale structure that arises from the line-driven instability in hot-star winds. Compared to previous 1D or 2D models that assume a purely radial radiation force, we seek additionally to treat the lateral momentum and transport of diffuse line-radiation, initially here within a 2D context. A key incentive is to study the damping effect of the associated diffuse line-drag on the dynamical properties of the flow, focusing particularly on whether this might prevent lateral break-up of shell structures at scales near the lateral Sobolev angle of ca. 1^o. Based on 3D linear perturbation analyses that show a viscous diffusion character for the damping at these scales, we first explore nonlinear simulations that cast the lateral diffuse force in the simple, local form of a parallel viscosity. We find, however, that the resulting strong damping of lateral velocity fluctuations only further isolates azimuthal zones, leading again to azimuthal incoherence down to the grid scale. To account then for the further effect of lateral mixing of radiation associated with the radial driving, we next explore models in which the radial force is azimuthally smoothed over a chosen scale, and thereby show that this does indeed translate to a similar scale for the resulting density and velocity structure. Accounting for both the lateral line-drag and the lateral mixing in a more self-consistent way thus requires a multi-ray computation of the radiation transport. As a first attempt, we explore further a method first proposed by Owocki (1999), which uses a restricted 3-ray approach that combines a radial ray with two oblique rays set to have an impact parameter p < Rast within the stellar core. From numerical simulations with various grid resolutions (and p), we find that, compared to equivalent 1-ray simulations, the high-resolution 3-ray models show

  19. Development of models for the two-dimensional, two-fluid code for sodium boiling NATOF-2D. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Zielinski, R.G.; Kazimi, M.S.

    1981-09-01

    Several features were incorporated into NATOF-2D, a two-dimensional, two fluid code developed at MIT for the purpose of analysis of sodium boiling transients under LMFBR conditions. They include improved interfacial mass, momentum and energy exchange rate models, and a cell-to-cell radial heat conduction mechanism which was calibrated by simulation of Westinghouse Blanket Heat Transfer Test Program Runs 544 and 545. Finally, a direct method of pressure field solution was implemented into a direct method of pressure field solution was implemented into NATOF-2D, replacing the iterative technique previously available, and resulted in substantially reduced computational costs.

  20. 2D materials and van der Waals heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Novoselov, K S; Mishchenko, A; Carvalho, A; Castro Neto, A H

    2016-07-29

    The physics of two-dimensional (2D) materials and heterostructures based on such crystals has been developing extremely fast. With these new materials, truly 2D physics has begun to appear (for instance, the absence of long-range order, 2D excitons, commensurate-incommensurate transition, etc.). Novel heterostructure devices--such as tunneling transistors, resonant tunneling diodes, and light-emitting diodes--are also starting to emerge. Composed from individual 2D crystals, such devices use the properties of those materials to create functionalities that are not accessible in other heterostructures. Here we review the properties of novel 2D crystals and examine how their properties are used in new heterostructure devices.

  1. Van der Waals stacked 2D layered materials for optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenjing; Wang, Qixing; Chen, Yu; Wang, Zhuo; Wee, Andrew T. S.

    2016-06-01

    The band gaps of many atomically thin 2D layered materials such as graphene, black phosphorus, monolayer semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides and hBN range from 0 to 6 eV. These isolated atomic planes can be reassembled into hybrid heterostructures made layer by layer in a precisely chosen sequence. Thus, the electronic properties of 2D materials can be engineered by van der Waals stacking, and the interlayer coupling can be tuned, which opens up avenues for creating new material systems with rich functionalities and novel physical properties. Early studies suggest that van der Waals stacked 2D materials work exceptionally well, dramatically enriching the optoelectronics applications of 2D materials. Here we review recent progress in van der Waals stacked 2D materials, and discuss their potential applications in optoelectronics.

  2. Effect of heat treatment and diffusion welding conditions on the structure and properties of porous material workpieces made of titanium fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollerov, M. Yu.; Shlyapin, S. D.; Gusev, D. E.; Senkevich, K. S.; Runova, Yu. E.

    2015-11-01

    The effect of the diffusion welding conditions on the structure and properties of a porous material (PM) made of titanium fibers is studied. It is shown that the use of fibers produced by melt quenching and then joined to form workpieces or articles by diffusion welding can be a promising trend in the production of PMs for medicine applications. A change in the solidification rate of fibers and their contact substantially affects the mechanical properties of PM workpieces. As the diffusion welding temperature of both sheet and cylindrical workpieces increases, the strength of PM increases and the plasticity of PM decreases.

  3. Estrogen-Induced Cholestasis Leads to Repressed CYP2D6 Expression in CYP2D6-Humanized Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xian

    2015-01-01

    Cholestasis activates bile acid receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and subsequently enhances hepatic expression of small heterodimer partner (SHP). We previously demonstrated that SHP represses the transactivation of cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) promoter by hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF) 4α. In this study, we investigated the effects of estrogen-induced cholestasis on CYP2D6 expression. Estrogen-induced cholestasis occurs in subjects receiving estrogen for contraception or hormone replacement, or in susceptible women during pregnancy. In CYP2D6-humanized transgenic (Tg-CYP2D6) mice, cholestasis triggered by administration of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) at a high dose led to 2- to 3-fold decreases in CYP2D6 expression. This was accompanied by increased hepatic SHP expression and subsequent decreases in the recruitment of HNF4α to CYP2D6 promoter. Interestingly, estrogen-induced cholestasis also led to increased recruitment of estrogen receptor (ER) α, but not that of FXR, to Shp promoter, suggesting a predominant role of ERα in transcriptional regulation of SHP in estrogen-induced cholestasis. EE2 at a low dose (that does not cause cholestasis) also increased SHP (by ∼50%) and decreased CYP2D6 expression (by 1.5-fold) in Tg-CYP2D6 mice, the magnitude of differences being much smaller than that shown in EE2-induced cholestasis. Taken together, our data indicate that EE2-induced cholestasis increases SHP and represses CYP2D6 expression in Tg-CYP2D6 mice in part through ERα transactivation of Shp promoter. PMID:25943116

  4. 2D attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy reveals ultrafast vibrational dynamics of organic monolayers at metal-liquid interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraack, Jan Philip; Lotti, Davide; Hamm, Peter

    2015-06-01

    We present two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectra of organic monolayers immobilized on thin metallic films at the solid liquid interface. The experiments are acquired under Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) conditions which allow a surface-sensitive measurement of spectral diffusion, sample inhomogeneity, and vibrational relaxation of the monolayers. Terminal azide functional groups are used as local probes of the environment and structural dynamics of the samples. Specifically, we investigate the influence of different alkyl chain-lengths on the ultrafast dynamics of the monolayer, revealing a smaller initial inhomogeneity and faster spectral diffusion with increasing chain-length. Furthermore, by varying the environment (i.e., in different solvents or as bare sample), we conclude that the most significant contribution to spectral diffusion stems from intra- and intermolecular dynamics within the monolayer. The obtained results demonstrate that 2D ATR IR spectroscopy is a versatile tool for measuring interfacial dynamics of adsorbed molecules.

  5. 2D attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy reveals ultrafast vibrational dynamics of organic monolayers at metal-liquid interfaces.

    PubMed

    Kraack, Jan Philip; Lotti, Davide; Hamm, Peter

    2015-06-01

    We present two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectra of organic monolayers immobilized on thin metallic films at the solid liquid interface. The experiments are acquired under Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) conditions which allow a surface-sensitive measurement of spectral diffusion, sample inhomogeneity, and vibrational relaxation of the monolayers. Terminal azide functional groups are used as local probes of the environment and structural dynamics of the samples. Specifically, we investigate the influence of different alkyl chain-lengths on the ultrafast dynamics of the monolayer, revealing a smaller initial inhomogeneity and faster spectral diffusion with increasing chain-length. Furthermore, by varying the environment (i.e., in different solvents or as bare sample), we conclude that the most significant contribution to spectral diffusion stems from intra- and intermolecular dynamics within the monolayer. The obtained results demonstrate that 2D ATR IR spectroscopy is a versatile tool for measuring interfacial dynamics of adsorbed molecules.

  6. Mixing and reaction in the subsonic 2-D turbulent free shear layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frieler, Clifford Eugene

    Several aspects of mixing and reaction in a turbulent two-dimensional shear layer have been studied. Experiments have been performed with reacting H2, F2, and NO in inert diluent gases. Sensing the heat release by these reactions, several aspects of the mixing process can be examined without the usual resolution limitations. For example, in contrast with direct measurements of composition, the amount of mixed fluid can be conservatively estimated with the results of the "flip" experiments. These have been performed over a range of density ratios, Reynolds numbers and heat release.The effects of initial conditions are of primary importance when comparisons to other studies are undertaken. Aspects as fundamental as growth rate of the turbulent region, or as obscure as the mixed fluid flux ratio depend strongly on the boundary conditions of this flow. These effects are examined in conjunction with those of Reynolds number and density ratio. For most cases studied here, tripping of the high speed boundary layer led to growth rate decreases. An exception was found for the case of high density ratio where the opposite effect was observed. This anomalous result occurred at conditions under which a new mode of instability has been shown to exist. Parallels exist between this unusual result and those of Batt in the uniform density case.An extensive study of the effects of density ratio on the mixing and reaction in the 2-D shear layer has been performed. Results indicate that several aspects of the mixing process are remarkably similar. Profiles of mixed fluid change little as the density ratio varies by a factor of 30. The integral amount of mixed fluid varies less than 6% for all density ratios examined. This insensitivity contrasts with that of the profiles of mixed fluid composition. While having very similar shapes the profiles are offset by an amount which depends very strongly upon the density ratio. The entrainment into the mixing layer has also been examined. Power

  7. Tracking objects outside the line of sight using 2D intensity images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Jonathan; Peters, Christoph; Martín, Jaime; Laurenzis, Martin; Hullin, Matthias B.

    2016-08-01

    The observation of objects located in inaccessible regions is a recurring challenge in a wide variety of important applications. Recent work has shown that using rare and expensive optical setups, indirect diffuse light reflections can be used to reconstruct objects and two-dimensional (2D) patterns around a corner. Here we show that occluded objects can be tracked in real time using much simpler means, namely a standard 2D camera and a laser pointer. Our method fundamentally differs from previous solutions by approaching the problem in an analysis-by-synthesis sense. By repeatedly simulating light transport through the scene, we determine the set of object parameters that most closely fits the measured intensity distribution. We experimentally demonstrate that this approach is capable of following the translation of unknown objects, and translation and orientation of a known object, in real time.

  8. Tracking objects outside the line of sight using 2D intensity images.

    PubMed

    Klein, Jonathan; Peters, Christoph; Martín, Jaime; Laurenzis, Martin; Hullin, Matthias B

    2016-08-31

    The observation of objects located in inaccessible regions is a recurring challenge in a wide variety of important applications. Recent work has shown that using rare and expensive optical setups, indirect diffuse light reflections can be used to reconstruct objects and two-dimensional (2D) patterns around a corner. Here we show that occluded objects can be tracked in real time using much simpler means, namely a standard 2D camera and a laser pointer. Our method fundamentally differs from previous solutions by approaching the problem in an analysis-by-synthesis sense. By repeatedly simulating light transport through the scene, we determine the set of object parameters that most closely fits the measured intensity distribution. We experimentally demonstrate that this approach is capable of following the translation of unknown objects, and translation and orientation of a known object, in real time.

  9. Tracking objects outside the line of sight using 2D intensity images.

    PubMed

    Klein, Jonathan; Peters, Christoph; Martín, Jaime; Laurenzis, Martin; Hullin, Matthias B

    2016-01-01

    The observation of objects located in inaccessible regions is a recurring challenge in a wide variety of important applications. Recent work has shown that using rare and expensive optical setups, indirect diffuse light reflections can be used to reconstruct objects and two-dimensional (2D) patterns around a corner. Here we show that occluded objects can be tracked in real time using much simpler means, namely a standard 2D camera and a laser pointer. Our method fundamentally differs from previous solutions by approaching the problem in an analysis-by-synthesis sense. By repeatedly simulating light transport through the scene, we determine the set of object parameters that most closely fits the measured intensity distribution. We experimentally demonstrate that this approach is capable of following the translation of unknown objects, and translation and orientation of a known object, in real time. PMID:27577969

  10. Tracking objects outside the line of sight using 2D intensity images

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Jonathan; Peters, Christoph; Martín, Jaime; Laurenzis, Martin; Hullin, Matthias B.

    2016-01-01

    The observation of objects located in inaccessible regions is a recurring challenge in a wide variety of important applications. Recent work has shown that using rare and expensive optical setups, indirect diffuse light reflections can be used to reconstruct objects and two-dimensional (2D) patterns around a corner. Here we show that occluded objects can be tracked in real time using much simpler means, namely a standard 2D camera and a laser pointer. Our method fundamentally differs from previous solutions by approaching the problem in an analysis-by-synthesis sense. By repeatedly simulating light transport through the scene, we determine the set of object parameters that most closely fits the measured intensity distribution. We experimentally demonstrate that this approach is capable of following the translation of unknown objects, and translation and orientation of a known object, in real time. PMID:27577969

  11. Use of finite volume radiation for predicting the Knudsen minimum in 2D channel flow

    SciTech Connect

    Malhotra, Chetan P.; Mahajan, Roop L.

    2014-12-09

    In an earlier paper we employed an analogy between surface-to-surface radiation and free-molecular flow to model Knudsen flow through tubes and onto planes. In the current paper we extend the analogy between thermal radiation and molecular flow to model the flow of a gas in a 2D channel across all regimes of rarefaction. To accomplish this, we break down the problem of gaseous flow into three sub-problems (self-diffusion, mass-motion and generation of pressure gradient) and use the finite volume method for modeling radiation through participating media to model the transport in each sub-problem as a radiation problem. We first model molecular self-diffusion in the stationary gas by modeling the transport of the molecular number density through the gas starting from the analytical asymptote for free-molecular flow to the kinetic theory limit of gaseous self-diffusion. We then model the transport of momentum through the gas at unit pressure gradient to predict Poiseuille flow and slip flow in the 2D gas. Lastly, we predict the generation of pressure gradient within the gas due to molecular collisions by modeling the transport of the forces generated due to collisions per unit volume of gas. We then proceed to combine the three radiation problems to predict flow of the gas over the entire Knudsen number regime from free-molecular to transition to continuum flow and successfully capture the Knudsen minimum at Kn ∼ 1.

  12. Targeted fluorescence imaging enhanced by 2D materials: a comparison between 2D MoS2 and graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Xie, Donghao; Ji, Ding-Kun; Zhang, Yue; Cao, Jun; Zheng, Hu; Liu, Lin; Zang, Yi; Li, Jia; Chen, Guo-Rong; James, Tony D; He, Xiao-Peng

    2016-08-01

    Here we demonstrate that 2D MoS2 can enhance the receptor-targeting and imaging ability of a fluorophore-labelled ligand. The 2D MoS2 has an enhanced working concentration range when compared with graphene oxide, resulting in the improved imaging of both cell and tissue samples.

  13. Efficient 2D MRI relaxometry using compressed sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Ruiliang; Cloninger, Alexander; Czaja, Wojciech; Basser, Peter J.

    2015-06-01

    Potential applications of 2D relaxation spectrum NMR and MRI to characterize complex water dynamics (e.g., compartmental exchange) in biology and other disciplines have increased in recent years. However, the large amount of data and long MR acquisition times required for conventional 2D MR relaxometry limits its applicability for in vivo preclinical and clinical MRI. We present a new MR pipeline for 2D relaxometry that incorporates compressed sensing (CS) as a means to vastly reduce the amount of 2D relaxation data needed for material and tissue characterization without compromising data quality. Unlike the conventional CS reconstruction in the Fourier space (k-space), the proposed CS algorithm is directly applied onto the Laplace space (the joint 2D relaxation data) without compressing k-space to reduce the amount of data required for 2D relaxation spectra. This framework is validated using synthetic data, with NMR data acquired in a well-characterized urea/water phantom, and on fixed porcine spinal cord tissue. The quality of the CS-reconstructed spectra was comparable to that of the conventional 2D relaxation spectra, as assessed using global correlation, local contrast between peaks, peak amplitude and relaxation parameters, etc. This result brings this important type of contrast closer to being realized in preclinical, clinical, and other applications.

  14. Peridynamic thermal diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Oterkus, Selda; Madenci, Erdogan; Agwai, Abigail

    2014-05-15

    This study presents the derivation of ordinary state-based peridynamic heat conduction equation based on the Lagrangian formalism. The peridynamic heat conduction parameters are related to those of the classical theory. An explicit time stepping scheme is adopted for numerical solution of various benchmark problems with known solutions. It paves the way for applying the peridynamic theory to other physical fields such as neutronic diffusion and electrical potential distribution.

  15. Practical Algorithm For Computing The 2-D Arithmetic Fourier Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Irving S.; Choi, Y. Y.; Yu, Xiaoli

    1989-05-01

    Recently, Tufts and Sadasiv [10] exposed a method for computing the coefficients of a Fourier series of a periodic function using the Mobius inversion of series. They called this method of analysis the Arithmetic Fourier Transform(AFT). The advantage of the AFT over the FN 1' is that this method of Fourier analysis needs only addition operations except for multiplications by scale factors at one stage of the computation. The disadvantage of the AFT as they expressed it originally is that it could be used effectively only to compute finite Fourier coefficients of a real even function. To remedy this the AFT developed in [10] is extended in [11] to compute the Fourier coefficients of both the even and odd components of a periodic function. In this paper, the improved AFT [11] is extended to a two-dimensional(2-D) Arithmetic Fourier Transform for calculating the Fourier Transform of two-dimensional discrete signals. This new algorithm is based on both the number-theoretic method of Mobius inversion of double series and the complex conjugate property of Fourier coefficients. The advantage of this algorithm over the conventional 2-D FFT is that the corner-turning problem needed in a conventional 2-D Discrete Fourier Transform(DFT) can be avoided. Therefore, this new 2-D algorithm is readily suitable for VLSI implementation as a parallel architecture. Comparing the operations of 2-D AFT of a MxM 2-D data array with the conventional 2-D FFT, the number of multiplications is significantly reduced from (2log2M)M2 to (9/4)M2. Hence, this new algorithm is faster than the FFT algorithm. Finally, two simulation results of this new 2-D AFT algorithm for 2-D artificial and real images are given in this paper.

  16. 2D electron cyclotron emission imaging at ASDEX Upgrade (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Classen, I. G. J.; Boom, J. E.; Vries, P. C. de; Suttrop, W.; Schmid, E.; Garcia-Munoz, M.; Schneider, P. A.; Tobias, B.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C. Jr.; Donne, A. J. H.; Jaspers, R. J. E.; Park, H. K.; Munsat, T.

    2010-10-15

    The newly installed electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostic on ASDEX Upgrade provides measurements of the 2D electron temperature dynamics with high spatial and temporal resolution. An overview of the technical and experimental properties of the system is presented. These properties are illustrated by the measurements of the edge localized mode and the reversed shear Alfven eigenmode, showing both the advantage of having a two-dimensional (2D) measurement, as well as some of the limitations of electron cyclotron emission measurements. Furthermore, the application of singular value decomposition as a powerful tool for analyzing and filtering 2D data is presented.

  17. Comparison of 2D and 3D gamma analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Pulliam, Kiley B.; Huang, Jessie Y.; Howell, Rebecca M.; Followill, David; Kry, Stephen F.; Bosca, Ryan; O’Daniel, Jennifer

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: As clinics begin to use 3D metrics for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) quality assurance, it must be noted that these metrics will often produce results different from those produced by their 2D counterparts. 3D and 2D gamma analyses would be expected to produce different values, in part because of the different search space available. In the present investigation, the authors compared the results of 2D and 3D gamma analysis (where both datasets were generated in the same manner) for clinical treatment plans. Methods: Fifty IMRT plans were selected from the authors’ clinical database, and recalculated using Monte Carlo. Treatment planning system-calculated (“evaluated dose distributions”) and Monte Carlo-recalculated (“reference dose distributions”) dose distributions were compared using 2D and 3D gamma analysis. This analysis was performed using a variety of dose-difference (5%, 3%, 2%, and 1%) and distance-to-agreement (5, 3, 2, and 1 mm) acceptance criteria, low-dose thresholds (5%, 10%, and 15% of the prescription dose), and data grid sizes (1.0, 1.5, and 3.0 mm). Each comparison was evaluated to determine the average 2D and 3D gamma, lower 95th percentile gamma value, and percentage of pixels passing gamma. Results: The average gamma, lower 95th percentile gamma value, and percentage of passing pixels for each acceptance criterion demonstrated better agreement for 3D than for 2D analysis for every plan comparison. The average difference in the percentage of passing pixels between the 2D and 3D analyses with no low-dose threshold ranged from 0.9% to 2.1%. Similarly, using a low-dose threshold resulted in a difference between the mean 2D and 3D results, ranging from 0.8% to 1.5%. The authors observed no appreciable differences in gamma with changes in the data density (constant difference: 0.8% for 2D vs 3D). Conclusions: The authors found that 3D gamma analysis resulted in up to 2.9% more pixels passing than 2D analysis. It must

  18. Recent advances in 2D materials for photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Bin; Liu, Gang; Wang, Lianzhou

    2016-04-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted increasing attention for photocatalytic applications because of their unique thickness dependent physical and chemical properties. This review gives a brief overview of the recent developments concerning the chemical synthesis and structural design of 2D materials at the nanoscale and their applications in photocatalytic areas. In particular, recent progress on the emerging strategies for tailoring 2D material-based photocatalysts to improve their photo-activity including elemental doping, heterostructure design and functional architecture assembly is discussed.

  19. Theory of bi-molecular association dynamics in 2D for accurate model and experimental parameterization of binding rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yogurtcu, Osman N.; Johnson, Margaret E.

    2015-08-01

    The dynamics of association between diffusing and reacting molecular species are routinely quantified using simple rate-equation kinetics that assume both well-mixed concentrations of species and a single rate constant for parameterizing the binding rate. In two-dimensions (2D), however, even when systems are well-mixed, the assumption of a single characteristic rate constant for describing association is not generally accurate, due to the properties of diffusional searching in dimensions d ≤ 2. Establishing rigorous bounds for discriminating between 2D reactive systems that will be accurately described by rate equations with a single rate constant, and those that will not, is critical for both modeling and experimentally parameterizing binding reactions restricted to surfaces such as cellular membranes. We show here that in regimes of intrinsic reaction rate (ka) and diffusion (D) parameters ka/D > 0.05, a single rate constant cannot be fit to the dynamics of concentrations of associating species independently of the initial conditions. Instead, a more sophisticated multi-parametric description than rate-equations is necessary to robustly characterize bimolecular reactions from experiment. Our quantitative bounds derive from our new analysis of 2D rate-behavior predicted from Smoluchowski theory. Using a recently developed single particle reaction-diffusion algorithm we extend here to 2D, we are able to test and validate the predictions of Smoluchowski theory and several other theories of reversible reaction dynamics in 2D for the first time. Finally, our results also mean that simulations of reactive systems in 2D using rate equations must be undertaken with caution when reactions have ka/D > 0.05, regardless of the simulation volume. We introduce here a simple formula for an adaptive concentration dependent rate constant for these chemical kinetics simulations which improves on existing formulas to better capture non-equilibrium reaction dynamics from dilute

  20. Stitching 2D polymeric layers into flexible interpenetrated metal-organic frameworks within single crystals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zi-Xuan; Ding, Ni-Ni; Zhang, Wen-Hua; Chen, Jin-Xiang; Young, David J; Hor, T S Andy

    2014-04-25

    A 2D coordination polymer prepared with bulky diethylformamide solvates exhibits channels which allow dipyridyl bridging ligands to diffuse into the crystal lattice. The absorbed dipyridyls thread through the pores of one layer and substitute the surface diethylformamide molecules on the neighboring layers to stitch alternate layers to form flexible interpenetrated metal-orgaic frameworks. The threading process also results in exchange of the bulky diethylformamide solvates for aqua to minimize congestion and, more strikingly, forces the slippage of two-dimensional layers, while still maintaining crystallinity. PMID:24692130

  1. A Convective Vorticity Vector Associated With Tropical Convection: A 2D Cloud-Resolving Modeling Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Shou-Ting; Ping, Fan; Li, Xiao-Fan; Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2004-01-01

    Although dry/moist potential vorticity is a useful physical quantity for meteorological analysis, it cannot be applied to the analysis of 2D simulations. A convective vorticity vector (CVV) is introduced in this study to analyze 2D cloud-resolving simulation data associated with 2D tropical convection. The cloud model is forced by the vertical velocity, zonal wind, horizontal advection, and sea surface temperature obtained from the TOGA COARE, and is integrated for a selected 10-day period. The CVV has zonal and vertical components in the 2D x-z frame. Analysis of zonally-averaged and mass-integrated quantities shows that the correlation coefficient between the vertical component of the CVV and the sum of the cloud hydrometeor mixing ratios is 0.81, whereas the correlation coefficient between the zonal component and the sum of the mixing ratios is only 0.18. This indicates that the vertical component of the CVV is closely associated with tropical convection. The tendency equation for the vertical component of the CVV is derived and the zonally-averaged and mass-integrated tendency budgets are analyzed. The tendency of the vertical component of the CVV is determined by the interaction between the vorticity and the zonal gradient of cloud heating. The results demonstrate that the vertical component of the CVV is a cloud-linked parameter and can be used to study tropical convection.

  2. Precision measurement of the 3 d 3/2 2D-state lifetime in a single trapped +40Ca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, H.; Huang, Y.; Guan, H.; Qian, Y.; Gao, K.

    2016-10-01

    We present a high-precision measurement of the 3 d 3/2 2D-state lifetime in a single trapped +40Ca. The measurement was performed using a high-efficiency quantum-state detection technique to monitor quantum jumps and a high-precision and highly synchronous measurement sequence for laser control. A feature in our measurement is the pumping rate of the 729-nm laser that was corrected in a real-time way. The 3 d 3/2 2D-state lifetime was obtained through the measurement of the spontaneous decay rate after incoherent shelving of the ion to the 3 d 3/2 2D state with a wait time. Systematic errors, such as collisions with background gases, heating effects, impurity components, the shelving and pumping rates, and state detection, were carefully analyzed and estimated. We determined an improved value of the 3 d 3/2 2D-state lifetime to be τ3 /2=1.195 (8 ) s. Furthermore, the 3 d 3/2 2D →4 s 1/2 2S quadrupole transition matrix element was measured to be Sk i=7.936 (26 ) e a02 , and the ratio between the lifetimes of 3 d 2D3 /2 and 3 d 2D5 /2 was determined to be 1.018(11). Our method can be universally applied to lifetime measurements of other single ions and atoms with a similar structure.

  3. 2-D Numerical Simulation of Eruption Clouds : Effects of Turbulent Mixing between Eruption Cloud and Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Y.; KOYAGUCHI, T.; OGAWA, M.; Hachisu, I.

    2001-05-01

    Mixing of eruption cloud and air is one of the most important processes for eruption cloud dynamics. The critical condition of eruption types (eruption column or pyroclastic flow) depends on efficiency of mixing of eruption cloud and the ambient air. However, in most of the previous models (e.g., Sparks,1986; Woods, 1988), the rate of mixing between cloud and air is taken into account by introducing empirical parameters such as entrainment coefficient or turbulent diffusion coefficient. We developed a numerical model of 2-D (axisymmetrical) eruption columns in order to simulate the turbulent mixing between eruption column and air. We calculated the motion of an eruption column from a circular vent on the flat surface of the earth. Supposing that relative velocity of gas and ash particles is sufficiently small, we can treat eruption cloud as a single gas. Equation of state (EOS) for the mixture of the magmatic component (i.e. volcanic gas plus pyroclasts) and air can be expressed by EOS for an ideal gas, because volume fraction of the gas phase is very large. The density change as a function of mixing ratio between air and the magmatic component has a strong non-linear feature, because the density of the mixture drastically decreases as entrained air expands by heating. This non-linear feature can be reproduced by changing the gas constant and the ratio of specific heat in EOS for ideal gases; the molecular weight increases and the ratio of specific heat approaches 1 as the magmatic component increases. It is assumed that the dynamics of eruption column follows the Euler equation, so that no viscous effect except for the numerical viscosity is taken into account. Roe scheme (a general TVD scheme for compressible flow) is used in order to simulate the generation of shock waves inside and around the eruption column. The results show that many vortexes are generated around the boundary between eruption cloud and air, which results in violent mixing. When the size of

  4. Alloyed 2D Metal-Semiconductor Atomic Layer Junctions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ah Ra; Kim, Yonghun; Nam, Jaewook; Chung, Hee-Suk; Kim, Dong Jae; Kwon, Jung-Dae; Park, Sang Won; Park, Jucheol; Choi, Sun Young; Lee, Byoung Hun; Park, Ji Hyeon; Lee, Kyu Hwan; Kim, Dong-Ho; Choi, Sung Mook; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Hahm, Myung Gwan; Cho, Byungjin

    2016-03-01

    Heterostructures of compositionally and electronically variant two-dimensional (2D) atomic layers are viable building blocks for ultrathin optoelectronic devices. We show that the composition of interfacial transition region between semiconducting WSe2 atomic layer channels and metallic NbSe2 contact layers can be engineered through interfacial doping with Nb atoms. WxNb1-xSe2 interfacial regions considerably lower the potential barrier height of the junction, significantly improving the performance of the corresponding WSe2-based field-effect transistor devices. The creation of such alloyed 2D junctions between dissimilar atomic layer domains could be the most important factor in controlling the electronic properties of 2D junctions and the design and fabrication of 2D atomic layer devices.

  5. Emerging and potential opportunities for 2D flexible nanoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Weinan; Park, Saungeun; Akinwande, Deji

    2016-05-01

    The last 10 years have seen the emergence of two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials such as graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), and black phosphorus (BP) among the growing portfolio of layered van der Waals thin films. Graphene, the prototypical 2D material has advanced rapidly in device, circuit and system studies that has resulted in commercial large-area applications. In this work, we provide a perspective of the emerging and potential translational applications of 2D materials including semiconductors, semimetals, and insulators that comprise the basic material set for diverse nanosystems. Applications include RF transceivers, smart systems, the so-called internet of things, and neurotechnology. We will review the DC and RF electronic performance of graphene and BP thin film transistors. 2D materials at sub-um channel length have so far enabled cut-off frequencies from baseband to 100GHz suitable for low-power RF and sub-THz concepts.

  6. 2D hexagonal quaternion Fourier transform in color image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryan, Artyom M.; Agaian, Sos S.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we present a novel concept of the quaternion discrete Fourier transform on the two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, which we call the two-dimensional hexagonal quaternion discrete Fourier transform (2-D HQDFT). The concept of the right-side 2D HQDFT is described and the left-side 2-D HQDFT is similarly considered. To calculate the transform, the image on the hexagonal lattice is described in the tensor representation when the image is presented by a set of 1-D signals, or splitting-signals which can be separately processed in the frequency domain. The 2-D HQDFT can be calculated by a set of 1-D quaternion discrete Fourier transforms (QDFT) of the splitting-signals.

  7. Technical Review of the UNET2D Hydraulic Model

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, William A.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2009-05-18

    The Kansas City District of the US Army Corps of Engineers is engaged in a broad range of river management projects that require knowledge of spatially-varied hydraulic conditions such as velocities and water surface elevations. This information is needed to design new structures, improve existing operations, and assess aquatic habitat. Two-dimensional (2D) depth-averaged numerical hydraulic models are a common tool that can be used to provide velocity and depth information. Kansas City District is currently using a specific 2D model, UNET2D, that has been developed to meet the needs of their river engineering applications. This report documents a tech- nical review of UNET2D.

  8. Double resonance rotational spectroscopy of CH2D+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Töpfer, Matthias; Jusko, Pavol; Schlemmer, Stephan; Asvany, Oskar

    2016-09-01

    Context. Deuterated forms of CH are thought to be responsible for deuterium enrichment in lukewarm astronomical environments. There is no unambiguous detection of CH2D+ in space to date. Aims: Four submillimetre rotational lines of CH2D+ are documented in the literature. Our aim is to present a complete dataset of highly resolved rotational lines, including millimetre (mm) lines needed for a potential detection. Methods: We used a low-temperature ion trap and applied a novel IR-mm-wave double resonance method to measure the rotational lines of CH2D+. Results: We measured 21 low-lying (J ≤ 4) rotational transitions of CH2D+ between 23 GHz and 1.1 THz with accuracies close to 2 ppb.

  9. Alloyed 2D Metal-Semiconductor Atomic Layer Junctions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ah Ra; Kim, Yonghun; Nam, Jaewook; Chung, Hee-Suk; Kim, Dong Jae; Kwon, Jung-Dae; Park, Sang Won; Park, Jucheol; Choi, Sun Young; Lee, Byoung Hun; Park, Ji Hyeon; Lee, Kyu Hwan; Kim, Dong-Ho; Choi, Sung Mook; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Hahm, Myung Gwan; Cho, Byungjin

    2016-03-01

    Heterostructures of compositionally and electronically variant two-dimensional (2D) atomic layers are viable building blocks for ultrathin optoelectronic devices. We show that the composition of interfacial transition region between semiconducting WSe2 atomic layer channels and metallic NbSe2 contact layers can be engineered through interfacial doping with Nb atoms. WxNb1-xSe2 interfacial regions considerably lower the potential barrier height of the junction, significantly improving the performance of the corresponding WSe2-based field-effect transistor devices. The creation of such alloyed 2D junctions between dissimilar atomic layer domains could be the most important factor in controlling the electronic properties of 2D junctions and the design and fabrication of 2D atomic layer devices. PMID:26839956

  10. Matlab based automatization of an inverse surface temperature modelling procedure for Greenland ice cores using an existing firn densification and heat diffusion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döring, Michael; Kobashi, Takuro; Kindler, Philippe; Guillevic, Myriam; Leuenberger, Markus

    2016-04-01

    In order to study Northern Hemisphere (NH) climate interactions and variability, getting access to high resolution surface temperature records of the Greenland ice sheet is an integral condition. For example, understanding the causes for changes in the strength of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and related effects for the NH [Broecker et al. (1985); Rahmstorf (2002)] or the origin and processes leading the so called Dansgaard-Oeschger events in glacial conditions [Johnsen et al. (1992); Dansgaard et al., 1982] demand accurate and reproducible temperature data. To reveal the surface temperature history, it is suitable to use the isotopic composition of nitrogen (δ15N) from ancient air extracted from ice cores drilled at the Greenland ice sheet. The measured δ15N record of an ice core can be used as a paleothermometer due to the nearly constant isotopic composition of nitrogen in the atmosphere at orbital timescales changes only through firn processes [Severinghaus et. al. (1998); Mariotti (1983)]. To reconstruct the surface temperature for a special drilling site the use of firn models describing gas and temperature diffusion throughout the ice sheet is necessary. For this an existing firn densification and heat diffusion model [Schwander et. al. (1997)] is used. Thereby, a theoretical δ15N record is generated for different temperature and accumulation rate scenarios and compared with measurement data in terms of mean square error (MSE), which leads finally to an optimization problem, namely the finding of a minimal MSE. The goal of the presented study is a Matlab based automatization of this inverse modelling procedure. The crucial point hereby is to find the temperature and accumulation rate input time series which minimizes the MSE. For that, we follow two approaches. The first one is a Monte Carlo type input generator which varies each point in the input time series and calculates the MSE. Then the solutions that fulfil a given limit

  11. Matlab based automatization of an inverse surface temperature modelling procedure for Greenland ice cores using an existing firn densification and heat diffusion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döring, Michael; Kobashi, Takuro; Kindler, Philippe; Guillevic, Myriam; Leuenberger, Markus

    2016-04-01

    In order to study Northern Hemisphere (NH) climate interactions and variability, getting access to high resolution surface temperature records of the Greenland ice sheet is an integral condition. For example, understanding the causes for changes in the strength of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and related effects for the NH [Broecker et al. (1985); Rahmstorf (2002)] or the origin and processes leading the so called Dansgaard-Oeschger events in glacial conditions [Johnsen et al. (1992); Dansgaard et al., 1982] demand accurate and reproducible temperature data. To reveal the surface temperature history, it is suitable to use the isotopic composition of nitrogen (δ15N) from ancient air extracted from ice cores drilled at the Greenland ice sheet. The measured δ15N record of an ice core can be used as a paleothermometer due to the nearly constant isotopic composition of nitrogen in the atmosphere at orbital timescales changes only through firn processes [Severinghaus et. al. (1998); Mariotti (1983)]. To reconstruct the surface temperature for a special drilling site the use of firn models describing gas and temperature diffusion throughout the ice sheet is necessary. For this an existing firn densification and heat diffusion model [Schwander et. al. (1997)] is used. Thereby, a theoretical δ15N record is generated for different temperature and accumulation rate scenarios and compared with measurement data in terms of mean square error (MSE), which leads finally to an optimization problem, namely the finding of a minimal MSE. The goal of the presented study is a Matlab based automatization of this inverse modelling procedure. The crucial point hereby is to find the temperature and accumulation rate input time series which minimizes the MSE. For that, we follow two approaches. The first one is a Monte Carlo type input generator which varies each point in the input time series and calculates the MSE. Then the solutions that fulfil a given limit

  12. Phylogenetic tree construction based on 2D graphical representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Bo; Shan, Xinzhou; Zhu, Wen; Li, Renfa

    2006-04-01

    A new approach based on the two-dimensional (2D) graphical representation of the whole genome sequence [Bo Liao, Chem. Phys. Lett., 401(2005) 196.] is proposed to analyze the phylogenetic relationships of genomes. The evolutionary distances are obtained through measuring the differences among the 2D curves. The fuzzy theory is used to construct phylogenetic tree. The phylogenetic relationships of H5N1 avian influenza virus illustrate the utility of our approach.

  13. Generating a 2D Representation of a Complex Data Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Mark

    2006-01-01

    A computer program, designed to assist in the development and debugging of other software, generates a two-dimensional (2D) representation of a possibly complex n-dimensional (where n is an integer >2) data structure or abstract rank-n object in that other software. The nature of the 2D representation is such that it can be displayed on a non-graphical output device and distributed by non-graphical means.

  14. Anisotropic 2D Materials for Tunable Hyperbolic Plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Nemilentsau, Andrei; Low, Tony; Hanson, George

    2016-02-12

    Motivated by the recent emergence of a new class of anisotropic 2D materials, we examine their electromagnetic modes and demonstrate that a broad class of the materials can host highly directional hyperbolic plasmons. Their propagation direction can be manipulated on the spot by gate doping, enabling hyperbolic beam reflection, refraction, and bending. The realization of these natural 2D hyperbolic media opens up a new avenue in dynamic control of hyperbolic plasmons not possible in the 3D version.

  15. A simultaneous 2D/3D autostereo workstation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, Dennis; McGinnis, Bradley; Talandis, Jonas; Leigh, Jason; Peterka, Tom; Knoll, Aaron; Sumer, Aslihan; Papka, Michael; Jellinek, Julius

    2012-03-01

    We present a novel immersive workstation environment that scientists can use for 3D data exploration and as their everyday 2D computer monitor. Our implementation is based on an autostereoscopic dynamic parallax barrier 2D/3D display, interactive input devices, and a software infrastructure that allows client/server software modules to couple the workstation to scientists' visualization applications. This paper describes the hardware construction and calibration, software components, and a demonstration of our system in nanoscale materials science exploration.

  16. Comparison of numerical methods for 2D crystals under anisotropic surface free energy and through evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lolla, Madhuri Udayanjani

    In this dissertation first, we compute the equilibrium shapes of 2D crystals under anisotropic surface free energies. An equilibrium shape minimizes the total surface free energy. The governing equation in polar coordinates is a nonlinear ordinary differential equation. Two numerical methods, finite difference and the finite element are used and compared. We investigate the accuracy, order of convergence and efficiency of the two methods in computing the equilibrium shapes. Secondly, we consider the surface of the crystal evolving under surface diffusion and compute the final shape in the evolution which is the equilibrium shape. The surface diffusion equation in polar coordinates is a time-dependent nonlinear 4th order partial differential equation. Again we apply the two methods finite difference and finite element. The results are observed at different stages of evolution of the crystal for the isotropy case. Then we compare the accuracy, order of convergence and efficiency of the two methods.

  17. Simulating MEMS Chevron Actuator for Strain Engineering 2D Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vutukuru, Mounika; Christopher, Jason; Bishop, David; Swan, Anna

    2D materials pose an exciting paradigm shift in the world of electronics. These crystalline materials have demonstrated high electric and thermal conductivities and tensile strength, showing great potential as the new building blocks of basic electronic circuits. However, strain engineering 2D materials for novel devices remains a difficult experimental feat. We propose the integration of 2D materials with MEMS devices to investigate the strain dependence on material properties such as electrical and thermal conductivity, refractive index, mechanical elasticity, and band gap. MEMS Chevron actuators, provides the most accessible framework to study strain in 2D materials due to their high output force displacements for low input power. Here, we simulate Chevron actuators on COMSOL to optimize actuator design parameters and accurately capture the behavior of the devices while under the external force of a 2D material. Through stationary state analysis, we analyze the response of the device through IV characteristics, displacement and temperature curves. We conclude that the simulation precisely models the real-world device through experimental confirmation, proving that the integration of 2D materials with MEMS is a viable option for constructing novel strain engineered devices. The authors acknowledge support from NSF DMR1411008.

  18. Exciton quenching by diffusion of 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7',8,8'-tetra cyano quino dimethane and its consequences on joule heating and lifetime of organic light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Priyanka; Kumar, Arunandan; Giri, Lalat Indu; Dalai, Manas Kumar; Tuli, Suneet; Kamalasanan, M N; Srivastava, Ritu

    2013-10-01

    In this Letter, the effect of F(4)-TCNQ insertion at the anode/hole transport layer (HTL) interface was studied on joule heating and the lifetime of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Joule heating was found to reduce significantly (pixel temperature decrease by about 10 K at a current density of 40 mA/cm(2)) by this insertion. However, the lifetime was found to reduce significantly with a 1 nm thick F(4)-TCNQ layer, and it improved by increasing the thickness of this layer. Thermal diffusion of F(4)-TCNQ into HTL leads to F(4)-TCNQ ionization by charge transfer, and drift of these molecules into the emissive layer caused faster degradation of the OLEDs. This drift was found to reduce with an increase in the thickness of F(4)-TCNQ. PMID:24081070

  19. Boron diffusion in silicon devices

    DOEpatents

    Rohatgi, Ajeet; Kim, Dong Seop; Nakayashiki, Kenta; Rounsaville, Brian

    2010-09-07

    Disclosed are various embodiments that include a process, an arrangement, and an apparatus for boron diffusion in a wafer. In one representative embodiment, a process is provided in which a boric oxide solution is applied to a surface of the wafer. Thereafter, the wafer is subjected to a fast heat ramp-up associated with a first heating cycle that results in a release of an amount of boron for diffusion into the wafer.

  20. Molecular Dynamics implementation of BN2D or 'Mercedes Benz' water model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scukins, Arturs; Bardik, Vitaliy; Pavlov, Evgen; Nerukh, Dmitry

    2015-05-01

    Two-dimensional 'Mercedes Benz' (MB) or BN2D water model (Naim, 1971) is implemented in Molecular Dynamics. It is known that the MB model can capture abnormal properties of real water (high heat capacity, minima of pressure and isothermal compressibility, negative thermal expansion coefficient) (Silverstein et al., 1998). In this work formulas for calculating the thermodynamic, structural and dynamic properties in microcanonical (NVE) and isothermal-isobaric (NPT) ensembles for the model from Molecular Dynamics simulation are derived and verified against known Monte Carlo results. The convergence of the thermodynamic properties and the system's numerical stability are investigated. The results qualitatively reproduce the peculiarities of real water making the model a visually convenient tool that also requires less computational resources, thus allowing simulations of large (hydrodynamic scale) molecular systems. We provide the open source code written in C/C++ for the BN2D water model implementation using Molecular Dynamics.

  1. Use of the 'Precessions' process for prepolishing and correcting 2D & 2(1/2)D form.

    PubMed

    Walker, David D; Freeman, Richard; Morton, Roger; McCavana, Gerry; Beaucamp, Anthony

    2006-11-27

    The Precessions process polishes complex surfaces from the ground state preserving the ground-in form, and subsequently rectifies measured form errors. Our first paper introduced the technology and focused on the novel tooling. In this paper we describe the unique CNC machine tools and how they operate in polishing and correcting form. Experimental results demonstrate both the '2D' and '2(1/2)D' form-correction modes, as applied to aspheres with rotationally-symmetric target-form.

  2. Multifunctional Nanofluids with 2D Nanosheets for thermal management and tribological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taha Tijerina, Jose Jaime

    Conventional heat-transfer fluids such as water, ethylene glycol, standard oils and other lubricants are typically low-efficiency heat-transfer fluids. Thermal management plays a critical factor in many applications where these fluids can be used, such as in motors/engines, solar cells, biopharmaceuticals, fuel cells, high voltage power transmission systems, micro/nanoelectronics mechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS), and nuclear cooling among others. These insulating fluids require superb filler dispersion, high thermal conduction, and for certain applications as in electrical/electronic devices also electrical insulation. The miniaturization and high efficiency of electrical/electronic devices in these fields demand successful heat management and energy-efficient fluid-based heat-transfer systems. Recent advances in layered materials enable large scale synthesis of various two-dimensional (2D) structures. Some of these 2D materials are good choices as nanofillers in heat transfer fluids; mainly due to their inherent high thermal conductivity (TC) and high surface area available for thermal energy transport. Among various 2D-nanostructures, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and graphene (G) exhibit versatile properties such as outstanding TC, excellent mechanical stability, and remarkable chemical inertness. The following research, even though investigate various conventional fluids, will focus on dielectric insulating nanofluids (mineral oil -- MO) with significant thermal performance. It is presented the plan for synthesis and characterization of stable high-thermal conductivity nanofluids using 2D-nanostructures of h-BN, which will be further incorporated at diverse filler concentrations to conventional fluids for cooling applications, without compromising its electrical insulating property. For comparison, properties of h-BN based fluids are compared with conductive fillers such as graphene; where graphene has similar crystal structure of h-BN and also has similar bulk

  3. Optical design of wavelength selective CPVT system with 3D/2D hybrid concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, N.; Ijiro, T.; Yamada, N.; Kawaguchi, T.; Maemura, T.; Ohashi, H.

    2012-10-01

    Optical design of a concentrating photovoltaic/thermal (CPVT) system is carried out. Using wavelength-selective optics, the system demonstrates 3-D concentration onto a solar cell and 2-D concentration onto a thermal receiver. Characteristics of the two types of concentrator systems are examined with ray-tracing analysis. The first system is a glazed mirror-based concentrator system mounted on a 2-axis pedestal tracker. The size of the secondary optical element is minimized to decrease the cost of the system, and it has a wavelength-selective function for performing 3-D concentration onto a solar cell and 2-D concentration onto a thermal receiver. The second system is a non-glazed beamdown concentrator system containing parabolic mirrors in the lower part. The beam-down selective mirror performs 3-D concentration onto a solar cell placed above the beam-down selective mirror, and 2-D concentration down to a thermal receiver placed at the bottom level. The system is mounted on a two-axis carousel tracker. A parametric study is performed for those systems with different geometrical 2-D/3-D concentration ratios. Wavelength-selective optics such as hot/cold mirrors and spectrum-splitting technologies are taken into account in the analysis. Results show reduced heat load on the solar cell and increased total system efficiency compared to a non-selective CPV system. Requirements for the wavelength-selective properties are elucidated. It is also shown that the hybrid concept with 2-D concentration onto a thermal receiver and 3-D concentration onto a solar cell has an advantageous geometry because of the high total system efficiency and compatibility with the piping arrangement of the thermal receiver.

  4. A depth-averaged 2-D model of flow and sediment transport in coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Alejandro; Wu, Weiming; Beck, Tanya M.

    2016-11-01

    A depth-averaged 2-D model has been developed to simulate unsteady flow and nonuniform sediment transport in coastal waters. The current motion is computed by solving the phase-averaged 2-D shallow water flow equations reformulated in terms of total-flux velocity, accounting for the effects of wave radiation stresses and general diffusion or mixing induced by current, waves, and wave breaking. The cross-shore boundary conditions are specified by assuming fully developed longshore current and wave setup that are determined using the reduced 1-D momentum equations. A 2-D wave spectral transformation model is used to calculate the wave height, period, direction, and radiation stresses, and a surface wave roller model is adopted to consider the effects of surface roller on the nearshore currents. The nonequilibrium transport of nonuniform total-load sediment is simulated, considering sediment entrainment by current and waves, the lag of sediment transport relative to the flow, and the hiding and exposure effect of nonuniform bed material. The flow and sediment transport equations are solved using an implicit finite volume method on a variety of meshes including nonuniform rectangular, telescoping (quadtree) rectangular, and hybrid triangular/quadrilateral meshes. The flow and wave models are integrated through a carefully designed steering process. The model has been tested in three field cases, showing generally good performance.

  5. Nonlinear 2D-IR spectroscopy as a tool to study peptide dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamm, Peter

    2000-03-01

    The structure of bio-macromolecules (peptides, proteins, enzymes and DNA) crucially defines their function and it is the enormous progress in structure-sensitive methods (NMR, x-ray) which has lead to an extremely detailed microscopic understanding of reactions in biological systems. Our knowledge on the dynamics of these structures, which presumably is as important for the function as the structure itself, is essentially based on computer simulations with essentially no or very indirect experimental feedback. Nonlinear 2D vibrational spectroscopy (2D-IR) on the amide I mode of small globular peptides has been demonstrated recently and a detailed relationship between the static 3D structure and the strength of cross peaks has been established (in analogy to COSY in 2D-NMR spectroscopy). An extension of this technique allows to observe equilibrium fluctuations of model helices by incorporating an additional population period (i.e. 'mixing time'), giving rise to spectral diffusion of the diagonal peaks and incoherent population transfer between excitonic states (the latter being equivalent to the nuclear Overhauser effect, NOESY). In contrast to spin transitions, however, the processes are not in the 'motional narrowing limit' (i. e. τ_c>=T_2) so that the timescales of protein fluctuation can be measured directly on a picosecond timescale and in a site specific manner.

  6. Diffusion MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuyama, Hidenao

    Recent advances of magnetic resonance imaging have been described, especially stressed on the diffusion sequences. We have recently applied the diffusion sequence to functional brain imaging, and found the appropriate results. In addition to the neurosciences fields, diffusion weighted images have improved the accuracies of clinical diagnosis depending upon magnetic resonance images in stroke as well as inflammations.

  7. A 2-D DNS investigation of extinction and reignition dynamics in nonpremixed flame-vortex interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Venugopal, Rishikesh; Abraham, John

    2008-05-15

    Two-dimensional (2-D) DNS investigations of extinction and reignition dynamics during interactions of laminar nonpremixed flames with counterrotating vortex pairs are performed. The length and velocity scales chosen for the vortices are representative of those in the near fields of high-Reynolds-number jets such as those occurring in Diesel engines. The governing equations are solved with sixth-order spatial discretization and fourth-order time integration. Chemistry is modeled as an irreversible single-step reaction. Local extinction along the symmetry axis, followed by reignition, is observed. The extinction is characterized by strong unsteady effects, which are captured well by 1-D transient diffusion flamelet libraries, provided the time-history of the instantaneous scalar dissipation rate is taken into account. On the other hand, reignition is essentially a 2-D phenomenon involving flame-flame interactions, which are favored for smaller vortices and increasing flame curvature. The effects of unsteadiness and curvature on extinction and reignition are carefully assessed through parametric studies involving a range of vortex and flame characteristics. The interaction outcomes are summarized on Reynolds-Damkoehler number (Re-Da) diagrams, which show the combined effects of unsteadiness and curvature on extinction and reignition. The implications of the observed interaction outcomes for turbulent combustion modeling in the near fields of jet diffusion flames are discussed. (author)

  8. Exact solution of an anisotropic 2D random walk model with strong memory correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cressoni, J. C.; Viswanathan, G. M.; da Silva, M. A. A.

    2013-12-01

    Over the last decade, there has been progress in understanding one-dimensional non-Markovian processes via analytic, sometimes exact, solutions. The extension of these ideas and methods to two and higher dimensions is challenging. We report the first exactly solvable two-dimensional (2D) non-Markovian random walk model belonging to the family of the elephant random walk model. In contrast to Lévy walks or fractional Brownian motion, such models incorporate memory effects by keeping an explicit history of the random walk trajectory. We study a memory driven 2D random walk with correlated memory and stops, i.e. pauses in motion. The model has an inherent anisotropy with consequences for its diffusive properties, thereby mixing the dominant regime along one dimension with a subdiffusive walk along a perpendicular dimension. The anomalous diffusion regimes are fully characterized by an exact determination of the Hurst exponent. We discuss the remarkably rich phase diagram, as well as several possible combinations of the independent walks in both directions. The relationship between the exponents of the first and second moments is also unveiled.

  9. In situ fluid typing and quantification with 1D and 2D NMR logging.

    PubMed

    Sun, Boqin

    2007-05-01

    In situ nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) fluid typing has recently gained momentum due to data acquisition and inversion algorithm enhancement of NMR logging tools. T(2) distributions derived from NMR logging contain information on bulk fluids and pore size distributions. However, the accuracy of fluid typing is greatly overshadowed by the overlap between T(2) peaks arising from different fluids with similar apparent T(2) relaxation times. Nevertheless, the shapes of T(2) distributions from different fluid components are often different and can be predetermined. Inversion with predetermined T(2) distributions allows us to perform fluid component decomposition to yield individual fluid volume ratios. Another effective method for in situ fluid typing is two-dimensional (2D) NMR logging, which results in proton population distribution as a function of T(2) relaxation time and fluid diffusion coefficient (or T(1) relaxation time). Since diffusion coefficients (or T(1) relaxation time) for different fluid components can be very different, it is relatively easy to separate oil (especially heavy oil) from water signal in a 2D NMR map and to perform accurate fluid typing. Combining NMR logging with resistivity and/or neutron/density logs provides a third method for in situ fluid typing. We shall describe these techniques with field examples. PMID:17466778

  10. 2D-patterning of self-assembled silver nanoisland films.

    PubMed

    Chervinskii, Semen; Reduto, Igor; Kamenskii, Alexander; Mukhin, Ivan S; Lipovskii, Andrey A

    2016-01-01

    The paper is dedicated to the recently developed by the authors technique of silver nanoisland growth, allowing self-arrangement of 2D-patterns of nanoislands. The technique employs silver out-diffusion from ion-exchanged glass in the course of annealing in hydrogen. To modify the silver ion distribution in the exchanged soda-lime glass we included the thermal poling of the ion-exchanged glass with a profiled electrode as an intermediate stage of the process. The resulting consequence consists of three steps: (i) during the ion exchange of the glass in the AgxNa1-xNO3 (x = 0.01-0.15) melt we enrich the subsurface layer of the glass with silver ions; (ii) under the thermal poling, the electric field displaces these ions deeper into the glass under the 2D profiled anodic electrode, the displacement is smaller under the hollows in the electrode where the intensity of the field is minimal; (iii) annealing in a reducing atmosphere of hydrogen results in silver out-diffusion only in the regions corresponding to the electrode hollows, as a result silver forms nanoislands following the shape of the electrode. Varying the electrode and mode of processing allows governing the nanoisland size distribution and self-arrangement of the isolated single nanoislands, pairs, triples or groups of several nanoislands-so-called plasmonic molecules. PMID:26765367

  11. 2D nanostructures for water purification: graphene and beyond.

    PubMed

    Dervin, Saoirse; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; Pillai, Suresh C

    2016-08-18

    Owing to their atomically thin structure, large surface area and mechanical strength, 2D nanoporous materials are considered to be suitable alternatives for existing desalination and water purification membrane materials. Recent progress in the development of nanoporous graphene based materials has generated enormous potential for water purification technologies. Progress in the development of nanoporous graphene and graphene oxide (GO) membranes, the mechanism of graphene molecular sieve action, structural design, hydrophilic nature, mechanical strength and antifouling properties and the principal challenges associated with nanopore generation are discussed in detail. Subsequently, the recent applications and performance of newly developed 2D materials such as 2D boron nitride (BN) nanosheets, graphyne, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), tungsten chalcogenides (WS2) and titanium carbide (Ti3C2Tx) are highlighted. In addition, the challenges affecting 2D nanostructures for water purification are highlighted and their applications in the water purification industry are discussed. Though only a few 2D materials have been explored so far for water treatment applications, this emerging field of research is set to attract a great deal of attention in the near future.

  12. Ultrafast 2D-IR spectroelectrochemistry of flavin mononucleotide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Khoury, Youssef; Van Wilderen, Luuk J. G. W.; Bredenbeck, Jens

    2015-06-01

    We demonstrate the coupling of ultrafast two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy to electrochemistry in solution and apply it to flavin mononucleotide, an important cofactor of redox proteins. For this purpose, we designed a spectroelectrochemical cell optimized for 2D-IR measurements in reflection and measured the time-dependent 2D-IR spectra of the oxidized and reduced forms of flavin mononucleotide. The data show anharmonic coupling and vibrational energy transfer between different vibrational modes in the two redox species. Such information is inaccessible with redox-controlled steady-state FTIR spectroscopy. The wide range of applications offered by 2D-IR spectroscopy, such as sub-picosecond structure determination, IR band assignment via energy transfer, disentangling reaction mixtures through band connectivity in the 2D spectra, and the measurement of solvation dynamics and chemical exchange can now be explored under controlled redox potential. The development of this technique furthermore opens new horizons for studying the dynamics of redox proteins.

  13. Ultrafast 2D-IR spectroelectrochemistry of flavin mononucleotide.

    PubMed

    El Khoury, Youssef; Van Wilderen, Luuk J G W; Bredenbeck, Jens

    2015-06-01

    We demonstrate the coupling of ultrafast two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy to electrochemistry in solution and apply it to flavin mononucleotide, an important cofactor of redox proteins. For this purpose, we designed a spectroelectrochemical cell optimized for 2D-IR measurements in reflection and measured the time-dependent 2D-IR spectra of the oxidized and reduced forms of flavin mononucleotide. The data show anharmonic coupling and vibrational energy transfer between different vibrational modes in the two redox species. Such information is inaccessible with redox-controlled steady-state FTIR spectroscopy. The wide range of applications offered by 2D-IR spectroscopy, such as sub-picosecond structure determination, IR band assignment via energy transfer, disentangling reaction mixtures through band connectivity in the 2D spectra, and the measurement of solvation dynamics and chemical exchange can now be explored under controlled redox potential. The development of this technique furthermore opens new horizons for studying the dynamics of redox proteins.

  14. Mean flow and anisotropic cascades in decaying 2D turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chien-Chia; Cerbus, Rory; Gioia, Gustavo; Chakraborty, Pinaki

    2015-11-01

    Many large-scale atmospheric and oceanic flows are decaying 2D turbulent flows embedded in a non-uniform mean flow. Despite its importance for large-scale weather systems, the affect of non-uniform mean flows on decaying 2D turbulence remains unknown. In the absence of mean flow it is well known that decaying 2D turbulent flows exhibit the enstrophy cascade. More generally, for any 2D turbulent flow, all computational, experimental and field data amassed to date indicate that the spectrum of longitudinal and transverse velocity fluctuations correspond to the same cascade, signifying isotropy of cascades. Here we report experiments on decaying 2D turbulence in soap films with a non-uniform mean flow. We find that the flow transitions from the usual isotropic enstrophy cascade to a series of unusual and, to our knowledge, never before observed or predicted, anisotropic cascades where the longitudinal and transverse spectra are mutually independent. We discuss implications of our results for decaying geophysical turbulence.

  15. Sparse radar imaging using 2D compressed sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Qingkai; Liu, Yang; Chen, Zengping; Su, Shaoying

    2014-10-01

    Radar imaging is an ill-posed linear inverse problem and compressed sensing (CS) has been proved to have tremendous potential in this field. This paper surveys the theory of radar imaging and a conclusion is drawn that the processing of ISAR imaging can be denoted mathematically as a problem of 2D sparse decomposition. Based on CS, we propose a novel measuring strategy for ISAR imaging radar and utilize random sub-sampling in both range and azimuth dimensions, which will reduce the amount of sampling data tremendously. In order to handle 2D reconstructing problem, the ordinary solution is converting the 2D problem into 1D by Kronecker product, which will increase the size of dictionary and computational cost sharply. In this paper, we introduce the 2D-SL0 algorithm into the reconstruction of imaging. It is proved that 2D-SL0 can achieve equivalent result as other 1D reconstructing methods, but the computational complexity and memory usage is reduced significantly. Moreover, we will state the results of simulating experiments and prove the effectiveness and feasibility of our method.

  16. Ultrafast 2D NMR: an emerging tool in analytical spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Giraudeau, Patrick; Frydman, Lucio

    2014-01-01

    Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) spectroscopy is widely used in chemical and biochemical analyses. Multidimensional NMR is also witnessing increased use in quantitative and metabolic screening applications. Conventional 2D NMR experiments, however, are affected by inherently long acquisition durations, arising from their need to sample the frequencies involved along their indirect domains in an incremented, scan-by-scan nature. A decade ago, a so-called ultrafast (UF) approach was proposed, capable of delivering arbitrary 2D NMR spectra involving any kind of homo- or heteronuclear correlation, in a single scan. During the intervening years, the performance of this subsecond 2D NMR methodology has been greatly improved, and UF 2D NMR is rapidly becoming a powerful analytical tool experiencing an expanded scope of applications. This review summarizes the principles and main developments that have contributed to the success of this approach and focuses on applications that have been recently demonstrated in various areas of analytical chemistry--from the real-time monitoring of chemical and biochemical processes, to extensions in hyphenated techniques and in quantitative applications. PMID:25014342

  17. 2D nanostructures for water purification: graphene and beyond.

    PubMed

    Dervin, Saoirse; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; Pillai, Suresh C

    2016-08-18

    Owing to their atomically thin structure, large surface area and mechanical strength, 2D nanoporous materials are considered to be suitable alternatives for existing desalination and water purification membrane materials. Recent progress in the development of nanoporous graphene based materials has generated enormous potential for water purification technologies. Progress in the development of nanoporous graphene and graphene oxide (GO) membranes, the mechanism of graphene molecular sieve action, structural design, hydrophilic nature, mechanical strength and antifouling properties and the principal challenges associated with nanopore generation are discussed in detail. Subsequently, the recent applications and performance of newly developed 2D materials such as 2D boron nitride (BN) nanosheets, graphyne, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), tungsten chalcogenides (WS2) and titanium carbide (Ti3C2Tx) are highlighted. In addition, the challenges affecting 2D nanostructures for water purification are highlighted and their applications in the water purification industry are discussed. Though only a few 2D materials have been explored so far for water treatment applications, this emerging field of research is set to attract a great deal of attention in the near future. PMID:27506268

  18. Graphene based 2D-materials for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaniselvam, Thangavelu; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2015-09-01

    Ever-increasing energy demands and the depletion of fossil fuels are compelling humanity toward the development of suitable electrochemical energy conversion and storage devices to attain a more sustainable society with adequate renewable energy and zero environmental pollution. In this regard, supercapacitors are being contemplated as potential energy storage devices to afford cleaner, environmentally friendly energy. Recently, a great deal of attention has been paid to two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, including 2D graphene and its inorganic analogues (transition metal double layer hydroxides, chalcogenides, etc), as potential electrodes for the development of supercapacitors with high electrochemical performance. This review provides an overview of the recent progress in using these graphene-based 2D materials as potential electrodes for supercapacitors. In addition, future research trends including notable challenges and opportunities are also discussed.

  19. Perception-based reversible watermarking for 2D vector maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Men, Chaoguang; Cao, Liujuan; Li, Xiang

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents an effective and reversible watermarking approach for digital copyright protection of 2D-vector maps. To ensure that the embedded watermark is insensitive for human perception, we only select the noise non-sensitive regions for watermark embedding by estimating vertex density within each polyline. To ensure the exact recovery of original 2D-vector map after watermark extraction, we introduce a new reversible watermarking scheme based on reversible high-frequency wavelet coefficients modification. Within the former-selected non-sensitive regions, our watermarking operates on the lower-order vertex coordinate decimals with integer wavelet transform. Such operation further reduces the visual distortion caused by watermark embedding. We have validated the effectiveness of our scheme on our real-world city river/building 2D-vector maps. We give extensive experimental comparisons with state-of-the-art methods, including embedding capability, invisibility, and robustness over watermark attacking.

  20. Secretory pathways generating immunosuppressive NKG2D ligands

    PubMed Central

    Baragaño Raneros, Aroa; Suarez-Álvarez, Beatriz; López-Larrea, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Natural Killer Group 2 member D (NKG2D) activating receptor, present on the surface of various immune cells, plays an important role in activating the anticancer immune response by their interaction with stress-inducible NKG2D ligands (NKG2DL) on transformed cells. However, cancer cells have developed numerous mechanisms to evade the immune system via the downregulation of NKG2DL from the cell surface, including the release of NKG2DL from the cell surface in a soluble form. Here, we review the mechanisms involved in the production of soluble NKG2DL (sNKG2DL) and the potential therapeutic strategies aiming to block the release of these immunosuppressive ligands. Therapeutically enabling the NKG2D-NKG2DL interaction would promote immunorecognition of malignant cells, thus abrogating disease progression. PMID:25050215