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Sample records for 2-d seismic profiles

  1. The seismic analyzer: interpreting and illustrating 2D seismic data.

    PubMed

    Patel, Daniel; Giertsen, Christopher; Thurmond, John; Gjelberg, John; Gröller, M Eduard

    2008-01-01

    We present a toolbox for quickly interpreting and illustrating 2D slices of seismic volumetric reflection data. Searching for oil and gas involves creating a structural overview of seismic reflection data to identify hydrocarbon reservoirs. We improve the search of seismic structures by precalculating the horizon structures of the seismic data prior to interpretation. We improve the annotation of seismic structures by applying novel illustrative rendering algorithms tailored to seismic data, such as deformed texturing and line and texture transfer functions. The illustrative rendering results in multi-attribute and scale invariant visualizations where features are represented clearly in both highly zoomed in and zoomed out views. Thumbnail views in combination with interactive appearance control allows for a quick overview of the data before detailed interpretation takes place. These techniques help reduce the work of seismic illustrators and interpreters.

  2. 2D Seismic Reflection Data across Central Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Valerie; Leetaru, Hannes

    2014-09-30

    In a continuing collaboration with the Midwest Geologic Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) on the Evaluation of the Carbon Sequestration Potential of the Cambro-Ordovician Strata of the Illinois and Michigan Basins project, Schlumberger Carbon Services and WesternGeco acquired two-dimensional (2D) seismic data in the Illinois Basin. This work included the design, acquisition and processing of approximately 125 miles of (2D) seismic reflection surveys running west to east in the central Illinois Basin. Schlumberger Carbon Services and WesternGeco oversaw the management of the field operations (including a pre-shoot planning, mobilization, acquisition and de-mobilization of the field personnel and equipment), procurement of the necessary permits to conduct the survey, post-shoot closure, processing of the raw data, and provided expert consultation as needed in the interpretation of the delivered product. Three 2D seismic lines were acquired across central Illinois during November and December 2010 and January 2011. Traversing the Illinois Basin, this 2D seismic survey was designed to image the stratigraphy of the Cambro-Ordovician sections and also to discern the basement topography. Prior to this survey, there were no regionally extensive 2D seismic data spanning this section of the Illinois Basin. Between the NW side of Morgan County and northwestern border of Douglas County, these seismic lines ran through very rural portions of the state. Starting in Morgan County, Line 101 was the longest at 93 miles in length and ended NE of Decatur, Illinois. Line 501 ran W-E from the Illinois Basin – Decatur Project (IBDP) site to northwestern Douglas County and was 25 miles in length. Line 601 was the shortest and ran N-S past the IBDP site and connected lines 101 and 501. All three lines are correlated to well logs at the IBDP site. Originally processed in 2011, the 2D seismic profiles exhibited a degradation of signal quality below ~400 millisecond (ms) which made

  3. Cross Gradient Based Joint Inversion of 2D Wide Angle Seismic Reflection/Refraction and Gravity Data Along the Profile Through the 2010 Ms 7.1 Yushu Earthquake, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, S.; Zhang, H.

    2015-12-01

    2D wide-angle seismic reflection/refraction survey has been widely used to investigate crustal structure and Moho topography. Similarly gravity survey is also very important in the study of local and regional earth features. Seismic survey is sensitive to the seismic velocity parameters and interface variations. For gravity survey, it is sensitive to density parameters of the medium but the resolution along the vertical direction is relatively poor. In this study, we have developed a strategy to jointly invert for seismic velocity model, density model and interface positions using the gravity observations and seismic arrival times from different phases. For the joint inversion of seismic and gravity data, it often relies on the empirical relationship between seismic velocity and density. In comparison, our joint inversion strategy also includes the cross-gradient based structure constraint for seismic velocity and density models in addition to the empirical relationship between them. The objective function for the joint inversion includes data misfit terms for seismic travel times and gravity observations, the cross-gradient constraint, the smoothness terms for two models, and the data misfit term between predicted gravity data based on density model converted from velocity model using the empirical relationship. Each term has its respective weight. We have applied the new joint inversion method to the Riwoqe-Yushu-Maduo profile in northwest China. The profile crosses through the Qiangtang block and Bayan Har block from southwest to northeast, respectively. The 2010 Ms 7.1 Yushu earthquake is located on the profile, around the Ganzi-Yushu fault zone. The joint inversion produces the velocity and density models that are similar in structure and at the same time fit their respective data sets well. Compared to separate seismic inversion using seismic travel times, the joint inversion with gravity data gives a velocity model that better delineates the fault zones. Low

  4. Predicting abnormal pressure from 2-D seismic velocity modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Grauls, D.; Dunand, J.P.; Beaufort, D.

    1995-12-01

    Seismic velocities are the only data available, before drilling, on which to base a quantitative, present-day estimate of abnormal pressure. Recent advances in seismic velocity processing have enabled them to obtain, using an in-house approach, an optimized 2-D interval velocity field and consequently to better define the lateral extension of pressure regimes. The methodology, interpretation and quantification of overpressure-related anomalies are supported by case studies, selected in sand-shale dominated Tertiary basins, offshore West Africa. Another advantage of this approach is that it can also account for the presence of reservoir-potential intervals at great depth and thus provide significant insight, from a prospective standpoint, into very poorly explored areas. Although at the outset the 2-D seismic tool legitimately merits being favored, optimization of the final predictive pressure model, prior to drilling, will depend upon the success of its combined use with other concepts and approaches, pertaining to structural geology, sedimentology, rock mechanics and fluid dynamics.

  5. 2D Time-lapse Seismic Tomography Using An Active Time Constraint (ATC) Approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    We propose a 2D seismic time-lapse inversion approach to image the evolution of seismic velocities over time and space. The forward modeling is based on solving the eikonal equation using a second-order fast marching method. The wave-paths are represented by Fresnel volumes rathe...

  6. The development and testing of a 2D laboratory seismic modelling system for heterogeneous structure investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Yike; Greenhalgh, Stewart A.; Robertsson, Johan O. A.; Karaman, Hakki

    2015-05-01

    Lateral velocity variations and low velocity near-surface layers can produce strong scattered and guided waves which interfere with reflections and lead to severe imaging problems in seismic exploration. In order to investigate these specific problems by laboratory seismic modelling, a simple 2D ultrasonic model facility has been recently assembled within the Wave Propagation Lab at ETH Zurich. The simulated geological structures are constructed from 2 mm thick metal and plastic sheets, cut and bonded together. The experiments entail the use of a piezoelectric source driven by a pulse amplifier at ultrasonic frequencies to generate Lamb waves in the plate, which are detected by piezoelectric receivers and recorded digitally on a National Instruments recording system, under LabVIEW software control. The 2D models employed were constructed in-house in full recognition of the similitude relations. The first heterogeneous model features a flat uniform low velocity near-surface layer and deeper dipping and flat interfaces separating different materials. The second model is comparable but also incorporates two rectangular shaped inserts, one of low velocity, the other of high velocity. The third model is identical to the second other than it has an irregular low velocity surface layer of variable thickness. Reflection as well as transmission experiments (crosshole & vertical seismic profiling) were performed on each model. The two dominant Lamb waves recorded are the fundamental symmetric mode (non-dispersive) and the fundamental antisymmetric (flexural) dispersive mode, the latter normally being absent when the source transducer is located on a model edge but dominant when it is on the flat planar surface of the plate. Experimental group and phase velocity dispersion curves were determined and plotted for both modes in a uniform aluminium plate. For the reflection seismic data, various processing techniques were applied, as far as pre-stack Kirchhoff migration. The

  7. 2D seismic residual statics derived from refraction interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Jie

    2016-07-01

    Refraction traveltimes have long been applied for deriving long-wavelength statics solutions. These traveltimes are also applied for the derivation of residual statics, but they must be sufficiently accurate at short wavelengths. In this study, we present a seismic residual statics method that applies interferometric theory to produce four stacked virtual refraction gathers with a significantly improved signal-to-noise ratio. These gathers are composed of forward and backward virtual refraction gathers for receivers and shots. By picking the first arrivals on these four gathers followed by the application of a set of refraction equations, reliable residual statics solutions can be derived. This approach can help deal with noisy data and also avoid using traveltime picks from shot gathers. We demonstrate the approach by applying it to synthetic data as well as real data.

  8. 2D seismic reflection tomography in strongly anisotropic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Guangnan; Zhou, Bing; Li, Hongxi; Zhang, Hua; Li, Zelin

    2014-12-01

    Seismic traveltime tomography is an effective method to reconstruct underground anisotropic parameters. Currently, most anisotropic tomographic methods were developed under the assumption of weak anisotropy. The tomographic method proposed here can be implemented for imaging subsurface targets in strongly anisotropic media with a known tilted symmetry axis, since the adopted ray tracing method is suitable for anisotropic media with arbitrary degree. There are three kinds of reflection waves (qP, qSV and qSH waves) that were separately used to invert the blocky abnormal body model. The reflection traveltime tomographiy is developed here because a surface observation system is the most economical and practical way compared with crosswell and VSP. The numerical examples show that the traveltimes of qP reflection wave have inverted parameters {{c}11},{{c}13},{{c}33} \\text{and} {{c}44} successfully. Traveltimes of qSV reflection wave have inverted parameters {{c}11},{{c}33} \\text{and} {{c}44} successfully, with the exception of the {{c}13}, since it is less sensitive than other parameters. Traveltimes of qSH reflection wave also have inverted parameters {{c}44} \\text{and} {{c}66} successfully. In addition, we find that the velocity sensitivity functions (derivatives of phase velocity with respect to elastic moduli parameters) and raypath illuminating angles have a great influence on the qualities of tomograms according to the inversion of theoretical models. Finally, the numerical examples confirm that the reflection traveltime tomography can be applied to invert strongly anisotropic models.

  9. High Resolution 2D Seismic Exploration of Poly-Metallic Massive Sulfide deposits at Garpenberg, Central Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, O.; Juhlin, C.

    2012-04-01

    The Garpenberg mine is a VMS stratabound deposit in central Sweden which is located in the main mineralized part of a palaeoprotrozoic felsic magmatic province in the Baltic Shield. It has been mined for centuries and continues to date, therefore shallow deposits will soon be mined out. The seismic reflection method has been used recently in mineral exploration for imaging the subsurface by many researchers around the world. Therefore, to explore and evaluate the deeper potential, a 2D seismic profile was acquired over parts of the mining area. Due to the complexity in the structural geology of the area, a high resolution was desired along the profile and 5 meters spacing for shots and receivers was used. Underground activity and traffic on the surface generated significant noise, so that it was not possible to observe reflections on shot gathers easily. To attenuate coherent noise on shot gathers, an F-K filter was applied followed by deconvolution and a spectral weighting filter to improve the data quality. Most of the reflections on stacked section emanate from out of the plane and require a cross-dip correction to be imaged optimally. Velocity analysis, DMO and migration further improved the images. This study has shown that the reflection seismic method has potential in imaging complex structures in this challenging environment. The cross-dip correction is an important tool to enhance dipping and sub-horizontal seismic reflections and diffractions. Interpretation of the reflections shows that there is good correlation between the migrated seismic stacked section and some geological features.

  10. Modelling of a coal seam of the deposit Đurđevik (BiH) by means of 2D reflection seismic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsenović, Siniša; Urošević, Milovan; Sretenović, Branislav; Cvetkov, Vesna; Životić, Dragana

    2016-06-01

    A low cost 2D reflection seismic survey was used to map the continuity of the main seams as well as the numerous faults at the Đurđevik sub-bituminous coal deposit (BiH). A 24-channel seismic data acquisition system was available for this survey. The natural high reflectivity of the coal seams and a favourable geometry of seismic profiles enabled the identification and correlation of major faults across the area. Rugged terrain presented challenges to both data acquisition and processing. Stacks of acceptable quality were obtained only after the application of surface consistent statics and careful application of multi-channel filtering. A set of recorded 2D lines was interpreted in a 3D environment. Inferred structural elements disrupting the seam continuity were identified and were in agreement with available drilling results and mine workings. The result of this work was used to reduce mining hazards and also to help optimise mine planning.

  11. Proteomic Profiling of Macrophages by 2D Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Bouvet, Marion; Turkieh, Annie; Acosta-Martin, Adelina E.; Chwastyniak, Maggy; Beseme, Olivia; Amouyel, Philippe; Pinet, Florence

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the two-dimensional (2D) electrophoresis protocol described here is to show how to analyse the phenotype of human cultured macrophages. The key role of macrophages has been shown in various pathological disorders such as inflammatory, immunological, and infectious diseases. In this protocol, we use primary cultures of human monocyte-derived macrophages that can be differentiated into the M1 (pro-inflammatory) or the M2 (anti-inflammatory) phenotype. This in vitro model is reliable for studying the biological activities of M1 and M2 macrophages and also for a proteomic approach. Proteomic techniques are useful for comparing the phenotype and behaviour of M1 and M2 macrophages during host pathogenicity. 2D gel electrophoresis is a powerful proteomic technique for mapping large numbers of proteins or polypeptides simultaneously. We describe the protocol of 2D electrophoresis using fluorescent dyes, named 2D Differential Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE). The M1 and M2 macrophages proteins are labelled with cyanine dyes before separation by isoelectric focusing, according to their isoelectric point in the first dimension, and their molecular mass, in the second dimension. Separated protein or polypeptidic spots are then used to detect differences in protein or polypeptide expression levels. The proteomic approaches described here allows the investigation of the macrophage protein changes associated with various disorders like host pathogenicity or microbial toxins. PMID:25408153

  12. Downhole synthetic seismic profiles in elastic media

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, X

    1990-02-01

    A multichannel lattice filter structure is utilized to represent seismic waves propagating in adjacent layers in an elastic medium. Using this model, an explicit time-domain solution for arbitrary source and receiver locations is obtained as an arma (autoregressive and moving-average) process. The lattice and arma structures have given rise to an effective algorithm for the calculation of offset/downhole synthetic seismograms. A large range of recently developed offset/downhole seismic survey geometries, such as the Yo-Yo arrangement, can thus be simulated. In addition, the explicit solutions for upgoing and downgoing waves provide new insight into the properties of general downhole seismic signals, including wave-mode conversion effects and multiple reflections. Furthermore, offset/downhole seismograms generated by a line source (i.e., 2D point source) can also be constructed by superposition of plane waves with different incidence angles.

  13. Seismic Velocity Structure Across the Quebrada and Gofar Oceanic Transform Faults from 2D Refraction Tomography - A Comparison of Faults with High and Low Seismic Slip Deficits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roland, E. C.; McGuire, J. J.; Collins, J. A.; Lizarralde, D.

    2009-12-01

    We perform two 2-D tomographic inversions using data collected as a part of the Quebrada-Discovery-Gofar (QDG) Transform Fault Active/Passive Experiment. The QDG transform faults are located in the southern Pacific Ocean and offset the East Pacific Rise (EPR) at approximately 4° south. In the spring of 2008, two ~100 km refraction profiles were collected, each using 8 short period Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS) from OBSIP and over 900 shots from the RV Marcus Langseth, across the easternmost segments of the Quebrada and Gofar transform faults. The two refraction profiles are modeled using a 2-D tomographic code that allows joint inversion of the Pg, PmP, and Pn arrivals (Korenaga et al., 2000). Variations in crustal velocity and thickness, as well as the width and depth extent of a significant low velocity zone within and below the transform valley provide some insight into the material properties of each of the fault-zones. Reduced seismic velocities that are 0.5 to over 1.0 km/s slower than velocities associated with the oceanic crust outside the fault zone may indicate the highly fractured fault zone lithology. The low velocity zone associated with the Quebrada fault also extends to the south of the active fault zone, beneath a fossil fault trace. Because Gofar is offset by an intratransform spreading center, we are able to compare ‘normal’ oceanic crust produced at the EPR to the south of the fault with crust associated with the ~15 km intratransform spreading center to the north. These two high slip rate (14 cm/yr) faults look similar morphologically and demonstrate comparable microseismicity characteristics, however their abilities to generate large earthquakes differ significantly. Gofar generates large earthquakes (Mw ~6) regularly every few years, but in the past 24 years only one large (Mw 5.6) event has been reliably located on Quebrada. The contrasting seismic behavior of these faults represents the range of behavior observed in the global

  14. Geomorphological relationships through the use of 2-D seismic reflection data, Lidar, and aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alesce, Meghan Elizabeth

    Barrier Islands are crucial in protecting coastal environments. This study focuses on Dauphin Island, Alabama, located within the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) Barrier Island complex. It is one of many islands serving as natural protection for NGOM ecosystems and coastal cities. The NGOM barrier islands formed at 4 kya in response to a decrease in rate of sea level rise. The morphology of these islands changes with hurricanes, anthropogenic activity, and tidal and wave action. This study focuses on ancient incised valleys and and the impact on island morphology on hurricane breaches. Using high frequency 2-D seismic reflection data four horizons, including the present seafloor, were interpreted. Subaerial portions of Dauphin Island were imaged using Lidar data and aerial imagery over a ten-year time span, as well as historical maps. Historical shorelines of Dauphin Island were extracted from aerial imagery and historical maps, and were compared to the location of incised valleys seen within the 2-D seismic reflection data. Erosion and deposition volumes of Dauphin Island from 1998 to 2010 (the time span covering hurricanes Ivan and Katrina) in the vicinity of Katrina Cut and Pelican Island were quantified using Lidar data. For the time period prior to Hurricane Ivan an erosional volume of 46,382,552 m3 and depositional volume of 16,113.6 m3 were quantified from Lidar data. The effects of Hurricane Ivan produced a total erosion volume of 4,076,041.5 m3. The erosional and depositional volumes of Katrina Cut being were 7,562,068.5 m3 and 510,936.7 m3, respectively. More volume change was found within Pelican Pass. For the period between hurricanes Ivan and Katrina the erosion volume was 595,713.8 m3. This was mostly located within Katrina Cut. Total deposition for the same period, including in Pelican Pass, was 15,353,961 m3. Hurricane breaches were compared to ancient incised valleys seen within the 2-D seismic reflection results. Breaches from hurricanes from 1849

  15. 2-D Gaussian beam imaging of multicomponent seismic data in anisotropic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protasov, M. I.

    2015-12-01

    An approach for true-amplitude seismic beam imaging of multicomponent seismic data in 2-D anisotropic elastic media is presented and discussed. Here, the recovered true-amplitude function is a scattering potential. This approach is a migration procedure based on the weighted summation of pre-stack data. The true-amplitude weights are computed by applying Gaussian beams (GBs). We shoot a pair of properly chosen GBs with a fixed dip and opening angles from the current imaging point towards an acquisition system. This pair of beams is used to compute a true-amplitude selective image of a rapid velocity variation. The total true-amplitude image is constructed by superimposing selective images computed for a range of available dip angles. The global regularity of the GBs allows one to disregard whether a ray field is regular or irregular. P- and S-wave GBs can be used to handle raw multicomponent data without separating the waves. The use of anisotropic GBs allows one to take into account the anisotropy of the background model.

  16. Carbonate platform-margins and reefs distribution using 2-D seismic analysis, Central Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harzali, Makrem; Troudi, Habib; Ben Boubaker, Kamel; Ouali, Jamel

    2014-12-01

    The seismic characterization of sedimentary facies in a carbonate platform, comprising different types of reefs constructions, is based using two-dimensional (2-D) seismic and borehole data. Reefs of the Aptian Serdj carbonates are shown as mounds of strong chaotic amplitudes that have a high-amplitude continuous reflection at the top. They are sealed by Albian marl and claystone deposits characterized by mid- to low-amplitude, parallel and discontinuous to weak reflections. These buildups were restricted to the outer platform margin of Central Tunisia. Sea level oscillations associated with master fault rejuvenation governed the growth, the distribution and development of these reefs. Their distribution is largely controlled by deep-seated fault-related folds and the topography of underlying structures, representing local domal uplifts. Falls of sea level led to subaerial exposure and the development of a karstified denudation of the carbonate platform. Subsequently, reefs were partially or totally destroyed and then overlain, during the Albian, by marls and claystones of the Fahdene Formation. Their study indicates that reef buildups have important oil and gas exploration potential, not only onshore, but also in offshore, Central Tunisia.

  17. Source rock potential analysis using rock physics approach and 2D seismic data inversion: case study of Great Australian Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulakova, V.

    2015-12-01

    The quantity of total organic carbon (TOC) and its type determine the ability of source rocks to generate hydrocarbons. Thus, the quantification of TOC content is an essential part of any reservoir characterisation project. Traditionally TOC is estimated from geochemical analysis of core samples. In this case the results are limited spatially by a well location as well as vertically by a number of tested samples. At the same time TOC vertical variability might be very high, changing every 1-3 m. The several methods have been deployed to estimate TOC from well-log data which provides continuous vertical profile estimations. The basin wide information might be provided by the utilization of seismic surveys. The methodology of mapping source rocks based on seismic data has been lately reported to be successful for the thick source rocks (>20 m) with relatively high TOC values up to 3-4% (Løseth et al., 2011). We employ the described approach and demonstrate our findings for a case study from Ceduna Basin (Great Australian Bight, Australia). The reported TOC values estimated from the cores go up to only 1.3%. The organic matter is contained in thin layers of claystones interlayered with sandstones. The workflow included TOC estimation from the well-log data and then seismic data inversion performed in JasonTM software. The inverted acoustic impedance decreases nonlinearly with increasing TOC content. The obtained results comprises 2D section of TOC distribution. The calculated TOC values are in a good agreement with the results of laboratory measurements. The results of this study show that TOC can be successfully estimated from seismic data inversion even in the case of low organic matter values. Further work has to be done to understand whether this approach works for different types of organic matter and stages of its maturation. Løseth H., Wensaas L., Gading M., Duffaut K., Springer M. 2001. Can hydrocarbon source rocks be identified on seismic data? Geology 39/12.

  18. 2D electron density profile measurement in tokamak by laser-accelerated ion-beam probea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. H.; Yang, X. Y.; Lin, C.; Wang, L.; Xu, M.; Wang, X. G.; Xiao, C. J.

    2014-11-01

    A new concept of Heavy Ion Beam Probe (HIBP) diagnostic has been proposed, of which the key is to replace the electrostatic accelerator of traditional HIBP by a laser-driven ion accelerator. Due to the large energy spread of ions, the laser-accelerated HIBP can measure the two-dimensional (2D) electron density profile of tokamak plasma. In a preliminary simulation, a 2D density profile was reconstructed with a spatial resolution of about 2 cm, and with the error below 15% in the core region. Diagnostics of 2D density fluctuation is also discussed.

  19. 2D electron density profile measurement in tokamak by laser-accelerated ion-beam probe.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y H; Yang, X Y; Lin, C; Wang, L; Xu, M; Wang, X G; Xiao, C J

    2014-11-01

    A new concept of Heavy Ion Beam Probe (HIBP) diagnostic has been proposed, of which the key is to replace the electrostatic accelerator of traditional HIBP by a laser-driven ion accelerator. Due to the large energy spread of ions, the laser-accelerated HIBP can measure the two-dimensional (2D) electron density profile of tokamak plasma. In a preliminary simulation, a 2D density profile was reconstructed with a spatial resolution of about 2 cm, and with the error below 15% in the core region. Diagnostics of 2D density fluctuation is also discussed.

  20. 2D electron density profile measurement in tokamak by laser-accelerated ion-beam probe

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y. H.; Yang, X. Y.; Lin, C. E-mail: cjxiao@pku.edu.cn; Wang, X. G.; Xiao, C. J. E-mail: cjxiao@pku.edu.cn; Wang, L.; Xu, M.

    2014-11-15

    A new concept of Heavy Ion Beam Probe (HIBP) diagnostic has been proposed, of which the key is to replace the electrostatic accelerator of traditional HIBP by a laser-driven ion accelerator. Due to the large energy spread of ions, the laser-accelerated HIBP can measure the two-dimensional (2D) electron density profile of tokamak plasma. In a preliminary simulation, a 2D density profile was reconstructed with a spatial resolution of about 2 cm, and with the error below 15% in the core region. Diagnostics of 2D density fluctuation is also discussed.

  1. Monitoring of injected CO2 using the seismic full waveform inversion for 2-D elastic VTI media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W. K.; Min, D. J.; KIM, S.; Shin, Y.; Moon, S.

    2014-12-01

    To monitor the injected CO2 in the subsurface, seismic monitoring techniques are extensively applied because of its high resolution. Among the seismic monitoring techniques, seismic full waveform inversion (FWI) has high applicability because it can delineate parameter changes by injected CO2. When seismic FWIs are applied, subsurface media can be generally assumed to be isotropic. However, most subsurface media are not isotropic, and shale is a representative anisotropic medium, particularly vertical transversely isotropic (VTI) medium, which is often encountered as a barrier to injected CO2. Thus, anisotropic properties of subsurface media are important for monitoring of injected CO2. For these issues, we need to consider anisotropy of subsurface media when seismic FWIs are applied as a monitoring tool for CO2 sequestration. In this study, we performed seismic FWI for 2-D elastic VTI media to investigate the effects of anisotropic properties in CO2 monitoring. For this numerical test, we assumed a geological model, which copies after one of CO2 storage prospects in Korea. We also applied seismic FWI algorithm for 2-D elastic isotropic media for comparison. From this comparison, we noticed that we can obtain more reliable results when we apply the anisotropic FWI algorithm. Numerical examples indicate that we should apply the anisotropic FWI algorithm rather than the isotropic FWI algorithm when we interpret seismic monitoring data acquired in anisotropic media to increase the success of monitoring for injected CO2. Our numerical results can also be used as references for real seismic monitoring of the Korea CO2 sequestration projects in the near future. Acknowledgements This work was supported by the Human Resources Development program (No. 20134010200510) of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant funded by the Korean government Ministry of Trade, Industry, and Energy and by the "Development of Technology for CO2 Marine

  2. 2 D patterns of soil gas diffusivity , soil respiration, and methane oxidation in a soil profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Martin; Schack-Kirchner, Helmer; Lang, Friederike

    2015-04-01

    The apparent gas diffusion coefficient in soil (DS) is an important parameter describing soil aeration, which makes it a key parameter for root growth and gas production and consumption. Horizontal homogeneity in soil profiles is assumed in most studies for soil properties - including DS. This assumption, however, is not valid, even in apparently homogeneous soils, as we know from studies using destructive sampling methods. Using destructive methods may allow catching a glimpse, but a large uncertainty remains, since locations between the sampling positions cannot be analyzed, and measurements cannot be repeated. We developed a new method to determine in situ the apparent soil gas diffusion coefficient in order to examine 2 D pattern of DS and methane oxidation in a soil profile. Different tracer gases (SF6, CF4, C2H6) were injected continuously into the subsoil and measured at several locations in the soil profile. These data allow for modelling inversely the 2 D patterns of DS using Finite Element Modeling. The 2D DS patterns were then combined with naturally occurring CH4 and CO2 concentrations sampled at the same locations to derive the 2D pattern of soil respiration and methane oxidation in the soil profile. We show that methane oxidation and soil respiration zones shift within the soil profile while the gas fluxes at the surface remain rather stable during a the 3 week campaign.

  3. Combined analysis of 2-D electrical resistivity, seismic refraction and geotechnical investigations for Bukit Bunuh complex crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azwin, I. N.; Saad, Rosli; Saidin, Mokhtar; Nordiana, M. M.; Anderson Bery, Andy; Hidayah, I. N. E.

    2015-01-01

    Interest in studying impact crater on earth has increased tremendously due to its importance in geologic events, earth inhabitant history as well as economic value. The existences of few shock metamorphism and crater morphology evidences are discovered in Bukit Bunuh, Malaysia thus detailed studies are performed using geophysical and geotechnical methods to verify the type of the crater and characteristics accordingly. This paper presents the combined analysis of 2-D electrical resistivity, seismic refraction, geotechnical SPT N value, moisture content and RQD within the study area. Three stages of data acquisition are made starting with regional study followed by detailed study on West side and East side. Bulk resistivity and p-wave seismic velocity were digitized from 2-D resistivity and seismic sections at specific distance and depth for corresponding boreholes and samples taken. Generally, Bukit Bunuh shows the complex crater characteristics. Standard table of bulk resistivity and p-wave seismic velocity against SPT N value, moisture content and RQD are produce according to geological classifications of impact crater; inside crater, rim/slumped terrace and outside crater.

  4. KPLS-RWBFNN model for MFL 2D defect profile reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chao; Wang, Changlong; Ji, Fengzhu

    2013-03-01

    Kernel partial least squares (KPLS) is normally very efficient for tackling nonlinear systems by mapping an original input space into a high-dimensional feature space and creating a linear PLS model in the feature space. Unlike other nonlinear PLS techniques, KPLS does not entail any nonlinear optimisation procedures. However, due to the linear inner model of PLS, KPLS is still inappropriate for describing the significant nonlinear characteristic data structure while dealing with complex physical systems in practical situations. Under this circumstance, radial wavelet basic function neural network (RWBFNN) can replace the linear inner model of PLS in the nonlinear kernel-based algorithm. Thus, KPLS-RWBFNN model is proposed in this paper and applied to multi-resolution approximation reconstruction of 2D defect profiles in magnetic flux leakage testing. The reconstructions of 2D defect profiles by this method are implemented, and the comparisons among reconstructions by KPLS, RWBFNN and the proposed approach are also undertaken. Meanwhile, the reconstructions of 2D defects by RWBFNN and the proposed approach at different SNR are also executed. The results indicate that KPLS-RWBFNN model could simplify the structure of the network while holding well-behaved generalisation and multi-resolution approximation and predict the 2D defect profiles accurately and rapidly with good robustness.

  5. Trench doping process for 3D transistors - 2D cross-sectional doping profiling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Shu; Wang, Zhouguang; Hu, Y. Jeff; McTeer, Allen

    2012-11-01

    Comparison study of doping a 3D trench transistor structure was carried out by beam-line (BL) implant and plasma doping (PLAD) methods. Electron holography (EH) was used as a powerful characterization method to study 2D cross-sectional doping profiles of boron-based doping processes. Quantitative definitions of junction depths xj in both vertical and lateral directions can be obtained. Good correlations of 2D electron holography dopant profiles, 2D dopant profile simulations, and 1D SIMS/ARXPS impurity profiles are demonstrated. The results reveal an advantage of PLAD over BL implant: a much larger effective implant area for 3D trench bottom. It leads to a larger lateral junction depth xj(L) with a comparable vertical junction depth xj(V). It is attributed to the PLAD technology with no line of sight shadowing effect and less angle variation issues. Enhancing the dopant lateral straggle by PLAD at the trench bottom is particularly useful for non-planar device structures with low resistance buried dopant layers.

  6. Estimation of Random Medium Parameters from 2D Post-Stack Seismic Data and Its Application in Seismic Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X.; Zhu, P.; Gu, Y.; Xu, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Small scale heterogeneities of subsurface medium can be characterized conveniently and effectively using a few simple random medium parameters (RMP), such as autocorrelation length, angle and roughness factor, etc. The estimation of these parameters is significant in both oil reservoir prediction and metallic mine exploration. Poor accuracy and low stability existed in current estimation approaches limit the application of random medium theory in seismic exploration. This study focuses on improving the accuracy and stability of RMP estimation from post-stacked seismic data and its application in the seismic inversion. Experiment and theory analysis indicate that, although the autocorrelation of random medium is related to those of corresponding post-stacked seismic data, the relationship is obviously affected by the seismic dominant frequency, the autocorrelation length, roughness factor and so on. Also the error of calculation of autocorrelation in the case of finite and discrete model decreases the accuracy. In order to improve the precision of estimation of RMP, we design two improved approaches. Firstly, we apply region growing algorithm, which often used in image processing, to reduce the influence of noise in the autocorrelation calculated by the power spectrum method. Secondly, the orientation of autocorrelation is used as a new constraint in the estimation algorithm. The numerical experiments proved that it is feasible. In addition, in post-stack seismic inversion of random medium, the estimated RMP may be used to constrain inverse procedure and to construct the initial model. The experiment results indicate that taking inversed model as random medium and using relatively accurate estimated RMP to construct initial model can get better inversion result, which contained more details conformed to the actual underground medium.

  7. Skeleton-migration: Applications in deep crustal reflection seismic profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, D. W.; Vasudevan, K.

    2009-12-01

    The reflection geometry of the sub-surface is three-dimensional in character. A 3-D seismic data acquisition and processing would be the ideal modus operandi for true seismic interpretation. However, almost all deep-crustal reflection profiles recorded on land follow quasi-linear geometry, for economic reasons. Although conventional processing of the lines accommodates crooked-line geometry, the migration algorithms used to produce seismic images for interpretation are generally 2-D in nature. Consequently, the effects of 3-D geometry are not usually well-accounted for. For example, the out-of-plane reflections lead to mislocation errors that increase with recording time. The events may be mislocated by 10’s of km and show spurious apparent dip after migration. In order to circumvent these problems and to gain insight into 3-D structures, we present an easy-to-implement “Skeleton-migration” algorithm. The skeleton-migration method follows a two-step procedure. In the first step, we introduce a fast skeletonization of the final pre-processed stack to generate a digital catalogue containing a variety of event attributes including two-way travel times and location information in UTM co-ordinates. In the second step, we apply ray-based migration to the catalogue of events or two-way travel times of the 2-D stack using an appropriate velocity model for the crust and upper mantle. Since often we do not know a priori the strike direction of the reflectors, we have implemented a fast visualization-based optimization procedure to determine the strike. In subsequent steps, we use visualization methods to view and interpret the skeleton-migration results. We illustrate the usefulness of the method with examples from both the synthetic and deep crustal seismic reflection data. For the synthetic examples, we consider physical models corresponding to a point-scatterer, a synform, a fault and a subducting slab. In all these instances, we use an elastic Kirchhoff algorithm

  8. Reconstruction of 2D seismic wavefield from Long-Period Seismogram and Short-Period Seismogram Envelope by Seismic Gradiometry applied to the Hi-net Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Takuto; Nishida, Kiwamu; Takagi, Ryota; Obara, Kazushige

    2016-04-01

    The high-sensitive seismograph network (Hi-net) operated by National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) has about 800 stations with average separation of 20 km all over the Japanese archipelago. Although it is equipped with short-period seismometers, we also can observe long-period seismic wave up to 100 s in periods for significantly large earthquakes. In this case, we may treat long-period seismic waves as a 2D wavefield with station separations shorter than wavelength rather than individual traces at stations. In this study, we attempt to reconstruct 2D wavefield and obtain its propagation properties from seismic gradiometry (SG) method. The SG estimates the wave amplitude and its spatial derivative coefficients from discrete station record by the Taylor series approximation with an inverse problem. By using spatial derivatives in horizontal directions, we can obtain properties of propagating wave packet such as the arrival direction, slowness, geometrical spreading and radiation pattern. In addition, by using spatial derivatives together with free-surface boundary condition, we may decompose the vector elastic 2D wavefield estimated by the SG into divergence and rotation components. First, we applied the seismic gradiometry to a synthetic long-period (20-50 s) seismogram dataset computed by numerical simulation in realistic 3D medium at the Hi-net station layout as a feasibility test. We confirmed that the wave amplitude and its spatial derivatives are very well reproduced with average correlation coefficients higher than 0.99 in this period range. Applications to a real large earthquakes show that the amplitude and phase of the wavefield are well reconstructed with additional information of arrival direction and its slowness. The reconstructed wavefield contained a clear contrast in slowness between body and surface waves, regional non-great-circle-path wave propagation which may be attributed to scattering. Slowness

  9. Analysis of Cretaceous (Aptian) strata in central Tunisia, using 2D seismic data and well logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zouaghi, Taher; Ferhi, Issam; Bédir, Mourad; Youssef, Mohamed Ben; Gasmi, Mohamed; Inoubli, Mohamed Hédi

    2011-08-01

    This paper presents a structural and depositional model of lower Cretaceous (Aptian) strata in central Tunisia, using detailed facies relations in outcrops, seismic reflection data, and wells. The study interval (called the "Aptian supersequence") is subdivided into four seismic sequences containing third-order sequences. Sequence architecture was strongly affected by syndepositional tectonic movements, which controlled sequence position and distribution. Specifically, the seismic sections show irregular distribution of different zones of subsidence and uplift. The observed structures identified through the detailed mapping suggest that lower Cretaceous rifting created depressions and grabens that filled with strata characterized by divergent reflectors striking against dipping growth faults. The Aptian-Albian unconformity ("crisis") marked a change of the extensional stress field from NNW-SSE to NE-SW induced rotation of blocks and an evolution of sedimentary basin filling related to the regional tectonic deformation. Local salt tectonic movement accentuated the formation of asymmetric depocenters. The salt ascended at the junction of master faults, resulting in cross-cutting of the strata and local reworking of Triassic evaporites in Aptian strata. Basinward to landward variations of the thickness and facies associated with strata pinch-outs and unconformities are related to the main synsedimentary tectonic events that were synchronous with salt tectonic movements. Triassic salt domes and salt intrusions along faults accentuated the border elevations between basin depocenters and uplifts. These sedimentary phenomena in central Tunisia are interpreted as causally related aspects of a local and global tectonic event during the Aptian.

  10. Seismic reflection profiling of Neoarchean cratons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Velden, Arie Jan

    Deep seismic reflection data from the Superior and Slave cratons in Canada and the Yilgarn craton in Australia are processed with similar processing flows and display parameters to facilitate comparative analysis. The profiles are characterized by subhorizontal to shallowly dipping reflection fabrics in the crust and upper mantle. These reflection fabrics are interpreted as ˜2.8-2.6 Ga ductile structural fabrics associated with peak orogenesis that led to cratonization. A re-evaluation of the seismic data has led to alternative interpretations compared to those published previously. In western Ontario, at Red Lake, divergent reflection patterns are interpreted as products of mainly collisional tectonics rather than extensional tectonics, and at Pickle Lake, mantle reflections connect to a mapped suture and strikeslip fault system. In western Quebec, steep structures are interpreted on the north flank of the Opatica domain. In the Kalgoorlie area of western Australia, subhorizontal upper crustal reflections are interpreted as pre-deformational layers within anticlines. A new tectonic model is presented for the western Slave Province in which divergent reflections at Yellowknife are interpreted to be associated with convergence between the Snare arc and the central Slave basement complex. Reflections that project from the reflection Moho into the upper mantle are observed on all profiles and are interpreted as relict subduction zones and/or major terrane-bounding structures. Listric mid-crustal reflections resembling roofing shingles are interpreted as products of underthrusting and subcretion. Strike-slip faults are manifested as near-vertical zones of reflection truncations. Greenstone belts are often poorly reflective. These reflection patterns are consistent with tectonic models in which greenstone belts form adjacent to protocratons and are thickened by protocontinent-dipping subduction, tectonic underplating, formation of nappes, and thrust-and-fold structures

  11. Comparative 2D BRT and seismic modeling of CO2 plumes in deep saline reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagrey, Said Attia Al; Strahser, Matthias; Rabbel, Wolfgang

    2010-05-01

    The multi-disciplinary research project 'CO2 MoPa' (modeling and parameterization of CO2 storage in deep saline formations for dimensions and risk analysis) deals, among others, with the parameterization of virtual subsurface storage sites to characterize rock properties with modeling of processes related to CCS in deep saline reservoirs. The geophysical task is to estimate the sensitivity and the resolution of reflection seismic and geoelectrical time-lapses in order to determine the propagation of CO2 within the sediments and the development of the CO2 reservoir. Compared with seismic, borehole electric resistivity tomography (BRT) has lower resolution, but its permanent installation and continuous monitoring can make it an economical alternative or complement. Seismic and geoelectric applications to quantify changes of intrinsic aquifer properties with time are justified by the lower density and velocity and the higher electric resistivity of CO2 in comparison to pore brine. We present here modeling results on scenarios with realistic parameters of deep saline formations of the German Basin (candidate for CCS). The study focuses on effects of parameters related to depth (temperature, pressure), petrophysics (salinity, porosity), plume dimensions/saturations and data acquisition, processing and inversions. Both methods show stronger effects with increasing brine salinity, CO2 reservoir thickness, porosity and CO2 saturation in the pores. Both methods have a pronounced depth dependence due to the pressure and temperature dependence of the velocities, densities and resistivities of the host rock, brine and CO2. Increasing depth means also decreasing frequencies of the seismic signal and hence weaker resolution. Because of the expected limited thickness of the CO2 reservoir, the reflections from its top and bottom will most likely interfere with each other, making it difficult to determine the exact dimensions of the reservoir. In BRT, the resulting resistivity

  12. Seismic investigation of gas hydrates in the Gulf of Mexico: Results from 2013 high-resolution 2D and multicomponent seismic surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines, S. S.; Hart, P. E.; Shedd, W. W.; Frye, M.; Agena, W.; Miller, J. J.; Ruppel, C. D.

    2013-12-01

    In the spring of 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey led a 16-day seismic acquisition cruise aboard the R/V Pelican in the Gulf of Mexico to survey two established gas hydrate study sites. We used a pair of 105/105 cubic inch generator/injector airguns as the seismic source, and a 450-m 72-channel hydrophone streamer to record two-dimensional (2D) data. In addition, we also deployed at both sites an array of 4-component ocean-bottom seismometers (OBS) to record P- and S-wave energy at the seafloor from the same seismic source positions as the streamer data. At lease block Green Canyon 955 (GC955), we acquired 400 km of 2-D streamer data, in a 50- to 250-m-spaced grid augmented by several 20-km transects that provide long offsets for the OBS. The seafloor recording at GC955 was accomplished by a 2D array of 21 OBS at approximately 400-m spacing, including instruments carefully positioned at two of the three boreholes where extensive logging-while-drilling data is available to characterize the presence of gas hydrate. At lease block Walker Ridge 313 (WR313), we acquired 450 km of streamer data in a set of 11-km, 150- to 1,000-m-spaced, dip lines and 6- to 8-km, 500- to 1000-m-spaced strike lines. These were augmented by a set of 20-km lines that provide long offsets for a predominantly linear array of 25 400- to 800-m spaced OBS deployed in the dip direction in and around WR313. The 2D data provide at least five times better resolution of the gas hydrate stability zone than the available petroleum industry seismic data from the area; this enables considerably improved analysis and interpretation of stratigraphic and structural features including previously unseen faults and gas chimneys that may have considerable impact on gas migration. Initial processing indicates that the OBS data quality is good, and we anticipate that these data will yield estimates of P- and S-wave velocities, as well as PP (reflected) and PS (converted wave) images beneath each sensor location.

  13. The structure and stratigraphy of the sedimentary succession in the Swedish sector of the Baltic Basin: New insights from vintage 2D marine seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sopher, Daniel; Erlström, Mikael; Bell, Nicholas; Juhlin, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    We present five interpreted regional seismic profiles, describing the full sedimentary sequence across the Swedish sector of the Baltic Sea. The data for the study are part of an extensive and largely unpublished 2D seismic dataset acquired between 1970 and 1990 by the Swedish Oil Prospecting Company (OPAB). The Baltic Basin is an intracratonic basin located in northern Europe. Most of the Swedish sector of the basin constitutes the NW flank of a broad synclinal depression, the Baltic Basin. In the SW of the Swedish sector lies the Hanö Bay Basin, formed by subsidence associated with inversion of the Tornquist Zone during the Late Cretaceous. The geological history presented here is broadly consistent with previously published works. We observe an area between the Hanö Bay and the Baltic Basin where the Palaeozoic strata has been affected by transpression and subsequent inversion, associated with the Tornquist Zone during the late Carboniferous-Early Permian and Late Cretaceous, respectively. We propose that the Christiansø High was a structural low during the Late Jurassic, which was later inverted in the Late Cretaceous. We suggest that a fan shaped feature in the seismic data, adjacent to the Christiansø Fault within the Hanö Bay Basin, represents rapidly deposited, coarse-grained sediments eroded from the inverted Christiansø High during the Late Cretaceous. We identify a number of faults within the deeper part of the Baltic Basin, which we also interpret to be transpressional in nature, formed during the Caledonian Orogeny in the Late Silurian-Early Devonian. East of Gotland a number of sedimentary structures consisting of Silurian carbonate reefs and Ordovician carbonate mounds, as well as a large Quaternary glacial feature are observed. Finally, we use the seismic interpretation to infer the structural and stratigraphic history of the Baltic and Hanö Bay basins within the Swedish sector.

  14. A nearly analytic symplectically partitioned Runge-Kutta method for 2-D seismic wave equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiao; Yang, Dinghui; Liu, Faqi

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, we develop a new nearly analytic symplectically partitioned Runge-Kutta (NSPRK) method for numerically solving elastic wave equations. In this method, we first transform the elastic wave equations into a Hamiltonian system, and use the nearly analytic discrete operator to approximate the high-order spatial differential operators, and then we employ the partitioned second-order symplectic Runge-Kutta method to numerically solve the resulted semi-discrete Hamiltonian ordinary differential equations (ODEs). We investigate in great detail on the properties of the NSPRK method that includes the stability condition for the P-SV wave in a 2-D homogeneous isotropic medium, the computational efficiency, and the numerical dispersion relation for the 2-D acoustic case. Meanwhile, we apply the NSPRK to simulate the elastic wave propagating in several multilayer models with both strong velocity contrasts and fluctuating interfaces. Both theoretical analysis and numerical results show that the NSPRK can effectively suppress the numerical dispersion resulted from the discretization of the wave equations, and more importantly, it preserves the symplecticity structure for long-time computation. In addition, numerical experiments demonstrate that the NSPRK is effective to combine the split perfectly matched layer boundary conditions to take care of the reflections from the artificial boundaries.

  15. Tectonics Of Eastern Offshore Trinidad Based On Integration Of BOLIVAR 2D Seismic Lines With Industry 3D Seismic Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, M. D.; Mann, P.; Wood, L. J.

    2004-12-01

    New MCS lines in the eastern offshore area of Trinidad augmented by existing 3D seismic surveys by industry provide new insights into complex, strain partitioning produced along this segment of the South America-Caribbean plate boundary. Two major tectonosequences are imaged separated by a Middle Miocene angular unconformity known from wells and mapping in Trinidad. A thick section of deep-marine carbonate and clastic rocks are cleanly truncated by the Middle Miocene unconformity and are chaotically deformed along vertical to northwest-dipping thrust faults. This shortening event reflects a major pulse of pre-Middle Miocene southeastward overthrusting of the Caribbean arc over the passive margin of South America. An upper 2-7-km-thick tectonosequence consisting of late Miocene-Quaternary shelf-related sandstone and shale was deposited by the nearby Orinoco delta. This section is folded to lesser degree and deformed by the sub-vertical, right-lateral Central Range fault zone (CRFZ), known from GPS studies to accommodate 12 mm/yr, of the total 20 mm/yr of interplate motion. Deep, continuous reflec-tors are observed at a depth of 12-17 km beneath eastern Trinidad are correlated with authochthonous, late Cretaceous-early Tertiary carbonate and clastic rocks of the South American passive margin. The Darien fault southeast of the CRFZ accommodates active shortening, elevates passive margin rocks to the surface in Trinidad, and forms the northeastern limit of a large, 12-km-thick foreland basin (Columbus basin) that extends onshore.

  16. Volcano growth mechanisms and the role of sub-volcanic intrusions: Insights from 2D seismic reflection data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magee, Craig; Hunt-Stewart, Esther; Jackson, Christopher A.-L.

    2013-07-01

    Temporal and spatial changes in volcano morphology and internal architecture can determine eruption style and location. However, the relationship between the external and internal characteristics of volcanoes and sub-volcanic intrusions is often difficult to observe at outcrop or interpret uniquely from geophysical and geodetic data. We use high-quality 2D seismic reflection data from the Ceduna Sub-basin, offshore southern Australia, to quantitatively analyse 56, pristinely-preserved, Eocene-age volcanogenic mounds, and a genetically-related network of sub-volcanic sills and laccoliths. Detailed seismic mapping has allowed the 3D geometry of each mound to be reconstructed and distinct seismic facies within them to be recognised. Forty-six continental, basaltic shield volcanoes have been identified that have average flank dips of <12°, basal diameters of 1.94-18.89 km, central summits that are 0.02-1 km high and volumes that range from 0.06 to 57.21 km3. Parallel seismic reflections within the shield volcanoes are interpreted to represent interbedded volcanic and clastic material, suggesting that a series of temporally separate eruptions emanated from a central vent. The shield volcanoes typically overlie the lateral tips of sills and we suggest that the intermittent eruption phases correspond to the incremental emplacement of discrete magma pulses within the laterally extensive sill-complex. Eight volcanogenic hydrothermal vents, which are also associated with the lateral tips of sills, were also recognised, and these appear to have formed from the seepage of intrusion-related hydrothermal fluids onto the seafloor via emplacement-induced fractures. This work highlights that deformation patterns preceding volcanic eruptions may (i) be offset from the eruption site; (ii) attributed to intrusions with complex morphologies; and/or (iii) reflect magma movement along pre-existing fracture systems. These complexities should therefore be considered in eruption

  17. 2D time-domain finite-difference modeling for viscoelastic seismic wave propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Na; Zhao, Lian-Feng; Xie, Xiao-Bi; Ge, Zengxi; Yao, Zhen-Xing

    2016-07-01

    Real Earth media are not perfectly elastic. Instead, they attenuate propagating mechanical waves. This anelastic phenomenon in wave propagation can be modeled by a viscoelastic mechanical model consisting of several standard linear solids. Using this viscoelastic model, we approximate a constant Q over a frequency band of interest. We use a four-element viscoelastic model with a tradeoff between accuracy and computational costs to incorporate Q into 2D time-domain first-order velocity-stress wave equations. To improve the computational efficiency, we limit the Q in the model to a list of discrete values between 2 and 1000. The related stress and strain relaxation times that characterize the viscoelastic model are pre-calculated and stored in a database for use by the finite-difference calculation. A viscoelastic finite-difference scheme that is second-order in time and fourth-order in space is developed based on the MacCormack algorithm. The new method is validated by comparing the numerical result with analytical solutions that are calculated using the generalized reflection/transmission coefficient method. The synthetic seismograms exhibit greater than 95 per cent consistency in a two-layer viscoelastic model. The dispersion generated from the simulation is consistent with the Kolsky-Futterman dispersion relationship.

  18. Multiple Frequency Contrast Source Inversion Method for Vertical Electromagnetic Profiling: 2D Simulation Results and Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jinghe; Song, Linping; Liu, Qing Huo

    2016-02-01

    A simultaneous multiple frequency contrast source inversion (CSI) method is applied to reconstructing hydrocarbon reservoir targets in a complex multilayered medium in two dimensions. It simulates the effects of a salt dome sedimentary formation in the context of reservoir monitoring. In this method, the stabilized biconjugate-gradient fast Fourier transform (BCGS-FFT) algorithm is applied as a fast solver for the 2D volume integral equation for the forward computation. The inversion technique with CSI combines the efficient FFT algorithm to speed up the matrix-vector multiplication and the stable convergence of the simultaneous multiple frequency CSI in the iteration process. As a result, this method is capable of making quantitative conductivity image reconstruction effectively for large-scale electromagnetic oil exploration problems, including the vertical electromagnetic profiling (VEP) survey investigated here. A number of numerical examples have been demonstrated to validate the effectiveness and capacity of the simultaneous multiple frequency CSI method for a limited array view in VEP.

  19. A New Method for Detecting Goaf Area of Coal Mine :2D Microtremor Profiling Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, P.; Ling, S.; Guo, H.; Shi, W.; Li, S.; Tian, B.

    2012-12-01

    A goaf area is referred to as a cavity where coal has been removed or mined out. These cavities will change the original geostress equilibrium of stratigraphic system and cause local geostress focusing or concentration. Consequently, the surrounding rock of a goaf may be deformed, fractured, displaced and caved resulting from the combined effect of gravity and geostress. In the cases of little or no effective mining control, widespread cracks, fractures and even subsidence of the rock mass above the goaf will not only lead to groundwater depletion, farmland destruction and deterioration of ecological environment, but also present a serious threat to the mining safety, engineering construction, and even people's lives and property. So, it is important to locate the boundary of the goaf and to evaluate its stability in order to provide the basis for comprehensive control in the latter period of mining. This article attempts to explore a new geophysical method - 2D microtremor profiling technique for goaf detection and mapping. 2D microtremor profiling technique is based on the microtremor array theory (Aki, 1957; Ling, 1994; Okada, 2003) utilizing spatial autocorrelation analysis to obtain Rayleigh-wave dispersion curves for apparent S-wave velocity (Vx) calculation (Ling & Miwa, 2006;Xu et al.,2012). A laterally continuous S-wave velocity section can then be obtained through data interpolation. The final result will be used for interpreting lateral changes in lithology and geological structures. Let's take a case study in Henan Province of China as an example. The coal seams in the survey area were about 150 ~ 250m deep. A triple-circular array was adopted for acquiring microtremor data, with the observation radius in 20, 40 and 80m, respectively, and a sampling the interval of 50m. We observed the following characteristics of the goaf area from the microtremor Vx section: (1) obvious low pseudo velocity anomaly corresponding to limestone layer below the goaf; (2

  20. Lunar seismic profiling experiment natural activity study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duennebier, F. K.

    1976-01-01

    The Lunar Seismic Experiment Natural Activity Study has provided a unique opportunity to study the high frequency (4-20 Hz) portion to the seismic spectrum on the moon. The data obtained from the LSPE was studied to evaluate the origin and importance of the process that generates thermal moonquakes and the characteristics of the seismic scattering zone at the lunar surface. The detection of thermal moonquakes by the LSPE array made it possible to locate the sources of many events and determine that they are definitely not generated by astronaut activities but are the result of a natural process on the moon. The propagation of seismic waves in the near-surface layers was studied in a qualitative manner. In the absence of an adequate theoretical model for the propagation of seismic waves in the moon, it is not possible to assign a depth for the scattering layer. The LSPE data does define several parameters which must be satisfied by any model developed in the future.

  1. Evolution of seismic layer 2B across the Juan de Fuca Ridge from hydrophone streamer 2-D traveltime tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Kori R.; Nedimović, Mladen R.; Canales, J. Pablo; Carbotte, Suzanne M.

    2011-05-01

    How oceanic crust evolves has important implications for understanding both subduction earthquake hazards and energy and mass exchange between the Earth's interior and the oceans. Although considerable work has been done characterizing the evolution of seismic layer 2A, there has been little analysis of the processes that affect layer 2B after formation. Here we present high-resolution 2-D tomographic models of seismic layer 2B along ˜300 km long multichannel seismic transects crossing the Endeavour, Northern Symmetric, and Cleft segments of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. These models show that seismic layer 2B evolves rapidly following a different course than layer 2A. The upper layer 2B velocities increase on average by 0.8 km/s and reach a generally constant velocity of 5.2 ± 0.3 km/s within the first 0.5 Myr after crustal formation. This suggests that the strongest impact on layer 2B evolution may be that of mineral precipitation due to "active" hydrothermal circulation centered about the ridge crest and driven by the heat from the axial magma chamber. Variations in upper layer 2B velocity with age at time scales ≥0.5 Ma show correlation about the ridge axis indicating that in the long term, crustal accretion processes affect both sides of the ridge axis in a similar way. Below the 0.5 Ma threshold, differences in 2B velocity are likely imprinted during crustal formation or early crustal evolution. Layer 2B velocities at propagator wakes (5.0 ± 0.2 km/s), where enhanced faulting and cracking are expected, and at areas that coincide with extensional or transtensional faulting are on average slightly slower than in normal mature upper layer 2B. Analysis of the layer 2B velocities from areas where the hydrothermal patterns are known shows that the locations of current and paleohydrothermal discharge and recharge zones are marked by reduced and increased upper layer 2B velocities, respectively. Additionally, the distance between present up-flow and down-flow zones is

  2. Deep seismic reflection profiling and continental growth curves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemperer, Simon L.

    1988-01-01

    The results of deep seismic reflection profiling is discussed which shows that the lower crust is prominently layered, in many continental areas, regardless of the age of the surface rocks. The seismic Moho is commonly shallower than the petrological Moho, leading to the question of the nature and origin of this prominent reflector in the deep crust. The lower crust is much less well defined in Phanerozoic and Proterozoic accreted terranes, suggesting possible differences in types of lower crusts.

  3. 2D/3D Monte Carlo Feature Profile Simulator FPS-3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroz, Paul

    2010-11-01

    Numerical simulation of etching/deposition profiles is important for semiconductor industry, as it allows analysis and prediction of the outcome of materials processing on a micron and sub-micron scale. The difficulty, however, is in making such a simulator a reliable, general, and easy to use tool applicable to different situations, for example, with different ratios of ion to neutral fluxes, different chemistries, different energies of incoming particles, and different angular and energy dependencies for surface reactions, without recompiling the code each time when the parameters change. The FPS-3D simulator [1] does not need recompilation when the features, materials, gases, or plasma are changed -- modifications to input, chemistry, and flux files are enough. The code allows interaction of neutral low-energy species with the surface mono-layer, while considering finite penetration depth into the volume for fast particles and ions. The FPS-3D code can simulate etching and deposition processes, both for 2D and 3D geometries. FPS-3D is using an advanced graphics package from HFS for presenting real-time process and profile evolution. The presentation will discuss the FPS-3D code with examples for different process conditions. The author is thankful to Drs. S.-Y. Kang of TEL TDC and P. Miller of HFS for valuable discussions. [4pt] [1] P. Moroz, URP.00101, GEC, Saratoga, NY, 2009.

  4. Seismic Profiles Across The Chesapeake Bay Impact Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, M. R.; Catchings, R. D.; Powars, D. S.; Gohn, G. S.

    2005-12-01

    In September and October 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey and Virginia Tech acquired a series of seismic reflection and refraction profiles along the southern Delmarva Peninsula, Virginia. Our objective was to determine the overall geometry and structure of the 35-million-year-old Chesapeake Bay Impact Crater (CBIC). One of the profiles, an approximately 7-km-long east-west-trending seismic refraction and low-fold reflection profile was acquired about 6 km north of the town of Cape Charles. Seismic sources (5 to 45 kg) for the main east-west profile consisted of explosions in approximately 20-m-deep boreholes, spaced at about 1 km intervals; data were recorded with 146 PASSCAL "Texan" seismographs, spaced at 50-m intervals across land surfaces and water bodies. We also acquired an approximately 2-km-long, high-resolution (5 m shot and geophone spacing) seismic profile along a section of the main east-west profile using a combination of small (0.5 kg) explosive and seisgun sources. These profiles were located across part of the crater moat, north of the central uplift. We developed tomographic velocity images and stacked CDP images for both the main east-west profile and the high-resolution profile. Tomographic velocity images suggest that coherent basement rocks (greater than 5.5 km/s) are relatively shallow (about 1.6 km) beneath the eastern end of the main east-west seismic profile, but these higher velocities deepen (to about 2.1 km) near the western end of the profile. The overlying rocks and sediments also dip to the west along the profile. Post-impact sediments (less than 2.5 km/s) are approximately 0.7 km thick and are underlain by 0.7 km of brecciated rocks (about 2.5 to 4.0 km/s) and the top of fractured basement (about 4.0 to 5.5 km/s) at 1.4 km depth. The reflection and tomographic images suggest similar subsurface structures, including westward dips of higher-velocity layers near the western end of the profile. High-resolution CDP images suggest

  5. Measurement of sediment and crustal thickness corrected RDA for 2D profiles at rifted continental margins: Applications to the Iberian, Gulf of Aden and S Angolan margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowie, Leanne; Kusznir, Nick

    2014-05-01

    Subsidence analysis of sedimentary basins and rifted continental margins requires a correction for the anomalous uplift or subsidence arising from mantle dynamic topography. Whilst different global model predictions of mantle dynamic topography may give a broadly similar pattern at long wavelengths, they differ substantially in the predicted amplitude and at shorter wavelengths. As a consequence the accuracy of predicted mantle dynamic topography is not sufficiently good to provide corrections for subsidence analysis. Measurements of present day anomalous subsidence, which we attribute to mantle dynamic topography, have been made for three rifted continental margins; offshore Iberia, the Gulf of Aden and southern Angola. We determine residual depth anomaly (RDA), corrected for sediment loading and crustal thickness variation for 2D profiles running from unequivocal oceanic crust across the continental ocean boundary onto thinned continental crust. Residual depth anomalies (RDA), corrected for sediment loading using flexural backstripping and decompaction, have been calculated by comparing observed and age predicted oceanic bathymetries at these margins. Age predicted bathymetric anomalies have been calculated using the thermal plate model predictions from Crosby & McKenzie (2009). Non-zero sediment corrected RDAs may result from anomalous oceanic crustal thickness with respect to the global average or from anomalous uplift or subsidence. Gravity anomaly inversion incorporating a lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly correction and sediment thickness from 2D seismic reflection data has been used to determine Moho depth, calibrated using seismic refraction, and oceanic crustal basement thickness. Crustal basement thicknesses derived from gravity inversion together with Airy isostasy have been used to correct for variations of crustal thickness from a standard oceanic thickness of 7km. The 2D profiles of RDA corrected for both sediment loading and non-standard crustal

  6. Mesozoic and Cenozoic plate tectonics in the High Arctic: new 2D seismic data and geodynamic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikishin, Anatoly; Kazmin, Yuriy; Glumov, Ivan; Petrov, Eugene; Poselov, Viktor; Burov, Evgueni; Gaina, Carmen

    2014-05-01

    Our paper is mainly based on the interpretation of 2D seismic lines, obtained from Arctic-2001 and Arctic-2012 projects. We also analyzed all available open-source data concerning Arctic geology. Three domains are distinguished in the abyssal part of Arctic Ocean: (1) Canada Basin, (2) Lomonosov-Podvodnikov-Alpha-Mendeleev-Nautilus-Chukchi Plateau (LPAMNCP) area, (3) Eurasia Basin. Canada Basin has oceanic and transitional crust of different structure. The formation time of this oceanic basin is probably 134-117 Ma. New seismic data for LPAMNCP area shows numerous rift structures parallel to the Lomonosov Ridge and Mendeleev Ridge. These rift structures are also nearly orthogonal to the Canada Basin spreading axis, and this may indicate either a different mechanism for the formation of the LPAMNCP region and Canada Basin, or a very complicated basin architecture formed by processes we do not yet understand. We also observe at the base of the LPAMNCP area sedimentary cover packages of bright reflectors, they were interpreted as basalt flows probably related to the Cretaceous plume volcanism. Approximate time of the volcanism is about 125 Ma. After this event, the area experienced stretching and transtension as documented by large scale rifting structures. The younger Eurasian Basin has oceanic crust of Eocene to Recent age, and our new seismic data confirms that Gakkel Ridge has typical ultraslow-spreading zone topography. Perhaps, Eurasia Basin crust was partly formed by exhumed and serpentinized mantle. Lomonosov and Alpha-Mendeleev Ridges has typical present-day basin and range topography with Oligocene to Recent faults. It means, that all LPAMNCP area was subjected to regional intra-plate stretching during Neogene to Recent time. We assume, that this intra-plate stretching was related to the Gakkel Ridge extension. We suppose, that the deep-water part of Arctic Ocean was formed during three main stages: (1) Valanginian - Early Aptian: formation of Canada Basin

  7. Explosives for Lunar Seismic Profiling Experiment (LSPE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Explosive charges of various sizes were investigated for use in lunar seismic studies. Program logistics, and the specifications for procurement of bulk explosives are described. The differential analysis, thermal properties, and detonation velocity measurements on HNS/Teflon 7C 90/10 are reported along with the field tests of the hardware. It is concluded that nearly all large explosive charges crack after fabrication, from aging or thermal shock. The cracks do not affect the safety, or reliability of the explosives.

  8. Development of a Geocryologic Model of Permafrost From 2D Inversion of IP Profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortier, R.; Leblanc, A.

    2004-05-01

    Non-invasive investigation of permafrost along a planned route of pipeline, road or airstrip in cold regions involves the use of effective methods for detecting, characterizing, mapping and monitoring permafrost conditions on various spatial and temporal scales. Among the available near-surface geophysical methods, the electrical resistivity imaging is probably the most suitable method since the resistivity contrast between unfrozen and frozen ground can be one or two orders of magnitude. Induced polarization (IP) profiling was carried out to study the spatial distribution of ground ice in two permafrost mounds near Umiujaq in Nunavik, Canada. A dipole-dipole array was used to perform the IP profiling. Pseudo-sections of electrical resistivity and chargeability giving a misrepresented cross-section of the sub-surface were first draw. The inversion of IP profiling was also performed using DCIP2D developed by UBC-GIF for estimating the spatial distribution of electrical properties in the ground to create realistic models of sub-surface resistivity and chargeability cross-section. The inverse models show clearly the presence of ice-rich core in the permafrost mounds. The ice-rich cores are underlined by high resistivity values while the unfrozen zones show low resistivity values. The localisation of the permafrost table is highlighted by a strong contrast of resistivity while the permafrost base is marked by a transitional change in resistivity. In the hollow between the permafrost mounds, the models show low resistivity values characteristic of unfrozen zone. A synthetic resistivity sounding built from the most acceptable inverse model correlates well with electrical resistivity logging carried out in the permafrost mound during cone penetration tests. The inversion of IP profiling is fundamental for defining realistic models of sub-surface resistivity and chargeability. Electrical resistivity imaging is a appropriate near-surface geophysical method for permafrost

  9. Coherent seismic sea-bottom profiling based on broadband signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarev, V. A.; Malekhanov, A. I.; Merklin, L. R.; Romanova, V. I.; Talanov, V. I.; Khil'ko, A. I.

    2013-11-01

    Experimental results of the seismic profiling with bottom penetration up to 1000 m based on broadband signals and conducted in the Caspian Sea sites are presented. Use has been made of synchronized sequences of probing pulses with linear frequency modulation at a frequency deviation of 50 to100 Hz. The pulses were emitted by a towed sound source of an original design (acoustic power up to 300 W, frequency ranged from 100 to 1000 Hz) and received by a standard digital seismic streamer. The processing of the signals involved the matched filtering of the individual pulses and the trajectory accumulation of a long sequence of pulses lengthwise the horizontal-homogeneous reflecting layers of the bottom structure. The adaptive stacking procedure taking into account the linear inclinations of the individual layers allowed us to enlarge the stacking interval by up to 100 pulses and to increase the effective depth and the spatial resolution of the seismic profiling, which gave us a total increase of more than 30 dB in the S/N ratio. In our view, the seismic profiling using low-power (about 100 W) and broadband (up to several hundred Hz) coherent sound sources represents a promising technology for decreasing the hazardous impact on aquatic ecosystems. The approach developed is an alternative to the conventional technology of marine seismic prospecting based on powerful pulse sources of the shock type (air guns, sparkers) in the low frequency range (less than ˜200 Hz).

  10. Circadian Profiling of the Arabidopsis Proteome Using 2D-DIGE

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Mani K.; Nomura, Yuko; Shi, Hua; Nakagami, Hirofumi; Somers, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Clock-generated biological rhythms provide an adaptive advantage to an organism, resulting in increased fitness and survival. To better elucidate the plant response to the circadian system, we surveyed protein oscillations in Arabidopsis seedlings under constant light. Using large-scale two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) the abundance of more than 1000 proteins spots was reproducibly resolved quantified and profiled across a circadian time series. A comparison between phenol-extracted samples and RuBisCO-depleted extracts identified 71 and 40 rhythmically-expressed proteins, respectively, and between 30 and 40% of these derive from non-rhythmic transcripts. These included proteins influencing transcriptional regulation, translation, metabolism, photosynthesis, protein chaperones, and stress-mediated responses. The phasing of maximum expression for the cyclic proteins was similar for both datasets, with a nearly even distribution of peak phases across the time series. STRING clustering analysis identified two interaction networks with a notable number of oscillating proteins: plastid-based and cytosolic chaperones and 10 proteins involved in photosynthesis. The oscillation of the ABA receptor, PYR1/RCAR11, with peak expression near dusk adds to a growing body of evidence that intimately ties ABA signaling to the circadian system. Taken together, this study provides new insights into the importance of post-transcriptional circadian control of plant physiology and metabolism. PMID:27462335

  11. Circadian Profiling of the Arabidopsis Proteome Using 2D-DIGE.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Mani K; Nomura, Yuko; Shi, Hua; Nakagami, Hirofumi; Somers, David E

    2016-01-01

    Clock-generated biological rhythms provide an adaptive advantage to an organism, resulting in increased fitness and survival. To better elucidate the plant response to the circadian system, we surveyed protein oscillations in Arabidopsis seedlings under constant light. Using large-scale two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) the abundance of more than 1000 proteins spots was reproducibly resolved quantified and profiled across a circadian time series. A comparison between phenol-extracted samples and RuBisCO-depleted extracts identified 71 and 40 rhythmically-expressed proteins, respectively, and between 30 and 40% of these derive from non-rhythmic transcripts. These included proteins influencing transcriptional regulation, translation, metabolism, photosynthesis, protein chaperones, and stress-mediated responses. The phasing of maximum expression for the cyclic proteins was similar for both datasets, with a nearly even distribution of peak phases across the time series. STRING clustering analysis identified two interaction networks with a notable number of oscillating proteins: plastid-based and cytosolic chaperones and 10 proteins involved in photosynthesis. The oscillation of the ABA receptor, PYR1/RCAR11, with peak expression near dusk adds to a growing body of evidence that intimately ties ABA signaling to the circadian system. Taken together, this study provides new insights into the importance of post-transcriptional circadian control of plant physiology and metabolism. PMID:27462335

  12. 2D Seismic interpretation of strike-slip faulting, salt tectonics, and Cretaceous unconformities, Atlas Mountains, central Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zouaghi, Taher; Bédir, Mourad; Inoubli, Mohamed Hédi

    2005-11-01

    The Cretaceous deposits in central Tunisia blocks were studied by sequence stratigraphy, 2D seismic interpretation calibrated to the well and associated outcrop data. The constructing and comparing histories of the northern and southern blocks of the Gafsa master fault was the establishment of platform to basin stratigraphic configuration based on the major unconformity surfaces. Three important basin zones mark subsurface structures: Gafsa to the south, Souinia-Majoura to the northeast and Sidi Aïch-Mèjel Bel Abbès to the northwest. Basin depocenters and upthrown blocks are bounded by the N120° Gafsa and Majoura and N180° Sidi Ali Ben Aoun wrench fault salt-intruded tectonic corridors and subdivided by the associated N60° and N90° trending second-order fault corridors. The Mèjel Bel Abbès block is characterized by brittle structures associated with a deep asymmetric geometry that is organized into depressions and uplifts. Halokinesis of Triassic salt began in the Jurassic and continued during the Cretaceous periods. During extensional deformations, salt movement controlled sedimentation distribution and location of pre-compressional structures. During compressional deformations, salt remobilization accentuated the folded uplifts. The Triassic salt facies constitutes a level of decollement at the base of the Mesozoic deposits during the later displacements. The coeval dextral strike-slip motion along the three northwest-southeast bounding master faults (Gafsa, Sehib-Alima and Majoura-Mech) suggests a pull-apart opening of the Gafsa basin. Synchronous movements of the Gafsa first-order dextral strike-slip fault with the Sidi Ali Ben Aoun sinistral wrench fault caused formation of tectonic obstacles that are shown first by the sealed structures, then by development of the local compressive stress that caused formation of the south overturned folds and the syncline depressions. The transcurrent fault systems caused formation of Turonian and Senonian

  13. Mapping of active faults based on the analysis of high-resolution seismic reflection profiles in offshore Montenegro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vucic, Ljiljana; Glavatovic, Branislav

    2014-05-01

    High-resolution seismic-reflection data analysis is considered as important tool for mapping of active tectonic faults, since seismic exploration methods on varied scales can image subsurface structures of different depth ranges. Mapping of active faults for the offshore area of Montenegro is performed in Petrel software, using reflection database consist of 2D profiles in length of about 3.500 kilometers and 311 square kilometers of 3D seismics, acquired from 1979 to 2003. Montenegro offshore area is influenced by recent tectonic activity with numerous faults, folded faults and over trusts. Based on reflection profiles analysis, the trust fault system offshore Montenegro is reveled, parallel to the coast and extending up to 15 kilometers from the offshore line. Then, the system of normal top carbonate fault planes is mapped and characterized on the southern Adriatic, with NE trending. The tectonic interpretation of the seismic reflection profiles in Montenegro point toward the existence of principally reverse tectonic forms in the carbonate sediments, covered by young Quaternary sandy sediments of thickness 1-3 kilometers. Also, reflective seismic data indicate the active uplifting of evaporite dome on about 10 kilometers of coastline.

  14. 2D Self-Similar Profile for Laser Beam Propagation in Medium with Saturating Multi-Photon Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Lysak, Tatiana M.; Zakharova, Irina G.

    2016-02-01

    We study a self-similar mode of 2D laser beam propagation in media with multiphoton absorption (MA) taking into account a resonant nonlinearity and nonlinear absorption saturating. An analytical solution of the corresponding equations describing the problems under consideration is derived using an eigenvalue problem method generalization for soliton- like solution finding. The developed solution is used as incident beam profile and phase front for computer simulation of the 2D laser beam propagation. In particular, we demonstrate numerically that the laser beam propagation in a self-similar mode occurs within a certain distance, which depends on medium properties. Under certain relations between the nonlinear absorption and resonant nonlinearity, and cubic nonlinear response, we observe the super long distance of the beam propagation without any beam profile distributions.

  15. Multicomponent, 3-D, and High-Resolution 2-D Seismic Characterization of Gas Hydrate Study Sites in the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines, S. S.; Hart, P. E.; Ruppel, C. D.; Collett, T. S.; Shedd, W.; Lee, M. W.; Miller, J.

    2012-12-01

    High saturations of gas hydrates have been identified within coarse-grained sediments in the Green Canyon 955 and Walker Ridge 313 lease blocks of the deepwater northern Gulf of Mexico. The thickness, lateral extent, and hydrate saturations in these deposits are constrained by geological and geophysical data and state-of-the-art logging-while-drilling information obtained in multiple boreholes at each site during a 2009 expedition. Presently lacking are multicomponent seismic data that can provide a thorough understanding of the in-situ compressional and shear seismic properties of the hydrate-bearing sediments. Such data may represent an important tool for future characterization of gas hydrate resources. To address this data gap, the U.S. Geological Survey, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management will collaborate on a 20-day research expedition to acquire wide-angle ocean bottom seismometer and high-resolution vertical incidence 2-D seismic data at the study sites. In preparation for this mid-2013 expedition, we have analyzed existing industry 3-D seismic data, along with numerically modeled multicomponent data. The 3-D seismic data allow us to identify and rank specific survey targets and can be combined with the numerical modeling results to determine optimal survey line orientation and acquisition parameters. Together, these data also provide a more thorough understanding of the gas hydrate systems at these two sites.

  16. 2D profile of poloidal magnetic field diagnosed by a laser-driven ion-beam trace probe (LITP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaoyi; Xiao, Chijie; Chen, Yihang; Xu, Tianchao; Lin, Chen; Wang, Long; Xu, Min; Yu, Yi

    2016-11-01

    Based on large energy spread of laser-driven ion beam (LIB), a new method, the Laser-driven Ion-beam Trace Probe (LITP), was suggested recently to diagnose the poloidal magnetic field (Bp) and radial electric field (Er) in toroidal devices. Based on another property of LIB, a wide angular distribution, here we suggested that LITP could be extended to get 2D Bp profile or 1D profile of both poloidal and radial magnetic fields at the same time. In this paper, we show the basic principle, some preliminary simulation results, and experimental preparation to test the basic principle of LITP.

  17. Smooth 2-D ocean sound speed from Laplace and Laplace-Fourier domain inversion of seismic oceanography data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blacic, Tanya M.; Jun, Hyunggu; Rosado, Hayley; Shin, Changsoo

    2016-02-01

    In seismic oceanography, processed images highlight small temperature changes, but inversion is needed to obtain absolute temperatures. Local search-based full waveform inversion has a lower computational cost than global search but requires accurate starting models. Unfortunately, most marine seismic data have little associated hydrographic data and the band-limited nature of seismic data makes extracting the long wavelength sound speed trend directly from seismic data inherently challenging. Laplace and Laplace-Fourier domain inversion (LDI) can use rudimentary starting models without prior information about the medium. Data are transformed to the Laplace domain, and a smooth sound speed model is extracted by examining the zero and low frequency components of the damped wavefield. We applied LDI to five synthetic data sets based on oceanographic features and recovered smoothed versions of our synthetic models, showing the viability of LDI for creating starting models suitable for more detailed inversions.

  18. Seismic investigation of gas hydrates in the Gulf of Mexico: 2013 multi-component and high-resolution 2D acquisition at GC955 and WR313

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haines, Seth S.; Hart, Patrick E.; Shedd, William W.; Frye, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey led a seismic acquisition cruise at Green Canyon 955 (GC955) and Walker Ridge 313 (WR313) in the Gulf of Mexico from April 18 to May 3, 2013, acquiring multicomponent and high-resolution 2D seismic data. GC955 and WR313 are established, world-class study sites where high gas hydrate saturations exist within reservoir-grade sands in this long-established petroleum province. Logging-while-drilling (LWD) data acquired in 2009 by the Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrates Joint Industry Project provide detailed characterization at the borehole locations, and industry seismic data provide regional- and local-scale structural and stratigraphic characterization. Significant remaining questions regarding lithology and hydrate saturation between and away from the boreholes spurred new geophysical data acquisition at these sites. The goals of our 2013 surveys were to (1) achieve improved imaging and characterization at these sites and (2) refine geophysical methods for gas hydrate characterization in other locations. In the area of GC955 we deployed 21 ocean-bottom seismometers (OBS) and acquired approximately 400 km of high-resolution 2D streamer seismic data in a grid with line spacing as small as 50 m and along radial lines that provide source offsets up to 10 km and diverse azimuths for the OBS. In the area of WR313 we deployed 25 OBS and acquired approximately 450 km of streamer seismic data in a grid pattern with line spacing as small as 250 m and along radial lines that provide source offsets up to 10 km for the OBS. These new data afford at least five times better resolution of the structural and stratigraphic features of interest at the sites and enable considerably improved characterization of lithology and the gas and gas hydrate systems. Our recent survey represents a unique application of dedicated geophysical data to the characterization of confirmed reservoir-grade gas hydrate accumulations.

  19. 2D multi-parameter elastic seismic imaging by frequency-domain L1-norm full waveform inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brossier, Romain; Operto, Stéphane; Virieux, Jean

    2010-05-01

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) is becoming a powerful and efficient tool to derive high-resolution quantitative models of the subsurface. In the frequency-domain, computationally efficient FWI algorithms can be designed for wide-aperture acquisition geometries by limiting inversion to few discrete frequencies. However, FWI remains an ill-posed and highly non-linear data-fitting procedure that is sensitive to noise, inaccuracies of the starting model and definition of multiparameter classes. The footprint of the noise in seismic imaging is conventionally mitigated by stacking highly redundant multifold data. However, when the data redundancy is decimated in the framework of efficient frequency-domain FWI, it is essential to assess the sensitivity of the inversion to noise. The impact of the noise in FWI, when applied to decimated data sets, has been marginally illustrated in the past and least-squares minimisation has remained the most popular approach. We investigate in this study the sensitivity of frequency-domain elastic FWI to noise for realistic onshore and offshore synthetic data sets contaminated by ambient random white noise. Four minimisation functionals are assessed in the framework of frequency domain FWI of decimated data: the classical least-square norm (L2), the least-absolute-values norm (L1), and some combinations of both (the Huber and the so-called Hybrid criteria). These functionals are implemented in a massively-parallel, 2D elastic frequency-domain FWI algorithm. A two-level hierarchical algorithm is implemented to mitigate the non-linearity of the inversion in complex environments. The first outer level consists of successive inversions of frequency groups of increasing high-frequency content. This level defines a multi-scale approach while preserving some data redundancy by means of simultaneous inversion of multiple frequencies. The second inner level used complex-valued frequencies for data preconditioning. This preconditioning controls the

  20. Study of a subsurface fracture zone by vertical seismic profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Robert R.; Turpening, Roger M.; Toksoz, M. Nafi

    Remotely estimating the properties of subsurface fracture zones is important in characterizing the structure of the shallow earth. We present a vertical seismic profiling (VSP) technique to make this fracture zone estimation and discuss the results of a VSP experiment performed in the upper 770 m of the Michigan Basin. Both P and SH waves were used to observe an explosively-fractured volume of Antrim shale. The experiment was divided into two parts: a "before" survey run on the unaltered rock, then an identical "after" survey executed across the fractured volume. A seismic velocity structure of the basin was calculated from the "before" survey. Comparison of the "after" observations to the "before" data, elucidated the fracture volume and its effective elastic parameters. From travel-time delays, amplitude attenuation, converted and scattered waves, we estimated the depth (395 m), shape (ellipsoidal), size (10 m × 20 m × 30 m) and porosity (20%) of the fracture zone.

  1. Aniso2D

    2005-07-01

    Aniso2d is a two-dimensional seismic forward modeling code. The earth is parameterized by an X-Z plane in which the seismic properties Can have monoclinic with x-z plane symmetry. The program uses a user define time-domain wavelet to produce synthetic seismograms anrwhere within the two-dimensional media.

  2. 2D and 3D seismic measurements to evaluate the collapse risk of an important prehistoric cave in soft carbonate rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leucci, Giovanni; De Giorgi, Lara

    2015-02-01

    The southern part of the Apulia region (the Salento peninsula) has been the site of at least fifteen collapse events due to sinkholes in the last twenty years. The majority of these occurred in "soft" carbonate rocks (calcarenites). Man-made and/or natural cavities are sometimes assets of historical and archaeological significance. This paper provides a methodology for the evaluation of sinkhole hazard in "soft" carbonate rocks, combining seismic and mine engineering methods.Acase study of a natural cavity which is called Grotta delle Veneri is illustrated. For this example the approach was: i) 2D and 3D seismic methods to study the physical-mechanical characteristics of the rock mass that constitutes the roof of the cave; and ii) scaled span empirical analysis in order to evaluate the instability of the crown pillar's caves.

  3. Improvement of vertical profiles of raindrop size distribution from micro rain radar using 2D video disdrometer measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adirosi, E.; Baldini, L.; Roberto, N.; Gatlin, P.; Tokay, A.

    2016-03-01

    A measurement scheme aimed at investigating precipitation properties based on collocated disdrometer and profiling instruments is used in many experimental campaigns. Raindrop size distribution (RSD) estimated by disdrometer is referred to the ground level; the collocated profiling instrument is supposed to provide complementary estimation at different heights of the precipitation column above the instruments. As part of the Special Observation Period 1 of the HyMeX (Hydrological Cycle in the Mediterranean Experiment) project, conducted between 5 September and 6 November 2012, a K-band vertically pointing micro rain radar (MRR) and a 2D video disdrometer (2DVD) were installed close to each other at a site in the historic center of Rome (Italy). The raindrop size distributions collected by 2D video disdrometer are considered to be fairly accurate within the typical sizes of drops. Vertical profiles of raindrop sizes up to 1085 m are estimated from the Doppler spectra measured by the micro rain radar with a height resolution of 35 m. Several issues related to vertical winds, attenuation correction, Doppler spectra aliasing, and range-Doppler ambiguity limit the performance of MRR in heavy precipitation or in convection, conditions that frequently occur in late summer or in autumn in Mediterranean regions. In this paper, MRR Doppler spectra are reprocessed, exploiting the 2DVD measurements at ground to estimate the effects of vertical winds at 105 m (the most reliable MRR lower height), in order to provide a better estimation of vertical profiles of raindrop size distribution from MRR spectra. Results show that the reprocessing procedure leads to a better agreement between the reflectivity computed at 105 m from the reprocessed MRR spectra and that obtained from the 2DVD data. Finally, vertical profiles of MRR-estimated RSDs and their relevant moments (namely median volume diameter and reflectivity) are presented and discussed in order to investigate the

  4. A Seismic Profile Across the Southern Dead Sea Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mechie, J.; Stiller, M.; Meiler, M.; Weber, M.; Abu-Ayyash, K.; Ben-Avraham, Z.; El-Kelani, R.; Qabbani, I.; Desire Group

    2006-12-01

    As part of the DESIRE project seismic wide-angle reflection / refraction (WRR) and near-vertical incidence reflection (NVR) measurements were completed in spring 2006 across the Dead Sea Transform (DST) in the region of the southern Dead Sea basin. The DST with a total of about 105 km multi-stage left-lateral shear since about 18 Ma ago, accommodates the movement between the Arabian and African plates. It connects the spreading centre in the Red Sea with the Taurus collision zone in Turkey over a length of about 1100 km. With a sedimentary infill of about 10 km in places, the southern Dead Sea basin is the largest pull-apart basin along the DST and one of the largest pull-apart basins on Earth. The WRR measurements comprised 11 shots recorded by 200 three-component and 400 one-component instruments spaced 300 m to 1.2 km apart along the whole length of the E-W trending 240 km long profile. The NVR measurements were carried out along the central 100 km of the E-W trending profile and consisted of a 90-fold vibroseis survey along the western 50 km and an 18-fold explosive source survey along the eastern 50 km of the profile. First results of modelling of the P-wave WRR data and a field example from the NVR data will be presented. Together with results from previously completed seismic profiles in the region, these new results will constrain models of the formation of the Dead Sea Transform (DST) in the region of the southern Dead Sea basin. potsdam.de/pb2/pb22/projects/index_e.html

  5. Crustal structure of China from deep seismic sounding profiles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, S.; Mooney, W.D.

    1998-01-01

    More than 36,000 km of Deep Seismic Sounding (DSS) profiles have been collected in China since 1958. However, the results of these profiles are not well known in the West due to the language barrier. In this paper, we summarize the crustal structure of China with a new contour map of crustal thickness, nine representative crustal columns, and maps showing profile locations, average crustal velocity, and Pn velocity. The most remarkable aspect of the crustal structure of China is the well known 70+ km thickness of the crust of the Tibetan Plateau. The thick (45-70 km) crust of western China is separated from the thinner (30-45 km) crust of eastern China by the north-south trending seismic belt (105??E). The average crustal velocity of China ranges from 6.15 to 6.45 km/s, indicating a felsic-to-intermediate bulk crustal composition. Upper mantle (Pn) velocities are 8.0 ?? 0.2 km/s, equal to the global continental average. We interpret these results in terms of the most recent thermo-tectonic events that have modified the crust. In much of eastern China, Cenoxoic crustal extension has produced a thin crust with a low average crustal velocity, similar to western Europe and the Basin and Range Province, western USA. In western China, Mesozoic and Cenoxoic arc-continent and continent-continent collisions have led to crustal growth and thickening. Inferences on the process of crustal thickening are provided by the deep crustal velocity structure as determined by DSS profiles and other seismological studies. A high velocity (7.0-7.4 km/s) lower-crustal layer has been reported in western China only beneath the southernmost Tibetan Plateau. We identity this high-velocity layer as the cold lower crust of the subducting Indian plate. As the Indian crust is injected northward into the Tibetan lower crust, it heats and assimilates by partial melting, a process that results in a reduction in the seismic velocity of the lower crust in the central and northern Tibetan Plateau

  6. Imaging the Ferron Member of the Mancos Shale formation using reprocessed high-resolution 2-D seismic reflection data: Emery County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    Late in 1982 and early in 1983, Arco Exploration contracted with Rocky Mountain Geophysical to acquired four high-resolution 2-D multichannel seismic reflection lines in Emery County, Utah. The primary goal in acquiring this data was an attempt to image the Ferron Member of the Upper Cretaceous Mancos Shale. Design of the high-resolution 2-D seismic reflection data acquisition used both a short geophone group interval and a short sample interval. An explosive energy source was used which provided an input pulse with broad frequency content and higher frequencies than typical non-explosive Vibroseis?? sources. Reflections produced by using this high-frequency energy source when sampled at a short interval are usually able to resolve shallow horizons that are relatively thin compared to those that can be resolved using more typical oil and gas exploration seismic reflection methods.The U.S. Geological Survey-Energy Resources Program, Geophysical Processing Group used the processing sequence originally applied by Arco in 1984 as a guide and experimented with processing steps applied in a different order using slightly different parameters in an effort to improve imaging the Ferron Member horizon. As with the Arco processed data there are sections along all four seismic lines where the data quality cannot be improved upon, and in fact the data quality is so poor that the Ferron horizon cannot be imaged at all.Interpretation of the seismic and core hole data indicates that the Ferron Member in the study area represent a deltaic sequence including delta front, lower delta plain, and upper delta plain environments. Correlating the depositional environments for the Ferron Member as indicated in the core holes with the thickness of Ferron Member suggests the presence of a delta lobe running from the northwest to the southeast through the study area. The presence of a deltaic channel system within the delta lobe complex might prove to be an interesting conventional

  7. pySeismicFMM: Python based travel time calculation in regular 2D and 3D grids in Cartesian and geographic coordinates using Fast Marching Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polkowski, Marcin

    2016-04-01

    Seismic wave travel time calculation is the most common numerical operation in seismology. The most efficient is travel time calculation in 1D velocity model - for given source, receiver depths and angular distance time is calculated within fraction of a second. Unfortunately, in most cases 1D is not enough to encounter differentiating local and regional structures. Whenever possible travel time through 3D velocity model has to be calculated. It can be achieved using ray calculation or time propagation in space. While single ray path calculation is quick it is complicated to find the ray path that connects source with the receiver. Time propagation in space using Fast Marching Method seems more efficient in most cases, especially when there are multiple receivers. In this presentation a Python module pySeismicFMM is presented - simple and very efficient tool for calculating travel time from sources to receivers. Calculation requires regular 2D or 3D velocity grid either in Cartesian or geographic coordinates. On desktop class computer calculation speed is 200k grid cells per second. Calculation has to be performed once for every source location and provides travel time to all receivers. pySeismicFMM is free and open source. Development of this tool is a part of authors PhD thesis. National Science Centre Poland provided financial support for this work via NCN grant DEC-2011/02/A/ST10/00284.

  8. Well log and 2D seismic data character of the Wilcox Group in south-central Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Enomoto, Catherine B.

    2014-01-01

    The Wilcox Group is productive in updip areas of Texas and Louisiana from fluvial, deltaic, and near-shore marine shelf sandstones. The reported presence of porous sandstones at 29,000 feet within the Wilcox Group containing about 200 feet of gas in the Davy Jones 1 discovery well in the offshore Louisiana South Marsh Island area illustrates a sand-rich system developed during the Paleocene and early Eocene. This study describes some of the well log and reflection seismic data characteristics of the slope and basin-floor reservoirs with gas-discovery potential that may be in the area between the producing trend onshore Louisiana and the offshore discovery.

  9. A robust economic technique for crosswell seismic profiling. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hardage, B.A.; Simmons, J.L. Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this research program was to investigate a novel way to acquire crosswell tomographic data, that being to use a standard surface-positioned seismic energy source stationed inline with two wells that have downhole receiver arrays. This field technique differs from the traditional way that crosswell tomography is done, which requires that a downhole receiver array be in one well and that a downhole seismic source be in a second well. The purpose of the research effort was to evaluate the relative merits of the potential advantages and pitfalls of surface-source crosswell tomography, which some also refer to as twin-receiver-well crosswell tomography. The principal findings were: (1) surface-source crosswell tomography is a viable technology and can be used in appropriate reservoir conditions, (2) raypath modeling should be done to determine if the targeted interwell space is properly illuminated by surface-generated wavefields before proceeding to collect surface-source tomographic data, (3) crosswell data generated by a surface-based source are subject to a greater range of traveltime errors than are data generated by a downhole source, primarily due to shot statics caused by variable weathered layers, and (4) the accuracy and reliability of the interwell tomogram increase as more independent velocity information (sonic logs, velocity checkshots, vertical seismic profiles, downhole-source crosswell data) is available to constrain the inversion. The surface-source approach to crosswell tomography was evaluated by recording twin-receiver well data at the Texaco Borehole Test Site in Humble, Texas.

  10. Proteomic profiling of intact proteins using WAX-RPLC 2-D separations and FTICR mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Seema; Simpson, David C.; Tolic, Nikola; Jaitly, Navdeep; Mayampurath, Anoop M.; Smith, Richard D.; Pasa-Tolic, Liljiana

    2007-02-01

    We investigated the combination of weak anion exchange (WAX) fractionation and on-line reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) separation using a 12 T FTICR mass spectrometer for the detection of intact proteins from a Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 cell lysate. 715 intact proteins were detected and the combined results from the WAX fractions and the unfractionated cell lysate were aligned using LC-MS features to facilitate protein abundance measurements. Protein identifications and post translational modifications were assigned for ~10% of the detected proteins by comparing intact protein mass measurements to proteins identified in peptide MS/MS analysis of an aliquot of the same fraction. Intact proteins were also detected for S. oneidensis lysates obtained from cells grown on 13C, 15N depleted media under aerobic and sub-oxic conditions. This work aimed at optimizing intact protein detection for profiling proteins at a level that incorporates their modification complement. The strategy can be readily applied for measuring differential protein abundances, and provides a platform for high-throughput selection of biologically relevant targets for further characterization.

  11. Saudi Arabian seismic deep-refraction profiles; final project report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, J.H.; Mooney, W.D.; Blank, H.R.; Gettings, M.E.; Kohler, W.M.; Lamson, R.J.; Leone, L.E.

    1983-01-01

    In February 1978 a seismic deep-refraction profile was recorded by the U.S. Geological Survey along a 1000-km line across the Arabian Shield in western Saudi Arabia. The line begins in Mesozoic cover rocks near Riyadh on the Arabian Platform, leads southwesterly across three major Precambrian tectonic provinces, traverses Cenozoic rocks of the coastal plain near Jizan (Tihamat-Asir), and terminates at the outer edge of the Farasan Bank in the southern Red Sea. More than 500 surveyed recording sites were occupied, including 19 in the Farasan Islands. Six shot points were used: five on land, with most charges placed below the water table in drill holes, and one at sea, with charges placed on the sea floor and detonated from a ship. Slightly more than 61 metric tons of explosives were used in 19 discrete firings. Seismic energy was recorded by 100 newly-developed portable seismic stations deployed in approximately 200 km-long arrays for each firing. Each station consisted of a standard 2-Hz vertical component geophone coupled to a self-contained analog recording instrument equipped with a magnetic-tape cassette. In this final report, we fully document the field and data-processing procedures and present the final seismogram data set as both a digital magnetic tape and as record sections for each shot point. Record sections include a normalized set of seismograms, reduced at 6 km/s, and a true-amplitude set, reduced at 8 km/s, which have been adjusted for amplifier gain, individual shot size, and distance from the shot point. Appendices give recorder station and shot information, digital data set descriptions, computer program listings, arrival times used in the interpretation, and a bibliography of reports published as a result of this project. We used two-dimensional ray-tracing techniques in the data analysis, and our interpretation is based primarily on horizontally layered models. The Arabian Shield is composed, to first-order, of two layers, each about 20 km

  12. Seismic-reflection profiles of the New Madrid seismic zone-data along the Mississippi River near Caruthersville, Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crone, A.J.; Harding, S.T.; Russ, D.P.; Shedlock, K.M.

    1986-01-01

    Three major seismic-reflection programs have been conducted by the USGS in the New Madrid seismic zone. The first program consisted of 32 km of conventional Vibroseis profiling designed to investigate the subsurface structure associated with scarps and lineaments in northwestern Tennessee (Zoback, 1979). A second, more extensive Vibroseis program collected about 250 km of data from all parts of the New Madrid seismic zone in Missouri, Arkansas, and Tennessee (Hamilton and Zoback, 1979, 1982; Zoback and others, 1980). The profiles presented here are part of the third program that collected about 240 km of high-resolution seismic-reflection data from a boat along the Mississippi River between Osceola, Ark., and Wickliffe, Ky. (fig. 1). The data for profiles A, B, C, and D were collected between river miles 839-1/2 and 850-1/2 from near the Interstate-155 bridge to upstream of Caruthersville, Mo. (fig. 2). Profiles on this part of the river are important for three reasons: (1) they connect many of the land-based profiles on either side of the river, (2) they are near the northeast termination of a linear, 120km-long, northeast-southwest zone of seismicity that extends from northeast Arkansas to Caruthersville, Mo. (Stauder, 1982; fig. 1), and (3) they cross the southwesterly projection of the Cottonwood Grove fault (fig. 1), a fault having a substantial amount of vertical Cenozoic offset (Zoback and others, 1980).

  13. Transcriptional profiles of valvular interstitial cells cultured on tissue culture polystyrene, on 2D hydrogels, or within 3D hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Mabry, Kelly M.; Payne, Samuel Z.; Anseth, Kristi S.

    2015-01-01

    Valvular interstitial cells (VICs) actively maintain and repair heart valve tissue; however, persistent activation of VICs to a myofibroblast phenotype can lead to aortic stenosis (Chen and Simmons, 2011) [1]. To better understand and quantify how microenvironmental cues influence VIC phenotype, we compared expression profiles of VICs cultured on/in poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) gels to those cultured on tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS), as well as fresh isolates. Here, we present both the raw and processed microarray data from these culture conditions. Interpretation of this data can be found in a research article entitled “Microarray analyses to quantify advantages of 2D and 3D hydrogel culture systems in maintaining the native valvular interstitial cell phenotype” (Mabry et al., 2015) [2]. PMID:26702427

  14. Blind test of methods for obtaining 2-D near-surface seismic velocity models from first-arrival traveltimes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zelt, Colin A.; Haines, Seth; Powers, Michael H.; Sheehan, Jacob; Rohdewald, Siegfried; Link, Curtis; Hayashi, Koichi; Zhao, Don; Zhou, Hua-wei; Burton, Bethany L.; Petersen, Uni K.; Bonal, Nedra D.; Doll, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Seismic refraction methods are used in environmental and engineering studies to image the shallow subsurface. We present a blind test of inversion and tomographic refraction analysis methods using a synthetic first-arrival-time dataset that was made available to the community in 2010. The data are realistic in terms of the near-surface velocity model, shot-receiver geometry and the data's frequency and added noise. Fourteen estimated models were determined by ten participants using eight different inversion algorithms, with the true model unknown to the participants until it was revealed at a session at the 2011 SAGEEP meeting. The estimated models are generally consistent in terms of their large-scale features, demonstrating the robustness of refraction data inversion in general, and the eight inversion algorithms in particular. When compared to the true model, all of the estimated models contain a smooth expression of its two main features: a large offset in the bedrock and the top of a steeply dipping low-velocity fault zone. The estimated models do not contain a subtle low-velocity zone and other fine-scale features, in accord with conventional wisdom. Together, the results support confidence in the reliability and robustness of modern refraction inversion and tomographic methods.

  15. 3D Reservoir Modeling of Semutang Gas Field: A lonely Gas field in Chittagong-Tripura Fold Belt, with Integrated Well Log, 2D Seismic Reflectivity and Attributes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehin, Z.; Woobaidullah, A. S. M.; Snigdha, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    Bengal Basin with its prolific gas rich province provides needed energy to Bangladesh. Present energy situation demands more Hydrocarbon explorations. Only 'Semutang' is discovered in the high amplitude structures, where rest of are in the gentle to moderate structures of western part of Chittagong-Tripura Fold Belt. But it has some major thrust faults which have strongly breached the reservoir zone. The major objectives of this research are interpretation of gas horizons and faults, then to perform velocity model, structural and property modeling to obtain reservoir properties. It is needed to properly identify the faults and reservoir heterogeneities. 3D modeling is widely used to reveal the subsurface structure in faulted zone where planning and development drilling is major challenge. Thirteen 2D seismic and six well logs have been used to identify six gas bearing horizons and a network of faults and to map the structure at reservoir level. Variance attributes were used to identify faults. Velocity model is performed for domain conversion. Synthetics were prepared from two wells where sonic and density logs are available. Well to seismic tie at reservoir zone shows good match with Direct Hydrocarbon Indicator on seismic section. Vsh, porosity, water saturation and permeability have been calculated and various cross plots among porosity logs have been shown. Structural modeling is used to make zone and layering accordance with minimum sand thickness. Fault model shows the possible fault network, those liable for several dry wells. Facies model have been constrained with Sequential Indicator Simulation method to show the facies distribution along the depth surfaces. Petrophysical models have been prepared with Sequential Gaussian Simulation to estimate petrophysical parameters away from the existing wells to other parts of the field and to observe heterogeneities in reservoir. Average porosity map for each gas zone were constructed. The outcomes of the research

  16. 3D crustal seismic velocity model for the Gulf of Cadiz and adjacent areas (SW Iberia margin) based on seismic reflection and refraction profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano, Lucía; Cantavella, Juan Vicente; Barco, Jaime; Carranza, Marta; Burforn, Elisa

    2016-04-01

    The Atlantic margin of the SW Iberian Peninsula and northern Morocco has been subject of study during the last 30 years. Many seismic reflection and refraction profiles have been carried out offshore, providing detailed information about the crustal structure of the main seafloor tectonic domains in the region, from the South Portuguese Zone and the Gulf of Cadiz to the Abyssal Plains and the Josephine Seamount. The interest to obtain a detailed and realistic velocity model for this area, integrating the available data from these studies, is clear, mainly to improve real-time earthquake hypocentral location and for tsunami and earthquake early warning. Since currently real-time seismic location tools allow the implementation of 3D velocity models, we aim to generate a full 3D crustal model. For this purpose we have reviewed more than 50 profiles obtained in different seismic surveys, from 1980 to 2008. Data from the most relevant and reliable 2D seismic velocity published profiles were retrieved. We first generated a Moho depth map of the studied area (latitude 32°N - 41°N and longitude 15°W - 5°W) by extracting Moho depths along each digitized profile with a 10 km spacing, and then interpolating this dataset using ordinary kriging method and generating the contour isodepth map. Then, a 3D crustal velocity model has been obtained. Selected vertical sections at different distances along each profile were considered to retrieve P-wave velocity values at each interface in order to reproduce the geometry and the velocity gradient within each layer. A double linear interpolation, both in distance and depth, with sampling rates of 10 km and 1 km respectively, was carried out to generate a (latitude, longitude, depth, velocity) matrix. This database of all the profiles was interpolated to obtain the P-wave velocity distribution map every kilometer of depth. The new 3D velocity model has been integrated in NonLinLoc location program to relocate several representative

  17. USING RECENT ADVANCES IN 2D SEISMIC TECHNOLOGY AND SURFACE GEOCHEMISTRY TO ECONOMICALLY REDEVELOP A SHALLOW SHELF CARBONATE RESERVOIR: VERNON FIELD, ISABELLA COUNTY, MI.

    SciTech Connect

    James R. Wood; T.J. Bornhorst; William B. Harrison; W. Quinlan

    2002-04-01

    The fault study continues to find more faults and develop new techniques to visualize them. Data from the Dundee Formation has been used to document 11 major faults in the Michigan Basin which have now been verified using data from other horizons. These faults control the locations of many of the large anticlinal structures in the Michigan Basin and likely controlled fluid movements as well. The surface geochemistry program is also moving along well with emphasis on measuring samples collected last sampling season. The new GC laboratory is now functional and has been fully staffed as of December. The annual project review was held March 7-9 in Tampa, Florida. Contracts are being prepared for drilling the Bower's prospects in Isabella County, Michigan, this spring or summer. A request was made to extend the scope of the project to include the Willison Basin. A demonstration well has been suggested in Burke County, N. Dakota, following a review of 2D seismic and surface geochem. A 3D seismic survey is scheduled for the prospect.

  18. Amplitude blanking in seismic profiles from Lake Baikal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, M.W.; Agena, W.F.; Hutchinson, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    Imaging of the deepest sedimentary section in Lake Baikal using multichannel seismic profiling was hampered by amplitude blanking that is regionally extensive, is associated with water depths greater than about 900 m and occurs at sub-bottom depths of 1-2 km in association with the first water-bottom multiple. Application of a powerful multiple suppression technique improved the quality of occasional discontinuous, dipping primary reflections, but failed to substantially alter the non-reflective character of the blanking zone. Detailed analysis of amplitudes from original data and synthetic models show that the threshold for detecting primary energy in deep water of Lake Baikal occurs when the primary is about 14-20 dB less than the multiple energy. The blanking occurs because of anomalously low reflectivities of the deep sediments coupled with this 20 dB limitation in real data processing. The blanking cuts across seismic stratal boundaries, and is therefore probably unrelated to depositional lithologies. The deepest, early rift deposits, inferred to come from a mixed fluvial and lacustrine setting, do not easily explain the widespread and uniform character of the blanked deposits. More likely, blanking occurs because of processes or phenomena that physically alter the deposits, causing them to be non-reflective and/or highly attenuating. No single process explains all the observations, but a combination of diagenesis, overpressure, and the presence of dispersed free gas at sub-bottom depths of 1-2 km, offer plausible and possible conditions that contribute to blanking. Copyright ?? 1996 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  19. A pseudo-spectral method for the simulation of poro-elastic seismic wave propagation in 2D polar coordinates using domain decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Sidler, Rolf; Carcione, José M.; Holliger, Klaus

    2013-02-15

    We present a novel numerical approach for the comprehensive, flexible, and accurate simulation of poro-elastic wave propagation in 2D polar coordinates. An important application of this method and its extensions will be the modeling of complex seismic wave phenomena in fluid-filled boreholes, which represents a major, and as of yet largely unresolved, computational problem in exploration geophysics. In view of this, we consider a numerical mesh, which can be arbitrarily heterogeneous, consisting of two or more concentric rings representing the fluid in the center and the surrounding porous medium. The spatial discretization is based on a Chebyshev expansion in the radial direction and a Fourier expansion in the azimuthal direction and a Runge–Kutta integration scheme for the time evolution. A domain decomposition method is used to match the fluid–solid boundary conditions based on the method of characteristics. This multi-domain approach allows for significant reductions of the number of grid points in the azimuthal direction for the inner grid domain and thus for corresponding increases of the time step and enhancements of computational efficiency. The viability and accuracy of the proposed method has been rigorously tested and verified through comparisons with analytical solutions as well as with the results obtained with a corresponding, previously published, and independently benchmarked solution for 2D Cartesian coordinates. Finally, the proposed numerical solution also satisfies the reciprocity theorem, which indicates that the inherent singularity associated with the origin of the polar coordinate system is adequately handled.

  20. 2-D High Resolution Seismic Imaging and Potential-Field Modeling of Small-Scale Intrabasin Faulting in Surprise Valley, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athens, N.; Fontiveros, V. C.; Klemperer, S. L.; Egger, A. E.; Glen, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    desert environments. The ATV’s induced magnetic field is accounted for by a heading correction, similar to that used in aeromagnetic surveys, and the overall noise level of the system is ~ 4 nT. We collected ~ 300 km of magnetic data in 2 days, imaging a 400 nT N-S-trending magnetic high. Modeling of the potential-field data confirms the interpretation of the seismic data of a buried east-dipping normal fault. Future potential-field modeling will look at whether this tectonic model can be applied north of the seismic line where the magnetic anomaly broadens significantly or whether an intrusive body is necessary, signaling contemporaneous volcanic activity with faulting. The outcome of our study validates our strategy of rapid potential-field profiling over large areas to identify specific targets for more intensive and expensive seismic profiles, the interpretation of which can be validated by detailed potential-field modeling.

  1. Estimation of raindrop drop size distribution vertical profile from simultaneous micro rain radar and 2D video disdrometer measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adirosi, Elisa; Baldini, Luca; Roberto, Nicoletta; Montopoli, Mario; Gorgucci, Eugenio; Gatlin, Patrick; Tokay, Ali

    2016-04-01

    Experimental field campaigns of rain precipitation usually require the coexistence of several ground and satellite based observations in order to guarantee a more complete analysis of the collected case studies at the various spatial and temporal scales of interest. In the framework of the Ground Validation programme of the NASAA/JAXA Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission, several climate regions of the Earth have been interested by various field campaigns involving experimental setup which include one or more ground based disdrometers and profilers. In such situation a typical implementation of the measurement scheme consists of a pair of K-band vertically pointing micro rain radar (MRR) and a 2D video disdrometer (2DVD) installed close each other. Since 2DVD estimates are referred to the ground level, the co-located MRR is supposed to provide complementary vertical profiles of drop size distribution (DSD) measurements. However, if not properly processed MRR and 2DVD raw data can lead to erroneous interpretations of the underlying microphysics. In this work, we investigate some typical issues occurring when dealing with MRR and 2DVD observations proposing techniques to ensure the adequate data quality required in typical field validation campaigns. More in detail, MRR is an affordable continuous wave frequency-modulated radar (CWFM) typically used at vertical incidence. In the MMR configuration used, DSD profiles are estimated from Doppler spectra determined by drops falling at different velocities and at different heights from 1000 meters almost up to the ground level with a vertical resolution of 35 meters and time resolution up to 10 seconds. The importance of the microphysical measurements from MRR are related to the effects of the vertical gradients of rain precipitation at the sub-resolution scale of the measurements based remote sensing instruments such as those provided by the dual frequency radar of GPM as well as by ground based weather radars

  2. Characterization of saturated MHD instabilities through 2D electron temperature profile reconstruction from 1D ECE measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sertoli, M.; Horváth, L.; Pokol, G. I.; Igochine, V.; Barrera, L.

    2013-05-01

    A new method for the reconstruction of two-dimensional (2D) electron temperature profiles in the presence of saturated magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) modes from the one-dimensional (1D) electron cyclotron emission (ECE) diagnostic is presented. The analysis relies on harmonic decomposition of the electron temperature oscillations through short time Fourier transforms and requires rigid poloidal mode rotation as the only assumption. The method is applicable to any magnetic perturbation as long as the poloidal and toroidal mode numbers m and n are known. Its application to the case of a (m, n) = (1, 1) internal kink mode on ASDEX Upgrade is presented and a new way to estimate the mode displacement is explained. For such modes, it is shown that the higher order harmonics usually visible in the ECE spectrogram arise also for the pure m = n = 1 mode and that they cannot be directly associated with m = n > 1 magnetic perturbations. This method opens up new possibilities for electron heat transport studies in the presence of saturated MHD modes and a way to disentangle the impurity density contributions from electron temperature effects in the analysis of the soft x-ray data.

  3. FWT2D: A massively parallel program for frequency-domain full-waveform tomography of wide-aperture seismic data—Part 1: Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sourbier, Florent; Operto, Stéphane; Virieux, Jean; Amestoy, Patrick; L'Excellent, Jean-Yves

    2009-03-01

    This is the first paper in a two-part series that describes a massively parallel code that performs 2D frequency-domain full-waveform inversion of wide-aperture seismic data for imaging complex structures. Full-waveform inversion methods, namely quantitative seismic imaging methods based on the resolution of the full wave equation, are computationally expensive. Therefore, designing efficient algorithms which take advantage of parallel computing facilities is critical for the appraisal of these approaches when applied to representative case studies and for further improvements. Full-waveform modelling requires the resolution of a large sparse system of linear equations which is performed with the massively parallel direct solver MUMPS for efficient multiple-shot simulations. Efficiency of the multiple-shot solution phase (forward/backward substitutions) is improved by using the BLAS3 library. The inverse problem relies on a classic local optimization approach implemented with a gradient method. The direct solver returns the multiple-shot wavefield solutions distributed over the processors according to a domain decomposition driven by the distribution of the LU factors. The domain decomposition of the wavefield solutions is used to compute in parallel the gradient of the objective function and the diagonal Hessian, this latter providing a suitable scaling of the gradient. The algorithm allows one to test different strategies for multiscale frequency inversion ranging from successive mono-frequency inversion to simultaneous multifrequency inversion. These different inversion strategies will be illustrated in the following companion paper. The parallel efficiency and the scalability of the code will also be quantified.

  4. EAGLE - Design of 2003 Controlled Source Seismic Profile Across the Ethiopian Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maguire, P. K.; Ebinger, C. J.; Asfaw, L. M.; Mackenzie, G.; Khan, M. A.

    2001-12-01

    The Ethiopia Afar Geoscientific Lithospheric Experiment (EAGLE) is a project to image the crust and upper mantle just prior to break-up in the northern Ethiopian Rift, where the transition from continental rifting to incipient sea-floor spreading is captured. A major component of EAGLE is a 400km cross-rift controlled source profile involving the detonation of 8 borehole shots into a nominal 450 recorders distributed along the line. The principal objective of this part of the project is to provide a cross-rift P-wave velocity model of the crust and upper mantle across a transitional rift segment. The results will be used: (1) to constrain the volume of magmatic material that has been added to the crust across the rift; (2) to determine the distribution of crustal strain; (3) to identify pre-rift variations in lithospheric properties that may have influenced high strain location; and (4) to provide high resolution crustal velocity control to enhance interpretation of teleseismic and local earthquake data recorded on the linked EAGLE passive array projects. A planning visit to Ethiopia in 2001 resulted in 7 of the 8 borehole sites being provisionally identified. Information concerning population distribution and environmental risk, water table depths and restrictions on the use of underwater shots will limit the distance to which seismic energy can be observed from each shotpoint. Results from previous surveys both in Ethiopia and in the Kenya Rift enable expected amplitude-distance relations to be estimated. Using (1) the optimum crustal seismic velocity model consistent with available gravity data, (2) the proposed distribution of shots and recording stations, (3) the range to which energy from each shot should be observed, and(4) field and remote sensing constraints on major rift structures and volcanic centres, 2-D forward modelling of first arrival travel times is being undertaken to enable tighter control on the experiment design in line with the defined

  5. Subsurface mapping in the Iberian Pyrite Belt using seismic reflection profiling and potential-field data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, João; Inverno, Carlos; Matos, João Xavier; Rosa, Carlos; Granado, Isabel; Branch, Tim; Represas, Patrícia; Carabaneanu, Livia; Matias, Luís; Sousa, Pedro

    2016-06-01

    The Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB) hosts world-class massive sulphide deposits, such as Neves-Corvo in Portugal and Rio Tinto in Spain. In Portugal, the Palaeozoic Volcanic-Sedimentary Complex (VSC) hosts these ore deposits, extending from the Grândola-Alcácer region to the Spanish border with a NW-SE to WNW-ESE trend. In the study area, between the Neves-Corvo mine region and Alcoutim (close to the Spanish border), the VSC outcrops only in a small horst near Alcoutim. Sparse exploration drill-hole data indicate that the depth to the top of the VSC varies from several 100 m to about 1 km beneath the Mértola Formation Flysch cover. Mapping of the VSC to the SE of Neves-Corvo mine is an important exploration goal and motivated the acquisition of six 2D seismic reflection profiles with a total length of approximately 82 km in order to map the hidden extension of the VSC. The data, providing information deeper than 10 km at some locations, were integrated in a 3D software environment along with potential-field, geological and drill-hole data to form a 3D structural framework model. Seismic data show strong reflections that represent several long Variscan thrust planes that smoothly dip to the NNE. Outcropping and previously unknown Late Variscan near-vertical faults were also mapped. Our data strongly suggest that the structural framework of Neves-Corvo extends south-eastwards to Alcoutim. Furthermore, the VSC top is located at depths that show the existence within the IPB of new areas with good potential to develop exploration projects envisaging the discovery of massive sulphide deposits of the Neves-Corvo type.

  6. Lunar seismic profiling experiment. [Apollo 17 flight measurements of lunar surface vibrations to determine subsurface characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovach, R. L.; Watkins, J. S.; Talwani, P.

    1973-01-01

    The Apollo 17 lunar seismic profiling experiment was conducted to record the vibrations of the lunar surface as induced by explosive charges, the thrust of the lunar module ascent engine, and the crash of the lunar module ascent stage. Analysis of the data obtained made it possible to determine the internal characteristics of the lunar crust to a depth of several kilometers. The test equipment used in the experiment is described. Maps showing the location of the geophones and the deployed explosive packages are provided. Samples of the seismic signals recorded by the lunar seismic profiling experiment geophones are included.

  7. USING RECENT ADVANCES IN 2D SEISMIC TECHNOLOGY AND SURFACE GEOCHEMISTRY TO ECONOMICALLY REDEVELOP A SHALLOW SHELF CARBONATE RESERVOIR: VERNON FIELD, ISABELLA COUNTY, MI

    SciTech Connect

    James R. Wood; A. Wylie; W. Quinlan

    2004-10-01

    One of the principal objectives of this demonstration project is to test surface geochemical techniques for detecting trace amounts of light hydrocarbons in pore gases as a means of reducing risk in hydrocarbon exploration and production. During this reporting period, microbial samples were collected from the Trusty Steed prospect area in Grand Traverse County, Michigan. The samples were analyzed using the Microbial Oil Surveying Technique (MOST) technique and revealed only a local (1-point) anomaly. A decision to resample over that point is pending, but drilling has been postponed for the time being. The main news this reporting period is that in the Bear Lake area, northwest Michigan, Federated Oil & Gas Properties' Charlich-Fauble 2-9HD horizontal lateral, has cumulative production of more than 72,000 barrels of oil and is still producing 50 to 75 bopd from a Silurian Niagaran reef reservoir eighteen months after the well was completed. Surface geochemical surveys conducted in the demonstration area were consistent with production results although the ultimate decision to drill was based on interpretation of conventional subsurface and 2D seismic data. The surface geochemical techniques employed were Solid Phase MicroExtraction (SPME) and MOST. The geochemical results have been submitted to World Oil for publication. New geochemical surveys are planned for November in the Springdale quadrangle in Manistee County, Michigan. These surveys will concentrate on sampling over the trace of the proposed horizontal wells rather than a broad grid survey.

  8. The limits of seaward spreading and slope instability at the continental margin offshore Mt Etna, imaged by high-resolution 2D seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Felix; Krastel, Sebastian; Geersen, Jacob; Behrmann, Jan Hinrich; Ridente, Domenico; Chiocci, Francesco Latino; Bialas, Jörg; Papenberg, Cord; Cukur, Deniz; Urlaub, Morelia; Micallef, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Mount Etna is the largest active volcano in Europe. Instability of its eastern flank is well documented onshore, and continuously monitored by geodetic and InSAR measurements. Little is known, however, about the offshore extension of the eastern volcano flank, defining a serious shortcoming in stability models. In order to better constrain the active tectonics of the continental margin offshore the eastern flank of the volcano, we acquired a new high-resolution 2D reflection seismic dataset. The data provide new insights into the heterogeneous geology and tectonics at the continental margin offshore Mt Etna. The submarine realm is characterized by different blocks, which are controlled by local- and regional tectonics. A compressional regime is found at the toe of the continental margin, which is bound to a complex basin system. Both, the clear link between on- and offshore tectonic structures as well as the compressional regime at the easternmost flank edge, indicate a continental margin gravitational collapse as well as spreading to be present at Mt Etna. Moreover, we find evidence for the offshore southern boundary of the moving flank, which is identified as a right lateral oblique fault north of Catania Canyon. Our findings suggest a coupled volcano edifice/continental margin instability at Mt Etna, demonstrating first order linkage between on- and offshore tectonic processes.

  9. 3D constraints on a possible deep > 2.5 km massive sulphide mineralization from 2D crooked-line seismic reflection data in the Kristineberg mining area, northern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malehmir, Alireza; Schmelzbach, Cedric; Bongajum, Emmanuel; Bellefleur, Gilles; Juhlin, Christopher; Tryggvason, Ari

    2009-12-01

    2D crooked-line seismic reflection surveys in crystalline environments are often considered challenging in their processing and interpretation. These challenges are more evident when complex diffraction signals that can originate from out-of-the-plane and a variety of geological features are present. A seismic profile in the Kristineberg mining area in northern Sweden shows an impressive diffraction package, covering an area larger than 25 km 2 in the subsurface at depths greater than 2.5 km. We present here a series of scenarios in which each can, to some extent, explain the nature of this extraordinarily large package of diffractions. Cross-dip analysis, diffraction imaging and modeling, as well as 3D processing of the crooked-line data provided constraints on the interpretation of the diffraction package. Overall, the results indicate that the diffraction package can be associated with at least four main short south-dipping diffractors in a depth range of 2.5-4.5 km. Candidate scenarios for the origin of the diffraction package are: (1) a series of massive sulphide deposits, (2) a series of mafic-ultramafic intrusions, (3) a major shear-zone and (4) multiple contact lithologies. We have also investigated the possible contribution of mode-converted scattered energy in the diffraction package using a modified converted-wave 3D prestack depth migration algorithm with the results indicating that a majority of the diffractions are P-wave diffractions. The 3D prestack migration of the data provided improved images of a series of steeply north-dipping mafic-ultramafic sill intrusions to a depth of about 4 km, where the diffractions appear to focus after the migration. The results and associated interpretations presented in this paper have improved our understanding of this conspicuous package of diffractions and may lead to re-evaluation of the 3D geological model of the Kristineberg mining area.

  10. Metabolite profile of a mouse model of Charcot–Marie–Tooth type 2D neuropathy: implications for disease mechanisms and interventions

    PubMed Central

    Bais, Preeti; Beebe, Kirk; Morelli, Kathryn H.; Currie, Meagan E.; Norberg, Sara N.; Evsikov, Alexei V.; Miers, Kathy E.; Seburn, Kevin L.; Guergueltcheva, Velina; Kremensky, Ivo; Jordanova, Albena; Bult, Carol J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease encompasses a genetically heterogeneous class of heritable polyneuropathies that result in axonal degeneration in the peripheral nervous system. Charcot–Marie–Tooth type 2D neuropathy (CMT2D) is caused by dominant mutations in glycyl tRNA synthetase (GARS). Mutations in the mouse Gars gene result in a genetically and phenotypically valid animal model of CMT2D. How mutations in GARS lead to peripheral neuropathy remains controversial. To identify putative disease mechanisms, we compared metabolites isolated from the spinal cord of Gars mutant mice and their littermate controls. A profile of altered metabolites that distinguish the affected and unaffected tissue was determined. Ascorbic acid was decreased fourfold in the spinal cord of CMT2D mice, but was not altered in serum. Carnitine and its derivatives were also significantly reduced in spinal cord tissue of mutant mice, whereas glycine was elevated. Dietary supplementation with acetyl-L-carnitine improved gross motor performance of CMT2D mice, but neither acetyl-L-carnitine nor glycine supplementation altered the parameters directly assessing neuropathy. Other metabolite changes suggestive of liver and kidney dysfunction in the CMT2D mice were validated using clinical blood chemistry. These effects were not secondary to the neuromuscular phenotype, as determined by comparison with another, genetically unrelated mouse strain with similar neuromuscular dysfunction. However, these changes do not seem to be causative or consistent metabolites of CMT2D, because they were not observed in a second mouse Gars allele or in serum samples from CMT2D patients. Therefore, the metabolite ‘fingerprint’ we have identified for CMT2D improves our understanding of cellular biochemical changes associated with GARS mutations, but identification of efficacious treatment strategies and elucidation of the disease mechanism will require additional studies. PMID:27288508

  11. Metabolite profile of a mouse model of Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2D neuropathy: implications for disease mechanisms and interventions.

    PubMed

    Bais, Preeti; Beebe, Kirk; Morelli, Kathryn H; Currie, Meagan E; Norberg, Sara N; Evsikov, Alexei V; Miers, Kathy E; Seburn, Kevin L; Guergueltcheva, Velina; Kremensky, Ivo; Jordanova, Albena; Bult, Carol J; Burgess, Robert W

    2016-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease encompasses a genetically heterogeneous class of heritable polyneuropathies that result in axonal degeneration in the peripheral nervous system. Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2D neuropathy (CMT2D) is caused by dominant mutations in glycyl tRNA synthetase (GARS). Mutations in the mouse Gars gene result in a genetically and phenotypically valid animal model of CMT2D. How mutations in GARS lead to peripheral neuropathy remains controversial. To identify putative disease mechanisms, we compared metabolites isolated from the spinal cord of Gars mutant mice and their littermate controls. A profile of altered metabolites that distinguish the affected and unaffected tissue was determined. Ascorbic acid was decreased fourfold in the spinal cord of CMT2D mice, but was not altered in serum. Carnitine and its derivatives were also significantly reduced in spinal cord tissue of mutant mice, whereas glycine was elevated. Dietary supplementation with acetyl-L-carnitine improved gross motor performance of CMT2D mice, but neither acetyl-L-carnitine nor glycine supplementation altered the parameters directly assessing neuropathy. Other metabolite changes suggestive of liver and kidney dysfunction in the CMT2D mice were validated using clinical blood chemistry. These effects were not secondary to the neuromuscular phenotype, as determined by comparison with another, genetically unrelated mouse strain with similar neuromuscular dysfunction. However, these changes do not seem to be causative or consistent metabolites of CMT2D, because they were not observed in a second mouse Gars allele or in serum samples from CMT2D patients. Therefore, the metabolite 'fingerprint' we have identified for CMT2D improves our understanding of cellular biochemical changes associated with GARS mutations, but identification of efficacious treatment strategies and elucidation of the disease mechanism will require additional studies.

  12. Correlation of offshore seismic profiles with onshore New Jersey Miocene sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monteverde, D.H.; Miller, K.G.; Mountain, Gregory S.

    2000-01-01

    The New Jersey passive continental margin records the interaction of sequences and sea-level, although previous studies linking seismically defined sequences, borehole control, and global ??18O records were hindered by a seismic data gap on the inner-shelf. We describe new seismic data from the innermost New Jersey shelf that tie offshore seismic stratigraphy directly to onshore boreholes. These data link the onshore boreholes to existing seismic grids across the outer margin and to boreholes on the continental slope. Surfaces defined by age; facies, and log signature in the onshore boreholes at the base of sequences Kw2b, Kw2a, Kw1c, and Kw0 are now tied to seismic sequence boundaries m5s, m5.2s, m5.4s, and m6s, respectively, defined beneath the inner shelf. Sequence boundaries recognized in onshore boreholes and inner shelf seismic profiles apparently correlate with reflections m5, m5.2, m5.4, and m6, respectively, that were dated at slope boreholes during ODP Leg 150. We now recognize an additional sequence boundary beneath the shelf that we name m5.5s and correlate to the base of the onshore sequence Kw1b. The new seismic data image prograding Oligocene clinoforms beneath the inner shelf, consistent with the results from onshore boreholes. A land-based seismic profile crossing the Island Beach borehole reveals reflector geometries that we tie to Lower Miocene litho- and bio-facies in this borehole. These land-based seismic profiles image well-defined sequence boundaries, onlap and downlap truncations that correlate to Transgressive Systems Tracts (TST) and Highstand Systems Tracts (HST) identified in boreholes. Preliminary analysis of CH0698 data continues these system tract delineations across the inner shelf The CH0698 seismic profiles tie seismically defined sequence boundaries with sequences identified by lithiologic and paleontologic criteria. Both can now be related to global ??18O increases and attendant glacioeustatic lowerings. This integration of core

  13. Applying the seismic interferometry method to vertical seismic profile data using tunnel excavation noise as source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurado, Maria Jose; Teixido, Teresa; Martin, Elena; Segarra, Miguel; Segura, Carlos

    2013-04-01

    In the frame of the research conducted to develop efficient strategies for investigation of rock properties and fluids ahead of tunnel excavations the seismic interferometry method was applied to analyze the data acquired in boreholes instrumented with geophone strings. The results obtained confirmed that seismic interferometry provided an improved resolution of petrophysical properties to identify heterogeneities and geological structures ahead of the excavation. These features are beyond the resolution of other conventional geophysical methods but can be the cause severe problems in the excavation of tunnels. Geophone strings were used to record different types of seismic noise generated at the tunnel head during excavation with a tunnelling machine and also during the placement of the rings covering the tunnel excavation. In this study we show how tunnel construction activities have been characterized as source of seismic signal and used in our research as the seismic source signal for generating a 3D reflection seismic survey. The data was recorded in vertical water filled borehole with a borehole seismic string at a distance of 60 m from the tunnel trace. A reference pilot signal was obtained from seismograms acquired close the tunnel face excavation in order to obtain best signal-to-noise ratio to be used in the interferometry processing (Poletto et al., 2010). The seismic interferometry method (Claerbout 1968) was successfully applied to image the subsurface geological structure using the seismic wave field generated by tunneling (tunnelling machine and construction activities) recorded with geophone strings. This technique was applied simulating virtual shot records related to the number of receivers in the borehole with the seismic transmitted events, and processing the data as a reflection seismic survey. The pseudo reflective wave field was obtained by cross-correlation of the transmitted wave data. We applied the relationship between the transmission

  14. The tectonostratigraphic evolution of the offshore Gippsland Basin, Victoria, Australia---results from 3D seismic interpretation and 2D section restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weller, Mitchell

    The Gippsland Basin is located primarily offshore Victoria, Australia (between the Australian mainland and Tasmania) approximately 200 km east of Melbourne. The formation of the east-west trending Gippsland Basin is associated with the break-up of Gondwana during the late Jurassic/early Cretaceous and the basin has endured multiple rifting and inversion events. Strong tectonic control on the sedimentary development of the basin is reflected in the deposition of several major, basin scale sequences ranging in age from the early Cretaceous to Neogene, which are usually bounded by angular unconformities. Schlumberger's Petrel software package has been used to structurally and stratigraphically interpret a basin-wide 3D seismic data set provided by the Australian Government (Geoscience Australia) and four 2D kinematic reconstruction/restorations through the basin have been completed with Midland Valley's Move software to achieve a better understanding of the structural evolution of the Gippsland Basin. Rift phase extension calculated from the restorations (5.0--10.5%) appears anomalously low to accommodate the amount of sediment that has been deposited in the basin (>10km). Distributed extension on small faults and subsidence history from backstripping are employed to answer this anomaly. The 2D restorations completed illustrate structural time relationships across the basin and allow for a minimum estimate of erosion that has occurred along the inverted northern basin margin. Differences between previous work completed by Power et al. (2001) and this study as well as several extension models and associated implications are discussed as they relate to the interpretation carried out in this study. Extension calculated from section restorations ranged from approximately 5.0--10.5%. These measured extensional values appear too low to wholly accommodate the accumulated sediment thickness in the basin. Subsidence modelling and backstripping estimates approximately 50

  15. Fine-scale thermohaline ocean structure retrieved with 2-D prestack full-waveform inversion of multichannel seismic data: Application to the Gulf of Cadiz (SW Iberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagnino, D.; Sallarès, V.; Biescas, B.; Ranero, C. R.

    2016-08-01

    This work demonstrates the feasibility of 2-D time-domain, adjoint-state acoustic full-waveform inversion (FWI) to retrieve high-resolution models of ocean physical parameters such as sound speed, temperature and salinity. The proposed method is first described and then applied to prestack multichannel seismic (MCS) data acquired in the Gulf of Cadiz (SW Iberia) in 2007 in the framework of the Geophysical Oceanography project. The inversion strategy flow includes specifically designed data preconditioning for acoustic noise reduction, followed by the inversion of sound speed in the shotgather domain. We show that the final sound speed model has a horizontal resolution of ˜ 70 m, which is two orders of magnitude better than that of the initial model constructed with coincident eXpendable Bathy Thermograph (XBT) data, and close to the theoretical resolution of O(λ). Temperature (T) and salinity (S) are retrieved with the same lateral resolution as sound speed by combining the inverted sound speed model with the thermodynamic equation of seawater and a local, depth-dependent T-S relation derived from regional conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) measurements of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) database. The comparison of the inverted T and S models with XBT and CTD casts deployed simultaneously to the MCS acquisition shows that the thermohaline contrasts are resolved with an accuracy of 0.18oC for temperature and 0.08 PSU for salinity. The combination of oceanographic and MCS data into a common, pseudo-automatic inversion scheme allows to quantitatively resolve submeso-scale features that ought to be incorporated into larger-scale ocean models of oceans structure and circulation.

  16. Design soil profiles for seismic analyses of AP600 plant standard design

    SciTech Connect

    Ostadan, F.; Gross, K.K.; Liu, C.I.T.; Orr, R.S.

    1996-12-01

    Future nuclear power plants are based on standard designs. For seismic qualification, a variety of subsurface conditions are considered in the design. While the soil properties play a significant role in the seismic responses, an unlimited number of site conditions can be postulated for analyses. In this paper, a systematic and effective approach is described to arrive at the design soil profiles for the AP600 nuclear plant.

  17. Apollo 14 and 16 Active Seismic Experiments, and Apollo 17 Lunar Seismic Profiling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Seismic refraction experiments were conducted on the moon by Apollo astronauts during missions 14, 16, and 17. Seismic velocities of 104, 108, 92, 114 and 100 m/sec were inferred for the lunar regolith at the Apollo 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17 landing sites, respectively. These data indicate that fragmentation and comminution caused by meteoroid impacts has produced a layer of remarkably uniform seismic properties moonwide. Brecciation and high porosity are the probable causes of the very low velocities observed in the lunar regolith. Apollo 17 seismic data revealed that the seismic velocity increases very rapidly with depth to 4.7 km/sec at a depth of 1.4 km. Such a large velocity change is suggestive of compositional and textural changes and is compatible with a model of fractured basaltic flows overlying anorthositic breccias. 'Thermal' moonquakes were also detected at the Apollo 17 site, becoming increasingly frequent after sunrise and reaching a maximum at sunset. The source of these quakes could possibly be landsliding.

  18. Variable post-Paleozoic deformation detected by seismic reflection profiling across the northwestern "prong" of New Madrid seismic zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McBride, J.H.; Pugin, Andre J.M.; Nelson, W.J.; Larson, T.H.; Sargent, S.L.; Devera, J.A.; Denny, F.B.; Woolery, E.W.

    2003-01-01

    High-resolution shallow seismic reflection profiles across the northwesternmost part of the New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ) and northwestern margin of the Reelfoot rift, near the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers in the northern Mississippi embayment, reveal intense structural deformation that apparently took place during the late Paleozoic and/or Mesozoic up to near the end of the Cretaceous Period. The seismic profiles were sited on both sides of the northeast-trending Olmsted fault, defined by varying elevations of the top of Mississippian (locally base of Cretaceous) bedrock. The trend of this fault is close to and parallel with an unusually straight segment of the Ohio River and is approximately on trend with the westernmost of two groups of northeast-aligned epicenters ("prongs") in the NMSZ. Initially suspected on the basis of pre-existing borehole data, the deformation along the fault has been confirmed by four seismic reflection profiles, combined with some new information from drilling. The new data reveal (1) many high-angle normal and reverse faults expressed as narrow grabens and anticlines (suggesting both extensional and compressional regimes) that involved the largest displacements during the late Cretaceous (McNairy); (2) a different style of deformation involving probably more horizontal displacements (i.e., thrusting) that occurred at the end of this phase near the end of McNairy deposition, with some fault offsets of Paleocene and younger units; (3) zones of steeply dipping faults that bound chaotic blocks similar to that observed previously from the nearby Commerce geophysical lineament (CGL); and (4) complex internal deformation stratigraphically restricted to the McNairy, suggestive of major sediment liquefaction or landsliding. Our results thus confirm the prevalence of complex Cretaceous deformations continuing up into Tertiary strata near the northern terminus of the NMSZ. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Deep Seismic Reflection Profiling in the Source Region of the 1923 Kanto Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, H.; Hirata, N.; Iwasaki, T.; Koketsu, K.; Ito, T.; Kasahara, K.; Ito, K.; Kawamura, T.; Ikawa, T.; Onishi, M.; Kawanaka, T.; Abe, S.

    2003-12-01

    The location and geometry of the source fault, and crustal velocity structure, provide the basic information for more precise estimation of strong ground motions with devastative earthquakes. The deep seismic profiling around Metropolitan Tokyo (Kanto area) began from 2002 under the project named `Regional Characterization of the Crust in Metropolitan Areas for Prediction of Strong Ground Motion' as five year's project. Deep seismic profiling was performed along the Sagami (Sagami 2003) and Tokyo Bay (Tokyo Bay 2003), to obtain an image of the source fault of the Kanto earthquake of 1923 (M7.9), upper surface of the Philippine Sea plate, and deeper extension of inland active faults. In Sagami 2003, seismic reflection data were acquired along a 75-km-long seismic line from the flank of the Hakone volcano to Tokyo Bay through the coast of Sagami Bay. The seismic source was four vibroseis trucks and air guns (1500 cu. inch). The seismic signals were recorded by geophones (10 Hz) on land along the coast with 20 33-km-long spread. The seismic data was processed by standard CMP-reflection method. The obtained seismic section portrays the east dipping reflectors beneath Odawara at depth ca. 4 km to Kamakura at depth ca. 13 km for 40-km-distance forming a narrow (< 1 km) concentrated zone of reflectors. The location and geometry of reflectors are almost coincidence with the source fault model (model II) proposed by MatsuOura et al. (1980) for the Kanto earthquake using a inverse method from geodetic data. Thus, it is interpreted that the source fault of the earthquake is in the narrow zone of the concentrated reflectors. The deeper extension of the Kozu-Matsuda Fault, showing the one of the highest slip rates (3 mm/y: vertical component) among active faults in Japan and was assessed high seismic risk, merges to the east dipping reflectors at ca. 6.5 km in depth beneath the Oiso hills. In the Tokyo Bay 2003, seismic reflection data were acquired along a 71-km

  20. Proposed criteria for recognizing intrastratal deformation features in marine high resolution seismic reflection profiles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Leary, D. W.; Laine, E.

    1996-01-01

    Intrastratal deformation of marine strata is ordinarily recorded in high-resolution seismic reflection profiles as acoustically transparent or "chaotic" intervals marked by hyperbolic echoes. Intrastratal deformation is easily confused with buried slump or slide deposits formed initially at the sea floor. Correct identification of intrastratal deformation depends on the presence of a warped continuously reflective layer overlying a chaotic/transparent layer. Decollement is the key criterion for identification in seismic reflection profiles. Other criteria include intrusive structures or faults rooted in a chaotic/transparent layer and thickening and thinning of a chaotic/transparent layer with transitions to reflective intervals.

  1. Seismic investigations of Antrim shale fracturing: vertical seismic profiling field work. [Rubblization

    SciTech Connect

    Turpening, R.M.; Liskow, A.; Thomson, F.J.

    1980-09-01

    Through the use of surface to downhole shear- and compressional-wave seismic techniques, the subsurface structure through the Antrim shale was studied in Sanilac County, Michigan. This report summarizes the field work, the field instrumentation and the data collection associated with this work.

  2. Homogenization of seismic surface wave profiling in highly heterogeneous improved ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C.; Chien, C.

    2012-12-01

    Seismic surface wave profiling is gaining popularity in engineering practice for determining shear-wave velocity profile since the two-station SASW (Spectral Analysis of Surface Wave) was introduced. Recent developments in the multi-station approach (Multi-station Analysis of Surface Wave, MASW) result in several convenient commercial tools. Unlike other geophysical tomography methods, the surface wave method is essentially a 1-D method assuming horizontally-layered medium. Nevertheless, MASW is increasingly used to map lateral variation of S-wave velocity by multiple surveys overlooking the effect of lateral heterogeneity. MASW typically requires long receiver spread in order to have enough depth coverage. The accuracy and lateral resolution of 2-D S-wave velocity imaging by surface wave is not clear. Many geotechnical applications involves lateral variation in a scale smaller than the geophone spread and wave length. For example, soft ground is often improved to increase strength and stiffness by methods such as jet grouting and stone column which result in heterogeneous ground with improved columns. Experimental methods (Standard Penetration Test, sampling and laboratory testing, etc.) used to assess such ground improvement are subjected to several limitations such as small sampling volume, time-consuming, and cost ineffectiveness. It's difficult to assess the average property of the improved ground and the actual replacement ratio of ground improvement. The use of seismic surface wave method for such a purpose seems to be a good alternative. But what MASW measures in such highly heterogeneous improved ground remains to be investigated. This study evaluated the feasibility of MASW in highly heterogeneous ground with improved columns and investigated the homogenization of shear wave velocity measured by MASW. Field experiments show that MASW testing in such a composite ground behaves similar to testing in horizontally layered medium. It seems to measure some sort

  3. Deep seismic reflection profiling of the subduction megathrust across the Sagimi trough and Tokyo bay, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hiroshi; Iwasaki, Takaya; Abe, Susumu; Saito, Hideo; Kawanaka, Taku; Hirata, Naoshi

    2010-05-01

    Beneath the metropolitan Tokyo, the Philippine Sea plate, in particular the fore arc portion of the Izu-Bonin island arc, has been subducted. Subduction megathrust beneath Tokyo generated M-8 class earthquakes, such as the 1923 Kanto (M7.9) and 1703 Genroku (M8.0) earthquakes. Due to the buyant subduction of the Izu-Bonin arc, the megathrust lies very shallow part of the crust. The Kozu-Matsuda fault, probable spray fault from the megathrust, emerged at the surface. In 2009, we acquired the deep seismic reflection data across the toe of the thrust system to reveal the connectivity of the probable spray fault to the megathrust. Together with the deep seismic section acquired in 2003, we show a 120-km-long deep seismic reflection profile from the front to 30 km in depth and discuss the geometry and characteristics of the thrust system. We performed deep seismic profiling across the Sagami trough for a 70-km-long seismic line in September 2009, using two ships for offshore seismic data acquisition: a gun-ship with a 3020 cu. inch air-gun and a cable-ship with a 2-km-long, streamer cable and a 480 cu. inch air-gun. The seismic signals were recorded at Miura and Izu peninsulas located both ends of the seismic line. At both sides of the onshore line, off-line recorders were deployed along total 20-km-long seismic lines at a 50m interval. Seismic reflection data were acquired by different offset of ships making large-offset gathers. The northeast end of the seismic line connected with the 2003 Tokyo bay seismic line (Sato et al., 2005: Science). The obtained seismic sections portray the detailed geometry of the spray faults, suggesting an emergent thrust with 4 km thick landward dipping strata. It merges to the megathrust at 6-7 sec (TWT). Judging from the geometry of fault-related fold in the trough fill sediments, the tip of the megathrust is located at 3 sec (TWT) beneath the trough axis. According to the co-seismic crustal deformation, the slip of the 1923 Kanto

  4. Basement blocks and basin inversion structures mapped using reprocessed Gulfrex 2D seismic data, Caribbean-South American oblique collisional zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escalona, A.; Sena, A.; Mann, P.

    2003-12-01

    We have reprocessed and reinterpreted more than 10,000 km of "Gulfrex" multi-channel 2D seismic reflection lines collected by Gulf Oil Corporation in 1972 along the northern margin of South America (offshore Venezuela and Trinidad). These digital data were donated to the University of Texas Institute for Geophysics and represent the largest single, digital reflection survey of the region. Reprocessing of these data included: format correction, filtering, post-stack multiple suppression, and fk migration. Reprocessed data were loaded and interpreted on a workstation. The data straddle a 2,000,000 km2 zone of Paleocene-Recent, time-transgressive, oblique collision between the Caribbean arc system and the passive continental margin of northern South America. Free-air, satellite gravity data shows the remarkable 1000-km-scale continuity of four basement ridges between the uncollided part of the Caribbean arc system (NS-trending Lesser Antilles arc) and the EW-trending collisional area north of Venezuela. The basement ridges involved in the Venezuelan collisional zone include: 1) Aruba-Bonaire-Curacao ridge that can be traced as a continuous feature to the Aves ridge remnant arc of the Lesser Antilles; 2) the partially inverted Blanquilla-Bonaire basin that can be traced into the Grenada back-arc basin; 3) Margarita-Los Testigos platform that can be traced to the Lesser Antilles volcanic arc; and 4) foreland basins and fold-thrust belts of eastern Venezuela (Serrania del Interior and Maturin basin) that can be traced to the Tobago forearc basin and Barbados accretionary prism. Gulfrex data document the progressive change of basinal fault systems from NS-striking normal faults formed in extensional, Lesser Antilles intra-arc settings to rotated and inverted, NE and EW-striking normal faults deformed in the collisional area north of Venezuela. Age of initial shortening of basinal areas and inversion of normal faults setting does not follow the simple, expected pattern of

  5. Two lithospheric profiles across southern California derived from gravity and seismic data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Romanyuk, T.; Mooney, W.D.; Detweiler, S.

    2007-01-01

    We present two detailed 2-D density transects for the crust and uppermost mantle across southern California using a linear gravity inversion technique. This technique parameterizes the crust and upper mantle as a set of blocks that are based on published geologic and seismic models. Each block can have a range of densities that are constrained where possible by borehole measurements, seismic velocities, and petrologic data. To further constrain the models, it is assumed that the lithosphere is close to isostatic equilibrium at both ends of the profiles, in the deep ocean and east of the Mojave Desert. We calculate the lithostatic pressure variations field for the whole cross section to rule out the geophysically insignificant solutions. In the linear equation, ?? = a + bV (V, seismic P-wave velocity; ??, density), which approximates the mantle density-velocity (??-V) relationship, different coefficients for b were evaluated. Lower coefficients (b 0.3) imply that other effects, such as composition and/or metamorphic changes, play an important role in the mantle. Density models were constructed with the coefficient b ranging from 0 to 0.6. The results indicate that a high b value in the mantle ??-V relationship is associated with less dense crust in the Mojave block and more dense crust in the Catalina schist block. In the less dense Mojave block, the average density of the whole crust is ???2.75 g/cm3, while that of the lower crust is ???2.72 g/cm3. These densities imply a high silica content in the crust, and a minor fraction of basic rock in the lower crust, or perhaps the absence of a basaltic layer altogether. By comparison, the average density of a typical continental stable platform is ???2.85 g/cm3. Models with higher b coefficients (0.5-0.6) are characterized by a large isostatic imbalance. On the other hand, lower b values (0-0.2) require a consolidated whole crust density in the Mojave Desert of ???2.78 g/cm3, and a lower crust density of ???2.89 g/cm3

  6. Flip angle profile correction for T₁ and T₂ quantification with look-locker inversion recovery 2D steady-state free precession imaging.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Mitchell A; Nguyen, Thanh D; Spincemaille, Pascal; Prince, Martin R; Weinsaft, Jonathan W; Wang, Yi

    2012-11-01

    Fast methods using balanced steady-state free precession have been developed to reduce the scan time of T₁ and T₂ mapping. However, flip angle (FA) profiles created by the short radiofrequency pulses used in steady-state free precession deviate substantially from the ideal rectangular profile, causing T₁ and T₂ mapping errors. The purpose of this study was to develop a FA profile correction for T₁ and T₂ mapping with Look-Locker 2D inversion recovery steady-state free precession and to validate this method using 2D spin echo as a reference standard. Phantom studies showed consistent improvement in T₁ and T₂ accuracy using profile correction at multiple FAs. Over six human calves, profile correction provided muscle T₁ estimates with mean error ranging from excellent (-0.6%) at repetition time/FA = 18 ms/60° to acceptable (6.8%) at repetition time/FA = 4.9 ms/30°, while muscle T₂ estimates were less accurate with mean errors of 31.2% and 47.9%, respectively.

  7. 3-component high resolution seismic profiling, a more holistic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugin, A.; Pullan, S. E.; Hunter, J. A.; Cartwright, T.; Brewer, K.; Near Surface Geophysics

    2011-12-01

    High resolution seismic reflection methods have been extensively used throughout Canada by the Geological Survey of Canada to map buried valleys and thick unconsolidated sediment for groundwater and engineering studies. Our acquisition system consists of a landstreamer array of 48, 3-component (3-C), 30 Hz geophones mounted on sleds spaced at 0.75 m, 1.5 m or 3 m. The system is towed by a Minivib I that generates a swept signal from 20 Hz to 350 Hz at source spacings varying between 3 and 6 m. The source spacing chosen depends on the survey objectives, including the target depth and the horizontal coverage required. With these recording parameters, we typically acquire 4 to 6 line-km of data per day, making this technique a viable and cost-effective tool for regional surveying. In a single acquisition pass, the 3-C recording system has the advantage of acquiring P-wave, converted PS-wave and S-wave data. As expected, P-wave data are always best recorded on the vertical component; however, the PS and the S-wave data show various directions of polarisation from vertical to horizontal. We have observed that the velocity characteristics of the ground are a more important factor in the reflection phase polarisation than the orientation of the vibrating mass of the Minivib source. In low shear-wave velocity sediments, the polarisation of the S-wave can evolve from sub-vertical in the near surface to almost horizontal for reflections from higher-velocity sediments or bedrock, irrespective of the source orientation. In more consolidated sediments characterized by higher near surface velocities, the polarisation phase of the S-wave remains predominantly horizontal from surface to bedrock even when the source is vibrated in the vertical mode. The acquisition of 3-C shallow seismic reflection data is providing new insights into the complex behaviour and polarisation of seismic energy in the subsurface, and opening new opportunities for improving the resolution and information

  8. A lithospheric seismic profile across northern Taiwan, from arc-continental collision to extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Avendonk, H. J.; McIntosh, K. D.; Lavier, L. L.; Wu, F. T.; Okaya, D. A.; Kuochen, H.

    2012-12-01

    waves and wide-angle Moho reflections. To improve our constraints on the crustal root beneath Taiwan and on the upper mantle seismic velocity structure we augment this data set with first-arriving phases from 52 local earthquakes that were recorded on the IRIS/PASSCAL instruments during the active-source seismic experiment. With this combined seismic data set we will develop a detailed seismic velocity model along a profile across northern Taiwan and the Ryukyu forearc.

  9. Ultrasonic field profile evaluation in acoustically inhomogeneous anisotropic materials using 2D ray tracing model: Numerical and experimental comparison.

    PubMed

    Kolkoori, S R; Rahman, M-U; Chinta, P K; Ktreutzbruck, M; Rethmeier, M; Prager, J

    2013-02-01

    Ultrasound propagation in inhomogeneous anisotropic materials is difficult to examine because of the directional dependency of elastic properties. Simulation tools play an important role in developing advanced reliable ultrasonic non destructive testing techniques for the inspection of anisotropic materials particularly austenitic cladded materials, austenitic welds and dissimilar welds. In this contribution we present an adapted 2D ray tracing model for evaluating ultrasonic wave fields quantitatively in inhomogeneous anisotropic materials. Inhomogeneity in the anisotropic material is represented by discretizing into several homogeneous layers. According to ray tracing model, ultrasonic ray paths are traced during its energy propagation through various discretized layers of the material and at each interface the problem of reflection and transmission is solved. The presented algorithm evaluates the transducer excited ultrasonic fields accurately by taking into account the directivity of the transducer, divergence of the ray bundle, density of rays and phase relations as well as transmission coefficients. The ray tracing model is able to calculate the ultrasonic wave fields generated by a point source as well as a finite dimension transducer. The ray tracing model results are validated quantitatively with the results obtained from 2D Elastodynamic Finite Integration Technique (EFIT) on several configurations generally occurring in the ultrasonic non destructive testing of anisotropic materials. Finally, the quantitative comparison of ray tracing model results with experiments on 32mm thick austenitic weld material and 62mm thick austenitic cladded material is discussed.

  10. Crustal structure of the Eratosthenes Seamount, Cyprus and S. Turkey from an amphibian wide-angle seismic profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feld, C.; Mechie, J.; Huebscher, C. P.; Gurbuz, C.; Nicolaides, S.; Weber, M. H.; Hall, J.; Louden, K. E.

    2013-12-01

    In March 2010, the project CoCoCo (incipient COntinent-COntinent COllision) recorded a 650 km long amphibian N-S wide-angle seismic profile, extending from the Eratosthenes Seamount (ESM) across Cyprus and southern Turkey to the Anatolian plateau. The aim of the project is to reveal the impact of the transition from subduction to continent-continent collision of the African plate with the Cyprus-Anatolian plate. A visual quality check, frequency analysis and filtering were applied to the seismic data and reveal a good data quality. Subsequent first break picking, finite-differences ray tracing and inversion of the offshore wide-angle data leads to a first-arrival tomographic model. This model reveals (1) P-wave velocities lower than 6.5 km/s in the crust, (2) a crustal thickness of about 25-30 km and (3) an upper crustal reflection at 5 km depth beneath the ESM. Two landshots on Turkey, also recorded on Cyprus, air gun shots south of Cyprus and geological (Mackenzie et al., 2006) and previous seismic information provide the data to derive a layered velocity model beneath the Anatolian plateau and for the ophiolite complex on Cyprus. Reflections provide evidence for a north-dipping plate subducting beneath Cyprus. The main features of this model are (1) an upper and lower crust with large lateral changes in velocity structure and thickness, (2) a Moho depth of about 45-50 km beneath the Anatolian plateau, (3) a shallow north-dipping subducting plate below Cyprus with an increasing dip and (4) a typical ophiolite sequence on Cyprus with a total thickness of about 14km. The offshore-onshore seismic data complete and improve the information about the velocity structure beneath Cyprus and the deeper part of the offshore tomographic model. Thus, the wide-angle seismic data provide detailed insights into the 2D-geometry and velocity structures of the uplifted and overriding Cyprus-Anatolian plate. Subsequent gravity modeling will be used to check and improve the velocity

  11. Thermohaline fine structure in an oceanographic front from seismic reflection profiling.

    PubMed

    Holbrook, W Steven; Páramo, Pedro; Pearse, Scott; Schmitt, Raymond W

    2003-08-01

    We present acoustic images of oceanic thermohaline structure created from marine seismic reflection profiles across the major oceanographic front between the Labrador Current and the North Atlantic Current. The images show that distinct water masses can be mapped, and their internal structure imaged, using low-frequency acoustic reflections from sound speed contrasts at interfaces across which temperature changes. The warm/cold front is characterized by east-dipping reflections generated by thermohaline intrusions in the uppermost 1000 meters of the ocean. Our results imply that marine seismic reflection techniques can provide excellent spatial resolution of important oceanic phenomena, including thermohaline intrusions, internal waves, and eddies.

  12. AnisWave 2D

    2004-08-01

    AnisWave2D is a 2D finite-difference code for a simulating seismic wave propagation in fully anisotropic materials. The code is implemented to run in parallel over multiple processors and is fully portable. A mesh refinement algorithm has been utilized to allow the grid-spacing to be tailored to the velocity model, avoiding the over-sampling of high-velocity materials that usually occurs in fixed-grid schemes.

  13. Continuous seismic reflection profiling of hydrogeologic features beneath New River, Camp Lejeune, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cardinell, A.P.; Harned, D.A.; Berg, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    A medium-power, wide-frequency seismic system was used to collect more than 100 miles of continuous seismic reflection profiling data over a 4- day period along a 24-mile segment of the New River estuary and Intracoastal Waterway. The seismic reflection data were evaluated to determine the continuity of aquifer sediments and correlation with existing borehole geophysical well-log data at the Base. Results indicate that the Castle Hayne aquifer, the major source of freshwater for the military base and surrounding area, and deeper aquifers are continuous beds that gently dip to the southeast. However, immediately above the Castle Hayne aquifer, the survey showed that sediment beds are thin and discontinuous. This not only allows rainfall to more easily percolate and recharge the aquifer, but also makes the Castle Hayne more vulnerable to contamination.

  14. Comparison of protein expression profiles between three Perkinsus spp., protozoan parasites of molluscs, through 2D electrophoresis and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Boo, S; Chicano-Gálvez, E; Alhama, J; Barea, J L; Villalba, A; Cao, A

    2014-05-01

    The genus Perkinsus includes protozoan parasites of a wide range of marine molluscs worldwide, some of which have been responsible for heavy mollusc mortalities and dramatic economic losses. This study was performed with the aim of increasing the knowledge of Perkinsus spp. proteome. Proteins extracted from in vitro cultured cells of three species of this genus, P. marinus, P. olseni and P. chesapeaki, were analysed using 2D electrophoresis. Four gels from each species were produced. Qualitative and quantitative comparisons among gels were performed with Proteamweaver software. Cluster analysis grouped the four gels of each Perkinsus sp.; furthermore, P. marinus and P. olseni gels were grouped in a cluster different from P. chesapeaki. Around 2000 spots of each species were considered, from which 213 spots were common to the 3 species; P. chesapeaki and P. marinus shared 310 spots, P. chesapeaki and P. olseni shared 315 spots and P. marinus and P. olseni shared 242 spots. A number of spots were exclusive of each Perkinsus species: 1161 spots were exclusive of P. chesapeaki, 1124 of P. olseni and 895 of P. marinus. A total of 84 spots, including common and species-specific ones, were excised from the gels and analysed using MALDI-TOF and nESI-IT (MS/MS) techniques. Forty-two spots were successfully sequenced, from which 28 were annotated, most of them clustered into electron transport, oxidative stress and detoxification, protein synthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, signal transduction, metabolic process and proteolysis.

  15. Personal identification by the comparison of facial profiles: testing the reliability of a high-resolution 3D-2D comparison model.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Cristina; Cantatore, Angela; Ciaffi, Romina; Gibelli, Daniele; Cigada, Alfredo; De Angelis, Danilo; Sala, Remo

    2012-01-01

    Identification from video surveillance systems is frequently requested in forensic practice. The "3D-2D" comparison has proven to be reliable in assessing identification but still requires standardization; this study concerns the validation of the 3D-2D profile comparison. The 3D models of the faces of five individuals were compared with photographs from the same subjects as well as from another 45 individuals. The difference in area and distance between maxima (glabella, tip of nose, fore point of upper and lower lips, pogonion) and minima points (selion, subnasale, stomion, suprapogonion) were measured. The highest difference in area between the 3D model and the 2D image was between 43 and 133 mm(2) in the five matches, always greater than 157 mm(2) in mismatches; the mean distance between the points was greater than 1.96 mm in mismatches, <1.9 mm in five matches (p < 0.05). These results indicate that this difference in areas may point toward a manner of distinguishing "correct" from "incorrect" matches.

  16. Decoupling of deformation in the Upper Rhine Graben sediments. Seismic reflection and diffraction on 3-component Vertical Seismic Profiling (Soultz-sous-Forêts area)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Place, Joachim; Diraison, Marc; Naville, Charles; Géraud, Yves; Schaming, Marc; Dezayes, Chrystel

    2010-07-01

    A contribution to the definition of the structural pattern of the Soultz-sous-Forêts EGS (Enhanced Geothermal System) is presented here. After reprocessing, the PHN84J seismic reflection profile highlights the tilted blocks of the Merkwiller-Péchelbronn oilfield. In the Soultz-sous-Forêts horst, complex fault patterns are observed: the Hermerswiller normal fault flattens at depth and is rooted in decollements occurring in Triassic salt or clay series, while other steep normal faults affect underlying sedimentary formations and basement. Some methods for the exploitation of a seismic diffraction recorded by multi-component Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP) are also illustrated to locate the diffractor without specific data processing. Polarisation and travel time analysis of a diffraction event recorded in the GPK1 borehole are analysed, and its exploitation combined with seismic reflection helps defining a tilted block geometry.

  17. Crustal structure of Yunnan province, People's Republic of China, from seismic refraction profiles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kan, R.-J.; Hu, H.-X.; Zeng, R.-S.; Mooney, W.D.; McEvilly, T.V.

    1986-01-01

    Seismic refraction, profiles in Yunnan Province, southwestern China, define the crustal structure in an area of active tectonics, on the southern end of the Himalaya-Burma arc. The crustal thickness ranges from 38 to 46 kilometers, and the relatively low mean crustal velocity indicates a crustal composition compatible with normal continental crust and consisting mainly of meta-sedimentary and silicic intrusive rocks, with little mafic or ultramafic component. This composition suggests a crustal evolution involving sedimentary processes on the flank of the Yangtze platform rather than the accretion of oceanic island arcs, as has been proposed. An anomalously low upper-mantle velocity observed on one profile, but not on another at right angles to it may indicate active tectonic processes in the mantle or seismic anisotropy.

  18. Crustal Structure of Yunnan Province, People's Republic of China, from Seismic Refraction Profiles.

    PubMed

    Kan, R J; Hu, H X; Zeng, R S; Mooney, W D; McEvilly, T V

    1986-10-24

    Seismic refraction, profiles in Yunnan Province, southwestern China, define the crustal structure in an area of active tectonics on the southern end of the Himalaya-Burma arc. The crustal thickness ranges from 38 to 46 kilometers, and the relatively low mean crustal velocity indicates a crustal composition compatible with normal continental crust and consisting mainly of meta-sedimentary and silicic intrusive rocks, with little mafic or ultramafic component. This composition suggests a crustal evolution involving sedimentary processes on the flank of the Yangtze platform rather than the accretion of oceanic island arcs, as has been proposed. An anomalously low upper-mantle velocity observed on one profile but not on another at right angles to it may indicate active tectonic processes in the mantle or seismic anisotropy.

  19. Notes on acquisition of high-resolution seismic profiles in southern Puget Sound, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snavely, P.D., Jr.; Gower, H.D.; Yount, J.C.; Pearl, J.E.; Tagg, A.R.; Lee, J.W.; Lander, D.L.

    1978-01-01

    Approximately 275 km of high-resolution seismic reflection profiles were obtained in Puget Sound, Washington from the U.S. Geological Survey's research vessel DON J. MILLER from January 13 through 19, 1976. These data, recorded on microfilm, were obtained to provide information on the thickness and distribution of Quaternary deposits, to identify folds and faults that deform them, and to provide a basis for assessing geological environmental hazards.

  20. IPOD-USGS multichannel seismic reflection profile from Cape Hatteras to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grow, John A.; Markl, Rudi G.

    1977-01-01

    A 3,400-km-long multichannel seismic-reflection profile from Cape Hatteras to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge was acquired commercially under contract to the National Science Foundation and the U.S. Geological Survey. These data show evidence for massive erosion of the continental slope, diapirs at the base of the continental slope, and mantle reflections beneath the Hatteras Abyssal Plain.

  1. Shear wave velocity profile estimation by integrated analysis of active and passive seismic data from small aperture arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lontsi, A. M.; Ohrnberger, M.; Krüger, F.

    2016-07-01

    We present an integrated approach for deriving the 1D shear wave velocity (Vs) information at few tens to hundreds of meters down to the first strong impedance contrast in typical sedimentary environments. We use multiple small aperture seismic arrays in 1D and 2D configuration to record active and passive seismic surface wave data at two selected geotechnical sites in Germany (Horstwalde & Löbnitz). Standard methods for data processing include the Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) method that exploits the high frequency content in the active data and the sliding window frequency-wavenumber (f-k) as well as the spatial autocorrelation (SPAC) methods that exploit the low frequency content in passive seismic data. Applied individually, each of the passive methods might be influenced by any source directivity in the noise wavefield. The advantages of active shot data (known source location) and passive microtremor (low frequency content) recording may be combined using a correlation based approach applied to the passive data in the so called Interferometric Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (IMASW). In this study, we apply those methods to jointly determine and interpret the dispersion characteristics of surface waves recorded at Horstwalde and Löbnitz. The reliability of the dispersion curves is controlled by applying strict limits on the interpretable range of wavelengths in the analysis and further avoiding potentially biased phase velocity estimates from the passive f-k method by comparing to those derived from the SPatial AutoCorrelation method (SPAC). From our investigation at these two sites, the joint analysis as proposed allows mode extraction in a wide frequency range (~ 0.6-35 Hz at Horstwalde and ~ 1.5-25 Hz at Löbnitz) and consequently improves the Vs profile inversion. To obtain the shear wave velocity profiles, we make use of a global inversion approach based on the neighborhood algorithm to invert the interpreted branches of the

  2. Combined analysis of surface reflection imaging and vertical seismic profiling at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Daley, T.M.; Majer, E.L.; Karageorgi, E.

    1994-08-01

    This report presents results from surface and borehole seismic profiling performed by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) on Yucca Mountain. This work was performed as part of the site characterization effort for the potential high-level nuclear waste repository. Their objective was to provide seismic imaging from the near surface (200 to 300 ft. depth) to the repository horizon and below, if possible. Among the issues addressed by this seismic imaging work are location and depth of fracturing and faulting, geologic identification of reflecting horizons, and spatial continuity of reflecting horizons. The authors believe their results are generally positive, with tome specific successes. This was the first attempt at this scale using modem seismic imaging techniques to determine geologic features on Yucca Mountain. The principle purpose of this report is to present the interpretation of the seismic reflection section in a geologic context. Three surface reflection profiles were acquired and processed as part of this study. Because of environmental concerns, all three lines were on preexisting roads. Line 1 crossed the mapped surface trace of the Ghost Dance fault and it was intended to study the dip and depth extent of the fault system. Line 2 was acquired along Drill Hole wash and was intended to help the ESF north ramp design activities. Line 3 was acquired along Yucca Crest and was designed to image geologic horizons which were thought to be less faulted along the ridge. Unfortunately, line 3 proved to have poor data quality, in part because of winds, poor field conditions and limited time. Their processing and interpretation efforts were focused on lines 1 and 2 and their associated VSP studies.

  3. Deep seismic soundings on the 1-AP profile in the Barents Sea: Methods and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakoulina, T. S.; Kashubin, S. N.; Pavlenkova, G. A.

    2016-07-01

    Profile 1-AP with a length of 1300 km intersects the Barents Sea from The Kola Peninsula to Franz Josef Land. The combined Common Depth Point (CDP) and Deep Seismic Sounding (DSS) seismic studies were carried out on this profile. The DSS measurements were conducted with the standalone bottom seismic stations with an interval of 5-20 km between them. The stations recorded the signals generated by the large air guns with a step of 250 m. Based on these data, the detailed P-velocity section of the Earth's crust and uppermost mantle have been constructed for the entire profile and the S-velocity section for its southern part. The use of a variety of methods for constructing the velocity sections enabled us to assess the capabilities of each method from the standpoint of the highest reliability and informativity of the models. The ray tracing method yielded the best results. The 1-PR profile crosses two large basins—the South Barents and North Barents ones, with the thickness of the sediments increasing from 8 to 10 km in the south to 12-15 km in the north. The Earth's crust pertains to the continental type along the entire profile. Its thickness averages 32 to 36 km and only increases to 43 km at the boundary between the two basins. The distinct change in the wave field at this boundary suggests the presence of a large deep fault in this zone. The high-velocity blocks are revealed in the crust of the South Barents basin, whereas the North Barents crust is characterized by relatively low velocities.

  4. Marvin Spur - Lomonosov Ridge Relationships Based on Reflection Seismic Profiling Near the North Pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedeva-Ivanova, N. N.; Gee, D. G.; Langinen, A. E.

    2006-12-01

    Reflection seismic profiles acquired from the drifting ice-station NP-28 in 1988-1989 and other neighboring profiles provide evidence of the character and origin of the Marvin Spur and Lomonosov Ridge. The NP-28 seismic images of the sedimentary successions capping the Ridge can be correlated with those of the AWI- 91090 profile, which was calibrated by the ACEX drilling at 88º N. Along the AWI line, the most prominent reflector package marks the base of the Cenozoic (Paleocene) section and its angular unconformity to underlying Mesozoic strata. The NP-28 ice-station crossed the Lomonosov Ridge three times, near the North Pole. In each profile, the Marvin Spur is also imaged, in one case below the floor of the Makarov Basin and in the two others as a narrow ridge parallel to the Lomonosov Ridge. A prominent composite reflector occurs at a few hundred meters depth in the sedimentary successions on both the Lomonosov Ridge and the Marvin Spur, underlain disconformably by less regular reflectors, dipping towards the Amerasian Basin. Correlation of both the seismic images and velocities (Vp) with the AWI-91090 profile suggests that this composite NP-28 reflector marks the base of the Cenozoic. The reflection profiles across the Lomonosov Ridge and Marvin Spur are similar; probably the Spur is a narrow sliver of thinned continental crust that was rifted off the Ridge. Towards the Greenland margin, the trough between the Lomonosov Ridge and the Marvin Spur narrows and the two appear to merge. Towards the Siberian margin, the trough widens and the crest of the Marvin Spur sinks beneath the Makarov Basin. It has been also imaged further along strike beneath this basin in the TRA(b)-90 profile (Langinen et al, ICAM-IV in press), where the composite reflector marks a clear unconformity capping the Spur and adjacent older successions. These lines of seismic evidence need to be tested by piston coring and drilling. They emphasize the importance of Cenozoic faulting for

  5. Interpretation of shallow crustal structure of the Imperial Valley, California, from seismic reflection profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Severson, L.K.

    1987-05-01

    Eight seismic reflection profiles (285 km total length) from the Imperial Valley, California, were provided to CALCRUST for reprocessing and interpretation. Two profiles were located along the western margin of the valley, five profiles were situated along the eastern margin and one traversed the deepest portion of the basin. These data reveal that the central basin contains a wedge of highly faulted sediments that thins to the east. Most of the faulting is strike-slip but there is evidence for block rotations on the scale of 5 to 10 kilometers within the Brawley Seismic Zone. These lines provide insight into the nature of the east and west edges of the Imperial Valley. The basement at the northwestern margin of the valley, to the north of the Superstition Hills, has been normal-faulted and blocks of basement material have ''calved'' into the trough. A blanket of sediments has been deposited on this margin. To the south of the Superstition Hills and Superstition Mountain, the top of the basement is a detachment surface that dips gently into the basin. This margin is also covered by a thick sequence sediments. The basement of the eastern margin consists of metamorphic rocks of the upper plate of the Chocolate Mountain Thrust system underlain by the Orocopia Schist. These rocks dip to the southeast and extend westward to the Sand Hills Fault but do not appear to cross it. Thus, the Sand Hills Fault is interpreted to be the southern extension of the San Andreas Fault. North of the Sand Hills Fault the East Highline Canal seismicity lineament is associated with a strike-slip fault and is probably linked to the Sand Hills Fault. Six geothermal areas crossed by these lines, in agreement with previous studies of geothermal reservoirs, are associated with ''faded'' zones, Bouguer gravity and heat flow maxima, and with higher seismic velocities than surrounding terranes.

  6. Large-explosive source, wide-recording aperture, seismic profiling on the Columbia Plateau, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Jarchow, C.M. . Dept. of Geophysics); Catchings, R.D.; Lutter, W.J. )

    1994-02-01

    Clear subsurface seismic images have been obtained at low cost on the Columbia Plateau, Washington. The Columbia Plateau is perhaps the most notorious of all bad-data'' areas because large impedance contrasts in surface flood basalts severely degrade the seismic wavefield. This degradation was mitigated in this study via a large-explosive source, wide-recording aperture shooting method. The shooting method emphasizes the wide-angle portion of the wavefield, where Fermat's principle guarantees reverberation will not interfere with the seismic manifestations of crucial geologic interfaces. The basalt diving wave, normally discarded in standard common midpoint (CMP) seismic profiling, can be used to image basalt velocity structure via travel-time inversion. Maximum depth-penetration of the diving wave tightly constrains basalt-sediment interface depth. An arrival observed only at shot-receiver offsets greater than 15 km can be used to determine the velocity and geometry of basement via simultaneous inversion. The results from this study suggest that previous geologic hypotheses and hydrocarbon play concepts for the Columbia Plateau may have been in error.

  7. Integrated well log and 2-D seismic data interpretation to image the subsurface stratigraphy and structure in north-eastern Bornu (Chad) basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isyaku, Aminu A.; Rust, Derek; Teeuw, Richard; Whitworth, Malcolm

    2016-09-01

    Structural and stratigraphic mapping within the Bornu Basin in north east Nigeria was commonly carried out using traditional field geological methods. However, such traditional approaches remain inadequate in the semi-arid region characterised by topographically flat areas and lack of continuous bedrock outcrops that are mostly concealed beneath sand cover. Previous studies in the north-eastern part of the basin carried out using ditch cuttings from few wells and disconnected seismic data were largely inadequate and the resulting stratigraphic analyses were more often generalised. This paper presents an integrated structural and stratigraphic study of the basin using combined subsurface geophysical datasets. A Combined Log Pattern (CLP) method is a well log analysis, which utilises various well log data including gamma ray, resistivity, bulk density and sonic logs to identify lithology and stratigraphic boundaries of subsurface formations. This method is applied to constrain the subsurface stratigraphy of the north-eastern part of the Bornu Basin bordering the Lake Chad. In addition to qualitative combined well log analysis, the time-depth relationship of the sonic log and seismic data was quantitatively determined by tying a well with an intersecting seismic section to validate the stratigraphic facies horizons identified. Four well log facies and their environments of deposition were characterised from the combined well log analysis of the different log types. It is discovered that the Cretaceous basement structural features controlled the deposition of overlying formations in the basin. Without intact core data, the shallower wells were discovered to have bottomed over subsurface horst features while deeper wells penetrated into the basal facies contained mainly within the grabens. Main subsurface structural lineaments in the area include NW-SE, NE-SW and NNW-SSE trending faults, which mainly formed the horst and graben features. Some stratigraphic formations

  8. 2-D difference gel electrophoresis approach to assess protein expression profiles in Bathymodiolus azoricus from Mid-Atlantic Ridge hydrothermal vents.

    PubMed

    Company, Rui; Antúnez, Oreto; Bebianno, Maria João; Cajaraville, Miren P; Torreblanca, Amparo

    2011-11-18

    Hydrothermal vent mussels Bathymodiolus azoricus are naturally exposed to toxic chemical species originated directly from vent chimneys. The amount of toxic elements varies significantly among vent sites along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and B. azoricus must be able to adapt to changes in hydrothermal fluid composition, temperature and pressure. The aim of this work was to study changes in the proteome in the "gill-bacteria complex" of mussels B. azoricus from three hydrothermal vent sites with distinct environmental characteristics using 2-D Fluorescence Difference Gel Electrophoresis (2-D DIGE). Results showed that 31 proteins had different expression profiles among vent sites and both cluster and principal component analysis confirm a clear separation of mussels between sites. This suggests the existence of specific parameters grouping individuals from the same hydrothermal site. Protein spots of the more abundant differentially expressed proteins were excised, digested with trypsin and identified by mass spectrometry. All identified proteins (actin, ubiquinone, S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase, cysteine peptidases, chaperonin and catalase) have been related previously with oxidative stress conditions and are known to be affected by ROS inducing stressors, including metals. Results point out to specific adaptations at the proteome level of B. azoricus depending on the level of toxicants present in their environment.

  9. Crustal structure of the Southern Rio Grande rift determined from seismic refraction profiling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinno, Y. A.; Keller, G. R.; Harder, S. H.; Daggett, P. H.; Morgan, P.

    1986-01-01

    As part of a major cooperative seismic experiment, a series of seismic refraction profiles have been recorded in south-central New Mexico with the goal of determining the crustal structure in the southern Rio Grande rift. The data gathered greatly expand the seismic data base in the area, and consist of three interlocking regional profiles: a reversed E-W line across the rift, an unreversed N-S axial line, and an unreversed SW-SE line. The reversed E-W line shows no significant dip along the Moho (32 km thick crust) and a 7.7 km/s Pn velocity. Results from the N-S axial line and the NW-SE line indicate an apparent Pn velocity of 7.95 km/s and significant dip along the Moho with crustal thinning toward the south and southeast. When interpreted together, these data indicate a crustal thinning in the southern rift of 4-6 km with respect to the northern rift and the adjacent Basin and Range province, and establish the regional Pn velocity to be approximately 7.7 km/s. These results suggest that the Rio Grande rift can be identified as a crustal feature separate and distinct from the Basin and Range province.

  10. A simple method for migrating narrow aperture, noisy seismic reflection data and application to Project INDEPTH (International Deep Profiling of Tibet and the Himalaya) deep seismic profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsdorf, Doug

    1997-08-01

    Migration of deep seismic data is often hindered by a narrow recording aperture (line length by record length) and a low signal-to-noise ratio. The severity of typical migration artifacts (e.g., lateral smearing of discontinuous reflections into synforms, "smiles") increases with travel time such that interpreters of deep seismic data have often substituted migrated line drawings for the actual sections. As part of Project INDEPTH (International Deep Profiling of Tibet and the Himalaya), a new migration method was developed to address both the noise and migration issues. The method works in the time-space domain and uses the simple, constant velocity, straight ray path to perform the migration. First, only amplitudes within a given range are retained for migration, thus avoiding high-amplitude noise bursts and low-amplitude background noise. Then, the local dip of a reflection is found by automatically fitting a straight line to the highest amplitudes within a small window (several time samples by several traces) and calculating the dip of the line using a constant velocity. Finally, using this dip, the method migrates a selected amplitude value. The dips, lateral positions, and depths of the migrated events compare very well with output from more conventional algorithms (e.g.,fk-Stolt, finite difference, etc.). The advantages of the new method include fewer artifacts, fast computer run times, low memory use and the ability to migrate long profiles and travel times (e.g., 50 s). The output of the method is a grid of migrated amplitudes (not wavelets) or dip values which is particularly effective for making small figures, such as those needed for publication. The principal disadvantage is the use of a constant migration velocity.

  11. The efficiency of using a seismic base isolation system for a 2D concrete frame founded upon improved soft soil with rigid inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awwad, Talal; Donia, Modar

    2016-03-01

    2D finite element models were developed to analyze the effect of improved soft-soil foundation on the efficiency of a base-isolated concrete frame. Static and dynamic analyses were performed for a frame on raft foundation. Non-improved and improved soft-soil foundation using rigid inclusions were considered, as well as the use of high damping rubber bearing as base isolation. Results show that the use of rigid inclusions increases the efficiency of base isolation; base shear is reduced by 38% and maximum acceleration at the top of the frame by 30%.

  12. Shallow seismic reflection profiles and geological structure in the Benton Hills, southeast Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palmer, J.R.; Hoffman, D.; Stephenson, W.J.; Odum, J.K.; Williams, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    During late May and early June of 1993, we conducted two shallow, high-resolution seismic reflection surveys (Mini-Sosie method) across the southern escarpment of the Benton Hills segment of Crowleys Ridge. The reflection profiles imaged numerous post-late Cretaceous faults and folds. We believe these faults may represent a significant earthquake source zone. The stratigraphy of the Benton Hills consists of a thin, less than about 130 m, sequence of mostly unconsolidated Cretaceous, Tertiary and Quaternary sediments which unconformably overlie a much thicker section of Paleozoic carbonate rocks. The survey did not resolve reflectors within the upper 75-100 ms of two-way travel time (about 60-100 m), which would include all of the Tertiary and Quaternary and most of the Cretaceous. However, the Paleozoic-Cretaceous unconformity (Pz) produced an excellent reflection, and, locally a shallower reflector within the Cretaceous (K) was resolved. No coherent reflections below about 200 ms of two-way travel time were identified. Numerous faults and folds, which clearly offset the Paleozoic-Cretaceous unconformity reflector, were imaged on both seismic reflection profiles. Many structures imaged by the reflection data are coincident with the surface mapped locations of faults within the Cretaceous and Tertiary succession. Two locations show important structures that are clearly complex fault zones. The English Hill fault zone, striking N30??-35??E, is present along Line 1 and is important because earlier workers indicated it has Pleistocene Loess faulted against Eocene sands. The Commerce fault zone striking N50??E, overlies a major regional basement geophysical lineament, and is present on both seismic lines at the southern margin of the escarpment. The fault zones imaged by these surveys are 30 km from the area of intense microseismicity in the New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ). If these are northeast and north-northeast oriented fault zones like those at Thebes Gap they are

  13. Volcano-Tectonic History of the Island of Montserrat, West Indies, From Seismic Reflection Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenedi, C. L.; Sparks, S. J.; Dean, S.; Hammond, J.; Malin, P. E.; Minshull, T.; Paulatto, M.; Peirce, C.; Ryan, G.; Shalev, E.; Voight, B.

    2008-12-01

    Seismic reflection profiles provide a cross-sectional view of crustal layers and thus details about local sedimentation rates, chronology, and depositional materials. Based on seismic profiles collected as part of the SEA-CALIPSO seismic experiment, we apply this method to interpreting the volcanic and local tectonic history of the island of Montserrat, in the Lesser Antilles arc. In December 2007, the vessel RRS James Cook towed a tuned, 2600 cubic inch, 8-airgun array along encircling and radial lines around Montserrat. The airguns fired every 60 sec (approx. every 140 m) at a pressure of 2000 psi. The ship also towed a 600 m streamer consisting of 48 hydrophone channels. Over a period of 77 hours, the hydrophones recorded a total of 4414 shots. Onboard the ship, data were stacked to produce 26 seismic profiles. The profiles vary in length up to 15 km and allow interpretation up to a depth of approx. 2.5 km. The profiles from east of Montserrat reveal fans of coarse-grained debris flows and submarine pyroclastic flows that derive from both the older volcanic centers and the active Soufriere Hills Volcano (SHV). The flows form tapering wedges that have been overlain by younger sea-floor sediments. Older ( > 1 Ma) sedimentary rocks, containing multiple reflective layers, deflect downwards towards and beneath Montserrat, forming a moat into which the debris and pyroclastic flows have deposited. A sub-sediment volcanic basement is present offshore at approximately 1.5 km depth. Offshore on the west side of the island the prominent Belham valley fault can be traced trending NW. The new data suggest that the fault line has been active in the recent geological past; the fault has offset submarine deposits offshore and tectonic blocks onshore (Garibaldi Hill, St. Georges Hill, Roches Bluff), has caused the down-warping of ocean sediments on the east side of the island, and likely influenced the location of domes and feeding conduits at and adjacent to the SHV. Montserrat

  14. Characterization of the upper surface of the Philippine Sea plate beneath Kanto, central Japan: insight from seismic reflection profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, H.; Abe, S.; Iwasaki, T.; Kurashimo, E.; Okaya, D. A.; Sakai, S.; Kawanaka, T.; Hirata, N.

    2010-12-01

    Beneath metropolitan Tokyo, the Philippine Sea plate (PHS) has been subducted on the Pacific plate (PAC). Due to shallow subduction of Philippine Sea plate (PHS), intraslab earthquake of PHS can also produce significant damage of Tokyo metropolitan area. To construct source fault models, we have carried out seismic reflection profiling since 2002 and acquired seismic reflection data from 9 seismic lines, including 2009 Sagami trough and 2010 Kujukuri seismic survey. Due to strong impedance contrast of plate interface, the upper surface of PHS was imaged down to maximum 40 km in depth. The obtained seismic profiles portrayed the shallow geometry of the PHS. The combined seismic section from Izu peninsula to Tokyo (2009 Sagami trough and 2003 Tokyo bay seismic sections) shows strong reflectivity in the deeper part (17 to 27 km) and also shallower part (5 to 10 km). Base on the co-seismic displacement of the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M7.9) and slip-deficit rate determined by GPS observations, the asperity zone is clearly identified along the combined seismic line. By comparison, the zone of asperity is marked by the area of low reflectivity, relatively flat geometry and Vp > 6 km/sec. The subducted PHS slab beneath Kanto consists of fore-arc and volcanic-arc of young geologic age. The slab geometry obtained by seismic reflection suggests strong deformation. Three seismic lines across the north to northwestern part of the Izu collision zone demonstrate the ridge shaped antiform of the PHS slab. Judging from overall geometry of PHS slab beneath Kanto, the deformation of the slab probably produced by the northward subduction of PHS (> 1 Ma) and interaction with underlying cold PAC slab.

  15. Structure of Precambrian crust in the U. S. from COCORP deep seismic profiling

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, L.D. )

    1992-01-01

    COCORP and industry seismic reflection profiles probing beneath the thin veneer of Paleozoic sedimentary rocks of the US mid-continent are mapping a complex, largely unknown three dimensional mosaic of major fault zones and sutures, a highly variable Moho, and extensive sequences of unexplored volcanic and/or sedimentary strata. Key features of the Precambrian suggested by COCORP and other deep profiling include: Pervasive, distributed reflectivity, often diffractive, dominating the middle and lower crust. Moho that is rarely reflective, usually evident as a downward transition of distributed crustal reflectivity into mantle transparency. Volcano-clastic filled graben of the late Proterozoic Keweenawan rift buried beneath Paleozoic strata in Kansas and Michigan. Extensive, subhorizontal Precambrian stratification in the upper crust beneath the east- central US and the Texas-Oklahoma border region, argued to be either an extensive volcano-clastic basin, a voluminous felsic volcanic outpouring or a major intrusive sill complex. Crustal penetrating, dipping reflection zones that mark known (Grenville front) or inferred (Cashocton zone, Trans-Hudson orogen) shear zones. Non-reflective ( ) basement beneath the Appalachian foreland suggesting transparent massifs'' that serve as collisional buttresses during terrane accretion. Deep structure is sometimes at odds with simple extrapolations of surface geology. Clearly deep seismic profiling has only begun to reveal the buried craton in the US. It is time for an integrated program for the systematic exploration of this special scientific frontier.

  16. Accretion and Subduction of Oceanic Lithosphere: 2D and 3D Seismic Studies of Off-Axis Magma Lenses at East Pacific Rise 9°37-40'N Area and Downgoing Juan de Fuca Plate at Cascadia Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Shuoshuo

    Two thirds of the Earth's lithosphere is covered by the ocean. The oceanic lithosphere is formed at mid-ocean ridges, evolves and interacts with the overlying ocean for millions of years, and is eventually consumed at subduction zones. In this thesis, I use 2D and 3D multichannel seismic (MCS) data to investigate the accretionary and hydrothermal process on the ridge flank of the fast-spreading East Pacific Rise (EPR) at 9°37-40'N and the structure of the downgoing Juan de Fuca plate at the Cascadia subduction zone offshore Oregon and Washington. Using 3D multichannel seismic (MCS) data, I image a series of off-axis magma lenses (OAML) in the middle or lower crust, 2-10 km from the ridge axis at EPR 9°37-40'N. The large OAMLs are associated with Moho travel time anomalies and local volcanic edifices above them, indicating off-axis magmatism contributes to crustal accretion though both intrusion and eruption (Chapter 1). To assess the effect of OAMLs on the upper crustal structure, I conduct 2-D travel time tomography on downward continued MCS data along two across-axis lines above a prominent OAML in our study area. I find higher upper crustal velocity in a region ~ 2 km wide above this OAML compared with the surrounding crust. I attribute these local anomalies to enhanced precipitation of alteration minerals in the pore space of upper crust associated with high-temperature off-axis hydrothermal circulation driven by the OAML (Chapter 2). At Cascadia, a young and hot end-member of the global subduction system, the state of hydration of the downgoing Juan de Fuca (JdF) plate is important to a number of subduction processes, yet is poorly known. As local zones of higher porosity and permeability, faults constitute primary conduits for seawater to enter the crust and potentially uppermost mantle. From pre-stack time migrated MCS images, I observe pervasive faulting in the sediment section up to 200 km from the deformation front. Yet faults with large throw and

  17. A look inside the San Andreas Fault at Parkfield through vertical seismic profiling.

    PubMed

    Chavarria, J Andres; Malin, Peter; Catchings, Rufus D; Shalev, Eylon

    2003-12-01

    The San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth pilot hole is located on the southwestern side of the Parkfield San Andreas fault. This observatory includes a vertical seismic profiling (VSP) array. VSP seismograms from nearby microearthquakes contain signals between the P and S waves. These signals may be P and S waves scattered by the local geologic structure. The collected scattering points form planar surfaces that we interpret as the San Andreas fault and four other secondary faults. The scattering process includes conversions between P and S waves, the strengths of which suggest large contrasts in material properties, possibly indicating the presence of cracks or fluids.

  18. A Look Inside the San Andreas fault at Parkfield Through Vertical Seismic Profiling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chavarria, J.A.; Malin, P.; Catchings, R.D.; Shalev, E.

    2003-01-01

    The San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth pilot hole is located on the southwestern side of the Parkfield San Andreas fault. This observatory includes a vertical seismic profiling (VSP) array. VSP seismograms from nearby micro-earthquakes contain signals between the P and S waves. These signals may be P and S waves scattered by the local geologic structure. The collected scattering points form planar surfaces that we interpret as the San Andreas fault and four other secondary faults. The scattering process includes conversions between P and S waves, the strengths of which suggest large contrasts in material properties, possibly indicating the presence of cracks or fluids.

  19. Contribution of NAD 2D-NMR in liquid crystals to the determination of hydrogen isotope profile of methyl groups in miliacin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdagué, Philippe; Lesot, Philippe; Jacob, Jérémy; Terwilliger, Valery J.; Le Milbeau, Claude

    2016-01-01

    The hydrogen isotopic composition (δD or (D/H) value) of molecular biomarkers preserved in sedimentary archives is increasingly used to provide clues about the evolution of past climatic conditions. The rationale is that intact biomarkers retain isotopic information related to the climatic conditions that prevailed at the time of their synthesis. Some of these biomarkers may be degraded during diagenesis, however. The extent to which these degradations alter the original δD value of the source biomarker is presently debated and the capacity to resolve this question by determination of compound-specific δD values alone is limited. The "bulk" or "global" δD value of any molecule is in fact a composite of δD values at each site within this molecule (δDi or (D/H)i with i = number of hydrogen/deuterium atoms in the considered molecule). Determination of this site-specific δDi value in biomarkers could not only yield outstanding paleoenvironmental information but also help forecast the impacts of diagenesis and define essential steps in biosynthetic pathways. This task is analytically challenging. Here, we examined the capabilities of natural abundance deuterium 2D-NMR (NAD 2D-NMR) using homopolypeptide liquid crystals as an NMR solvent to: (i) analyze the NAD spectra of biomakers; (ii) determine the site-specific distribution of hydrogen in the nine methyl groups (δDMei with i = 23-31) of miliacin, a pentacyclic triterpene of the amyrin family and key biomarker for broomcorn millet in sedimentary archives. Relative (D/H)Mei values were established by anisotropic NAD 2D-NMR. Then absolute δDMei values were obtained by determining δDMei value of the methoxy group of miliacin using two independent approaches: isotropic NAD NMR (SNIF-NMR™) and GC-irMS. The resulting isotope profile for miliacin shows, for the first time, large variations in δDMei values that can directly be explained by biosynthetic processes. This approach has also the potential to permit

  20. USING RECENT ADVANCES IN 2D SEISMIC TECHNOLOGY AND SURFACE GEOCHEMISTRY TO ECONOMICALLY REDEVELOP A SHALLOW SHELF CARBONATE RESERVOIR: VERNON FIELD, ISABELLA COUNTY, MI.

    SciTech Connect

    James R. Wood; W. Quinlan

    2003-07-01

    The principal objective of this demonstration project is to test surface geochemical techniques for detecting trace amounts of light hydrocarbons in pore gases as a means of reducing risk in hydrocarbon exploration and production. As part of the project, a field demonstration was undertaken to assess the validity and usefulness of the microbial surface geochemical technique. The surface geochemistry data showed a strong anomaly in the Myrtle Beach area that would justify drilling by itself and even more so in conjunction with the structural interpretation from the 3D seismic data. The Myrtle Beach geochemical survey indicated a good to excellent prospect which was confirmed by drilling. Presented in this quarterly report is the Case History and Well Summary for the Myrtle Beach area in Burke County, North Dakota. This case history presents the important technical details regarding the geochemistry and the two vertical wells that are part of this field demonstration, and the applicability of these results to other demonstration projects. This format could be duplicated for other demonstration projects and is being used on all subsequent field demonstrations as they near completion.

  1. Simulation of seismic wave propagation in 2D poroelastic media using weighted-averaging finite difference stencils in the frequency-space domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qingjie; Mao, Weijian

    2016-10-01

    The poroelastodynamic equations are used to describe the dynamic solid-fluid interaction in the reservoir. To obtain the intrinsic properties of reservoir rocks from geophysical data measured in both laboratory and field, we need an accurate solution of the wave propagation in porous media. At present, the poroelastic wave equations are mostly solved in the time domain, which involves a difficult and complicated time convolution. In order to avoid the issues caused by the time convolution, we propose a frequency-space domain method. The poroelastic wave equations are composed of a linear system in the frequency domain, which easily takes into account the effects of all frequencies on the dispersion and attenuation of seismic wave. A 25-point weighted-averaging finite different scheme is proposed to discretize the equations. For the finite model, the perfectly matched layer technique is applied at the model boundaries. We validated the proposed algorithm by testing three numerical examples of poroelastic models, which are homogenous, two-layered and heterogeneous with different fluids, respectively. The testing results are encouraging in the aspects of both computational accuracy and efficiency.

  2. Crustal shortening followed by extensional collapse of the Cordilleran orogenic belt in northwestern Montana: Evidence from vintage seismic reflection profiles acquired in the Swan Range and Swan Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutherford, B. S.; Speece, M. A.; Stickney, M. C.; Mosolf, J. G.

    2013-12-01

    Reprocessing of one 24-fold (96 channel) and four 30-fold (120 channel) 2D seismic reflection profiles have revealed crustal scale reflections in the Swan Range and adjacent Swan River Valley of northwestern Montana. The five reprocessed profiles constitute 142.6 of the 303.3 linear km acquired in 1983-84 by Techo of Denver, Colorado. The four 30-fold profiles used helicopter-assisted dynamite shooting (Poulter method) and the 24-fold profile used the Vibroseis method. Acquisition parameters were state of the art for the time. The Swan Range lies east of the Rocky Mountain Trench and is part of the Cordilleran foreland thrust belt where the Lewis thrust system emplaced a thick slab of Proterozoic Belt Supergroup strata eastward and over Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks during the Late Cretaceous to early Paleocene Laramide orogeny. Deeply drilled borehole data are absent within the study area; however, we generated a synthetic seismogram from the Arco-Marathon 1 Paul Gibbs well (total depth=5418 m), located approximately 70 km west of the reprocessed profiles, and correlated the well data to surface seismic profiles. Large impedance contrasts in the log data are interpreted to be tholeiitic Moyie sills within the Prichard Formation argillite (Lower Belt), which produce strong reflection events in regional seismic sections and result in highly reflective, east-dipping events in the reprocessed profiles. We estimate a depth of 10 km (3 to 3.5 seconds) to the basal detachment of the Lewis thrust sheet. The décollement lies within Belt Supergroup strata to the west of the Swan River Valley before contacting unreflective, west-dipping crystalline basement beneath the Swan Range--a geometry that results in a wedge of eastward-thinning, autochthonous Belt rocks. Distinct fault-plane signatures from the west-dipping, range-bounding Swan fault--produced by extensional collapse of the over-thickened Cordillera--are not successfully imaged. However, reflections from Cenozoic

  3. Active faults in the deformation zone off Noto Peninsula, Japan, revealed by high- resolution seismic profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, T.; Okamura, Y.; Murakami, F.; Kimura, H.; Ikehara, K.

    2008-12-01

    Recently, a lot of earthquakes occur in Japan. The deformation zone which many faults and folds have concentrated exists on the Japan Sea side of Japan. The 2007 Noto Hanto Earthquake (MJMA 6.9) and 2007 Chuetsu-oki Earthquake (MJMA 6.8) were caused by activity of parts of faults in this deformation zone. The Noto Hanto Earthquake occurred on 25 March, 2007 under the northwestern coast of Noto Peninsula, Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan. This earthquake is located in Quaternary deformation zone that is continued from northern margin of Noto Peninsula to southeast direction (Okamura, 2007a). National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) carried out high-resolution seismic survey using Boomer and 12 channels short streamer cable in the northern part off Noto Peninsula, in order to clarify distribution and activities of active faults in the deformation zone. A twelve channels short streamer cable with 2.5 meter channel spacing developed by AIST and private corporation is designed to get high resolution seismic profiles in shallow sea area. The multi-channel system is possible to equip on a small fishing boat, because the data acquisition system is based on PC and the length of the cable is short and easy to handle. Moreover, because the channel spacing is short, this cable is very effective for a high- resolution seismic profiling survey in the shallow sea, and seismic data obtained by multi-channel cable can be improved by velocity analysis and CDP stack. In the northern part off Noto Peninsula, seismic profiles depicting geologic structure up to 100 meters deep under sea floor were obtained. The most remarkable reflection surface recognized in the seismic profiles is erosion surface at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). In the western part, sediments about 30 meters (40 msec) thick cover the erosional surface that is distributed under the shelf shallower than 100m in depth and the sediments thin toward offshore and east. Flexures like deformation in

  4. USING RECENT ADVANCES IN 2D SEISMIC TECHNOLOGY AND SURFACE GEOCHEMISTRY TO ECONOMICALLY REDEVELOP A SHALLOW SHELF CARBONATE RESERVOIR: VERNON FIELD, ISABELLA COUNTY, MI.

    SciTech Connect

    James R. Wood; T.J. Bornhorst; S.D. Chittichk; William B. Harrison; W. Quinlan

    2001-01-01

    The geochemical sampling team collected additional 148 samples at Vernon Field along 5 new traverses. Most of the locations were sampled for three types of analyses: microbial, iodine and enzyme leach; no results from the second batch of samples were available in time for this report. In addition to the sampling, a study was begun on the feasibility of collecting and analyzing hydrocarbon gases (C1-C8) directly. Although several companies offer these services, the cost ($200-300/sample w/o sampling fee) is high, on par with the cost of a 3D seismic survey, and may not include the raw data. However direct sampling of reservoir gases collecting in the soil appear to offer the best approach and should be included in this study. It would probably work well at Vernon Field. It may be possible to lower costs considerably; initial estimates of $20/sample for GCMS (Gas Chromatography--mass spectrometry) analysis are attractive and might induce to Michigan producers to include soil surveys in their routine field work-ups. A complete set of digital data was assembled for Vernon Field and nearby locations. The set consists of well locations, formation top picks, lithologies and scanned images of driller's reports and scout tickets. Well logs are still being located. The annual meeting for the Class Revisit work group is tentatively scheduled for the week of March 1-7 in Tampa, Fl. By that time all of the geochemical data will be available and final decisions regarding drilling can be made.

  5. Orogenic structure of the Eastern Alps, Europe, from TRANSALP deep seismic reflection profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüschen, Ewald; Lammerer, Bernd; Gebrande, Helmut; Millahn, Karl; Nicolich, Rinaldo; Transalp Working Group

    2004-09-01

    The TRANSALP Group, comprising of partner institutions from Italy, Austria and Germany, acquired data on a 340 km long deep seismic reflection line crossing the Eastern Alps between Munich and Venice. Although the field work was split into four campaigns, between fall 1998 and summer 2001, the project gathered for the first time a continuous profile across the Alps using consistent field acquisition and data processing parameters. These sections span the orogen itself, at its broadest width, as well as the editor Fred Davey and the two adjacent basins. Vibroseis and explosion data, complementary in their depth penetration and resolution characteristics, were obtained along with wide-angle and teleseismic data. The profile shows a bi-vergent asymmetric structure of the crust beneath the Alpine axis which reaches a maximum thickness of 55 km, and 80-100 km long transcrustal ramps, the southward dipping 'Sub-Tauern-Ramp' and the northward-dipping 'Sub-Dolomites-Ramp'. Strongly reflective patterns of these ramps can be traced towards the north to the Inn Valley and towards the south to the Valsugana thrust belt, both of which show enhanced seismicity in the brittle upper crust. The seismic sections do not reveal any direct evidence for the presence of the Periadriatic Fault system, the presumed equivalent to the Insubric Line in the Western Alps. According to our new evolutionary model, the Sub-Tauern-Ramp is linked at depth with remnants of the subducted Penninic Ocean. The 'crocodile'-type model describes an upper/lower crustal decoupling and wedging of both the European and the Adriatic-African continents.

  6. Anatomy of Drift Ridges Revealed by Shallow Seismic Shear Wave Profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, A. C.

    2005-12-01

    Ridges, up to 30 m high and generally oriented NE-SW across the Illinois Episode drift plain in southern Illinois, USA, have been variously interpreted as eskers, crevasse fills, moraines, and kames. The ice contact diamictons and sorted sediments that occur in these ridges are typically Illinois Episode in age and likely record the final melting of the Laurentide Ice Sheet near its southernmost extent in the continental U.S. Shallow shear wave seismic profiles across several of these ridges help reveal their complex origins. Borehole control includes sediment cores with shear wave and natural gamma logs. The shear wave profiles reveal m-scale features of drift and bedrock over a depth range of 1 up to 100 m. Terrapin Ridge overlies a bedrock valley with drift up to 70 m thick. Dipping seismic reflectors on the stoss side are interpreted as imbricated till sheets, whereas horizontal reflectors on the lee side are interpreted as mainly outwash sediments over basal till and glacilacustrine sediment. Although most ridges were probably formed during the Illinois Episode, based on current data, the core of this particular ridge may be a remnant moraine from a pre-Illinois Episode glaciation.

  7. Using the IODP Expedition 312 Vertical Seismic Profile to Investigate Sub-basement Reflections in Multi-Channel Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nag, S.; Swift, S. A.; Stephen, R. A.

    2008-05-01

    The Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) initiated drilling at Site 1256D in the Guatemala Basin, about 1000km off the East Pacific Rise to penetrate plutonic rocks, anticipated to be relatively shallow in this region formed at an ultra- fast spreading rate. IODP Expedition E312 successfully drilled into gabbros at ~ 1150m in basement. Multi- channel seismic traces, although not processed for the purpose, show weak laterally-coherent sub-basement reflections at borehole depths (Hallenborg et. al., Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol 108 No. B11, 2532, 2003). Synthetic reflectivity seismograms were computed using a Ricker wavelet and impedance profiles from borehole sonic logs. They strongly suggest the presence of significant sub-basement amplitude peaks - although attenuation has not been modeled. Zero-offset vertical seismic profiles were processed to investigate the authenticity of these reflections and interpret the geological features that caused them. A dual scheme of the median filtering and F-K dip filtering was used. Down-going energy is clearly identified but negligible up-going energy is visible over random noise. The absence of geophones above the basement prevents comparison of basement reflections with sub-basement ones, so that a critical energy level above the noise could be established to identify up-going energy. The negative results are consistent with the topography of geological horizons on horizontal scales less than the Fresnel Zone (~ 300m). This expedition is the first penetration through volcanic extrusives and dikes into plutonic basement. In such a setting, sub-basement reflections, if present, would have been accurately measured. Absence of such clear and comprehensible observations in this area strongly suggests that lava flows and igneous contacts in upper ocean crust have significant topography on lateral scales < 300 m due to igneous and tectonic processes.

  8. Strike fault links mountain building from top to deep: evidence from the deep seismic reflection profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, R.; Wang, H.; Lu, Z.; Wang, C.; Klemperer, S. L.; Yin, A.

    2013-12-01

    The formation of mountains was influenced by large-scale strike-slip faults in Tibet. At the south and north borders of the Tibetan Plateau, the Karakorum and Kunlun strike-slip faults cut the Himalayas and the Kunlun Mountains crust respectively. Based on the detection results of deep seismic reflection profiles, we report the structures of these strike-slip faults and shear deformation depth. The Karakoram fault and Indus-Yarlung suture (IYS) zone are two important structures in southwest and south Tibet, associated with the collision between India and Eurasia. SinoProbe has acquired two deep seismic reflection profiles with 210 km length. The northwestern profile spans 120 km and crosses the southeast part of the Karakoram fault where dextrally sheared mylonite and mylonitized gneiss-granite are exposed along the fault. The southeastern profile spans 90km and crosses the ophiolite belt of the western IYS. Our preliminary images show: Moho reflections appear at ~ 24 s (TWT) beneath both lines. Flower-structures imaged at the Karakoram fault zone are suggestive of strike-slip structure. There are significant differences in lower-crustal structure between the two lines. Many north and south dipping reflections in the lower crust form v-shaped structures along the northwest line. On the southeastern line, there are many north-dipping but few south-dipping reflections in the lower crust. Kunlun seismic profile crosses the active left-slip Kunlun fault, which is ~1000-km long and was inferred to merge downward with a continental subduction zone. The fault was initiated at 15-8 Ma, moved at a rate of 5-16 mm/year, and has a total slip of 65-120 km. The results of our seismic-reflection study across northeastern Tibet show that the actively deforming middle Tibetan crust is dominated by discrete sub-horizontal simple-shear zones that terminate the subvertical, left-slip Kunlun fault above. The flat shear zones appear to act as roof and floor thrusts of large duplex

  9. New insights on the subsidence of the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta Plain by using 2D multichannel seismic data, gravity and flexural modeling, BanglaPIRE Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grall, C.; Pickering, J.; Steckler, M. S.; Spiess, V.; Seeber, L.; Paola, C.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Palamenghi, L.; Schwenk, T.

    2015-12-01

    Deltas can subside very fast, yet many deltas remain emergent over geologic time. A large sediment input is often enough to compensate for subsidence and rising sea level to keep many deltas at sea level. This implies a balance between subsidence and sedimentation, both of which may, however, be controlled by independent factors such as sediment supply, tectonic loads and sea-level change. We here examine the subsidence of the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (GBD). Located in the NE boundary of the Indian-Eurasian collision zone, the GBD is surrounded by active uplifts (Indo-Burma Fold Belt and the Shillong Massif). The pattern of subsidence from these tectonic loads can strongly vary depending on both loads and lithospheric flexural rigidity, both of which can vary in space and time. Sediment cover changes both the lithostatic pressure and the thermal properties and thus the rigidity of the lithosphere. While sediments are deposited cold, they also insulate the lithosphere, acting as a thermal blanket to increase lower crustal temperatures. These effects are a function of sedimentation rates and may be more important where the lithosphere is thin. At the massive GBD the impact of sedimentation should be considered for properly constraining flexural subsidence. The flexural rigidity of the lithosphere is here modeled by using a yield-stress envelope based on a thermomechanic model that includes geothermal changes associated with sedimentation. Models are constrained by using two different data sets, multichannel seismic data correlated to borehole stratigraphy, and gravity data. This approach allows us to determine the Holocene regional distribution of subsidence from the Hinge Zone to the Bengal Fan and the mass-anomalies associated with the flexural loading. Different end-member scenarios are explored for reproducing the observed land tilting and gravity anomalies. For all scenarios considered, data can be reproduced only if we consider an extremely weak lithosphere and

  10. Preliminary stratigraphic and hydrogeologic cross sections and seismic profile of the Floridan aquifer system of Broward County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reese, Ronald S.; Cunningham, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    To help water-resource managers evaluate the Floridan aquifer system (FAS) as an alternative water supply, the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a study, in cooperation with the Broward County Environmental Protection and Growth Management Department, to refine the hydrogeologic framework of the FAS in the eastern part of Broward County. This report presents three preliminary cross sections illustrating stratigraphy and hydrogeology in eastern Broward County as well as an interpreted seismic profile along one of the cross sections. Marker horizons were identified using borehole geophysical data and were initially used to perform well-to-well correlation. Core sample data were integrated with the borehole geophysical data to support stratigraphic and hydrogeologic interpretations of marker horizons. Stratigraphic and hydrogeologic units were correlated across the county using borehole geophysical data from multiple wells. Seismic-reflection data were collected along the Hillsboro Canal. Borehole geophysical data were used to identify and correlate hydrogeologic units in the seismic-reflection profile. Faults and collapse structures that intersect hydrogeologic units were also identified in the seismic profile. The information provided in the cross sections and the seismic profile is preliminary and subject to revision.

  11. USING RECENT ADVANCES IN 2D SEISMIC TECHNOLOGY AND SURFACE GEOCHEMISTRY TO ECONOMICALLY REDEVELOP A SHALLOW SHELF CARBONATE RESERVOIR: VERNON FIELD, ISABELLA COUNTY, MI

    SciTech Connect

    James R. Wood; A. Wylie; W. Quinlan

    2004-04-01

    One of the main objectives of this demonstration project is to test surface geochemical techniques for detecting trace amounts of light hydrocarbons in pore gases as a means of reducing risk in hydrocarbon exploration and production. As part of the project, several field demonstrations were undertaken to assess the validity and usefulness of the microbial surface geochemical technique. The important observations from each of these field demonstrations are briefly reviewed in this annual report. These demonstrations have been successful in identifying the presence or lack of hydrocarbons in the subsurface and can be summarized as follows: (1) The surface geochemistry data showed a fair-to-good microbial anomaly that may indicate the presence of a fault or stratigraphic facies change across the drilling path of the State Springdale & O'Driscoll No.16-16 horizontal demonstration well in Manistee County, Michigan. The well was put on production in December 2003. To date, the well is flowing nearly 100 barrels of liquid hydrocarbons per day plus gas, which is a good well in Michigan. Reserves have not been established yet. Two successful follow-up horizontal wells have also been drilled in the Springdale area. Additional geochemistry data will be collected in the Springdale area in 2004. (2) The surface geochemistry sampling in the Bear Lake demonstration site in Manistee County, Michigan was updated after the prospect was confirmed and production begun; the original subsurface and seismic interpretation used to guide the location of the geochemical survey for the Charlich Fauble re-entry was different than the interpretation used by the operator who ultimately drilled the well. As expected, the anomaly appears to be diminishing as the positive (apical) microbial anomaly is replaced by a negative (edge) anomaly, probably due to the pressure draw-down in the reservoir. (3) The geochemical sampling program over the Vernon Field, Isabella County, Michigan is now

  12. Active Tectonics of off-Hokuriku, Central Japan, by two ships seismic reflection profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Naoko; Sato, Hiroshi; Ishiyama, Tatsuya; Abe, Susumu; Shiraishi, Kazuya

    2015-04-01

    Along the southern to eastern margin of the Sea of Japan, active faults are densely distributed. These submarine active faults produced tsunami disasters, such as 1983 Nihonkai-chubu earthquake (M7.7) and 1993 Hokkaido Nansei-oki earthquake (M7.8). To estimate tsunami hazards, we performed deep seismic reflection profiling to obtain the information of tsunami source faults, off-Hokuriku area in the central part of Honshu, Japan. The survey is carried out as a part of research project named "the integrated research project on seismic and tsunami hazards around the Sea of Japan" funded by MEXT. To obtain long offset data in busy marine activity area, we used two vessels; a gun-ship with 3020 cu. inch air-gun and a cable-ship with a 2-km-long, streamer cable with 156 channels and 480 cu. inch air-gun. Common-midpoint reflection data were acquired using two ships at 4 km offset. The survey area consists of stretched continental crust associated with rifting and opening of the Sea of Japan in early Miocene and is marked by densely distributed syn-rift normal faults. Fault reactivation of normal faults as reverse faults is common. Two phases of fault reactivation are identified from the seismic sections after termination of opening of the Sea of Japan. One is the late Miocene NS trending shortening deformation. This is produced by NS-trending convergence of the Shikoku basin (15 Ma), which belongs to the Philippine Sea plate (PHS) to SW Japan at Nankai trough (Kimura et al., 2005). After the initiation of the subduction of PHS at Nankai trough, the strong shortening deformation is terminated and the fold-and-thrust belt was unconformably covered by sub-horizontal Pliocene sediments. Some horizons of unconformities represent multiple events of shortening driven from the subduction interface. Some normal faults reactivated as active strike-slip and reverse faults in Quaternary. Well observed example is the 2007 Noto peninsula earthquake (M6.8). The 2007 Noto peninsula

  13. Seismic reflection profile of the Blake Ridge near sites 994, 995, and 997: Chapter 4

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dillon, William P.; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Drury, Rebecca M.

    1996-01-01

    Seismic reflection profiles near Sites 994, 995, and 997 were collected with seismic sources that provide maximum resolution with adequate power to image the zone of gas hydrate stability and the region direction beneath it. The overall structure of the sediment drift deposit that constitutes the Blake Ridge consists of southwestward-dipping strata. These strata are approximately conformal to the seafloor on the southwest side of the ridge and are truncated by erosion on the northeast side. A bottom-simulating reflection (BSR) marks the velocity contrast between gas hydrate-bearing sediment and regions containing free gas beneath the zone of gas hydrate stability. The BSR is strong and continuous near the ridge crest but becomes discontinuous on the flanks, where concentration of gas is reduced and dipping strata pass through the level of the base o fgas hydrate stability or the strata are disrupted by faults. Seismic reflection amplitudes appear to be reduced in the region of gas hydrate formation compared to normal amplitudes. A faulted zone ~0.5-0.6 s thick parallels reflections from strata. We infer that this may represent a formerly gas hydrate-bearing zone that was faulted because of a breakdown of hydrate near its phase limit (at the base of the zone). Strong reflections at the top of the faulted zone are caused by free-gas acccumulation at Site 994. Similar strong reflections probably are caused by free-gas accumulations where the top of the faulted zone rises above the BSR, although this would require local free gas within the hydrate-stable zone.

  14. First seismic shear wave velocity profile of the lunar crust as extracted from the Apollo 17 active seismic data by wavefield gradient analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sollberger, David; Schmelzbach, Cedric; Robertsson, Johan O. A.; Greenhalgh, Stewart A.; Nakamura, Yosio; Khan, Amir

    2016-04-01

    We present a new seismic velocity model of the shallow lunar crust, including, for the first time, shear wave velocity information. So far, the shear wave velocity structure of the lunar near-surface was effectively unconstrained due to the complexity of lunar seismograms. Intense scattering and low attenuation in the lunar crust lead to characteristic long-duration reverberations on the seismograms. The reverberations obscure later arriving shear waves and mode conversions, rendering them impossible to identify and analyze. Additionally, only vertical component data were recorded during the Apollo active seismic experiments, which further compromises the identification of shear waves. We applied a novel processing and analysis technique to the data of the Apollo 17 lunar seismic profiling experiment (LSPE), which involved recording seismic energy generated by several explosive packages on a small areal array of four vertical component geophones. Our approach is based on the analysis of the spatial gradients of the seismic wavefield and yields key parameters such as apparent phase velocity and rotational ground motion as a function of time (depth), which cannot be obtained through conventional seismic data analysis. These new observables significantly enhance the data for interpretation of the recorded seismic wavefield and allow, for example, for the identification of S wave arrivals based on their lower apparent phase velocities and distinct higher amount of generated rotational motion relative to compressional (P-) waves. Using our methodology, we successfully identified pure-mode and mode-converted refracted shear wave arrivals in the complex LSPE data and derived a P- and S-wave velocity model of the shallow lunar crust at the Apollo 17 landing site. The extracted elastic-parameter model supports the current understanding of the lunar near-surface structure, suggesting a thin layer of low-velocity lunar regolith overlying a heavily fractured crust of basaltic

  15. Differences in the Upper Mantle Structure between 'Hot' and 'Cold' Areas in North America based on USArray Seismic Data along California - Virginia Profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dec, M.; Sroda, P.; Tesauro, M.; Kaban, M. K.; Perchuc, E.

    2013-12-01

    calculation of a 2D model along the profile using forward and inversion approach. We distinguish three parts in our profile: western - tectonically active, central cratonic - stable one and eastern - tectonically active. The New Madrid Seismic Zone is characterized by an anomalous structure in the lower lithosphere at the offset ~2500km. Very interesting part of the studied area is the marginal part of North American Craton, which separates two tectonically different areas. The seismic P- and S-wave velocity models were inverted for temperature using different mantle composition and anelasticity models. The modelling results are in agreement with those obtained for the strength and the elastic thickness of the lithosphere.

  16. Two dimensional restoration of seismic reflection profiles from Mozambique: technique for assessing rift extension histories

    SciTech Connect

    Iliffe, J.E.; Debuyl, M.; Kendall, C.G.St.C.; Lerche, I.

    1986-05-01

    Seismic reflection data from offshore Mozambique between longitudes 25/sup 0/ and 26/sup 0/ and latitudes 34/sup 0/ and 35/sup 0/ reveals a V-shaped rift, the apex of which points northward, toward the coast. This study retraces the rift's extensional history by geometric reconstruction of seismic profiles, selected perpendicular to tectonic strike. Depth conversions are performed, followed by bed length and volume balancing to test the interpretations and calculate a total extension value for the extension factor. The sediments are then backstripped in sedimentary sequences, restoring the increments of throw on faults accordingly. After each sequence is removed, the sediments are decompacted in an attempt to recover the original volume prior to the sequence deposition. The extension factor is again calculated. This process is repeated down the sequences until the result is the pre-rift state of the basin. This analysis results in an extension estimate for each sequence-time increment, as a percentage of the total extension. From this method, a detailed crustal extension history is deduced, which, when coupled to the thermal history from subsidence backstripping and paleoheatflow studies, could be used in the basin analysis assessment of the oil potential of this and other rifts.

  17. A simple deep-towed vertical array for high-resolution reflection seismic profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herber, R.; Nuppenau, V.; Weigel, W.; Wong, H. K.

    1986-06-01

    A simple, low cost, deep-towed system for high-resolution reflection seismic profiling is described. It consists of a vertical array with two hydrophones having a separation of 2.2 m and rigidly mounted onto streamlined tow bodies. Improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio is attained by simple stacking of the hydrophone outputs after signal conditioning and travel time corrections. The suppression of side echoes and surface reflections is achieved by an analog procedure which in effect improves the directional characteristics of the array. A circuit for automatic gain control is included to enhance weak signals as well as to suppress ringing. Results in Kiel Bay and over the crest of the Jan Mayen Ridge (northern Atlantic) suggest that this simple vertical array may supplement air gun systems better than conventional, surface pinger-type equipment.

  18. Assessment of an Antrim Oil Shale fracture zone by vertical seismic profiling

    SciTech Connect

    Toksoez, M.N.; Turpening, R.M.; Stewart, R.R.

    1980-09-01

    This report presents the results of a vertical seismic profiling (VSP) experiment performed in the upper 2500 feet (770 m) of the Michigan Basin. Both P and SH waves were used. The experiment was divided into two parts: a before survey run on the virgin rock, then an after survey across an explosively fractured volume of Antrim Oil Shale, centered at 1300 ft (400 m). From the before VSP survey, a velocity structure of the basin was calculated. Comparison of the after observations to the before elucidated the fracture volume and elastic parameters. Travel time delays, amplitude attenuation, converted and diffracted waves provided consistent information on the depth (1300 ft), shape (ellipsoid) and size (10 m x 20 m x 30 m) of the fractured volume.

  19. Estimating the Depth of Stratigraphic Units from Marine Seismic Profiles Using Nonstationary Geostatistics

    SciTech Connect

    Chihi, Hayet; Galli, Alain; Ravenne, Christian; Tesson, Michel; Marsily, Ghislain de

    2000-03-15

    The object of this study is to build a three-dimensional (3D) geometric model of the stratigraphic units of the margin of the Rhone River on the basis of geophysical investigations by a network of seismic profiles at sea. The geometry of these units is described by depth charts of each surface identified by seismic profiling, which is done by geostatistics. The modeling starts by a statistical analysis by which we determine the parameters that enable us to calculate the variograms of the identified surfaces. After having determined the statistical parameters, we calculate the variograms of the variable Depth. By analyzing the behavior of the variogram we then can deduce whether the situation is stationary and if the variable has an anisotropic behavior. We tried the following two nonstationary methods to obtain our estimates: (a) The method of universal kriging if the underlying variogram was directly accessible. (b) The method of increments if the underlying variogram was not directly accessible. After having modeled the variograms of the increments and of the variable itself, we calculated the surfaces by kriging the variable Depth on a small-mesh estimation grid. The two methods then are compared and their respective advantages and disadvantages are discussed, as well as their fields of application. These methods are capable of being used widely in earth sciences for automatic mapping of geometric surfaces or for variables such as a piezometric surface or a concentration, which are not 'stationary,' that is, essentially, possess a gradient or a tendency to develop systematically in space.

  20. Mapping the megathrust beneath the northern Gulf of Alaska using wide-angle seismic reflection/refraction profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Brocher, T.M.; Fuis, G.S.; Fisher, M.A.; Plafker, G.; Moses, M.J.; Taber, J.J. ); Christensen, N.I. . Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences)

    1993-04-01

    In the northern Gulf of Alaska and Prince William Sound, wide-angle seismic reflection/refraction profiling, earthquake studies, and laboratory measurements of physical properties are used to determine the geometry of the Prince William and Yakutat terranes, and the subducting Pacific plate. In this complex region, the Yakutat terrane is underthrust beneath the Prince William terrane, and both terranes are interpreted to be underlain by the Pacific plate. Wide-angle seismic reflection/refraction profiles recorded along 5 seismic lines are used to unravel this terrane geometry. Modeled velocities in the upper crust of the Prince William terrane (to 18-km depth) agree closely with laboratory velocity measurements of Orca Group phyllites and quartzofeldspathic graywackes (the chief components of the Prince William terrane) to hydrostatic pressures as high as 600 MPa (6 KBAR). An interpretation consistent with these data extends the Prince William terrane to at least 18-km depth. A landward dipping reflection at depths of 16--24 km is interpreted as the base of the Prince William terrane. This reflector corresponds to the top of the Wadati-Benioff zone seismicity and is interpreted as the megathrust. Beneath this reflector is a 6.9-km/s refractor, that is strongly reflective and magnetic, and is interpreted to be gabbro in Eocene age oceanic crust of the underthrust Yakutat terrane. Both wide-angle seismic and magnetic anomaly data indicate that the Yakutat terrane has been underthrust beneath the Prince William terrane for at least a few hundred kilometers. Wide-angle seismic data are consistent with a 9 to 10[degree] landward dip of the subducting Pacific plate, distinctly different from the inferred average 3 to 4[degree] dip of the overlying 6.9-km/s refractor and Wadati-Benioff seismic zone. The preferred interpretation of the geophysical data is that one composite plate, composed of the Pacific and Yakutat plates, is subducting beneath southern Alaska.

  1. Crustal Structure across The Southwest Longmenshan Fault Zone from Seismic Wide Angle Reflection/Refraction Profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Xiaofeng; Wang, Fuyun; Wang, Shuaijun; Duan, Yonghong

    2014-05-01

    The Lushan eathquake, which epicenter and focal depth were at 30.308° N, 102.888° E, and 14.0 km, is the latest intense earthquake occurring in the southwest section of the Longmenshan fault zone after the Ms 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake in 2008. According to the emergency field observations, the slip distribution of the Lushan earthquake was concentrated at the hypocenter, and did not rupture to the surface(Chen et al, 2013). The rupture history constrained by inverting waveforms showed that the causative fault plane of the Lushan event is apparently not a simple extension of either the Pengguan fault or the Beichuan fault that ruptured during the 2008 Mw 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake. The focal mechanism using the Cut and Paste algorithm showed this event occurred on a high dip-angle fault, but its dip angle is not steep enough to rupture the surface. All these research is not independent on the heterogeneous crust structure of the Longmenshan fault zone. A 450 km-long wide-angle reflection/refraction profile executed during September and October 2013. This experiment have provided the best opportunities to obtain better knowledge of seismic structure and properties of crust and uppermost mantle beneath the Southwest Longmenshan fault zone. This seismic profile extends from the west Sichuan Plain, through the Longmenshan Fault zone, and into the west Sichuan Plateau. We observed clear Pg, refraction Phase from the upper crust, Pi1/Pi2/Pi3, reflection/refraction Phase from intra-crust, PmP, reflection from the Moho boundary, and the Pn phase, refraction Phase from uppermost mantle. We present a hybrid tomographic and layered velocity model of the crust and uppermost mantle along the profile. The final velocity model reveals large variations both in structure and velocity, and is demonstrated that a particular model has minimum structure. The model shows the crustal thickness of the region is very variable. The Moho topography varies more than 10km in the southwest

  2. Multichannel seismic-reflection profiling on the R/V Maurice Ewing during the Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment (LARSE), California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brocher, Thomas M.; Clayton, Robert W.; Klitgord, Kim D.; Bohannon, Robert G.; Sliter, Ray; McRaney, John K.; Gardner, James V.; Keene, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    -beam swath Hydrosweep bathymetry, magnetics, and gravity data. In this report, we describe the equipment and procedures used to acquire multichannel seismic-reflection and other geophysical data aboard the Ewing, provide a detailed cruise narrative, discuss the reduction of the data, and present near-trace constant offset seismic sections of the acquired profiles.

  3. Early origins of the Caribbean plate from deep seismic profiles across the Nicaraguan Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, B.; Mann, W. P.

    2012-12-01

    The offshore Nicaraguan Rise in the maritime zones of Honduras, Jamaica, Nicaragua and Colombia covers a combined area of 500,000 km2, and is one of the least known equatorial Cretaceous-Cenozoic carbonate regions remaining on Earth. The purpose of this study is to describe the Cretaceous to Recent tectonic and stratigraphic history of the deep water Nicaraguan Rise, and to better understand how various types of crustal blocks underlying the Eocene to Recent carbonate cover fused into a single, larger Caribbean plate known today from GPS studies. We interpreted 8700 km of modern, deep-penetration 2D seismic data kindly provided by the oil industry, tied to five wells that penetrated Cretaceous igneous basement. Based on these data, and integration with gravity, magnetic and existing crustal refraction data, we define four crustal provinces for the offshore Nicaraguan Rise: 1) Thicker (15-18 km) Late Cretaceous Caribbean ocean plateau (COP) with rough, top basement surface; 2) normal (6-8 km) Late Cretaceous COP with smooth top basement surface (B") and correlative outcrops in southern Haiti and Jamaica; 3) Precambrian-Paleozoic continental crust (20-22 km thick) with correlative outcrops in northern Central America; and 4) Cretaceous arc crust (>18 km thick) with correlative outcrops in Jamaica. These strongly contrasting basement belts strike northeastward to eastward, and were juxtaposed by latest Cretaceous-Paleogene northward and northwestward thrusting of Caribbean arc over continental crust in Central America, and the western Nicaraguan Rise (84 to 85 degrees west). A large Paleogene to recent, CCW rotation of the Caribbean plate along the Cayman trough faults and into its present day location explains why terranes in Central America and beneath the Nicaraguan Rise have their present, anomalous north-east strike. Continuing, present-day activity on some of these crustal block boundaries is a likely result of intraplate stresses imposed by the surrounding

  4. The correlation between CYP2D6 isoenzyme activity and haloperidol efficacy and safety profile in patients with alcohol addiction during the exacerbation of the addiction

    PubMed Central

    Sychev, Dmitry Alekseevich; Zastrozhin, Mikhail Sergeevich; Smirnov, Valery Valerieevich; Grishina, Elena Anatolievna; Savchenko, Ludmila Mikhailovna; Bryun, Evgeny Alekseevich

    2016-01-01

    Background Today, it is proved that isoenzymes CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 are involved in metabolism of haloperidol. In our previous investigation, we found a medium correlation between the efficacy and safety of haloperidol and the activity of CYP3A4 in patients with alcohol abuse. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the activity of CYP2D6 and the efficacy and safety of haloperidol in patients with diagnosed alcohol abuse. Methods The study involved 70 men (average age: 40.83±9.92 years) with alcohol addiction. A series of psychometric scales were used in the research. The activity of CYP2D6 was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry using the ratio of 6-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline to pinoline. Genotyping of CYP2D6 (1846G>A) was performed using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results According to results of correlation analysis, statistically significant values of Spearman correlation coefficient (rs) between the activity of CYP2D6 and the difference of points in psychometric scale were obtained in patients receiving haloperidol in injection form (Sheehan Clinical Anxiety Rating Scale =−0.721 [P<0.001] and Udvald for Kliniske Undersogelser Side Effect Rating Scale =0.692 [P<0.001]) and in those receiving haloperidol in tablet form (Covi Anxiety Scale =−0.851 [P<0.001] and Udvald for Kliniske Undersogelser Side Effect Rating Scale =0.797 [P<0.001]). Conclusion This study demonstrated the correlations between the activity of CYP2D6 isozyme and the efficacy and safety of haloperidol in patients with alcohol addiction. PMID:27695358

  5. The correlation between CYP2D6 isoenzyme activity and haloperidol efficacy and safety profile in patients with alcohol addiction during the exacerbation of the addiction

    PubMed Central

    Sychev, Dmitry Alekseevich; Zastrozhin, Mikhail Sergeevich; Smirnov, Valery Valerieevich; Grishina, Elena Anatolievna; Savchenko, Ludmila Mikhailovna; Bryun, Evgeny Alekseevich

    2016-01-01

    Background Today, it is proved that isoenzymes CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 are involved in metabolism of haloperidol. In our previous investigation, we found a medium correlation between the efficacy and safety of haloperidol and the activity of CYP3A4 in patients with alcohol abuse. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the activity of CYP2D6 and the efficacy and safety of haloperidol in patients with diagnosed alcohol abuse. Methods The study involved 70 men (average age: 40.83±9.92 years) with alcohol addiction. A series of psychometric scales were used in the research. The activity of CYP2D6 was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry using the ratio of 6-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline to pinoline. Genotyping of CYP2D6 (1846G>A) was performed using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results According to results of correlation analysis, statistically significant values of Spearman correlation coefficient (rs) between the activity of CYP2D6 and the difference of points in psychometric scale were obtained in patients receiving haloperidol in injection form (Sheehan Clinical Anxiety Rating Scale =−0.721 [P<0.001] and Udvald for Kliniske Undersogelser Side Effect Rating Scale =0.692 [P<0.001]) and in those receiving haloperidol in tablet form (Covi Anxiety Scale =−0.851 [P<0.001] and Udvald for Kliniske Undersogelser Side Effect Rating Scale =0.797 [P<0.001]). Conclusion This study demonstrated the correlations between the activity of CYP2D6 isozyme and the efficacy and safety of haloperidol in patients with alcohol addiction.

  6. A bayesian approach for determining velocity and uncertainty estimates from seismic cone penetrometer testing or vertical seismic profiling data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pidlisecky, A.; Haines, S.S.

    2011-01-01

    Conventional processing methods for seismic cone penetrometer data present several shortcomings, most notably the absence of a robust velocity model uncertainty estimate. We propose a new seismic cone penetrometer testing (SCPT) data-processing approach that employs Bayesian methods to map measured data errors into quantitative estimates of model uncertainty. We first calculate travel-time differences for all permutations of seismic trace pairs. That is, we cross-correlate each trace at each measurement location with every trace at every other measurement location to determine travel-time differences that are not biased by the choice of any particular reference trace and to thoroughly characterize data error. We calculate a forward operator that accounts for the different ray paths for each measurement location, including refraction at layer boundaries. We then use a Bayesian inversion scheme to obtain the most likely slowness (the reciprocal of velocity) and a distribution of probable slowness values for each model layer. The result is a velocity model that is based on correct ray paths, with uncertainty bounds that are based on the data error. ?? NRC Research Press 2011.

  7. The ESCIN-3-1 deep seismic profile in the northwestern Galicia margin revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbonell, R.; Alvarez-Marron, J.; Ayarza, P.; Torne, M.

    2015-12-01

    The ESCIN-3.1 profile was acquired in 1993 offshore northwest Galicia (Spain), and recorded 20 s of near vertical reflection seismic data. This 140 km long profile was intended to provide an image of the crustal structure of this sector of the continental margin from near the coastline to the deep-sea area. The tectonic evolution of the northwest Galicia margin initiated by rifting during Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous times and progressed to sea floor spreading during Albian- Late Cretaceous times when the Bay of Biscay opened. Subsequently, the margin was active during the convergence of Eurasia and Iberia in the Late Oligocene to Early Miocene. Here we present a new interpretation of the mentioned profile based on a newly reprocessed depth migrated image and corresponding gravity model. In the deep-sea areas, a free-air gravity low reach up to - 120 mGal and the sea bottom is at more than 5000 m deep. The 7 km thick flat lying undisturbed sedimentary cover appears above a 10 km thick, ~120 Ma old oceanic basement. This flat sediments onlap toward the ocean-continent transition on a folded and disturbed 20 km long wedge shaped sedimentary body. A major landward dipping structure reaches from the foot of the slope to beneath the sub horizontal Moho of the continental slope. The slope has a gentle dip of about 2° in this section, and include large mass flow deposits. Fault bound sediments are imaged in the upper continental margin that could correspond to preserved syn-rift Mesozoic structures. The structure of what correspond to the continental basement in the thicker part of the margin is not well resolved. Only in the landward side of the profile a layered lower crust is seen where the Moho reaches depths of 29 km. The ocean-continent transition in this profile may be interpreted as that of an active compressional boundary with some accretion of deep-sea sediments that are underthrust by a thinned continental margin with large submarine landslides and mass flow

  8. Structure of the Upper Mantle Beneath Northern Eurasia Derived from Russian Deep-Seismic PNE Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryberg, Trond; Tittgemeyer, Marc; Wenzel, Friedemann

    From 1968 until 1990, Russian scientists carried out an intensive program of deep seismic sounding across the territory of the former Soviet Union, using Peaceful Nuclear Explosions (PNEs) as powerful sources for elastic waves. The explosions, both chemical and nuclear, were recorded by up to 400 shot-period (1-2 Hz) three-component, analog recording systems. The average station spacing of about 10 km along the profiles provided a data density not previously available for studies of the upper mantle and the transition zone. Observation distances of more than 3000 km allow the investigation of the velocity structure of the Earths crust and upper mantle to a depth of 700 km. The analog data have been digitized and used to constrain the fine structure of the upper mantle below Northern Eurasia. They reveal reflections and refractions from upper mantle discontinuities at 410, 520 and 660 km depth. Several properties of the recorded phases have been used to derive a regional P wave velocity model. Synthetic seismograms were calculated and compared with the observations to test these models. Characteristic for all the data in northern Eurasia is the absence of strong pre-critical reflections predicted by the global IASP91 model for the 660 km discontinuity. The appearance of two additional characteristic travel-time branches in the distance range of 2200 km was interpreted as being caused by the proposed and disputed upper mantle discontinuity at 520 km depth. Synthetic seismograms were calculated to constrain its properties. The recordings on the Quartz profile in Northern Eurasia have been used to constrain the nature of the globally observed high-frequency teleseismic P phase, which can be observed for shot-receiver distances of more than 3000 km. We suggest that this phase is caused by velocity fluctuations in the upper mantle acting as scatterers. This hypothesis was tested by extensive numerical simulations of the wave propagation using finite difference methods

  9. Seismic anisotropy in gas-hydrate- and gas-bearing sediments on the Blake Ridge, from a walkaway vertical seismic profile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pecher, I.A.; Holbrook, W.S.; Sen, M.K.; Lizarralde, D.; Wood, W.T.; Hutchinson, D.R.; Dillon, William P.; Hoskins, H.; Stephen, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    We present results from an analysis of anisotropy in marine sediments using walkaway vertical seismic profiles from the Blake Ridge, offshore South Carolina. We encountered transverse isotropy (TI) with a vertical symmetry axis in a gas-hydrate-bearing unit of clay and claystone with Thomsen parameters ?? = 0.05 ?? 0.02 and ?? = 0.04 ?? 0.06. TI increased to ?? = 0.16 ?? 0.04 and ?? = 0.19 ?? 0.12 in the underlying gas zone. Rock physics modeling suggests that the observed TI is caused by a partial alignment of clay particles rather than high-velocity gas-hydrate veins. Similarly, the increase of TI in the gas zone is not caused by thin low-velocity gas layers but rather, we speculate, by the sharp contrast between seismic properties of an anisotropic sediment frame and elongated gas-bearing pore voids. Our results underscore the significance of anisotropy for integrating near-vertical and wide-angle seismic data.

  10. The application of vertical seismic profiling and cross-hole tomographic imaging for fracture characterization at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Majer, E.L.; Peterson, J.E.; Tura, M.A.; McEvilly, T.V.

    1990-01-01

    In order to obtain the necessary characterization for the storage of nuclear waste, much higher resolution of the features likely to affect the transport of radionuclides will be required than is normally achieved in conventional surface seismic reflection used in the exploration and characterization of petroleum and geothermal resources. Because fractures represent a significant mechanical anomaly seismic methods using are being investigated as a means to image and characterize the subsurface. Because of inherent limitations in applying the seismic methods solely from the surface, state-of-the-art borehole methods are being investigated to provide high resolution definition within the repository block. Therefore, Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP) and cross-hole methods are being developed to obtain maximum resolution of the features that will possible affect the transport of fluids. Presented here will be the methods being developed, the strategy being pursued, and the rational for using VSP and crosshole methods at Yucca Mountain. The approach is intended to be an integrated method involving improvements in data acquisition, processing, and interpretation as well as improvements in the fundamental understanding of seismic wave propagation in fractured rock. 33 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Chemical analysis of solid materials by a LIMS instrument designed for space research: 2D elemental imaging, sub-nm depth profiling and molecular surface analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-García, Pavel; Grimaudo, Valentine; Riedo, Andreas; Neuland, Maike B.; Tulej, Marek; Broekmann, Peter; Wurz, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Direct quantitative chemical analysis with high lateral and vertical resolution of solid materials is of prime importance for the development of a wide variety of research fields, including e.g., astrobiology, archeology, mineralogy, electronics, among many others. Nowadays, studies carried out by complementary state-of-the-art analytical techniques such as Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), Glow Discharge Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (GD-TOF-MS) or Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) provide extensive insight into the chemical composition and allow for a deep understanding of processes that might have fashioned the outmost layers of an analyte due to its interaction with the surrounding environment. Nonetheless, these investigations typically employ equipment that is not suitable for implementation on spacecraft, where requirements concerning weight, size and power consumption are very strict. In recent years Laser Ablation/Ionization Mass Spectrometry (LIMS) has re-emerged as a powerful analytical technique suitable not only for laboratory but also for space applications.[1-3] Its improved performance and measurement capabilities result from the use of cutting edge ultra-short femtosecond laser sources, improved vacuum technology and fast electronics. Because of its ultimate compactness, simplicity and robustness it has already proven to be a very suitable analytical tool for elemental and isotope investigations in space research.[4] In this contribution we demonstrate extended capabilities of our LMS instrument by means of three case studies: i) 2D chemical imaging performed on an Allende meteorite sample,[5] ii) depth profiling with unprecedented sub-nm vertical resolution on Cu electrodeposited interconnects[6,7] and iii) preliminary molecular desorption of polymers without assistance of matrix or functionalized substrates.[8] On the whole

  12. Celebration 2000: Crustal Structure In The Tesz (from NE To SE Poland) Along Ttz Cel03 Seismic Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celebration 2000 Working Group; Janik, T.

    New seismic refraction and wide angle reflection experiment CELEBRATION was made in Central Europe in June 2000 as an international cooperation. One of the profiles of the experiment, CEL03, about 430 km long, was located in the Teisseyre- Tornquist zone (TTZ) in central and SE Poland. Twelve shot points were located along the profile. Location of the NW most shot coincided with the position of shot point 05 from TTZ profile on which measurements were carried out in TTZ (NW and central Poland) in 1993 (Grad et al., 1999). NW part of the TTZ profile, up to SP05 (with 13 shot points), 294 km long, and profile CEL03 with a total length of 720 km, were interpreted together. This line runs in TESZ parallel to edge of East European Craton (EEC) through whole territory of Poland. In this area the depth of the consolidated basement, with a P-wave velocity of about 5.8 km/s, is 8 to 10 km. However, down to a depth of 15 - 20 km the P-wave velocity is very low, no greater then about 6.0 km/s. In NE part of the profile, a high velocity body (HVB) (Vp=6.9 km/s) was detected at a depth of 15 km. Thickness of the crust varies from 35 to 45 km. We discussed the results together with other seismic results of this region. References Grad M., Janik T., Yliniemi J., Guterch A., Luosto U., Komminaho K., Sroda P., Höing ´ K., Makris J., and Lund C-E. 1999. Crustal structure of the Mid Polish Trough beneath TTZ seismic profile. Tectonophysics, 314, 1-3: 145-160

  13. Saudi Arabian seismic-refraction profile: A traveltime interpretation of crustal and upper mantle structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mooney, W.D.; Gettings, M.E.; Blank, H.R.; Healy, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    The crustal and upper mantle compressional-wave velocity structure across the southwestern Arabian Shield has been investigated by a 1000-km-long seismic refraction profile. The profile begins in Mesozoic cover rocks near Riyadh on the Arabian Platform, trends southwesterly across three major Precambrian tectonic provinces, traverses Cenozoic rocks of the coastal plain near Jizan, and terminates at the outer edge of the Farasan Bank in the southern Red Sea. More than 500 surveyed recording sites were occupied, and six shot points were used, including one in the Red Sea. Two-dimensional ray-tracing techniques, used to analyze amplitude-normalized record sections indicate that the Arabian Shield is composed, to first order, of two layers, each about 20 km thick, with average velocities of about 6.3 km/s and 7.0 km/s, respectively. West of the Shield-Red Sea margin, the crust thins to a total thickness of less than 20 km, beyond which the Red Sea shelf and coastal plain are interpreted to be underlain by oceanic crust. A major crustal inhomogeneity at the northeast end of the profile probably represents the suture zone between two crustal blocks of different composition. Elsewhere along the profile, several high-velocity anomalies in the upper crust correlate with mapped gneiss domes, the most prominent of which is the Khamis Mushayt gneiss. Based on their velocities, these domes may constitute areas where lower crustal rocks have been raised some 20 km. Two intracrustal reflectors in the center of the Shield at 13 km depth probably represent the tops of mafic intrusives. The Mohorovic??ic?? discontinuity beneath the Shield varies from a depth of 43 km and mantle velocity of 8.2 km/s in the northeast to a depth of 38 km and mantle velocity of 8.0 km/s depth in the southwest near the Shield-Red Sea transition. Two velocity discontinuities occur in the upper mantle, at 59 and 70 km depth. The crustal and upper mantle velocity structure of the Arabian Shield is

  14. Saudi Arabian seismic-refraction profile: A traveltime interpretation of crustal and upper mantle structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooney, W. D.; Gettings, M. E.; Blank, H. R.; Healy, J. H.

    1985-02-01

    The crustal and upper mantle compressional-wave velocity structure across the southwestern Arabian Shield has been investigated by a 1000-km-long seismic refraction profile. The profile begins in Mesozoic cover rocks near Riyadh on the Arabian Platform, trends southwesterly across three major Precambrian tectonic provinces, traverses Cenozoic rocks of the coastal plain near Jizan, and terminates at the outer edge of the Farasan Bank in the southern Red Sea. More than 500 surveyed recording sites were occupied, and six shot points were used, including one in the Red Sea. Two-dimensional ray-tracing techniques, used to analyze amplitude-normalized record sections indicate that the Arabian Shield is composed, to first order, of two layers, each about 20 km thick, with average velocities of about 6.3 km/s and 7.0 km/s, respectively. West of the Shield-Red Sea margin, the crust thins to a total thickness of less than 20 km, beyond which the Red Sea shelf and coastal plain are interpreted to be underlain by oceanic crust. A major crustal inhomogeneity at the northeast end of the profile probably represents the suture zone between two crustal blocks of different composition. Elsewhere along the profile, several high-velocity anomalies in the upper crust correlate with mapped gneiss domes, the most prominent of which is the Khamis Mushayt gneiss. Based on their velocities, these domes may constitute areas where lower crustal rocks have been raised some 20 km. Two intracrustal reflectors in the center of the Shield at 13 km depth probably represent the tops of mafic intrusives. The Mohorovičić discontinuity beneath the Shield varies from a depth of 43 km and mantle velocity of 8.2 km/s in the northeast to a depth of 38 km and mantle velocity of 8.0 km/s depth in the southwest near the Shield-Red Sea transition. Two velocity discontinuities occur in the upper mantle, at 59 and 70 km depth. The crustal and upper mantle velocity structure of the Arabian Shield is interpreted

  15. Seismic-reflection profiles of the central part of the Clarendon-Linden fault system of western New York in relation to regional seismicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fakundiny, R.H.; Pomeroy, P.W.

    2002-01-01

    Geological and geophysical research in upstate New York, with few exceptions, has not definitively associated seismicity with specific Proterozoic basement or Paleozoic bedrock structures. The central part of the Clarendon-Linden fault system (CLFS) between Batavia and Dale, NY is one of those exceptions where seismicity has been studied and has been spatially associated with structure. The CLFS is either a complex system of long faults with associated shorter branches and parallel segments, or a region of many short faults aligned north-south from the Lake Ontario shore southward to Allegany County, NY. Interpretation of 38 km of Vibroseis and approximately 56 km of conventional seismic-reflection data along 13 lines suggests that the CLFS is a broad zone of small faults with small displacements in the lower Paleozoic bedrock section that is at least 77 km long and 7-17 km wide and spatially coincident with a northtrending geophysical (combined aeromagnetic and gravity) lineament within the basement. The relative offset across the faults of the system is more than 91 m near Attica, NY. The CLFS is the expression of tectonic crustal adjustments within the Paleozoic rock above the boundary of two basement megablocks of differing petrologic provinces and differing earthquake characteristics that forms the eastern side of the Elzevir-Frontenac boundary zone. Deep seismic-reflection profiles display concave-eastward listric faults that probably merge at depth near the mid-crustal boundary layer. An interpretive vertical section provides the setting for refined definitions of the CLFS, its extensions at depth and its relation to seismicity. Most modern seismicity in western New York and the Niagara Peninsula of Ontario occurs in apparent patterns of randomly dispersed activity. The sole exception is a line of seven epicenters of small earthquakes that trend east from Attica, NY into the Rochester basement megablock. Earthquakes may be triggered at the intersections of

  16. A cross section of the eastern Betic Cordillera (SE Spain) according field data and a seismic reflection profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabaloy-Sánchez, A.; Fernández-Fernández, E. M.; González-Lodeiro, F.

    2007-04-01

    The BT3 multichannel seismic profile was acquired by the C.G.G. (Compagnie General de Géophysique) in 1977 for hydrocarbon exploration in the eastern Betic Cordillera. REXIMseis Ltd scanned and vectorized a paper copy and then performed post-stack processing, including coherence filtering and deconvolution. The receiver functions of a broad-band seismic station located near the village of Vélez Rubio, at the SE end of the profile, were analysed by Julia et al. [Julia, J., Mancilla, F., Morales, J., 2005. Seismic signature of intracrustal magmatic intrusions in the Eastern Betics (Internal Zone), SE Iberia, Geophysical Research Letters 32, L16304, doi:10.1029/2005GL023274.] to determine the structure of the underlying crust. We have used these Vp data to convert the profile to depth. The profile has a mean SE-NW trend, with a SE-Section 44 km in length followed by a NW-Section 20 km in length. The record includes the first 4 s (twtt), which corresponds to 11 km. Two main areas can be seen in the profile. At the SE-end, a band of high-amplitude discontinuous reflectors dips towards the north. The band is 100 to 200 ms thick, increasing even more northwards. This band reaches the surface at the top of the Maláguide Complex (the upper complex of the Internal Zones). Above these reflectors, an area with chaotic seismic facies and no reflectors corresponds to the outcrops of the olistostromes and turbidites of the Solana Formation, and it is in turn overlain by discontinuous reflectors of the Subbetic rocks. At the NW-end of the profile, a set of high-amplitude continuous reflectors with SE dips point to the location of the Prebetic. Below this section, oblique reflectors of intermediate amplitude indicate the Variscan basement. Over the Prebetic, we have marked the basal thrusts of the Intermediate Units and the Subbetic. Using this seismic data, as well as field observations, we propose a geological cross-section of the upper crust of the eastern Betic Cordillera

  17. A Seismic Reflection Profiling Survey of Lake Toba, Sumatra, Indonesia: Preliminary Findings from the Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesner, C. A.; Dolan, M. T.; Halsor, S. P.; Bohnenstiehl, D. R.; Liu, J.; Nasution, A.

    2012-12-01

    Lake Toba lies within the giant Toba Caldera that last erupted 74,000 years ago. In its early history, Lake Toba may have covered about 1800 km2, possibly reaching depths of 750 m. The central portion of the 100 x 30 km caldera has since been uplifted to form the asymmetrical Samosir Island resurgent dome (60 x 20 km). Its upper surface dips gently to the west while its eastern margin consists of a series of parallel normal faults with total displacement of at least 1100 m. Several lava domes have been emplaced along these faults as well as the southwestern caldera ring fracture. At least 30 m of laminated tuffaceous sand and silt, diatomaceous clay, diatomites, and volcanic ash cover Samosir Island and sediments up to 100 m have been reported. In an effort to understand the post-collapse sedimentation, structural, volcanic, and resurgent histories of the caldera, we conducted a 14 day seismic reflection profiling survey of Lake Toba in July/August 2012. An EdgeTech SB-512i "chirp" sonar unit was towed across about 900 km of transect lines. Signal penetration was not affected by water depth, which sometimes exceeded 500 m, but was often reduced by adverse tow conditions or strong stratigraphic reflectors, and occasionally lost altogether possibly due to gas pockets in the sediments. In areas of flat-lying or gently sloping lake bottom, about 10-30 m of lake sediments was typically detected. Along the steep caldera bounding faults and the faulted eastern margin of the Samosir resurgent dome virtually no sediments were detected. However, up to 90 m of laminated sediments were apparent on the crest and gently sloping submerged portions of Samosir. These thick sedimentary sequences showed distinct marker horizons with evidence of faulting, folding, sliding, and slumping. Local unconformities or onlapping sequences demonstrated discrete sedimentary episodes. Several subaqueous lava domes were discovered that uplifted, folded, and sometimes truncated the sedimentary

  18. Multichannel seismic profiles collected by the Teledyne Exploration Company in 1977 south of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilbert, Lewis E.; Dillon, William P.

    1981-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (U.S.G.S.) collected approximately 3,700 km of multichannel-seismic reflection profiles (lines TD-1 – TD-6) south of Cape Hatteras on the continental margin (fig. 1). Those profiles were collected between August 15 and October 30, 1977, under U.S.G.S. contract number 14-08-0001-16209 by the Teledyne Exploration Company. The released data include copies of the original records, velocity scans, track charts, and field tapes.

  19. Subsurface structure along the eastern marginal fault zone of Yokote Basin by Seismic reflection profiling studies, Northeast Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagohara, K.; Imaizumi, T.; Echigo, T.; Miyauchi, T.; Sato, H.

    2005-12-01

    Typical reverse faults, which are known as Senya earthquake faults appeared along the western foot of the Mahiru Mountains, associated with The Rikuu Earthquake (Mj7.2) of 1896 in Northeast Japan. Eastern marginal fault zone of the Yokote Basin consist of four main surface ruptures, about 35 km long, Obonai fault, Shiraiwa fault, Ota fault and Senya fault, depending on their continuity and strike (Matsuda et al., 1980). We carried out the seismic reflection profiling across these faults (Kawaguchi03 Seismic line, Unjono04 Seismic line and Kotaki05 Seismic line) to clarify the subsurface structure of these reverse fault system based on the data of tectonic geomorphology and structural geology and furthermore, to discuss the timing of migration of the thrusting from the range front to the basin margin. The seismic source was mini-vibrator trucks, with 20seconds of 10-100Hz signals at 10m or 5m intervals. The sweep signals were recorded by a digital telemetry system (GDAPS-4a) with 10 Hz geophones. The obtained seismic reflection data were processed by conventional Common mid-point (CMP) methods, including post-stack migration and depth conversion. The resulting seismic reflection profile reveals a thrust structure beneath these areas. At the Center of Senya hills there are two thrusts and one high angle reverse fault (1997 Seismic Line). Senya fault is an active frontal emergent thrust with flat and ramp structure. Although, the high angle reverse fault, located along the foot of the range is a short-cut branching fault from the Senya fault in the central part of the Senya hill (Sato et al., 1998), in the Unjono04 seismic line, the depth of the flat and ramp structure gradually shallow in the north part of the Senya hill, where the flexure scarp accompanied with antithetic faults formed on the fluvial terraces. In the Kawaguchi03 seismic line, the concealed fault, 0.5km below the surface, branched from the master Ota fault, form a flexure scarplet on the alluvial fan

  20. Seismic surface-wave dispersion profiling versus shear-wave refraction tomography on a granite-micaschists contact at Plœmeur hydrological observatory (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquet, S.; Bodet, L.; Dhemaied, A.; Guérin, R.; Longuevergne, L.; Faycal, R.

    2013-12-01

    Despite well-known generation and detection issues, shear (S-) wave-related techniques grow in popularity with the increase of multicomponent data acquisitions in hydrocarbon exploration. In the meantime, recent studies demonstrated that pressure (P-) wave reflection, P-wave refraction and surface-wave dispersion data could be simultaneously acquired and analyzed for the characterization of the investigated medium. Retrieving 2D P-wave velocity (Vp) and S-wave velocity (Vs) sections with a single standard acquisition setup appears promising and attractive in terms of time and equipment costs, more particularly in the context of near-surface applications (at depth lower than 100 m). The literature even shows recent attempts of using Vp/Vs ratio to estimate hydrological parameters of aquifer systems. But refraction tomography and surface-wave dispersion inversion obviously involve distinct characteristics of the wavefield and different assumptions about the medium. The methods consequently provide results of different resolutions and investigation depths. We addressed these issues thanks to a seismic survey conducted on a well-known granite-micaschists contact at Plœmeur hydrological observatory (France). We performed simultaneous P-wave refraction tomography and surface-wave profiling, along with SH-wave refraction tomography, on a line intersecting the contact zone. The combined interpretation of Vp and Vs sections retrieved from refraction tomography helps defining the lateral extent of the contact zone, when only one section is insufficient. As for surface-wave profiling, we used offset moving windows and dispersion stacking techniques to extract a collection of local dispersion measurements along the line. We then inverted each dispersion curve separately and reconstructed a pseudo-2D Vs section along the profile. Three different window sizes were tested. They provide sections evidently different in terms of lateral resolution and investigation depth. To select

  1. Mechanics of tidally driven fractures in Europa's ice shell and implications for seismic and radar profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Makris, N. C.

    2005-12-01

    through the entire brittle layer with horizontal length on the order of the brittle layer thickness. This mechanism yields an apparent propagation speed that is consistent with the 3 km/h crack propagation speed necessary to generate cycloids in current kinematic models [1,2]. An implication of this model is that the level of seismic activity should be higher by orders of magnitude in the presence of an ocean. High correlation is then expected between the level of seismic activity and the tidal period in the presence but not in the absence of an ocean. The cracks associated with cycloids that fully penetrate the brittle layer should be at least 106 times more energetic than the shallow, roughly 100-m deep, surface cracks. We show that this greatly improves the signal-to-noise ratio for the type of seismic profiling discussed in [6] if fully penetrating cracks are used as sources of opportunity. Although Europa's ice is likely highly porous, the size of vacuous pores is likely on the order of a millimeter. Since the pore size is at least three orders of magnitude smaller than the ice-penetrating radar wavelength, our calculations show that porosity-induced scattering should not be significant. [1] Hoppa et al. 1999, Science 285. [2] Crawford et al. 2005, LPSC XXXVI #2042. [3] Weeks and Cox 1984, Ocean Sci. Eng. 9. [4] Pappalardo et al. 1999, J. Geophys. Res. 97. [5] Crawford and Stevenson 1988, Icarus 73. [6] Lee et al. 2003, Icarus 165.

  2. Seismic refraction profile, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: field operations, instrumentation, and initial results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blank, H. Richard; Healy, J.H.; Roller, John; Lamson, Ralph; Fisher, Fred; McClearn, Robert; Allen, Steve

    1979-01-01

    In February 1978 a seismic deep-refraction profile was recorded by the USGS along a 1000-km line across the Arabian Shield in western Saudi Arabia. The line begins in Paleozoic and Mesozoic cover rocks near Riyadh on the Arabian Platform, leads southwesterly across three major Precambrian tectonic provinces, traverses Cenozoic rocks of the coastal plain near Jizan (Tihamat Asir), and terminates at the outer edge of the Farasan Bank in the southern Red Sea. More than 500 surveyed recording sites were occupied, including 19 in the Farasan Islands. Six shot points were used--five on land, with charges placed mostly below water table in drill holes, and one at sea, with charges placed on the sea floor and fired from a ship. The total charge consumed was slightly in excess of 61 metric tons in 21 discrete firings. Seismic energy was recorded by means of a set of 100 newly developed portable seismic stations. Each station consists of a standard 2-Hz vertical geophone coupled to a self-contained analog recording instrument equipped with a magnetic-tape cassette. The stations were deployed in groups of 20 by five observer teams, each generally consisting of two scientist-technicians and a surveyor-guide. On the day prior to deployment, the instruments were calibrated and programmed for automatic operation by means of a specially designed device called a hand-held tester. At each of ten pre-selected recording time windows on a designated firing day, the instruments were programmed to turn on, stabilize, record internal calibration signals, record the seismic signals at three levels of amplification, and then deactivate. After the final window in the firing sequence, all instruments were retrieved and their data tapes removed for processing. A specially designed, field tape- dubbing system was utilized at shot point camps to organize and edit data recorded on the cassette tapes. The main functions of this system are to concatenate all data from each shot on any given day

  3. Geophysical Investigation of Avon Valley, West-Central Montana, using Gravity and Seismic Reflection Profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knatterud, L.; Mosolf, J.; Speece, M. A.; Zhou, X.

    2014-12-01

    The Avon Valley and adjacent mountains in west-central Montana lie within the Lewis and Clark Line, a major system of WNW-striking faults and folds that transect the more northerly structural grain of the northern Rockies and represent alternating episodes of transtensional and transpressional deformation. The northwest-trending valley has been previously interpreted as an extensional half graben filled with Tertiary sedimentary and volcanic deposits; however, little-to-no geophysical constraints on basin architecture or the thickness of Tertiary fill have been reported. A major northwest-striking fault with significant normal displacement clearly bounds the valley to the northeast, juxtaposing Tertiary sedimentary deposits against Proterozoic-Mesozoic units deformed by shortening structures and crosscut by Cretaceous granitic intrusions. Tertiary volcanic deposits unconformably overlying faulted and folded Phanerozoic-Proterozoic sequences in the eastern Garnet Range bound the valley to the southwest, but in the past no faults had been mapped along this margin. New mapping by the Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology (MBMG) has identified a system of high-angle, northwest- and northeast-striking, oblique-slip faults along the southwest border of the Avon calling into question if the valley is a half, full, or asymmetrical graben. Geophysical data has recently been acquired by Montana Tech to help define the structural architecture of the Avon Valley and the thickness of its Tertiary fill. Gravity data and a short seismic reflection profile have been collected and a preliminary interpretation of these data indicates a half graben with a series of normal faults bounding the western side of the valley. Ongoing gravity data collection throughout 2014 should refine this interpretation by better defining the bedrock-Tertiary interface at depth.

  4. Near-surface structure of the Central Scandinavian Caledonides in northern Trøndelag, Norway, from correlation of seismic and MT profiles using gravity and magnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebbing, J.; Goerigk, L.; Nasuti, A.; Roberts, D.; Korja, T. J.; Smirnov, M.

    2014-12-01

    The deep geology of northern Trøndelag is somewhat speculative as the Central Scandinavian Caledonides are intersected by the Møre-Trøndelag Fault Complex (MTFC) and only a few depth-penetrating geophysical profiles exist. Here, we correlate the mapped geological units and faults between a seismic-reflection profile and a MT profile. The seismic-reflection data were acquired in 5 segments over the period 1986-1990. The westernmost section of the seismic profile is dominated by a complex pattern of reflections and diffractions. This type of pattern is typical of polydeformed terranes with a mixture of contrasting felsic and mafic lithologies. The two steeply-dipping strands of the MTFC (Hitra-Snåsa and Verran faults) that transect the profile do not show any distinctive signature in the seismic data. The MT data were acquired in 2007 from the Swedish border to the Norwegian coast. The conductivity profile shows some distinct vertical changes as well as changes from the near-surface to shallow depths. The strands of the MTFC show especially a distinctive change in conductivity. The two profiles are almost parallel but separated by 100 km. To correlate the structures seen on both profiles, we have applied lineament analysis and 3D modelling of the gravity and magnetic field. The tilt derivative of the magnetic and isostatic gravity anomaly clearly allows us to identify and link the main geological boundaries between the profiles and to trace the strands of the MTFC from one profile to the other. This trend analysis indicates that at least the Verran Fault visibly modifies the pattern of seismic reflections. However, the main change in crustal lithology occurs farther to the west, almost at the coast where the Tarva Fault intersects the MT profile. This integrated analysis shows the benefit of combining gravity and magnetic interpretations with MT and seismic data to enable us to understand the near-surface geology and structure in more detail.

  5. Ground magnetic studies along a regional seismic-reflection profile across Bare Mountain, Crater Flat and Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Langenheim, V.E.; Ponce, D.A.

    1995-12-31

    Ground magnetic data were collected along a 26-km-long regional seismic-reflection profile in southwest Nevada that starts in the Amargosa Desert, crosses Bare Mountain, Crater Flat and Yucca Mountain, and ends in Midway Valley. Parallel ground magnetic profiles were also collected about 100 m to either side of the western half of the seismic-reflection line. The magnetic data indicate that the eastern half of Crater Flat is characterized by closely-spaced faulting (1--2 km) in contrast to the western half of Crater Flat. Modeling of the data indicates that the Topopah Spring Tuff is offset about 250 m on the Solitario Canyon fault and about 50 m on the Ghost Dance fault. These estimates of fault offset are consistent with seismic-reflection data and geologic mapping. A broad magnetic high of about 500--600 nT is centered over Crater Flat. Modeling of the magnetic data indicates that the source of this high is not thickening and doming of the Bullfrog Tuff, but more likely lies below the Bullfrog Tuff. Possible source lithologies for this magnetic high include altered argillite of the Eleana Formation, Cretaceous or Tertiary intrusions, and mafic sills.

  6. Improved Dead Sea sinkhole site characterization at Ghor Al Haditha, Jordan, based on repeated shear wave reflection seismic profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polom, Ulrich; Alrshdan, Hussam; Al-Halbouni, Djamil; Sawarieh, Ali; Dahm, Torsten; Krawczyk, CharLotte M.

    2016-04-01

    In October 2014 a high-resolution shallow shear wave reflection seismic survey was carried out at the Dead Sea sinkhole site Ghor Al Haditha, Jordan. It extended a survey undertaken in 2013, also in order to gather time-lapse profiles. In the framework of the DEad SEa Research Venue (DESERVE), a virtual institute of the Helmholtz Association and international partners, this investigation is part of a cross-disciplinary and cooperative international project of the Helmholtz Centers KIT, GFZ, and UFZ. At the investigation site, characterized by alluvial fan deposits, ongoing subsidence and sinkhole processes in the subsurface create massive reshaping of farming areas, including the destruction of housings, industrial sites, and infrastructure. The sinkhole hazard at the Dead Sea is significant, since similar processes are observed at several coastal segments of the Dead Sea. The new survey (in total 2.1 profile km) was targeted to improve the knowledge about the subsurface structures and to confine the results of the initial survey (1.8 km profile km), with respect to the presence or non-presence of a massive salt layer proposed at nearly 40 m depth. This salt layer is the central part of a widely established process hypothesis to generate shallow cavities by salt subrosion, which subsequently collapse to sinkholes at the surface. Results of the initial survey carried out in 2013 highlighted a new process hypothesis of subsurface mass transport by Dead Sea mud mobilization enclosed in the alluvial fan, so that an extended survey was undertaken in 2014. This, indeed, confirmed that there are no reflection seismic signal responses that would be expected to occur in the presence of a massive salt layer. Since evaluation of both hypothesis by new drilling could not be carried out due to safety reasons and permissions, it remained unclear which hypothesis is valid for the investigation site. However, we combined the 2013 and 2014 reflection seismic profiles and the

  7. Deep seismic studies of conjugate profiles from the Nova Scotia - Moroccan and the Liguro-Provencal margin pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingelhoefer, F.; Biari, Y.; Sahabi, M.; Aslanian, D.; Philippe, S.; Schnabel, M.; Moulin, M.; Louden, K. E.; Funck, T.; Reichert, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    The structure of conjugate passive margins provides information about rifting styles, opening of an ocean and formation of it's associated sedimentary basins. In order to distinguish between tectonic inheritance and structures directly related to rifting of passive margins conjugate profiles have to be acquired on margins on diverse locations and different ages. In this study we use new and existing reflection and wide-angle seismic data from two margin pairs, the 200 Ma year old Nova-Scotia - Morocco margin pair and the only 20 Ma Gulf of Lions - Sardinia margin pair. On both margin pairs wide-angle seismic data combined with reflection seismic data were acquired on conjugate profiles on sea and extended on land. Forward modelling of the deep crustal structure along the four transects indicates that a high velocity zone (HVZ) (> 7.2 km/s) is present at the base of the lower crust on all four margins along the ocean-continental transition zone (OCT). This may represent either exhumed upper mantle material or injection of upper mantle material into proto-oceanic crust at the onset of sea-floor spreading. However the width of the HVZ might strongly differ between conjugates, which may be the result of tectonic inheritance, for example the presence of ancient subduction zones or orogens. Both margin pairs show a similar unthinned continental crustal thickness. Crustal thinning and upper-to-lower crustal thickness vary between margin pairs, but remain nearly symmetric on conjugate profiles and might therefore depend on the structure and mechanical properties of the original continental crust. For the Mediterranean margin pair, the oceanic crust is similar on both sides, with a thickness of only 4-5 km. For the Atlantic margin pair, oceanic crustal thickness is higher on the Moroccan Margin, a fact that can be explained by either asymmetric spreading or by the volcanic underplating, possibly originating from the Canary Hot Spot.

  8. Design, Synthesis, and Evaluation of Thiophene[3,2-d]pyrimidine Derivatives as HIV-1 Non-nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors with Significantly Improved Drug Resistance Profiles.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dongwei; Fang, Zengjun; Li, Zhenyu; Huang, Boshi; Zhang, Heng; Lu, Xueyi; Xu, Haoran; Zhou, Zhongxia; Ding, Xiao; Daelemans, Dirk; De Clercq, Erik; Pannecouque, Christophe; Zhan, Peng; Liu, Xinyong

    2016-09-01

    We designed and synthesized a series of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) with a piperidine-substituted thiophene[3,2-d]pyrimidine scaffold, employing a strategy of structure-based molecular hybridization and substituent decorating. Most of the synthesized compounds exhibited broad-spectrum activity with low (single-digit) nanomolar EC50 values toward a panel of wild-type (WT), single-mutant, and double-mutant HIV-1 strains. Compound 27 was the most potent; compared with ETV, its antiviral efficacy was 3-fold greater against WT, 5-7-fold greater against Y181C, Y188L, E138K, and F227L+V106A, and nearly equipotent against L100I and K103N, though somewhat weaker against K103N+Y181C. Importantly, 27 has lower cytotoxicity (CC50 > 227 μM) and a huge selectivity index (SI) value (ratio of CC50/EC50) of >159101. 27 also showed favorable, drug-like pharmacokinetic and safety properties in rats in vivo. Molecular docking studies and the structure-activity relationships provide important clues for further molecular elaboration. PMID:27541578

  9. Precambrian crust beneath the Mesozoic northern Canadian Cordillera discovered by Lithoprobe seismic reflection profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Frederick A.; Clowes, Ronald M.; Snyder, David B.; van der Velden, Arie J.; Hall, Kevin W.; Erdmer, Philippe; Evenchick, Carol A.

    2004-04-01

    The Cordillera in northern Canada is underlain by westward tapering layers that can be followed from outcrops of Proterozoic strata in the Foreland belt to the lowermost crust of the orogenic interior, a distance of as much as 500 km across strike. They are interpreted as stratified Proterozoic rocks, including ˜1.8-0.7 Ga supracrustal rocks and their basement. The layering was discovered on two new deep seismic reflection profiles in the Yukon (Line 3; ˜650 km) and northern British Columbia (Line 2; ˜1245 km in two segments) that were acquired as part of the Lithoprobe Slave-Northern Cordillera Lithospheric Evolution (SNORCLE) transect. In the Mackenzie Mountains of the eastern Yukon, the layering in Line 3 is visible between 5.0 and 12.0 s (˜15 to 36 km depth). It is followed southwestward for nearly 650 km (˜500 km across strike) and thins to less than 1.0 s (˜3.0-3.5 km thickness) near the Moho at the Yukon-Alaska international boundary. In the northern Rocky Mountains of British Columbia, the upper part of the layering on Line 2 correlates with outcrops of Proterozoic (1.76-1.0 Ga) strata in the Muskwa anticlinorium. At this location, the layering is at least 15 km thick and is followed westward then southward into the middle and lower crust for ˜700 km (˜300 km across strike). It disappears as a thin taper at the base of the crust ˜150 km east of the coast of the Alaskan panhandle. The only significant disruption in the layering occurs at the Tintina fault zone, a late to postorogenic strike-slip fault with up to 800 km of displacement, which appears as a vertical zone of little reflectivity that disrupts the continuity of the deep layering on both profiles (˜300 km apart). The base of the layered reflection zone coincides with the Moho, which exhibits variable character and undulates in a series of broad arches with widths of ˜150 km. In general, the mantle appears to have few reflections. However, at the southwest end of Line 3 near the Alaska

  10. Orphan Basin crustal structure from a dense wide-angle seismic profile - Tomographic inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watremez, Louise; Lau, K. W. Helen; Nedimović, Mladen R.; Louden, Keith E.; Karner, Garry D.

    2014-05-01

    Orphan Basin is located on the eastern margin of Canada, offshore of Newfoundland and East of Flemish Cap. It is an aborted continental rift formed by multiple episodes of rifting. The crustal structure across the basin has been determined by an earlier refraction study using 15 instruments on a 550 km long line. It shows that the continental crust was extended over an unusually wide region but did not break apart. The crustal structure of the basin thus documents stages in the formation of a magma-poor rifted margin up to crustal breakup. The OBWAVE (Orphan Basin Wide-Angle Velocity Experiment) survey was carried out to image crustal structures across the basin and better understand the processes of formation of this margin. The spacing of the 89 recording stations varies from 3 to 5 km along this 500-km-long line, which was acquired along a pre-existing reflection line. The highest resolution section corresponds to the part of the profile where the crust was expected to be the thinnest. We present the results from a joint tomography inversion of first and Moho reflected arrival times. The high data density allows us to define crustal structures with greater detail than for typical studies and to improve the understanding of the processes leading to the extreme stretching of continental crust. The final model was computed following a detailed parametric study to determine the optimal parameters controlling the ray-tracing and the inversion processes. The final model shows very good resolution. In particular, Monte Carlo standard deviations of crustal velocities and Moho depths are generally < 50 m/s and within 1 km, respectively. In comparison to the velocity models of typical seismic refraction profiles, results from the OBWAVE study show a notable improvement in the resolution of the velocity model and in the level of detail observed using the least a priori information possible. The final model allows us to determine the crustal thinning and variable structures

  11. West Flank Coso, CA FORGE Seismic Reflection

    DOE Data Explorer

    Doug Blankenship

    2016-05-16

    PDFs of seismic reflection profiles 101,110, 111 local to the West Flank FORGE site. 45 line kilometers of seismic reflection data are processed data collected in 2001 through the use of vibroseis trucks. The initial analysis and interpretation of these data was performed by Unruh et al. (2001). Optim processed these data by inverting the P-wave first arrivals to create a 2-D velocity structure. Kirchhoff images were then created for each line using velocity tomograms (Unruh et al., 2001).

  12. Matching high-resolution seismic and electrical resistivity profiling to infer the shallow structure of Solfatara Volcano (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, Pier Paolo; Gresse, Marceau; Maraio, Stefano; Vandemeulebrouck, Jean; Di Fiore, Vincenzo

    2016-04-01

    Two coincident high-resolution seismic reflection and electrical resistivity profiles were acquired in the Solfatara tuff cone in May and November 2014, along with CO2 flux and surface temperature measurements. The acquired data are a subset of the MedSuV - RICEN dataset, which also includes a wider series of time-lapse geophysical and geochemical experiments carried out within Solfatara volcano, with the aim of studying changes in the properties of the medium at small scales through repeated high-resolution multi-parameter observations over time. Seismic reflection data were processed using the Common-Reflection-Surface stack, a fast and cost-effective alternative to standard reflection processing which allows to greatly improve signal-to-noise ratio in settings where structural complexity and high levels of ambient noise make it challenging to obtain a reliable seismic image. The reflection profiles provide the first high-resolution seismic images of Solfatara crater, depicting an asymmetrical structure filled by volcanoclastic sediments and whose bottom is found at about 400 ms TWT. Seismic data also display several narrow zones with distinctive anomalous of very low amplitude located in several areas within the crater, which were interpreted as gas chimneys created by intersection of NE- and NW-trending sets of sub-vertical fault and fractures and filled by fluids (both in gas and liquid phases) escaping from the deeper hydrothermal source. The imaged degassing pathways terminate against a strong horizontal reflector at about 100 ms TWT. Just above those structural pathways, electric data show the presence of a dome-shaped electrically conductive structure, buried in the centre of the volcano at a minimum depth of 50 m and interpreted as the upper end of the hydrothermal plume. The plume projection at the surface of the crater matches with high CO2 flux and soil temperature anomalies. Our results provide a solid framework to constrain the near

  13. Crustal profile of mountain belt: COCORP deep seismic reflection profiling in New England Appalachians and implications for architecture of convergent mountain chains

    SciTech Connect

    Ando, C.J.; Brown, L.D.; Cheadle, M.J.; Cook, F.A.; Czuchra, B.L.; Kaufman, S.; Klemperer, S.L.; Oliver, J.E.; Rosenfeld, J.L.; Thompson, J.B.

    1984-07-01

    COCORP deep seismic reflection profiles from the New England Appalachians display some fundamental changes in crustal geometry from exterior to more interior parts of the mountain belt. Relatively shallow reflections from beneath the Taconic allochthon and Green Mountain anticlinorium are suggested to mark a zone of detachment that carries Precambrian Grenville basement of the Green Mountains in its upper plate. The data strongly suggest that tectonic thickening of the shelf sedimentary and synorogenic flysch sequence beneath the Taconic allochthon has occurred, and that major thrust-fault systems (Champlain thrust of western Vermont), which imbricate shelf lithologies, project downplunge into the seismic profile. Eastward-dipping reflections beneath the east flank of the Green Mountains appear to project in the subsurface across the Connecticut River valley into New Hampshire. Because some of these reflections can be projected into an exposed zone of probable thrust-imbricated Precambrian Grenville basement and younger metasediments, there is a strong implication that similar rock types exist in the deeper crust beneath New Hampshire.

  14. Comparison of P- and S-wave velocity profiles obtained from surface seismic refraction/reflection and downhole data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, R.A.; Stephenson, W.J.; Odum, J.K.

    2003-01-01

    High-resolution seismic-reflection/refraction data were acquired on the ground surface at six locations to compare with near-surface seismic-velocity downhole measurements. Measurement sites were in Seattle, WA, the San Francisco Bay Area, CA, and the San Fernando Valley, CA. We quantitatively compared the data in terms of the average shear-wave velocity to 30-m depth (Vs30), and by the ratio of the relative site amplification produced by the velocity profiles of each data type over a specified set of quarter-wavelength frequencies. In terms of Vs30, similar values were determined from the two methods. There is <15% difference at four of the six sites. The Vs30 values at the other two sites differ by 21% and 48%. The relative site amplification factors differ generally by less than 10% for both P- and S-wave velocities. We also found that S-wave reflections and first-arrival phase delays are essential for identifying velocity inversions. The results suggest that seismic reflection/refraction data are a fast, non-invasive, and less expensive alternative to downhole data for determining Vs30. In addition, we emphasize that some P- and S-wave reflection travel times can directly indicate the frequencies of potentially damaging earthquake site resonances. A strong correlation between the simple S-wave first-arrival travel time/apparent velocity on the ground surface at 100 m offset from the seismic source and the Vs30 value for that site is an additional unique feature of the reflection/refraction data that could greatly simplify Vs30 determinations. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A crustal model of the ultrahigh-pressure Dabie Shan orogenic belt, China, derived from deep seismic refraction profiling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Chun-Yong; Zeng, Rong-Sheng; Mooney, W.D.; Hacker, B.R.

    2000-01-01

    We present a new crustal cross section through the east-west trending ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) Dabie Shan orogenic belt, east central China, based on a 400-km-long seismic refraction profile. Data from our profile reveal that the cratonal blocks north and south of the orogen are composed of 35-km-thick crust consisting of three layers (upper, middle, and lower crust) with average seismic velocities of 6.0±0.2 km/s, 6.5±0.1 km/s, and 6.8±0.1 km/s. The crust reaches a maximum thickness of 41.5 km beneath the northern margin of the orogen, and thus the present-day root beneath the orogen is only 6.5 km thick. The upper mantle velocity is 8.0±0.1 km/s. Modeling of shear wave data indicate that Poisson's ratio increases from 0.24±0.02 in the upper crust to 0.27±0.03 in the lower crust. This result is consistent with a dominantly felsic upper crustal composition and a mafic lower crustal composition within the amphibolite or granulite metamorphic facies. Our seismic model indicates that eclogite, which is abundant in surface exposures within the orogen, is not a volumetrically significant component in the middle or lower crust. Much of the Triassic structure associated with the formation of the UHP rocks of the Dabie Shan has been obscured by post-Triassic igneous activity, extension and large-offset strike-slip faulting. Nevertheless, we can identify a high-velocity (6.3 km/s) zone in the upper (<5 km depth) crustal core of the orogen which we interpret as a zone of ultrahigh-pressure rocks, a north dipping suture, and an apparent Moho offset that marks a likely active strike-slip fault.

  16. Barren Acidic Soil Assessment using Seismic Refraction Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajudin, S. A. A.; Abidin, M. H. Z.; Madun, A.; Zawawi, M. H.

    2016-07-01

    Seismic refraction method is one of the geophysics subsurface exploration techniques used to determine subsurface profile characteristics. From past experience, seismic refraction method is commonly used to detect soil layers, overburden, bedrock, etc. However, the application of this method on barren geomaterials remains limited due to several reasons. Hence, this study was performed to evaluate the subsurface profile characteristics of barren acidic soil located in Ayer Hitam, Batu Pahat, Johor using seismic refraction survey. The seismic refraction survey was conducted using ABEM Terraloc MK 8 (seismograph), a sledge hammer weighing 7 kg (source) and 24 units of 10 Hz geophones (receiver). Seismic data processing was performed using OPTIM software which consists of SeisOpt@picker (picking the first arrival and seismic configureuration data input) and SeisOpt@2D (generating 2D image of barren acidic soil based on seismic velocity (primary velocity, Vp) distribution). It was found that the barren acidic soil profile consists of three layers representing residual soil (Vp= 200-400 m/s) at 0-2 m, highly to completely weathered soil (Vp= 500-1800 m/s) at 3-8 m and shale (Vp= 2100-6200 m/s) at 9-20 m depth. Furthermore, result verification was successfully done through the correlation of seismic refraction data based on physical mapping and the geological map of the study area. Finally, it was found that the seismic refraction survey was applicable for subsurface profiling of barren acidic soil as it was very efficient in terms of time, cost, large data coverage and sustainable.

  17. Report of reprocessing of reflection seismic profile X-5 Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site, Eddy County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, John J.

    1983-01-01

    Seismic reflection profile X-5 exhibits a 7,700 ft long anomalous zone of poor quality to nonexistent reflections between shotpoints 100 and 170, compared to the high-quality, flat-lying, coherent reflections on either side. Results from drill holes in the area suggest 'layer cake' geology with no detectable abnormalities such as faults present. In an attempt to determine whether the anomalous zone of the seismic profile is an artifact or actually indicates a geologic condition, the data were extensively reprocessed using state-of-the-art processing techniques and the following conclusions were made: 1. The field-recorded data in the anomalous zone are of poor quality due to surface conditions and recording parameters used. 2. Reprocessing shows reflectors throughout the anomalous zone at all levels. However, it cannot prove that the reflectors are continuous throughout the anomalous zone. 3. Significant improvement in data quality may be achieved if the line is reshot using carefully determined recording parameters.

  18. Towards 2D nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Hyun-Sook; Yu, Changqian; Hayes, Robert; Granick, Steve

    2015-03-01

    Polymer vesicles (``polymersomes'') are an intriguing class of soft materials, commonly used to encapsulate small molecules or particles. Here we reveal they can also effectively incorporate nanoparticles inside their polymer membrane, leading to novel ``2D nanocomposites.'' The embedded nanoparticles alter the capacity of the polymersomes to bend and to stretch upon external stimuli.

  19. Orphan Basin crustal structure from a dense wide-angle seismic profile - layered modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, K. W. Helen; Watremez, Louise; Louden, Keith E.; Nedimović, Mladen R.; Karner, Garry D.

    2014-05-01

    The Orphan Basin is a large, deep water basin to the east of Newfoundland and northwest of Flemish Cap, Canada. It contains a considerably wide series of rift basins that provides an excellent opportunity to study continental crustal deformations under varying degrees of extension. We present a 500-km-long P-wave velocity model across the complete rift system of the Orphan Basin, from Flemish Cap to the Bonavista Platform, using high-resolution refraction and wide-angle reflection data from 89 ocean-bottom seismometers (OBS). This layered model builds on a first-arrival traveltime tomography model (Watremez et al., this session) and is formed using additional constraints from a coincident multichannel seismic reflection profile, gravity data and borehole data from three wells. The layered model helps detail deep sediment and crustal variations across this wide region of extended continental crust. The sedimentary section contains post-rift Tertiary (vp~1.7-3.5 km/s) and syn-rift Cretaceous and Jurassic (vp~4-5.4 km/s) layers within both the eastern and the western sub-basins, separated by three basement highs, suggesting that the two sub-basins may have opened during a single, extended rifting event. The crust is composed of three layers with vp of 5.4-6.1, 6.1-6.5 and 6.3-7.1 km/s of highly variable combined thicknesses, from 32 km beneath Flemish Cap and the Bonavista Platform to <10 km beneath both western and eastern sub-basins. The shape of the crustal thinning appears highly asymmetrical across the two sub-basins. Flemish Cap crust thins westward within the eastern sub-basin into a narrow zone (35 km) of hyperextended crust (<10 km thick) beneath an 8-km-deep sedimentary basin. In contrast, the Bonavista Platform crust thins eastward within the western sub-basin into a wider zone (116 km) of hyperextended crust. Separating the two rift basins is a central section with two distinctive zones of thicker (10-16 km) crust, where muted topography characterizes the

  20. Comparative Proteomics Profile of Lipid-Cumulating Oleaginous Yeast: An iTRAQ-Coupled 2-D LC-MS/MS Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jiahua; Feng, Huixing; Lee, Jaslyn; Ning Chen, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of intracellular lipid in oleaginous yeast cells has been studied for providing an alternative supply for energy, biofuel. Numerous studies have been conducted on increasing lipid content in oleaginous yeasts. However, few explore the mechanism of the high lipid accumulation ability of oleaginous yeast strains at the proteomics level. In this study, a time-course comparative proteomics analysis was introduced to compare the non-oleaginous yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with two oleaginous yeast strains, Cryptococcus albidus and Rhodosporidium toruloides at different lipid accumulation stages. Two dimensional LC-MS/MS approach has been applied for protein profiling together with isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) labelling method. 132 proteins were identified when three yeast strains were all at early lipid accumulation stage; 122 and 116 proteins were found respectively within cells of three strains collected at middle and late lipid accumulation stages. Significantly up-regulation or down-regulation of proteins were experienced among comparison. Essential proteins correlated to lipid synthesis and regulation were detected. Our approach provides valuable indication and better understanding for lipid accumulation mechanism from proteomics level and would further contribute to genetic engineering of oleaginous yeasts. PMID:24386479

  1. Comparative proteomics profile of lipid-cumulating oleaginous yeast: an iTRAQ-coupled 2-D LC-MS/MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiahua; Feng, Huixing; Lee, Jaslyn; Ning Chen, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of intracellular lipid in oleaginous yeast cells has been studied for providing an alternative supply for energy, biofuel. Numerous studies have been conducted on increasing lipid content in oleaginous yeasts. However, few explore the mechanism of the high lipid accumulation ability of oleaginous yeast strains at the proteomics level. In this study, a time-course comparative proteomics analysis was introduced to compare the non-oleaginous yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with two oleaginous yeast strains, Cryptococcus albidus and Rhodosporidium toruloides at different lipid accumulation stages. Two dimensional LC-MS/MS approach has been applied for protein profiling together with isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) labelling method. 132 proteins were identified when three yeast strains were all at early lipid accumulation stage; 122 and 116 proteins were found respectively within cells of three strains collected at middle and late lipid accumulation stages. Significantly up-regulation or down-regulation of proteins were experienced among comparison. Essential proteins correlated to lipid synthesis and regulation were detected. Our approach provides valuable indication and better understanding for lipid accumulation mechanism from proteomics level and would further contribute to genetic engineering of oleaginous yeasts.

  2. Origin of deep crystal reflections: seismic profiling across high-grade metamorphic terranes in Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, A.; Milkereit, B.; Percival, J.; Davidson, A.; Parrish, R.; Cook, F.; Geis, W.; Cannon, W.; Hutchinson, D.; West, G.; Clowes, R.

    1990-01-01

    In an attempt to better understand the origin of deep crustal reflections LITHOPROBE has sponsored or co-sponsored Seismic reflection surveys across tracts of high-grade metamorphic rock in the Archean Superior craton, the Proterozoic Grenville orogen and the Phanerozoic Cordilleran orogen. Common to these three diverse terranes are near-surface zones of prominent Seismic reflectivity that are typically associated with velocity discontinuities at highly strained contacts between gneissic rocks of varying lithology. At some locations the reflective layering resulted from transposition and rearrangement of previously layered rocks (stratified assemblages, sills, etc.), whereas in other regions it was generated by extreme attenuation, stretching and ductile flow of weakly layered or irregularly organized rocks. It seems likely that compositionally layered gneissic rock is a common source of reflections in the deep crust, with reflections originating at lithological boundaries and zones of mylonite. ?? 1990.

  3. Mesh2d

    2011-12-31

    Mesh2d is a Fortran90 program designed to generate two-dimensional structured grids of the form [x(i),y(i,j)] where [x,y] are grid coordinates identified by indices (i,j). The x(i) coordinates alone can be used to specify a one-dimensional grid. Because the x-coordinates vary only with the i index, a two-dimensional grid is composed in part of straight vertical lines. However, the nominally horizontal y(i,j0) coordinates along index i are permitted to undulate or otherwise vary. Mesh2d also assignsmore » an integer material type to each grid cell, mtyp(i,j), in a user-specified manner. The complete grid is specified through three separate input files defining the x(i), y(i,j), and mtyp(i,j) variations.« less

  4. Integration of seismic data, iodine geochemistry yields Lodgepole exploration model

    SciTech Connect

    Tedesco, S.A.; Andrew, J.A.

    1995-09-18

    The recent discovery of prolific Mississippian Lodgepole mounds near Dickinson, N.D., has resulted in one of the most exciting US exploration plays in several decades. the presence of the mounds in the Williston basin around Dickinson in North Dakota; in outcrop in central Montana; and in the subsurface of eastern Montana, northern Alberta, southwestern Manitoba, and southeastern Saskatchewan suggests a potential target that could be found over the entire basin and especially on the eastern margin. However, as prolific as the Lodgepole wells near Dickinson are, they are not easily found by simple subsurface mapping, interpreting existing 2D seismic, or newly acquired 3D seismic data (as proved by dry holes located on 3D seismic data). Presented here are a section and map examples of two different exploration methods used together over two producing areas near Dickinson, N.D. When the two methods are used together, in synergistic fashion, they provide a higher degree of success than when used apart. this approach can be used as a model for future exploration. The empirical signature of a Lodgepole mound on conventionally acquired and processed, high-resolution 2D and swath 2D seismic data is clearly expressed in the nature and character of the seismic event representing the contrast between the lodgepole and underlying rocks. Furthermore, and more importantly, there is direct correlation between the occurrence of surface iodine geochemical anomalies and the location of Lodgepole mounds on map and profile views of the seismic data.

  5. Analysis of membrane-protein complexes of the marine sulfate reducer Desulfobacula toluolica Tol2 by 1D blue native-PAGE complexome profiling and 2D blue native-/SDS-PAGE.

    PubMed

    Wöhlbrand, Lars; Ruppersberg, Hanna S; Feenders, Christoph; Blasius, Bernd; Braun, Hans-Peter; Rabus, Ralf

    2016-03-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) obtain energy from cytoplasmic reduction of sulfate to sulfide involving APS-reductase (AprAB) and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DsrAB). These enzymes are predicted to obtain electrons from membrane redox complexes, i.e. the quinone-interacting membrane-bound oxidoreductase (QmoABC) and DsrMKJOP complexes. In addition to these conserved complexes, the genomes of SRB encode a large number of other (predicted) membrane redox complexes, the function and actual formation of which is unknown. This study reports the establishment of 1D Blue Native-PAGE complexome profiling and 2D BN-/SDS-PAGE for analysis of the membrane protein complexome of the marine sulfate reducer Desulfobacula toluolica Tol2. Analysis of normalized score profiles of >800 proteins in combination with hierarchical clustering and identification of 2D BN-/SDS-PAGE separated spots demonstrated separation of membrane complexes in their native form, e.g. ATP synthase. In addition to the QmoABC and DsrMKJOP complexes, other complexes were detected that constitute the basic membrane complexome of D. toluolica Tol2, e.g. transport proteins (e.g. sodium/sulfate symporters) or redox complexes involved in Na(+) -based bioenergetics (RnfABCDEG). Notably, size estimation indicates dimer and quadruple formation of the DsrMKJOP complex in vivo. Furthermore, cluster analysis suggests interaction of this complex with a rhodanese-like protein (Tol2_C05230) possibly representing a periplasmic electron transfer partner for DsrMKJOP. PMID:26792001

  6. Modeling of Potential-Field Data Along Profiles of the Salton Sea Seismic Imaging Project Transects, Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langenheim, V. E.; Scheirer, D. S.; Athens, N. D.; Fuis, G. S.

    2012-12-01

    Gravity and magnetic data provide information on the crustal structure of the Salton Trough that complements seismic velocity data recently obtained as part of the Salton Sea Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP). The potential-field analysis benefits from nearly uniform coverage of the Salton Trough. Density and velocity are related properties and thus forward gravity models using the velocity structure from SSIP provide a means to refine the crustal structure. An earlier comparison of gravity with crustal tomography (Langenheim and Hauksson, 2001) indicated that 10-km spacing of the tomographic model was too coarse to image the basin beneath Coachella Valley. A 2-D forward gravity model using the new SSIP velocity structure of Line 4, located just north of the Salton Sea, produces calculated gravity variations that compare well with observed gravity. The southwest margin of the Coachella Valley basin dips shallowly to the northeast and is interrupted by a 2-km step in the top of basement about 7 km northeast of the basement outcrop. The northeast margin of the basin is marked by the San Andreas fault, which gravity and velocity data suggest dips to the northeast. The western edge of a 100-nT aeromagnetic anomaly coincides with the San Andreas fault from Indio south for a distance of about 50 km. Modeling of the magnetic anomaly along Line 4 indicates a northeast dip of about 70-75 degrees of the fault to a depth of 10 km. A 200-nT magnetic anomaly at the southwest end of Line 4 lies within the upper plate of the Eastern Peninsular Ranges mylonite zone. The modeled base of an interpreted magnetic body indicates a maximum dip of 45 degrees that may extend all the way across the Coachella Valley to the San Andreas fault. Two-dimensional forward modeling of ground- and marine-magnetic data along Line 7 (crossing the Salton Sea and sedimentary basin to the northeast near Salt Creek) indicates two magnetic sources. (1) A broader anomaly is sourced by magnetic rocks with

  7. Cenozoic magmatism in the northern continental margin of the South China Sea: evidence from seismic profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiao; Wu, Shiguo; Dong, Dongdong

    2016-06-01

    Igneous rocks in the northern margin of the South China Sea (SCS) have been identified via high resolution multi-channel seismic data in addition to other geophysical and drilling well data. This study identified intrusive and extrusive structures including seamounts and buried volcanoes, and their seismic characteristics. Intrusive features consist of piercement and implicit-piercement type structures, indicating different energy input associated with diapir formation. Extrusive structures are divided into flat-topped and conical-topped seamounts. Three main criteria (the overlying strata, the contact relationship and sills) were used to distinguish between intrusive rocks and buried volcanos. Three criteria are also used to estimate the timing of igneous rock formation: the contact relationship, the overlying sedimentary thickness and seismic reflection characteristics. These criteria are applied to recognize and distinguish between three periods of Cenozoic magmatism in the northern margin of the SCS: before seafloor spreading (Paleocene and Eocene), during seafloor spreading (Early Oligocene-Mid Miocene) and after cessation of seafloor spreading (Mid Miocene-Recent). Among them, greater attention is given to the extensive magmatism since 5.5 Ma, which is present throughout nearly all of the study area, making it a significant event in the SCS. Almost all of the Cenozoic igneous rocks were located below the 1500 m bathymetric contour. In contrast with the wide distribution of igneous rocks in the volcanic rifted margin, igneous rocks in the syn-rift stage of the northern margin of the SCS are extremely sporadic, and they could only be found in the southern Pearl River Mouth basin and NW sub-sea basin. The ocean-continent transition of the northern SCS exhibits high-angle listric faults, concentrated on the seaward side of the magmatic zone, and a sharply decreased crust, with little influence from a mantle plume. These observations provide further evidence to

  8. SinoProbe-02: Deep Seismic Reflection Profiling of the Bangong Suture and Qiangtang terrane in central Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Z.; Chen, C.; Gao, R.; Brown, L.; Xiong, X.; Li, W.; Deng, G.

    2010-12-01

    The Bangong Suture represents the tectonic junction between the two primary terranes of the Tibetan Plateau- the Lhasa block and the Qiangtang terrane.This suture was originally formed during a Jurassic collision of these two terranes,but has retained considerably significance as the suspect surface position of the buried mantle suture between Indian and Asian lithosphere that formed during Himalayan collision.As a corollary,these terranes have been associated with very different styles of mantle tectonics,perhaps as a result of mantle delamination beneath the Qiangtang.There have been a number of attempts to probe the deep structure of both the suture and its flanking terranes with refraction and teleseismic methods.Here we report the results of the first multichannel seismic reflection profile across this critical region.Deep seismic reflection method is internationally recognized as a pioneering technology for imaging crustal details,and it has been successfully applied in Southern Tibetan plateau in early 1990s.From October 2009 to May 2010,SinoProbe collected 310 km of a deep seismic reflection profile crossing BNS,successfully revealing structural details down to the Moho and possible deeper.The profile starts west of Silin Co in the northern Lhasa block,crosses the Bangong-Nujiang suture west of Lunpola,skirts the eastern extension of the central Qiantang anticline and ends at Dogai Coring just of south of Jinsha suture.The survey used explosive sources with variable shot size to insure adequate imaging of both the upper and lower crust.In the southern part of the profile,small shots of 50kg explosive were placed at 30m depth at 250m spacing,augmented by larger shots of 200kg t 50m depth spaced every 1km.In addition,large shots of 1000kg were placed every 50km.In the middle and north part,only 200 kg shots at 500m spacing along with the big shots.A linear array of receivers was used with a group interval of 50 m.The data was acquired by Sercel 408 XL using

  9. Lithospheric structure beneath trans-Carpathian transect from Precambrian platform to Pannonian basin: CELEBRATION 2000 seismic profile CEL05

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grad, Marek; Guterch, Aleksander; Keller, G. Randy; Janik, Tomasz; Hegedűs, Endre; Vozár, Jozef; Ślączka, Andrzej; Tiira, Timo; Yliniemi, Jukka

    2006-03-01

    In 2000, a consortium of European and North American institutions completed a huge active source seismic experiment focused on central Europe, the Central European Lithospheric Experiment Based on Refraction or CELEBRATION 2000. This experiment primarily consisted of a network of seismic refraction profiles that extended from the East European craton, along and across the Trans-European suture zone region in Poland to the Bohemian massif, and through the Carpathians and eastern Alps to the Pannonian basin. The longest profile CEL05 (1420 km) is the focus of this paper. The resulting two-dimensional tomographic and ray-tracing models show strong variations in crustal and lower lithospheric structure. Clear crustal thickening from the Pannonian basin (24-25 km thick) to the Trans-European suture zone region (˜50 km), together with the configuration of the lower lithospheric reflectors, suggests northward subduction of mantle underlying Carpathian-Pannonian plate under the European plate. This, however, conflicts with strong geological evidence for southward subduction, and we present three tectonic models that are to not totally mutually exclusive, to explain the lithospheric structure of the area: (1) northward "old" subduction of the Pannonian lithosphere under the East European craton in the Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous, (2) a collisional zone containing a "crocodile" structure where Carpatho-Pannonian upper crust is obducting over the crystalline crust of the East European craton and the Carpathian-Pannonian mantle lithosphere is underthrusting cratonic lower crust, and (3) lithosphere thinning due to the effects of Neogene extension and heating with the slab associated with "young" subduction southward in the Miocene having been either detached and/or rolled back to the east. In the last case, the northwestward dipping in the lithosphere can be interpreted as being due to isotherms that could represent the lithosphere/asthenosphere boundary in the Pannonian region.

  10. Seismic profile analysis of sediment deposits in Brownlee and Hells Canyon Reservoirs near Cambridge, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flocks, James; Kelso, Kyle; Fosness, Ryan; Welcker, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, in cooperation with the USGS Idaho Water Science Center and the Idaho Power Company, collected high-resolution seismic reflection data in the Brownlee and Hells Canyon Reservoirs, in March of 2013.These reservoirs are located along the Snake River, and were constructed in 1958 (Brownlee) and 1967 (Hells Canyon). The purpose of the survey was to gain a better understanding of sediment accumulation within the reservoirs since their construction. The chirp system used in the survey was an EdgeTech Geo-Star Full Spectrum Sub-Bottom (FSSB) system coupled with an SB-424 towfish with a frequency range of 4 to 24 kHz. Approximately 325 kilometers of chirp data were collected, with water depths ranging from 0-90 meters. These reservoirs are characterized by very steep rock valley walls, very low flow rates, and minimal sediment input into the system. Sediments deposited in the reservoirs are characterized as highly fluid clays. Since the acoustic signal was not able to penetrate the rock substrate, only the thin veneer of these recent deposits were imaged. Results from the seismic survey indicate that throughout both of the Brownlee and Hells Canyon reservoirs the accumulation of sediments ranged from 0 to 2.5 m, with an average of 0.5 m. Areas of above average sediment accumulation may be related to lower slope, longer flooding history, and proximity to fluvial sources.

  11. Using a fibre-optic cable as Distributed Acoustic Sensor for Vertical Seismic Profiling - Overview of various field tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Götz, Julia; Lüth, Stefan; Henninges, Jan; Reinsch, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Fibre-optic Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) or Distributed Vibration Sensing (DVS) is a technology, where an optical fibre cable is used as a sensor for acoustic signals. An ambient seismic wavefield, which is coupled by friction or pressure to the optical fibre, induces dynamic strain changes along the cable. The DAS/DVS technology offers the possibility to record an optoelectronic signal which is linearly related to the time dependent local strain. The DAS/DVS technology is based on the established technique of phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometry (phi-OTDR). Coherent laser pulses are launched into the fibre to monitor changes in the resulting elastic Rayleigh backscatter with time. Dynamic strain changes lead to small displacements of the scattering elements (non-uniformities within the glass structure of the optical fibre), and therefore to variations of the relative phases of the backscattered photons. The fibre behaves as a series of interferometers whose output is sensitive to small changes of the strain at any point along its length. To record the ground motion not only in space but also in time, snapshots of the wavefield are created by repeatedly firing laser pulses into the fibre at sampling frequencies much higher than seismic frequencies. DAS/DVS is used e.g. for continuous monitoring of pipelines, roads or borders and for production monitoring from within the wellbore. Within the last years, the DAS/DVS technology was further developed to record seismic data. We focus on the recording of Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP) data with DAS/DVS and present an overview of various field tests published between 2011 and 2014. Here, especially CO2 storage pilot sites provided the opportunity to test this new technology for geophysical reservoir monitoring. DAS/DVS-VSP time-lapse measurements have been published for the Quest CO2 storage site in Canada. The DAS/DVS technology was also tested at the CO2 storage sites in Rousse (France), Citronelle

  12. Possible modes of coral-reef development at Molokai, Hawaii, inferred from seismic-reflection profiling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnhardt, W.A.; Richmond, B.M.; Grossman, E.E.; Hart, P.

    2005-01-01

    High-resolution, seismic-reflection data elucidate the late Quaternary development of the largest coral-reef complex in the main Hawaiian Islands. Six acoustic facies were identified from reflection characteristics and lithosome geometry. An extensive, buried platform with uniformly low relief was traced beneath fore-reef and marginal shelf environments. This highly reflective surface dips gently seaward to ???130 m depth and locally crops out on the seafloor. It probably represents a wave-cut platform or ancient reef flat. We propose alternative evolutionary models, in which sea-level changes have modulated the development of reef systems, to explain the observed stratigraphic relationships. The primary difference between the models is the origin of the underlying antecedent surface, which arguably could have formed during either regression/lowstand or subsequent transgression. ?? Springer-Verlag 2005.

  13. 2-D or not 2-D, that is the question: A Northern California test

    SciTech Connect

    Mayeda, K; Malagnini, L; Phillips, W S; Walter, W R; Dreger, D

    2005-06-06

    Reliable estimates of the seismic source spectrum are necessary for accurate magnitude, yield, and energy estimation. In particular, how seismic radiated energy scales with increasing earthquake size has been the focus of recent debate within the community and has direct implications on earthquake source physics studies as well as hazard mitigation. The 1-D coda methodology of Mayeda et al. has provided the lowest variance estimate of the source spectrum when compared against traditional approaches that use direct S-waves, thus making it ideal for networks that have sparse station distribution. The 1-D coda methodology has been mostly confined to regions of approximately uniform complexity. For larger, more geophysically complicated regions, 2-D path corrections may be required. The complicated tectonics of the northern California region coupled with high quality broadband seismic data provides for an ideal ''apples-to-apples'' test of 1-D and 2-D path assumptions on direct waves and their coda. Using the same station and event distribution, we compared 1-D and 2-D path corrections and observed the following results: (1) 1-D coda results reduced the amplitude variance relative to direct S-waves by roughly a factor of 8 (800%); (2) Applying a 2-D correction to the coda resulted in up to 40% variance reduction from the 1-D coda results; (3) 2-D direct S-wave results, though better than 1-D direct waves, were significantly worse than the 1-D coda. We found that coda-based moment-rate source spectra derived from the 2-D approach were essentially identical to those from the 1-D approach for frequencies less than {approx}0.7-Hz, however for the high frequencies (0.7{le} f {le} 8.0-Hz), the 2-D approach resulted in inter-station scatter that was generally 10-30% smaller. For complex regions where data are plentiful, a 2-D approach can significantly improve upon the simple 1-D assumption. In regions where only 1-D coda correction is available it is still preferable over 2

  14. Shallow subsurface structure of the Wasatch fault, Provo segment, Utah, from integrated compressional and shear-wave seismic reflection profiles with implications for fault structure and development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McBride, J.H.; Stephenson, W.J.; Williams, R.A.; Odum, J.K.; Worley, D.M.; South, J.V.; Brinkerhoff, A.R.; Keach, R.W.; Okojie-Ayoro, A. O.

    2010-01-01

    Integrated vibroseis compressional and experimental hammer-source, shear-wave, seismic reflection profiles across the Provo segment of the Wasatch fault zone in Utah reveal near-surface and shallow bedrock structures caused by geologically recent deformation. Combining information from the seismic surveys, geologic mapping, terrain analysis, and previous seismic first-arrival modeling provides a well-constrained cross section of the upper ~500 m of the subsurface. Faults are mapped from the surface, through shallow, poorly consolidated deltaic sediments, and cutting through a rigid bedrock surface. The new seismic data are used to test hypotheses on changing fault orientation with depth, the number of subsidiary faults within the fault zone and the width of the fault zone, and the utility of integrating separate elastic methods to provide information on a complex structural zone. Although previous surface mapping has indicated only a few faults, the seismic section shows a wider and more complex deformation zone with both synthetic and antithetic normal faults. Our study demonstrates the usefulness of a combined shallow and deeper penetrating geophysical survey, integrated with detailed geologic mapping to constrain subsurface fault structure. Due to the complexity of the fault zone, accurate seismic velocity information is essential and was obtained from a first-break tomography model. The new constraints on fault geometry can be used to refine estimates of vertical versus lateral tectonic movements and to improve seismic hazard assessment along the Wasatch fault through an urban area. We suggest that earthquake-hazard assessments made without seismic reflection imaging may be biased by the previous mapping of too few faults. ?? 2010 Geological Society of America.

  15. Crustal Structure Across the Okavango Rift Zone, Botswana: Initial Results From the PRIDE-SEISORZ Active-Source Seismic Profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canales, J. P.; Moffat, L.; Lizarralde, D.; Laletsang, K.; Harder, S. H.; Kaip, G.; Modisi, M.

    2015-12-01

    The PRIDE project aims to understand the processes of continental rift initiation and evolution by analyzing along-axis trends in the southern portion of the East Africa Rift System, from Botswana through Zambia and Malawi. The SEISORZ active-source seismic component of PRIDE focused on the Okavango Rift Zone (ORZ) in northwestern Botswana, with the main goal of imaging the crustal structure across the ORZ. This will allow us to estimate total crustal extension, determine the pattern and amount of thinning, assess the possible presence of melt within the rift zone, and assess the contrasts in crustal blocks across the rift, which closely follows the trend of a fold belt. In November 2014 we conducted a crustal-scale, 450-km-long seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection profile consisting of 19 sources (shots in 30-m-deep boreholes) spaced ~25 km apart from each other, and 900 receivers (IRIS/PASSCAL "Texan" dataloggers and 4.5Hz geophones) with ~500 m spacing. From NW to SE, the profile crosses several tectonic domains: the Congo craton, the Damara metamorphic belt and the Ghanzi-Chobe fold belt where the axis of the ORZ is located, and continues into the Kalahari craton. The record sections display clear crustal refraction (Pg) and wide-angle Moho reflection (PmP) phases for all 17 of the good-quality shots, and a mantle refraction arrival (Pn), with the Pg-PmP-Pn triplication appearing at 175 km offset. There are distinct changes in the traveltime and amplitude of these phases along the transect, and on either side of the axis, that seem to correlate with sharp transitions across tectonic terrains. Initial modeling suggests: (1) the presence of a sedimentary half-graben structure at the rift axis beneath the Okavango delta, bounded to the SE by the Kunyere-Thamalakane fault system; (2) faster crustal Vp in the domains to the NW of the ORZ; and (3) thicker crust (45-50 km) at both ends of the profile within the Congo and Kalahari craton domains than at the ORZ and

  16. Detection of fractures within the Soultz-sous-Forêts EGS geothermal reservoir by processing of Vertical Seismic Profile data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubrano Lavadera, P.; Marthelot, J. M.; Zillmer, M.; Cornet, F.

    2012-04-01

    The 4 component multi-source/multi-offset VSP (Vertical Seismic Profile) conducted at the Soultz-sous-Forêts EGS (Enhanced Geothermal System) site in 2007 provides records of seismic waves recorded in the fractured granite basement within wells GPK3 and GPK4. Waves generated at 26 surface positions, located at distances between 500m and 5km from the well head in different azimuths, are recorded by 3 component geophones at depths between 5000m and 3000m with a 20m depth interval. The seismic source is a vibrator emitting a 16s long sweep with frequencies varying linearly between 8 and 88 Hz. Two shot locations were simultaneously recorded, one with an upsweep [8 to 88Hz], the other with a downsweep [88 to 8Hz]. Successive correlation with the two sweeps allows retrieving distinct seismograms for each shot from the mixed raw uncorrelated records. Most records show clear downgoing P and S waves. Detecting waves reflected or diffracted by fractures intersecting the wells requires extracting low amplitude upgoing waves from the dominant downgoing wavefield. However, the up to 30° inclination of the well relative to the vertical and the 60 to 90° dips of the fracture zones make the separation of the different waves complex. The wavefield separation of the vertical geophone component is done in the frequency-wavenumber Fourier domain which separates waves according to their apparent velocity across the receiver antenna. Picking of the first arrival times and shifting times allows aligning predominant P wave downgoing wavefield at constant times, or infinite apparent velocity in Fourier domain. Filtering the infinite apparent velocity attenuates all the waves having the same apparent velocity as the first arrivals. A second filtering at the downgoing S waves velocities is then applied, providing two downgoing wavefields, one for the P waves and the other for the S waves. The residuals correspond to the upgoing wavefield. To reduce the reverberations in the upgoing

  17. Structure of the ophiolite-hosted Outokumpu Cu-Co-Zn-Ni-Ag-Au sulfide ore district revealed by combined 3D modelling and 2D high-resolution seismic reflection data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saalmann, Kerstin; Laine, Eevaliisa

    2015-04-01

    The Outokumpu district within the North Karelia Schist Belt in eastern Finland hosts Cu-Co-Zn-Ni-Ag-Au sulfide deposits which are associated with Palaeoproterozoic ophiolitic metaperidotites that were tectonically interleaved with allochthonous metaturbidites. Extensive metasomatism of the peridotites produced a rim of quartz-carbonate-calc-silicate rocks, grouped as the Outokumpu assemblage (OKA). A tectonic history comprising various phases of folding and shearing followed by several faulting events dismembered the metaperidotites so that ore bodies cannot be easily followed along strike. Future exploration has to expand the search into deeper areas and consequently requires better knowledge of the subsurface geology. In order to unravel the complex structure 3D geologic models of different scales have been built using a variety of information: geological maps, aeromagnetic and gravity maps, digital terrain models, mine cross sections, drill core logs combined with observations from underground mine galleries, structural measurements, and data from seismic survey lines. The latter have been used to detect upper crustal-scale structures and have been reprocessed for our purpose. The models reveal that the ore body has formed during remobilisation of a proto-ore and is closely related to thrust zones that truncate the OKA. Later faults dismembered the ore explaining the variable depth of the different ore bodies along the Outokumpu ore zone. On a larger scale, at least four km-scale thrust sheets separated by major listric shear zones (curved dislocations in the seismic lines) can be recognized, each internally further imbricated by subordinate shear zones containing a number of lens-shape bodies of probably OKA rocks. Thrust stacking was followed by at least 3 stages of faulting that divided the ore belt into fault-bounded blocks with heterogeneous displacements: (i) NW-dipping faults with unresolved kinematics, (ii) reverse faulting along c.50°-60° SE

  18. Analysis of P and S wave vertical seismic profile data from the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project

    SciTech Connect

    Daley, T.M.; McEvilly, T.V.; Majer, E.L.

    1988-11-10

    As part of the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project at California State well 2--14, vertical seismic profile (VSP) data were collected from P and S wave sources at two distances from the well. Use of a three-component geophone, along with rotation of the recorded data traces into a wave front-based coordinate system, allows analysis of many aspects of seismic wave propagation properties around the well. Standard VSP analysis techniques were used to measure interval P and S wave velocities and to identify reflecting horizons both within and below the survey interval (from 455 to 1735 m). A reflection from below the survey interval, seen with both P and S sources, seems to be associated with a fractured reservoir near 2100 m. Indications of fracturing were observed, including vertical scattering of P waves from a zone near 915 m. Orthogonally polarized shear waves were generated at each offset to study anisotropy by travel time measurement and particle motion analysis of the shear wave arrivals. Three component particle motion analysis of shear wave arrivals was found to be effective for characterizing the subtleties in the S wave splitting throughout the various zones in the well. The SH/sub t/ source (horizontal and transverse to the well) produced complicated, elliptical particle motion while the SV source (in-line with the well) produced linear particle motion. The difference in linearity of particle motion from orthogonally polarized shear wave sources was unexpected and may be related to regional tectonics. Anomalous zones may be related to transition depths in the Salton Sea geothermal field. Travel time difference between SV and SH waves, while clearly observable, indicates only about 1% average anisotropy.

  19. Crustal Structure Across the Northridge Earthquake Region Using Wide-Angle Seismic Profiling along the LARSE II Transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okaya, D.; Fuis, G.; Godfrey, N.; Murphy, J.; Clayton, R.; ten Brink, U.

    2001-12-01

    A crustal transect across the 1994 Northridge earthquake region was completed in 1999 with the acquisition of land reflection/refraction data in LARSE II (Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment, Phase II). These data are combined with onshore-offshore refraction profiling plus multichannel seismic (MCS) data and ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) data collected in 1994 as part of LARSE I. The total data set forms a complete 280-km onshore-offshore transect from the southern California Borderlands, across the Northridge earthquake region, the Transverse Ranges, the San Andreas fault, the Mojave Desert, and Tehachapi Mts. The onshore-offshore experiment in 1994 used data from 47 land stations (vertical-component Refteks) and eight OBS's in the Borderlands. These instruments collected approx. 150 km of MCS airgun sources produced by the R/V Ewing. The land experiment in 1999 used 93 variable-sized explosions (5-4000 lbs) recorded into an array of portable seismographs 150 km long extending from the Malibu coastline to the Tehachapi Mts. For the southern 90 km, instrument spacing was 100 m including through the urban San Fernando and Santa Clarita Valleys (km 12-47), where LARSE data is augmented by industry reflection and well data. The Mojave Desert segment (km 77-101) also has industry reflection and well data. We present the crustal structure along this transect derived from first arrival traveltime tomography and reflection ray trace modeling. We compare these results to a separate LARSE transect 50-80 km to the east through the Los Angeles Basin and San Gabriel Mts.

  20. Shallow 3-D vertical seismic profiling around a contaminant withdrawal well on the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site

    SciTech Connect

    Rector, J.; Bainer, R.; Milligan, P.; Tong, C.

    1997-01-30

    One of the major problems associated with ground water contaminant remediation is well placement. Optimal-placement of wells requires an accurate knowledge of geologic structure and stratigraphy in the near surface sediments and rock (0 to 100 m). Without the development of remote imaging provided by geophysical techniques, the required spacing between treatment wells may be less than 2 m in order to be confident that all contaminant reservoirs had been remediated. One method for characterizing geologic structure and stratigraphy in the near surface is vertical seismic profiling (VSP), a technique often used on deep exploration wells to calibrate surface seismic reflection data. For near-surface applications, VSP data can be acquired efficiently using an array of hydrophones lowered into a fluid-filled borehole (Milligan et al, 1997). In this paper we discuss the acquisition and processing of a 3-D VSP collected at a shallow remediation site located on the grounds of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) near Livermore, California. The site was used by the United States Navy as an air training base. At this time, initial releases of hazardous materials to the environment occurred in the form of solvents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs)] that were used for the cleaning of airplanes and their parts. Gasoline, diesel and other petroleum-based compounds are also known to have leaked into the ground. California Research and Development Company, a subsidy of Standard Oil, occupied the southeastern portion of the site from 1950 to 1954. The first releases of radioactive materials to the environment occurred at this time, with the beginning of testing of radioactive materials at the site. In 1952, LLNL acquired the site. Additional releases of VOCS, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), metals, radionuclides (primarily tritium), gasoline and pesticides have occurred since. These releases were due to localized spills, landfills, surface impoundments, disposal pits

  1. Radiofrequency Spectroscopy and Thermodynamics of Fermi Gases in the 2D to Quasi-2D Dimensional Crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chingyun; Kangara, Jayampathi; Arakelyan, Ilya; Thomas, John

    2016-05-01

    We tune the dimensionality of a strongly interacting degenerate 6 Li Fermi gas from 2D to quasi-2D, by adjusting the radial confinement of pancake-shaped clouds to control the radial chemical potential. In the 2D regime with weak radial confinement, the measured pair binding energies are in agreement with 2D-BCS mean field theory, which predicts dimer pairing energies in the many-body regime. In the qausi-2D regime obtained with increased radial confinement, the measured pairing energy deviates significantly from 2D-BCS theory. In contrast to the pairing energy, the measured radii of the cloud profiles are not fit by 2D-BCS theory in either the 2D or quasi-2D regimes, but are fit in both regimes by a beyond mean field polaron-model of the free energy. Supported by DOE, ARO, NSF, and AFOSR.

  2. Quaternary extensional growth folding beneath Reno, Nevada, imaged by urban seismic profiling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephenson, William J.; Frary, Roxy N.; Louie, John; Odum, Jackson K.

    2013-01-01

    We characterize shallow subsurface faulting and basin structure along a transect through heavily urbanized Reno, Nevada, with high‐resolution seismic reflection imaging. The 6.8 km of P‐wave data image the subsurface to approximately 800 m depth and delineate two subbasins and basin uplift that are consistent with structure previously inferred from gravity modeling in this region of the northern Walker Lane. We interpret two primary faults that bound the uplift and deform Quaternary deposits. The dip of Quaternary and Tertiary strata in the western subbasin increases with greater depth to the east, suggesting recurrent fault motion across the westernmost of these faults. Deformation in the Quaternary section of the western subbasin is likely evidence of extensional growth folding at the edge of the Truckee River through Reno. This deformation is north of, and on trend with, previously mapped Quaternary fault strands of the Mt. Rose fault zone. In addition to corroborating the existence of previously inferred intrabasin structure, these data provide evidence for an active extensional Quaternary fault at a previously unknown location within the Truckee Meadows basin that furthers our understanding of both the seismotectonic framework and earthquake hazards in this urbanized region.

  3. Seismic constraints on the radial dependence of the internal rotation profiles of six Kepler subgiants and young red giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deheuvels, S.; Doğan, G.; Goupil, M. J.; Appourchaux, T.; Benomar, O.; Bruntt, H.; Campante, T. L.; Casagrande, L.; Ceillier, T.; Davies, G. R.; De Cat, P.; Fu, J. N.; García, R. A.; Lobel, A.; Mosser, B.; Reese, D. R.; Regulo, C.; Schou, J.; Stahn, T.; Thygesen, A. O.; Yang, X. H.; Chaplin, W. J.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Eggenberger, P.; Gizon, L.; Mathis, S.; Molenda-Żakowicz, J.; Pinsonneault, M.

    2014-04-01

    Context. We still do not understand which physical mechanisms are responsible for the transport of angular momentum inside stars. The recent detection of mixed modes that contain the clear signature of rotation in the spectra of Kepler subgiants and red giants gives us the opportunity to make progress on this question. Aims: Our aim is to probe the radial dependence of the rotation profiles for a sample of Kepler targets. For this purpose, subgiants and early red giants are particularly interesting targets because their rotational splittings are more sensitive to the rotation outside the deeper core than is the case for their more evolved counterparts. Methods: We first extracted the rotational splittings and frequencies of the modes for six young Kepler red giants. We then performed a seismic modeling of these stars using the evolutionary codes Cesam2k and astec. By using the observed splittings and the rotational kernels of the optimal models, we inverted the internal rotation profiles of the six stars. Results: We obtain estimates of the core rotation rates for these stars, and upper limits to the rotation in their convective envelope. We show that the rotation contrast between the core and the envelope increases during the subgiant branch. Our results also suggest that the core of subgiants spins up with time, while their envelope spins down. For two of the stars, we show that a discontinuous rotation profile with a deep discontinuity reproduces the observed splittings significantly better than a smooth rotation profile. Interestingly, the depths that are found to be most probable for the discontinuities roughly coincide with the location of the H-burning shell, which separates the layers that contract from those that expand. Conclusions: We characterized the differential rotation pattern of six young giants with a range of metallicities, and with both radiative and convective cores on the main sequence. This will bring observational constraints to the

  4. Transcurrent nature of the Teisseyre-Tornquist Zone in Central Europe: results of the POLCRUST-01 deep reflection seismic profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narkiewicz, M.; Maksym, A.; Malinowski, M.; Grad, M.; Guterch, A.; Petecki, Z.; Probulski, J.; Janik, T.; Majdański, M.; Środa, P.; Czuba, W.; Gaczyński, E.; Jankowski, L.

    2015-04-01

    Teisseyre-Tornquist Zone (TTZ) corresponds to a crustal boundary between the Precambrian East European Platform (EEP) and the Palaeozoic West European Platform. Although the zone has been controlling Phanerozoic evolution of large parts of Central Europe, its course, geometry and origin are still poorly constrained. Deep reflection seismic profile POLCRUST-01, recently acquired in SE Poland, for the first time allowed a precise comparison of the Ediacaran and later tectonic patterns to the deep crustal features of the TTZ and adjacent areas. The TTZ corresponds to the subvertical Tomaszów Fault separating the Radom-Kraśnik Elevation, composed of the typical EEP crust, from the Biłgoraj-Narol Block (BNB) in the SW, with a thinned crystalline basement showing affinities to the EEP crust. The BNB is a part of the larger Caledonian Łysogóry Terrane as evidenced by its Lower Palaeozoic stratigraphy and gravity data. Thus, for the first time, the proximal Baltican affinity of this unit has been documented unambiguously. The Łysogóry Terrane is delimited from the SW by the subvertical Cieszanów Fault Zone, corresponding to the Holy Cross Suture. The adjacent Małopolska Terrane is characterized by a distinct Early Palaeozoic stratigraphy, and lower-middle crust exhibiting SW-dipping reflective packages interpreted as NE-verging thrust and shear zones of a Neoproterozoic orogen. The observations from the POLCRUST-01 profile and regional comparisons indicate that the TTZ is a major Caledonian transcurrent zone between Poland and East Romania. In central Poland, the TTZ likely forms a narrow subvertical contact between the EEP and a proximal Kuiavia Terrane, as constrained by the deep refraction seismic data. To the NW, the zone extends towards the Pomeranian part of the Caledonide fold-and-thrust belt related to the Avalonia-Baltica collision zone (Thor Suture). South-east of Poland the TTZ corresponds to the Rava Ruska Fault Zone established as a Caledonian suture

  5. The use of high-resolution seismic reflection profiles for fault analysis in the near-shore environment, Weymouth Bay, Dorset, England, United Kingdom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunsdale, Robert; Bull, Jon M.; Dix, Justin K.; Sanderson, David J.

    1998-07-01

    High-resolution seismic reflection profiles using a Chirp source image a north-south extensional fault set, which cuts rocks of Upper Jurassic age, cropping out on the seafloor of Weymouth Bay, Dorset, England, United Kingdom. The same fault set cuts rocks of similar age along the adjacent coast, and field mapping can be compared directly with the Chirp profiles. Survey lines were shot perpendicular to the fault strike to produce dip sections from which displacements could be measured. One hundred and fifty-three faults were picked on a 15 km line, yielding a fault density of ˜10 km-1, similar to that measured in the coastal section. Chirp-resolved fault displacements as small as 0.5 m and a maximum fault displacement of 221 m could be inferred from the data. Distribution analysis of offshore fault data indicated that fault displacement is power law with a well constrained exponent of -0.9. This value is consistent with the power law exponent estimate for fault displacement, over the scale range 2-8 m, onshore. Thus Chirp near-shore seismic reflection profiles can infill a data gap for fault size-frequency relationships that commonly occurs when combining data from outcrops/cores and conventional seismic reflection profiles.

  6. High-resolution seismic reflection profiling of the Santa Monica Fault Zone, West Los Angeles, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolan, J.F.; Pratt, T.L.

    1997-01-01

    High-resolution seismic reflection data obtained across the Santa Monica fault in west Los Angeles reveal the near-surface geometry of this active, oblique-reverse-left-lateral fault. Although near-surface fault dips as great as 55?? cannot be ruled out, we interpret the fault to dip northward at 30?? to 35?? in the upper few hundred meters, steepening to ???65?? at 1 to 2 km depth. A total of ???180 m of near-field thrust separation (fault slip plus drag folding) has occurred on the fault since the development of a prominent erosional surface atop ???1.2 Ma strata. In the upper 20 to 40 m strain is partitioned between the north-dipping main thrust strand and several closely spaced, near-vertical strike-slip faults observed in paleoseismologic trenches. The main thrust strand can be traced to within 20 m of the ground surface, suggesting that it breaks through to the surface in large earthquakes. Uplift of a ???50,000-year-old alluvial fan surface indicates a short-term, dip-slip rate of ???0.5 mm/yr, similar to the ???0.6 mm/yr dip-slip rate derived from vertical separation of the oxygen isotope stage 5e marine terrace 3 km west of the study site. If the 0.6 mm/yr minimum, dip-slip-only rate characterizes the entire history of the fault, then the currently active strand of the Santa Monica fault probably began moving within the past ???300,000 years. Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Stratigraphy of a proposed wind farm site southeast of Block Island: Utilization of borehole samples, downhole logging, and seismic profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheldon, Dane P. H.

    Seismic stratigraphy, sedimentology, lithostratigraphy, downhole geophysical logging, mineralogy, and palynology were used to study and interpret the upper 70 meters of the inner continental shelf sediments within a proposed wind farm site located approximately two to three nautical miles to the southeast of Block Island, Rhode Island. Core samples and downhole logging collected from borings drilled for geotechnical purposes at proposed wind turbine sites along with seismic surveys in the surrounding area provide the data for this study. Cretaceous coastal plain sediments that consist of non-marine to marine sand, silt, and clay are found overlying bedrock at a contact depth beyond the sampling depth of this study. The upper Cretaceous sediments sampled in borings are correlated with the Magothy/Matawan formations described regionally from New Jersey to Nantucket. An unconformity formed through sub-aerial, fluvial, marine, and glacial erosion marks the upper strata of the Cretaceous sediments separating them from the overlying deposits. The majority of Quaternary deposits overlying the unconformity represent the advance, pulsing, and retreat of the Laurentide ice sheet that reached its southern terminus in the area of Block Island approximately 25,000 to 21,000 years before present. The sequence consists of a basal glacial till overlain by sediments deposited by meltwater environments ranging from deltaic to proglacial lakefloor. A late Pleistocene to early Holocene unconformity marks the top of the glacial sequence and was formed after glacial retreat through fluvial and subaerial erosion/deposition. Overlying the glacial sequence are sediments deposited during the late Pleistocene and Holocene consisting of interbedded gravel, sand, silt, and clay. Sampling of these sediments was limited and surficial reflectors in seismic profiles were masked due to a hard bottom return. However, two depositional periods are interpreted as representing fluvial and estuarine

  8. Deep Downhole Seismic Testing at the Waste Treatment Plant Site, Hanford, WA. Volume VI S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4997 Seismic Records, Wave-Arrival Identifications and Interpreted S-Wave Velocity Profile.

    SciTech Connect

    Stokoe, Kenneth H.; Li, Song Cheng; Cox, Brady R.; Menq, Farn-Yuh

    2007-06-06

    Velocity measurements in shallow sediments from ground surface to approximately 370 to 400 feet bgs were collected by Redpath Geophysics using impulsive S- and P-wave seismic sources (Redpath 2007). Measurements below this depth within basalt and sedimentary interbeds were made by UTA between October and December 2006 using the T-Rex vibratory seismic source in each of the three boreholes. Results of these measurements including seismic records, wave-arrival identifications and interpreted velocity profiles are presented in the following six volumes: I. P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4993 II. P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4996 III. P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4997 IV. S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4993 V. S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4996 VI. S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4997 In this volume (VI), all S-wave measurements are presented that were performed in Borehole C4997 at the WTP with T-Rex as the seismic source and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) 3-D wireline geophone as the at-depth borehole receiver.

  9. Deep Downhole Seismic Testing at the Waste Treatment Plant Site, Hanford, WA. Volume V S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4996 Seismic Records, Wave-Arrival Identifications and Interpreted S-Wave Velocity Profile.

    SciTech Connect

    Stokoe, Kenneth H.; Li, Song Cheng; Cox, Brady R.; Menq, Farn-Yuh

    2007-06-06

    Velocity measurements in shallow sediments from ground surface to approximately 370 to 400 feet bgs were collected by Redpath Geophysics using impulsive S- and P-wave seismic sources (Redpath 2007). Measurements below this depth within basalt and sedimentary interbeds were made by UTA between October and December 2006 using the T-Rex vibratory seismic source in each of the three boreholes. Results of these measurements including seismic records, wave-arrival identifications and interpreted velocity profiles are presented in the following six volumes: I. P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4993 II. P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4996 III. P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4997 IV. S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4993 V. S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4996 VI. S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4997 In this volume (V), all S-wave measurements are presented that were performed in Borehole C4996 at the WTP with T-Rex as the seismic source and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) 3-D wireline geophone as the at-depth borehole receiver.

  10. Comparison of the bedrock depth from array measurements of Rayleigh waves associated with microtremor and seismic profile obtained the Seismic Reflection Data, Eskisehir Basin, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tün, Muammer; Karabulut, Savaş; Özel, Oğuz

    2015-04-01

    Ground motion estimation for future earthquakes is one of the most challenging problems in seismology and earthquake engineering. The bedrock depth has a considerable seismic risk for the urban area of Eskişehir. In this study, multiple station microtremor measurement methods which are more practical, non-distructive, fast and economical compared to seismic reflection method were implemented. These method using microtremor recordings have become a very useful data for microzonation studies because of their simple acquisition and analysis. Extensive ambient noise measurements were performed in the basin of Eskisehir from June 2010 to spring 2012. We use data recorded by a broadband seismometer and digitizer CMG-6TD, Guralp seismometer. Some of the measurement locations, the CMG-6TD sensor was located into 30 cm-deep holes in the ground to avoid strongly wind-generated, long-period noise. Dominant frequency (f), bed-rock depth (h) and shear-wave velocity (Vs) were determined from Spatial Autocorrelation (SPAC) methods. With the SPAC Method, it is possible to constrain the velocity structure underlying the site using microtremor array measurements. The results obtained were compared to the 96-channel seismic reflection data with explosive energy source. Several seismic reflection surveys with P-Gun seismic source have been performed on the same place with array measurements. We used two types of seismic sources: 36 cartridge Gun. Shot interval was 10 meters, group interval (one geophone per group, 48 geophones in total) was 10 meters, near offset was 10 meters, far offset was 480 meters, CDP interval was 5 meters. We adapted the 'Off-End Spread' technique while using the Gun. Reflection images within the sedimentary section correlate well with the velocity structure obtained from SPAC.

  11. Imaging of urban sinkhole structures - combination of P-wave and shear-wave reflection seismic profiling in the metropolitan region of Hamburg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krawczyk, C. M.; Polom, U.; Dahm, T.

    2012-04-01

    The investigated roof region of a salt diapir in Hamburg, northern Germany, suffers sinkhole activity that was accompanied lately by microseismic events in the Gross Flottbek quarter. Thus, a high geohazard potential is present which can only be evaluated if highly resolved structural data are available. In addition to a shear-wave reflection seismic survey we performed with our shear-wave seismic system (ELVIS microvibrator, 120 m land streamer with 1 m SH-geophone distance), we also measured two P-wave reflection seismic profiles with the aim of imaging the top of the salt diapir. The LIAG- minivibrator and planted geophones of 5 m distance were used. The main profile runs along the major shear-wave line, the other crosses perpendicularly, so that a good areal coverage is given. Top salt is suggested at ca. 180 m depth, which is slightly deeper than previously thought from gravimetric measurements and larger-scale modelling. However, the general dip of the salt flank is further corroborated by additional gravimetric measurements. The surface of the salt dome undulates in the 10 m-range. Variable continuity of reflective elements and amplitude further characterize the top salt surface, which will be discussed in the context of fault and subrosion structures revealed from the shear-wave seismic experiment.

  12. Protein Expression for Novel Prognostic Markers (Cyclins D1, D2, D3, B1, B2, ITGβ7, FGFR3, PAX5) Correlate With Previously Reported Gene Expression Profile Patterns in Plasma Cell Myeloma.

    PubMed

    Mansoor, Adnan; Akhter, Ariz; Pournazari, Payam; Mahe, Etienne; Shariff, Sami; Farooq, Fahad; Elyamany, Ghaleb; Shahbani-Rad, Meer-Taher; Rashid-Kolvear, Fariborz

    2015-01-01

    Among plasma cell myeloma (PCM) patients, gene expression profiling (GEP)-based molecular classification has proven to be an independent predictor of survival, after autologous stem cell transplantation. However, GEP has limited routine clinical applicability given its complex methodology, high cost, and limited availability in clinical laboratories. In this study, we have evaluated biomarkers identified from GEP discoveries, utilizing immunohistochemistry (IHC) platform in a cohort of PCM patients. IHC staining for cyclins B1, B2, D1, D2, D3, FGFR3, PAX5, and integrin β7 (ITGβ7) was performed on the bone marrow biopsies of 93 newly diagnosed PCM patients. Expression of FGFR3 was noted in 10 (11%) samples correlating completely with t(4;14)(p16;q32) results (P<0.001); however, the association between FGFR3 and cyclin D2 expression was not significant (P=0.14). ITGβ7 expression was present in 9/93 (9%) patients and all these samples also demonstrated upregulated expression of cyclin D2 (P=0.014). Expression of cyclins D1, D2, and D3 was variable in this cohort. Positive protein expression of cyclin D1 was noted in 30/93 (32%), D2 in 17/93 (18%), and D3 in 5/93 (5%) samples. Coexpression of cyclins D1 and D2 was observed in 13/93 (14%) samples, whereas 28 (30%) samples were negative for all the 3 cyclin D proteins. Cyclin B1 was not expressed in any sample, despite adequate staining in positive controls. Cyclin B2 was expressed in 33/93 (35%) and PAX5 protein was noted in 7/93 (8%) samples. In summary, we have demonstrated that mRNA-based prognostic markers can be detected by routine IHC in decalcified bone marrow samples. This approach may provide a useful tool for the wider adoption of prognostic makers for risk stratification of PCM patients. We anticipate that such an approach might allow patients with high-risk immunoprofiles to be considered for other potential novel therapeutic agents, potentially sparing some patients the toxicity of stem cell transplant.

  13. 1978 Yellowstone-eastern Snake River Plain seismic profiling experiment: Data and upper crustal structure of the Yellowstone region

    SciTech Connect

    Schilly, M.M.; Smith, R.B.; Braile, L.W.; Ansorge, J.

    1982-04-10

    Eleven in-line refraction profiles, recorded to distances of 300 km, and one azimuthal fan plot were constructed from data recorded with a 150-station array in the Yellowstone National Park area during the 1978 Yellowstone-Snake River Plain seismic experiment. Interpretations of the data suggest that the crustal P wave velocity model for the Yellowstone region is characterized by (1) an averaged 10-km-thick upper crustal layer, V/sub p/ = 6.0 km/s, (2) an average crustal velocity of 6.3 km/s, and (3) a total crustal thickness of 44 km. Velocity models are presented for profiles that emphasize the upper crust and show (1) a decrease in the depth to the top of the upper crustal crystalline basement from 5 km in southwestern Yellowstone near Island Park to 1 km at the northeast side of the Yellowstone Plateau that is interpreted as a progressive thinning of the silicic surface volcanic layer to the northeast and (2) evidence for a large lateral inhomogeneity interpreted to be a low-velocity body, with a decrease of at least 10% in P wave velocity, located beneath the northeast corner of the Yellowstone Plateau. The low-velocity zone coincides with a local -30-mgal residual gravity anomaly and is located beneath part of the Sour Creek resurgent dome and part of the Hot Springs Basin, the largest hydrothermal system in Yellowstone. The low-velocity body has a maximum depth to the top of 3 km and a minimum depth to the bottom of 9 km and may represent a zone of partial melt. In comparison to the thermally undisturbed upper crust of the surrounding Rocky Mountains the upper crust of the northeastern Yellowstone plateau appears laterally inhomogeneous in velocity and layer thickness, suggesting effects of thermal and magma intrusion, whereas the lower crust appears relatively homogeneous.

  14. Results of vertical seismic profiling at Well 46-28, Rye Patch Geothermal Field, Pershing County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Feighner, M.A.; Daley, T.M.; Majer, E.L.

    1998-02-25

    A Vertical Seismic Profile (VSP) was recorded in Rye Patch by LBNL between December 11 and December 13, 1997. Figure 1 shows the location of the Rye Patch Geothermal Field with Well 46-28 located within the marked Rye Patch Anomaly. The VSP in Well 46-28 used a vibroseis source and a single-level, high temperature, hydraulic wall-locking, 3-component seismometer. The vibroseis source was a Mertz P-wave vibrator. The source sweep was 10 Hz to 80 Hz, 10 seconds long, with a 0.2 s cosine taper. The borehole geophone was an SSC model LVHK 6001 using 14 Hz geophones. The recording system was a Geometrics Strataview. Six data channels were recorded: the three geophones, the source pilot, the vibrator reference and the vibrator baseplate accelerometer. The record length was 12,288 samples at a 1 ms sample rate, giving a 2.3 s correlated record length. A 10 Hz low cut filter was used and no high cut filter was used except the anti-alias filter. Results are described.

  15. Anatomy of a metamorphic core complex: seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection profiling in southeastern California and western Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, J.; Larkin, S.P.; Fuis, G.S.; Simpson, R.W.; Howard, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    The metamorphic core complex belt in southeastern California and western Arizona is a NW-SE trending zone of unusually large Tertiary extension and uplift. Midcrustal rocks exposed in this belt raise questions about the crustal thickness, crustal structure, and the tectonic evolution of the region. Three seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection profiles were collected to address these issues. The results presented here, which focus on the Whipple and Buckskin-Rawhide mountains, yield a consistent three-dimensiional image of this part of the metamorphic core complex belt. The final model consists of a thin veneer (<2 km) of upper plate and fractured lower plate rocks (1.5-5.5 km s-1) overlying a fairly homogeneous basement (~6.0 km s-1) and a localized high-velocity (6.4 km s -1) body situated beneath the western Whipple Mountains. A prominent midcrustal reflection is identified beneath the Whipple and Buckskin Rawhide mountains between 10 and 20km depth. -from Authors

  16. History of sedimentary infilling and faulting in Subic Bay, Philippines revealed in high-resolution seismic reflection profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabato, Ma. Edweena Joan A.; Rodolfo, Kelvin S.; Siringan, Fernando P.

    2005-11-01

    Subic Bay sediments and faults identified in seismic-reflection profiles were dated using sea-level curves. The oldest sedimentary packages are marine sediments subaerially exposed and eroded 20 ka. Fluvio-marine to wholly marine sediments were deposited during the ensuing transgression, and prograding units were deposited during stillstands or minor sea-level falls. Faults within the bay have three age ranges. The oldest set cuts through the pre-δ 18O Stage 2 rock units, >18 ka; a second disrupts 10.2-11.3 ka sediments; and the youngest, which cut the uppermost sedimentary package, show that movements occurred about every 2 ky, most recently about 3 ka. Northwest-southeast faults that parallel onshore structures associated with Paleogene emplacement of the Zambales Ophiolite Complex to the west and north likely represent rejuvenated tectonism. The northern coastline and north-south-trending axial bay islands appear related to a lineament that dissects Mt Pinatubo farther northeast. A breach in the caldera of Mt Natib is the most likely source of a presumed pyroclastic deposit in the eastern bay that is associated with sediments about 11.3-18 ka, indicating that a Natib eruption occurred much more recently than previously documented for this volcano.

  17. Frozen subduction in the Yangtze block: insights from the deep seismic profiling and gravity anomaly in east Sichuan fold belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Xiaosong; Gao, Rui; Wang, Haiyan; Zhang, Jisheng; Guo, Lianghui

    2016-04-01

    The Sichuan basin is the main part of the middle-upper Yangtze block, which has been experienced a long-term tectonic evolution since Archean. The Yangtze block was regarded as a stable block until the collision with the Cathaysia block in late Neoproterozoic. A new deep seismic reflection profile conducted in the eastern Sichuan fold belt (ESFB) discovered a serials of south-dipping reflectors shown from lower crust to the mantle imply a frozen subduction zone within the Yangtze block. In order to prove the speculation, we also obtain the middle-lower crustal gravity anomalies by removing the gravity anomalies induced by the sedimentary rocks and the mantle beneath the Moho, which shows the mid-lower crustal structure of the Sichuan basin can be divided into eastern and western parts. Combined with the geochronology and Aeromagnetic anomalies, we speculated the Yangtze block was amalgamated by the West Sichuan and East Sichuan blocks separated by the Huayin-Chongqing line. The frozen subduction zone subsequently shifted to a shear zone accommodated the lower crustal shortening when the decollement at the base of the Nanhua system functioned in the upper plate.

  18. Orthotropic Piezoelectricity in 2D Nanocellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Y.; Ruiz-Blanco, Yasser B.; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Sotomayor-Torres, C. M.

    2016-10-01

    The control of electromechanical responses within bonding regions is essential to face frontier challenges in nanotechnologies, such as molecular electronics and biotechnology. Here, we present Iβ-nanocellulose as a potentially new orthotropic 2D piezoelectric crystal. The predicted in-layer piezoelectricity is originated on a sui-generis hydrogen bonds pattern. Upon this fact and by using a combination of ab-initio and ad-hoc models, we introduce a description of electrical profiles along chemical bonds. Such developments lead to obtain a rationale for modelling the extended piezoelectric effect originated within bond scales. The order of magnitude estimated for the 2D Iβ-nanocellulose piezoelectric response, ~pm V‑1, ranks this material at the level of currently used piezoelectric energy generators and new artificial 2D designs. Such finding would be crucial for developing alternative materials to drive emerging nanotechnologies.

  19. Orthotropic Piezoelectricity in 2D Nanocellulose

    PubMed Central

    García, Y.; Ruiz-Blanco, Yasser B.; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Sotomayor-Torres, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    The control of electromechanical responses within bonding regions is essential to face frontier challenges in nanotechnologies, such as molecular electronics and biotechnology. Here, we present Iβ-nanocellulose as a potentially new orthotropic 2D piezoelectric crystal. The predicted in-layer piezoelectricity is originated on a sui-generis hydrogen bonds pattern. Upon this fact and by using a combination of ab-initio and ad-hoc models, we introduce a description of electrical profiles along chemical bonds. Such developments lead to obtain a rationale for modelling the extended piezoelectric effect originated within bond scales. The order of magnitude estimated for the 2D Iβ-nanocellulose piezoelectric response, ~pm V−1, ranks this material at the level of currently used piezoelectric energy generators and new artificial 2D designs. Such finding would be crucial for developing alternative materials to drive emerging nanotechnologies. PMID:27708364

  20. Dissolution of bedded rock salt: A seismic profile across the active eastern margin of the Hutchinson Salt Member, central Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, N.L.; Hopkins, J.; Martinez, A.; Knapp, R.W.; Macfarlane, P.A.; Watney, W.L.; Black, R.

    1994-01-01

    Since late Tertiary, bedded rock salt of the Permian Hutchinson Salt Member has been dissolved more-or-less continuously along its active eastern margin in central Kansas as a result of sustained contact with unconfined, undersaturated groundwater. The associated westward migration of the eastern margin has resulted in surface subsidence and the contemporaneous sedimentation of predominantly valley-filling Quarternary alluvium. In places, these alluvium deposits extend more than 25 km to the east of the present-day edge of the main body of contiguous rock salt. The margin could have receded this distance during the past several million years. From an environmental perspective, the continued leaching of the Hutchinson Salt is a major concern. This predominantly natural dissolution occurs in a broad zone across the central part of the State and adversely affects groundwater and surface-water quality as nonpoint source pollution. Significant surface subsidence occurs as well. Most of these subsidence features have formed gradually; others developed in a more catastrophic manner. The latter in particular pose real threats to roadways, railways, and buried oil and gas pipelines. In an effort to further clarify the process of natural salt dissolution in central Kansas and with the long-term goal of mitigating the adverse environmental affects of such leaching, the Kansas Geological Survey acquired a 4-km seismic profile across the eastern margin of the Hutchinson Salt in the Punkin Center area of central Kansas. The interpretation of these seismic data (and supporting surficial and borehole geologic control) is consistent with several hypotheses regarding the process and mechanisms of dissolution. More specifically these data support the theses that: 1. (1) Dissolution along the active eastern margin of the Hutchinson Salt Member was initiated during late Tertiary. Leaching has resulted in the steady westward migration of the eastern margin, surface subsidence, and the

  1. Dissolution of bedded rock salt: A seismic profile across the active eastern margin of the Hutchinson Salt Member, central Kansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Neil L.; Hopkins, John; Martinez, Alex; Knapp, Ralph W.; Macfarlane, P. Allan; Watney, W. Lynn; Black, Ross

    1994-06-01

    Since late Tertiary, bedded rock salt of the Permian Hutchinson Salt Member has been dissolved more-or-less continuously along its active eastern margin in central Kansas as a result of sustained contact with unconfined, undersaturated groundwater. The associated westward migration of the eastern margin has resulted in surface subsidence and the contemporaneous sedimentation of predominantly valley-filling Quarternary alluvium. In places, these alluvium deposits extend more than 25 km to the east of the present-day edge of the main body of contiguous rock salt. The margin could have receded this distance during the past several million years. From an environmental perspective, the continued leaching of the Hutchinson Salt is a major concern. This predominantly natural dissolution occurs in a broad zone across the central part of the State and adversely affects groundwater and surface-water quality as nonpoint source pollution. Significant surface subsidence occurs as well. Most of these subsidence features have formed gradually; others developed in a more catastrophic manner. The latter in particular pose real threats to roadways, railways, and buried oil and gas pipelines. In an effort to further clarify the process of natural salt dissolution in central Kansas and with the long-term goal of mitigating the adverse environmental affects of such leaching, the Kansas Geological Survey acquired a 4-km seismic profile across the eastern margin of the Hutchinson Salt in the Punkin Center area of central Kansas. The interpretation of these seismic data (and supporting surficial and borehole geologic control) is consistent with several hypotheses regarding the process and mechanisms of dissolution. More specifically these data support the theses that: (1) Dissolution along the active eastern margin of the Hutchinson Salt Member was initiated during late Tertiary. Leaching has resulted in the steady westward migration of the eastern margin, surface subsidence, and the

  2. The effects of recent uplift and volcanism on deposition in Mono Lake, California, from seismic-reflection (CHIRP) profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colman, S. M.; Hemming, S. R.; Stine, S.; Zimmerman, S. R. H.

    2014-05-01

    About 150 km of high-resolution, seismic reflection (Compressed High-Intensity Radar Pulse) profiles (approximately 20 m penetration) were collected in Mono Lake in order to define the uppermost sedimentary architecture of the basin, which has been heavily impacted by recent volcanic, tectonic, and climatic processes. The study also provides an important background for ongoing efforts to obtain paleoenvironmental records from sediment cores in the lake. The history of four seismic-stratigraphic units in the upper 20 m of section are inferred from the data, and the interpretations are generally consistent with previous interpretations of lake history for the past 2000 years, including a major lowstand at 1941 m. No shorelines below the previously documented major lowstand at 1941 m were found. A relatively steep slope segment, whose toe is at about 1918 m, and which occurs on the southern and western margins of the deep basin of the lake, is interpreted as the relict foreset slope of deposition from prograding western tributaries. This topography is unconformably overlain by a unit of interbedded tephra and lake sediments of variable lithology, which contains tephra of the North Mono (600-625 cal yr BP) eruption in its upper part. The tephra-rich unit is overlain by a mostly massive mudflow deposit that is locally more than 18 m thick and that is distributed in a radial pattern around Paoha Island. The evidence suggests that within the past few hundred years, rapid uplift of Paoha Island through thick, preexisting lake deposits led to widespread slope failures, which created a terrain of disrupted, intact blocks near the island, and a thick, fluid mudflow beyond. As is common in mudflows, the mudflow moved up the depositional slope of the lake floor, terminating against the preexisting slopes, likely in multiple surges. Since about 1700 Common Era, fine-grained, well-laminated sediments have accumulated in the deep parts of the lake at anomalously rapid rates

  3. High divergent 2D grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin; Ma, Jianyong; Zhou, Changhe

    2014-11-01

    A 3×3 high divergent 2D-grating with period of 3.842μm at wavelength of 850nm under normal incidence is designed and fabricated in this paper. This high divergent 2D-grating is designed by the vector theory. The Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis (RCWA) in association with the simulated annealing (SA) is adopted to calculate and optimize this 2D-grating.The properties of this grating are also investigated by the RCWA. The diffraction angles are more than 10 degrees in the whole wavelength band, which are bigger than the traditional 2D-grating. In addition, the small period of grating increases the difficulties of fabrication. So we fabricate the 2D-gratings by direct laser writing (DLW) instead of traditional manufacturing method. Then the method of ICP etching is used to obtain the high divergent 2D-grating.

  4. A dual doubly vergent orogen in the Banda Arc continent-arc collision zone as observed on deep seismic reflection profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, D. B.; Prasetyo, H.; Blundell, D. J.; Pigram, C. J.; Barber, A. J.; Richardson, A.; Tjokosaproetro, S.

    1996-02-01

    New deep seismic reflection profiles across the Banda Arc of Indonesia reveal reflectors in the uppermost 50 km of the lithosphere. Combined with existing earthquake hypocenter locations and focal mechanisms, the new structural geometries inferred from the reflectors yield a more complete analysis of deformation during the past 10 m.y. and provide insights into how strain is partitioned across an orogenic belt in which volcanic arcs and continents converge. A clearly defined Wadati-Benioff zone, and recent deformation of shelf sediments observed on older shallow seismic profiles, indicated to previous workers that substantial convergence occurred at the Timor Trough. A few focal mechanisms, seafloor escarpments, and recent geodetic surveying indicate that convergence at ˜7 cm yr-1 currently (last 200 kyr?) occurs at the northern margin of the now inactive volcanic arc, the Wetar Thrust zone. Reflectors on the new seismic profiles are interpreted as thrust faults and folds that occur throughout the crust and within the uppermost mantle between the Timor Trough and Wetar Thrust. Specifically, basement reflectors beneath the toe of the accretionary complex have reverse-sense offsets that imply blind thrusts. The whole crust is horizontally shortened, not only the sedimentary cover rocks that previously deformed into duplexes above a decollément. Reflectors dipping away from both margins of the forearc basin and at the northern margin of the volcanic arc are interpreted as evidence of thrusting. Thus each arc represents a doubly vergent fold-and-thrust belt, but only the northern one is currently active. Crustal thicknesses inferred from seismic velocities, reflectors, and gravity anomalies are consistent with the merging of a thinned continental shelf margin with oceanic lithosphere to form an orogenic belt with at present 3-4 km of topographic relief in the region of eastern Timor.

  5. Integration of P- and SH-wave high-resolution seismic reflection and micro-gravity techniques to improve interpretation of shallow subsurface structure: New Madrid seismic zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bexfield, C.E.; McBride, J.H.; Pugin, Andre J.M.; Ravat, D.; Biswas, S.; Nelson, W.J.; Larson, T.H.; Sargent, S.L.; Fillerup, M.A.; Tingey, B.E.; Wald, L.; Northcott, M.L.; South, J.V.; Okure, M.S.; Chandler, M.R.

    2006-01-01

    Shallow high-resolution seismic reflection surveys have traditionally been restricted to either compressional (P) or horizontally polarized shear (SH) waves in order to produce 2-D images of subsurface structure. The northernmost Mississippi embayment and coincident New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ) provide an ideal laboratory to study the experimental use of integrating P- and SH-wave seismic profiles, integrated, where practicable, with micro-gravity data. In this area, the relation between "deeper" deformation of Paleozoic bedrock associated with the formation of the Reelfoot rift and NMSZ seismicity and "shallower" deformation of overlying sediments has remained elusive, but could be revealed using integrated P- and SH-wave reflection. Surface expressions of deformation are almost non-existent in this region, which makes seismic reflection surveying the only means of detecting structures that are possibly pertinent to seismic hazard assessment. Since P- and SH-waves respond differently to the rock and fluid properties and travel at dissimilar speeds, the resulting seismic profiles provide complementary views of the subsurface based on different levels of resolution and imaging capability. P-wave profiles acquired in southwestern Illinois and western Kentucky (USA) detect faulting of deep, Paleozoic bedrock and Cretaceous reflectors while coincident SH-wave surveys show that this deformation propagates higher into overlying Tertiary and Quaternary strata. Forward modeling of micro-gravity data acquired along one of the seismic profiles further supports an interpretation of faulting of bedrock and Cretaceous strata. The integration of the two seismic and the micro-gravity methods therefore increases the scope for investigating the relation between the older and younger deformation in an area of critical seismic hazard. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Deep structure and structural inversion along the central California continental margin from EDGE seismic profile RU-3

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, K.D.; Reed, D.L.; Silver, E.A. ); Meltzer, A.S. )

    1991-04-10

    Deep-penetration seismic reflection profile RU-3 reveals a subducted oceanic plate, a modified accretionary prism, and complex structures of the overlying sedimentary basins. This structural framework was established by subduction processes during Paleogene and earlier time and subsequently was modified by Neogene transform motion combined with apparent components of extension and compression. Subducted rocks are indicated by deep, gently dipping reflectors that extend beneath the continental margin for at least 38 km at a depth of about 15 km. The authors interpret the subducted crust as either a part of the Pacific plate or, more likely, a subducted fragment derived from the Farallon plate. A set of more steeply dipping, deep events may indicate faulting within the subducted plate or its boundary with a no-slab zone. The overlying, largely nonreflective layer of accreted material rapidly reaches 10 km in thickness landward of the paleotrench and increases to 15 km in thickness near the coast. The Santa Lucia Basin, landward of the steep continental slope, originated as a slope basin during Paleogene subduction. The lower strata of this basin were deposited onto and partially incorporated into the accretionary complex. The offshore Santa Maria Basin exhibits a variety of compressional structures that formed in the last 3.5 m.y. and whose locations correspond to an earlier framework of extensional faults. Structural inversion has occurred in Miocene depocenters adjacent to the Santa Lucia Bank fault and at the Queenie structure. Miocene and lower Pliocene strata also thicken toward the Hosgri fault zone where subsequent compression is characterized by low-angle thrusts and folding.

  7. Continuous resistivity profiling and seismic-reflection data collected in April 2010 from Indian River Bay, Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cross, V.A.; Bratton, J.F.; Michael, H.A.; Kroeger, K.D.; Green, Adrian; Bergeron, Emile M.

    2014-01-01

    A geophysical survey to delineate the fresh-saline groundwater interface and associated sub-bottom sedimentary structures beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware, was carried out in April 2010. This included surveying at higher spatial resolution in the vicinity of a study site at Holts Landing, where intensive onshore and offshore studies were subsequently completed. The total length of continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) survey lines was 145 kilometers (km), with 36 km of chirp seismic lines surveyed around the perimeter of the bay. Medium-resolution CRP surveying was performed using a 50-meter streamer in a baywide grid. Results of the surveying and data inversion showed the presence of many buried paleochannels beneath Indian River Bay that generally extended perpendicular from the shoreline in areas of modern tributaries, tidal creeks, and marshes. An especially wide and deep paleochannel system was imaged in the southeastern part of the bay near White Creek. Many paleochannels also had high-resistivity anomalies corresponding to low-salinity groundwater plumes associated with them, likely due to the presence of fine-grained estuarine mud and peats in the channel fills that act as submarine confining units. Where present, these units allow plumes of low-salinity groundwater that was recharged onshore to move beyond the shoreline, creating a complex fresh-saline groundwater interface in the subsurface. The properties of this interface are important considerations in construction of accurate coastal groundwater flow models. These models are required to help predict how nutrient-rich groundwater, recharged in agricultural watersheds such as this one, makes its way into coastal bays and impacts surface-water quality and estuarine ecosystems.

  8. Significance of shallow seismic reflection (SSR) and ground penetrating radar (GPR) profiling on the Modern Coast line History of the Bedre area, Eğirdir Lake, Isparta, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanbur, Z.; Gormus, M.; Kanbur, S.; Durhan, Z.

    2010-06-01

    Lake level changes and settlement places constitute the main problems in controlling the coastal environment along the Eğirdir Lake, SW Turkey. The Quaternary geology in the Bedre Coast was studied based on shallow seismic reflection (SSR) survey, ground penetrating radar (GPR) profiles, and the data derived from boreholes and investigations in the field. Thus, six seismic and five radar facies were determined respectively. The geological units from the basement rock to the Holocene deposits were imaged by the SSR technique. GPR technique is used for the shallower part, ranging from the ancient to the Modern lacustrin sediments. The Quaternary lake level changes, borehole, seismic and radar data indicate that a pond with a connected to the Lake around the Bedre area existed in the last century. Sand barriers, climate, topographical elevation and erosions of the basement rocks control the sedimentation of the back barrier of the coastal line. Marsh muddies and ancient beach sands are the main sediments of the pond area. From the profiles, ancient buried sand barriers were also seen in the lake side. In our view, as the previous lake level dropped from the highstand, the ancient sand barrier was formed which divided the lake and the pond and isolated a small inland lake which lies 4 m below the level of the coastal barrier. For agricultural purposes, artificial man-made constructions were done on the barrier and channels. Thus, dry agricultural land appeared in the last 50 years on the pond side.

  9. Ultrafast 2D IR microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Baiz, Carlos R.; Schach, Denise; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    We describe a microscope for measuring two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectra of heterogeneous samples with μm-scale spatial resolution, sub-picosecond time resolution, and the molecular structure information of 2D IR, enabling the measurement of vibrational dynamics through correlations in frequency, time, and space. The setup is based on a fully collinear “one beam” geometry in which all pulses propagate along the same optics. Polarization, chopping, and phase cycling are used to isolate the 2D IR signals of interest. In addition, we demonstrate the use of vibrational lifetime as a contrast agent for imaging microscopic variations in molecular environments. PMID:25089490

  10. Regional-scale geometry of the central Skellefte district, northern Sweden—results from 2.5D potential field modeling along three previously acquired seismic profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakoli, Saman; Bauer, Tobias E.; Elming, Sten-Åke; Thunehed, Hans; Weihed, Pär

    2012-10-01

    The Skellefte district in northern Sweden is one of the most important mining districts in Europe hosting approximately 80 volcanic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits. Due to its economical importance, geological and geophysical studies were carried out in order to create an image of the geometry of the upper crustal structure and integral geological elements and to evaluate their relationship to mineral deposits. Consequently, seismic reflection data along three sub-parallel profiles were acquired during 2009-2010 to map the spatial relationships between the geological structures down to a depth of ~ 4.5 km. Although these seismic studies helped researchers understand the regional relationship between geologic units in the central Skellefte district (CSD), the seismic reflection data did not succeed entirely in mapping the lithological contacts in the area. In this study, the model derived from the seismic reflection data was examined by using 2.5D modeling of potential field data (down to a 5 km depth) constrained by physical properties of the rocks and surface geology. Moreover, we modeled gravity and magnetic data along the non-reflective or poorly reflective parts of the seismic profiles to identify major lithological contacts and shear zones in the CSD, which could not be modeled on the basis of the seismic reflection data. Gravity and magnetic data helped reveal the spatial relationship between the Skellefte volcanic rocks, Vargfors group meta-sedimentary rocks and two meta­intrusive complexes. Results suggest a maximum depth extent of 2.1 km for the tectonic contact at the southern border of the Jörn granitoid. Furthermore, this north-dipping Skellefte-Jörn contact coincides closely with magnetic lows and gravity highs, which implies that the Jörn intrusive rocks have a greater thickness than the underlying basalt. Further to the NW, gravity and magnetic data suggest a depth extent of 2 km for the Gallejaur complex, which coincides with a set of gently

  11. Seismic data interpretation using the Hough transform and principal component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orozco-del-Castillo, M. G.; Ortiz-Alemán, C.; Martin, R.; Ávila-Carrera, R.; Rodríguez-Castellanos, A.

    2011-03-01

    In this work two novel image processing techniques are applied to detect and delineate complex salt bodies from seismic exploration profiles: Hough transform and principal component analysis (PCA). It is well recognized by the geophysical community that the lack of resolution and poor structural identification in seismic data recorded at sub-salt plays represent severe technical and economical problems. Under such circumstances, seismic interpretation based only on the human-eye is inaccurate. Additionally, petroleum field development decisions and production planning depend on good-quality seismic images that generally are not feasible in salt tectonics areas. In spite of this, morphological erosion, region growing and, especially, a generalization of the Hough transform (closely related to the Radon transform) are applied to build parabolic shapes that are useful in the idealization and recognition of salt domes from 2D seismic profiles. In a similar way, PCA is also used to identify shapes associated with complex salt bodies in seismic profiles extracted from 3D seismic data. To show the validity of the new set of seismic results, comparisons between both image processing techniques are exhibited. It is remarkable that the main contribution of this work is oriented in providing the seismic interpreters with new semi-automatic computational tools. The novel image processing approaches presented here may be helpful in the identification of diapirs and other complex geological features from seismic images. Conceivably, in the near future, a new branch of seismic attributes could be recognized by geoscientists and engineers based on the encouraging results reported here.

  12. Structure of thinned continental crust across the Orphan Basin from a dense wide-angle seismic profile and gravity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, K. W. Helen; Watremez, Louise; Louden, Keith E.; Nedimovíć, Mladen R.

    2015-09-01

    We present a 500-km long, 2-D P-wave velocity model across the Orphan Basin, offshore NE Newfoundland, Canada, from Flemish Cap to the Bonavista Platform, formed using refraction and wide-angle reflection data from 89 ocean-bottom seismometers. This layered model builds on a recent traveltime tomography result using additional constraints from coincident multichannel seismic reflection and gravity data plus borehole logs from three wells. The model shows (i) post-rift Tertiary (velocities ˜1.7-3.5 km s-1) and (ii) both post-rift and syn-rift, Cretaceous and Jurassic sediments (˜4-5 km s-1), deposited within an eastern and a western sub-basin that are separated by a major basement block. The existence of Jurassic sediments indicates a pre-Cretaceous rifting phase in the eastern sub-basin, and possibly in the western sub-basin. However, there is no evidence that Triassic sediments are widespread across the Orphan Basin. Two upper crustal sublayers and one lower crustal layer are defined by differences in velocities (5.4-6.1, 6.1-6.5 and 6.3-7.1 km s-1, respectively) and vertical velocity gradients (mean = 0.14, 0.10 and 0.05 s-1, respectively). Crustal thinning is asymmetric across the Orphan Basin. Within the eastern sub-basin, continental crust beneath Flemish Cap (˜32 km thick; β ˜ 1.1) thins westward into a 35-km-wide zone of hyperextended crust (<10 km thick; β > 3.4) beneath an 11-km-deep sedimentary basin. Within the western sub-basin, the Bonavista Platform crust (˜32 km thick) thins eastward into a 116-km-wide zone of hyperextended crust. Two zones of thicker crust (β = 2-3.5) exist within the central section, with muted topography within the eastern part and large basement highs in the western part, separated by the eastward dipping White Sail Fault (WSF). The zone to the east of the WSF displays higher velocities in the lower crust than to the west. This can only be explained by a lateral ductile flow across the zone boundary. By combining the two

  13. Efficient 2d full waveform inversion using Fortran coarray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Donghyun; Kim, ahreum; Ha, Wansoo

    2016-04-01

    We developed a time-domain seismic inversion program using the coarray feature of the Fortran 2008 standard to parallelize the algorithm. We converted a 2d acoustic parallel full waveform inversion program with Message Passing Interface (MPI) to a coarray program and examined performance of the two inversion programs. The results show that the speed of the waveform inversion program using the coarray is slightly faster than that of the MPI version. The standard coarray lacks features for collective communication; however, it can be improved in following standards since it is introduced recently. The parallel algorithm can be applied for 3D seismic data processing.

  14. Comment on ' Thin-skinned tectonics in the crystalline southern Appalachians: COCORP seismic- reflection profiling of the Blue Ridge and Piedmont'.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moench, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    Argues that in the report of Cook et al (Geology, 7, 563-567), there is no conclusive evidence, on the basis of seismic- reflection profiling of the crystalline southern Appalachians, that subhorizontal features revealed at depths of several kms. actually represent flat-lying sedimentary rocks. Offers an alternntive interpretation, suggesting that the features shown by the southeastern Blue Ridge - Piedmont COCORP line represent a flat-lying complex of thin but extensive granitic sheets and associated high rank schist and gneiss. -after Author

  15. Seismic Wide-Angle Reflection / Refraction Profiling from the DESIRE Project Reveals the Deep Structure Across the Southern Dead Sea Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, M.; Mechie, J.; Ab-Ayyash, K.; Ben-Avraham, Z.; El-Kelani, R.; Qabbani, I.; DESIRE Group

    2007-12-01

    As part of the DESIRE project a 240 km long seismic wide-angle reflection / refraction (WRR) profile was completed in spring 2006 across the Dead Sea Transform (DST) in the region of the southern Dead Sea basin. The DST with a total of about 105 km multi-stage left-lateral shear since about 18 Ma ago, accommodates the movement between the Arabian and African plates. It connects the spreading centre in the Red Sea with the Taurus collision zone in Turkey over a length of about 1100 km. With a sedimentary infill of about 10 km in places, the southern Dead Sea basin is the largest pull-apart basin along the DST and one of the largest pull-apart basins on Earth. The WRR measurements comprised 11 shots recorded by 200 three-component and 400 one- component instruments spaced 300 m to 1.2 km apart along the whole length of the E-W trending profile. Models of the P-wave velocity structure derived from the WRR data show that the sedimentary infill associated with the formation of the southern Dead Sea basin is about 8.5 km thick beneath the profile. With around an additional 2 km of older sediments, the depth to the seismic basement beneath the southern Dead Sea basin is about 11 km below sea level beneath the profile. In contrast, the interfaces below about 20 km depth, including the top of the lower crust and the Moho, show less than 3 km variation in depth beneath the profile as it crosses the southern Dead Sea basin. Thus the Dead Sea pull-apart basin is essentially an upper crustal feature with N-S upper crustal extension associated with the left-lateral motion along the DST. The boundary between the upper and lower crust at about 20 km depth must act as a decoupling zone. Thermo-mechanical modelling of the Dead Sea basin supports such a scenario.

  16. Multi-offset vertical seismic profiles: fracture and fault identification for Appalachian basin reservoirs - two case examples

    SciTech Connect

    Wyatt, D.E.; Bennett, B.A.; Walsh, J.J.

    1988-08-01

    Many Appalachian basin reservoirs occur in older rocks that are commonly fractured and faulted. These fractures and faults very often act as the reservoir trapping mechanism, especially in lithologies with no log-detectable matrix porosity. Traditional logging techniques, although possibly showing fault or fracture presence in the well bore, seldom provide clues to the extent of fracturing or location of nearby faults. Surface seismic data should show faults and perhaps even fracturing, but showing these features is often not possible in rugged terrain or in areas with thick coverings of unconsolidated surface material. Traditional seismic also has resolutions lower than that needed to detect small faults (less than 70 ft). Two case examples are shown from the northern Appalachian basin. The first example utilizes Schlumberger's slim hole seismic tool in cased holes in an area of thick unconsolidated glacial material along the Bass Island trend of western New York. The second example utilizes Schlumberger's SAT tool in an open-hole environment in an area of northwestern Pennsylvania with disturbed surface bedding and poor conventional surface seismic returns. The slim hole tool provides good data but with only slightly greater resolution than surface Vibroseis data. The SAT tool provides excellent resolution (down to 25 ft) in highly disturbed bedding.

  17. Comparison of Vibroseis and explosive source methods for deep crustal seismic reflection profiling in the Basin and Range province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brocher, T.M.; Hart, P.E.

    1991-01-01

    Direct comparison of low-fold, high-energy explosive and high-fold, lower-energy Vibroseis methods for acquiring deep crustal seismic reflection data in the Basin and Range Province suggests that the high-fold common midpoint (CMP) method there does not provide the best possible image of lower crustal structure. -from Authors

  18. High-resolution crustal structure of the Yinchuan basin revealed by deep seismic reflection profiling: implications for deep processes of basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xingfu; Feng, Shaoying; Gao, Rui; Li, Wenhui

    2016-04-01

    The Yinchuan basin, located on the western margin of the Ordos block, has the characteristics of an active continental rift. A NW-striking deep seismic reflection profile across the center of Yinchuan basin precisely revealed the fine structure of the crust. The images showed that the crust in the Yinchuan basin was characterized by vertical stratifications along a detachment located at a two-way travel time (TWT) of 8.0 s. The most outstanding feature of this seismic profile was the almost flat Mohorovičić discontinuity (Moho) and a high-reflection zone in the lower crust. This sub-horizontal Moho conflicts with the general assumption of an uplifted Moho under sedimentary basins and continental rifts, and may indicate the action of different processes at depth during the evolution of sedimentary basins or rifts. We present a possible interpretation of these deep processes and the sub-horizontal Moho. The high-reflection zone, which consists of sheets of high-density, mantle-derived materials, may have compensated for crustal thinning in the Yinchuan basin, leading to the formation of a sub-horizontal Moho. These high-density materials may have been emplaced by underplating with mantle-sourced magma.

  19. Seismic Imaging and Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Lianjie

    2012-07-09

    I give an overview of LANL's capability in seismic imaging and monitoring. I present some seismic imaging and monitoring results, including imaging of complex structures, subsalt imaging of Gulf of Mexico, fault/fracture zone imaging for geothermal exploration at the Jemez pueblo, time-lapse imaging of a walkway vertical seismic profiling data for monitoring CO{sub 2} inject at SACROC, and microseismic event locations for monitoring CO{sub 2} injection at Aneth. These examples demonstrate LANL's high-resolution and high-fidelity seismic imaging and monitoring capabilities.

  20. Sur Lago area, Venezuela: Three dimensional integrated seismic interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Growcott, A.; McIan, A.; Ramirez, R. )

    1993-02-01

    In 1988, 550 square km of 3D seismic data were acquired in the Sur Del Lago area. The aims of the survey were (1) To better define structures already identified from the existing 1 [times] 1 km 2D seismic grid at the level of potential Cretaceous limestone reservoirs and (2) To further study the prospectivity of potential structural and stratigraphic traps within the Tertiary section. Detailed interpretation of the 3D survey using an interactive workstation led to an improved structural definition at the Cogollo limestone level and the identification of fault related inversion lineaments and basement related Cretaceous limestone structures. Based upon the new seismic interpretation a 4 well exploration project was planned. The new program commenced with the drilling of exploration well SLA-7-IX in 1991 which proved commercial amounts of hydrocarbons in the western part of the area. Detailed information collected from the exploration wells includes a comprehensive electric log suite, ditch cuttings and vertical seismic profiles. The information is being used as detailed lithological, stratigraphic and seismic data input for velocity modeling, ray trace modeling, seismic attribute analysis, and reservoir characterization software in order to further understand the structural and stratigraphic potential of the area.

  1. Seismic 3D modelling of VHMS deposits: case studies from Pyhäsalmi and Vihanti, Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinonen, Suvi; Heikkinen, Pekka; Kukkonen, Ilmo; Snyder, David

    2013-04-01

    In the HIRE (HIgh-REsolution reflection seismics for ore exploration 2008-2010, Geological Survey of Finland), 2D seismic reflection profiles were acquired at 15 mining camps in Finland including the Pyhäsalmi, and Vihanti districts. Both Pyhäsalmi and Vihanti are volcanic hosted massive sulphide (VHMS) deposits located in a Proterozoic volcanic belt in central Finland. In Pyhäsalmi, six seismic profiles were acquired with 45 total line kilometres. In Vihanti the total length of 12 profiles exceeds 120 km. Both Vibroseis and explosive sources were used in the surveys. In these study sites, the network of seismic profiles enables modelling of the subsurface structures well beyond the mined depths. In the study areas, seismic velocities and densities derived from drill hole logging provide crucial information about physical rock properties forming basis for seismic interpretation. Besides the acoustic impedance, also the scale and orientation of the geological structures influence reflectivity. In Pyhäsalmi, it was shown that subvertical structures are not imaged directly with seismic reflection data and only the subhorizontal fold hinges are visible in seismic section while steep flanks need to be interpreted indirectly with the help of drill hole data and by recognizing change in reflectivity characteristics. Deformation in the Vihanti area has not been as intensive as in Pyhäsalmi, and the ore hosting volcanic sequence forms gentle folds. Reflection seismic profiles in Vihanti and Pyhäsalmi show the continuation of the volcanic lithologies underneath intrusive granites, thus expanding the area of interest for exploration. Seismic data support the interpretation that thrust faulting that occurred in a compressional tectonic setting has played a main role in deformation of these VHMS areas. Physical properties of massive sulphides predict the ore to be strong reflector in geological settings like Vihanti and Pyhäsalmi, but no clear seismic signal was observed

  2. Cenozoic tectonic evolution leading to the Choco-South America collision (Panama-Colombia), from seismic profiles interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barat, F.; Maurin, T.; Auxietre, J.; Mercier de Lépinay, B.; Salmon, P.; Sosson, M. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Choco Block is located in eastern Panama and western Colombia, at the western boundary of the Caribbean Plate (CP), and is mainly characterized by a Late Cretaceous-Paleogene volcanic arc overlying the Caribbean Large Igneous Province (CLIP). This block was accreted to South American plate (SAP) during Middle to Late Miocene. Geological, chronological and structural data are scarce in the Choco Block. Our study aims at reconstructing the evolution at a local scale, to provide new constraints to the regional scale tectonic processes that have occurred since the Paleogene. In that perspective, we have interpreted offshore seismic reflection profiles. This interpretation was supported by biostratigraphic data from two wells. We focused our studies in the Uraba Gulf area, a triple junction between the Choco Block, the SAP and the Caribbean oceanic plateau. This poorly understood zone offers rare observation of two accretionary wedges, the North Panama Deformed Belt (NPDB), and the Sinu Belt, located at the margins of the Choco Block and the SAP, respectively. They are the results of two opposite convergent zones, and collide along the active Uramita strike-slip Fault Zone (UFZ), a suture zone between the Choco Block and the SAP. This area may provide information on the ages of both accretionary wedges, on the tectonic processes responsible for the disappearance of the CP, and on the late formation of the Choco Block. Our results evidence a northward propagating deformation along the Choco Block, miocene or older in the South of the Uraba Gulf, pliocene in the North of the Uraba Gulf, and active along the northern margin of Panama. This deformation is the result of the progressive accretion of Choco Block along the SAP. At the Uraba triple junction, a thick sedimentary sequence was deposited since late Miocene. North verging progradations suggest that sediments came from the drainage of the western cordillera of Colombia by a Paleo-Sinu river and actual Atrato river

  3. DYNA2D96. Explicit 2-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect

    Whirley, R.G.

    1992-04-01

    DYNA2D is a vectorized, explicit, two-dimensional, axisymmetric and plane strain finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic and hydrodynamic response of inelastic solids. DYNA2D contains 13 material models and 9 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented in all machine versions are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic elastic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, rubber, high explosive burn, isotropic elastic-plastic, temperature-dependent elastic-plastic. The isotropic and temperature-dependent elastic-plastic models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 9 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, and tabulated.

  4. Crustal structure and geodynamic of the Middle and Lower reaches of Yangtze metallogenic belt and neighboring areas: insights from deep seismic reflection profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Q.; Shi, D.; Liu, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, J.

    2014-12-01

    A 300 km deep seismic reflection profile across the middle and lower Yangtze River metallogenic belt (YRMB) and its adjacent areas established the architecture and geodynamic framework of the region. Results based on the interpretation of the deep seismic data include the deep complicated geometry of the Tan-Lu fault and Zhangbaling uplift, appears as a subvertical thrust fault with its deep portion dip toward the southeast, and along which the Zhangbaling uplift is squeezed out; complex upper crust deformation structure beneath Chuquan depression, within which there are both kink bands, thrusts, imbrication and fold structures reflecting contraction deformation, and detachment fault and normal-fault structures reflecting extensional deformation; the "crocodile" reflection structure emerging beneath the Tan-Lu fault and Ningwu-Lishui volcanic basin, i.e., the upper crust reflection thrust upward, and the lower crust reflection thrust downward and offsetting the Moho discontinuity, which reflects the decoupled deformation process of the upper and lower crust, and is interpreted as an intracontinental subduction. Further to the southeast, the upper crust deformation shows a large-scale "wave-form" pattern, making crustal scale syncline and anticline. The entire section of the reflection Moho is clearly discernible at depth of 30.0-34.5 km, and the Moho beneath the YRMB is shallowest, while the Moho beneath the North China block is deeper than that beneath the Yangtze block. Moho offsets could be seen beneath the Ningwu volcanic basin. Overall, the seismic data show evidence for an intracontinental orogeny and imposes constraints on the deep geodynamic model applied to study region. Our interpretation of seismic profile supports the view that the Yanshanian orogeny, due to the northwest subduction of the paleo-Pacific plate during the Middle-Late Jurassic, is the major event that shaped the tectonic framework of the region. A geodynamic model is proposed for the

  5. Ductile deformation of the continental crust below volcanic and non-volcanic passive margins: insight from high quality industrial seismic profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clerc, Camille; Jolivet, Laurent; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude; Ballard, Jean-François

    2015-04-01

    High quality industrial seismic profiles have now been acquired along most of the world's passive margins. Stunningly increasing resolution over the past decades leads to unravel unexpected structures and to see real images of models drawn from the integration of field data. Some profiles show clear indications of ductile deformation of the deep continental crust, more or less localized along large-scale shallow-dipping shear zones. Maximums of deformation are suggested at the very base of the continental crust, and the Moho appears to be strongly sheared. These shear zones show a top-to-the-continent sense of shear consistent with the activity of counter-regional (continentward) normal faults observed in the upper crust. This pattern is responsible for a migration of the deformation and associated sedimentation or volcanic activity toward the ocean. We present some of the most striking examples and discuss their implications for the time-temperature-subsidence history of the margins. The distal domain of the non-magmatic margins is generally represented with an important sag basin (i.e. West African margins). This kind of sag basin is usually described as a vertically subsiding basin without differential tilting and resting on a highly thinned, little faulted continental crust. In contrast, we present new interpretations of seismic profiles across the West African margins showing evidences of intense syn-sedimentary tectonic activity within the Sag-basin. Sequences of low-angle normal faults horizontalizing in a hyper-stretched and ductile continental crust control a migration of the depot-center toward the ocean, in response to the horizontal extraction of the base of the continental crust and upper mantle. Finally, the hyper-thinned continental crust has undergone a ductile stretching under a cover of early syn-rift sediments, which implies a probable high thermal regime during rifting.

  6. Modeling chemical interaction profiles: I. Spectral data-activity relationship and structure-activity relationship models for inhibitors and non-inhibitors of cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 isozymes.

    PubMed

    McPhail, Brooks; Tie, Yunfeng; Hong, Huixiao; Pearce, Bruce A; Schnackenberg, Laura K; Ge, Weigong; Valerio, Luis G; Fuscoe, James C; Tong, Weida; Buzatu, Dan A; Wilkes, Jon G; Fowler, Bruce A; Demchuk, Eugene; Beger, Richard D

    2012-03-15

    An interagency collaboration was established to model chemical interactions that may cause adverse health effects when an exposure to a mixture of chemicals occurs. Many of these chemicals--drugs, pesticides, and environmental pollutants--interact at the level of metabolic biotransformations mediated by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. In the present work, spectral data-activity relationship (SDAR) and structure-activity relationship (SAR) approaches were used to develop machine-learning classifiers of inhibitors and non-inhibitors of the CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 isozymes. The models were built upon 602 reference pharmaceutical compounds whose interactions have been deduced from clinical data, and 100 additional chemicals that were used to evaluate model performance in an external validation (EV) test. SDAR is an innovative modeling approach that relies on discriminant analysis applied to binned nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectral descriptors. In the present work, both 1D ¹³C and 1D ¹⁵N-NMR spectra were used together in a novel implementation of the SDAR technique. It was found that increasing the binning size of 1D ¹³C-NMR and ¹⁵N-NMR spectra caused an increase in the tenfold cross-validation (CV) performance in terms of both the rate of correct classification and sensitivity. The results of SDAR modeling were verified using SAR. For SAR modeling, a decision forest approach involving from 6 to 17 Mold2 descriptors in a tree was used. Average rates of correct classification of SDAR and SAR models in a hundred CV tests were 60% and 61% for CYP3A4, and 62% and 70% for CYP2D6, respectively. The rates of correct classification of SDAR and SAR models in the EV test were 73% and 86% for CYP3A4, and 76% and 90% for CYP2D6, respectively. Thus, both SDAR and SAR methods demonstrated a comparable performance in modeling a large set of structurally diverse data. Based on unique NMR structural descriptors, the new SDAR modeling method complements the existing SAR

  7. MOSS2D V1

    2001-01-31

    This software reduces the data from two-dimensional kSA MOS program, k-Space Associates, Ann Arbor, MI. Initial MOS data is recorded without headers in 38 columns, with one row of data per acquisition per lase beam tracked. The final MOSS 2d data file is reduced, graphed, and saved in a tab-delimited column format with headers that can be plotted in any graphing software.

  8. Multi-hole seismic modeling in 3-D space and cross-hole seismic tomography analysis for boulder detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Fei; Liu, Jiangping; Wang, Jing; Zong, Yuquan; Yu, Mingyu

    2016-11-01

    A boulder stone, a common geological feature in south China, is referred to the remnant of a granite body which has been unevenly weathered. Undetected boulders could adversely impact the schedule and safety of subway construction when using tunnel boring machine (TBM) method. Therefore, boulder detection has always been a key issue demanded to be solved before the construction. Nowadays, cross-hole seismic tomography is a high resolution technique capable of boulder detection, however, the method can only solve for velocity in a 2-D slice between two wells, and the size and central position of the boulder are generally difficult to be accurately obtained. In this paper, the authors conduct a multi-hole wave field simulation and characteristic analysis of a boulder model based on the 3-D elastic wave staggered-grid finite difference theory, and also a 2-D imaging analysis based on first arrival travel time. The results indicate that (1) full wave field records could be obtained from multi-hole seismic wave simulations. Simulation results describe that the seismic wave propagation pattern in cross-hole high-velocity spherical geological bodies is more detailed and can serve as a basis for the wave field analysis. (2) When a cross-hole seismic section cuts through the boulder, the proposed method provides satisfactory cross-hole tomography results; however, when the section is closely positioned to the boulder, such high-velocity object in the 3-D space would impact on the surrounding wave field. The received diffracted wave interferes with the primary wave and in consequence the picked first arrival travel time is not derived from the profile, which results in a false appearance of high-velocity geology features. Finally, the results of 2-D analysis in 3-D modeling space are comparatively analyzed with the physical model test vis-a-vis the effect of high velocity body on the seismic tomographic measurements.

  9. Crustal structure and geodynamics of the Middle and Lower reaches of Yangtze metallogenic belt and neighboring areas: Insights from deep seismic reflection profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Qingtian; Shi, Danian; Liu, Zhendong; Zhang, Yongqian; Dong, Shuwen; Zhao, Jinhua

    2015-12-01

    A 300 km long seismic reflection profile was acquired across the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River (MLY) metallogenic belt and its adjacent areas. The objective of the survey was to establish the deep architecture and geodynamic framework of the region. Results based on the interpretation of the deep seismic data include (1) Tan-Lu fault appears as a subvertical thrust fault or transpression fault with its deep portion dipping toward the southeast; (2) the Zhangbaling uplift is squeezed out along this fault; (3) complex upper crustal deformation structures beneath the Chuquan depression include both kink bands, thrusts, imbrication and fold structures reflecting contraction deformation, and detachment fault and normal-fault structures reflecting extensional deformation; (4) the "crocodile" reflection structure emerging beneath the Tan-Lu fault and Ningwu-Lishui volcanic basin, which represents the decoupled deformation process of the upper and lower crust associated with intra-continental subduction; (5) further to the southeast, the upper crust deformation shows a large-scale "wave-form" pattern, making crustal scale syncline and anticline; (6) the entire section of the reflection Moho is clearly discernible at depth of 30.0-34.5 km, and the Moho beneath the Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtze River metallogenic belt is shallowest, while the Moho beneath the North China block is deeper than that beneath the Yangtze block. The Moho offsets could be seen beneath the Ningwu volcanic basin. The seismic reflection data suggest that lithosphere delamination and asthenosphere upwelling that may result from the Mesozoic intra-continental orogenesis is responsible for the formation of large scale magmatism and mineralization in the MLY metallogenic belt.

  10. High-resolution boomer seismic-reflection profiles of the shelf off southern California from cruise A-1-00-SC: Santa Monica Bay to San Diego

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gutmacher, Christina E.; Ross, Stephanie L.; Triezenberg, Peter J.; Sliter, Ray W.; Normark, William R.; Edwards, Brian D.

    2006-01-01

    High-resolution boomer data were collected in the California Continental Borderland as part of the southern California Earthquake Hazards Task of the Southern California Coastal and Marine Geology Regional Investigations Project. During the period from 1997 to 2002, five data-acquisition cruises collected seismic-reflection data using several different systems from offshore Santa Barbara, California, south to the Exclusive Economic Zone boundary with Mexico. A key mission of this project was to map late Quaternary deformation in addition to improving our understanding of which offshore fault zones might have potential to damage highly populated areas of southern California. State regulations concerning the use of seismic-reflection equipment within three miles of the coastline precluded the routine gathering of high-resolution multichannel data in that swath adjacent to the coast. Boomer seismic-reflection data, however, can be obtained within the state 3-mile limit provided the operation receives authorization from the California State Lands Commission. The Geopulse boomer data accessible through this report were collected on the cruise A-1-00-SC, which was the only survey where we requested permission to work inside the 3-mile limit of the State of California. These data are critical to discovering connections between onshore and offshore faults, the overall lengths of which are related to the potential size of an earthquake that might be generated along them. The 2000 survey was designed to fill the gap between onshore data and reflection data obtained in deeper water on previous cruises as well as data anticipated from future surveys. This report includes trackline maps showing the location of the data, as well as both digital data files (SEG-Y) and images of all of the profiles.

  11. Misinterpretation of lateral acoustic variations on high-resolution seismic reflection profiles as fault offsets of Holocene bay mud beneath the southern part of San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marlow, M. S.; Hart, P.E.; Carlson, P.R.; Childs, J. R.; Mann, D. M.; Anima, R.J.; Kayen, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    We collected high-resolution seismic reflection profiles in the southern part of San Francisco Bay in 1992 and 1993 to investigate possible Holocene faulting along postulated transbay bedrock fault zones. The initial analog records show apparent offsets of reflection packages along sharp vertical boundaries. These records were originally interpreted as showing a complex series of faults along closely spaced, sharp vertical boundaries in the upper 10 m (0.013 s two-way travel time) of Holocene bay mud. A subsequent survey in 1994 was run with a different seismic reflection system, which utilized a higher power source. This second system generated records with deeper penetration (max. 20 m, 0.026 s two-way travel time) and demonstrated that the reflections originally interpreted as fault offsets by faulting were actually laterally continuous reflection horizons. The pitfall in the original interpretations was caused by lateral variations in the amplitude brightness of reflection events, coupled with a long (greater than 15 ms) source signature of the low-power system. These effects combined to show apparent offsets of reflection packages along sharp vertical boundaries. These boundaries, as shown by the second system, in fact occur where the reflection amplitude diminishes abruptly on laterally continuous reflection events. This striking lateral variation in reflection amplitude is attributable to the localized presence of biogenic(?) gas.

  12. Caldera structure of submarine Volcano #1 on the Tonga Arc at 21°09'S, southwestern Pacific: Analysis of multichannel seismic profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Han-Joon; Jou, Hyeong-Tae; Lee, Gwang-Hoon; Na, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Hyun-Sub; Jang, Ugeun; Lee, Kyeong-Yong; Kim, Chang-Hwan; Lee, Sang Hoon; Park, Chan-Hong; Jung, Seom-Kyu; Suk, Bong-Cool

    2013-08-01

    Volcano #1 is a large submarine stratovolcano with a summit caldera in the south central part of the Tonga Arc. We collected and analyzed multichannel seismic profiles in conjunction with magnetic data from Volcano #1 to investigate the structure of the intracaldera fill and processes of caldera formation. The intracaldera fill, exhibiting stratified units with a maximum thickness of 2 km, consists of at least four seismic units and a thick wedge of landslide debris derived from the caldera wall. The structural caldera floor, deepening toward the northwestern rim, suggests asymmetric collapse in the initial stage, which, in turn, appears to have contributed to the creation of a caldera elongated to the northwest by enhancing gravitational instability along the northwestern caldera boundary. Occasional, but repeated, eruptions resulted in a thick accumulation of the intracaldera fill and further subsidence in the mode of piston collapse. Magnetization lows are well-defined along the structural rim of the caldera that is interpreted as the inner principal ring fault. The magnetization lows indicate sites of submarine hydrothermal vents that caused an alteration of magnetic minerals. Faults recognized on the outer slope of the volcano are interpreted to be involved in hydrothermal fluid circulation.

  13. A new passive seismic method based on seismic interferometry and multichannel analysis of surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Feng; Xia, Jianghai; Xu, Yixian; Xu, Zongbo; Pan, Yudi

    2015-06-01

    We proposed a new passive seismic method (PSM) based on seismic interferometry and multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) to meet the demand for increasing investigation depth by acquiring surface-wave data at a low-frequency range (1 Hz ≤ f ≤ 10 Hz). We utilize seismic interferometry to sort common virtual source gathers (CVSGs) from ambient noise and analyze obtained CVSGs to construct 2D shear-wave velocity (Vs) map using the MASW. Standard ambient noise processing procedures were applied to the computation of cross-correlations. To enhance signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the empirical Green's functions, a new weighted stacking method was implemented. In addition, we proposed a bidirectional shot mode based on the virtual source method to sort CVSGs repeatedly. The PSM was applied to two field data examples. For the test along Han River levee, the results of PSM were compared with the improved roadside passive MASW and spatial autocorrelation method (SPAC). For test in the Western Junggar Basin, PSM was applied to a 70 km long linear survey array with a prominent directional urban noise source and a 60 km-long Vs profile with 1.5 km in depth was mapped. Further, a comparison about the dispersion measurements was made between PSM and frequency-time analysis (FTAN) technique to assess the accuracy of PSM. These examples and comparisons demonstrated that this new method is efficient, flexible, and capable to study near-surface velocity structures based on seismic ambient noise.

  14. Calculation of zero-offset vertical seismic profiles generated by a horizontal point force acting on the surface of an elastic half-space

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hsi-Ping, Liu

    1990-01-01

    Impulse responses including near-field terms have been obtained in closed form for the zero-offset vertical seismic profiles generated by a horizontal point force acting on the surface of an elastic half-space. The method is based on the correspondence principle. Through transformation of variables, the Fourier transform of the elastic impulse response is put in a form such that the Fourier transform of the corresponding anelastic impulse response can be expressed as elementary functions and their definite integrals involving distance angular frequency, phase velocities, and attenuation factors. These results are used for accurate calculation of shear-wave arrival rise times of synthetic seismograms needed for data interpretation of anelastic-attenuation measurements in near-surface sediment. -Author

  15. Exploration and discovery in Yellowstone Lake: Results from high-resolution sonar imaging, seismic reflection profiling, and submersible studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, L.A.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Lovalvo, D.A.; Johnson, S.Y.; Stephenson, W.J.; Pierce, K.L.; Harlan, S.S.; Finn, C.A.; Lee, G.; Webring, M.; Schulze, B.; Duhn, J.; Sweeney, R.; Balistrieri, L.

    2003-01-01

    Discoveries from multi-beam sonar mapping and seismic reflection surveys of the northern, central, and West Thumb basins of Yellowstone Lake provide new insight into the extent of post-collapse volcanism and active hydrothermal processes occurring in a large lake environment above a large magma chamber. Yellowstone Lake has an irregular bottom covered with dozens of features directly related to hydrothermal, tectonic, volcanic, and sedimentary processes. Detailed bathymetric, seismic reflection, and magnetic evidence reveals that rhyolitic lava flows underlie much of Yellowstone Lake and exert fundamental control on lake bathymetry and localization of hydrothermal activity. Many previously unknown features have been identified and include over 250 hydrothermal vents, several very large (>500 m diameter) hydrothermal explosion craters, many small hydrothermal vent craters (???1-200 m diameter), domed lacustrine sediments related to hydrothermal activity, elongate fissures cutting post-glacial sediments, siliceous hydrothermal spire structures, sublacustrine landslide deposits, submerged former shorelines, and a recently active graben. Sampling and observations with a submersible remotely operated vehicle confirm and extend our understanding of the identified features. Faults, fissures, hydrothermally inflated domal structures, hydrothermal explosion craters, and sublacustrine landslides constitute potentially significant geologic hazards. Toxic elements derived from hydrothermal processes also may significantly affect the Yellowstone ecosystem. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  16. National Archive of Marine Seismic Surveys (NAMSS): A USGS-Boem Partnership to Provide Free and Easy Access to Previously Proprietary Seismic Reflection Data on the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triezenberg, P. J.; Hart, P. E.; Childs, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    The National Archive of Marine Seismic Surveys (NAMSS) was established by the USGS in 2004 in an effort to rescue marine seismic reflection profile data acquired largely by the oil exploration industry throughout the US outer continental shelf (OCS). It features a Web interface for easy on-line geographic search and download. The commercial value of these data had decreased significantly because of drilling moratoria and newer acquisition technology, and large quantities were at risk of disposal. But, the data still had tremendous value for scientific research and education purposes, and an effort was undertaken to ensure that the data were preserved and publicly available. More recently, the USGS and Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) have developed a partnership to make similarly available a much larger quantity of 2D and 3D seismic data acquired by the U.S. government for assessment of resources in the OCS. Under Federal regulation, BOEM is required to publicly release all processed geophysical data, including seismic profiles, acquired under an exploration permit, purchased and retained by BOEM, no sooner than 25 years after issuance of the permit. Data acquired prior to 1989 are now eligible for release. Currently these data are distributed on CD or DVD, but data discovery can be tedious. Inclusion of these data within NAMSS vastly increases the amount of seismic data available for research purposes. A new NAMSS geographical interface provides easy and intuitive access to the data library. The interface utilizes OpenLayers, Mapnik, and the Django web framework. In addition, metadata capabilities have been greatly increased using a PostgresSQL/PostGIS database incorporating a community-developed ISO-compliant XML template. The NAMSS database currently contains 452 2D seismic surveys comprising 1,645,956 line km and nine 3D seismic surveys covering 9,385 square km. The 2D data holdings consist of stack, migrated and depth sections, most in SEG-Y format.

  17. Imaging in 2D media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, S. N.

    2015-10-01

    Stacking by CDP technique is inapplicable for processing of data from bottom seismic stations or acoustic sonobuoys. In addition, big amount of unknown velocity and structural parameters of the real layered medium do not allow these parameters to be defined by standard processing methods. Local sloped stacking is proposed for simultaneous obtaining the stacked tracks, travel time curve of a chosen wave, and the first derivative of this travel time curve. The additionally defined parameters are second derivative of this travel time curve and integrated average of squared travel time curve. These data are sufficient to reduce the amount of unknown parameters (down to one-two for each boundary) when layer-by-layer top-to-bottom processing. As a result, the stable estimates of velocity parameters of the layered (isotropic or anisotropic) medium can be obtained and stacked tracks obtained by local sloped staking can be transformed into boundaries in the time and depth sections.

  18. Protein expression profiles of human lymph and plasma mapped by 2D-DIGE and 1D SDS–PAGE coupled with nanoLC–ESI–MS/MS bottom-up proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Cristina C.; Aphkhazava, David; Nieves, Edward; Callaway, Myrasol; Olszewski, Waldemar; Rotzschke, Olaf; Santambrogio, Laura

    2013-01-01

    In this study a proteomic approach was used to define the protein content of matched samples of afferent prenodal lymph and plasma derived from healthy volunteers. The analysis was performed using two analytical methodologies coupled with nanoliquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: one-dimensional gel electrophoresis (1DEF nanoLC Orbitrap–ESI–MS/MS), and two-dimensional fluorescence difference-in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE nanoLC–ESI–MS/MS). The 253 significantly identified proteins (p<0.05), obtained from the tandem mass spectrometry data, were further analyzed with pathway analysis (IPA) to define the functional signature of prenodal lymph and matched plasma. The 1DEF coupled with nanoLC–MS–MS revealed that the common proteome between the two biological fluids (144 out of 253 proteins) was dominated by complement activation and blood coagulation components, transporters and protease inhibitors. The enriched proteome of human lymph (72 proteins) consisted of products derived from the extracellular matrix, apoptosis and cellular catabolism. In contrast, the enriched proteome of human plasma (37 proteins) consisted of soluble molecules of the coagulation system and cell–cell signaling factors. The functional networks associated with both common and source-distinctive proteomes highlight the principal biological activity of these immunologically relevant body fluids. PMID:23202415

  19. Geology of the offshore Southeast Georgia Embayment, U.S. Atlantic continental margin, based on multichannel seismic reflection profiles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buffler, Richard T.; Watkins, Joel S.; Dillon, William P.

    1979-01-01

    The sedimentary section is divided into three major seismic intervals. The intervals are separated by unconformities and can be mapped regionally. The oldest interval ranges in age from Early Cretaceous through middle Late Cretaceous, although it may contain Jurassic rocks where it thickens beneath the Blake Plateau. It probably consists of continental to nearshore clastic rocks where it onlaps basement and grades seaward to a restricted carbonate platform facies (dolomite-evaporite). The middle interval (Upper Cretaceous) is characterized by prograding clinoforms interpreted as open marine slope deposits. This interval represents a Late Cretaceous shift of the carbonate shelf margin from the Blake Escarpment shoreward to about its present location, probably due to a combination of co tinued subsidence, an overall Late Cretaceous rise in sea level, and strong currents across the Blake Plateau. The youngest (Cenozoic) interval represents a continued seaward progradation of the continental shelf and slope. Cenozoic sedimentation on the Blake Plateau was much abbreviated owing mainly to strong currents.

  20. Unparticle example in 2D.

    PubMed

    Georgi, Howard; Kats, Yevgeny

    2008-09-26

    We discuss what can be learned about unparticle physics by studying simple quantum field theories in one space and one time dimension. We argue that the exactly soluble 2D theory of a massless fermion coupled to a massive vector boson, the Sommerfield model, is an interesting analog of a Banks-Zaks model, approaching a free theory at high energies and a scale-invariant theory with nontrivial anomalous dimensions at low energies. We construct a toy standard model coupling to the fermions in the Sommerfield model and study how the transition from unparticle behavior at low energies to free particle behavior at high energies manifests itself in interactions with the toy standard model particles.

  1. Full waveform forward seismic modeling of geologically complex environment: Comparison of simulated and field seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinonen, S.; Heinonen, M.; Koivisto, E.

    2012-04-01

    Reflection seismic data acquired in hard-rock terrains are often difficult to interpret due to complex geological architecture of the target areas. Even fairly simple geological structures, such as folds, can be difficult to identify from the seismic profiles because the reflection method is only able to image the sub-horizontal fold hinges, and no reflections arise from the steep fold limbs. Furthermore, typically acquisition lines in the hard-rock areas are crooked, and the data can rarely be acquired perpendicular to the strikes of the structures, if the strikes are even known. These further complicate the interpretation, because conventional processing techniques fail to compensate for the associated distortions in the ray paths. Full waveform seismic forward modeling can be used to facilitate the interpretations, to help to find optimal processing algorithms for specific structures, and also to guide the planning of a seismic survey. Recent increases in computational power and development of softwares make full wavefield forward modeling possible also for more complex, realistic geological models. In this study, we use Sofi3D-software for seismic forward modeling of 2D reflection seismic data acquired along a crooked acquisition line over a 3D fold structure. The model presents the structures previously interpreted in the Pyhäsalmi VHMS deposit, central Finland. Density, P and S-wave velocities required for the modeling are derived from in-situ drill hole logging data from the Pyhäsalmi mining camp, and Paradigm GoCad is used to build the geological 3D models. Meaningful modeling results require a sufficiently dense modeling grid, however, increasing the grid density comes at the cost of increased running time of the Sofi3D. Thus, careful parameter selection needs to be done before running the forward modeling. The results of the forward modeling aim to facilitate the interpretation of the 2D reflection seismic data available from Pyhäsalmi mining camp. The

  2. A friction to flow constitutive law and its application to a 2-D modeling of earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimamoto, Toshihiko; Noda, Hiroyuki

    2014-11-01

    Establishment of a constitutive law from friction to high-temperature plastic flow has long been a challenging task for solving problems such as modeling earthquakes and plate interactions. Here we propose an empirical constitutive law that describes this transitional behavior using only friction and flow parameters, with good agreements with experimental data on halite shear zones. The law predicts steady state and transient behaviors, including the dependence of the shear resistance of fault on slip rate, effective normal stress, and temperature. It also predicts a change in velocity weakening to velocity strengthening with increasing temperature, similar to the changes recognized for quartz and granite gouge under hydrothermal conditions. A slight deviation from the steady state friction law due to the involvement of plastic deformation can cause a large change in the velocity dependence. We solved seismic cycles of a fault across the lithosphere with the law using a 2-D spectral boundary integral equation method, revealing dynamic rupture extending into the aseismic zone and rich evolution of interseismic creep including slow slip prior to earthquakes. Seismic slip followed by creep is consistent with natural pseudotachylytes overprinted with mylonitic deformation. Overall fault behaviors during earthquake cycles are insensitive to transient flow parameters. The friction-to-flow law merges "Christmas tree" strength profiles of the lithosphere and rate dependency fault models used for earthquake modeling on a unified basis. Strength profiles were drawn assuming a strain rate for the flow regime, but we emphasize that stress distribution evolves reflecting the fault behavior. A fault zone model was updated based on the earthquake modeling.

  3. High-Resolution Time-Lapse Seismic Monitoring over Steam Injection: Rock Physics, Data Acquisition, and Numerical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, E. M.; Schmitt, D. R.

    2008-12-01

    Steam is injected into porous formations both to mobilize heavy hydrocarbons in petroleum production and environmental remediation. This is an energy intensive process and remotely monitoring the movement of the steam has implications for the improving the economics, environmental impact, and even safety of a given steam injection process. Rock physics concepts suggest that such steam zones should be easily detected by seismic reflection techniques if the compressible gaseous steam replaces substantially less compressible liquid. To test this concept, a series of 11 repeated 2D seismic profiles were acquired over a 6 year period during steam injection to a petroleum reservoir. Care was taken in the repeatability of surface geophone and source positions, common midpoint traces were at a small spacing of only 1-m across an ~200 m profile. The three parallel steam zones at depths of only 120 m to 160 m were readily detected, and variations with time are seen. The observed signatures, however, cannot be explained by a simple 1-D convolutional seismic model. To overcome this limitation, a finely gridded 2D acoustic finite difference model of the background geology with the inclusion of three closely spaced steam zones was carried out and the data processed to create a 2D seismic reflection profile. The physical properties of the steam zone were developed considering pore and confining pressure, fluid saturation, temperature, and nonlinear rock frame effects. The numerical and observed profiles are similar in many respects and suggest that diffraction effects arising from the similarity of the dimensions of the steam zones to the illuminating seismic wavelengths must be considered in the analysis of such data. geo.phys.ualberta.ca/~ebianco

  4. shallow seismic profiling of onland Leogane fan-delta, Haiti, for imaging fan stratigraphy and buried faults associated with the January 12, 2010, earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowla, N.; Stewart, R.; Mann, W. P.; Chang, L.

    2012-12-01

    The Léogane fan of southern Haiti is the largest subaerial fan-delta in the Caribbean with an exposed land area of 109 km2. The southern Léogane fan-delta is located adjacent to the epicenter and main aftershocks of the M 7.0 January 12, 2010, Haiti earthquake. This catastrophic event was produced by movement along a buried thrust fault beneath the fan that is associated with the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden (EPGFZ) left-lateral strike-slip fault zone. Coseismic uplift of the western fan edge at the coast reached up to 62 cm and aftershocks of the buried thrust reached to within about 1 km of the top fan surface. Extreme ground shaking of the Léogane fan directly above these buried faults produced some of the greatest loss of life and destruction of buildings during the 2010 earthquake: between 20,000 and 30,000 estimated lives were lost, almost every concrete building was leveled in the city of Léogane and surrounding agricultural areas, and liquefaction of road beds and beach areas was commonplace. A large 1770 earthquake also believed to be nucleated on the EPGFZ shook the fan area in 1770, destroyed the French colonial town of Léogane and produced widespread liquefaction effects. In January, 2011, we collected gravity and shallow seismic measurements. Our goal was to begin to understand the stratigraphy of the Leogane fan and to image buried thrust faults responsible for shaking and coseismic, coastal uplift in 2010 and likely in future events. Three-component seismic data were acquired along a 402-m-long, north-south profile located 3 km north of the EPGFZ in the area of maximum coseismic, coastal uplift to investigate the thickness and geotechnical properties of the Leogane fan. Using sledge hammers on a metal plate as a source, penetration was excellent down to a depth of 400 m. We identified discontinuous layering interpreted as 50-60-m thick channel bodies deposited on previous fan surfaces. Discontinuities indicate shallow faulting in the depth range

  5. High-resolution multicomponent seismic imaging for VMS deposits within the Paleoproterozoic Flin Flon Belt, Trans-Hudson Orogen, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinowski, M.; White, D.

    2008-12-01

    The Flin Flon-Glennie complex (Trans-Hudson Orogen) hosts the largest Paleoproterozoic volcanogenic massive sulphide (VMS) district in the world. The main deposits of the Flin Flon camp have mineral compositions of predominantly pyrite, pyrrhotite, sphalerite, and chalcopyrite. All of these minerals are characterised by high acoustic impedances relative to typical host rocks, thus making them excellent candidates for seismic exploration. In a concerted effort to support exploration for new ore deposits in the vicinity of Flin Flon and surrounding region, a program of seismic investigations has been implemented as part of the Targetted Geoscience Initiative-3 (TGI-3) Saskatchewan-Manitoba project. This project is a joint Federal-Provincial effort led by the Geological Survey of Canada with active participation by Hudson Bay Mining and Smelting Ltd. Rock property measurements, downhole geophysical logging and vertical seismic profiles acquired in advance of the main seismic survey demonstrated the expected reflectivity of the mining camp geology. The principle seismic survey was conducted during May-September, 2007 and comprised a total of 75 km of high- resolution 2D seismic profiles and a 3D survey covering approximately 10 km2. Seismic imaging in the Flin Flon area poses significant challenges due to the complex crystalline geology, the location of the imaging targets beneath an active town and operational mine site, and the highly variable terrain. Data were recoreded using IO System IV digital vector (3-component) accelerometers, spaced at 5 m intervals (for 2D survey) with recording times of 4 s. Seismic sources spaced at 20 m intervals included Vibroseis and dynamite sources on land, and an airgun for lake areas. The results of processing the vertical-component data for P-wave reflections reveal subhorizontal reflectivity associated mainly with the Missi metasedimentary complex and steeply dipping reflectivity associated with the polydeformed volcanic rocks

  6. Three-dimensional crustal structure of the southern Sierra Nevada from seismic fan profiles and gravity modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Fliedner, M.M.; Ruppert, S.; Park, S.K.; and others.

    1996-04-01

    Traveltime data from the 1993 Southern Sierra Nevada Continental Dynamics seismic refraction experiment reveal low velocities in the southern Sierra Nevada and Basin and Range province of California (6.0 to 6.6 km/s), as well as low upper mantle velocities (7.6 to 7.8 km/s). The crust thickens from southeast to northwest along the axis of the Sierra Nevada from 27 km in the Mojave Desert to 43 km near Fresno, California. A crustal welt is present beneath the Sierra Nevada, but the deepest Moho is found under the western slopes, not beneath the highest topography. A density model directly derived from the crustal velocity model but with constant mantle density satisfies the pronounced negative Bouguer anomaly associated with the Sierra Nevada, but shows large discrepancies of >50 mgal in the Great Valley and in the Basin and Range province. Matching the observed gravity with anomalies in the crust alone is not possible with geologically reasonable densities; we require a contribution from the upper mantle, either by lateral density variations or by a thinning of the lithosphere under the Sierra Nevada and the Basin and Range province. Such a model is consistent with the interpretation that the uplift of the present Sierra Nevada is caused and dynamically supported by asthenospheric upwelling or lithospheric thinning under the Basin and Range province and eastern Sierra Nevada. 20 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Maps and seismic profiles showing geology of the inner continental shelf, Cape Ann, Massachusetts to New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oldale, R.N.; Wommack, L.E.

    1987-01-01

    Early studies in the western Gulf of Maine have outlined the general geology and geologic history of the region. Seismic-reflection data have defined the major stratigraphic units and unconformities (Oldale and Uchupi, 1970; Ballard and Uchupi, 1972; Oldale and others, 1973). Two long cores provided information on the glacial and postglacial sediments in the deep offshore basins (Tucholke and Hollister, 1973). Generalized bottom-sediment type and distribution were determined by Schlee and others (1973) and by Folger and others (1975). Investigations on land, which have provided information on the late Quaternary history of the offshore area, include descriptions of ice retreat and marine submergence (Bloom, 1963; Smith, 1982; Stone and Peper, 1982; Thompson, 1982). Radiocarbon dates from coastal marsh peats have established the middle to late Holocene sea-level-rise history (McIntire and Morgan, 1964; Keene, 1971). Submarine moraincs that recently were recognized off Cape Ann provide additional information on the nature and chronology of ice retreat (Oldale, 1985a). A submerged delta of the Merrimack River and a submerged barrier spit have been used to establish an early IIolocene lowstand of 588 level of about 50 meters (m) below present sea level (Oldale and others, 1983; Oldale, 1985b).

  8. Deep Downhole Seismic Testing at the Waste Treatment Plant Site, Hanford, WA. Volume III P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4997 Seismic Records, Wave-Arrival Identifications and Interpreted P-Wave Velocity Profile.

    SciTech Connect

    Stokoe, Kenneth H.; Li, Song Cheng; Cox, Brady R.; Menq, Farn-Yuh

    2007-06-06

    In this volume (III), all P-wave measurements are presented that were performed in Borehole C4997 at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) with T-Rex as the seismic source and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) 3-D wireline geophone as the at-depth borehole receiver. P-wave measurements were performed over the depth range of 390 to 1220 ft, typically in 10-ft intervals. However, in some interbeds, 5-ft depth intervals were used. Compression (P) waves were generated by moving the base plate of T-Rex for a given number of cycles at a fixed frequency as discussed in Section 2. This process was repeated so that signal averaging in the time domain was performed using 3 to about 15 averages, with 5 averages typically used. In addition to the LBNL 3-D geophone, called the lower receiver herein, a 3-D geophone from Redpath Geophysics was fixed at a depth of 40 ft (later relocated to 27.5 ft due to visibility in borehole after rain) in Borehole C4997, and a 3-D geophone from the University of Texas was embedded near the borehole at about 1.5 ft below the ground surface. This volume is organized into 12 sections as follows: Section 1: Introduction, Section 2: Explanation of Terminology, Section 3: Vp Profile at Borehole C4997, Sections 4 to 6: Unfiltered P-wave records of lower vertical receiver, reaction mass, and reference receiver, Sections 7 to 9: Filtered P-wave signals of lower vertical receiver, reaction mass and reference receiver, Section 10: Expanded and filtered P-wave signals of lower vertical receiver, and Sections 11 and 12: Waterfall plots of unfiltered and filtered lower vertical receiver signals.

  9. Deep Downhole Seismic Testing at the Waste Treatment Plant Site, Hanford, WA. Volume I P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4993 Seismic Records, Wave-Arrival Identifications and Interpreted P-Wave Velocity Profile.

    SciTech Connect

    Stokoe, Kenneth H.; Li, Song Cheng; Cox, Brady R.; Menq, Farn-Yuh

    2007-07-06

    In this volume (I), all P-wave measurements are presented that were performed in Borehole C4993 at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) with T-Rex as the seismic source and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) 3-D wireline geophone as the at-depth borehole receiver. P-wave measurements were performed over the depth range of 370 to 1400 ft, typically in 10-ft intervals. However, in some interbeds, 5-ft depth intervals were used, while below about 1200 ft, depth intervals of 20 ft were used. Compression (P) waves were generated by moving the base plate of T-Rex for a given number of cycles at a fixed frequency as discussed in Section 2. This process was repeated so that signal averaging in the time domain was performed using 3 to about 15 averages, with 5 averages typically used. In addition to the LBNL 3-D geophone, called the lower receiver herein, a 3-D geophone from Redpath Geophysics was fixed at a depth of 22 ft in Borehole C4993, and a 3-D geophone from the University of Texas was embedded near the borehole at about 1.5 ft below the ground surface. This volume is organized into 12 sections as follows: Section 1: Introduction, Section 2: Explanation of Terminology, Section 3: Vp Profile at Borehole C4993, Sections 4 to 6: Unfiltered P-wave records of lower vertical receiver, reaction mass, and reference receiver, Sections 7 to 9: Filtered P-wave signals of lower vertical receiver, reaction mass and reference receiver, Section 10: Expanded and filtered P-wave signals of lower vertical receiver, and Sections 11 and 12: Waterfall plots of unfiltered and filtered lower vertical receiver signals.

  10. Deep Downhole Seismic Testing at the Waste Treatment Plant Site, Hanford, WA. Volume II P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4996 Seismic Records, Wave-Arrival Identifications and Interpreted P-Wave Velocity Profile.

    SciTech Connect

    Stokoe, Kenneth H.; Li, Song Cheng; Cox, Brady R.; Menq, Farn-Yuh

    2007-07-06

    In this volume (II), all P-wave measurements are presented that were performed in Borehole C4996 at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) with T-Rex as the seismic source and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) 3-D wireline geophone as the at-depth borehole receiver. P-wave measurements were performed over the depth range of 360 to 1400 ft, typically in 10-ft intervals. However, in some interbeds, 5-ft depth intervals were used, while below about 1180 ft, depth intervals of 20 ft were used. Compression (P) waves were generated by moving the base plate of T-Rex for a given number of cycles at a fixed frequency as discussed in Section 2. This process was repeated so that signal averaging in the time domain was performed using 3 to about 15 averages, with 5 averages typically used. In addition to the LBNL 3-D geophone, called the lower receiver herein, a 3-D geophone from Redpath Geophysics was fixed at a depth of 22 ft in Borehole C4996, and a 3-D geophone from the University of Texas was embedded near the borehole at about 1.5 ft below the ground surface. This volume is organized into 12 sections as follows: Section 1: Introduction, Section 2: Explanation of Terminology, Section 3: Vp Profile at Borehole C4996, Sections 4 to 6: Unfiltered P-wave records of lower vertical receiver, reaction mass, and reference receiver, Sections 7 to 9: Filtered P-wave signals of lower vertical receiver, reaction mass and reference receiver, Section 10: Expanded and filtered P-wave signals of lower vertical receiver, and Sections 11 and 12: Waterfall plots of unfiltered and filtered lower vertical receiver signals.

  11. New Constraints on Buried Triassic Basins of the Eastern North American Margin and Implications for Regional Tectonics from Reanalysis of SeisData6 Seismic Profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, C. C.; Akintunde, O. M.; Knapp, J. H.

    2012-12-01

    The Eastern North American Margin (ENAM) is most significant due to the complexity and regional extent of this mature Mesozoic passive margin rift system encompassing: (1) a large volume and regional extent of related magmatism, (2) a preserved complete stratigraphic column that records the post-rift evolution in several basins, (3) preserved lithospheric-scale pre-rift structures including Paleozoic sutures, and (4) a wide-range of geological, geochemical, and geophysical studies both onshore and offshore. The short-lived but most voluminous magmatic event associated with the initiation of rifting, the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP), is one of the most significant magmatic events in North America. The South Georgia Rift (SGR) basin is believed to be the largest and probably the most geologically complex Mesozoic graben of the ENAM formed during crustal extension associated with the breakup of Pangea and later opening of the North Atlantic Ocean. The separation of the African and North American plates, the formation of the Atlantic Ocean and the associated zones of weakness in eastern North America have been stated as the initial events in the breakup of Pangea. At least four major unanswered questions of regional tectonic significance derive from a previous study of the USGS SeisData6 seismic profile across the Coastal Plain of South East Georgia and are now addressed through reprocessing. These issues are: (1) the stratigraphy, structural composition, extent and thickness of this buried basin which have remained unknown, (2) whether or not the SGR basin is connected with the Riddleville and Dunbarton basins in Georgia and South Carolina, (3) whether or not the Augusta fault, an inferred crustal scale thrust fault which approximately represents the Piedmont-Coastal Plain boundary in Georgia and South Carolina, extends underneath the Coastal Plain sediments, and (4) weather there is evidence of CAMP basalt flows or sills within the SGR basin along this

  12. Calibration of R/V Marcus G. Langseth Seismic Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diebold, J.; Tolstoy, M.; Webb, S.; Doermann, L.; Bohenstihl, D.; Nooner, S.; Crone, T.; Holmes, R. C.

    2008-12-01

    NSF-owned Research Vessel Marcus G. Langseth is operated by Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, providing the tools for full-scale marine seismic surveys to the academic community. Since inauguration of science operations, Langseth has successfully supported 2D and 3D seismic operations, including offshore- onshore and OBS refraction profiling A significant component of Langseths equipage is the seismic source, comprising four identical linear subarrays which can be combined in a number of configurations according to the needs of each scientific mission. To ensure a full understanding of the acoustic levels of these sources and in order to mitigate their possible impact upon marine life through accurate determination of safety radii, an extensive program of acoustic calibration was carried out in 2007 and 2008, during Langseths shakedown exercises. A total of 14000+ airgun array discharges were recorded in three separate locations with water depths varying from 1750 to 45 meters and at source-receiver offsets between near-zero and 17 km. The quantity of data recorded allows significant quantitative analysis of the sound levels produced by the Langseth seismic sources. A variety of acoustic metrics will be presented and compared, including peak levels and energy-based measures such as RMS, Energy Flux Density and its equivalent, Sound Exposure Level. It is clearly seen that water depth exerts a fundamental control on received sound levels, but also that these effects can be predicted with reasonable accuracy.

  13. Seismic model of the crust and upper mantle in the Scythian Platform: the DOBRE-5 profile across the north western Black Sea and the Crimean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starostenko, V.; Janik, T.; Yegorova, T.; Farfuliak, L.; Czuba, W.; Środa, P.; Thybo, H.; Artemieva, I.; Sosson, M.; Volfman, Y.; Kolomiyets, K.; Lysynchuk, D.; Omelchenko, V.; Gryn, D.; Guterch, A.; Komminaho, K.; Legostaeva, O.; Tiira, T.; Tolkunov, A.

    2015-04-01

    The Scythian Platform (ScP) with a heterogeneous basement of Baikalian-Variscan-Cimmerian age is located between the East European Craton (EEC) on the north and the Crimean-Caucasus orogenic belt and the Black Sea (BS) Basin on the south. In order to get new constrains on the basin architecture and crustal structure of the ScP and a better understanding of the tectonic processes and evolution of the southern margin of the EEC during Mesozoic and Cenozoic time, a 630-km-long seismic wide-angle refraction and reflection (WARR) profile DOBRE-5 was acquired in 2011 October. It crosses in a W-E direction the Fore-Dobrudja Trough, the Odessa Shelf of the BS and the Crimean Plain. The field acquisition included eight chemical shot points located every 50 km and recorded by 215 stations placed every ˜2.0 km on the land. In addition, the offshore data from existing profile 26, placed in the Odessa Shelf, were used. The obtained seismic model shows clear lateral segmentation of the crust within the study region on four domains: the Fore-Dobrudja Domain (km 20-160), an offshore domain of the Karkinit Trough at the Odessa Shelf of the BS (km 160-360), an onshore domain of the Central Crimean Uplift (Crimean Plain, km 360-520) and the Indolo-Kuban Trough at the Kerch Peninsula (km 520-620) that is the easternmost part of the Crimea. Two contrasting domains of the ScP within the central part of the DOBRE-5 profile, the Karkinit Trough and the Central Crimean Uplift, may represent different stages of the ScP formation. A deep Karkinit Trough with an underlying high-velocity (>7.16 km s-1) lower crust body suggests its rifting-related origin during Early Cretaceous time. The Central Crimean Uplift represents a thick (up to 47 km) crustal domain consisting of three layers with velocities 5.8-6.4, 6.5-6.6 and 6.7-7.0 km s-1, which could be evidence of this part of the ScP originating on the crust of Precambrian craton (EEC). The thick heterogeneous basement of the Central Crimean

  14. Perspectives for spintronics in 2D materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Wei

    2016-03-01

    The past decade has been especially creative for spintronics since the (re)discovery of various two dimensional (2D) materials. Due to the unusual physical characteristics, 2D materials have provided new platforms to probe the spin interaction with other degrees of freedom for electrons, as well as to be used for novel spintronics applications. This review briefly presents the most important recent and ongoing research for spintronics in 2D materials.

  15. Quantitative 2D liquid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    Giraudeau, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) liquid-state NMR has a very high potential to simultaneously determine the absolute concentration of small molecules in complex mixtures, thanks to its capacity to separate overlapping resonances. However, it suffers from two main drawbacks that probably explain its relatively late development. First, the 2D NMR signal is strongly molecule-dependent and site-dependent; second, the long duration of 2D NMR experiments prevents its general use for high-throughput quantitative applications and affects its quantitative performance. Fortunately, the last 10 years has witnessed an increasing number of contributions where quantitative approaches based on 2D NMR were developed and applied to solve real analytical issues. This review aims at presenting these recent efforts to reach a high trueness and precision in quantitative measurements by 2D NMR. After highlighting the interest of 2D NMR for quantitative analysis, the different strategies to determine the absolute concentrations from 2D NMR spectra are described and illustrated by recent applications. The last part of the manuscript concerns the recent development of fast quantitative 2D NMR approaches, aiming at reducing the experiment duration while preserving - or even increasing - the analytical performance. We hope that this comprehensive review will help readers to apprehend the current landscape of quantitative 2D NMR, as well as the perspectives that may arise from it.

  16. Seismic stratigraphy II: An integrated approach to hydrocarbon exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, O.R.; Woolverton, D.G.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 15 chapters. Some of the titles are: Vertical Seismic Profiling - A Measurement that Transfers Geology to Geophysics; Depositional Sequence Mapping to Illustrate the Evolution of a Passive Continental Margin; Seismic Stratigraphic Expression of Submarine Fans; Aspects of Seismic Resolution; and The Role of Horizontal Seismic Sections in Star Stratigraphic Interpretation.

  17. Deep Downhole Seismic Testing at the Waste Treatment Plant Site, Hanford, WA. Volume IV S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4993 Seismic Records, Wave-Arrival Identifications and Interpreted S-Wave Velocity Profile.

    SciTech Connect

    Stokoe, Kenneth H.; Li, Song Cheng; Cox, Brady R.; Menq, Farn-Yuh

    2007-06-06

    In this volume (IV), all S-wave measurements are presented that were performed in Borehole C4993 at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) with T-Rex as the seismic source and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) 3-D wireline geophone as the at-depth borehole receiver. S-wave measurements were performed over the depth range of 370 to 1300 ft, typically in 10-ft intervals. However, in some interbeds, 5-ft depth intervals were used, while below about 1200 ft, depth intervals of 20 ft were used. Shear (S) waves were generated by moving the base plate of T-Rex for a given number of cycles at a fixed frequency as discussed in Section 2. This process was repeated so that signal averaging in the time domain was performed using 3 to about 15 averages, with 5 averages typically used. In addition, a second average shear wave record was recorded by reversing the polarity of the motion of the T-Rex base plate. In this sense, all the signals recorded in the field were averaged signals. In all cases, the base plate was moving perpendicular to a radial line between the base plate and the borehole which is in and out of the plane of the figure shown in Figure 1.1. The definition of “in-line”, “cross-line”, “forward”, and “reversed” directions in items 2 and 3 of Section 2 was based on the moving direction of the base plate. In addition to the LBNL 3-D geophone, called the lower receiver herein, a 3-D geophone from Redpath Geophysics was fixed at a depth of 22 ft in Borehole C4993, and a 3-D geophone from the University of Texas (UT) was embedded near the borehole at about 1.5 ft below the ground surface. The Redpath geophone and the UT geophone were properly aligned so that one of the horizontal components in each geophone was aligned with the direction of horizontal shaking of the T-Rex base plate. This volume is organized into 12 sections as follows. Section 1: Introduction, Section 2: Explanation of Terminology, Section 3: Vs Profile at Borehole C4993

  18. Martian seismicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Roger J.; Grimm, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    The design and ultimate success of network seismology experiments on Mars depends on the present level of Martian seismicity. Volcanic and tectonic landforms observed from imaging experiments show that Mars must have been a seismically active planet in the past and there is no reason to discount the notion that Mars is seismically active today but at a lower level of activity. Models are explored for present day Mars seismicity. Depending on the sensitivity and geometry of a seismic network and the attenuation and scattering properties of the interior, it appears that a reasonable number of Martian seismic events would be detected over the period of a decade. The thermoelastic cooling mechanism as estimated is surely a lower bound, and a more refined estimate would take into account specifically the regional cooling of Tharsis and lead to a higher frequency of seismic events.

  19. Structural characteristics of the Lake Van Basin, eastern Turkey, from high-resolution seismic reflection profiles and multibeam echosounder data: geologic and tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cukur, Deniz; Krastel, Sebastian; Tomonaga, Yama; Schmincke, Hans-Ulrich; Sumita, Mari; Meydan, Ayşegül Feray; Çağatay, M. Namık; Toker, Mustafa; Kim, Seong-Pil; Kong, Gee-Soo; Horozal, Senay

    2016-03-01

    The structural evolution of Lake Van Basin, eastern Turkey, was reconstructed based on seismic reflection profiles through the sedimentary fill as well as from newly acquired multibeam echosounder data. The major sub-basins (Tatvan Basin and Northern Basin) of Lake Van, bound by NE-trending faults with normal components, formed during the past ~600 ka probably due to extensional tectonics resulting from lithospheric thinning and mantle upwelling related to the westward escape of Anatolia. Rapid extension and subsidence during early lake formation led to the opening of the two sub-basins. Two major, still active volcanoes (Nemrut and Süphan) grew close to the lake basins approximately synchronously, their explosive deposits making up >20 % of the drilled upper 220 m of the ca. 550-m-thick sedimentary fill. During basin development, extension and subsidence alternated with compressional periods, particularly between ~340 and 290 ka and sometime before ~14 ka, when normal fault movements reversed and gentle anticlines formed as a result of inversion. The ~14 ka event was accompanied by widespread uplift and erosion along the northeastern margin of the lake, and substantial erosion took place on the crests of the folds. A series of closely spaced eruptions of Süphan volcano occurred synchronously suggesting a causal relationship. Compression is still prevalent inside and around Lake Van as evidenced by recent faults offsetting the lake floor and by recent devastating earthquakes along their onshore continuations. New, high-resolution bathymetry data from Lake Van reveal the morphology of the Northern Ridge and provide strong evidence for ongoing transpression on a dextral strike-slip fault as documented by the occurrence of several pop-up structures along the ridge.

  20. Morphology, structure, and tectonic evolution of the Mona canyon (northern Mona passage) from multibeam bathymetry, side-scan sonar, and seismic reflection profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondziel, Steven; Grindlay, Nancy; Mann, Paul; Escalona, Alejandro; Abrams, Lewis

    2010-04-01

    The submarine Mona Canyon is a rift between Puerto Rico and Hispaniola of the Greater Antilles. An integrated marine geophysical data set, including multibeam bathymetry, side-scan sonar imagery, single channel and multichannel seismic reflection profiles is used to evaluate the morphology, structure, and tectonic evolution of the Mona Canyon. A structural restoration of the central Mona canyon indicates that extension in the rift initiated in the Middle Oligocene, approximately 30 Ma. A minimum total extension of 6.1 km and a minimum longitudinal strain of 11.4% across the central Mona canyon are calculated. The overall extension is proposed to have occurred over two phases. Phase I occurred from the Middle Oligocene to Late Miocene, and was a slow (0.09 mm/yr) stage of at least 1.7 km of opening. Phase II was most likely controlled by the impact of the subducted southeast portion of the Bahamas platform beneath the northeastern Caribbean plate margin. Phase II was a more rapid (0.4 mm/yr) stage of extension of at least 4.4 km that occurred from the Late Pliocene to the Recent as the SE Bahamas collision warped the middle and upper slope of the northern Puerto Rico margin along its advancing path and slowed the eastward movement of Hispaniola relative to Puerto Rico. The upper reaches of the Mona canyon form the trailing edge of the Puerto Rico-Virgin Islands block as it pulls away from a pinned Hispaniola. The Mona reentrant marks the trailing edge of a northern Hispaniola forearc sliver that forms due to increased coupling between the subducting North America plate and the overriding plate.

  1. Staring 2-D hadamard transform spectral imager

    DOEpatents

    Gentry, Stephen M.; Wehlburg, Christine M.; Wehlburg, Joseph C.; Smith, Mark W.; Smith, Jody L.

    2006-02-07

    A staring imaging system inputs a 2D spatial image containing multi-frequency spectral information. This image is encoded in one dimension of the image with a cyclic Hadamarid S-matrix. The resulting image is detecting with a spatial 2D detector; and a computer applies a Hadamard transform to recover the encoded image.

  2. The MARINER Integrated Seismic and Geophysical Mapping Experiment (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, R. A.; Canales, J.; Sohn, R. A.; Paulatto, M.; Arai, R.; Szitkar, F.

    2013-12-01

    The MARINER (Mid-Atlantic Ridge INtegrated Experiments at Rainbow) seismic and geophysical mapping experiment was designed to examine the relationship between tectonic rifting, heat/melt supply, and oceanic core complex formation at a non-transform offset (NTO) of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 36°N, the site of the ultramafic-hosted Rainbow hydrothermal system. We present an overview of the components of the experiment and the various projects stemming from it. The 5-week experiment was carried out aboard the R/V M. G. Langseth in April-May 2013, and consisted of a 3D active-source seismic tomography experiment, 2D multi-channel seismic profiles, an on-going nine month passive micro-seismicity study, dense acoustic mapping of the seafloor (including depth and amplitude information), gravity field mapping, and magnetic field mapping. During the tomography experiment, we deployed 46 ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) over a 35 x 80 sq. km area centered on Rainbow. Twenty-six wide-angle seismic lines were carried out using the Langseth's 36-element source, generating ~175,000 seismic records. The MCS experiment, which was also recorded on 20 OBS, consisted of twenty-one densely spaced seismic lines using an 8-km-long hydrophone streamer. Bathymetry, gravity, and magnetic surveys were carried out over a broader, 80x105 sq. km, area centered on Rainbow. Overall, the experiment extends across two segments of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge separated by the Rainbow NTO massif. MARINER multi-beam bathymetry and acoustic imagery provide a broad view of the geologic and geophysical character of the ridge system, emphasizing the strong variability of ridge morphology, tectonics, and lava emplacement. The magnetization map shows a clear central anomaly with normal polarity, flanked by regions of negative polarity, consistent with the Brunhes-Matuyama reversal (~780,000 Ma). Rainbow itself lies in a region of weaker magnetization strength, which could be linked to a decrease in the depth of the

  3. 2D Backstripping Applied to Measuring Sea Level History at the New Jersey Margin (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mountain, G. S.; Steckler, M. S.; Katz, M. E.; Browning, J. V.; Miller, K. G.

    2013-12-01

    IODP Expedition 313 cored and logged three sites in 33-35 m of water on the New Jersey inner shelf, targeting the rollover of buried clinothems where the imprint of past sea-level variation is especially well expressed and accessible to drilling. We report results of 2D backstripping along a seismic profile linking these sites and we show seafloor reconstructions that constrain the magnitudes of lower and mid-Miocene eustatic changes. 2D backstripping consists of five steps that sequentially remove the accumulated effects of subsidence and deformation, and reconstructs a seafloor transect at time intervals of one's choosing. We began by removing sediment above each of several dozen horizons previously mapped throughout a grid of high quality seismic data, allowing the underlying layers to unload using flexural isostasy with an elastic plate thickness of 23 to 30 km. We then made corrections for compaction due to the weight of overlying sediments removed in previous steps. These corrections were based on the exponential decrease in porosity with depth derived from log measurements within the boreholes, from MultiSensorCoreLogger measurements of unsplit cores, and from discrete samples extracted from each 1.5 m core section. Lateral changes in lithofacies/compaction between sites were estimated based on seismic facies and horizon geometry, and decompacted layers were restored to their original porosities and thicknesses. Corrections for thermal subsidence from the Oligocene to the present were made using a 2D thermal model for the New Jersey margin, based on knowledge of the sedimentary and lithospheric structure that provided estimates of the overall tectonic subsidence. Estimates for change in sea level since the time of each reconstruction were made by computing the paleobathymetry and adjusting the sea level height to optimally match the estimates of paleobathymetry, which were based on integrated litho- and biofacies of the relevant deposits at all three Exp

  4. 2D materials for nanophotonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Renjing; Yang, Jiong; Zhang, Shuang; Pei, Jiajie; Lu, Yuerui

    2015-12-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have become very important building blocks for electronic, photonic, and phononic devices. The 2D material family has four key members, including the metallic graphene, transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) layered semiconductors, semiconducting black phosphorous, and the insulating h-BN. Owing to the strong quantum confinements and defect-free surfaces, these atomically thin layers have offered us perfect platforms to investigate the interactions among photons, electrons and phonons. The unique interactions in these 2D materials are very important for both scientific research and application engineering. In this talk, I would like to briefly summarize and highlight the key findings, opportunities and challenges in this field. Next, I will introduce/highlight our recent achievements. We demonstrated atomically thin micro-lens and gratings using 2D MoS2, which is the thinnest optical component around the world. These devices are based on our discovery that the elastic light-matter interactions in highindex 2D materials is very strong. Also, I would like to introduce a new two-dimensional material phosphorene. Phosphorene has strongly anisotropic optical response, which creates 1D excitons in a 2D system. The strong confinement in phosphorene also enables the ultra-high trion (charged exciton) binding energies, which have been successfully measured in our experiments. Finally, I will briefly talk about the potential applications of 2D materials in energy harvesting.

  5. Internal Photoemission Spectroscopy of 2-D Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Nhan; Li, Mingda; Vishwanath, Suresh; Yan, Rusen; Xiao, Shudong; Xing, Huili; Cheng, Guangjun; Hight Walker, Angela; Zhang, Qin

    Recent research has shown the great benefits of using 2-D materials in the tunnel field-effect transistor (TFET), which is considered a promising candidate for the beyond-CMOS technology. The on-state current of TFET can be enhanced by engineering the band alignment of different 2D-2D or 2D-3D heterostructures. Here we present the internal photoemission spectroscopy (IPE) approach to determine the band alignments of various 2-D materials, in particular SnSe2 and WSe2, which have been proposed for new TFET designs. The metal-oxide-2-D semiconductor test structures are fabricated and characterized by IPE, where the band offsets from the 2-D semiconductor to the oxide conduction band minimum are determined by the threshold of the cube root of IPE yields as a function of photon energy. In particular, we find that SnSe2 has a larger electron affinity than most semiconductors and can be combined with other semiconductors to form near broken-gap heterojunctions with low barrier heights which can produce a higher on-state current. The details of data analysis of IPE and the results from Raman spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements will also be presented and discussed.

  6. Seismic Ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seleznev, V. S.; Soloviev, V. M.; Emanov, A. F.

    The paper is devoted to researches of influence of seismic actions for industrial and civil buildings and people. The seismic actions bring influence directly on the people (vibration actions, force shocks at earthquakes) or indirectly through various build- ings and the constructions and can be strong (be felt by people) and weak (be fixed by sensing devices). The great number of work is devoted to influence of violent seismic actions (first of all of earthquakes) on people and various constructions. This work is devoted to study weak, but long seismic actions on various buildings and people. There is a need to take into account seismic oscillations, acting on the territory, at construction of various buildings on urbanized territories. Essential influence, except for violent earthquakes, man-caused seismic actions: the explosions, seismic noise, emitted by plant facilities and moving transport, radiation from high-rise buildings and constructions under action of a wind, etc. can exert. Materials on increase of man- caused seismicity in a number of regions in Russia, which earlier were not seismic, are presented in the paper. Along with maps of seismic microzoning maps to be built indicating a variation of amplitude spectra of seismic noise within day, months, years. The presence of an information about amplitudes and frequencies of oscillations from possible earthquakes and man-caused oscillations in concrete regions allows carry- ing out soundly designing and construction of industrial and civil housing projects. The construction of buildings even in not seismically dangerous regions, which have one from resonance frequencies coincident on magnitude to frequency of oscillations, emitted in this place by man-caused objects, can end in failure of these buildings and heaviest consequences for the people. The practical examples of detail of engineering- seismological investigation of large industrial and civil housing projects of Siberia territory (hydro power

  7. 2D materials: to graphene and beyond.

    PubMed

    Mas-Ballesté, Rubén; Gómez-Navarro, Cristina; Gómez-Herrero, Julio; Zamora, Félix

    2011-01-01

    This review is an attempt to illustrate the different alternatives in the field of 2D materials. Graphene seems to be just the tip of the iceberg and we show how the discovery of alternative 2D materials is starting to show the rest of this iceberg. The review comprises the current state-of-the-art of the vast literature in concepts and methods already known for isolation and characterization of graphene, and rationalizes the quite disperse literature in other 2D materials such as metal oxides, hydroxides and chalcogenides, and metal-organic frameworks.

  8. Regional Seismic Travel Time Node Get and Set

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, S. C.

    2012-10-24

    RSTT_NOGS allows users to easily get and set seismic velocity vs. depth profiles at specified model tessellation nodes. RSTT_NOGS uses the Sandia Seismic Location Baseline Model code that was released under BSD license in 2009.

  9. 2-d Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    1996-07-15

    ORION is an interactive program that serves as a postprocessor for the analysis programs NIKE2D, DYNA2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. ORION reads binary plot files generated by the two-dimensional finite element codes currently used by the Methods Development Group at LLNL. Contour and color fringe plots of a large number of quantities may be displayed on meshes consisting of triangular and quadrilateral elements. ORION can compute strain measures, interface pressures along slide lines, reaction forcesmore » along constrained boundaries, and momentum. ORION has been applied to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.« less

  10. Matrix models of 2d gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsparg, P.

    1991-01-01

    These are introductory lectures for a general audience that give an overview of the subject of matrix models and their application to random surfaces, 2d gravity, and string theory. They are intentionally 1.5 years out of date.

  11. Matrix models of 2d gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsparg, P.

    1991-12-31

    These are introductory lectures for a general audience that give an overview of the subject of matrix models and their application to random surfaces, 2d gravity, and string theory. They are intentionally 1.5 years out of date.

  12. Brittle damage models in DYNA2D

    SciTech Connect

    Faux, D.R.

    1997-09-01

    DYNA2D is an explicit Lagrangian finite element code used to model dynamic events where stress wave interactions influence the overall response of the system. DYNA2D is often used to model penetration problems involving ductile-to-ductile impacts; however, with the advent of the use of ceramics in the armor-anti-armor community and the need to model damage to laser optics components, good brittle damage models are now needed in DYNA2D. This report will detail the implementation of four brittle damage models in DYNA2D, three scalar damage models and one tensor damage model. These new brittle damage models are then used to predict experimental results from three distinctly different glass damage problems.

  13. Chemical Approaches to 2D Materials.

    PubMed

    Samorì, Paolo; Palermo, Vincenzo; Feng, Xinliang

    2016-08-01

    Chemistry plays an ever-increasing role in the production, functionalization, processing and applications of graphene and other 2D materials. This special issue highlights a selection of enlightening chemical approaches to 2D materials, which nicely reflect the breadth of the field and convey the excitement of the individuals involved in it, who are trying to translate graphene and related materials from the laboratory into a real, high-impact technology. PMID:27478083

  14. Chemical Approaches to 2D Materials.

    PubMed

    Samorì, Paolo; Palermo, Vincenzo; Feng, Xinliang

    2016-08-01

    Chemistry plays an ever-increasing role in the production, functionalization, processing and applications of graphene and other 2D materials. This special issue highlights a selection of enlightening chemical approaches to 2D materials, which nicely reflect the breadth of the field and convey the excitement of the individuals involved in it, who are trying to translate graphene and related materials from the laboratory into a real, high-impact technology.

  15. Seismic Imaging Processing and Migration

    2000-06-26

    Salvo is a 3D, finite difference, prestack, depth migration code for parallel computers. It is also capable of processing 2D and poststack data. The code requires as input a seismic dataset, a velocity model and a file of parameters that allows the user to select various options. The code uses this information to produce a seismic image. Some of the options available to the user include the application of various filters and imaging conditions. Themore » code also incorporates phase encoding (patent applied for) to process multiple shots simultaneously.« less

  16. Glitter in a 2D monolayer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li-Ming; Dornfeld, Matthew; Frauenheim, Thomas; Ganz, Eric

    2015-10-21

    We predict a highly stable and robust atomically thin gold monolayer with a hexagonal close packed lattice stabilized by metallic bonding with contributions from strong relativistic effects and aurophilic interactions. We have shown that the framework of the Au monolayer can survive 10 ps MD annealing simulations up to 1400 K. The framework is also able to survive large motions out of the plane. Due to the smaller number of bonds per atom in the 2D layer compared to the 3D bulk we observe significantly enhanced energy per bond (0.94 vs. 0.52 eV per bond). This is similar to the increase in bond strength going from 3D diamond to 2D graphene. It is a non-magnetic metal, and was found to be the global minima in the 2D space. Phonon dispersion calculations demonstrate high kinetic stability with no negative modes. This 2D gold monolayer corresponds to the top monolayer of the bulk Au(111) face-centered cubic lattice. The close-packed lattice maximizes the aurophilic interactions. We find that the electrons are completely delocalized in the plane and behave as 2D nearly free electron gas. We hope that the present work can inspire the experimental fabrication of novel free standing 2D metal systems.

  17. 2d index and surface operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadde, Abhijit; Gukov, Sergei

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we compute the superconformal index of 2d (2, 2) supersymmetric gauge theories. The 2d superconformal index, a.k.a. flavored elliptic genus, is computed by a unitary matrix integral much like the matrix integral that computes the 4d superconformal index. We compute the 2d index explicitly for a number of examples. In the case of abelian gauge theories we see that the index is invariant under flop transition and under CY-LG correspondence. The index also provides a powerful check of the Seiberg-type duality for non-abelian gauge theories discovered by Hori and Tong. In the later half of the paper, we study half-BPS surface operators in = 2 super-conformal gauge theories. They are engineered by coupling the 2d (2, 2) supersymmetric gauge theory living on the support of the surface operator to the 4d = 2 theory, so that different realizations of the same surface operator with a given Levi type are related by a 2d analogue of the Seiberg duality. The index of this coupled system is computed by using the tools developed in the first half of the paper. The superconformal index in the presence of surface defect is expected to be invariant under generalized S-duality. We demonstrate that it is indeed the case. In doing so the Seiberg-type duality of the 2d theory plays an important role.

  18. 3-D Seismic Tomographic Modelling of the North-Western Spitsbergen Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czuba, W.

    2015-12-01

    Deep seismic sounding measurements were performed in the continent-ocean transition zone of the north-western Svalbard continental margin in 1976 - 1999 in an international co-operation. Seismic energy (airgun and TNT shots) was recorded by land (onshore) seismic stations, ocean bottom seismometers (OBS), and ocean bottom hydrophone systems (OBH). Data from archival and modern seismic profiles were altogether used for 3-D tomographic inversion using JIVE3D software. The modelling area was chosen to be a rectangle of 420 x 330 km (Fig.). The results are similar to the earlier 2-D modelling, supplemented by off-line information from the profiles and the SPITS permanent station, giving a 3-D image of the crustal structure and Moho interface shape. The continental crust thins to the west and north. A minimum depth of about 6 km to the Moho discontinuity was found east of the Molloy Deep and in the Knipovich Ridge. The Moho interface deepens to about 30 km beneath the continental crust of Spitsbergen.

  19. Interpretation of Magnetic Phase Anomalies over 2D Tabular Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subrahmanyam, M.

    2016-05-01

    In this study, phase angle (inverse tangent of the ratio of the horizontal to vertical gradients of magnetic anomalies) profile over two-dimensional tabular bodies has been subjected to detailed analysis for determining the source parameters. Distances between certain characteristic positions on this phase curve are related to the parameters of two-dimensional tabular magnetic sources. In this paper, I have derived the mathematical expressions for these relations. It has been demonstrated here that for locating the origin of the 2D tabular source, knowledge on the type of the model (contact, sheet, dyke, and fault) is not necessary. A procedure is evolved to determine the location, depth, width and magnetization angle of the 2D sources from the mathematical expressions. The method is tested on real field data. The effect of the overlapping bodies is also discussed with two synthetic examples. The interpretation technique is developed for contact, sheet, dike and inclined fault bodies.

  20. 2-D Path Corrections for Local and Regional Coda Waves: A Test of Transportability

    SciTech Connect

    Mayeda, K M; Malagnini, L; Phillips, W S; Walter, W R; Dreger, D S; Morasca, P

    2005-07-13

    Reliable estimates of the seismic source spectrum are necessary for accurate magnitude, yield, and energy estimation. In particular, how seismic radiated energy scales with increasing earthquake size has been the focus of recent debate within the community and has direct implications on earthquake source physics studies as well as hazard mitigation. The 1-D coda methodology of Mayeda et al. [2003] has provided the lowest variance estimate of the source spectrum when compared against traditional approaches that use direct S-waves, thus making it ideal for networks that have sparse station distribution. The 1-D coda methodology has been mostly confined to regions of approximately uniform complexity. For larger, more geophysically complicated regions, 2-D path corrections may be required. We will compare performance of 1-D versus 2-D path corrections in a variety of regions. First, the complicated tectonics of the northern California region coupled with high quality broadband seismic data provides for an ideal ''apples-to-apples'' test of 1-D and 2-D path assumptions on direct waves and their coda. Next, we will compare results for the Italian Alps using high frequency data from the University of Genoa. For Northern California, we used the same station and event distribution and compared 1-D and 2-D path corrections and observed the following results: (1) 1-D coda results reduced the amplitude variance relative to direct S-waves by roughly a factor of 8 (800%); (2) Applying a 2-D correction to the coda resulted in up to 40% variance reduction from the 1-D coda results; (3) 2-D direct S-wave results, though better than 1-D direct waves, were significantly worse than the 1-D coda. We found that coda-based moment-rate source spectra derived from the 2-D approach were essentially identical to those from the 1-D approach for frequencies less than {approx}0.7-Hz, however for the high frequencies (0.7 {le} f {le} 8.0-Hz), the 2-D approach resulted in inter-station scatter

  1. Seismic Prediction While Drilling (SPWD): Seismic exploration ahead of the drill bit using phased array sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaksch, Katrin; Giese, Rüdiger; Kopf, Matthias

    2010-05-01

    In the case of drilling for deep reservoirs previous exploration is indispensable. In recent years the focus shifted more on geological structures like small layers or hydrothermal fault systems. Beside 2D- or 3D-seismics from the surface and seismic measurements like Vertical Seismic Profile (VSP) or Seismic While Drilling (SWD) within a borehole these methods cannot always resolute this structures. The resolution is worsen the deeper and smaller the sought-after structures are. So, potential horizons like small layers in oil exploration or fault zones usable for geothermal energy production could be failed or not identified while drilling. The application of a device to explore the geology with a high resolution ahead of the drill bit in direction of drilling would be of high importance. Such a device would allow adjusting the drilling path according to the real geology and would minimize the risk of discovery and hence the costs for drilling. Within the project SPWD a device for seismic exploration ahead of the drill bit will be developed. This device should allow the seismic exploration to predict areas about 50 to 100 meters ahead of the drill bit with a resolution of one meter. At the GFZ a first prototype consisting of different units for seismic sources, receivers and data loggers has been designed and manufactured. As seismic sources four standard magnetostrictive actuators and as receivers four 3-component-geophones are used. Every unit, actuator or geophone, can be rotated in steps of 15° around the longitudinal axis of the prototype to test different measurement configurations. The SPWD prototype emits signal frequencies of about 500 up to 5000 Hz which are significant higher than in VSP and SWD. An increased radiation of seismic wave energy in the direction of the borehole axis allows the view in areas to be drilled. Therefore, every actuator must be controlled independently of each other regarding to amplitude and phase of the source signal to

  2. Multichannel analysis of surface-waves and integration of downhole acoustic televiewer imaging, ultrasonic Vs and Vp, and vertical seismic profiling in an NEHRP-standard classification, South of Concordia, Kansas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raef, Abdelmoneam; Gad, Sabreen; Tucker-Kulesza, Stacey

    2015-10-01

    Seismic site characteristics, as pertaining to earthquake hazard reduction, are a function of the subsurface elastic moduli and the geologic structures. This study explores how multiscale (surface, downhole, and laboratory) datasets can be utilized to improve "constrained" average Vs30 (shear-wave velocity to a 30-meter depth). We integrate borehole, surface and laboratory measurements for a seismic site classification based on the standards of the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP). The seismic shear-wave velocity (Vs30) was derived from a geophysical inversion workflow that utilized multichannel analysis of surface-waves (MASW) and downhole acoustic televiewer imaging (DATI). P-wave and S-wave velocities, based on laboratory measurements of arrival times of ultrasonic-frequency signals, supported the workflow by enabling us to calculate Poisson's ratio, which was incorporated in building an initial model for the geophysical inversion of MASW. Extraction of core samples from two boreholes provided lithology and thickness calibration of the amplitudes of the acoustic televiewer imaging for each layer. The MASW inversion, for calculating Vs sections, was constrained with both ultrasonic laboratory measurements (from first arrivals of Vs and Vp waveforms at simulated in situ overburden stress conditions) and the downhole acoustic televiewer (DATV) amplitude logs. The Vs30 calculations enabled categorizing the studied site as NEHRP-class "C" - very dense soil and soft rock. Unlike shallow fractured carbonates in the studied area, S-wave and P-wave velocities at ultrasonic frequency for the deeper intact shale core-samples from two boreholes were in better agreement with the corresponding velocities from both a zero-offset vertical seismic profiling (VSP) and inversion of Rayleigh-wave velocity dispersion curves.

  3. Seismic imaging of the Scandinavian Caledonides to define ICDP drilling sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedin, Peter; Juhlin, Christopher; Gee, David G.

    2012-07-01

    A 36 kilometer long high resolution 2D seismic reflection profile was acquired in the summer of 2010 to be used in the planning of the COSC (Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides) Deep Drilling Project. Two fully cored boreholes, each to c. 2.5 km depth, are planned for the Åre-Mörsil area of west-central Sweden in order to increase our understanding of orogenic processes and, in particular, the tectonic evolution of the Scandinavian Caledonides. Besides providing important sub-surface structural information in the vicinity of the potential drill sites, the seismic profile also provides detailed, high resolution images previously not available for the uppermost few kilometers in the region. The subsurface is highly reflective and very complex down to at least 9 km depth (the limit of decoded data) with clear reflections spanning the entire length of the profile. Correlation with previous regional reflection seismic and magnetotelluric surveys has been achieved by acquisition of a short (7 km) connecting profile. A clearly defined reflection, present in the new profile at depths between c. 2.5 km in the east and c. 4.5 km in the west and with an average westwards dip of c. 3.5°, apparently defines the base of the Lower Allochthon. Closer to the Caledonian front, this sole thrust overlies the Cambrian alum shale formation, which rests unconformably on the autochthonous Precambrian crystalline basement. The latter is remarkable for its deep internal reflectivity which is probably related to mafic intrusions in a dominantly granitic host-rock; their deformation may be of both Caledonian and older (e.g. Sveconorwegian) age. The new high resolution seismic data provide the basis for locating the first borehole in the Seve Nappe Complex. They also demonstrate that the second hole, designed to penetrate the Caledonian basement, will have to be located further east than was originally planned.

  4. Seismic volumetric flattening and segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomask, Jesse

    Two novel algorithms provide seismic interpretation solutions that use the full dimensionality of the data. The first is volumetric flattening and the second is image segmentation for tracking salt boundaries. Volumetric flattening is an efficient full-volume automatic dense-picking method applied to seismic data. First local dips (step-outs) are calculated over the entire seismic volume. The dips are then resolved into time shifts (or depth shifts) in a least-squares sense. To handle faults (discontinuous reflections), I apply a weighted inversion scheme. Additional information is incorporated in this flattening algorithm as geological constraints. The method is tested successfully on both synthetic and field data sets of varying degrees of complexity including salt piercements, angular unconformities, and laterally limited faults. The second full-volume interpretation method uses normalized cuts image segmentation to track salt interfaces. I apply a modified version of the normalized cuts image segmentation (NCIS) method to partition seismic images along salt interfaces. The method is capable of tracking interfaces that are not continuous, where conventional horizon tracking algorithms may fail. This method partitions the seismic image into two groups. One group is inside the salt body and the other is outside. Where the two groups meet is the salt boundary. By imposing bounds and by distributing the algorithm on a parallel cluster, I significantly increase efficiency and robustness. This method is demonstrated to be effective on both 2D and 3D seismic data sets.

  5. Finite Element Analysis of 2-D Elastic Contacts Involving FGMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abhilash, M. N.; Murthy, H.

    2014-05-01

    The response of elastic indenters in contact with Functionally Graded Material (FGM) coated homogeneous elastic half space has been presented in the current paper. Finite element analysis has been used due to its ability to handle complex geometry, material, and boundary conditions. Indenters of different typical surface profiles have been considered and the problem has been idealized as a two-dimensional (2D) plane strain problem considering only normal loads. Initially, indenters were considered to be rigid and the results were validated with the solutions presented in the literature. The analysis has then been extended to the case of elastic indenters on FGM-coated half spaces and the results are discussed.

  6. 2D microwave imaging reflectometer electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Spear, A. G.; Domier, C. W. Hu, X.; Muscatello, C. M.; Ren, X.; Luhmann, N. C.; Tobias, B. J.

    2014-11-15

    A 2D microwave imaging reflectometer system has been developed to visualize electron density fluctuations on the DIII-D tokamak. Simultaneously illuminated at four probe frequencies, large aperture optics image reflections from four density-dependent cutoff surfaces in the plasma over an extended region of the DIII-D plasma. Localized density fluctuations in the vicinity of the plasma cutoff surfaces modulate the plasma reflections, yielding a 2D image of electron density fluctuations. Details are presented of the receiver down conversion electronics that generate the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) reflectometer signals from which 2D density fluctuation data are obtained. Also presented are details on the control system and backplane used to manage the electronics as well as an introduction to the computer based control program.

  7. Optical modulators with 2D layered materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhipei; Martinez, Amos; Wang, Feng

    2016-04-01

    Light modulation is an essential operation in photonics and optoelectronics. With existing and emerging technologies increasingly demanding compact, efficient, fast and broadband optical modulators, high-performance light modulation solutions are becoming indispensable. The recent realization that 2D layered materials could modulate light with superior performance has prompted intense research and significant advances, paving the way for realistic applications. In this Review, we cover the state of the art of optical modulators based on 2D materials, including graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus. We discuss recent advances employing hybrid structures, such as 2D heterostructures, plasmonic structures, and silicon and fibre integrated structures. We also take a look at the future perspectives and discuss the potential of yet relatively unexplored mechanisms, such as magneto-optic and acousto-optic modulation.

  8. Inkjet printing of 2D layered materials.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiantong; Lemme, Max C; Östling, Mikael

    2014-11-10

    Inkjet printing of 2D layered materials, such as graphene and MoS2, has attracted great interests for emerging electronics. However, incompatible rheology, low concentration, severe aggregation and toxicity of solvents constitute critical challenges which hamper the manufacturing efficiency and product quality. Here, we introduce a simple and general technology concept (distillation-assisted solvent exchange) to efficiently overcome these challenges. By implementing the concept, we have demonstrated excellent jetting performance, ideal printing patterns and a variety of promising applications for inkjet printing of 2D layered materials. PMID:25169938

  9. Inkjet printing of 2D layered materials.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiantong; Lemme, Max C; Östling, Mikael

    2014-11-10

    Inkjet printing of 2D layered materials, such as graphene and MoS2, has attracted great interests for emerging electronics. However, incompatible rheology, low concentration, severe aggregation and toxicity of solvents constitute critical challenges which hamper the manufacturing efficiency and product quality. Here, we introduce a simple and general technology concept (distillation-assisted solvent exchange) to efficiently overcome these challenges. By implementing the concept, we have demonstrated excellent jetting performance, ideal printing patterns and a variety of promising applications for inkjet printing of 2D layered materials.

  10. Overview of seismic imagery techniques applied to landslides characterization.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandjean, Gilles; Romdhane, Anouar; Bitri, Adnand

    2010-05-01

    From numerous studies, geophysical methods based on seismic surveying appear to be well-adapted to investigate the morpho-structure of landslides and to progress in understanding the related mechanisms. Indeed, these methods allow direct and non-intrusive measurements of acoustic (Vp) or shear (Vs) wave velocity, two important physical parameters for estimating mechanical properties of reworked moving materials. Different processing techniques and inversion strategies were applied on the La Valette and Super-Sauze mudslides (French South Alps) as well as on the Ballandaz landslide (Savoie, France) to retrieve these parameters. On each of these sites, measurements were recorded along 2D profiles of several hundred meters length, with sensor spacing from 2 to 5m. (of about few meters). A first approach, based on first breaks acoustic inversion for estimating Vp distribution on the Super-Sauze and La Valette sites was carried out; then, SASW (spectral analysis of surface waves) was performed to image Vs distribution on the same site. In order to produce a more geotechnical diagnosis of these sections, a fuzzy logic fusion was used to assimilate both of these parameters into a highest level of interpretation. This approach has (also) the advantage to take into account the resolution and accuracy of each individual method. Finally, a 2D elastic full-waveform inversion test was carried out on a synthetic seismic data set computed from a conceptual Super-Sauze velocity model. This test highlights the difficulty to manage highly contrasted media in terms of velocity but also of topography. Nevertheless, the integration in the inversion process of the whole seismic signal produce a more coherent model in terms of Vp and Vs distribution compared to above-cited conventional techniques.

  11. Seismic seiches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGarr, Arthur; Gupta, Harsh K.

    2011-01-01

    Seismic seiche is a term first used by Kvale (1955) to discuss oscillations of lake levels in Norway and England caused by the Assam earthquake of August 15, 1950. This definition has since been generalized to apply to standing waves set up in closed, or partially closed, bodies of water including rivers, shipping channels, lakes, swimming pools and tanks due to the passage of seismic waves from an earthquake.

  12. Parallel stitching of 2D materials

    DOE PAGES

    Ling, Xi; Wu, Lijun; Lin, Yuxuan; Ma, Qiong; Wang, Ziqiang; Song, Yi; Yu, Lili; Huang, Shengxi; Fang, Wenjing; Zhang, Xu; et al

    2016-01-27

    Diverse parallel stitched 2D heterostructures, including metal–semiconductor, semiconductor–semiconductor, and insulator–semiconductor, are synthesized directly through selective “sowing” of aromatic molecules as the seeds in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Lastly, the methodology enables the large-scale fabrication of lateral heterostructures, which offers tremendous potential for its application in integrated circuits.

  13. Parallel Stitching of 2D Materials.

    PubMed

    Ling, Xi; Lin, Yuxuan; Ma, Qiong; Wang, Ziqiang; Song, Yi; Yu, Lili; Huang, Shengxi; Fang, Wenjing; Zhang, Xu; Hsu, Allen L; Bie, Yaqing; Lee, Yi-Hsien; Zhu, Yimei; Wu, Lijun; Li, Ju; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo; Dresselhaus, Mildred; Palacios, Tomás; Kong, Jing

    2016-03-23

    Diverse parallel stitched 2D heterostructures, including metal-semiconductor, semiconductor-semiconductor, and insulator-semiconductor, are synthesized directly through selective "sowing" of aromatic molecules as the seeds in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The methodology enables the large-scale fabrication of lateral heterostructures, which offers tremendous potential for its application in integrated circuits.

  14. Interface adhesion between 2D materials and elastomers measured by buckle delamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, Christopher; Lu, Nanshu

    2015-03-01

    A major application for 2D materials is creating electronic devices, including flexible and wearable devices. These applications require complicated fabrication processes where 2D materials are either mechanically exfoliated or grown via chemical vapor deposition and then transferred to a host substrate. Both processes require intimate knowledge of the interactions between the 2D material and the substrate to allow for a controllable transfer. Although adhesion between 2D materials and stiff substrates such as silicon and copper have been measured by bulge or peeling tests, adhesion between 2D materials and soft polymer substrates are hard to measure by conventional methods. Here we propose a simple way of measuring the adhesion between 2D materials and soft, stretchable elastomers using mature continuum mechanics equations. By creating buckle delamination in 2D atomic layers and measuring the buckle profile using an atomic force microscope, we can readily extract 2D-elastomer adhesion energy. Here we look at the adhesion of MoS2 and graphene to PDMS. The measured adhesion values are found insensitive to the applied strains in the substrate and are one order smaller than 2D-silicon oxide adhesion which is mainly attributed substrate surface roughness differences.

  15. Seismic-wave attenuation associated with crustal faults in the New Madrid seismic zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, R.M.; Mooney, W.D.

    1990-01-01

    The attenuation of upper crustal seismic waves that are refracted with a velocity of about 6 kilometers per second varies greatly among profiles in the area of the New Madrid seismic zone in the central Mississippi Valley. The waves that have the strongest attenuation pass through the seismic trend along the axis of the Reelfoot rift in the area of the Blytheville arch. Defocusing of the waves in a low-velocity zone and/ or seismic scattering and absorption could cause the attenuation; these effects are most likely associated with the highly deformed rocks along the arch. Consequently, strong seismic-wave attenuation may be a useful criterion for identifying seismogenic fault zones.

  16. Prestack depth migration applied to deep seismic data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, M.; Buske, S.; Lüth, S.; Shapiro, S.; Wigger, P.

    2003-04-01

    We present the results of Kirchhoff prestack depth migration applied to two onshore deep seismic reflection data sets (ANCORP'96 and PRECORP'95). The prestack depth migration was implemented in 3D (ANCORP) and in 2D (PRECORP), respectively, from topography. The 3D velocity model was obtained by extending a 2D velocity model received from refraction data analysis. The traveltime calculation was performed using a finite difference eikonal solver. An additional "offline stacking" provided a final 370 km long 2D depth section of the ANCORP data set. The migration procedure of the PRECORP data set consisted of three steps: First, early arrivals (0-15 s TWT) were processed. Second, later arrivals (15-40 s TWT) were passed to migration . Finally, both depth sections have been stacked and yielded the final 100 km deep subsurface image. In this paper a 180 km long part of the ANCORP section and a 110 km long PRECORP depth profile are presented. In comparison to earlier processing results (ANCORP working group, 1999; 2002) the prestack depth images contain new aspects. The final 2D ANCORP section shows a sharpened image of the oceanic crust. Except for some areas a nearly complete image of the Nazca reflector is present in both data sets between depths of 60 - 90 km. The compilation with local earthquake data shows that the seismogenic zone coincides with the upper reflector of the oceanic crust, but not with the Nazca reflector at depths larger than 80 km. The final depth sections contain two prominent features, the Quebrada Blanca Bright Spot (QBBS, ANCORP) and the Calama Bright Spot (CBS, PRECORP) located 160 km further to the south. Besides the west dip of the QBBS a 3D analysis of the ANCORP data set shows an additional north-dipping trend of the QBBS. Furthermore, the CBS is discovered for the first time. ANCORP Working Group (1999) Seismic reflection image revealing offset of Andean subduction-zone earthquake locations into oceanic mantle. Nature, 397:341--344. ANCORP

  17. Constraint of magnetic models using seismic tomography in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. H.; Chen, C. R.; Lin, C. H.; Wen, S.; Huang, Y. H.

    2015-12-01

    Uncertainty is often one of the sufferings when underlying models are constructed by using unitary geophysical data retrieved from field prospections. Velocity-susceptibility models are structured by using velocity obtained from arrival time of seismic waves transferring into susceptibility through characteristics of minerals and/or rocks to integrate two parameters together. Two profiles with intense undulation of geomagnetic anomalies over sediment areas in central-west Taiwan and complex geological structures at the rim of subduction zone in northeast Taiwan are used to examine discrepancy in values derived from prospections and the integrated models via a 2D forward method. Agreements between prospections and models suggest that rocks with high susceptibility can be identified in sediment areas and complex geological areas. Models with two-parameter adaptions shed light on constructing potential and susceptibility models in a more convincing way for further processes of inversion.

  18. Fluid Substitution Modeling to Determine Sensitivity of 3D Vertical Seismic Profile Data to Injected CO­2­ at an active Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage Project, Farnsworth field, TX.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haar, K. K.; Balch, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    The Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration monitors a CO2 capture, utilization and storage project at Farnsworth field, TX. The reservoir interval is a Morrowan age fluvial sand deposited in an incised valley. The sands are between 10 to 25m thick and located about 2800m below the surface. Primary oil recovery began in 1958 and by the late 1960's secondary recovery through waterflooding was underway. In 2009, Chaparral Energy began tertiary recovery using 100% anthropogenic CO2 sourced from an ethanol and a fertilizer plant. This constitutes carbon sequestration and fulfills the DOE's initiative to determine the best approach to permanent carbon storage. One purpose of the study is to understand CO­2 migration from injection wells. CO2­ plume spatial distribution for this project is analyzed with the use of time-lapse 3D vertical seismic profiles centered on CO2 injection wells. They monitor raypaths traveling in a single direction compared to surface seismic surveys with raypaths traveling in both directions. 3D VSP surveys can image up to 1.5km away from the well of interest, exceeding regulatory requirements for maximum plume extent by a factor of two. To optimize the timing of repeat VSP acquisition, the sensitivity of the 3D VSP surveys to CO2 injection was analyzed to determine at what injection volumes a seismic response to the injected CO­2 will be observable. Static geologic models were generated for pre-CO2 and post-CO2 reservoir states through construction of fine scale seismic based geologic models, which were then history matched via flow simulations. These generated static states of the model, where CO2­ replaces oil and brine in pore spaces, allow for generation of impedance volumes which when convolved with a representative wavelet generate synthetic seismic volumes used in the sensitivity analysis. Funding for the project is provided by DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under Award No. DE-FC26-05NT42591.

  19. A seismic survey in Antarctica, parallel schemes for seismic migration and target oriented velocity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Vikramaditya

    This dissertation comprises three different studies. The first part describes the acquisition and data processing techniques utilized during a seismic survey conducted in the austral summer of 1994--95 in the interior of Antarctica. Three multichannel seismic reflection profiles and two wide-angle profiles were collected over the central-west Antarctica ice sheet to investigate methods to obtain a shallow to mid-crustal section of the lithosphere below the Byrd subglacial basin. The multichannel seismic data were analysed to develop images of the shallow crustal structure, the base of ice, and intra-ice reflections that (with minor exceptions) conform to the ice-floor topography. The high energy, low frequency seismic energy generated by the larger charges of the wide angle data was more successful in imaging the deep crustal section. The upper crust in this area was determined to be fairly non-reflective. Along the main traverse, the base of ice has significant topographical undulation in both inline and crossline directions and several half grabens and localized basins can be identified. More efficient surveys can be conducted and better signal quality can be obtained by using longer streamers (˜4.5 km) and larger and buried charges. The second part describes a parallel implementation of 3D pre-stack Kirchhoff depth migration using the Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM) environment of message passing and clustering. A simple yet robust strategy has been proposed to distribute the computation load among the nodes of a virtual parallel machine and the performance of the parallel method has been compared with conventional sequential schemes. A near linear speedup was achieved in this implementation which implies that the reduction in computation time (compared to the sequential run time) was almost directly proportional to the number of nodes in the virtual machine. The third part of this dissertation describes an approach for target oriented migration velocity

  20. Application of 2D Non-Graphene Materials and 2D Oxide Nanostructures for Biosensing Technology

    PubMed Central

    Shavanova, Kateryna; Bakakina, Yulia; Burkova, Inna; Shtepliuk, Ivan; Viter, Roman; Ubelis, Arnolds; Beni, Valerio; Starodub, Nickolaj; Yakimova, Rositsa; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of graphene and its unique properties has inspired researchers to try to invent other two-dimensional (2D) materials. After considerable research effort, a distinct “beyond graphene” domain has been established, comprising the library of non-graphene 2D materials. It is significant that some 2D non-graphene materials possess solid advantages over their predecessor, such as having a direct band gap, and therefore are highly promising for a number of applications. These applications are not limited to nano- and opto-electronics, but have a strong potential in biosensing technologies, as one example. However, since most of the 2D non-graphene materials have been newly discovered, most of the research efforts are concentrated on material synthesis and the investigation of the properties of the material. Applications of 2D non-graphene materials are still at the embryonic stage, and the integration of 2D non-graphene materials into devices is scarcely reported. However, in recent years, numerous reports have blossomed about 2D material-based biosensors, evidencing the growing potential of 2D non-graphene materials for biosensing applications. This review highlights the recent progress in research on the potential of using 2D non-graphene materials and similar oxide nanostructures for different types of biosensors (optical and electrochemical). A wide range of biological targets, such as glucose, dopamine, cortisol, DNA, IgG, bisphenol, ascorbic acid, cytochrome and estradiol, has been reported to be successfully detected by biosensors with transducers made of 2D non-graphene materials. PMID:26861346

  1. Application of 2D Non-Graphene Materials and 2D Oxide Nanostructures for Biosensing Technology.

    PubMed

    Shavanova, Kateryna; Bakakina, Yulia; Burkova, Inna; Shtepliuk, Ivan; Viter, Roman; Ubelis, Arnolds; Beni, Valerio; Starodub, Nickolaj; Yakimova, Rositsa; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of graphene and its unique properties has inspired researchers to try to invent other two-dimensional (2D) materials. After considerable research effort, a distinct "beyond graphene" domain has been established, comprising the library of non-graphene 2D materials. It is significant that some 2D non-graphene materials possess solid advantages over their predecessor, such as having a direct band gap, and therefore are highly promising for a number of applications. These applications are not limited to nano- and opto-electronics, but have a strong potential in biosensing technologies, as one example. However, since most of the 2D non-graphene materials have been newly discovered, most of the research efforts are concentrated on material synthesis and the investigation of the properties of the material. Applications of 2D non-graphene materials are still at the embryonic stage, and the integration of 2D non-graphene materials into devices is scarcely reported. However, in recent years, numerous reports have blossomed about 2D material-based biosensors, evidencing the growing potential of 2D non-graphene materials for biosensing applications. This review highlights the recent progress in research on the potential of using 2D non-graphene materials and similar oxide nanostructures for different types of biosensors (optical and electrochemical). A wide range of biological targets, such as glucose, dopamine, cortisol, DNA, IgG, bisphenol, ascorbic acid, cytochrome and estradiol, has been reported to be successfully detected by biosensors with transducers made of 2D non-graphene materials.

  2. Seismic architecture of the Chalk Group from onshore reflection data in eastern Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreau, Julien; Anderskouv, Kresten; Boldreel, Lars Ole; Boussaha, Myriam; Nielsen, Lars; Stemmerik, Lars; Surlyk, Finn; Thibault, Nicolas

    2013-04-01

    The Upper Cretaceous-Danian chalk is well exposed in the 14 km long coastal cliff of Stevns Klint (eastern Denmark). The cliff is a world renowned for its spectacular exposure of the Cretaceous-Palaeogene boundary. Based on regional geological knowledge of the field and cores, the characteristics of the Chalk Group have been well constrained. Distinct sedimentary facies have been encountered; the sedimentology, the biostratigraphy, the diagenesis and the reservoir properties have been thoroughly investigated and reported. Stimulated by the intensive geological research, the field studies have been completed with the acquisition of an extensive set of subsurface data. The data include high resolution 2D multichannel seismics onshore and offshore, a seismic refraction profile, two entirely cored boreholes including wireline logs, GPR cross-hole tomography, thermographic analysis, etc. We intend to compile and merge the geological and geophysical datasets to investigate the variation of the Chalk Group properties and their signature in the subsurface. In this communication, the seismic reflection data are being analysed. Very high resolution litho-, bio- and cyclostratigraphy can be correlated with the seismic stratigraphy. Several seismic facies are identified in the Chalk Group: the 'transparent' (white chalk), the stratified (marl-chalk alternations), the crudely stratified (flint-rich chalk) and the hummocky (bryozoan mounds). The units notably vary in thickness at a relatively small scale. The variations confirm the complex shelf organisation which was highly influenced by bottom currents. In addition to the stratigraphic observations, peculiar deformation structures can be recognised. The area has been supposedly tectonically stable since deposition as the coastal cliff lacks fault offset but the succession has been uplifted of c. 1 km. The main fracture patterns are associated with the recent unloading of the ice, opening shallow horizontal fractures

  3. Seismic stratigraphy of the Bahamas

    SciTech Connect

    Ladd, J.W.; Sheridan, R.E.

    1987-06-01

    Seismic reflection profiles from the Straits of Florida, Northwest Providence Channel, Tongue of the Ocean, and Exuma Sound reveal a seismic stratigraphy characterized by a series of prograding Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary seismic sequences with seismic velocities generally less than 4 km/sec overlying a Lower Cretaceous section of low-amplitude reflections which are more nearly horizontal than the overlying prograding clinoforms and have seismic velocities greater than 5 km/sec. The prograding units are detrital shallow-water carbonates shed from nearby carbonate banks into deep intrabank basins that were established in the Late Cretaceous. The Lower Cretaceous units are probably shallow-water carbonate banks that were drowned in the middle Cretaceous but which, during the Early Cretaceous, extended from Florida throughout the Bahamas region. The seismic reflection profiles reveal a sharp angular unconformity at 5-sec two-way traveltime in northwest Tongue of the Ocean, suggesting a rift-drift unconformity and deposition on thinned continental crust. No such unconformity is seen in central and southeast Tongue of the Ocean or in Exuma Sound, suggesting that these areas are built on oceanic crust.

  4. Teaching Reflection Seismic Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forel, D.; Benz, T.; Pennington, W. D.

    2004-12-01

    Without pictures, it is difficult to give students a feeling for wave propagation, transmission, and reflection. Even with pictures, wave propagation is still static to many. However, when students use and modify scripts that generate wavefronts and rays through a geologic model that they have modified themselves, we find that students gain a real feeling for wave propagation. To facilitate teaching 2-D seismic reflection data processing (from acquisition through migration) to our undergraduate and graduate Reflection Seismology students, we use Seismic Un*x (SU) software. SU is maintained and distributed by Colorado School of Mines, and it is freely available (at www.cwp.mines.edu/cwpcodes). Our approach includes use of synthetic and real seismic data, processing scripts, and detailed explanation of the scripts. Our real data were provided by Gregory F. Moore of the University of Hawaii. This approach can be used by any school at virtually no expense for either software or data, and can provide students with a sound introduction to techniques used in processing of reflection seismic data. The same software can be used for other purposes, such as research, with no additional expense. Students who have completed a course using SU are well equipped to begin using it for research, as well. Scripts for each processing step are supplied and explained to the students. Our detailed description of the scripts means students do not have to know anything about SU to start. Experience with the Unix operating system is preferable but not necessary -- our notes include Computer Hints to help the beginner work with the Unix operating system. We include several examples of synthetic model building, acquiring shot gathers through synthetic models, sorting shot gathers to CMP gathers, gain, 1-D frequency filtering, f-k filtering, deconvolution, semblance displays and velocity analysis, flattening data (NMO), stacking the CMPs, and migration. We use two real (marine) data sets. One

  5. Seismic bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, Dennis

    2009-05-01

    Textron Systems (Textron) has been using geophones for target detection for many years. This sensing capability was utilized for detection and classification purposes only. Recently Textron has been evaluating multiaxis geophones to calculate bearings and track targets more specifically personnel. This capability will not only aid the system in locating personnel in bearing space or cartesian space but also enhance detection and reduce false alarms. Textron has been involved in the testing and evaluation of several sensors at multiple sites. One of the challenges of calculating seismic bearing is an adequate signal to noise ratio. The sensor signal to noise ratio is a function of sensor coupling to the ground, seismic propagation and range to target. The goals of testing at multiple sites are to gain a good understanding of the maximum and minimum ranges for bearing and detection and to exploit that information to tailor sensor system emplacement to achieve desired performance. Test sites include 10A Site Devens, MA, McKenna Airfield Ft. Benning, GA and Yuma Proving Ground Yuma, AZ. Geophone sensors evaluated include a 28 Hz triax spike, a 15 Hz triax spike and a hybrid triax spike consisting of a 10 Hz vertical geophone and two 28 Hz horizontal geophones. The algorithm uses raw seismic data to calculate the bearings. All evaluated sensors have triaxial geophone configuration mounted to a spike housing/fixture. The suite of sensors also compares various types of geophones to evaluate benefits in lower bandwidth. The data products of these tests include raw geophone signals, seismic features, seismic bearings, seismic detection and GPS position truth data. The analyses produce Probability of Detection vs range, bearing accuracy vs range, and seismic feature level vs range. These analysis products are compared across test sites and sensor types.

  6. Seismic basement in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grad, Marek; Polkowski, Marcin

    2016-06-01

    The area of contact between Precambrian and Phanerozoic Europe in Poland has complicated structure of sedimentary cover and basement. The thinnest sedimentary cover in the Mazury-Belarus anteclize is only 0.3-1 km thick, increases to 7-8 km along the East European Craton margin, and 9-12 km in the Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ). The Variscan domain is characterized by a 1- to 2-km-thick sedimentary cover, while the Carpathians are characterized by very thick sediments, up to c. 20 km. The map of the basement depth is created by combining data from geological boreholes with a set of regional seismic refraction profiles. These maps do not provide data about the basement depth in the central part of the TESZ and in the Carpathians. Therefore, the data set is supplemented by 32 models from deep seismic sounding profiles and a map of a high-resistivity (low-conductivity) layer from magnetotelluric soundings, identified as a basement. All of these data provide knowledge about the basement depth and of P-wave seismic velocities of the crystalline and consolidated type of basement for the whole area of Poland. Finally, the differentiation of the basement depth and velocity is discussed with respect to geophysical fields and the tectonic division of the area.

  7. Stochastic Inversion of 2D Magnetotelluric Data

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jinsong

    2010-07-01

    The algorithm is developed to invert 2D magnetotelluric (MT) data based on sharp boundary parametrization using a Bayesian framework. Within the algorithm, we consider the locations and the resistivity of regions formed by the interfaces are as unknowns. We use a parallel, adaptive finite-element algorithm to forward simulate frequency-domain MT responses of 2D conductivity structure. Those unknown parameters are spatially correlated and are described by a geostatistical model. The joint posterior probability distribution function is explored by Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling methods. The developed stochastic model is effective for estimating the interface locations and resistivity. Most importantly, it provides details uncertainty information on each unknown parameter. Hardware requirements: PC, Supercomputer, Multi-platform, Workstation; Software requirements C and Fortan; Operation Systems/version is Linux/Unix or Windows

  8. Explicit 2-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    1996-08-07

    DYNA2D* is a vectorized, explicit, two-dimensional, axisymmetric and plane strain finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic and hydrodynamic response of inelastic solids. DYNA2D* contains 13 material models and 9 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented in all machine versions are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic elastic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, rubber, high explosive burn, isotropic elastic-plastic, temperature-dependent elastic-plastic. Themore » isotropic and temperature-dependent elastic-plastic models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 9 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, and tabulated.« less

  9. Stochastic Inversion of 2D Magnetotelluric Data

    2010-07-01

    The algorithm is developed to invert 2D magnetotelluric (MT) data based on sharp boundary parametrization using a Bayesian framework. Within the algorithm, we consider the locations and the resistivity of regions formed by the interfaces are as unknowns. We use a parallel, adaptive finite-element algorithm to forward simulate frequency-domain MT responses of 2D conductivity structure. Those unknown parameters are spatially correlated and are described by a geostatistical model. The joint posterior probability distribution function ismore » explored by Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling methods. The developed stochastic model is effective for estimating the interface locations and resistivity. Most importantly, it provides details uncertainty information on each unknown parameter. Hardware requirements: PC, Supercomputer, Multi-platform, Workstation; Software requirements C and Fortan; Operation Systems/version is Linux/Unix or Windows« less

  10. Static & Dynamic Response of 2D Solids

    1996-07-15

    NIKE2D is an implicit finite-element code for analyzing the finite deformation, static and dynamic response of two-dimensional, axisymmetric, plane strain, and plane stress solids. The code is fully vectorized and available on several computing platforms. A number of material models are incorporated to simulate a wide range of material behavior including elasto-placicity, anisotropy, creep, thermal effects, and rate dependence. Slideline algorithms model gaps and sliding along material interfaces, including interface friction, penetration and single surfacemore » contact. Interactive-graphics and rezoning is included for analyses with large mesh distortions. In addition to quasi-Newton and arc-length procedures, adaptive algorithms can be defined to solve the implicit equations using the solution language ISLAND. Each of these capabilities and more make NIKE2D a robust analysis tool.« less

  11. Static & Dynamic Response of 2D Solids

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jerry

    1996-07-15

    NIKE2D is an implicit finite-element code for analyzing the finite deformation, static and dynamic response of two-dimensional, axisymmetric, plane strain, and plane stress solids. The code is fully vectorized and available on several computing platforms. A number of material models are incorporated to simulate a wide range of material behavior including elasto-placicity, anisotropy, creep, thermal effects, and rate dependence. Slideline algorithms model gaps and sliding along material interfaces, including interface friction, penetration and single surface contact. Interactive-graphics and rezoning is included for analyses with large mesh distortions. In addition to quasi-Newton and arc-length procedures, adaptive algorithms can be defined to solve the implicit equations using the solution language ISLAND. Each of these capabilities and more make NIKE2D a robust analysis tool.

  12. Explicit 2-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jerry

    1996-08-07

    DYNA2D* is a vectorized, explicit, two-dimensional, axisymmetric and plane strain finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic and hydrodynamic response of inelastic solids. DYNA2D* contains 13 material models and 9 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented in all machine versions are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic elastic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, rubber, high explosive burn, isotropic elastic-plastic, temperature-dependent elastic-plastic. The isotropic and temperature-dependent elastic-plastic models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 9 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, and tabulated.

  13. 2D photonic-crystal optomechanical nanoresonator.

    PubMed

    Makles, K; Antoni, T; Kuhn, A G; Deléglise, S; Briant, T; Cohadon, P-F; Braive, R; Beaudoin, G; Pinard, L; Michel, C; Dolique, V; Flaminio, R; Cagnoli, G; Robert-Philip, I; Heidmann, A

    2015-01-15

    We present the optical optimization of an optomechanical device based on a suspended InP membrane patterned with a 2D near-wavelength grating (NWG) based on a 2D photonic-crystal geometry. We first identify by numerical simulation a set of geometrical parameters providing a reflectivity higher than 99.8% over a 50-nm span. We then study the limitations induced by the finite value of the optical waist and lateral size of the NWG pattern using different numerical approaches. The NWG grating, pierced in a suspended InP 265-nm thick membrane, is used to form a compact microcavity involving the suspended nanomembrane as an end mirror. The resulting cavity has a waist size smaller than 10 μm and a finesse in the 200 range. It is used to probe the Brownian motion of the mechanical modes of the nanomembrane. PMID:25679837

  14. Estimation of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Using Marine Seismic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Satish Kumar; Dewangan, Pawan; Sain, Kalachand

    2016-04-01

    Not much attention is given to direct wave arrivals in marine seismic data that are acquired for petroleum exploration and prospecting. These direct arrivals are usually muted out in routine seismic data processing. In the present study, we process these direct arrivals to accurately estimate soundspeed in near-surface seawater and invert for sea surface temperature. The established empirical equation describing the relationships among temperature, salinity, pressure and soundspeed is used for the inversion. We also discuss processing techniques, such as first-break picking and cross-correlation for the estimation of soundspeed, that are well known among petroleum-industry geophysicists. The accuracy of the methods is directly linked to the data quality and signal processing. The novelty in our approach is in the data conditioning, which consists essentially of spectral balancing based on a wavelet transform that compensates for spherical spreading and increases the signal-to-noise ( S/ N) ratio. The 2D seismic data used in this paper are from the offshore Krishna-Godavari Basin east of India. We observe a significantly higher soundspeed of 1545 m/s for near-surface water than the commonly used value of ~1500 m/s. The estimated temperature (from velocity) is about 30 °C. Interestingly, the estimated temperature matches well with the temperature recorded in the CTD profile acquired in the study area during the month of May, the month corresponding to the acquisition of seismic data. Furthermore, the estimated temperatures during different times of data acquisition correlate well with the expected diurnal variation in temperature.

  15. Compact 2-D graphical representation of DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randić, Milan; Vračko, Marjan; Zupan, Jure; Novič, Marjana

    2003-05-01

    We present a novel 2-D graphical representation for DNA sequences which has an important advantage over the existing graphical representations of DNA in being very compact. It is based on: (1) use of binary labels for the four nucleic acid bases, and (2) use of the 'worm' curve as template on which binary codes are placed. The approach is illustrated on DNA sequences of the first exon of human β-globin and gorilla β-globin.

  16. 2D materials: Graphene and others

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansal, Suneev Anil; Singh, Amrinder Pal; Kumar, Suresh

    2016-05-01

    Present report reviews the recent advancements in new atomically thick 2D materials. Materials covered in this review are Graphene, Silicene, Germanene, Boron Nitride (BN) and Transition metal chalcogenides (TMC). These materials show extraordinary mechanical, electronic and optical properties which make them suitable candidates for future applications. Apart from unique properties, tune-ability of highly desirable properties of these materials is also an important area to be emphasized on.

  17. Layer Engineering of 2D Semiconductor Junctions.

    PubMed

    He, Yongmin; Sobhani, Ali; Lei, Sidong; Zhang, Zhuhua; Gong, Yongji; Jin, Zehua; Zhou, Wu; Yang, Yingchao; Zhang, Yuan; Wang, Xifan; Yakobson, Boris; Vajtai, Robert; Halas, Naomi J; Li, Bo; Xie, Erqing; Ajayan, Pulickel

    2016-07-01

    A new concept for junction fabrication by connecting multiple regions with varying layer thicknesses, based on the thickness dependence, is demonstrated. This type of junction is only possible in super-thin-layered 2D materials, and exhibits similar characteristics as p-n junctions. Rectification and photovoltaic effects are observed in chemically homogeneous MoSe2 junctions between domains of different thicknesses. PMID:27136275

  18. Realistic and efficient 2D crack simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadegar, Jacob; Liu, Xiaoqing; Singh, Abhishek

    2010-04-01

    Although numerical algorithms for 2D crack simulation have been studied in Modeling and Simulation (M&S) and computer graphics for decades, realism and computational efficiency are still major challenges. In this paper, we introduce a high-fidelity, scalable, adaptive and efficient/runtime 2D crack/fracture simulation system by applying the mathematically elegant Peano-Cesaro triangular meshing/remeshing technique to model the generation of shards/fragments. The recursive fractal sweep associated with the Peano-Cesaro triangulation provides efficient local multi-resolution refinement to any level-of-detail. The generated binary decomposition tree also provides efficient neighbor retrieval mechanism used for mesh element splitting and merging with minimal memory requirements essential for realistic 2D fragment formation. Upon load impact/contact/penetration, a number of factors including impact angle, impact energy, and material properties are all taken into account to produce the criteria of crack initialization, propagation, and termination leading to realistic fractal-like rubble/fragments formation. The aforementioned parameters are used as variables of probabilistic models of cracks/shards formation, making the proposed solution highly adaptive by allowing machine learning mechanisms learn the optimal values for the variables/parameters based on prior benchmark data generated by off-line physics based simulation solutions that produce accurate fractures/shards though at highly non-real time paste. Crack/fracture simulation has been conducted on various load impacts with different initial locations at various impulse scales. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed system has the capability to realistically and efficiently simulate 2D crack phenomena (such as window shattering and shards generation) with diverse potentials in military and civil M&S applications such as training and mission planning.

  19. 2D Spinodal Decomposition in Forced Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xiang; Diamond, Patrick; Chacon, Luis; Li, Hui

    2015-11-01

    Spinodal decomposition is a second order phase transition for binary fluid mixture, from one thermodynamic phase to form two coexisting phases. The governing equation for this coarsening process below critical temperature, Cahn-Hilliard Equation, is very similar to 2D MHD Equation, especially the conserved quantities have a close correspondence between each other, so theories for MHD turbulence are used to study spinodal decomposition in forced turbulence. Domain size is increased with time along with the inverse cascade, and the length scale can be arrested by a forced turbulence with direct cascade. The two competing mechanisms lead to a stabilized domain size length scale, which can be characterized by Hinze Scale. The 2D spinodal decomposition in forced turbulence is studied by both theory and simulation with ``pixie2d.'' This work focuses on the relation between Hinze scale and spectra and cascades. Similarities and differences between spinodal decomposition and MHD are investigated. Also some transport properties are studied following MHD theories. This work is supported by the Department of Energy under Award Number DE-FG02-04ER54738.

  20. MAGNUM-2D computer code: user's guide

    SciTech Connect

    England, R.L.; Kline, N.W.; Ekblad, K.J.; Baca, R.G.

    1985-01-01

    Information relevant to the general use of the MAGNUM-2D computer code is presented. This computer code was developed for the purpose of modeling (i.e., simulating) the thermal and hydraulic conditions in the vicinity of a waste package emplaced in a deep geologic repository. The MAGNUM-2D computer computes (1) the temperature field surrounding the waste package as a function of the heat generation rate of the nuclear waste and thermal properties of the basalt and (2) the hydraulic head distribution and associated groundwater flow fields as a function of the temperature gradients and hydraulic properties of the basalt. MAGNUM-2D is a two-dimensional numerical model for transient or steady-state analysis of coupled heat transfer and groundwater flow in a fractured porous medium. The governing equations consist of a set of coupled, quasi-linear partial differential equations that are solved using a Galerkin finite-element technique. A Newton-Raphson algorithm is embedded in the Galerkin functional to formulate the problem in terms of the incremental changes in the dependent variables. Both triangular and quadrilateral finite elements are used to represent the continuum portions of the spatial domain. Line elements may be used to represent discrete conduits. 18 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Engineering light outcoupling in 2D materials.

    PubMed

    Lien, Der-Hsien; Kang, Jeong Seuk; Amani, Matin; Chen, Kevin; Tosun, Mahmut; Wang, Hsin-Ping; Roy, Tania; Eggleston, Michael S; Wu, Ming C; Dubey, Madan; Lee, Si-Chen; He, Jr-Hau; Javey, Ali

    2015-02-11

    When light is incident on 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), it engages in multiple reflections within underlying substrates, producing interferences that lead to enhancement or attenuation of the incoming and outgoing strength of light. Here, we report a simple method to engineer the light outcoupling in semiconducting TMDCs by modulating their dielectric surroundings. We show that by modulating the thicknesses of underlying substrates and capping layers, the interference caused by substrate can significantly enhance the light absorption and emission of WSe2, resulting in a ∼11 times increase in Raman signal and a ∼30 times increase in the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of WSe2. On the basis of the interference model, we also propose a strategy to control the photonic and optoelectronic properties of thin-layer WSe2. This work demonstrates the utilization of outcoupling engineering in 2D materials and offers a new route toward the realization of novel optoelectronic devices, such as 2D LEDs and solar cells.

  2. Seismic characterization of a CO2 storage pilot plant in a Saline Aquifer (Hontomín, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcalde, J.; Carbonell, R.; Martí, D.; Calahorrano, A.; Palomeras, I.; Ayarza, P.; Pérez-Estaún, A.

    2010-12-01

    A detailed 3D seismic characterization of a future scientific plant for carbon dioxide capture and storage (CSS) was carried out this summer in Hontomin (Burgos, Spain). This is part of a multidisciplinary experiment funded by the Spanish Government and the European Union, by means of the state-own foundation CIUDEN, that aims to demonstrate that CCS is technologically feasible and the most suitable strategy of reducing global warming caused by greenhouse gases emissions. The pilot test site is located in a dome shape structure. The reservoir is a saline aquifer (1500 m depth), confined within Lower Jurassic limestones and sealed by Lower Cretaceous detritic formations. The seismic survey consisted on: 1) a 30 km2 3D seismic survey; 2) 2 three-component 2D seismic cross profiles and 3) a CGGVeritas’ seismovie device, composed by two 60m depth sources and a linear array of 80 receivers, 10 meters depth, separated 25 meters between each other. The preliminary seismic results show an accurate 3D image of the internal structure and the distribution of the physical properties of the study area. Through this information, the preferential displacemet of the CO2 plume has been inferred, which is mandatory to determine the location of the injection and monitoring well and to evaluate the possible escape pathways.

  3. Interpretation of the Crustal Structure Around the Northern Viking Graben Based on Recent Seismic Data: Assessment of Previous Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polanco-Ferrer, R. E.; Fossen, H.; Odinsen, T.; Befring, S.

    2015-12-01

    The understanding of the crustal structure of the northern North Sea was significantly improved with the acquisition of the deep seismic reflection profiles of the BIRPS project during the 1980's. Some of those profiles have been interpreted by various authors, with interpretations that can differ considerably from each other. Improvement in the seismic imaging of recent surveys allows the observation of more structures at the crustal scale. The reflective lower crust is observed both in 2D and 3D surveys, but the reflection and nature of the top of the crystalline basement remains elusive in the seismic over extensive areas. The use of potential field data is key to constrain the basement interpretation. The region has experienced multiple extensional events. Steeply dipping faults are correlated with the latest rifting episode in the northern North Sea (Middle Jurassic - Early Cretaceous), while other structures could be structures associated with the previous Permian-Triassic rifting or other pre-existing features. The faults extend to different levels of the crust, with different detachment levels recognized also in previous works. In the recent seismic, the top of the reflective lower crust appears to be another important detachment level. The presence and geometry of faults that seem to cut the entire crust would rule out some of the previous models.

  4. Seismic Studies

    SciTech Connect

    R. Quittmeyer

    2006-09-25

    This technical work plan (TWP) describes the efforts to develop and confirm seismic ground motion inputs used for preclosure design and probabilistic safety 'analyses and to assess the postclosure performance of a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. As part of the effort to develop seismic inputs, the TWP covers testing and analyses that provide the technical basis for inputs to the seismic ground-motion site-response model. The TWP also addresses preparation of a seismic methodology report for submission to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The activities discussed in this TWP are planned for fiscal years (FY) 2006 through 2008. Some of the work enhances the technical basis for previously developed seismic inputs and reduces uncertainties and conservatism used in previous analyses and modeling. These activities support the defense of a license application. Other activities provide new results that will support development of the preclosure, safety case; these results directly support and will be included in the license application. Table 1 indicates which activities support the license application and which support licensing defense. The activities are listed in Section 1.2; the methods and approaches used to implement them are discussed in more detail in Section 2.2. Technical and performance objectives of this work scope are: (1) For annual ground motion exceedance probabilities appropriate for preclosure design analyses, provide site-specific seismic design acceleration response spectra for a range of damping values; strain-compatible soil properties; peak motions, strains, and curvatures as a function of depth; and time histories (acceleration, velocity, and displacement). Provide seismic design inputs for the waste emplacement level and for surface sites. Results should be consistent with the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) for Yucca Mountain and reflect, as appropriate, available knowledge on the limits to extreme ground motion at

  5. Shallow sediment and upper crustal structure beneath the Salton Sea as imaged by active source marine seismic refraction in conjunction with the Salton Seismic Imaging Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kell, A. M.; Sahakian, V. J.; Harding, A. J.; Kent, G.; Driscoll, N. W.

    2012-12-01

    In the spring of 2011 we expanded a campaign of marine seismic reflection efforts in the Salton Sea in conjunction with the Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP) to collect active-source marine refraction data using Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBSs) and a marine airgun. The Salton Trough presents an opportunity to study rifting processes similar to those seen in the Gulf of California, as well as the seismic hazards associated with the southern terminus of the San Andreas Fault (SAF). An areal array, comprised of 78 OBS deployments, was focused in the southern part of the sea but also included a line parallel to the San Andreas Fault (SAF) , line 1, extending then length of the sea, and a line perpendicular to the SAF, crossing the northern basin, line 7. These lines are collinear with high-resolution reflection profiles and existing chirp profiles. The OBS array was concentrated in the southern Salton Sea to investigate the pull-apart deformation reported by Brothers et al. (2009). Using the methods of Van Avendonk (2004) we seek to constrain upper crustal velocities in this region by travel-time tomography. Beginning with P-wave arrival times we trace the ray paths through the model space and invert for seismic velocities. By iterating from the forward picking to the inversion, we reduce the chi-squared error to produce a 2D depth profile of the seismic velocities while maintaining a stable model. Line 1 uses 38 OBSs and 470 shots from a 210 cu. in. airgun to model the upper 4 km beneath the Salton Sea. Velocities vary from 1.5 km/s in the upper 1 km to an apparent 4 km deep basement velocity of 5.5 km/s. Velocity variations with depth agree with major boundaries in the co-linear seismic reflection profiles and the divergence toward the south/fault structure is also captured in these early models. Preliminary results for line 7 show similarly varying velocities - 1.5 to 3 km/s in the upper 2 kilometers of the crust, to slightly over 4 km/s at 4 km depth. Further

  6. Simulation of 2D Fields of Raindrop Size Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berne, A.; Schleiss, M.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2008-12-01

    The raindrop size distribution (DSD hereafter) is of primary importance for quantitative applications of weather radar measurements. The radar reflectivity~Z (directly measured by radar) is related to the power backscattered by the ensemble of hydrometeors within the radar sampling volume. However, the rain rate~R (the flux of water to the surface) is the variable of interest for many applications (hydrology, weather forecasting, air traffic for example). Usually, radar reflectivity is converted into rain rate using a power law such as Z=aRb. The coefficients a and b of the Z-R relationship depend on the DSD. The variability of the DSD in space and time has to be taken into account to improve radar rain rate estimates. Therefore, the ability to generate a large number of 2D fields of DSD which are statistically homogeneous provides a very useful simulation framework that nicely complements experimental approaches based on DSD data, in order to investigate radar beam propagation through rain as well as radar retrieval techniques. The proposed approach is based on geostatistics for structural analysis and stochastic simulation. First, the DSD is assumed to follow a gamma distribution. Hence a 2D field of DSDs can be adequately described as a 2D field of a multivariate random function consisting of the three DSD parameters. Such fields are simulated by combining a Gaussian anamorphosis and a multivariate Gaussian random field simulation algorithm. Using the (cross-)variogram models fitted on data guaranties that the spatial structure of the simulated fields is consistent with the observed one. To assess its validity, the proposed method is applied to data collected during intense Mediterranean rainfall. As only time series are available, Taylor's hypothesis is assumed to convert time series in 1D range profile. Moreover, DSD fields are assumed to be isotropic so that the 1D structure can be used to simulate 2D fields. A large number of 2D fields of DSD parameters are

  7. GBL-2D Version 1.0: a 2D geometry boolean library.

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, Cory L. (Elemental Technologies, American Fort, UT); Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Yarberry, Victor R.; Meyers, Ray J.

    2006-11-01

    This report describes version 1.0 of GBL-2D, a geometric Boolean library for 2D objects. The library is written in C++ and consists of a set of classes and routines. The classes primarily represent geometric data and relationships. Classes are provided for 2D points, lines, arcs, edge uses, loops, surfaces and mask sets. The routines contain algorithms for geometric Boolean operations and utility functions. Routines are provided that incorporate the Boolean operations: Union(OR), XOR, Intersection and Difference. A variety of additional analytical geometry routines and routines for importing and exporting the data in various file formats are also provided. The GBL-2D library was originally developed as a geometric modeling engine for use with a separate software tool, called SummitView [1], that manipulates the 2D mask sets created by designers of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS). However, many other practical applications for this type of software can be envisioned because the need to perform 2D Boolean operations can arise in many contexts.

  8. Using overlapping sonobuoy data from the Ross Sea to construct a 2D deep crustal velocity model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvans, M. M.; Clayton, R. W.; Stock, J. M.; Granot, R.

    2012-03-01

    Sonobuoys provide an alternative to using long streamers while conducting multi-channel seismic (MCS) studies, in order to provide deeper velocity control. We present analysis and modeling techniques for interpreting the sonobuoy data and illustrate the method with ten overlapping sonobuoys collected in the Ross Sea, offshore from Antarctica. We demonstrate the importance of using the MCS data to correct for ocean currents and changes in ship navigation, which is required before using standard methods for obtaining a 1D velocity profile from each sonobuoy. We verify our 1D velocity models using acoustic finite-difference (FD) modeling and by performing depth migration on the data, and demonstrate the usefulness of FD modeling for tying interval velocities to the shallow crust imaged using MCS data. Finally, we show how overlapping sonobuoys along an MCS line can be used to construct a 2D velocity model of the crust. The velocity model reveals a thin crust (5.5 ± 0.4 km) at the boundary between the Adare and Northern Basins, and implies that the crustal structure of the Northern Basin may be more similar to that of the oceanic crust in the Adare Basin than to the stretched continental crust further south in the Ross Sea.

  9. Astor Pass Seismic Surveys Preliminary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Louie, John; Pullammanappallil, Satish; Faulds, James; Eisses, Amy; Kell, Annie; Frary, Roxanna; Kent, Graham

    2011-08-05

    In collaboration with the Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe (PLPT), the University of Nevada, Reno (UNR) and Optim re-processed, or collected and processed, over 24 miles of 2d seismic-reflection data near the northwest corner of Pyramid Lake, Nevada. The network of 2d land surveys achieved a near-3d density at the Astor Pass geothermal prospect that the PLPT drilled during Nov. 2010 to Feb. 2011. The Bureau of Indian Affairs funded additional seismic work around the Lake, and an extensive, detailed single-channel marine survey producing more than 300 miles of section, imaging more than 120 ft below the Lake bottom. Optim’s land data collection utilized multiple heavy vibrators and recorded over 200 channels live, providing a state-of-the-art reflection-refraction data set. After advanced seismic analysis including first-arrival velocity optimization and prestack depth migration, the 2d sections show clear fault-plane reflections, in some areas as deep as 4000 ft, tying to distinct terminations of the mostly volcanic stratigraphy. Some lines achieved velocity control to 3000 ft depth; all lines show reflections and terminations to 5000 ft depth. Three separate sets of normal faults appear in an initial interpretation of fault reflections and stratigraphic terminations, after loading the data into the OpendTect 3d seismic visualization system. Each preliminary fault set includes a continuous trace more than 3000 ft long, and a swarm of short fault strands. The three preliminary normal-fault sets strike northerly with westward dip, northwesterly with northeast dip, and easterly with north dip. An intersection of all three fault systems documented in the seismic sections at the end of Phase I helped to locate the APS-2 and APS-3 slimholes. The seismic sections do not show the faults connected to the Astor Pass tufa spire, suggesting that we have imaged mostly Tertiary-aged faults. We hypothesize that the Recent, active faults that produced the tufa through hotspring

  10. Periodically sheared 2D Yukawa systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kovács, Anikó Zsuzsa; Hartmann, Peter; Donkó, Zoltán

    2015-10-15

    We present non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation studies on the dynamic (complex) shear viscosity of a 2D Yukawa system. We have identified a non-monotonic frequency dependence of the viscosity at high frequencies and shear rates, an energy absorption maximum (local resonance) at the Einstein frequency of the system at medium shear rates, an enhanced collective wave activity, when the excitation is near the plateau frequency of the longitudinal wave dispersion, and the emergence of significant configurational anisotropy at small frequencies and high shear rates.

  11. ENERGY LANDSCAPE OF 2D FLUID FORMS

    SciTech Connect

    Y. JIANG; ET AL

    2000-04-01

    The equilibrium states of 2D non-coarsening fluid foams, which consist of bubbles with fixed areas, correspond to local minima of the total perimeter. (1) The authors find an approximate value of the global minimum, and determine directly from an image how far a foam is from its ground state. (2) For (small) area disorder, small bubbles tend to sort inwards and large bubbles outwards. (3) Topological charges of the same sign repel while charges of opposite sign attract. (4) They discuss boundary conditions and the uniqueness of the pattern for fixed topology.

  12. Seismic Tomography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Don L.; Dziewonski, Adam M.

    1984-01-01

    Describes how seismic tomography is used to analyze the waves produced by earthquakes. The information obtained from the procedure can then be used to map the earth's mantle in three dimensions. The resulting maps are then studied to determine such information as the convective flow that propels the crustal plates. (JN)

  13. Seismic Symphonies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strinna, Elisa; Ferrari, Graziano

    2015-04-01

    The project started in 2008 as a sound installation, a collaboration between an artist, a barrel organ builder and a seismologist. The work differs from other attempts of sound transposition of seismic records. In this case seismic frequencies are not converted automatically into the "sound of the earthquake." However, it has been studied a musical translation system that, based on the organ tonal scale, generates a totally unexpected sequence of sounds which is intended to evoke the emotions aroused by the earthquake. The symphonies proposed in the project have somewhat peculiar origins: they in fact come to life from the translation of graphic tracks into a sound track. The graphic tracks in question are made up by copies of seismograms recorded during some earthquakes that have taken place around the world. Seismograms are translated into music by a sculpture-instrument, half a seismograph and half a barrel organ. The organ plays through holes practiced on paper. Adapting the documents to the instrument score, holes have been drilled on the waves' peaks. The organ covers about three tonal scales, starting from heavy and deep sounds it reaches up to high and jarring notes. The translation of the seismic records is based on a criterion that does match the highest sounds to larger amplitudes with lower ones to minors. Translating the seismogram in the organ score, the larger the amplitude of recorded waves, the more the seismogram covers the full tonal scale played by the barrel organ and the notes arouse an intense emotional response in the listener. Elisa Strinna's Seismic Symphonies installation becomes an unprecedented tool for emotional involvement, through which can be revived the memory of the greatest disasters of over a century of seismic history of the Earth. A bridge between art and science. Seismic Symphonies is also a symbolic inversion: the instrument of the organ is most commonly used in churches, and its sounds are derived from the heavens and

  14. Progress in 2D photonic crystal Fano resonance photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Weidong; Zhao, Deyin; Shuai, Yi-Chen; Yang, Hongjun; Chuwongin, Santhad; Chadha, Arvinder; Seo, Jung-Hun; Wang, Ken X.; Liu, Victor; Ma, Zhenqiang; Fan, Shanhui

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to a conventional symmetric Lorentzian resonance, Fano resonance is predominantly used to describe asymmetric-shaped resonances, which arise from the constructive and destructive interference of discrete resonance states with broadband continuum states. This phenomenon and the underlying mechanisms, being common and ubiquitous in many realms of physical sciences, can be found in a wide variety of nanophotonic structures and quantum systems, such as quantum dots, photonic crystals, plasmonics, and metamaterials. The asymmetric and steep dispersion of the Fano resonance profile promises applications for a wide range of photonic devices, such as optical filters, switches, sensors, broadband reflectors, lasers, detectors, slow-light and non-linear devices, etc. With advances in nanotechnology, impressive progress has been made in the emerging field of nanophotonic structures. One of the most attractive nanophotonic structures for integrated photonics is the two-dimensional photonic crystal slab (2D PCS), which can be integrated into a wide range of photonic devices. The objective of this manuscript is to provide an in depth review of the progress made in the general area of Fano resonance photonics, focusing on the photonic devices based on 2D PCS structures. General discussions are provided on the origins and characteristics of Fano resonances in 2D PCSs. A nanomembrane transfer printing fabrication technique is also reviewed, which is critical for the heterogeneous integrated Fano resonance photonics. The majority of the remaining sections review progress made on various photonic devices and structures, such as high quality factor filters, membrane reflectors, membrane lasers, detectors and sensors, as well as structures and phenomena related to Fano resonance slow light effect, nonlinearity, and optical forces in coupled PCSs. It is expected that further advances in the field will lead to more significant advances towards 3D integrated photonics, flat

  15. Archiving seismic R/WAR data from Italy and surrounding seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maistrello, M.; Musacchio, G.

    2003-04-01

    Deep seismic Refraction and Wide-Angle-Reflection (R/WAR) data is information of primary interest for the understanding of Lithosphere formation and evolution. In the past two decades seismic velocity models, resulting from several deep controlled source seismic programs, have led to the understanding of the architecture of the lithosphere of relevant tectonic areas. It is getting more and more important archive the seismic data on ready-to-use platforms for further modeling, large syntheses and planning of future new projects. Today, seismic data are commonly digitally recorded and therefore easily archived and stored with a given format. However, paper records or analog magnetic tapes, produced in early days of controlled source seismology programs, are valuable data that might be lost if a proper digitization and archiving process is not applied. This project aims to assemble all the deep seismic R/WAR data collected over Italy and surrounding seas (22.000 km), archive them and make them available to the scientific community. Analog seismic records, mostly single component, collected before 1994 are 10% of the whole dataset and consist of more than 200 profiles (partially reversed) for about 18.000 km of total length data. Some of these profiles were never modeled using the modern 2D ray-tracing techniques. They image the lithosphere at great depths, although with a low spatial resolution (about 23.000 waveforms). The remaining 90% of the data cover only 4.000 km length with about 470.000 waveforms. They are 3-component, high-resolution R/WAR digital waveforms generated by air-gun shooting and acquired on-shore Italy. For each study area, digital (or digitized) waveforms will be stored with a common format. Additional information built-in the archive will be topographic and geologic maps, published seismic cross-sections and references. The archive will be published on the our web-page from which the user may retrieve on-line the built-in information and

  16. WFR-2D: an analytical model for PWAS-generated 2D ultrasonic guided wave propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yanfeng; Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents WaveFormRevealer 2-D (WFR-2D), an analytical predictive tool for the simulation of 2-D ultrasonic guided wave propagation and interaction with damage. The design of structural health monitoring (SHM) systems and self-aware smart structures requires the exploration of a wide range of parameters to achieve best detection and quantification of certain types of damage. Such need for parameter exploration on sensor dimension, location, guided wave characteristics (mode type, frequency, wavelength, etc.) can be best satisfied with analytical models which are fast and efficient. The analytical model was constructed based on the exact 2-D Lamb wave solution using Bessel and Hankel functions. Damage effects were inserted in the model by considering the damage as a secondary wave source with complex-valued directivity scattering coefficients containing both amplitude and phase information from wave-damage interaction. The analytical procedure was coded with MATLAB, and a predictive simulation tool called WaveFormRevealer 2-D was developed. The wave-damage interaction coefficients (WDICs) were extracted from harmonic analysis of local finite element model (FEM) with artificial non-reflective boundaries (NRB). The WFR-2D analytical simulation results were compared and verified with full scale multiphysics finite element models and experiments with scanning laser vibrometer. First, Lamb wave propagation in a pristine aluminum plate was simulated with WFR-2D, compared with finite element results, and verified by experiments. Then, an inhomogeneity was machined into the plate to represent damage. Analytical modeling was carried out, and verified by finite element simulation and experiments. This paper finishes with conclusions and suggestions for future work.

  17. Microwave Assisted 2D Materials Exfoliation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanbin

    Two-dimensional materials have emerged as extremely important materials with applications ranging from energy and environmental science to electronics and biology. Here we report our discovery of a universal, ultrafast, green, solvo-thermal technology for producing excellent-quality, few-layered nanosheets in liquid phase from well-known 2D materials such as such hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), graphite, and MoS2. We start by mixing the uniform bulk-layered material with a common organic solvent that matches its surface energy to reduce the van der Waals attractive interactions between the layers; next, the solutions are heated in a commercial microwave oven to overcome the energy barrier between bulk and few-layers states. We discovered the minutes-long rapid exfoliation process is highly temperature dependent, which requires precise thermal management to obtain high-quality inks. We hypothesize a possible mechanism of this proposed solvo-thermal process; our theory confirms the basis of this novel technique for exfoliation of high-quality, layered 2D materials by using an as yet unknown role of the solvent.

  18. Multienzyme Inkjet Printed 2D Arrays.

    PubMed

    Gdor, Efrat; Shemesh, Shay; Magdassi, Shlomo; Mandler, Daniel

    2015-08-19

    The use of printing to produce 2D arrays is well established, and should be relatively facile to adapt for the purpose of printing biomaterials; however, very few studies have been published using enzyme solutions as inks. Among the printing technologies, inkjet printing is highly suitable for printing biomaterials and specifically enzymes, as it offers many advantages. Formulation of the inkjet inks is relatively simple and can be adjusted to a variety of biomaterials, while providing nonharmful environment to the enzymes. Here we demonstrate the applicability of inkjet printing for patterning multiple enzymes in a predefined array in a very straightforward, noncontact method. Specifically, various arrays of the enzymes glucose oxidase (GOx), invertase (INV) and horseradish peroxidase (HP) were printed on aminated glass surfaces, followed by immobilization using glutardialdehyde after printing. Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) was used for imaging the printed patterns and to ascertain the enzyme activity. The successful formation of 2D arrays consisting of enzymes was explored as a means of developing the first surface confined enzyme based logic gates. Principally, XOR and AND gates, each consisting of two enzymes as the Boolean operators, were assembled, and their operation was studied by SECM. PMID:26214072

  19. Seismic event classification system

    DOEpatents

    Dowla, Farid U.; Jarpe, Stephen P.; Maurer, William

    1994-01-01

    In the computer interpretation of seismic data, the critical first step is to identify the general class of an unknown event. For example, the classification might be: teleseismic, regional, local, vehicular, or noise. Self-organizing neural networks (SONNs) can be used for classifying such events. Both Kohonen and Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) SONNs are useful for this purpose. Given the detection of a seismic event and the corresponding signal, computation is made of: the time-frequency distribution, its binary representation, and finally a shift-invariant representation, which is the magnitude of the two-dimensional Fourier transform (2-D FFT) of the binary time-frequency distribution. This pre-processed input is fed into the SONNs. These neural networks are able to group events that look similar. The ART SONN has an advantage in classifying the event because the types of cluster groups do not need to be pre-defined. The results from the SONNs together with an expert seismologist's classification are then used to derive event classification probabilities.

  20. Seismic event classification system

    DOEpatents

    Dowla, F.U.; Jarpe, S.P.; Maurer, W.

    1994-12-13

    In the computer interpretation of seismic data, the critical first step is to identify the general class of an unknown event. For example, the classification might be: teleseismic, regional, local, vehicular, or noise. Self-organizing neural networks (SONNs) can be used for classifying such events. Both Kohonen and Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) SONNs are useful for this purpose. Given the detection of a seismic event and the corresponding signal, computation is made of: the time-frequency distribution, its binary representation, and finally a shift-invariant representation, which is the magnitude of the two-dimensional Fourier transform (2-D FFT) of the binary time-frequency distribution. This pre-processed input is fed into the SONNs. These neural networks are able to group events that look similar. The ART SONN has an advantage in classifying the event because the types of cluster groups do not need to be pre-defined. The results from the SONNs together with an expert seismologist's classification are then used to derive event classification probabilities. 21 figures.

  1. Seismic response of a deep continental basin including velocity inversion: the Sulmona intramontane basin (Central Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Giulio, Giuseppe; de Nardis, Rita; Boncio, Paolo; Milana, Giuliano; Rosatelli, Gianluigi; Stoppa, Francesco; Lavecchia, Giusy

    2016-01-01

    The Sulmona plain (central Italy) is an intramontane basin of the Abruzzi Apennines that is known in the literature for its high seismic hazard. We use extensive measurements of ambient noise to map the fundamental frequency and to detect the presence of geological heterogeneities in the basin. We perform noise measurements along two basin-scale orthogonal transects, in conjunction with 2-D array experiments in specific key areas. The key areas are located in different positions with respect to the basin margins: one at the eastern boundary (fault-controlled basin margin) and one in the deepest part of the basin. We also collect independent data by using active seismic experiments (MASW), down-hole and geological surveys to characterize the near-surface geology of the investigated sites. In detail, the H/V noise spectral ratios and 2-D array techniques indicate a fundamental resonance (f0) in the low-frequency range (0.35-0.4 Hz) in the Sulmona Basin. Additionally, our results highlight the important role that is played by the alluvial fans near the edge-sectors of the basin, which are responsible for a velocity inversion in the uppermost layering of the soil profile. The H/V ratios and the dispersion curves of adjacent measurements strongly vary over a few dozens of meters in the alluvial fan area. Furthermore, we perform 1-D numerical simulations that are based on a linear-equivalent approach to estimate the site response in the key areas, using realistic seismic inputs. Finally, we perform a 2-D simulation that is based on the spectral element method to propagate surface waves in a simple model with an uppermost stiff layer, which is responsible for the velocity inversion. The results from the 2-D modelling agree with the experimental curves, showing deamplified H/V curves and typical shapes of dispersion curves of a not normally dispersive site.

  2. 2D density model of the Chinese continental lithosphere along a NW-SE transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šimonová, Barbora; Bielik, Miroslav; Dérerová, Jana

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a 2D density model along a transect from NW to SE China. The model was first constructed by the transformation of seismic velocity to density, revealed by previous deep seismic soundings (DSS) investigations in China. Then, the 2D density model was updated using the GM-SYS software by fitting the computed to the observed gravity data. Based on the density distribution of anomalous layers we divided the Chinese continental crust along the transect into three regions: north-western, central and south-eastern. The first one includes the Junggar Basin, Tianshan and Tarim Basin. The second part consists of the Qilian Orogen, the Qaidam Basin and the Songpan Ganzi Basin. The third region is represented by the Yangtze and the Cathaysia blocks. The low velocity body (vp =5.2 - 6.2 km/s) at the junction of the North-western and Central parts at a depth between 21 - 31 km, which was discovered out by DSS, was also confirmed by our 2D density modelling.

  3. Investigating a clay landslide site using 3D P-wave reflection seismics in Lilla Edet, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundberg, E.; Malehmir, A.; Juhlin, C.; Bastani, M.

    2012-04-01

    Landslides are one of the most commonly occurring natural disasters. Global damages range in the billions of dollars and cost hundreds of lives each year; Sweden is not an exception. The main objectives of this geohazard-related project are (1) to improve the understanding of the geometrical shape and structure of clay areas, (2) to develop tools for monitoring changes in their geometry and physical properties as critical factors for landslide triggering, and (3) to provide robust analytical methods for assessing risks associated with clay landslides both in short and long terms. The project is sponsored by the Geoscientists Without Borders (GWB) Program of the Society of Exploration Geophysicists and is multidisciplinary, involving several geophysical methods such as ground gravity and magnetics, geoelectrics, controlled source/radio magnetotellurics, as well as reflection/refraction seismic methods (both P- and S-wave source and receivers). The test site is located on the shoreline of the Göta river that runs from lake Vänern to Göteborg on the southwest coast. The Göta river is the largest river in Sweden and follows the Götaälv Zone, which is an approximately 4 km wide fault zone dipping towards the west. The 3D seismic survey covers a large landslide scar that occurred about 30-40 years ago. The main objective of the 3D seismic is to image the bedrock topography in detail and possibly define layering in the sediments above. The 3D seismic data were acquired in September 2011 using a weight-drop source, 4 m geophone spacing and 20 m line spacing with the source activated at most geophone positions. Ten lines with 60 geophones on each line were shot in two overlapping patches. The preliminary results are encouraging and depict the bedrock topography at 100-150 ms or about 70-100 m. The central line in the 3D seismic survey is overlapped by a longer 2D reflection seismic profile, acquired using a dynamite source. The 2D reflection stack, as well as a travel

  4. Borehole prototype for seismic high-resolution exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giese, Rüdiger; Jaksch, Katrin; Krauß, Felix; Krüger, Kay; Groh, Marco; Jurczyk, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Target reservoirs for the exploitation of hydrocarbons or hot water for geothermal energy supply can comprise small layered structures, for instance thin layers or faults. The resolution of 2D and 3D surface seismic methods is often not sufficient to determine and locate these structures. Borehole seismic methods like vertical seismic profiling (VSP) and seismic while drilling (SWD) use either receivers or sources within the borehole. Thus, the distance to the target horizon is reduced and higher resolution images of the geological structures can be achieved. Even these methods are limited in their resolution capabilities with increasing target depth. To localize structures more accuracy methods with higher resolution in the range of meters are necessary. The project SPWD -- Seismic Prediction While Drilling aims at s the development of a borehole prototype which combines seismic sources and receivers in one device to improve the seismic resolution. Within SPWD such a prototype has been designed, manufactured and tested. The SPWD-wireline prototype is divided into three main parts. The upper section comprises the electronic unit. The middle section includes the upper receiver, the upper clamping unit as well as the source unit and the lower clamping unit. The lower section consists of the lower receiver unit and the hydraulic unit. The total length of the prototype is nearly seven meters and its weight is about 750 kg. For focusing the seismic waves in predefined directions of the borehole axis the method of phased array is used. The source unit is equipped with four magnetostrictive vibrators. Each can be controlled independently to get a common wave front in the desired direction of exploration. Source signal frequencies up to 5000 Hz are used, which allows resolutions up to one meter. In May and September 2013 field tests with the SPWD-wireline prototype have been carried out at the KTB Deep Crustal Lab in Windischeschenbach (Bavaria). The aim was to proof the

  5. Three-dimensional interface modelling with two-dimensional seismic data: the Alpine crust-mantle boundary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waldhauser, F.; Kissling, E.; Ansorge, J.; Mueller, St.

    1998-01-01

    We present a new approach to determine the 3-D topography and lateral continuity of seismic interfaces using 2-D-derived controlled-source seismic reflector data. The aim of the approach is to give the simplest possible structure consistent with all reflector data and error estimates. We define simplicity of seismic intrafaces by the degree of interface continuity (ie shortest length of offsets) and by the degree of interface roughness (least surface roughness). The method is applied to structural information of the crust-mantle boundary (Moho) obtained from over 250 controlled-source seismic reflection and refraction profiles in the greater Alpine region. The reflected and refracted phases from the Moho interface and their interpretation regarding crustal thickness are reviewed and their reliability weighted. Weights assigned to each reflector element are transformed to depth errors considering Fresnel volumes. The 2-D-derived reflector elements are relocated in space (3-D migration) and interpolation is performed between the observed reflector elements to obtain continuity of model parameters. Interface offsets are intoduced only where required according to the prinipal of simplicity. The resulting 3-D model of the ALpine crust-mantle boundary shows two offsets that eivide the interface into a European, an Adriatic and a Ligurian Moho, with the European Moho subducting below the Adriatic Moho, and with the Adriatic Moho underthrusting the Ligurian Moho. Each sub-interface depicts the smoothest possible (ie simplest) surface, fitting the reflector data within their assigned errors. The results are consistent with previous studies for those regions with dense and reliable controlled-source seismic data. The newly derived Alpine Moho interface, however, surpasses earlier studies by its lateral extent over an area of about 600km by 600km, by quantifying reliability estimates along the interface, and by obeying the priciple of being consistently as simple as possible.

  6. Canard configured aircraft with 2-D nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Child, R. D.; Henderson, W. P.

    1978-01-01

    A closely-coupled canard fighter with vectorable two-dimensional nozzle was designed for enhanced transonic maneuvering. The HiMAT maneuver goal of a sustained 8g turn at a free-stream Mach number of 0.9 and 30,000 feet was the primary design consideration. The aerodynamic design process was initiated with a linear theory optimization minimizing the zero percent suction drag including jet effects and refined with three-dimensional nonlinear potential flow techniques. Allowances were made for mutual interference and viscous effects. The design process to arrive at the resultant configuration is described, and the design of a powered 2-D nozzle model to be tested in the LRC 16-foot Propulsion Wind Tunnel is shown.

  7. 2D Electrostatic Actuation of Microshutter Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Devin E.; Oh, Lance H.; Li, Mary J.; Kelly, Daniel P.; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Moseley, Samuel H.

    2015-01-01

    Electrostatically actuated microshutter arrays consisting of rotational microshutters (shutters that rotate about a torsion bar) were designed and fabricated through the use of models and experiments. Design iterations focused on minimizing the torsional stiffness of the microshutters, while maintaining their structural integrity. Mechanical and electromechanical test systems were constructed to measure the static and dynamic behavior of the microshutters. The torsional stiffness was reduced by a factor of four over initial designs without sacrificing durability. Analysis of the resonant behavior of the microshutters demonstrates that the first resonant mode is a torsional mode occurring around 3000 Hz. At low vacuum pressures, this resonant mode can be used to significantly reduce the drive voltage necessary for actuation requiring as little as 25V. 2D electrostatic latching and addressing was demonstrated using both a resonant and pulsed addressing scheme.

  8. 2D Electrostatic Actuation of Microshutter Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Devin E.; Oh, Lance H.; Li, Mary J.; Jones, Justin S.; Kelly, Daniel P.; Zheng, Yun; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Moseley, Samuel H.

    2015-01-01

    An electrostatically actuated microshutter array consisting of rotational microshutters (shutters that rotate about a torsion bar) were designed and fabricated through the use of models and experiments. Design iterations focused on minimizing the torsional stiffness of the microshutters, while maintaining their structural integrity. Mechanical and electromechanical test systems were constructed to measure the static and dynamic behavior of the microshutters. The torsional stiffness was reduced by a factor of four over initial designs without sacrificing durability. Analysis of the resonant behavior of the microshutter arrays demonstrates that the first resonant mode is a torsional mode occurring around 3000 Hz. At low vacuum pressures, this resonant mode can be used to significantly reduce the drive voltage necessary for actuation requiring as little as 25V. 2D electrostatic latching and addressing was demonstrated using both a resonant and pulsed addressing scheme.

  9. 2D quantum gravity from quantum entanglement.

    PubMed

    Gliozzi, F

    2011-01-21

    In quantum systems with many degrees of freedom the replica method is a useful tool to study the entanglement of arbitrary spatial regions. We apply it in a way that allows them to backreact. As a consequence, they become dynamical subsystems whose position, form, and extension are determined by their interaction with the whole system. We analyze, in particular, quantum spin chains described at criticality by a conformal field theory. Its coupling to the Gibbs' ensemble of all possible subsystems is relevant and drives the system into a new fixed point which is argued to be that of the 2D quantum gravity coupled to this system. Numerical experiments on the critical Ising model show that the new critical exponents agree with those predicted by the formula of Knizhnik, Polyakov, and Zamolodchikov.

  10. Graphene suspensions for 2D printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soots, R. A.; Yakimchuk, E. A.; Nebogatikova, N. A.; Kotin, I. A.; Antonova, I. V.

    2016-04-01

    It is shown that, by processing a graphite suspension in ethanol or water by ultrasound and centrifuging, it is possible to obtain particles with thicknesses within 1-6 nm and, in the most interesting cases, 1-1.5 nm. Analogous treatment of a graphite suspension in organic solvent yields eventually thicker particles (up to 6-10 nm thick) even upon long-term treatment. Using the proposed ink based on graphene and aqueous ethanol with ethylcellulose and terpineol additives for 2D printing, thin (~5 nm thick) films with sheet resistance upon annealing ~30 MΩ/□ were obtained. With the ink based on aqueous graphene suspension, the sheet resistance was ~5-12 kΩ/□ for 6- to 15-nm-thick layers with a carrier mobility of ~30-50 cm2/(V s).

  11. Metrology for graphene and 2D materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollard, Andrew J.

    2016-09-01

    The application of graphene, a one atom-thick honeycomb lattice of carbon atoms with superlative properties, such as electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and strength, has already shown that it can be used to benefit metrology itself as a new quantum standard for resistance. However, there are many application areas where graphene and other 2D materials, such as molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), may be disruptive, areas such as flexible electronics, nanocomposites, sensing and energy storage. Applying metrology to the area of graphene is now critical to enable the new, emerging global graphene commercial world and bridge the gap between academia and industry. Measurement capabilities and expertise in a wide range of scientific areas are required to address this challenge. The combined and complementary approach of varied characterisation methods for structural, chemical, electrical and other properties, will allow the real-world issues of commercialising graphene and other 2D materials to be addressed. Here, examples of metrology challenges that have been overcome through a multi-technique or new approach are discussed. Firstly, the structural characterisation of defects in both graphene and MoS2 via Raman spectroscopy is described, and how nanoscale mapping of vacancy defects in graphene is also possible using tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS). Furthermore, the chemical characterisation and removal of polymer residue on chemical vapour deposition (CVD) grown graphene via secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is detailed, as well as the chemical characterisation of iron films used to grow large domain single-layer h-BN through CVD growth, revealing how contamination of the substrate itself plays a role in the resulting h-BN layer. In addition, the role of international standardisation in this area is described, outlining the current work ongoing in both the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) and the

  12. Seismic Mapping of the Subsurface Structure at the Ryepatch Geothermal Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Gritto, R.; Daley, T.M.; Majer, E.L.

    2000-10-01

    In 1998 a 3-D surface seismic survey was conducted to explore the structure of the Rye Patch geothermal reservoir (Nevada) to determine if modern seismic techniques could be successfully applied in geothermal environments. Furthermore, it was intended to map the structural features which may control geothermal production in the reservoir. The results suggested the presence of at least one dominant fault responsible for the migration of fluids in the reservoir. In addition to the surface receivers, a 3-component seismometer was deployed in a borehole at a depth of 3900 ft within the basement below the reservoir, which recorded the waves generated by all surface sources. The subject of this report is use this data set to determine the subsurface structure as a function of azimuth. A total or 2005 first arrival travel times were determined out of 2134 possible traces. 2-D ray tracing was performed to simulate wave propagation from the surface sources to the receiver at depth. The ray tracing was based on a 2-D laterally homogeneous velocity model derived from a velocity profile calculated from a VSP recorded in the same well. It was assumed that differences in travel time between the observed and modeled data are caused by structural deviations from a homogeneously layered model as determined by the VSP profile, and thus were mapped into topographic changes at depth. The results suggest an east-west-trending structure (possibly a horst) with boundaries that match the location of faults found in the analysis of the 3-D seismic surface data.

  13. Analysis of heat conductivity in a 2D hard disk system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Pozo, J.; Garrido, P. L.

    2009-01-01

    Using numerical simulations, we study the heat conductivity in a 2d Hard Disk system. We find nonlinear temperature profiles for diferent gradients, and use this profiles to obtain the empirical expresion of heat conductivity κ(T,ρ). We compare our results with predictions based on the Enskog theory, finding good agreement even for large gradients. Also we find that Henderson state equation for Hard Disk stands for our system.

  14. High performance CCD camera system for digitalisation of 2D DIGE gels.

    PubMed

    Strijkstra, Annemieke; Trautwein, Kathleen; Roesler, Stefan; Feenders, Christoph; Danzer, Daniel; Riemenschneider, Udo; Blasius, Bernd; Rabus, Ralf

    2016-07-01

    An essential step in 2D DIGE-based analysis of differential proteome profiles is the accurate and sensitive digitalisation of 2D DIGE gels. The performance progress of commercially available charge-coupled device (CCD) camera-based systems combined with light emitting diodes (LED) opens up a new possibility for this type of digitalisation. Here, we assessed the performance of a CCD camera system (Intas Advanced 2D Imager) as alternative to a traditionally employed, high-end laser scanner system (Typhoon 9400) for digitalisation of differential protein profiles from three different environmental bacteria. Overall, the performance of the CCD camera system was comparable to the laser scanner, as evident from very similar protein abundance changes (irrespective of spot position and volume), as well as from linear range and limit of detection.

  15. High performance CCD camera system for digitalisation of 2D DIGE gels.

    PubMed

    Strijkstra, Annemieke; Trautwein, Kathleen; Roesler, Stefan; Feenders, Christoph; Danzer, Daniel; Riemenschneider, Udo; Blasius, Bernd; Rabus, Ralf

    2016-07-01

    An essential step in 2D DIGE-based analysis of differential proteome profiles is the accurate and sensitive digitalisation of 2D DIGE gels. The performance progress of commercially available charge-coupled device (CCD) camera-based systems combined with light emitting diodes (LED) opens up a new possibility for this type of digitalisation. Here, we assessed the performance of a CCD camera system (Intas Advanced 2D Imager) as alternative to a traditionally employed, high-end laser scanner system (Typhoon 9400) for digitalisation of differential protein profiles from three different environmental bacteria. Overall, the performance of the CCD camera system was comparable to the laser scanner, as evident from very similar protein abundance changes (irrespective of spot position and volume), as well as from linear range and limit of detection. PMID:27252121

  16. 3D seismic imaging around the 2.5 km deep COSC-1 scientific borehole, central Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedin, Peter; Juhlin, Christopher; Buske, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    Following the successful completion of the COSC-1 drilling campaign, a number of geophysical investigations have been performed in and around the 2.5 km deep borehole. Three different seismic experiments were conducted simultaneously in the fall of 2014 to take advantage of the same source points; 1) a Vertical Seismic Profile (VSP) in the borehole, 2) three 2D seismic profiles across the borehole, and 3) a limited 3D seismic survey (presented here). The latter is the first 3D seismic survey on land in Scandinavia to target the Caledonian Nappes and will allow mapping a small part of the Seve Nappe Complex (SNC) in 3D. Furthermore, it will allow extrapolation of results from downhole logging, core analysis and other seismic surveys to structures surrounding the borehole. A total number of 429 receivers (10 Hz single component geophones) were planted with 20 m separation along 7 lines spaced 200 m apart. The total area with receivers covered approximately 1.5 km2 and was centered on the drill site. A combination of a mechanical source (a rock breaking hydraulic hammer, near offsets) and explosive charges (0.5 kg fired at 3.5 - 5 m depth, far offsets) were used. The source points were activated along roads radiating outwards from the COSC-1 drill site in a star pattern. The nominal shot spacing was 20 m (vibrating source) or 80 m (explosives) and maximum horizontal offset was about 5.75 km. The high-grade metamorphic SNC is well known from previous 2D seismic studies to be a highly reflective unit. However, due to the complex 3D geometry and lithological variation within the unit, it has not been clearly imaged. The new 3D data provide a means to image these structures in more detail and to follow the lithological and structural interfaces observed in the core into the surrounding unit. Preliminary results from the 3D processing and correlation with borehole data will be presented.

  17. CYP2D6*36 gene arrangements within the cyp2d6 locus: association of CYP2D6*36 with poor metabolizer status.

    PubMed

    Gaedigk, Andrea; Bradford, L Dianne; Alander, Sarah W; Leeder, J Steven

    2006-04-01

    Unexplained cases of CYP2D6 genotype/phenotype discordance continue to be discovered. In previous studies, several African Americans with a poor metabolizer phenotype carried the reduced function CYP2D6*10 allele in combination with a nonfunctional allele. We pursued the possibility that these alleles harbor either a known sequence variation (i.e., CYP2D6*36 carrying a gene conversion in exon 9 along the CYP2D6*10-defining 100C>T single-nucleotide polymorphism) or novel sequences variation(s). Discordant cases were evaluated by long-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to test for gene rearrangement events, and a 6.6-kilobase pair PCR product encompassing the CYP2D6 gene was cloned and entirely sequenced. Thereafter, allele frequencies were determined in different study populations comprising whites, African Americans, and Asians. Analyses covering the CYP2D7 to 2D6 gene region established that CYP2D6*36 did not only exist as a gene duplication (CYP2D6*36x2) or in tandem with *10 (CYP2D6*36+*10), as previously reported, but also by itself. This "single" CYP2D6*36 allele was found in nine African Americans and one Asian, but was absent in the whites tested. Ultimately, the presence of CYP2D6*36 resolved genotype/phenotype discordance in three cases. We also discovered an exon 9 conversion-positive CYP2D6*4 gene in a duplication arrangement (CYP2D6*4Nx2) and a CYP2D6*4 allele lacking 100C>T (CYP2D6*4M) in two white subjects. The discovery of an allele that carries only one CYP2D6*36 gene copy provides unequivocal evidence that both CYP2D6*36 and *36x2 are associated with a poor metabolizer phenotype. Given a combined frequency of between 0.5 and 3% in African Americans and Asians, genotyping for CYP2D6*36 should improve the accuracy of genotype-based phenotype prediction in these populations.

  18. Seismic isolation of two dimensional periodic foundations

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Y.; Mo, Y. L.; Laskar, A.; Cheng, Z.; Shi, Z.; Menq, F.; Tang, Y.

    2014-07-28

    Phononic crystal is now used to control acoustic waves. When the crystal goes to a larger scale, it is called periodic structure. The band gaps of the periodic structure can be reduced to range from 0.5 Hz to 50 Hz. Therefore, the periodic structure has potential applications in seismic wave reflection. In civil engineering, the periodic structure can be served as the foundation of upper structure. This type of foundation consisting of periodic structure is called periodic foundation. When the frequency of seismic waves falls into the band gaps of the periodic foundation, the seismic wave can be blocked. Field experiments of a scaled two dimensional (2D) periodic foundation with an upper structure were conducted to verify the band gap effects. Test results showed the 2D periodic foundation can effectively reduce the response of the upper structure for excitations with frequencies within the frequency band gaps. When the experimental and the finite element analysis results are compared, they agree well with each other, indicating that 2D periodic foundation is a feasible way of reducing seismic vibrations.

  19. The low frequency 2D vibration sensor based on flat coil element

    SciTech Connect

    Djamal, Mitra; Sanjaya, Edi; Islahudin; Ramli

    2012-06-20

    Vibration like an earthquake is a phenomenon of physics. The characteristics of these vibrations can be used as an early warning system so as to reduce the loss or damage caused by earthquakes. In this paper, we introduced a new type of low frequency 2D vibration sensor based on flat coil element that we have developed. Its working principle is based on position change of a seismic mass that put in front of a flat coil element. The flat coil is a part of a LC oscillator; therefore, the change of seismic mass position will change its resonance frequency. The results of measurements of low frequency vibration sensor in the direction of the x axis and y axis gives the frequency range between 0.2 to 1.0 Hz.

  20. Pareto joint inversion of 2D magnetotelluric and gravity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miernik, Katarzyna; Bogacz, Adrian; Kozubal, Adam; Danek, Tomasz; Wojdyła, Marek

    2015-04-01

    In this contribution, the first results of the "Innovative technology of petrophysical parameters estimation of geological media using joint inversion algorithms" project were described. At this stage of the development, Pareto joint inversion scheme for 2D MT and gravity data was used. Additionally, seismic data were provided to set some constrains for the inversion. Sharp Boundary Interface(SBI) approach and description model with set of polygons were used to limit the dimensionality of the solution space. The main engine was based on modified Particle Swarm Optimization(PSO). This algorithm was properly adapted to handle two or more target function at once. Additional algorithm was used to eliminate non- realistic solution proposals. Because PSO is a method of stochastic global optimization, it requires a lot of proposals to be evaluated to find a single Pareto solution and then compose a Pareto front. To optimize this stage parallel computing was used for both inversion engine and 2D MT forward solver. There are many advantages of proposed solution of joint inversion problems. First of all, Pareto scheme eliminates cumbersome rescaling of the target functions, that can highly affect the final solution. Secondly, the whole set of solution is created in one optimization run, providing a choice of the final solution. This choice can be based off qualitative data, that are usually very hard to be incorporated into the regular inversion schema. SBI parameterisation not only limits the problem of dimensionality, but also makes constraining of the solution easier. At this stage of work, decision to test the approach using MT and gravity data was made, because this combination is often used in practice. It is important to mention, that the general solution is not limited to this two methods and it is flexible enough to be used with more than two sources of data. Presented results were obtained for synthetic models, imitating real geological conditions, where

  1. Seismic stimulation for enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Pride, S.R.; Flekkoy, E.G.; Aursjo, O.

    2008-07-22

    The pore-scale effects of seismic stimulation on two-phase flow are modeled numerically in random 2D grain0pack geometries. Seismic stimulation aims to enhance oil production by sending seismic waves across a reservoir to liberate immobile patches of oil. For seismic amplitudes above a well-defined (analytically expressed) dimensionless criterion, the force perturbation associated with the waves indeed can liberate oil trapped on capillary barriers and get it flowing again under the background pressure gradient. Subsequent coalescence of the freed oil droplets acts to enhance oil movement further because longer bubbles overcome capillary barriers more efficiently than shorter bubbles do. Poroelasticity theory defines the effective force that a seismic wave adds to the background fluid-pressure gradient. The lattice-Boltzmann model in two dimensions is used to perform pore-scale numerical simulations. Dimensionless numbers (groups of material and force parameters) involved in seismic stimulation are defined carefully so that numerical simulations can be applied to field-scale conditions. Using the analytical criteria defined in the paper, there is a significant range of reservoir conditions over which seismic stimulation can be expected to enhance oil production.

  2. A new inversion method for (T2, D) 2D NMR logging and fluid typing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Maojin; Zou, Youlong; Zhou, Cancan

    2013-02-01

    One-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (1D NMR) logging technology has some significant limitations in fluid typing. However, not only can two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) provide some accurate porosity parameters, but it can also identify fluids more accurately than 1D NMR. In this paper, based on the relaxation mechanism of (T2, D) 2D NMR in a gradient magnetic field, a hybrid inversion method that combines least-squares-based QR decomposition (LSQR) and truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD) is examined in the 2D NMR inversion of various fluid models. The forward modeling and inversion tests are performed in detail with different acquisition parameters, such as magnetic field gradients (G) and echo spacing (TE) groups. The simulated results are discussed and described in detail, the influence of the above-mentioned observation parameters on the inversion accuracy is investigated and analyzed, and the observation parameters in multi-TE activation are optimized. Furthermore, the hybrid inversion can be applied to quantitatively determine the fluid saturation. To study the effects of noise level on the hybrid method and inversion results, the numerical simulation experiments are performed using different signal-to-noise-ratios (SNRs), and the effect of different SNRs on fluid typing using three fluid models are discussed and analyzed in detail.

  3. Seismic reflection imaging of shallow oceanographic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    PiéTé, Helen; Marié, Louis; Marsset, Bruno; Thomas, Yannick; Gutscher, Marc-André

    2013-05-01

    Multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection profiling can provide high lateral resolution images of deep ocean thermohaline fine structure. However, the shallowest layers of the water column (z < 150 m) have remained unexplored by this technique until recently. In order to explore the feasibility of shallow seismic oceanography (SO), we reprocessed and analyzed four multichannel seismic reflection sections featuring reflectors at depths between 10 and 150 m. The influence of the acquisition parameters was quantified. Seismic data processing dedicated to SO was also investigated. Conventional seismic acquisition systems were found to be ill-suited to the imaging of shallow oceanographic structures, because of a high antenna filter effect induced by large offsets and seismic trace lengths, and sources that typically cannot provide both a high level of emission and fine vertical resolution. We considered a test case, the imagery of the seasonal thermocline on the western Brittany continental shelf. New oceanographic data acquired in this area allowed simulation of the seismic acquisition. Sea trials of a specifically designed system were performed during the ASPEX survey, conducted in early summer 2012. The seismic device featured: (i) four seismic streamers, each consisting of six traces of 1.80 m; (ii) a 1000 J SIG sparker source, providing a 400 Hz signal with a level of emission of 205 dB re 1 μPa @ 1 m. This survey captured the 15 m thick, 30 m deep seasonal thermocline in unprecedented detail, showing images of vertical displacements most probably induced by internal waves.

  4. Quaternary uplift and subsidence of Catalina Ridge and San Pedro Basin, Inner California Continental Borderland, offshore southern California; results of high-resolution seismic profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, R.; Legg, M. R.

    2010-12-01

    High-resolution seismic reflection data collected by us, legacy seismic, and multibeam bathymetry show that the San Pedro Basin fault (SPBF) is a continuous fault zone from Santa Monica Basin to Crespi Knoll, and apparently joins with the San Diego Trough fault (SDTF). The SPBF and SDTF together form a more or less straight fault zone over 300 km in length, a major tectonic feature of the Inner Borderland. Catalina Ridge, a 100 km uplift feature including Santa Catalina Island, and adjacent San Pedro Basin, with up to 4-5 km structural relief between them, are closely associated with the SPBF, SDTF, and Catalina fault (CF). Santa Catalina Island has been shown previously to be an uplift associated with a restraining bend (CF linking the Santa Cruz Ridge and San Diego Trough fault zones; White et al., 2004). San Pedro Basin has two major sediment sequences west of the SPBF. The lower one dips away from Catalina Ridge and onlaps onto the basement as a thin sheet that extends beyond the upper sequence around the margins of the basin. This sequence is imaged as deep as 3.7 sec. two way travel time in the basin center. The much thinner upper sequence underlies the flat basin floor, onlaps onto the lower sequence, and is largely flat; any dips are parallel to the SPBF (not away from Catalina Ridge). Basal strata of the upper sequence are approximately 200-600 ka. Santa Catalina Island lacks well-defined marine terraces on land, in contrast to nearby uplifts such as Palos Verdes Peninsula, but submerged depositional terraces occur on the seafloor around the island. These aggradational benches formed on a sediment package that surrounds the island and is separated from the basin sequences. Some of these benches are up to 400 m below present sealevel, well below eustatic sealevel range. Our data suggest that the restraining bend structure formed by the CF was active during the time the lower sequence of San Pedro Basin was deposited. At approximately 200-600 ka, this

  5. 2D Ball-and-Socket Tectonic Rotation in a Heterogeneous Strain Field: The 2013 Mw7.7 Balochistan, Pakistan Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnhart, W. D.; Hayes, G. P.; Briggs, R. W.; Gold, R. D.; Bilham, R. G.

    2014-12-01

    The September 2013 Mw7.7 Balochistan strike-slip earthquake ruptured a ~200 km long segment of the curved Hoshab fault within the Makran accretionary prism - the active zone of convergence between the northward subducting Arabia plate and overriding Eurasia. The Hoshab fault ruptured bilaterally with ~10 m of mean sinistral and ~1.7 m of dip slip along the length of the rupture, quantified jointly from geodetic and seismological observations. This rupture is unusual because the fault dips ~60o towards the focus of a small circle centered in northwest Pakistan, and, despite a 30o increase in obliquity along the curving strike of the fault with respect to Arabia:Eurasia convergence, the ratio of strike and dip slip remain relatively uniform. Static friction prior to rupture was unusually weak ( <0.05) as inferred from topographic and slab profiles, and friction may have approached zero during dynamic rupture, thus permitting in part this unusual event. In this presentation, we argue that the northward dipping Hosab fault defines the northern rim of a structural unit in southeast Makran. This unit rotates - akin to a 2-D ball-and-socket joint - counter clockwise in response to India's penetration into the Eurasia plate. According to this interpretation, the mechanically weak Makran accretionary prism is subjected to a highly heterogeneous strain and deforms in response to convergence from both the Arabia and India plates. Rotation of the southeast Makran block accounts for complexity in the Chaman fault system and, in principle, reduces the seismic potential near Karachi by accommodating some slip along the southern Ornach-Nal fault. At the same time, geological indicators and along-strike fault slip profiles indicate that the Hoshab fault may also slip as a reverse fault in response to Arabia:Eurasia convergence - indicating that a single fault may accommodate multiple components of strain partitioning in a heterogeneous strain field over several seismic cycles.

  6. 2D modeling of electromagnetic waves in cold plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Crombé, K.; Van Eester, D.; Koch, R.; Kyrytsya, V.

    2014-02-12

    The consequences of sheath (rectified) electric fields, resulting from the different mobility of electrons and ions as a response to radio frequency (RF) fields, are a concern for RF antenna design as it can cause damage to antenna parts, limiters and other in-vessel components. As a first step to a more complete description, the usual cold plasma dielectric description has been adopted, and the density profile was assumed to be known as input. Ultimately, the relevant equations describing the wave-particle interaction both on the fast and slow timescale will need to be tackled but prior to doing so was felt as a necessity to get a feeling of the wave dynamics involved. Maxwell's equations are solved for a cold plasma in a 2D antenna box with strongly varying density profiles crossing also lower hybrid and ion-ion hybrid resonance layers. Numerical modelling quickly becomes demanding on computer power, since a fine grid spacing is required to capture the small wavelengths effects of strongly evanescent modes.

  7. Geophysical Surveys of the San Andreas and Crystal Springs Reservoir System Including Seismic-Reflection Profiles and Swath Bathymetry, San Mateo County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finlayson, David P.; Triezenberg, Peter J.; Hart, Patrick E.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes geophysical data acquired by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in San Andreas Reservoir and Upper and Lower Crystal Springs Reservoirs, San Mateo County, California, as part of an effort to refine knowledge of the location of traces of the San Andreas Fault within the reservoir system and to provide improved reservoir bathymetry for estimates of reservoir water volume. The surveys were conducted by the Western Coastal and Marine Geology (WCMG) Team of the USGS for the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC). The data were acquired in three separate surveys: (1) in June 2007, personnel from WCMG completed a three-day survey of San Andreas Reservoir, collecting approximately 50 km of high-resolution Chirp subbottom seismic-reflection data; (2) in November 2007, WCMG conducted a swath-bathymetry survey of San Andreas reservoir; and finally (3) in April 2008, WCMG conducted a swath-bathymetry survey of both the upper and lower Crystal Springs Reservoir system. Top of PageFor more information, contact David Finlayson.

  8. Competing coexisting phases in 2D water

    PubMed Central

    Zanotti, Jean-Marc; Judeinstein, Patrick; Dalla-Bernardina, Simona; Creff, Gaëlle; Brubach, Jean-Blaise; Roy, Pascale; Bonetti, Marco; Ollivier, Jacques; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Bellissent-Funel, Marie-Claire

    2016-01-01

    The properties of bulk water come from a delicate balance of interactions on length scales encompassing several orders of magnitudes: i) the Hydrogen Bond (HBond) at the molecular scale and ii) the extension of this HBond network up to the macroscopic level. Here, we address the physics of water when the three dimensional extension of the HBond network is frustrated, so that the water molecules are forced to organize in only two dimensions. We account for the large scale fluctuating HBond network by an analytical mean-field percolation model. This approach provides a coherent interpretation of the different events experimentally (calorimetry, neutron, NMR, near and far infra-red spectroscopies) detected in interfacial water at 160, 220 and 250 K. Starting from an amorphous state of water at low temperature, these transitions are respectively interpreted as the onset of creation of transient low density patches of 4-HBonded molecules at 160 K, the percolation of these domains at 220 K and finally the total invasion of the surface by them at 250 K. The source of this surprising behaviour in 2D is the frustration of the natural bulk tetrahedral local geometry and the underlying very significant increase in entropy of the interfacial water molecules. PMID:27185018

  9. Phase Engineering of 2D Tin Sulfides.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Zafer; Wu, Ryan J; Wickramaratne, Darshana; Shahrezaei, Sina; Liu, Chueh; Temiz, Selcuk; Patalano, Andrew; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Lake, Roger K; Mkhoyan, K A; Ozkan, Cengiz S

    2016-06-01

    Tin sulfides can exist in a variety of phases and polytypes due to the different oxidation states of Sn. A subset of these phases and polytypes take the form of layered 2D structures that give rise to a wide host of electronic and optical properties. Hence, achieving control over the phase, polytype, and thickness of tin sulfides is necessary to utilize this wide range of properties exhibited by the compound. This study reports on phase-selective growth of both hexagonal tin (IV) sulfide SnS2 and orthorhombic tin (II) sulfide SnS crystals with diameters of over tens of microns on SiO2 substrates through atmospheric pressure vapor-phase method in a conventional horizontal quartz tube furnace with SnO2 and S powders as the source materials. Detailed characterization of each phase of tin sulfide crystals is performed using various microscopy and spectroscopy methods, and the results are corroborated by ab initio density functional theory calculations. PMID:27099950

  10. Phase Engineering of 2D Tin Sulfides.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Zafer; Wu, Ryan J; Wickramaratne, Darshana; Shahrezaei, Sina; Liu, Chueh; Temiz, Selcuk; Patalano, Andrew; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Lake, Roger K; Mkhoyan, K A; Ozkan, Cengiz S

    2016-06-01

    Tin sulfides can exist in a variety of phases and polytypes due to the different oxidation states of Sn. A subset of these phases and polytypes take the form of layered 2D structures that give rise to a wide host of electronic and optical properties. Hence, achieving control over the phase, polytype, and thickness of tin sulfides is necessary to utilize this wide range of properties exhibited by the compound. This study reports on phase-selective growth of both hexagonal tin (IV) sulfide SnS2 and orthorhombic tin (II) sulfide SnS crystals with diameters of over tens of microns on SiO2 substrates through atmospheric pressure vapor-phase method in a conventional horizontal quartz tube furnace with SnO2 and S powders as the source materials. Detailed characterization of each phase of tin sulfide crystals is performed using various microscopy and spectroscopy methods, and the results are corroborated by ab initio density functional theory calculations.

  11. Competing coexisting phases in 2D water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanotti, Jean-Marc; Judeinstein, Patrick; Dalla-Bernardina, Simona; Creff, Gaëlle; Brubach, Jean-Blaise; Roy, Pascale; Bonetti, Marco; Ollivier, Jacques; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Bellissent-Funel, Marie-Claire

    2016-05-01

    The properties of bulk water come from a delicate balance of interactions on length scales encompassing several orders of magnitudes: i) the Hydrogen Bond (HBond) at the molecular scale and ii) the extension of this HBond network up to the macroscopic level. Here, we address the physics of water when the three dimensional extension of the HBond network is frustrated, so that the water molecules are forced to organize in only two dimensions. We account for the large scale fluctuating HBond network by an analytical mean-field percolation model. This approach provides a coherent interpretation of the different events experimentally (calorimetry, neutron, NMR, near and far infra-red spectroscopies) detected in interfacial water at 160, 220 and 250 K. Starting from an amorphous state of water at low temperature, these transitions are respectively interpreted as the onset of creation of transient low density patches of 4-HBonded molecules at 160 K, the percolation of these domains at 220 K and finally the total invasion of the surface by them at 250 K. The source of this surprising behaviour in 2D is the frustration of the natural bulk tetrahedral local geometry and the underlying very significant increase in entropy of the interfacial water molecules.

  12. Calibration of Seismic Sources during a Test Cruise with the new RV SONNE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engels, M.; Schnabel, M.; Damm, V.

    2015-12-01

    During autumn 2014, several test cruises of the brand new German research vessel SONNE were carried out before the first official scientific cruise started in December. In September 2014, BGR conducted a seismic test cruise in the British North Sea. RV SONNE is a multipurpose research vessel and was also designed for the mobile BGR 3D seismic equipment, which was tested successfully during the cruise. We spend two days for calibration of the following seismic sources of BGR: G-gun array (50 l @ 150 bar) G-gun array (50 l @ 207 bar) single GI-gun (3.4 l @ 150 bar) For this experiment two hydrophones (TC4042 from Reson Teledyne) sampling up to 48 kHz were fixed below a drifting buoy at 20 m and 60 m water depth - the sea bottom was at 80 m depth. The vessel with the seismic sources sailed several up to 7 km long profiles around the buoy in order to cover many different azimuths and distances. We aimed to measure sound pressure level (SPL) and sound exposure level (SEL) under the conditions of the shallow North Sea. Total reflections and refracted waves dominate the recorded wave field, enhance the noise level and partly screen the direct wave in contrast to 'true' deep water calibration based solely on the direct wave. Presented are SPL and RMS power results in time domain, the decay with distance along profiles, and the somehow complicated 2D sound radiation pattern modulated by topography. The shading effect of the vessel's hull is significant. In frequency domain we consider 1/3 octave levels and estimate the amount of energy in frequency ranges not used for reflection seismic processing. Results are presented in comparison of the three different sources listed above. We compare the measured SPL decay with distance during this experiment with deep water modeling of seismic sources (Gundalf software) and with published results from calibrations with other marine seismic sources under different conditions: E.g. Breitzke et al. (2008, 2010) with RV Polarstern

  13. Iqpc 2015 Track: Evaluation of Automatically Generated 2d Footprints from Urban LIDAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truong-Hong, L.; Laefer, D.; Bisheng, Y.; Ronggang, H.; Jianping, L.

    2015-08-01

    Over the last decade, several automatic approaches have been proposed to extract and reconstruct 2D building footprints and 2D road profiles from ALS data, satellite images, and/or aerial imagery. Since these methods have to date been applied to various data sets and assessed through a variety of different quality indicators and ground truths, comparing the relative effectiveness of the techniques and identifying their strengths and short-comings has not been possible in a systematic way. This contest as part of IQPC15 was designed to determine pros and cons of submitted approaches in generating 2D footprint of a city region from ALS data. Specifically, participants were asked to submit 2D footprints (building outlines and road profiles) derived from ALS data from a highly dense dataset (approximately 225 points/m2) across a 1km2 of Dublin, Ireland's city centre. The proposed evaluation strategies were designed to measure not only the capacity of each method to detect and reconstruct 2D buildings and roads but also the quality of the reconstructed building and road models in terms of shape similarity and positional accuracy.

  14. Seismic Imaging Investigation of the Calaveras Fault in Dunne Memorial Park, Hollister, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, M. F.; Catchings, R. D.; Rymer, M. J.; Snelson, C. M.; Goldman, M.; Saldana, S.

    2005-12-01

    The Calaveras Fault is a major right-lateral strike-slip fault of the San Andreas Fault system in northern California. The southern Calaveras Fault is an area of active creep, which can be seen in the structural deformation of man-made structures in the town of Hollister. Amplification of the soils may result in significant damage to structures in and around Hollister during large-magnitude earthquakes on either the San Andreas or Calaveras faults. In order to understand the subsurface configuration of the fault we acquired high-resolution, shallow-depth, seismic images of an active strand of the Calaveras Fault along a 156-m-long profile in Dunne Memorial Park, Hollister, California in July 2005. The seismic profile was acquired normal to the strike of the creeping section of the Calaveras Fault where there is evidence of both continuous horizontal displacement and small amounts of vertical displacement, down to the west. The surface expression of the fault includes offset curbs (~ 12 cm), bent retaining walls, swells and cracks in the asphalt pavement, leaning houses, offset fences, and a west-facing scarp. The seismic line consisted of shot points (hammer source) and receivers each spaced every 3 m with 1-m lateral offsets between shot points and receivers. For each shot, we acquired 2 s of data at a sampling rate of 0.5 ms. We developed a 2-D P-wave refraction tomography velocity model along the seismic profile by inverting first-arrival refractions using a modified version of the code by Hole (1992). P-wave velocities range from about 400 m/s near the surface to about 600 m/s at a depth of 10-15 m. We also generated stacked and migrated reflection images of the shallow subsurface, which show vertical offsets of layers and laterally discontinuous layers. Both the velocity model and reflection stack infer multiple east- and west-sloping fault splays. These data suggest a complex three-dimensional geometry for the shallow fault zone along the southern Calaveras

  15. 2-D Animation's Not Just for Mickey Mouse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinman, Lynda

    1995-01-01

    Discusses characteristics of two-dimensional (2-D) animation; highlights include character animation, painting issues, and motion graphics. Sidebars present Silicon Graphics animations tools and 2-D animation programs for the desktop computer. (DGM)

  16. Automating Shallow Seismic Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Steeples, Don W.

    2004-12-09

    This seven-year, shallow-seismic reflection research project had the aim of improving geophysical imaging of possible contaminant flow paths. Thousands of chemically contaminated sites exist in the United States, including at least 3,700 at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Imaging technologies such as shallow seismic reflection (SSR) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) sometimes are capable of identifying geologic conditions that might indicate preferential contaminant-flow paths. Historically, SSR has been used very little at depths shallower than 30 m, and even more rarely at depths of 10 m or less. Conversely, GPR is rarely useful at depths greater than 10 m, especially in areas where clay or other electrically conductive materials are present near the surface. Efforts to image the cone of depression around a pumping well using seismic methods were only partially successful (for complete references of all research results, see the full Final Technical Report, DOE/ER/14826-F), but peripheral results included development of SSR methods for depths shallower than one meter, a depth range that had not been achieved before. Imaging at such shallow depths, however, requires geophone intervals of the order of 10 cm or less, which makes such surveys very expensive in terms of human time and effort. We also showed that SSR and GPR could be used in a complementary fashion to image the same volume of earth at very shallow depths. The primary research focus of the second three-year period of funding was to develop and demonstrate an automated method of conducting two-dimensional (2D) shallow-seismic surveys with the goal of saving time, effort, and money. Tests involving the second generation of the hydraulic geophone-planting device dubbed the ''Autojuggie'' showed that large numbers of geophones can be placed quickly and automatically and can acquire high-quality data, although not under rough topographic conditions. In some easy-access environments, this device could

  17. The Salton Seismic Imaging Project: Investigating Earthquake Hazards in the Salton Trough, Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuis, G. S.; Goldman, M.; Sickler, R. R.; Catchings, R. D.; Rymer, M. J.; Rose, E. J.; Murphy, J. M.; Butcher, L. A.; Cotton, J. A.; Criley, C. J.; Croker, D. S.; Emmons, I.; Ferguson, A. J.; Gardner, M. A.; Jensen, E. G.; McClearn, R.; Loughran, C. L.; Slayday-Criley, C. J.; Svitek, J. F.; Hole, J. A.; Stock, J. M.; Skinner, S. M.; Driscoll, N. W.; Harding, A. J.; Babcock, J. M.; Kent, G.; Kell, A. M.; Harder, S. H.

    2011-12-01

    The Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP) is a collaborative effort between academia and the U.S. Geological Survey to provide detailed, subsurface 3-D images of the Salton Trough of southern California and northern Mexico. From both active- and passive-source seismic data that were acquired both onshore and offshore (Salton Sea), the resulting images will provide insights into earthquake hazards, rift processes, and rift-transform interaction at the southern end of the San Andreas Fault system. The southernmost San Andreas Fault (SAF) is considered to be at high-risk of producing a large damaging earthquake, yet the structure of this and other regional faults and that of adjacent sedimentary basins is not currently well understood. Seismic data were acquired from 2 to 18 March 2011. One hundred and twenty-six borehole explosions (10-1400 kg yield) were detonated along seven profiles in the Salton Trough region, extending from area of Palm Springs, California, to the southwestern tip of Arizona. Airguns (1500 and 3500 cc) were fired along two profiles in the Salton Sea and at points in a 2-D array in the southern Salton Sea. Approximately 2800 seismometers were deployed at over 4200 locations throughout the Salton Trough region, and 48 ocean-bottom seismometers were deployed at 78 locations beneath the Salton Sea. Many of the onshore explosions were energetic enough to be recorded and located by the Southern California Seismograph Network. The geometry of the SAF has important implications for energy radiation in the next major rupture. Prior potential field, seismicity, and InSAR data indicate that the SAF may dip moderately to the northeast from the Salton Sea to Cajon Pass in the Transverse Ranges. Much of SSIP was designed to test models of this geometry.

  18. 2D Quantum Mechanical Study of Nanoscale MOSFETs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svizhenko, Alexei; Anantram, M. P.; Govindan, T. R.; Biegel, B.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    With the onset of quantum confinement in the inversion layer in nanoscale MOSFETs, behavior of the resonant level inevitably determines all device characteristics. While most classical device simulators take quantization into account in some simplified manner, the important details of electrostatics are missing. Our work addresses this shortcoming and provides: (a) a framework to quantitatively explore device physics issues such as the source-drain and gate leakage currents, DIBL, and threshold voltage shift due to quantization, and b) a means of benchmarking quantum corrections to semiclassical models (such as density-gradient and quantum-corrected MEDICI). We have developed physical approximations and computer code capable of realistically simulating 2-D nanoscale transistors, using the non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) method. This is the most accurate full quantum model yet applied to 2-D device simulation. Open boundary conditions and oxide tunneling are treated on an equal footing. Electrons in the ellipsoids of the conduction band are treated within the anisotropic effective mass approximation. We present the results of our simulations of MIT 25, 50 and 90 nm "well-tempered" MOSFETs and compare them to those of classical and quantum corrected models. The important feature of quantum model is smaller slope of Id-Vg curve and consequently higher threshold voltage. Surprisingly, the self-consistent potential profile shows lower injection barrier in the channel in quantum case. These results are qualitatively consistent with ID Schroedinger-Poisson calculations. The effect of gate length on gate-oxide leakage and subthreshold current has been studied. The shorter gate length device has an order of magnitude smaller current at zero gate bias than the longer gate length device without a significant trade-off in on-current. This should be a device design consideration.

  19. How Forgetful are Seismic Waves ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milkereit, B.

    2005-05-01

    3D surface seismic and vertical seismic profiling (VSP) techniques can be employed to image crustal structures in complex geological settings. The effects of heterogeneities on seismic wave propagation can be described in terms of different propagation regimes (Wu, 1989): quasi-homogeneous for heterogeneities too small to be seen by seismic waves, Rayleigh scattering, Mie scattering and small-angle scattering. These scattering regimes cause characteristic amplitude, phase and travel time fluctuation, which can be used to obtain estimates of scale length. Horizontal resolution of exploration seismic data is often discussed in terms of Fresnel zone. For surface and VSP data, the Fresnel radius increases with increasing depth of investigation. In addition, the lateral resolution is limited by the effective frequency content of the seismic signal. Based on strong contrast in petrophysical data, crustal exploration targets (such as gas-hydrates, permafrost or massive sulfide ores) should make strong P-wave, S-wave and converted wave reflectors against most background velocity models. In the context of realistic geological models, 3D numerical simulations are required to better assess elastic wave interactions with high acoustic impedance targets. In addition, it is important to study the influence of composition and shape of high acoustic impedance targets on the full scattered wavefield through a series of numerical modeling experiments based on the 3D elastic finite-difference (FD) method. Massive sulfide ores consisting of the end-member sulfide minerals pyrite, sphalerite, and galena, which span the full range of observed P- and S- wave velocities and densities in ore rocks, as well as gabbro inclusions, are investigated for different shapes which represent the complex morphologies often observed for ore deposits. 3D FD modeling reveals that large ore deposits lead to a strong and complex scattering response that is often dominated by shear-wave events (Bohlen et al

  20. The algorithm of decomposing superimposed 2-D Poisson processes and its application to the extracting earthquake clustering pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Tao; Zhou, Cheng-Hu; Yang, Ming; Luo, Jian-Cheng; Li, Quan-Lin

    2004-01-01

    Aiming at the complexity of seismic gestation mechanism and spatial distribution, we hypothesize that the seismic data are composed of background earthquakes and anomaly earthquakes in a certain temporal-spatial scope. Also the background earthquakes and anomaly earthquakes both satisfy the 2-D Poisson process of different parameters respectively. In the paper, the concept of N-th order distance is introduced in order to transform 2-D superimposed Poisson process into 1-D mixture density function. On the basis of choosing the distance, mixture density function is decomposed to recognize the anomaly earthquakes through genetic algorithm. Combined with the temporal scanning of C value, the algorithm is applied to the recognition on spatial pattern of foreshock anomalies by examples of Songpan and Longling sequences in the southwest of China.

  1. Generates 2D Input for DYNA NIKE & TOPAZ

    SciTech Connect

    Hallquist, J. O.; Sanford, Larry

    1996-07-15

    MAZE is an interactive program that serves as an input and two-dimensional mesh generator for DYNA2D, NIKE2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. MAZE also generates a basic template for ISLAND input. MAZE has been applied to the generation of input data to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.

  2. MAZE96. Generates 2D Input for DYNA NIKE & TOPAZ

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, L.; Hallquist, J.O.

    1992-02-24

    MAZE is an interactive program that serves as an input and two-dimensional mesh generator for DYNA2D, NIKE2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. MAZE also generates a basic template for ISLAND input. MAZE has been applied to the generation of input data to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.

  3. 2d PDE Linear Symmetric Matrix Solver

    1983-10-01

    ICCG2 (Incomplete Cholesky factorized Conjugate Gradient algorithm for 2d symmetric problems) was developed to solve a linear symmetric matrix system arising from a 9-point discretization of two-dimensional elliptic and parabolic partial differential equations found in plasma physics applications, such as resistive MHD, spatial diffusive transport, and phase space transport (Fokker-Planck equation) problems. These problems share the common feature of being stiff and requiring implicit solution techniques. When these parabolic or elliptic PDE''s are discretized withmore » finite-difference or finite-element methods,the resulting matrix system is frequently of block-tridiagonal form. To use ICCG2, the discretization of the two-dimensional partial differential equation and its boundary conditions must result in a block-tridiagonal supermatrix composed of elementary tridiagonal matrices. The incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient algorithm is used to solve the linear symmetric matrix equation. Loops are arranged to vectorize on the Cray1 with the CFT compiler, wherever possible. Recursive loops, which cannot be vectorized, are written for optimum scalar speed. For matrices lacking symmetry, ILUCG2 should be used. Similar methods in three dimensions are available in ICCG3 and ILUCG3. A general source containing extensions and macros, which must be processed by a pre-compiler to obtain the standard FORTRAN source, is provided along with the standard FORTRAN source because it is believed to be more readable. The pre-compiler is not included, but pre-compilation may be performed by a text editor as described in the UCRL-88746 Preprint.« less

  4. 2d PDE Linear Asymmetric Matrix Solver

    1983-10-01

    ILUCG2 (Incomplete LU factorized Conjugate Gradient algorithm for 2d problems) was developed to solve a linear asymmetric matrix system arising from a 9-point discretization of two-dimensional elliptic and parabolic partial differential equations found in plasma physics applications, such as plasma diffusion, equilibria, and phase space transport (Fokker-Planck equation) problems. These equations share the common feature of being stiff and requiring implicit solution techniques. When these parabolic or elliptic PDE''s are discretized with finite-difference or finite-elementmore » methods, the resulting matrix system is frequently of block-tridiagonal form. To use ILUCG2, the discretization of the two-dimensional partial differential equation and its boundary conditions must result in a block-tridiagonal supermatrix composed of elementary tridiagonal matrices. A generalization of the incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient algorithm is used to solve the matrix equation. Loops are arranged to vectorize on the Cray1 with the CFT compiler, wherever possible. Recursive loops, which cannot be vectorized, are written for optimum scalar speed. For problems having a symmetric matrix ICCG2 should be used since it runs up to four times faster and uses approximately 30% less storage. Similar methods in three dimensions are available in ICCG3 and ILUCG3. A general source, containing extensions and macros, which must be processed by a pre-compiler to obtain the standard FORTRAN source, is provided along with the standard FORTRAN source because it is believed to be more readable. The pre-compiler is not included, but pre-compilation may be performed by a text editor as described in the UCRL-88746 Preprint.« less

  5. Position control using 2D-to-2D feature correspondences in vision guided cell micromanipulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanliang; Han, Mingli; Shee, Cheng Yap; Ang, Wei Tech

    2007-01-01

    Conventional camera calibration that utilizes the extrinsic and intrinsic parameters of the camera and the objects has certain limitations for micro-level cell operations due to the presence of hardware deviations and external disturbances during the experimental process, thereby invalidating the extrinsic parameters. This invalidation is often neglected in macro-world visual servoing and affects the visual image processing quality, causing deviation from the desired position in micro-level cell operations. To increase the success rate of vision guided biological micromanipulations, a novel algorithm monitoring the changing image pattern of the manipulators including the injection micropipette and cell holder is designed and implemented based on 2 dimensional (2D)-to 2D feature correspondences and can adjust the manipulator and perform position control simultaneously. When any deviation is found, the manipulator is retracted to the initial focusing plane before continuing the operation.

  6. Seismic characterization of the j-reflector near the meizoseismal area of the 1886 Charleston earthquake for lithologic constraint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Craig

    Investigations into the relationship between geologic structure and seismicity in and around the meizoseismal area of the 1886 Charleston earthquake have been ongoing since the 1970s. Seismic reflection profiles collected in this area display a prominent, laterally continuous, high amplitude, low frequency, two cycle reflection at ~0.7-1.2 s TWT, termed the "J" reflector, which has been correlated with Lower to Middle Jurassic tholeiitic basalt flows encountered in the Clubhouse Crossroads wells. The "J" reflector was also extended offshore onto the continental shelf. Recent reevaluation of sub Coastal Plain wells within the South Georgia Rift (SGR) Basin, including wells around the meizoseismal area of the 1886 Charleston earthquake, has shown most do not encounter basalt rising suspicions as to the true lithology of the "J"-reflector. Moreover, this same reflector has been interpreted to be the unconformity at the base of the Cretaceous-age Coastal Plain sediments. In order to define the regional extent of the Clubhouse Crossroads basalt, seismic inversion and attribute analysis were performed on two recently acquired reflection profiles, SC02_1 and SC02_5. Beginning in December 2010 through February 2011, seven 2D reflection profiles: SC02_1 - SC02_7 (total length 240 km) were acquired to the immediate west and northwest of the Charleston meizoseismal zone and legacy seismic data as part of DOE Award DE-FE0001965: Geologic Characterization of the South Georgia Rift Basin for Source Proximal C02 Storage project. The first profile, SC02_1, passes Norris Lightsey #1 and Rizer #1, two wells that never encountered basalt at the base of coastal plain. SC02_5, passes Dorchester 211, a well that bottomed into basalt at the base of the coastal plain. Variations in seismic attributes provides evidence for a western termination of the clubhouse crossroads basalt flow on SC02_1 and key support for visible amplitude variations at the contact between coastal plain

  7. San Francisco Bay Area Velocity Structure From Controlled-Source Seismic Refraction Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, M. R.; Catchings, R. D.; Steedman, C. E.; Gandhok, G.; Boatwright, J.; Rymer, M. J.

    2004-12-01

    To better understand the velocities and structures of the crust and upper mantle in the San Francisco Bay area, we developed 2-D tomographic velocity models along four seismic refraction profiles acquired along and across the bay area in the early 1990's. The four profiles extended from (1) Hollister to Inverness along the San Francisco and Marin Peninsulas (~200 km long), (2) Hollister to Santa Rosa along the East Bay (~220 km long), (3) the Pacific Ocean to Livermore crossing the bay (~100 km long), and (4) the Pacific Ocean to the western Santa Clara Valley (~25 km long), centered on the epicenter of the1989 M. 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake. Velocity models were not previously developed for three of the seismic profiles, and the previously developed model for the fourth profile (Catchings and Kohler, 1996) did not include some of the currently available seismic data. The profiles along the bay image structures from the near surface to about 25 km depth, and they show velocity anomalies associated with the major faults (San Andreas, Hayward, Rodgers Creek, Calaveras) and basins along the profile. Velocities range from about 2 km/s in the basins to about 7 km/s at the Moho, which dips southward along both sides of the bay. The cross bay profile shows velocity anomalies associated with six fault zones between the Pacific Ocean and the Livermore Valley and higher upper-crustal velocities (~6.2 km/s) between the San Andreas and Hayward faults than to the southwest (~5 km/s) or northeast (~4 km/s) of those faults. The Loma Prieta profile shows velocities ranging from 2 km/s to 6 km/s in the upper 5 km, with the highest velocities in the epicentral region of the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. A pronounced, northeast-dipping, low-velocity zone is located beneath the surface expression of the San Andreas fault zone, but other fault zones along the profile show high-velocity anomalies beneath their surface expressions. Collectively, the velocity images show the complexity of

  8. Historical seismicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dengler, L.

    1992-01-01

    The North Coast region of California in the vicinity of Cape Mendocino is one of the state's most seismically active areas, accounting for 25 percent of seismic energy release in California during the last 50 years. the region is located in a geologically dynamic are surrounding the Mendocino triple junction where three of the Earth's tectonic plates join together ( see preceding article by Sam Clarke). In the historic past the North Coast has been affected by earthquakes occurring on the San Andreas fault system to the south, the Mendocino fault to the southwest, and intraplate earthquakes within both the Gorda and North American plates. More than sixty of these earthquakes have caused damage since the mid-1800's. Recent studies indicate that California's North Coast is also at risk with respect to very large earthquakes (magnitude >8) originating along the Cascadia subduction zone. Although the subduction zone has not generated great earthquakes in historic time, paleoseismic evidence suggests that such earthquakes have been generated by the subduction zone in the recent prehistoric past. 

  9. A Planar Quantum Transistor Based on 2D-2D Tunneling in Double Quantum Well Heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, W.E.; Blount, M.A.; Hafich, M.J.; Lyo, S.K.; Moon, J.S.; Reno, J.L.; Simmons, J.A.; Wendt, J.R.

    1998-12-14

    We report on our work on the double electron layer tunneling transistor (DELTT), based on the gate-control of two-dimensional -- two-dimensional (2D-2D) tunneling in a double quantum well heterostructure. While previous quantum transistors have typically required tiny laterally-defined features, by contrast the DELTT is entirely planar and can be reliably fabricated in large numbers. We use a novel epoxy-bond-and-stop-etch (EBASE) flip-chip process, whereby submicron gating on opposite sides of semiconductor epitaxial layers as thin as 0.24 microns can be achieved. Because both electron layers in the DELTT are 2D, the resonant tunneling features are unusually sharp, and can be easily modulated with one or more surface gates. We demonstrate DELTTs with peak-to-valley ratios in the source-drain I-V curve of order 20:1 below 1 K. Both the height and position of the resonant current peak can be controlled by gate voltage over a wide range. DELTTs with larger subband energy offsets ({approximately} 21 meV) exhibit characteristics that are nearly as good at 77 K, in good agreement with our theoretical calculations. Using these devices, we also demonstrate bistable memories operating at 77 K. Finally, we briefly discuss the prospects for room temperature operation, increases in gain, and high-speed.

  10. 'Brukin2D': a 2D visualization and comparison tool for LC-MS data

    PubMed Central

    Tsagkrasoulis, Dimosthenis; Zerefos, Panagiotis; Loudos, George; Vlahou, Antonia; Baumann, Marc; Kossida, Sophia

    2009-01-01

    Background Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) is a commonly used technique to resolve complex protein mixtures. Visualization of large data sets produced from LC-MS, namely the chromatogram and the mass spectra that correspond to its compounds is the focus of this work. Results The in-house developed 'Brukin2D' software, built in Matlab 7.4, which is presented here, uses the compound data that are exported from the Bruker 'DataAnalysis' program, and depicts the mean mass spectra of all the chromatogram compounds from one LC-MS run, in one 2D contour/density plot. Two contour plots from different chromatograph runs can then be viewed in the same window and automatically compared, in order to find their similarities and differences. The results of the comparison can be examined through detailed mass quantification tables, while chromatogram compound statistics are also calculated during the procedure. Conclusion 'Brukin2D' provides a user-friendly platform for quick, easy and integrated view of complex LC-MS data. The software is available at . PMID:19534737

  11. Inhibition of human cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) by methadone.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, D; Otton, S V; Sproule, B A; Busto, U; Inaba, T; Kalow, W; Sellers, E M

    1993-01-01

    1. In microsomes prepared from three human livers, methadone competitively inhibited the O-demethylation of dextromethorphan, a marker substrate for CYP2D6. The apparent Ki value of methadone ranged from 2.5 to 5 microM. 2. Two hundred and fifty-two (252) white Caucasians, including 210 unrelated healthy volunteers and 42 opiate abusers undergoing treatment with methadone were phenotyped using dextromethorphan as the marker drug. Although the frequency of poor metabolizers was similar in both groups, the extensive metabolizers among the opiate abusers tended to have higher O-demethylation metabolic ratios and to excrete less of the dose as dextromethorphan metabolites than control extensive metabolizer subjects. These data suggest inhibition of CYP2D6 by methadone in vivo as well. 3. Because methadone is widely used in the treatment of opiate abuse, inhibition of CYP2D6 activity in these patients might contribute to exaggerated response or unexpected toxicity from drugs that are substrates of this enzyme. PMID:8448065

  12. Study of iron deposit using seismic refraction and resistivity in Carajás Mineral Province, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogueira, Pedro Vencovsky; Rocha, Marcelo Peres; Borges, Welitom Rodrigues; Silva, Adalene Moreira; Assis, Luciano Mozer de

    2016-10-01

    This work comprises the acquisition, processing and interpretation of 2D seismic shallow refraction (P-wave) and resistivity profiles located in the iron ore deposit of N4WS, Carajás Mineral Province (CMP), northern Brazil. The geophysical methods were used to identify the boundaries of the iron ore deposit. Another objective was to evaluate the potentiality of these geophysical methods in that geological context. In order to validate the results, the geophysical lines were located to match a geological borehole line. For the seismic refraction, we used 120 channels, spaced by 10 m, in a line of 1190 m, with seven shot points. The resistivity method used in the acquisition was the electrical resistivity imaging, with pole-pole array, in order to reach greater depths. The resistivity line had a length of 1430 m, with 10 m spacing between electrodes. The seismic results produced a model with two distinct layers. Based on the velocities values, the first layer was interpreted as altered rocks, and the second layer as more preserved rocks. It was not possible to discriminate different lithologies with the seismic method inside each layer. From the resistivity results, a zone of higher resistivity (> 3937 Ω·m) was interpreted as iron ore, and a region of intermediate resistivity (from 816 to 2330 Ω·m) as altered rocks. These two regions represent the first seismic layer. On the second seismic layer, an area with intermediated resistivity values (from 483 to 2330 Ω·m) was interpreted as mafic rocks, and the area with lower resistivity (< 483 Ω·m) as jaspilite. Our results were compared with geological boreholes and show reasonable correlation, suggesting that the geophysical anomalies correspond to the main variations in composition and physical properties of rocks.

  13. 2D ESR image reconstruction from 1D projections using the modulated field gradient method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Páli, T.; Sass, L.; Horvat, L. I.; Ebert, B.

    A method for the reconstruction of 2D ESR images from 1 D projections which is based on the modulated field gradient method has been explored. The 2D distribution of spin-labeled stearic acid in oriented and unoriented dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine multilayers on a flat quartz support was determined. Such samples are potentially useful for the determination of lipid lateral diffusion in oriented multilayers by monitoring the spreading of a sharp concentration profile in one or two dimensions. The limitations of the method are discussed and the improvements which are needed for dynamic measurements are outlined.

  14. Transdimensional Seismic Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodin, T.; Sambridge, M.

    2009-12-01

    In seismic imaging the degree of model complexity is usually determined by manually tuning damping parameters within a fixed parameterization chosen in advance. Here we present an alternative methodology for seismic travel time tomography where the model complexity is controlled automatically by the data. In particular we use a variable parametrization consisting of Voronoi cells with mobile geometry, shape and number, all treated as unknowns in the inversion. The reversible jump algorithm is used to sample the transdimensional model space within a Bayesian framework which avoids global damping procedures and the need to tune regularisation parameters. The method is an ensemble inference approach, as many potential solutions are generated with variable numbers of cells. Information is extracted from the ensemble as a whole by performing Monte Carlo integration to produce the expected Earth model. The ensemble of models can also be used to produce velocity uncertainty estimates and experiments with synthetic data suggest they represent actual uncertainty surprisingly well. In a transdimensional approach, the level of data uncertainty directly determines the model complexity needed to satisfy the data. Intriguingly, the Bayesian formulation can be extended to the case where data uncertainty is also uncertain. Experiments show that it is possible to recover data noise estimate while at the same time controlling model complexity in an automated fashion. The method is tested on synthetic data in a 2-D application and compared with a more standard matrix based inversion scheme. The method has also been applied to real data obtained from cross correlation of ambient noise where little is known about the size of the errors associated with the travel times. As an example, a tomographic image of Rayleigh wave group velocity for the Australian continent is constructed for 5s data together with uncertainty estimates.

  15. Resonance analysis of a 2D alluvial valley subjected to seismic waves.

    PubMed

    Chai, Juin-Fu; Teng, Tsung-Jen; Yeh, Chau-Shioung; Shyu, Wen-Shinn

    2002-08-01

    The T-matrix formalism and an ultrasonic experiment are developed to study the scattering of in-plane waves for an alluvial valley embedded in a two-dimensional half-space. The solution of the in-plane scattering problem can be determined by the T-matrix method, where the basis functions are defined by the singular solutions of Lamb's problems with surface loading in both horizontal and vertical directions. In the experiment, a thin steel plate with a semicircular aluminum plate attached on the edge is used to simulate the two-dimensional alluvial valley in the state of plane stress. Based on the spectra of displacement signals measured at the free edge of the scatterer, the resonance frequencies where the peaks appear can be identified. It can be shown that the nondimensional resonance frequency is one of the characteristic properties of the scattering system. Furthermore, it is noted that the nondimensional resonance frequencies measured experimentally are in good agreement with those calculated theoretically.

  16. Correlated Electron Phenomena in 2D Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, Joseph G.

    In this thesis, I present experimental results on coherent electron phenomena in layered two-dimensional materials: single layer graphene and van der Waals coupled 2D TiSe2. Graphene is a two-dimensional single-atom thick sheet of carbon atoms first derived from bulk graphite by the mechanical exfoliation technique in 2004. Low-energy charge carriers in graphene behave like massless Dirac fermions, and their density can be easily tuned between electron-rich and hole-rich quasiparticles with electrostatic gating techniques. The sharp interfaces between regions of different carrier densities form barriers with selective transmission, making them behave as partially reflecting mirrors. When two of these interfaces are set at a separation distance within the phase coherence length of the carriers, they form an electronic version of a Fabry-Perot cavity. I present measurements and analysis of multiple Fabry-Perot modes in graphene with parallel electrodes spaced a few hundred nanometers apart. Transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) TiSe2 is part of the family of materials that coined the term "materials beyond graphene". It contains van der Waals coupled trilayer stacks of Se-Ti-Se. Many TMD materials exhibit a host of interesting correlated electronic phases. In particular, TiSe2 exhibits chiral charge density waves (CDW) below TCDW ˜ 200 K. Upon doping with copper, the CDW state gets suppressed with Cu concentration, and CuxTiSe2 becomes superconducting with critical temperature of T c = 4.15 K. There is still much debate over the mechanisms governing the coexistence of the two correlated electronic phases---CDW and superconductivity. I will present some of the first conductance spectroscopy measurements of proximity coupled superconductor-CDW systems. Measurements reveal a proximity-induced critical current at the Nb-TiSe2 interfaces, suggesting pair correlations in the pure TiSe2. The results indicate that superconducting order is present concurrently with CDW in

  17. Salton Seismic Imaging Project Line 7: Data and Analysis to Date

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, M.; Fuis, G.; Catchings, R. D.; Rymer, M. J.; Bauer, K.; Driscoll, N. W.; Kent, G.; Harding, A. J.; Kell, A. M.; Hole, J. A.; Stock, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP) is a large-scale, active- and passive-source seismic-imaging project designed to image the San Andreas Fault (SAF) and adjacent basins (Imperial and Coachella Valleys) in southernmost California. Data and preliminary results from many of the seismic profiles are reported elsewhere (Fuis et al., Catchings et al., Rymer et al., this meeting). Here, we focus on SSIP Line 7, one of four 2-D NE-SW-oriented seismic profiles that were acquired across the SAF, parts of the Coachella Valley, and/or the Salton Sea. Seismic sources for Line 7 include both land-based downhole explosive sources and airgun sources within the Salton Sea. Data were recorded by 189 Texan seismographs on land (50 m spacing), 102 channels of a multi-channel cabled recording system near the San Andreas fault on land (10 m spacing), and nine ocean bottom seismographs (OBS) within the Salton Sea (1.3 km spacing). The Texans and OBS's recorded both airgun and explosive sources, and the cable array recorded explosions only. Data from the Texan and the multi-channel seismographs were organized as shotgathers, and the OBS data were arranged as receiver gathers. All data were merged into a single profile for analysis. The seismic profile is approximately 23 km long and crosses approximately normal to the SAF, but an approximately 2-km-long segment of the profile at the northeastern edge of the Salton Sea, does not have either seismograph or seismic source coverage due to limited OBS data. Because the gap in the seismic profile was within about 500 m of the surface trace of the SAF, imaging of the shallow part of the SAF was limited. First arrivals from all data sets were combined to develop a refraction tomography velocity image of the upper crust. From the surface to about 6 km depth, P-wave velocities range from about 2 km/s to about 6 km/s, with basement (~6 km/s) shallower northeast of the SAF. The SAF also marks the southwestern boundary of a relatively high

  18. Grustal shortening in the Alpine Orogen: Results from deep seismic reflection profiling in the eastern Swiss Alps, Line NFP 20-east

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfiffner, O. A.; Frei, W.; Valasek, P.; StäUble, M.; Levato, L.; Dubois, L.; Schmid, S. M.; Smithson, S. B.

    1990-12-01

    The deep crustal seismic line NFP 20-EAST crosses almost the entire Swiss Alps. Despite the complex geometry of the well-exposed nappe structure and the considerable axial plunge of some of the units, the Vibroseis survey yielded coherent reflections from several individually identifiable nappe contacts. In the northern part of the survey the Vibroseis data closely match the internal structure of the Helvetic nappes and the underlying autochthonous-parautochthonous Mesozoic sediments. On the northern flank of the Aar massif, an external basement uplift, these Mesozoic sediments seem to rise from a depth of approximately 7-8 km below sea level to the surface in a series of steps which is interpreted to represent crustal shortening achieved by a combination of folding and thrusting. In the southern part of the survey it was possible to image a number of thin slivers of Mesozoic carbonates pinched between slabs of Penninic basement nappes as well as nappe contacts between lithologically contrasting units. In addition, it seems that the Insubric fault zone, which marks the contact between the Penninic zone and the Southern Alps and which outcrops about 30 km to the south of the survey, shows up as steeply north dipping reflections. The lower European crust in the northern part of the survey is relatively transparent as opposed to the Adriatic lower crust, whose reflective nature may stem from shear zones associated with Mesozoic crustal stretching. The base of both the European and Adriatic crust coincides with a 1-s-thick band of laterally discontinuous reflections. This reflection Moho drops to greater depths going from the north toward the center of the Alpine chain, where it disappears with a steep southerly dip. The Moho reappears as a reflection band farther south. This Moho gap is situated above the lithospheric root and may be caused by perturbations related to subduction of lower crustal material. The crustal-scale structure obtained from the Vibroseis data

  19. CYP2D7 Sequence Variation Interferes with TaqMan CYP2D6*15 and *35 Genotyping

    PubMed Central

    Riffel, Amanda K.; Dehghani, Mehdi; Hartshorne, Toinette; Floyd, Kristen C.; Leeder, J. Steven; Rosenblatt, Kevin P.; Gaedigk, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    TaqMan™ genotyping assays are widely used to genotype CYP2D6, which encodes a major drug metabolizing enzyme. Assay design for CYP2D6 can be challenging owing to the presence of two pseudogenes, CYP2D7 and CYP2D8, structural and copy number variation and numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) some of which reflect the wild-type sequence of the CYP2D7 pseudogene. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism causing false-positive CYP2D6*15 calls and remediate those by redesigning and validating alternative TaqMan genotype assays. Among 13,866 DNA samples genotyped by the CompanionDx® lab on the OpenArray platform, 70 samples were identified as heterozygotes for 137Tins, the key SNP of CYP2D6*15. However, only 15 samples were confirmed when tested with the Luminex xTAG CYP2D6 Kit and sequencing of CYP2D6-specific long range (XL)-PCR products. Genotype and gene resequencing of CYP2D6 and CYP2D7-specific XL-PCR products revealed a CC>GT dinucleotide SNP in exon 1 of CYP2D7 that reverts the sequence to CYP2D6 and allows a TaqMan assay PCR primer to bind. Because CYP2D7 also carries a Tins, a false-positive mutation signal is generated. This CYP2D7 SNP was also responsible for generating false-positive signals for rs769258 (CYP2D6*35) which is also located in exon 1. Although alternative CYP2D6*15 and *35 assays resolved the issue, we discovered a novel CYP2D6*15 subvariant in one sample that carries additional SNPs preventing detection with the alternate assay. The frequency of CYP2D6*15 was 0.1% in this ethnically diverse U.S. population sample. In addition, we also discovered linkage between the CYP2D7 CC>GT dinucleotide SNP and the 77G>A (rs28371696) SNP of CYP2D6*43. The frequency of this tentatively functional allele was 0.2%. Taken together, these findings emphasize that regardless of how careful genotyping assays are designed and evaluated before being commercially marketed, rare or unknown SNPs underneath primer and/or probe regions can impact

  20. CYP2D7 Sequence Variation Interferes with TaqMan CYP2D6 (*) 15 and (*) 35 Genotyping.

    PubMed

    Riffel, Amanda K; Dehghani, Mehdi; Hartshorne, Toinette; Floyd, Kristen C; Leeder, J Steven; Rosenblatt, Kevin P; Gaedigk, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    TaqMan™ genotyping assays are widely used to genotype CYP2D6, which encodes a major drug metabolizing enzyme. Assay design for CYP2D6 can be challenging owing to the presence of two pseudogenes, CYP2D7 and CYP2D8, structural and copy number variation and numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) some of which reflect the wild-type sequence of the CYP2D7 pseudogene. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism causing false-positive CYP2D6 (*) 15 calls and remediate those by redesigning and validating alternative TaqMan genotype assays. Among 13,866 DNA samples genotyped by the CompanionDx® lab on the OpenArray platform, 70 samples were identified as heterozygotes for 137Tins, the key SNP of CYP2D6 (*) 15. However, only 15 samples were confirmed when tested with the Luminex xTAG CYP2D6 Kit and sequencing of CYP2D6-specific long range (XL)-PCR products. Genotype and gene resequencing of CYP2D6 and CYP2D7-specific XL-PCR products revealed a CC>GT dinucleotide SNP in exon 1 of CYP2D7 that reverts the sequence to CYP2D6 and allows a TaqMan assay PCR primer to bind. Because CYP2D7 also carries a Tins, a false-positive mutation signal is generated. This CYP2D7 SNP was also responsible for generating false-positive signals for rs769258 (CYP2D6 (*) 35) which is also located in exon 1. Although alternative CYP2D6 (*) 15 and (*) 35 assays resolved the issue, we discovered a novel CYP2D6 (*) 15 subvariant in one sample that carries additional SNPs preventing detection with the alternate assay. The frequency of CYP2D6 (*) 15 was 0.1% in this ethnically diverse U.S. population sample. In addition, we also discovered linkage between the CYP2D7 CC>GT dinucleotide SNP and the 77G>A (rs28371696) SNP of CYP2D6 (*) 43. The frequency of this tentatively functional allele was 0.2%. Taken together, these findings emphasize that regardless of how careful genotyping assays are designed and evaluated before being commercially marketed, rare or unknown SNPs underneath primer

  1. Characterization of intrabasin faulting and deformation for earthquake hazards in southern Utah Valley, Utah, from high-resolution seismic imaging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephenson, William J.; Odum, Jack K.; Williams, Robert A.; McBride, John H.; Tomlinson, Iris

    2012-01-01

    We conducted active and passive seismic imaging investigations along a 5.6-km-long, east–west transect ending at the mapped trace of the Wasatch fault in southern Utah Valley. Using two-dimensional (2D) P-wave seismic reflection data, we imaged basin deformation and faulting to a depth of 1.4 km and developed a detailed interval velocity model for prestack depth migration and 2D ground-motion simulations. Passive-source microtremor data acquired at two sites along the seismic reflection transect resolve S-wave velocities of approximately 200 m/s at the surface to about 900 m/s at 160 m depth and confirm a substantial thickening of low-velocity material westward into the valley. From the P-wave reflection profile, we interpret shallow (100–600 m) bedrock deformation extending from the surface trace of the Wasatch fault to roughly 1.5 km west into the valley. The bedrock deformation is caused by multiple interpreted fault splays displacing fault blocks downward to the west of the range front. Further west in the valley, the P-wave data reveal subhorizontal horizons from approximately 90 to 900 m depth that vary in thickness and whose dip increases with depth eastward toward the Wasatch fault. Another inferred fault about 4 km west of the mapped Wasatch fault displaces horizons within the valley to as shallow as 100 m depth. The overall deformational pattern imaged in our data is consistent with the Wasatch fault migrating eastward through time and with the abandonment of earlier synextensional faults, as part of the evolution of an inferred 20-km-wide half-graben structure within Utah Valley. Finite-difference 2D modeling suggests the imaged subsurface basin geometry can cause fourfold variation in peak ground velocity over distances of 300 m.

  2. Seismic sources

    DOEpatents

    Green, M.A.; Cook, N.G.W.; McEvilly, T.V.; Majer, E.L.; Witherspoon, P.A.

    1987-04-20

    Apparatus is described for placement in a borehole in the earth, which enables the generation of closely controlled seismic waves from the borehole. Pure torsional shear waves are generated by an apparatus which includes a stator element fixed to the borehole walls and a rotor element which is electrically driven to rapidly oscillate on the stator element to cause reaction forces transmitted through the borehole walls to the surrounding earth. Longitudinal shear waves are generated by an armature that is driven to rapidly oscillate along the axis of the borehole, to cause reaction forces transmitted to the surrounding earth. Pressure waves are generated by electrically driving pistons that press against opposite ends of a hydraulic reservoir that fills the borehole. High power is generated by energizing the elements for more than about one minute. 9 figs.

  3. The Effects of Heterogeneities on Seismic Wave Propagation in the Climax Stock

    SciTech Connect

    Hagan Webb, C., Snelson, C. M., White, R., Emmitt, R., Barker, D., Abbott, R., Bonal, N.

    2011-12-01

    . The focus of this study is two-fold: (1) the geophone array that was focused over the SPE shot and (2) a high-resolution seismic profile that was recently acquired at the field site. The geophone array was placed radially around the SPE shot in five directions with 100m spacing and out to a distance of 2 km. The high-resolution profile was about 475m in length with station and shot spacing of 5m using a 7000lb mini-vibe as a source. In both data sets, the first arrivals will be used to develop velocity models. For the geophone array, 1-D P-wave velocity models will be developed to determine an average apparent velocity of the Climax Stock. The high-resolution data will be used to develop a 2-D P-wave velocity model along the seismic profile. This is in an effort to elucidate the water table in more detail and provide additional information on the near-surface structure. These results will be used in the overall modeling effort to fully characterize the test bed and develop a physics-based model to simulate seismic energy from the SPE events.

  4. An efficient simulation method of a cyclotron sector-focusing magnet using 2D Poisson code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gad Elmowla, Khaled Mohamed M.; Chai, Jong Seo; Yeon, Yeong H.; Kim, Sangbum; Ghergherehchi, Mitra

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we discuss design simulations of a spiral magnet using 2D Poisson code. The Independent Layers Method (ILM) is a new technique that was developed to enable the use of two-dimensional simulation code to calculate a non-symmetric 3-dimensional magnetic field. In ILM, the magnet pole is divided into successive independent layers, and the hill and valley shape around the azimuthal direction is implemented using a reference magnet. The normalization of the magnetic field in the reference magnet produces a profile that can be multiplied by the maximum magnetic field in the hill magnet, which is a dipole magnet made of the hills at the same radius. Both magnets are then calculated using the 2D Poisson SUPERFISH code. Then a fully three-dimensional magnetic field is produced using TOSCA for the original spiral magnet, and the comparison of the 2D and 3D results shows a good agreement between both.

  5. Optimal implicit 2-D finite differences to model wave propagation in poroelastic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itzá, Reymundo; Iturrarán-Viveros, Ursula; Parra, Jorge O.

    2016-08-01

    Numerical modeling of seismic waves in heterogeneous porous reservoir rocks is an important tool for the interpretation of seismic surveys in reservoir engineering. We apply globally optimal implicit staggered-grid finite differences (FD) to model 2-D wave propagation in heterogeneous poroelastic media at a low-frequency range (<10 kHz). We validate the numerical solution by comparing it to an analytical-transient solution obtaining clear seismic wavefields including fast P and slow P and S waves (for a porous media saturated with fluid). The numerical dispersion and stability conditions are derived using von Neumann analysis, showing that over a wide range of porous materials the Courant condition governs the stability and this optimal implicit scheme improves the stability of explicit schemes. High-order explicit FD can be replaced by some lower order optimal implicit FD so computational cost will not be as expensive while maintaining the accuracy. Here, we compute weights for the optimal implicit FD scheme to attain an accuracy of γ = 10-8. The implicit spatial differentiation involves solving tridiagonal linear systems of equations through Thomas' algorithm.

  6. Optimal implicit 2-D finite differences to model wave propagation in poroelastic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itzá, Reymundo; Iturrarán-Viveros, Ursula; Parra, Jorge O.

    2016-05-01

    Numerical modeling of seismic waves in heterogeneous porous reservoir rocks is an important tool for the interpretation of seismic surveys in reservoir engineering. We apply globally optimal implicit staggered-grid finite-differences to model 2-D wave propagation in heterogeneous poroelastic media at a low-frequency range (<10kHz). We validate the numerical solution by comparing it to an analytical-transient solution obtaining clear seismic wavefields including fast P, slow P and S waves (for a porous media saturated with fluid). The numerical dispersion and stability conditions are derived using von Neumann analysis, showing that over a wide range of porous materials the Courant condition governs the stability and this optimal implicit scheme improves the stability of explicit schemes. High order explicit finite-differences (FD) can be replaced by some lower order optimal implicit FD so computational cost will not be as expensive while maintaining the accuracy. Here we compute weights for the optimal implicit FD scheme to attain an accuracy of γ = 10-8. The implicit spatial differentiation involves solving tridiagonal linear systems of equations through Thomas' algorithm.

  7. 2-D Model for Normal and Sickle Cell Blood Microcirculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tekleab, Yonatan; Harris, Wesley

    2011-11-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a genetic disorder that alters the red blood cell (RBC) structure and function such that hemoglobin (Hb) cannot effectively bind and release oxygen. Previous computational models have been designed to study the microcirculation for insight into blood disorders such as SCD. Our novel 2-D computational model represents a fast, time efficient method developed to analyze flow dynamics, O2 diffusion, and cell deformation in the microcirculation. The model uses a finite difference, Crank-Nicholson scheme to compute the flow and O2 concentration, and the level set computational method to advect the RBC membrane on a staggered grid. Several sets of initial and boundary conditions were tested. Simulation data indicate a few parameters to be significant in the perturbation of the blood flow and O2 concentration profiles. Specifically, the Hill coefficient, arterial O2 partial pressure, O2 partial pressure at 50% Hb saturation, and cell membrane stiffness are significant factors. Results were found to be consistent with those of Le Floch [2010] and Secomb [2006].

  8. Clustering analysis of seismicity and aftershock identification.

    PubMed

    Zaliapin, Ilya; Gabrielov, Andrei; Keilis-Borok, Vladimir; Wong, Henry

    2008-07-01

    We introduce a statistical methodology for clustering analysis of seismicity in the time-space-energy domain and use it to establish the existence of two statistically distinct populations of earthquakes: clustered and nonclustered. This result can be used, in particular, for nonparametric aftershock identification. The proposed approach expands the analysis of Baiesi and Paczuski [Phys. Rev. E 69, 066106 (2004)10.1103/PhysRevE.69.066106] based on the space-time-magnitude nearest-neighbor distance eta between earthquakes. We show that for a homogeneous Poisson marked point field with exponential marks, the distance eta has the Weibull distribution, which bridges our results with classical correlation analysis for point fields. The joint 2D distribution of spatial and temporal components of eta is used to identify the clustered part of a point field. The proposed technique is applied to several seismicity models and to the observed seismicity of southern California.

  9. Seismic discrimination of a geothermal field: Cerro Prieto

    SciTech Connect

    Blakeslee, S.

    1984-04-01

    Extensive reprocessing of a subset of the seismic reflection data from Cerro Prieto has been performed. The formations and faults identified in the resulting seismic profile were correlated to cross-sections constructed from well log data. The production region coincides with a zone of reflection attenuation. A detailed velocity analysis reveals a lid of high velocity events rimming the reflection attenuation zone. This may prove to be a valuable discriminant for locating a geothermal resource using seismic reflection data.

  10. High Resolution Seismic Study of the Holocene Infill of the Elkhorn Slough, Central California

    EPA Science Inventory

    The seismic analysis of the sedimentary infill of the Elkhorn Slough, central California, reveals a succession of three main seismic units: U1, U2, U3, with their correspondent discontinuities d2, d3. These units are deposited over a paleorelief representing the channel location ...

  11. 2D dynamic studies combined with the surface curvature analysis to predict Arias Intensity amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torgoev, Almaz; Havenith, Hans-Balder

    2016-07-01

    A 2D elasto-dynamic modelling of the pure topographic seismic response is performed for six models with a total length of around 23.0 km. These models are reconstructed from the real topographic settings of the landslide-prone slopes situated in the Mailuu-Suu River Valley, Southern Kyrgyzstan. The main studied parameter is the Arias Intensity (Ia, m/sec), which is applied in the GIS-based Newmark method to regionally map the seismically-induced landslide susceptibility. This method maps the Ia values via empirical attenuation laws and our studies investigate a potential to include topographic input into them. Numerical studies analyse several signals with varying shape and changing central frequency values. All tests demonstrate that the spectral amplification patterns directly affect the amplification of the Ia values. These results let to link the 2D distribution of the topographically amplified Ia values with the parameter called as smoothed curvature. The amplification values for the low-frequency signals are better correlated with the curvature smoothed over larger spatial extent, while those values for the high-frequency signals are more linked to the curvature with smaller smoothing extent. The best predictions are provided by the curvature smoothed over the extent calculated according to Geli's law. The sample equations predicting the Ia amplification based on the smoothed curvature are presented for the sinusoid-shape input signals. These laws cannot be directly implemented in the regional Newmark method, as 3D amplification of the Ia values addresses more problem complexities which are not