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Sample records for 2-d mhd numerical

  1. On Regularity Criteria for the 2D Generalized MHD System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zaihong; Wang, Yanan; Zhou, Yong

    2016-06-01

    This paper deals with the problem of regularity criteria for the 2D generalized MHD system with fractional dissipative terms {-Λ^{2α}u} for the velocity field and {-Λ^{2β}b} for the magnetic field respectively. Various regularity criteria are established to guarantee smoothness of solutions. It turns out that our regularity criteria imply previous global existence results naturally.

  2. Numerical MHD codes for modeling astrophysical flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koldoba, A. V.; Ustyugova, G. V.; Lii, P. S.; Comins, M. L.; Dyda, S.; Romanova, M. M.; Lovelace, R. V. E.

    2016-05-01

    We describe a Godunov-type magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code based on the Miyoshi and Kusano (2005) solver which can be used to solve various astrophysical hydrodynamic and MHD problems. The energy equation is in the form of entropy conservation. The code has been implemented on several different coordinate systems: 2.5D axisymmetric cylindrical coordinates, 2D Cartesian coordinates, 2D plane polar coordinates, and fully 3D cylindrical coordinates. Viscosity and diffusivity are implemented in the code to control the accretion rate in the disk and the rate of penetration of the disk matter through the magnetic field lines. The code has been utilized for the numerical investigations of a number of different astrophysical problems, several examples of which are shown.

  3. Numerical linearized MHD model of flapping oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korovinskiy, D. B.; Ivanov, I. B.; Semenov, V. S.; Erkaev, N. V.; Kiehas, S. A.

    2016-06-01

    Kink-like magnetotail flapping oscillations in a Harris-like current sheet with earthward growing normal magnetic field component Bz are studied by means of time-dependent 2D linearized MHD numerical simulations. The dispersion relation and two-dimensional eigenfunctions are obtained. The results are compared with analytical estimates of the double-gradient model, which are found to be reliable for configurations with small Bz up to values ˜ 0.05 of the lobe magnetic field. Coupled with previous results, present simulations confirm that the earthward/tailward growth direction of the Bz component acts as a switch between stable/unstable regimes of the flapping mode, while the mode dispersion curve is the same in both cases. It is confirmed that flapping oscillations may be triggered by a simple Gaussian initial perturbation of the Vz velocity.

  4. 2-D skin-current toroidal-MHD-equilibrium code

    SciTech Connect

    Feinberg, B.; Niland, R.A.; Coonrod, J.; Levine, M.A.

    1982-09-01

    A two-dimensional, toroidal, ideal MHD skin-current equilibrium computer code is described. The code is suitable for interactive implementation on a minicomptuer. Some examples of the use of the code for design and interpretation of toroidal cusp experiments are presented.

  5. Numerical Evaluation of 2D Ground States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolkovska, Natalia

    2016-02-01

    A ground state is defined as the positive radial solution of the multidimensional nonlinear problem \\varepsilon propto k_ bot 1 - ξ with the function f being either f(u) =a|u|p-1u or f(u) =a|u|pu+b|u|2pu. The numerical evaluation of ground states is based on the shooting method applied to an equivalent dynamical system. A combination of fourth order Runge-Kutta method and Hermite extrapolation formula is applied to solving the resulting initial value problem. The efficiency of this procedure is demonstrated in the 1D case, where the maximal difference between the exact and numerical solution is ≈ 10-11 for a discretization step 0:00025. As a major application, we evaluate numerically the critical energy constant. This constant is defined as a functional of the ground state and is used in the study of the 2D Boussinesq equations.

  6. Atmospheric Outflows from Hot Jupiters: 2D MHD Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uribe, A.; Matsakos, T.; Konigl, A.

    2015-01-01

    Recent observations of stellar hydrogen Ly-α line absorption during transits of some hot Jupiter exoplanets suggest the presence of a dense, fast wind that is blowing from planetary atmosphere tep{2003Natur.422..143V,2007ApJ...671L..61B}. Modeling efforts include 1D hydrodynamic models tep{2009ApJ...693...23M,2004Icar..170..167Y,2007P&SS...55.1426G} and 2D isothermal magnetized wind models tep{2014arXiv1404.5817T}, among others. In this work, we model the 2D structure of the irradiated upper atmosphere of a hot Jupiter planet and its interaction with the planetary magnetic field. We calculate self consistently the heating by stellar UV radiation and the cooling of the atmosphere by Ly-α emission. We solve for the ionization structure assuming a 100% hydrogen atmosphere, accounting for the radiative ionization, recombination and advection of the gas. We show the effect of stellar tides and planetary magnetic field on the planet outflow and calculate the Ly-α transmission spectra of the resulting atmosphere.

  7. Global small solutions of 2-D incompressible MHD system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Fanghua; Xu, Li; Zhang, Ping

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we consider the global wellposedness of 2-D incompressible magneto-hydrodynamical system with smooth initial data which is close to some non-trivial steady state. It is a coupled system between the Navier-Stokes equations and a free transport equation with a universal nonlinear coupling structure. The main difficulty of the proof lies in exploring the dissipative mechanism of the system. To achieve this and to avoid the difficulty of propagating anisotropic regularity for the free transport equation, we first reformulate our system (1.1) in the Lagrangian coordinates (2.19). Then we employ anisotropic Littlewood-Paley analysis to establish the key a prioriL1 (R+ ; Lip (R2)) estimate for the Lagrangian velocity field Yt. With this estimate, we can prove the global wellposedness of (2.19) with smooth and small initial data by using the energy method. We emphasize that the algebraic structure of (2.19) is crucial for the proofs to work. The global wellposedness of the original system (1.1) then follows by a suitable change of variables.

  8. Numerical simulation of the operation of a MHD generator in transient regimes in MHD power stations

    SciTech Connect

    Bityurin, V.A.; Ivanov, P.P.; Koryagina, G.M.; Lyubimov, G.A.; Medin, S.A.; Morozov, G.N.; Prokop, A.S.

    1982-09-01

    Transient regimes of a MHD generator operating in combination with equipment in a MHD power station are analzyed with the help of a numerical model. The MHD generator, whose flow-through part consists of a nozzle, a channel, and a diffuser, is regulated by changing the flow rate and the load. Three types of MHD channels are studied: Faraday supersonic and subsonic, and diagonal supersonic. Their characteristics are presented and the efficiency of the MHD power station under nonrated regimes is determined. It is established that a MHD generator and the MHD power station as a whole admit quite efficient and deep regulation of the change in the flow rate of the working body.

  9. A pressure-based high resolution numerical method for resistive MHD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xisto, Carlos M.; Páscoa, José C.; Oliveira, Paulo J.

    2014-10-01

    In the paper we describe in detail a numerical method for the resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations involving viscous flow and report the results of application to a number of typical MHD test cases. The method is of the finite volume type but mixes aspects of pressure-correction and density based solvers; the algorithm arrangement is patterned on the well-known PISO algorithm, which is a pressure method, while the flux computation makes use of the AUSM-MHD scheme, which originates from density based methods. Five groups of test cases are addressed to verify and validate the method. We start with two resistive MHD cases, namely the Shercliff and Hunt flow problems, which are intended to validate the method for low-speed resistive MHD flows. The remaining three test cases, namely the cloud-shock interaction, the MHD rotor and the MHD blast wave, are standard 2D ideal MHD problems that serve to validate the method under high-speed flow and complex interaction of MHD shocks. Finally, we demonstrate the method with a more complex application problem, and discuss results of simulation for a quasi-bi-dimensional self-field magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster, for which we study the effect of cathode length upon the electromagnetic nozzle performance.

  10. Shear-induced instability and arch filament eruption - A magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.; Song, M. T.; Martens, P. C. H.; Dryer, M.

    1991-01-01

    A situation wherein a bipolar magnetic field embedded in a stratified solar atmosphere undergoes symmetrical shear motion at the footpoints is investigated via a 2D (nonplanar) MHD simulation. It was found that the vertical plasma flow velocities grow exponentially, leading to a new type of global MHD instability. The growth rate increases almost linearly until it reaches the same order of magnitude as the Alfven speed. Then a nonlinear MHD instability occurs beyond this point. It was found that the central loops are pinched by opposing Lorentz forces, and the outer closed loops stretch upward with the vertically-rising mass flow. The nonlinear dynamical shearing instability is illustrated by a numerical example that is given for three different values of the plasma beta that span several orders of magnitude.

  11. Numerical study of unsteady processes in a Faraday MHD generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradova, G. N.; Panchenko, V. P.

    1981-07-01

    A numerical study is presented on the unsteady processes occurring in a Faraday MHD generator with a high power-conversion efficiency. A supersonic MHD generator operating with an equilibrium plasma and designed to convert energy in a system using a thermonuclear reactor is considered, and the steady operating modes are established for cases when an ohmic load is connected, disconnected, or reduced. A magnetic field is assumed to be generated by a suitable profiling of the external magnetic field, and the working medium is modeled by an ideal gas. Partial differential equations are solved numerically by using a central difference predictor-corrector scheme. The study can be applied to problems (e.g., transient times, nominal parameter maximal values and rates of change, methods of regulating the generator and switching it on and off) arising during the design of MHD generators.

  12. The Biermann catastrophe of numerical MHD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graziani, C.; Tzeferacos, P.; Lee, D.; Lamb, D. Q.; Weide, K.; Fatenejad, M.; Miller, J.

    2016-05-01

    The Biermann Battery effect is frequently invoked in cosmic magnetogenesis and studied in High-Energy Density laboratory physics experiments. Unfortunately, direct implementation of the Biermann effect in MHD codes is known to produce unphysical magnetic fields at shocks whose value does not converge with resolution. We show that this convergence breakdown is due to naive discretization, which fails to account for the fact that discretized irrotational vector fields have spurious solenoidal components that grow without bound near a discontinuity. We show that careful consideration of the kinetics of ion viscous shocks leads to a formulation of the Biermann effect that gives rise to a convergent algorithm. We note a novel physical effect a resistive magnetic precursor in which Biermann-generated field in the shock “leaks” resistively upstream. The effect appears to be potentially observable in experiments at laser facilities.

  13. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modelling of solar active phenomena via numerical methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    1988-01-01

    Numerical ideal MHD models for the study of solar active phenomena are summarized. Particular attention is given to the following physical phenomena: (1) local heating of a coronal loop in an isothermal and stratified atmosphere, and (2) the coronal dynamic responses due to magnetic field movement. The results suggest that local heating of a magnetic loop will lead to the enhancement of the density of the neighboring loops through MHD wave compression. It is noted that field lines can be pinched off and may form a self-contained magnetized plasma blob that may move outward into interplanetary space.

  14. 2D numerical modelling of meandering channel formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    XIAO, Y.; ZHOU, G.; YANG, F. S.

    2016-03-01

    A 2D depth-averaged model for hydrodynamic sediment transport and river morphological adjustment was established. The sediment transport submodel takes into account the influence of non-uniform sediment with bed surface armoring and considers the impact of secondary flow in the direction of bed-load transport and transverse slope of the river bed. The bank erosion submodel incorporates a simple simulation method for updating bank geometry during either degradational or aggradational bed evolution. Comparison of the results obtained by the extended model with experimental and field data, and numerical predictions validate that the proposed model can simulate grain sorting in river bends and duplicate the characteristics of meandering river and its development. The results illustrate that by using its control factors, the improved numerical model can be applied to simulate channel evolution under different scenarios and improve understanding of patterning processes.

  15. Numerical MHD modeling of fast CME shocks with a dimple.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sterck, H.

    SMM/Coronagraph and SOHO/LASCO observations show that some fast CMEs in the corona with propagation speed estimated to be slightly above the Alfvén speed, have bright fronts that are flattened or contain a concave-outward dimple. Often these CMEs show traces of post shock structure and some show an apparent double-loop structure. It has been pointed out that ideal MHD shock theory does not allow a simple concave-inward fast shock solution to exist in this parameter regime. Numerical ideal MHD simulations are presented to show that the shock forming in this parameter regime has complicated multiple structures. The shock front is composed of fast and intermediate shock parts, resulting in a shock surface with a concave outward dimple. This shock front interacts with shear layers and additional shocks in the downstram part of the flow. A slow switch-off shock trailing the leading shock front in a distinct V-shape with depleted density, causes a definite double-loop appearance. This flow contains most of the possible MHD discontinuities and some very particular features, like slow switch-off shocks, intermediate shocks, and hydrodynamic and intermediate compound shocks.

  16. Numerical modeling of seismogram envelopes in 2-D random media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fehler, Michael

    2002-11-01

    Several portions of seismograms recorded from regional earthquakes cannot be easily explained as resulting from waves propagating along deterministic paths within the Earth. For example, seismic coda, which is the tail portion of the seismogram of an earthquake recorded at distances of less than 100 km, is considered as resulting from waves that are multiply scattered from random heterogeneities in the Earth's lithosphere. At greater distances, observations that the duration of the initial arriving wave packet is much longer than the source-time duration is explained as being due to multiple forward scattering along the path between the source and the receiver. To investigate these phenomena, we use a finite difference method to numerically simulate 2-D scalar-waves that propagate through random media characterized by a von Karman autocorrelation function. Such media are considered to be appropriate models for the random component of the structure of the Earth's lithosphere. We investigate the characteristics of the resulting wavefields and compare them with those of observed seismograms.

  17. Numerical Analysis of MHD Accelerator with Non-Equilibrium Air Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anwari, M.; H. Qazi, H.; Sukarsan; Harada, N.

    2012-12-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accelerator is proposed as a next generation propulsion system. It can be used to increase the performance of a propulsion system. The objective of this study is to investigate the performance of MHD accelerator using non-equilibrium air plasma as working gas. In this study, the fundamental performance of MHD accelerator such as flow performance and electrical performance is evaluated at different levels of applied magnetic field using 1-D numerical simulation. The numerical simulation is developed based on a set of differential equations with MHD approximation. To solve this set of differential equations the MacCormack scheme is used. A specified channel designed and developed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Centre is used in the numerical simulation. The composition of the simulated air plasma consists of seven species, namely, N2, N, O2, O, NO, NO+, and e-. The performance of the non-equilibrium MHD accelerator is also compared with the equilibrium MHD accelerator.

  18. MHD micropumping of power-law fluids: A numerical solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghaddam, Saied

    2013-02-01

    The performance of MHD micropumps is studied numerically assuming that the viscosity of the fluid is shear-dependent. Using power-law model to represent the fluid of interest, the effect of power-law exponent, N, is investigated on the volumetric flow rate in a rectangular channel. Assuming that the flow is laminar, incompressible, two-dimensional, but (approximately) unidirectional, finite difference method (FDM) is used to solve the governing equations. It is found that shear-thinning fluids provide a larger flow rate as compared to Newtonian fluids provided that the Hartmann number is above a critical value. There exists also an optimum Hartmann number (which is larger than the critical Hartmann number) at which the flow rate is maximum. The power-law exponent, N, strongly affects the optimum geometry depending on the Hartmann number being smaller or larger than the critical Hartmann number.

  19. Global existence and uniqueness theorem to 2-D incompressible non-resistive MHD system with non-equilibrium background magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Cuili; Zhang, Ting

    2016-09-01

    In this article, we consider the global existence and uniqueness of the solution to the 2D incompressible non-resistive MHD system with non-equilibrium background magnetic field. Our result implies that a strong enough non-equilibrium background magnetic field will guarantee the stability of the nonlinear MHD system. Beside the classical energy method, the interpolation inequalities and the algebraic structure of the equations coming from the incompressibility of the fluid are crucial in our arguments.

  20. 2D Radiation MHD K-shell Modeling of Single Wire Array Stainless Steel Experiments on the Z Machine

    SciTech Connect

    Thornhill, J. W.; Giuliani, J. L.; Apruzese, J. P.; Chong, Y. K.; Davis, J.; Dasgupta, A.; Whitney, K. G.; Clark, R. W.; Jones, B.; Coverdale, C. A.; Ampleford, D. J.; Cuneo, M. E.; Deeney, C.

    2009-01-21

    Many physical effects can produce unstable plasma behavior that affect K-shell emission from arrays. Such effects include: asymmetry in the initial density profile, asymmetry in power flow, thermal conduction at the boundaries, and non-uniform wire ablation. Here we consider how asymmetry in the radiation field also contributes to the generation of multidimensional plasma behavior that affects K-shell power and yield. To model this radiation asymmetry, we have incorporated into the MACH2 r-z MHD code a self-consistent calculation of the non-LTE population kinetics based on radiation transport using multi-dimensional ray tracing. Such methodology is necessary for modeling the enhanced radiative cooling that occurs at the anode and cathode ends of the pinch during the run-in phase of the implosion. This enhanced radiative cooling is due to reduced optical depth at these locations producing an asymmetric flow of radiative energy that leads to substantial disruption of large initial diameter (>5 cm) pinches and drives 1D into 2D fluid (i.e., Rayleigh-Taylor like) flows. The impact of this 2D behavior on K-shell power and yield is investigated by comparing 1D and 2D model results with data obtained from a series of single wire array stainless steel experiments performed on the Z generator.

  1. First results from ideal 2-D MHD reconstruction: magnetopause reconnection event seen by Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teh, W.-L.; Ã-. Sonnerup, B. U.

    2008-09-01

    We have applied a new reconstruction method (Sonnerup and Teh, 2008), based on the ideal single-fluid MHD equations in a steady-state, two-dimensional geometry, to a reconnection event observed by the Cluster-3 (C3) spacecraft on 5 July 2001, 06:23 UT, at the dawn-side Northern-Hemisphere magnetopause. The event has been previously studied by use of Grad-Shafranov (GS) reconstruction, performed in the deHoffmann-Teller frame, and using the assumption that the flow effects were either negligible or the flow was aligned with the magnetic field. Our new method allows the reconstruction to be performed in the frame of reference moving with the reconnection site (the X-line). In the event studied, this motion is tailward/equatorward at 140 km/s. The principal result of the study is that the new method functions well, generating a magnetic field map that is qualitatively similar to those obtained in the earlier GS-based reconstructions but now includes the reconnection site itself. In comparison with the earlier map by Hasegawa et al. (2004), our new map has a slightly improved ability (cc=0.979 versus cc=0.975) to predict the fields measured by the other three Cluster spacecraft, at distances from C3 ranging from 2132 km (C1) to 2646 km (C4). The new field map indicates the presence of a magnetic X-point, located some 5300 km tailward/equatorward of C3 at the time of its traversal of the magnetopause. In the immediate vicinity of the X-point, the ideal-MHD assumption breaks down, i.e. resistive and/or other effects should be included. We have circumvented this problem by an ad-hoc procedure in which we allow the axial part of convection electric field to be non-constant near the reconnection site. The new reconstruction method also provides a map of the velocity field, in which the inflow into the wedge of reconnected field lines and the plasma jet within it can be seen, and maps of the electric potential and of the electric current distribution. Even though the

  2. Numerical study of 1-D, 3-vector component, thermally-conductive MHD solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, S.; Wu, S. T.; Dryer, M.

    1993-01-01

    In the present study, transient, 1-dimensional, 3-vector component MHD equations are used to simulate steady and unsteady, thermally conductive MHD solar wind expansions between the solar surface and 1 AU (astronomical unit). A variant of SIMPLE numerical method was used to integrate the equations. Steady state solar wind properties exhibit qualitatively similar behavior with the known Weber-Davies Solutions. Generation of Alfven shock, in addition to the slow and fast MHD shocks, was attempted by the boundary perturbations at the solar surface. Property changes through the disturbance were positively correlated with the fast and slow MHD shocks. Alfven shock was, however, not present in the present simulations.

  3. A Numerical Study of Resistivity and Hall Effects for a Compressible MHD Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, H. C.; Sjogreen, B.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of resistive, Hall, and viscous terms on the flow structure compared with compressible ideal MHD is studied numerically for a one-fluid non-ideal MHD model. The goal of the present study is to shed some light on the emerging area of non-ideal MHD modeling and simulation. Numerical experiments are performed on a hypersonic blunt body flow with future application to plasma aerodynamics flow control in reentry vehicles. Numerical experiments are also performed on a magnetized time-developing mixing layer with possible application to magnetic/turbulence mixing.

  4. Numerical simulation of rock cutting using 2D AUTODYN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woldemichael, D. E.; Rani, A. M. Abdul; Lemma, T. A.; Altaf, K.

    2015-12-01

    In a drilling process for oil and gas exploration, understanding of the interaction between the cutting tool and the rock is important for optimization of the drilling process using polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) cutters. In this study the finite element method in ANSYS AUTODYN-2D is used to simulate the dynamics of cutter rock interaction, rock failure, and fragmentation. A two-dimensional single PDC cutter and rock model were used to simulate the orthogonal cutting process and to investigate the effect of different parameters such as depth of cut, and back rake angle on two types of rocks (sandstone and limestone). In the simulation, the cutting tool was dragged against stationary rock at predetermined linear velocity and the depth of cut (1,2, and 3 mm) and the back rake angles(-10°, 0°, and +10°) were varied. The simulation result shows that the +10° back rake angle results in higher rate of penetration (ROP). Increasing depth of cut leads to higher ROP at the cost of higher cutting force.

  5. Numerical Verification of a 2-D PSF Equalization Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwood, Shane; Kankelborg, C.

    2013-07-01

    The Multi-Order Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrograph (MOSES) forms images of the transition region at HE II 30.4 in three spectral orders. Subtle differences between these images encode line profile information. However, differences in instrument point-spread function (PSF) in the three orders lead to non-negligible systematic errors in the retrieval of the line profiles. We describe a technique for equalizing the PSFs, and provide numerical verification of the technique's validity.

  6. Resistivity inversion in 2-D anisotropic media: numerical experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiese, Timothy; Greenhalgh, Stewart; Zhou, Bing; Greenhalgh, Mark; Marescot, Laurent

    2015-04-01

    Many rocks and layered/fractured sequences have a clearly expressed electrical anisotropy although it is rare in practice to incorporate anisotropy into resistivity inversion. In this contribution, we present a series of 2.5-D synthetic inversion experiments for various electrode configurations and 2-D anisotropic models. We examine and compare the image reconstructions obtained using the correct anisotropic inversion code with those obtained using the false but widely used isotropic assumption. Superior reconstruction in terms of reduced data misfit, true anomaly shape and position, and anisotropic background parameters were obtained when the correct anisotropic assumption was employed for medium to high coefficients of anisotropy. However, for low coefficient values the isotropic assumption produced better-quality results. When an erroneous isotropic inversion is performed on medium to high level anisotropic data, the images are dominated by patterns of banded artefacts and high data misfits. Various pole-pole, pole-dipole and dipole-dipole data sets were investigated and evaluated for the accuracy of the inversion result. The eigenvalue spectra of the pseudo-Hessian matrix and the formal resolution matrix were also computed to determine the information content and goodness of the results. We also present a data selection strategy based on high sensitivity measurements which drastically reduces the number of data to be inverted but still produces comparable results to that of the comprehensive data set. Inversion was carried out using transversely isotropic model parameters described in two different co-ordinate frames for the conductivity tensor, namely Cartesian versus natural or eigenframe. The Cartesian frame provided a more stable inversion product. This can be simply explained from inspection of the eigenspectra of the pseudo-Hessian matrix for the two model descriptions.

  7. 2D numerical simulation of the resistive reconnection layer

    SciTech Connect

    D. A. Uzdensky; R. M. Kulsrud

    2000-07-21

    In this paper the authors present a two-dimensional numerical simulation of a reconnection current layer in incompressible resistive magnetohydrodynamics with uniform resistivity in the limit of very large Lundquist numbers. They use realistic boundary conditions derived consistently from the outside magnetic field, and they also take into account the effect of the backpressure from flow into the separatrix region. They find that within a few Alfven times the system reaches a steady state consistent with the Sweet-Parker model, even if the initial state is Petschek-like.

  8. 2D Numerical Simulation of the Resistive Reconnection Layer

    SciTech Connect

    Kulsrud, R.M.; Uzdensky, D.A.

    1999-03-01

    In this paper we present a two-dimensional numerical simulation of a reconnection current layer in incompressible resistive magnetohydrodynamics with uniform resistivity in the limit of very large Lundquist numbers. We use realistic boundary conditions derived consistently from the outside magnetic field, and we also take into account the effect of the back pressure from flow into the separatrix region. We find that within a few Alfvén times the system reaches a steady state consistent with the Sweet-Parker model, even if the initial state is Petschek-like.

  9. Improvement of a 2D numerical model of lava flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishimine, Y.

    2013-12-01

    I propose an improved procedure that reduces an improper dependence of lava flow directions on the orientation of Digital Elevation Model (DEM) in two-dimensional simulations based on Ishihara et al. (in Lava Flows and Domes, Fink, JH eds., 1990). The numerical model for lava flow simulations proposed by Ishihara et al. (1990) is based on two-dimensional shallow water model combined with a constitutive equation for a Bingham fluid. It is simple but useful because it properly reproduces distributions of actual lava flows. Thus, it has been regarded as one of pioneer work of numerical simulations of lava flows and it is still now widely used in practical hazard prediction map for civil defense officials in Japan. However, the model include an improper dependence of lava flow directions on the orientation of DEM because the model separately assigns the condition for the lava flow to stop due to yield stress for each of two orthogonal axes of rectangular calculating grid based on DEM. This procedure brings a diamond-shaped distribution as shown in Fig. 1 when calculating a lava flow supplied from a point source on a virtual flat plane although the distribution should be circle-shaped. To improve the drawback, I proposed a modified procedure that uses the absolute value of yield stress derived from both components of two orthogonal directions of the slope steepness to assign the condition for lava flows to stop. This brings a better result as shown in Fig. 2. Fig. 1. (a) Contour plots calculated with the original model of Ishihara et al. (1990). (b) Contour plots calculated with a proposed model.

  10. Global well-posedness for the 2D MHD equations without magnetic diffusion in a strip domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Xiaoxia; Xiang, Zhaoyin; Zhang, Zhifei

    2016-04-01

    We study the initial boundary value problem of two dimensional MHD equations without magnetic diffusion in a strip domain. It was proved that the MHD equations have a unique global strong solution around the equilibrium state ≤ft(0,{{\\mathbf{e}}1}\\right) for both the non-slip boundary condition and Navier slip boundary condition on the velocity.

  11. Propagation of MHD disturbance in numerical modelling: Accuracy issues and condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyung-Im; Lee, Dong-Hun; Jang, Jae-Jin; Kim, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Jaehun

    2016-07-01

    In space weather studies, MHD numerical models are often used to study time-dependent simulations over relatively long time period and large size space, which include many examples from the solar origin to the Earth impact in the heliosphere. There have been rising questions on whether many different numerical codes are consistent with each other and how we can confirm the validity of simulation results for a given event. In this study, we firstly introduce a class of exact analytic solutions of MHD when the boundary is driven by certain impulsive impacts. Secondly we test and compare MHD numerical models with the exact full MHD solution above to check whether the simulations are sufficiently accurate. Our results show 1) that numerical errors are very significant in the problems of MHD disturbance propagation in the interplanetary space, 2) that typical spatial and temporal resolutions, which are widely used in numerical modelling, are found to easily produce more than a few hours up to 10 hours in arrival timing at the near-Earth space, and 3) how we can avoid serious errors by optimizing the model parameters in advance via studying with an exact solution.

  12. Test particle acceleration in a numerical MHD experiment of an anemone jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosdahl, K. J.; Galsgaard, K.

    2010-02-01

    Aims: To use a 3D numerical MHD experiment representing magnetic flux emerging into an open field region as a background field for tracing charged particles. The interaction between the two flux systems generates a localised current sheet where MHD reconnection takes place. We investigate how efficiently the reconnection region accelerates charged particles and what kind of energy distribution they acquire. Methods: The particle tracing is done numerically using the Guiding Center Approximation on individual data sets from the numerical MHD experiment. Results: We derive particle and implied photon distribution functions having power law forms, and look at the impact patterns of particles hitting the photosphere. We find that particles reach energies far in excess of those seen in observations of solar flares. However the structure of the impact region in the photosphere gives a good representation of the topological structure of the magnetic field. Three movies are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  13. 3-D Numerical Modeling of MHD Flows in Variable Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullina, K. I.; Bogovalov, S. V.

    3-D numerical simulation of the liquid metal flow affected by the electromagnetic field in the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) devices is performed. Software package ANSYS has been used for the numerical calculations. The non-stationary problem has been solved taking into account the influence of the metal flow on the electromagnetic field and nonlinear magnetic permeability of the ferromagnetic cores. Simplified calculations with constant magnetic permeability of the ferromagnetic cores have been performed as well. Comparison of these calculations shows that the simulation of the MHD pump can be performed in the linear approximation. The pump performance curve has been derived in this approximation.

  14. Numerical Simulation of MHD Effect in Liquid Metal Blankets with Flow Channel Insert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, J.; Pan, H. C.

    2011-09-01

    The magnetohydrodynamic effect in liquid metal blankets with flow channel insert and pressure equalization slot for fusion liquid metal blanket is studied by numerical simulation based on two dimensional fully developed flow model. The code is verified by comparing analytical solution and numerical solution of Hunt Case II. The velocity field and MHD pressure drop varying with electric conductivity of the FCI is analyzed. The result shows that the average velocity in central area of the cross section decreases with the increase of the electric conductivity of FCI. While the average velocity in gap zone is reverse. Comparing with MHD duct flow without FCI, MHD pressure drop is reduced significantly when the FCI material is electrically insulating.

  15. A numerical code for a three-dimensional magnetospheric MHD equilibrium model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voigt, G.-H.

    1992-01-01

    Two dimensional and three dimensional MHD equilibrium models were begun for Earth's magnetosphere. The original proposal was motivated by realizing that global, purely data based models of Earth's magnetosphere are inadequate for studying the underlying plasma physical principles according to which the magnetosphere evolves on the quasi-static convection time scale. Complex numerical grid generation schemes were established for a 3-D Poisson solver, and a robust Grad-Shafranov solver was coded for high beta MHD equilibria. Thus, the effects were calculated of both the magnetopause geometry and boundary conditions on the magnetotail current distribution.

  16. The Delta x B = 0 Constraint Versus Minimization of Numerical Errors in MHD Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, H. C.; Sjoegreen, Bjoern; Mansour, Nagi (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The MHD equations are a system of non-strictly hyperbolic conservation laws. The non-convexity of the inviscid flux vector resulted in corresponding Jacobian matrices with undesirable properties. It has previously been shown by Powell et al. (1995) that an 'almost' equivalent MHD system in non-conservative form can be derived. This non-conservative system has a better conditioned eigensystem. Aside from Powell et al., the MHD equations can be derived from basic principles in either conservative or non-conservative form. The Delta x B = 0 constraint of the MHD equations is only an initial condition constraint, it is very different from the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in which the divergence condition is needed to close the system (i.e., to have the same number of equations and the same number of unknown). In the MHD formulations, if Delta x B = 0 initially, all one needs is to construct appropriate numerical schemes that preserve this constraint at later time evolutions. In other words, one does not need the Delta x B condition to close the MHD system. We formulate our new scheme together with the Cargo & Gallice (1997) form of the MHD approximate Riemann solver in curvilinear grids for both versions of the MHD equations. A novel feature of our new method is that the well-conditioned eigen-decomposition of the non-conservative MHD equations is used to solve the conservative equations. This new feature of the method provides well-conditioned eigenvectors for the conservative formulation, so that correct wave speeds for discontinuities are assured. The justification for using the non-conservative eigen-decomposition to solve the conservative equations is that our scheme has a better control of the numerical error associated with the divergence of the magnetic condition. Consequently, computing both forms of the equations with the same eigen-decomposition is almost equivalent. It will be shown that this approach, using the non-conservative eigensystem when

  17. Adaptive Numerical Dissipation Control in High Order Schemes for Multi-D Non-Ideal MHD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, H. C.; Sjoegreen, B.

    2005-01-01

    The required type and amount of numerical dissipation/filter to accurately resolve all relevant multiscales of complex MHD unsteady high-speed shock/shear/turbulence/combustion problems are not only physical problem dependent, but also vary from one flow region to another. In addition, proper and efficient control of the divergence of the magnetic field (Div(B)) numerical error for high order shock-capturing methods poses extra requirements for the considered type of CPU intensive computations. The goal is to extend our adaptive numerical dissipation control in high order filter schemes and our new divergence-free methods for ideal MHD to non-ideal MHD that include viscosity and resistivity. The key idea consists of automatic detection of different flow features as distinct sensors to signal the appropriate type and amount of numerical dissipation/filter where needed and leave the rest of the region free from numerical dissipation contamination. These scheme-independent detectors are capable of distinguishing shocks/shears, flame sheets, turbulent fluctuations and spurious high-frequency oscillations. The detection algorithm is based on an artificial compression method (ACM) (for shocks/shears), and redundant multiresolution wavelets (WAV) (for the above types of flow feature). These filters also provide a natural and efficient way for the minimization of Div(B) numerical error.

  18. Numerical Simulation of 3-D Supersonic Viscous Flow in an Experimental MHD Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kato, Hiromasa; Tannehill, John C.; Gupta, Sumeet; Mehta, Unmeel B.

    2004-01-01

    The 3-D supersonic viscous flow in an experimental MHD channel has been numerically simulated. The experimental MHD channel is currently in operation at NASA Ames Research Center. The channel contains a nozzle section, a center section, and an accelerator section where magnetic and electric fields can be imposed on the flow. In recent tests, velocity increases of up to 40% have been achieved in the accelerator section. The flow in the channel is numerically computed using a new 3-D parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) algorithm that has been developed to efficiently compute MHD flows in the low magnetic Reynolds number regime. The MHD effects are modeled by introducing source terms into the PNS equations which can then be solved in a very e5uent manner. To account for upstream (elliptic) effects, the flowfield can be computed using multiple streamwise sweeps with an iterated PNS algorithm. The new algorithm has been used to compute two test cases that match the experimental conditions. In both cases, magnetic and electric fields are applied to the flow. The computed results are in good agreement with the available experimental data.

  19. Oblique MHD cosmic-ray modified shocks: Two-fluid numerical simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Adam; Jones, T. W.; Ryu, Dongsu

    1991-01-01

    We present the first results of time dependent, two-fluid, cosmic-ray (CR) modified, MHD shock simulations. The calculations were carried out with a new numerical code for 1-D ideal MHD. By coupling this code with the CR energy transport equation we can simulate the time-dependent evolution of MHD shocks including the acceleration of the CR and their feedback on the shock structures. We report tests of the combined numerical method including comparisons with analytical steady state results published earlier by Webb, as well as internal consistency checks for more general MHD CR shock structures after they appear to have converged to dynamical steady states. We also present results from an initial time dependent simulation which extend the parameter space domain of previous analytical models. These new results support Webb's suggestion that equilibrium oblique shocks are less effective than parallel shocks in the acceleration of CR. However, for realistic models of anisotropic CR diffusion, oblique shocks may achieve dynamical equilibrium on shorter timescale than parallel shocks.

  20. Numerical solution of boundary layer MHD flow with viscous dissipation.

    PubMed

    Mishra, S R; Jena, S

    2014-01-01

    The present paper deals with a steady two-dimensional laminar flow of a viscous incompressible electrically conducting fluid over a shrinking sheet in the presence of uniform transverse magnetic field with viscous dissipation. Using suitable similarity transformations the governing partial differential equations are transformed into ordinary differential equations and then solved numerically by fourth-order Runge-Kutta method with shooting technique. Results for velocity and temperature profiles for different values of the governing parameters have been discussed in detail with graphical representation. The numerical evaluation of skin friction and Nusselt number are also given in this paper. PMID:24672367

  1. Application of rank-ordered multifractal analysis (ROMA) to intermittent fluctuations in 3D turbulent flows, 2D MHD simulation and solar wind data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C.; Chang, T.

    2010-12-01

    A new method in describing the multifractal characteristics of intermittent events was introduced by Cheng and Wu [Chang T. and Wu C.C., Physical Rev, E77, 045401(R), 2008]. The procedure provides a natural connection between the rank-ordered spectrum and the idea of one-parameter scaling for monofractals. This technique has been demonstrated using results obtained from a 2D MHD simulation. It has also been successfully applied to in-situ solar wind observations [Chang T., Wu, C.C. and Podesta, J., AIP Conf Proc. 1039, 75, 2008], and the broadband electric field oscillations from the auroral zone [Tam, S.W.Y. et al., Physical Rev, E81, 036414, 2010]. We take the next step in this procedure. By using the ROMA spectra and the scaled probability distribution functions (PDFs), raw PDFs can be calculated, which can be compared directly with PDFs from observations or simulation results. In addition to 2D MHD simulation results and in-situ solar wind observation, we show clearly using the ROMA analysis the multifractal character of the 3D fluid simulation data obtained from the JHU turbulence database cluster at http://turbulence.pha.jhu.edu. In particular, we show the scaling of the non-symmetrical PDF for the parallel-velocity fluctuations of this 3D fluid data.

  2. Numerical characterization of DNA sequences in a 2-D graphical representation scheme of low degeneracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaofeng; Nandy, Ashesh

    2003-02-01

    Some 2-D and 3-D graphical representations of DNA sequences have been given by Gate, Nandy, Leong, Randic, and Guo et al. Based on 2-D graphical representation of DNA sequences, Raychaudhury and Nandy introduced the first-order moments of the x and y coordinates and the radius of the plot of a DNA sequence for indexing scheme and similarity measures of DNA sequences. In this Letter, based on Guo's novel 2-D graphical representation of DNA sequences of low degeneracy, we introduce the improved first-order moments of the x and y coordinates and the radius of DNA sequences, and the distance of two DNA sequences. The new descriptors of DNA sequences give a good numerical characterization of DNA sequences, which have lower degeneracy.

  3. Numerical investigation of recirculation in the UTSI MHD combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, R.J.; Lee, J.J.; Giel, T.V. Jr.

    1983-09-01

    Numerical studies were carried out to investigate the gross structure of flow in cylindrical combustors. The combustor configurations studied are variations of a working design used at the University of Tennessee Space Institute to burn pulverized coal at temperatures in excess of 3000K for generation of a plasma feeding a magnetohydrodynamic channel. The numerical studies were conducted for an isothermal fluid; the main objective of the calculations was to study the effect of the oxidant injection pattern on the gross structure of recirculating flows within the combustor. The calculations illustrate the basic features of the flow in combustors of this type and suggest implications for the injection of coal and oxidizer in this type of combustor.

  4. Numerical simulation of ( T 2, T 1) 2D NMR and fluid responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Mao-Jin; Zou, You-Long; Zhang, Jin-Yan; Zhao, Xin

    2012-12-01

    One-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (1D NMR) logging technology is limited for fluid typing, while two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) logging can provide more parameters including longitudinal relaxation time ( T 1) and transverse relaxation time ( T 2) relative to fluid types in porous media. Based on the 2D NMR relaxation mechanism in a gradient magnetic field, echo train simulation and 2D NMR inversion are discussed in detail. For 2D NMR inversion, a hybrid inversion method is proposed based on the damping least squares method (LSQR) and an improved truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD) algorithm. A series of spin echoes are first simulated with multiple waiting times ( T W s) in a gradient magnetic field for given fluid models and these synthesized echo trains are inverted by the hybrid method. The inversion results are consistent with given models. Moreover, the numerical simulation of various fluid models such as the gas-water, light oil-water, and vicious oil-water models were carried out with different echo spacings ( T E s) and T W s by this hybrid method. Finally, the influences of different signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) on inversion results in various fluid models are studied. The numerical simulations show that the hybrid method and optimized observation parameters are applicable to fluid typing of gas-water and oil-water models.

  5. 2D and 3D numerical models on compositionally buoyant diapirs in the mantle wedge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasenclever, Jörg; Morgan, Jason Phipps; Hort, Matthias; Rüpke, Lars H.

    2011-11-01

    We present 2D and 3D numerical model calculations that focus on the physics of compositionally buoyant diapirs rising within a mantle wedge corner flow. Compositional buoyancy is assumed to arise from slab dehydration during which water-rich volatiles enter the mantle wedge and form a wet, less dense boundary layer on top of the slab. Slab dehydration is prescribed to occur in the 80-180 km deep slab interval, and the water transport is treated as a diffusion-like process. In this study, the mantle's rheology is modeled as being isoviscous for the benefit of easier-to-interpret feedbacks between water migration and buoyant viscous flow of the mantle. We use a simple subduction geometry that does not change during the numerical calculation. In a large set of 2D calculations we have identified that five different flow regimes can form, in which the position, number, and formation time of the diapirs vary as a function of four parameters: subduction angle, subduction rate, water diffusivity (mobility), and mantle viscosity. Using the same numerical method and numerical resolution we also conducted a suite of 3D calculations for 16 selected parameter combinations. Comparing the 2D and 3D results for the same model parameters reveals that the 2D models can only give limited insights into the inherently 3D problem of mantle wedge diapirism. While often correctly predicting the position and onset time of the first diapir(s), the 2D models fail to capture the dynamics of diapir ascent as well as the formation of secondary diapirs that result from boundary layer perturbations caused by previous diapirs. Of greatest importance for physically correct results is the numerical resolution in the region where diapirs nucleate, which must be high enough to accurately capture the growth of the thin wet boundary layer on top of the slab and, subsequently, the formation, morphology, and ascent of diapirs. Here 2D models can be very useful to quantify the required resolution, which we

  6. Numerical analysis of real gas MHD flow on two-dimensional self-field MPD thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xisto, Carlos M.; Páscoa, José C.; Oliveira, Paulo J.

    2015-07-01

    A self-field magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster is a low-thrust electric propulsion space-system that enables the usage of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) principles for accelerating a plasma flow towards high speed exhaust velocities. It can produce an high specific impulse, making it suitable for long duration interplanetary space missions. In this paper numerical results obtained with a new code, which is being developed at C-MAST (Centre for Mechanical and Aerospace Technologies), for a two-dimensional self-field MPD thruster are presented. The numerical model is based on the macroscopic MHD equations for compressible and electrically resistive flow and is able to predict the two most important thrust mechanisms that are associated with this kind of propulsion system, namely the thermal thrust and the electromagnetic thrust. Moreover, due to the range of very high temperatures that could occur during the operation of the MPD, it also includes a real gas model for argon.

  7. 2D/1D approximations to the 3D neutron transport equation. II: Numerical comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, B. W.; Collins, B.; Larsen, E. W.

    2013-07-01

    In a companion paper [1], (i) several new '2D/1D equations' are introduced as accurate approximations to the 3D Boltzmann transport equation, (ii) the simplest of these approximate equations is systematically discretized, and (iii) a theoretically stable iteration scheme is developed to solve the discrete equations. In this paper, numerical results are presented that confirm the theoretical predictions made in [1]. (authors)

  8. Numerical modelling of MHD waves in the solar chromosphere.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Mats; Bogdan, Thomas J

    2006-02-15

    Acoustic waves are generated by the convective motions in the solar convection zone. When propagating upwards into the chromosphere they reach the height where the sound speed equals the Alfvén speed and they undergo mode conversion, refraction and reflection. We use numerical simulations to study these processes in realistic configurations where the wavelength of the waves is similar to the length scales of the magnetic field. Even though this regime is outside the validity of previous analytic studies or studies using ray-tracing theory, we show that some of their basic results remain valid: the critical quantity for mode conversion is the angle between the magnetic field and the k-vector: the attack angle. At angles smaller than 30 degrees much of the acoustic, fast mode from the photosphere is transmitted as an acoustic, slow mode propagating along the field lines. At larger angles, most of the energy is refracted/reflected and returns as a fast mode creating an interference pattern between the upward and downward propagating waves. In three-dimensions, this interference between waves at small angles creates patterns with large horizontal phase speeds, especially close to magnetic field concentrations. When damping from shock dissipation and radiation is taken into account, the waves in the low-mid chromosphere have mostly the character of upward propagating acoustic waves and it is only close to the reflecting layer we get similar amplitudes for the upward propagating and refracted/reflected waves. The oscillatory power is suppressed in magnetic field concentrations and enhanced in ring-formed patterns around them. The complex interference patterns caused by mode-conversion, refraction and reflection, even with simple incident waves and in simple magnetic field geometries, make direct inversion of observables exceedingly difficult. In a dynamic chromosphere it is doubtful if the determination of mean quantities is even meaningful. PMID:16414886

  9. Validation of a 2-D semi-coupled numerical model for fluid-structure-seabed interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Jianhong; Jeng, Dongsheng; Wang, Ren; Zhu, Changqi

    2013-10-01

    A 2-D semi-coupled model PORO-WSSI 2D (also be referred as FSSI-CAS 2D) for the Fluid-Structure-Seabed Interaction (FSSI) has been developed by employing RANS equations for wave motion in fluid domain, VARANS equations for porous flow in porous structures; and taking the dynamic Biot's equations (known as "u - p" approximation) for soil as the governing equations. The finite difference two-step projection method and the forward time difference method are adopted to solve the RANS, VARANS equations; and the finite element method is adopted to solve the "u - p" approximation. A data exchange port is developed to couple the RANS, VARANS equations and the dynamic Biot's equations together. The analytical solution proposed by Hsu and Jeng (1994) and some experiments conducted in wave flume or geotechnical centrifuge in which various waves involved are used to validate the developed semi-coupled numerical model. The sandy bed involved in these experiments is poro-elastic or poro-elastoplastic. The inclusion of the interaction between fluid, marine structures and poro-elastoplastic seabed foundation is a special point and highlight in this paper, which is essentially different with other previous coupled models The excellent agreement between the numerical results and the experiment data indicates that the developed coupled model is highly reliablefor the FSSI problem.

  10. Mixed convection flow of MHD Eyring-Powell nanofluid over a stretching sheet: A numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, M. Y.; Khan, Imad; Hussain, Arif; Salahuddin, T.

    2015-11-01

    In the present analysis incompressible two dimensional mixed convection flow of MHD Eyring-Powell nanofluid over a stretching sheet is investigated numerically. The governing highly nonlinear partial differential equations are converted into ordinary differential equations by using a similarity approach. Numerical solutions of the nonlinear ordinary differential equations are found by using a shooting method. Effects of various parameters are displayed graphically for velocity, temperature and concentration profiles. Also quantities of practical interest i.e skin friction coefficient, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are presented graphically and tabularly.

  11. Three-dimensional Numerical Analysis of a Liquid Metal MHD Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Katsunori; Maeda, Tetsuhiko; Hasegawa, Yasuo; Okuno, Yoshihiro

    Three-dimensional numerical analysis of a liquid metal MHD generator has been carried out. The three-dimensional structures of the electromagnetic field and fluid flow in the MHD generator have been clarified, and the effect of the electrode width on the performance has been also examined, taking account of the current flow in the electrode. Structures of the electromagnetic field and fluid flow are complicated owing to the three-dimensional current flow, induced magnetic field, and Lorentz force. The highest performance is found to be obtained when the width of electrode is equal to that of the generator. The performance predicted from three-dimensional analysis is somewhat lower than that from two-dimensional analysis because of the larger input power. The increase in the input power is attributed to the increase in Lorentz force caused by less reduced magnetic flux density and to the additional friction loss on the insulator walls (x-y plane).

  12. Numerical Simulation of Molten Metal Flow Produced by Induction MHD Pump Using Rotating Twisted Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Tsutomu; Ueno, Kazuyuki; Sawada, Keisuke

    Numerical simulation at the same condition as an experiment is carried out under the magnetic Stokes approximation for small shielding parameter. Results of the simulation compensate for the information of molten metal flow that we could not directly obtain in the experiment. In this paper, we study the molten metal flow at a starting condition and quasi-steady state. Besides, the energy conversion in the MHD pump is discussed. The simulation result shows that the proposed MHD pump causes the spiral induced current in a molten gallium and produces an axial flow with swirl. At quasi-steady state, it is confirmed that the centrifugal force by the excessive swirl flow produces high pressure at a duct wall and low pressure around the central axis. Since the excessive swirl flow results in large viscous dissipation, the mechanical power output of the pump uses only about 1% of the mechanical energy production in the molten gallium.

  13. Numerical simulation of flare energy build-up and release via Joule dissipation. [solar MHD model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.; Bao, J. J.; Wang, J. F.

    1986-01-01

    A new numerical MHD model is developed to study the evolution of an active region due to photospheric converging motion, which leads to magnetic-energy buildup in the form of electric current. Because this new MHD model has incorporated finite conductivity, the energy conversion occurs from magnetic mode to thermal mode through Joule dissipation. In order to test the causality relationship between the occurrence of flare and photospheric motion, a multiple-pole configuration with neutral point is used. Using these results it is found that in addition to the converging motion, the initial magnetic-field configuration and the redistribution of the magnetic flux at photospheric level enhance the possibility for the development of a flare.

  14. Gas Core Reactor Numerical Simulation Using a Coupled MHD-MCNP Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazeminezhad, F.; Anghaie, S.

    2008-01-01

    Analysis is provided in this report of using two head-on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shocks to achieve supercritical nuclear fission in an axially elongated cylinder filled with UF4 gas as an energy source for deep space missions. The motivation for each aspect of the design is explained and supported by theory and numerical simulations. A subsequent report will provide detail on relevant experimental work to validate the concept. Here the focus is on the theory of and simulations for the proposed gas core reactor conceptual design from the onset of shock generations to the supercritical state achieved when the shocks collide. The MHD model is coupled to a standard nuclear code (MCNP) to observe the neutron flux and fission power attributed to the supercritical state brought about by the shock collisions. Throughout the modeling, realistic parameters are used for the initial ambient gaseous state and currents to ensure a resulting supercritical state upon shock collisions.

  15. 2D/3D electron temperature fluctuations near explosive MHD instabilities accompanied by minor and major disruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, M. J.; Park, H. K.; Yun, G. S.; Lee, W.; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.; Lee, K. D.; Ko, W.-H.; Park, Y.-S.; Park, B. H.; In, Y.

    2016-06-01

    Minor and major disruptions by explosive MHD instabilities were observed with the novel quasi 3D electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) system in the KSTAR plasma. The fine electron temperature (T e) fluctuation images revealed two types of minor disruptions: a small minor disruption is a q∼ 2 localized fast transport event due to a single m/n  =  2/1 magnetic island growth, while a large minor disruption is partial collapse of the q≤slant 2 region with two successive fast heat transport events by the correlated m/n  =  2/1 and m/n  =  1/1 instabilities. The m/n  =  2/1 magnetic island growth during the minor disruption is normally limited below the saturation width. However, as the additional interchange-like perturbation grows near the inner separatrix of the 2/1 island, the 2/1 island can expand beyond the limit through coupling with the cold bubble formed by the interchange-like perturbation.

  16. New insights into the generalized Rutherford equation for nonlinear neoclassical tearing mode growth from 2D reduced MHD simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerhof, E.; de Blank, H. J.; Pratt, J.

    2016-03-01

    Two dimensional reduced MHD simulations of neoclassical tearing mode growth and suppression by ECCD are performed. The perturbation of the bootstrap current density and the EC drive current density perturbation are assumed to be functions of the perturbed flux surfaces. In the case of ECCD, this implies that the applied power is flux surface averaged to obtain the EC driven current density distribution. The results are consistent with predictions from the generalized Rutherford equation using common expressions for Δ \\text{bs}\\prime and Δ \\text{ECCD}\\prime . These expressions are commonly perceived to describe only the effect on the tearing mode growth of the helical component of the respective current perturbation acting through the modification of Ohm’s law. Our results show that they describe in addition the effect of the poloidally averaged current density perturbation which acts through modification of the tearing mode stability index. Except for modulated ECCD, the largest contribution to the mode growth comes from this poloidally averaged current density perturbation.

  17. Numerical computation of 2D Sommerfeld integrals - Decomposition of the angular integral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorak, Steven L.; Kuester, Edward F.

    1992-02-01

    The computational efficiency of the 2D Sommerfeld integrals is shown to undergo improvement through the discovery of novel ways to compute the inner angular integral in polar representations. It is shown that the angular integral can be decomposed into a finite number of incomplete Lipschitz-Hankel integrals; these can in turn be calculated through a series of expansions, so that the angular integral can be computed by summing a series rather than applying a standard numerical integration algorithm. The technique is most efficient and accurate when piecewise-sinusoidal basis functions are employed to analyze a printed strip-dipole antenna in a layered medium.

  18. Adaptive Numerical Dissipative Control in High Order Schemes for Multi-D Non-Ideal MHD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, H. C.; Sjoegreen, B.

    2004-01-01

    The goal is to extend our adaptive numerical dissipation control in high order filter schemes and our new divergence-free methods for ideal MHD to non-ideal MHD that include viscosity and resistivity. The key idea consists of automatic detection of different flow features as distinct sensors to signal the appropriate type and amount of numerical dissipation/filter where needed and leave the rest of the region free of numerical dissipation contamination. These scheme-independent detectors are capable of distinguishing shocks/shears, flame sheets, turbulent fluctuations and spurious high-frequency oscillations. The detection algorithm is based on an artificial compression method (ACM) (for shocks/shears), and redundant multi-resolution wavelets (WAV) (for the above types of flow feature). These filter approaches also provide a natural and efficient way for the minimization of Div(B) numerical error. The filter scheme consists of spatially sixth order or higher non-dissipative spatial difference operators as the base scheme for the inviscid flux derivatives. If necessary, a small amount of high order linear dissipation is used to remove spurious high frequency oscillations. For example, an eighth-order centered linear dissipation (AD8) might be included in conjunction with a spatially sixth-order base scheme. The inviscid difference operator is applied twice for the viscous flux derivatives. After the completion of a full time step of the base scheme step, the solution is adaptively filtered by the product of a 'flow detector' and the 'nonlinear dissipative portion' of a high-resolution shock-capturing scheme. In addition, the scheme independent wavelet flow detector can be used in conjunction with spatially compact, spectral or spectral element type of base schemes. The ACM and wavelet filter schemes using the dissipative portion of a second-order shock-capturing scheme with sixth-order spatial central base scheme for both the inviscid and viscous MHD flux

  19. Finger Counting and (2D:4D) Digit Ratio in Spatial-Numerical Association.

    PubMed

    Fabbri, Marco; Natale, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    It is reported that a canonical and cultural finger counting habit influences the spatial-numerical association. The digit ratio (the ratio between the lengths of the index and ring fingers as a putative indicator of prenatal androgen exposure) also plays an effect on space-number representation, reflecting a stronger left-to-right number representation in people with a short index finger and longer ring finger (i.e., 2D:4D ratio). It is unknown whether the finger counting habit and digit ratio have an effect on spatial-numerical association independently from each other or whether they interact with each other. In Study 1, the digit ratio and finger counting mapping were recorded in right handers. The participants performed number-to-position, digit string bisection, and physical line bisection tasks. In the number-to-position task, a finger counting effect was found, as well as a significant interaction between factors. A digit ratio effect was observed in the digit string bisection task. In Study 2, digit ratio and finger counting mapping were recorded in right and left handers. The results showed that the finger counting habit influenced the spatial biases in both numerical tasks. A significant interaction between finger counting and digit ratio was found in both numerical tasks when only the left hand was considered. The results are discussed considering the embodied nature of the spatial-numerical association. PMID:26562848

  20. Three-dimensional numerical simulation of MHD waves observed by the Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, S. T.; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, S.; Thompson, B. J.; Plunkett, S. P.; Zhao, X. P.; Dryer, M.

    2001-11-01

    We investigate the global large amplitude waves propagating across the solar disk as observed by the SOHO/Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT). These waves appear to be similar to those observed in Hα in the chromosphere and which are known as ``Moreton waves,'' associated with large solar flares [Moreton, 1960, 1964]. Uchida [1968] interpreted these Moreton waves as the propagation of a hydromagnetics disturbance in the corona with its wavefront intersecting the chromosphere to produce the Moreton wave as observed in movie sequences of Hα images. To search for an understanding of the physical characteristics of these newly observed EIT waves, we constructed a three-dimensional, time-dependent, numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model. Measured global magnetic fields, obtained from the Wilcox Solar Observatory (WSO) at Stanford University, are used as the initial magnetic field to investigate hydromagnetics wave propagation in a three-dimensional spherical geometry. Using magnetohydrodynamic wave theory together with simulation, we are able to identify these observed EIT waves as fast mode MHD waves dominated by the acoustic mode, called magnetosonic waves. The results to be presented include the following: (1) comparison of observed and simulated morphology projected on the disk and the distance-time curves on the solar disk; (2) three-dimensional evolution of the disturbed magnetic field lines at various viewing angles; (3) evolution of the plasma density profile at a specific location as a function of latitude; and (4) computed Friedrich's diagrams to identify the MHD wave characteristics.

  1. Accelerating numerical modeling of wave propagation through 2-D anisotropic materials using OpenCL.

    PubMed

    Molero, Miguel; Iturrarán-Viveros, Ursula

    2013-03-01

    We present an implementation of the numerical modeling of elastic waves propagation, in 2D anisotropic materials, using the new parallel computing devices (PCDs). Our study is aimed both to model laboratory experiments and explore the capabilities of the emerging PCDs by discussing performance issues. In the experiments a sample plate of an anisotropic material placed inside a water tank is rotated and, for every angle of rotation it is subjected to an ultrasonic wave (produced by a large source transducer) that propagates in the water and through the material producing some reflection and transmission signals that are recording by a "point-like" receiver. This experiment is numerically modeled by running a finite difference code covering a set of angles θ∈[-50°, 50°], and recorded the signals for the transmission and reflection results. Transversely anisotropic and weakly orthorhombic materials are considered. We accelerated the computation using an open-source toolkit called PyOpenCL, which lets one to easily access the OpenCL parallel computation API's from the high-level programming environment of Python. A speedup factor over 19 using the GPU is obtained when compared with the execution of the same program in parallel using a CPU multi-core (in this case we use the 4-cores that has the CPU). The performance for different graphic cards and operating systems is included together with the full 2-D finite difference code with PyOpenCL. PMID:23290584

  2. Comparison of 3-D finite element model of ashlar masonry with 2-D numerical models of ashlar masonry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beran, Pavel

    2016-06-01

    3-D state of stress in heterogeneous ashlar masonry can be also computed by several suitable chosen 2-D numerical models of ashlar masonry. The results obtained from 2-D numerical models well correspond to the results obtained from 3-D numerical model. The character of thermal stress is the same. While using 2-D models the computational time is reduced more than hundredfold and therefore this method could be used for computation of thermal stresses during long time periods with 10 000 of steps.

  3. Mechanical Modelling of Pultrusion Process: 2D and 3D Numerical Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baran, Ismet; Hattel, Jesper H.; Akkerman, Remko; Tutum, Cem C.

    2015-02-01

    The process induced variations such as residual stresses and distortions are a critical issue in pultrusion, since they affect the structural behavior as well as the mechanical properties and geometrical precision of the final product. In order to capture and investigate these variations, a mechanical analysis should be performed. In the present work, the two dimensional (2D) quasi-static plane strain mechanical model for the pultrusion of a thick square profile developed by the authors is further improved using generalized plane strain elements. In addition to that, a more advanced 3D thermo-chemical-mechanical analysis is carried out using 3D quadratic elements which is a novel application for the numerical modelling of the pultrusion process. It is found that the 2D mechanical models give relatively reasonable and accurate stress and displacement evolutions in the transverse direction as compared to the 3D model. Moreover, the generalized plane strain model predicts the longitudinal process induced stresses more similar to the ones calculated in the 3D model as compared with the plane strain model.

  4. Optical fiber poling by induction: analysis by 2D numerical modeling.

    PubMed

    De Lucia, F; Huang, D; Corbari, C; Healy, N; Sazio, P J A

    2016-04-15

    Since their first demonstration some 25 years ago, thermally poled silica fibers have been used to realize device functions such as electro-optic modulation, switching, polarization-entangled photons, and optical frequency conversion with a number of advantages over bulk free-space components. We have recently developed an innovative induction poling technique that could allow for the development of complex microstructured fiber geometries for highly efficient χ(2)-based device applications. To systematically implement these more advanced poled fiber designs, we report here the development of comprehensive numerical models of the induction poling mechanism itself via two-dimensional (2D) simulations of ion migration and space-charge region formation using finite element analysis. PMID:27082323

  5. Numerical Study of Microwave Reflectometry in Plasmas with 2D Turbulent Fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    E. Mazzucato

    1998-02-01

    This paper describes a numerical study of the role played by 2D turbulent fluctuations in microwave reflectometry -- a radar technique for density measurements using the reflection of electromagnetic waves from a plasma cutoff. The results indicate that, if the amplitude of fluctuations is below a threshold which is set by the spectrum of poloidal wavenumbers, the measured backward field appears to originate from a virtual location behind the reflecting layer, and to arise from the phase modulation of the probing wave, with an amplitude given by 1D geometric optics. These results suggest a possible scheme for turbulence measurements in tokamaks, where the backward field is collected with a wide aperture antenna, and the virtual reflecting layer is imaged onto the plane of an array of detectors. Such a scheme should be capable of providing additional information on the nature of the short-scale turbulence observed in tokamaks, which still remains one of the unresolved issues in fusion research.

  6. Numerical study of MHD nanofluid flow and heat transfer past a bidirectional exponentially stretching sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Rida; Mustafa, M.; Hayat, T.; Alsaedi, A.

    2016-06-01

    Recent advancements in nanotechnology have led to the discovery of new generation coolants known as nanofluids. Nanofluids possess novel and unique characteristics which are fruitful in numerous cooling applications. Current work is undertaken to address the heat transfer in MHD three-dimensional flow of magnetic nanofluid (ferrofluid) over a bidirectional exponentially stretching sheet. The base fluid is considered as water which consists of magnetite-Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Exponentially varying surface temperature distribution is accounted. Problem formulation is presented through the Maxwell models for effective electrical conductivity and effective thermal conductivity of nanofluid. Similarity transformations give rise to a coupled non-linear differential system which is solved numerically. Appreciable growth in the convective heat transfer coefficient is observed when nanoparticle volume fraction is augmented. Temperature exponent parameter serves to enhance the heat transfer from the surface. Moreover the skin friction coefficient is directly proportional to both magnetic field strength and nanoparticle volume fraction.

  7. Numerical simulation of surface wave dynamics of liquid metal MHD flow on an inclined plane in a magnetic field with spatial variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Donghong

    Interest in utilizing liquid metal film flows to protect the plasma-facing solid structures places increasing demand on understanding the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) of such flows in a magnetic field with spatial variation. The field gradient effect is studied by a two-dimensional (2D) model in Cartesian coordinates. The thin film flow down an inclined plane in spanwise (z-direction) magnetic field with constant streamwise gradient and applied current is analyzed. The solution to the equilibrium flow shows forcefully the M-shaped velocity profile and dependence of side layer thickness on Ha-1/2 whose definition is based on field gradient. The major part of the dissertation is the numerical simulation of free surface film flows and understanding the results. The VOF method is employed to track the free surface, and the CSF model is combined with VOF method to account for surface dynamics condition. The code is validated with respect to Navier-Stokes solver and MHD implementation by computations of ordinary wavy films, MHD flat films and a colleague proposed film flow. The comparisons are performed against respective experimental, theoretical or numerical solutions, and the results are well matched with them. It is found for the ordinary water falling films, at low frequency and high flowrate, the small forcing disturbance at inlet flowrate develops into big roll waves preceded by small capillary bow waves; at high frequency and low Re, it develops into nearly sinusoidal waves with small amplitude and without fore-running capillary waves. The MHD surface instability is investigated for two kinds of film flows in constant streamwise field gradient: one with spatial disturbance and without surface tension, the other with inlet forcing disturbance and with surface tension. At no surface tension condition, the finite amplitude disturbance is rapidly amplified and degrades to irregular shape. With surface tension to maintain smooth interface, finite amplitude regular waves

  8. Reliability of astrophysical jet simulations in 2D. On inter-code reliability and numerical convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, M.; Camenzind, M.

    2001-12-01

    In the present paper, we examine the convergence behavior and inter-code reliability of astrophysical jet simulations in axial symmetry. We consider both pure hydrodynamic jets and jets with a dynamically significant magnetic field. The setups were chosen to match the setups of two other publications, and recomputed with the MHD code NIRVANA. We show that NIRVANA and the two other codes give comparable, but not identical results. We explain the differences by the different application of artificial viscosity in the three codes and numerical details, which can be summarized in a resolution effect, in the case without magnetic field: NIRVANA turns out to be a fair code of medium efficiency. It needs approximately twice the resolution as the code by Lind (Lind et al. 1989) and half the resolution as the code by Kössl (Kössl & Müller 1988). We find that some global properties of a hydrodynamical jet simulation, like e.g. the bow shock velocity, converge at 100 points per beam radius (ppb) with NIRVANA. The situation is quite different after switching on the toroidal magnetic field: in this case, global properties converge even at 10 ppb. In both cases, details of the inner jet structure and especially the terminal shock region are still insufficiently resolved, even at our highest resolution of 70 ppb in the magnetized case and 400 ppb for the pure hydrodynamic jet. The magnetized jet even suffers from a fatal retreat of the Mach disk towards the inflow boundary, which indicates that this simulation does not converge, in the end. This is also in definite disagreement with earlier simulations, and challenges further studies of the problem with other codes. In the case of our highest resolution simulation, we can report two new features: first, small scale Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities are excited at the contact discontinuity next to the jet head. This slows down the development of the long wavelength Kelvin-Helmholtz instability and its turbulent cascade to smaller

  9. A new model for two-dimensional numerical simulation of pseudo-2D gas-solids fluidized beds

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tingwen; Zhang, Yongmin

    2013-10-11

    Pseudo-two dimensional (pseudo-2D) fluidized beds, for which the thickness of the system is much smaller than the other two dimensions, is widely used to perform fundamental studies on bubble behavior, solids mixing, or clustering phenomenon in different gas-solids fluidization systems. The abundant data from such experimental systems are very useful for numerical model development and validation. However, it has been reported that two-dimensional (2D) computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations of pseudo-2D gas-solids fluidized beds usually predict poor quantitative agreement with the experimental data, especially for the solids velocity field. In this paper, a new model is proposed to improve the 2D numerical simulations of pseudo-2D gas-solids fluidized beds by properly accounting for the frictional effect of the front and back walls. Two previously reported pseudo-2D experimental systems were simulated with this model. Compared to the traditional 2D simulations, significant improvements in the numerical predictions have been observed and the predicted results are in better agreement with the available experimental data.

  10. FLIP MHD - A particle-in-cell method for magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brackbill, J. U.

    1991-01-01

    The fluid-implicit-particle, or 'FLIP' method presently extended to 2D and 3D MHD flow incorporates a Lagrangian field representation and yields a grid magnetic Reynolds number of up to 16 while preserving contact continuities that retain the Galilean invariance of the MHD flow equations. Analytical arguments and numerical examples demonstrate the conservation of mass, momentum, magnetic flux, and energy; 2D calculation results for the illustrative cases of contact discontinuity convection, Rayleigh-Taylor unstable flow.

  11. Two-dimensional Numerical Simulation on Performance of Liquid Metal MHD Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Katsunori; Maeda, Tetsuhiko; Hasegawa, Yasuo; Okuno, Yoshihiro

    The performance of a liquid metal MHD generator is investigated with a two-dimensional numerical simulation. The effects of the electrode length, the position of current lead connection and the insertion of insulator on the performance are examined taking account of the current flow in the electrode. There exists an optimal electrode length for a given distribution of applied magnetic flux density. For a short electrode, the efficiency decreases because the power output becomes small. For a long electrode, on the other hand, the efficiency also decreases owing to the leakage current from the upstream and downstream edges of the electrode. An optimal current lead position was revealed. This fact is ascribed to the distributions of induced magnetic field and the current flow in the electrode. It was found that the insertion of insulator is effective for improving the performance, by which the eddy current can be reduced.

  12. Numerical simulation of HTPB combustion in a 2D hybrid slab combustor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gariani, Gabriela; Maggi, Filippo; Galfetti, Luciano

    2011-09-01

    A code for the numerical simulation of combustion processes in hybrid rockets, developed at the Space Propulsion Laboratory of Politecnico di Milano (SPLab), is presented. The code deals with Navier-Stokes equations solved with RANS approach, blowing effect, combustion kinetics and radiation. The equations are closed with k-epsilon turbulence model and well stirred reactor model. The P1 model, a simplification of the PN radiation model, is adopted. Specific simulation tools were developed using OpenFOAM®open source technology. The computational domain is 2D and split in two subdomains, simulating the reacting gas mixture on one side and the solid fuel grain on the other. The interface between the two regions plays a key role as the solid grain pyrolysis comes from a straight solution of the model without shortcuts. A propellant combination with polybutadiene and gaseous oxygen has been chosen and a reduced kinetic model for combustion of butadiene, considered as the major gaseous constituent coming from polybutadiene pyrolysis, has been developed for reactions occurring in oxygen atmosphere. The computational domain tries to replicate the real experimental setup and is split into three areas: pre-chamber, slab zone and post-chamber. High speed camera visualizations of the combustion processes allow to compare the flame height, obtained by the code and by experimental tests, along the grain for given boundary conditions.

  13. Numerical computation of 2D sommerfeld integrals— A novel asymptotic extraction technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorak, Steven L.; Kuester, Edward F.

    1992-02-01

    The accurate and efficient computation of the elements in the impedance matrix is a crucial step in the application of Galerkin's method to the analysis of planar structures. As was demonstrated in a previous paper, it is possible to decompose the angular integral, in the polar representation for the 2D Sommerfeld integrals, in terms of incomplete Lipschitz-Hankel integrals (ILHIs) when piecewise sinusoidal basis functions are employed. Since Bessel series expansions can be used to compute these ILHIs, a numerical integration of the inner angular integral is not required. This technique provides an efficient method for the computation of the inner angular integral; however, the outer semi-infinite integral still converges very slowly when a real axis integration is applied. Therefore, it is very difficult to compute the impedance elements accurately and efficiently. In this paper, it is shown that this problem can be overcome by using the ILHI representation for the angular integral to develop a novel asymptotic extraction technique for the outer semi-infinite integral. The usefulness of this asymptotic extraction technique is demonstrated by applying it to the analysis of a printed strip dipole antenna in a layered medium.

  14. von Neumann Stability Analysis of Numerical Solution Schemes for 1D and 2D Euler Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konangi, Santosh; Palakurthi, Nikhil Kumar; Ghia, Urmila

    2014-11-01

    A von Neumann stability analysis is conducted for numerical schemes for the full system of coupled, density-based 1D and 2D Euler equations, closed by an isentropic equation of state. The governing equations are discretized on a staggered grid, which permits equivalence to finite-volume discretization. Presently, first-order accurate spatial and temporal finite-difference techniques are analyzed. The momentum convection term is treated as explicit, semi-implicit or implicit. Density upwind bias is included in the spatial operator of the continuity equation. By combining the discretization techniques, ten solution schemes are formulated. For each scheme, unstable and stable regimes are identified through the stability analysis, and the maximum allowable CFL number is predicted. The predictions are verified for selected schemes, using the Riemann problem at incompressible and compressible Mach numbers. Very good agreement is obtained between the analytically predicted and ``experimentally'' observed CFL values for all cases, thereby validating the analysis. The demonstrated analysis provides an accurate indication of stability conditions for the Euler equations, in contrast to the simplistic conditions arising from model equations, such as the wave equation.

  15. Modelling 2001 lahars at Popocatépetl volcano using FLO2D numerical code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero, L.; Capra, L.

    2013-12-01

    Popocatépetl volcano is located on the central part of the Transmexican Volcanic Belt. It is one of the most active volcanoes in Mexico and endanger more than 25 million people that lives in its surroundings. In the last months, the renewal of its volcanic activity put into alert scientific community. One of the possible scenarios is the 2001 explosive activity, which was characterized by a 8 km eruptive column and the subsequent formation of pumice flows up to 4 km from the crater. Lahars were generated few hours after, remobilizing the new deposits towards NE flank of the volcano, along Huiloac Gorge, almost reaching Santiago Xalitzintla town (Capra et al., 2004). The occurrence of a similar scenario makes very important to reproduce this event to delimitate accurately lahar hazard zones. In this work, 2001 lahar deposit is modeled using FLO2D numerical code. Geophone data is used to reconstruct initial hydrograph and sediment concentration. Sensitivity study of most important parameters used by this code like Manning, and α and β coefficients was conducted in order to achieve a good simulation. Results obtained were compared with field data and demonstrated a good agreement in thickness and flow distribution. A comparison with previously published data with laharZ program (Muñoz-Salinas, 2009) is also made. Additionally, lahars with fluctuating sediment concentrations but with similar volume are simulated to observe the influence of the rheological behavior on lahar distribution.

  16. Numerical simulation of 2D buoyant jets in ice-covered and temperature-stratified water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Ruochuan

    A two-dimensional (2D) unsteady simulation model is applied to the problem of a submerged warm water discharge into a stratified lake or reservoir with an ice cover. Numerical simulations and analyses are conducted to gain insight into large-scale convective recirculation and flow processes in a cold waterbody induced by a buoyant jet. Jet behaviors under various discharge temperatures are captured by directly modeling flow and thermal fields. Flow structures and processes are described by the simulated spatial and temporal distributions of velocity and temperature in various regions: deflection, recirculation, attachment, and impingement. Some peculiar hydrothermal and dynamic features, e.g. reversal of buoyancy due to the dilution of a warm jet by entraining cold ambient water, are identified and examined. Simulation results show that buoyancy is the most important factor controlling jet behavior and mixing processes. The inflow boundary is treated as a liquid wall from which the jet is offset. Similarity and difference in effects of boundaries perpendicular and parallel to flow, and of buoyancy on jet attachment and impingement, are discussed. Symmetric flow configuration is used to de-emphasize the Coanda effect caused by offset.

  17. Water cycling beneath subduction zones in 2D and 3D numerical models (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupke, L.; Iyer, K. H.; Hasenclever, J.; Morgan, J.

    2013-12-01

    Tracing the cycling of fluids and volatiles through subduction zones continues to be a challenging task with budgets still having large error bars attached to them. In this contribution we show how numerical models can help to integrate various geological, geophysical, and geochemical datasets and how they can be used to put better bounds on the likely amounts of water being subducted, released into the arc and back-arc melting regions, and recycled to the deeper mantle. To achieve this task we use a suite of numerical models. Bending related faulting and hydration of the incoming lithosphere is resolved using a reactive flow model that solves for crustal scale fluid flow and mantle serpentinization using reaction kinetics. Seismic tomography studies from offshore Chile and Central America are used to evaluate and constrain the effective reaction rate. These rates are then used to assess the contribution of serpentinization to the water budget at subduction zones. The pattern of hydration is controlled by the reaction kinetics and serpentinization is most intense around the 270°C isotherm. The depth of this isotherm correlates well with the dominant spacing of double seismic zones observed globally. Comparison of the results with heat flow data suggests that observed seafloor temperature gradients in the bend-fault region are too low to be caused by ';one-pass' downward water flow into the serpentinizing lithosphere, but rather suggest that bend-faults are areas of active hydrothermal circulation. This implies that serpentine-sourced vents and chemosynthetic vent communities should be found in this deep-sea environment as well. Dehydration reactions are resolved with a 2D kinematic subduction zone model that computes the temperature field and the likely locations and volumes of slab fluid release due to metamorphic dehydration reactions. Here we find that up to 1/3 of the subducted water may be transported into the deeper mantle for the coldest subduction zones

  18. On craton thinning/destruction: Insight from 2D thermal-mechanical numerical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, J.

    2014-12-01

    Although most cratons maintain stable, some exceptions are present, such as the North China craton, North Atlantic craton, and Wyoming craton, which have experienced dramatic lithospheric deformation/thinning. Mechanisms triggering cratonic thinning remains enigmatic [Lee et al., 2011]. Using a 2D thermo-mechanical coupled numerical model [Gerya and Yuen, 2007], we investigate two possible mechanisms: (1) stratification of cratonic lithospheric mantle, and (2) rheological weakening due to hydration.Lithospheric mantle stratification is a common feature in cratonic areas which has been demonstrated by geophysical and geochemical studies [Thybo and Perchuc, 1997; Griffin et al., 2004; Romanowicz, 2009; Rychert and Shearer, 2009; Yuan and Romanowicz, 2010]. The influence of lithospheric mantle stratification during craton evolution remains poorly understood. A rheologically weak layer representing hydrated and/or metasomatized composition is implemented in the lithospheric mantle. Our results show that the weak mantle layer changes the dynamics of lithospheric extension by enhancing the deformation of the overlying mantle and crust and inhibiting deformation of the underlying mantle [Liao et al., 2013; Liao and Gerya, 2014]. Modeling results are compared with North China and North Atlantic cratons. Our work indicates that although the presence of a weak layer may not be sufficient to initiate craton deformation, it enhances deformation by lowering the required extensional plate boundary force. Rheological weakening due to hydration is a possible mechanism triggering/enhancing craton deformation, especially for cratons jaxtaposing with a subduction, since water can release from a subducting slab. We investigate the influence of wet mantle flow laws [Hirth and Kohlstedt, 2003], in which a water parameter (i.e. constant water content) is involved. Our results show that wet dislocation alone does not accelerate cratonic deformation significantly. However, if wet diffusion

  19. Absorption and Scattering 2D Volcano Images from Numerically Calculated Space-weighting functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Pezzo, Edoardo; Ibañez, Jesus; Prudencio, Janire; Bianco, Francesca; De Siena, Luca

    2016-04-01

    Short period small magnitude seismograms mainly comprise scattered waves in the form of coda waves (the tail part of the seismogram, starting after S-waves and ending when the noise prevails), spanning more than 70% of the whole seismogram duration. Corresponding coda envelopes provide important information about the earth inhomogeneity, which can be stochastically modeled in terms of distribution of scatterers in a random medium. In suitable experimental conditions (i.e. high earth heterogeneity) either the two parameters describing heterogeneity (scattering coefficient), intrinsic energy dissipation (coefficient of intrinsic attenuation) or a combination of them (extinction length and seismic albedo) can be used to image Earth structures. Once a set of such parameter couples has been measured in a given area and for a number of sources and receivers, imaging their space distribution with standard methods is straightforward. However, as for finite-frequency and full-waveform tomography, the essential problem for a correct imaging is the determination of the weighting function describing the spatial sensitivity of observable data to scattering and absorption anomalies. Due to the nature of coda waves, the measured parameter-couple can be seen as a weighted space average of the real parameters characterizing the rock volumes illuminated by the scattered waves. This paper uses the Monte Carlo numerical solution of the Energy Transport Equation to find approximate but realistic 2D space-weighting functions for coda waves. Separate images for scattering and absorption based on these sensitivity functions are then compared with those obtained with commonly-used sensitivity functions in an application to data from an active seismic experiment carried out at Deception Island (Antarctica). Results show the that these novel functions are based on a reliable and physically grounded method to image magnitude and shape of scattering and absorption anomalies. Their extension to

  20. Absorption and scattering 2-D volcano images from numerically calculated space-weighting functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Pezzo, Edoardo; Ibañez, Jesus; Prudencio, Janire; Bianco, Francesca; De Siena, Luca

    2016-08-01

    Short-period small magnitude seismograms mainly comprise scattered waves in the form of coda waves (the tail part of the seismogram, starting after S waves and ending when the noise prevails), spanning more than 70 per cent of the whole seismogram duration. Corresponding coda envelopes provide important information about the earth inhomogeneity, which can be stochastically modeled in terms of distribution of scatterers in a random medium. In suitable experimental conditions (i.e. high earth heterogeneity), either the two parameters describing heterogeneity (scattering coefficient), intrinsic energy dissipation (coefficient of intrinsic attenuation) or a combination of them (extinction length and seismic albedo) can be used to image Earth structures. Once a set of such parameter couples has been measured in a given area and for a number of sources and receivers, imaging their space distribution with standard methods is straightforward. However, as for finite-frequency and full-waveform tomography, the essential problem for a correct imaging is the determination of the weighting function describing the spatial sensitivity of observable data to scattering and absorption anomalies. Due to the nature of coda waves, the measured parameter couple can be seen as a weighted space average of the real parameters characterizing the rock volumes illuminated by the scattered waves. This paper uses the Monte Carlo numerical solution of the Energy Transport Equation to find approximate but realistic 2-D space-weighting functions for coda waves. Separate images for scattering and absorption based on these sensitivity functions are then compared with those obtained with commonly used sensitivity functions in an application to data from an active seismic experiment carried out at Deception Island (Antarctica). Results show that these novel functions are based on a reliable and physically grounded method to image magnitude and shape of scattering and absorption anomalies. Their

  1. Flow Matching Results of an MHD Energy Bypass System on a Supersonic Turbojet Engine Using the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benyo, Theresa L.

    2011-01-01

    Flow matching has been successfully achieved for an MHD energy bypass system on a supersonic turbojet engine. The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) environment helped perform a thermodynamic cycle analysis to properly match the flows from an inlet employing a MHD energy bypass system (consisting of an MHD generator and MHD accelerator) on a supersonic turbojet engine. Working with various operating conditions (such as the applied magnetic field, MHD generator length and flow conductivity), interfacing studies were conducted between the MHD generator, the turbojet engine, and the MHD accelerator. This paper briefly describes the NPSS environment used in this analysis. This paper further describes the analysis of a supersonic turbojet engine with an MHD generator/accelerator energy bypass system. Results from this study have shown that using MHD energy bypass in the flow path of a supersonic turbojet engine increases the useful Mach number operating range from 0 to 3.0 Mach (not using MHD) to a range of 0 to 7.0 Mach with specific net thrust range of 740 N-s/kg (at ambient Mach = 3.25) to 70 N-s/kg (at ambient Mach = 7). These results were achieved with an applied magnetic field of 2.5 Tesla and conductivity levels in a range from 2 mhos/m (ambient Mach = 7) to 5.5 mhos/m (ambient Mach = 3.5) for an MHD generator length of 3 m.

  2. Numerical Simulation of Supersonic Compression Corners and Hypersonic Inlet Flows Using the RPLUS2D Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kapoor, Kamlesh; Anderson, Bernhard H.; Shaw, Robert J.

    1994-01-01

    A two-dimensional computational code, PRLUS2D, which was developed for the reactive propulsive flows of ramjets and scramjets, was validated for two-dimensional shock-wave/turbulent-boundary-layer interactions. The problem of compression corners at supersonic speeds was solved using the RPLUS2D code. To validate the RPLUS2D code for hypersonic speeds, it was applied to a realistic hypersonic inlet geometry. Both the Baldwin-Lomax and the Chien two-equation turbulence models were used. Computational results showed that the RPLUS2D code compared very well with experimentally obtained data for supersonic compression corner flows, except in the case of large separated flows resulting from the interactions between the shock wave and turbulent boundary layer. The computational results compared well with the experiment results in a hypersonic NASA P8 inlet case, with the Chien two-equation turbulence model performing better than the Baldwin-Lomax model.

  3. Pool Formation in Boulder-Bed Streams: Implications From 1-D and 2-D Numerical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, L. R.; Keller, E. A.

    2003-12-01

    In mountain rivers of Southern California, boulder-large roughness elements strongly influence flow hydraulics and pool formation and maintenance. In these systems, boulders appear to control the stream morphology by converging flow and producing deep pools during channel forming discharges. Our research goal is to develop quantitative relationships between boulder roughness elements, temporal patterns of scour and fill, and geomorphic processes that are important in producing pool habitat. The longitudinal distribution of shear stress, unit stream power and velocity were estimated along a 48 m reach on Rattlesnake Creek, using the HEC-RAS v 3.0 and River 2-D numerical models. The reach has an average slope of 0.02 and consists of a pool-riffle sequence with a large boulder constriction directly above the pool. Model runs were performed for a range of stream discharges to test if scour and fill thresholds for pool and riffle environments could be identified. Results from the HEC-RAS simulations identified that thresholds in shear stress, unit stream power and mean velocity occur above a discharge of 5.0 cms. Results from the one-dimensional analysis suggest that the reversal in competency is likely due to changes in cross-sectional width at varying flows. River 2-D predictions indicated that strong transverse velocity gradients were present through the pool at higher modeled discharges. At a flow of 0.5 cms (roughly 1/10th bankfull discharge), velocities are estimated at 0.6 m/s and 1.3 m/s for the pool and riffle, respectively. During discharges of 5.15 cms (approximate bankfull discharge), the maximum velocity in the pool center increased to nearly 3.0 m/s, while the maximum velocity over the riffle is estimated at approximately 2.5 cms. These results are consistent with those predicted by HEC-RAS, though the reversal appears to be limited to a narrow jet that occurs through the pool head and pool center. Model predictions suggest that the velocity reversal is

  4. Broken Ergodicity in MHD Turbulence in a Spherical Domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.; wang, Yifan

    2011-01-01

    Broken ergodicity (BE) occurs in Fourier method numerical simulations of ideal, homogeneous, incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. Although naive statistical theory predicts that Fourier coefficients of fluid velocity and magnetic field are zero-mean random variables, numerical simulations clearly show that low-wave-number coefficients have non-zero mean values that can be very large compared to the associated standard deviation. In other words, large-scale coherent structure (i.e., broken ergodicity) in homogeneous MHD turbulence can spontaneously grow out of random initial conditions. Eigenanalysis of the modal covariance matrices in the probability density functions of ideal statistical theory leads to a theoretical explanation of observed BE in homogeneous MHD turbulence. Since dissipation is minimal at the largest scales, BE is also relevant for resistive magnetofluids, as evidenced in numerical simulations. Here, we move beyond model magnetofluids confined by periodic boxes to examine BE in rotating magnetofluids in spherical domains using spherical harmonic expansions along with suitable boundary conditions. We present theoretical results for 3-D and 2-D spherical models and also present computational results from dynamical simulations of 2-D MHD turbulence on a rotating spherical surface. MHD turbulence on a 2-D sphere is affected by Coriolus forces, while MHD turbulence on a 2-D plane is not, so that 2-D spherical models are a useful (and simpler) intermediate stage on the path to understanding the much more complex 3-D spherical case.

  5. 2-D Numerical Simulation of Eruption Clouds : Effects of Turbulent Mixing between Eruption Cloud and Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Y.; KOYAGUCHI, T.; OGAWA, M.; Hachisu, I.

    2001-05-01

    Mixing of eruption cloud and air is one of the most important processes for eruption cloud dynamics. The critical condition of eruption types (eruption column or pyroclastic flow) depends on efficiency of mixing of eruption cloud and the ambient air. However, in most of the previous models (e.g., Sparks,1986; Woods, 1988), the rate of mixing between cloud and air is taken into account by introducing empirical parameters such as entrainment coefficient or turbulent diffusion coefficient. We developed a numerical model of 2-D (axisymmetrical) eruption columns in order to simulate the turbulent mixing between eruption column and air. We calculated the motion of an eruption column from a circular vent on the flat surface of the earth. Supposing that relative velocity of gas and ash particles is sufficiently small, we can treat eruption cloud as a single gas. Equation of state (EOS) for the mixture of the magmatic component (i.e. volcanic gas plus pyroclasts) and air can be expressed by EOS for an ideal gas, because volume fraction of the gas phase is very large. The density change as a function of mixing ratio between air and the magmatic component has a strong non-linear feature, because the density of the mixture drastically decreases as entrained air expands by heating. This non-linear feature can be reproduced by changing the gas constant and the ratio of specific heat in EOS for ideal gases; the molecular weight increases and the ratio of specific heat approaches 1 as the magmatic component increases. It is assumed that the dynamics of eruption column follows the Euler equation, so that no viscous effect except for the numerical viscosity is taken into account. Roe scheme (a general TVD scheme for compressible flow) is used in order to simulate the generation of shock waves inside and around the eruption column. The results show that many vortexes are generated around the boundary between eruption cloud and air, which results in violent mixing. When the size of

  6. Numerical Simulation of Turbulent MHD Flows Using an Iterative PNS Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kato, Hiromasa; Tannehill, John C.; Mehta, Unmeel B.

    2003-01-01

    A new parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) algorithm has been developed to efficiently compute magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows in the low magnetic Reynolds number regime. In this regime, the electrical conductivity is low and the induced magnetic field is negligible compared to the applied magnetic field. The MHD effects are modeled by introducing source terms into the PNS equation which can then be solved in a very efficient manner. To account for upstream (elliptic) effects, the flowfields are computed using multiple streamwise sweeps with an iterated PNS algorithm. Turbulence has been included by modifying the Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model to account for MHD effects. The new algorithm has been used to compute both laminar and turbulent, supersonic, MHD flows over flat plates and supersonic viscous flows in a rectangular MHD accelerator. The present results are in excellent agreement with previous complete Navier-Stokes calculations.

  7. Initial Flow Matching Results of MHD Energy Bypass on a Supersonic Turbojet Engine Using the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benyo, Theresa L.

    2010-01-01

    Preliminary flow matching has been demonstrated for a MHD energy bypass system on a supersonic turbojet engine. The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) environment was used to perform a thermodynamic cycle analysis to properly match the flows from an inlet to a MHD generator and from the exit of a supersonic turbojet to a MHD accelerator. Working with various operating conditions such as the enthalpy extraction ratio and isentropic efficiency of the MHD generator and MHD accelerator, interfacing studies were conducted between the pre-ionizers, the MHD generator, the turbojet engine, and the MHD accelerator. This paper briefly describes the NPSS environment used in this analysis and describes the NPSS analysis of a supersonic turbojet engine with a MHD generator/accelerator energy bypass system. Results from this study have shown that using MHD energy bypass in the flow path of a supersonic turbojet engine increases the useful Mach number operating range from 0 to 3.0 Mach (not using MHD) to an explored and desired range of 0 to 7.0 Mach.

  8. Numerical studies of liquid metal flow patterns for a laboratory MHD dynamo.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, R.; Forest, C. B.; Holme, R.

    1998-11-01

    Numerical studies have been performed for a liquid metal MHD experiment which is being constructed at the University of Wisconsin in order to isolate the key physics issues determining the spontaneous generation of magnetic fields which should occur in the device. This spontaneous conversion of kinetic energy into magnetic energy, often called the dynamo effect, is the growth of a magnetic instability when the liquid metal is rotated at a high enough velocity (or Reynolds number) for advective terms in the magnetic induction equation to overcome diffusive terms. However, the flow velocities at which this occurs are extremely sensitive to the shape of the flow patterns. The ability of the system to allow the growth of a magnetic instability is associated with the existence of a rational surface in the velocity profile, and growth is especially favored when a ``q=1'' surface exists in the flow volume. Optimizations of the flow pattern have found configurations with lower thresholds for magnetic field generation.

  9. Comparison between 2D and 3D Numerical Modelling of a hot forging simulative test

    SciTech Connect

    Croin, M.; Ghiotti, A.; Bruschi, S.

    2007-04-07

    The paper presents the comparative analysis between 2D and 3D modelling of a simulative experiment, performed in laboratory environment, in which operating conditions approximate hot forging of a turbine aerofoil section. The plane strain deformation was chosen as an ideal case to analyze the process because of the thickness variations in the final section and the consequent distributions of contact pressure and sliding velocity at the interface that are closed to the conditions of the real industrial process. In order to compare the performances of 2D and 3D approaches, two different analyses were performed and compared with the experiments in terms of loads and temperatures peaks at the interface between the dies and the workpiece.

  10. Numerical Simulations of High-Frequency Respiratory Flows in 2D and 3D Lung Bifurcation Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zixi; Parameswaran, Shamini; Hu, Yingying; He, Zhaoming; Raj, Rishi; Parameswaran, Siva

    2014-07-01

    To better understand the human pulmonary system and optimize the high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) design, numerical simulations were conducted under normal breathing frequency and HFOV condition using a CFD code Ansys Fluent and its user-defined C programs. 2D and 3D double bifurcating lung models were created, and the geometry corresponds to fifth to seventh generations of airways with the dimensions based on the Weibel's pulmonary model. Computations were carried out for different Reynolds numbers (Re = 400 and 1000) and Womersley numbers (α = 4 and 16) to study the air flow fields, gas transportation, and wall shear stresses in the lung airways. Flow structure was compared with experimental results. Both 2D and 3D numerical models successfully reproduced many results observed in the experiment. The oxygen concentration distribution in the lung model was investigated to analyze the influence of flow oscillation on gas transport inside the lung model.

  11. Numerical solution of 2D-vector tomography problem using the method of approximate inverse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svetov, Ivan; Maltseva, Svetlana; Polyakova, Anna

    2016-08-01

    We propose a numerical solution of reconstruction problem of a two-dimensional vector field in a unit disk from the known values of the longitudinal and transverse ray transforms. The algorithm is based on the method of approximate inverse. Numerical simulations confirm that the proposed method yields good results of reconstruction of vector fields.

  12. Numerical studies of the melting transition in 2D Yukawa systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmann, P.; Donko, Z.; Kalman, G. J.

    2008-09-07

    We present the latest results of our systematic studies of the solid--liquid phase transition in 2D classical many-particle systems interacting with the Yukawa potential. Our previous work is extended by applying the molecular dynamic simulations to systems with up to 1.6 million particles in the computational box (for {kappa} = 2 case). Equilibrium simulations are performed for different coupling parameters in the vicinity of the expected melting transition ({gamma}{sub m}{sup {kappa}}{sup ={sup 2}}{approx_equal}415) and a wide range of observables are averaged over uncorrelated samples of the micro-canonical ensemble generated by the simulations.

  13. Effect of River Training Project on Hydrodynamics Flow Circumstances by 2D Finite Element Numerical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, B.; Li, D. F.; Hu, H. J.; Zhang, H. W.; Lou, L. H.; Chen, M.; Lv, Z. Y.

    Based on the verified two dimensional(2D) finite element model for river flow simulation, the effect of estuary training levees on the water flow and sediment movement in the Yellow River estuary is analyzed. For disclosing the effect of setting the two training levees on the flow and sediment motion, the calculation and analysis for the two projects, (one is no levees, the other is setting up two no levees) are given. The results show that when setting up two training levees, water flow is bound by levees and the water flows become more concentrated. As a result, velocity increases in the main channel, sediment carrying capacity of water flow increases correspondingly.

  14. Numerical simulation for the unsteady MHD flow and heat transfer of couple stress fluid over a rotating disk.

    PubMed

    Khan, Najeeb Alam; Aziz, Shahnila; Khan, Nadeem Alam

    2014-01-01

    The present work is devoted to study the numerical simulation for unsteady MHD flow and heat transfer of a couple stress fluid over a rotating disk. A similarity transformation is employed to reduce the time dependent system of nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) to ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The Runge-Kutta method and shooting technique are employed for finding the numerical solution of the governing system. The influences of governing parameters viz. unsteadiness parameter, couple stress and various physical parameters on velocity, temperature and pressure profiles are analyzed graphically and discussed in detail. PMID:24835274

  15. Numerical Simulation for the Unsteady MHD Flow and Heat Transfer of Couple Stress Fluid over a Rotating Disk

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The present work is devoted to study the numerical simulation for unsteady MHD flow and heat transfer of a couple stress fluid over a rotating disk. A similarity transformation is employed to reduce the time dependent system of nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) to ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The Runge-Kutta method and shooting technique are employed for finding the numerical solution of the governing system. The influences of governing parameters viz. unsteadiness parameter, couple stress and various physical parameters on velocity, temperature and pressure profiles are analyzed graphically and discussed in detail. PMID:24835274

  16. Numerical method of crack analysis in 2D finite magnetoelectroelastic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Minghao; Xu, Guangtao; Fan, Cuiying

    2010-04-01

    The present paper extends the hybrid extended displacement discontinuity fundamental solution method (HEDD-FSM) (Eng Anal Bound Elem 33:592-600, 2009) to analysis of cracks in 2D finite magnetoelectroelastic media. The solution of the crack is expressed approximately by a linear combination of fundamental solutions of the governing equations, which includes the extended point force fundamental solutions with sources placed at chosen points outside the domain of the problem under consideration, and the extended Crouch fundamental solutions with extended displacement discontinuities placed on the crack. The coefficients of the fundamental solutions are determined by letting the approximated solution satisfy the prescribed boundary conditions on the boundary of the domain and on the crack face. The Crouch fundamental solution for a parabolic element at the crack tip is derived to model the square root variations of near tip fields. The extended stress intensity factors are calculated under different electric and magnetic boundary conditions.

  17. 2D-Combined ICP/CCP numerical modeling for RF plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyashita, Masaru; Ikeda, Kei; Ochi, Syuta

    2015-09-01

    A numerical investigation of sputtering distribution on antenna cover in Radio Frequency (13.56 MHz) plasma(RF plasma) source by energetic ions bombardment has been performed including influences of static electric field from voltage of antenna and of inductive electric field from current of antenna. In order to validate the developed technique, the static electron heating distribution and the inductive electron heating distribution in simulation are compared. The comparison shows the static electric field is shielded in the sheath of the high electron density (1017m-3) plasma and the plasma is sustained by inductive electric field from current of antenna. The deep sheath potential in simulation is generated over the region of large vulnerable in experiment. The numerical simulation technique with calculating static electric field and inductive electric field is important for development of the RF plasma source with large current and long life time.

  18. MODELING STATISTICAL PROPERTIES OF SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS THROUGH DIRECT NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF 3D-MHD TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Malapaka, Shiva Kumar; Mueller, Wolf-Christian

    2013-09-01

    Statistical properties of the Sun's photospheric turbulent magnetic field, especially those of the active regions (ARs), have been studied using the line-of-sight data from magnetograms taken by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory and several other instruments. This includes structure functions and their exponents, flatness curves, and correlation functions. In these works, the dependence of structure function exponents ({zeta}{sub p}) of the order of the structure functions (p) was modeled using a non-intermittent K41 model. It is now well known that the ARs are highly turbulent and are associated with strong intermittent events. In this paper, we compare some of the observations from Abramenko et al. with the log-Poisson model used for modeling intermittent MHD turbulent flows. Next, we analyze the structure function data obtained from the direct numerical simulations (DNS) of homogeneous, incompressible 3D-MHD turbulence in three cases: sustained by forcing, freely decaying, and a flow initially driven and later allowed to decay (case 3). The respective DNS replicate the properties seen in the plots of {zeta}{sub p} against p of ARs. We also reproduce the trends and changes observed in intermittency in flatness and correlation functions of ARs. It is suggested from this analysis that an AR in the onset phase of a flare can be treated as a forced 3D-MHD turbulent system in its simplest form and that the flaring stage is representative of decaying 3D-MHD turbulence. It is also inferred that significant changes in intermittency from the initial onset phase of a flare to its final peak flaring phase are related to the time taken by the system to reach the initial onset phase.

  19. Numerical Simulations of the Propagation of a Liquid Plug through a 2D Airway Bifurcation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, Benjamin L., Jr.; Grotberg, James B.

    2010-11-01

    Numerous medical therapies require the instillation of liquids plugs and their delivery throughout the pulmonary airways. This process and the effect on the resulting liquid distribution is controlled by a number of parameters, including airway orientation with respect to gravity, initial plug volume, liquid physical properties, and the imposed airflow rate which drives the plug from behind. The airflow rate defines an operative Capillary number, Ca, and the influence of gravity appears as an effective Bond number, Bo, whose magnitude varies with orientation. In this study, we develop a numerical method for solving the propagation of a liquid plug into a two-dimensional airway bifurcation consisting of a parent channel branching into two daughter channels. We measure the splitting ratio, RS, which is defined as the ratio of the liquid plug volumes between the daughter branches. RS increases with Ca and asymptotes to 1 as Ca goes to infinity, which corresponds to an equal split, while increasing Bo requires a higher value of Ca for an equal split. We also examine the normal and shear stresses on the bifurcation walls and observe that the stresses on the upper walls increase as Bo increases while the stresses on the lower walls decrease as Bo increases.

  20. Power production locality of bluff body flutter mills using fully coupled 2D direct numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhl, J. M.; Desjardin, P. E.

    2012-01-01

    Two-dimensional, fully coupled direct numerical simulations (DNS) are conducted to examine the local energy dynamics of a flexible cantilevered plate in the wake of a two-dimensional circular cylinder. The motion of the cantilevered plate is described using a finite element formulation and a fully compressible, finite volume Navier Stokes solver is used to compute the flow field. A sharp interface level set method is employed in conjunction with a ghost fluid method to describe the immersed boundaries of the bluff body and flexible plate. DNS is first conducted to validate the numerical methodology and compared with previous studies of flexible cantilevered plates and flow over bluff bodies; excellent agreement with previous results is observed. A newly defined power production/loss geometry metric is introduced based on surface curvature and plate velocity. The metric is found to be useful for determining which sections of the plate will produce energy based on curvature and deflection rate. Scatter plots and probability measures are presented showing a high correlation between the direction of energy transfer (i.e., to or from the plate) and the sign of the newly defined curvature-deflection-rate metric. The findings from this study suggest that a simple local geometry/kinematic based metric can be devised to aid in the development and design of flexible wind energy harvesting flutter mills.

  1. Numerical and experimental studies of the elastic enhancement factor of 2D open systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirko, Leszek; Białous, Małgorzata; Yunko, Vitalii; Bauch, Szymon; Ławniczak, Michał

    We present the results of numerical and experimental studies of the elastic enhancement factor W for microwave rough and rectangular cavities simulating two-dimensional chaotic and partially chaotic quantum billiards in the presence of moderate absorption strength. We show that for the frequency range ν = 15 . 0 - 18 . 5 GHz, in which the coupling between antennas and the system is strong enough, the values of W for the microwave rough cavity lie below the predictions of random matrix theory and on average they are above the theoretical results of V. Sokolov and O. Zhirov, Phys. Rev. E, 91, 052917 (2015). We also show that the enhancement factor W of a microwave rectangular cavity coupled to the external channels via microwave antennas, simulating a partially chaotic quantum billiard, calculated by applying the Potter-Rosenzweig model with κ = 2 . 8 +/- 0 . 5 is close to the experimental one. Our numerical and experimental results suggest that the enhancement factor can be used as a measure of internal chaos which can be especially useful for systems with significant openness or absorption. This work was partially supported by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education Grants N N202 130239 and UMO-2013/09/D/ST2/03727.

  2. Temperature and Pinning Effects on Driving a 2D Electron System on a Helium Film: A Numerical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damasceno, Pablo F.; Dasilva, Cláudio José; Rino, José Pedro; Cândido, Ladir

    2010-07-01

    Using numerical simulations we investigated the dynamic response to an externally driven force of a classical two-dimensional (2D) electron system on a helium film at finite temperatures. A potential barrier located at the center of the system behaves as a pinning center that results in an insulator state below a threshold driving force. We have found that the current-voltage characteristic obeys the scaling relation I= f ξ , with ξ ranging from ˜(1.0-1.7) for different pinning strengths and temperatures. Our results may be used to understand the spread range of ξ in experiments with typical characteristic of plastic depinning.

  3. A numerical method for computing unsteady 2-D boundary layer flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krainer, Andreas

    1988-01-01

    A numerical method for computing unsteady two-dimensional boundary layers in incompressible laminar and turbulent flows is described and applied to a single airfoil changing its incidence angle in time. The solution procedure adopts a first order panel method with a simple wake model to solve for the inviscid part of the flow, and an implicit finite difference method for the viscous part of the flow. Both procedures integrate in time in a step-by-step fashion, in the course of which each step involves the solution of the elliptic Laplace equation and the solution of the parabolic boundary layer equations. The Reynolds shear stress term of the boundary layer equations is modeled by an algebraic eddy viscosity closure. The location of transition is predicted by an empirical data correlation originating from Michel. Since transition and turbulence modeling are key factors in the prediction of viscous flows, their accuracy will be of dominant influence to the overall results.

  4. 2D transient granular flows over obstacles: experimental and numerical work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juez, Carmelo; Caviedes-Voullième, Daniel; Murillo, Javier; García-Navarro, Pilar

    2016-04-01

    Landslides are an ubiquitous natural hazard, and therefore human infrastructure and settlements are often at risk in mountainous regions. In order to better understand and predict landslides, systematic studies of the phenomena need to be undertaken. In particular, computational tools which allow for analysis of field problems require to be thoroughly tested, calibrated and validated under controlled conditions. And to do so, it is necessary for such controlled experiments to be fully characterized in the same terms as the numerical model requires. This work presents an experimental study of dry granular flow over a rough bed with topography which resembles a mountain valley. It has an upper region with a very high slope. The geometry of the bed describes a fourth order polynomial curve, with a low point with zero slope, and afterwards a short region with adverse slope. Obstacles are present in the lower regions which are used as model geometries of human structures. The experiments consisted of a sudden release a mass of sand on the upper region, and allowing it to flow downslope. Furthermore, it has been frequent in previous studies to measure final states of the granular mass at rest, but seldom has transient data being provided, and never for the entire field. In this work we present transient measurements of the moving granular surfaces, obtained with a consumer-grade RGB-D sensor. The sensor, developed for the videogame industry, allows to measure the moving surface of the sand, thus obtaining elevation fields. The experimental results are very consistent and repeatable. The measured surfaces clearly show the distinctive features of the granular flow around the obstacles and allow to qualitatively describe the different flow patterns. More importantly, the quantitative description of the granular surface allows for benchmarking and calibration of predictive numerical models, key in scaling the small-scale experimental knowledge into the field. In addition, as

  5. Numerical Real Space Renormalization of a 2D Random Boson Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, Shankar; Refael, Gil

    2011-03-01

    Interest in the random boson problem originated in experiments on Helium adsorbed in Vycor, but the problem arises in many contexts, including Josephson junction arrays and disordered cold atom systems. Recently, Altman, Kafri, Polkovnikov, and Refael have studied a rotor model description of interacting bosons subjected to quenched disorder in one dimension. Using a real space renormalization approach, they have identified a random fixed point that marks the transition between superfluid and Mott-glass phases. Here, we describe work that numerically extends their approach to the random boson problem in two dimensions. We first test the validity of the real space renormalization by comparison to exact diagonalization of small systems. Then, we move to larger systems and explore what the renormalization scheme can tell us about the nature of the insulating and superfluid phases.

  6. Numerical analysis of InSb parameters and InSb 2D infrared focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaolei; Zhang, Hongfei; Sun, Weiguo; Zhang, Lei; Meng, Chao; Lu, Zhengxiong

    2012-10-01

    Accurate and reliable numerical simulation tools are necessary for the development of advanced semiconductor devices. InSb is using the MATLAB and TCAD simulation tool to calculatet the InSb body bandstructure, blackbody's radiant emittance and simultaneously solve the Poisson, Continuity and transport equations for 2D detector structures. In this work the material complexities of InSb, such as non-parabolicity, degenergcy, mobility and Auger recombination/generation are explained, and physics based models are developed. The Empirical Tight Binding Method (ETBM) was been using to calculate the bandstructure for InSb at 77 K by Matlab. We describe a set of systematic experiments performed in order to calibrate the simulation to semiconductor devices backside illuminated InSb focal plane arrays realized with planar technology. The spectral photoresponse and crosstalk characteristic for mid-wavelength InSb infrared focal plane arrays have been numerically studied.

  7. A hybrid experimental-numerical technique for determining 3D velocity fields from planar 2D PIV data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eden, A.; Sigurdson, M.; Mezić, I.; Meinhart, C. D.

    2016-09-01

    Knowledge of 3D, three component velocity fields is central to the understanding and development of effective microfluidic devices for lab-on-chip mixing applications. In this paper we present a hybrid experimental-numerical method for the generation of 3D flow information from 2D particle image velocimetry (PIV) experimental data and finite element simulations of an alternating current electrothermal (ACET) micromixer. A numerical least-squares optimization algorithm is applied to a theory-based 3D multiphysics simulation in conjunction with 2D PIV data to generate an improved estimation of the steady state velocity field. This 3D velocity field can be used to assess mixing phenomena more accurately than would be possible through simulation alone. Our technique can also be used to estimate uncertain quantities in experimental situations by fitting the gathered field data to a simulated physical model. The optimization algorithm reduced the root-mean-squared difference between the experimental and simulated velocity fields in the target region by more than a factor of 4, resulting in an average error less than 12% of the average velocity magnitude.

  8. Numerical Study of Sound Emission by 2D Regular and Chaotic Vortex Configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knio, Omar M.; Collorec, Luc; Juvé, Daniel

    1995-02-01

    The far-field noise generated by a system of three Gaussian vortices lying over a flat boundary is numerically investigated using a two-dimensional vortex element method. The method is based on the discretization of the vorticity field into a finite number of smoothed vortex elements of spherical overlapping cores. The elements are convected in a Lagrangian reference along particle trajectories using the local velocity vector, given in terms of a desingularized Biot-Savart law. The initial structure of the vortex system is triangular; a one-dimensional family of initial configurations is constructed by keeping one side of the triangle fixed and vertical, and varying the abscissa of the centroid of the remaining vortex. The inviscid dynamics of this vortex configuration are first investigated using non-deformable vortices. Depending on the aspect ratio of the initial system, regular or chaotic motion occurs. Due to wall-related symmetries, the far-field sound always exhibits a time-independent quadrupolar directivity with maxima parallel end perpendicular to the wall. When regular motion prevails, the noise spectrum is dominated by discrete frequencies which correspond to the fundamental system frequency and its superharmonics. For chaotic motion, a broadband spectrum is obtained; computed soundlevels are substantially higher than in non-chaotic systems. A more sophisticated analysis is then performed which accounts for vortex core dynamics. Results show that the vortex cores are susceptible to inviscid instability which leads to violent vorticity reorganization within the core. This phenomenon has little effect on the large-scale features of the motion of the system or on low frequency sound emission. However, it leads to the generation of a high-frequency noise band in the acoustic pressure spectrum. The latter is observed in both regular and chaotic system simulations.

  9. A nonlocal finite difference scheme for simulation of wave propagation in 2D models with reduced numerical dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martowicz, A.; Ruzzene, M.; Staszewski, W. J.; Rimoli, J. J.; Uhl, T.

    2014-03-01

    The work deals with the reduction of numerical dispersion in simulations of wave propagation in solids. The phenomenon of numerical dispersion naturally results from time and spatial discretization present in a numerical model of mechanical continuum. Although discretization itself makes possible to model wave propagation in structures with complicated geometries and made of different materials, it inevitably causes simulation errors when improper time and length scales are chosen for the simulations domains. Therefore, by definition, any characteristic parameter for spatial and time resolution must create limitations on maximal wavenumber and frequency for a numerical model. It should be however noted that expected increase of the model quality and its functionality in terms of affordable wavenumbers, frequencies and speeds should not be achieved merely by denser mesh and reduced time integration step. The computational cost would be simply unacceptable. The authors present a nonlocal finite difference scheme with the coefficients calculated applying a Fourier series, which allows for considerable reduction of numerical dispersion. There are presented the results of analyses for 2D models, with isotropic and anisotropic materials, fulfilling the planar stress state. Reduced numerical dispersion is shown in the dispersion surfaces for longitudinal and shear waves propagating for different directions with respect to the mesh orientation and without dramatic increase of required number of nonlocal interactions. A case with the propagation of longitudinal wave in composite material is studied with given referential solution of the initial value problem for verification of the time-domain outcomes. The work gives a perspective of modeling of any type of real material dispersion according to measurements and with assumed accuracy.

  10. MHD boundary layer flow and heat transfer of nanofluids over a nonlinear stretching sheet: A numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabood, F.; Khan, W. A.; Ismail, A. I. M.

    2015-01-01

    The MHD laminar boundary layer flow with heat and mass transfer of an electrically conducting water-based nanofluid over a nonlinear stretching sheet with viscous dissipation effect is investigated numerically. This is the extension of the previous study on flow and heat transfer of a nanofluid over nonlinear stretching sheet (Rana and Bhargava, Commun. Nonlinear Sci. Numer. Simul. 17 (2012) 212-226). The governing equations are reduced to nonlinear ordinary differential equations using suitable similarity transformation. The effects of the governing parameters on dimensionless quantities like velocity, temperature, nanoparticle concentration, friction factor, local Nusselt, and Sherwood numbers are explored. It is found that the dimensionless velocity decreases and temperature increases with magnetic parameter, and the thermal boundary layer thickness increases with Brownian motion and thermophoresis parameters.

  11. 2D Numerical Model And Self-Consistent Particle-In-Cell Simulations Of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwan, Thomas; Huang, Chengkun; Carlsten, Bruce

    2012-10-01

    Understanding CSR effects in a bunch compressor requires accurate and self-consistent dynamical simulations accounting for the realistic beam shape and parameters, transient dynamics and possibly a material boundary. We first extend the well-known 1D CSR model into two dimensions and develop a simple numerical algorithm based on the Lienard-Wiechert formula for the electric field of a stiff beam. This numerical model includes the 2D spatial dependence of the field in the bending plane and is accurate for arbitrary beam energy. It also removes the singularity in space charge field presented in a 1D model. Good agreement is obtained with 1D CSR analytic [1] result for FEL related beam parameters but deviations are also found for low-energy or large spot size beams and off-axis fields. We also employ fully electromagnetic Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulations for self-consistent CSR modeling. The relatively large numerical phase error and anisotropy in a standard PIC algorithm is improved with a high order Finite Difference Time Domain scheme. Detail self-consistent PIC simulations of the CSR fields and beam dynamics will be presented and discussed.

  12. Numerical simulations of instabilities in the implosion process of inertial confined fusion in 2D cylindrical coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Heng; Zhai, ChuanLei; Jiang, Song; Song, Peng; Dai, ZhenSheng; Gu, JianFa

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a multi-material arbitrary Lagrangian and Eulerian method for the hydrodynamic radiative multi-group diffusion model in 2D cylindrical coordinates. The basic idea in the construction of the method is the following: In the Lagrangian step, a closure model of radiation-hydrodynamics is used to give the states of equations for materials in mixed cells. In the mesh rezoning step, we couple the rezoning principle with the Lagrangian interface tracking method and an Eulerian interface capturing scheme to compute interfaces sharply according to their deformation and to keep cells in good geometric quality. In the interface reconstruction step, a dual-material Moment-of-Fluid method is introduced to obtain the unique interface in mixed cells. In the remapping step, a conservative remapping algorithm of conserved quantities is presented. A number of numerical tests are carried out and the numerical results show that the new method can simulate instabilities in complex fluid field under large deformation, and are accurate and robust.

  13. Numerical model of water flow and solute accumulation in vertisols using HYDRUS 2D/3D code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Tomáš; Dahan, Ofer; Turkeltub, Tuvia

    2015-04-01

    Keywords: dessication-crack-induced-salinization, preferential flow, conceptual model, numerical model, vadose zone, vertisols, soil water retention function, HYDRUS 2D/3D Vertisols cover a hydrologically very significant area of semi-arid regions often through which water infiltrates to groundwater aquifers. Understanding of water flow and solute accumulation is thus very relevant to agricultural activity and water resources management. Previous works suggest a conceptual model of dessication-crack-induced-salinization where salinization of sediment in the deep section of the vadose zone (up to 4 m) is induced by subsurface evaporation due to convective air flow in the dessication cracks. It suggests that the salinization is induced by the hydraulic gradient between the dry sediment in the vicinity of cracks (low potential) and the relatively wet sediment further from the main cracks (high potential). This paper presents a modified previously suggested conceptual model and a numerical model. The model uses a simple uniform flow approach but unconventionally prescribes the boundary conditions and the hydraulic parameters of soil. The numerical model is bound to one location close to a dairy farm waste lagoon, but the application of the suggested conceptual model could be possibly extended to all semi-arid regions with vertisols. Simulations were conducted using several modeling approaches with an ultimate goal of fitting the simulation results to the controlling variables measured in the field: temporal variation in water content across thick layer of unsaturated clay sediment (>10 m), sediment salinity and salinity the water draining down the vadose zone to the water table. The development of the model was engineered in several steps; all computed as forward solutions by try-and-error approach. The model suggests very deep instant infiltration of fresh water up to 12 m, which is also supported by the field data. The paper suggests prescribing a special atmospheric

  14. Numerical simulation of MHD for electromagnetic edge dam in continuous casting.

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, F. C.

    1999-03-30

    A computer model was developed to predict eddy currents and fluid flows in molten steel. The model was verified by comparing predictions with experimental results of liquid-metal containment and fluid flow in electromagnetic (EM) edge dams (EMDs) designed at Inland Steel for twin-roll casting. The model can optimize the EMD design so it is suitable for application, and minimize expensive, time-consuming full-scale testing. Numerical simulation was performed by coupling a three-dimensional (3-D) finite-element EM code (ELEKTRA) and a 3-D finite-difference fluids code (CaPS-EM) to solve heat transfer, fluid flow, and turbulence transport in a casting process that involves EM fields. ELEKTRA is able to predict the eddy-current distribution and the electromagnetic forces in complex geometries. CaPS-EM is capable of modeling fluid flows with free surfaces. Results of the numerical simulation compared measurements obtained from a static test.

  15. Numerical Investigation of Entropy Generation in Unsteady MHD Generalized Couette Flow with Variable Electrical Conductivity

    PubMed Central

    Chinyoka, T.; Makinde, O. D.

    2013-01-01

    The thermodynamic second law analysis is utilized to investigate the inherent irreversibility in an unsteady hydromagnetic generalized Couette flow with variable electrical conductivity in the presence of induced electric field. Based on some simplified assumption, the model nonlinear governing equations are obtained and solved numerically using semidiscretization finite difference techniques. Effects of various thermophysical parameters on the fluid velocity, temperature, current density, skin friction, the Nusselt number, entropy generation number, and the Bejan number are presented graphically and discussed quantitatively. PMID:23956691

  16. 2D numerical modeling of gravity-driven giant-scale deformation processes in the offshore Barreirinhas Basin (Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruciani, Francesco; Manconi, Andrea; Rinaldo Barchi, Massimiliano

    2014-05-01

    this particular place and also elsewhere. We set up a 2D fluid dynamic model by considering a Finite Element Method (FEM) environment, which allows us to well represent the geometries, densities and viscosities of the geological materials, as derived from geophysical investigations. Our study aims at understanding whether the long-term mechanical behavior of the Barreirinhas Basin DW-FTB can be reproduced by considering a simplified Newtonian fluid dynamics environment or it is controlled by a more complex rheology, which might include the effect of additional parameters such as internal friction, cohesive strength and pore-fluid pressure at the basal detachment.

  17. Probabilistic landslide run-out assessment with a 2-D dynamic numerical model using a Monte Carlo method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cepeda, Jose; Luna, Byron Quan; Nadim, Farrokh

    2013-04-01

    An essential component of a quantitative landslide hazard assessment is establishing the extent of the endangered area. This task requires accurate prediction of the run-out behaviour of a landslide, which includes the estimation of the run-out distance, run-out width, velocities, pressures, and depth of the moving mass and the final configuration of the deposits. One approach to run-out modelling is to reproduce accurately the dynamics of the propagation processes. A number of dynamic numerical models are able to compute the movement of the flow over irregular topographic terrains (3-D) controlled by a complex interaction between mechanical properties that may vary in space and time. Given the number of unknown parameters and the fact that most of the rheological parameters cannot be measured in the laboratory or field, the parametrization of run-out models is very difficult in practice. For this reason, the application of run-out models is mostly used for back-analysis of past events and very few studies have attempted to achieve forward predictions. Consequently all models are based on simplified descriptions that attempt to reproduce the general features of the failed mass motion through the use of parameters (mostly controlling shear stresses at the base of the moving mass) which account for aspects not explicitly described or oversimplified. The uncertainties involved in the run-out process have to be approached in a stochastic manner. It is of significant importance to develop methods for quantifying and properly handling the uncertainties in dynamic run-out models, in order to allow a more comprehensive approach to quantitative risk assessment. A method was developed to compute the variation in run-out intensities by using a dynamic run-out model (MassMov2D) and a probabilistic framework based on a Monte Carlo simulation in order to analyze the effect of the uncertainty of input parameters. The probability density functions of the rheological parameters

  18. Anisotropic turbulence studies of liquid metal MHD flows using numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Raghwendra; Verma, M. K.; Kumar, Vaibhav

    2010-02-01

    Liquid metal flow at low magnetic Reynolds number is simulated. Direct numerical simulation using pseudo-spectral method in periodic box geometry has been used for this purpose. The statistical distribution of fluctuation energy in different Fourier modes of the velocity fields is calculated. Unlike the simple fluid, spectral distribution of energy in this situation does not follow Kolmogorov scaling law (E(k) ~ k-5/3). Rather, our preliminary investigations suggest that it is steeper and follows E(k) ~ k-3 scaling law for very strong magnetic field.

  19. Numerical analysis of MHD instability suppression in a double gas puff

    SciTech Connect

    Glazyrin, Igor V.; Diyankov, Oleg V.; Karlykhanov, Nikolai G.; Koshelev, Sergei V.

    1997-05-05

    The process of double gas-puff implosion is numerically analyzed. Various liner configurations are considered: 1) the outer cascade is ten times lighter then the inner one, 2) the masses of cascades are equal, 3) the outer cascade is ten times heavier then the inner one. The mechanism of liner implosions stabilization is discussed. The comparison of two-cascade and single-cascade schemes is performed. The role of magnetic field penetration at the initial time into liner's body is also discussed.

  20. Gasdynamic and electrical characteristics of MHD generator according to data from physical and numerical experiments. RM channel of the U-25 device

    SciTech Connect

    Batenin, V.M.; Bityurin, V.A.; Zhelin, V.A.; Ivanov, P.P.; Medin, S.A.; Lyubimov, G.A.; Satanovskii, V.R.; Turovets, V.L.

    1983-05-01

    The integral and some local characteristics of a framed RM MHD channel are examined. The analysis is based on standard experimental information obtained on the U-25 device and data from numerical simulation. The results describe the characteristics of the channel in a wide range of operational regimes with different states of the electrode walls. The modeling data agree with experiment estimating a number of flow parameters that cannot be measured during operation.

  1. Numerical simulation of MHD pulsatile flow of a biofluid in a channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Kashif; Ahmad, Shahzad; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to numerically study the interaction of an external magnetic field with the flow of a biofluid through a Darcy-Forchhmeir porous channel, due to an oscillatory pressure gradient, in the presence of wall transpiration as well as chemical reaction considerations. We have noticed that if the Reynolds number of the wall transpiration flow is increased, the average (or maximum) velocity of the main flow direction is raised. Similar effect has also been observed for the rheological parameter and the Darcy parameter, whereas an opposite trend has been noted for both the Forchheimer quadratic drag parameter and the magnetic parameter. Further, an increase in the Reynolds number results in straightening the concentration profile, thus making it an almost linear function of the dimensionless spatial variable.

  2. Implicit Predictor-Corrector finite difference scheme for the ideal MHD simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, T.; Yu, H.; Lai, S.

    2012-12-01

    A innovative simulation code for ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is developed. We present a multiple-dimensional MHD code based on high-order implicit predictor-corrector finite difference scheme (high-order IPCFD scheme). High-order IPCFD scheme adopts high-order predictor-corrector scheme for the time integration and high-order central difference method as the spatial derivative solver. We use Elimination-of-the-Runoff-Errors (ERE) technology to avoid the numerical oscillations and numerical instability in the simulation results. In one-dimensional MHD problem, our simulation results show good agreement with the Brio & Wu MHD shock tube problem. The divergent B constraint remains fully satisfied, that is the divergent B equals to zero throughout the simulation. When solving the two-dimensional (2D) linear wave in MHD plasma, we clearly obtain the group-velocity Friedrichs diagrams of the MHD waves. Here we demonstrate 2D simulation results of rotor problem, Orszag-Tang vortex system, vortex type K-H instability, and kink type K-H instability by using our IPCFD MHD code and discuss the advantage of our simulation code.

  3. ZEUS-2D: A radiation magnetohydrodynamics code for astrophysical flows in two space dimensions. I - The hydrodynamic algorithms and tests.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, James M.; Norman, Michael L.

    1992-06-01

    A detailed description of ZEUS-2D, a numerical code for the simulation of fluid dynamical flows including a self-consistent treatment of the effects of magnetic fields and radiation transfer is presented. Attention is given to the hydrodynamic (HD) algorithms which form the foundation for the more complex MHD and radiation HD algorithms. The effect of self-gravity on the flow dynamics is accounted for by an iterative solution of the sparse-banded matrix resulting from discretizing the Poisson equation in multidimensions. The results of an extensive series of HD test problems are presented. A detailed description of the MHD algorithms in ZEUS-2D is presented. A new method of computing the electromotive force is developed using the method of characteristics (MOC). It is demonstrated through the results of an extensive series of MHD test problems that the resulting hybrid MOC-constrained transport method provides for the accurate evolution of all modes of MHD wave families.

  4. Orbital Advection by Interpolation: A Fast and Accurate Numerical Scheme for Super-Fast MHD Flows

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, B M; Guan, X; Gammie, F

    2008-04-11

    In numerical models of thin astrophysical disks that use an Eulerian scheme, gas orbits supersonically through a fixed grid. As a result the timestep is sharply limited by the Courant condition. Also, because the mean flow speed with respect to the grid varies with position, the truncation error varies systematically with position. For hydrodynamic (unmagnetized) disks an algorithm called FARGO has been developed that advects the gas along its mean orbit using a separate interpolation substep. This relaxes the constraint imposed by the Courant condition, which now depends only on the peculiar velocity of the gas, and results in a truncation error that is more nearly independent of position. This paper describes a FARGO-like algorithm suitable for evolving magnetized disks. Our method is second order accurate on a smooth flow and preserves {del} {center_dot} B = 0 to machine precision. The main restriction is that B must be discretized on a staggered mesh. We give a detailed description of an implementation of the code and demonstrate that it produces the expected results on linear and nonlinear problems. We also point out how the scheme might be generalized to make the integration of other supersonic/super-fast flows more efficient. Although our scheme reduces the variation of truncation error with position, it does not eliminate it. We show that the residual position dependence leads to characteristic radial variations in the density over long integrations.

  5. Optimal and Numerical Solutions for an MHD Micropolar Nanofluid between Rotating Horizontal Parallel Plates

    PubMed Central

    Nadeem, Sohail; Masood, Sadaf; Mehmood, Rashid; Sadiq, Muhammad Adil

    2015-01-01

    The present analysis deals with flow and heat transfer aspects of a micropolar nanofluid between two horizontal parallel plates in a rotating system. The governing partial differential equations for momentum, energy, micro rotation and nano-particles concentration are presented. Similarity transformations are utilized to convert the system of partial differential equations into system of ordinary differential equations. The reduced equations are solved analytically with the help of optimal homotopy analysis method (OHAM). Analytical solutions for velocity, temperature, micro-rotation and concentration profiles are expressed graphically against various emerging physical parameters. Physical quantities of interest such as skin friction co-efficient, local heat and local mass fluxes are also computed both analytically and numerically through mid-point integration scheme. It is found that both the solutions are in excellent agreement. Local skin friction coefficient is found to be higher for the case of strong concentration i.e. n=0, as compared to the case of weak concentration n=0.50. Influence of strong and weak concentration on Nusselt and Sherwood number appear to be similar in a quantitative sense. PMID:26046637

  6. Optimal and Numerical Solutions for an MHD Micropolar Nanofluid between Rotating Horizontal Parallel Plates.

    PubMed

    Nadeem, Sohail; Masood, Sadaf; Mehmood, Rashid; Sadiq, Muhammad Adil

    2015-01-01

    The present analysis deals with flow and heat transfer aspects of a micropolar nanofluid between two horizontal parallel plates in a rotating system. The governing partial differential equations for momentum, energy, micro rotation and nano-particles concentration are presented. Similarity transformations are utilized to convert the system of partial differential equations into system of ordinary differential equations. The reduced equations are solved analytically with the help of optimal homotopy analysis method (OHAM). Analytical solutions for velocity, temperature, micro-rotation and concentration profiles are expressed graphically against various emerging physical parameters. Physical quantities of interest such as skin friction co-efficient, local heat and local mass fluxes are also computed both analytically and numerically through mid-point integration scheme. It is found that both the solutions are in excellent agreement. Local skin friction coefficient is found to be higher for the case of strong concentration i.e. n=0, as compared to the case of weak concentration n=0.50. Influence of strong and weak concentration on Nusselt and Sherwood number appear to be similar in a quantitative sense. PMID:26046637

  7. Numerical Modeling of Oxidized 2D C/SiC Composites in Air Environments Below 900 °C: Microstructure and Elastic Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhigang; Chen, Xihui; Shao, Hongyan; Song, Yingdong

    2016-08-01

    A numerical model is presented for simulation of the oxidation-affected behaviors of two dimensional carbon fiber-reinforced silcon carbide matrix composite (2D C/SiC) exposed to air oxidizing environments below 900 °C, which incorporates the modeling of oxidized microstructure and computing of degraded elastic properties. This model is based upon the analysis of the representative volume cell (RVC) of the composite. The multi-scale model of 2D C/SiC composites is concerned in the present study. Analysis results of such a composite can provide a guideline for the real 2D C/SiC composite. The micro-structure during oxidation process is firstly modeled in the RVC. The elastic moduli of oxidized composite under non-stress oxidation environment is computed by finite element analysis. The elastic properties of 2D-C/SiC composites in air oxidizing environment are evaluated and validated in comparison to experimental data. The oxidation time, temperature and fiber volume fractions of C/SiC composite are investigated to show their influences upon the elastic properties of 2D C/SiC composites.

  8. Numerical Modeling of Oxidized 2D C/SiC Composites in Air Environments Below 900 °C: Microstructure and Elastic Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhigang; Chen, Xihui; Shao, Hongyan; Song, Yingdong

    2016-04-01

    A numerical model is presented for simulation of the oxidation-affected behaviors of two dimensional carbon fiber-reinforced silcon carbide matrix composite (2D C/SiC) exposed to air oxidizing environments below 900 °C, which incorporates the modeling of oxidized microstructure and computing of degraded elastic properties. This model is based upon the analysis of the representative volume cell (RVC) of the composite. The multi-scale model of 2D C/SiC composites is concerned in the present study. Analysis results of such a composite can provide a guideline for the real 2D C/SiC composite. The micro-structure during oxidation process is firstly modeled in the RVC. The elastic moduli of oxidized composite under non-stress oxidation environment is computed by finite element analysis. The elastic properties of 2D-C/SiC composites in air oxidizing environment are evaluated and validated in comparison to experimental data. The oxidation time, temperature and fiber volume fractions of C/SiC composite are investigated to show their influences upon the elastic properties of 2D C/SiC composites.

  9. Numerical Study of Turbulence Model Predictions for the MD 30P/30N and NHLP-2D Three-Element Highlift Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Joseph H.

    1998-01-01

    This report details calculations for the McDonnell-Douglas 30P/30N and the NHLP-2D three-element highlift configurations. Calculations were performed with the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes code ISAAC to study the effects of various numerical issues on high lift predictions. These issues include the effect of numerical accuracy on the advection terms of the turbulence equations, Navier-Stokes versus the thin-layer Navier-Stokes approximation, an alternative formulation of the production term, and the performance of several turbulence models. The effect of the transition location on the NHLP-2D flow solution was investigated. Two empirical transition models were used to estimate the transition location.

  10. Radioactive Sediment Transport on Ogaki Dam Reservoir in Fukushima Evacuated Zone: Numerical Simulation Studies by 2-D River Simulation Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Susumu; Kitamura, Akihiro; Kurikami, Hiroshi; Machida, Masahiko

    2015-04-01

    Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident on March 2011 released significant quantities of radionuclides to atmosphere. The most significant nuclide is radioactive cesium isotopes. Therefore, the movement of the cesium is one of the critical issues for the environmental assessment. Since the cesium is strongly sorbed by soil particles, the cesium transport can be regarded as the sediment transport which is mainly brought about by the aquatic system such as a river and a lake. In this research, our target is the sediment transport on Ogaki dam reservoir which is located in about 16 km northwest from FDNPP. The reservoir is one of the principal irrigation dam reservoirs in Fukushima Prefecture and its upstream river basin was heavily contaminated by radioactivity. We simulate the sediment transport on the reservoir using 2-D river simulation code named Nays2D originally developed by Shimizu et al. (The latest version of Nays2D is available as a code included in iRIC (http://i-ric.org/en/), which is a river flow and riverbed variation analysis software package). In general, a 2-D simulation code requires a huge amount of calculation time. Therefore, we parallelize the code and execute it on a parallel computer. We examine the relationship between the behavior of the sediment transport and the height of the reservoir exit. The simulation result shows that almost all the sand that enter into the reservoir deposit close to the entrance of the reservoir for any height of the exit. The amounts of silt depositing within the reservoir slightly increase by raising the height of the exit. However, that of the clay dramatically increases. Especially, more than half of the clay deposits, if the exit is sufficiently high. These results demonstrate that the water level of the reservoir has a strong influence on the amount of the clay discharged from the reservoir. As a result, we conclude that the tuning of the water level has a possibility for controlling the

  11. THE 2D HEISENBERG ANTIFERROMAGNET IN HIGH-Tc SUPERCONDUCTIVITY:. A Review of Numerical Techniques and Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, T.

    In this article we review numerical studies of the quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnet on a square lattice, which is a model of the magnetic properties of the undoped “precursor insulators” of the high temperature superconductors. We begin with a brief pedagogical introduction and then discuss zero and nonzero temperature properties and compare the numerical results to analytical calculations and to experiment where appropriate. We also review the various algorithms used to obtain these results, and discuss algorithm developments and improvements in computer technology which would be most useful for future numerical work in this area. Finally we list several outstanding problems which may merit further investigation.

  12. Numerical simulations of heavily polluted fine-grained sediment remobilization using 1D, 1D+, and 2D channel schematization.

    PubMed

    Kaiglová, Jana; Langhammer, Jakub; Jiřinec, Petr; Janský, Bohumír; Chalupová, Dagmar

    2015-03-01

    This article used various hydrodynamic and sediment transport models to analyze the potential and the limits of different channel schematizations. The main aim was to select and evaluate the most suitable simulation method for fine-grained sediment remobilization assessment. Three types of channel schematization were selected to study the flow potential for remobilizing fine-grained sediment in artificially modified channels. Schematization with a 1D cross-sectional horizontal plan, a 1D+ approach, splitting the riverbed into different functional zones, and full 2D mesh, adopted in MIKE by the DHI modeling suite, was applied to the study. For the case study, a 55-km stretch of the Bílina River, in the Czech Republic, Central Europe, which has been heavily polluted by the chemical and coal mining industry since the mid-twentieth century, was selected. Long-term exposure to direct emissions of toxic pollutants including heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) resulted in deposits of pollutants in fine-grained sediments in the riverbed. Simulations, based on three hydrodynamic model schematizations, proved that for events not exceeding the extent of the riverbed profile, the 1D schematization can provide comparable results to a 2D model. The 1D+ schematization can improve accuracy while keeping the benefits of high-speed simulation and low requirements of input DEM data, but the method's suitability is limited by the channel properties. PMID:25687259

  13. On the effects of assembly compression on the performance of liquid-feed DMFCs under methanol-limiting conditions: A 2D numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Salaberri, P. A.; Vera, M.

    2015-07-01

    The influence of assembly compression on the performance of liquid-feed DMFCs under methanol-limiting conditions is explored by means of a 2D/1D multiphysics across-the-channel model. The numerical formulation incorporates a comprehensive 2D description of the anode GDL, including two-phase phenomena, non-uniform anisotropic transport properties, and electrical contact resistances at the GDL/BPP interface. GDL effective properties are evaluated using empirical data corresponding to Toray® carbon paper. A simplified but physically sound 1D description, locally coupled to the 2D anode GDL model, is adopted to describe transport processes in the MPLs, membrane and cathode GDL, whereas the catalyst layers are treated as infinitely thin surfaces. Good agreement is found between the numerical results and previous experimental data. The interplay between assembly compression, bipolar plate material, and channel configuration is also investigated. The results show that there is an optimum GDL compression ratio in terms of overall power density, the optimal compression level being strongly dependent on bipolar plate material. Beyond the optimum, the detrimental effect of compression is larger in non-parallel flow fields due to the additional reduction of methanol transported by under-rib convection. The results suggest that, under certain conditions, this transport mechanism could be more important than diffusion in the anode of liquid-feed DMFCs.

  14. 3D MHD Simulations of Tokamak Disruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodruff, Simon; Stuber, James

    2014-10-01

    Two disruption scenarios are modeled numerically by use of the CORSICA 2D equilibrium and NIMROD 3D MHD codes. The work follows the simulations of pressure-driven modes in DIII-D and VDEs in ITER. The aim of the work is to provide starting points for simulation of tokamak disruption mitigation techniques currently in the CDR phase for ITER. Pressure-driven instability growth rates previously observed in simulations of DIIID are verified; Halo and Hiro currents produced during vertical displacements are observed in simulations of ITER with implementation of resistive walls in NIMROD. We discuss plans to exercise new code capabilities and validation.

  15. Floodplain mapping via 1D and quasi-2D numerical models in the valley of Thessaly, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikonomou, Athanasios; Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Koukouvinos, Antonis; Tegos, Aristoteles; Pagana, Vasiliki; Panagopoulos, Panayiotis-Dionisios; Mamassis, Nikolaos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2013-04-01

    The European Union Floods Directive defines a flood as 'a covering by water of land not normally covered by water'. Human activities, such as agriculture, urban development, industry and tourism, contribute to an increase in the likelihood and adverse impacts of flood events. The study of the hydraulic behaviour of a river is important in flood risk management. Here, we investigate the behaviour of three hydraulic models, with different theoretical frameworks, in a real case scenario. The area is located in the Penios river basin, in the plain of Thessaly (Greece). The three models used are the one-dimensional HEC-RAS and the quasi two-dimensional LISFLOOD-FP and FLO-2D which are compared to each other, in terms of simulated maximum water depth as well as maximum flow velocity, and to a real flood event. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis is performed to determine how each simulation is affected by the river and floodplain roughness coefficient, in terms of flood inundation.

  16. Comparison of 2D and 3D Numerical Models with Experiments of Tsunami Flow through a Built Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeVeque, R. J.; Motley, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    A series of tsunami wave basin experiments of flow through a scale model of Seaside, Oregon have been used as validation data for a 2015 benchmarking workshop hosted by the National Tsunami Mitigation Program, which focused on better understanding the ability of tsunami models to predict flow velocities and inundation depths following a coastal inundation event. As researchers begin to assess the safety of coastal infrastructures, proper assessment of tsunami-induced forces on coastal structures is critical. Hydrodynamic forces on these structures are fundamentally proportional to the local momentum flux of the fluid, and experimental data included momentum flux measurements at many instrumented gauge locations. The GeoClaw tsunami model, which solves the two-dimensional shallow water equations, was compared against other codes during the benchmarking workshop, and more recently a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model using the open-source OpenFOAM software has been developed and results from this model are being compared with both the experimental data and the 2D GeoClaw results. In addition, the 3D model allows for computation of fluid forces on the faces of structures, permitting an investigation of the common use of momentum flux as a proxy for these forces. This work aims to assess the potential to apply these momentum flux predictions locally within the model to determine tsunami-induced forces on critical structures. Difficulties in working with these data sets and cross-model comparisons will be discussed. Ultimately, application of the more computationally efficient GeoClaw model, informed by the 3D OpenFOAM models, to predict forces on structures at the community scale can be expected to improve the safety and resilience of coastal communities.

  17. Modelling river bank erosion using a 2D depth-averaged numerical model of flow and non-cohesive, non-uniform sediment transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Kadi Abderrezzak, Kamal; Die Moran, Andrés; Tassi, Pablo; Ata, Riadh; Hervouet, Jean-Michel

    2016-07-01

    Bank erosion can be an important form of morphological adjustment in rivers. With the advances made in computational techniques, two-dimensional (2D) depth-averaged numerical models have become valuable tools for resolving many engineering problems dealing with sediment transport. The objective of this research work is to present a simple, new, bank-erosion operator that is integrated into a 2D Saint-Venant-Exner morphodynamic model. The numerical code is based on an unstructured grid of triangular elements and finite-element algorithms. The slope of each element in the grid is compared to the angle of repose of the bank material. Elements for which the slope is too steep are tilted to bring them to the angle of repose along a horizontal axis defined such that the volume loss above the axis is equal to the volume gain below, thus ensuring mass balance. The model performance is assessed using data from laboratory flume experiments and a scale model of the Old Rhine. For the flume experiment case with uniform bank material, relevant results are obtained for bank geometry changes. For the more challenging case (i.e. scale model of the Old Rhine with non-uniform bank material), the numerical model is capable of reproducing the main features of the bank failure, induced by the newly designed groynes, as well as the transport of the mobilized sediment material downstream. Some deviations between the computed results and measured data are, however, observed. They are ascribed to the effects of three-dimensional (3D) flow structures, pore pressure and cohesion, which are not considered in the present 2D model.

  18. Numerical investigation of ultrasonic attenuation through 2D trabecular bone structures reconstructed from CT scans and random realizations.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Robert P; Guyenne, Philippe; Li, Jing

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we compare ultrasound interrogations of actual CT-scanned images of trabecular bone with artificial randomly constructed bone. Even though it is known that actual bone does not have randomly distributed trabeculae, we find that the ultrasound attenuations are close enough to cast doubt on any microstructural information, such as trabeculae width and distance between trabeculae, being gleaned from such experiments. More precisely, we perform numerical simulations of ultrasound interrogation on cancellous bone to investigate the phenomenon of ultrasound attenuation as a function of excitation frequency and bone porosity. The theoretical model is based on acoustic propagation equations for a composite fluid-solid material and is solved by a staggered-grid finite-difference scheme in the time domain. Numerical experiments are performed on two-dimensional bone samples reconstructed from CT-scanned images of real human calcaneus and from random distributions of fluid-solid particles generated via the turning bands method. A detailed comparison is performed on various parameters such as the attenuation rate and speed of sound through the bone samples as well as the normalized broadband ultrasound attenuation coefficient. Comparing results from these two types of bone samples allows us to assess the role of bone microstructure in ultrasound attenuation. It is found that the random model provides suitable bone samples for ultrasound interrogation in the transverse direction of the trabecular network. PMID:24480174

  19. Variational Integration for Ideal MHD with Built-in Advection Equations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Yao; Qin, Hong; Burby, J. W.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2014-08-05

    Newcomb's Lagrangian for ideal MHD in Lagrangian labeling is discretized using discrete exterior calculus. Variational integrators for ideal MHD are derived thereafter. Besides being symplectic and momentum preserving, the schemes inherit built-in advection equations from Newcomb's formulation, and therefore avoid solving them and the accompanying error and dissipation. We implement the method in 2D and show that numerical reconnection does not take place when singular current sheets are present. We then apply it to studying the dynamics of the ideal coalescence instability with multiple islands. The relaxed equilibrium state with embedded current sheets is obtained numerically.

  20. Experimental and numerical investigation of DNAPL infiltration and spreading in a 2-D sandbox by means of light transmission method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, F.; Shi, X.; Wu, J.; Gao, Y. W.

    2013-12-01

    Chlorinated solvents such as trichloroethene (TCE) and tetrachloroethene (PCE) are widespread groundwater contaminants often referred to as dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). Accuracy description of the spreading behavior and configuration for subsurface DNAPL migration is important, especially favourable for design effective remediation strategies. In this study, a 2-D experiment was conducted to investigate the infiltration behavior and spatial distribution of PCE in saturated porous media. Accusand 20/30 mesh sand (Unimin, Le Sueur, MN) was used as the background medium with two 70/80 and 60/70 mesh lenses embedded to simulate heterogeneous conditions. Dyed PCE of 100 ml was released into the flow cell at a constant rate of 2ml/min using a Harvard Apparatus syringe pump with a 50 ml glass syringe for two times, and 5 ml/min water was continuously injected through the inlet at the left side of the sandbox, while kept the same effluent rate at right side to create hydrodynamic condition. A light transmission (LT) system was used to record the migration of PCE and determine the saturation distribution of PCE in the sandbox experiment with a thermoelectrically air-cooled charged-coupled device (CCD) camera. All images were processed using MATLAB to calculate thickness-averaged PCE saturation for each pixel. Mass balance was checked through comparing injected known mounts of PCE with that calculated from LT analysis. Results showed that LT method is effective to delineate PCE migration pathways and quantify the saturation distribution. The relative errors of total PCE volumes calculated by LT analysis at different times were within 15% of the injected PCE volumes. The simulation are conducted using the multiphase modeling software T2VOC, which calibrated by the LT analysis results of three recorded time steps to fit with the complete spatial-temporal distribution of the PCE saturation. Model verification was then performed using the other eight recorded time

  1. 2D Numerical Investigation of the Laminar and Turbulent Flow Over Different Airfoils Using OpenFOAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimi, H.; Medjroubi, W.; Stoevesandt, B.; Peinke, J.

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this work is to assess the prediction capabilities of the turbulence models and the transition model kkl-ω available in OpenFOAM and to achieve a database of airfoil aerodynamical characteristics. The airfoils chosen for the simulations are FX 79-W- 15A and NACA 63-430, which are widely used in wind turbines. The numerically obtained lift and drag coefficients are compared with available experimental results. A quantitative and qualitative study is conducted to determine the influence of meshing strategies, computational time step together with interpolation and temporal schemes. Two Reynolds Averaged Navier- Stokes models (RANS models) are used, which are the k-ω SST model by Menter and the kkl-ω model (which involves transition modeling) by Walters and Davor.

  2. Numerical simulations - Some results for the 2- and 3-D Hubbard models and a 2-D electron phonon model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scalapino, D. J.; Sugar, R. L.; White, S. R.; Bickers, N. E.; Scalettar, R. T.

    1989-01-01

    Numerical simulations on the half-filled three-dimensional Hubbard model clearly show the onset of Neel order. Simulations of the two-dimensional electron-phonon Holstein model show the competition between the formation of a Peierls-CDW state and a superconducting state. However, the behavior of the partly filled two-dimensional Hubbard model is more difficult to determine. At half-filling, the antiferromagnetic correlations grow as T is reduced. Doping away from half-filling suppresses these correlations, and it is found that there is a weak attractive pairing interaction in the d-wave channel. However, the strength of the pair field susceptibility is weak at the temperatures and lattice sizes that have been simulated, and the nature of the low-temperature state of the nearly half-filled Hubbard model remains open.

  3. Optoacoustic temperature monitoring during HIFU impact on biological tissues: ex vivo study and numerical simulations of 2D temperature reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitin, Sergey; Khokhlova, Tatiana; Pelivanov, Ivan

    2012-02-01

    Dependencies of the optoacoustic (OA) transformation efficiency on tissue temperature were obtained for the application in OA temperature monitoring during thermal therapies. Accurate measurement of the OA signal amplitude versus temperature was performed in different ex-vivo tissues in the temperature range 25°C - 80°C. The investigated tissues were selected to represent different structural components: chicken breast (skeletal muscle), porcine lard (fatty tissue) and porcine liver (richly perfused tissue). Backward mode of the OA signal detection and a narrow probe laser beam were used in the experiments to avoid the influence of changes in light scattering with tissue coagulation on the OA signal amplitude. Measurements were performed in heating and cooling regimes. Characteristic behavior of the OA signal amplitude temperature dependences in different temperature ranges were described in terms of changes in different structural components of the tissue samples. Finally, numerical simulation of the OA temperature monitoring with a linear transducers array was performed to demonstrate the possibility of real-time temperature mapping.

  4. A New Cell-Centered Implicit Numerical Scheme for Ions in the 2-D Axisymmetric Code Hall2de

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez Ortega, Alejandro; Mikellides, Ioannis G.

    2014-01-01

    We present a new algorithm in the Hall2De code to simulate the ion hydrodynamics in the acceleration channel and near plume regions of Hall-effect thrusters. This implementation constitutes an upgrade of the capabilities built in the Hall2De code. The equations of mass conservation and momentum for unmagnetized ions are solved using a conservative, finite-volume, cell-centered scheme on a magnetic-field-aligned grid. Major computational savings are achieved by making use of an implicit predictor/multi-corrector algorithm for time evolution. Inaccuracies in the prediction of the motion of low-energy ions in the near plume in hydrodynamics approaches are addressed by implementing a multi-fluid algorithm that tracks ions of different energies separately. A wide range of comparisons with measurements are performed to validate the new ion algorithms. Several numerical experiments with the location and value of the anomalous collision frequency are also presented. Differences in the plasma properties in the near-plume between the single fluid and multi-fluid approaches are discussed. We complete our validation by comparing predicted erosion rates at the channel walls of the thruster with measurements. Erosion rates predicted by the plasma properties obtained from simulations replicate accurately measured rates of erosion within the uncertainty range of the sputtering models employed.

  5. A Numerical Study of Continuous Data Assimilation for the 2D-NS Equations Using Nodal Points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gesho, Masakazu

    This thesis conducts a number of numerical experiments using massively parallel GPU computations to study a new continuous data assimilation algorithm. We test the algorithm on two-dimensional incompressible fluid flows given by the Navier--Stokes equations. In this context, observations of the Eulerian velocity field given at a finite resolution of nodal points in space may be used to recover the exact velocity field over time. We also consider nodal measurements of the vorticity field and stream function. The main difference between this new algorithm and previous continuous data assimilation methods is the inclusion of a relaxation parameter micro that controls the rate at which the approximate solution is forced toward the observational measurements. If micro is too small, the approximate solution obtained by data assimilation may not converge to the reference solution; however, if micro is too large then high frequency spill-over from the observations may contaminate the approximate solution. Our focus is on the resolution of the nodal points necessary for the algorithm to recover the exact velocity field and how best to choose the parameter micro.

  6. Investigation of capillary nanosecond discharges in air at moderate pressure: comparison of experiments and 2D numerical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klochko, Andrei V.; Starikovskaia, Svetlana M.; Xiong, Zhongmin; Kushner, Mark J.

    2014-09-01

    Nanosecond electrical discharges in the form of ionization waves are of interest for rapidly ionizing and exciting complex gas mixtures to initiate chemical reactions. Operating with a small discharge tube diameter can significantly increase the specific energy deposition and so enable optimization of the initiation process. Analysis of the uniformity of energy release in small diameter capillary tubes will aid in this optimization. In this paper, results for the experimentally derived characteristics of nanosecond capillary discharges in air at moderate pressure are presented and compared with results from a two-dimensional model. The quartz capillary tube, having inner and outer diameters of 1.5 and 3.4 mm, is about 80 mm long and filled with synthetic dry air at 27 mbar. The capillary tube with two electrodes at the ends is inserted into a break of the central wire of a long coaxial cable. A metal screen around the tube is connected to the cable ground shield. The discharge is driven by a 19 kV 35 ns voltage pulse applied to the powered electrode. The experimental measurements are conducted primarily by using a calibrated capacitive probe and back current shunts. The numerical modelling focuses on the fast ionization wave (FIW) and the plasma properties in the immediate afterglow after the conductive plasma channel has been established between the two electrodes. The FIW produces a highly focused region of electric field on the tube axis that sustains the ionization wave that eventually bridges the electrode gap. Results from the model predict FIW propagation speed and current rise time that agree with the experiment.

  7. MHD flow of Cattanneo-Christov heat flux model for Williamson fluid over a stretching sheet with variable thickness: Using numerical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salahuddin, T.; Malik, M. Y.; Hussain, Arif; Bilal, S.; Awais, M.

    2016-03-01

    The present analysis inspects the numerical investigation of MHD flow of Williamson fluid model over a sheet with variable thickness. Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model, an amended form of Fourier's law, is used to explore the heat transfer phenomena. The governing non-linear problem is presented and transformed into self-similar form by using similarity approach. The developed non-linear problem is solved numerically by using implicit finite difference scheme known as Keller box method. The effects of relevant physical parameters on velocity and temperature profiles are taken into consideration. The important finds are as follows: influence of Hartmann number M on velocity and temperature profile is opposite. Large values of wall thickness parameter α and Weissenberg number λ are suitable for reduction of velocity profile. A comparative investigation between the previously published results and the present results is found to be in good agreement.

  8. ZEUS-2D: A Radiation Magnetohydrodynamics Code for Astrophysical Flows in Two Space Dimensions. II. The Magnetohydrodynamic Algorithms and Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, James M.; Norman, Michael L.

    1992-06-01

    In this, the second of a series of three papers, we continue a detailed description of ZEUS-2D, a numerical code for the simulation of fluid dynamical flows in astrophysics including a self-consistent treatment of the effects of magnetic fields and radiation transfer. In this paper, we give a detailed description of the magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) algorithms in ZEUS-2D. The recently developed constrained transport (CT) algorithm is implemented for the numerical evolution of the components of the magnetic field for MHD simulations. This formalism guarantees the numerically evolved field components will satisfy the divergence-free constraint at all times. We find, however, that the method used to compute the electromotive forces must be chosen carefully to propagate accurately all modes of MHD wave families (in particular shear Alfvén waves). A new method of computing the electromotive force is developed using the method of characteristics (MOC). It is demonstrated through the results of an extensive series of MHD test problems that the resulting hybrid MOC-CT method provides for the accurate evolution of all modes of MHD wave families.

  9. Numerical analysis and synthesis of 2D quasi-optical reflectors and beam waveguides based on an integral-equation approach with Nystrom's discretization.

    PubMed

    Nosich, Andrey A; Gandel, Yuriy V; Magath, Thore; Altintas, Ayhan

    2007-09-01

    Considered is the beam wave guidance and scattering by 2D quasi-optical reflectors modeling the components of beam waveguides. The incident field is taken as the complex-source-point field to simulate a finite-width beam generated by a small-aperture source. A numerical solution is obtained from the coupled singular integral equations (SIEs) for the surface currents on reflectors, discretized by using the recently introduced Nystrom-type quadrature formulas. This analysis is applied to study what effect the edge illumination has on the performance of a chain of confocal elliptic reflectors. We also develop a semianalytical approach for shaped reflector synthesis after a prescribed near-field pattern. Here a new point is the use of auxiliary SIEs of the same type as in the scattering analysis problem, however, for the gradient of the objective function. Sample results are presented for the synthesis of a reflector-type beam splitter. PMID:17767252

  10. Joule heating effects on MHD mixed convection of a Jeffrey fluid over a stretching sheet with power law heat flux: A numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, D. Harish; Narayana, P. V. Satya

    2016-08-01

    An analysis has been carried out to study the Joule heating effect on MHD heat transfer of an incompressible Jeffrey fluid due to a stretching porous sheet with power law heat flux and heat source. A constant magnetic field is applied normal to the stretching surface. The basic governing equations are reduced into the coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations by using similarity transformations. The resulting equations are then solved numerically by shooting method with fourth order Runge-Kutta scheme. The effects of various physical parameters entering into the problem on dimensionless velocity and temperature distribution are discussed through graphs and tables. The results reveal that the momentum and thermal boundary layer thickness are significantly influenced by Deborah number (β), ratio of relaxation and retardation times parameter (λ), heat generation parameter (β*), Eckert number (Ec) and magnetic field parameter (M). A comparison with the previously published works shows excellent agreement.

  11. Ideal MHD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freidberg, Jeffrey P.

    2014-06-01

    1. Introduction; 2. The ideal MHD model; 3. General properties of ideal MHD; 5. Equilibrium: one-dimensional configurations; 6. Equilibrium: two-dimensional configurations; 7. Equilibrium: three-dimensional configurations; 8. Stability: general considerations; 9. Alternate MHD models; 10. MHD stability comparison theorems; 11. Stability: one-dimensional configurations; 12. Stability: multi-dimensional configurations; Appendix A. Heuristic derivation of the kinetic equation; Appendix B. The Braginskii transport coefficients; Appendix C. Time derivatives in moving plasmas; Appendix D. The curvature vector; Appendix E. Overlap limit of the high b and Greene-Johnson stellarator models; Appendix F. General form for q(y); Appendix G. Natural boundary conditions; Appendix H. Upper and lower bounds on dQKIN.

  12. The Effects of Far-Field Boundary Conditions on 2D Numerical Solutions for Continental Rifting: Tests and Recipes for Improved Treatment of Asthenosphere Flow and Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, J. P.; de Monserrat, A.; Hall, R.; Taramon, J. M.; Perez-Gussinye, M.

    2015-12-01

    This work focuses on improving current 2D numerical approaches to modeling the boundary conditions associated with computing accurate deformation and melting associated with continental rifting. Recent models primarily use far-field boundary conditions that have been used for decades with little assessment of their effects on asthenospheric flow beneath the rifting region. All are clearly extremely oversimplified — Huismans and Buiter assume there is no vertical flow into the rifting region, with the asthenosphere flowing uniformly into the rifting region from the sides beneath lithosphere moving in the opposing direction, Armitage et al. and van Wijk use divergent velocities on the upper boundary to impose break-up within a Cartesian box, while other studies generally assume there is uniform horizontal flow away from the center of rifting, with uniform vertical flow replenishing the material pulled out of the sides of the computational region. All are likely to significantly shape the pattern of asthenospheric flow beneath the stretching lithosphere that is associated with pressure-release melting and rift volcanism. Thus while ALL may lead to similar predictions of the effects of crustal stretching and thinning, NONE may lead to accurate determination of the the asthenospheric flow and melting associated with lithospheric stretching and breakup. Here we discuss a suite of numerical experiments that compare these choices to likely more realistic boundary condition choices like the analytical solution for flow associated with two diverging plates stretching over a finite-width region, and a high-resolution 2-D region embedded within a cylindrical annulus 'whole mantle cross-section' at 5% extra numerical problem size. Our initial results imply that the choice of far-field boundary conditions does indeed significantly influence predicted melting distributions and melt volumes associated with continental breakup. For calculations including asthenospheric melting

  13. Formation of Dense Clumps/Cores in Infrared Dark Clouds and Their Magnetic Field Properties from AMR MHD Numerical Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pak Shing; Klein, Richard I.

    2014-07-01

    Massive infrared dark clouds (IRDCs) are believed to be the precursors to star clusters and massive stars (e.g. Bergin & Tafalla 2007). The supersonic turbulent nature of molecular clouds in the presence of magnetic fields poses a great challenge in understanding the structure and dynamics of molecular clouds and the star formation therein (e.g. Falgarone et al. 2008, Crutcher et al. 2010, Peretto & Fuller 2010, Hernandez & Tan 2011, Harcar et al. 2013, Kainulainen & Tan 2013). We perform two high resolution ideal MHD AMR simulations with supersonically driven turbulence on the formation of massive infrared dark clouds, using our radiative-MHD AMR code ORION2 (P.S. Li, et al. 2012), to reveal the complex 3D filamentary structure and the subsequent formation of dense clumps and cores inside the dark clouds. The two models differ only in field strength, with one model having an initial field 10 times as strong as the other. The magnetic properties of the clumps from the two models are compared with the Zeeman observations summarized in Crutcher et al. (2010). Our dense clumps exhibit a power-law relation between magnetic field strength and density similar to the observations. Despite the order of magnitude difference in initial field strength, with the magnetic field enhancement and fragmentation as the result of turbulence, the magnetic properties of clumps in the weak field model are remarkably similar to those in the strong field model, except for a clear difference in the magnetic field orientation with respect to the global mean field direction. The almost random orientation of the weak field simulation is inconsistent with the observation of the field orientation on large and small scales by H.-b. Li, et al. (2009). I will briefly summarize the physical properties of the filamentary dark clouds in the simulations and report a detailed comparison of the magnetic properties of dense clumps in the simulations with the Zeeman observations. We have continued the

  14. Advanced Tsunami Numerical Simulations and Energy Considerations by use of 3D-2D Coupled Models: The October 11, 1918, Mona Passage Tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Venegas, Alberto M.; Horrillo, Juan; Pampell-Manis, Alyssa; Huérfano, Victor; Mercado, Aurelio

    2015-06-01

    The most recent tsunami observed along the coast of the island of Puerto Rico occurred on October 11, 1918, after a magnitude 7.2 earthquake in the Mona Passage. The earthquake was responsible for initiating a tsunami that mostly affected the northwestern coast of the island. Runup values from a post-tsunami survey indicated the waves reached up to 6 m. A controversy regarding the source of the tsunami has resulted in several numerical simulations involving either fault rupture or a submarine landslide as the most probable cause of the tsunami. Here we follow up on previous simulations of the tsunami from a submarine landslide source off the western coast of Puerto Rico as initiated by the earthquake. Improvements on our previous study include: (1) higher-resolution bathymetry; (2) a 3D-2D coupled numerical model specifically developed for the tsunami; (3) use of the non-hydrostatic numerical model NEOWAVE (non-hydrostatic evolution of ocean WAVE) featuring two-way nesting capabilities; and (4) comprehensive energy analysis to determine the time of full tsunami wave development. The three-dimensional Navier-Stokes model tsunami solution using the Navier-Stokes algorithm with multiple interfaces for two fluids (water and landslide) was used to determine the initial wave characteristic generated by the submarine landslide. Use of NEOWAVE enabled us to solve for coastal inundation, wave propagation, and detailed runup. Our results were in agreement with previous work in which a submarine landslide is favored as the most probable source of the tsunami, and improvement in the resolution of the bathymetry yielded inundation of the coastal areas that compare well with values from a post-tsunami survey. Our unique energy analysis indicates that most of the wave energy is isolated in the wave generation region, particularly at depths near the landslide, and once the initial wave propagates from the generation region its energy begins to stabilize.

  15. Numerical MHD Simulation of the Coupled Evolution of Plasma and Magnetic Field in the Solar Chromosphere. I. Gradual and Impulsive Energisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseeva, L. M.; Kshevetskii, S. P.

    2015-11-01

    The dynamical coupling between solar chromospheric plasma and the magnetic field is investigated by numerically solving a fully self-consistent, two-dimensional initial-value problem for the nonlinear collisional MHD equations including electric resistivity, thermal conduction, and, in some cases, gas-dynamic viscosity. The processes in the contact zone between two horizontal magnetic fields of opposite polarities are considered. The plasma is assumed to be initially motionless and to have a temperature of 50,000 K uniform throughout the plasma volume; the characteristic magnetic field corresponds to a plasma β≳ 1. In a physical time interval of 17 seconds typically covered by a computational run, the plasma temperature gradually increases by a factor of two to three. Against this background, an impulsive (in 0.1 seconds or less) increase in the current-aligned plasma velocity occurs at the site of the current-layer thinning (sausage-type deformation, or m=0 pinch instability). This velocity burst can be interpreted physically as an event of suprathermal-proton generation. Further development of the sausage instability results in an increase in the kinetic temperature of the protons to high values, even to those observed in flares. The form of our system of MHD equations indicates that this kind of increase is a property of the exact solution of the system for an appropriate choice of parameters. Magnetic reconnection does not manifest itself in this solution: it would generate flows forbidden by the chosen geometry. Therefore, the pinch-sausage effect can act as an energiser of the upper chromosphere and be an alternative to the magnetic-reconnection process as the producer of flares.

  16. Melt-rock reaction in the asthenospheric mantle: Perspectives from high-order accurate numerical simulations in 2D and 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirupathi, S.; Schiemenz, A. R.; Liang, Y.; Parmentier, E.; Hesthaven, J.

    2013-12-01

    The style and mode of melt migration in the mantle are important to the interpretation of basalts erupted on the surface. Both grain-scale diffuse porous flow and channelized melt migration have been proposed. To better understand the mechanisms and consequences of melt migration in a heterogeneous mantle, we have undertaken a numerical study of reactive dissolution in an upwelling and viscously deformable mantle where solubility of pyroxene increases upwards. Our setup is similar to that described in [1], except we use a larger domain size in 2D and 3D and a new numerical method. To enable efficient simulations in 3D through parallel computing, we developed a high-order accurate numerical method for the magma dynamics problem using discontinuous Galerkin methods and constructed the problem using the numerical library deal.II [2]. Linear stability analyses of the reactive dissolution problem reveal three dynamically distinct regimes [3] and the simulations reported in this study were run in the stable regime and the unstable wave regime where small perturbations in porosity grows periodically. The wave regime is more relevant to melt migration beneath the mid-ocean ridges but computationally more challenging. Extending the 2D simulations in the stable regime in [1] to 3D using various combinations of sustained perturbations in porosity at the base of the upwelling column (which may result from a viened mantle), we show the geometry and distribution of dunite channel and high-porosity melt channels are highly correlated with inflow perturbation through superposition. Strong nonlinear interactions among compaction, dissolution, and upwelling give rise to porosity waves and high-porosity melt channels in the wave regime. These compaction-dissolution waves have well organized but time-dependent structures in the lower part of the simulation domain. High-porosity melt channels nucleate along nodal lines of the porosity waves, growing downwards. The wavelength scales

  17. Small post-perovskite patches at the base of lower mantle primordial reservoirs: Insights from 2-D numerical modeling and implications for ULVZs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yang; Deschamps, Frédéric; Tackley, Paul J.

    2016-04-01

    We perform numerical experiments of thermochemical mantle convection in 2-D spherical annulus geometry to investigate the distribution of post-perovskite (pPv) with respect to the location of primordial reservoirs of dense material in the lowermost mantle. High core-mantle boundary temperatures lead to strong anticorrelation between the locations of pPv and large primordial reservoirs, while low values lead to a pPv layer fully covering the outer core. Intermediate values avoid a full pPv layer but allow pPv phase change to occur within the primordial reservoirs. Through interactions between cold downwellings and primordial reservoirs, low viscosity (weak) pPv leads to the formation of long-lived, thin tails of primordial materials extending laterally at the edges of these reservoirs. Small patches of pPv also form within the primordial reservoir but are short-lived. If primordial reservoirs are enriched in iron, these patches may provide an explanation for the ultralow-velocity zones.

  18. Probabilistic hazard analysis of dense Pyroclastic Density Currents at Vesuvius (Italy) via parametric uncertainty characterization of TITAN2D numerical simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tierz, Pablo; Ramona Stefanescu, Elena; Sandri, Laura; Patra, Abani; Marzocchi, Warner; Sulpizio, Roberto

    2014-05-01

    Probabilistic hazard assessments of Pyroclastic Density Currents (PDCs) are of great interest for decision-making purposes. However, there is a limited number of published works available on this topic. Recent advances in computation and statistical methods are offering new opportunities beyond the classical Monte Carlo (MC) sampling which is known as a simple and robust method but it usually turns out to be slow and computationally intractable. In this work, Titan2D numerical simulator has been coupled to Polynomial Chaos Quadrature (PCQ) to propagate the simulator parametric uncertainty and compute VEI-based probabilistic hazard maps of dense PDCs formed as a result of column collapse at Vesuvius volcano, Italy. Due to the lack of knowledge about the exact conditions under which these PDCs will form, Probability Distribution Functions (PDFs) are assigned to the simulator input parameters (Bed Friction Angle and Volume) according to three VEI sizes. Uniform distributions were used for both parameters since there is insufficient information to assume that any value in the range is more likely that any other value. Reasonable (and compatible) ranges for both variables were constrained according to past eruptions at Vesuvius volcanic system. On the basis of reasoning above a number of quadrature points were taken within those ranges, which resulted in one execution of the TITAN2D code at each quadrature point. With a computational cost several orders of magnitude smaller than MC, exceedance probabilities for a given threshold of flow depth (and conditional to the occurrence of VEI3, VEI4 and VEI5 eruptions) were calculated using PCQ. Moreover, PCQ can be run at different threshold values of the same output variable (flow depth, speed, kinetic energy, …) and, therefore, it can serve to compute Exceedance Probability curves (aka hazard curves) at singular points inside the hazard domain, representing the most important and useful scientific input to quantitative risk

  19. MHD simple waves and the divergence wave

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, G. M.; Pogorelov, N. V.; Zank, G. P.

    2010-03-25

    In this paper we investigate magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simple divergence waves in MHD, for models in which nablacentre dotBnot =0. These models are related to the eight wave Riemann solvers in numerical MHD, in which the eighth wave is the divergence wave associated with nablacentre dotBnot =0. For simple wave solutions, all physical variables (the gas density, pressure, fluid velocity, entropy, and magnetic field induction in the MHD case) depend on a single phase function phi. We consider the form of the MHD equations used by both Powell et al. and Janhunen. It is shown that the Janhunen version of the equations possesses fully nonlinear, exact simple wave solutions for the divergence wave, but no physically meaningful simple divergence wave solution exists for the Powell et al. system. We suggest that the 1D simple, divergence wave solution for the Janhunen system, may be useful for the testing and validation of numerical MHD codes.

  20. Numerical Simulation of MHD Hiemenz Flow of a Micropolar Fluid towards a Nonlinear Stretching Surface through a Porous Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Rajesh; Bhargava, Rama

    2015-07-01

    In this article, the two-dimensional boundary layer problem of Hiemenz flow (two-dimensional flow of a fluid near a stagnation point) of an incompressible micropolar fluid towards a nonlinear stretching surface placed in a porous medium in the presence of transverse magnetic field is examined. The resulting nonlinear differential equations governing the problem have been transformed by a similarity transformation into a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations which are solved numerically by the Element Free Galerkin method. The influence of various parameters on the velocity, microrotation, temperature, and concentration is shown. Some of the results are compared with the Finite Element Method. Finally, validation of the numerical results is demonstrated for local skin friction ? for hydrodynamic micropolar fluid flow on a linearly stretching surface.

  1. Nonlinear Alfvén wave dynamics at a 2D magnetic null point: ponderomotive force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurgood, J. O.; McLaughlin, J. A.

    2013-07-01

    Context. In the linear, β = 0 MHD regime, the transient properties of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves in the vicinity of 2D null points are well known. The waves are decoupled and accumulate at predictable parts of the magnetic topology: fast waves accumulate at the null point; whereas Alfvén waves cannot cross the separatricies. However, in nonlinear MHD mode conversion can occur at regions of inhomogeneous Alfvén speed, suggesting that the decoupled nature of waves may not extend to the nonlinear regime. Aims: We investigate the behaviour of low-amplitude Alfvén waves about a 2D magnetic null point in nonlinear, β = 0 MHD. Methods: We numerically simulate the introduction of low-amplitude Alfvén waves into the vicinity of a magnetic null point using the nonlinear LARE2D code. Results: Unlike in the linear regime, we find that the Alfvén wave sustains cospatial daughter disturbances, manifest in the transverse and longitudinal fluid velocity, owing to the action of nonlinear magnetic pressure gradients (viz. the ponderomotive force). These disturbances are dependent on the Alfvén wave and do not interact with the medium to excite magnetoacoustic waves, although the transverse daughter becomes focused at the null point. Additionally, an independently propagating fast magnetoacoustic wave is generated during the early stages, which transports some of the initial Alfvén wave energy towards the null point. Subsequently, despite undergoing dispersion and phase-mixing due to gradients in the Alfvén-speed profile (∇cA ≠ 0) there is no further nonlinear generation of fast waves. Conclusions: We find that Alfvén waves at 2D cold null points behave largely as in the linear regime, however they sustain transverse and longitudinal disturbances - effects absent in the linear regime - due to nonlinear magnetic pressure gradients.

  2. Newtonian CAFE: a new ideal MHD code to study the solar atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, J. J.; Guzmán, F.

    2015-12-01

    In this work we present a new independent code designed to solve the equations of classical ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) in three dimensions, submitted to a constant gravitational field. The purpose of the code centers on the analysis of solar phenomena within the photosphere-corona region. In special the code is capable to simulate the propagation of impulsively generated linear and non-linear MHD waves in the non-isothermal solar atmosphere. We present 1D and 2D standard tests to demonstrate the quality of the numerical results obtained with our code. As 3D tests we present the propagation of MHD-gravity waves and vortices in the solar atmosphere. The code is based on high-resolution shock-capturing methods, uses the HLLE flux formula combined with Minmod, MC and WENO5 reconstructors. The divergence free magnetic field constraint is controlled using the Flux Constrained Transport method.

  3. MHD properties of magnetosheath flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siscoe, G. L.; Crooker, N. U.; Erickson, G. M.; Sonnerup, B. U. Ö.; Maynard, N. C.; Schoendorf, J. A.; Siebert, K. D.; Weimer, D. R.; White, W. W.; Wilson, G. R.

    2002-04-01

    We discuss four aspects of magnetosheath flow that require MHD for their calculation and understanding. We illustrate these aspects with computations using a numerical MHD code that simulates the global magnetosphere and its magnetosheath. The four inherently MHD aspects of magnetosheath flow that we consider are the depletion layer, the magnetospheric sash, MHD flow deflections, and the magnetosheath's slow-mode expansion into the magnetotail. We introduce new details of these aspects or illustrate known details in a new way, including the dependence of the depletion layer on interplanetary magnetic filed clock angle; agreement between the locations of the antiparallel regions of Luhmann et al. (J. Geophys. Res. 89 (1984) 1739) and the magnetospheric sash, and deflections corresponding separately to a stagnation line and magnetic reconnection.

  4. Numerical analysis for MHD peristaltic transport of Carreau-Yasuda fluid in a curved channel with Hall effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, F. M.; Hayat, T.; Alsaedi, A.

    2015-05-01

    Impact of applied magnetic field on the peristaltic transport of Carreau-Yasuda fluid in a curved conduit is analyzed in this article. Hall effects are also taken into consideration. Lubrication approach is utilized in problem formulation. Resulting nonlinear system is solved numerically. Results for axial velocity, pressure gradient, pressure rise per wavelength and stream function are obtained and studied graphically. Results revealed that for small values of curvature parameter the fluid velocity is not symmetric about the centerline. Also increase in the value of Hall parameter balances the magnetic influence of applied magnetic field by some extent. Further, the Carreau-Yasuda fluid possesses large size of trapped bolus when compared with the Newtonian fluid.

  5. A numerical study of MHD generalized Couette flow and heat transfer with variable viscosity and electrical conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makinde, O. D.; Onyejekwe, O. O.

    2011-11-01

    The steady flow and heat transfer of an electrically conducting fluid with variable viscosity and electrical conductivity between two parallel plates in the presence of a transverse magnetic field is investigated. It is assumed that the flow is driven by combined action of axial pressure gradient and uniform motion of the upper plate. The governing nonlinear equations of momentum and energy transport are solved numerically using a shooting iteration technique together with a sixth-order Runge-Kutta integration algorithm. Solutions are presented in graphical form and given in terms of fluid velocity, fluid temperature, skin friction and heat transfer rate for various parametric values. Our results reveal that the combined effect of magnetic field, viscosity, exponents of variable properties, various fluid and heat transfer dimensionless quantities and the electrical conductivity variation, have significant impact on the hydromagnetic and electrical properties of the fluid.

  6. Evolution of crustal stress, pressure and temperature around shear zones during orogenic wedge formation: a 2D thermo-mechanical numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markus Schmalholz, Stefan; Jaquet, Yoann

    2016-04-01

    We study the formation of an orogenic wedge during lithospheric shortening with 2D numerical simulations. We consider a viscoelastoplastic rheology, thermo-mechanical coupling by shear heating and temperature-dependent viscosities, gravity and erosion. In the initial model configuration there is either a lateral temperature variation at the model base or a lateral variation in crustal thickness to generate slight stress variations during lithospheric shortening. These stress variations can trigger the formation of shear zones which are caused by thermal softening associated with shear heating. We do not apply any kind of strain softening, such as reduction of friction angle with progressive plastic strain. The first major shear zone that appears during shortening crosscuts the entire crust and initiates the asymmetric subduction/underthrusting of mainly the mechanically strong lower crust. After some deformation, the first shear zone in the upper crust is abandoned, the deformation propagates towards the foreland and a new shear zone forms only in the upper crust. The shear zone propagation occurs several times where new shear zones form in the upper crust and the mechanically strong top of the lower crust acts as detachment horizon. We calculate the magnitudes of the maximal and minimal principal stresses and of the mean stress (or dynamic pressure), and we record also the temperature for several marker points in the upper and lower crust. We analyse the evolution of stresses and temperature with burial depth and time. Deviatoric stresses (half the differential stress) in the upper crust are up to 200 MPa and associated shear heating in shear zones ranges between 40 - 80 °C. Lower crustal rocks remain either at the base of the orogenic wedge at depths of around 50 km or are subducted to depths of up to 120 km, depending on their position when the first shear zone formed. Largest deviatotric stresses in the strong part of the lower crust are about 1000 MPa and

  7. Simulating solar MHD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schüssler, M.

    1999-05-01

    Two aspects of solar MHD are discussed in relation to the work of the MHD simulation group at KIS. Photospheric magneto-convection, the nonlinear interaction of magnetic field and convection in a strongly stratified, radiating fluid, is a key process of general astrophysical relevance. Comprehensive numerical simulations including radiative transfer have significantly improved our understanding of the processes and have become an important tool for the interpretation of observational data. Examples of field intensification in the solar photosphere ('convective collapse') are shown. The second line of research is concerned with the dynamics of flux tubes in the convection zone, which has far-reaching implications for our understanding of the solar dynamo. Simulations indicate that the field strength in the region where the flux is stored before erupting to form sunspot groups is of the order of 105 G, an order of magnitude larger than previous estimates based on equipartition with the kinetic energy of convective flows.

  8. Reduced Extended MHD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, P. J.; Abdelhamid, H. M.; Grasso, D.; Hazeltine, R. D.; Lingam, M.; Tassi, E.

    2015-11-01

    Over the years various reduced fluid models have been obtained for modeling plasmas, with the goal of capturing important physics while maintaining computability. Such models have included the physics contained in various generalizations of Ohm's law, including Hall drift and electron inertia. In a recent publication it was shown that full 3D extended MHD is a Hamiltonian system by finding its noncanonical Poisson bracket. Subsequently, this bracket was shown to be derivable from that for Hall MHD by a series of remarkable transformations, which greatly simplifies the proof of the Jacobi identity and allows one to immediately obtain generalizations of the helicity and cross helicity. In this poster we use this structure to obtain exact reduced fluid models with the effects of full two-fluid theory. Results of numerical computations of collisionless reconnection using an exact reduced 4-field model will be presented and analytical comparisons of mode structure of previous reduced models will be made.

  9. The use of FLO2D numerical code in lahar hazard evaluation at Popocatépetl volcano: a 2001-lahar scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero, L.; Capra, L.

    2014-07-01

    Lahar modelling represents an excellent tool to design hazard maps. It allows the definition of potential inundation zones for different lahar magnitude scenarios and sediment concentrations. Here we present the results obtained for the 2001 syneruptive lahar at Popocatépetl volcano, based on simulations performed with FLO2D software. An accurate delineation of this event is needed since it is one of the possible scenarios considered during a volcanic crisis. One of the main issues for lahar simulation using FLO2D is the calibration of the input hydrograph and rheologic flow properties. Here we verified that geophone data can be properly calibrated by means of peak discharge calculations obtained by superelevation method. Simulation results clearly show the influence of concentration and rheologic properties on lahar depth and distribution. Modifying rheologic properties during lahar simulation strongly affect lahar distribution. More viscous lahars have a more restricted aerial distribution, thicker depths, and resulting velocities are noticeable smaller. FLO2D proved to be a very successful tool to delimitate lahar inundation zones as well as to generate different lahar scenarios not only related to lahar volume or magnitude but also to take into account different sediment concentrations and rheologies widely documented to influence lahar prone areas.

  10. The use of FLO2D numerical code in lahar hazard evaluation at Popocatépetl volcano: a 2001 lahar scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero, L.; Capra, L.

    2014-12-01

    Lahar modeling represents an excellent tool for designing hazard maps. It allows the definition of potential inundation zones for different lahar magnitude scenarios and sediment concentrations. Here, we present the results obtained for the 2001 syneruptive lahar at Popocatépetl volcano, based on simulations performed with FLO2D software. An accurate delineation of this event is needed, since it is one of the possible scenarios considered if magmatic activity increases its magnitude. One of the main issues for lahar simulation using FLO2D is the calibration of the input hydrograph and rheological flow properties. Here, we verified that geophone data can be properly calibrated by means of peak discharge calculations obtained by the superelevation method. Digital elevation model resolution also resulted as an important factor in defining the reliability of the simulated flows. Simulation results clearly show the influence of sediment concentrations and rheological properties on lahar depth and distribution. Modifying rheological properties during lahar simulation strongly affects lahar distribution. More viscous lahars have a more restricted aerial distribution and thicker depths, and resulting velocities are noticeably smaller. FLO2D proved to be a very successful tool for delimitating lahar inundation zones as well as generating different lahar scenarios not only related to lahar volume or magnitude, but also taking into account different sediment concentrations and rheologies widely documented as influencing lahar-prone areas.

  11. 2D numerical modelling of gas temperature in a nanosecond pulsed longitudinal He-SrBr2 discharge excited in a high temperature gas-discharge tube for the high-power strontium laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernogorova, T. P.; Temelkov, K. A.; Koleva, N. K.; Vuchkov, N. K.

    2016-05-01

    An active volume scaling in bore and length of a Sr atom laser excited in a nanosecond pulse longitudinal He-SrBr2 discharge is carried out. Considering axial symmetry and uniform power input, a 2D model (r, z) is developed by numerical methods for determination of gas temperature in a new large-volume high-temperature discharge tube with additional incompact ZrO2 insulation in the discharge free zone, in order to find out the optimal thermal mode for achievement of maximal output laser parameters. A 2D model (r, z) of gas temperature is developed by numerical methods for axial symmetry and uniform power input. The model determines gas temperature of nanosecond pulsed longitudinal discharge in helium with small additives of strontium and bromine.

  12. Implicit adaptive mesh refinement for 2D reduced resistive magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philip, Bobby; Chacón, Luis; Pernice, Michael

    2008-10-01

    An implicit structured adaptive mesh refinement (SAMR) solver for 2D reduced magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is described. The time-implicit discretization is able to step over fast normal modes, while the spatial adaptivity resolves thin, dynamically evolving features. A Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov method is used for the nonlinear solver engine. For preconditioning, we have extended the optimal "physics-based" approach developed in [L. Chacón, D.A. Knoll, J.M. Finn, An implicit, nonlinear reduced resistive MHD solver, J. Comput. Phys. 178 (2002) 15-36] (which employed multigrid solver technology in the preconditioner for scalability) to SAMR grids using the well-known Fast Adaptive Composite grid (FAC) method [S. McCormick, Multilevel Adaptive Methods for Partial Differential Equations, SIAM, Philadelphia, PA, 1989]. A grid convergence study demonstrates that the solver performance is independent of the number of grid levels and only depends on the finest resolution considered, and that it scales well with grid refinement. The study of error generation and propagation in our SAMR implementation demonstrates that high-order (cubic) interpolation during regridding, combined with a robustly damping second-order temporal scheme such as BDF2, is required to minimize impact of grid errors at coarse-fine interfaces on the overall error of the computation for this MHD application. We also demonstrate that our implementation features the desired property that the overall numerical error is dependent only on the finest resolution level considered, and not on the base-grid resolution or on the number of refinement levels present during the simulation. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the tool on several challenging problems.

  13. MHD stability of tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Chance, M.S. Sun, Y.C.; Jardin, S.C.; Kessel, C.E.; Okabayashi, M.

    1992-08-01

    This paper will give an overview of the some of the methods which are used to simulate the ideal MHD properties of tokamak plasmas. A great deal of the research in this field is necessarily numerical and the substantial progress made during the past several years has roughly paralleled the continuing availability of more advanced supercomputers. These have become essential to accurately model the complex configurations necessary for achieving MHD stable reactor grade conditions. Appropriate tokamak MHD equilibria will be described. Then the stability properties is discussed in some detail, emphasizing the difficulties of obtaining stable high {beta} discharges in plasmas in which the current is mainly ohmically driven and thus demonstrating the need for tailoring the current and pressure profiles of the plasma away from the ohmic state. The outline of this paper will roughly follow the physics development to attain the second region of stability in the PBX-M device at The Princeton Plasmas Physics Laboratory.

  14. Simulating solar MHD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schüssler, M.

    1999-05-01

    Two aspects of solar MHD are discussed in relation to the work of the MHD simulation group at KIS. Photospheric magneto-convection, the nonlinear interaction of magnetic field and convection in a strongly stratified, radiating fluid, is a key process of general astrophysical relevance. Comprehensive numerical simulations including radiative transfer have significantly improved our understanding of the processes and have become an important tool for the interpretation of observational data. Examples of field intensification in the solar photosphere ('convective collapse') are shown. The second line of research is concerned with the dynamics of flux tubes in the convection zone, which has far-reaching implications for our understanding of the solar dynamo. Simulations indicate that the field strength in the region where the flux is stored before erupting to form sunspot groups is of the order of 105 G, an order of magnitude larger than previous estimates based on equipartition with the kinetic energy of convective flows.Key words. Solar physics · astrophysics and astronomy (photosphere and chromosphere; stellar interiors and dynamo theory; numerical simulation studies).

  15. MHD Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Heeter, R F; Fasoli, A; Testa, D; Sharapov, S; Berk, H L; Breizman, B; Gondhalekar, A; Mantsinen, M

    2004-03-23

    Experiments are conducted on the JET tokamak to assess the diagnostic potential of MHD active and passive spectroscopy, for the plasma bulk and its suprathermal components, using Alfv{acute e}n Eigenmodes (AEs) excited by external antennas and by energetic particles. The measurements of AE frequencies and mode numbers give information on the bulk plasma. Improved equilibrium reconstruction, in particular in terms of radial profiles of density and safety factor, is possible from the comparison between the antenna driven spectrum and that calculated theoretically. Details of the time evolution of the non-monotonic safety factor profile in advanced scenarios can be reconstructed from the frequency of ICRH-driven energetic particle modes. The plasma effective mass can be inferred from the resonant frequency of externally driven AEs in discharges with similar equilibrium profiles. The stability thresholds and the nonlinear development of the instabilities can give clues on energy and spatial distribution of the fast particle population. The presence of unstable AEs provides lower limits in the energy of ICRH generated fast ion tails. Fast ion pressure gradients and their evolution can be inferred from the stability of AEs at different plasma radial positions. Finally, the details of the AE spectrum in the nonlinear stage can be used to obtain information about the fast particle velocity space diffusion.

  16. Advantages of 3D FEM numerical modeling over 2D, analyzed in a case study of transient thermal-hydraulic groundwater utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchsluger, Martin; Götzl, Gregor

    2014-05-01

    In general most aquifers have a much larger lateral extent than vertical. This fact leads to the application of the Dupuit-Forchheimer assumptions to many groundwater problems, whereas a two dimensional simulation is considered sufficient. By coupling transient fluid flow modeling with heat transport the 2D aquifer approximation is in many cases insufficient as it does not consider effects of the subjacent and overlying aquitards on heat propagation as well as the impact of surface climatic effects on shallow aquifers. A shallow Holocene aquifer in Vienna served as a case study to compare different modeling approaches in two and three dimensions in order to predict the performance and impact of a thermal aquifer utilization for heating (1.3 GWh) and cooling (1.4 GWh) of a communal building. With the assumption of a 6 doublets well field, the comparison was realized in three steps: At first a two dimensional model for unconfined flow was set up, assuming a varying hydraulic conductivity as well as a varying top and bottom elevation of the aquifer (gross - thickness). The model area was chosen along constant hydraulic head at steady state conditions. A second model was made by mapping solely the aquifer in three dimensions using the same subdomain and boundary conditions as defined in step one. The third model consists of a complete three dimensional geological build-up including the aquifer as well as the overlying and subjacent layers and additionally an annually variable climatic boundary condition at the surface. The latter was calibrated with measured water temperature at a nearby water gauge. For all three models the same annual operating mode of the 6 hydraulic doublets was assumed. Furthermore a limited maximal groundwater temperature at a range between 8 and 18 °C as well as a constrained well flow rate has been given. Finally a descriptive comparison of the three models concerning the extracted thermal power, drawdown, temperature distribution and Darcy

  17. Short-term groundwater fluxes in the hyporheic zone as a consequence of changing river stages; numerical simulation by HYDRUS 2D/3D.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyseure, Guido; Chou, Po-Yi

    2010-05-01

    All hydrological handbooks contain methods for direct runoff and base-flow separation. The semi-log separation method is the most classical one. One can, however, question the physical base for such method. In addition, the water fluxes in the riverbed are important for ecology and water quality. In our study an 2-D cross-section including the river and the surrounding aquifer was set-up in HYDRUS 2D/3D. Initial conditions were a steady-state subsurface flow feeding the river with a recharge from the soil surface. A surface runoff event was simulated by a rise and recession of the water level in the river. Differences between summer and winter situation were explored by given representative temperatures to the different components of the river-aquifer system. The simulations show that the fluxes are very different along the riverbed. Even during steady state baseflow we see that the fluxes through the bottom were 2 to 3 times smaller as compared to the side banks. During the hydrographs the proportion can become up to 5 times. Another interesting result is that within the time frame of the hydrograph and its immediate recession relatively little water, which pentetrated in the aquifer, returns to the river. Most of the water replenishes the aquifer and there is only a very small rise of baseflow. In our simulation we returned to the original level as before the hydrograph, so in reality even less or no rise in baseflow may occur immediately after a hydrograph. Of course, in a longer time-frame the recharge of the aquifer will give a rise to the actual subsurface drainage. The change in seasonal temperatures within the river-aquifer system has a substantial effect. For identical river stage hydrograph changes the hyporheic exchange fluxes are more intense in summer than in winter. If we define the hyporheic zone as the extedn to which the water fluxes from the river can penetrate, then we see that this zone is wider on the sides as compared to the bottom of the

  18. A 2D model to design MHD induction pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stieglitz, R.; Zeininger, J.

    2006-09-01

    Technical liquid metal systems accompanied by a thermal transfer of energy such as reactor systems, metallurgical processes, metal refinement, casting, etc., require a forced convection of the fluid. The increased temperatures and more often the environmental conditions as, e.g., in a nuclear environment, pumping principles are required, in which rotating parts are absent. Additionally, in many applications a controlled atmosphere is indispensable, in order to ensure the structural integrity of the duct walls. An interesting option to overcome the sealing problem of a mechanical pump towards the surrounding is offered by induction systems. Although their efficiency compared to that of turbo machines is quite low, they have several advantages, which are attractive to the specific requirements in liquid metal applications such as: - low maintenance costs due to the absence of sealings, bearings and moving parts; - low degradation rate of the structural material; - simple replacement of the inductor without cut of the piping system; - fine regulation of flow rate by different inductor connections; - change of pump characteristics without change of the mechanical set-up. Within the article, general design requirements of electromagnetic pumps (EMP) are elaborated. The design of two annular linear induction pumps operating with sodium and lead-bismuth are presented and the calculated pump characteristics and experimentally obtained data are compared. In this context, physical effects leading to deviations between the model and the real data are addressed. Finally, the main results are summarized. Tables 4, Figs 4, Refs 12.

  19. Towards the Identification of the Keeper Erosion Cause(s): Numerical Simulations of the Plasma and Neutral Gas Using the Global Cathode Model OrCa2D-II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Goebel, Dan M.; Jameson, Kristina K.

    2006-01-01

    Numerical simulations with the time-dependent Orificed Cathode (OrCa2D-II) computer code show that classical enhancements of the plasma resistivity can not account for the elevated electron temperatures and steep plasma potential gradients measured in the plume of a 25-27.5 A discharge hollow cathode. The cathode, which employs a 0.11-in diameter orifice, was operated at 5.5 sccm without an applied magnetic field using two different anode geometries. It is found that anomalous resistivity based on electron-driven instabilities improves the comparison between theory and experiment. It is also estimated that other effects such as the Hall-effect from the self-induced magnetic field, not presently included in OrCa2D-II, may contribute to the constriction of the current density streamlines thus explaining the higher plasma densities observed along the centerline.

  20. MHD Power Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantrowitz, Arthur; Rosa, Richard J.

    1975-01-01

    Explains the operation of the Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator and advantages of the system over coal, oil or nuclear powered generators. Details the development of MHD generators in the United States and Soviet Union. (CP)

  1. Characteristics of laminar MHD fluid hammer in pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Z. Y.; Liu, Y. J.

    2016-01-01

    As gradually wide applications of MHD fluid, transportation as well as control with pumps and valves is unavoidable, which induces MHD fluid hammer. The paper attempts to combine MHD effect and fluid hammer effect and to investigate the characteristics of laminar MHD fluid hammer. A non-dimensional fluid hammer model, based on Navier-Stocks equations, coupling with Lorentz force is numerically solved in a reservoir-pipe-valve system with uniform external magnetic field. The MHD effect is represented by the interaction number which associates with the conductivity of the MHD fluid as well as the external magnetic field and can be interpreted as the ratio of Lorentz force to Joukowsky force. The transient numerical results of pressure head, average velocity, wall shear stress, velocity profiles and shear stress profiles are provided. The additional MHD effect hinders fluid motion, weakens wave front and homogenizes velocity profiles, contributing to obvious attenuation of oscillation, strengthened line packing and weakened Richardson annular effect. Studying the characteristics of MHD laminar fluid hammer theoretically supplements the gap of knowledge of rapid-transient MHD flow and technically provides beneficial information for MHD pipeline system designers to better devise MHD systems.

  2. Local structures of homogeneous Hall MHD turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, H.; Araki, K.

    2011-12-01

    Local structures of decaying homogeneous and isotropic Hall MHD turbulence are studied by means of direct numerical simulations. Regions of strong vorticity and strong current density in Hall MHD turbulence are compared to those of single-fluid MHD turbulence. An analysis by the use of a low-pass filter reveals that the introduction of the Hall term can modify not only small-scale structures of the current density but also structures of the vorticity field, especially at the scales smaller than the ion skin depth.

  3. Open Boundary Conditions for Dissipative MHD

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, E T

    2011-11-10

    In modeling magnetic confinement, astrophysics, and plasma propulsion, representing the entire physical domain is often difficult or impossible, and artificial, or 'open' boundaries are appropriate. A novel open boundary condition (BC) for dissipative MHD, called Lacuna-based open BC (LOBC), is presented. LOBC, based on the idea of lacuna-based truncation originally presented by V.S. Ryaben'kii and S.V. Tsynkov, provide truncation with low numerical noise and minimal reflections. For hyperbolic systems, characteristic-based BC (CBC) exist for separating the solution into outgoing and incoming parts. In the hyperbolic-parabolic dissipative MHD system, such separation is not possible, and CBC are numerically unstable. LOBC are applied in dissipative MHD test problems including a translating FRC, and coaxial-electrode plasma acceleration. Solution quality is compared to solutions using CBC and zero-normal derivative BC. LOBC are a promising new open BC option for dissipative MHD.

  4. 2D dry granular free-surface transient flow over complex topography with obstacles. Part II: Numerical predictions of fluid structures and benchmarking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juez, C.; Caviedes-Voullième, D.; Murillo, J.; García-Navarro, P.

    2014-12-01

    Dense granular flows are present in geophysics and in several industrial processes, which has lead to an increasing interest for the knowledge and understanding of the physics which govern their propagation. For this reason, a wide range of laboratory experiments on gravity-driven flows have been carried out during the last two decades. The present work is focused on geomorphological processes and, following previous work, a series of laboratory studies which constitute a further step in mimicking natural phenomena are described and simulated. Three situations are considered with some common properties: a two-dimensional configuration, variable slope of the topography and the presence of obstacles. The setup and measurement technique employed during the development of these experiments are deeply explained in the companion work. The first experiment is based on a single obstacle, the second one is performed against multiple obstacles and the third one studies the influence of a dike on which overtopping occurs. Due to the impact of the flow against the obstacles, fast moving shocks appear, and a variety of secondary waves emerge. In order to delve into the physics of these types of phenomena, a shock-capturing numerical scheme is used to simulate the cases. The suitability of the mathematical models employed in this work has been previously validated. Comparisons between computed and experimental data are presented for the three cases. The computed results show that the numerical tool is able to predict faithfully the overall behavior of this type of complex dense granular flow.

  5. 2D numerical modelling of the gas temperature in a high-temperature high-power strontium atom laser excited by nanosecond pulsed longitudinal discharge in a He-SrBr2 mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernogorova, T. P.; Temelkov, K. A.; Koleva, N. K.; Vuchkov, N. K.

    2014-05-01

    Assuming axial symmetry and a uniform power input, a 2D model (r, z) is developed numerically for determination of the gas temperature in the case of a nanosecond pulsed longitudinal discharge in He-SrBr2 formed in a newly-designed large-volume high-temperature discharge tube with additional incompact ZrO2 insulation in the discharge-free zone, in order to find the optimal thermal mode for achievement of maximal output laser parameters. The model determines the gas temperature of a nanosecond pulsed longitudinal discharge in helium with small additives of strontium and bromine.

  6. 2D numerical simulation of impinging jet to the flat surface by k - ω - overline{{v2 }} - f turbulence model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalaji, E.; Nazari, M. R.; Seifi, Z.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the effects of dependent parameters such as inlet Reynolds number (4000 ≤ Re ≤ 20,000), nozzle-plate distance (4 ≤ H/D ≤ 10), plate diameter (18 < D/B < 40 based on other approaches), inlet flow type (fully developed, uniform and pulsed) and thermal boundary condition (constant heat flux and temperature) in confined and unconfined turbulent impinging jet are investigated considering constant inlet fluid (air). The obtained results are compared with other experimental and numerical results found in the literature. This investigation indicates that the k - ω - overline{{v2 }} - f model acquires appropriate performance in terms of thermal and dynamical fluid analysis compared to other turbulence models and experimental results.

  7. Performance of Scramjet Engine with MHD Energy Bypass System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminaga, Susumu; Tomioka, Sadatake; Yamasaki, Hiroyuki

    Flow behavior and thrust performance of MHD energy bypass scramjet engine was examined numerically. MHD generator was placed at the isolator to enhance the flow compression. Kinetic energy was converted to electrical energy in the MHD generator. Extracted electrical energy was consumed at the MHD accelerator placed at the downstream of the combustor. When MHD energy bypass system was used, the flow was decelerated and compressed in the MHD generator. Effect of velocity and Mach number on wall friction was analyzed and decrease of friction force was pointed out. Also, high pressure in the combustor resulted in increase of pressure contribution to net thrust. Despite of positive effects, decelerating Lorentz force in the MHD generator was comparably large and no significant difference in net thrust performance is observed.

  8. Alfvén ionization in an MHD-gas interactions code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, A. D.; Diver, D. A.

    2016-07-01

    A numerical model of partially ionized plasmas is developed in order to capture their evolving ionization fractions as a result of Alfvén ionization (AI). The mechanism of, and the parameter regime necessary for, AI is discussed and an expression for the AI rate based on fluid parameters, from a gas-MHD model, is derived. This AI term is added to an existing MHD-gas interactions' code, and the result is a linear, 2D, two-fluid model that includes momentum transfer between charged and neutral species as well as an ionization rate that depends on the velocity fields of both fluids. The dynamics of waves propagating through such a partially ionized plasma are investigated, and it is found that AI has a significant influence on the fluid dynamics as well as both the local and global ionization fraction.

  9. Newtonian CAFE: a new ideal MHD code to study the solar atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Avilés, J. J.; Cruz-Osorio, A.; Lora-Clavijo, F. D.; Guzmán, F. S.

    2015-12-01

    We present a new code designed to solve the equations of classical ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) in three dimensions, submitted to a constant gravitational field. The purpose of the code centres on the analysis of solar phenomena within the photosphere-corona region. We present 1D and 2D standard tests to demonstrate the quality of the numerical results obtained with our code. As solar tests we present the transverse oscillations of Alfvénic pulses in coronal loops using a 2.5D model, and as 3D tests we present the propagation of impulsively generated MHD-gravity waves and vortices in the solar atmosphere. The code is based on high-resolution shock-capturing methods, uses the Harten-Lax-van Leer-Einfeldt (HLLE) flux formula combined with Minmod, MC, and WENO5 reconstructors. The divergence free magnetic field constraint is controlled using the Flux Constrained Transport method.

  10. 2-D numerical simulations of groundwater flow, heat transfer and 4He transport — implications for the He terrestrial budget and the mantle helium heat imbalance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Maria Clara; Patriarche, Delphine; Goblet, Patrick

    2005-09-01

    Because helium and heat production results from a common source, a continental 4He crustal flux of 4.65 * 10 - 14 mol m - 2 s - 1 has been estimated based on heat flow considerations. In addition, because the observed mantle He / heat flux ratio at the proximity of mid-ocean ridges (6.6 * 10 - 14 mol J - 1 ) is significantly lower than the radiogenic production ratio (1.5 * 10 - 12 mol J - 1 ), the presence of a terrestrial helium-heat imbalance was suggested. The latter could be explained by the presence of a layered mantle in which removal of He is impeded from the lower mantle [R.K. O'Nions, E.R. Oxburgh, Heat and helium in the Earth, Nature 306 (1983) 429-431; E.R. Oxburgh, R.K. O'Nions, Helium loss, tectonics, and the terrestrial heat budget, Science 237 (1987) 1583-1588]. van Keken et al. [P.E. van Keken, C.J. Ballentine, D. Porcelli, A dynamical investigation of the heat and helium imbalance, Earth Planet, Sci. Lett. 188 (2001) 421-434] have recently claimed that the helium-heat imbalance remains a robust observation. Such conclusions, however, were reached under the assumption that a steady-state regime was in place for both tracers and that their transport properties are similar at least in the upper portion of the crust. Here, through 2-D simulations of groundwater flow, heat transfer and 4He transport carried out simultaneously in the Carrizo aquifer and surrounding formations in southwest Texas, we assess the legitimacy of earlier assumptions. Specifically, we show that the driving transport mechanisms for He and heat are of a fundamentally different nature for a high range of permeabilities ( k ≤ 10 - 16 m 2) found in metamorphic and volcanic rocks at all depths in the crust. The assumption that transport properties for these two tracers are similar in the crust is thus unsound. We also show that total 4He / heat flux ratios lower than radiogenic production ratios do not reflect a He deficit in the crust or mantle original reservoir. Instead, they

  11. 2D SEDFLUX 1.0C:. an advanced process-response numerical model for the fill of marine sedimentary basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syvitski, James P. M.; Hutton, Eric W. H.

    2001-07-01

    Numerical simulators of the dynamics of strata formation of continental margins fuse information from the atmosphere, ocean and regional geology. Such models can provide information for areas and times for which actual measurements are not available, or for when purely statistical estimates are not adequate by themselves. SEDFLUX is such a basin-fill model, written in ANSI-standard C, able to simulate the delivery of sediment and their accumulation over time scales of tens of thousands of years. SEDFLUX includes the effects of sea-level fluctuations, river floods, ocean storms, and other relevant environmental factors (climate trends, random catastrophic events), at a time step (daily to yearly) that is sensitive to short-term variations of the seafloor. SEDFLUX combines individual process-response models into one fully interactive model, delivering a multi-sized sediment load onto and across a continental margin, including sediment redistribution by (1) river mouth dynamics, (2) buoyant surface plumes, (3) hyperpycnal flows, (4) ocean storms, (5) slope instabilities, (6) turbidity currents, and (7) debris flows. The model allows for the deposit to compact, to undergo tectonic processes (faults, uplift) and isostatic subsidence from the sediment load. The modeled architecture has a typical vertical resolution of 1-25 cm, and a typical horizontal resolution of between 1 and 100 m.

  12. 2-D Imaging of Electron Temperature in Tokamak Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    T. Munsat; E. Mazzucato; H. Park; C.W. Domier; M. Johnson; N.C. Luhmann Jr.; J. Wang; Z. Xia; I.G.J. Classen; A.J.H. Donne; M.J. van de Pol

    2004-07-08

    By taking advantage of recent developments in millimeter wave imaging technology, an Electron Cyclotron Emission Imaging (ECEI) instrument, capable of simultaneously measuring 128 channels of localized electron temperature over a 2-D map in the poloidal plane, has been developed for the TEXTOR tokamak. Data from the new instrument, detailing the MHD activity associated with a sawtooth crash, is presented.

  13. MHD Turbulence and Magnetic Dynamos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V

    2014-01-01

    Incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence and magnetic dynamos, which occur in magnetofluids with large fluid and magnetic Reynolds numbers, will be discussed. When Reynolds numbers are large and energy decays slowly, the distribution of energy with respect to length scale becomes quasi-stationary and MHD turbulence can be described statistically. In the limit of infinite Reynolds numbers, viscosity and resistivity become zero and if these values are used in the MHD equations ab initio, a model system called ideal MHD turbulence results. This model system is typically confined in simple geometries with some form of homogeneous boundary conditions, allowing for velocity and magnetic field to be represented by orthogonal function expansions. One advantage to this is that the coefficients of the expansions form a set of nonlinearly interacting variables whose behavior can be described by equilibrium statistical mechanics, i.e., by a canonical ensemble theory based on the global invariants (energy, cross helicity and magnetic helicity) of ideal MHD turbulence. Another advantage is that truncated expansions provide a finite dynamical system whose time evolution can be numerically simulated to test the predictions of the associated statistical mechanics. If ensemble predictions are the same as time averages, then the system is said to be ergodic; if not, the system is nonergodic. Although it had been implicitly assumed in the early days of ideal MHD statistical theory development that these finite dynamical systems were ergodic, numerical simulations provided sufficient evidence that they were, in fact, nonergodic. Specifically, while canonical ensemble theory predicted that expansion coefficients would be (i) zero-mean random variables with (ii) energy that decreased with length scale, it was found that although (ii) was correct, (i) was not and the expected ergodicity was broken. The exact cause of this broken ergodicity was explained, after much

  14. Dipole Alignment in Rotating MHD Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.; Fu, Terry; Morin, Lee

    2012-01-01

    We present numerical results from long-term CPU and GPU simulations of rotating, homogeneous, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, and discuss their connection to the spherically bounded case. We compare our numerical results with a statistical theory of geodynamo action that has evolved from the absolute equilibrium ensemble theory of ideal MHD turbulence, which is based on the ideal MHD invariants are energy, cross helicity and magnetic helicity. However, for rotating MHD turbulence, the cross helicity is no longer an exact invariant, although rms cross helicity becomes quasistationary during an ideal MHD simulation. This and the anisotropy imposed by rotation suggests an ansatz in which an effective, nonzero value of cross helicity is assigned to axisymmetric modes and zero cross helicity to non-axisymmetric modes. This hybrid statistics predicts a large-scale quasistationary magnetic field due to broken ergodicity , as well as dipole vector alignment with the rotation axis, both of which are observed numerically. We find that only a relatively small value of effective cross helicity leads to the prediction of a dipole moment vector that is closely aligned (less than 10 degrees) with the rotation axis. We also discuss the effect of initial conditions, dissipation and grid size on the numerical simulations and statistical theory.

  15. Exponential high-order compact scheme on nonuniform grids for the steady MHD duct flow problems with high Hartmann numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, K.; Ni, S. H.; Tian, Z. F.

    2015-11-01

    In this article, we establish an exponential high-order compact (EHOC) difference scheme on non-uniform grids for the solution of the coupled equations representing the steady incompressible, viscous magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow through a straight channel of rectangular section. A main advantage of the non-uniform grids-based EHOC scheme is that it could use coarser mesh to capture the details within the computational domain for the MHD flow problems with high Hartmann numbers. Numerical experiments are carried out to validate the performance of the currently proposed scheme. Computation results of the MHD flow in the 2D square-channel problems are presented for Hartmann numbers ranging from 10 to 106. The numerical solutions obtained with the newly developed EHOC scheme are also compared with analytic solutions and numerical results by other available methods in the literature. All of these numerical results demonstrate that the currently proposed scheme is accurate, efficient and robust for the wide range of Hartmann numbers 10 to 106.

  16. A Self-Consistent Numerical Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Model of Helmet Streamer and Flux-Rope Interactions: Initiation and Propagation of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.; Guo, W. P.

    1997-01-01

    We present results for an investigation of the interaction of a helmet streamer arcade and a helical flux-rope emerging from the sub-photosphere. These results are obtained by using a three-dimensional axisymmetric, time-dependent ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model. Because of the physical nature of the flux-rope, we investigate two types of flux-ropes; (1) high density flux-rope (i.e. flux-rope without cavity), and (2) low density flux rope (i.e. flux-rope with cavity). When the streamer is disrupted by the flux-rope, it will evolve into a configuration resembling the typical observed loop-like Coronal Mass Ejection (CMES) for both cases. The streamer-flux rope system with cavity is easier to be disrupted and the propagation speed of the CME is faster than the streamer-flux rope system without cavity. Our results demonstrate that magnetic buoyancy force plays an important role in disrupting the streamer.

  17. MHD simulations on an unstructured mesh

    SciTech Connect

    Strauss, H.R.; Park, W.; Belova, E.; Fu, G.Y.; Longcope, D.W.; Sugiyama, L.E.

    1998-12-31

    Two reasons for using an unstructured computational mesh are adaptivity, and alignment with arbitrarily shaped boundaries. Two codes which use finite element discretization on an unstructured mesh are described. FEM3D solves 2D and 3D RMHD using an adaptive grid. MH3D++, which incorporates methods of FEM3D into the MH3D generalized MHD code, can be used with shaped boundaries, which might be 3D.

  18. FEMHD: An adaptive finite element method for MHD and edge modelling

    SciTech Connect

    Strauss, H.R.

    1995-07-01

    This paper describes the code FEMHD, an adaptive finite element MHD code, which is applied in a number of different manners to model MHD behavior and edge plasma phenomena on a diverted tokamak. The code uses an unstructured triangular mesh in 2D and wedge shaped mesh elements in 3D. The code has been adapted to look at neutral and charged particle dynamics in the plasma scrape off region, and into a full MHD-particle code.

  19. Aniso2D

    2005-07-01

    Aniso2d is a two-dimensional seismic forward modeling code. The earth is parameterized by an X-Z plane in which the seismic properties Can have monoclinic with x-z plane symmetry. The program uses a user define time-domain wavelet to produce synthetic seismograms anrwhere within the two-dimensional media.

  20. A new numerical solution for the MHD peristaltic flow of a bio-fluid with variable viscosity in a circular cylindrical tube via Adomian decomposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebaid, A.

    2008-08-01

    In this Letter, we considered a numerical treatment for the solution of the hydromagnetic peristaltic flow of a bio-fluid with variable viscosity in a circular cylindrical tube using Adomian decomposition method and a modified form of this method. The axial velocity is obtained in a closed form. Comparison is made between the results obtained by only three terms of Adomian series with those obtained previously by perturbation technique. It is observed that only few terms of the series expansion are required to obtain the numerical solution with good accuracy.

  1. Erratum: ``Orbital Advection by Interpolation: A Fast and Accurate Numerical Scheme for Super-Fast MHD Flows'' (ApJ, 177, 373 [2008])

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, B M; Guan, X; Gammie, C F

    2008-06-24

    The descriptions of some of the numerical tests in our original paper are incomplete, making reproduction of the results difficult. We provide the missing details here. The relevant tests are described in section 4 of the original paper (Figures 8-11).

  2. Mesh2d

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Flach, Frank Smith

    2011-12-31

    Mesh2d is a Fortran90 program designed to generate two-dimensional structured grids of the form [x(i),y(i,j)] where [x,y] are grid coordinates identified by indices (i,j). The x(i) coordinates alone can be used to specify a one-dimensional grid. Because the x-coordinates vary only with the i index, a two-dimensional grid is composed in part of straight vertical lines. However, the nominally horizontal y(i,j0) coordinates along index i are permitted to undulate or otherwise vary. Mesh2d also assigns an integer material type to each grid cell, mtyp(i,j), in a user-specified manner. The complete grid is specified through three separate input files defining the x(i), y(i,j), and mtyp(i,j) variations.

  3. Mesh2d

    2011-12-31

    Mesh2d is a Fortran90 program designed to generate two-dimensional structured grids of the form [x(i),y(i,j)] where [x,y] are grid coordinates identified by indices (i,j). The x(i) coordinates alone can be used to specify a one-dimensional grid. Because the x-coordinates vary only with the i index, a two-dimensional grid is composed in part of straight vertical lines. However, the nominally horizontal y(i,j0) coordinates along index i are permitted to undulate or otherwise vary. Mesh2d also assignsmore » an integer material type to each grid cell, mtyp(i,j), in a user-specified manner. The complete grid is specified through three separate input files defining the x(i), y(i,j), and mtyp(i,j) variations.« less

  4. Vertical 2D Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotsch, Bettina V.

    2015-07-01

    Graphene's legacy has become an integral part of today's condensed matter science and has equipped a whole generation of scientists with an armory of concepts and techniques that open up new perspectives for the postgraphene area. In particular, the judicious combination of 2D building blocks into vertical heterostructures has recently been identified as a promising route to rationally engineer complex multilayer systems and artificial solids with intriguing properties. The present review highlights recent developments in the rapidly emerging field of 2D nanoarchitectonics from a materials chemistry perspective, with a focus on the types of heterostructures available, their assembly strategies, and their emerging properties. This overview is intended to bridge the gap between two major—yet largely disjunct—developments in 2D heterostructures, which are firmly rooted in solid-state chemistry or physics. Although the underlying types of heterostructures differ with respect to their dimensions, layer alignment, and interfacial quality, there is common ground, and future synergies between the various assembly strategies are to be expected.

  5. Fully Parallel MHD Stability Analysis Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svidzinski, Vladimir; Galkin, Sergei; Kim, Jin-Soo; Liu, Yueqiang

    2014-10-01

    Progress on full parallelization of the plasma stability code MARS will be reported. MARS calculates eigenmodes in 2D axisymmetric toroidal equilibria in MHD-kinetic plasma models. It is a powerful tool for studying MHD and MHD-kinetic instabilities and it is widely used by fusion community. Parallel version of MARS is intended for simulations on local parallel clusters. It will be an efficient tool for simulation of MHD instabilities with low, intermediate and high toroidal mode numbers within both fluid and kinetic plasma models, already implemented in MARS. Parallelization of the code includes parallelization of the construction of the matrix for the eigenvalue problem and parallelization of the inverse iterations algorithm, implemented in MARS for the solution of the formulated eigenvalue problem. Construction of the matrix is parallelized by distributing the load among processors assigned to different magnetic surfaces. Parallelization of the solution of the eigenvalue problem is made by repeating steps of the present MARS algorithm using parallel libraries and procedures. Initial results of the code parallelization will be reported. Work is supported by the U.S. DOE SBIR program.

  6. Fully Parallel MHD Stability Analysis Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svidzinski, Vladimir; Galkin, Sergei; Kim, Jin-Soo; Liu, Yueqiang

    2013-10-01

    Progress on full parallelization of the plasma stability code MARS will be reported. MARS calculates eigenmodes in 2D axisymmetric toroidal equilibria in MHD-kinetic plasma models. It is a powerful tool for studying MHD and MHD-kinetic instabilities and it is widely used by fusion community. Parallel version of MARS is intended for simulations on local parallel clusters. It will be an efficient tool for simulation of MHD instabilities with low, intermediate and high toroidal mode numbers within both fluid and kinetic plasma models, already implemented in MARS. Parallelization of the code includes parallelization of the construction of the matrix for the eigenvalue problem and parallelization of the inverse iterations algorithm, implemented in MARS for the solution of the formulated eigenvalue problem. Construction of the matrix is parallelized by distributing the load among processors assigned to different magnetic surfaces. Parallelization of the solution of the eigenvalue problem is made by repeating steps of the present MARS algorithm using parallel libraries and procedures. Preliminary results of the code parallelization will be reported. Work is supported by the U.S. DOE SBIR program.

  7. Fully Parallel MHD Stability Analysis Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svidzinski, Vladimir; Galkin, Sergei; Kim, Jin-Soo; Liu, Yueqiang

    2015-11-01

    Progress on full parallelization of the plasma stability code MARS will be reported. MARS calculates eigenmodes in 2D axisymmetric toroidal equilibria in MHD-kinetic plasma models. It is a powerful tool for studying MHD and MHD-kinetic instabilities and it is widely used by fusion community. Parallel version of MARS is intended for simulations on local parallel clusters. It will be an efficient tool for simulation of MHD instabilities with low, intermediate and high toroidal mode numbers within both fluid and kinetic plasma models, already implemented in MARS. Parallelization of the code includes parallelization of the construction of the matrix for the eigenvalue problem and parallelization of the inverse iterations algorithm, implemented in MARS for the solution of the formulated eigenvalue problem. Construction of the matrix is parallelized by distributing the load among processors assigned to different magnetic surfaces. Parallelization of the solution of the eigenvalue problem is made by repeating steps of the present MARS algorithm using parallel libraries and procedures. Results of MARS parallelization and of the development of a new fix boundary equilibrium code adapted for MARS input will be reported. Work is supported by the U.S. DOE SBIR program.

  8. Dynamo theory and liquid metal MHD experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lielausis, O.

    1994-06-01

    High values of magnetic Reynolds number Rm are characteristic not only to astrophysics, but also to other interesting objects, including liquid metal (LM) flows. LM experiments have been performed illustrating important predictions of the dynamo theory, for example, about the existence and features of the alpha effect. Consideration of so called 'laminar' dynamos provides a theoretical base for direct experimental realization and examination of the dynamo process. First step results, gathered a subcritical conditions, confirm the statement that self-excitation in LM experiments can be achieved practically today. In such devices as LM (sodium) cooled fast breeders Rm can reach values of up to 50 and specific MHD phenomena have been observed in operating fast reactors. Cautions against crisis like processes have been expressed. It is important for the dynamo theory to understand what kind of perturbed motion is able to coexist with the generated magnetic field. Fundamentally new ideas here are issuing from the theory of 2D MHD turbulence. LM MHD served for the first direct proves, confirming, that the predicted surprising features of 2D turbulence can be observed in reality. It is worth incorporating these already not new ideas in the dynamo theory. In such a way a field for new solutions could be established.

  9. Survey of MHD plant applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, J. J.; Seikel, G. R.; Cutting, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    Open-cycle MHD is one of the major R&D efforts in the Department of Energy's program to meet the national goal of reducing U.S. dependence on oil through increased utilization of coal. MHD offers an effective way to use coal to produce electric power at low cost in a highly efficient and environmentally acceptable manner. Open-cycle MHD plants are categorized by the MHD combustor oxidizer, its temperature and the method of preheat. The paper discusses MHD baseline plant design, open-cycle MHD plant in the Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), early commercial MHD plants, conceptual studies of the engineering test facility, retrofit (addition of an MHD topping cycle to an existing steam plant), and other potential applications and concepts. Emphasis is placed on a survey of both completed and ongoing studies to define both commercial and pilot plant design, cost, and performance.

  10. Broken Symmetry and Coherent Structure in MHD Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.

    2007-01-01

    Absolute equilibrium ensemble theory for ideal homogeneous magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence is fairly well developed. Theory and Simulation indicate that ideal MHD turbulence non-ergodic and contains coherent structure. The question of applicability real (i.e., dissipative) MHD turbulence is examined. Results from several very long time numerical simulations on a 64(exp 3) grid are presented. It is seen that coherent structure begins to form before decay dominates over nonlinearity. The connection with inverse spectral cascades and selective decay will also be discussed.

  11. Baby universes in 2d quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambjørn, Jan; Jain, Sanjay; Thorleifsson, Gudmar

    1993-06-01

    We investigate the fractal structure of 2d quantum gravity, both for pure gravity and for gravity coupled to multiple gaussian fields and for gravity coupled to Ising spins. The roughness of the surfaces is described in terms of baby universes and using numerical simulations we measure their distribution which is related to the string susceptibility exponent γstring.

  12. A New Low Dissipative High Order Schemes for MHD Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, H. C.; Sjoegreen, Bjoern; Mansour, Nagi (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this talk is to extend our recently developed highly parallelizable nonlinear stable high order schemes for complex multiscale hydrodynamic applications to the viscous MHD equations. These schemes employed multiresolution wavelets as adaptive numerical dissipation controls to limit the amount and to aid the selection and/or blending of the appropriate types of dissipation to be used. The new scheme is formulated for both the conservative and non-conservative form of the MHD equations in curvilinear grids.

  13. Existence of two MHD reconnection modes in a solar 3D magnetic null point topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pariat, Etienne; Antiochos, Spiro; DeVore, C. Richard; Dalmasse, Kévin

    2012-07-01

    Magnetic topologies with a 3D magnetic null point are common in the solar atmosphere and occur at different spatial scales: such structures can be associated with some solar eruptions, with the so-called pseudo-streamers, and with numerous coronal jets. We have recently developed a series of numerical experiments that model magnetic reconnection in such configurations in order to study and explain the properties of jet-like features. Our model uses our state-of-the-art adaptive-mesh MHD solver ARMS. Energy is injected in the system by line-tied motion of the magnetic field lines in a corona-like configuration. We observe that, in the MHD framework, two reconnection modes eventually appear in the course of the evolution of the system. A very impulsive one, associated with a highly dynamic and fully 3D current sheet, is associated with the energetic generation of a jet. Before and after the generation of the jet, a quasi-steady reconnection mode, more similar to the standard 2D Sweet-Parker model, presents a lower global reconnection rate. We show that the geometry of the magnetic configuration influences the trigger of one or the other mode. We argue that this result carries important implications for the observed link between observational features such as solar jets, solar plumes, and the emission of coronal bright points.

  14. Generalized reduced MHD equations

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, S.E.; Hegna, C.C.; Callen, J.D.

    1998-07-01

    A new derivation of reduced magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations is presented. A multiple-time-scale expansion is employed. It has the advantage of clearly separating the three time scales of the problem associated with (1) MHD equilibrium, (2) fluctuations whose wave vector is aligned perpendicular to the magnetic field, and (3) those aligned parallel to the magnetic field. The derivation is carried out without relying on a large aspect ratio assumption; therefore this model can be applied to any general toroidal configuration. By accounting for the MHD equilibrium and constraints to eliminate the fast perpendicular waves, equations are derived to evolve scalar potential quantities on a time scale associated with the parallel wave vector (shear-alfven wave time scale), which is the time scale of interest for MHD instability studies. Careful attention is given in the derivation to satisfy energy conservation and to have manifestly divergence-free magnetic fields to all orders in the expansion parameter. Additionally, neoclassical closures and equilibrium shear flow effects are easily accounted for in this model. Equations for the inner resistive layer are derived which reproduce the linear ideal and resistive stability criterion of Glasser, Greene, and Johnson.

  15. MHD Generating system

    DOEpatents

    Petrick, Michael; Pierson, Edward S.; Schreiner, Felix

    1980-01-01

    According to the present invention, coal combustion gas is the primary working fluid and copper or a copper alloy is the electrodynamic fluid in the MHD generator, thereby eliminating the heat exchangers between the combustor and the liquid-metal MHD working fluids, allowing the use of a conventional coalfired steam bottoming plant, and making the plant simpler, more efficient and cheaper. In operation, the gas and liquid are combined in a mixer and the resulting two-phase mixture enters the MHD generator. The MHD generator acts as a turbine and electric generator in one unit wherein the gas expands, drives the liquid across the magnetic field and thus generates electrical power. The gas and liquid are separated, and the available energy in the gas is recovered before the gas is exhausted to the atmosphere. Where the combustion gas contains sulfur, oxygen is bubbled through a side loop to remove sulfur therefrom as a concentrated stream of sulfur dioxide. The combustor is operated substoichiometrically to control the oxide level in the copper.

  16. Disk MHD generator study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Retallick, F. D.

    1980-01-01

    Directly-fired, separately-fired, and oxygen-augmented MHD power plants incorporating a disk geometry for the MHD generator were studied. The base parameters defined for four near-optimum-performance MHD steam power systems of various types are presented. The finally selected systems consisted of (1) two directly fired cases, one at 1920 K (2996F) preheat and the other at 1650 K (2500 F) preheat, (2) a separately-fired case where the air is preheated to the same level as the higher temperature directly-fired cases, and (3) an oxygen augmented case with the same generator inlet temperature of 2839 (4650F) as the high temperature directly-fired and separately-fired cases. Supersonic Mach numbers at the generator inlet, gas inlet swirl, and constant Hall field operation were specified based on disk generator optimization. System pressures were based on optimization of MHD net power. Supercritical reheat stream plants were used in all cases. Open and closed cycle component costs are summarized and compared.

  17. Extended MHD Simulations of Spheromaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, E. C.; Sovinec, C. R.

    2012-10-01

    Nonlinear extended MHD simulations of a spheromak in a cylindrical flux conserver are performed using the NIMROD code (JCP 195, 2004). An idealized series of simulations starting from a Grad-Shafranov equilibrium and small non-axisymmetric perturbations are performed to model the sustained decay phase. The resulting confinement leads to steep resistivity gradients. Strong current gradients develop, driving tearing modes that dominate the evolution of the spheromak. Absent in these simulations are the remains of n=1 fluctuations created during the formation process. A second series of simulations start from vacuum fields and model the full spheromak evolution, including the formation process where the n=1 fluctuations dominate. To understand the role of pressure driven instabilities in the evolution of the spheromak, a numerical diagnostic is developed to calculate the Mercier stability criterion from the axisymmetric fields.

  18. Dispersive waves in a seeded MHD generator.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harstad, K. G.

    1972-01-01

    The equations giving the response of a slightly ionized plasma with monatomic components to sinusoidal perturbations have been formulated. Included in the model equations were the electron Hall effect, electron thermal diffusion, radiation, and electron-atom rate processes. Plasma conditions were limited to those where viscous effects, the induced magnetic field, ion slip, and atom-atom inelastic processes can be neglected. Presented are results of numerical calculations for MHD generators with a working fluid of potassium seeded argon.

  19. Vector processing efficiency of plasma MHD codes by use of the FACOM 230-75 APU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, T.; Tanaka, Y.; Naraoka, K.; Takizuka, T.; Tsunematsu, T.; Tokuda, S.; Azumi, M.; Kurita, G.; Takeda, T.

    1982-06-01

    In the framework of pipelined vector architecture, the efficiency of vector processing is assessed with respect to plasma MHD codes in nuclear fusion research. By using a vector processor, the FACOM 230-75 APU, the limit of the enhancement factor due to parallelism of current vector machines is examined for three numerical codes based on a fluid model. Reasonable speed-up factors of approximately 6,6 and 4 times faster than the highly optimized scalar version are obtained for ERATO (linear stability code), AEOLUS-R1 (nonlinear stability code) and APOLLO (1-1/2D transport code), respectively. Problems of the pipelined vector processors are discussed from the viewpoint of restructuring, optimization and choice of algorithms. In conclusion, the important concept of "concurrency within pipelined parallelism" is emphasized.

  20. Proceedings of the workshop on nonlinear MHD and extended MHD

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    Nonlinear MHD simulations have proven their value in interpreting experimental results over the years. As magnetic fusion experiments reach higher performance regimes, more sophisticated experimental diagnostics coupled with ever expanding computer capabilities have increased both the need for and the feasibility of nonlinear global simulations using models more realistic than regular ideal and resistive MHD. Such extended-MHD nonlinear simulations have already begun to produce useful results. These studies are expected to lead to ever more comprehensive simulation models in the future and to play a vital role in fully understanding fusion plasmas. Topics include the following: (1) current state of nonlinear MHD and extended-MHD simulations; (2) comparisons to experimental data; (3) discussions between experimentalists and theorists; (4) /equations for extended-MHD models, kinetic-based closures; and (5) paths toward more comprehensive simulation models, etc. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  1. Symmetry, Statistics and Structure in MHD Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.

    2007-01-01

    Here, we examine homogeneous MHD turbulence in terms of truncated Fourier series. The ideal MHD equations and the associated statistical theory of absolute equilibrium ensembles are symmetric under P, C and T. However, the presence of invariant helicities, which are pseudoscalars under P and C, dynamically breaks this symmetry. This occurs because the surface of constant energy in phase space has disjoint parts, called components: while ensemble averages are taken over all components, a dynamical phase trajectory is confined to only one component. As the Birkhoff-Khinchin theorem tells us, ideal MHD turbulence is thus non-ergodic. This non-ergodicity manifests itself in low-wave number Fourier modes that have large mean values (while absolute ensemble theory predicts mean values of zero). Therefore, we have coherent structure in ideal MHD turbulence. The level of non-ergodicity and amount of energy contained in the associated coherent structure depends on the values of the helicities, as well as on the presence, or not, of a mean magnetic field and/or overall rotation. In addition to the well known cross and magnetic helicities, we also present a new invariant, which we call the parallel helicity, since it occurs when mean field and rotation axis are aligned. The question of applicability of these results to real (i.e., dissipative) MHD turbulence is also examined. Several long-time numerical simulations on a 64(exp 3) grid are given as examples. It is seen that coherent structure begins to form before decay dominates over nonlinearity. The connection of these results with inverse spectral cascades, selective decay, and magnetic dynamos is also discussed.

  2. Large Area Synthesis of 2D Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Eric

    Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have generated significant interest for numerous applications including sensors, flexible electronics, heterostructures and optoelectronics due to their interesting, thickness-dependent properties. Despite recent progress, the synthesis of high-quality and highly uniform TMDs on a large scale is still a challenge. In this talk, synthesis routes for WSe2 and MoS2 that achieve monolayer thickness uniformity across large area substrates with electrical properties equivalent to geological crystals will be described. Controlled doping of 2D semiconductors is also critically required. However, methods established for conventional semiconductors, such as ion implantation, are not easily applicable to 2D materials because of their atomically thin structure. Redox-active molecular dopants will be demonstrated which provide large changes in carrier density and workfunction through the choice of dopant, treatment time, and the solution concentration. Finally, several applications of these large-area, uniform 2D materials will be described including heterostructures, biosensors and strain sensors.

  3. High divergent 2D grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin; Ma, Jianyong; Zhou, Changhe

    2014-11-01

    A 3×3 high divergent 2D-grating with period of 3.842μm at wavelength of 850nm under normal incidence is designed and fabricated in this paper. This high divergent 2D-grating is designed by the vector theory. The Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis (RCWA) in association with the simulated annealing (SA) is adopted to calculate and optimize this 2D-grating.The properties of this grating are also investigated by the RCWA. The diffraction angles are more than 10 degrees in the whole wavelength band, which are bigger than the traditional 2D-grating. In addition, the small period of grating increases the difficulties of fabrication. So we fabricate the 2D-gratings by direct laser writing (DLW) instead of traditional manufacturing method. Then the method of ICP etching is used to obtain the high divergent 2D-grating.

  4. Application of 2D Non-Graphene Materials and 2D Oxide Nanostructures for Biosensing Technology

    PubMed Central

    Shavanova, Kateryna; Bakakina, Yulia; Burkova, Inna; Shtepliuk, Ivan; Viter, Roman; Ubelis, Arnolds; Beni, Valerio; Starodub, Nickolaj; Yakimova, Rositsa; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of graphene and its unique properties has inspired researchers to try to invent other two-dimensional (2D) materials. After considerable research effort, a distinct “beyond graphene” domain has been established, comprising the library of non-graphene 2D materials. It is significant that some 2D non-graphene materials possess solid advantages over their predecessor, such as having a direct band gap, and therefore are highly promising for a number of applications. These applications are not limited to nano- and opto-electronics, but have a strong potential in biosensing technologies, as one example. However, since most of the 2D non-graphene materials have been newly discovered, most of the research efforts are concentrated on material synthesis and the investigation of the properties of the material. Applications of 2D non-graphene materials are still at the embryonic stage, and the integration of 2D non-graphene materials into devices is scarcely reported. However, in recent years, numerous reports have blossomed about 2D material-based biosensors, evidencing the growing potential of 2D non-graphene materials for biosensing applications. This review highlights the recent progress in research on the potential of using 2D non-graphene materials and similar oxide nanostructures for different types of biosensors (optical and electrochemical). A wide range of biological targets, such as glucose, dopamine, cortisol, DNA, IgG, bisphenol, ascorbic acid, cytochrome and estradiol, has been reported to be successfully detected by biosensors with transducers made of 2D non-graphene materials. PMID:26861346

  5. Application of 2D Non-Graphene Materials and 2D Oxide Nanostructures for Biosensing Technology.

    PubMed

    Shavanova, Kateryna; Bakakina, Yulia; Burkova, Inna; Shtepliuk, Ivan; Viter, Roman; Ubelis, Arnolds; Beni, Valerio; Starodub, Nickolaj; Yakimova, Rositsa; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of graphene and its unique properties has inspired researchers to try to invent other two-dimensional (2D) materials. After considerable research effort, a distinct "beyond graphene" domain has been established, comprising the library of non-graphene 2D materials. It is significant that some 2D non-graphene materials possess solid advantages over their predecessor, such as having a direct band gap, and therefore are highly promising for a number of applications. These applications are not limited to nano- and opto-electronics, but have a strong potential in biosensing technologies, as one example. However, since most of the 2D non-graphene materials have been newly discovered, most of the research efforts are concentrated on material synthesis and the investigation of the properties of the material. Applications of 2D non-graphene materials are still at the embryonic stage, and the integration of 2D non-graphene materials into devices is scarcely reported. However, in recent years, numerous reports have blossomed about 2D material-based biosensors, evidencing the growing potential of 2D non-graphene materials for biosensing applications. This review highlights the recent progress in research on the potential of using 2D non-graphene materials and similar oxide nanostructures for different types of biosensors (optical and electrochemical). A wide range of biological targets, such as glucose, dopamine, cortisol, DNA, IgG, bisphenol, ascorbic acid, cytochrome and estradiol, has been reported to be successfully detected by biosensors with transducers made of 2D non-graphene materials. PMID:26861346

  6. MHD shocks in coronal mass ejections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinolfson, R. S.

    1991-01-01

    The primary objective of this research program is the study of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shocks and nonlinear simple waves produced as a result of the interaction of ejected lower coronal plasma with the ambient corona. The types of shocks and nonlinear simple waves produced for representative coronal conditions and disturbance velocities were determined. The wave system and the interactions between the ejecta and ambient corona were studied using both analytic theory and numerical solutions of the time-dependent, nonlinear MHD equations. Observations from the SMM coronagraph/polarimeter provided both guidance and motivation and are used extensively in evaluating the results. As a natural consequence of the comparisons with the data, the simulations assisted in better understanding the physical interactions in coronal mass ejections (CME's).

  7. Hyperbolic Divergence Cleaning for the MHD Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dedner, A.; Kemm, F.; Kröner, D.; Munz, C.-D.; Schnitzer, T.; Wesenberg, M.

    2002-01-01

    In simulations of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) processes the violation of the divergence constraint causes severe stability problems. In this paper we develop and test a new approach to the stabilization of numerical schemes. Our technique can be easily implemented in any existing code since there is no need to modify the solver for the MHD equations. It is based on a modified system in which the divergence constraint is coupled with the conservation laws by introducing a generalized Lagrange multiplier. We suggest a formulation in which the divergence errors are transported to the domain boundaries with the maximal admissible speed and are damped at the same time. This corrected system is hyperbolic and the density, momentum, magnetic induction, and total energy density are still conserved. In comparison to results obtained without correction or with the standard “divergence source terms,” our approach seems to yield more robust schemes with significantly smaller divergence errors.

  8. 3-D Relativistic MHD Simulations of Extragalactic Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.; Koide, S.; Sakai, J.-I.; Frank, J.; Christodoulou, D. M.; Sol, H.; Mutel, R. L.

    1997-12-01

    We present the numerical simulations of relativistic jets propagating initially oblique to the field lines of a magnetized ambient medium. Our simulations incorporate relativistic MHD in a four-dimensional spacetime and clearly show that (a) relatively weak, oblique fields (at 1/16 of the equipartition value) have only a negligible influence on the propagating jet and they are passively pushed away by the relativistically moving head; (b) oblique fields in equipartition with the ambient plasma provide more resistance and cause bending at the jet head, but the magnitude of this deflection and the associated backflow are small compared to those identified by previous studies with a 2-D slab model. The new results are understood as follows: Relativistic simulations have consistently shown that these jets are effectively heavy and so they do not suffer substantial momentum losses and are not decelerated as efficiently as their nonrelativistic counterparts. In addition, the ambient magnetic field, however strong, can be pushed aside with relative ease by the beam, provided that the degrees of freedom associated with all three spatial dimensions are followed self-consistently during the simulations. The effect is analogous to pushing Japanese ``noren'' or vertical Venetian blinds out of the way while the slats are allowed to bend in 3-D space rather than as a 2-D slab structure. Applied to relativistic extragalactic jets from blazars, the new results are encouraging since superluminal outflows exhibit bending near their sources and their environments are profoundly magnetized---but observations do not provide support for irregular kinematics such as large-scale vortical motions and pronounced reverse flows near the points of origin.

  9. Statistical Theory of the Ideal MHD Geodynamo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, J. V.

    2012-01-01

    A statistical theory of geodynamo action is developed, using a mathematical model of the geodynamo as a rotating outer core containing an ideal (i.e., no dissipation), incompressible, turbulent, convecting magnetofluid. On the concentric inner and outer spherical bounding surfaces the normal components of the velocity, magnetic field, vorticity and electric current are zero, as is the temperature fluctuation. This allows the use of a set of Galerkin expansion functions that are common to both velocity and magnetic field, as well as vorticity, current and the temperature fluctuation. The resulting dynamical system, based on the Boussinesq form of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations, represents MHD turbulence in a spherical domain. These basic equations (minus the temperature equation) and boundary conditions have been used previously in numerical simulations of forced, decaying MHD turbulence inside a sphere [1,2]. Here, the ideal case is studied through statistical analysis and leads to a prediction that an ideal coherent structure will be found in the form of a large-scale quasistationary magnetic field that results from broken ergodicity, an effect that has been previously studied both analytically and numerically for homogeneous MHD turbulence [3,4]. The axial dipole component becomes prominent when there is a relatively large magnetic helicity (proportional to the global correlation of magnetic vector potential and magnetic field) and a stationary, nonzero cross helicity (proportional to the global correlation of velocity and magnetic field). The expected angle of the dipole moment vector with respect to the rotation axis is found to decrease to a minimum as the average cross helicity increases for a fixed value of magnetic helicity and then to increase again when average cross helicity approaches its maximum possible value. Only a relatively small value of cross helicity is needed to produce a dipole moment vector that is aligned at approx.10deg with the

  10. Inversion methods for the measurements of MHD-like density fluctuations by Heavy Ion Beam Diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malaquias, A.; Henriques, R. B.; Nedzelsky, I. S.

    2015-09-01

    We report here on the recent developments in the deconvolution of the path integral effects for the study of MHD pressure-like fluctuations measured by Heavy Ion Beam Diagnostic. In particular, we develop improved methods to account for and remove the path integral effect on the determination of the ionization generation factors, including the double ionization of the primary beam. We test the method using the HIBD simulation code which computes the real beam trajectories and attenuations due to electron impact ionization for any selected synthetic profiles of plasma current, plasma potential, electron temperature and density. Simulations have shown the numerical method to be highly effective in ISTTOK within an overall accuracy of a few percent (< 3%). The method here presented can effectively reduce the path integral effects and may serve as the basis to develop improved retrieving techniques for plasma devices working even in higher density ranges. The method is applied to retrieve the time evolution and spatial structure of m=1 and m=2 modes. The 2D MHD mode-like structure is reconstructed by means of a spatial projection of all 1D measurements obtained during one full rotation of the mode. A shorter version of this contribution is due to be published in PoS at: 1st EPS conference on Plasma Diagnostics

  11. Immersed boundary method for the MHD flows of liquid metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoriadis, D. G. E.; Kassinos, S. C.; Votyakov, E. V.

    2009-02-01

    Wall-bounded magnetohydrodynamic (MHD hereafter) flows are of great theoretical and practical interest. Even for laminar cases, MHD simulations are associated with very high computational cost due to the resolution requirements for the Hartmann and side layers developing in the presence of solid obstacles. In the presence of turbulence, these difficulties are further compounded. Thus, MHD simulations in complex geometries are currently a challenge. The immersed boundary (IB hereafter) method is a reliable numerical tool for efficient hydrodynamic field simulations in arbitrarily geometries, but it has not yet been extended for MHD simulations. The present study forms the first attempt to apply the IB methodology for the computation of both the hydrodynamic and MHD fields. A consistent numerical methodology is presented that is appropriate for efficient 3D MHD simulations in geometrically complicated domains using cartesian flow solvers. For that purpose, a projection scheme for the electric current density is presented, based on an electric potential correction algorithm. A suitable forcing scheme for electric density currents in the vicinity of non-conducting immersed surfaces is also proposed. The proposed methodology has been first extensively tested for Hartmann layers in fully-developed and developing channel and duct flows at Hartmann numbers Ha=500-2000. In order to demonstrate the potential of the method, the three-dimensional MHD flow around a circular cylinder at Reynolds number Re=200 is also presented. The effects of grid resolution and variable arrangement on the simulation accuracy and consistency were examined. When compared with existing numerical or analytic solutions, excellent agreement was found for all the cases considered. The proposed projection and forcing schemes for current densities were found capable of satisfying the charge conservation law in the presence of immersed non-conducting boundaries. Finally, we show how the proposed

  12. Toroidal Theory of MHD Instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Goedbloed, J.P.

    2004-03-15

    We continue with the adventures of the Alfven wave and its two magnetosonic companions as they travel in the curved space of magnetic surfaces and field lines (Sec. 2), find themselves trapped in singularities of an unprecedented richness (Sec. 3), decide to get themselves better maps of the landscape to do the required twisting while some of their youthful energy is leaking away (Sec. 4), cause trouble at the edge of a powerful empire (Sec. 5), and finally see the light in a distant future (Sec. 6). Needed on the trip are the evolution equations of both ideal and resistive MHD 'derived' in reference [1], the solutions to the toroidal equilibrium equations discussed in reference [2], the general background on spectral theory of inhomogeneous plasmas presented in reference [3], which is extended in the two directions of toroidal geometry and resistivity in this lecture [4]. This leads to such intricate dynamics that numerical techniques are virtually the only way to proceed. This aspect is further elaborated in reference [5] on numerical techniques.

  13. MHD Modeling in Complex 3D Geometries: Towards Predictive Simulation of SIHI Current Drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Christopher James

    The HIT-SI experiment studies Steady Inductive Helicity Injection (SIHI) for the purpose of forming and sustaining a spheromak plasma. A spheromak is formed in a nearly axisymmetric flux conserver, with a bow tie cross section, by means of two semi-toroidal injectors. The plasma-facing surfaces of the device, which are made of copper for its low resistivity, are covered in an insulating coating in order to operate in a purely inductive manner. Following formation, the spheromak flux and current are increased during a quiescent period marked by a decrease in the global mode activity. A proposed mechanism, Imposed Dynamo Current Drive (IDCD), is expected to be responsible for this phase of quiescent current drive. Due to the geometric complexity of the experiment, previous numerical modeling efforts have used a simplified geometry that excludes the injector volumes from the simulated domain. The effect of helicity injection is then modeled by boundary conditions on this reduced plasma volume. The work presented here has explored and developed more complete computational models of the HIT-SI device. This work is separated into 3 distinct but complementary areas: 1) Development of a 3D MHD equilibrium code that can incorporate the non-axisymmetric injector fields present in HIT-SI and investigation of equilibria of interest during spheromak sustainment. 2) A 2D axisymmetric MHD equilibrium code that was used to explore reduced order models for mean-field evolution using equations derived from IDCD theory including coupling to 3D equilibria. 3) A 3D time-dependent non-linear MHD code that is capable of modeling the entire plasma volume including dynamics within the injectors. Although HIT-SI was the motivation for, and experiment studied in this research, the tools and methods developed are general --- allowing their application to a broad range of magnetic confinement experiments. These tools constitute a significant advance for modeling plasma dynamics in devices with

  14. Numerical simulations of magnetoacoustic-gravity waves in the solar coronal curved magnetic field lines structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelínek, P.; Murawski, K.

    2013-09-01

    We present a two-dimensional (2D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model of magneto-acoustic-gravity waves in the gravitationally stratified solar corona that is shaped by a realistic (VAL-C, Vernazza Avrett Loeser model C) temperature profile and curved magnetic field lines. These waves are triggered by an initial Gaussian pulse in the horizontal component of velocity, that is, launched either just below or above the transition region. The time-dependent ideal MHD equations are solved numerically with the use of the FLASH code. The numerical results reveal conversion of a horizontal flow into its vertical counterpart, oscillations of the transition region and vertical jets of cold plasma penetrating the solar corona. The wavelet analysis of the mass-density variations at a fixed detection point leads to the oscillation period of about 180 s, which corresponds to 3-min oscillations observed in solar active regions.

  15. Magnetohydrodynamics dynamical relaxation of coronal magnetic fields . I. Parallel untwisted magnetic fields in 2D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuentes-Fernández, J.; Parnell, C. E.; Hood, A. W.

    2010-05-01

    Context. For the last thirty years, most of the studies on the relaxation of stressed magnetic fields in the solar environment have only considered the Lorentz force, neglecting plasma contributions, and therefore, limiting every equilibrium to that of a force-free field. Aims: Here we begin a study of the non-resistive evolution of finite beta plasmas and their relaxation to magnetohydrostatic states, where magnetic forces are balanced by plasma-pressure gradients, by using a simple 2D scenario involving a hydromagnetic disturbance to a uniform magnetic field. The final equilibrium state is predicted as a function of the initial disturbances, with aims to demonstrate what happens to the plasma during the relaxation process and to see what effects it has on the final equilibrium state. Methods: A set of numerical experiments are run using a full MHD code, with the relaxation driven by magnetoacoustic waves damped by viscous effects. The numerical results are compared with analytical calculations made within the linear regime, in which the whole process must remain adiabatic. Particular attention is paid to the thermodynamic behaviour of the plasma during the relaxation. Results: The analytical predictions for the final non force-free equilibrium depend only on the initial perturbations and the total pressure of the system. It is found that these predictions hold surprisingly well even for amplitudes of the perturbation far outside the linear regime. Conclusions: Including the effects of a finite plasma beta in relaxation experiments leads to significant differences from the force-free case.

  16. A theory of MHD instability of an inhomogeneous plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonovich, Anatoly S.

    2011-06-01

    A problem of the stability of an inhomogeneous axisymmetric plasma jet in a parallel magnetic field is solved. The jet boundary becomes, under certain conditions, unstable relative to magnetosonic oscillations (Kelvin-Helmholtz instability) in the presence of a shear flow at the jet boundary. Because of its internal inhomogeneity the plasma jet has resonance surfaces, where conversion takes place between various modes of plasma magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) oscillations. Propagating in inhomogeneous plasma, fast magnetosonic waves drive the Alfven and slow magnetosonic (SMS) oscillations, tightly localized across the magnetic shells, on the resonance surfaces. MHD oscillation energy is absorbed in the neighbourhood of these resonance surfaces. The resonance surfaces disappear for the eigenmodes of SMS waves propagating in the jet waveguide. The stability of the plasma MHD flow is determined by competition between the mechanisms of shear flow instability on the boundary and wave energy dissipation because of resonant MHD-mode coupling. The problem is solved analytically, in the Wentzel, Kramers, Brillouin (WKB) approximation, for the plasma jet with a boundary in the form of a tangential discontinuity over the radial coordinate. The Kelvin-Helmholtz instability develops if plasma flow velocity in the jet exceeds the maximum Alfven speed at the boundary. The stability of the plasma jet with a smooth boundary layer is investigated numerically for the basic modes of MHD oscillations, to which the WKB approximation is inapplicable. A new 'unstable mode of MHD oscillations has been discovered which, unlike the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, exists for any, however weak, plasma flow velocities.

  17. Efficient Low Dissipative High Order Schemes for Multiscale MHD Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjoegreen, Bjoern; Yee, Helen C.

    2002-11-01

    Accurate numerical simulations of complex multiscale compressible viscous flows, especially high speed turbulence combustion and acoustics, demand high order schemes with adaptive numerical dissipation controls. Standard high resolution shock-capturing methods are too dissipative to capture the small scales and/or long-time wave propagations without extreme grid refinements and small time steps. An integrated approach for the control of numerical dissipation in high order schemes for the compressible Euler and Navier-Stokes equations has been developed and verified by the authors and collaborators. These schemes are suitable for the problems in question. Basically, the scheme consists of sixth-order or higher non-dissipative spatial difference operators as the base scheme. To control the amount of numerical dissipation, multiresolution wavelets are used as sensors to adaptively limit the amount and to aid the selection and/or blending of the appropriate types of numerical dissipation to be used. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) waves play a key role in drag reduction in highly maneuverable high speed combat aircraft, in space weather forecasting, and in the understanding of the dynamics of the evolution of our solar system and the main sequence stars. Although there exist a few well-studied second and third-order high-resolution shock-capturing schemes for the MHD in the literature, these schemes are too diffusive and not practical for turbulence/combustion MHD flows. On the other hand, extension of higher than third-order high-resolution schemes to the MHD system of equations is not straightforward. Unlike the hydrodynamic equations, the inviscid MHD system is non-strictly hyperbolic with non-convex fluxes. The wave structures and shock types are different from their hydrodynamic counterparts. Many of the non-traditional hydrodynamic shocks are not fully understood. Consequently, reliable and highly accurate numerical schemes for multiscale MHD equations pose a great

  18. Output from MHD Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlahakis, Nektarios

    2010-03-01

    Outflows emanating from the environment of stellar or galactic objects are a widespread phenomenon in astrophysics. Their morphology ranges from nearly spherically symmetric winds to highly collimated jets. In some cases, e.g., in jets associated with young stellar objects, the bulk outflow speeds are nonrelativistic, while in others, e.g., in jets associated with active galactic nuclei or gamma-ray bursts, it can even be highly relativistic. The main driving mechanism of collimated outflows is likely related to magnetic fields. These fields are able to tap the rotational energy of the compact object or disk, accelerate, and collimate matter ejecta. To zeroth order these outflows can be described by the highly intractable theory of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). Even in systems where the assumptions of zero resistivity (ideal MHD), steady state, axisymmetry, one fluid description, and polytropic equation of state are applicable, the problem remains difficult. In this case the problem reduces to only two equations, corresponding to the two components of the momentum equation along the flow and in the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field (transfield direction). The latter equation is the most difficult to solve, but also the most important. It answers the question on the degree of the collimation, but also crucially affects the solution of the first, the acceleration efficiency and the bulk velocity of the flow. The first and second parts of this chapter refer to nonrelativistic and relativistic flows, respectively. These Parts can be read independently. In each one, the governing equations are presented and discussed, focusing on the case of flows that are magnetically dominated near the central source. The general characteristics of the solutions in relation to the acceleration and collimation mechanisms are analyzed. As specific examples of exact solutions of the full system of the MHD equations that satisfy all the analyzed general characteristics, self

  19. Commercialization of MHD power technology

    SciTech Connect

    Aleman, D.J.; Jensen, A.D.; Probert, P.B.

    1984-08-01

    This paper presents an approach to the commercialization of Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) technology from the perspective of an equipment manufacturer. It discusses and recommends actions to be taken in solving technical problems and mitigating risk for the first commercial MHD power plant.

  20. 2-D Magnetohydrodynamic Modeling of A Pulsed Plasma Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Cassibry, J. T.; Wu, S. T.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Experiments are being performed on the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) MK-1 pulsed plasma thruster. Data produced from the experiments provide an opportunity to further understand the plasma dynamics in these thrusters via detailed computational modeling. The detailed and accurate understanding of the plasma dynamics in these devices holds the key towards extending their capabilities in a number of applications, including their applications as high power (greater than 1 MW) thrusters, and their use for producing high-velocity, uniform plasma jets for experimental purposes. For this study, the 2-D MHD modeling code, MACH2, is used to provide detailed interpretation of the experimental data. At the same time, a 0-D physics model of the plasma initial phase is developed to guide our 2-D modeling studies.

  1. Perturbed Stability Analysis of External Ideal MHD Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comer, K. J.; Callen, J. D.; Hegna, C. C.; Garstka, G. D.; Turnbull, A. D.; Garofalo, A. M.; Cowley, S. C.

    2002-11-01

    Traditionally, numerical parameter scans are performed to study the effects of equilibrium shaping and profiles on long wavelength ideal MHD instabilities. Previously, we introduced a new perturbative technique to more efficiently explore these dependencies: changes in delta-W due to small equilibrium variations are found using a perturbation of the energy principle rather than with an eigenvalue-solver instability code. With this approach, the stability properties of similar equilibria can be efficiently explored without generating complete numerical results for every set of parameters (which is time-intensive for accurate representations of several configurations). Here, we apply this approach to toroidal geometry using GATO (an ideal MHD stability code) and experimental equilibria. In particular, we explore ideal MHD stability of external kink modes in the spherical tokamak Pegasus and resistive wall modes in DIII-D.

  2. Stability of a two-volume MRxMHD model in slab geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuen, Li Huey; Hole, Matthew; Dewar, Robert; Dennis, Graham

    2015-11-01

    Ideal MHD models are inadequate to describe various physical attributes of toroidal plasmas with no continuous symmetry, such as magnetic islands and stochastic regions. A new MHD formulation, MRxMHD, uses only a finite number of ideal-MHD flux surface interfaces, with relaxed plasma regions in between, thus allowing a stepped-pressure profile, magnetic islands, and stochastic regions. In toroidally asymmetric plasma, the existence of interfaces in MRxMHD is contingent on the field pitch, or rotational transform, of flux surfaces being irrational; a KAM argument shows that some good equilibrium flux surfaces continue to exist for small perturbations to an integrable system (foliated by flux surfaces), provided that the rotational transforms on both sides of each interface are sufficiently irrational. Building upon the MRxMHD stability model by Hole, we study the effects of irrationality of the rotational transform at interfaces in MRxMHD on plasma stability. Investigating the plasma stability of a two-volume MRxMHD periodic-slab, we find that the 2D system stability conditions are dependent on the interface and resonance layer magnetic field pitch at minimised energy states. While tearing instabilities exist at low order rational resonances, investigating instability of high-order rationals requires study of pressure-driven instabilities.

  3. Fully implicit adaptive mesh refinement MHD algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philip, Bobby

    2005-10-01

    In the macroscopic simulation of plasmas, the numerical modeler is faced with the challenge of dealing with multiple time and length scales. The former results in stiffness due to the presence of very fast waves. The latter requires one to resolve the localized features that the system develops. Traditional approaches based on explicit time integration techniques and fixed meshes are not suitable for this challenge, as such approaches prevent the modeler from using realistic plasma parameters to keep the computation feasible. We propose here a novel approach, based on implicit methods and structured adaptive mesh refinement (SAMR). Our emphasis is on both accuracy and scalability with the number of degrees of freedom. To our knowledge, a scalable, fully implicit AMR algorithm has not been accomplished before for MHD. As a proof-of-principle, we focus on the reduced resistive MHD model as a basic MHD model paradigm, which is truly multiscale. The approach taken here is to adapt mature physics-based technologyootnotetextL. Chac'on et al., J. Comput. Phys. 178 (1), 15- 36 (2002) to AMR grids, and employ AMR-aware multilevel techniques (such as fast adaptive composite --FAC-- algorithms) for scalability. We will demonstrate that the concept is indeed feasible, featuring optimal scalability under grid refinement. Results of fully-implicit, dynamically-adaptive AMR simulations will be presented on a variety of problems.

  4. Robust preconditioners for incompressible MHD models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yicong; Hu, Kaibo; Hu, Xiaozhe; Xu, Jinchao

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we develop two classes of robust preconditioners for the structure-preserving discretization of the incompressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) system. By studying the well-posedness of the discrete system, we design block preconditioners for them and carry out rigorous analysis on their performance. We prove that such preconditioners are robust with respect to most physical and discretization parameters. In our proof, we improve the existing estimates of the block triangular preconditioners for saddle point problems by removing the scaling parameters, which are usually difficult to choose in practice. This new technique is applicable not only to the MHD system, but also to other problems. Moreover, we prove that Krylov iterative methods with our preconditioners preserve the divergence-free condition exactly, which complements the structure-preserving discretization. Another feature is that we can directly generalize this technique to other discretizations of the MHD system. We also present preliminary numerical results to support the theoretical results and demonstrate the robustness of the proposed preconditioners.

  5. The Statistical Mechanics of Ideal MHD Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.

    2003-01-01

    Turbulence is a universal, nonlinear phenomenon found in all energetic fluid and plasma motion. In particular. understanding magneto hydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence and incorporating its effects in the computation and prediction of the flow of ionized gases in space, for example, are great challenges that must be met if such computations and predictions are to be meaningful. Although a general solution to the "problem of turbulence" does not exist in closed form, numerical integrations allow us to explore the phase space of solutions for both ideal and dissipative flows. For homogeneous, incompressible turbulence, Fourier methods are appropriate, and phase space is defined by the Fourier coefficients of the physical fields. In the case of ideal MHD flows, a fairly robust statistical mechanics has been developed, in which the symmetry and ergodic properties of phase space is understood. A discussion of these properties will illuminate our principal discovery: Coherent structure and randomness co-exist in ideal MHD turbulence. For dissipative flows, as opposed to ideal flows, progress beyond the dimensional analysis of Kolmogorov has been difficult. Here, some possible future directions that draw on the ideal results will also be discussed. Our conclusion will be that while ideal turbulence is now well understood, real turbulence still presents great challenges.

  6. Cometary MHD and chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wegmann, R.; Schmidt, H. U.; Huebner, W. F.; Boice, D. C.

    1987-01-01

    An MHD and chemical comet-coma model was developed, applying the computer program of Huebner (1985) for the detailed chemical evolution of a spherically expanding coma and the program of Schmidt and Wegman (1982) and Wegman (1987) for the MHD flow of plasma and magnetic field in a comet to the Giotto-mission data on the ion abundances measured by the HIS ion mass spectrometer. The physics and chemistry of the coma are modeled in great detail, including photoprocesses, gas-phase chemical kinetics, energy balance with a separate electron temperature, multifluid hydrodynamics with a transition to free molecular flow, fast-streaming atomic and molecular hydrogen, counter and cross streaming of the ionized species relative to the neutral species in the coma-solar wind interaction region with momentum exchange by elastic collisions, mass-loading through ion pick-up, and Lorentz forces of the advected magnetic field. The results, both inside and outside of the contact surface, are discussed and compared with the relevant HIS ion mass spectra.

  7. AnisWave 2D

    2004-08-01

    AnisWave2D is a 2D finite-difference code for a simulating seismic wave propagation in fully anisotropic materials. The code is implemented to run in parallel over multiple processors and is fully portable. A mesh refinement algorithm has been utilized to allow the grid-spacing to be tailored to the velocity model, avoiding the over-sampling of high-velocity materials that usually occurs in fixed-grid schemes.

  8. CYP2D7 Sequence Variation Interferes with TaqMan CYP2D6*15 and *35 Genotyping

    PubMed Central

    Riffel, Amanda K.; Dehghani, Mehdi; Hartshorne, Toinette; Floyd, Kristen C.; Leeder, J. Steven; Rosenblatt, Kevin P.; Gaedigk, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    TaqMan™ genotyping assays are widely used to genotype CYP2D6, which encodes a major drug metabolizing enzyme. Assay design for CYP2D6 can be challenging owing to the presence of two pseudogenes, CYP2D7 and CYP2D8, structural and copy number variation and numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) some of which reflect the wild-type sequence of the CYP2D7 pseudogene. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism causing false-positive CYP2D6*15 calls and remediate those by redesigning and validating alternative TaqMan genotype assays. Among 13,866 DNA samples genotyped by the CompanionDx® lab on the OpenArray platform, 70 samples were identified as heterozygotes for 137Tins, the key SNP of CYP2D6*15. However, only 15 samples were confirmed when tested with the Luminex xTAG CYP2D6 Kit and sequencing of CYP2D6-specific long range (XL)-PCR products. Genotype and gene resequencing of CYP2D6 and CYP2D7-specific XL-PCR products revealed a CC>GT dinucleotide SNP in exon 1 of CYP2D7 that reverts the sequence to CYP2D6 and allows a TaqMan assay PCR primer to bind. Because CYP2D7 also carries a Tins, a false-positive mutation signal is generated. This CYP2D7 SNP was also responsible for generating false-positive signals for rs769258 (CYP2D6*35) which is also located in exon 1. Although alternative CYP2D6*15 and *35 assays resolved the issue, we discovered a novel CYP2D6*15 subvariant in one sample that carries additional SNPs preventing detection with the alternate assay. The frequency of CYP2D6*15 was 0.1% in this ethnically diverse U.S. population sample. In addition, we also discovered linkage between the CYP2D7 CC>GT dinucleotide SNP and the 77G>A (rs28371696) SNP of CYP2D6*43. The frequency of this tentatively functional allele was 0.2%. Taken together, these findings emphasize that regardless of how careful genotyping assays are designed and evaluated before being commercially marketed, rare or unknown SNPs underneath primer and/or probe regions can impact

  9. CYP2D7 Sequence Variation Interferes with TaqMan CYP2D6 (*) 15 and (*) 35 Genotyping.

    PubMed

    Riffel, Amanda K; Dehghani, Mehdi; Hartshorne, Toinette; Floyd, Kristen C; Leeder, J Steven; Rosenblatt, Kevin P; Gaedigk, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    TaqMan™ genotyping assays are widely used to genotype CYP2D6, which encodes a major drug metabolizing enzyme. Assay design for CYP2D6 can be challenging owing to the presence of two pseudogenes, CYP2D7 and CYP2D8, structural and copy number variation and numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) some of which reflect the wild-type sequence of the CYP2D7 pseudogene. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism causing false-positive CYP2D6 (*) 15 calls and remediate those by redesigning and validating alternative TaqMan genotype assays. Among 13,866 DNA samples genotyped by the CompanionDx® lab on the OpenArray platform, 70 samples were identified as heterozygotes for 137Tins, the key SNP of CYP2D6 (*) 15. However, only 15 samples were confirmed when tested with the Luminex xTAG CYP2D6 Kit and sequencing of CYP2D6-specific long range (XL)-PCR products. Genotype and gene resequencing of CYP2D6 and CYP2D7-specific XL-PCR products revealed a CC>GT dinucleotide SNP in exon 1 of CYP2D7 that reverts the sequence to CYP2D6 and allows a TaqMan assay PCR primer to bind. Because CYP2D7 also carries a Tins, a false-positive mutation signal is generated. This CYP2D7 SNP was also responsible for generating false-positive signals for rs769258 (CYP2D6 (*) 35) which is also located in exon 1. Although alternative CYP2D6 (*) 15 and (*) 35 assays resolved the issue, we discovered a novel CYP2D6 (*) 15 subvariant in one sample that carries additional SNPs preventing detection with the alternate assay. The frequency of CYP2D6 (*) 15 was 0.1% in this ethnically diverse U.S. population sample. In addition, we also discovered linkage between the CYP2D7 CC>GT dinucleotide SNP and the 77G>A (rs28371696) SNP of CYP2D6 (*) 43. The frequency of this tentatively functional allele was 0.2%. Taken together, these findings emphasize that regardless of how careful genotyping assays are designed and evaluated before being commercially marketed, rare or unknown SNPs underneath primer

  10. Observational Tests of Recent MHD Turbulence Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Sanjoy

    2001-06-01

    This grant seeks to analyze the Heliospheric Missions data to test current theories on the angular dependence (with respect to mean magnetic field direction) of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in the solar wind. Solar wind turbulence may be composed of two or more dynamically independent components. Such components include magnetic pressure-balanced structures, velocity shears, quasi-2D turbulence, and slab (Alfven) waves. We use a method, developed during the first two years of this grant, for extracting the individual reduced spectra of up to three separate turbulence components from a single spacecraft time series. The method has been used on ISEE-3 data, Pioneer Venus Orbiter, Ulysses, and Voyager data samples. The correlation of fluctuations as a function of angle between flow direction and magnetic-field direction is the focus of study during the third year.

  11. Observational Tests of Recent MHD Turbulence Perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghosh, Sanjoy; Guhathakurta, M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This grant seeks to analyze the Heliospheric Missions data to test current theories on the angular dependence (with respect to mean magnetic field direction) of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in the solar wind. Solar wind turbulence may be composed of two or more dynamically independent components. Such components include magnetic pressure-balanced structures, velocity shears, quasi-2D turbulence, and slab (Alfven) waves. We use a method, developed during the first two years of this grant, for extracting the individual reduced spectra of up to three separate turbulence components from a single spacecraft time series. The method has been used on ISEE-3 data, Pioneer Venus Orbiter, Ulysses, and Voyager data samples. The correlation of fluctuations as a function of angle between flow direction and magnetic-field direction is the focus of study during the third year.

  12. MHD Simulation Heliospheric Magnetic Fields and Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, D. Aaron

    2005-01-01

    This talk will present a summary of our results on simulations of heliospheric structure and dynamics. We use a three-dimensional MHD code in spherical coordinates to produce a solar wind containing a rotating, tilted heliospheric current sheet, fast-slow stream and microstream shear layers, waves, 2-D turbulence, and pressure balanced structures that are input to the inner (superAlfvenic) boundary. The evolution of various combinations of these has led to a deeper understanding of sector structure, magnetic holes, fluctuation anisotropies, and general turbulent evolution. We show how the sectors are likely to be connected, how spiral fields can arise, and how field line diffusion can be caused by waves with transverse structure and microstream shears.

  13. MHD Energy Bypass Scramjet Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Unmeel B.; Bogdanoff, David W.; Park, Chul; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Revolutionary rather than evolutionary changes in propulsion systems are most likely to decrease cost of space transportation and to provide a global range capability. Hypersonic air-breathing propulsion is a revolutionary propulsion system. The performance of scramjet engines can be improved by the AJAX energy management concept. A magneto-hydro-dynamics (MHD) generator controls the flow and extracts flow energy in the engine inlet and a MHD accelerator downstream of the combustor accelerates the nozzle flow. A progress report toward developing the MHD technology is presented herein. Recent theoretical efforts are reviewed and ongoing experimental efforts are discussed. The latter efforts also include an ongoing collaboration between NASA, the US Air Force Research Laboratory, US industry, and Russian scientific organizations. Two of the critical technologies, the ionization of the air and the MHD accelerator, are briefly discussed. Examples of limiting the combustor entrance Mach number to a low supersonic value with a MHD energy bypass scheme are presented, demonstrating an improvement in scramjet performance. The results for a simplified design of an aerospace plane show that the specific impulse of the MHD-bypass system is better than the non-MHD system and typical rocket over a narrow region of flight speeds and design parameters. Equilibrium ionization and non-equilibrium ionization are discussed. The thermodynamic condition of air at the entrance of the engine inlet determines the method of ionization. The required external power for non-equilibrium ionization is computed. There have been many experiments in which electrical power generation has successfully been achieved by magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) means. However, relatively few experiments have been made to date for the reverse case of achieving gas acceleration by the MHD means. An experiment in a shock tunnel is described in which MHD acceleration is investigated experimentally. MHD has several

  14. MHD Wave in Sunspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sych, Robert

    2016-02-01

    The study of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves and oscillations in the solar atmosphere is one of the fastest developing fields in solar physics, and lies in the mainstream of using solar instrumentation data. This chapter first addresses the spatial frequency morphology of sources of sunspot oscillations and waves, including their localization, size, oscillation periods, and height localization with the mechanism of cutoff frequency that forms the observed emission variability. Then, it presents a review dynamic of sunspot wave processes, provides the information about the structure of wave fronts and their time variations, and investigates the oscillation frequency transformation depending on the wave energy. The chapter also addresses the initializing solar flares caused by trigger agents like magnetoacoustic waves, accelerated particle beams, and shocks. Special attention is paid to the relation between the flare reconnection periodic initialization and the dynamics of sunspot slow magnetoacoustic waves.

  15. Production of MHD fluid

    DOEpatents

    Lacey, James J.; Kurtzrock, Roy C.; Bienstock, Daniel

    1976-08-24

    A hot gaseous fluid of low ash content, suitable for use in open-cycle MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) power generation, is produced by means of a three-stage process comprising (1) partial combustion of a fossil fuel to produce a hot gaseous product comprising CO.sub.2 CO, and H.sub.2 O, (2) reformation of the gaseous product from stage (1) by means of a fluidized char bed, whereby CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O are converted to CO and H.sub.2, and (3) combustion of CO and H.sub.2 from stage (2) to produce a low ash-content fluid (flue gas) comprising CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O and having a temperature of about 4000.degree. to 5000.degree.F.

  16. MHD channel performance for potential early commercial MHD power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swallom, D. W.

    1981-01-01

    The commercial viability of full and part load early commercial MHD power plants is examined. The load conditions comprise a mass flow of 472 kg/sec in the channel, Rosebud coal, 34% by volume oxygen in the oxidizer preheated to 922 K, and a one percent by mass seeding with K. The full load condition is discussed in terms of a combined cycle plant with optimized electrical output by the MHD channel. Various electrical load parameters, pressure ratios, and magnetic field profiles are considered for a baseload MHD generator, with a finding that a decelerating flow rate yields slightly higher electrical output than a constant flow rate. Nominal and part load conditions are explored, with a reduced gas mass flow rate and an enriched oxygen content. An enthalpy extraction of 24.6% and an isentropic efficiency of 74.2% is predicted for nominal operation of a 526 MWe MHD generator, with higher efficiencies for part load operation.

  17. MHD Effect of Liquid Metal Film Flows as Plasma-Facing Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiujie; Xu, Zengyu; Pan, Chuanjie

    2008-12-01

    Stability of liquid metal film flow under gradient magnetic field is investigated. Three dimensional numerical simulations on magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) effect of free surface film flow were carried out, with emphasis on the film thickness variation and its surface stability. Three different MHD phenomena of film flow were observed in the experiment, namely, retardant, rivulet and flat film flow. From our experiment and numerical simulation it can be concluded that flat film flow is a good choice for plasma-facing components (PFCs)

  18. Spectrum of resistive MHD modes in cylindrical plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, C.M.; Grimm, R.C.

    1983-07-01

    A numerical study of the normal modes of a compressible resistive MHD fluid in cylindrical geometry is presented. Resistivity resolves the shear Alfven and slow magnetosonic continua of ideal MHD into discrete spectra and gives rise to heavily damped modes whose frequencies lie on specific lines in the complex plane. Fast magnetosonic waves are less affected but are also damped. Overstable modes arise from the shear Alfven spectrum. The stabilizing effect of favorable average curvature is shown. Eigenfunctions illustrating the nature of typical normal modes are displayed.

  19. 2d PDE Linear Symmetric Matrix Solver

    1983-10-01

    ICCG2 (Incomplete Cholesky factorized Conjugate Gradient algorithm for 2d symmetric problems) was developed to solve a linear symmetric matrix system arising from a 9-point discretization of two-dimensional elliptic and parabolic partial differential equations found in plasma physics applications, such as resistive MHD, spatial diffusive transport, and phase space transport (Fokker-Planck equation) problems. These problems share the common feature of being stiff and requiring implicit solution techniques. When these parabolic or elliptic PDE''s are discretized withmore » finite-difference or finite-element methods,the resulting matrix system is frequently of block-tridiagonal form. To use ICCG2, the discretization of the two-dimensional partial differential equation and its boundary conditions must result in a block-tridiagonal supermatrix composed of elementary tridiagonal matrices. The incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient algorithm is used to solve the linear symmetric matrix equation. Loops are arranged to vectorize on the Cray1 with the CFT compiler, wherever possible. Recursive loops, which cannot be vectorized, are written for optimum scalar speed. For matrices lacking symmetry, ILUCG2 should be used. Similar methods in three dimensions are available in ICCG3 and ILUCG3. A general source containing extensions and macros, which must be processed by a pre-compiler to obtain the standard FORTRAN source, is provided along with the standard FORTRAN source because it is believed to be more readable. The pre-compiler is not included, but pre-compilation may be performed by a text editor as described in the UCRL-88746 Preprint.« less

  20. Nonlinear MHD Waves in a Prominence Foot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofman, L.; Knizhnik, K.; Kucera, T.; Schmieder, B.

    2015-11-01

    We study nonlinear waves in a prominence foot using a 2.5D MHD model motivated by recent high-resolution observations with Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope in Ca ii emission of a prominence on 2012 October 10 showing highly dynamic small-scale motions in the prominence material. Observations of Hα intensities and of Doppler shifts show similar propagating fluctuations. However, the optically thick nature of the emission lines inhibits a unique quantitative interpretation in terms of density. Nevertheless, we find evidence of nonlinear wave activity in the prominence foot by examining the relative magnitude of the fluctuation intensity (δI/I ˜ δn/n). The waves are evident as significant density fluctuations that vary with height and apparently travel upward from the chromosphere into the prominence material with quasi-periodic fluctuations with a typical period in the range of 5-11 minutes and wavelengths <2000 km. Recent Doppler shift observations show the transverse displacement of the propagating waves. The magnetic field was measured with the THEMIS instrument and was found to be 5-14 G. For the typical prominence density the corresponding fast magnetosonic speed is ˜20 km s-1, in qualitative agreement with the propagation speed of the detected waves. The 2.5D MHD numerical model is constrained with the typical parameters of the prominence waves seen in observations. Our numerical results reproduce the nonlinear fast magnetosonic waves and provide strong support for the presence of these waves in the prominence foot. We also explore gravitational MHD oscillations of the heavy prominence foot material supported by dipped magnetic field structure.

  1. MHD Turbulence at Moderate Magnetic Reynolds Number

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knaepen, B.; Kassinos, S.; Carati, D.

    2003-01-01

    In the present article we will consider the decay of MHD turbulence under the influence of a strong external magnetic field at moderate magnetic Reynolds numbers. Typical values of R(sub m) that are considered here range from R(sub m) approx. 0.1 to R(sub m) approx. 20. As a comparison, the initial kinetic Reynolds number common to all our simulations is Re(sub L) = 199. This means that the range of Prandtl numbers explored is 5 x 10(exp -4) to 10(exp -1). Our motivation is mainly to exhibit how the transition from the QS approximation to FMHD occurs. At the lowest values of R(sub m) studied here, the QS approximation is shown to model the flow faithfully. However, for the higher values of R(sub m) considered, it is clearly inadequate but can be replaced by another approximation which will be referred to as the Quasi-Linear (QL) approximation. Another objective of the present study is to describe how variations in the magnetic Reynolds number (while maintaining all other parameters constant) affect the dynamics of the flow. This complements past studies where variations in either the strength of the external magnetic field or the kinetic Reynolds number were considered. This article is organized as follows. In section 2 we recall the definition of the quasi-static approximation. Section 3 is devoted to the description of the numerical experiments performed using the quasi-static approximation and full MHD. In section 4 we describe the quasi-linear approximation and test it numerically against full MHD. A concluding summary is given in section 5.

  2. MHD technology in aluminum casting

    SciTech Connect

    Kalinichenko, I.

    1984-08-01

    The use of MHD technology in aluminum casting is discussed. Associates of the Latvian Academy of Sciences Institute of Physics developed magnetohydrodynamic units for the Siberian plant. A MHD unit made it possible to free five persons from heavy work at the plant. Labor productivity doubled in this section. With the aid of the magnetic field, the alloy silumin is obtained in only three hours. Specialists of the Irkutsk affiliate of the All-Union Scientific Research and Design Institute of the Aluminum, Magnesium and Electrode Industry are convinced that MHD technology has a bright future. However, this will necessitate the development of new MHD technology for different types of casting facilities, with their specific features taken into account.

  3. Efficient Low Dissipative High Order Schemes for Multiscale MHD Flows, I: Basic Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sjoegreen, Bjoern; Yee, H. C.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to extend our recently developed highly parallelizable nonlinear stable high order schemes for complex multiscale hydrodynamic applications to the viscous MHD equations. These schemes employed multiresolution wavelets as adaptive numerical dissipation controls t o limit the amount of and to aid the selection and/or blending of the appropriate types of dissipation to be used. The new scheme is formulated for both the conservative and non-conservative form of the MHD equations in curvilinear grids. The four advantages of the present approach over existing MHD schemes reported in the open literature are as follows. First, the scheme is constructed for long-time integrations of shock/turbulence/combustion MHD flows. Available schemes are too diffusive for long-time integrations and/or turbulence/combustion problems. Second, unlike exist- ing schemes for the conservative MHD equations which suffer from ill-conditioned eigen- decompositions, the present scheme makes use of a well-conditioned eigen-decomposition obtained from a minor modification of the eigenvectors of the non-conservative MHD equations t o solve the conservative form of the MHD equations. Third, this approach of using the non-conservative eigensystem when solving the conservative equations also works well in the context of standard shock-capturing schemes for the MHD equations. Fourth, a new approach to minimize the numerical error of the divergence-free magnetic condition for high order schemes is introduced. Numerical experiments with typical MHD model problems revealed the applicability of the newly developed schemes for the MHD equations.

  4. Mathematical modelling in MHD technology

    SciTech Connect

    Scheindlin, A.E.; Medin, S.A. )

    1990-01-01

    The technological scheme and the general parameters of the commercial scale pilot MHD power plant are described. The characteristics of the flow train components and the electrical equipment are discussed. The basic ideas of the mathematical modelling of the processes and the devices operation in MHD systems are considered. The application of different description levels in computer simulation is analyzed and the examples of typical solutions are presented.

  5. Stacking up 2D materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayor, Louise

    2016-05-01

    Graphene might be the most famous example, but there are other 2D materials and compounds too. Louise Mayor explains how these atomically thin sheets can be layered together to create flexible “van der Waals heterostructures”, which could lead to a range of novel applications.

  6. MHD of Aircraft Re-entry: Limits and Perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Seller, G.; Capitelli, M.; Longo, S.; Armenise, I.; Bruno, D.

    2005-05-16

    In the present work, starting from classical MHD scheme, based on Maxwell equations, Euler fluid dynamic equations and generalised Ohm law, a critical study of fluid dynamics, electromagnetism, chemical and physical behaviour of plasma is carried out, and then a aircraft re-entry MHD numerical scheme is implemented. This scheme is used for MHD calculations in different conditions, in the range of low magnetic force and intermediate electrical conductivity. Initial imposed magnetic fields are uniform, but also some cases with coil generated magnetic fields are considered. Calculations of magnetic field and induced currents are extended also inside the blunt body. Results show interesting physical and electromagnetic effects. Comparison with other methods shows possible development in keeping into account other physical and chemical effects.

  7. MHD Simulations of Thermal Plasma Jets in Coaxial Plasma Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramaniam, Vivek; Raja, Laxminarayan

    2015-09-01

    The development of a magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) numerical tool to study high energy density thermal plasma in coaxial plasma accelerators is presented. The coaxial plasma accelerator is a device used simulate the conditions created at the confining wall of a thermonuclear fusion reactor during an edge localized mode (ELM) disruption event. This is achieved by creating magnetized thermal plasma in a coaxial volume which is then accelerated by the Lorentz force to form a high velocity plasma jet. The simulation tool developed solves the resistive MHD equation using a finite volume method (FVM) framework. The acceleration and subsequent demagnetization of the plasma as it travels down the length of the accelerator is simulated and shows good agreement with experiments. Additionally, a model to study the thermalization of the plasma at the inlet is being developed in order to give self-consistent initial conditions to the MHD solver.

  8. MAGNUM-2D computer code: user's guide

    SciTech Connect

    England, R.L.; Kline, N.W.; Ekblad, K.J.; Baca, R.G.

    1985-01-01

    Information relevant to the general use of the MAGNUM-2D computer code is presented. This computer code was developed for the purpose of modeling (i.e., simulating) the thermal and hydraulic conditions in the vicinity of a waste package emplaced in a deep geologic repository. The MAGNUM-2D computer computes (1) the temperature field surrounding the waste package as a function of the heat generation rate of the nuclear waste and thermal properties of the basalt and (2) the hydraulic head distribution and associated groundwater flow fields as a function of the temperature gradients and hydraulic properties of the basalt. MAGNUM-2D is a two-dimensional numerical model for transient or steady-state analysis of coupled heat transfer and groundwater flow in a fractured porous medium. The governing equations consist of a set of coupled, quasi-linear partial differential equations that are solved using a Galerkin finite-element technique. A Newton-Raphson algorithm is embedded in the Galerkin functional to formulate the problem in terms of the incremental changes in the dependent variables. Both triangular and quadrilateral finite elements are used to represent the continuum portions of the spatial domain. Line elements may be used to represent discrete conduits. 18 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Plasmoid dynamics in 3D resistive MHD simulations of magnetic reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samtaney, R.; Loureiro, N. F.; Uzdensky, D. A.; Schekochihin, A. A.

    2012-04-01

    Magnetic reconnection is a well known plasma process believed to lie at the heart of a variety of phenomena such as sub-storms in the Earth's magnetosphere, solar/stellar and accretion-disk flares, sawteeth activity in fusion devices, etc. During reconnection, the global magnetic field topology changes rapidly, leading to the violent release of magnetic energy. Over the past few years, the basic understanding of this fundamental process has undergone profound changes. The validity of the most basic, and widely accepted, reconnection paradigm - the famous Sweet-Parker (SP) model, which predicts that, in MHD, reconnection is extremely slow, its rate scaling as S-1/2, where S is the Lundquist number of the system - has been called into question as it was analytically demonstrated that, for S ≫ 1, SP-like current sheets are violently unstable to the formation of a large number of secondary islands, or plasmoids. Subsequent numerical simulations in 2D have confirmed the validity of the linear theory, and shown that plasmoids quickly grow to become wider than the thickness of the original SP current sheet, thus effectively changing the underlying reconnection geometry. Ensuing numerical work has revealed that the process of plasmoid formation, coalescence and ejection from the sheet drastically modifies the steady state picture assumed by Sweet and Parker, and leads to the unexpected result that MHD reconnection is independent of S. In this talk, we review these recent developments and present results from three-dimensional simulations of high-Lundquist number reconnection in the presence of a guide field. A parametric study varying the strength of the guide field is presented. Plasmoid flux and width distribution functions are quantified and compared with corresponding two dimensional simulations.

  10. Realistic and efficient 2D crack simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadegar, Jacob; Liu, Xiaoqing; Singh, Abhishek

    2010-04-01

    Although numerical algorithms for 2D crack simulation have been studied in Modeling and Simulation (M&S) and computer graphics for decades, realism and computational efficiency are still major challenges. In this paper, we introduce a high-fidelity, scalable, adaptive and efficient/runtime 2D crack/fracture simulation system by applying the mathematically elegant Peano-Cesaro triangular meshing/remeshing technique to model the generation of shards/fragments. The recursive fractal sweep associated with the Peano-Cesaro triangulation provides efficient local multi-resolution refinement to any level-of-detail. The generated binary decomposition tree also provides efficient neighbor retrieval mechanism used for mesh element splitting and merging with minimal memory requirements essential for realistic 2D fragment formation. Upon load impact/contact/penetration, a number of factors including impact angle, impact energy, and material properties are all taken into account to produce the criteria of crack initialization, propagation, and termination leading to realistic fractal-like rubble/fragments formation. The aforementioned parameters are used as variables of probabilistic models of cracks/shards formation, making the proposed solution highly adaptive by allowing machine learning mechanisms learn the optimal values for the variables/parameters based on prior benchmark data generated by off-line physics based simulation solutions that produce accurate fractures/shards though at highly non-real time paste. Crack/fracture simulation has been conducted on various load impacts with different initial locations at various impulse scales. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed system has the capability to realistically and efficiently simulate 2D crack phenomena (such as window shattering and shards generation) with diverse potentials in military and civil M&S applications such as training and mission planning.

  11. Global MHD Simulations of Space Plasma Environments: Heliosphere, Comets, Magnetospheres of Plants and Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kabin, K.; Hansen, K. C.; Gombosi, T. I.; Combi, M. R.; Linde, T. J.; DeZeeuw, D. L.; Groth, C. P. T.; Powell, K. G.; Nagy, A. F.

    2000-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) provides an approximate description of a great variety of processes in space physics. Accurate numerical solutions of the MHD equations are still a challenge, but in the past decade a number of robust methods have appeared. Once these techniques made the direct solution of MHD equations feasible, a number of global three-dimensional models were designed and applied to many space physics objects. The range of these objects is truly astonishing, including active galactic nuclei, the heliosphere, the solar corona, and the solar wind interaction with planets, satellites, and comets. Outside the realm of space physics, MHD theory has been applied to such diverse problems as laboratory plasmas and electromagnetic casting of liquid metals. In this paper we present a broad spectrum of models of different phenomena in space science developed in the recent years at the University of Michigan. Although the physical systems addressed by these models are different, they all use the MHD equations as a unifying basis.

  12. High-order conservative finite difference GLM-MHD schemes for cell-centered MHD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignone, Andrea; Tzeferacos, Petros; Bodo, Gianluigi

    2010-08-01

    We present and compare third- as well as fifth-order accurate finite difference schemes for the numerical solution of the compressible ideal MHD equations in multiple spatial dimensions. The selected methods lean on four different reconstruction techniques based on recently improved versions of the weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) schemes, monotonicity preserving (MP) schemes as well as slope-limited polynomial reconstruction. The proposed numerical methods are highly accurate in smooth regions of the flow, avoid loss of accuracy in proximity of smooth extrema and provide sharp non-oscillatory transitions at discontinuities. We suggest a numerical formulation based on a cell-centered approach where all of the primary flow variables are discretized at the zone center. The divergence-free condition is enforced by augmenting the MHD equations with a generalized Lagrange multiplier yielding a mixed hyperbolic/parabolic correction, as in Dedner et al. [J. Comput. Phys. 175 (2002) 645-673]. The resulting family of schemes is robust, cost-effective and straightforward to implement. Compared to previous existing approaches, it completely avoids the CPU intensive workload associated with an elliptic divergence cleaning step and the additional complexities required by staggered mesh algorithms. Extensive numerical testing demonstrate the robustness and reliability of the proposed framework for computations involving both smooth and discontinuous features.

  13. MOSS2D V1

    2001-01-31

    This software reduces the data from two-dimensional kSA MOS program, k-Space Associates, Ann Arbor, MI. Initial MOS data is recorded without headers in 38 columns, with one row of data per acquisition per lase beam tracked. The final MOSS 2d data file is reduced, graphed, and saved in a tab-delimited column format with headers that can be plotted in any graphing software.

  14. Spatially Resolved Synthetic Spectra from 2D Simulations of Stainless Steel Wire Array Implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R. W.; Giuliani, J. L.; Thornhill, J. W.; Chong, Y. K.; Dasgupta, A.; Davis, J.

    2009-01-21

    A 2D radiation MHD model has been developed to investigate stainless steel wire array implosion experiments on the Z and refurbished Z machines. This model incorporates within the Mach2 MHD code a self-consistent calculation of the non-LTE kinetics and ray trace based radiation transport. Such a method is necessary in order to account for opacity effects in conjunction with ionization kinetics of K-shell emitting plasmas. Here the model is used to investigate multi-dimensional effects of stainless steel wire implosions. In particular, we are developing techniques to produce non-LTE, axially and/or radially resolved synthetic spectra based upon snapshots of our 2D simulations. Comparisons between experimental spectra and these synthetic spectra will allow us to better determine the state of the experimental pinches.

  15. 3-D Relativistic MHD Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.; Frank, J.; Koide, S.; Sakai, J.-I.; Christodoulou, D. M.; Sol, H.; Mutel, R. L.

    1998-12-01

    We present 3-D numerical simulations of moderately hot, supersonic jets propagating initially along or obliquely to the field lines of a denser magnetized background medium with Lorentz factors of W = 4.56 and evolving in a four-dimensional spacetime. The new results are understood as follows: Relativistic simulations have consistently shown that these jets are effectively heavy and so they do not suffer substantial momentum losses and are not decelerated as efficiently as their nonrelativistic counterparts. In addition, the ambient magnetic field, however strong, can be pushed aside with relative ease by the beam, provided that the degrees of freedom associated with all three spatial dimensions are followed self-consistently in the simulations. This effect is analogous to pushing Japanese ``noren'' or vertical Venetian blinds out of the way while the slats are allowed to bend in 3-D space rather than as a 2-D slab structure.

  16. Annular MHD Physics for Turbojet Energy Bypass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    The use of annular Hall type MHD generator/accelerator ducts for turbojet energy bypass is evaluated assuming weakly ionized flows obtained from pulsed nanosecond discharges. The equations for a 1-D, axisymmetric MHD generator/accelerator are derived and numerically integrated to determine the generator/accelerator performance characteristics. The concept offers a shockless means of interacting with high speed inlet flows and potentially offers variable inlet geometry performance without the complexity of moving parts simply by varying the generator loading parameter. The cycle analysis conducted iteratively with a spike inlet and turbojet flying at M = 7 at 30 km altitude is estimated to have a positive thrust per unit mass flow of 185 N-s/kg. The turbojet allowable combustor temperature is set at an aggressive 2200 deg K. The annular MHD Hall generator/accelerator is L = 3 m in length with a B(sub r) = 5 Tesla magnetic field and a conductivity of sigma = 5 mho/m for the generator and sigma= 1.0 mho/m for the accelerator. The calculated isentropic efficiency for the generator is eta(sub sg) = 84 percent at an enthalpy extraction ratio, eta(sub Ng) = 0.63. The calculated isentropic efficiency for the accelerator is eta(sub sa) = 81 percent at an enthalpy addition ratio, eta(sub Na) = 0.62. An assessment of the ionization fraction necessary to achieve a conductivity of sigma = 1.0 mho/m is n(sub e)/n = 1.90 X 10(exp -6), and for sigma = 5.0 mho/m is n(sub e)/n = 9.52 X 10(exp -6).

  17. An advanced implicit solver for MHD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udrea, Bogdan

    A new implicit algorithm has been developed for the solution of the time-dependent, viscous and resistive single fluid magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. The algorithm is based on an approximate Riemann solver for the hyperbolic fluxes and central differencing applied on a staggered grid for the parabolic fluxes. The algorithm employs a locally aligned coordinate system that allows the solution to the Riemann problems to be solved in a natural direction, normal to cell interfaces. The result is an original scheme that is robust and reduces the complexity of the flux formulas. The evaluation of the parabolic fluxes is also implemented using a locally aligned coordinate system, this time on the staggered grid. The implicit formulation employed by WARP3 is a two level scheme that was applied for the first time to the single fluid MHD model. The flux Jacobians that appear in the implicit scheme are evaluated numerically. The linear system that results from the implicit discretization is solved using a robust symmetric Gauss-Seidel method. The code has an explicit mode capability so that implementation and test of new algorithms or new physics can be performed in this simpler mode. Last but not least the code was designed and written to run on parallel computers so that complex, high resolution runs can be per formed in hours rather than days. The code has been benchmarked against analytical and experimental gas dynamics and MHD results. The benchmarks consisted of one-dimensional Riemann problems and diffusion dominated problems, two-dimensional supersonic flow over a wedge, axisymmetric magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster simulation and three-dimensional supersonic flow over intersecting wedges and spheromak stability simulation. The code has been proven to be robust and the results of the simulations showed excellent agreement with analytical and experimental results. Parallel performance studies showed that the code performs as expected when run on parallel

  18. A new inversion method for (T2, D) 2D NMR logging and fluid typing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Maojin; Zou, Youlong; Zhou, Cancan

    2013-02-01

    One-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (1D NMR) logging technology has some significant limitations in fluid typing. However, not only can two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) provide some accurate porosity parameters, but it can also identify fluids more accurately than 1D NMR. In this paper, based on the relaxation mechanism of (T2, D) 2D NMR in a gradient magnetic field, a hybrid inversion method that combines least-squares-based QR decomposition (LSQR) and truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD) is examined in the 2D NMR inversion of various fluid models. The forward modeling and inversion tests are performed in detail with different acquisition parameters, such as magnetic field gradients (G) and echo spacing (TE) groups. The simulated results are discussed and described in detail, the influence of the above-mentioned observation parameters on the inversion accuracy is investigated and analyzed, and the observation parameters in multi-TE activation are optimized. Furthermore, the hybrid inversion can be applied to quantitatively determine the fluid saturation. To study the effects of noise level on the hybrid method and inversion results, the numerical simulation experiments are performed using different signal-to-noise-ratios (SNRs), and the effect of different SNRs on fluid typing using three fluid models are discussed and analyzed in detail.

  19. Alpha-Driven MHD and MHD-Induced Alpha Loss in TFTR DT Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Zuoyang

    1996-11-01

    Theoretical calculation and numerical simulation indicate that there can be interesting interactions between alpha particles and MHD activity which can adversely affect the performance of a tokamak reactor (e.g., ITER). These interactions include alpha-driven MHD, like the toroidicity-induced-Alfven-eigenmode (TAE) and MHD induced alpha particle losses or redistribution. Both phenomena have been observed in recent TFTR DT experiments. Weak alpha-driven TAE activity was observed in a NBI-heated DT experiment characterized by high q0 ( >= 2) and low core magnetic shear. The TAE mode appears at ~30-100 ms after the neutral beam turning off approximately as predicted by theory. The mode has an amplitude measured by magnetic coils at the edge tildeB_p ~1 mG, frequency ~150-190 kHz and toroidal mode number ~2-3. It lasts only ~ 30-70 ms and has been seen only in DT discharges with fusion power level about 1.5-2.0 MW. Numerical calculation using NOVA-K code shows that this type of plasma has a big TAE gap. The calculated TAE frequency and mode number are close to the observation. (2) KBM-induced alpha particle loss^1. In some high-β, high fusion power DT experiments, enhanced alpha particle losses were observed to be correlated to the high frequency MHD modes with f ~100-200 kHz (the TAE frequency would be two-times higher) and n ~5-10. These modes are localized around the peak plasma pressure gradient and have ballooning characteristics. Alpha loss increases by 30-100% during the modes. Particle orbit simulations show the added loss results from wave-particle resonance. Linear instability analysis indicates that the plasma is unstable to the kinetic MHD ballooning modes (KBM) driven primarily by strong local pressure gradients. ----------------- ^1Z. Chang, et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76 (1996) 1071. In collaberation with R. Nazikian, G.-Y. Fu, S. Batha, R. Budny, L. Chen, D. Darrow, E. Fredrickson, R. Majeski, D. Mansfield, K. McGuire, G. Rewoldt, G. Taylor, R. White, K

  20. MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Integrated Topping Cycle (ITC) Project represents the culmination of the proof-of-concept (POC) development stage in the US Department of Energy (DOE) program to advance MHD technology to early commercial development stage utility power applications. The project is a joint effort, combining the skills of three topping cycle component developers: TRW, Avco/TDS, and Westinghouse. TRW, the prime contractor and system integrator, is responsible for the 50 thermal megawatt (50 MW{sub t}) slagging coal combustion subsystem. Avco/TDS is responsible for the MHD channel subsystem (nozzle, channel, diffuser, and power conditioning circuits), and Westinghouse is responsible for the current consolidation subsystem. The ITC Project will advance the state-of-the-art in MHD power systems with the design, construction, and integrated testing of 50 MW{sub t} power train components which are prototypical of the equipment that will be used in an early commercial scale MHD utility retrofit. Long duration testing of the integrated power train at the Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) in Butte, Montana will be performed, so that by the early 1990's, an engineering data base on the reliability, availability, maintainability and performance of the system will be available to allow scaleup of the prototypical designs to the next development level. This Sixteenth Quarterly Technical Progress Report covers the period May 1, 1991 to July 31, 1991.

  1. Nanoimprint lithography: 2D or not 2D? A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schift, Helmut

    2015-11-01

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is more than a planar high-end technology for the patterning of wafer-like substrates. It is essentially a 3D process, because it replicates various stamp topographies by 3D displacement of material and takes advantage of the bending of stamps while the mold cavities are filled. But at the same time, it keeps all assets of a 2D technique being able to pattern thin masking layers like in photon- and electron-based traditional lithography. This review reports about 20 years of development of replication techniques at Paul Scherrer Institut, with a focus on 3D aspects of molding, which enable NIL to stay 2D, but at the same time enable 3D applications which are "more than Moore." As an example, the manufacturing of a demonstrator for backlighting applications based on thermally activated selective topography equilibration will be presented. This technique allows generating almost arbitrary sloped, convex and concave profiles in the same polymer film with dimensions in micro- and nanometer scale.

  2. 2D bifurcations and Newtonian properties of memristive Chua's circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marszalek, W.; Podhaisky, H.

    2016-01-01

    Two interesting properties of Chua's circuits are presented. First, two-parameter bifurcation diagrams of Chua's oscillatory circuits with memristors are presented. To obtain various 2D bifurcation images a substantial numerical effort, possibly with parallel computations, is needed. The numerical algorithm is described first and its numerical code for 2D bifurcation image creation is available for free downloading. Several color 2D images and the corresponding 1D greyscale bifurcation diagrams are included. Secondly, Chua's circuits are linked to Newton's law φ ''= F(t,φ,φ')/m with φ=\\text{flux} , constant m > 0, and the force term F(t,φ,φ') containing memory terms. Finally, the jounce scalar equations for Chua's circuits are also discussed.

  3. A kinetic-MHD model for low frequency phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, C.Z.

    1991-07-01

    A hybrid kinetic-MHD model for describing low-frequency phenomena in high beta anisotropic plasmas that consist of two components: a low energy core component and an energetic component with low density. The kinetic-MHD model treats the low energy core component by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) description, the energetic component by kinetic approach such as the gyrokinetic equation, and the coupling between the dynamics of these two components through plasma pressure in the momentum equation. The kinetic-MHD model optimizes both the physics contents and the theoretical efforts in studying low frequency MHD waves and transport phenomena in general magnetic field geometries, and can be easily modified to include the core plasma kinetic effects if necessary. It is applicable to any magnetized collisionless plasma system where the parallel electric field effects are negligibly small. In the linearized limit two coupled eigenmode equations for describing the coupling between the transverse Alfven type and the compressional Alfven type waves are derived. The eigenmode equations are identical to those derived from the full gyrokinetic equation in the low frequency limit and were previously analyzed both analytically nd numerically to obtain the eigenmode structure of the drift mirror instability which explains successfully the multi-satellite observation of antisymmetric field-aligned structure of the compressional magnetic field of Pc 5 waves in the magnetospheric ring current plasma. Finally, a quadratic form is derived to demonstrate the stability of the low-frequency transverse and compressional Alfven type instabilities in terms of the pressure anisotropy parameter {tau} and the magnetic field curvature-pressure gradient parameter. A procedure for determining the stability of a marginally stable MHD wave due to wave-particle resonances is also presented.

  4. An MHD Study of the Interaction Between the Solar Wind and the Interstellar Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinolfson, R. S.

    1996-01-01

    The overall objective of this research program is to obtain a better understanding of the interaction between the solar wind and the interstellar medium through the use of numerical solutions of the time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. The simulated results have been compared with observations where possible and with the results from previous analytic and numerical studies. The primary accomplishment of this project has been the development of codes for 2-D models in both spherical and cylindrical coordinates and the application of the codes to the solar wind/interstellar medium interaction. Computations have been carried out for both a relatively simple gas-dynamic interaction and a flow-aligned interstellar magnetic field. The results have been shown to compare favorably with models that use more approximations and to modify and extend the previous results as would be expected. The simulations have also been used along with a data analysis study to provide a quantitative estimate of the distance to the termination and bow shocks. Some of the specific topics that have been studied are: (1) gas dynamic models of the solar wind/interstellar medium interaction, (2) termination shock response to large-scale solar wind fluctuations, and (3) distances to the termination shock and heliopause. The main results from each of these studies are summarized. The results were published in three papers which are included as attachments.

  5. Problems in nonlinear resistive MHD

    SciTech Connect

    Turnbull, A.D.; Strait, E.J.; La Haye, R.J.; Chu, M.S.; Miller, R.L.

    1998-12-31

    Two experimentally relevant problems can relatively easily be tackled by nonlinear MHD codes. Both problems require plasma rotation in addition to the nonlinear mode coupling and full geometry already incorporated into the codes, but no additional physics seems to be crucial. These problems discussed here are: (1) nonlinear coupling and interaction of multiple MHD modes near the B limit and (2) nonlinear coupling of the m/n = 1/1 sawtooth mode with higher n gongs and development of seed islands outside q = 1.

  6. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) channel corner seal

    DOEpatents

    Spurrier, Francis R.

    1980-01-01

    A corner seal for an MHD duct includes a compressible portion which contacts the duct walls and an insulating portion which contacts the electrodes, sidewall bars and insulators. The compressible portion may be a pneumatic or hydraulic gasket or an open-cell foam rubber. The insulating portion is segmented into a plurality of pieces of the same thickness as the electrodes, insulators and sidewall bars and aligned therewith, the pieces aligned with the insulator being of a different size from the pieces aligned with the electrodes and sidewall bars to create a stepped configuration along the corners of the MHD channel.

  7. 2D Turbulence with Complicated Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roullet, G.; McWilliams, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    We examine the consequences of lateral viscous boundary layers on the 2D turbulence that arises in domains with complicated boundaries (headlands, bays etc). The study is carried out numerically with LES. The numerics are carefully designed to ensure all global conservation laws, proper boundary conditions and a minimal range of dissipation scales. The turbulence dramatically differs from the classical bi-periodic case. Boundary layer separations lead to creation of many small vortices and act as a continuing energy source exciting the inverse cascade of energy throughout the domain. The detachments are very intermittent in time. In free decay, the final state depends on the effective numerical resolution: laminar with a single dominant vortex for low Re and turbulent with many vortices for large enough Re. After very long time, the turbulent end-state exhibits a striking tendency for the emergence of shielded vortices which then interact almost elastically. In the forced case, the boundary layers allow the turbulence to reach a statistical steady state without any artificial hypo-viscosity or other large-scale dissipation. Implications are discussed for the oceanic mesoscale and submesoscale turbulence.

  8. Particle acceleration and non-thermal emission in Pulsar Wind Nebulae from relativistic MHD simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmi, B.; Del Zanna, L.; Amato, E.; Bucciantini, N.; Bandiera, R.

    2015-09-01

    Pulsar wind nebulae are among the most powerful particle accelerators in the Galaxy with acceleration efficiencies that reach up to 30% and maximum particle energies in the PeV range. In recent years relativistic axisymmetric MHD models have proven to be excellent tools for describing the physics of such objects, and particularly successful at explaining their high energy morphology, down to very fine details. Nevertheless, some important aspects of the physics of PWNe are still obscure: the mechanism(s) responsible for the acceleration of particles of all energies is (are) still unclear, and the origin of the lowest energy (radio emitting) particles is most mysterious. The correct interpretation of the origin of radio emitting particles is of fundamental importance, as this holds information about the amount of pair production in the pulsar magnetosphere, and hence on the role of pulsars as antimatter factories. On the other hand, the long lifetimes of these particles against synchrotron losses, allows them to travel far from their injection location, making their acceleration site difficult to constrain. As far as the highest energy (X and gamma-ray emitting) particles are concerned, their acceleration is commonly believed to occur at the pulsar wind termination shock. But since the upstream flow is thought to have non-uniform properties along the shock surface, important constraints on the acceleration mechanism(s) could come from exact knowledge of the location and flow properties where particles are being accelerated. We investigate in detail both topics by means of 2D numerical MHD simulations. Different assumptions on the origin of radio particles and more generally on the injection sites of all particles are considered, and the corresponding emission properties are computed. We discuss the physical constraints that can be inferred from comparison of the synthetic emission properties against multiwavelength observations of the PWN class prototype, the Crab

  9. On 2-D Boussinesq equations for MHD convection with stratification effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Dongfen; Gui, Guilong

    2016-08-01

    This paper is concerned with the two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics-Boussinesq system with the temperature-dependent viscosity, thermal diffusivity and electrical conductivity. The first progress on this topic was made independently by Chae and Hou-Li [8,26] where the Boussinesq system with partial constant viscosity is obtained. Recently, Wang-Zhang [45] considered the temperature-dependent viscosity and thermal diffusivity, and Li-Xu [16] generalized the Wang-Zhang's result to the inviscid case with temperature-dependent thermal diffusivity. In this paper, we include the stratification and magnetic effects and consider the full system, in the framework of low regularity. We prove that, without any smallness assumption on the initial data, the full system is globally well-posed. Moreover, by applying the uniformly bounded generalized Oseen operator, time decay estimate of the solution is obtained.

  10. Verification Studies for Multi-Fluid Plasma Algorithms with Applications to Fast MHD Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Joe; Hakim, Ammar; Loverich, John; Stoltz, Peter

    2011-10-01

    In this paper we present a series of verification studies for finite volume algorithms in Nautilus, a numerical solver for fluid plasmas. Results include a set of typical Euler, Maxwell, MHD and Two-fluid benchmarks. In addition results and algorithms for a set of hyperbolic gauge cleaning schemes that can be applied to the MHD and Two-fluid systems using finite volume type methods will be presented. Finally we move onto applications in field reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas.

  11. Efficiently Finding Trends in Macroscopic MHD Stability Using Perturbed Equilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comer, K. J.; Callen, J. D.; Hegna, C. C.; Turnbull, A. D.; Cowley, S. C.

    2001-10-01

    The effects of equilibrium shaping and profiles on long wavelength ideal MHD instabilities in toroidal plasmas are traditionally studied using numerical parameter scans. Previously, we introduced a new perturbative technique to explore these dependencies: assuming small equilibrium variations, new stability properties are found using a perturbation of the energy principle rather than with a traditional stability code. With this approach, stability dependencies can be efficiently examined without numerically generating complete MHD stability results for every set of parameters (which can be time-intensive for accurate representations of several configurations). Here, we briefly expand on previous successful perturbed stability analyses for screw pinch equilibria by discussing cases where the approach fails. Next, we extend the approach to toroidal geometry using the GATO and TOQ codes, and present cases that both validate the approach and suggest caution in its application.

  12. Corrosion and arc erosion in MHD channels

    SciTech Connect

    Rosa, R.J. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Pollina, R.J. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Avco-Everett Research Lab., Everett, MA )

    1991-10-01

    The objective of this task is to study the corrosion and arc erosion of MHD materials in a cooperative effort with, and to support, the MHD topping cycle program. Materials tested in the Avco Research Laboratory/Textron facility, or materials which have significant MHD importance, will be analyzed to document their physical deterioration. Conclusions shall be drawn about their wear mechanisms and lifetime in the MHD environment with respect to the following issues; sulfur corrosion, electrochemical corrosion, and arc erosion. The impact of any materials or slag conditions on the level of power output and on the level of leakage current in the MHD channel will also be noted, where appropriate.

  13. Open cycle gas fired MHD power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Medin, S.A. ); Negrini, F. )

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, the main objectives for the present development of gas fired MHD power generation are considered. The state of the world-wide natural gas consumption and its utilization for electricity production is analyzed. The experimental efforts in gas-fired MHD studies are briefly described. The essential features of the two major world gas-fired MHD project - the Ryazan MHDES-580 (U-500) power plant and the Italian 230 MWt retrofit are presented. New suggestions for improving the efficiency of MHD systems and the theoretical and experimental aspects of MHD development are discussed.

  14. Technical Review of the UNET2D Hydraulic Model

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, William A.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2009-05-18

    The Kansas City District of the US Army Corps of Engineers is engaged in a broad range of river management projects that require knowledge of spatially-varied hydraulic conditions such as velocities and water surface elevations. This information is needed to design new structures, improve existing operations, and assess aquatic habitat. Two-dimensional (2D) depth-averaged numerical hydraulic models are a common tool that can be used to provide velocity and depth information. Kansas City District is currently using a specific 2D model, UNET2D, that has been developed to meet the needs of their river engineering applications. This report documents a tech- nical review of UNET2D.

  15. MHD integrated topping cycle project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-01-01

    The overall objective of the project is to design and construct prototypical hardware for an integrated MHD topping cycle, and conduct long duration proof-of-concept tests of integrated system at the US DOE Component Development and Integration Facility in Butte, Montana. The results of the long duration tests will augment the existing engineering design data base on MHD power train reliability, availability, maintainability, and performance, and will serve as a basis for scaling up the topping cycle design to the next level of development, an early commercial scale power plant retrofit. The components of the MHD power train to be designed, fabricated, and tested include: A slagging coal combustor with a rated capacity of 50 MW thermal input, capable of operation with an Eastern (Illinois no. 6) or Western (Montana Rosebud) coal, a segmented supersonic nozzle, a supersonic MHD channel capable of generating at least 1.5 MW of electrical power, a segmented supersonic diffuser section to interface the channel with existing facility quench and exhaust systems, a complete set of current control circuits for local diagonal current control along the channel, and a set of current consolidation circuits to interface the channel with the existing facility inverter.

  16. MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The overall objective of the project is to design and construct prototypical hardware for an integrated MHD topping cycle, and conduct long duration proof-of-concept tests of integrated system at the US DOE Component Development and Integration Facility in Butte, Montana. The results of the long duration tests will augment the existing engineering design data base on MHD power train reliability, availability, maintainability, and performance, and will serve as a basis for scaling up the topping cycle design to the next level of development, an early commercial scale power plant retrofit. The components of the MHD power train to be designed, fabricated, and tested include: A slagging coal combustor with a rated capacity of 50 MW thermal input, capable of operation with an Eastern (Illinois {number sign}6) or Western (Montana Rosebud) coal, a segmented supersonic nozzle, a supersonic MHD channel capable of generating at least 1.5 MW of electrical power, a segmented supersonic diffuser section to interface the channel with existing facility quench and exhaust systems, a complete set of current control circuits for local diagonal current control along the channel, and a set of current consolidation circuits to interface the channel with the existing facility inverter.

  17. Drag reduction in turbulent MHD pipe flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orlandi, P.

    1996-01-01

    This is a preliminary study devoted to verifying whether or not direct simulations of turbulent Magneto-Hydro-Dynamic (MHD) flows in liquid metals reproduce experimental observations of drag reduction. Two different cases have been simulated by a finite difference scheme which is second order accurate in space and time. In the first case, an external azimuthal magnetic field is imposed. In this case, the magnetic field acts on the mean axial velocity and complete laminarization of the flow at N(sub a) = 30 has been achieved. In the second case, an axial magnetic field is imposed which affects only fluctuating velocities, and thus the action is less efficient. This second case is more practical, but comparison between numerical and experimental results is only qualitative.

  18. Variance anisotropy in compressible 3-D MHD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oughton, S.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Wan, Minping; Parashar, Tulasi

    2016-06-01

    We employ spectral method numerical simulations to examine the dynamical development of anisotropy of the variance, or polarization, of the magnetic and velocity field in compressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. Both variance anisotropy and spectral anisotropy emerge under influence of a large-scale mean magnetic field B0; these are distinct effects, although sometimes related. Here we examine the appearance of variance parallel to B0, when starting from a highly anisotropic state. The discussion is based on a turbulence theoretic approach rather than a wave perspective. We find that parallel variance emerges over several characteristic nonlinear times, often attaining a quasi-steady level that depends on plasma beta. Consistency with solar wind observations seems to occur when the initial state is dominated by quasi-two-dimensional fluctuations.

  19. NKG2D receptor and its ligands in host defense

    PubMed Central

    Lanier, Lewis L.

    2015-01-01

    NKG2D is an activating receptor expressed on the surface of natural killer (NK) cells, CD8+ T cells, and subsets of CD4+ T cells, iNKT cells, and γδ T cells. In humans NKG2D transmits signals by its association with the DAP10 adapter subunit and in mice alternatively spliced isoforms transmit signals either using DAP10 or DAP12 adapter subunits. Although NKG2D is encoded by a highly conserved gene (KLRK1) with limited polymorphism, the receptor recognizes an extensive repertoire of ligands, encoded by at least 8 genes in humans (MICA, MICB, RAET1E, RAET1G, RAET1H, RAET1I, RAET1L, and RAET1N), some with extensive allelic polymorphism. Expression of the NKG2D ligands is tightly regulated at the level of transcription, translation, and post-translation. In general healthy adult tissues do not express NKG2D glycoproteins on the cell surface, but these ligands can be induced by hyper-proliferation and transformation, as well as when cells are infected by pathogens. Thus, the NKG2D pathway serves a mechanism for the immune system to detect and eliminate cells that have undergone “stress”. Viruses and tumor cells have devised numerous strategies to evade detection by the NKG2D surveillance system and diversification of the NKG2D ligand genes likely has been driven by selective pressures imposed by pathogens. NKG2D provides an attractive target for therapeutics in the treatment of infectious diseases, cancer, and autoimmune diseases. PMID:26041808

  20. A consistent and conservative scheme for incompressible MHD flows at a low magnetic Reynolds number. Part III: On a staggered mesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Ming-Jiu; Li, Jun-Feng

    2012-01-01

    the scheme, which can guarantee computational accuracy of MHD flows at high Hartmann number with a strongly non-uniform mesh employed to resolve the Hartmann layers and side layers. 2D fully developed MHD flows with analytical solutions available have been conducted to validate the scheme at a staggered mesh. 3D MHD flows, with the experimental data available, at a constant magnetic field in a rectangular duct with sudden expansion and at a varying magnetic field in a rectangular duct are conducted on a staggered mesh to verify the computational accuracy of the scheme. It is expected that the scheme for the Lorentz force can be employed together with a fully conservative scheme for the convective term and the pressure term [Y. Morinishi, T.S. Lund, O.V. Vasilyev, P. Moin, Fully conservative higher order finite difference schemes for incompressible flow, Journal of Computational Physics 143 (1998) 90-124] for direct simulation of MHD turbulence and MHD instability with good accuracy at a staggered mesh.

  1. 3-D Relativistic MHD Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikaw, K.-I.; Frank, J.; Christodoulou, D. M.; Koide, S.; Sakai, J.-I.; Sol, H.; Mutel, R. L.

    1998-12-01

    We present 3-D numerical simulations of moderately hot, supersonic jets propagating initially along or obliquely to the field lines of a denser magnetized background medium with Lorentz factors of W=4.56 and evolving in a four-dimensional spacetime. The new results are understood as follows: Relativistic simulations have consistently shown that these jets are effectively heavy and so they do not suffer substantial momentum losses and are not decelerated as efficiently as their nonrelativistic counterparts. In addition, the ambient magnetic field, however strong, can be pushed aside with relative ease by the beam, provided that the degrees of freedom associated with all three spatial dimensions are followed self-consistently in the simulations. This effect is analogous to pushing Japanese ``noren'' or vertical Venetian blinds out of the way while the slats are allowed to bend in 3-D space rather than as a 2-D slab structure. We also simulate jets with the more realistic initial conditions for injecting jets for helical mangetic field, perturbed density, velocity, and internal energy, which are supposed to be caused in the process of jet generation. Three possible explanations for the observed variability are (i) tidal disruption of a star falling into the black hole, (ii) instabilities in the relativistic accretion disk, and (iii) jet-related PRocesses. New results will be reported at the meeting.

  2. A hybrid numerical fluid dynamics code for resistive magnetohydrodynamics

    2006-04-01

    Spasmos is a computational fluid dynamics code that uses two numerical methods to solve the equations of resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows in compressible, inviscid, conducting media[1]. The code is implemented as a set of libraries for the Python programming language[2]. It represents conducting and non-conducting gases and materials with uncomplicated (analytic) equations of state. It supports calculations in 1D, 2D, and 3D geometry, though only the 1D configuation has received significant testing to date. Becausemore » it uses the Python interpreter as a front end, users can easily write test programs to model systems with a variety of different numerical and physical parameters. Currently, the code includes 1D test programs for hydrodynamics (linear acoustic waves, the Sod weak shock[3], the Noh strong shock[4], the Sedov explosion[5], magnetic diffusion (decay of a magnetic pulse[6], a driven oscillatory "wine-cellar" problem[7], magnetic equilibrium), and magnetohydrodynamics (an advected magnetic pulse[8], linear MHD waves, a magnetized shock tube[9]). Spasmos current runs only in a serial configuration. In the future, it will use MPI for parallel computation.« less

  3. Evidence of Active MHD Instability in EULAG-MHD Simulations of Solar Convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Nicolas; Strugarek, Antoine; Charbonneau, Paul

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the possible development of magnetohydrodynamical instabilities in the EULAG-MHD “millennium simulation” of Passos & Charbonneau. This simulation sustains a large-scale magnetic cycle characterized by solar-like polarity reversals taking place on a regular multidecadal cadence, and in which zonally oriented bands of strong magnetic fields accumulate below the convective layers, in response to turbulent pumping from above in successive magnetic half-cycles. Key aspects of this simulation include low numerical dissipation and a strongly sub-adiabatic fluid layer underlying the convectively unstable layers corresponding to the modeled solar convection zone. These properties are conducive to the growth and development of two-dimensional instabilities that are otherwise suppressed by stronger dissipation. We find evidence for the action of a non-axisymmetric magnetoshear instability operating in the upper portions of the stably stratified fluid layers. We also investigate the possibility that the Tayler instability may be contributing to the destabilization of the large-scale axisymmetric magnetic component at high latitudes. On the basis of our analyses, we propose a global dynamo scenario whereby the magnetic cycle is driven primarily by turbulent dynamo action in the convecting layers, but MHD instabilities accelerate the dissipation of the magnetic field pumped down into the overshoot and stable layers, thus perhaps significantly influencing the magnetic cycle period. Support for this scenario is found in the distinct global dynamo behaviors observed in an otherwise identical EULAG-MHD simulations, using a different degree of sub-adiabaticity in the stable fluid layers underlying the convection zone.

  4. Broken Ergodicity in MHD Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.

    2010-01-01

    Ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence may be represented by finite Fourier series, where the inherent periodic box serves as a surrogate for a bounded astrophysical plasma. Independent Fourier coefficients form a canonical ensemble described by a Gaussian probability density function containing a Hermitian covariance matrix with positive eigenvalues. The eigenvalues at lowest wave number can be very small, resulting in a large-scale coherent structure: a turbulent dynamo. This is seen in computations and a theoretical explanation in terms of 'broken ergodicity' contains Taylor s theory of force-free states. An important problem for future work is the case of real, i.e., dissipative flows. In real flows, broken ergodicity and coherent structure are still expected to occur in MHD turbulence at the largest scale, as suggested by low resolution simulations. One challenge is to incorporate coherent structure at the largest scale into the theory of turbulent fluctuations at smaller scales.

  5. A Real-time 3D Visualization of Global MHD Simulation for Space Weather Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murata, K.; Matsuoka, D.; Kubo, T.; Shimazu, H.; Tanaka, T.; Fujita, S.; Watari, S.; Miyachi, H.; Yamamoto, K.; Kimura, E.; Ishikura, S.

    2006-12-01

    Recently, many satellites for communication networks and scientific observation are launched in the vicinity of the Earth (geo-space). The electromagnetic (EM) environments around the spacecraft are always influenced by the solar wind blowing from the Sun and induced electromagnetic fields. They occasionally cause various troubles or damages, such as electrification and interference, to the spacecraft. It is important to forecast the geo-space EM environment as well as the ground weather forecasting. Owing to the recent remarkable progresses of super-computer technologies, numerical simulations have become powerful research methods in the solar-terrestrial physics. For the necessity of space weather forecasting, NICT (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology) has developed a real-time global MHD simulation system of solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere couplings, which has been performed on a super-computer SX-6. The real-time solar wind parameters from the ACE spacecraft at every one minute are adopted as boundary conditions for the simulation. Simulation results (2-D plots) are updated every 1 minute on a NICT website. However, 3D visualization of simulation results is indispensable to forecast space weather more accurately. In the present study, we develop a real-time 3D webcite for the global MHD simulations. The 3-D visualization results of simulation results are updated every 20 minutes in the following three formats: (1)Streamlines of magnetic field lines, (2)Isosurface of temperature in the magnetosphere and (3)Isoline of conductivity and orthogonal plane of potential in the ionosphere. For the present study, we developed a 3-D viewer application working on Internet Explorer browser (ActiveX) is implemented, which was developed on the AVS/Express. Numerical data are saved in the HDF5 format data files every 1 minute. Users can easily search, retrieve and plot past simulation results (3D visualization data and numerical data) by using

  6. MHD Contractors' Review Meeting: Abstracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The objectives of the Integrated Topping Cycle project are to design, construct, and deliver all prototypical hardware necessary to conduct long duration integrated MHD topping cycle proof-of-concept tests at the Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) in Butte, Montana. The results of the long duration tests will augment the existing engineering data base on MHD power train reliability, maintainability, durability, and performance, and will serve as a basis for scaling up to the early commercial scale power plant retrofit. The components of the MHD power train to be designed, fabricated, and tested include the following three systems: (1) a slagging coal combustion subsystem with a rated capacity of 50 MW thermal input, capable of operation with eastern (Illinois) or western (Montana Rosebud) coal; (2) a channel subsystem consisting of a segmented supersonic nozzle, channel (with current controls), and diffuser, capable of power output of 1.5 MW(sub e); and (3) a current consolidation subsystem to interface the channel with the existing facility inverter.

  7. Design of the LRP airfoil series using 2D CFD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahle, Frederik; Bak, Christian; Sørensen, Niels N.; Vronsky, Tomas; Gaudern, Nicholas

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the design and wind tunnel testing of a high-Reynolds number, high lift airfoil series designed for wind turbines. The airfoils were designed using direct gradient- based numerical multi-point optimization based on a Bezier parameterization of the shape, coupled to the 2D Navier-Stokes flow solver EllipSys2D. The resulting airfoils, the LRP2-30 and LRP2-36, achieve both higher operational lift coefficients and higher lift to drag ratios compared to the equivalent FFA-W3 airfoils.

  8. Radiative heat transfer in 2D Dirac materials

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rodriguez-López, Pablo; Tse, Wang -Kong; Dalvit, Diego A. R.

    2015-05-12

    We compute the radiative heat transfer between two sheets of 2D Dirac materials, including topological Chern insulators and graphene, within the framework of the local approximation for the optical response of these materials. In this approximation, which neglects spatial dispersion, we derive both numerically and analytically the short-distance asymptotic of the near-field heat transfer in these systems, and show that it scales as the inverse of the distance between the two sheets. In conclusion, we discuss the limitations to the validity of this scaling law imposed by spatial dispersion in 2D Dirac materials.

  9. Nomenclature for human CYP2D6 alleles.

    PubMed

    Daly, A K; Brockmöller, J; Broly, F; Eichelbaum, M; Evans, W E; Gonzalez, F J; Huang, J D; Idle, J R; Ingelman-Sundberg, M; Ishizaki, T; Jacqz-Aigrain, E; Meyer, U A; Nebert, D W; Steen, V M; Wolf, C R; Zanger, U M

    1996-06-01

    To standardize CYP2D6 allele nomenclature, and to conform with international human gene nomenclature guidelines, an alternative to the current arbitrary system is described. Based on recommendations for human genome nomenclature, we propose that alleles be designated by CYP2D6 followed by an asterisk and a combination of roman letters and arabic numerals distinct for each allele with the number specifying the key mutation and, where appropriate, a letter specifying additional mutations. Criteria for classification as a separate allele and protein nomenclature are also presented. PMID:8807658

  10. The 2D large deformation analysis using Daubechies wavelet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yanan; Qin, Fei; Liu, Yinghua; Cen, Zhangzhi

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, Daubechies (DB) wavelet is used for solution of 2D large deformation problems. Because the DB wavelet scaling functions are directly used as basis function, no meshes are needed in function approximation. Using the DB wavelet, the solution formulations based on total Lagrangian approach for two-dimensional large deformation problems are established. Due to the lack of Kroneker delta properties in wavelet scaling functions, Lagrange multipliers are used for imposition of boundary condition. Numerical examples of 2D large deformation problems illustrate that this method is effective and stable.

  11. On 2D bisection method for double eigenvalue problems

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, X.

    1996-06-01

    The two-dimensional bisection method presented in (SIAM J. Matrix Anal. Appl. 13(4), 1085 (1992)) is efficient for solving a class of double eigenvalue problems. This paper further extends the 2D bisection method of full matrix cases and analyses its stability. As in a single parameter case, the 2D bisection method is very stable for the tridiagonal matrix triples satisfying the symmetric-definite condition. Since the double eigenvalue problems arise from two-parameter boundary value problems, an estimate of the discretization error in eigenpairs is also given. Some numerical examples are included. 42 refs., 1 tab.

  12. A Two-Fluid, MHD Coronal Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, Steven T.; Wang, A.-H.; Wu, S. T.; Poletto, G.; McComas, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    We describe first results from a numerical two-fluid MHD model of the global structure of the solar corona. The model is two-fluid in the sense that it accounts for the collisional energy exchange between protons and electrons. As in our single-fluid model, volumetric heat and momentum sources are required to produce high speed wind from coronal holes, low speed wind above streamers, and mass fluxes similar to the empirical solar wind. By specifying different proton and electron heating functions we obtain a high proton temperature in the coronal hole and a relatively low proton temperature in the streamer (in comparison with the electron temperature). This is consistent with inferences from SOHO/UVCS, and with the Ulysses/SWOOPS proton and electron temperature measurements which we show from the fast latitude scan. The density in the coronal hole between 2 solar radii and 5 solar radii (2RS and 5RS) is similar to the density reported from SPARTAN 201-01 measurements by Fisher and Guhathakurta. The proton mass flux scaled to 1 AU is 2.4 x 10(exp 8)/sq cm s, which is consistent with Ulysses observations. Inside the closed field region, the density is sufficiently high so that the simulation gives equal proton and electron temperatures due to the high collision rate. In open field regions (in the coronal hole and above the streamer) the proton and electron temperatures differ by varying amounts. In the streamer, the temperature and density are similar to those reported empirically by Li et al and the plasma beta is larger than unity everywhere above approx. 1.5 R(sub s), as it is in all other MHD coronal streamer models.

  13. NKG2D ligands as therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Paul; Wu, Ming-Ru; Sentman, Marie-Louise; Sentman, Charles L.

    2013-01-01

    The Natural Killer Group 2D (NKG2D) receptor plays an important role in protecting the host from infections and cancer. By recognizing ligands induced on infected or tumor cells, NKG2D modulates lymphocyte activation and promotes immunity to eliminate ligand-expressing cells. Because these ligands are not widely expressed on healthy adult tissue, NKG2D ligands may present a useful target for immunotherapeutic approaches in cancer. Novel therapies targeting NKG2D ligands for the treatment of cancer have shown preclinical success and are poised to enter into clinical trials. In this review, the NKG2D receptor and its ligands are discussed in the context of cancer, infection, and autoimmunity. In addition, therapies targeting NKG2D ligands in cancer are also reviewed. PMID:23833565

  14. Analysis of MHD Pressure Drop in Liquid LiPb Flow in Chinese ITER DFLL-TBM with Insulating Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hongli; Zhou, Tao; Wang, Hongyan

    2008-08-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pressure drop in the Chinese Dual Functional Liquid Lithium-lead Test Blanket Module (DFLL-TBM) proposed for ITER is discussed in this paper. Electrical insulation between the coolant channel surfaces and the liquid metal is required to reduce the MHD pressure drop to a manageable level. Insulation can be provided by a thin insulating coating, such as Al2O3, which can also serve as a tritium barrier layer, at the channel surfaces in contact with LiPb. The coating's effectiveness for reducing the MHD pressure drop is analysed through three-dimensional numerical simulation. A MHD-based commercial computational fluid dynamic (CFD) software FLUENT is used to simulate the LiPb flow. The effect on the MHD pressure drop due to cracks or faults in the coating layer is also considered. The insulating performance requirement for the coating material in DFLL-TBM design is proposed according to the analysis.

  15. Coupling MHD Simulations of CMEs to SEP Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torok, T.; Gorby, M.; Linker, J.; Schwadron, N.

    2015-12-01

    Large Solar Energetic Particle events (SEPs) are a main space weather hazard and extremely dangerous to astronauts and electronic equipmentin space. They are typically associated with fast Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs). Recent results indicate that SEPs can be generated already inthe early phase of CME expansion low in the corona, but the underlyingphysical mechanisms are not yet well understood. State-of-the-artmagnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of CME initiation and evolution,combined with numerical models of particle acceleration and propagation,provide a powerful tool to investigate these mechanisms. In this talk, we present recent developments in the coupling of CORHEL/MAS thermodynamicMHD simulations of fast CMEs to the EPREM particle code, and we discuss the insights that can be gained from such a combined modeling approach.

  16. MHD-waves in the geomagnetic tail: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonovich, Anatoliy; Mazur, Vitaliy; Kozlov, Daniil

    2015-03-01

    This article presents the review of experimental and theoretical studies on ultra-lowfrequency MHD oscillations of the geomagnetic tail. We consider the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability at the magnetopause, oscillations with a discrete spectrum in the "magic frequencies"range, the ballooning instability of coupled Alfvén and slow magnetosonic waves, and "flapping" oscillations of the current sheet of the geomagnetic tail. Over the last decade, observations from THEMIS, CLUSTER and Double Star satellites have been of great importance for experimental studies. The use of several spacecraft allows us to study the structure of MHD oscillations with high spatial resolution. Due to this, we can make a detailed comparison between theoretical results and those obtained from multi-spacecraft studies. To make such comparisons in theoretical studies, in turn, we have to use the numerical models closest to the real magnetosphere.

  17. Quick Time-dependent Ionization Calculations Depending on MHD Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Chengcai; Raymond, John C.; Murphy, Nicholas Arnold

    2014-06-01

    Time-dependent ionization is important in astrophysical environments where the thermodynamic time scale is shorter than ionization time scale. In this work, we report a FORTRAN program that performs fast non-equilibrium ionization calculations based on parallel computing. Using MHD simulation results, we trace the movements of plasma in a Lagrangian framework, and obtain evolutionary history of temperature and electron density. Then the time-dependent ionization equations are solved using the eigenvalue method. For any complex temperature and density histories, we introduce a advanced time-step strategy to improve the computational efficiency. Our tests show that this program has advantages of high numerical stability and high accuracy. In addition, it is also easy to integrate this solver with the other MHD routines.

  18. Performance optimization of an MHD generator with physical constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pian, C. C. P.; Seikel, G. R.; Smith, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    A technique has been described which optimizes the power out of a Faraday MHD generator operating under a prescribed set of electrical and magnetic constraints. The method does not rely on complicated numerical optimization techniques. Instead the magnetic field and the electrical loading are adjusted at each streamwise location such that the resultant generator design operates at the most limiting of the cited stress levels. The simplicity of the procedure makes it ideal for optimizing generator designs for system analysis studies of power plants. The resultant locally optimum channel designs are, however, not necessarily the global optimum designs. The results of generator performance calculations are presented for an approximately 2000 MWe size plant. The difference between the maximum power generator design and the optimal design which maximizes net MHD power are described. The sensitivity of the generator performance to the various operational parameters are also presented.

  19. RAMSES-MHD: an AMR Godunov code for astrophysical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fromang, S.; Hennebelle, P.; Teyssier, R.

    2005-12-01

    Godunov methods have proved in recent years to be very efficient numerical schemes to solve the hydrodynamic equations. Here, we present an extension of the 3D adaptative Mesh Refinament (AMR) code RAMSES (Teyssier 2002) to the equations of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). The code uses the constrained transport scheme, which garantees that the divergence of the magnetic field is kept to zero to machine accuracy at all time. Different MHD Riemann solvers can be used, and the use of the MUSCL-Hancok approach combines a good accuracy with a fast exectution of the code. A variety of tests will illustrate the performances of the code and the possibilities offered by the AMR scheme. Future applications of the code are discussed.

  20. Rapporteur report: MHD electric power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seikel, G. R.

    1980-01-01

    Five US papers from the Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on MHD Electrical Power Generation at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology are summarized. Results of the initial parametric phase of the US effort on the study of potential early commercial MHD plants are reported and aspects of the smaller commercial prototype plant termed the Engineering Test Facility are discussed. The alternative of using a disk geometry generator rather than a linear generator in baseload MHD plants is examined. Closed-cycle as well as open-cycle MHD plants are considered.

  1. Perspectives for spintronics in 2D materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Wei

    2016-03-01

    The past decade has been especially creative for spintronics since the (re)discovery of various two dimensional (2D) materials. Due to the unusual physical characteristics, 2D materials have provided new platforms to probe the spin interaction with other degrees of freedom for electrons, as well as to be used for novel spintronics applications. This review briefly presents the most important recent and ongoing research for spintronics in 2D materials.

  2. Kinematic MHD Models of Collapsing Magnetic Traps: Extension to 3D

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, Keith J.; Neukirch, Thomas

    2009-02-16

    We show how fully 3D kinematic MHD models of collapsing magnetic traps (CMTs) can be constructed, thus extending previous work on 2D trap models. CMTs are thought to form in the relaxing magnetic field lines in solar flares and it has been proposed that they play an important role in the acceleration of high-energy particles. This work is a first step to understanding the physics of CMTs better.

  3. MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    This eighteenth quarterly technical progress report of the MHD Integrated Topping cycle Project presents the accomplishments during the period November 1, 1991 to January 31, 1992. The precombustor is fully assembled. Manufacturing of all slagging stage components has been completed. All cooling panels were welded in place and the panel/shell gap was filled with RTV. Final combustor assembly is in progress. The low pressure cooling subsystem (LPCS) was delivered to the CDIF. Second stage brazing issues were resolved. The construction of the two anode power cabinets was completed.

  4. Ceramic component for MHD electrode

    DOEpatents

    Marchant, David D.; Bates, Junior L.

    1981-01-01

    A ceramic component which exhibits electrical conductivity down to near room temperatures has the formula: Hf.sub.x In.sub.y A.sub.z O.sub.2 where x=0.1 to 0.4, y=0.3 to 0.6, z=0.1 to 0.4 and A is a lanthanide rare earth or yttrium. The component is suitable for use in the fabrication of MHD electrodes or as the current leadout portion of a composite electrode with other ceramic components.

  5. Ceramic components for MHD electrode

    DOEpatents

    Marchant, D.D.

    A ceramic component which exhibits electrical conductivity down to near room temperatures has the formula: Hf/sub x/In/sub y/A/sub z/O/sub 2/ where x = 0.1 to 0.4, y = 0.3 to 0.6, z = 0.1 to 0.4 and A is a lanthanide rare earth or yttrium. The component is suitable for use in the fabrication of MHD electrodes or as the current leadout portion of a composite electrode with other ceramic components.

  6. Energy storage and dissipation in the magnetotail during substorms 2. MHD simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinolfson, R. S.; Winglee, R. M.

    1993-05-01

    The effects of temporal and spatial variations in the plasma resistivity on the evolution of the magnetosphere during substorms are examined with numerical solutions of the two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. The global MHD simulations self-consistently consider the interaction of the solar wind with the dayside magnetosphere as well as the evolution of the tail region. These solutions are used to study how various solar wind states generate conditions in the tail, such as pressure gradients and cross-tail currents, that have the potential of leading to a substorm. Although the MHD formalism does provide information on the large-scale evolution, the essential mechanism for substorm development may involve microscopic or particle processes not present in an MHD approach. As a result, this MHD study is carried out in association with particle simulations (Winglee and Steinolfson, this issue). Since one connection between the MHD and particle approaches is through the resistivity, the effects of various resistivity distributions on the global MHD configuration are examined. The resistivity distributions considered here are (1) a temporally constant and spatially uniform resistivity, (2) a resistivity proportional to the square of the local current density, and (3) a resistivity proportional to the square of the local magnetic field strength. The latter distribution is suggested by the above particle simulations and represents effects produced by the increased magnetization of particles and the differential motion between electrons and ions. For all three cases a plasmoid is formed and ejected tailward. However, when the resistivity depends on the field strength, considerably more energy is stored in the tail prior to plasmoid formation, and plasmoid formation is delayed relative to the results for the other two resistivity distributions. Furthermore, when the plasmoid is eventually ejected, it moves down the tail with a higher speed. The MHD results

  7. Workshop on Feedback Stabilization of MHD Stabilities

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, K.; Kugel, H.; La Haye, R.; Mauel, M.; Nevins, W.; Prager, S.

    1996-12-31

    The feedback stabilization of MHD instabilities is an area of research that is critical for improving the performance and economic attractiveness of magnetic confinement devices. A Workshop dedicated to feedback stabilization of MHD instabilities was held from December 11-13, 1996 at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton NJ, USA. The resulting presentations, conclusions, and recommendations are summarized.

  8. MHD (Magnetohydrodynamics) Program Plan, FY 1989

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-05-01

    The essential elements of the current program, which is a continuation of the program outlined in the FY 1988 MHD Program Plan, are to: develop technical and environmental data for the integrated MHD topping cycle system through long-term (1000 hours) proof of concept (POC) testing; develop technical and environmental data for the integrated MHD bottoming cycle subsystem through long-term (4000 hours) POC testing; design and construct a seed regeneration system capable of independent operation, using spent seed materials from the MHD process; prepare a conceptual design for an MHD retrofit plant; and continue system studies and supporting research necessary for system testing. Results of the topping cycle POC tests at the Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF), coupled with the bottoming cycle POC test results obtained at the Coal Fired Flow Facility (CFFF), and the seed regeneration POC effort will provide the critical engineering data base for the private sector's final decision on proceeding with the design, construction, and operation of an MHD retrofit. The development schedule, decision points, and resource requirements are discussed. As part of the MHD program, international activities of several nations are monitored and evaluated through contact with the international MHD scientific and technical community.

  9. Universal Fabrication of 2D Electron Systems in Functional Oxides.

    PubMed

    Rödel, Tobias Chris; Fortuna, Franck; Sengupta, Shamashis; Frantzeskakis, Emmanouil; Fèvre, Patrick Le; Bertran, François; Mercey, Bernard; Matzen, Sylvia; Agnus, Guillaume; Maroutian, Thomas; Lecoeur, Philippe; Santander-Syro, Andrés Felipe

    2016-03-01

    2D electron systems (2DESs) in functional oxides are promising for applications, but their fabrication and use, essentially limited to SrTiO3 -based heterostructures, are hampered by the need for growing complex oxide overlayers thicker than 2 nm using evolved techniques. It is demonstrated that thermal deposition of a monolayer of an elementary reducing agent suffices to create 2DESs in numerous oxides. PMID:26753522

  10. A simple unsplit Godunov method for multidimensional MHD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, James M.; Gardiner, Thomas

    2009-02-01

    We describe a numerical algorithm based on Godunov methods for integrating the equations of compressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) in multidimensions. It combines a simple, dimensionally-unsplit integration method with the constrained transport (CT) discretization of the induction equation to enforce the divergence-free constraint. We present the results of a series of fully three-dimensional tests which indicate the method is second-order accurate for smooth solutions in all MHD wave families, and captures shocks, contact and rotational discontinuities well. However, it is also more diffusive than other more complex unsplit integrators combined with CT. Thus, the primary advantage of the method is its simplicity. It does not require a characteristic tracing step to construct interface values for the Riemann solver, it is straightforward to extend with additional physics, and it is suitable for use with nested and adaptive meshes. The method is implemented as one of two dimensionally unsplit MHD integrators in the Athena code, which is freely available for download from the web.

  11. Annotated Bibliography of EDGE2D Use

    SciTech Connect

    J.D. Strachan and G. Corrigan

    2005-06-24

    This annotated bibliography is intended to help EDGE2D users, and particularly new users, find existing published literature that has used EDGE2D. Our idea is that a person can find existing studies which may relate to his intended use, as well as gain ideas about other possible applications by scanning the attached tables.

  12. Staring 2-D hadamard transform spectral imager

    DOEpatents

    Gentry, Stephen M.; Wehlburg, Christine M.; Wehlburg, Joseph C.; Smith, Mark W.; Smith, Jody L.

    2006-02-07

    A staring imaging system inputs a 2D spatial image containing multi-frequency spectral information. This image is encoded in one dimension of the image with a cyclic Hadamarid S-matrix. The resulting image is detecting with a spatial 2D detector; and a computer applies a Hadamard transform to recover the encoded image.

  13. MHD Turbulence through the Heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veltri, P.

    Velocity and magnetic field fluctuations in a wide range of space and time scales have been directly detected in the interplanetary medium In the solar corona the presence of MHD turbulence is naturally generated by the mechanical and magnetic energy input from the photosphere and it could be related to coronal heating as well as to energy release events like micro and nanoflares A certain amount of fluctuations from the solar corona arrives in the solar wind mainly as Alfvénic turbulence i e strongly correlated velocity and magnetic field fluctuations with a very low level of compressible density magnetic field intensity temperature fluctuations The whole system formed by the solar corona and the solar wind represents a sort of wind tunnel extremely useful to study the MHD turbulence properties The presence of magnetic turbulence in the heliosphere is identified as the source of charged particle collisionless diffusion which according the values of parameters like the energy level on magnetic fluctuations or the turbulence correlation length can display both a normal gaussian random walk and an anomalous subdiffusive or super diffusive behavior The former case is obtained in a situation of global stochasticity high level of fluctuation energy while the latter in a situation of weak chaos low level of fluctuation energy The talk will discuss turbulence generation at photospheric level its propagation and its interaction with heliospheric structures and its effects on anomalous transport processes of charged

  14. Feasibility of MHD submarine propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Doss, E.D. ); Sikes, W.C. )

    1992-09-01

    This report describes the work performed during Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the collaborative research program established between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company (NNS). Phase I of the program focused on the development of computer models for Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) propulsion. Phase 2 focused on the experimental validation of the thruster performance models and the identification, through testing, of any phenomena which may impact the attractiveness of this propulsion system for shipboard applications. The report discusses in detail the work performed in Phase 2 of the program. In Phase 2, a two Tesla test facility was designed, built, and operated. The facility test loop, its components, and their design are presented. The test matrix and its rationale are discussed. Representative experimental results of the test program are presented, and are compared to computer model predictions. In general, the results of the tests and their comparison with the predictions indicate that thephenomena affecting the performance of MHD seawater thrusters are well understood and can be accurately predicted with the developed thruster computer models.

  15. Cusp geometry in MHD simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siscoe, George; Crooker, Nancy; Siebert, Keith; Maynard, Nelson; Weimer, Daniel; White, Willard

    2005-01-01

    The MHD simulations described here show that the latitude of the high-altitude cusp decreases as the IMF swings from North to South, that there is a pronounced dawn dusk asymmetry at high-altitude associated with a dawn dusk component of the IMF, and that at the same time there is also a pronounced dawn dusk asymmetry at low-altitude. The simulations generate a feature that represents what has been called the cleft. It appears as a tail (when the IMF has a By component) attached to the cusp, extending either toward the dawn flank or the dusk flank depending on the dawn dusk orientation of the IMF. This one-sided cleft connects the cusp to the magnetospheric sash. We compare cusp geometry predicted by MHD simulations against published observations based on Hawkeye and DMSP data. Regarding the high-altitude predictions, the comparisons are not definitive, mainly because the observations are incomplete or mutually inconsistent. Regarding the low-altitude prediction of a strong dawn dusk asymmetry, the observations are unambiguous and are in good qualitative agreement with the prediction.

  16. Quasi-modes as dissipative MHD eigenmodes : results for 1-dimensional equilibrium states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirry, W. J.; Goossens, M.

    1996-05-01

    Quasi-modes which are important for understanding the MHD wave behavior of solar and astrophysical magnetic plasmas are computed as eigenmodes of the linear dissipative MHD equations. This eigenmode computation is carried out with a simple numerical scheme which is based on analytical solutions to the dissipative MHD equations in the quasi-singular resonance layer. Non-uniformity in magnetic field and plasma density gives rise to a continuous spectrum of resonant frequencies. Global discrete eigenmodes with characteristic frequencies lying within the range of the continuous spectrum may couple to localised resonant Alfven waves. In ideal MHD these modes are not eigenmodes of the Hermitian ideal MHD operator, but are found as a temporal dominant global exponentially decaying response to an initial perturbation. In dissipative MHD they are really eigenmodes with damping becoming independent of the dissipation mechanism in the limit of vanishing dissipation. An analytical solution of these global modes is found in the dissipative layer around the resonant Alfvenic position. Using the analytical solution to cross the quasi-singular resonance layer the required numerical effort of the eigenvalue scheme is limited to the integration of the ideal MHD equations in regions away from any singularity. The presented scheme allows for a straightforward parametric study. The method is checked with known ideal quasi-mode frequencies found for a 1-D box model for the Earth's magnetosphere (Zhu & Kivelson 1988). The agreement is excellent. The dependence of the oscillation frequency on the wavenumbers for a 1-D slab model for coronal loops found by Ofman, Davila, & Steinolfson (1995) is also easily recovered.

  17. A parallel splitting wavelet method for 2D conservation laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Alex A.; Kozakevicius, Alice J.; Jakobsson, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    The current work presents a parallel formulation using the MPI protocol for an adaptive high order finite difference scheme to solve 2D conservation laws. Adaptivity is achieved at each time iteration by the application of an interpolating wavelet transform in each space dimension. High order approximations for the numerical fluxes are computed by ENO and WENO schemes. Since time evolution is made by a TVD Runge-Kutta space splitting scheme, the problem is naturally suitable for parallelization. Numerical simulations and speedup results are presented for Euler equations in gas dynamics problems.

  18. Ultrasonic 2D matrix PVDF transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ptchelintsev, A.; Maev, R. Gr.

    2000-05-01

    During the past decade a substantial amount of work has been done in the area of ultrasonic imaging technology using 2D arrays. The main problems arising for the two-dimensional matrix transducers at megahertz frequencies are small size and huge count of the elements, high electrical impedance, low sensitivity, bad SNR and slower data acquisition rate. The major technological difficulty remains the high density of the interconnect. To solve these problems numerous approaches have been suggested. In the present work, a 24×24 elements (24 transmit+24 receive) matrix and a switching board were developed. The transducer consists of two 52 μm PVDF layers each representing a linear array of 24 elements placed one on the top of the other. Electrodes in these two layers are perpendicular and form the grid of 0.5×0.5 mm pitch. The layers are bonded together with the ground electrode being monolithic and located between the layers. The matrix is backed from the rear surface with an epoxy composition. During the emission, a linear element from the emitting layer generates a longitudinal wave pulse propagating inside the test object. Reflected pulses are picked-up by the receiving layer. During one transmit-receive cycle one transmit element and one receive element are selected by corresponding multiplexers. These crossed elements emulate a small element formed by their intersection. The present design presents the following advantages: minimizes number of active channels and density of the interconnect; reduces the electrical impedance of the element improving electrical matching; enables the transmit-receive mode; due to the efficient backing provides bandwidth and good time resolution; and, significantly reduces the electronics complexity. The matrix can not be used for the beam steering and focusing. Owing to this impossibility of focusing, the penetration depth is limited as well by the diffraction phenomena.

  19. Extension of Low Dissipative High Order Hydrodynamics Schemes for MHD Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, H. C.; Sjoegreen, Bjoern; Mansour, Nagi (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to extend our recently developed highly parallelizable nonlinear stable high order schemes for complex multiscale hydrodynamic applications to the viscous MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) equations. These schemes employed multiresolution wavelets as adaptive numerical dissipation controls to limit the amount and to aid the selection and/or blending of the appropriate types of dissipation to be used. The new scheme is formulated for both the conservative and non-conservative form of the MHD equations in curvi-linear grids. The three features of the present MHD scheme over existing schemes in the open literature are as follows. First, the scheme is constructed for long-time integrations of shock/turbulence/combustion magnetized flows. Available schemes are too diffusive for long-time integrations and/or turbulence/combustion problems. Second, unlike existing schemes for the conservative MHD equations which suffer from ill-conditioned eigen-decompositions, the present scheme makes use of a well-conditioned eigen-decomposition to solve the conservative form of the MHD equations. This is due to, partly. the fact that the divergence of the magnetic field condition is a different type of constraint from its incompressible Navier-Stokes cousin. Third, a new approach to minimize the numerical error of the divergence free magnetic condition for high order scheme is introduced.

  20. Two-Dimensional Solutions of MHD Equations with AN Adapted ROE Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslan, Necdet

    1996-12-01

    In this paper a higher-order Godunov method for two-dimensional solutions of the ideal MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) equations is presented. The method utilizes the finite volume approach with quadrilateral cells. In Section 2 the MHD equations (including flux and source terms) in conservat ive form are given. The momentum flux is rearranged such that while a source vector is produced, the eigenstructure of the Jacobian matrix does not change. This rearrangement allows a full Roe averaging of the density, velocity and pressure for any value of adiabatic index (contrary to Brio and Wus conclusion (J. Comput. Phys., 75, 400 (1988)). Full Roe averaging for the magnetic field is possible only when the normal gradient of the magnetic field is negligible; otherwise an arithmetic averaging can be used. This new procedure to get Roe-averaged MHD fields at the interfaces between left and right states has been presented by Aslan (Ph.D. Thesis, University of Michigan, 1993; Int. j. numer. methods fluids, 22, 569-580 (1996)). This section also includes the shock structure and an eigensystem for MHD problems. The eigenvalues, right eigenvectors and wave strengths for MHD are given in detail to provide the reader with a full description. The second-order, limited finite volume approach which utilizes quadrilateral cells is given in full detail in Section 3. Section 4 gives one- and two-dimensional numerical results obtained from this method. Finally, conclusions are given in Section 5.

  1. Splitting based finite volume schemes for ideal MHD equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, F. G.; Mishra, S.; Risebro, N. H.

    2009-02-01

    We design finite volume schemes for the equations of ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and based on splitting these equations into a fluid part and a magnetic induction part. The fluid part leads to an extended Euler system with magnetic forces as source terms. This set of equations are approximated by suitable two- and three-wave HLL solvers. The magnetic part is modeled by the magnetic induction equations which are approximated using stable upwind schemes devised in a recent paper [F. Fuchs, K.H. Karlsen, S. Mishra, N.H. Risebro, Stable upwind schemes for the Magnetic Induction equation. Math. Model. Num. Anal., Available on conservation laws preprint server, submitted for publication, URL: ]. These two sets of schemes can be combined either component by component, or by using an operator splitting procedure to obtain a finite volume scheme for the MHD equations. The resulting schemes are simple to design and implement. These schemes are compared with existing HLL type and Roe type schemes for MHD equations in a series of numerical experiments. These tests reveal that the proposed schemes are robust and have a greater numerical resolution than HLL type solvers, particularly in several space dimensions. In fact, the numerical resolution is comparable to that of the Roe scheme on most test problems with the computational cost being at the level of a HLL type solver. Furthermore, the schemes are remarkably stable even at very fine mesh resolutions and handle the divergence constraint efficiently with low divergence errors.

  2. Light field morphing using 2D features.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lifeng; Lin, Stephen; Lee, Seungyong; Guo, Baining; Shum, Heung-Yeung

    2005-01-01

    We present a 2D feature-based technique for morphing 3D objects represented by light fields. Existing light field morphing methods require the user to specify corresponding 3D feature elements to guide morph computation. Since slight errors in 3D specification can lead to significant morphing artifacts, we propose a scheme based on 2D feature elements that is less sensitive to imprecise marking of features. First, 2D features are specified by the user in a number of key views in the source and target light fields. Then the two light fields are warped view by view as guided by the corresponding 2D features. Finally, the two warped light fields are blended together to yield the desired light field morph. Two key issues in light field morphing are feature specification and warping of light field rays. For feature specification, we introduce a user interface for delineating 2D features in key views of a light field, which are automatically interpolated to other views. For ray warping, we describe a 2D technique that accounts for visibility changes and present a comparison to the ideal morphing of light fields. Light field morphing based on 2D features makes it simple to incorporate previous image morphing techniques such as nonuniform blending, as well as to morph between an image and a light field. PMID:15631126

  3. 2D materials for nanophotonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Renjing; Yang, Jiong; Zhang, Shuang; Pei, Jiajie; Lu, Yuerui

    2015-12-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have become very important building blocks for electronic, photonic, and phononic devices. The 2D material family has four key members, including the metallic graphene, transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) layered semiconductors, semiconducting black phosphorous, and the insulating h-BN. Owing to the strong quantum confinements and defect-free surfaces, these atomically thin layers have offered us perfect platforms to investigate the interactions among photons, electrons and phonons. The unique interactions in these 2D materials are very important for both scientific research and application engineering. In this talk, I would like to briefly summarize and highlight the key findings, opportunities and challenges in this field. Next, I will introduce/highlight our recent achievements. We demonstrated atomically thin micro-lens and gratings using 2D MoS2, which is the thinnest optical component around the world. These devices are based on our discovery that the elastic light-matter interactions in highindex 2D materials is very strong. Also, I would like to introduce a new two-dimensional material phosphorene. Phosphorene has strongly anisotropic optical response, which creates 1D excitons in a 2D system. The strong confinement in phosphorene also enables the ultra-high trion (charged exciton) binding energies, which have been successfully measured in our experiments. Finally, I will briefly talk about the potential applications of 2D materials in energy harvesting.

  4. Inertial solvation in femtosecond 2D spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hybl, John; Albrecht Ferro, Allison; Farrow, Darcie; Jonas, David

    2001-03-01

    We have used 2D Fourier transform spectroscopy to investigate polar solvation. 2D spectroscopy can reveal molecular lineshapes beneath ensemble averaged spectra and freeze molecular motions to give an undistorted picture of the microscopic dynamics of polar solvation. The transition from "inhomogeneous" to "homogeneous" 2D spectra is governed by both vibrational relaxation and solvent motion. Therefore, the time dependence of the 2D spectrum directly reflects the total response of the solvent-solute system. IR144, a cyanine dye with a dipole moment change upon electronic excitation, was used to probe inertial solvation in methanol and propylene carbonate. Since the static Stokes' shift of IR144 in each of these solvents is similar, differences in the 2D spectra result from solvation dynamics. Initial results indicate that the larger propylene carbonate responds more slowly than methanol, but appear to be inconsistent with rotational estimates of the inertial response. To disentangle intra-molecular vibrations from solvent motion, the 2D spectra of IR144 will be compared to the time-dependent 2D spectra of the structurally related nonpolar cyanine dye HDITCP.

  5. Internal Photoemission Spectroscopy of 2-D Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Nhan; Li, Mingda; Vishwanath, Suresh; Yan, Rusen; Xiao, Shudong; Xing, Huili; Cheng, Guangjun; Hight Walker, Angela; Zhang, Qin

    Recent research has shown the great benefits of using 2-D materials in the tunnel field-effect transistor (TFET), which is considered a promising candidate for the beyond-CMOS technology. The on-state current of TFET can be enhanced by engineering the band alignment of different 2D-2D or 2D-3D heterostructures. Here we present the internal photoemission spectroscopy (IPE) approach to determine the band alignments of various 2-D materials, in particular SnSe2 and WSe2, which have been proposed for new TFET designs. The metal-oxide-2-D semiconductor test structures are fabricated and characterized by IPE, where the band offsets from the 2-D semiconductor to the oxide conduction band minimum are determined by the threshold of the cube root of IPE yields as a function of photon energy. In particular, we find that SnSe2 has a larger electron affinity than most semiconductors and can be combined with other semiconductors to form near broken-gap heterojunctions with low barrier heights which can produce a higher on-state current. The details of data analysis of IPE and the results from Raman spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements will also be presented and discussed.

  6. MHD waves and instabilities for gravitating, magnetized configurations in motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keppens, Rony; Goedbloed, Hans J. P.

    Seismic probing of equilibrium configurations is of course well-known from geophysics, but has also been succesfully used to determine the internal structure of the Sun to an amazing accuracy. The results of helioseismology are quite impressive, although they only exploit an equilibrium structure where inward gravity is balanced by a pressure gradient in a 1D radial fashion. In principle, one can do the same for stationary, gravitating, magnetized plasma equilibria, as needed to perform MHD seismology in astrophysical jets or accretion disks. The introduction of (sheared) differential rotation does require the important switch from diagnosing static to stationary equilibrium configurations. The theory to describe all linear waves and instabilities in ideal MHD, given an exact stationary, gravitating, magnetized plasma equilibrium, in any dimensionality (1D, 2D, 3D) has been known since 1960, and is governed by the Frieman-Rotenberg equation. The full (mathematical) power of spectral theory governing physical eigenmode determination comes into play when using the Frieman-Rotenberg equation for moving equilibria, as applicable to astrophysical jets, accretion disks, but also solar flux ropes with stationary flow patterns. I will review exemplary seismic studies of flowing equilibrium configurations, covering solar to astrophysical configurations in motion. In that case, even essentially 1D configurations require quantification of the spectral web of eigenmodes, organizing the complex eigenfrequency plane.

  7. Porting a Hall MHD Code to a Graphic Processing Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorelli, John C.

    2011-01-01

    We present our experience porting a Hall MHD code to a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU). The code is a 2nd order accurate MUSCL-Hancock scheme which makes use of an HLL Riemann solver to compute numerical fluxes and second-order finite differences to compute the Hall contribution to the electric field. The divergence of the magnetic field is controlled with Dedner?s hyperbolic divergence cleaning method. Preliminary benchmark tests indicate a speedup (relative to a single Nehalem core) of 58x for a double precision calculation. We discuss scaling issues which arise when distributing work across multiple GPUs in a CPU-GPU cluster.

  8. Resistive MHD studies of high-beta Tokamak plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, V. E.; Hicks, H. R.; Holmes, J. A.; Carreras, B. A.; Garcia, L.

    1982-02-01

    The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activity in high beta Tokamaks such as ISX-B was calculated. These initial value calculations are built on earlier low beta techniques, but the beta effects create several new numerical issues. In addition to time stepping modules, the system of computer codes includes equilibrium solvers (used to provide an initial condition) and output modules, such as a magnetic field line follower and an X-ray diagnostic code. The transition from current driven modes a low beta to predominantly pressure driven modes at high beta is described. The nonlinear studies yield X-ray emissivity plots which are compared with experiment.

  9. Supersonic flow in an expanding MHD channel of diagonal type

    SciTech Connect

    Likhachev, A.P.; Medin, S.A.

    1983-03-01

    A quasi-two-dimensional numerical analysis of the supersonic flow of a nonviscous, non-heat-conducting gas in an expanding (with respect to the insulation walls) MHD channel of diagonal type is performed. The induced magnetic fields are neglected. The influence of the conditions of channel loading and the commutation angle of the short-circuited, ideally sectioned electrodes on the flow structure, the distribution of the electrodynamic parameters, and the integral characteristics of the generator is considered. The results of quasi-two-dimensional and quasi-one-dimensional calculations are compared.

  10. Subsonic flow in the channel of a diagonal MHD generator

    SciTech Connect

    Isakova, N.P.; Medin, S.A.

    1981-05-01

    A numerical study has been made of the local and integral characteristics of the planar subsonic flow in the channel of an MHD generator with diagonal electrode connection. It is shown that the inhomogeneity in the parameter distribution is dependent on the electrical loading, and the largest deviations from homogeneous flow occur on open circuit and short circuit. A comparison is made with a channel of Faraday type as regards the main integral characteristics. The data from two-dimensional analysis are compared with those from a one-dimensional flow model.

  11. Corrosion and arc erosion in MHD channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, R. J.; Pollina, R. J.

    1991-04-01

    The objective of this task is to study the corrosion and arc erosion of MHD materials in a cooperative effort with, and to support, the MHD topping cycle program. Materials tested in the Avco Research Laboratory/Textron facility, or materials which have significant MHD importance, will be analyzed to document their physical deterioration. Conclusions shall be drawn about their wear mechanisms and lifetime in the MHD environment with respect to the following issues; sulfur corrosion, electrochemical corrosion, and arc erosion. The impact of any materials or slag conditions on the level of power output and on the level of leakage current in the MHD channel will also be noted, where appropriate. Two phenomena that can effect the analysis of slag leakage current have been investigated and found significant. These are: (1) transverse current along the slag layer in the insulator walls of an MHD duct, and (2) electrode surface voltage drops. Both tend to reduce the value inferred for average plasma conductivity and increase the value inferred for axial leakage current. These two effects in combination are potentially capable of explaining the high leakage inferred. Corrosion on the water side of metal MHD duct wall elements has been examined in CDIF and Mark 7 generators. It appears to be controllable by adjusting the pH of the water and/or by controlling the dissolved oxygen content.

  12. 2D radiation-magnetohydrodynamic simulations of SATURN imploding Z-pinches

    SciTech Connect

    Hammer, J.H.; Eddleman, J.L.; Springer, P.T.

    1995-11-06

    Z-pinch implosions driven by the SATURN device at Sandia National Laboratory are modeled with a 2D radiation magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code, showing strong growth of magneto-Rayleigh Taylor (MRT) instability. Modeling of the linear and nonlinear development of MRT modes predicts growth of bubble-spike structures that increase the time span of stagnation and the resulting x-ray pulse width. Radiation is important in the pinch dynamics keeping the sheath relatively cool during the run-in and releasing most of the stagnation energy. The calculations give x-ray pulse widths and magnitudes in reasonable agreement with experiments, but predict a radiating region that is too dense and radially localized at stagnation. We also consider peaked initial density profiles with constant imploding sheath velocity that should reduce MRT instability and improve performance. 2D krypton simulations show an output x-ray power > 80 TW for the peaked profile.

  13. MHD Technology Transfer, Integration and Review Committee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    As part of the MHD Integrated Topping Cycle (ITC) project, TRW was given the responsibility to organize, charter and co-chair, with the Department of Energy (DOE), an MHD Technology Transfer, Integration and Review Committee (TTIRC). The Charter of the TTIRC, which was approved by the DOE in June 1988 and distributed to the committee members, is included as part of this Summary. As stated in the Charter, the purpose of this committee is to: (1) review all Proof-of-Concept (POC) projects and schedules in the national MHD program; to assess their compatibility with each other and the first commercial MHD retrofit plant; (2) establish and implement technology transfer formats for users of this technology; (3) identify interfaces, issues, and funding structures directly impacting the success of the commercial retrofit; (4) investigate and identify the manner in which, and by whom, the above should be resolved; and (5) investigate and assess other participation (foreign and domestic) in the US MHD Program. The DOE fiscal year 1989 MHD Program Plan Schedule is included at the end of this Summary. The MHD Technology Transfer, Integration and Review Committee's activities to date have focused primarily on the technology transfer'' aspects of its charter. It has provided a forum for the dissemination of technical and programmatic information among workers in the field of MHD and to the potential end users, the utilities, by holding semi-annual meetings. The committee publishes this semi-annual report, which presents in Sections 2 through 11 capsule summaries of technical progress for all DOE Proof-of-Concept MHD contracts and major test facilities.

  14. MHD Simulations of Core Collapse Supernovae with Cosmos++

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyama, Shizuka; Salmonson, Jay

    2010-10-01

    We performed 2D, axisymmetric, MHD simulations with Cosmos++ in order to examine the growth of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in core-collapse supernovae. We have initialized a non-rotating 15 Msolar progenitor, infused with differential rotation and poloidal magnetic fields. The collapse of the iron core is simulated with the Shen EOS, and the parametric Ye and entropy evolution. The wavelength of the unstable mode in the post-collapse environment is expected to be only ~200 m. In order to achieve the fine spatial resolution requirement, we employed remapping technique after the iron core has collapsed and bounced. The MRI unstable region appears near the equator and angular momentum and entropy are transported outward. Higher resolution remap run display more vigorous overturns and stronger transport of angular momentum and entropy. Our results are in agreement with the earlier work by Akiyama et al. [1] and Obergaulinger et al. [2].

  15. MHD Code Optimizations and Jets in Dense Gaseous Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaibler, Volker; Vigelius, Matthias; Krause, Martin; Camenzind, Max

    We have further optimized and extended the 3D-MHD-code NIRVANA. The magnetized part runs in parallel, reaching 19 Gflops per SX-6 node, and has a passively advected particle population. In addition, the code is MPI-parallel now - on top of the shared memory parallelization. On a 512^3 grid, we reach 561 Gflops with 32 nodes on the SX-8. Also, we have successfully used FLASH on the Opteron cluster. Scientific results are preliminary so far. We report one computation of highly resolved cocoon turbulence. While we find some similarities to earlier 2D work by us and others, we note a strange reluctancy of cold material to enter the low density cocoon, which has to be investigated further.

  16. Application of Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and Recent Research Trend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Nobuhiro

    As the applications of Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) energy conversion, research and development for high-efficiency and low emission electric power generation system, MHD accelerations and/or MHD thrusters, and flow control around hypersonic and re-entry vehicles are introduced. For closed cycle MHD power generation, high-efficiency MHD single system is the most hopeful system and space power system using mixed inert gas (MIG) working medium is proposed. For open cycle MHD, high-efficiency coal fired MHD system with CO2 recovery has been proposed. As inverse process of MHD power generation, MHD accelerators/thrusters are expected as the next generation propulsion system. Heat flux reduction to protect re-entry vehicles is expected by an MHD process for safety return from space missions.

  17. Alfven Wave Tomography for Cold MHD Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    I.Y. Dodin; N.J. Fisch

    2001-09-07

    Alfven waves propagation in slightly nonuniform cold plasmas is studied by means of ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) nonlinear equations. The evolution of the MHD spectrum is shown to be governed by a matrix linear differential equation with constant coefficients determined by the spectrum of quasi-static plasma density perturbations. The Alfven waves are shown not to affect the plasma density inhomogeneities, as they scatter off of them. The application of the MHD spectrum evolution equation to the inverse scattering problem allows tomographic measurements of the plasma density profile by scanning the plasma volume with Alfven radiation.

  18. SSX MHD plasma wind tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Michael R.; Schaffner, David A.

    2015-06-01

    A new turbulent plasma source at the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment (SSX) facility is described. The MHD wind tunnel configuration employs a magnetized plasma gun to inject high-beta plasma into a large, well-instrumented, vacuum drift region. This provides unique laboratory conditions approaching that in the solar wind: there is no applied background magnetic field in the drift region and has no net axial magnetic flux; the plasma flow speed is on the order of the local sound speed (M ~ 1), so flow energy density is comparable to thermal energy density; and the ratio of thermal to magnetic pressure is of order unity (plasma β ~ 1) so thermal energy density is also comparable to magnetic energy density. Results presented here and referenced within demonstrate the new capabilities and show how the new platform is proving useful for fundamental plasma turbulence studies.

  19. MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    This seventeenth quarterly technical progress report of the MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project presents the accomplishments during the period August 1, 1991 to October 31, 1991. Manufacturing of the prototypical combustor pressure shell has been completed including leak, proof, and assembly fit checking. Manufacturing of forty-five cooling panels was also completed including leak, proof, and flow testing. All precombustor internal components (combustion can baffle and swirl box) were received and checked, and integration of the components was initiated. A decision was made regarding the primary and backup designs for the 1A4 channel. The assembly of the channel related prototypical hardware continued. The cathode wall electrical wiring is now complete. The mechanical design of the diffuser has been completed.

  20. Cosmological AMR MHD with Enzo

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Hao; Li, Hui; Li, Shengtai

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we present EnzoMHD, the extension of the cosmological code Enzoto include magnetic fields. We use the hyperbolic solver of Li et al. (2008) for the computation of interface fluxes. We use constrained transport methods of Balsara & Spicer (1999) and Gardiner & Stone (2005) to advance the induction equation, the reconstruction technique of Balsara (2001) to extend the Adaptive Mesh Refinement of Berger & Colella (1989) already used in Enzo, though formulated in a slightly different way for ease of implementation. This combination of methods preserves the divergence of the magnetic field to machine precision. We use operator splitting to include gravity and cosmological expansion. We then present a series of cosmological and non cosmologjcal tests problems to demonstrate the quality of solution resulting from this combination of solvers.

  1. ELLIPT2D: A Flexible Finite Element Code Written Python

    SciTech Connect

    Pletzer, A.; Mollis, J.C.

    2001-03-22

    The use of the Python scripting language for scientific applications and in particular to solve partial differential equations is explored. It is shown that Python's rich data structure and object-oriented features can be exploited to write programs that are not only significantly more concise than their counter parts written in Fortran, C or C++, but are also numerically efficient. To illustrate this, a two-dimensional finite element code (ELLIPT2D) has been written. ELLIPT2D provides a flexible and easy-to-use framework for solving a large class of second-order elliptic problems. The program allows for structured or unstructured meshes. All functions defining the elliptic operator are user supplied and so are the boundary conditions, which can be of Dirichlet, Neumann or Robbins type. ELLIPT2D makes extensive use of dictionaries (hash tables) as a way to represent sparse matrices.Other key features of the Python language that have been widely used include: operator over loading, error handling, array slicing, and the Tkinter module for building graphical use interfaces. As an example of the utility of ELLIPT2D, a nonlinear solution of the Grad-Shafranov equation is computed using a Newton iterative scheme. A second application focuses on a solution of the toroidal Laplace equation coupled to a magnetohydrodynamic stability code, a problem arising in the context of magnetic fusion research.

  2. MHD seed recovery and regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1988-10-01

    The TRW Econoseed MHD Seed Regeneration Process is based on the reaction of calcium formate with potassium sulfate spent seed from an MHD electric power generation plant. The process was tested at bench scale, design a proof of concept (POC) test plant, plan and cost a Phase 2 project for a POC plant evaluation and prepare a conceptual design of a 300 MW (t) commercial plant. The results of the project are as follows: (1) each of the unit operations is demonstrated, and (2) the data are incorporated into a POC plant design and project cost, as well as a 300 MW (t) commercial retrofit plant design and cost estimate. Specific results are as follows: (1) calcium formate can be produced at 100 percent yield in a total retention time of less than 5 minutes, (2) utilizing the calcium formate, spent seed can quantitatively be converted to potassium formate, potassium carbonate or mixtures of these with potassium sulfate as per the commercial design without measurable loss of potassium to insolubles at a total retention time under 20 minutes and ambient pressure, (3) the solid rejects form the process meet RCRA EP Toxicity requirements for safe disposal, and (4) filtration and evaporation data, as well as reaction data cited above, show that the Econoseed technology is ready for scale up to POC plant scale. Economics forecast studies show that the total cost per unit of potassium for seed regeneration by the Econoseed Process is in the range of $0.23 to $0.27/lb, a cost which is less than half the potassium cost of $0.63/lb for purchasing new potassium carbonate.

  3. MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    A summary of the work is excerpted here. Final design of an MHD channel for the ITC program POC test has been completed. The channel was designed to be capable of 1.5 MW {sub e} power output and a lifetime of 2000 hours. Emphasis was placed upon durability and reliability. Hence, specific measures were taken to design against channel damage due to electric faults. The life-limiting issues associated with electrochemical corrosion and erosion of gas-side surfaces were addressed by the use of various materials with proven wear characteristics in a coal-fired MHD channel environment. Pitting of prototypical sidewall coupons was observed in the CDIF workhorse testing. The most likely cause of the observed pitting, water leaks resulting from cooling water tube braze failures, has been remedied. New brazing procedures and isolation of the sidebar gas-side material from water contact will prevent sidebar pitting in the prototypical channel. Water-side corrosion tests reported in this quarterly report include the latest results of tungsten-copper elements at controlled pH, heat flux and voltage levels. In the combustion subsystem, efforts continued to focus on understanding and improving the current levels of slag recovery and seed utilization achieved by the combustor. Analytical support was also provided in the areas of slag rejection system operation, precombustor operation, and oil burner design modification. Channel data analysis activities continued in support of prototypical coupon testing at the CDIF. Analyses are presented on channel wall slagging behavior and sidewall voltage distributions.

  4. Brittle damage models in DYNA2D

    SciTech Connect

    Faux, D.R.

    1997-09-01

    DYNA2D is an explicit Lagrangian finite element code used to model dynamic events where stress wave interactions influence the overall response of the system. DYNA2D is often used to model penetration problems involving ductile-to-ductile impacts; however, with the advent of the use of ceramics in the armor-anti-armor community and the need to model damage to laser optics components, good brittle damage models are now needed in DYNA2D. This report will detail the implementation of four brittle damage models in DYNA2D, three scalar damage models and one tensor damage model. These new brittle damage models are then used to predict experimental results from three distinctly different glass damage problems.

  5. Matrix models of 2d gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsparg, P.

    1991-01-01

    These are introductory lectures for a general audience that give an overview of the subject of matrix models and their application to random surfaces, 2d gravity, and string theory. They are intentionally 1.5 years out of date.

  6. Matrix models of 2d gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsparg, P.

    1991-12-31

    These are introductory lectures for a general audience that give an overview of the subject of matrix models and their application to random surfaces, 2d gravity, and string theory. They are intentionally 1.5 years out of date.

  7. 2D electronic materials for army applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Regan, Terrance; Perconti, Philip

    2015-05-01

    The record electronic properties achieved in monolayer graphene and related 2D materials such as molybdenum disulfide and hexagonal boron nitride show promise for revolutionary high-speed and low-power electronic devices. Heterogeneous 2D-stacked materials may create enabling technology for future communication and computation applications to meet soldier requirements. For instance, transparent, flexible and even wearable systems may become feasible. With soldier and squad level electronic power demands increasing, the Army is committed to developing and harnessing graphene-like 2D materials for compact low size-weight-and-power-cost (SWAP-C) systems. This paper will review developments in 2D electronic materials at the Army Research Laboratory over the last five years and discuss directions for future army applications.

  8. 2-d Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    1996-07-15

    ORION is an interactive program that serves as a postprocessor for the analysis programs NIKE2D, DYNA2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. ORION reads binary plot files generated by the two-dimensional finite element codes currently used by the Methods Development Group at LLNL. Contour and color fringe plots of a large number of quantities may be displayed on meshes consisting of triangular and quadrilateral elements. ORION can compute strain measures, interface pressures along slide lines, reaction forcesmore » along constrained boundaries, and momentum. ORION has been applied to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.« less

  9. Active exterior cloaking for the 2D Laplace and Helmholtz equations.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Fernando Guevara; Milton, Graeme W; Onofrei, Daniel

    2009-08-14

    A new cloaking method is presented for 2D quasistatics and the 2D Helmholtz equation that we speculate extends to other linear wave equations. For 2D quasistatics it is proven how a single active exterior cloaking device can be used to shield an object from surrounding fields, yet produce very small scattered fields. The problem is reduced to finding a polynomial which is close to 1 in a disk and close to 0 in another disk, and such a polynomial is constructed. For the 2D Helmholtz equation it is numerically shown that three exterior cloaking devices placed around the object suffice to hide it. PMID:19792644

  10. Numerical simulations of resistive magnetohydrodynamic instabilities in a poloidal divertor tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchimoto, E.

    1988-03-01

    A new 3-D resistive MHD initial value code RPD has been successfully developed from scratch to study the linear and nonlinear evolution of long wavelength resistive MHD instabilities in a square cross-section tokamak with or without a poloidal divertor. The code numerically advances the full set of compressible resistive MHD equations in a toroidal geometry, with an important option of permitting the divertor separatrix and the region outside it to be in the computational domain. A severe temporal step size restriction for numerical stability imposed by the fast compressional waves was removed by developing and implementing a new, efficient semi-implicit scheme extending one first proposed by Harned and Kerner. As a result, the code typically runs faster than that with a mostly explicit scheme by a factor of about the aspect ratio. The equilibrium input for RPD is generated by a new 2-D code EQPD that is based on the Chodura-Schluter method. The RPD code, as well as the new semi-implicit scheme, has passed very extensive numerical tests in both divertor and divertorless geometries. Linear and nonlinear simulations in a divertorless geometry have reproduced the standard, previously known results. In a geometry with a four-node divertor the m = 2, n = 1 (2/1) tearing mode tends to be linearly stabilized as the q = 2 surface approaches the divertor separatrix. However, the m = 1, n = 1 (1/1) resistive kink mode remains relatively unaffected by the nearness of the q = 1 surface to the divertor separatrix. When plasma current is added to the region outside the divertor separatrix, the 2/1 tearing mode is linearly stabilized not by this current, but by the profile modifications induced near the q = 2 surface and the divertor separatrix. A similar stabilization effect is seen for the 1/1 resistive kink mode, but to a lesser extent.

  11. Chemical Approaches to 2D Materials.

    PubMed

    Samorì, Paolo; Palermo, Vincenzo; Feng, Xinliang

    2016-08-01

    Chemistry plays an ever-increasing role in the production, functionalization, processing and applications of graphene and other 2D materials. This special issue highlights a selection of enlightening chemical approaches to 2D materials, which nicely reflect the breadth of the field and convey the excitement of the individuals involved in it, who are trying to translate graphene and related materials from the laboratory into a real, high-impact technology. PMID:27478083

  12. An MHD simulation of plasmoid instability in the dayside ionosphere of an unmagnetized planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitoshi, S.; Terada, N.; Kasaba, Y.

    2015-12-01

    A numerical simulation of magnetic reconnection in the dayside ionosphere of an unmagnetized planet and a comparison of the size distribution of flux ropes obtained from simulation with that from observation will be reported. Flux ropes have been frequently observed in the dayside ionospheres of Venus and Mars[Russell and Elphic, 1979; Cloutier et al.,1999] and their radius has been found to be between 6 to 12 km near the subsolar location of Venus[Russell et al., 1990]. Dreher et al. [1995] suggested using an MHD simulation that reconnection caused by an IMF rotation can generate flux ropes at the Venus ionopause. However, Dreher et al. [1995] examined only the linear stage of reconnection, so the nonlinear stage that takes into consideration the vertical convection of the reconnection site along the intrinsic convection in the Venus ionosphere has yet to be investigated. In this study, using a 2-D multi-species MHD simulation, the spatiotemporal evolution of reconnection in the ionosphere of Venus is examined. The size distribution of flux ropes is also examined and the validity of the generation mechanism of flux ropes is discussed by comparing the rope size distribution with the observed one. In the ionosphere of Venus, our simulation result shows that plasmoid instability [Loureiro et al., 2007] occurs in a Sweet-Parker (SP) current sheet above the altitude where Lundquist number exceeds 106, and consequently many plasmoids are generated. In the nonlinear stage, secondary reconnections occur in the current sheets, which exist between adjacent pairs of plasmoids, and thus smaller flux ropes are created. It has been suggested that the smaller side of the size distribution increases as a result of hierarchical reconnections in the SP current sheet [Shibata et al., 2001]. The observational size distribution [Vignes et al., 2003] shows that the population of small flux ropes is larger than that of large ones and it is consistent with the simulation result. Through

  13. Extended 2D generalized dilaton gravity theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mello, R. O.

    2008-09-01

    We show that an anomaly-free description of matter in (1+1) dimensions requires a deformation of the 2D relativity principle, which introduces a non-trivial centre in the 2D Poincaré algebra. Then we work out the reduced phase space of the anomaly-free 2D relativistic particle, in order to show that it lives in a noncommutative 2D Minkowski space. Moreover, we build a Gaussian wave packet to show that a Planck length is well defined in two dimensions. In order to provide a gravitational interpretation for this noncommutativity, we propose to extend the usual 2D generalized dilaton gravity models by a specific Maxwell component, which guages the extra symmetry associated with the centre of the 2D Poincaré algebra. In addition, we show that this extension is a high energy correction to the unextended dilaton theories that can affect the topology of spacetime. Further, we couple a test particle to the general extended dilaton models with the purpose of showing that they predict a noncommutativity in curved spacetime, which is locally described by a Moyal star product in the low energy limit. We also conjecture a probable generalization of this result, which provides strong evidence that the noncommutativity is described by a certain star product which is not of the Moyal type at high energies. Finally, we prove that the extended dilaton theories can be formulated as Poisson Sigma models based on a nonlinear deformation of the extended Poincaré algebra.

  14. Divergence Free High Order Filter Methods for the Compressible MHD Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yea, H. C.; Sjoegreen, Bjoern

    2003-01-01

    The generalization of a class of low-dissipative high order filter finite difference methods for long time wave propagation of shock/turbulence/combustion compressible viscous gas dynamic flows to compressible MHD equations for structured curvilinear grids has been achieved. The new scheme is shown to provide a natural and efficient way for the minimization of the divergence of the magnetic field numerical error. Standard diver- gence cleaning is not required by the present filter approach. For certain MHD test cases, divergence free preservation of the magnetic fields has been achieved.

  15. High Order Filter Methods for the Non-ideal Compressible MHD Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, H. C.; Sjoegreen, Bjoern

    2003-01-01

    The generalization of a class of low-dissipative high order filter finite difference methods for long time wave propagation of shock/turbulence/combustion compressible viscous gas dynamic flows to compressible MHD equations for structured curvilinear grids has been achieved. The new scheme is shown to provide a natural and efficient way for the minimization of the divergence of the magnetic field numerical error. Standard divergence cleaning is not required by the present filter approach. For certain non-ideal MHD test cases, divergence free preservation of the magnetic fields has been achieved.

  16. 3D simulation studies of tokamak plasmas using MHD and extended-MHD models

    SciTech Connect

    Park, W.; Chang, Z.; Fredrickson, E.; Fu, G.Y.

    1996-12-31

    The M3D (Multi-level 3D) tokamak simulation project aims at the simulation of tokamak plasmas using a multi-level tokamak code package. Several current applications using MHD and Extended-MHD models are presented; high-{beta} disruption studies in reversed shear plasmas using the MHD level MH3D code, {omega}{sub *i} stabilization and nonlinear island saturation of TAE mode using the hybrid particle/MHD level MH3D-K code, and unstructured mesh MH3D{sup ++} code studies. In particular, three internal mode disruption mechanisms are identified from simulation results which agree which agree well with experimental data.

  17. On controlling nonlinear dissipation in high order filter methods for ideal and non-ideal MHD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, H. C.; Sjogreen, B.

    2004-01-01

    The newly developed adaptive numerical dissipation control in spatially high order filter schemes for the compressible Euler and Navier-Stokes equations has been recently extended to the ideal and non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations. These filter schemes are applicable to complex unsteady MHD high-speed shock/shear/turbulence problems. They also provide a natural and efficient way for the minimization of Div(B) numerical error. The adaptive numerical dissipation mechanism consists of automatic detection of different flow features as distinct sensors to signal the appropriate type and amount of numerical dissipation/filter where needed and leave the rest of the region free from numerical dissipation contamination. The numerical dissipation considered consists of high order linear dissipation for the suppression of high frequency oscillation and the nonlinear dissipative portion of high-resolution shock-capturing methods for discontinuity capturing. The applicable nonlinear dissipative portion of high-resolution shock-capturing methods is very general. The objective of this paper is to investigate the performance of three commonly used types of nonlinear numerical dissipation for both the ideal and non-ideal MHD.

  18. Analytic MHD Theory for Earth's Bow Shock at Low Mach Numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grabbe, Crockett L.; Cairns, Iver H.

    1995-01-01

    A previous MHD theory for the density jump at the Earth's bow shock, which assumed the Alfven M(A) and sonic M(s) Mach numbers are both much greater than 1, is reanalyzed and generalized. It is shown that the MHD jump equation can be analytically solved much more directly using perturbation theory, with the ordering determined by M(A) and M(s), and that the first-order perturbation solution is identical to the solution found in the earlier theory. The second-order perturbation solution is calculated, whereas the earlier approach cannot be used to obtain it. The second-order terms generally are important over most of the range of M(A) and M(s) in the solar wind when the angle theta between the normal to the bow shock and magnetic field is not close to 0 deg or 180 deg (the solutions are symmetric about 90 deg). This new perturbation solution is generally accurate under most solar wind conditions at 1 AU, with the exception of low Mach numbers when theta is close to 90 deg. In this exceptional case the new solution does not improve on the first-order solutions obtained earlier, and the predicted density ratio can vary by 10-20% from the exact numerical MHD solutions. For theta approx. = 90 deg another perturbation solution is derived that predicts the density ratio much more accurately. This second solution is typically accurate for quasi-perpendicular conditions. Taken together, these two analytical solutions are generally accurate for the Earth's bow shock, except in the rare circumstance that M(A) is less than or = 2. MHD and gasdynamic simulations have produced empirical models in which the shock's standoff distance a(s) is linearly related to the density jump ratio X at the subsolar point. Using an empirical relationship between a(s) and X obtained from MHD simulations, a(s) values predicted using the MHD solutions for X are compared with the predictions of phenomenological models commonly used for modeling observational data, and with the predictions of a

  19. [Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics]. [Threshold unstable MHD activity

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Theoretical predictions were compared with available data from JET on the threshold unstable MHD activity in toroidal confinement devices. In particular, questions arising as to Hartmans number and the selection of a kinematic viscosity are discussed.

  20. Critical Dynamics in Quenched 2D Atomic Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larcher, F.; Dalfovo, F.; Proukakis, N. P.

    2016-05-01

    Non-equilibrium dynamics across phase transitions is a subject of intense investigations in diverse physical systems. One of the key issues concerns the validity of the Kibble-Zurek (KZ) scaling law for spontaneous defect creation. The KZ mechanism has been recently studied in cold atoms experiments. Interesting open questions arise in the case of 2D systems, due to the distinct nature of the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) transition. Our studies rely on the stochastic Gross-Pitaevskii equation. We perform systematic numerical simulations of the spontaneous emergence and subsequent dynamics of vortices in a uniform 2D Bose gas, which is quenched across the BKT phase transition in a controlled manner, focusing on dynamical scaling and KZ-type effects. By varying the transverse confinement, we also look at the extent to which such features can be seen in current experiments. Financial support from EPSRC and Provincia Autonoma di Trento.

  1. Graphical representations of DNA as 2-D map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randić, Milan

    2004-03-01

    We describe a modification of the compact representation of DNA sequences which transforms the sequence into a 2-D diagram in which the 'spots' have integer coordinates. As a result the accompanying numerical characterization of DNA is quite simple and straightforward. This is an important advantage, particularly when considering DNA sequences having thousands of nucleic bases. The approach starts with the compact representation of DNA based on zigzag spiral template used for placing 'spots' associated with binary codes of the nucleic acids and subsequent suppression of the underlying zigzag curve. As a result, a 2-D map is formed in which all 'spots' have integer coordinates. By using only distances between spots having the same x or the same y coordinate one can construct a 'map profile' using integer arithmetic. The approach is illustrated on DNA sequences of the first exon of human β-globin.

  2. FPCAS2D user's guide, version 1.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhle, Milind A.

    1994-12-01

    The FPCAS2D computer code has been developed for aeroelastic stability analysis of bladed disks such as those in fans, compressors, turbines, propellers, or propfans. The aerodynamic analysis used in this code is based on the unsteady two-dimensional full potential equation which is solved for a cascade of blades. The structural analysis is based on a two degree-of-freedom rigid typical section model for each blade. Detailed explanations of the aerodynamic analysis, the numerical algorithms, and the aeroelastic analysis are not given in this report. This guide can be used to assist in the preparation of the input data required by the FPCAS2D code. A complete description of the input data is provided in this report. In addition, four test cases, including inputs and outputs, are provided.

  3. A 2D MEMS stage for optical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ataman, Caglar; Petremand, Yves; Noell, Wilfried; Ürey, Hakan; Epitaux, Marc; de Rooij, Nico F.

    2006-04-01

    A 2D MEMS platform for a microlens scanner application is reported. The platform is fabricated on an SOI wafer with 50 μm thick device layer. Entire device is defined with a single etching step on the same layer. Through four S-shaped beams, the device is capable of producing nonlinear 2D motion from linear 1D translation of two pairs of comb actuator sets. The device has a clear aperture of 2mm by 2mm, which is hallowed from the backside for micro-optics assembly. In this paper, a numerical device model and its validation via experimental characterization results are presented. Integration of the micro-optical components with the stage is also discussed. Additionally, a new driving scheme to minimize the settling time of the device in DC operation is explored.

  4. Towards a Scalable Fully-Implicit Fully-coupled Resistive MHD Formulation with Stabilized FE Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Shadid, J N; Pawlowski, R P; Banks, J W; Chacon, L; Lin, P T; Tuminaro, R S

    2009-06-03

    This paper presents an initial study that is intended to explore the development of a scalable fully-implicit stabilized unstructured finite element (FE) capability for low-Mach-number resistive MHD. The discussion considers the development of the stabilized FE formulation and the underlying fully-coupled preconditioned Newton-Krylov nonlinear iterative solver. To enable robust, scalable and efficient solution of the large-scale sparse linear systems generated by the Newton linearization, fully-coupled algebraic multilevel preconditioners are employed. Verification results demonstrate the expected order-of-acuracy for the stabilized FE discretization of a 2D vector potential form for the steady and transient solution of the resistive MHD system. In addition, this study puts forth a set of challenging prototype problems that include the solution of an MHD Faraday conduction pump, a hydromagnetic Rayleigh-Bernard linear stability calculation, and a magnetic island coalescence problem. Initial results that explore the scaling of the solution methods are presented on up to 4096 processors for problems with up to 64M unknowns on a CrayXT3/4. Additionally, a large-scale proof-of-capability calculation for 1 billion unknowns for the MHD Faraday pump problem on 24,000 cores is presented.

  5. Grid Cell Responses in 1D Environments Assessed as Slices through a 2D Lattice.

    PubMed

    Yoon, KiJung; Lewallen, Sam; Kinkhabwala, Amina A; Tank, David W; Fiete, Ila R

    2016-03-01

    Grid cells, defined by their striking periodic spatial responses in open 2D arenas, appear to respond differently on 1D tracks: the multiple response fields are not periodically arranged, peak amplitudes vary across fields, and the mean spacing between fields is larger than in 2D environments. We ask whether such 1D responses are consistent with the system's 2D dynamics. Combining analytical and numerical methods, we show that the 1D responses of grid cells with stable 1D fields are consistent with a linear slice through a 2D triangular lattice. Further, the 1D responses of comodular cells are well described by parallel slices, and the offsets in the starting points of the 1D slices can predict the measured 2D relative spatial phase between the cells. From these results, we conclude that the 2D dynamics of these cells is preserved in 1D, suggesting a common computation during both types of navigation behavior. PMID:26898777

  6. Solar driven liquid metal MHD power generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. H.; Hohl, F.

    1983-06-01

    A solar energy collector focuses solar energy onto a solar oven which is attached to a mixer which in turn is attached to the channel of a MHD generator. Gas enters the oven and a liquid metal enters the mixer. The gas/liquid metal mixture is heated by the collected solar energy and moves through the MHD generator thereby generating electrical power. The mixture is then separated and recycled.

  7. Solar driven liquid metal MHD power generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. H.; Hohl, F. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A solar energy collector focuses solar energy onto a solar oven which is attached to a mixer which in turn is attached to the channel of a MHD generator. Gas enters the oven and a liquid metal enters the mixer. The gas/liquid metal mixture is heated by the collected solar energy and moves through the MHD generator thereby generating electrical power. The mixture is then separated and recycled.

  8. WhiskyMHD: Numerical Code for General Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baiotti, Luca; Giacomazzo, Bruno; Hawke, Ian; et al.

    2010-10-01

    Whisky is a code to evolve the equations of general relativistic hydrodynamics (GRHD) and magnetohydrodynamics (GRMHD) in 3D Cartesian coordinates on a curved dynamical background. It was originally developed by and for members of the EU Network on Sources of Gravitational Radiation and is based on the Cactus Computational Toolkit. Whisky can also implement adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) if compiled together with Carpet. Whisky has grown from earlier codes such as GR3D and GRAstro_Hydro, but has been rewritten to take advantage of some of the latest research performed here in the EU. The motivation behind Whisky is to compute gravitational radiation waveforms for systems that involve matter. Examples would include the merger of a binary system containing a neutron star, which are expected to be reasonably common in the universe and expected to produce substantial amounts of radiation. Other possible sources are given in the projects list.

  9. Propagation and damping of slow MHD waves in a flowing viscous coronal plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Nagendra; Kumar, Anil; Murawski, K.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the propagation of slow MHD waves in a flowing viscous solar coronal plasma. The compressive viscosity and steady flow along and opposite to the wave propagation are taken into account to study the damping of slow waves. We numerically solve the MHD equations by MacCormack method to examine the effect of steady flow on the damping of slow MHD waves in viscous solar coronal plasma. Amplitude of velocity perturbation and damping time of slow waves decrease with the increase in the value of Mach number. Flow causes a phase shift in the perturbed velocity amplitude and an increase in wave period. The damping of slow waves in flowing viscous plasma is stronger than the damping of waves in viscous plasma. Slow wave in backward flow damps earlier than the wave in forward flow.

  10. Eigen-Frequencies of MHD Wave Equations in the Presence of Longitudinal Stratification Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmaeili, Shahriar; Nasiri, Mojtaba; Dadashi, Neda; Safari, Hossein

    2015-04-01

    Coronal Loops oscillations and MHD waves propagating in solar corona and transition region has been observed by TRACE telescope in 1999. In this Study, the MHD mode oscillations of the coronal plasma are studied. The aim is to identify the effect of structuring such as density on the frequencies of oscillations. We modeled the coronal medium as a zero-plasma with longitudinally density stratification. Magnetic flux tube oscillations are categorized into sausage, kink and torsion modes. The MHD equations are reduced and the governing equation are solved numerically using Finite Element Method. Eigenfrequencies and eigenfunctions are extracted. The torsional mode is analyzed. By changing the stratification parameter the antinodes move towards the footpoints and we also concluded that in the thin tube approximation, leakage modes are propagated.

  11. RECONSTRUCTION OF THE CORONAL MAGNETIC FIELD USING THE CESE-MHD METHOD

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Chaowei; Feng, Xueshang; Xiang, Changqing; Fan, Yuliang E-mail: fengx@spaceweather.ac.cn E-mail: fanyuliang@bao.ac.cn

    2011-02-01

    We present a new implementation of the MHD relaxation method for reconstruction of the nearly force-free coronal magnetic field from a photospheric vector magnetogram. A new numerical MHD scheme is proposed to solve the full MHD equations by using the spacetime conservation-element and solution-element method. The bottom boundary condition is prescribed in a similar way as in the stress-and-relax method, by changing the transverse field incrementally to match the magnetogram, and other boundaries of the computational box are set by the nonreflecting boundary conditions. Applications to the well-known benchmarks for nonlinear force-free-field reconstruction, the Low and Lou force-free equilibria, validate the method and confirm its capability for future practical application, with observed magnetograms as inputs.

  12. A New Godunov Scheme for MHD, with Application to the MRI in disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, James M.; Gardiner, Thomas A.

    2005-09-01

    We describe a new numerical scheme for MHD which combines a higher order Godunov method (PPM) with Constrained Transport. The results from a selection of multidimensional test problems are presented. The complete test suite used to validate the method, as well as implementations of the algorithm in both F90 and C, are available from the web. A fully three-dimensional version of the algorithm has been developed, and is being applied to a variety of astrophysical problems including the decay of supersonic MHD turbulence, the nonlinear evolution of the MHD Rayleigh-Taylor instability, and the saturation of the magnetorotational instability in the shearing box. Our new simulations of the MRI represent the first time that a higher-order Godunov scheme has been applied to this problem, providing a quantitative check on the accuracy of previous results computed with ZEUS; the latter are found to be reliable.

  13. Calculation of Magnetospheric Equilibria and Evolution of Plasma Bubbles with a New Finite-Volume MHD/Magnetofriction Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silin, I.; Toffoletto, F.; Wolf, R.; Sazykin, S. Y.

    2013-12-01

    We present a finite-volume MHD code for simulations of magnetospheric dynamics of the plasma sheet and the inner magnetosphere. The code uses staggered non-uniform Cartesian grids to preserve the divergence-free magnetic fields, along with various numerical approximations and flux limiters for the plasma variables. The code can be initialized with empirical magnetic field models, such as the Tsyganenko models along with pressure information from either the Tsyganenko-Mukai models, or observational data, such as DMSP pressure maps. Artificial "friction term" can be added to the momentum equation, which turns the MHD code into "magnetofriction" code which can be used to construct approximate equilibrium solutions. We demonstrate some applications for our code, in both the "magnetofriction" and MHD mode, including relaxation of the empirical models to equilibrium and the evolution of a plasma bubble in the near magnetotail. The latter MHD simulation results exhibit oscillations about their equilibrium position in agreement with recent observations.

  14. MHD technology transfer, integration, and review committee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-05-01

    As part of Task 8 of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Integrated Topping Cycle (ITC) project, TRW was given the responsibility to organize, charter and co-chair, with the Department of Energy (DOE), an MHD Technology Transfer, Integration and Review Committee (TTIRC). The TTIRC consists of an Executive Committee (EC) which acts as the governing body, and a General Committee (GC), also referred to as the main or full committee, consisting of representatives from the various POC contractors, participating universities and national laboratories, utilities, equipment suppliers, and other potential MHD users or investors. The purpose of the TTIRC is to: (1) review all Proof-of-Concept (POC) projects and schedules in the national MHD program; to assess their compatibility with each other and the first commercial MHD retrofit plant; (2) establish and implement technology transfer formats for users of this technology; (3) identify interfaces, issues, and funding structures directly impacting the success of the commercial retrofit; (4) investigate and identify the manner in which, and by whom, the above should be resolved; and (5) investigate and assess other participation (foreign and domestic) in the U.S. MHD Program. There are seven sections: introduction; Executive Committee and General Committee activity; Committee activities related to technology transfer; ongoing POC integration activities being performed under the auspices of the Executive Committee; recommendations passed on to the DOE by the Executive Committee; Planned activities for the next six months.

  15. Crystal structure of the cowpox virus-encoded NKG2D ligand OMCP.

    PubMed

    Lazear, Eric; Peterson, Lance W; Nelson, Chris A; Fremont, Daved H

    2013-01-01

    The NKG2D receptor is expressed on the surface of NK, T, and macrophage lineage cells and plays an important role in antiviral and antitumor immunity. To evade NKG2D recognition, herpesviruses block the expression of NKG2D ligands on the surface of infected cells using a diverse repertoire of sabotage methods. Cowpox and monkeypox viruses have taken an alternate approach by encoding a soluble NKG2D ligand, the orthopoxvirus major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-like protein (OMCP), which can block NKG2D-mediated cytotoxicity. This approach has the advantage of targeting a single conserved receptor instead of numerous host ligands that exhibit significant sequence diversity. Here, we show that OMCP binds the NKG2D homodimer as a monomer and competitively blocks host ligand engagement. We have also determined the 2.25-Å-resolution crystal structure of OMCP from the cowpox virus Brighton Red strain, revealing a truncated MHC class I-like platform domain consisting of a beta sheet flanked with two antiparallel alpha helices. OMCP is generally similar in structure to known host NKG2D ligands but has notable variations in regions typically used to engage NKG2D. Additionally, the determinants responsible for the 14-fold-higher affinity of OMCP for human than for murine NKG2D were mapped to a single loop in the NKG2D ligand-binding pocket. PMID:23115291

  16. Inductive-dynamic magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling via MHD waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Jiannan; Song, Paul; Vasyliūnas, Vytenis M.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we investigate magnetosphere-ionosphere/thermosphere (M-IT) coupling via MHD waves by numerically solving time-dependent continuity, momentum, and energy equations for ions and neutrals, together with Maxwell's equations (Ampère's and Faraday's laws) and with photochemistry included. This inductive-dynamic approach we use is fundamentally different from those in previous magnetosphere-ionosphere (M-I) coupling models: all MHD wave modes are retained, and energy and momentum exchange between waves and plasma are incorporated into the governing equations, allowing a self-consistent examination of dynamic M-I coupling. Simulations, using an implicit numerical scheme, of the 1-D ionosphere/thermosphere system responding to an imposed convection velocity at the top boundary are presented to show how magnetosphere and ionosphere are coupled through Alfvén waves during the transient stage when the IT system changes from one quasi steady state to another. Wave reflection from the low-altitude ionosphere plays an essential role, causing overshoots and oscillations of ionospheric perturbations, and the dynamical Hall effect is an inherent aspect of the M-I coupling. The simulations demonstrate that the ionosphere/thermosphere responds to magnetospheric driving forces as a damped oscillator.

  17. Optical modulators with 2D layered materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhipei; Martinez, Amos; Wang, Feng

    2016-04-01

    Light modulation is an essential operation in photonics and optoelectronics. With existing and emerging technologies increasingly demanding compact, efficient, fast and broadband optical modulators, high-performance light modulation solutions are becoming indispensable. The recent realization that 2D layered materials could modulate light with superior performance has prompted intense research and significant advances, paving the way for realistic applications. In this Review, we cover the state of the art of optical modulators based on 2D materials, including graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus. We discuss recent advances employing hybrid structures, such as 2D heterostructures, plasmonic structures, and silicon and fibre integrated structures. We also take a look at the future perspectives and discuss the potential of yet relatively unexplored mechanisms, such as magneto-optic and acousto-optic modulation.

  18. 2D microwave imaging reflectometer electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Spear, A. G.; Domier, C. W. Hu, X.; Muscatello, C. M.; Ren, X.; Luhmann, N. C.; Tobias, B. J.

    2014-11-15

    A 2D microwave imaging reflectometer system has been developed to visualize electron density fluctuations on the DIII-D tokamak. Simultaneously illuminated at four probe frequencies, large aperture optics image reflections from four density-dependent cutoff surfaces in the plasma over an extended region of the DIII-D plasma. Localized density fluctuations in the vicinity of the plasma cutoff surfaces modulate the plasma reflections, yielding a 2D image of electron density fluctuations. Details are presented of the receiver down conversion electronics that generate the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) reflectometer signals from which 2D density fluctuation data are obtained. Also presented are details on the control system and backplane used to manage the electronics as well as an introduction to the computer based control program.

  19. 2D microwave imaging reflectometer electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spear, A. G.; Domier, C. W.; Hu, X.; Muscatello, C. M.; Ren, X.; Tobias, B. J.; Luhmann, N. C.

    2014-11-01

    A 2D microwave imaging reflectometer system has been developed to visualize electron density fluctuations on the DIII-D tokamak. Simultaneously illuminated at four probe frequencies, large aperture optics image reflections from four density-dependent cutoff surfaces in the plasma over an extended region of the DIII-D plasma. Localized density fluctuations in the vicinity of the plasma cutoff surfaces modulate the plasma reflections, yielding a 2D image of electron density fluctuations. Details are presented of the receiver down conversion electronics that generate the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) reflectometer signals from which 2D density fluctuation data are obtained. Also presented are details on the control system and backplane used to manage the electronics as well as an introduction to the computer based control program.

  20. 2D microwave imaging reflectometer electronics.

    PubMed

    Spear, A G; Domier, C W; Hu, X; Muscatello, C M; Ren, X; Tobias, B J; Luhmann, N C

    2014-11-01

    A 2D microwave imaging reflectometer system has been developed to visualize electron density fluctuations on the DIII-D tokamak. Simultaneously illuminated at four probe frequencies, large aperture optics image reflections from four density-dependent cutoff surfaces in the plasma over an extended region of the DIII-D plasma. Localized density fluctuations in the vicinity of the plasma cutoff surfaces modulate the plasma reflections, yielding a 2D image of electron density fluctuations. Details are presented of the receiver down conversion electronics that generate the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) reflectometer signals from which 2D density fluctuation data are obtained. Also presented are details on the control system and backplane used to manage the electronics as well as an introduction to the computer based control program. PMID:25430247

  1. 2D-Crystal-Based Functional Inks.

    PubMed

    Bonaccorso, Francesco; Bartolotta, Antonino; Coleman, Jonathan N; Backes, Claudia

    2016-08-01

    The possibility to produce and process graphene, related 2D crystals, and heterostructures in the liquid phase makes them promising materials for an ever-growing class of applications as composite materials, sensors, in flexible optoelectronics, and energy storage and conversion. In particular, the ability to formulate functional inks with on-demand rheological and morphological properties, i.e., lateral size and thickness of the dispersed 2D crystals, is a step forward toward the development of industrial-scale, reliable, inexpensive printing/coating processes, a boost for the full exploitation of such nanomaterials. Here, the exfoliation strategies of graphite and other layered crystals are reviewed, along with the advances in the sorting of lateral size and thickness of the exfoliated sheets together with the formulation of functional inks and the current development of printing/coating processes of interest for the realization of 2D-crystal-based devices. PMID:27273554

  2. The flare position obtained from MHD simulation and comparison with X-ray observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podgorny, Alexander; Podgorny, Igor

    It was for the first time shown that the position of the current sheet, obtained by numerical MHD simulation, coincides with the position of the thermal X-ray source. In our 3D MHD simulation we do not use any hypotheses about the flare mechanism. Several mechanisms of solar flare production are considered by different authors. Usually the initial conditions at numerical simulation are artificially set such a way that it is required for development of the proposed mechanism. In this approach, the unstable configuration of the magnetic field is set as the initial conditions, and the possibility of forming such an unstable system at the real evolution of the active region before the flare is not considered. Here the flare mechanism is obtained from the numerical MHD simulations in which all the conditions are taken from observations in the active region. It is shown that flare energy accumulation occurs in the current sheet magnetic field created by disturbances focusing in the vicinity of an X-type singular line. According to the developed solar flare electrodynamical model the thermal X-ray emission source appears in a current sheet, where plasma is heated due to magnetic field dissipation. Using 3D MHD numerical simulation the position of source of thermal X-ray emission are found for the flare occurred May 27, 2003 at 02:53. To find positions of sources of thermal X-ray radiation in the corona from MHD simulation results the graphical system is developed. The comparison with RHESSI X-ray observations show the coincidence of current sheet and observed the thermal X-ray emission source.

  3. OpenMHD: Godunov-type code for ideal/resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenitani, Seiji

    2016-04-01

    OpenMHD is a Godunov-type finite-volume code for ideal/resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). It is written in Fortran 90 and is parallelized by using MPI-2 and OpenMP. The code was originally developed for studying magnetic reconnection problems and has been made publicly available in the hope that others may find it useful.

  4. The 2D lingual appliance system.

    PubMed

    Cacciafesta, Vittorio

    2013-09-01

    The two-dimensional (2D) lingual bracket system represents a valuable treatment option for adult patients seeking a completely invisible orthodontic appliance. The ease of direct or simplified indirect bonding of 2D lingual brackets in combination with low friction mechanics makes it possible to achieve a good functional and aesthetic occlusion, even in the presence of a severe malocclusion. The use of a self-ligating bracket significantly reduces chair-side time for the orthodontist, and the low-profile bracket design greatly improves patient comfort. PMID:24005953

  5. Inkjet printing of 2D layered materials.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiantong; Lemme, Max C; Östling, Mikael

    2014-11-10

    Inkjet printing of 2D layered materials, such as graphene and MoS2, has attracted great interests for emerging electronics. However, incompatible rheology, low concentration, severe aggregation and toxicity of solvents constitute critical challenges which hamper the manufacturing efficiency and product quality. Here, we introduce a simple and general technology concept (distillation-assisted solvent exchange) to efficiently overcome these challenges. By implementing the concept, we have demonstrated excellent jetting performance, ideal printing patterns and a variety of promising applications for inkjet printing of 2D layered materials. PMID:25169938

  6. Measurement of 2D birefringence distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, Masato; Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi; Ohno, Masahiro; Tachihara, Satoru

    1992-10-01

    A new measuring method of 2-D birefringence distribution has been developed. It has not been an easy job to get a birefringence distribution in an optical element with conventional ellipsometry because of its lack of scanning means. Finding an analogy between the rotating analyzer method in ellipsometry and the phase-shifting method in recently developed digital interferometry, we have applied the phase-shifting algorithm to ellipsometry, and have developed a new method that makes the measurement of 2-D birefringence distribution easy and possible. The system contains few moving parts, assuring reliability, and measures a large area of a sample at one time, making the measuring time very short.

  7. MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    This fourteenth quarterly technical progress report of the MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project presents the accomplishments during the period November 1, 1990 to January 31, 1991. Testing of the High Pressure Cooling Subsystem electrical isolator was completed. The PEEK material successfully passed the high temperature, high pressure duration tests (50 hours). The Combustion Subsystem drawings were CADAM released. The procurement process is in progress. An equipment specification and RFP were prepared for the new Low Pressure Cooling System (LPCS) and released for quotation. Work has been conducted on confirmation tests leading to final gas-side designs and studies to assist in channel fabrication.The final cathode gas-side design and the proposed gas-side designs of the anode and sidewall are presented. Anode confirmation tests and related analyses of anode wear mechanisms used in the selection of the proposed anode design are presented. Sidewall confirmation tests, which were used to select the proposed gas-side design, were conducted. The design for the full scale CDIF system was completed. A test program was initiated to investigate the practicality of using Avco current controls for current consolidation in the power takeoff (PTO) regions and to determine the cause of past current consolidation failures. Another important activity was the installation of 1A4-style coupons in the 1A1 channel. A description of the coupons and their location with 1A1 channel is presented herein.

  8. Basic Bell-MHD turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Beresnyak, Andrey; Li, Hui

    2014-06-20

    Nonresonant current instability was identified by Bell as an important mechanism for magnetic field amplification in supernova remnants. In this paper we focus on studying the nonlinear stage of this instability using the incompressible MHD formulation. We demonstrate that the evolution of magnetic turbulence driven by the Bell instability resembles turbulence driven on large scales. More importantly, we demonstrate that the energy-containing scale for magnetic fields is proportional to the square root of the magnetic energy density. Given the observational constraints of the possible field amplification, this new relation allows us to directly estimate the maximum energy of particles scattered by such fields, and this estimate is normally below the average particle energy. This implies that, without taking into account the feedback to cosmic rays (CRs), the typical scales of Bell fields, in either the linear or nonlinear regime, will be too small to affect high-energy particle acceleration. We mention several scenarios of back reaction to CRs that could be important.

  9. MHD waveguides in space plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Mazur, N. G.; Fedorov, E. N.; Pilipenko, V. A.

    2010-07-15

    The waveguide properties of two characteristic formations in the Earth's magnetotail-the plasma sheet and the current (neutral) sheet-are considered. The question of how the domains of existence of different types of MHD waveguide modes (fast and slow, body and surface) in the (k, {omega}) plane and their dispersion properties depend on the waveguide parameters is studied. Investigation of the dispersion relation in a number of particular (limiting) cases makes it possible to obtain a fairly complete qualitative pattern of all the branches of the dispersion curve. Accounting for the finite size of perturbations across the wave propagation direction reveals new additional effects such as a change in the critical waveguide frequencies, the excitation of longitudinal current at the boundaries of the sheets, and a change in the symmetry of the fundamental mode. Knowledge of the waveguide properties of the plasma and current sheets can explain the occurrence of preferred frequencies in the low-frequency fluctuation spectra in the magnetotail. In satellite observations, the type of waveguide mode can be determined from the spectral properties, as well as from the phase relationships between plasma oscillations and magnetic field oscillations that are presented in this paper.

  10. Recent update of the RPLUS2D/3D codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, Y.-L. Peter

    1991-01-01

    The development of the RPLUS2D/3D codes is summarized. These codes utilize LU algorithms to solve chemical non-equilibrium flows in a body-fitted coordinate system. The motivation behind the development of these codes is the need to numerically predict chemical non-equilibrium flows for the National AeroSpace Plane Program. Recent improvements include vectorization method, blocking algorithms for geometric flexibility, out-of-core storage for large-size problems, and an LU-SW/UP combination for CPU-time efficiency and solution quality.

  11. 2D/3D Synthetic Vision Navigation Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Arthur, J. J., III; Bailey, Randall E.; Sweeters, jason L.

    2008-01-01

    Flight-deck display software was designed and developed at NASA Langley Research Center to provide two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) terrain, obstacle, and flight-path perspectives on a single navigation display. The objective was to optimize the presentation of synthetic vision (SV) system technology that permits pilots to view multiple perspectives of flight-deck display symbology and 3D terrain information. Research was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the concept. The concept has numerous unique implementation features that would permit enhanced operational concepts and efficiencies in both current and future aircraft.

  12. Breakdown of wave diffusion in 2D due to loops.

    PubMed

    Haney, Matthew; Snieder, Roel

    2003-08-29

    The validity of the diffusion approximation for the intensity of multiply scattered waves is tested with numerical simulations in a strongly scattering 2D medium of finite extent. We show that the diffusion equation underestimates the intensity and attribute this to both the neglect of recurrent scattering paths and interference within diffusion theory. We present a theory to quantify this discrepancy based on counting all possible scattering paths between point scatterers. Interference phenomena, due to loop paths, are incorporated in a way similar to coherent backscattering. PMID:14525183

  13. The quantum spacetime of c > 0 2 d gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambjørn, J.; Anagnostopoulos, K. N.; Thorleifsson, G.

    1998-04-01

    We review recent developments in the understanding of the fractal properties of quantum spacetime of 2d gravity coupled to c > 0 conformal matter. In particular we discuss bounds put by numerical simulations using dynamical triangulations on the value of the Hausdorff dimension dH obtained from scaling properties of two point functions defined in terms of geodesic distance. Further insight to the fractal structure of spacetime is obtained from the study of the loop length distribution function which reveals that the 0 < c ≤ 1 system has similar geometric properties with pure gravity, whereas the branched polymer structure becomes clear for c ≥ 5.

  14. Resistive MHD studies of high-. beta. -tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, V.E.; Carreras, B.A.; Hicks, H.R.; Holmes, J.A.; Garcia, L.

    1981-01-01

    Numerical calculations have been performed to study the MHD activity in high-..beta.. tokamaks such as ISX-B. These initial value calculations built on earlier low ..beta.. techniques, but the ..beta.. effects create several new numerical issues. These issues are discussed and resolved. In addition to time-stepping modules, our system of computer codes includes equilibrium solvers (used to provide an initial condition) and output modules, such as a magnetic field line follower and an X-ray diagnostic code. The transition from current driven modes at low ..beta.. to predominantly pressure driven modes at high ..beta.. is described. The nonlinear studies yield X-ray emissivity plots which are compared with experiment.

  15. A 3-d time-dependent ideal mhd solar wind model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, X.; Wu, S.; Wei, F.

    A new numerical three-dimensional MHD model of solar wind is introduced in spherical coordinates by using a TVD type numerical scheme. In order to show its validation in modeling three-dimensional solar wind background, numerical tests are carried out with initiation magnetic field depending on (r, theta, phi), which is obtained from a force-free formu lation. The numerical density and velocity distributions of the solar wind at the solar surface and 20 solar radii reproduce the typical characteristics of interplanetary solar wind, and are in qualitatively accordance with those obtained from K-corona brightness observation of HAO and magnetic filed observation of WSO.

  16. Parallel stitching of 2D materials

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ling, Xi; Wu, Lijun; Lin, Yuxuan; Ma, Qiong; Wang, Ziqiang; Song, Yi; Yu, Lili; Huang, Shengxi; Fang, Wenjing; Zhang, Xu; et al

    2016-01-27

    Diverse parallel stitched 2D heterostructures, including metal–semiconductor, semiconductor–semiconductor, and insulator–semiconductor, are synthesized directly through selective “sowing” of aromatic molecules as the seeds in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Lastly, the methodology enables the large-scale fabrication of lateral heterostructures, which offers tremendous potential for its application in integrated circuits.

  17. Parallel Stitching of 2D Materials.

    PubMed

    Ling, Xi; Lin, Yuxuan; Ma, Qiong; Wang, Ziqiang; Song, Yi; Yu, Lili; Huang, Shengxi; Fang, Wenjing; Zhang, Xu; Hsu, Allen L; Bie, Yaqing; Lee, Yi-Hsien; Zhu, Yimei; Wu, Lijun; Li, Ju; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo; Dresselhaus, Mildred; Palacios, Tomás; Kong, Jing

    2016-03-01

    Diverse parallel stitched 2D heterostructures, including metal-semiconductor, semiconductor-semiconductor, and insulator-semiconductor, are synthesized directly through selective "sowing" of aromatic molecules as the seeds in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The methodology enables the large-scale fabrication of lateral heterostructures, which offers tremendous potential for its application in integrated circuits. PMID:26813882

  18. Scale-Dependent Alignment of Velocity and Magnetic Fluctuations in Anisotropic MHD Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, C.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Bigot, B.; Ponty, Y.

    2009-12-01

    The tendency of alignment between velocity and magnetic field fluctuations in MHD turbulence has been a subject of great interest theoretically [Grappin et al. 1983, Matthaeus et al. 1983, Pouquet et al. 1988] as well as observationally over many years. There has been recent theoretical interest in the effect of scale-dependent alignment of velocity and magnetic fluctuations in 3D anisotropic MHD turbulence with a large-scale magnetic field [Boldyrev 2005, 2006]. This theory predicts that the angle θ between the velocity and magnetic fluctuation vectors has a scaling of θ ∝ λ1/4, where λ is the spatial scale of the fluctuations. There have also been simulations on 3D forced MHD turbulence that supports this prediction [Mason et al. 2006, 2007]. In this paper, we demonstrate that the feature of scale-dependent alignment and the scaling of θ ∝ λ1/4 also occurs in 2D within a range of time interval and spatial scales, despite the fact that Boldyrev’s phenomenological theory appears to rely on physical mechanisms operative in fully 3D turbulence in the presence of a strong external field. High-resolution pseudo-spectral simulations and scaling analysis, based on pseudo-Alfven waves in 2D, will be presented. These findings suggests that the phenomenon of scale-dependent alignment may be a more universal feature of MHD turbulence than has been thought recently, independent of dimensionality, whether the turbulence is balanced or imbalanced. Implications for solar wind turbulence observations will be discussed. This work is supported by DOE and NASA.

  19. Screening and transport in 2D semiconductor systems at low temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Das Sarma, S.; Hwang, E. H.

    2015-01-01

    Low temperature carrier transport properties in 2D semiconductor systems can be theoretically well-understood within RPA-Boltzmann theory as being limited by scattering from screened Coulomb disorder arising from random quenched charged impurities in the environment. In this work, we derive a number of analytical formula, supported by realistic numerical calculations, for the relevant density, mobility, and temperature range where 2D transport should manifest strong intrinsic (i.e., arising purely from electronic effects) metallic temperature dependence in different semiconductor materials arising entirely from the 2D screening properties, thus providing an explanation for why the strong temperature dependence of the 2D resistivity can only be observed in high-quality and low-disorder 2D samples and also why some high-quality 2D materials manifest much weaker metallicity than other materials. We also discuss effects of interaction and disorder on the 2D screening properties in this context as well as compare 2D and 3D screening functions to comment why such a strong intrinsic temperature dependence arising from screening cannot occur in 3D metallic carrier transport. Experimentally verifiable predictions are made about the quantitative magnitude of the maximum possible low-temperature metallicity in 2D systems and the scaling behavior of the temperature scale controlling the quantum to classical crossover. PMID:26572738

  20. Corrosion and arc erosion in MHD channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, R. J.; Pollina, R. J.

    1990-07-01

    The objective of this task is to study the corrosion and arc erosion of MHD materials in a cooperative effort with, and to support, the MHD topping cycle program. Materials tested in the Avco Research Laboratory/Textron facility, or materials which have significant MHD importance, will be analyzed to document their physical deterioration. Conclusions shall be drawn about their wear mechanisms and lifetime in the MHD environment with respect to the following issues; sulfur corrosion, electrochemical corrosion, and arc erosion. The impact of any materials or slag conditions on the level of power output and on the level of leakage current in the MHD channel will also be noted, where appropriate. The work performed to date in the analysis of channel gas side materials has served to identify and clarify the respective environments to which the various materials are subjected and identified a performance ranking of materials. For high voltage intercathode gaps, which show the most severe wear, the materials rank in the order from best to worst: W, Mo, 90WCu, 97W2Fe1Ni, 75WCu, and Cr. We have shown data which indicates that lifetime is sensitive to gap voltage. Therefore for conditions under which iron oxide addition maintains low voltage intercathode gaps 75WCu becomes an excellent cathode material.

  1. Corrosion and arc erosion in MHD channels

    SciTech Connect

    Rosa, R.J.; Pollina, R.J.

    1990-04-27

    The objective of this task is to study the corrosion and arc erosion of MHD materials in a cooperative effort with, and to support, the MHD topping cycle program. Materials tested in the Avco Research Laboratory/Textron facility, or materials which have significant MHD importance, will be analyzed to document their physical deterioration. Conclusions shall be drawn about their wear mechanisms and lifetime in the MHD environment with respect to the following issues: sulfur corrosion, electrochemical corrosion, and arc erosion. The impact of any materials or slag conditions on the level of power output and on the level of leakage current in the MHD channel will also be noted, where appropriate. The detailed correlation and analysis of data obtained from nearly all of the CDIF tests performed since 1986 has shown that the apparent leakage current flowing through the slag on the channel walls depends upon channel operating parameters in an unexpected way. A comprehensive report of the results obtained to date and a first attempt at their interpretation has been prepared and a copy is attached. The second activity has concerned the examination of electrodes (platinum anodes/tungsten cathodes) by SEM and EDX techniques to determine the nature of the surface degradation. Results of these examinations are reported.

  2. Corrosion and arc erosion in MHD channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, Richard J.; Pollina, Richard J.

    1990-04-01

    The objective of this task is to study the corrosion and arc erosion of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) materials in a cooperative effort with, and to support, the MHD topping cycle program. Materials tested in the Avco Research Laboratory/Textron facility, or materials which have significant MHD importance, will be analyzed to document their physical deterioration. Conclusions shall be drawn about their wear mechanisms and lifetime in the MHD environment with respect to the following issues: sulfur corrosion, electrochemical corrosion, and arc erosion. The impact of any materials or slag conditions on the level of power output and on the level of leakage current in the MHD channel will also be noted, where appropriate. The detailed correlation and analysis of data obtained from nearly all of the tests performed since 1986 has shown that the apparent leakage current flowing through the slag on the channel walls depends upon channel operating parameters in an unexpected way. A comprehensive report of the results obtained to date and a first attempt at their interpretation has been prepared and a copy is attached. The second activity has concerned the examination of electrodes (platinum anodes/tungsten cathodes) by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x ray spectroscopy of the surface degradation. Results of these examinations are reported.

  3. Power generator design for the billings MHD demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Pian, C.C.P.; Kessler, R.; Schmitt, E.W.; Morrison, D.J.

    1993-12-31

    The proposed design of the MHD Power generator for the Billings MHD Demonstration Project is presented. The Billings MHD Demonstration Project, proposed by the MHD Development Corporation (MDC) for the U.S. Department of Energy`s Clean Coal Technology V Program, will demonstrate the significant environmental advantages and efficiency potential of MHD electric power generation. A diagonally-loaded, supersonic MHD generator channel is proposed. The generator channel has a thermal input of 250 MW, is 11 meters long and produces 28.5 MW gross power output at the nominal design operating condition. The gasdynamic, gas-side, and mechanical designs of the proposed generator are derived from the design of the 50 MW{sub t} proof-of-concept MHD generator, currently undergoing long duration testing at the CDIF test facility. The design and operation of the proposed generator will be typical of those anticipated in future commercial MHD generator channels.

  4. Linear MHD Wave Propagation in Time-Dependent Flux Tube. II. Finite Plasma Beta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, A.; Erdélyi, R.

    2014-04-01

    The propagation of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves is an area that has been thoroughly studied for idealised static and steady state magnetised plasma systems applied to numerous solar structures. By applying the generalisation of a temporally varying background density to an open magnetic flux tube, mimicking the observed slow evolution of such waveguides in the solar atmosphere, further investigations into the propagation of both fast and slow MHD waves can take place. The assumption of a zero-beta plasma (no gas pressure) was applied in Williamson and Erdélyi ( Solar Phys. 2013, doi:10.1007/s11207-013-0366-9, Paper I) is now relaxed for further analysis here. Firstly, the introduction of a finite thermal pressure to the magnetic flux tube equilibrium modifies the existence of fast MHD waves which are directly comparable to their counterparts found in Paper I. Further, as a direct consequence of the non-zero kinetic plasma pressure, a slow MHD wave now exists, and is investigated. Analysis of the slow wave shows that, similar to the fast MHD wave, wave amplitude amplification takes place in time and height. The evolution of the wave amplitude is determined here analytically. We conclude that for a temporally slowly decreasing background density both propagating magnetosonic wave modes are amplified for over-dense magnetic flux tubes. This information can be very practical and useful for future solar magneto-seismology applications in the study of the amplitude and frequency properties of MHD waveguides, e.g. for diagnostic purposes, present in the solar atmosphere.

  5. Global Hall-MHD simulations of magnetorotational instability in a plasma Couette flow experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Ebrahimi, F.; Lefebvre, B.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Forest, C. B.

    2011-06-15

    Global MHD and Hall-MHD numerical simulations relevant to the Madison plasma Couette flow experiment (MPCX) have been performed using the extended MHD code NIMROD. The MPCX has been constructed to study the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in a plasma. The two-fluid Hall effect, which is relevant to some astrophysical situations such as protostellar disks, is also expected to be important in the MPCX. Here, we first derive the local Hall dispersion relation including viscosity, extending earlier work by Balbus and Terquem [Astrophys. J. 552, 235 (2001)]. The predictions of the local analysis are then compared with nonlocal calculations of linear stability of the MRI for a parameter range relevant to the MPCX. It is found that the MHD stability limit and mode structure are altered by the Hall term, and nonlocal analysis is necessary to obtain quantitatively reliable predictions for MPCX. Two-fluid physics also significantly changes the nonlinear evolution and saturation of the axisymmetric MRI. Both the Reynolds and Maxwell stresses contribute significantly to momentum transport. In the Hall regime, when the magnetic field is parallel to the rotation axis, the Maxwell stress is larger than the Reynolds stress (similar to the MHD regime). However, when the magnetic field is antiparallel to the rotation axis in the Hall regime, the Reynolds stress is much larger than the Maxwell stress. To further study the role of non-axisymmetric modes, we have also carried out fully nonlinear MHD computations. Non-axisymmetric modes play an increasingly important role as the magnetic Reynolds number increases and grow to large amplitudes in a saturated turbulent state.

  6. High-order central ENO finite-volume scheme for ideal MHD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susanto, A.; Ivan, L.; De Sterck, H.; Groth, C. P. T.

    2013-10-01

    A high-order accurate finite-volume scheme for the compressible ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations is proposed. The high-order MHD scheme is based on a central essentially non-oscillatory (CENO) method combined with the generalized Lagrange multiplier divergence cleaning method for MHD. The CENO method uses k-exact multidimensional reconstruction together with a monotonicity procedure that switches from a high-order reconstruction to a limited low-order reconstruction in regions of discontinuous or under-resolved solution content. Both reconstructions are performed on central stencils, and the switching procedure is based on a smoothness indicator. The proposed high-order accurate MHD scheme can be used on general polygonal grids. A highly sophisticated parallel implementation of the scheme is described that is fourth-order accurate on two-dimensional dynamically-adaptive body-fitted structured grids. The hierarchical multi-block body-fitted grid permits grid lines to conform to curved boundaries. High-order accuracy is maintained at curved domain boundaries by employing high-order spline representations and constraints at the Gauss quadrature points for flux integration. Detailed numerical results demonstrate high-order convergence for smooth flows and robustness against oscillations for problems with shocks. A new MHD extension of the well-known Shu-Osher test problem is proposed to test the ability of the high-order MHD scheme to resolve small-scale flow features in the presence of shocks. The dynamic mesh adaptation capabilities of the approach are demonstrated using adaptive time-dependent simulations of the Orszag-Tang vortex problem with high-order accuracy and unprecedented effective resolution.

  7. Benchmarking a hybrid MHD/kinetic code with C-2 experimental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magee, Richard; Clary, Ryan; Dettrick, Sean; Korepanov, Sergey; Onofri, Marco; Smirnov, Artem; TAE Team

    2013-10-01

    The C-2 device creates field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas via the dynamic merging of two compact toroids and heated with neutral beams. Simulations of these plasmas are performed with Q2D - a hybrid MHD/Monte Carlo code that evolves the plasma according to the resistive MHD equations and treats the neutral beam injected fast ions as a minority kinetic species. Recent Q2D runs have resulted in testable predictions, namely that the axial profile of the fast ions is double-peaked, and charge-exchange neutrals are localized in pitch-angle. In some simulations, the fast particle population can induce magnetic fluctuations. These fluctuations are largest in the radial component, have a characteristic frequency approximately equal to the fast ion bounce frequency (f ~ 150 kHz), and a broad k spectrum. These fluctuations have the beneficial effect of smoothing out the double-peaked axial fast ion density profile, resulting in an increased fast ion density at the mid-plane. We will present results from a benchmarking study to quantitatively compare the results of Q2D runs to existing C-2 experimental data.

  8. Numerical simulation of geometric scale effects in cylindrical self-field MPD thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapointe, M.

    1992-01-01

    A 2D, two-temperature, single fluid MHD code which incorporates classical plasma transport coefficients and Hall effects has been developed to predict steady-state, self-field MPD thruster performance. The governing equations and numerical methods of solution are outlined and discussed. Experimental comparisons are used to validate model predictions. The model accurately predicts thrust and reproduces trends in the discharge voltage for discharge currents below experimentally measured onset values. However, because the model does not include electrode effects the calculated voltage drops are significantly lower than experimentally measured values. Predictions of thrust and flow efficiency are made for a matrix of fifteen cylindrical thruster geometries assuming a fully ionized argon propellant.

  9. MHD Oscillations in the Earth's Magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonovich, A. S.; Mazur, V. A.; Kozlov, D. A.

    2016-02-01

    In studies of hydromagnetic oscillations of the Earth's magnetosphere, it is often considered as a giant resonator for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves. A shear flow instability on the magnetopause has long been regarded as a possible source of MHD oscillations in the Earth's magnetosphere. A most interesting phenomenon investigated for the past two decades are ultra-low-frequency oscillations with a discrete spectrum. Such oscillations are recorded usually in the midnight-morning sector of the magnetosphere at 60° to 80° latitudes. Another type of MHD oscillations typical of the magnetotail is the coupled Alfvén and slow magnetosonic waves on stretched magnetic field lines passing through the current sheet. Each of these modes can propagate along paths that almost coincide with the magnetic field lines. The recently discovered kink-like oscillations are oscillations of the current sheet itself, similar to a piece of fabric fluttering in the wind. In this regard they are called flapping modes.

  10. Static & Dynamic Response of 2D Solids

    1996-07-15

    NIKE2D is an implicit finite-element code for analyzing the finite deformation, static and dynamic response of two-dimensional, axisymmetric, plane strain, and plane stress solids. The code is fully vectorized and available on several computing platforms. A number of material models are incorporated to simulate a wide range of material behavior including elasto-placicity, anisotropy, creep, thermal effects, and rate dependence. Slideline algorithms model gaps and sliding along material interfaces, including interface friction, penetration and single surfacemore » contact. Interactive-graphics and rezoning is included for analyses with large mesh distortions. In addition to quasi-Newton and arc-length procedures, adaptive algorithms can be defined to solve the implicit equations using the solution language ISLAND. Each of these capabilities and more make NIKE2D a robust analysis tool.« less

  11. Stochastic Inversion of 2D Magnetotelluric Data

    2010-07-01

    The algorithm is developed to invert 2D magnetotelluric (MT) data based on sharp boundary parametrization using a Bayesian framework. Within the algorithm, we consider the locations and the resistivity of regions formed by the interfaces are as unknowns. We use a parallel, adaptive finite-element algorithm to forward simulate frequency-domain MT responses of 2D conductivity structure. Those unknown parameters are spatially correlated and are described by a geostatistical model. The joint posterior probability distribution function ismore » explored by Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling methods. The developed stochastic model is effective for estimating the interface locations and resistivity. Most importantly, it provides details uncertainty information on each unknown parameter. Hardware requirements: PC, Supercomputer, Multi-platform, Workstation; Software requirements C and Fortan; Operation Systems/version is Linux/Unix or Windows« less

  12. Stochastic Inversion of 2D Magnetotelluric Data

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jinsong

    2010-07-01

    The algorithm is developed to invert 2D magnetotelluric (MT) data based on sharp boundary parametrization using a Bayesian framework. Within the algorithm, we consider the locations and the resistivity of regions formed by the interfaces are as unknowns. We use a parallel, adaptive finite-element algorithm to forward simulate frequency-domain MT responses of 2D conductivity structure. Those unknown parameters are spatially correlated and are described by a geostatistical model. The joint posterior probability distribution function is explored by Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling methods. The developed stochastic model is effective for estimating the interface locations and resistivity. Most importantly, it provides details uncertainty information on each unknown parameter. Hardware requirements: PC, Supercomputer, Multi-platform, Workstation; Software requirements C and Fortan; Operation Systems/version is Linux/Unix or Windows

  13. Explicit 2-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    1996-08-07

    DYNA2D* is a vectorized, explicit, two-dimensional, axisymmetric and plane strain finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic and hydrodynamic response of inelastic solids. DYNA2D* contains 13 material models and 9 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented in all machine versions are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic elastic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, rubber, high explosive burn, isotropic elastic-plastic, temperature-dependent elastic-plastic. Themore » isotropic and temperature-dependent elastic-plastic models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 9 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, and tabulated.« less

  14. Schottky diodes from 2D germanane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Nanda Gopal; Esteves, Richard J.; Punetha, Vinay Deep; Pestov, Dmitry; Arachchige, Indika U.; McLeskey, James T.

    2016-07-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of a Schottky diode made using 2D germanane (hydrogenated germanene). When compared to germanium, the 2D structure has higher electron mobility, an optimal band-gap, and exceptional stability making germanane an outstanding candidate for a variety of opto-electronic devices. One-atom-thick sheets of hydrogenated puckered germanium atoms have been synthesized from a CaGe2 framework via intercalation and characterized by XRD, Raman, and FTIR techniques. The material was then used to fabricate Schottky diodes by suspending the germanane in benzonitrile and drop-casting it onto interdigitated metal electrodes. The devices demonstrate significant rectifying behavior and the outstanding potential of this material.

  15. Fully implicit adaptive mesh refinement algorithm for reduced MHD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philip, Bobby; Pernice, Michael; Chacon, Luis

    2006-10-01

    In the macroscopic simulation of plasmas, the numerical modeler is faced with the challenge of dealing with multiple time and length scales. Traditional approaches based on explicit time integration techniques and fixed meshes are not suitable for this challenge, as such approaches prevent the modeler from using realistic plasma parameters to keep the computation feasible. We propose here a novel approach, based on implicit methods and structured adaptive mesh refinement (SAMR). Our emphasis is on both accuracy and scalability with the number of degrees of freedom. As a proof-of-principle, we focus on the reduced resistive MHD model as a basic MHD model paradigm, which is truly multiscale. The approach taken here is to adapt mature physics-based technology to AMR grids, and employ AMR-aware multilevel techniques (such as fast adaptive composite grid --FAC-- algorithms) for scalability. We demonstrate that the concept is indeed feasible, featuring near-optimal scalability under grid refinement. Results of fully-implicit, dynamically-adaptive AMR simulations in challenging dissipation regimes will be presented on a variety of problems that benefit from this capability, including tearing modes, the island coalescence instability, and the tilt mode instability. L. Chac'on et al., J. Comput. Phys. 178 (1), 15- 36 (2002) B. Philip, M. Pernice, and L. Chac'on, Lecture Notes in Computational Science and Engineering, accepted (2006)

  16. The MHD spectral web: Connecting all instabilities of stationary plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goedbloed, Hans

    2015-11-01

    Quite a lot is known about the spectra of MHD instabilities in plasmas with background flow, in particular through numerical studies. They exhibit bewildering distributions of the complex eigenvalues, with isolated global modes as well as local modes clustering towards complicated continuous spectra. This calls for the development of a general theory generating physically meaningful structures in the complex ω-plane connecting the eigenvalues. Whereas the simplicity of the energy principle of static equilibria no longer applies, proper consideration of the two quadratic forms of the potential energy and the averaged Doppler-Coriolis shift leads a new approach to the analysis of stationary plasmas, called the spectral web, that provides the desired structures. Thus, for the first time, the full complex spectrum of stationary plasmas is obtained together with a connecting structure. This permits to consider the enormous diversity of MHD instabilities of laboratory and astrophysical plasmas with arbitrary flow and rotation profiles from a single unifying view point. I will illustrate that with results obtained on these instabilities with the new spectral code ROC.

  17. MHD theory of field line resonance in the magnetosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, C.Z.; Chang, T.C.; Lin, C.A.; Tsai, W.H.

    1992-01-01

    The linearized ideal MHD equations are cast into a set of global differential equations from which the field line resonance equations of the shear Alfven waves and slow magnetosonic waves are naturally obtained for finite pressure plasmas in general magnetic field geometries with flux surfaces. The coupling between the shear Alfven waves and the magnetosonic waves is through the geodesic magnetic field curvature. For axisymmetric magnetospheric equilibria, there is no coupling between the shear Alfven waves and slow magnetosonic waves because the geodesic magnetic field curvature vanishes. The asymptotic singular solutions of the MHD equations near the field line resonant surface are derived. Numerical solutions of the field line resonance equations are performed for the dipole magnetic field, and it is found that the shear Alfven wave field line resonant frequency is proportional to L{sup {minus}4}{rho}{sup {minus}1/2}. The slow magnetosonic wave resonant frequency is much smaller than the Shear Alfven wave resonant frequency and is roughly proportional to P/{rho}L{sup 2}, where L is the equatorial L-shell distance, P is the plasma pressure, and {rho} is the plasma mass density. The results help to understand the continuous spectra observed by AMPTE/CCE.

  18. Layer Engineering of 2D Semiconductor Junctions.

    PubMed

    He, Yongmin; Sobhani, Ali; Lei, Sidong; Zhang, Zhuhua; Gong, Yongji; Jin, Zehua; Zhou, Wu; Yang, Yingchao; Zhang, Yuan; Wang, Xifan; Yakobson, Boris; Vajtai, Robert; Halas, Naomi J; Li, Bo; Xie, Erqing; Ajayan, Pulickel

    2016-07-01

    A new concept for junction fabrication by connecting multiple regions with varying layer thicknesses, based on the thickness dependence, is demonstrated. This type of junction is only possible in super-thin-layered 2D materials, and exhibits similar characteristics as p-n junctions. Rectification and photovoltaic effects are observed in chemically homogeneous MoSe2 junctions between domains of different thicknesses. PMID:27136275

  19. 2dF mechanical engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Greg; Lankshear, Allan

    1998-07-01

    2dF is a multi-object instrument mounted at prime focus at the AAT capable of spectroscopic analysis of 400 objects in a single 2 degree field. It also prepares a second 2 degree 400 object field while the first field is being observed. At its heart is a high precision robotic positioner that places individual fiber end magnetic buttons on one of two field plates. The button gripper is carried on orthogonal gantries powered by linear synchronous motors and contains a TV camera which precisely locates backlit buttons to allow placement in user defined locations to 10 (mu) accuracy. Fiducial points on both plates can also be observed by the camera to allow repeated checks on positioning accuracy. Field plates rotate to follow apparent sky rotation. The spectrographs both analyze light from the 200 observing fibers each and back- illuminate the 400 fibers being re-positioned during the observing run. The 2dF fiber position and spectrograph system is a large and complex instrument located at the prime focus of the Anglo Australian Telescope. The mechanical design has departed somewhat from the earlier concepts of Gray et al, but still reflects the audacity of those first ideas. The positioner is capable of positioning 400 fibers on a field plate while another 400 fibers on another plate are observing at the focus of the telescope and feeding the twin spectrographs. When first proposed it must have seemed like ingenuity unfettered by caution. Yet now it works, and works wonderfully well. 2dF is a system which functions as the result of the combined and coordinated efforts of the astronomers, the mechanical designers and tradespeople, the electronic designers, the programmers, the support staff at the telescope, and the manufacturing subcontractors. The mechanical design of the 2dF positioner and spectrographs was carried out by the mechanical engineering staff of the AAO and the majority of the manufacture was carried out in the AAO workshops.

  20. Compact 2-D graphical representation of DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randić, Milan; Vračko, Marjan; Zupan, Jure; Novič, Marjana

    2003-05-01

    We present a novel 2-D graphical representation for DNA sequences which has an important advantage over the existing graphical representations of DNA in being very compact. It is based on: (1) use of binary labels for the four nucleic acid bases, and (2) use of the 'worm' curve as template on which binary codes are placed. The approach is illustrated on DNA sequences of the first exon of human β-globin and gorilla β-globin.

  1. 2D materials: Graphene and others

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansal, Suneev Anil; Singh, Amrinder Pal; Kumar, Suresh

    2016-05-01

    Present report reviews the recent advancements in new atomically thick 2D materials. Materials covered in this review are Graphene, Silicene, Germanene, Boron Nitride (BN) and Transition metal chalcogenides (TMC). These materials show extraordinary mechanical, electronic and optical properties which make them suitable candidates for future applications. Apart from unique properties, tune-ability of highly desirable properties of these materials is also an important area to be emphasized on.

  2. TACO (2D AND 3D). Taco

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, W.E.

    1983-03-01

    A set of finite element codes for the solution of nonlinear, two-dimensional (TACO2D) and three-dimensional (TACO3D) heat transfer problems. Performs linear and nonlinear analyses of both transient and steady state heat transfer problems. Has the capability to handle time or temperature dependent material properties. Materials may be either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time and temperature dependent boundary conditions and loadings are available including temperature, flux, convection, radiation, and internal heat generation.

  3. Tomosynthesis imaging with 2D scanning trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khare, Kedar; Claus, Bernhard E. H.; Eberhard, Jeffrey W.

    2011-03-01

    Tomosynthesis imaging in chest radiography provides volumetric information with the potential for improved diagnostic value when compared to the standard AP or LAT projections. In this paper we explore the image quality benefits of 2D scanning trajectories when coupled with advanced image reconstruction approaches. It is intuitively clear that 2D trajectories provide projection data that is more complete in terms of Radon space filling, when compared with conventional tomosynthesis using a linearly scanned source. Incorporating this additional information for obtaining improved image quality is, however, not a straightforward problem. The typical tomosynthesis reconstruction algorithms are based on direct inversion methods e.g. Filtered Backprojection (FBP) or iterative algorithms that are variants of the Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (ART). The FBP approach is fast and provides high frequency details in the image but at the same time introduces streaking artifacts degrading the image quality. The iterative methods can reduce the image artifacts by using image priors but suffer from a slow convergence rate, thereby producing images lacking high frequency details. In this paper we propose using a fast converging optimal gradient iterative scheme that has advantages of both the FBP and iterative methods in that it produces images with high frequency details while reducing the image artifacts. We show that using favorable 2D scanning trajectories along with the proposed reconstruction method has the advantage of providing improved depth information for structures such as the spine and potentially producing images with more isotropic resolution.

  4. Engineering light outcoupling in 2D materials.

    PubMed

    Lien, Der-Hsien; Kang, Jeong Seuk; Amani, Matin; Chen, Kevin; Tosun, Mahmut; Wang, Hsin-Ping; Roy, Tania; Eggleston, Michael S; Wu, Ming C; Dubey, Madan; Lee, Si-Chen; He, Jr-Hau; Javey, Ali

    2015-02-11

    When light is incident on 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), it engages in multiple reflections within underlying substrates, producing interferences that lead to enhancement or attenuation of the incoming and outgoing strength of light. Here, we report a simple method to engineer the light outcoupling in semiconducting TMDCs by modulating their dielectric surroundings. We show that by modulating the thicknesses of underlying substrates and capping layers, the interference caused by substrate can significantly enhance the light absorption and emission of WSe2, resulting in a ∼11 times increase in Raman signal and a ∼30 times increase in the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of WSe2. On the basis of the interference model, we also propose a strategy to control the photonic and optoelectronic properties of thin-layer WSe2. This work demonstrates the utilization of outcoupling engineering in 2D materials and offers a new route toward the realization of novel optoelectronic devices, such as 2D LEDs and solar cells. PMID:25602462

  5. Explosively-driven magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator studies

    SciTech Connect

    Agee, F.J.; Lehr, F.M.; Vigil, M.; Kaye, R.; Gaudet, J.; Shiffler, D.

    1995-08-01

    Plasma jet generators have been designed and tested which used an explosive driver and shocktube with a rectangular cross section that optimize the flow velocity and electrical conductivity. The latest in a series of designs has been tested using a reactive load to diagnose the electrical properties of the MHD generator/electromagnet combination. The results of these tests indicate that the plasma jet/MHD generator design does generate a flow velocity greater than 25 km/s and produces several gigawatts of pulsed power in a very small package size. A larger, new generator design is also presented.

  6. Lorenz-Mie theory for 2D scattering and resonance calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Denis; Dubé, Louis J.

    2015-10-01

    This PhD tutorial is concerned with a description of the two-dimensional generalized Lorenz-Mie theory (2D-GLMT), a well-established numerical method used to compute the interaction of light with arrays of cylindrical scatterers. This theory is based on the method of separation of variables and the application of an addition theorem for cylindrical functions. The purpose of this tutorial is to assemble the practical tools necessary to implement the 2D-GLMT method for the computation of scattering by passive scatterers or of resonances in optically active media. The first part contains a derivation of the vector and scalar Helmholtz equations for 2D geometries, starting from Maxwell’s equations. Optically active media are included in 2D-GLMT using a recent stationary formulation of the Maxwell-Bloch equations called steady-state ab initio laser theory (SALT), which introduces new classes of solutions useful for resonance computations. Following these preliminaries, a detailed description of 2D-GLMT is presented. The emphasis is placed on the derivation of beam-shape coefficients for scattering computations, as well as the computation of resonant modes using a combination of 2D-GLMT and SALT. The final section contains several numerical examples illustrating the full potential of 2D-GLMT for scattering and resonance computations. These examples, drawn from the literature, include the design of integrated polarization filters and the computation of optical modes of photonic crystal cavities and random lasers.

  7. 2D superconductivity by ionic gating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasa, Yoshi

    2D superconductivity is attracting a renewed interest due to the discoveries of new highly crystalline 2D superconductors in the past decade. Superconductivity at the oxide interfaces triggered by LaAlO3/SrTiO3 has become one of the promising routes for creation of new 2D superconductors. Also, the MBE grown metallic monolayers including FeSe are also offering a new platform of 2D superconductors. In the last two years, there appear a variety of monolayer/bilayer superconductors fabricated by CVD or mechanical exfoliation. Among these, electric field induced superconductivity by electric double layer transistor (EDLT) is a unique platform of 2D superconductivity, because of its ability of high density charge accumulation, and also because of the versatility in terms of materials, stemming from oxides to organics and layered chalcogenides. In this presentation, the following issues of electric filed induced superconductivity will be addressed; (1) Tunable carrier density, (2) Weak pinning, (3) Absence of inversion symmetry. (1) Since the sheet carrier density is quasi-continuously tunable from 0 to the order of 1014 cm-2, one is able to establish an electronic phase diagram of superconductivity, which will be compared with that of bulk superconductors. (2) The thickness of superconductivity can be estimated as 2 - 10 nm, dependent on materials, and is much smaller than the in-plane coherence length. Such a thin but low resistance at normal state results in extremely weak pinning beyond the dirty Boson model in the amorphous metallic films. (3) Due to the electric filed, the inversion symmetry is inherently broken in EDLT. This feature appears in the enhancement of Pauli limit of the upper critical field for the in-plane magnetic fields. In transition metal dichalcogenide with a substantial spin-orbit interactions, we were able to confirm the stabilization of Cooper pair due to its spin-valley locking. This work has been supported by Grant-in-Aid for Specially

  8. Initial simulation of MHD instabilites in a high speed plasma accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin-Soo; Hughes, Tom; Thio, Francis

    2005-10-01

    High density, high Mach number plasma jets are under development for a variety of critical fusion applications. These applications include fueling, rotation driving, and disruption mitigation in magnetic fusion devices. They also include a range of innovative approaches to high energy density plasmas. FAR-TECH, Inc. has begun 3D MHD simulations using the LSP code [1] to examine such high speed plasma jets. An initial study to benchmark the code is currently underway. The blow-by instability will be simulated in a coaxial plasma accelerator using the 3D LSP code and compared with the 2D MACH2 code results. [1] LSP-Manual-MRC-ABQ-R-1942.pdf

  9. Simulation of bootstrap current in 2D and 3D ideal magnetic fields in tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghunathan, M.; Graves, J. P.; Cooper, W. A.; Pedro, M.; Sauter, O.

    2016-09-01

    We aim to simulate the bootstrap current for a MAST-like spherical tokamak using two approaches for magnetic equilibria including externally caused 3D effects such as resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs), the effect of toroidal ripple, and intrinsic 3D effects such as non-resonant internal kink modes. The first approach relies on known neoclassical coefficients in ideal MHD equilibria, using the Sauter (Sauter et al 1999 Phys. Plasmas 6 2834) expression valid for all collisionalities in axisymmetry, and the second approach being the quasi-analytic Shaing–Callen (Shaing and Callen 1983 Phys. Fluids 26 3315) model in the collisionless regime for 3D. Using the ideal free-boundary magnetohydrodynamic code VMEC, we compute the flux-surface averaged bootstrap current density, with the Sauter and Shaing–Callen expressions for 2D and 3D ideal MHD equilibria including an edge pressure barrier with the application of resonant magnetic perturbations, and equilibria possessing a saturated non-resonant 1/1 internal kink mode with a weak internal pressure barrier. We compare the applicability of the self-consistent iterative model on the 3D applications and discuss the limitations and advantages of each bootstrap current model for each type of equilibrium.

  10. Design and characterization of low-loss 2D grating couplers for silicon photonics integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacava, C.; Carrol, L.; Bozzola, A.; Marchetti, R.; Minzioni, P.; Cristiani, I.; Fournier, M.; Bernabe, S.; Gerace, D.; Andreani, L. C.

    2016-03-01

    We present the characterization of Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) photonic-crystal based 2D grating-couplers (2D-GCs) fabricated by CEA-Leti in the frame of the FP7 Fabulous project, which is dedicated to the realization of devices and systems for low-cost and high-performance passives-optical-networks. On the analyzed samples different test structures are present, including 2D-GC connected to another 2D-GC by different waveguides (in a Mach-Zehnder like configuration), and 2D-GC connected to two separate 2D-GCs, so as to allow a complete assessment of different parameters. Measurements were carried out using a tunable laser source operating in the extended telecom bandwidth and a fiber-based polarization controlling system at the input of device-under-test. The measured data yielded an overall fiber-to-fiber loss of 7.5 dB for the structure composed by an input 2D-GC connected to two identical 2D-GCs. This value was obtained at the peak wavelength of the grating, and the 3-dB bandwidth of the 2D-GC was assessed to be 43 nm. Assuming that the waveguide losses are negligible, so as to make a worst-case analysis, the coupling efficiency of the single 2D-GC results to be equal to -3.75 dB, constituting, to the best of our knowledge, the lowest value ever reported for a fully CMOS compatible 2D-GC. It is worth noting that both the obtained values are in good agreement with those expected by the numerical simulations performed using full 3D analysis by Lumerical FDTD-solutions.

  11. Studying effect of MHD on thin films of a micropolar fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Rahman, Gamal M.

    2009-11-01

    This paper deals with the study of the effect of MHD on thin films of a micropolar fluid. These thin films are considered for three different geometries, namely: (i) flow down an inclined plane, (ii) flow on a moving belt and (iii) flow down a vertical cylinder. The transformed boundary layer governing equations of a micropolar fluid and the resulting system of coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations are solved numerically by using shooting method. Numerical results were presented for velocity and micro-rotation profiles within the boundary layer for different parameters of the problem including micropolar fluid parameters, magnetic field parameter, etc., which are also discussed numerically and illustrated graphically.

  12. GBL-2D Version 1.0: a 2D geometry boolean library.

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, Cory L. (Elemental Technologies, American Fort, UT); Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Yarberry, Victor R.; Meyers, Ray J.

    2006-11-01

    This report describes version 1.0 of GBL-2D, a geometric Boolean library for 2D objects. The library is written in C++ and consists of a set of classes and routines. The classes primarily represent geometric data and relationships. Classes are provided for 2D points, lines, arcs, edge uses, loops, surfaces and mask sets. The routines contain algorithms for geometric Boolean operations and utility functions. Routines are provided that incorporate the Boolean operations: Union(OR), XOR, Intersection and Difference. A variety of additional analytical geometry routines and routines for importing and exporting the data in various file formats are also provided. The GBL-2D library was originally developed as a geometric modeling engine for use with a separate software tool, called SummitView [1], that manipulates the 2D mask sets created by designers of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS). However, many other practical applications for this type of software can be envisioned because the need to perform 2D Boolean operations can arise in many contexts.

  13. Computation of the MHD modes with rotation and kinetic effects: AEGIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, L.-J.; Kotschenreuther, M.; Turnbull, A.; Waelbroeck, F.; van Dam, J. W.; Berk, H.

    2003-10-01

    A new linear MHD eigenvalue code called AEGIS (Adaptive EiGenfunction Independent Shooting) is being developed at the IFS. The benchmarking of AEGIS with GATO is underway and will be presented. Plasma rotation is being included, with the effect of rotation-enhanced plasma compressibility also taken into account. As a first step in including rotational effects, the ideal MHD model is being employed. Details of the numerical scheme will be described, along with preliminary numerical results. The plan to include kinetic compressiblity will be discussed. With this new code, rotational stabilization of resistive wall modes can be rigorously calculated for the first time. The algorithm also allows FLR effects to be included. Many helpful suggestions from A. Glasser are acknowledged.

  14. MHD Ballooning Instability in the Plasma Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    C.Z. Cheng; S. Zaharia

    2003-10-20

    Based on the ideal-MHD model the stability of ballooning modes is investigated by employing realistic 3D magnetospheric equilibria, in particular for the substorm growth phase. Previous MHD ballooning stability calculations making use of approximations on the plasma compressibility can give rise to erroneous conclusions. Our results show that without making approximations on the plasma compressibility the MHD ballooning modes are unstable for the entire plasma sheet where beta (sub)eq is greater than or equal to 1, and the most unstable modes are located in the strong cross-tail current sheet region in the near-Earth plasma sheet, which maps to the initial brightening location of the breakup arc in the ionosphere. However, the MHD beq threshold is too low in comparison with observations by AMPTE/CCE at X = -(8 - 9)R(sub)E, which show that a low-frequency instability is excited only when beq increases over 50. The difficulty is mitigated by considering the kinetic effects of ion gyrorad ii and trapped electron dynamics, which can greatly increase the stabilizing effects of field line tension and thus enhance the beta(sub)eq threshold [Cheng and Lui, 1998]. The consequence is to reduce the equatorial region of the unstable ballooning modes to the strong cross-tail current sheet region where the free energy associated with the plasma pressure gradient and magnetic field curvature is maximum.

  15. Axisymmetric ideal MHD stellar wind flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinemann, M.; Olbert, S.

    1978-01-01

    The ideal MHD equations are reduced to a single equation under the assumption of axisymmetric flow. A variational principle from which the equation is derivable is given. The characteristics of the equation are briefly discussed. The equation is used to rederive the theorem of Gussenhoven and Carovillano.

  16. Interparticle Attraction in 2D Complex Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kompaneets, Roman; Morfill, Gregor E.; Ivlev, Alexei V.

    2016-03-01

    Complex (dusty) plasmas allow experimental studies of various physical processes occurring in classical liquids and solids by directly observing individual microparticles. A major problem is that the interaction between microparticles is generally not molecularlike. In this Letter, we propose how to achieve a molecularlike interaction potential in laboratory 2D complex plasmas. We argue that this principal aim can be achieved by using relatively small microparticles and properly adjusting discharge parameters. If experimentally confirmed, this will make it possible to employ complex plasmas as a model system with an interaction potential resembling that of conventional liquids.

  17. Periodically sheared 2D Yukawa systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kovács, Anikó Zsuzsa; Hartmann, Peter; Donkó, Zoltán

    2015-10-15

    We present non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation studies on the dynamic (complex) shear viscosity of a 2D Yukawa system. We have identified a non-monotonic frequency dependence of the viscosity at high frequencies and shear rates, an energy absorption maximum (local resonance) at the Einstein frequency of the system at medium shear rates, an enhanced collective wave activity, when the excitation is near the plateau frequency of the longitudinal wave dispersion, and the emergence of significant configurational anisotropy at small frequencies and high shear rates.

  18. ENERGY LANDSCAPE OF 2D FLUID FORMS

    SciTech Connect

    Y. JIANG; ET AL

    2000-04-01

    The equilibrium states of 2D non-coarsening fluid foams, which consist of bubbles with fixed areas, correspond to local minima of the total perimeter. (1) The authors find an approximate value of the global minimum, and determine directly from an image how far a foam is from its ground state. (2) For (small) area disorder, small bubbles tend to sort inwards and large bubbles outwards. (3) Topological charges of the same sign repel while charges of opposite sign attract. (4) They discuss boundary conditions and the uniqueness of the pattern for fixed topology.

  19. A scalable 2-D parallel sparse solver

    SciTech Connect

    Kothari, S.C.; Mitra, S.

    1995-12-01

    Scalability beyond a small number of processors, typically 32 or less, is known to be a problem for existing parallel general sparse (PGS) direct solvers. This paper presents a parallel general sparse PGS direct solver for general sparse linear systems on distributed memory machines. The algorithm is based on the well-known sequential sparse algorithm Y12M. To achieve efficient parallelization, a 2-D scattered decomposition of the sparse matrix is used. The proposed algorithm is more scalable than existing parallel sparse direct solvers. Its scalability is evaluated on a 256 processor nCUBE2s machine using Boeing/Harwell benchmark matrices.

  20. 2D stepping drive for hyperspectral systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endrödy, Csaba; Mehner, Hannes; Grewe, Adrian; Sinzinger, Stefan; Hoffmann, Martin

    2015-07-01

    We present the design, fabrication and characterization of a compact 2D stepping microdrive for pinhole array positioning. The miniaturized solution enables a highly integrated compact hyperspectral imaging system. Based on the geometry of the pinhole array, an inch-worm drive with electrostatic actuators was designed resulting in a compact (1 cm2) positioning system featuring a step size of about 15 µm in a 170 µm displacement range. The high payload (20 mg) as required for the pinhole array and the compact system design exceed the known electrostatic inch-worm-based microdrives.

  1. MHD Simulation of the Inverse Pinch Plasma Discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Esaulov, A; Bauer, B; Lindemuth, I; Makhin, V; Presura, R; Ryutov, D

    2004-07-01

    A wall confined plasma in an inverse pinch configuration holds potential as a plasma target for Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) as well as the simple geometry to study wall-confined plasma. An experiment is planned to study the inverse pinch configuration using the Nevada Terawatt Facility (NTF) at the University of Nevada, Reno (UNR). The dynamics of the discharge formation have been analyzed using analytic models and numerical methods. Strong heating occurs by thermalization of directed energy when an outward moving current sheet (the inverse pinch effect) collides with the outer wall of the experimental chamber. Two dimensional MHD simulations show Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov -like modes of instability, as expected because of the shock acceleration during plasma formation phase. The instabilities are not disruptive, but give rise to a mild level of turbulence. The conclusion from this work is that an interesting experiment relevant to wall confinement for MTF could be done using existing equipment at UNR.

  2. Liquid metal MHD research and development in Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branover, H.

    1991-05-01

    The study and development of liquid-metal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) in Israel, from 1973 to the present, are reviewed. Following extensive research and evaluation, it was established that the most promising concept for a relatively short development time was the gravitational system, using lead or lead alloys as the magnetohydrodynamic fluid and steam or gases as the working fluid. The Etgar Program, set up to investigate such systems, is comprised of seven segments, of which the first six have been completed; work on the last segment has been started. The segments are as follows: studies of the physical phenomena; development of a universal numerical code for parametric studies and optimization and design of the system; materials studies; development of engineering components; construction and testing of small-scale Etgar-type systems; economic evaluation and comparison with conventional technologies; and development of an industrial demonstration plant.

  3. MHD simulations of ram pressure stripping of a disk galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Mariana; Gomez, Gilberto

    2015-08-01

    The removal of the ISM of disk galaxies through ram pressure stripping (RPS) has been extensively studied in numerous simulations. These models show that this process has a significant impact on galaxy evolution (the truncation of the ISM will lead to a decrease in the star formation and the galaxy will become redder).Nevertheless, the role of the magnetic fields (MFs) on the dynamics of the gas in this process has been hardly studied, although the influence of magnetic fields on the large scale disk structure is well established. The presence of MFs produce a less compressible gas, thus increasing the scale height of the gas in the galaxy, that is, gas can be found farther away from the galactic potential well, which may lead to an easier removal of gas. We test this idea by performing a 3D MHD simulation of a disk galaxy that experiences RPS under the wind-tunnel approximation.

  4. INCORPORATING AMBIPOLAR AND OHMIC DIFFUSION IN THE AMR MHD CODE RAMSES

    SciTech Connect

    Masson, J.; Mulet-Marquis, C.; Chabrier, G.; Teyssier, R.

    2012-08-01

    We have implemented non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) effects in the adaptive mesh refinement code RAMSES, namely, ambipolar diffusion and Ohmic dissipation, as additional source terms in the ideal MHD equations. We describe in details how we have discretized these terms using the adaptive Cartesian mesh, and how the time step is diminished with respect to the ideal case, in order to perform a stable time integration. We have performed a large suite of test runs, featuring the Barenblatt diffusion test, the Ohmic diffusion test, the C-shock test, and the Alfven wave test. For the latter, we have performed a careful truncation error analysis to estimate the magnitude of the numerical diffusion induced by our Godunov scheme, allowing us to estimate the spatial resolution that is required to address non-ideal MHD effects reliably. We show that our scheme is second-order accurate, and is therefore ideally suited to study non-ideal MHD effects in the context of star formation and molecular cloud dynamics.

  5. MHD Field Line Resonances and Global Modes in Three-Dimensional Magnetic Fields

    SciTech Connect

    C.Z. Cheng

    2002-05-30

    By assuming a general isotropic pressure distribution P = P (y,a), where y and a are three-dimensional scalar functions labeling the field lines with B = -y x -a, we have derived a set of MHD eigenmode equations for both global MHD modes and field line resonances (FLR). Past MHD theories are restricted to isotropic pressures with P = P (y only). The present formulation also allows the plasma mass density to vary along the field line. The linearized ideal-MHD equations are cast into a set of global differential equations from which the field line resonance equations of the shear Alfvin waves and slow magnetosonic modes are naturally obtained for general three-dimensional magnetic field geometries with flux surfaces. Several new terms associated with the partial derivative of P with respect to alpha are obtained. In the FLR equations, a new term is found in the shear Alfvin FLR equation due to the geodesic curvature and the pressure gradient in the poloidal flux surface. The coupling between the shear Alfvin waves and the magnetosonic waves is through the combined effects of geodesic magnetic field curvature and plasma pressure as previously derived. The properties of the FLR eigenfunctions at the resonance field lines are investigated, and the behavior of the FLR wave solutions near the FLR surface are derived. Numerical solutions of the FLR equations for three-dimensional magnetospheric fields in equilibrium with high plasma pressure will be presented in a future publication.

  6. 3D Sun-to-Earth Solar Wind Modeling by SIP-CESE-MHD Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xueshang

    2012-07-01

    3D Sun-to-Earth Solar Wind Modeling by SIP-CESE-MHD Model Xueshang Feng, Xiang Changqing, Jiang Chaowei State Key Lab of Space Weather/CSSAR, CAS Beijing 100190 The objective is to present our solar-interplanetary space-time conservation element and solution element (CESE) model (SIP-CESE MHD model) (Feng, Zhou and Wu, Astrophys. J. 655, 1110, 2007; Feng et al., Astrophys. J. 723, 300, 2010; Feng et al., ApJ, 734, 50, 2011) with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) implementation under six-component/Yin-Yang grid system. In this talk, we present the results of applying the SIP-AMR-CESE MHD model for modeling the coronal mass ejection and the solar wind background of different solar activity phases by comparison with SOHO observations and other spacecraft data from OMNI. Our numerical results show overall good agreements in the solar corona and in interplanetary space with these multiple spacecraft observations. From the modeler's experience, some limitations are addressed for this kind of initial-value boundary problems in Sun-to-Earth MHD modeling, and future out-of-ecliptic and in situ observations of the Sun and solar wind will be a solution to these limitations.

  7. Measuring (13)C-(2)D dipolar couplings with a universal REDOR dephasing curve

    PubMed

    Gullion

    2000-09-01

    A (13)C-observe REDOR experiment is described which allows (13)C-(2)D dipolar couplings to be obtained by a universal dipolar dephasing curve. Previous (13)C-observe REDOR experiments on (13)C-(2)D spin pairs generally relied on numerical simulations to obtain the dipolar coupling. The REDOR experiment described in this article is based on a deuterium composite pulse, and the data analysis eliminates the need for numerical simulations and is the same as the traditional REDOR analysis performed on pairs of spin-12 nuclei. Copyright 2000 Academic Press. PMID:10968975

  8. WFR-2D: an analytical model for PWAS-generated 2D ultrasonic guided wave propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yanfeng; Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents WaveFormRevealer 2-D (WFR-2D), an analytical predictive tool for the simulation of 2-D ultrasonic guided wave propagation and interaction with damage. The design of structural health monitoring (SHM) systems and self-aware smart structures requires the exploration of a wide range of parameters to achieve best detection and quantification of certain types of damage. Such need for parameter exploration on sensor dimension, location, guided wave characteristics (mode type, frequency, wavelength, etc.) can be best satisfied with analytical models which are fast and efficient. The analytical model was constructed based on the exact 2-D Lamb wave solution using Bessel and Hankel functions. Damage effects were inserted in the model by considering the damage as a secondary wave source with complex-valued directivity scattering coefficients containing both amplitude and phase information from wave-damage interaction. The analytical procedure was coded with MATLAB, and a predictive simulation tool called WaveFormRevealer 2-D was developed. The wave-damage interaction coefficients (WDICs) were extracted from harmonic analysis of local finite element model (FEM) with artificial non-reflective boundaries (NRB). The WFR-2D analytical simulation results were compared and verified with full scale multiphysics finite element models and experiments with scanning laser vibrometer. First, Lamb wave propagation in a pristine aluminum plate was simulated with WFR-2D, compared with finite element results, and verified by experiments. Then, an inhomogeneity was machined into the plate to represent damage. Analytical modeling was carried out, and verified by finite element simulation and experiments. This paper finishes with conclusions and suggestions for future work.

  9. Human erythrocytes analyzed by generalized 2D Raman correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesełucha-Birczyńska, Aleksandra; Kozicki, Mateusz; Czepiel, Jacek; Łabanowska, Maria; Nowak, Piotr; Kowalczyk, Grzegorz; Kurdziel, Magdalena; Birczyńska, Malwina; Biesiada, Grażyna; Mach, Tomasz; Garlicki, Aleksander

    2014-07-01

    The most numerous elements of the blood cells, erythrocytes, consist mainly of two components: homogeneous interior filled with hemoglobin and closure which is the cell membrane. To gain insight into their specific properties we studied the process of disintegration, considering these two constituents, and comparing the natural aging process of human healthy blood cells. MicroRaman spectra of hemoglobin within the single RBC were recorded using 514.5, and 785 nm laser lines. The generalized 2D correlation method was applied to analyze the collected spectra. The time passed from blood donation was regarded as an external perturbation. The time was no more than 40 days according to the current storage limit of blood banks, although, the average RBC life span is 120 days. An analysis of the prominent synchronous and asynchronous cross peaks allow us to get insight into the mechanism of hemoglobin decomposition. Appearing asynchronous cross-peaks point towards globin and heme separation from each other, while synchronous shows already broken globin into individual amino acids. Raman scattering analysis of hemoglobin “wrapping”, i.e. healthy erythrocyte ghosts, allows for the following peculiarity of their behavior. The increasing power of the excitation laser induced alterations in the assemblage of membrane lipids. 2D correlation maps, obtained with increasing laser power recognized as an external perturbation, allows for the consideration of alterations in the erythrocyte membrane structure and composition, which occurs first in the proteins. Cross-peaks were observed indicating an asynchronous correlation between the senescent-cell antigen (SCA) and heme or proteins vibrations. The EPR spectra of the whole blood was analyzed regarding time as an external stimulus. The 2D correlation spectra points towards participation of the selected metal ion centers in the disintegration process.

  10. 3D track initiation in clutter using 2D measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Lin; Kirubarajan, Thiagalingam; Bar-Shalom, Yaakov

    2001-11-01

    In this paper we present an algorithm for initiating 3-D tracks using range and azimuth (bearing) measurements from a 2-D radar on a moving platform. The work is motivated by the need to track possibly low-flying targets, e.g., cruise missiles, using reports from an aircraft-based surveillance radar. Previous work on this problem considered simple linear motion in a flat earth coordinate frame. Our research extends this to a more realistic scenario where the earth"s curvature is also considered. The target is assumed to be moving along a great circle at a constant altitude. After the necessary coordinate transformations, the measurements are nonlinear functions of the target state and the observability of target altitude is severely limited. The observability, quantified by the Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB), is very sensitive to the sensor-to-target geometry. The paper presents a Maximum Likelihood (ML) estimator for estimating the target motion parameters in the Earth Centered Earth Fixed coordinate frame from 2-D range and angle measurements. In order to handle the possibility of false measurements and missed detections, which was not considered in, we use the Probabilistic Data Association (PDA) algorithm to weight the detections in a frame. The PDA-based modified global likelihood is optimized using a numerical search. The accuracies obtained by the resulting ML-PDA estimator are quantified using the CRLB for different sensor-target configurations. It is shown that the proposed estimator is efficient, that is, it meets the CRLB. Of particular interest is the achievable accuracy for estimating the target altitude, which is not observed directly by the 2-D radar, but can be only inferred from the range and bearing observations.

  11. Microwave Assisted 2D Materials Exfoliation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanbin

    Two-dimensional materials have emerged as extremely important materials with applications ranging from energy and environmental science to electronics and biology. Here we report our discovery of a universal, ultrafast, green, solvo-thermal technology for producing excellent-quality, few-layered nanosheets in liquid phase from well-known 2D materials such as such hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), graphite, and MoS2. We start by mixing the uniform bulk-layered material with a common organic solvent that matches its surface energy to reduce the van der Waals attractive interactions between the layers; next, the solutions are heated in a commercial microwave oven to overcome the energy barrier between bulk and few-layers states. We discovered the minutes-long rapid exfoliation process is highly temperature dependent, which requires precise thermal management to obtain high-quality inks. We hypothesize a possible mechanism of this proposed solvo-thermal process; our theory confirms the basis of this novel technique for exfoliation of high-quality, layered 2D materials by using an as yet unknown role of the solvent.

  12. Photocurrent spectroscopy of 2D materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobden, David

    Confocal photocurrent measurements provide a powerful means of studying many aspects of the optoelectronic and electrical properties of a 2D device or material. At a diffraction-limited point they can provide a detailed absorption spectrum, and they can probe local symmetry, ultrafast relaxation rates and processes, electron-electron interaction strengths, and transport coefficients. We illustrate this with several examples, once being the photo-Nernst effect. In gapless 2D materials, such as graphene, in a perpendicular magnetic field a photocurrent antisymmetric in the field is generated near to the free edges, with opposite sign at opposite edges. Its origin is the transverse thermoelectric current associated with the laser-induced electron temperature gradient. This effect provides an unambiguous demonstration of the Shockley-Ramo nature of long-range photocurrent generation in gapless materials. It also provides a means of investigating quasiparticle properties. For example, in the case of graphene on hBN, it can be used to probe the Lifshitz transition that occurs due to the minibands formed by the Moire superlattice. We also observe and discuss photocurrent generated in other semimetallic (WTe2) and semiconducting (WSe2) monolayers. Work supported by DoE BES and NSF EFRI grants.

  13. Multienzyme Inkjet Printed 2D Arrays.

    PubMed

    Gdor, Efrat; Shemesh, Shay; Magdassi, Shlomo; Mandler, Daniel

    2015-08-19

    The use of printing to produce 2D arrays is well established, and should be relatively facile to adapt for the purpose of printing biomaterials; however, very few studies have been published using enzyme solutions as inks. Among the printing technologies, inkjet printing is highly suitable for printing biomaterials and specifically enzymes, as it offers many advantages. Formulation of the inkjet inks is relatively simple and can be adjusted to a variety of biomaterials, while providing nonharmful environment to the enzymes. Here we demonstrate the applicability of inkjet printing for patterning multiple enzymes in a predefined array in a very straightforward, noncontact method. Specifically, various arrays of the enzymes glucose oxidase (GOx), invertase (INV) and horseradish peroxidase (HP) were printed on aminated glass surfaces, followed by immobilization using glutardialdehyde after printing. Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) was used for imaging the printed patterns and to ascertain the enzyme activity. The successful formation of 2D arrays consisting of enzymes was explored as a means of developing the first surface confined enzyme based logic gates. Principally, XOR and AND gates, each consisting of two enzymes as the Boolean operators, were assembled, and their operation was studied by SECM. PMID:26214072

  14. 2-D or not 2-D, that is the question: A Northern California test

    SciTech Connect

    Mayeda, K; Malagnini, L; Phillips, W S; Walter, W R; Dreger, D

    2005-06-06

    Reliable estimates of the seismic source spectrum are necessary for accurate magnitude, yield, and energy estimation. In particular, how seismic radiated energy scales with increasing earthquake size has been the focus of recent debate within the community and has direct implications on earthquake source physics studies as well as hazard mitigation. The 1-D coda methodology of Mayeda et al. has provided the lowest variance estimate of the source spectrum when compared against traditional approaches that use direct S-waves, thus making it ideal for networks that have sparse station distribution. The 1-D coda methodology has been mostly confined to regions of approximately uniform complexity. For larger, more geophysically complicated regions, 2-D path corrections may be required. The complicated tectonics of the northern California region coupled with high quality broadband seismic data provides for an ideal ''apples-to-apples'' test of 1-D and 2-D path assumptions on direct waves and their coda. Using the same station and event distribution, we compared 1-D and 2-D path corrections and observed the following results: (1) 1-D coda results reduced the amplitude variance relative to direct S-waves by roughly a factor of 8 (800%); (2) Applying a 2-D correction to the coda resulted in up to 40% variance reduction from the 1-D coda results; (3) 2-D direct S-wave results, though better than 1-D direct waves, were significantly worse than the 1-D coda. We found that coda-based moment-rate source spectra derived from the 2-D approach were essentially identical to those from the 1-D approach for frequencies less than {approx}0.7-Hz, however for the high frequencies (0.7{le} f {le} 8.0-Hz), the 2-D approach resulted in inter-station scatter that was generally 10-30% smaller. For complex regions where data are plentiful, a 2-D approach can significantly improve upon the simple 1-D assumption. In regions where only 1-D coda correction is available it is still preferable over 2

  15. 2D axisymmetric analysis of SRM ignition transient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, S. D.; Han, Samuel S.; Pardue, B. A.

    1993-06-01

    To analyze ignition transient of Space Shuttle solid rocket motor, a transient two-dimensional numerical model based on turbulent compressible Navier-Stokes equations in a generalized coordinate system was developed. One-dimensional numerical models (Peretz et al., 1973; Han, 1992; Pardue and Han, 1992) with empirical correlations data obtained from steady turbulent boundary layer flows agrees reasonably well with test rocket data by adjusting a few parameters. However, a 1D model can not provide a physical insight into the complex multidimensional thermal fields and flowfields in the chamber and the converging-diverging rocket nozzle. As an interim step, a 2D model was developed and compared with test data. A modified version of SIMPLE algorithm was used for the numerical model, and the standard k-epsilon model with a wall function was used for turbulence closure. Transient flowfields and thermal fields in the combustion chamber and the attached nozzle were obtained for a selected rocket geometry and propellant. Transient behaviors of the flow and thermal fields were analyzed, and were found to be in good agreement with physical expectations.

  16. On the Transition from Hydrodynamic to MHD Cascade and the Breakdown of Vorticity Homogenization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katt, L. T.; Tobias, S. M.

    2005-10-01

    We adress the simple question of ``At what value of a weak uniform B0 does a 2D hydrodynamic dual cascade (associated with enstrophy homogenization) convert to a 2D MHD forward energy cascade?" We approach this by calculating the gradient in vorticity within a cell or eddy (with closed streamlines) linked to an external magnetic field. Both a local and an averaged criterion are derived. The global criterion is in terms of an Hartmann nuber and is consistent with preliminary results of simulation. More interestingly, the degree of vorticity homogenization emerges as related to the topology of filed line to streamline linkage at the boundary of the cell, as well as the profile of current density on the boundary of the cell. A variety of stable configurations are shown to be possible and will be discussed.

  17. Multiscale simulation of 2D elastic wave propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wensheng; Zheng, Hui

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we develop the multiscale method for simulation of elastic wave propagation. Based on the first-order velocity-stress hyperbolic form of 2D elastic wave equation, the particle velocities are solved first ona coarse grid by the finite volume method. Then the stress tensor is solved by using the multiscale basis functions which can represent the fine-scale variation of the wavefield on the coarse grid. The basis functions are computed by solving a local problem with the finite element method. The theoretical formulae and description of the multiscale method for elastic wave equation are given in more detail. The numerical computations for an inhomogeneous model with random scatter are completed. The results show the effectiveness of the multiscale method.

  18. Bayesian 2D Current Reconstruction from Magnetic Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clement, Colin B.; Bierbaum, Matthew K.; Nowack, Katja; Sethna, James P.

    We employ a Bayesian image reconstruction scheme to recover 2D currents from magnetic flux imaged with scanning SQUIDs (Superconducting Quantum Interferometric Devices). Magnetic flux imaging is a versatile tool to locally probe currents and magnetic moments, however present reconstruction methods sacrifice resolution due to numerical instability. Using state-of-the-art blind deconvolution techniques we recover the currents, point-spread function and height of the SQUID loop by optimizing the probability of measuring an image. We obtain uncertainties on these quantities by sampling reconstructions. This generative modeling technique could be used to develop calibration protocols for scanning SQUIDs, to diagnose systematic noise in the imaging process, and can be applied to many tools beyond scanning SQUIDs.

  19. 2D Regimes of Non-Fourier Convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papanicolaou, N. C.

    2010-11-01

    In this work, we investigate the 2D flow in a rectangular cavity subject to both vertical and horizontal temperature gradients. The linearized model is studied and the effect of thermal relaxation, as described by the Maxwell-Cattaneo law of heat conduction is examined. To this end, a spectral numerical model is created based on a Galerkin expansion. The basis is the Cartesian product of systems of beam functions and trigonometric functions. The natural modes of the system are derived for both the Fourier and non-Fourier models. The results are compared to earlier works for the plain Fourier law. Our computations show that for the same set of parameters, the Maxwell-Cattaneo law yields modes which are quantitatively different from the Fourier. It is found that the real parts of the eigenvalues increase with the Straughan number Sg, which quantifies the non-Fourier effects. This confirms the destabilizing effect of the MC-law on the convective flow.

  20. Nonlinear filtering and limiting in high order methods for ideal and non-ideal MHD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee,H. C.; Sjogreen, B.

    2004-01-01

    The various filtering mechanisms and base scheme options of the newly developed adaptive numerical dissipation control in spatially high order filter schemes for the ideal and non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations are investigated. These filter schemes are applicable to complex unsteady MHD high-speed shock/shear/turbulence problems. They also provide a natural and efficient way for the minimization of Div(B) numerical error. The type of spatial base scheme to be used in conjunction with our filter idea is very general. For example, spectral, compact and non-compact spatially central finite difference schemes are possible candidates. The adaptive numerical dissipation mechanism consists of automatic detection of different flow features as distinct sensors to signal the appropriate type and amount of numerical dissipation/filter where needed and to leave the rest of the region free from numerical dissipation contamination. The numerical dissipation considered consists of high order linear dissipation for the suppression of high frequency oscillation and the nonlinear dissipative portion of high-resolution shock-capturing methods for discontinuity capturing. The applicable nonlinear dissipative portion of high-resolution shock-capturing methods is also very general. The objective of this paper is to investigate the performance of using compact and non-compact central base schemes in conjunction with three commonly used types of nonlinear numerical dissipation for both the ideal and non-ideal MHD. This extended abstract shows the performance of three nonlinear filters in conjunction with a sixth-order non-compact spatial central base scheme. In the final paper, the high order compact spatial central base scheme will be illustrated and compared with the non-compact base scheme. The reason for the investigation of the high order compact spatial central base scheme over the non-compact base scheme is to evaluate if additional accuracy can be gained in regions of

  1. Evolution of generalized two-dimensional magnetotail equilibria in ideal and resistive MHD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkin, V. G.; Sitnov, M. I.; Lyon, J. G.

    2015-03-01

    We present results of two-dimensional (2-D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the terrestrial magnetotail. A regional adaptation of the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry global MHD model is used. As initial conditions, we employ a class of asymptotic magnetotail equilibria with and without an accumulation of magnetic flux at the tailward end (a Bz hump). The former have been recently shown by full particle simulations to be unstable to a kinetic mode with formal properties of ion tearing. Thus, our goal here is to investigate the evolution of the same equilibria in the MHD approximation and assist in the physical interpretation of the kinetic simulations. This is additionally motivated by the energy principle considerations which suggest that if the system is unstable kinetically, it may also be unstable ideally. To seek dynamical MHD regimes similar to those observed in kinetic simulations, we implement two sets of boundary conditions (velocity balanced, VB, and momentum balanced, MB), one allowing plasma flows through the boundaries and the other inhibiting such flows. The use of more reflecting MB boundary conditions results in suppression of any significant dynamics, and we see no substantial changes beyond initial equilibrium relaxation. On the other hand, VB boundary conditions allow a more efficient relaxation of initial equilibrium and absorb subsequently generated plasma flows. With these boundary conditions we find the equilibrium without a flux accumulation (i.e., with constant magnetic field component normal to the current sheet) to develop an apparently resistive mode accompanied by tailward plasma flows. At the same time, the equilibria with a Bz hump of sufficiently large amplitude develop a different, ideal, mode characterized by spontaneous generation of earthward plasma flows and an exponential growth of the corresponding electric field. This growth is qualitatively similar to the corresponding fully kinetic simulations although no explosive growth of

  2. Canard configured aircraft with 2-D nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Child, R. D.; Henderson, W. P.

    1978-01-01

    A closely-coupled canard fighter with vectorable two-dimensional nozzle was designed for enhanced transonic maneuvering. The HiMAT maneuver goal of a sustained 8g turn at a free-stream Mach number of 0.9 and 30,000 feet was the primary design consideration. The aerodynamic design process was initiated with a linear theory optimization minimizing the zero percent suction drag including jet effects and refined with three-dimensional nonlinear potential flow techniques. Allowances were made for mutual interference and viscous effects. The design process to arrive at the resultant configuration is described, and the design of a powered 2-D nozzle model to be tested in the LRC 16-foot Propulsion Wind Tunnel is shown.

  3. 2D Electrostatic Actuation of Microshutter Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Devin E.; Oh, Lance H.; Li, Mary J.; Jones, Justin S.; Kelly, Daniel P.; Zheng, Yun; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Moseley, Samuel H.

    2015-01-01

    An electrostatically actuated microshutter array consisting of rotational microshutters (shutters that rotate about a torsion bar) were designed and fabricated through the use of models and experiments. Design iterations focused on minimizing the torsional stiffness of the microshutters, while maintaining their structural integrity. Mechanical and electromechanical test systems were constructed to measure the static and dynamic behavior of the microshutters. The torsional stiffness was reduced by a factor of four over initial designs without sacrificing durability. Analysis of the resonant behavior of the microshutter arrays demonstrates that the first resonant mode is a torsional mode occurring around 3000 Hz. At low vacuum pressures, this resonant mode can be used to significantly reduce the drive voltage necessary for actuation requiring as little as 25V. 2D electrostatic latching and addressing was demonstrated using both a resonant and pulsed addressing scheme.

  4. 2D Electrostatic Actuation of Microshutter Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Devin E.; Oh, Lance H.; Li, Mary J.; Kelly, Daniel P.; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Moseley, Samuel H.

    2015-01-01

    Electrostatically actuated microshutter arrays consisting of rotational microshutters (shutters that rotate about a torsion bar) were designed and fabricated through the use of models and experiments. Design iterations focused on minimizing the torsional stiffness of the microshutters, while maintaining their structural integrity. Mechanical and electromechanical test systems were constructed to measure the static and dynamic behavior of the microshutters. The torsional stiffness was reduced by a factor of four over initial designs without sacrificing durability. Analysis of the resonant behavior of the microshutters demonstrates that the first resonant mode is a torsional mode occurring around 3000 Hz. At low vacuum pressures, this resonant mode can be used to significantly reduce the drive voltage necessary for actuation requiring as little as 25V. 2D electrostatic latching and addressing was demonstrated using both a resonant and pulsed addressing scheme.

  5. Graphene suspensions for 2D printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soots, R. A.; Yakimchuk, E. A.; Nebogatikova, N. A.; Kotin, I. A.; Antonova, I. V.

    2016-04-01

    It is shown that, by processing a graphite suspension in ethanol or water by ultrasound and centrifuging, it is possible to obtain particles with thicknesses within 1-6 nm and, in the most interesting cases, 1-1.5 nm. Analogous treatment of a graphite suspension in organic solvent yields eventually thicker particles (up to 6-10 nm thick) even upon long-term treatment. Using the proposed ink based on graphene and aqueous ethanol with ethylcellulose and terpineol additives for 2D printing, thin (~5 nm thick) films with sheet resistance upon annealing ~30 MΩ/□ were obtained. With the ink based on aqueous graphene suspension, the sheet resistance was ~5-12 kΩ/□ for 6- to 15-nm-thick layers with a carrier mobility of ~30-50 cm2/(V s).

  6. Turbulence evolution in MHD plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisniewski, Martina; Kissmann, Ralf; Spanier, Felix; Spanier

    2013-10-01

    Turbulence in the interstellar medium has been an active field of research in the last decade. Numerical simulations are the tool of choice in most cases. However, while there are a number of simulations on the market, some questions have not been answered finally. In this paper, we examine the influence of compressible and incompressible driving on the evolution of turbulent spectra in a number of possible interstellar medium scenarios. We conclude that the driving has an influence not only on the ratio of compressible to incompressible component but also on the anisotropy of turbulence.

  7. Metrology for graphene and 2D materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollard, Andrew J.

    2016-09-01

    The application of graphene, a one atom-thick honeycomb lattice of carbon atoms with superlative properties, such as electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and strength, has already shown that it can be used to benefit metrology itself as a new quantum standard for resistance. However, there are many application areas where graphene and other 2D materials, such as molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), may be disruptive, areas such as flexible electronics, nanocomposites, sensing and energy storage. Applying metrology to the area of graphene is now critical to enable the new, emerging global graphene commercial world and bridge the gap between academia and industry. Measurement capabilities and expertise in a wide range of scientific areas are required to address this challenge. The combined and complementary approach of varied characterisation methods for structural, chemical, electrical and other properties, will allow the real-world issues of commercialising graphene and other 2D materials to be addressed. Here, examples of metrology challenges that have been overcome through a multi-technique or new approach are discussed. Firstly, the structural characterisation of defects in both graphene and MoS2 via Raman spectroscopy is described, and how nanoscale mapping of vacancy defects in graphene is also possible using tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS). Furthermore, the chemical characterisation and removal of polymer residue on chemical vapour deposition (CVD) grown graphene via secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is detailed, as well as the chemical characterisation of iron films used to grow large domain single-layer h-BN through CVD growth, revealing how contamination of the substrate itself plays a role in the resulting h-BN layer. In addition, the role of international standardisation in this area is described, outlining the current work ongoing in both the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) and the

  8. MHD Modeling of Coronal Loops: the Transition Region Throat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guarrasi, M.; Reale, F.; Orlando, S.; Mignone, A.; Klimchuk, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    Context. The expansion of coronal loops in the transition region may considerably influence the diagnostics of the plasma emission measure. The cross-sectional area of the loops is expected to depend on the temperature and pressure, and might be sensitive to the heating rate. Aims. The approach here is to study the area response to slow changes in the coronal heating rate, and check the current interpretation in terms of steady heating models. Methods. We study the area response with a time-dependent 2D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) loop model, including the description of the expanding magnetic field, coronal heating and losses by thermal conduction, and radiation from optically thin plasma. We run a simulation for a loop 50 Mm long and quasi-statically heated to about 4 millikelvin. Results. We find that the area can change substantially with the quasi-steady heating rate, e.g., by approx. 40% at 0.5 millikelvin as the loop temperature varies between 1 millikelvin and 4 millikelvin, and, therefore, affects the interpretation of the differential emission measure vs. temperature (DEM(T)) curves.

  9. The mouse ruby-eye 2(d) (ru2(d) /Hps5(ru2-d) ) allele inhibits eumelanin but not pheomelanin synthesis.

    PubMed

    Hirobe, Tomohisa; Ito, Shosuke; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa

    2013-09-01

    The novel mutation named ru2(d) /Hps5(ru2-d) , characterized by light-colored coats and ruby-eyes, prohibits differentiation of melanocytes by inhibiting tyrosinase (Tyr) activity, expression of Tyr, Tyr-related protein 1 (Tyrp1), Tyrp2, and Kit. However, it is not known whether the ru2(d) allele affects pheomelanin synthesis in recessive yellow (e/Mc1r(e) ) or in pheomelanic stage in agouti (A) mice. In this study, effects of the ru2(d) allele on pheomelanin synthesis were investigated by chemical analysis of melanin present in dorsal hairs of 5-week-old mice from F2 generation between C57BL/10JHir (B10)-co-isogenic ruby-eye 2(d) and B10-congenic recessive yellow or agouti. Eumelanin content was decreased in ruby-eye 2(d) and ruby-eye 2(d) agouti mice, whereas pheomelanin content in ruby-eye 2(d) recessive yellow and ruby-eye 2(d) agouti mice did not differ from the corresponding Ru2(d) /- mice, suggesting that the ru2(d) allele inhibits eumelanin but not pheomelanin synthesis. PMID:23672590

  10. Impact of CYP2D*6 in the adjuvant treatment of breast cancer patients with tamoxifen.

    PubMed

    Markopoulos, Christos; Kykalos, Stylianos; Mantas, Dimitrios

    2014-08-10

    Biotransformation of tamoxifen to the potent antiestrogen endoxifen is performed by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, in particular the CYP2D6 isoform. CYP2D6*4 is one of the most frequent alleles associated with loss of enzymatic activity. The incidence of CYP2D6*4 among Caucasians is estimated up to 27%, while it is present in up to 90% of all poor metabolizers within the Caucasian population. The hypothesis under question is whether the presence of one or two non-functioning (null) alleles predicts an inferior outcome in postmenopausal women with breast cancer receiving adjuvant treatment with tamoxifen. The numerous existing studies investigating the association of CYP2D6 with treatment failure in breast cancer are inconsistent and give rather conflicting results. Currently, routine CYP2D6 testing among women with breast cancer is not recommended and the significance of CYP2D6 phenotype in decision making regarding the administration of tamoxifen is unclear. The present study summarizes current literature regarding clinical studies on CYP2D6*4, particularly in terms of response to tamoxifen therapy and breast cancer outcome. PMID:25114852

  11. Impact of CYP2D*6 in the adjuvant treatment of breast cancer patients with tamoxifen

    PubMed Central

    Markopoulos, Christos; Kykalos, Stylianos; Mantas, Dimitrios

    2014-01-01

    Biotransformation of tamoxifen to the potent antiestrogen endoxifen is performed by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, in particular the CYP2D6 isoform. CYP2D6*4 is one of the most frequent alleles associated with loss of enzymatic activity. The incidence of CYP2D6*4 among Caucasians is estimated up to 27%, while it is present in up to 90% of all poor metabolizers within the Caucasian population. The hypothesis under question is whether the presence of one or two non-functioning (null) alleles predicts an inferior outcome in postmenopausal women with breast cancer receiving adjuvant treatment with tamoxifen. The numerous existing studies investigating the association of CYP2D6 with treatment failure in breast cancer are inconsistent and give rather conflicting results. Currently, routine CYP2D6 testing among women with breast cancer is not recommended and the significance of CYP2D6 phenotype in decision making regarding the administration of tamoxifen is unclear. The present study summarizes current literature regarding clinical studies on CYP2D6*4, particularly in terms of response to tamoxifen therapy and breast cancer outcome. PMID:25114852

  12. Similarities between 2D and 3D convection for large Prandtl number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Ambrish; Verma, Mahendra K.; Chatterjee, Anando G.; Dutta, Biplab

    2016-06-01

    Using direct numerical simulations of Rayleigh-B\\'{e}nard convection (RBC), we perform a comparative study of the spectra and fluxes of energy and entropy, and the scaling of large-scale quantities for large and infinite Prandtl numbers in two (2D) and three (3D) dimensions. We observe close similarities between the 2D and 3D RBC, in particular the kinetic energy spectrum $E_u(k) \\sim k^{-13/3}$, and the entropy spectrum exhibits a dual branch with a dominant $k^{-2}$ spectrum. We showed that the dominant Fourier modes in the 2D and 3D flows are very close. Consequently, the 3D RBC is quasi two-dimensional, which is the reason for the similarities between the 2D and 3D RBC for large- and infinite Prandtl numbers.

  13. Flow development and analysis of MHD generators and seawater thrusters

    SciTech Connect

    Doss, E.D. ); Roy, G.D. )

    1992-03-01

    In this paper, the flow characteristics inside magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) plasma generators and seawater thrusters are analyzed and are compared using a three-dimensional computer model that solves the governing partial differential equations for fluid flow and electrical fields. Calculations have been performed for a Faraday plasma generator and for a continuous electrode seawater thruster. The results of the calculations show that the effects caused by the interaction of the MHD forces with the fluid flow are strongly manifested in the case of the MHD generator as compared to the flow development in the MHD thruster. The existence of velocity overshoots over the sidewalls confirm previously published results for MHD generators with strong MHD interaction. For MHD thrusters, the velocity profile is found to be slightly flatter over the sidewall as compared to that over the electrode wall. As a result, distinct enhancement of the skin friction exists over the sidewalls of MHD generators in comparison to that of MHD thrusters. Plots of velocity profiles and skin friction distributions are presented to illustrate and compare the flow development in MHD generators and thrusters.

  14. Power facility with a built-in multipolar MHD generator

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalev, K.L.; Markina, T.A.

    1995-05-01

    The scheme of a power facility with a built-in multipolar MHD generator is discussed. In most papers devoted to airborne high-power MHD generators (self-contained or built into the nozzle of the propulsion unit), MHD channels are discussed that are based on a two-pole scheme. The processes of energy conversion in these MHD generators are usually accompanied by disturbances of flow in the entire channel volume, which, in many cases, is undesirable for the operation of power facilities. Depending on the number of pairs of poles, the proposed facility makes it possible to accomplish MHD conversion both in the nozzle peripheral zone and in the central part of the flow. An analysis of the methods and results of calculations of volume MHD effects for finite Hall parameters {beta} and MHD-interaction s, as well as of the output characteristics of multipolar MHD generators equipped with electrode modules of different types are given. A comparison of the theoretical and experimental data is made. A scheme involving an advanced propulsion unit fired with cryogenic fuel H{sub 2}+O{sub 2} and a built-in multipolar MHD generator is considered. The problems of using built-in multipolar MHD generators in propulsion units utilizing other fuel pairs are discussed.

  15. Study of Magnetorotational Instability and MHD Surface Waves in Liquid Gallium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, H.; Chen, F.; Kageyama, A.; Goodman, J.; Shoshan, E.; Rappaport, H.; Borg, M.; Halcrow, J.

    2002-11-01

    Two liquid gallium experiments have been constructed in PPPL to study basic MHD physics related to astrophysics and fusion sciences. The first experiment focuses on laboratory studies of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in a rotating gallium disk or a short Couette flow geometry. The MRI has been proposed as a dominant mechanism for fast angular momentum transport in electrically-conducting accretion disks ranging from quasars and X-ray binaries to cataclysmic variables and perhaps even protoplanetary disks. Experiments using a prototype water disk has revealed importance of Ekman circulation, consistent with 2D hydrodynamic simulations. A revised design using multiple rings at each end of the flow are being implemented. The second experiment focuses on MHD surface waves in a large liquid gallium pool. It has been found that the damping rates of driven 1D surface waves propogating along a magnetic field are consistent with linear theory. The parametric excitation of 2D surface waves is being studied to elucidate effects of a horizonally imposed magnetic field on the dynamics of pattern formation. Detailed results will be presented for both experiments and implications to astrophysics and to the liquid metal wall concept in fusion reactors will be discussed. This work is supported by DoE.

  16. Analysis of Helicities and Hall and MHD Dynamo Effects in Two-Fluid Reversed-Field Pinch Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauppe, Joshua; Sovinec, Carl

    2015-11-01

    Relaxation in the RFP is studied numerically with extended-MHD modeling that includes the Hall term and ion gyroviscous stress. Previous results show significant coupling between magnetic relaxation and parallel flow evolution [King PoP 19, 055905]. Computations presented here display quasi-periodic relaxation events with current relaxation through MHD and Hall dynamo drives. The MHD dynamo always relaxes currents while the Hall dynamo may add or subtract from it, but the total dynamo drive is similar to single-fluid MHD computations. Changes in plasma momentum are due to viscous coupling to the wall and fluctuation-induced Maxwell stresses transport momentum radially inward when two-fluid effects are included. The magnetic helicity and hybrid helicity, a two-fluid extension of magnetic helicity that includes cross and kinetic helicity [Turner, 1986], are well-conserved relative to magnetic energy at each event. The cross helicity is well-conserved in single-fluid MHD but is significantly affected by both two-fluid effects and ion gyroviscosity. The plasma parallel current evolves towards the predicted flat profile; however, the plasma flow does not. Work supported through NSF grant PHY-0821899 and DOE grant DE-FG02-06ER54850.

  17. Regular shock refraction in planar ideal MHD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delmont, P.; Keppens, R.

    2010-03-01

    We study the classical problem of planar shock refraction at an oblique density discontinuity, separating two gases at rest, in planar ideal (magneto)hydrodynamics. In the hydrodynamical case, 3 signals arise and the interface becomes Richtmyer-Meshkov unstable due to vorticity deposition on the shocked contact. In the magnetohydrodynamical case, on the other hand, when the normal component of the magnetic field does not vanish, 5 signals will arise. The interface then typically remains stable, since the Rankine-Hugoniot jump conditions in ideal MHD do not allow for vorticity deposition on a contact discontinuity. We present an exact Riemann solver based solution strategy to describe the initial self similar refraction phase. Using grid-adaptive MHD simulations, we show that after reflection from the top wall, the interface remains stable.

  18. Analytical investigation of critical MHD phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Development and analysis of schemes for suppression of the startup overvoltage transient in the AEDC High Performance Demonstration Experiment (HPDE), analysis of performance enhancement due to electrode voltage drop reduction by use of pyrolytic graphites in the HPDE, prediction of optimal loading schemes for the HPDE, prediction of PHDE performance with a diagonal electrical connection, and predictions of the likelihood and effects of axial current leakage between adjacent electrodes in the HPDE are reviewed. Simulations of tests at the AEDC/HPDE with STD Research Corporation multidimensional and time dependent computer codes provided additional validation for the computer codes and shed light on physical mechanisms which govern performance and durability of MHD power generators. The magnetoaerothermal effect was predicted by STD Research Corporation to have a significant effect on the HPDE/MHD generator performance at high interaction.

  19. Amplitudes of MHD Waves in Sunspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, Aimee Ann; Cally, Paul; Baldner, Charles; Kleint, Lucia; Tarbell, Theodore D.; De Pontieu, Bart; Scherrer, Philip H.; Rajaguru, Paul

    2016-05-01

    The conversion of p-modes into MHD waves by strong magnetic fields occurs mainly in the sub-photospheric layers. The photospheric signatures of MHD waves are weak due to low amplitudes at the beta=1 equipartion level where mode-conversion occurs. We report on small amplitude oscillations observed in the photosphere with Hinode SOT/SP in which we analyze time series for sunspots ARs 12186 (11.10.2014) and 12434 (17.10.2015). No significant magnetic field oscillations are recovered in the umbra or penumbra in the ME inversion. However, periodicities in the inclination angle are found at the umbral/penumbral boundary with 5 minute periods. Upward propagating waves are indicated in the intensity signals correlated between HMI and AIA at different heights. We compare SP results with the oscillations observed in HMI data. Simultaneous IRIS data shows transition region brightening above the umbral core.

  20. MHD Waves in the Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofman, L.

    2016-02-01

    This chapter focuses on reviewing several observational aspects of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves in the solar wind, in particular on Alfvén waves, Alfvénic turbulent spectrum, and their role in heating and accelerating the solar wind. It also reviews computational models that incorporate Alfvén waves as the driving source of the wind in the lower corona (coronal holes) and in the inner heliosphere, with emphasis on multi-dimensional models. Evidence for MHD waves in the solar wind is obtained from interplanetary scintillation (IPS) observations using Earth-based radio telescope observations of distant (galactic) radio sources. The solar wind electron density variability in the line of sight affects the received radio signal. The propagating fluctuations and their correlations are used to estimate the solar wind velocity and the wave amplitude in the parallel and the perpendicular directions in line of sight.