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Sample records for 2-edge connected subgraph

  1. A new bound for the 2-edge connected subgraph problem

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, R.; Ravi, R.

    1998-04-01

    Given a complete undirected graph with non-negative costs on the edges, the 2-Edge Connected Subgraph Problem consists in finding the minimum cost spanning 2-edge connected subgraph (where multi-edges are allowed in the solution). A lower bound for the minimum cost 2-edge connected subgraph is obtained by solving the linear programming relaxation for this problem, which coincides with the subtour relaxation of the traveling salesman problem when the costs satisfy the triangle inequality. The simplest fractional solutions to the subtour relaxation are the 1/2-integral solutions in which every edge variable has a value which is a multiple of 1/2. The authors show that the minimum cost of a 2-edge connected subgraph is at most four-thirds the cost of the minimum cost 1/2-integral solution of the subtour relaxation. This supports the long-standing 4/3 Conjecture for the TSP, which states that there is a Hamilton cycle which is within 4/3 times the cost of the optimal subtour relaxation solution when the costs satisfy the triangle inequality.

  2. Solving Connected Subgraph Problems in Wildlife Conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilkina, Bistra; Gomes, Carla P.

    We investigate mathematical formulations and solution techniques for a variant of the Connected Subgraph Problem. Given a connected graph with costs and profits associated with the nodes, the goal is to find a connected subgraph that contains a subset of distinguished vertices. In this work we focus on the budget-constrained version, where we maximize the total profit of the nodes in the subgraph subject to a budget constraint on the total cost. We propose several mixed-integer formulations for enforcing the subgraph connectivity requirement, which plays a key role in the combinatorial structure of the problem. We show that a new formulation based on subtour elimination constraints is more effective at capturing the combinatorial structure of the problem, providing significant advantages over the previously considered encoding which was based on a single commodity flow. We test our formulations on synthetic instances as well as on real-world instances of an important problem in environmental conservation concerning the design of wildlife corridors. Our encoding results in a much tighter LP relaxation, and more importantly, it results in finding better integer feasible solutions as well as much better upper bounds on the objective (often proving optimality or within less than 1% of optimality), both when considering the synthetic instances as well as the real-world wildlife corridor instances.

  3. Mining connected global and local dense subgraphs for bigdata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bo; Shen, Haiying

    2016-01-01

    The problem of discovering connected dense subgraphs of natural graphs is important in data analysis. Discovering dense subgraphs that do not contain denser subgraphs or are not contained in denser subgraphs (called significant dense subgraphs) is also critical for wide-ranging applications. In spite of many works on discovering dense subgraphs, there are no algorithms that can guarantee the connectivity of the returned subgraphs or discover significant dense subgraphs. Hence, in this paper, we define two subgraph discovery problems to discover connected and significant dense subgraphs, propose polynomial-time algorithms and theoretically prove their validity. We also propose an algorithm to further improve the time and space efficiency of our basic algorithm for discovering significant dense subgraphs in big data by taking advantage of the unique features of large natural graphs. In the experiments, we use massive natural graphs to evaluate our algorithms in comparison with previous algorithms. The experimental results show the effectiveness of our algorithms for the two problems and their efficiency. This work is also the first that reveals the physical significance of significant dense subgraphs in natural graphs from different domains.

  4. Subgraph-Based Filterbanks for Graph Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Nicolas; Borgnat, Pierre

    2016-08-01

    We design a critically-sampled compact-support biorthogonal transform for graph signals, via graph filterbanks. Instead of partitioning the nodes in two sets so as to remove one every two nodes in the filterbank downsampling operations, the design is based on a partition of the graph in connected subgraphs. Coarsening is achieved by defining one "supernode" for each subgraph and the edges for this coarsened graph derives from the connectivity between the subgraphs. Unlike the "one every two nodes" downsampling on bipartite graphs, this coarsening operation does not have an exact formulation in the graph Fourier domain. Instead, we rely on the local Fourier bases of each subgraph to define filtering operations. We apply successfully this method to decompose graph signals, and show promising performance on compression and denoising.

  5. A distributed evolutionary algorithmic approach to the least-cost connected constrained sub-graph and power control problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillett, Jason C.; Rao, Raghuveer; Sahin, Ferat; Rao, T. M.

    2004-08-01

    When wireless sensors are capable of variable transmit power and are battery powered, it is important to select the appropriate transmit power level for the node. Lowering the transmit power of the sensor nodes imposes a natural clustering on the network and has been shown to improve throughput of the network. However, a common transmit power level is not appropriate for inhomogeneous networks. A possible fitness-based approach, motivated by an evolutionary optimization technique, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is proposed and extended in a novel way to determine the appropriate transmit power of each sensor node. A distributed version of PSO is developed and explored using experimental fitness to achieve an approximation of least-cost connectivity.

  6. Differentially Private Frequent Subgraph Mining

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shengzhi; Xiong, Li; Cheng, Xiang; Xiao, Ke

    2016-01-01

    Mining frequent subgraphs from a collection of input graphs is an important topic in data mining research. However, if the input graphs contain sensitive information, releasing frequent subgraphs may pose considerable threats to individual's privacy. In this paper, we study the problem of frequent subgraph mining (FGM) under the rigorous differential privacy model. We introduce a novel differentially private FGM algorithm, which is referred to as DFG. In this algorithm, we first privately identify frequent subgraphs from input graphs, and then compute the noisy support of each identified frequent subgraph. In particular, to privately identify frequent subgraphs, we present a frequent subgraph identification approach which can improve the utility of frequent subgraph identifications through candidates pruning. Moreover, to compute the noisy support of each identified frequent subgraph, we devise a lattice-based noisy support derivation approach, where a series of methods has been proposed to improve the accuracy of the noisy supports. Through formal privacy analysis, we prove that our DFG algorithm satisfies ε-differential privacy. Extensive experimental results on real datasets show that the DFG algorithm can privately find frequent subgraphs with high data utility.

  7. Robust Spectral Clustering Using Statistical Sub-Graph Affinity Model

    PubMed Central

    Eichel, Justin A.; Wong, Alexander; Fieguth, Paul; Clausi, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Spectral clustering methods have been shown to be effective for image segmentation. Unfortunately, the presence of image noise as well as textural characteristics can have a significant negative effect on the segmentation performance. To accommodate for image noise and textural characteristics, this study introduces the concept of sub-graph affinity, where each node in the primary graph is modeled as a sub-graph characterizing the neighborhood surrounding the node. The statistical sub-graph affinity matrix is then constructed based on the statistical relationships between sub-graphs of connected nodes in the primary graph, thus counteracting the uncertainty associated with the image noise and textural characteristics by utilizing more information than traditional spectral clustering methods. Experiments using both synthetic and natural images under various levels of noise contamination demonstrate that the proposed approach can achieve improved segmentation performance when compared to existing spectral clustering methods. PMID:24386111

  8. APPROXIMATION ALGORITHMS FOR DISTANCE-2 EDGE COLORING.

    SciTech Connect

    BARRETT, CHRISTOPHER L; ISTRATE, GABRIEL; VILIKANTI, ANIL KUMAR; MARATHE, MADHAV; THITE, SHRIPAD V

    2002-07-17

    The authors consider the link scheduling problem for packet radio networks which is assigning channels to the connecting links so that transmission may proceed on all links assigned the same channel simultaneously without collisions. This problem can be cast as the distance-2 edge coloring problem, a variant of proper edge coloring, on the graph with transceivers as vertices and links as edges. They present efficient approximation algorithms for the distance-2 edge coloring problem for various classes of graphs.

  9. Graph animals, subgraph sampling, and motif search in large networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskerville, Kim; Grassberger, Peter; Paczuski, Maya

    2007-09-01

    We generalize a sampling algorithm for lattice animals (connected clusters on a regular lattice) to a Monte Carlo algorithm for “graph animals,” i.e., connected subgraphs in arbitrary networks. As with the algorithm in [N. Kashtan , Bioinformatics 20, 1746 (2004)], it provides a weighted sample, but the computation of the weights is much faster (linear in the size of subgraphs, instead of superexponential). This allows subgraphs with up to ten or more nodes to be sampled with very high statistics, from arbitrarily large networks. Using this together with a heuristic algorithm for rapidly classifying isomorphic graphs, we present results for two protein interaction networks obtained using the tandem affinity purification (TAP) method: one of Escherichia coli with 230 nodes and 695 links, and one for yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) with roughly ten times more nodes and links. We find in both cases that most connected subgraphs are strong motifs ( Z scores >10 ) or antimotifs ( Z scores <-10 ) when the null model is the ensemble of networks with fixed degree sequence. Strong differences appear between the two networks, with dominant motifs in E. coli being (nearly) bipartite graphs and having many pairs of nodes that connect to the same neighbors, while dominant motifs in yeast tend towards completeness or contain large cliques. We also explore a number of methods that do not rely on measurements of Z scores or comparisons with null models. For instance, we discuss the influence of specific complexes like the 26S proteasome in yeast, where a small number of complexes dominate the k cores with large k and have a decisive effect on the strongest motifs with 6-8 nodes. We also present Zipf plots of counts versus rank. They show broad distributions that are not power laws, in contrast to the case when disconnected subgraphs are included.

  10. Subgraph Covers: An Information-Theoretic Approach to Motif Analysis in Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegner, Anatol E.

    2014-10-01

    Many real-world networks contain a statistically surprising number of certain subgraphs, called network motifs. In the prevalent approach to motif analysis, network motifs are detected by comparing subgraph frequencies in the original network with a statistical null model. In this paper, we propose an alternative approach to motif analysis where network motifs are defined to be connectivity patterns that occur in a subgraph cover that represents the network using minimal total information. A subgraph cover is defined to be a set of subgraphs such that every edge of the graph is contained in at least one of the subgraphs in the cover. Some recently introduced random graph models that can incorporate significant densities of motifs have natural formulations in terms of subgraph covers, and the presented approach can be used to match networks with such models. To prove the practical value of our approach, we also present a heuristic for the resulting NP hard optimization problem and give results for several real-world networks.

  11. Dense Subgraph Partition of Positive Hypergraphs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hairong; Latecki, Longin Jan; Yan, Shuicheng

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we present a novel partition framework, called dense subgraph partition (DSP), to automatically, precisely and efficiently decompose a positive hypergraph into dense subgraphs. A positive hypergraph is a graph or hypergraph whose edges, except self-loops, have positive weights. We first define the concepts of core subgraph, conditional core subgraph, and disjoint partition of a conditional core subgraph, then define DSP based on them. The result of DSP is an ordered list of dense subgraphs with decreasing densities, which uncovers all underlying clusters, as well as outliers. A divide-and-conquer algorithm, called min-partition evolution, is proposed to efficiently compute the partition. DSP has many appealing properties. First, it is a nonparametric partition and it reveals all meaningful clusters in a bottom-up way. Second, it has an exact and efficient solution, called min-partition evolution algorithm. The min-partition evolution algorithm is a divide-and-conquer algorithm, thus time-efficient and memory-friendly, and suitable for parallel processing. Third, it is a unified partition framework for a broad range of graphs and hypergraphs. We also establish its relationship with the densest k-subgraph problem (DkS), an NP-hard but fundamental problem in graph theory, and prove that DSP gives precise solutions to DkS for all kin a graph-dependent set, called critical k-set. To our best knowledge, this is a strong result which has not been reported before. Moreover, as our experimental results show, for sparse graphs, especially web graphs, the size of critical k-set is close to the number of vertices in the graph. We test the proposed partition framework on various tasks, and the experimental results clearly illustrate its advantages. PMID:26353260

  12. The index-based subgraph matching algorithm (ISMA): fast subgraph enumeration in large networks using optimized search trees.

    PubMed

    Demeyer, Sofie; Michoel, Tom; Fostier, Jan; Audenaert, Pieter; Pickavet, Mario; Demeester, Piet

    2013-01-01

    Subgraph matching algorithms are designed to find all instances of predefined subgraphs in a large graph or network and play an important role in the discovery and analysis of so-called network motifs, subgraph patterns which occur more often than expected by chance. We present the index-based subgraph matching algorithm (ISMA), a novel tree-based algorithm. ISMA realizes a speedup compared to existing algorithms by carefully selecting the order in which the nodes of a query subgraph are investigated. In order to achieve this, we developed a number of data structures and maximally exploited symmetry characteristics of the subgraph. We compared ISMA to a naive recursive tree-based algorithm and to a number of well-known subgraph matching algorithms. Our algorithm outperforms the other algorithms, especially on large networks and with large query subgraphs. An implementation of ISMA in Java is freely available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/isma/. PMID:23620730

  13. The Index-Based Subgraph Matching Algorithm (ISMA): Fast Subgraph Enumeration in Large Networks Using Optimized Search Trees

    PubMed Central

    Demeyer, Sofie; Michoel, Tom; Fostier, Jan; Audenaert, Pieter; Pickavet, Mario; Demeester, Piet

    2013-01-01

    Subgraph matching algorithms are designed to find all instances of predefined subgraphs in a large graph or network and play an important role in the discovery and analysis of so-called network motifs, subgraph patterns which occur more often than expected by chance. We present the index-based subgraph matching algorithm (ISMA), a novel tree-based algorithm. ISMA realizes a speedup compared to existing algorithms by carefully selecting the order in which the nodes of a query subgraph are investigated. In order to achieve this, we developed a number of data structures and maximally exploited symmetry characteristics of the subgraph. We compared ISMA to a naive recursive tree-based algorithm and to a number of well-known subgraph matching algorithms. Our algorithm outperforms the other algorithms, especially on large networks and with large query subgraphs. An implementation of ISMA in Java is freely available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/isma/. PMID:23620730

  14. Node similarity within subgraphs of protein interaction networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penner, Orion; Sood, Vishal; Musso, Gabriel; Baskerville, Kim; Grassberger, Peter; Paczuski, Maya

    2008-06-01

    We propose a biologically motivated quantity, twinness, to evaluate local similarity between nodes in a network. The twinness of a pair of nodes is the number of connected, labeled subgraphs of size n in which the two nodes possess identical neighbours. The graph animal algorithm is used to estimate twinness for each pair of nodes (for subgraph sizes n=4 to n=12) in four different protein interaction networks (PINs). These include an Escherichia coli PIN and three Saccharomyces cerevisiae PINs - each obtained using state-of-the-art high-throughput methods. In almost all cases, the average twinness of node pairs is vastly higher than that expected from a null model obtained by switching links. For all n, we observe a difference in the ratio of type A twins (which are unlinked pairs) to type B twins (which are linked pairs) distinguishing the prokaryote E. coli from the eukaryote S. cerevisiae. Interaction similarity is expected due to gene duplication, and whole genome duplication paralogues in S. cerevisiae have been reported to co-cluster into the same complexes. Indeed, we find that these paralogous proteins are over-represented as twins compared to pairs chosen at random. These results indicate that twinness can detect ancestral relationships from currently available PIN data.

  15. Random graphs containing arbitrary distributions of subgraphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karrer, Brian; Newman, M. E. J.

    2010-12-01

    Traditional random graph models of networks generate networks that are locally treelike, meaning that all local neighborhoods take the form of trees. In this respect such models are highly unrealistic, most real networks having strongly nontreelike neighborhoods that contain short loops, cliques, or other biconnected subgraphs. In this paper we propose and analyze a class of random graph models that incorporates general subgraphs, allowing for nontreelike neighborhoods while still remaining solvable for many fundamental network properties. Among other things we give solutions for the size of the giant component, the position of the phase transition at which the giant component appears, and percolation properties for both site and bond percolation on networks generated by the model.

  16. Recognition of Important Subgraphs in Collaboration Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Chun-Hua; Zhou, Yue-Ping; Xu, Xiu-Lian; Chang, Hui; Feng, Ai-Xia; Shi, Jian-Jun; He, Da-Ren

    We propose a method for recognition of most important subgraphs in collaboration networks. The networks can be described by bipartite graphs, where basic elements, named actors, are taking part in events, organizations or activities, named acts. It is suggested that the subgraphs can be described by so-called k-cliques, which are defined as complete subgraphs of two or more vertices. The k-clique act degree is defined as the number of acts, in which a k-clique takes part. The k-clique act degree distribution in collaboration networks is investigated via a simplified model. The analytic treatment on the model leads to a conclusion that the distribution obeys a so-called shifted power law P(q) ∝ (q + α) - γ where α and γ are constants. This is a very uneven distribution. Numerical simulations have been performed, which show that the model analytic conclusion remains qualitatively correct when the model is revised to approach the real world evolution situation. Some empirical investigation results are presented, which support the model conclusion. We consider the cliques, which take part in the largest number of acts, as the most important ones. With this understanding we are able to distinguish some most important cliques in the real world networks.

  17. Searching social networks for subgraph patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogaard, Kirk; Kase, Sue; Roy, Heather; Nagi, Rakesh; Sambhoos, Kedar; Sudit, Moises

    2013-06-01

    Software tools for Social Network Analysis (SNA) are being developed which support various types of analysis of social networks extracted from social media websites (e.g., Twitter). Once extracted and stored in a database such social networks are amenable to analysis by SNA software. This data analysis often involves searching for occurrences of various subgraph patterns (i.e., graphical representations of entities and relationships). The authors have developed the Graph Matching Toolkit (GMT) which provides an intuitive Graphical User Interface (GUI) for a heuristic graph matching algorithm called the Truncated Search Tree (TruST) algorithm. GMT is a visual interface for graph matching algorithms processing large social networks. GMT enables an analyst to draw a subgraph pattern by using a mouse to select categories and labels for nodes and links from drop-down menus. GMT then executes the TruST algorithm to find the top five occurrences of the subgraph pattern within the social network stored in the database. GMT was tested using a simulated counter-insurgency dataset consisting of cellular phone communications within a populated area of operations in Iraq. The results indicated GMT (when executing the TruST graph matching algorithm) is a time-efficient approach to searching large social networks. GMT's visual interface to a graph matching algorithm enables intelligence analysts to quickly analyze and summarize the large amounts of data necessary to produce actionable intelligence.

  18. A new augmentation based algorithm for extracting maximal chordal subgraphs

    SciTech Connect

    Bhowmick, Sanjukta; Chen, Tzu-Yi; Halappanavar, Mahantesh

    2014-10-18

    If every cycle of a graph is chordal length greater than three then it contains an edge between non-adjacent vertices. Chordal graphs are of interest both theoretically, since they admit polynomial time solutions to a range of NP-hard graph problems, and practically, since they arise in many applications including sparse linear algebra, computer vision, and computational biology. A maximal chordal subgraph is a chordal subgraph that is not a proper subgraph of any other chordal subgraph. Existing algorithms for computing maximal chordal subgraphs depend on dynamically ordering the vertices, which is an inherently sequential process and therefore limits the algorithms’ parallelizability. In our paper we explore techniques to develop a scalable parallel algorithm for extracting a maximal chordal subgraph. We demonstrate that an earlier attempt at developing a parallel algorithm may induce a non-optimal vertex ordering and is therefore not guaranteed to terminate with a maximal chordal subgraph. We then give a new algorithm that first computes and then repeatedly augments a spanning chordal subgraph. After proving that the algorithm terminates with a maximal chordal subgraph, we then demonstrate that this algorithm is more amenable to parallelization and that the parallel version also terminates with a maximal chordal subgraph. That said, the complexity of the new algorithm is higher than that of the previous parallel algorithm, although the earlier algorithm computes a chordal subgraph which is not guaranteed to be maximal. Finally, we experimented with our augmentation-based algorithm on both synthetic and real-world graphs. We provide scalability results and also explore the effect of different choices for the initial spanning chordal subgraph on both the running time and on the number of edges in the maximal chordal subgraph.

  19. A new augmentation based algorithm for extracting maximal chordal subgraphs

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bhowmick, Sanjukta; Chen, Tzu-Yi; Halappanavar, Mahantesh

    2014-10-18

    If every cycle of a graph is chordal length greater than three then it contains an edge between non-adjacent vertices. Chordal graphs are of interest both theoretically, since they admit polynomial time solutions to a range of NP-hard graph problems, and practically, since they arise in many applications including sparse linear algebra, computer vision, and computational biology. A maximal chordal subgraph is a chordal subgraph that is not a proper subgraph of any other chordal subgraph. Existing algorithms for computing maximal chordal subgraphs depend on dynamically ordering the vertices, which is an inherently sequential process and therefore limits the algorithms’more » parallelizability. In our paper we explore techniques to develop a scalable parallel algorithm for extracting a maximal chordal subgraph. We demonstrate that an earlier attempt at developing a parallel algorithm may induce a non-optimal vertex ordering and is therefore not guaranteed to terminate with a maximal chordal subgraph. We then give a new algorithm that first computes and then repeatedly augments a spanning chordal subgraph. After proving that the algorithm terminates with a maximal chordal subgraph, we then demonstrate that this algorithm is more amenable to parallelization and that the parallel version also terminates with a maximal chordal subgraph. That said, the complexity of the new algorithm is higher than that of the previous parallel algorithm, although the earlier algorithm computes a chordal subgraph which is not guaranteed to be maximal. Finally, we experimented with our augmentation-based algorithm on both synthetic and real-world graphs. We provide scalability results and also explore the effect of different choices for the initial spanning chordal subgraph on both the running time and on the number of edges in the maximal chordal subgraph.« less

  20. A New Augmentation Based Algorithm for Extracting Maximal Chordal Subgraphs

    PubMed Central

    Bhowmick, Sanjukta; Chen, Tzu-Yi; Halappanavar, Mahantesh

    2014-01-01

    A graph is chordal if every cycle of length greater than three contains an edge between non-adjacent vertices. Chordal graphs are of interest both theoretically, since they admit polynomial time solutions to a range of NP-hard graph problems, and practically, since they arise in many applications including sparse linear algebra, computer vision, and computational biology. A maximal chordal subgraph is a chordal subgraph that is not a proper subgraph of any other chordal subgraph. Existing algorithms for computing maximal chordal subgraphs depend on dynamically ordering the vertices, which is an inherently sequential process and therefore limits the algorithms’ parallelizability. In this paper we explore techniques to develop a scalable parallel algorithm for extracting a maximal chordal subgraph. We demonstrate that an earlier attempt at developing a parallel algorithm may induce a non-optimal vertex ordering and is therefore not guaranteed to terminate with a maximal chordal subgraph. We then give a new algorithm that first computes and then repeatedly augments a spanning chordal subgraph. After proving that the algorithm terminates with a maximal chordal subgraph, we then demonstrate that this algorithm is more amenable to parallelization and that the parallel version also terminates with a maximal chordal subgraph. That said, the complexity of the new algorithm is higher than that of the previous parallel algorithm, although the earlier algorithm computes a chordal subgraph which is not guaranteed to be maximal. We experimented with our augmentation-based algorithm on both synthetic and real-world graphs. We provide scalability results and also explore the effect of different choices for the initial spanning chordal subgraph on both the running time and on the number of edges in the maximal chordal subgraph. PMID:25767331

  1. A hopfield network learning method for bipartite subgraph problem.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rong Long; Tang, Zheng; Cao, Qi Ping

    2004-11-01

    In this paper, we present a gradient ascent learning method of the Hopfield neural network for bipartite subgraph problem. The method is intended to provide a near-optimum parallel algorithm for solving the bipartite subgraph problem. To do this we use the Hopfield neural network to get a near-maximum bipartite subgraph, and increase the energy by modifying weights in a gradient ascent direction of the energy to help the network escape from the state of the near-maximum bipartite subgraph to the state of the maximum bipartite subgraph or better one. A large number of instances are simulated to verify the proposed method with the simulation results showing that the solution quality is superior to that of best existing parallel algorithm. We also test the learning method on total coloring problem. The simulation results show that our method finds optimal solution in every test graph. PMID:15565773

  2. Frequent Subgraph Discovery in Large Attributed Streaming Graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, Abhik; Holder, Larry; Choudhury, Sutanay

    2014-08-13

    The problem of finding frequent subgraphs in large dynamic graphs has so far only consid- ered a dynamic graph as being represented by a series of static snapshots taken at various points in time. This representation of a dynamic graph does not lend itself well to real time processing of real world graphs like social networks or internet traffic which consist of a stream of nodes and edges. In this paper we propose an algorithm that discovers the frequent subgraphs present in a graph represented by a stream of labeled nodes and edges. Our algorithm is efficient and consists of tunable parameters that can be tuned by the user to get interesting patterns from various kinds of graph data. In our model updates to the graph arrive in the form of batches which contain new nodes and edges. Our algorithm con- tinuously reports the frequent subgraphs that are estimated to be found in the entire graph as each batch arrives. We evaluate our system using 5 large dynamic graph datasets: the Hetrec 2011 challenge data, Twitter, DBLP and two synthetic. We evaluate our approach against two popular large graph miners, i.e., SUBDUE and GERM. Our experimental re- sults show that we can find the same frequent subgraphs as a non-incremental approach applied to snapshot graphs, and in less time.

  3. Using contrast patterns between true complexes and random subgraphs in PPI networks to predict unknown protein complexes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Quanzhong; Song, Jiangning; Li, Jinyan

    2016-01-01

    Most protein complex detection methods utilize unsupervised techniques to cluster densely connected nodes in a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, in spite of the fact that many true complexes are not dense subgraphs. Supervised methods have been proposed recently, but they do not answer why a group of proteins are predicted as a complex, and they have not investigated how to detect new complexes of one species by training the model on the PPI data of another species. We propose a novel supervised method to address these issues. The key idea is to discover emerging patterns (EPs), a type of contrast pattern, which can clearly distinguish true complexes from random subgraphs in a PPI network. An integrative score of EPs is defined to measure how likely a subgraph of proteins can form a complex. New complexes thus can grow from our seed proteins by iteratively updating this score. The performance of our method is tested on eight benchmark PPI datasets and compared with seven unsupervised methods, two supervised and one semi-supervised methods under five standards to assess the quality of the predicted complexes. The results show that in most cases our method achieved a better performance, sometimes significantly. PMID:26868667

  4. Large-Scale Continuous Subgraph Queries on Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhury, Sutanay; Holder, Larry; Chin, George; Feo, John T.

    2011-11-30

    Graph pattern matching involves finding exact or approximate matches for a query subgraph in a larger graph. It has been studied extensively and has strong applications in domains such as computer vision, computational biology, social networks, security and finance. The problem of exact graph pattern matching is often described in terms of subgraph isomorphism which is NP-complete. The exponential growth in streaming data from online social networks, news and video streams and the continual need for situational awareness motivates a solution for finding patterns in streaming updates. This is also the prime driver for the real-time analytics market. Development of incremental algorithms for graph pattern matching on streaming inputs to a continually evolving graph is a nascent area of research. Some of the challenges associated with this problem are the same as found in continuous query (CQ) evaluation on streaming databases. This paper reviews some of the representative work from the exhaustively researched field of CQ systems and identifies important semantics, constraints and architectural features that are also appropriate for HPC systems performing real-time graph analytics. For each of these features we present a brief discussion of the challenge encountered in the database realm, the approach to the solution and state their relevance in a high-performance, streaming graph processing framework.

  5. A Coding Method for Efficient Subgraph Querying on Vertex- and Edge-Labeled Graphs

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lei; Song, Qinbao; Guo, Yuchen; Du, Lei; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Guangtao

    2014-01-01

    Labeled graphs are widely used to model complex data in many domains, so subgraph querying has been attracting more and more attention from researchers around the world. Unfortunately, subgraph querying is very time consuming since it involves subgraph isomorphism testing that is known to be an NP-complete problem. In this paper, we propose a novel coding method for subgraph querying that is based on Laplacian spectrum and the number of walks. Our method follows the filtering-and-verification framework and works well on graph databases with frequent updates. We also propose novel two-step filtering conditions that can filter out most false positives and prove that the two-step filtering conditions satisfy the no-false-negative requirement (no dismissal in answers). Extensive experiments on both real and synthetic graphs show that, compared with six existing counterpart methods, our method can effectively improve the efficiency of subgraph querying. PMID:24853266

  6. The finite body triangulation: algorithms, subgraphs, homogeneity estimation and application.

    PubMed

    Carson, Cantwell G; Levine, Jonathan S

    2016-09-01

    The concept of a finite body Dirichlet tessellation has been extended to that of a finite body Delaunay 'triangulation' to provide a more meaningful description of the spatial distribution of nonspherical secondary phase bodies in 2- and 3-dimensional images. A finite body triangulation (FBT) consists of a network of minimum edge-to-edge distances between adjacent objects in a microstructure. From this is also obtained the characteristic object chords formed by the intersection of the object boundary with the finite body tessellation. These two sets of distances form the basis of a parsimonious homogeneity estimation. The characteristics of the spatial distribution are then evaluated with respect to the distances between objects and the distances within them. Quantitative analysis shows that more physically representative distributions can be obtained by selecting subgraphs, such as the relative neighbourhood graph and the minimum spanning tree, from the finite body tessellation. To demonstrate their potential, we apply these methods to 3-dimensional X-ray computed tomographic images of foamed cement and their 2-dimensional cross sections. The Python computer code used to estimate the FBT is made available. Other applications for the algorithm - such as porous media transport and crack-tip propagation - are also discussed. PMID:26917441

  7. Distance-based identification of structure motifs in proteins using constrained frequent subgraph mining.

    PubMed

    Huan, Jun; Bandyopadhyay, Deepak; Prins, Jan; Snoeyink, Jack; Tropsha, Alexander; Wang, Wei

    2006-01-01

    Structure motifs are amino acid packing patterns that occur frequently within a set of protein structures. We define a labeled graph representation of protein structure in which vertices correspond to amino acid residues and edges connect pairs of residues and are labeled by (1) the Euclidian distance between the C(alpha) atoms of the two residues and (2) a boolean indicating whether the two residues are in physical/chemical contact. Using this representation, a structure motif corresponds to a labeled clique that occurs frequently among the graphs representing the protein structures. The pairwise distance constraints on each edge in a clique serve to limit the variation in geometry among different occurrences of a structure motif. We present an efficient constrained subgraph mining algorithm to discover structure motifs in this setting. Compared with contact graph representations, the number of spurious structure motifs is greatly reduced. Using this algorithm, structure motifs were located for several SCOP families including the Eukaryotic Serine Proteases, Nuclear Binding Domains, Papain-like Cysteine Proteases, and FAD/NAD-linked Reductases. For each family, we typically obtain a handful of motifs within seconds of processing time. The occurrences of these motifs throughout the PDB were strongly associated with the original SCOP family, as measured using a hyper-geometric distribution. The motifs were found to cover functionally important sites like the catalytic triad for Serine Proteases and co-factor binding sites for Nuclear Binding Domains. The fact that many motifs are highly family-specific can be used to classify new proteins or to provide functional annotation in Structural Genomics Projects. PMID:17369641

  8. A new method optimizing the subgraph centrality of large networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xin; Li, Chunlin; Zhang, Ling; Hu, Yaogai

    2016-02-01

    Since many realistic networks such as wireless sensor/ad hoc networks usually do not agree very well with the basic network models such as small-word and scale-free models, we often need to obtain some expected structural features such as a small average path length and a regular degree distribution while optimizing the connectivity of these networks. Although a minor addition of links for optimizing network connectivity is not likely to change the structural properties of a network, it is necessary to investigate the impact of link addition on network properties as the number of the added links increases. However, to the best of our knowledge, the study of that problem has not been found so far. Furthermore, two closely related questions to that problem, i.e., how to measure and how to improve network connectivity, have not been studied carefully enough yet. To address the three problems above, the authors derive a better measure of network connectivity for large networks and a new strategy that can increase/decrease network connectivity the most, and propose a spectral density algorithm optimizing the connectivity of large networks, which is able to indicate the impact on the structural properties of a network while increasing/decreasing its connectivity, providing us a guided optimization of network connectivity. In other words, our algorithm can optimize not only the connectivity of a large network but also its structural features. Meanwhile, our new findings about spectral density are also concluded in this paper. In addition, we may also apply this algorithm to solve all eigenvalues of an N × N matrix, with a low complexity of O(N2) at most.

  9. Connectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grush, Mary, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Connectivity has dramatically changed the landscape of higher education IT. From "on-demand" services for net-gen students and advanced eLearning systems for faculty, to high-performance computing grid resources for researchers, IT now provides more networked services than ever to connect campus constituents to each other and to the world.…

  10. Partitioning a chordal graph into transitive subgraphs for parallel sparse triangular solution

    SciTech Connect

    Peyton, B.W.; Pothen, A.; Yuan, Xiaoqing

    1992-12-01

    A recent approach for solving sparse triangular systems of equations on massively parallel computers employs a factorization of the triangular coefficient matrix to obtain a representation of its inverse in product form. The number of general communication steps required by this approach is proportional to the number of factors in the factorization. The triangular matrix can be symmetrically permuted to minimize the number of factors over suitable classes of permutations, and thereby the complexity of the parallel algorithm can be minimized. Algorithms for minimizing the number of factors over several classes of permutations have been considered in earlier work. Let F = L+L{sup T} denote the symmetric filled matrix corresponding to a Cholesky factor L, and let G{sub F} denote the adjacency graph of F. In this paper we consider the problem of minirriizing the number of factors over all permutations which preserve the structure of G{sub F}. The graph model of this problem is to partition the vertices G{sub F} into the fewest transitively closed subgraphs over all perfect elimination orderings while satisfying a certain precedence relationship. The solution to this chordal graph partitioning problem can be described by a greedy scheme which eliminates a largest permissible subgraph at each step. Further, the subgraph eliminated at each step can be characterized in terms of lengths of chordless paths in the current elimination graph. This solution relies on several results concerning transitive perfect elimination orderings introduced in this paper. We describe a partitioning algorithm with {Omicron}({vert_bar}V{vert_bar} + {vert_bar}E{vert_bar}) time and space complexity.

  11. Partitioning a chordal graph into transitive subgraphs for parallel sparse triangular solution

    SciTech Connect

    Peyton, B.W. ); Pothen, A. . Dept. of Computer Science); Yuan, Xiaoqing )

    1992-12-01

    A recent approach for solving sparse triangular systems of equations on massively parallel computers employs a factorization of the triangular coefficient matrix to obtain a representation of its inverse in product form. The number of general communication steps required by this approach is proportional to the number of factors in the factorization. The triangular matrix can be symmetrically permuted to minimize the number of factors over suitable classes of permutations, and thereby the complexity of the parallel algorithm can be minimized. Algorithms for minimizing the number of factors over several classes of permutations have been considered in earlier work. Let F = L+L[sup T] denote the symmetric filled matrix corresponding to a Cholesky factor L, and let G[sub F] denote the adjacency graph of F. In this paper we consider the problem of minirriizing the number of factors over all permutations which preserve the structure of G[sub F]. The graph model of this problem is to partition the vertices G[sub F] into the fewest transitively closed subgraphs over all perfect elimination orderings while satisfying a certain precedence relationship. The solution to this chordal graph partitioning problem can be described by a greedy scheme which eliminates a largest permissible subgraph at each step. Further, the subgraph eliminated at each step can be characterized in terms of lengths of chordless paths in the current elimination graph. This solution relies on several results concerning transitive perfect elimination orderings introduced in this paper. We describe a partitioning algorithm with [Omicron]([vert bar]V[vert bar] + [vert bar]E[vert bar]) time and space complexity.

  12. Approximate Subgraph Matching-Based Literature Mining for Biomedical Events and Relations

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haibin; Hunter, Lawrence; Kešelj, Vlado; Verspoor, Karin

    2013-01-01

    The biomedical text mining community has focused on developing techniques to automatically extract important relations between biological components and semantic events involving genes or proteins from literature. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for mining relations and events in the biomedical literature using approximate subgraph matching. Extraction of such knowledge is performed by searching for an approximate subgraph isomorphism between key contextual dependencies and input sentence graphs. Our approach significantly increases the chance of retrieving relations or events encoded within complex dependency contexts by introducing error tolerance into the graph matching process, while maintaining the extraction precision at a high level. When evaluated on practical tasks, it achieves a 51.12% F-score in extracting nine types of biological events on the GE task of the BioNLP-ST 2011 and an 84.22% F-score in detecting protein-residue associations. The performance is comparable to the reported systems across these tasks, and thus demonstrates the generalizability of our proposed approach. PMID:23613763

  13. High dimensional data clustering by partitioning the hypergraphs using dense subgraph partition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xili; Tian, Shoucai; Lu, Yonggang

    2015-12-01

    Due to the curse of dimensionality, traditional clustering methods usually fail to produce meaningful results for the high dimensional data. Hypergraph partition is believed to be a promising method for dealing with this challenge. In this paper, we first construct a graph G from the data by defining an adjacency relationship between the data points using Shared Reverse k Nearest Neighbors (SRNN). Then a hypergraph is created from the graph G by defining the hyperedges to be all the maximal cliques in the graph G. After the hypergraph is produced, a powerful hypergraph partitioning method called dense subgraph partition (DSP) combined with the k-medoids method is used to produce the final clustering results. The proposed method is evaluated on several real high-dimensional datasets, and the experimental results show that the proposed method can improve the clustering results of the high dimensional data compared with applying k-medoids method directly on the original data.

  14. Subgraph augmented non-negative tensor factorization (SANTF) for modeling clinical narrative text

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Yu; Hochberg, Ephraim; Joshi, Rohit; Uzuner, Ozlem; Szolovits, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Objective Extracting medical knowledge from electronic medical records requires automated approaches to combat scalability limitations and selection biases. However, existing machine learning approaches are often regarded by clinicians as black boxes. Moreover, training data for these automated approaches at often sparsely annotated at best. The authors target unsupervised learning for modeling clinical narrative text, aiming at improving both accuracy and interpretability. Methods The authors introduce a novel framework named subgraph augmented non-negative tensor factorization (SANTF). In addition to relying on atomic features (e.g., words in clinical narrative text), SANTF automatically mines higher-order features (e.g., relations of lymphoid cells expressing antigens) from clinical narrative text by converting sentences into a graph representation and identifying important subgraphs. The authors compose a tensor using patients, higher-order features, and atomic features as its respective modes. We then apply non-negative tensor factorization to cluster patients, and simultaneously identify latent groups of higher-order features that link to patient clusters, as in clinical guidelines where a panel of immunophenotypic features and laboratory results are used to specify diagnostic criteria. Results and Conclusion SANTF demonstrated over 10% improvement in averaged F-measure on patient clustering compared to widely used non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) and k-means clustering methods. Multiple baselines were established by modeling patient data using patient-by-features matrices with different feature configurations and then performing NMF or k-means to cluster patients. Feature analysis identified latent groups of higher-order features that lead to medical insights. We also found that the latent groups of atomic features help to better correlate the latent groups of higher-order features. PMID:25862765

  15. Sequential Monte Carlo for Maximum Weight Subgraphs with Application to Solving Image Jigsaw Puzzles

    PubMed Central

    Adluru, Nagesh; Yang, Xingwei; Latecki, Longin Jan

    2015-01-01

    We consider a problem of finding maximum weight subgraphs (MWS) that satisfy hard constraints in a weighted graph. The constraints specify the graph nodes that must belong to the solution as well as mutual exclusions of graph nodes, i.e., pairs of nodes that cannot belong to the same solution. Our main contribution is a novel inference approach for solving this problem in a sequential monte carlo (SMC) sampling framework. Usually in an SMC framework there is a natural ordering of the states of the samples. The order typically depends on observations about the states or on the annealing setup used. In many applications (e.g., image jigsaw puzzle problems), all observations (e.g., puzzle pieces) are given at once and it is hard to define a natural ordering. Therefore, we relax the assumption of having ordered observations about states and propose a novel SMC algorithm for obtaining maximum a posteriori estimate of a high-dimensional posterior distribution. This is achieved by exploring different orders of states and selecting the most informative permutations in each step of the sampling. Our experimental results demonstrate that the proposed inference framework significantly outperforms loopy belief propagation in solving the image jigsaw puzzle problem. In particular, our inference quadruples the accuracy of the puzzle assembly compared to that of loopy belief propagation. PMID:26052182

  16. Link and subgraph likelihoods in random undirected networks with fixed and partially fixed degree sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Jacob G.; Foster, David V.; Grassberger, Peter; Paczuski, Maya

    2007-10-01

    The simplest null models for networks, used to distinguish significant features of a particular network from a priori expected features, are random ensembles with the degree sequence fixed by the specific network of interest. These “fixed degree sequence” (FDS) ensembles are, however, famously resistant to analytic attack. In this paper we introduce ensembles with partially-fixed degree sequences (PFDS) and compare analytic results obtained for them with Monte Carlo results for the FDS ensemble. These results include link likelihoods, subgraph likelihoods, and degree correlations. We find that local structural features in the FDS ensemble can be reasonably well estimated by simultaneously fixing only the degrees of a few nodes, in addition to the total number of nodes and links. As test cases we use two protein interaction networks (Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae), the internet on the autonomous system (AS) level, and the World Wide Web. Fixing just the degrees of two nodes gives the mean neighbor degree as a function of node degree, ⟨k'⟩k , in agreement with results explicitly obtained from rewiring. For power law degree distributions, we derive the disassortativity analytically. In the PFDS ensemble the partition function can be expanded diagrammatically. We obtain an explicit expression for the link likelihood to lowest order, which reduces in the limit of large, sparse undirected networks with L links and with kmax≪L to the simple formula P(k,k')=kk'/(2L+kk') . In a similar limit, the probability for three nodes to be linked into a triangle reduces to the factorized expression PΔ(k1,k2,k3)=P(k1,k2)P(k1,k3)P(k2,k3) .

  17. Tunable Molecular MoS2 Edge-Site Mimics for Catalytic Hydrogen Production.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Benjamin R; Polen, Shane M; Click, Kevin A; He, Mingfu; Huang, Zhongjie; Hadad, Christopher M; Wu, Yiying

    2016-04-18

    Molybdenum sulfides represent state-of-the-art, non-platinum electrocatalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). According to the Sabatier principle, the hydrogen binding strength to the edge active sites should be neither too strong nor too weak. Therefore, it is of interest to develop a molecular motif that mimics the catalytic sites structurally and possesses tunable electronic properties that influence the hydrogen binding strength. Furthermore, molecular mimics will be important for providing mechanistic insight toward the HER with molybdenum sulfide catalysts. In this work, a modular method to tune the catalytic properties of the S-S bond in MoO(S2)2L2 complexes is described. We studied the homogeneous electrocatalytic hydrogen production performance metrics of three catalysts with different bipyridine substitutions. By varying the electron-donating abilities, we present the first demonstration of using the ligand to tune the catalytic properties of the S-S bond in molecular MoS2 edge-site mimics. This work can shed light on the relationship between the structure and electrocatalytic activity of molecular MoS2 catalysts and thus is of broad importance from catalytic hydrogen production to biological enzyme functions. PMID:27022836

  18. The Connected and Disjoint Union of Semi Jahangir Graphs Admit a Cycle-Super (a, d)-Atimagic Total Labeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dafik; Agustin, I. H.; Hardiyantik, D.

    2016-02-01

    We assume that all graphs in this paper are finite, undirected and no loop and multiple edges. Given a graph G of order p and size q. Let H',H be subgraphs of G. By H'-covering, we mean every edge in E(G) belongs to at least one subgraph of G isomorphic to a given graph H. A graph G is said to be an (a,d)-H-antimagic total labeling if there exist a bijective function f : V(G) ∪︀E(G) → {1, 2,...,p + q} such that for all subgraphs H' isomorphicto H,the total H-weights ω(H) = form an arithmetic sequence {a, a+d, a+2d,..., a+(s-1)d}, where a and d are positive integers and s is the number of all subgraphs H' isomorphic to H. Such a labeling is called super if f : V(G) → {1, 2,. .., | V(G)|}. In this paper, we will discuss a cycle-super (a,d)-atimagicness of a connected and disjoint union of semi jahangir graphs. The results show that those graphs admit a cycle-super (a,d)-atimagic total labeling for some feasible d ∈ {0,1, 2, 4, 6, 7,10,13,14}.

  19. Super (a, d) - Fn - antimagic total labeling for a connected and disconnected amalgamation of fan graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dafik, Agustin, Ika Hesti; Khuri Faridatun, N.

    2016-02-01

    All graph in this paper are finite, simple and undirected. Let G = (V (G), E(G)) be a graph of order p and size q. Graph G admits a H-covering, if every edge in E(G) belongs to at least one subgraph of G isomorphic to a given graph H. A graph G is said to be an (a, d)-H-antimagic total labeling if there exist a bijective function f : V (G) ∪ E(G) → {1, 2,…, |V(G)| + |E(G)|} such that for all subgraphs H' isomorphic to H, the total H-weights w(H) = ∑v∈V (H') f (v) + ∑e∈E(H') f (e) form an arithmetic sequence {a, a + d, a + 2d, …, a + (t - 1)d}, where a and d are positive integers and t is the number of all subgraphs H' isomorphic to H. Such a labeling is called a super if the smallest labels appear in the vertices. This paper studies the super (a, d)-Fn-antimagic total labeling for a connected and disconnected amalgamation of fan graphs. We can prove that, for some feasible d, a connected and disconnected amalgamation of fan graphs admit a super (a, d) - Fn-antimagic total labeling.

  20. Distinction and connection between contact network, social network, and disease transmission network.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shi; Lanzas, Cristina

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we discuss the distinction and connection between three closely related networks in animal ecology and epidemiology studies: the contact, social, and disease transmission networks. We provide a robust theoretical definition and interpretation of these three networks, demonstrate that social and disease transmission networks can be derived as spanning subgraphs of contact network, and show examples based on real-world high-resolution cattle contact structure data. Furthermore, we establish a modeling framework to track potential disease transmission dynamics and construct transmission network based on the observed animal contact network. PMID:27544246

  1. Connected Traveler

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, Alex

    2015-11-01

    The Connected Traveler project is a multi-disciplinary undertaking that seeks to validate potential for transformative transportation system energy savings by incentivizing efficient traveler behavior. This poster outlines various aspects of the Connected Traveler project, including market opportunity, understanding traveler behavior and decision-making, automation and connectivity, and a projected timeline for Connected Traveler's key milestones.

  2. Dimeric [Mo2 S12 ](2-) Cluster: A Molecular Analogue of MoS2 Edges for Superior Hydrogen-Evolution Electrocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhongjie; Luo, Wenjia; Ma, Lu; Yu, Mingzhe; Ren, Xiaodi; He, Mingfu; Polen, Shane; Click, Kevin; Garrett, Benjamin; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil; Hadad, Christopher; Chen, Weilin; Asthagiri, Aravind; Wu, Yiying

    2015-12-01

    Proton reduction is one of the most fundamental and important reactions in nature. MoS2 edges have been identified as the active sites for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) electrocatalysis. Designing molecular mimics of MoS2 edge sites is an attractive strategy to understand the underlying catalytic mechanism of different edge sites and improve their activities. Herein we report a dimeric molecular analogue [Mo2 S12 ](2-) , as the smallest unit possessing both the terminal and bridging disulfide ligands. Our electrochemical tests show that [Mo2 S12 ](2-) is a superior heterogeneous HER catalyst under acidic conditions. Computations suggest that the bridging disulfide ligand of [Mo2 S12 ](2-) exhibits a hydrogen adsorption free energy near zero (-0.05 eV). This work helps shed light on the rational design of HER catalysts and biomimetics of hydrogen-evolving enzymes. PMID:26482571

  3. Making Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to illustrate a process of making connections, not between mathematics and other activities, but within mathematics itself--between diverse parts of the subject. Novel connections are still possible in previously explored mathematics when the material happens to be unfamiliar, as may be the case for a learner at any career stage.…

  4. About connections.

    PubMed

    Rockland, Kathleen S

    2015-01-01

    Despite the attention attracted by "connectomics", one can lose sight of the very real questions concerning "What are connections?" In the neuroimaging community, "structural" connectivity is ground truth and underlying constraint on "functional" or "effective" connectivity. It is referenced to underlying anatomy; but, as increasingly remarked, there is a large gap between the wealth of human brain mapping and the relatively scant data on actual anatomical connectivity. Moreover, connections have typically been discussed as "pairwise", point x projecting to point y (or: to points y and z), or more recently, in graph theoretical terms, as "nodes" or regions and the interconnecting "edges". This is a convenient shorthand, but tends not to capture the richness and nuance of basic anatomical properties as identified in the classic tradition of tracer studies. The present short review accordingly revisits connectional weights, heterogeneity, reciprocity, topography, and hierarchical organization, drawing on concrete examples. The emphasis is on presynaptic long-distance connections, motivated by the intention to probe current assumptions and promote discussions about further progress and synthesis. PMID:26042001

  5. Device Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, John; Roberts, Ruth; Morris, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Patients with diabetes have to take numerous factors/data into their therapeutic decisions in daily life. Connecting the devices they are using by feeding the data generated into a database/app is supposed to help patients to optimize their glycemic control. As this is not established in practice, the different roadblocks have to be discussed to open the road. That large telecommunication companies are now entering this market might be a big help in pushing this forward. Smartphones offer an ideal platform for connectivity solutions. PMID:25614015

  6. Connecting Node

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Raboin, Jasen L.; Spexarth, Gary R.

    2009-01-01

    A paper describes the Octanode, a connecting node that facilitates the integration of multiple docking mechanisms, hatches, windows, and internal and external systems with the use of flat surfaces. The Octanode is a 26- faced Great Rhombicuboctahedron Archi medean solid with six octagonshaped panels, eight hexagon-shaped panels, and 12 square panels using three unique, simple, flat shapes to construct a spherical approximation. Each flat shape can be constructed with a variety of material and manufacturing techniques, such as honeycomb composite panels or a pocketed skinstringer configuration, using conventional means. The flat shapes can be connected together and sealed to create a pressurizable volume by the use of any conventional means including welding or fastening devices and sealant. The node can then be connected to other elements to allow transfer between those elements, or it could serve as an airlock. The Octanode can be manufactured on the ground and can be integrated with subsystems including hatches and ports. The node can then be transported to its intended location, whether on orbit or on surface. Any of the flat panels could be replaced by curved ones, turning the node into a copula. Windows may be placed on flat panes with optimal viewing angles that are not blocked by large connecting nodes. The advantage of using flat panels to represent a spherical approximation is that this allows for easier integration of subsystems and design features.

  7. Get Connected

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Jessica; Hagevik, Rita; Adkinson, Bennett; Parmly, Jilynn

    2013-01-01

    Technology can be both a blessing and a curse in the classroom. Although technology can provide greater access to information and increase student engagement, if screen time replaces time spent outside, then students stand to lose awareness and connectivity to the surrounding natural environment. This article describes how Google Earth can foster…

  8. Making Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quillen, Ian

    2014-01-01

    "We used to send out books that looked like this," says Barbara Dreyer, as she holds the 500-page volume from one of the first-ever courses offered online by Connections Academy. "You could look at this information online, but, frankly, a lot of people were doing this," she adds, thumbing through the book's pages. Dreyer,…

  9. Learning Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royer, Regina D.; Richards, Patricia O.

    2005-01-01

    In this edition of Learning Connections, the authors show how technology can enhance study of weather patterns, reading comprehension, real-world training, critical thinking, health education, and art criticism. The following sections are included: (1) Social Studies; (2) Language Arts; (3) Computer Science and ICT; (4) Art; and (5) Health.…

  10. College Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Kimberly Kappler; Scalzo, Mary Jo

    2012-01-01

    This article describes Oakwood City School District's College Connection Study, which is now in its eighth year. The purpose of the study is to help the educators in the district learn how to effectively prepare students for success in the colleges of their choice. Teachers, administrators, and other staff members travel to colleges to conduct…

  11. Retention Mechanisms of Citric Acid in Ternary Kaolinite-Fe(III)-Citrate Acid Systems Using Fe K-edge EXAFS and L3,2-edge XANES Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jianjun; Wang, Jian; Pan, Weinan; Regier, Tom; Hu, Yongfeng; Rumpel, Cornelia; Bolan, Nanthi; Sparks, Donald

    2016-05-01

    Organic carbon (OC) stability in tropical soils is strongly interlinked with multivalent cation interaction and mineral association. Low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) represent the readily biodegradable OC. Therefore, investigating retention mechanisms of LMWOAs in mineral-cation-LMWOAs systems is critical to understanding soil C cycling. Given the general acidic conditions and dominance of kaolinite in tropical soils, we investigated the retention mechanisms of citric acid (CA) in kaolinite-Fe(III)-CA systems with various Fe/CA molar ratios at pH ~3.5 using Fe K-edge EXAFS and L3,2-edge XANES techniques. With Fe/CA molar ratios >2, the formed ferrihydrite mainly contributed to CA retention through adsorption and/or coprecipitation. With Fe/CA molar ratios from 2 to 0.5, ternary complexation of CA to kaolinite via a five-coordinated Fe(III) bridge retained higher CA than ferrihydrite-induced adsorption and/or coprecipitation. With Fe/CA molar ratios ≤0.5, kaolinite-Fe(III)-citrate complexation preferentially occurred, but less CA was retained than via outer-sphere kaolinite-CA complexation. This study highlighted the significant impact of varied Fe/CA molar ratios on CA retention mechanisms in kaolinite-Fe(III)-CA systems under acidic conditions, and clearly showed the important contribution of Fe-bridged ternary complexation on CA retention. These findings will enhance our understanding of the dynamics of CA and other LMWOAs in tropical soils.

  12. Retention Mechanisms of Citric Acid in Ternary Kaolinite-Fe(III)-Citrate Acid Systems Using Fe K-edge EXAFS and L3,2-edge XANES Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianjun; Wang, Jian; Pan, Weinan; Regier, Tom; Hu, Yongfeng; Rumpel, Cornelia; Bolan, Nanthi; Sparks, Donald

    2016-01-01

    Organic carbon (OC) stability in tropical soils is strongly interlinked with multivalent cation interaction and mineral association. Low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) represent the readily biodegradable OC. Therefore, investigating retention mechanisms of LMWOAs in mineral-cation-LMWOAs systems is critical to understanding soil C cycling. Given the general acidic conditions and dominance of kaolinite in tropical soils, we investigated the retention mechanisms of citric acid (CA) in kaolinite-Fe(III)-CA systems with various Fe/CA molar ratios at pH ~3.5 using Fe K-edge EXAFS and L3,2-edge XANES techniques. With Fe/CA molar ratios >2, the formed ferrihydrite mainly contributed to CA retention through adsorption and/or coprecipitation. With Fe/CA molar ratios from 2 to 0.5, ternary complexation of CA to kaolinite via a five-coordinated Fe(III) bridge retained higher CA than ferrihydrite-induced adsorption and/or coprecipitation. With Fe/CA molar ratios ≤0.5, kaolinite-Fe(III)-citrate complexation preferentially occurred, but less CA was retained than via outer-sphere kaolinite-CA complexation. This study highlighted the significant impact of varied Fe/CA molar ratios on CA retention mechanisms in kaolinite-Fe(III)-CA systems under acidic conditions, and clearly showed the important contribution of Fe-bridged ternary complexation on CA retention. These findings will enhance our understanding of the dynamics of CA and other LMWOAs in tropical soils. PMID:27212680

  13. Retention Mechanisms of Citric Acid in Ternary Kaolinite-Fe(III)-Citrate Acid Systems Using Fe K-edge EXAFS and L3,2-edge XANES Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jianjun; Wang, Jian; Pan, Weinan; Regier, Tom; Hu, Yongfeng; Rumpel, Cornelia; Bolan, Nanthi; Sparks, Donald

    2016-01-01

    Organic carbon (OC) stability in tropical soils is strongly interlinked with multivalent cation interaction and mineral association. Low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) represent the readily biodegradable OC. Therefore, investigating retention mechanisms of LMWOAs in mineral-cation-LMWOAs systems is critical to understanding soil C cycling. Given the general acidic conditions and dominance of kaolinite in tropical soils, we investigated the retention mechanisms of citric acid (CA) in kaolinite-Fe(III)-CA systems with various Fe/CA molar ratios at pH ~3.5 using Fe K-edge EXAFS and L3,2-edge XANES techniques. With Fe/CA molar ratios >2, the formed ferrihydrite mainly contributed to CA retention through adsorption and/or coprecipitation. With Fe/CA molar ratios from 2 to 0.5, ternary complexation of CA to kaolinite via a five-coordinated Fe(III) bridge retained higher CA than ferrihydrite-induced adsorption and/or coprecipitation. With Fe/CA molar ratios ≤0.5, kaolinite-Fe(III)-citrate complexation preferentially occurred, but less CA was retained than via outer-sphere kaolinite-CA complexation. This study highlighted the significant impact of varied Fe/CA molar ratios on CA retention mechanisms in kaolinite-Fe(III)-CA systems under acidic conditions, and clearly showed the important contribution of Fe-bridged ternary complexation on CA retention. These findings will enhance our understanding of the dynamics of CA and other LMWOAs in tropical soils. PMID:27212680

  14. Retention mechanisms of citric acid in ternary kaolinite-Fe(III)-citrate acid systems using Fe K-edge EXAFS and L3,2-edge XANES spectroscopy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yang, Jianjun; Wang, Jian; Pan, Weinan; Regier, Tom; Hu, Yongfeng; Rumpel, Cornelia; Bolan, Nanthi; Sparks, Donald

    2016-05-23

    Organic carbon (OC) stability in tropical soils is strongly interlinked with multivalent cation interaction and mineral association. Low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) represent the readily biodegradable OC. Therefore, investigating retention mechanisms of LMWOAs in mineral-cation-LMWOAs systems is critical to understanding soil C cycling. Given the general acidic conditions and dominance of kaolinite in tropical soils, we investigated the retention mechanisms of citric acid (CA) in kaolinite-Fe(III)-CA systems with various Fe/CA molar ratios at pH ~3.5 using Fe K-edge EXAFS and L-3,2-edge XANES techniques. With Fe/CA molar ratios >2, the formed ferrihydrite mainly contributed to CA retention through adsorption and/ormore » coprecipitation. With Fe/CA molar ratios from 2 to 0.5, ternary complexation of CA to kaolinite via a five-coordinated Fe(III) bridge retained higher CA than ferrihydrite-induced adsorption and/or coprecipitation. With Fe/CA molar ratios ≤ 0.5, kaolinite-Fe(III)-citrate complexation preferentially occurred, but less CA was retained than via outer-sphere kaolinite-CA complexation. This study highlighted the significant impact of varied Fe/CA molar ratios on CA retention mechanisms in kaolinite-Fe(III)-CA systems under acidic conditions, and clearly showed the important contribution of Fe-bridged ternary complexation on CA retention. In conclusion, these findings will enhance our understanding of the dynamics of CA and other LMWOAs in tropical soils.« less

  15. Characterization of known protein complexes using k-connectivity and other topological measures

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Suzanne R; Goldberg, Debra S

    2015-01-01

    Many protein complexes are densely packed, so proteins within complexes often interact with several other proteins in the complex. Steric constraints prevent most proteins from simultaneously binding more than a handful of other proteins, regardless of the number of proteins in the complex. Because of this, as complex size increases, several measures of the complex decrease within protein-protein interaction networks. However, k-connectivity, the number of vertices or edges that need to be removed in order to disconnect a graph, may be consistently high for protein complexes. The property of k-connectivity has been little used previously in the investigation of protein-protein interactions. To understand the discriminative power of k-connectivity and other topological measures for identifying unknown protein complexes, we characterized these properties in known Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein complexes in networks generated both from highly accurate X-ray crystallography experiments which give an accurate model of each complex, and also as the complexes appear in high-throughput yeast 2-hybrid studies in which new complexes may be discovered. We also computed these properties for appropriate random subgraphs.We found that clustering coefficient, mutual clustering coefficient, and k-connectivity are better indicators of known protein complexes than edge density, degree, or betweenness. This suggests new directions for future protein complex-finding algorithms. PMID:26913183

  16. Spanning connectivity in a multilayer network and its relationship to site-bond percolation.

    PubMed

    Guha, Saikat; Towsley, Donald; Nain, Philippe; Çapar, Çağatay; Swami, Ananthram; Basu, Prithwish

    2016-06-01

    We analyze the connectivity of an M-layer network over a common set of nodes that are active only in a fraction of the layers. Each layer is assumed to be a subgraph (of an underlying connectivity graph G) induced by each node being active in any given layer with probability q. The M-layer network is formed by aggregating the edges over all M layers. We show that when q exceeds a threshold q_{c}(M), a giant connected component appears in the M-layer network-thereby enabling far-away users to connect using "bridge" nodes that are active in multiple network layers-even though the individual layers may only have small disconnected islands of connectivity. We show that q_{c}(M)≲sqrt[-ln(1-p_{c})]/sqrt[M], where p_{c} is the bond percolation threshold of G, and q_{c}(1)≡q_{c} is its site-percolation threshold. We find q_{c}(M) exactly for when G is a large random network with an arbitrary node-degree distribution. We find q_{c}(M) numerically for various regular lattices and find an exact lower bound for the kagome lattice. Finally, we find an intriguingly close connection between this multilayer percolation model and the well-studied problem of site-bond percolation in the sense that both models provide a smooth transition between the traditional site- and bond-percolation models. Using this connection, we translate known analytical approximations of the site-bond critical region, which are functions only of p_{c} and q_{c} of the respective lattice, to excellent general approximations of the multilayer connectivity threshold q_{c}(M). PMID:27415283

  17. Spanning connectivity in a multilayer network and its relationship to site-bond percolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guha, Saikat; Towsley, Donald; Nain, Philippe; ćapar, ćaǧatay; Swami, Ananthram; Basu, Prithwish

    2016-06-01

    We analyze the connectivity of an M -layer network over a common set of nodes that are active only in a fraction of the layers. Each layer is assumed to be a subgraph (of an underlying connectivity graph G ) induced by each node being active in any given layer with probability q . The M -layer network is formed by aggregating the edges over all M layers. We show that when q exceeds a threshold qc(M ) , a giant connected component appears in the M -layer network—thereby enabling far-away users to connect using "bridge" nodes that are active in multiple network layers—even though the individual layers may only have small disconnected islands of connectivity. We show that qc(M ) ≲√{-ln(1 -pc) }/√{M } , where pc is the bond percolation threshold of G , and qc(1 ) ≡qc is its site-percolation threshold. We find qc(M ) exactly for when G is a large random network with an arbitrary node-degree distribution. We find qc(M ) numerically for various regular lattices and find an exact lower bound for the kagome lattice. Finally, we find an intriguingly close connection between this multilayer percolation model and the well-studied problem of site-bond percolation in the sense that both models provide a smooth transition between the traditional site- and bond-percolation models. Using this connection, we translate known analytical approximations of the site-bond critical region, which are functions only of pc and qc of the respective lattice, to excellent general approximations of the multilayer connectivity threshold qc(M ) .

  18. DISSECTING HABITAT CONNECTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    abstract

    Connectivity is increasingly recognized as an important element of a successful reserve design. Connectivity matters in reserve design to the extent that it promotes or hinders the viability of target populations. While conceptually straightforward, connectivity i...

  19. Connective Tissue Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Connective tissue is the material inside your body that supports many of its parts. It is the "cellular ... their work. Cartilage and fat are examples of connective tissue. There are over 200 disorders that impact connective ...

  20. Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Conditions Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease (UCTD) Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease (UCTD) Make an Appointment Find a Doctor ... L. Goldstein, MD, MMSc (February 01, 2016) Undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) is a systemic autoimmune disease. This ...

  1. A local average connectivity-based method for identifying essential proteins from the network level.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Wang, Jianxin; Chen, Xiang; Wang, Huan; Pan, Yi

    2011-06-01

    Identifying essential proteins is very important for understanding the minimal requirements of cellular survival and development. Fast growth in the amount of available protein-protein interactions has produced unprecedented opportunities for detecting protein essentiality from the network level. Essential proteins have been found to be more abundant among those highly connected proteins. However, there exist a number of highly connected proteins which are not essential. By analyzing these proteins, we find that few of their neighbors interact with each other. Thus, we propose a new local method, named LAC, to determine a protein's essentiality by evaluating the relationship between a protein and its neighbors. The performance of LAC is validated based on the yeast protein interaction networks obtained from two different databases: DIP and BioGRID. The experimental results of the two networks show that the number of essential proteins predicted by LAC clearly exceeds that explored by Degree Centrality (DC). More over, LAC is also compared with other seven measures of protein centrality (Neighborhood Component (DMNC), Betweenness Centrality (BC), Closeness Centrality (CC), Bottle Neck (BN), Information Centrality (IC), Eigenvector Centrality (EC), and Subgraph Centrality (SC)) in identifying essential proteins. The comparison results based on the validations of sensitivity, specificity, F-measure, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy consistently show that LAC outweighs these seven previous methods. PMID:21704260

  2. Weakly connected neural nets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, Michail

    1990-01-01

    A new neural network architecture is proposed based upon effects of non-Lipschitzian dynamics. The network is fully connected, but these connections are active only during vanishingly short time periods. The advantages of this architecture are discussed.

  3. MedlinePlus Connect

    MedlinePlus

    ... MedlinePlus Connect? MedlinePlus Connect links health IT systems, patient portals and electronic health record (EHR) systems to relevant, ... care providers when they need it via their patient portal or EHR. How does MedlinePlus Connect work? MedlinePlus ...

  4. Chip connectivity verification program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Josh (Inventor); Patterson, George (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A method for testing electrical connectivity between conductive structures on a chip that is preferably layered with conductive and nonconductive layers. The method includes determining the layer on which each structure is located and defining the perimeter of each structure. Conductive layer connections between each of the layers are determined, and, for each structure, the points of intersection between the perimeter of that structure and the perimeter of each other structure on the chip are also determined. Finally, electrical connections between the structures are determined using the points of intersection and the conductive layer connections.

  5. 78 FR 55684 - ConnectED Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ... policies and consider the most promising strategies for equipping K-12 schools for digital learning. The... devices to enrich the learning experience; as teachers increasingly integrate Web video and other digital... Program (BIP), Broadband Loan Program, Community Connect Program, and Distance Learning and...

  6. Caldecott Connections to Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glandon, Shan

    This volume brings award-winning literature to all areas of the science curriculum. The lesson plan format includes the four stages of engagement, elaboration, exploration, and connection. Each story is followed by activities that make connections between literature, science, and the arts. Chapters include: (1) "Frog Went A-Courtin'," which…

  7. Reading and Writing Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Jana M., Ed.

    This collection of papers, from a conference on reading and writing connections held at the University of Illinois in October 1986, reflects the value of demonstrating connections between reading instruction and writing. The book shows practitioners how writing can be blended with reading instruction and how writing activities can be used not just…

  8. Connecting Arithmetic to Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darley, Joy W.; Leapard, Barbara B.

    2010-01-01

    Algebraic thinking is a top priority in mathematics classrooms today. Because elementary school teachers lay the groundwork to develop students' capacity to think algebraically, it is crucial for teachers to have a conceptual understanding of the connections between arithmetic and algebra and be confident in communicating these connections. Many…

  9. Artificial limb connection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, L. J.

    1974-01-01

    Connection simplifies and eases donning and removing artificial limb; eliminates harnesses and clamps; and reduces skin pressures by allowing bone to carry all tensile and part of compressive loads between prosthesis and stump. Because connection is modular, it is easily modified to suit individual needs.

  10. Real World Graph Connectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lind, Joy; Narayan, Darren

    2009-01-01

    We present the topic of graph connectivity along with a famous theorem of Menger in the real-world setting of the national computer network infrastructure of "National LambdaRail". We include a set of exercises where students reinforce their understanding of graph connectivity by analysing the "National LambdaRail" network. Finally, we give…

  11. Making the Internet Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Descy, Don E.

    1995-01-01

    Provides information on commercial connections to the Internet via gateways as opposed to direct connection or through a modem. Hardware and software requirements are described; and commercial online services offering an Internet gateway are discussed, including America Online, CompuServe, Delphi, GEnie, and Prodigy. (LRW)

  12. Connections: Writing about Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs, Jane P.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a teaching method in which high school sophomores (1) read A. Munro's "Connection," a short story connecting the author to her family origins; (2) interview relatives about their personal history; and (3) compose vignettes based on the notes collected during a three-week period. Provides numerous questions and prompts used to help the…

  13. Broca's area - thalamic connectivity.

    PubMed

    Bohsali, Anastasia A; Triplett, William; Sudhyadhom, Atchar; Gullett, Joseph M; McGregor, Keith; FitzGerald, David B; Mareci, Thomas; White, Keith; Crosson, Bruce

    2015-02-01

    Broca's area is crucially involved in language processing. The sub-regions of Broca's area (pars triangularis, pars opercularis) presumably are connected via corticocortical pathways. However, growing evidence suggests that the thalamus may also be involved in language and share some of the linguistic functions supported by Broca's area. Functional connectivity is thought to be achieved via corticothalamic/thalamocortical white matter pathways. Our study investigates structural connectivity between Broca's area and the thalamus, specifically ventral anterior nucleus and pulvinar. We demonstrate that Broca's area shares direct connections with these thalamic nuclei and suggest a local Broca's area-thalamus network potentially involved in linguistic processing. Thalamic connectivity with Broca's area may serve to selectively recruit cortical regions storing multimodal features of lexical items and to bind them together during lexical-semantic processing. In addition, Broca's area-thalamic circuitry may enable cortico-thalamo-cortical information transfer and modulation between BA 44 and 45 during language comprehension and production. PMID:25555132

  14. Covariant magnetic connection hypersurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pegoraro, F.

    2016-04-01

    > In the single fluid, non-relativistic, ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) plasma description, magnetic field lines play a fundamental role by defining dynamically preserved `magnetic connections' between plasma elements. Here we show how the concept of magnetic connection needs to be generalized in the case of a relativistic MHD description where we require covariance under arbitrary Lorentz transformations. This is performed by defining 2-D magnetic connection hypersurfaces in the 4-D Minkowski space. This generalization accounts for the loss of simultaneity between spatially separated events in different frames and is expected to provide a powerful insight into the 4-D geometry of electromagnetic fields when .

  15. HIV-AIDS Connection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area The HIV-AIDS Connection AIDS was first recognized in 1981 and ... is there overwhelming scientific consensus that HIV causes AIDS? Before HIV infection became widespread in the human ...

  16. Can we measure connectivity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brazier, Richard; Vericat, Damia; Cerda, Artemi; Brardinoni, Francesco; Batalla, Ramon; Masselink, Rens; Wittenberg, Lea; Nadal Romero, Estela; López-Tarazón, José; Estrany, Joan; Keesstra, Saskia

    2015-04-01

    Whilst the term 'connectivity' in hydrological and sediment-based research is becoming increasing well-known, it is neither used consistently in the existing literature, nor is it clear from that literature, that the connectivity of a landscape, or part of a landscape can be measured. However, it is argued that understanding how well critical source areas of water or sediment are connected to receiving surface waters, may be an essential step towards improvement of land management to mitigate flooding, soil erosion and water quality problems. The first part of this paper, therefore, explores what is currently meant by the term connectivity; addressing the differences between structural and functional, or process-based connectivity, specifically with reference to the movement of water and sediment through an ecosystem. We argue that most existing studies do not measure connectivity. Instead, they address only part of the story. Existing work may describe structural change in a landscape, which can perhaps elucidate the potential for connectivity to occur, or indeed the emergent spatial properties of an ecosystem, but it rarely quantifies the connectivity of an ecosystem in a process-based manner through time. Alternatively, a great deal of work describes fluxes of water and sediment at (sometimes multiple) points in a landscape and infers connectivity of the system via analysis of time series data; from rainfall peak to hydrograph peak or start of sediment flux until peak sediment flux within an event. Such data are doubtless useful to understand catchment function, but alone, they do not provide evidence that quantifies (for example) how well connected sediment sources are to the outlets of the catchments from which they flux. Finally, there are many examples of water and particularly sediment tracing studies, which attempt to link, either directly or indirectly water or sediment sources with their sinks (which might more usefully be termed temporary stores

  17. Nurturing Deep Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessler, Rachael

    2002-01-01

    Argues that the missing ingredient in school reform is soul, that is, deep connections among students, teachers, and administrators. Discusses five principles of leadership with soul: Personalize, pacing, permission, protection, and paradox. (PKP)

  18. Quick connect fastener

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A quick connect fastener and method of use is presented wherein the quick connect fastener is suitable for replacing available bolts and screws, the quick connect fastener being capable of installation by simply pushing a threaded portion of the connector into a member receptacle hole, the inventive apparatus being comprised of an externally threaded fastener having a threaded portion slidably mounted upon a stud or bolt shaft, wherein the externally threaded fastener portion is expandable by a preloaded spring member. The fastener, upon contact with the member receptacle hole, has the capacity of presenting cylindrical threads of a reduced diameter for insertion purposes and once inserted into the receiving threads of the receptacle member hole, are expandable for engagement of the receptacle hole threads forming a quick connect of the fastener and the member to be fastened, the quick connect fastener can be further secured by rotation after insertion, even to the point of locking engagement, the quick connect fastener being disengagable only by reverse rotation of the mated thread engagement.

  19. NASA CONNECT: Atmospheric Detectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    'The Measurement of All Things: Atmospheric Detectives' is the second of seven programs in the 1999-2000 NASA CONNECT series. Produced by NASA Langley Research Center's Office of Education, NASA CONNECT is an award-winning series of instructional programs designed to enhance the teaching of math, science and technology concepts in grades 5-8. NASA CONNECT establishes the 'connection' between the mathematics, science, and technology concepts taught in the classroom and NASA research. Each program in the series supports the national mathematics, science, and technology standards; includes a resource-rich teacher guide; and uses a classroom experiment and web-based activity to complement and enhance the math, science, and technology concepts presented in the program. NASA CONNECT is FREE and the programs in the series are in the public domain. Visit our web site and register. http://connect.larc.nasa.gov In 'The Measurement of All Things: Atmospheric Detectives' students will learn how scientists use satellites, lasers, optical detectors, and wavelengths of light to measure the presence of certain gaseous elements, compounds, and aerosols in the Earth's atmosphere.

  20. Probabilistic drug connectivity mapping

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of connectivity mapping is to match drugs using drug-treatment gene expression profiles from multiple cell lines. This can be viewed as an information retrieval task, with the goal of finding the most relevant profiles for a given query drug. We infer the relevance for retrieval by data-driven probabilistic modeling of the drug responses, resulting in probabilistic connectivity mapping, and further consider the available cell lines as different data sources. We use a special type of probabilistic model to separate what is shared and specific between the sources, in contrast to earlier connectivity mapping methods that have intentionally aggregated all available data, neglecting information about the differences between the cell lines. Results We show that the probabilistic multi-source connectivity mapping method is superior to alternatives in finding functionally and chemically similar drugs from the Connectivity Map data set. We also demonstrate that an extension of the method is capable of retrieving combinations of drugs that match different relevant parts of the query drug response profile. Conclusions The probabilistic modeling-based connectivity mapping method provides a promising alternative to earlier methods. Principled integration of data from different cell lines helps to identify relevant responses for specific drug repositioning applications. PMID:24742351

  1. Algebraic connectivity and graph robustness.

    SciTech Connect

    Feddema, John Todd; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Abdallah, Chaouki T.

    2009-07-01

    Recent papers have used Fiedler's definition of algebraic connectivity to show that network robustness, as measured by node-connectivity and edge-connectivity, can be increased by increasing the algebraic connectivity of the network. By the definition of algebraic connectivity, the second smallest eigenvalue of the graph Laplacian is a lower bound on the node-connectivity. In this paper we show that for circular random lattice graphs and mesh graphs algebraic connectivity is a conservative lower bound, and that increases in algebraic connectivity actually correspond to a decrease in node-connectivity. This means that the networks are actually less robust with respect to node-connectivity as the algebraic connectivity increases. However, an increase in algebraic connectivity seems to correlate well with a decrease in the characteristic path length of these networks - which would result in quicker communication through the network. Applications of these results are then discussed for perimeter security.

  2. Determination of effective brain connectivity from functional connectivity with application to resting state connectivities.

    PubMed

    Robinson, P A; Sarkar, S; Pandejee, Grishma Mehta; Henderson, J A

    2014-07-01

    Neural field theory insights are used to derive effective brain connectivity matrices from the functional connectivity matrix defined by activity covariances. The symmetric case is exactly solved for a resting state system driven by white noise, in which strengths of connections, often termed effective connectivities, are inferred from functional data; these include strengths of connections that are underestimated or not detected by anatomical imaging. Proximity to criticality is calculated and found to be consistent with estimates obtainable from other methods. Links between anatomical, effective, and functional connectivity and resting state activity are quantified, with applicability to other complex networks. Proof-of-principle results are illustrated using published experimental data on anatomical connectivity and resting state functional connectivity. In particular, it is shown that functional connection matrices can be used to uncover the existence and strength of connections that are missed from anatomical connection matrices, including interhemispheric connections that are difficult to track with techniques such as diffusion spectrum imaging. PMID:25122335

  3. Inert electrode connection

    SciTech Connect

    Weyand, John D.; Woods, Robert W.; DeYoung, David H.; Ray, Siba P.

    1985-01-01

    An inert electrode connection is disclosed wherein a layer of inert electrode material is bonded to a layer of conductive material by providing at least one intermediate layer of material therebetween comprising a predetermined ratio of inert material to conductive material. In a preferred embodiment, the connection is formed by placing in a die a layer of powdered inert material, at least one layer of a mixture of powdered inert material and conductive material, and a layer of powdered conductive material. The connection is then formed by pressing the material at 15,000-20,000 psi to form a powder compact and then densifying the powder compact in an inert or reducing atmosphere at a temperature of 1200.degree.-1500.degree. C.

  4. Optimum connection management scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadar, Ivan

    2000-08-01

    Connection Management plays a key role in both distributed 'local' network-centric and 'globally' connected info- centric systems. The role of Connection Management is to provide seamless demand-based sharing of the information products. For optimum distributed information fusion performance, these systems must minimize communications delays and maximize message throughput, and at the same time take into account relative-sensors-targets geometrical constraints and data pedigree. In order to achieve overall distributed 'network' effectiveness, these systems must be adaptive, and be able to distribute data s needed in real- time. A system concept will be described which provides optimum capacity-based information scheduling. A specific example, based on a satellite channel, is used to illustrate simulated performance results and their effects on fusion systems performance.

  5. High-Tech Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blansfield, Karen C.

    1996-01-01

    Ways in which college alumni officers are using emerging technology to enhance regional programming and distance communication are described, including World Wide Web sites, electronic mail, and satellite and video technologies. Suggestions are made for getting started: defining goals, doing research, offering inexpensive connections, and…

  6. Our Cosmic Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Donna L.

    2005-01-01

    To help students understand the connection that Earth and the solar system have with the cosmic cycles of stellar evolution, and to give students an appreciation of the beauty and elegance of celestial phenomena, the Chandra X-Ray Center (CXC) educational website contains a stellar evolution module that is available free to teachers. In this…

  7. A School Connectivity Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donovan, Eamonn

    2000-01-01

    Provides an overview of school networking options and explores what speedier broadband technologies mean for education. Topics include Ethernet; wireless options for connection to the Internet; local area networks; wide area networks; phone lines; satellite access; cable modems; digital subscriber line (DSL); and funding networks through the…

  8. Long-Distance Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clift, Kate

    2010-01-01

    Transient populations, cultural diversity, language barriers, competing loyalties, and geographic separation are just some of the challenges international schools face in communicating and connecting with their alumni. And these issues are not going to get any easier as the sector grows. Communicating effectively with large, diverse groups of…

  9. A Connective Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goral, Mary

    2000-01-01

    Our increasingly hurried lifestyle, changes in family structure, and intense economic pressures place stress on children and families. Waldorf education provides an educational environment that alleviates this stress through a connective pedagogy that encompasses continuity of people, curriculum, and instruction; a reverence and respect for the…

  10. Making Connections through Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGough, Julie; Nyberg, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Children do not always see a connection between themselves and other living things. Sometimes they do not even realize that they, too, are animals and represent a link in the food chain. By obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information (Scientific and Engineering Practice #8 in "A Framework for K-12 Science Education" [NRC 2012,…

  11. Michigan-Ontario Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Daniel

    1988-01-01

    Explains the ramifications of connections between Michigan and Ontario, Canada over time. Focuses on six themes: (1) the Indian earth; (2) the arrival of Europeans; (3) the creation of the political boundary; (4) the problems of the nineteenth century; (5) the significance of the automobile; and (6) the current situation. (DB)

  12. MedlinePlus Connect

    MedlinePlus

    ... Web application provide responses in different formats. The Web application returns a link to a formatted MedlinePlus Connect response page. This page will include links to information relevant to the problem/diagnosis, medication, or lab test. For a diagnosis/problem code, the response page ...

  13. Smart Kids: SMART Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jennifer; And Others

    1991-01-01

    SMART (Science, Math, and Relevant Technology) Connections, an afterschool offshoot of a program addressing the scarcity of women in science, provides low-income children and children of color, both boys and girls, with hands-on science experience. Efforts continue to be made to ensure that the program works equally for boys as for girls. (CJS)

  14. CONNECT Special Demonstration Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawk, Kim; And Others

    Project CONNECT (Inmate Advocacy) was developed to provide counseling to inmates involved in the education programs at Fayette County Prison in Uniontown, Pennsylvania, before and immediately following their release. Twenty-one inmates who had been selected through a screening process received individual basic skills remediation in a classroom…

  15. From Connectivity to Interoperability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moressi, William J.; McFadden, C. Brown

    1989-01-01

    The Academic Computing Center at Winthrop College has gone beyond simple connectivity in linking its three local area networks to each other and the campus minicomputer. The environmental impact of the installation of bridges and gateways on systems, personnel, and end users is described. (MLW)

  16. Connections that Count

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd-Zannini, Lou

    2012-01-01

    What can parents and educators of gifted children do to help them build the connections that will allow them to thrive? In this article, the author suggests a few practical and simple things that parents and educators of gifted children might want to consider as they live and work with them day by day. He breaks those suggestions out into two…

  17. Connecting Males and Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buddy, Juanita Warren

    2011-01-01

    The problems facing males and reading continues to be a topic of concern and discussion in communities across the country. The author has interviewed school librarians and teachers, however, who are coordinating programs that are successfully connecting male students and reading. This article includes summaries of those interviews. The author has…

  18. Wedgethread pipe connection

    DOEpatents

    Watts, John D.

    2003-06-17

    Several embodiments of a wedgethread pipe connection are disclosed that have improved makeup, sealing, and non-loosening characteristics. In one embodiment, an open wedgethread is disclosed that has an included angle measured in the gap between the stab flank and the load flank to be not less than zero, so as to prevent premature wedging between mating flanks before the position of full makeup is reached, as does occur between trapped wedgethreads wherein the included angle is less than zero. The invention may be used for pipe threads large or small, as a flush joint, with collars, screwed into plates or it may even be used to reversibly connect such as solid posts to base members where a wide makeup torque range is desired. This Open wedgethread, as opposed to trapped wedgethreads, provides a threaded pipe connection that: is more cost-effective; can seal high pressure gas; can provide selectively a connection strength as high as the pipe strength; assures easy makeup to the desired position of full makeup within a wide torque range; may have a torque strength as high as the pipe torque strength; is easier to manufacture; is easier to gage; and is less subject to handling damage.

  19. High power connection system

    DOEpatents

    Schaefer, Christopher E.; Beer, Robert C.; McCall, Mark D.

    2000-01-01

    A high power connection system adapted for automotive environments which provides environmental and EMI shielding includes a female connector, a male connector, and a panel mount. The female connector includes a female connector base and a snap fitted female connector cover. The male connector includes a male connector base and a snap fitted male connector cover. The female connector base has at least one female power terminal cavity for seatably receiving a respective female power terminal. The male connector base has at least one male power terminal cavity for seatably receiving a respective male power terminal. The female connector is covered by a cover seal and a conductive shroud. A pair of lock arms protrude outward from the front end of the male connector base, pass through the panel mount and interface with a lever of a lever rotatably connected to the shroud to thereby mechanically assist mating of the male and female connectors. Safety terminals in the male and female connectors provide a last-to-connect-first-to-break connection with an HVIL circuit.

  20. Connections across the Disciplines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bicak, Charles J.; Bicak, Laddie J.

    1990-01-01

    Suggested is an approach to general biology which may be effective in sustaining student interest and infusing an appreciation for science. The goal of the approach is to foster life-long learning and capability to make connections and draw inferences. Examples using the levels of biotic organization are given. (CW)

  1. Making the Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perna, Mark C.

    2006-01-01

    Enrollment marketing is not just about enrollment; it is about creating relationships and serving one's community or target audience for many years. In this article, the author states that the first step in building such relationships is making a connection, and that is what effective marketing is all about. Administrators, teachers and critical…

  2. The CORALS Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plankis, Brian; Klein, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    The Ocean, Reefs, Aquariums, Literacy, and Stewardship (CORALS) research program helps students connect global environmental issues to local concerns and personal choices. During the 18-week program, students strengthen their understanding of coral reef decline through a classroom aquarium activity, communicate with science experts, and create…

  3. Strengthening connections: functional connectivity and brain plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Clare; Castellanos, F. Xavier

    2014-01-01

    The ascendancy of functional neuroimaging has facilitated the addition of network-based approaches to the neuropsychologist’s toolbox for evaluating the sequelae of brain insult. In particular, intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) mapping of resting state fMRI (R-fMRI) data constitutes an ideal approach to measuring macro-scale networks in the human brain. Beyond the value of iFC mapping for charting how the functional topography of the brain is altered by insult and injury, iFC analyses can provide insights into effects of experience-dependent plasticity at the macro level of large-scale functional networks. Such insights are foundational to the design of training and remediation interventions that will best facilitate recovery of function. In this review, we consider what is currently known about the origin and function of iFC in the brain, and how this knowledge is informative in neuropsychological settings. We then summarize studies that have examined experience-driven plasticity of iFC in healthy control participants, and frame these findings in terms of a schema that may aid in the interpretation of results and the generation of hypothesis for rehabilitative studies. Finally, we outline some caveats to the R-fMRI approach, as well as some current developments that are likely to bolster the utility of the iFC paradigm for neuropsychology. PMID:24496903

  4. Cable shield connecting device

    DOEpatents

    Silva, Frank A.

    1979-01-01

    A cable shield connecting device for installation on a high voltage cable of the type having a metallic shield, the device including a relatively conformable, looped metal bar for placement around a bared portion of the metallic shield to extend circumferentially around a major portion of the circumference of the metallic shield while being spaced radially therefrom, a plurality of relatively flexible metallic fingers affixed to the bar, projecting from the bar in an axial direction and spaced circumferentially along the bar, each finger being attached to the metallic shield at a portion located remote from the bar to make electrical contact with the metallic shield, and a connecting conductor integral with the bar.

  5. Flexible swivel connection

    DOEpatents

    Hoh, J.C.

    1985-02-19

    A flexible swivel boot connector for connecting a first boot shield section to a second boot shield section, both first and second boot sections having openings therethrough, the second boot section having at least two adjacent accordian folds at the end having the opening, the second boot section being positioned through the opening of the first boot section such that a first of the accordian folds is within the first boot section and a second of the accordian folds is outside of the first boot, includes first and second annular discs, the first disc being positioned within and across the first accordian fold, the second disc being positioned within and across the second accordian fold, such that the first boot section is moveably and rigidly connected between the first and second accordian folds of the second boot section.

  6. Energy storage connection system

    DOEpatents

    Benedict, Eric L.; Borland, Nicholas P.; Dale, Magdelena; Freeman, Belvin; Kite, Kim A.; Petter, Jeffrey K.; Taylor, Brendan F.

    2012-07-03

    A power system for connecting a variable voltage power source, such as a power controller, with a plurality of energy storage devices, at least two of which have a different initial voltage than the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. The power system includes a controller that increases the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. When such output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a first one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the first one of the energy storage devices. The controller then causes the output voltage of the variable voltage power source to continue increasing. When the output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a second one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the second one of the energy storage devices.

  7. Connective Tissue Ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Dabiri, Ganary; Falanga, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Connective tissue disorders (CTD), which are often also termed collagen vascular diseases, include a number of related inflammatory conditions. Some of these diseases include rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis (scleroderma), localized scleroderma (morphea variants localized to the skin), Sjogren’s syndrome, dermatomyositis, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease. In addition to the systemic manifestations of these diseases, there are a number of cutaneous features that make these conditions recognizable on physical exam. Lower extremity ulcers and digital ulcers are an infrequent but disabling complication of long-standing connective tissue disease. The exact frequency with which these ulcers occur is not known, and the cause of the ulcerations is often multifactorial. Moreover, a challenging component of CTD ulcerations is that there are still no established guidelines for their diagnosis and treatment. The morbidity associated with these ulcerations and their underlying conditions is very substantial. Indeed, these less common but intractable ulcers represent a major medical and economic problem for patients, physicians and nurses, and even well organized multidisciplinary wound healing centers. PMID:23756459

  8. Dense inhibitory connectivity in neocortex

    PubMed Central

    Fino, Elodie; Yuste, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Summary The connectivity diagram of neocortical circuits is still unknown, and there are conflicting data as to whether cortical neurons are wired specifically or not. To investigate the basic structure of cortical microcircuits, we use a novel two-photon photostimulation technique that enables the systematic mapping of synaptic connections with single-cell resolution. We map the inhibitory connectivity between upper layers somatostatin-positive GABAergic interneurons and pyramidal cells in mouse frontal cortex. Most, and sometimes all, inhibitory neurons are locally connected to every sampled pyramidal cell. This dense inhibitory connectivity is found at both young and mature developmental ages. Inhibitory innervation of neighboring pyramidal cells is similar, regardless of whether they are connected among themselves or not. We conclude that local inhibitory connectivity is promiscuous, does not form subnetworks and can approach the theoretical limit of a completely connected synaptic matrix. PMID:21435562

  9. Positive fast sealing union connections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleber, C. M.

    1972-01-01

    Union connections are designed for connecting high pressure flexible hoses from gas storage manifolds to gas transport trailers. Connection uses O ring seals which can be quickly assembled and disassembled without use of wrenches, and which do not twist hose. Worn or damaged O rings are easily replaced.

  10. Control line sealing connection

    SciTech Connect

    Tohill, H.O.

    1984-07-10

    A sealing connection for the passage of a fluid control line through adjoining members is claimed. The connection comprises a metallic tubular sealing element provided with tapered end portions, each end having internal frusto-conical surfaces and external frusto-conical surfaces in coaxial alignment with the bore through the element. The external frusto-conical surfaceas provide metal-to-metal sealing with aligned frusto-conical seating surfaces in opposed pockets formed in aligned portions of the control line at their respective openings at the adjoining surfaces of the adjoined member. The tubular sealing element is subjected to axial compression between the frusto-conical pocket seating surfaces when the adjoined members are bolted tightly together which results in deformation of its tapered end portions to provide metal-to-metal sealing with the adjoined members which is effective to seal against both internal and external fluid pressurization of the control line and without internally obstructing or restricting the control line. Secondary sealing is provided by elastomeric O-ring seals mounted in circumferential annular grooves formed in the exterior of the tubular sealing element.

  11. Underwater branch connection study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    This report was prepared with the object of developing guidelines for designing underwater connections of branch pipelines to main lines at existing tap valves and with hot taps in diver accessible water depths. The report considers ANSI Classes 600 and 900 branch pipelines of up to twelve inches in diameter that conform to API Specification 5L minimum. Loads due to gravity, buoyancy, intemal and external pressure, thermal expansion, hydrodynamics and random events are considered. External corrosion, temperature, cover, bottom conditions, stability, testing, commissioning, trenching, and pigging are also addressed. A general discussion of these issues is included in the body of the report. Methods of analysis are included in the appendices and in various references. Lotus 123'' spreadsheets that compute the expansion stresses resulting from pressure and temperature at points on a generic piping geometry are presented. A program diskette is included with the report. The report summarizes, and draws from, the results of a survey of the relevant practice and experience of fifteen gas pipeline operating companies. The survey indicates that most existing branch connections do not provide for pigging of the lateral lines, but that there is a growing consensus that cleaning and inspection pigging of lateral lines is desirable or necessary.

  12. Piston and connecting rod assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brogdon, James William (Inventor); Gill, David Keith (Inventor); Chatten, John K. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A piston and connecting rod assembly includes a piston crown, a piston skirt, a connecting rod, and a bearing insert. The piston skirt is a component separate from the piston crown and is connected to the piston crown to provide a piston body. The bearing insert is a component separate from the piston crown and the piston skirt and is fixedly disposed within the piston body. A bearing surface of a connecting rod contacts the bearing insert to thereby movably associate the connecting rod and the piston body.

  13. Finding significantly connected voxels based on histograms of connection strengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasenburg, Niklas; Pedersen, Morten Vester; Darkner, Sune

    2016-03-01

    We explore a new approach for structural connectivity based segmentations of subcortical brain regions. Connectivity based segmentations are usually based on fibre connections from a seed region to predefined target regions. We present a method for finding significantly connected voxels based on the distribution of connection strengths. Paths from seed voxels to all voxels in a target region are obtained from a shortest-path tractography. For each seed voxel we approximate the distribution with a histogram of path scores. We hypothesise that the majority of estimated connections are false-positives and that their connection strength is distributed differently from true-positive connections. Therefore, an empirical null-distribution is defined for each target region as the average normalized histogram over all voxels in the seed region. Single histograms are then tested against the corresponding null-distribution and significance is determined using the false discovery rate (FDR). Segmentations are based on significantly connected voxels and their FDR. In this work we focus on the thalamus and the target regions were chosen by dividing the cortex into a prefrontal/temporal zone, motor zone, somatosensory zone and a parieto-occipital zone. The obtained segmentations consistently show a sparse number of significantly connected voxels that are located near the surface of the anterior thalamus over a population of 38 subjects.

  14. Fuel injection valve connection

    SciTech Connect

    Eshleman, E.S.; Field, M.J.; Penwright, J.L.

    1987-09-15

    A fuel injection valve connection is described which consists of a fuel injection valve having a cylindrical inlet fitting. The fitting has a threaded internal surface and a cylindrical external surface. A fuel connector has a projection with a threaded external surface that mates with the threaded internal surface of the fitting. The connector also has a sleeve with a cylindrical internal surface surrounding the fitting and an O-ring sealingly engaging the internal surface of the sleeve and the external surface of the fitting, whereby the valve may be rotated relative to the connector without breaking the sealing engagement between the valve and the connector, and wherein the connector also has a tab engageable with the injector to prevent unthreading of the valve from the connector.

  15. Optineurin: The autophagy connection.

    PubMed

    Ying, Hongyu; Yue, Beatrice Y J T

    2016-03-01

    Optineurin is a cytosolic protein encoded by the OPTN gene. Mutations of OPTN are associated with normal tension glaucoma and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Autophagy is an intracellular degradation system that delivers cytoplasmic components to the lysosomes. It plays a wide variety of physiological and pathophysiological roles. The optineurin protein is a selective autophagy receptor (or adaptor), containing an ubiquitin binding domain with the ability to bind polyubiquitinated cargoes and bring them to autophagosomes via its microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-interacting domain. It is involved in xenophagy, mitophagy, aggrephagy, and tumor suppression. Optineurin can also mediate the removal of protein aggregates through an ubiquitin-independent mechanism. This protein in addition can induce autophagy upon overexpression or mutation. When overexpressed or mutated, the optineurin protein also serves as a substrate for autophagic degradation. In the present review, the multiple connections of optineurin to autophagy are highlighted. PMID:26142952

  16. NASA Connect: 'Plane Weather'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Excerpt from the NASA Connect show 'Plane Weather' This clip explains how our weather occurs, and why Solar radiation is responsible. Weather affects our daily lives. The elements of weather: rain, wind, fog, ice and snow affect the operation and flight of an airplane. In this program, NASA and FAA researchers will introduce students to math, science, and weather; demonstrate how these elements influence flight; and show how NASA and FAA research is used to limit the effects of these elements on flight. Students will examine: the tools, techniques, and technologies used by engineers and scientists to detect these and other climatological factors affecting aircraft in flight. The lesson and classroom experiment will involve students in the scientific process and emphasizing problem solving, measurement, and reasoning skills.

  17. NASA Connect: 'Plane Weather'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Excerpt from the NASA Connect show 'Plane Weather' This clip explains what high and low pressure weather systems are, and how they form. Weather affects our daily lives. The elements of weather: rain, wind, fog, ice and snow affect the operation and flight of an airplane. In this program, NASA and FAA researchers will introduce students to math, science, and weather; demonstrate how these elements influence flight; and show how NASA and FAA research is used to limit the effects of these elements on flight. Students will examine: the tools, techniques, and technologies used by engineers and scientists to detect these and other climatological factors affecting aircraft in flight. The lesson and classroom experiment will involve students in the scientific process and emphasizing problem solving, measurement, and reasoning skills.

  18. NASA Connect: 'Plane Weather'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Excerpt from the NASA Connect show 'Plane Weather' This clip explains what high and low pressure weather systems are, and how these affect weather patterns. Weather affects our daily lives. The elements of weather: rain, wind, fog, ice and snow affect the operation and flight of an airplane. In this program, NASA and FAA researchers will introduce students to math, science, and weather; demonstrate how these elements influence flight; and show how NASA and FAA research is used to limit the effects of these elements on flight. Students will examine: the tools, techniques, and technologies used by engineers and scientists to detect these and other climatological factors affecting aircraft in flight. The lesson and classroom experiment will involve students in the scientific process and emphasizing problem solving, measurement, and reasoning skills.

  19. Quick-Connect Nut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has developed a specially-designed nut, called the Quick-Connect Nut, for quick and easy assembly of components in the harsh environment of space, as in assembly of International Space Station. The design permits nuts to be installed simply by pushing them onto standard bolts, then giving a quick twist. To remove, they are unscrewed like conventional nuts. Possible applications include the mining industry for erecting support barriers, assembling underwater oil drilling platforms, fire-fighting equipment, scaffolding, assembly-line machinery, industrial cranes, and even changing lug nuts on race cars. The speed of assembly can make the difference between life and death in different aspects of life on Earth.

  20. Power converter connection configuration

    DOEpatents

    Beihoff, Bruce C.; Kehl, Dennis L.; Gettelfinger, Lee A.; Kaishian, Steven C.; Phillips, Mark G.; Radosevich, Lawrence D.

    2008-11-11

    EMI shielding is provided for power electronics circuits and the like via a direct-mount reference plane support and shielding structure. The thermal support may receive one or more power electronic circuits. The support may aid in removing heat from the circuits through fluid circulating through the support. The support forms a shield from both external EMI/RFI and from interference generated by operation of the power electronic circuits. Features may be provided to permit and enhance connection of the circuitry to external circuitry, such as improved terminal configurations. Modular units may be assembled that may be coupled to electronic circuitry via plug-in arrangements or through interface with a backplane or similar mounting and interconnecting structures.

  1. More features, greater connectivity.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Sarah

    2015-09-01

    Changes in our political infrastructure, the continuing frailties of our economy, and a stark growth in population, have greatly impacted upon the perceived stability of the NHS. Healthcare teams have had to adapt to these changes, and so too have the technologies upon which they rely to deliver first-class patient care. Here Sarah Hunt, marketing co-ordinator at Aid Call, assesses how the changing healthcare environment has affected one of its fundamental technologies - the nurse call system, argues the case for wireless such systems in terms of what the company claims is greater adaptability to changing needs, and considers the ever-wider range of features and functions available from today's nurse call equipment, particularly via connectivity with both mobile devices, and ancillaries ranging from enuresis sensors to staff attack alert 'badges'. PMID:26548128

  2. Mixed connective tissue disease.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsson, Ragnar; Hetlevik, Siri Opsahl; Lilleby, Vibke; Molberg, Øyvind

    2016-02-01

    The concept of mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) as a separate connective tissue disease (CTD) has persisted for more than four decades. High titers of antibodies targeting the U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (U1 snRNP) in peripheral blood are a sine qua non for the diagnosis of MCTD, in addition to distinct clinical features including Raynaud's phenomenon (RP), "puffy hands," arthritis, myositis, pleuritis, pericarditis, interstitial lung disease (ILD), and pulmonary hypertension (PH). Recently, population-based epidemiology data from Norway estimated the point prevalence of adult-onset MCTD to be 3.8 per 100,000 and the mean annual incidence to be 2.1 per million per year, supporting the notion that MCTD is the least common CTD. Little is known about the etiology of MCTD, but recent genetic studies have confirmed that MCTD is a strongly HLA (​human leukocyte antigen)-linked disease, as the HLA profiles of MCTD differ distinctly from the corresponding profiles of ethnically matched healthy controls and other CTDs. In the first section of this review, we provide an update on the clinical, immunological, and genetic features of MCTD and discuss the relationship between MCTD and the other CTDs. Then we proceed to discuss the recent advances in therapy and our current understanding of prognosis and prognostic factors, especially those that are associated with the more serious pulmonary and cardiovascular complications of the disease. In the final section, we discuss some of the key, unresolved questions related to anti-RNP-associated diseases and indicate how these questions may be approached in future studies. PMID:27421219

  3. Connectivity-Based Brain Parcellation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rong; JaJa, Joseph; Jin, Yu; Hong, L. Elliot; Herskovits, Edward H.

    2016-01-01

    Defining brain structures of interest is an important preliminary step in brain-connectivity analysis. Researchers interested in connectivity patterns among brain structures typically employ manually delineated volumes of interest, or regions in a readily available atlas, to limit the scope of connectivity analysis to relevant regions. However, most structural brain atlases, and manually delineated volumes of interest, do not take voxel-wise connectivity patterns into consideration, and therefore may not be ideal for anatomic connectivity analysis. We herein propose a method to parcellate the brain into regions of interest based on connectivity. We formulate connectivity-based parcellation as a graph-cut problem, which we solve approximately using a novel multi-class Hopfield network algorithm. We demonstrate the application of this approach using diffusion tensor imaging data from an ongoing study of schizophrenia. Compared to a standard anatomic atlas, the connectivity-based atlas supports better classification performance when distinguishing schizophrenic from normal subjects. Comparing connectivity patterns averaged across the normal and schizophrenic subjects, we note significant systematic differences between the two atlases. PMID:26433899

  4. Family Connections: Building Connections among Home, School, and Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dikkers, Amy Garrett

    2013-01-01

    Recent research on parental involvement has explored connections between parental involvement in school and children's academic achievement. While many schools have active parent organizations and a base of parents who offer additional support, others struggle to make connections with their parents or community members. Even in places with active…

  5. Internet Connections: Understanding Your Access Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notess, Greg R.

    1994-01-01

    Describes levels of Internet connectivity, physical connections, and connection speeds. Compares options for connecting to the Internet, including terminal accounts, dial-up terminal accounts, direct connections through a local area network, and direct connections using SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol) or PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol). (eight…

  6. Connecting node and method for constructing a connecting node

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Christopher J. (Inventor); Raboin, Jasen L. (Inventor); Spexarth, Gary R. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A connecting node comprises a polyhedral structure comprising a plurality of panels joined together at its side edges to form a spherical approximation, wherein at least one of the plurality of panels comprises a faceted surface being constructed with a passage for integrating with one of a plurality of elements comprising a docking port, a hatch, and a window that is attached to the connecting node. A method for manufacturing a connecting node comprises the steps of providing a plurality of panels, connecting the plurality of panels to form a spherical approximation, wherein each edge of each panel of the plurality is joined to another edge of another panel, and constructing at least one of the plurality of panels to include a passage for integrating at least one of a plurality of elements that may be attached to the connecting node.

  7. Uncommon Connections with Common Numerators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesser, Lawrence M.; Guthrie, Joe A.

    2012-01-01

    Undergraduate students who are pre-service teachers need to make connections between the college mathematics they are learning and the pre-college mathematics they will be teaching. Spanning a broad range of undergraduate curricula, this article describes useful lesser-known connections, explorations, and original proofs involving fractions. In…

  8. The Always-Connected Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Glen

    2010-01-01

    The Pew Internet and American Life project characterizes the millennials--the first generation to come of age in the new millennium--as the first "always-connected" generation. Significant aspects of culture are changing as a result. A changing world where all students are connected all the time has substantial educational implications. Despite…

  9. School Psychology Awareness: Making Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohn, Andrea; Cowan, Katherine C.

    2011-01-01

    A day in the life of a student at school is filled with potential connections (relationships, linkages in learning, behavioral choices, etc.). Friendships with peers, relationships with teachers, acknowledgements from administrators, encouragement from coaches: These are all interpersonal connections that are essential not only to making school an…

  10. Making Connections to Teach Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correia, Manuel G.; Bleicher, Robert E.

    2008-01-01

    Approaching reflection from the perspective of a teachable skill set implies that research may inform how to help students reflect. Employing a framework of making connections often used in reading comprehension, this study aimed to characterize how making connections between the service-learning experience (SLE) and prior experiences in similar…

  11. Carl Sagan's Cosmic Connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagan, Carl; Agel, Jerome

    2000-08-01

    Foreword Freeman Dyson; Personal reflections Ann Druyan; Preface; Part I. Cosmic Perspective: 1. A transitional animal; 2. The Unicorn of Cetus; 3. A message from earth; 4. A message to earth; 5. Experiments in utopias; 6. Chauvinism; 7. Space exploration as a human enterprise I. The scientific interest; 8. Space exploration as a human enterprise II. The public interest; 9. Space exploration as a human enterprise III. The historical interest; Part II. The Solar System: 10. On teaching the first grade; 11. 'The ancient and legendary Gods of old'; 12. The Venus detective story; 13. Venus is hell; 14. Science and 'intelligence'; 15. The moons of Barsoom; 16. The mountains of Mars I. Observations from earth; 17. The mountains of Mars II. Observations from space; 18. The canals of Mars; 19. The lost pictures of Mars; 20. The Ice Age and the cauldron; 21. Beginnings and ends of the Earth; 22. Terraforming the plants; 23. The exploration and utlization of the solar system; Part III. Beyond the Solar System: 24. Some of my best friends are dolphins; 25. 'Hello, central casting? Send me twenty extraterrestrials'; 26. The cosmic connection; 27. Extraterrestrial life: an idea whose time has come; 28. Has the Earth been visited?; 29. A search strategy for detecting extraterrestrial intelligence; 30. If we succeed 31. Cables, drums, and seashells; 32. The night freight to the stars; 33. Astroengineering; 34. Twenty questions: a classification of cosmic civilisations; 35. Galactic cultural exchanges; 36. A passage to elsewhere; 37. Starfolk I. A Fable; 38. Starfolk II. A future; 39. Starfolk III. The cosmic Cheshire cats; Epilog David Morrison; Index.

  12. Diverless flowline connection system

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, D.S.

    1996-12-31

    The tie-in of flowlines and umbilicals to subsea trees and manifolds in deep water has traditionally been an expensive exercise. It generally requires the simultaneous presence of lay vessel and drill ship, or divers using a combination of rigging and gantries on the subsea structure. In recent years the development of a viable remote pull-in technique has become an important requirement for oil companies who are continuing to develop deeper and more marginal fields. The use of Remote Operated Vehicles (ROV`s) can not only provide the required costs savings, but eliminates the risks to man. Sonsub set out to design and build a system that was modular, could use the ROV for all subsea operations, and would only require minimal permanent subsea hardware support. These objectives were met with the completed system known as the Diverless Flowline Connection System (DFCS). The DFCS is capable of performing the tie-in of flowlines and umbilicals up to 18 in. O.D. The system is a light modular package that is easily handled and operated with any Work Class ROV in deepwater environments. The system has been extensively tested under a wide variety of conditions and is ready to perform the tie-in of two 13.5 in. and 6 in. flowline in the South China Sea in early 1996. In addition Sonsub have recently been contracted to perform the tie-in of 6 single bore flowlines ranging in size between 2.5 in. and 10 in., 14 multibore flowlines (2.5 in. and 8 in.) and 4 umbilicals in the North Sea off the coast of Norway.

  13. Array processor architecture connection network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, George H. (Inventor); Lundstrom, Stephen F. (Inventor); Shafer, Philip E. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A connection network is disclosed for use between a parallel array of processors and a parallel array of memory modules for establishing non-conflicting data communications paths between requested memory modules and requesting processors. The connection network includes a plurality of switching elements interposed between the processor array and the memory modules array in an Omega networking architecture. Each switching element includes a first and a second processor side port, a first and a second memory module side port, and control logic circuitry for providing data connections between the first and second processor ports and the first and second memory module ports. The control logic circuitry includes strobe logic for examining data arriving at the first and the second processor ports to indicate when the data arriving is requesting data from a requesting processor to a requested memory module. Further, connection circuitry is associated with the strobe logic for examining requesting data arriving at the first and the second processor ports for providing a data connection therefrom to the first and the second memory module ports in response thereto when the data connection so provided does not conflict with a pre-established data connection currently in use.

  14. Practical lessons in remote connectivity.

    PubMed Central

    Kouroubali, A.; Starren, J.; Barrows, R. C.; Clayton, P. D.

    1997-01-01

    Community Health Information Networks (CHINs) require the ability to provide computer network connections to many remote sites. During the implementation of the Washington Heights and Inwood Community Health Management Information System (WHICHIS) at the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center (CPMC), a number of remote connectivity issues have been encountered. Both technical and non-technical issues were significant during the installation. We developed a work-flow model for this process which may be helpful to any health care institution attempting to provide seamless remote connectivity. This model is presented and implementation lessons are discussed. PMID:9357643

  15. Requirements for soldered electrical connections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This publication is applicable to NASA programs involving solder connections for flight hardware, mission essential support equipment, and elements thereof. This publication sets forth hand and wave soldering requirements for reliable electrical connections. The prime consideration is the physical integrity of solder connections. Special requirements may exist which are not in conformance with the requirements of this publication. Design documentation contains the detail for these requirements, and they take precedence over conflicting portions of this publication when they are approved in writing by the procuring NASA installation.

  16. 33 CFR 156.130 - Connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... operations unless it is: (1) A bolted or full threaded connection; or (2) A quick-connect coupling acceptable... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Connection. 156.130 Section 156....130 Connection. (a) Each person who makes a connection for transfer operations shall: (1) Use...

  17. Cybersecurity for Connected Diabetes Devices

    PubMed Central

    Klonoff, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes devices are increasingly connected wirelessly to each other and to data-displaying reader devices. Threats to the accurate flow of information and commands may compromise the function of these devices and put their users at risk of health complications. Sound cybersecurity of connected diabetes devices is necessary to maintain confidentiality, integrity, and availability of the data and commands. Diabetes devices can be hacked by unauthorized agents and also by patients themselves to extract data that are not automatically provided by product software. Unauthorized access to connected diabetes devices has been simulated and could happen in reality. A cybersecurity standard designed specifically for connected diabetes devices will improve the safety of these products and increase confidence of users that the products will be secure. PMID:25883162

  18. Cybersecurity for Connected Diabetes Devices.

    PubMed

    Klonoff, David C

    2015-09-01

    Diabetes devices are increasingly connected wirelessly to each other and to data-displaying reader devices. Threats to the accurate flow of information and commands may compromise the function of these devices and put their users at risk of health complications. Sound cybersecurity of connected diabetes devices is necessary to maintain confidentiality, integrity, and availability of the data and commands. Diabetes devices can be hacked by unauthorized agents and also by patients themselves to extract data that are not automatically provided by product software. Unauthorized access to connected diabetes devices has been simulated and could happen in reality. A cybersecurity standard designed specifically for connected diabetes devices will improve the safety of these products and increase confidence of users that the products will be secure. PMID:25883162

  19. Retinal connectivity and primate vision

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Barry B.; Martin, Paul R.; Grünert, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    The general principles of retinal organization are now well known. It may seem surprising that retinal organization in the primate, which has a complex visual behavioral repertoire, appears relatively simple. In this review, we primarily consider retinal structure and function in primate species. Photoreceptor distribution and connectivity are considered as are connectivity in the outer and inner retina. One key issue is the specificity of retinal connections; we suggest that the retina shows connectional specificity but this is seldom complete, and we consider here the functional consequences of imprecise wiring. Finally, we consider how retinal systems can be linked to psychophysical descriptions of different channels, chromatic and luminance, which are proposed to exist in the primate visual system. PMID:20826226

  20. Retinal connectivity and primate vision.

    PubMed

    Lee, Barry B; Martin, Paul R; Grünert, Ulrike

    2010-11-01

    The general principles of retinal organization are now well known. It may seem surprising that retinal organization in the primate, which has a complex visual behavioral repertoire, appears relatively simple. In this review, we primarily consider retinal structure and function in primate species. Photoreceptor distribution and connectivity are considered as are connectivity in the outer and inner retina. One key issue is the specificity of retinal connections; we suggest that the retina shows connectional specificity but this is seldom complete, and we consider here the functional consequences of imprecise wiring. Finally, we consider how retinal systems can be linked to psychophysical descriptions of different channels, chromatic and luminance, which are proposed to exist in the primate visual system. PMID:20826226

  1. [Connective tissue diseases in adolescents].

    PubMed

    Peitz, J; Tantcheva-Poór, I

    2016-04-01

    In this article we provide a brief review of systemic lupus erythematosus, juvenile dermatomyositis, systemic scleroderma, and mixed connective tissue disease in adolescents. As skin manifestations often belong to the presenting symptoms and may have a significant impact on the quality of life, dermatologists play an important role in the management of patients with connective tissue diseases. Early diagnosis and therapy onset are crucial for the patients' long-term outcome. PMID:27000182

  2. Hestenes' Tetrad and Spin Connections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reifler, Frank; Morris, Randall

    2005-08-01

    Defining a spin connection is necessary for formulating Dirac's bispinor equation in a curved space-time. Hestenes has shown that a bispinor field is equivalent to an orthonormal tetrad of vector fields together with a complex scalar field. In this paper, we show that using Hestenes' tetrad for the spin connection in a Riemannian space-time leads to a Yang-Mills formulation of the Dirac Lagrangian in which the bispinor field Ψ is mapped to a set of SL(2, R)× U(1) gauge potentials F α K and a complex scalar field ρ. This result was previously proved for a Minkowski space-time using Fierz identities. As an application we derive several different non-Riemannian spin connections found in the literature directly from an arbitrary linear connection acting on the tensor fields ( F α K , ρ). We also derive spin connections for which Dirac's bispinor equation is form invariant. Previous work has not considered form invariance of the Dirac equation as a criterion for defining a general spin connection.

  3. Gray Matter Axonal Connectivity Maps

    PubMed Central

    Bonilha, Leonardo; Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Nesland, Travis; Rorden, Chris; Fridriksson, Julius

    2015-01-01

    Structural brain connectivity is generally assessed through methods that rely on pre-defined regions of interest (e.g., Brodmann’s areas), thus preventing analyses that are largely free from a priori anatomical assumptions. Here, we introduce a novel and practical technique to evaluate a voxel-based measure of axonal projections connecting gray matter tissue [gray matter axonal connectivity map (GMAC)]. GMACs are compatible with voxel-based statistical approaches, and can be used to assess whole brain, scale-free, gray matter connectivity. In this study, we demonstrate how whole-brain GMACs can be generated from conventional structural connectome methodology, describing each step in detail, as well as providing tools to allow for the calculation of GMAC. To illustrate the utility of GMAC, we demonstrate the relationship between age and gray matter connectivity, using voxel-based analyses of GMAC. We discuss the potential role of GMAC in further analyses of cortical connectivity in healthy and clinical populations. PMID:25798111

  4. MedlinePlus Connect: Web Service

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/connect/service.html MedlinePlus Connect: Web Service To use the sharing features on this ... if you implement MedlinePlus Connect by contacting us . Web Service Overview The parameters for the Web service ...

  5. MedlinePlus Connect: Web Service

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/connect/service.html MedlinePlus Connect: Web Service To use the sharing features on this ... if you implement MedlinePlus Connect by contacting us . Web Service Overview The parameters for the Web service ...

  6. Visualizing Neuronal Network Connectivity with Connectivity Pattern Tables

    PubMed Central

    Nordlie, Eilen; Plesser, Hans Ekkehard

    2009-01-01

    Complex ideas are best conveyed through well-designed illustrations. Up to now, computational neuroscientists have mostly relied on box-and-arrow diagrams of even complex neuronal networks, often using ad hoc notations with conflicting use of symbols from paper to paper. This significantly impedes the communication of ideas in neuronal network modeling. We present here Connectivity Pattern Tables (CPTs) as a clutter-free visualization of connectivity in large neuronal networks containing two-dimensional populations of neurons. CPTs can be generated automatically from the same script code used to create the actual network in the NEST simulator. Through aggregation, CPTs can be viewed at different levels, providing either full detail or summary information. We also provide the open source ConnPlotter tool as a means to create connectivity pattern tables. PMID:20140265

  7. Review on Cold-Formed Steel Connections

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Cher Siang; Mohammad, Shahrin; Md Tahir, Mahmood; Shek, Poi Ngian

    2014-01-01

    The concept of cold-formed light steel framing construction has been widespread after understanding its structural characteristics with massive research works over the years. Connection serves as one of the important elements for light steel framing in order to achieve its structural stability. Compared to hot-rolled steel sections, cold-formed steel connections perform dissimilarity due to the thin-walled behaviour. This paper aims to review current researches on cold-formed steel connections, particularly for screw connections, storage rack connections, welded connections, and bolted connections. The performance of these connections in the design of cold-formed steel structures is discussed. PMID:24688448

  8. Continuously Connected With Mobile IP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Cisco Systems developed Cisco Mobile Networks, making IP devices mobile. With this innovation, a Cisco router and its connected IP devices can roam across network boundaries and connection types. Because a mobile user is able to keep the same IP address while roaming, a live IP connection can be maintained without interruption. Glenn Research Center jointly tested the technology with Cisco, and is working to use it on low-earth-orbiting research craft. With Cisco's Mobile Networks functionality now available in Cisco IOS Software release 12.2(4)T, the commercial advantages and benefits are numerous. The technology can be applied to public safety, military/homeland security, emergency management services, railroad and shipping systems, and the automotive industry. It will allow ambulances, police, firemen, and the U.S. Coast Guard to stay connected to their networks while on the move. In the wireless battlefield, the technology will provide rapid infrastructure deployment for U.S. national defense. Airline, train, and cruise passengers utilizing Cisco Mobile Networks can fly all around the world with a continuous Internet connection. Cisco IOS(R) Software is a registered trademark of Cisco Systems.

  9. Brain Connectivity and Visual Attention

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Emily L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Emerging hypotheses suggest that efficient cognitive functioning requires the integration of separate, but interconnected cortical networks in the brain. Although task-related measures of brain activity suggest that a frontoparietal network is associated with the control of attention, little is known regarding how components within this distributed network act together or with other networks to achieve various attentional functions. This review considers both functional and structural studies of brain connectivity, as complemented by behavioral and task-related neuroimaging data. These studies show converging results: The frontal and parietal cortical regions are active together, over time, and identifiable frontoparietal networks are active in relation to specific task demands. However, the spontaneous, low-frequency fluctuations of brain activity that occur in the resting state, without specific task demands, also exhibit patterns of connectivity that closely resemble the task-related, frontoparietal attention networks. Both task-related and resting-state networks exhibit consistent relations to behavioral measures of attention. Further, anatomical structure, particularly white matter pathways as defined by diffusion tensor imaging, places constraints on intrinsic functional connectivity. Lastly, connectivity analyses applied to investigate cognitive differences across individuals in both healthy and diseased states suggest that disconnection of attentional networks is linked to deficits in cognitive functioning, and in extreme cases, to disorders of attention. Thus, comprehensive theories of visual attention and their clinical translation depend on the continued integration of behavioral, task-related neuroimaging, and brain connectivity measures. PMID:23597177

  10. Parcellating connectivity in spatial maps

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Diane M.; Fei-Fei, Li

    2015-01-01

    A common goal in biological sciences is to model a complex web of connections using a small number of interacting units. We present a general approach for dividing up elements in a spatial map based on their connectivity properties, allowing for the discovery of local regions underlying large-scale connectivity matrices. Our method is specifically designed to respect spatial layout and identify locally-connected clusters, corresponding to plausible coherent units such as strings of adjacent DNA base pairs, subregions of the brain, animal communities, or geographic ecosystems. Instead of using approximate greedy clustering, our nonparametric Bayesian model infers a precise parcellation using collapsed Gibbs sampling. We utilize an infinite clustering prior that intrinsically incorporates spatial constraints, allowing the model to search directly in the space of spatially-coherent parcellations. After showing results on synthetic datasets, we apply our method to both functional and structural connectivity data from the human brain. We find that our parcellation is substantially more effective than previous approaches at summarizing the brain’s connectivity structure using a small number of clusters, produces better generalization to individual subject data, and reveals functional parcels related to known retinotopic maps in visual cortex. Additionally, we demonstrate the generality of our method by applying the same model to human migration data within the United States. This analysis reveals that migration behavior is generally influenced by state borders, but also identifies regional communities which cut across state lines. Our parcellation approach has a wide range of potential applications in understanding the spatial structure of complex biological networks. PMID:25737822

  11. Diverless remote operated flowline connections

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.; Slider, M.; Galle, G.

    1997-07-01

    The diverless remote horizontal connection for a major project in the South China Sea was performed using the ABB Vetco Gray GSR connector in conjunction with a pull-in tool. New, innovative methods were developed whereby the hubs provide axial and angular misalignment capabilities and an ROV can make and break the connection and replace the innovative magnetic sealing assembly. The significance of this achievement is assessed with a focus on the implemented design philosophies, the principles of operation, the overall system reliability, the operational cost reduction, and the full-scale testing results. Additional comments are made concerning the applicability of this technology in various other subsea applications.

  12. 46 CFR 98.30-27 - Connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... operations unless it is— (1) A bolted or full threaded connection; or (2) A quick-connect coupling accepted.... (a) Each person who makes a connection for a transfer operation shall— (1) Use suitable material in... less than four bolts in each temporary connection utilizing an American National Standards...

  13. Toward a Connected Core Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wraga, William G.

    2009-01-01

    One shortcoming of the academic curriculum is its tendency to emphasize the integrity of the separate subjects and to neglect, even ignore, connections between and among subjects as well as between students' academic experiences and those beyond school. Unfortunately, evidence indicates that recent high school students, who have completed more…

  14. Art and the Cosmic Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Whitney H.; Aiello, Monica Petty; Macdonald, Reeves; Asplund, Shari

    2014-01-01

    The interdisciplinary unit described in this article utilizes "Art and the Cosmic Connection," a free program conceived of by artists Monica and Tyler Aiello and developed by the artists, scientists, and educators through NASA's Discovery and New Frontiers Programs, to inspire learners to explore mysterious worlds in our solar…

  15. The Work/Leisure Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimeldorf, Martin; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Seven chapters in this special issue include "The Work/Leisure Connection" (McDaniels); "Changing Relations between Work and Leisure" (Godbey); "Wellness in the Leisure-Work Relationship" (McDowell); "Concept of Work: Updating a Point of View" (Hoyt); "A Working Future?" (Watts); "Beyond Career...Avoiding the Postretirement Blues" (Jackson); and…

  16. Quality Connection: Going the Distance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenney, Timothy R.; Roupas, Eva K.

    2003-01-01

    In 1999, Virginia Beach City Public Schools launched a completely new distance learning (DL) initiative, Quality Connection. Since that time, through perseverance and creative thinking, the program has become a model of technology as well as a highly successful method of delivering services to a wide variety of stakeholders. Not only do students…

  17. School Wellness Policy: Community Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambdin, Dolly; Erwin, Heather

    2007-01-01

    How can physical educators make connections to the larger community? This article discusses how physical educators can better inform community physical-activity leaders and coaches about appropriate instructional practices and how they can inform students about activities available in the community. It also offers suggestions for how to invite the…

  18. Teaching, Connecting & Empowering Today's Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Virginia R.

    2013-01-01

    Since career and technical education (CTE) is based historically on promoting technical, hands-on, real-world applications in numerous vocations, CTE educators are uniquely poised to offer more use of instructional technology in their classrooms. Many CTE educators have remarkable connections with industry partnerships, internships and learning…

  19. Connecting Slope, Steepness, and Angles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagle, Courtney R.; Moore-Russo, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    All teachers, especially high school teachers, face the challenge of ensuring that students have opportunities to relate and connect the various representations and notions of mathematics concepts developed over the course of the pre-K-12 mathematics curriculum. NCTM's (2000) Representation Standard emphasizes the importance of students being…

  20. Connecting the Dots: Rediscovering Continuity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camenga, Kristin A.; Yates, Rebekah B. Johnson

    2014-01-01

    The topic of continuity is typically not introduced until calculus and then reexamined in real analysis. Recognizing the connections between secondary school mathematics and the advanced mathematics studied at the college level allows teachers to better identify mathematical concepts in student ideas, motivate students by piquing their curiosity,…

  1. Connecting Remote Clusters with ATM

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, T.C.; Wyckoff, P.S.

    1998-10-01

    Sandia's entry into utilizing clusters of networked workstations is called Computational Plant or CPlant for short. The design of CPlant uses Ethernet to boot the individual nodes, Myrinet to communicate within a node cluster, and ATM to connect between remote clusters. This SAND document covers the work done to enable the use of ATM on the CPlant nodes in the Fall of 1997.

  2. Connecting the Dots in DAS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    Many institutions implement a distributed antenna system (DAS) as part of a holistic approach to providing better wireless coverage and capacity on campus. A DAS provides wireless service within a particular area or structure via a network of separate antenna nodes that are connected to a common source through fiber or coaxial cable. Because DAS…

  3. Gigabit Wireless for Network Connectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoedel, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Uninterrupted, high-bandwidth network connectivity is crucial for higher education. Colleges and universities increasingly adopt gigabit wireless solutions because of their fiber-equivalent performance, quick implementation, and significant return on investment. For just those reasons, Rush University Medical Center switched from free space optics…

  4. Caldecott Connections to Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glandon, Shan

    The Caldecott Medal is awarded annually by the Association for Library Service to Children, a division of the American Library Association, to the U.S. artist of the most distinguished picture book for children. This activity book is based on the idea that connections with art teachers are a natural result of a focus on Caldecott Award literature,…

  5. Casing and tubing connection stresses

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, W.P.

    1982-08-01

    By use of a simple theoretical analysis, the transverse stresses in couplings and pipe ends of API eight-round and buttress threaded connections caused by makeup and pressures have been calculated and tabulated. Stresses for 680 specified combinations of casing and tubing size, grade, and thread type are examined.

  6. Exploring the compassionate care connection.

    PubMed

    Burnell, Lori

    2010-01-01

    Although the word "compassion" is an integral component of nursing care, a clear conceptualization of the term is lacking. This article examines compassion from historical, biblical, and global perspectives; spiritual connections; and calls for research to help build our understanding of what compassion means and how to enter into other's suffering. PMID:20949867

  7. The Imagery-Creativity Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels-McGhee, Susan; Davis, Gary A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews historical highlights of the imagery-creativity connection, including early and contemporary accounts, along with notable examples of imagery in the creative process. It also looks at cross-modal imagery (synesthesia), a model of image-based creativity and the creative process, and implications for strengthening creativity by…

  8. Elementary Algebra Connections to Precalculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Boada, Roberto; Daire, Sandra Arguelles

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the attitudes of some precalculus students to solve trigonometric and logarithmic equations and systems using the concepts of elementary algebra. With the goal of enticing the students to search for and use connections among mathematical topics, they are asked to solve equations or systems specifically designed to allow…

  9. Critical Connections: Health and Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Shannon L.; Merlo, Caitlin L.; Basch, Charles E.; Wentzel, Kathryn R.; Wechsler, Howell

    2015-01-01

    Background: While it is a national priority to support the health and education of students, these sectors must better align, integrate, and collaborate to achieve this priority. This article summarizes the literature on the connection between health and academic achievement using the Whole School, Whole Community, and Whole Child (WSCC) framework…

  10. Preparing Administrators for Connected Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Tweed W.

    New technology, in the form of electronic connectivity, has opened up vast new arenas for educational development. Many administrators, however, have not been prepared for the sudden change brought about by such technology. The problem for school administrators is how to lead effectively without being overcome by the new information technologies.…

  11. Making Connections from Urban Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riel, Margaret

    1992-01-01

    Describes a cooperative-learning technique that uses a computer network and involves cooperation among teams separated by physical and social distances. Teachers' messages and students' work illustrate positive features of network connections for inner-city classrooms that are at-risk because of academic, physical, or economic conditions. (RLC)

  12. Reduced Prefrontal Connectivity in Psychopathy

    PubMed Central

    Motzkin, Julian C.; Newman, Joseph P.; Kiehl, Kent A.; Koenigs, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Linking psychopathy to a specific brain abnormality could have significant clinical, legal, and scientific implications. Theories on the neurobiological basis of the disorder typically propose dysfunction in a circuit involving ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). However, to date there is limited brain imaging data to directly test whether psychopathy may indeed be associated with any structural or functional abnormality within this brain area. In this study, we employ two complementary imaging techniques to assess the structural and functional connectivity of vmPFC in psychopathic and non-psychopathic criminals. Using diffusion tensor imaging, we show that psychopathy is associated with reduced structural integrity in the right uncinate fasciculus, the primary white matter connection between vmPFC and anterior temporal lobe. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show that psychopathy is associated with reduced functional connectivity between vmPFC and amygdala as well as between vmPFC and medial parietal cortex. Together, these data converge to implicate diminished vmPFC connectivity as a characteristic neurobiological feature of psychopathy. PMID:22131397

  13. National Assessment of Floodplain Connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C. N.; Scott, D.; Gomez-Velez, J. D.; Harvey, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    In the context of riverine floodplains, hydrologic connectivity describes the water mediated exchange of matter and energy between the river and its adjacent floodplain. As riverine networks shift from headwater streams to large river systems, flood events transition from short, periodic episodes to longer, sustained flood pulses. While these processes are important to biogeochemical processing, little has been done to quantify the relative influence of physiography on floodplain-river interactions across the nation's river network. This study examined flow data from over 14,000 USGS gaging stations across the United States. The threshold for flooding, analogous to bankful stage, was estimated using a breakpoint analysis of each gage's rating curve. Individual floods were then identified across each respective flow record, and a series of metrics were calculated to characterize floodplain connectivity. The distribution and timing of flood events was strongly correlated with basin size and prevailing hydro-climatic conditions (e.g. coastal, interior, and snowmelt systems). Analysis of cumulative flood duration was extended to the entire US stream network, and floodplain connectivity was quantified by the product of stream length and inundation duration. Initial results suggest that floodplain connectivity increases with stream order and highlights the importance of large river floodplains in the fate and transport of materials within riverine networks.

  14. The SOHO-Stellar Connection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayres, Thomas R.

    1999-01-01

    Objective was to conduct a variety of observing programs with the SUMER spectrometer on SOHO, in order to further the understanding of the solar-stellar connection. The program was a continuation of SOHO GO program NAG5-6124 of the previous year.

  15. Weaving Connections with Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Jean

    1987-01-01

    By integrating the language arts across the curriculum, teachers and librarians can help students make connections between what they already know and new material. Teachers committed to this approach need to spend time planning, executing, and evaluating the process and to bring the following essential components to the classroom: (1) love and…

  16. Connecting to the Messy Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teitel, Lee

    2009-01-01

    The Massachusetts story is about persistence. Instead of jumping from one fad to the next, the Massachusetts Association of School Superintendents (MASS) developed a comprehensive and focused plan and stuck to it for several years. It is clearly a story about people--the trust and connections that developed among networks of superintendents that…

  17. Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Cindy

    2007-01-01

    The author remembers back to freshmen year when NCSSSMST was considered a jumbled acronym and a pain to utter. But now, two years down the line, and their conference debut in only a few months, she remembers the NCSSSMST motto, "foster, support, and advance the creative efforts of those specialized schools whose primary purpose is to attract…

  18. ConnectED: President Obama's Plan for Connecting All Schools to the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The White House, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Driven by new digital technologies, the future of learning is increasingly interactive, individualized, and full of real-world experiences and information. Unfortunately, the average school has about the same connectivity as the average American home, but serves 200 times as many users, and fewer than 20 percent of educators say their school's…

  19. Connections for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Collie, Jeffrey C.

    1999-01-01

    A connection for fuel cell assemblies is disclosed. The connection includes compliant members connected to individual fuel cells and a rigid member connected to the compliant members. Adjacent bundles or modules of fuel cells are connected together by mechanically joining their rigid members. The compliant/rigid connection permits construction of generator fuel cell stacks from basic modular groups of cells of any desired size. The connections can be made prior to installation of the fuel cells in a generator, thereby eliminating the need for in-situ completion of the connections. In addition to allowing pre-fabrication, the compliant/rigid connections also simplify removal and replacement of sections of a generator fuel cell stack.

  20. The business case for connectivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Dennis; Hirschheim, Rudy

    1991-01-01

    Information systems that provide competitive advantages to organizations can be broadly classified into those that improve the effectiveness of a business function and those that improve the reach of information in the organization. The latter, organizational connectivity systems, can be categorized as intraorganizational and interorganizational systems. Intraorganization systems provide connectivity to function areas within the business, while interorganizational systems support the exchange of business data between independent business units. These system are not confined to a single entity but span organizational boundaries which can be national or international in scope. A series of case studies was undertaken in an effort to better understand the issues and problems associated with providing an increased flow of information within and outside of an organization. Ten issues emerged from this study. In summary, it is necessary for firms to first consider how effective their internal communications systems are before launching projects that tie the organization to external systems.

  1. Correlating thalamocortical connectivity and activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Fontoura Costa, Luciano; Sporns, Olaf

    2006-07-01

    The segregated regions of the mammalian cerebral cortex and thalamus form an extensive and complex network, whose structure and function are still only incompletely understood. The present letter describes an application of the concepts of complex networks and random walks that allows the identification of nonrandom, highly structured features of thalamocortical connections and their potential effects on dynamic interactions between cortical areas in the cat brain. Utilizing large-scale anatomical data sets of this thalamocortical system, we investigate uniform random walks in such a network by considering the steady state eigenvector of the respective stochastic matrix. It is shown that thalamocortical connections are organized in such a way as to guarantee strong correlation between the outdegree and occupancy rate (a stochastic measure potentially related to activation) of each cortical area. Possible organizational principles underlying this effect are identified and discussed.

  2. Pediatric Mixed Connective Tissue Disease.

    PubMed

    Berard, Roberta A; Laxer, Ronald M

    2016-05-01

    Pediatric-onset mixed connective tissue disease is among the rare disease entities in pediatric rheumatology and includes features of arthritis, polymyositis/dermatomyositis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and systemic sclerosis. Accurate recognition and diagnosis of the disease is paramount to prevent long-term morbidity. Advances in the genetic and immunologic understanding of the factors involved in the etiopathogenesis provide an opportunity for improvements in prognostication and targeted therapy. The development of a multinational cohort of patients with mixed connective tissue disease would be invaluable to provide more updated data regarding the clinical presentation, to develop a standardized treatment approach, disease activity and outcome tools, and to provide data on long-term outcomes and comorbidities. PMID:27032791

  3. The HELIOS Medical Connection Services.

    PubMed

    Jean, F C; Engelmann, U; Sauquet, D; Lavril, M; Schröter, A; Degoulet, P

    1994-12-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of the HELIOS software component that deals with integration of medical applications in health information networks. The problem of interoperability between health information systems based on different data exchange syntaxes is first discussed. A meta-model, relying on CEN TC251 recommendations, is then presented as a possible solution to this problem and a message description language including these recommendations is proposed. Using this meta-model, the Medical Connection Services that comprises a generic message processing automaton, a resource manager and a mapper is able either to interpret messages expressed in a given syntax (e.g., EDIFACT, ASTM) and map them to the application objects or to automate the translation of the messages in another syntax. Special focus is given on the position of the Medical Connection Services within the HELIOS integration strategy (i.e., through data, presentation and communication). The problem of semantic heterogeneity is then discussed. PMID:7882669

  4. A LISP-Ada connection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworski, Allan; Lavallee, David; Zoch, David

    1987-01-01

    The prototype demonstrates the feasibility of using Ada for expert systems and the implementation of an expert-friendly interface which supports knowledge entry. In the Ford LISP-Ada Connection (FLAC) system LISP and Ada are used in ways which complement their respective capabilities. Future investigation will concentrate on the enhancement of the expert knowledge entry/debugging interface and on the issues associated with multitasking and real-time expert systems implementation in Ada.

  5. Connective stability of competitive equilibrium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siljak, D. D.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to derive necessary and sufficient conditions for the connective stability of nonlinear matrix systems described by the equation x-dot = A(t, x) x, where the matrix A(t, x) has time-varying nonlinear elements. The results obtained can be used to study the stability of competitive equilibrium in fields as diverse as economics and engineering, model ecosystems, and the arms race.-

  6. Performance evaluations of demountable electrical connections

    SciTech Connect

    Niemann, R.C.; Cha, Y.S.; Hull, J.R.; Buckles, W.E.; Daugherty, M.A.

    1993-07-01

    Electrical conductors operating in cryogenic environments can require demountable connections along their lengths. The connections must have low resistance and high reliability and should allow ready assembly and disassembly. In this work, the performance of two types of connections has been evaluated. The first connection type is a clamped surface-to-surface joint. The second connection type is a screwed joint that incorporates male and female machine-thread components. The connections for copper conductors have been evaluated experimentally at 77 K. Experimental variables included thread surface treatment and assembly methods. The results of the evaluations are presented.

  7. Fast clique minor generation in Chimera qubit connectivity graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boothby, Tomas; King, Andrew D.; Roy, Aidan

    2016-01-01

    The current generation of D-Wave quantum annealing processor is designed to minimize the energy of an Ising spin configuration whose pairwise interactions lie on the edges of a Chimera graph C_{M,N,L}. In order to solve an Ising spin problem with arbitrary pairwise interaction structure, the corresponding graph must be minor-embedded into a Chimera graph. We define a combinatorial class of native clique minors in Chimera graphs with vertex images of uniform, near minimal size and provide a polynomial-time algorithm that finds a maximum native clique minor in a given induced subgraph of a Chimera graph. These minors allow improvement over recent work and have immediate practical applications in the field of quantum annealing.

  8. MedlinePlus Connect: Web Application

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/connect/application.html MedlinePlus Connect: Web Application To use the sharing features on this ... please see our guidelines and instructions on linking. Web Application Overview The API for the Web application ...

  9. Connecting Related Rates and Differential Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Keith

    2012-01-01

    This article points out a simple connection between related rates and differential equations. The connection can be used for in-class examples or homework exercises, and it is accessible to students who are familiar with separation of variables.

  10. MedlinePlus Connect: Technical Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... Service Technical Information Page MedlinePlus Connect Implementation Options Web Application How does it work? Responds to requests ... examples of MedlinePlus Connect Web Application response pages. Web Service How does it work? Responds to requests ...

  11. MedlinePlus Connect: Web Application

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/connect/application.html MedlinePlus Connect: Web Application To use the sharing features on this ... please see our guidelines and instructions on linking. Web Application Overview The API for the Web application ...

  12. LANDSCAPE CONNECTIVITY: DIFFERENT FUNCTIONS AT DIFFERENT SCALES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Connectivity is more than corridors, and corridors are more than linear strips of habitat. ather, connectivity involves linkages of habitats, species, communities, and ecological processes at spatial scales ranging from fencerows to biomes, and at temporal scales ranging from dai...

  13. MedlinePlus Connect: How it Works

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/connect/howitworks.html MedlinePlus Connect: How it Works To use the sharing features on this ... Web service provide responses in different formats. How it looks depends on how it is implemented. Web ...

  14. DS-Connect: The Down Syndrome Registry

    MedlinePlus

    ... Connect® is a powerful resource where people with Down syndrome and their families can: • Connect with researchers and ... interest in participating in certain clinical studies on Down Syndrome, including studies of new medications and other treatments. • ...

  15. Connectivity in Autism: A Review of MRI Connectivity Studies.

    PubMed

    Rane, Pallavi; Cochran, David; Hodge, Steven M; Haselgrove, Christian; Kennedy, David N; Frazier, Jean A

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affects 1 in 50 children between the ages of 6 and 17 years. The etiology of ASD is not precisely known. ASD is an umbrella term, which includes both low- (IQ < 70) and high-functioning (IQ > 70) individuals. A better understanding of the disorder and how it manifests in individual subjects can lead to more effective intervention plans to fulfill the individual's treatment needs.Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive investigational tool that can be used to study the ways in which the brain develops or deviates from the typical developmental trajectory. MRI offers insights into the structure, function, and metabolism of the brain. In this article, we review published studies on brain connectivity changes in ASD using either resting state functional MRI or diffusion tensor imaging.The general findings of decreases in white matter integrity and in long-range neural coherence are well known in the ASD literature. Nevertheless, the detailed localization of these findings remains uncertain, and few studies link these changes in connectivity with the behavioral phenotype of the disorder. With the help of data sharing and large-scale analytic efforts, however, the field is advancing toward several convergent themes, including the reduced functional coherence of long-range intra-hemispheric cortico-cortical default mode circuitry, impaired inter-hemispheric regulation, and an associated, perhaps compensatory, increase in local and short-range cortico-subcortical coherence. PMID:26146755

  16. MedlinePlus Connect: Technical Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... per request. Supports the HL7 Context-Aware Knowledge Retrieval (Infobutton) standard. Connects using HTTPS connections. A personal ... an alternate method of accessing MedlinePlus data. More Information How MedlinePlus Connect Works Demonstrations — Web application and ...

  17. Multicultural Environmental Education--Making Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaughan, Sharon

    1996-01-01

    Discusses Raptors Connecting Cultures (RCC), a multicultural environmental education program for Latino students. The RCC Program attempted to make connections between local ecology in eastern Pennsylvania and the students' home countries using the concept of migration as a link. Encourages the inclusion of contributions and connections from…

  18. The Acquisition of Causal Connectives in Turkish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aksu, Ayhan

    The elicited speech of 26 Turkish children ranging in age from 2;0 to 4;6 was examined with respect to causality. The developmental sequence of the acquisition of causal connectives showed a progression from the use of no explicit connectives to the acquisition of connectives that are context-dependent. The next stage in this progression was the…

  19. Characterization of structural connections for multicomponent systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Charles; Huckelbridge, Arthur A.

    1988-01-01

    This study explores combining Component Mode Synthesis methods for coupling structural components with Parameter Identification procedures for improving the analytical modeling of the connections. Improvements in the connection stiffness and damping properties are computed in terms of physical parameters so that the physical characteristics of the connections can be better understood, in addition to providing improved input for the system model.

  20. 46 CFR 64.33 - Pipe connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipe connection. 64.33 Section 64.33 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.33 Pipe connection. Each pipe connection that is not a...

  1. Connectivity Changes in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Cerasa, Antonio; Novellino, Fabiana; Quattrone, Aldo

    2016-10-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic and progressive movement disorder of the central nervous system characterized by widespread alterations in several non-motor aspects such as mood, sleep, olfactory, and cognition in addition to motor dysfunctions. Advanced neuroimaging using functional connectivity reconstruction of the human brain has provided a vast knowledge on the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this disorder, but this, however, does not cover the overall inter-/intra-individual variability of PD phenotypes. The present review is aimed at discussing to what extent the evidence provided by group-based neuroimaging analysis in this field of study (using seed-based, network-based, or graph theory approaches) may be generalized. In particular, we summarized the literature on the application of resting-state functional connectivity studies to explore different neural correlates of motor and non-motor symptoms of PD and the neural mechanisms involved in treatment effects: effects of levodopa or deep brain stimulation. The lesson learnt from one decade of studies provides consistent evidence on the role of the altered communication between the striato-frontal pathways as a marker of PD-related motor degeneration, whereas in the non-motor domain, several missing pieces of a complex puzzle are provided. However, the main target is to present a new era of intelligent neuroimaging applications, where automated multivariate analysis of functional connectivity data may be used for moving from group-level statistical results to personalized predictions in a clinical setting. Although in its relative infancy, the evidence gathered so far suggests a new era of clinical neuroimaging is starting. PMID:27568202

  2. NASA Connect: 'Quieting The Skies'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    From NASA Connect: 'Quieting The Skies' In this animation we see how the ear converts pressure waves into something the brain can perceive as 'sound' NASA engineers and scientists are trying to design airplanes to run as quietly as cars. In this program, students will learn the basics: what sound is, what makes sound, how sound affects us and the environment, and how we measure sound. They will also learn some of the techniques being used by NASA to reduce aircraft noise. The lesson and classroom experiment will involve students in the creation, visualization, and measurement of sound.

  3. NASA Connect: 'Quieting The Skies'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    From NASA Connect: 'Quieting The Skies' Brenda Sullivan, a psychoacoustician, explains how she researces peoples responses to noise with the help of binaural recordings made inside aircraft. NASA engineers and scientists are trying to design airplanes to run as quietly as cars. In this program, students will learn the basics: what sound is, what makes sound, how sound affects us and the environment, and how we measure sound. They will also learn some of the techniques being used by NASA to reduce aircraft noise. The lesson and classroom experiment will involve students in the creation, visualization, and measurement of sound.

  4. Women's connectivity in extreme networks.

    PubMed

    Manrique, Pedro; Cao, Zhenfeng; Gabriel, Andrew; Horgan, John; Gill, Paul; Qi, Hong; Restrepo, Elvira M; Johnson, Daniela; Wuchty, Stefan; Song, Chaoming; Johnson, Neil

    2016-06-01

    A popular stereotype is that women will play more minor roles than men as environments become more dangerous and aggressive. Our analysis of new longitudinal data sets from offline and online operational networks [for example, ISIS (Islamic State)] shows that although men dominate numerically, women emerge with superior network connectivity that can benefit the underlying system's robustness and survival. Our observations suggest new female-centric approaches that could be used to affect such networks. They also raise questions about how individual contributions in high-pressure systems are evaluated. PMID:27386564

  5. Astrophysicists’ Conversational Connections on Twitter

    PubMed Central

    Holmberg, Kim; Bowman, Timothy D.; Haustein, Stefanie; Peters, Isabella

    2014-01-01

    Because Twitter and other social media are increasingly used for analyses based on altmetrics, this research sought to understand what contexts, affordance use, and social activities influence the tweeting behavior of astrophysicists. Thus, the presented study has been guided by three research questions that consider the influence of astrophysicists’ activities (i.e., publishing and tweeting frequency) and of their tweet construction and affordance use (i.e. use of hashtags, language, and emotions) on the conversational connections they have on Twitter. We found that astrophysicists communicate with a variety of user types (e.g. colleagues, science communicators, other researchers, and educators) and that in the ego networks of the astrophysicists clear groups consisting of users with different professional roles can be distinguished. Interestingly, the analysis of noun phrases and hashtags showed that when the astrophysicists address the different groups of very different professional composition they use very similar terminology, but that they do not talk to each other (i.e. mentioning other user names in tweets). The results also showed that in those areas of the ego networks that tweeted more the sentiment of the tweets tended to be closer to neutral, connecting frequent tweeting with information sharing activities rather than conversations or expressing opinions. PMID:25153196

  6. Astrophysicists' conversational connections on Twitter.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Kim; Bowman, Timothy D; Haustein, Stefanie; Peters, Isabella

    2014-01-01

    Because Twitter and other social media are increasingly used for analyses based on altmetrics, this research sought to understand what contexts, affordance use, and social activities influence the tweeting behavior of astrophysicists. Thus, the presented study has been guided by three research questions that consider the influence of astrophysicists' activities (i.e., publishing and tweeting frequency) and of their tweet construction and affordance use (i.e. use of hashtags, language, and emotions) on the conversational connections they have on Twitter. We found that astrophysicists communicate with a variety of user types (e.g. colleagues, science communicators, other researchers, and educators) and that in the ego networks of the astrophysicists clear groups consisting of users with different professional roles can be distinguished. Interestingly, the analysis of noun phrases and hashtags showed that when the astrophysicists address the different groups of very different professional composition they use very similar terminology, but that they do not talk to each other (i.e. mentioning other user names in tweets). The results also showed that in those areas of the ego networks that tweeted more the sentiment of the tweets tended to be closer to neutral, connecting frequent tweeting with information sharing activities rather than conversations or expressing opinions. PMID:25153196

  7. Generalized magnetofluid connections in pair plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Asenjo, Felipe A.; Comisso, Luca; Mahajan, Swadesh M.

    2015-12-15

    We extend the magnetic connection theorem of ideal magnetohydrodynamics to nonideal relativistic pair plasmas. Adopting a generalized Ohm's law, we prove the existence of generalized magnetofluid connections that are preserved by the plasma dynamics. We show that these connections are related to a general antisymmetric tensor that unifies the electromagnetic and fluid fields. The generalized magnetofluid connections set important constraints on the plasma dynamics by forbidding transitions between configurations with different magnetofluid connectivity. An approximated solution is explicitly shown where the corrections due to current inertial effects are found.

  8. Generalized magnetofluid connections in relativistic magnetohydrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Asenjo, Felipe A; Comisso, Luca

    2015-03-20

    The concept of magnetic connections is extended to nonideal relativistic magnetohydrodynamical plasmas. Adopting a general set of equations for relativistic magnetohydrodynamics including thermal-inertial, thermal electromotive, Hall, and current-inertia effects, we derive a new covariant connection equation showing the existence of generalized magnetofluid connections that are preserved during the dissipationless plasma dynamics. These connections are intimately linked to a general antisymmetric tensor that unifies the electromagnetic and fluid fields, allowing the extension of the magnetic connection notion to a much broader concept. PMID:25839284

  9. Behavior of concentrically loaded CFT braces connections

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Maha M.; Ramadan, Hazem M.; Abdel-Mooty, Mohammed N.; Mourad, Sherif A.

    2013-01-01

    Concrete filled tubes (CFTs) composite columns have many economical and esthetic advantages, but the behavior of their connections is complicated. Through this study, it is aimed to investigate the performance and behavior of different connection configurations between concrete filled steel tube columns and bracing diagonals through an experimental program. The study included 12 connection subassemblies consisting of a fixed length steel tube and gusset plate connected to the tube end with different details tested under half cyclic loading. A notable effect was observed on the behavior of the connections due to its detailing changes with respect to capacity, failure mode, ductility, and stress distribution. PMID:25685491

  10. Generalized magnetofluid connections in pair plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asenjo, Felipe A.; Comisso, Luca; Mahajan, Swadesh M.

    2015-12-01

    We extend the magnetic connection theorem of ideal magnetohydrodynamics to nonideal relativistic pair plasmas. Adopting a generalized Ohm's law, we prove the existence of generalized magnetofluid connections that are preserved by the plasma dynamics. We show that these connections are related to a general antisymmetric tensor that unifies the electromagnetic and fluid fields. The generalized magnetofluid connections set important constraints on the plasma dynamics by forbidding transitions between configurations with different magnetofluid connectivity. An approximated solution is explicitly shown where the corrections due to current inertial effects are found.

  11. Learning Is about Making Connections. The Cross Papers Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, K. Patricia

    This paper discusses what is known about learning to date by emphasizing "connections" as necessary for learning. Knowledge about these connections can be placed into four categories: (1) neurological connections; (2) cognitive connections; (3) social connections; and (4) experiential connections. In terms of neurological connections, sensory…

  12. Evaluation of the Demonstration Sites in the ConnectEd Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farr, Beverly; Bradby, Denise; Hartry, Ardice; Sipes, Laurel; Hall, Leslie; Tasoff, Shayna

    2009-01-01

    In California, the James Irvine Foundation created ConnectEd: The California Center for College and Career to promote multiple pathways that link to the state's 15 major industry sectors. The ConnectEd Network of Schools, a demonstration project supported by Irvine, plays a critical role in expanding student options through multiple pathways and…

  13. Random geometric graphs with general connection functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dettmann, Carl P.; Georgiou, Orestis

    2016-03-01

    In the original (1961) Gilbert model of random geometric graphs, nodes are placed according to a Poisson point process, and links formed between those within a fixed range. Motivated by wireless ad hoc networks "soft" or "probabilistic" connection models have recently been introduced, involving a "connection function" H (r ) that gives the probability that two nodes at distance r are linked (directly connect). In many applications (not only wireless networks), it is desirable that the graph is connected; that is, every node is linked to every other node in a multihop fashion. Here the connection probability of a dense network in a convex domain in two or three dimensions is expressed in terms of contributions from boundary components for a very general class of connection functions. It turns out that only a few quantities such as moments of the connection function appear. Good agreement is found with special cases from previous studies and with numerical simulations.

  14. Method for hermetic electrical connections

    DOEpatents

    Monroe, Saundra L.; Glass, S. Jill; Stone, Ronnie G.; Bond, Jamey T.; Susan, Donald F.

    2011-12-27

    A method of providing a hermetic, electrical connection between two electrical components by mating at least one metal pin in a glass-ceramic to metal seal connector to two electrical components, wherein the glass-ceramic to metal seal connector incorporates at least one metal pin encased (sealed) in a glass-ceramic material inside of a metal housing, with the glass-ceramic material made from 65-80% SiO.sub.2, 8-16% Li.sub.2O, 2-8% Al.sub.2O.sub.3, 1-5% P.sub.2O.sub.5, 1-8% K.sub.2O, 0.5-7% B.sub.2O.sub.3, and 0-5% ZnO. The connector retains hermeticity at temperatures as high as 700.degree. C. and pressures as high as 500 psi.

  15. The Interaction-Activity Connection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borne, Kirk D.

    1996-01-01

    A review is presented of the numerous studies that have been undertaken to investigate the likely interaction-activity connection among galaxies. Both observational evidence and theoretical supporting models are reviewed. Some specific examples of "interactive" galaxies from the author's own research are presented: (a) the collision-induced AGN (Active Galactic Nuclei) activity in the radio jet source 3C278; and (b) the collision-induced starburst activity in the spectacular "Cartwheel" ring galaxy. Some comments are offered concerning some of the more promising theoretical investigations that are now taking place. A few words of warning are also offered about the possible misinterpretation of putative collision-induced morphologies among some galaxy samples.

  16. The Flare-CME Connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raftery, Claire; Gallagher, P. T.; Lin, C.

    2009-05-01

    The connection between flares and CMEs has long been hypothesized and modelled. However, a full understanding of the processes at work remains ambiguous. A detailed study of the kinematical evolution of a CME was conducted using instruments on STEREO. Flare parameters, such as the motion of soft X-ray sources, imaged using RHESSI, and emission measure and plasma temperature measured from Mercury MESSENGER are presented in conjunction with the CME data to explain the evolution of the entire system. These results are then compared to a number of theoretical models to determine which of the many hypotheses are most probable for this event. CLR is supported by an SPD studentship and the ESA/Prodex grant administered by Enterprise Ireland.

  17. Connecting cognition and consumer choice.

    PubMed

    Bartels, Daniel M; Johnson, Eric J

    2015-02-01

    We describe what can be gained from connecting cognition and consumer choice by discussing two contexts ripe for interaction between the two fields. The first-context effects on choice-has already been addressed by cognitive science yielding insights about cognitive process but there is promise for more interaction. The second is learning and representation in choice where relevant theories in cognitive science could be informed by consumer choice, and in return, could pose and answer new questions. We conclude by discussing how these two fields of research stand to benefit from more interaction, citing examples of how interfaces of cognitive science with other fields have been illuminating for theories of cognition. PMID:25527275

  18. Real World Connections Through Videoconferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Ruth; Lytle, John (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Learning Technologies Project (LTP) is a partner in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) educational technology program unit, an electronic community center that fosters interaction, collaboration, and sharing among educators, learners, and scientists. The goal of the NASA Glenn Research Center's Learning Technologies Project is to increase students' interest and proficiency in mathematics, science, and technology through the use of computing and communications technology and by using NASA's mission in aerospace technology as a theme. The primary components are: (1) Beginner's Guide to Aeronautics, including interactive simulation packages and teacher-created online activities. (2) NASA Virtual Visits, videoconferences (with online pre-post-conference activities) connecting students and teachers to NASA scientists and researchers.

  19. Delta connected resonant snubber circuit

    DOEpatents

    Lai, J.S.; Peng, F.Z.; Young, R.W. Sr.; Ott, G.W. Jr.

    1998-01-20

    A delta connected, resonant snubber-based, soft switching, inverter circuit achieves lossless switching during dc-to-ac power conversion and power conditioning with minimum component count and size. Current is supplied to the resonant snubber branches solely by the dc supply voltage through the main inverter switches and the auxiliary switches. Component count and size are reduced by use of a single semiconductor switch in the resonant snubber branches. Component count is also reduced by maximizing the use of stray capacitances of the main switches as parallel resonant capacitors. Resonance charging and discharging of the parallel capacitances allows lossless, zero voltage switching. In one embodiment, circuit component size and count are minimized while achieving lossless, zero voltage switching within a three-phase inverter. 36 figs.

  20. Delta connected resonant snubber circuit

    DOEpatents

    Lai, Jih-Sheng; Peng, Fang Zheng; Young, Sr., Robert W.; Ott, Jr., George W.

    1998-01-01

    A delta connected, resonant snubber-based, soft switching, inverter circuit achieves lossless switching during dc-to-ac power conversion and power conditioning with minimum component count and size. Current is supplied to the resonant snubber branches solely by the dc supply voltage through the main inverter switches and the auxiliary switches. Component count and size are reduced by use of a single semiconductor switch in the resonant snubber branches. Component count is also reduced by maximizing the use of stray capacitances of the main switches as parallel resonant capacitors. Resonance charging and discharging of the parallel capacitances allows lossless, zero voltage switching. In one embodiment, circuit component size and count are minimized while achieving lossless, zero voltage switching within a three-phase inverter.

  1. Unity connecting module in SSPF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, the Unity connecting module, part of the International Space Station, is shown with Pressurized Mating Adapters 1 (left) and 2 (right) attached. Unity is scheduled to undergo testing of the common berthing mechanism to which other space station elements will dock. Unity is the primary payload on mission STS-88, targeted to launch Dec. 3, 1998. Other testing includes the Pad Demonstration Test to verify the compatibility of the module with the Space Shuttle as well as the ability of the astronauts to send and receive commands to Unity from the flight deck of the orbiter. Unity is expected to be ready for installation into the payload canister on Oct. 25, and transported to Launch Pad 39-A on Oct. 27. The Unity will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which should already be in orbit at that time.

  2. Evoked Effective Connectivity of the Human Neocortex

    PubMed Central

    Entz, László; Tóth, Emília; Keller, Corey J.; Bickel, Stephan; Groppe, David M.; Fabó, Dániel; Kozák, Lajos R.; Eroőss, Loránd; Ulbert, István; Mehta, Ashesh D.

    2016-01-01

    The role of cortical connectivity in brain function and pathology is increasingly being recognized. While in vivo magnetic resonance imaging studies have provided important insights into anatomical and functional connectivity, these methodologies are limited in their ability to detect electrophysiological activity and the causal relationships that underlie effective connectivity. Here, we describe results of cortico-cortical evoked potential (CCEP) mapping using single pulse electrical stimulation in 25 patients undergoing seizure monitoring with subdural electrode arrays. Mapping was performed by stimulating adjacent electrode pairs and recording CCEPs from the remainder of the electrode array. CCEPs reliably revealed functional networks and showed an inverse relationship to distance between sites. Coregistration to Brodmann areas (BA) permitted group analysis. Connections were frequently directional with 43% of early responses and 50% of late responses of connections reflecting relative dominance of incoming or outgoing connections. The most consistent connections were seen as outgoing from motor cortex, BA6–BA9, somatosensory (SS) cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and Broca's area. Network topology revealed motor, SS, and premotor cortices along with BA9 and BA10 and language areas to serve as hubs for cortical connections. BA20 and BA39 demonstrated the most consistent dominance of outdegree connections, while BA5, BA7, auditory cortex, and anterior cingulum demonstrated relatively greater indegree. This multicenter, large-scale, directional study of local and long-range cortical connectivity using direct recordings from awake, humans will aid the interpretation of noninvasive functional connectome studies. PMID:25044884

  3. Structural connectivity of the developing human amygdala.

    PubMed

    Saygin, Zeynep M; Osher, David E; Koldewyn, Kami; Martin, Rebecca E; Finn, Amy; Saxe, Rebecca; Gabrieli, John D E; Sheridan, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    A large corpus of research suggests that there are changes in the manner and degree to which the amygdala supports cognitive and emotional function across development. One possible basis for these developmental differences could be the maturation of amygdalar connections with the rest of the brain. Recent functional connectivity studies support this conclusion, but the structural connectivity of the developing amygdala and its different nuclei remains largely unstudied. We examined age related changes in the DWI connectivity fingerprints of the amygdala to the rest of the brain in 166 individuals of ages 5-30. We also developed a model to predict age based on individual-subject amygdala connectivity, and identified the connections that were most predictive of age. Finally, we segmented the amygdala into its four main nucleus groups, and examined the developmental changes in connectivity for each nucleus. We observed that with age, amygdalar connectivity becomes increasingly sparse and localized. Age related changes were largely localized to the subregions of the amygdala that are implicated in social inference and contextual memory (the basal and lateral nuclei). The central nucleus' connectivity also showed differences with age but these differences affected fewer target regions than the basal and lateral nuclei. The medial nucleus did not exhibit any age related changes. These findings demonstrate increasing specificity in the connectivity patterns of amygdalar nuclei across age. PMID:25875758

  4. Brain Connectivity in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Mohammad-Rezazadeh, Iman; Frohlich, Joel; Loo, Sandra K.; Jeste, Shafali S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Many studies have reported that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have different brain connectivity patterns compared to typically developing individuals. However, the results of more recent studies do not unanimously support the traditional view in which individuals with ASD have lower connectivity between distal brain regions and increased connectivity within proximal brain regions. In this review, we discuss different methods for measuring brain connectivity and how the use of different metrics may contribute to the lack of convergence of investigations of connectivity in ASD. Recent findings The discrepancy in brain connectivity results across studies may be due to important methodological factors such as the connectivity measure applied, the age of patients studied, the brain region(s) examined, and the time interval and frequency band(s) in which connectivity was analyzed. Summary We conclude that more sophisticated EEG analytic approaches should be utilized to more accurately infer causation and directionality of information transfer between brain regions, which may show dynamic changes of functional connectivity in the brain. Moreover, further investigations of connectivity with respect to behavior and clinical phenotype are needed to probe underlying brain networks implicated in core deficits of ASD. PMID:26910484

  5. Thermally effective, electrically isolating heat intercept connections

    SciTech Connect

    Niemann, R.C.; Gonczy, J.D.; Nicol, T.H.

    1995-06-01

    Electrical and electronic equipment often require thermally effective beat intercept connections that provide electrical isolation. Such connections can be developed by clamping, with a thermal-interference fit, an electrically insulating cylindrical tube between a central disk and an outer ring. Heat flows radially through the disk-tube-ring assembly. Thermal effectiveness, i.e., {Delta}T for a given heat flux, and electrical isolation are controlled by tube geometry and material and by connection-assembly details. Connections of this type are being developed as cryogenic heat intercepts for electrical current leads that employ high-temperature superconductors. We discuss the design considerations and details of a beat intercept connection that transfers a 45-w thermal load at 60 K with a {Delta}T of {approx} 10 K while providing 7.5 kV electrical isolation. Prototype heat intercept connections have been evaluated for their thermal and electrical performance, and the results are presented.

  6. Changes in Effective Connectivity by Propofol Sedation

    PubMed Central

    Soddu, Andrea; Boly, Melanie; Boveroux, Pierre; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie; Gosseries, Olivia; Bonhomme, Vincent; Laureys, Steven; Noirhomme, Quentin

    2013-01-01

    Mechanisms of propofol-induced loss of consciousness remain poorly understood. Recent fMRI studies have shown decreases in functional connectivity during unconsciousness induced by this anesthetic agent. Functional connectivity does not provide information of directional changes in the dynamics observed during unconsciousness. The aim of the present study was to investigate, in healthy humans during an auditory task, the changes in effective connectivity resulting from propofol induced loss of consciousness. We used Dynamic Causal Modeling for fMRI (fMRI-DCM) to assess how causal connectivity is influenced by the anesthetic agent in the auditory system. Our results suggest that the dynamic observed in the auditory system during unconsciousness induced by propofol, can result in a mixture of two effects: a local inhibitory connectivity increase and a decrease in the effective connectivity in sensory cortices. PMID:23977030

  7. Projective Connections and the Algebra of Densities

    SciTech Connect

    George, Jacob

    2008-11-18

    Projective connections first appeared in Cartan's papers in the 1920's. Since then they have resurfaced periodically in, for example, integrable systems and perhaps most recently in the context of so called projectively equivariant quantisation. We recall the notion of projective connection and describe its relation with the algebra of densities on a manifold. In particular, we construct a Laplace-type operator on functions using a Thomas projective connection and a symmetric contravariant tensor of rank 2 ('upper metric')

  8. Achieving climate connectivity in a fragmented landscape.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Jenny L; Lawler, Joshua J; McRae, Brad H; Nuñez, Tristan A; Theobald, David M

    2016-06-28

    The contiguous United States contains a disconnected patchwork of natural lands. This fragmentation by human activities limits species' ability to track suitable climates as they rapidly shift. However, most models that project species movement needs have not examined where fragmentation will limit those movements. Here, we quantify climate connectivity, the capacity of landscape configuration to allow species movement in the face of dynamically shifting climate. Using this metric, we assess to what extent habitat fragmentation will limit species movements in response to climate change. We then evaluate how creating corridors to promote climate connectivity could potentially mitigate these restrictions, and we assess where strategies to increase connectivity will be most beneficial. By analyzing fragmentation patterns across the contiguous United States, we demonstrate that only 41% of natural land area retains enough connectivity to allow plants and animals to maintain climatic parity as the climate warms. In the eastern United States, less than 2% of natural area is sufficiently connected. Introducing corridors to facilitate movement through human-dominated regions increases the percentage of climatically connected natural area to 65%, with the most impactful gains in low-elevation regions, particularly in the southeastern United States. These climate connectivity analyses allow ecologists and conservation practitioners to determine the most effective regions for increasing connectivity. More importantly, our findings demonstrate that increasing climate connectivity is critical for allowing species to track rapidly changing climates, reconfiguring habitats to promote access to suitable climates. PMID:27298349

  9. Energetic cost of brain functional connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Tomasi, Dardo; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D.

    2013-01-01

    The brain's functional connectivity is complex, has high energetic cost, and requires efficient use of glucose, the brain's main energy source. It has been proposed that regions with a high degree of functional connectivity are energy efficient and can minimize consumption of glucose. However, the relationship between functional connectivity and energy consumption in the brain is poorly understood. To address this neglect, here we propose a simple model for the energy demands of brain functional connectivity, which we tested with positron emission tomography and MRI in 54 healthy volunteers at rest. Higher glucose metabolism was associated with proportionally larger MRI signal amplitudes, and a higher degree of connectivity was associated with nonlinear increases in metabolism, supporting our hypothesis for the energy efficiency of the connectivity hubs. Basal metabolism (in the absence of connectivity) accounted for 30% of brain glucose utilization, which suggests that the spontaneous brain activity accounts for 70% of the energy consumed by the brain. The energy efficiency of the connectivity hubs was higher for ventral precuneus, cerebellum, and subcortical hubs than for cortical hubs. The higher energy demands of brain communication that hinges upon higher connectivity could render brain hubs more vulnerable to deficits in energy delivery or utilization and help explain their sensitivity to neurodegenerative conditions, such as Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:23898179

  10. Assembly design system based on engineering connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Wensheng

    2016-05-01

    An assembly design system is an important part of computer-aided design systems, which are important tools for realizing product concept design. The traditional assembly design system does not record the connection information of production on the engineering layer; consequently, the upstream design idea cannot be fully used in the downstream design. An assembly design model based on the relationship of engineering connection is presented. In this model, all nodes are divided into two categories: The component and the connection. Moreover, the product is constructed on the basis of the connection relationship of the components. The model is an And/Or graph and has the ability to record all assembly schemes. This model records only the connection information that has engineering application value in the product design. In addition, this model can significantly reduce the number of combinations, and is very favorable for the assembly sequence planning in the downstream. The system contains a connection knowledge system that can be mapped to the connection node, and the connection knowledge obtained in practice can be returned to the knowledge system. Finally, VC++ 6.0 is used to develop a prototype system called Connect-based Assembly Planning (CAP). The relationship between the CAP system and the commercial assembly design system is also established.

  11. Reducing patient suffering through compassionate connected care.

    PubMed

    Dempsey, Christina; Wojciechowski, Sharyl; McConville, Elizabeth; Drain, Maxwell

    2014-10-01

    Patient experience continues to play an increasingly critical role in quality outcomes and reimbursement. Nurse executives are tasked with helping direct-care nurses connect with patients to improve care experiences. Connecting with patients in compassionate ways to alleviate inherent patient suffering and prevent avoidable suffering is key to improving the patient experience. The Compassionate Connected Care framework identifies strategies for meeting the challenges of connecting with patients and reducing suffering. Methods integrate clinical, operational, cultural, and behavioral aspects of care to target patient needs based on condition. Caregivers learn to better express empathy and compassion to patients, and nurse leaders are better equipped to engage nurses at the bedside. PMID:25208270

  12. Synchronization from Second Order Network Connectivity Statistics

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Liqiong; Beverlin, Bryce; Netoff, Theoden; Nykamp, Duane Q.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate how network structure can influence the tendency for a neuronal network to synchronize, or its synchronizability, independent of the dynamical model for each neuron. The synchrony analysis takes advantage of the framework of second order networks, which defines four second order connectivity statistics based on the relative frequency of two-connection network motifs. The analysis identifies two of these statistics, convergent connections, and chain connections, as highly influencing the synchrony. Simulations verify that synchrony decreases with the frequency of convergent connections and increases with the frequency of chain connections. These trends persist with simulations of multiple models for the neuron dynamics and for different types of networks. Surprisingly, divergent connections, which determine the fraction of shared inputs, do not strongly influence the synchrony. The critical role of chains, rather than divergent connections, in influencing synchrony can be explained by their increasing the effective coupling strength. The decrease of synchrony with convergent connections is primarily due to the resulting heterogeneity in firing rates. PMID:21779239

  13. Drill pipe threaded nipple connection design development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saruev, A. L.; Saruev, L. A.; Vasenin, S. S.

    2015-11-01

    The paper presents the analysis of the behavior of the drill pipe nipple connection under the additional load generated by power pulses. The strain wave propagation through the nipple thread connection of drill pipes to the bottomhole is studied in this paper. The improved design of the nipple thread connection is suggested using the obtained experimental and theoretical data. The suggested connection design allows not only the efficient transmission of strain wave energy to a drill bit but also the automation of making-up and breaking-out drill pipes.

  14. Further advances in deepwater flowline connection technology

    SciTech Connect

    Moreira, J.R.; Cerqueira, M.B.; Silva, G.J.R.; Nagle, R.J.

    1996-12-31

    A diverless guidelineless flowline connection system, the so-called direct vertical connection, has been developed, and tested, which sharply decreases connection time, while allowing the lay-vessel itself to perform both flowline ends connections, thus dispensing with the use of auxiliary tools and making the operation more cost effective and reliable. This system has been designed to overcome problems associated with conventional pull-in systems, the lay-away method, ROV assisted pull-in systems and conventional vertical connections. The former have already been successfully used in Marlim field, in 25 wells located at water depths ranging from 740 m to 980 m. The direct vertical connection can now be considered a field proven method. Five import flowline connections have already been successfully performed in Albacora field manifold, installed at 620 m water depth. From now on, based on the excellent results achieved from those installations and previous tests, all deepwater Brazilian subsea trees and manifolds will be designed for direct vertical connection. Sixty six trees and six manifolds incorporating the direct vertical connection system are presently under fabrication in Brazil.

  15. Neural Field Dynamics with Heterogeneous Connection Topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qubbaj, Murad R.; Jirsa, Viktor K.

    2007-06-01

    Neural fields receive inputs from local and nonlocal sources. Notably in a biologically realistic architecture the latter vary under spatial translations (heterogeneous), the former do not (homogeneous). To understand the mutual effects of homogeneous and heterogeneous connectivity, we study the stability of the steady state activity of a neural field as a function of its connectivity and transmission speed. We show that myelination, a developmentally relevant change of the heterogeneous connectivity, always results in the stabilization of the steady state via oscillatory instabilities, independent of the local connectivity. Nonoscillatory instabilities are shown to be independent of any influences of time delay.

  16. Critical Connections: Health and Academics

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Shannon L; Merlo, Caitlin L; Basch, Charles E; Wentzel, Kathryn R; Wechsler, Howell

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND While it is a national priority to support the health and education of students, these sectors must better align, integrate, and collaborate to achieve this priority. This article summarizes the literature on the connection between health and academic achievement using the Whole School, Whole Community, and Whole Child (WSCC) framework as a way to address health-related barriers to learning. METHODS A literature review was conducted on the association between student health and academic achievement. RESULTS Most of the evidence examined the association between student health behaviors and academic achievement, with physical activity having the most published studies and consistent findings. The evidence supports the need for school health services by demonstrating the association between chronic conditions and decreased achievement. Safe and positive school environments were associated with improved health behaviors and achievement. Engaging families and community members in schools also had a positive effect on students' health and achievement. CONCLUSIONS Schools can improve the health and learning of students by supporting opportunities to learn about and practice healthy behaviors, providing school health services, creating safe and positive school environments, and engaging families and community. This evidence supports WSCC as a potential framework for achieving national educational and health goals. PMID:26440816

  17. Tweaking synchronization by connectivity modifications.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Paul; Peron, Thomas; Eroglu, Deniz; Stemler, Thomas; Ramírez Ávila, Gonzalo Marcelo; Rodrigues, Francisco A; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-06-01

    Natural and man-made networks often possess locally treelike substructures. Taking such tree networks as our starting point, we show how the addition of links changes the synchronization properties of the network. We focus on two different methods of link addition. The first method adds single links that create cycles of a well-defined length. Following a topological approach, we introduce cycles of varying length and analyze how this feature, as well as the position in the network, alters the synchronous behavior. We show that in particular short cycles can lead to a maximum change of the Laplacian's eigenvalue spectrum, dictating the synchronization properties of such networks. The second method connects a certain proportion of the initially unconnected nodes. We simulate dynamical systems on these network topologies, with the nodes' local dynamics being either discrete or continuous. Here our main result is that a certain number of additional links, with the relative position in the network being crucial, can be beneficial to ensure stable synchronization. PMID:27415259

  18. Tweaking synchronization by connectivity modifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Paul; Peron, Thomas; Eroglu, Deniz; Stemler, Thomas; Ramírez Ávila, Gonzalo Marcelo; Rodrigues, Francisco A.; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-06-01

    Natural and man-made networks often possess locally treelike substructures. Taking such tree networks as our starting point, we show how the addition of links changes the synchronization properties of the network. We focus on two different methods of link addition. The first method adds single links that create cycles of a well-defined length. Following a topological approach, we introduce cycles of varying length and analyze how this feature, as well as the position in the network, alters the synchronous behavior. We show that in particular short cycles can lead to a maximum change of the Laplacian's eigenvalue spectrum, dictating the synchronization properties of such networks. The second method connects a certain proportion of the initially unconnected nodes. We simulate dynamical systems on these network topologies, with the nodes' local dynamics being either discrete or continuous. Here our main result is that a certain number of additional links, with the relative position in the network being crucial, can be beneficial to ensure stable synchronization.

  19. The solar-coffee connection

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, G.

    2000-04-01

    Coffee connoisseurs, when they quaff a cup of coffee or enjoy a jug of joe, don't generally consider the costs to the environment of their favorite beverage. But the fact is that traditional coffee production is hard on the environment, exacting a toll on the native forests and waterways of Central America and on the migratory birds of the western hemisphere. Coffee growing is the second greatest cause of rainforest destruction after cattle ranching, because a lot of trees are cut down to dry the freshly-picked coffee crop. But espresso-sipping environmentalists and an eco-conscious Joe Public can take comfort in a promising new connection between solar energy and rainforest-friendly coffee--solar-dried coffee. And they can take pleasure in it too, because solar-dried coffee, according to virtually everyone who tries it, is the best-tasting coffee made. Considering that coffee is the second most-traded commodity next to oil, and the second most popular beverage in the world next to water, consumed by billions of people, any new process that reduces the environmental damage occasioned by coffee-growing and processing is significant.

  20. Cross-Connections of Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Diana S.

    2002-02-01

    We are in desperate need of qualified chemistry teachers. Are the teachers who have biology, physics, or some psychology degrees qualified to teach chemistry? Have they taken enough chemistry to be prepared to teach outside their degree field? If remediation is necessary, what courses should be required? Attracting pre-service science teachers to the study of pure chemistry is not an easy task when more attractive course offerings are available. Maybe we should concentrate on cross-training in-service teachers by providing appropriate graduate courses to encourage them and bring them into the family. Many teachers with degrees outside the traditional discipline of chemistry have adequate backgrounds in the applications of chemistry. Requiring hours of undergraduate education before they enter the hallowed halls of the chemistry building as graduate students only serves to discourage a large segment of in-service teachers who wish to broaden their perspective. The National Science Education Standards make a compelling argument for connecting and integrating science courses for practicing teachers (3). We are at the crossroads. At a time when we so desperately need qualified chemistry teachers, shouldn't we be more open in our graduate teaching programs, inviting those with degrees in other disciplines to start on a graduate degree without insisting on undergraduate or survey coursework first? Many potential chemical education graduate students have a background in chemistry--it is just known by another name.

  1. Cortical attractor network dynamics with diluted connectivity.

    PubMed

    Rolls, Edmund T; Webb, Tristan J

    2012-01-24

    The connectivity of the cerebral cortex is diluted, with the probability of excitatory connections between even nearby pyramidal cells rarely more than 0.1, and in the hippocampus 0.04. To investigate the extent to which this diluted connectivity affects the dynamics of attractor networks in the cerebral cortex, we simulated an integrate-and-fire attractor network taking decisions between competing inputs with diluted connectivity of 0.25 or 0.1, and with the same number of synaptic connections per neuron for the recurrent collateral synapses within an attractor population as for full connectivity. The results indicated that there was less spiking-related noise with the diluted connectivity in that the stability of the network when in the spontaneous state of firing increased, and the accuracy of the correct decisions increased. The decision times were a little slower with diluted than with complete connectivity. Given that the capacity of the network is set by the number of recurrent collateral synaptic connections per neuron, on which there is a biological limit, the findings indicate that the stability of cortical networks, and the accuracy of their correct decisions or memory recall operations, can be increased by utilizing diluted connectivity and correspondingly increasing the number of neurons in the network, with little impact on the speed of processing of the cortex. Thus diluted connectivity can decrease cortical spiking-related noise. In addition, we show that the Fano factor for the trial-to-trial variability of the neuronal firing decreases from the spontaneous firing state value when the attractor network makes a decision. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Neural Coding". PMID:21875702

  2. 47 CFR 54.506 - Internal connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... necessary to transport information within one or more instructional buildings of a single school campus or... available for internal connections in non-instructional buildings of a school or school district, or in... instructional building of a school or to a non-administrative building of a library. Internal connections do...

  3. Quick-Connect Heavy-Duty Fastener

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, D. M.

    1986-01-01

    Attaching device combines fast connection and disconnection with high strength. T-shaped stud engages groove in receptacle after one-quarter turn. Further turning tightens nut on receptacle. Like quarter-turn attaching devices, connected and disconnected quickly. Like threaded devices, adjusted to desired preload, withstand high loads, and accommodate wide range of grip lengths.

  4. Supervision, Staff Development, and Evaluation Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuarrie, Frank O.; Wood, Fred H.

    1991-01-01

    Examines the relationship between supervision, staff development, and teacher evaluation, discussing why educators must strive to make connections among the three, identifying important misunderstandings about them, and describing the purposes of each process and the similarities, differences, and connections between them. Together, they can be…

  5. Multiple Proof Approaches and Mathematical Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Zhonghong; O'Brien, George E.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most rewarding accomplishments of working with preservice secondary school mathematics teachers is helping them develop conceptually connected knowledge and see mathematics as an integrated whole rather than isolated pieces. To help students see and use the connections among various mathematical topics, the authors have paid close…

  6. Making Connections between Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Andrew; McMaken, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Strengthening connections between research and practice is an important goal in education. Making the connection has both a supply side and a demand side but the demand is often ignored in education. The authors offer six hypotheses about why this situation occurs.

  7. School Library Media Program Connections for Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bookmark, 1991

    1991-01-01

    The 29 articles in this theme issue of "The Bookmark" focus on various aspects of school library media programs. The articles are as follows: (1) "School Library Media Program Connections for Learning" (Betty J. Morris); (2) "Humanity and Technology in the School of the Future" (Michael V. McGill); (3) "Community Connections in the 'New Compact'…

  8. Connected Knowledge in Science and Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zohar, Anat

    2006-01-01

    While the traditional meaning of connected knowledge is valuable in some school subjects, it does not address the main activities of knowledge acquisition in subjects such as physics and mathematics. The goal of this article is to analyze the relationships between the concepts "learning for understanding" and "connected knowledge", a central theme…

  9. A Random Walk: Stumbling across Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Nicholas H.

    2015-01-01

    Finding and designing tasks that allow for students to make connections among mathematical ideas is important for mathematics educators. One such task, which affords students the opportunity to make connections and engage with significant mathematical ideas through a variety of problem-solving approaches, is described in this article. Three…

  10. The Matrix Connection: Fibonacci and Inductive Proof

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veenstra, Tamara B.; Miller, Catherine M.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents several activities (some involving graphing calculators) designed to guide students to discover several interesting properties of Fibonacci numbers. Then, we explore interesting connections between Fibonacci numbers and matrices; using this connection and induction we prove divisibility properties of Fibonacci numbers.

  11. Science and Mathematics--A Natural Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park Rogers, Meredith A.; Volkmann, Mark J.; Abell, Sandra K.

    2007-01-01

    Connections between science and mathematics seem natural. First, mathematics can be used in science to organize and analyze data in tables and graphs. Second, mathematics can help represent scientific phenomena and understand scientific concepts. Student learning should benefit when teachers make the connections between science and mathematics…

  12. Making Connections--The Big Picture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halyard, Rebecca A.

    1994-01-01

    Helping students to make essential connections of science content is often difficult, yet necessary to ensure a true understanding of science. A teacher offers insights on how pyruvic acid can be used to help students make connections in chemistry and biology. (ZWH)

  13. Making Connections: The Home Front Fair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roessing, Lesley

    2007-01-01

    Much of what students learn never appears to connect to their lives. They learn facts, they study events, and they read stories of others. Teachers need to help students make these associations, and sometimes that means expanding the curriculum. To help her language arts students make connections between their lives and the realities of life…

  14. Making Connections in the Undergraduate Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Bobbie J.; Kidder, Stanley Q.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a strategy used in a meteorology course to increase its relevance to students' lives. Involves combining the lecture and laboratory portions of the course and including a Connections section in the lab report in which students comment on the connections they saw between the coursework, the laboratory exercises, and their own experience.…

  15. Connecting Functions in Geometry and Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steketee, Scott; Scher, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    One goal of a mathematics education is that students make significant connections among different branches of mathematics. Connections--such as those between arithmetic and algebra, between two-dimensional and three-dimensional geometry, between compass-and-straight-edge constructions and transformations, and between calculus and analytic…

  16. Reflections on Connecting through Outdoor Adventure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, Stephen; Brinkman, Danielle; Wabano, Mary Jo; Young, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Connecting through outdoor adventure is a process that may or may not seem obvious. The word "connecting" resonates with a powerful and extensive implied meaning that the authors feel compelled to share. A recent collaborative research project between leaders from the Wikwemikong Unceded Indian Reserve and researchers from Laurentian University…

  17. Making the Chromosome-Gene-Protein Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvihill, Charlotte

    1996-01-01

    Presents an exercise that demonstrates the chromosome-gene-protein connection using sickle-cell anemia, a genetic disease with a well-characterized molecular basis. Involves connecting changes in DNA to protein outcomes and tying them into the next generation by meiosis and gamete formation with genetic crosses. Motivates students to integrate…

  18. Connect the Book. George Washington's Teeth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2005-01-01

    February celebrates both National Children's Dental Health Month and President's Day (February 21), so this month's "Connect the Book" column features a book with connections to both events. George Washington, the first President of the United States (1789-1797) and known as the "Father of Our Country," had a serious dental health problem that…

  19. Connecting Mathematical Knowledge: A Dialectical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmittau, Jean

    1993-01-01

    Based on the cognitive psychological theories of Vygotsky and Davydov, discusses the establishment of connections between mathematical elements, and the algorithmic rules that govern them, and children's spontaneous mathematical concepts. Presents examples that establish connections involving addition and subtraction, comparing numerical…

  20. Elders' Lifelong Connection with the Natural Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carman, Jack

    2011-01-01

    Our interaction with nature does not end just because we age. People have a lifelong connection with the outdoor environment in varying degrees. For some, this participation may be subtle by simply watching others interact with the outdoor environment. For others, there is a deeper connection with nature through gardening, birding, exercise,…

  1. The elusive concept of brain connectivity.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, Barry

    2003-06-01

    Neurons and neural populations do not function as islands onto themselves. Rather, they interact with other such elements through their afferent and efferent connections in an orchestrated manner so as to enable different sensorimotor and cognitive tasks to be performed. The concept of functional connectivity and the allied notion of effective connectivity were introduced to designate the functional strengths of such interactions. Functional neuroimaging methods, especially PET and fMRI, have been used extensively to evaluate the functional connectivity between different brain regions. After providing a brief historical review of these notions of brain connectivity, I argue that the conceptual formulations of functional and effective connectivity are far from clear. Specifically, the terms functional and effective connectivity are applied to quantities computed on types of functional imaging data (e.g., PET, fMRI, EEG) that vary in spatial, temporal, and other features, using different definitions (even for data of the same modality) and employing different computational algorithms. Until it is understood what each definition means in terms of an underlying neural substrate, comparisons of functional and/or effective connectivity across studies may appear inconsistent and should be performed with great caution. PMID:12814595

  2. Lewis and Clark--Indiana Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Pamela J., Ed.

    2003-01-01

    The state of Indiana has an important, recognized connection to the Lewis and Clark Expedition. That connection is reinforced with a National Signature Event in Clarksville (Indiana) during October 2003. Until the expedition party left its winter camp in May 1804, it remained in Indiana Territory, governed from Vincennes (Indiana) by William Henry…

  3. Physical Science Connected Classrooms: Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irving, Karen; Sanalan, Vehbi; Shirley, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    Case-study descriptions of secondary and middle school classrooms in diverse contexts provide examples of how teachers implement connected classroom technology to facilitate formative assessment in science instruction. Connected classroom technology refers to a networked system of handheld devices designed for classroom use. Teachers were…

  4. An assessment of the connection machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiber, Robert

    1990-01-01

    The CM-2 is an example of a connection machine. The strengths and problems of this implementation are considered as well as important issues in the architecture and programming environment of connection machines in general. These are contrasted to the same issues in Multiple Instruction/Multiple Data (MIMD) microprocessors and multicomputers.

  5. Building Cohesion in Positively Connected Exchange Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, David R.; Kornienko, Olga

    2009-01-01

    This research investigates the process through which individuals build cohesive relationships in positively connected exchange relations. Positive connections exist any time exchange in one relation must precede exchange in another. Such situations arise through gatekeeping, in generalized exchange contexts, and when resources diffuse across a…

  6. Water Treatment Technology - Cross-Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on cross connections provides instructional materials for two competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on cross connections terminology and control devices. For each…

  7. Infinitesimal affine automorphisms of symplectic connections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Daniel J. F.

    2016-08-01

    Conditions are given under which an infinitesimal automorphism of a torsion-free connection preserving a symplectic form is necessarily a symplectic vector field. An example is given of a compact symplectic nilmanifold admitting a flat symplectic connection and an infinitesimal automorphism that is not symplectic.

  8. Connecting Representations: Using Predict, Check, Explain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, George J.; Fueyo, Vivian; Vahey, Philip; Knudsen, Jennifer; Rafanan, Ken; Lara-Meloy, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Although educators agree that making connections with the real world, as advocated by "Principles to Actions: Ensuring Mathematical Success for All" (NCTM 2014), is important, making such connections while addressing important mathematics is elusive. The authors have found that math content coupled with the instructional strategy of…

  9. 33 CFR 156.130 - Connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... material in joints and couplings to ensure a leak-free seal; (2) Use a bolt in at least every other hole, and in no case less than four bolts, in each temporary bolted connection that uses a flange that meets... chapter; (3) Use a bolt in each hole in each temporary bolted connection that uses a flange other than...

  10. Check & Connect. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Check & Connect" is a dropout prevention strategy that relies on close monitoring of school performance, as well as mentoring, case management, and other supports. The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) reviewed six studies on "Check & Connect" that were designed to assess the program's effectiveness. Four of these studies passed WWC relevance…

  11. The SOHO-Stellar Connection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayres, Thomas R.

    1999-01-01

    I discusses practical aspects of the so-called "solar-stellar" connection; namely, the fundamental principles, the tools at the disposal of the stellar astronomer, and a few recent examples of the connection in action. I provide an overall evolutionary context for coronal activity, calling attention to the very different circumstances of low mass main sequence stars like the Sun, which are active mainly early in their lives; compared with more massive stars, whose coronally active phase occurs near the end of their lives, during their brief incursion into the cool half of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram as yellow and then red giants. On the instrumental slide, I concentrate primarily on spectroscopy, in the ultraviolet and X-ray bands where coronae leave their most obvious signatures. I present an early glimpse of the type of moderate resolution spectra we can expect from the recently launched Chandra observatory, and contemporaneous HST STIS high-resolution UV measurements of the CXO calibration star Capella (alpha Aur; G8 III + G1 III). I compare STIS spectra of solar-type dwarfs-zeta Dor (F7 V), an active coronal source; and alpha Cen A (G2 V), a near twin of the Sun-to a trace obtained with the SOHO SUMER imaging UV spectrometer. I also compare STIS line profiles of the active coronal dwarf to the corresponding features in the mixed-activity "hybrid-chromosphere" bright giant alpha TrA (K2 II) and the archetype "noncoronal" red giant Arcturus (alpha Boo; K2 III). The latter shows dramatic evidence for a "cool absorber" in its outer atmosphere that is extinguishing the "hot lines" (like Si IV lambda1393 and N V lambda1238) below about 1500 A, probably through absorption in the Si I lambda1525 and C I lambda1240 photoionization continua. The disappearance of coronae across the "Linsky-Haisch" dividing line near K1 III thus apparently is promoted by a dramatic overturning in the outer atmospheric structure, namely the coronae of the red giants seem to lie beneath

  12. Directional connectivity in hydrology and ecology.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Laurel G; Choi, Jungyill; Nungesser, Martha K; Harvey, Judson W

    2012-12-01

    Quantifying hydrologic and ecological connectivity has contributed to understanding transport and dispersal processes and assessing ecosystem degradation or restoration potential. However, there has been little synthesis across disciplines. The growing field of ecohydrology and recent recognition that loss of hydrologic connectivity is leading to a global decline in biodiversity underscore the need for a unified connectivity concept. One outstanding need is a way to quantify directional connectivity that is consistent, robust to variations in sampling, and transferable across scales or environmental settings. Understanding connectivity in a particular direction (e.g., streamwise, along or across gradient, between sources and sinks, along cardinal directions) provides critical information for predicting contaminant transport, planning conservation corridor design, and understanding how landscapes or hydroscapes respond to directional forces like wind or water flow. Here we synthesize progress on quantifying connectivity and develop a new strategy for evaluating directional connectivity that benefits from use of graph theory in ecology and percolation theory in hydrology. The directional connectivity index (DCI) is a graph-theory based, multiscale metric that is generalizable to a range of different structural and functional connectivity applications. It exhibits minimal sensitivity to image rotation or resolution within a given range and responds intuitively to progressive, unidirectional change. Further, it is linearly related to the integral connectivity scale length--a metric common in hydrology that correlates well with actual fluxes--but is less computationally challenging and more readily comparable across different landscapes. Connectivity-orientation curves (i.e., directional connectivity computed over a range of headings) provide a quantitative, information-dense representation of environmental structure that can be used for comparison or detection of

  13. Directional connectivity in hydrology and ecology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larsen, Laurel G.; Choi, Jungyill; Nungesser, Martha K.; Harvey, Judson W.

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying hydrologic and ecological connectivity has contributed to understanding transport and dispersal processes and assessing ecosystem degradation or restoration potential. However, there has been little synthesis across disciplines. The growing field of ecohydrology and recent recognition that loss of hydrologic connectivity is leading to a global decline in biodiversity underscore the need for a unified connectivity concept. One outstanding need is a way to quantify directional connectivity that is consistent, robust to variations in sampling, and transferable across scales or environmental settings. Understanding connectivity in a particular direction (e.g., streamwise, along or across gradient, between sources and sinks, along cardinal directions) provides critical information for predicting contaminant transport, planning conservation corridor design, and understanding how landscapes or hydroscapes respond to directional forces like wind or water flow. Here we synthesize progress on quantifying connectivity and develop a new strategy for evaluating directional connectivity that benefits from use of graph theory in ecology and percolation theory in hydrology. The directional connectivity index (DCI) is a graph-theory based, multiscale metric that is generalizable to a range of different structural and functional connectivity applications. It exhibits minimal sensitivity to image rotation or resolution within a given range and responds intuitively to progressive, unidirectional change. Further, it is linearly related to the integral connectivity scale length—a metric common in hydrology that correlates well with actual fluxes—but is less computationally challenging and more readily comparable across different landscapes. Connectivity-orientation curves (i.e., directional connectivity computed over a range of headings) provide a quantitative, information-dense representation of environmental structure that can be used for comparison or detection of

  14. Connectivity: What is it good for?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, A.; Zimmermann, B.; Elsenbeer, H.

    2012-04-01

    In extensive areas of the Panama Canal watershed, large and frequent tropical storms hit clay-rich soils that feature a low saturated hydraulic conductivity at shallow depth. As a consequence, surface runoff occurs frequently, and extremely flashy catchment responses are common. Previous studies showed that in undisturbed forests of this region, overland flow tends to concentrate in flowlines which extend the channel network and therefore provide hydrological connectivity between hillslopes and streams. In this contribution we present our latest research which aims at explaining the development and dynamics of overland-flow connectivity and its impact on catchment runoff and suspended-sediment export. In an undisturbed headwater catchment we monitored on an event basis overland-flow occurrence in all flowlines and measured discharge and suspended-sediment concentration in several flowlines and at the catchment outlet. Under certain meteorological conditions all flowlines are connected to the channel network throughout their entire lengths. Because some flowlines originate near the catchment divide, extensive parts of the catchment are then hydrologically connected. It was for these high-connectivity situations that we measured the largest storm flows and sediment yields at the catchment outlet. Yet, both runoff volume and sediment yield varied up to an order of magnitude during the high-connectivity stage. This is because our connectivity data comprise just one feature of connectivity; that is, whether flow is connected or not. Hydrologic connectivity (at the soil surface), however, also entails other critical aspects such as the duration of a particular connectivity stage. Although promising, the effort required to monitor these aspects of connectivity is substantial. Moreover, it is not clear how such specific information can be transferred to other catchments. Therefore, besides more detailed investigations we advocate applying the established link between

  15. Brain Connectivity Analysis: A Short Survey

    PubMed Central

    Lang, E. W.; Tomé, A. M.; Keck, I. R.; Górriz-Sáez, J. M.; Puntonet, C. G.

    2012-01-01

    This short survey the reviews recent literature on brain connectivity studies. It encompasses all forms of static and dynamic connectivity whether anatomical, functional, or effective. The last decade has seen an ever increasing number of studies devoted to deduce functional or effective connectivity, mostly from functional neuroimaging experiments. Resting state conditions have become a dominant experimental paradigm, and a number of resting state networks, among them the prominent default mode network, have been identified. Graphical models represent a convenient vehicle to formalize experimental findings and to closely and quantitatively characterize the various networks identified. Underlying these abstract concepts are anatomical networks, the so-called connectome, which can be investigated by functional imaging techniques as well. Future studies have to bridge the gap between anatomical neuronal connections and related functional or effective connectivities. PMID:23097663

  16. Connected Knowledge in Science and Mathematics Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zohar, Anat

    2006-10-01

    While the traditional meaning of connected knowledge is valuable in some school subjects, it does not address the main activities of knowledge acquisition in subjects such as physics and mathematics. The goal of this article is to analyze the relationships between the concepts “learning for understanding” and “connected knowledge”, a central theme in feminist epistemology. In learning for understanding, the learner forms multiple, intricate connections among the concepts she is studying in school, between school concepts and her everyday concepts, and between school concepts and their wider context. Viewing connected knowledge as tightly related to understanding has several important implications. It brings connected knowledge into the central learning activities that take place in school science and mathematics, and gives it a high status. It contributes to our understanding of gender-related patterns in thinking; and it may form a unifying theoretical framework for many studies and projects in the field of gender fair education.

  17. Connectiveness and civility in online learning.

    PubMed

    Rieck, Susan; Crouch, Laura

    2007-11-01

    As the classroom shifts from teacher-centered to learner-centered and from face-to-face to online, nursing faculty members are challenged to promote a sense of connectiveness and social interaction. Making connectiveness more elusive is the perception of rude, impolite, or unkind communication. The purpose of this descriptive-exploratory study was to examine perceptions of connectiveness and civility in online nursing courses. Ninety-six students in four nursing programs participated in the study. Strategies that promote connectiveness with peers are in-person activities whenever possible and discussion assignments that include social activities. Timely feedback when responding to questions and prompt grading are important for student-to-instructor connectiveness. Thirty-five percent of the students encountered rude or unkind communication with peers, and 60% reported incivility from instructors. Their suggestions for effective handling of rude communication included addressing the behavior privately, giving guidance about netiquette, and defining what constitutes rude behavior. PMID:17765016

  18. The Genetics of Soft Connective Tissue Disorders.

    PubMed

    Vanakker, Olivier; Callewaert, Bert; Malfait, Fransiska; Coucke, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few years, the field of hereditary connective tissue disorders has changed tremendously. This review highlights exciting insights into three prototypic disorders affecting the soft connective tissue: Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, pseudoxanthoma elasticum, and cutis laxa. For each of these disorders, the identification and characterization of several novel but related conditions or subtypes have widened the phenotypic spectrum. In parallel, the vast underlying molecular network connecting these phenotypes is progressively being uncovered. Identification and characterization (both clinical and molecular) of new phenotypes within the connective tissue disorder spectrum are often key to further unraveling the pathways involved in connective tissue biology and delineating the clinical spectrum and pathophysiology of the disorders. Although difficult challenges remain, recent findings have expanded our pathophysiological understanding and may lead to targeted therapies in the near future. PMID:26002060

  19. Road Weather and Connected Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisano, P.; Boyce, B. C.

    2015-12-01

    On average, there are over 5.8 M vehicle crashes each year of which 23% are weather-related. Weather-related crashes are defined as those crashes that occur in adverse weather or on slick pavement. The vast majority of weather-related crashes happen on wet pavement (74%) and during rainfall (46%). Connected vehicle technologies hold the promise to transform road-weather management by providing improved road weather data in real time with greater temporal and geographic accuracy. This will dramatically expand the amount of data that can be used to assess, forecast, and address the impacts that weather has on roads, vehicles, and travelers. The use of vehicle-based measurements of the road and surrounding atmosphere with other, more traditional weather data sources, and create road and atmospheric hazard products for a variety of users. The broad availability of road weather data from mobile sources will vastly improve the ability to detect and forecast weather and road conditions, and will provide the capability to manage road-weather response on specific roadway links. The RWMP is currently demonstrating how weather, road conditions, and related vehicle data can be used for decision making through an innovative Integrated Mobile Observations project. FHWA is partnering with 3 DOTs (MN, MI, & NV) to pilot these applications. One is a mobile alerts application called the Motorists Advisories and Warnings (MAW) and a maintenance decision support application. These applications blend traditional weather information (e.g., radar, surface stations) with mobile vehicle data (e.g., temperature, brake status, wiper status) to determine current weather conditions. These weather conditions, and other road-travel-relevant information, are provided to users via web and phone applications. The MAW provides nowcasts and short-term forecasts out to 24 hours while the EMDSS application can provide forecasts up to 72 hours in advance. The three DOTs have placed readers and external

  20. Detecting Functional Connectivity During Audiovisual Integration with MEG: A Comparison of Connectivity Metrics

    PubMed Central

    Carver, Frederick W.; Holroyd, Tom; Horwitz, Barry; Coppola, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In typical magnetoencephalography and/or electroencephalography functional connectivity analysis, researchers select one of several methods that measure a relationship between regions to determine connectivity, such as coherence, power correlations, and others. However, it is largely unknown if some are more suited than others for various types of investigations. In this study, the authors investigate seven connectivity metrics to evaluate which, if any, are sensitive to audiovisual integration by contrasting connectivity when tracking an audiovisual object versus connectivity when tracking a visual object uncorrelated with the auditory stimulus. The authors are able to assess the metrics' performances at detecting audiovisual integration by investigating connectivity between auditory and visual areas. Critically, the authors perform their investigation on a whole-cortex all-to-all mapping, avoiding confounds introduced in seed selection. The authors find that amplitude-based connectivity measures in the beta band detect strong connections between visual and auditory areas during audiovisual integration, specifically between V4/V5 and auditory cortices in the right hemisphere. Conversely, phase-based connectivity measures in the beta band as well as phase and power measures in alpha, gamma, and theta do not show connectivity between audiovisual areas. The authors postulate that while beta power correlations detect audiovisual integration in the current experimental context, it may not always be the best measure to detect connectivity. Instead, it is likely that the brain utilizes a variety of mechanisms in neuronal communication that may produce differential types of temporal relationships. PMID:25599264

  1. Detecting Functional Connectivity During Audiovisual Integration with MEG: A Comparison of Connectivity Metrics.

    PubMed

    Ard, Tyler; Carver, Frederick W; Holroyd, Tom; Horwitz, Barry; Coppola, Richard

    2015-08-01

    In typical magnetoencephalography and/or electroencephalography functional connectivity analysis, researchers select one of several methods that measure a relationship between regions to determine connectivity, such as coherence, power correlations, and others. However, it is largely unknown if some are more suited than others for various types of investigations. In this study, the authors investigate seven connectivity metrics to evaluate which, if any, are sensitive to audiovisual integration by contrasting connectivity when tracking an audiovisual object versus connectivity when tracking a visual object uncorrelated with the auditory stimulus. The authors are able to assess the metrics' performances at detecting audiovisual integration by investigating connectivity between auditory and visual areas. Critically, the authors perform their investigation on a whole-cortex all-to-all mapping, avoiding confounds introduced in seed selection. The authors find that amplitude-based connectivity measures in the beta band detect strong connections between visual and auditory areas during audiovisual integration, specifically between V4/V5 and auditory cortices in the right hemisphere. Conversely, phase-based connectivity measures in the beta band as well as phase and power measures in alpha, gamma, and theta do not show connectivity between audiovisual areas. The authors postulate that while beta power correlations detect audiovisual integration in the current experimental context, it may not always be the best measure to detect connectivity. Instead, it is likely that the brain utilizes a variety of mechanisms in neuronal communication that may produce differential types of temporal relationships. PMID:25599264

  2. The TANF/SSI connection.

    PubMed

    Wamhoff, Steve; Wiseman, Michael

    Interactions and overlap of social assistance programs across clients interest policymakers because such interactions affect both the clients' well-being and the programs' efficiency. This article investigates the connections between Supplemental Security Income (SSI) and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) and TANF's predecessor, the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program. Connections between receipt of TANF and SSI are widely discussed in both disability policy and poverty research literatures because many families receiving TANF report disabilities. For both states and the individuals involved, it is generally financially advantageous for adults and children with disabilities to transfer from TANF to SSI. States gain because the federal government pays for the SSI benefit, and states can then use the TANF savings for other purposes. The families gain because the SSI benefits they acquire are greater than the TANF benefits they lose. The payoff to states from transferring welfare recipients to SSI was substantially increased when Congress replaced AFDC with TANF in 1996. States retained less than half of any savings achieved through such transfers under AFDC, but they retain all of the savings under TANF. Also, the work participation requirements under TANF have obligated states to address the work support needs of adults with disabilities who remain in TANF, and states can avoid these costs if adults have disabilities that satisfy SSI eligibility requirements. The incentive for TANF recipients to apply for SSI has increased over time as inflation has caused real TANF benefits to fall relative to payments received by SSI recipients. Trends in the financial incentives for transfer to SSI have not been studied in detail, and reliable general data on the extent of the interaction between TANF and SSI are scarce. In addition, some estimates of the prevalence of TANF receipt among SSI awardees are flawed because they fail to include adults

  3. Mapping hydrologic connectivity of geographically isolated wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ameli, Ali; Creed, Irena

    2016-04-01

    Geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs) are characterized as depressional landscape features completely surrounded by uplands. These small and typically circular landscape features represent a vast majority of wetlands in various landscapes in North America (98% of all wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region). Geographical isolation, however, does not imply the hydrological isolation. Although geospatial data (e.g., aerial photos) suggested that GIWs lack a persistent surface water connection, the groundwater connection between GIWs and navigable downstream waters can be substantial with large fluxes at the regional scales. The surface/subsurface connections among GIWs and between GIWs and navigable waters are difficult to map and quantify. This is intimately tied to the fact that an efficient incorporation of these small geometric features and characterization of the mechanisms behind these connectivities are challenging within grid-based simulators. We used a physically-based grid-free groundwater-surface water interaction and surface flow routing schemes to map and assess the watershed-scale GIWs connectivity within an extensively studied watershed at the Canadian prairie pothole region with high density of GIWs. The results showed that there is a persistent subsurface connectivity among GIWs and between GIWs and navigable waters. Surface connection was rare and only occurred during extreme events. The results of this paper have significant implications for developing scientifically grounded environmental policy for protection of GIWs within North American Prairie.

  4. NASA CONNECT: 'Glow with the Flow'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    'Geometry and Algebra: Glow with the Flow' is the second of five programs in the 2000-2001 NASA CONNECT series. Produced by NASA Langley Research Center's Office of Education, NASA CONNECT is an award-winning series of instructional programs designed to enhance the teaching of math, science and technology in grades 5-8. NASA CONNECT establishes teh 'connection' between the mathematics, science, and tehcnology concepts taught in the classroom and NASA research. NASA CONNECT is FREE and the programs in the series are in the public domain. Visit our web site adn register http://connect.larc.nasa.gov In 'Geometry and Algebra: Glow with the Flow', students will learn about the force of drag and how NASA engineers use models and glowing paints to see how air flows over vehicles in a wind tunnel. Students will also discover how the blended wing body(BWB), a concept super jumbo jet that resembles a flying wing, will affect air travelers of the future. Students will observe NASA engineers using geometry and algebra when they measure and design models to be tested in wind tunnels. By conducting classroom and on-line activities, students will make connections between NASA research and the mathematics, science and technology they learn in their classroom.

  5. Altered functional connectivity in persistent developmental stuttering.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Jia, Fanlu; Siok, Wai Ting; Tan, Li Hai

    2016-01-01

    Persistent developmental stuttering (PDS) is a speech disorder that impairs communication skills. Despite extensive research, the core causes of PDS are elusive. Converging evidence from task-induced neuroimaging methods has demonstrated the contributions of the basal ganglia and the cerebellum to PDS, but such task-state neuroimaging findings are often confounded by behavioral performance differences between subjects who stutter and normal controls. Here, using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated functional connectivity within cerebellar-cortical and basal ganglia-thalamocortical networks in 16 adults who stutter and 18 age-matched fluent speakers. Seed-to-voxel analysis demonstrated that, compared to controls, adults who stutter showed alternations in functional connectivity of cerebellum to motor cortex as well as connectivity among different locals within cerebellum. Additionally, we found that functional connectivity within cerebellar circuits was significantly correlated with severity of stuttering. The alternations of functional connectivity within basal ganglia-thalamocortical networks were identified as the reduced connectivity of the putamen to the superior temporal gyrus and inferior parietal lobules in adults who stutter. The abnormalities of resting state functional connectivity are assumed to affect language planning and motor execution critical for speaking fluently. Our findings may yield neurobiological cues to the biomarkers of PDS. PMID:26743821

  6. Abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in male psychopathic offenders

    PubMed Central

    Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco S.; De Jesus, Danilo R.; Sun, Yinming; Stirpe, Tania; Hofman, Dennis; McMaster, Jeff; Hughes, Ginny; Daskalakis, Zafiris J.; Schutter, Dennis J.L.G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Psychopathic offenders inevitably violate interpersonal norms and frequently resort to aggressive and criminal behaviour. The affective and cognitive deficits underlying these behaviours have been linked to abnormalities in functional interhemispheric connectivity. However, direct neurophysiological evidence for dysfunctional connectivity in psychopathic offenders is lacking. Methods We used transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electroencephalography to examine interhemispheric connectivity in the dorsolateral and motor cortex in a sample of psychopathic offenders and healthy controls. We also measured intracortical inhibition and facilitation over the left and right motor cortex to investigate the effects of local cortical processes on interhemispheric connectivity. Results We enrolled 17 psychopathic offenders and 14 controls in our study. Global abnormalities in right to left functional connectivity were observed in psychopathic offenders compared with controls. Furthermore, in contrast to controls, psychopathic offenders showed increased intracortical inhibition in the right, but not the left, hemisphere. Limitations The relatively small sample size limited the sensitivity to show that the abnormalities in interhemispheric connectivity were specifically related to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in psychopathic offenders. Conclusion To our knowledge, this study provides the first neurophysiological evidence for abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in psychopathic offenders and may further our understanding of the disruptive antisocial behaviour of these offenders. PMID:23937798

  7. Unraveling the mysteries of proprietary connections

    SciTech Connect

    Klementich, E.F.

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide some insight into the potential users of proprietary connections and to facilitate a rational selection process and procurement procedure. First, it must be noted that the standard and commonly used API casing connections [short, round thread casing and coupling (STC); long, round thread casing and coupling (LTC); buttress thread casing and coupling (BTC)] and API tubing connection EUE-8R (external upset ends, eight round thread tubing and coupling) can provide reliable service for the vast majority of well drilled and completed. Proprietary connections can and have been misapplied at considerable expense; for example, 9 5/8 drilling (intermediate/protective) casing. API BTC works more than adequately in drilling-mud environments. There is no need to use a proprietary connection for such service. In fact, pin nose metal-to-metal seal proprietary connections in this type of service can be less reliable than the API BTC connection since the metal-to-metal seal is much more damage prone than the thread seal of API BTC. Also, very reliable leak resistance, even to gas, is obtained with tin plated BTC couplings.

  8. Altered functional connectivity in persistent developmental stuttering

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Jia, Fanlu; Siok, Wai Ting; Tan, Li Hai

    2016-01-01

    Persistent developmental stuttering (PDS) is a speech disorder that impairs communication skills. Despite extensive research, the core causes of PDS are elusive. Converging evidence from task-induced neuroimaging methods has demonstrated the contributions of the basal ganglia and the cerebellum to PDS, but such task-state neuroimaging findings are often confounded by behavioral performance differences between subjects who stutter and normal controls. Here, using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated functional connectivity within cerebellar-cortical and basal ganglia-thalamocortical networks in 16 adults who stutter and 18 age-matched fluent speakers. Seed-to-voxel analysis demonstrated that, compared to controls, adults who stutter showed alternations in functional connectivity of cerebellum to motor cortex as well as connectivity among different locals within cerebellum. Additionally, we found that functional connectivity within cerebellar circuits was significantly correlated with severity of stuttering. The alternations of functional connectivity within basal ganglia-thalamocortical networks were identified as the reduced connectivity of the putamen to the superior temporal gyrus and inferior parietal lobules in adults who stutter. The abnormalities of resting state functional connectivity are assumed to affect language planning and motor execution critical for speaking fluently. Our findings may yield neurobiological cues to the biomarkers of PDS. PMID:26743821

  9. Physiological integration of connected balsam poplar ramets.

    PubMed

    Adonsou, Kokouvi Emmanuel; DesRochers, Annie; Tremblay, Francine

    2016-07-01

    Clonal integration between ramets can be an ecological advantage of clonal plant species in environments where resources are patchily distributed. We investigated physiological integration among Populus balsamifera L. ramets under drought stress in order to demonstrate water sharing between connected ramets. Pairs of connected ramets were grown in separate pots in the greenhouse where half of ramets had the parental root connection severed and half were left intact. Drought stress was applied to one ramet, and growth, specific leaf area (SLA), net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, leaf water potential and carbon isotopic composition (δ(13)C) were measured after an 8-week growing period. Droughted ramets connected to watered ramets were able to maintain high gas exchange activity and water potential, similar to watered ramets. Leaf water potential and SLA results showed that the root connection was more beneficial for proximal compared with distal ramets. The parental root connection also allowed droughted ramets to discriminate more against (13)C compared with severed ramets. In conclusion, this study shows compelling evidence of physiological integration of connected P. balsamifera ramets through water sharing. PMID:26843209

  10. Low pore connectivity in natural rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qinhong; Ewing, Robert P.; Dultz, Stefan

    2012-05-01

    As repositories for CO2 and radioactive waste, as oil and gas reservoirs, and as contaminated sites needing remediation, rock formations play a central role in energy and environmental management. The connectivity of the rock's porespace strongly affects fluid flow and solute transport. This work examines pore connectivity and its implications for fluid flow and chemical transport. Three experimental approaches (imbibition, tracer concentration profiles, and imaging) were used in combination with network modeling. In the imbibition results, three types of imbibition slope [log (cumulative imbibition) vs. log (imbibition time)] were found: the classical 0.5, plus 0.26, and 0.26 transitioning to 0.5. The imbibition slope of 0.26 seen in Indiana sandstone, metagraywacke, and Barnett shale indicates low pore connectivity, in contrast to the slope of 0.5 seen in the well-connected Berea sandstone. In the tracer profile work, rocks exhibited different distances to the plateau porosity, consistent with the pore connectivity from the imbibition tests. Injection of a molten metal into connected pore spaces, followed by 2-D imaging of the solidified alloy in polished thin sections, allowed direct assessment of pore structure and lateral connection in the rock samples. Pore-scale network modeling gave results consistent with measurements, confirming pore connectivity as the underlying cause of both anomalous behaviors: imbibition slope not having the classical value of 0.5, and accessible porosity being a function of distance from the edge. A poorly connected porespace will exhibit anomalous behavior in fluid flow and chemical transport, such as a lower imbibition slope (in air-water system) and diffusion rate than expected from classical behavior.

  11. Functional connectivity hubs of the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Liska, Adam; Galbusera, Alberto; Schwarz, Adam J; Gozzi, Alessandro

    2015-07-15

    Recent advances in functional connectivity methods have made it possible to identify brain hubs - a set of highly connected regions serving as integrators of distributed neuronal activity. The integrative role of hub nodes makes these areas points of high vulnerability to dysfunction in brain disorders, and abnormal hub connectivity profiles have been described for several neuropsychiatric disorders. The identification of analogous functional connectivity hubs in preclinical species like the mouse may provide critical insight into the elusive biological underpinnings of these connectional alterations. To spatially locate functional connectivity hubs in the mouse brain, here we applied a fully-weighted network analysis to map whole-brain intrinsic functional connectivity (i.e., the functional connectome) at a high-resolution voxel-scale. Analysis of a large resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) dataset revealed the presence of six distinct functional modules related to known large-scale functional partitions of the brain, including a default-mode network (DMN). Consistent with human studies, highly-connected functional hubs were identified in several sub-regions of the DMN, including the anterior and posterior cingulate and prefrontal cortices, in the thalamus, and in small foci within well-known integrative cortical structures such as the insular and temporal association cortices. According to their integrative role, the identified hubs exhibited mutual preferential interconnections. These findings highlight the presence of evolutionarily-conserved, mutually-interconnected functional hubs in the mouse brain, and may guide future investigations of the biological foundations of aberrant rsfMRI hub connectivity associated with brain pathological states. PMID:25913701

  12. Low pore connectivity in natural rock.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qinhong; Ewing, Robert P; Dultz, Stefan

    2012-05-15

    As repositories for CO(2) and radioactive waste, as oil and gas reservoirs, and as contaminated sites needing remediation, rock formations play a central role in energy and environmental management. The connectivity of the rock's porespace strongly affects fluid flow and solute transport. This work examines pore connectivity and its implications for fluid flow and chemical transport. Three experimental approaches (imbibition, tracer concentration profiles, and imaging) were used in combination with network modeling. In the imbibition results, three types of imbibition slope [log (cumulative imbibition) vs. log (imbibition time)] were found: the classical 0.5, plus 0.26, and 0.26 transitioning to 0.5. The imbibition slope of 0.26 seen in Indiana sandstone, metagraywacke, and Barnett shale indicates low pore connectivity, in contrast to the slope of 0.5 seen in the well-connected Berea sandstone. In the tracer profile work, rocks exhibited different distances to the plateau porosity, consistent with the pore connectivity from the imbibition tests. Injection of a molten metal into connected pore spaces, followed by 2-D imaging of the solidified alloy in polished thin sections, allowed direct assessment of pore structure and lateral connection in the rock samples. Pore-scale network modeling gave results consistent with measurements, confirming pore connectivity as the underlying cause of both anomalous behaviors: imbibition slope not having the classical value of 0.5, and accessible porosity being a function of distance from the edge. A poorly connected porespace will exhibit anomalous behavior in fluid flow and chemical transport, such as a lower imbibition slope (in air-water system) and diffusion rate than expected from classical behavior. PMID:22507286

  13. Low Pore Connectivity in Natural Rock

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Qinhong; Ewing, Robert P.; Dultz, Stefan

    2012-05-15

    As repositories for CO₂ and radioactive waste, as oil and gas reservoirs, and as contaminated sites needing remediation, rock formations play a central role in energy and environmental management. The connectivity of the rock's porespace strongly affects fluid flow and solute transport. This work examines pore connectivity and its implications for fluid flow and chemical transport. Three experimental approaches (imbibition, tracer concentration profiles, and imaging) were used in combination with network modeling. In the imbibition results, three types of imbibition slope [log (cumulative imbibition) vs. log (imbibition time)] were found: the classical 0.5, plus 0.26, and 0.26 transitioning to 0.5. The imbibition slope of 0.26 seen in Indiana sandstone, metagraywacke, and Barnett shale indicates low pore connectivity, in contrast to the slope of 0.5 seen in the well-connected Berea sandstone. In the tracer profile work, rocks exhibited different distances to the plateau porosity, consistent with the pore connectivity from the imbibition tests. Injection of a molten metal into connected pore spaces, followed by 2-D imaging of the solidified alloy in polished thin sections, allowed direct assessment of pore structure and lateral connection in the rock samples. Pore-scale network modeling gave results consistent with measurements, confirming pore connectivity as the underlying cause of both anomalous behaviors: imbibition slope not having the classical value of 0.5, and accessible porosity being a function of distance from the edge. A poorly connected porespace will exhibit anomalous behavior in fluid flow and chemical transport, such as a lower imbibition slope (in air–water system) and diffusion rate than expected from classical behavior.

  14. Green optical networks with connection availability guarantee.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoning; Tan, Shufang

    2015-06-29

    In this paper, we study green optical networks with connection availability guarantee. After introducing a power consumption model for green optical network design, we propose a design method called Availability-Guaranteed Energy-Efficient Design (AGEED). In AGEED, we employ dedicated path protection as backup capacity in order to improve connection availability. Based on iterative routing by modifying link weights, we can make idle network resources be switched into sleep mode, and obtain the energy saving effect. Our simulation results show that AGEED is more advantageous to achieve energy-efficient purpose and guarantee the satisfied connection availability levels in comparison with other methods. PMID:26191755

  15. Electrical connection structure for a superconductor element

    SciTech Connect

    Lallouet, Nicolas; Maguire, James

    2010-05-04

    The invention relates to an electrical connection structure for a superconductor element cooled by a cryogenic fluid and connected to an electrical bushing, which bushing passes successively through an enclosure at an intermediate temperature between ambient temperature and the temperature of the cryogenic fluid, and an enclosure at ambient temperature, said bushing projecting outside the ambient temperature enclosure. According to the invention, said intermediate enclosure is filled at least in part with a solid material of low thermal conductivity, such as a polyurethane foam or a cellular glass foam. The invention is applicable to connecting a superconductor cable at cryogenic temperature to a device for equipment at ambient temperature.

  16. Temporal connectivity in a prairie pothole complex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leibowitz, S.G.; Vining, K.C.

    2003-01-01

    A number of studies have noted the occurrence of intermittent surface-water connections between depressional wetlands in general and prairie potholes in particular. Yet, the ecological implications of such connections remain largely unexplored. In 1995, we observed spillage into and out of a North Dakota wetland during two field visits. Between May 3 and May 26, there was a positive relationship between specific conductance and water level at this site, suggesting an external source of dissolved ions. We estimated that specific conductance may have increased at the site by as much as 614 ??S cm-1 due to spillage from the upslope wetland. Based on a spatial analysis that compared National Wetlands Inventory maps with 1996 color infrared imagery, we estimated that 28% of the area's wetlands had a temporary surface water connection to at least one other wetland at that time, including one complex of 14 interconnected wetlands. These results indicate that the connectivity observed in 1995 was not confined to the two wetlands nor to that single year. The degree of connectivity we observed would be expected to occur during the wetter portions of the region's 20-year wet-dry cycle. We hypothesize that intermittent surface-water connections between wetlands occur throughout the prairie pothole region. Given patterns in relief and precipitation, these connections most likely would have occurred in the eastern portion of the prairie pothole region. However, wetland drainage may have altered historical patterns. The implication of these spatial and temporal trends is that surface-water connections between depressional wetlands should be viewed as a probability event that has some distribution over time and space. We refer to connections that are impermanent, temporally discontinuous, or sporadic as temporal connectivity. The most intriguing feature of these temporary connections may be that they could affect biodiversity or population dynamics through transport of individuals

  17. Asthma Research: The NIH–NJRC Connection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Asthma Research: The NIH–NJRC Connection Past Issues / Fall ... the many ways that NIH supports and promotes asthma research is through its strong relationship with National ...

  18. Influence of corticosteroids on connective tissue.

    PubMed

    Asboe-Hansen, G

    1976-01-01

    All glucocorticosteroids inhibit growth, regeneration and repair of cellular or intercellular components of dermal connective tissues, when penetrated through the skin barrier. The resulting atrophy is a logical manifestation of the action of these compounds. PMID:133835

  19. Social connection modulates perceptions of animacy.

    PubMed

    Powers, Katherine E; Worsham, Andrea L; Freeman, Jonathan B; Wheatley, Thalia; Heatherton, Todd F

    2014-10-01

    Human survival depends on identifying targets potentially capable of engaging in meaningful social connection. Using sets of morphed images created from animate (human) and inanimate (doll) faces, we found converging evidence across two studies showing that the motivation to connect with other people systematically alters the interpretation of the physical features that signal that a face is alive. Specifically, in their efforts to find and connect with other social agents, individuals who feel socially disconnected actually decrease their thresholds for what it means to be alive, consistently observing animacy when fewer definitively human cues are present. From an evolutionary perspective, overattributing animacy may be an adaptive strategy that allows people to cast a wide net when identifying possible sources of social connection and maximize their opportunities to renew social relationships. PMID:25193944

  20. ISSUES IN LIGNIN CHEMISTRY. "THE HELSINKI CONNECTION"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation covers advances in lignin chemistry (and our Helsinki connection) on dibenzodioxocins, spirodienones, and reduced structures in lignins. It also explores the various roles in defending lignification theory (based on Freudenberg's original hypothesis) against a supposed new contende...

  1. MedlinePlus Connect: How it Works

    MedlinePlus

    ... it looks depends on how it is implemented. Web Application The Web application returns a formatted response ... for more examples of Web Application response pages. Web Service The MedlinePlus Connect REST-based Web service ...

  2. Testicular complications in connective tissue disease

    PubMed Central

    Tangney, N J

    1981-01-01

    Acute testicular symptoms are described in 2 patients with Schönlein-Henoch syndrome and in 1 with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. The literature on testicular involvement in connective tissue disease of childhood is reviewed. PMID:7271306

  3. Video 2 of 7: NASA Connection

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video provides the context for the lesson, including background information on recent Mars explorations showing the connection between this lesson and NASA's research. A variety of NASA scient...

  4. Economical solder connections to thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bass, J. A.; Gaddy, E. M.

    1979-01-01

    Soldering procedure, successfully tested for attaching leads to silicon solar cells, cover-glasses, is simple, inexpensive, and very effective in forming stable connection. Procedure uses solder of indium alloyed with either silver or tin.

  5. Mechanism Connects and Disconnects Lines Remotely

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strand, Victor; Holman, Earl V.

    1987-01-01

    Misaligned, widely separated connector halves joined, then separated when necessary, while human operator remains at distance. Remote-connection mechanism accommodates large displacements and misalignments of plug and receptacle.

  6. Social connection modulates perceptions of animacy

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Katherine E.; Worsham, Andrea L.; Freeman, Jonathan B.; Wheatley, Thalia; Heatherton, Todd F.

    2014-01-01

    Human survival depends on identifying targets potentially capable of engaging in meaningful social connection. Using sets of morphed images created from animate (human) and inanimate (doll) faces, we provide converging evidence from across two studies showing that the motivation to connect with other people systematically alters the interpretation of the physical features that signal that a face is alive. Specifically, in their efforts to find and connect with other social agents, individuals who feel socially disconnected actually lower their thresholds for what it means to be alive, consistently observing animacy when fewer definitively human cues are present. From an evolutionary perspective, overattributing animacy may be an adaptive strategy, allowing people to cast a wide net when identifying possible sources of social connection and maximize their opportunities to renew social relationships. PMID:25193944

  7. Transistor Effect in Improperly Connected Transistors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luzader, Stephen; Sanchez-Velasco, Eduardo

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the differences between the standard representation and a realistic representation of a transistor. Presents an experiment that helps clarify the explanation of the transistor effect and shows why transistors should be connected properly. (JRH)

  8. Note on resolution, connection graphs, and subsumption

    SciTech Connect

    De Champeaux, D.

    1982-07-01

    Completeness is endangered by the combination in connection graph of subsumption deletion rules and the run time pure literal rule. With some care completeness can be restored. How this can be achieved is briefly discussed. 3 references.

  9. Modified mesh-connected parallel computers

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, D.A. )

    1988-10-01

    The mesh-connected parallel computer is an important parallel processing organization that has been used in the past for the design of supercomputing systems. In this paper, the authors explore modifications of a mesh-connected parallel computer for the purpose of increasing the efficiency of executing important application programs. These modifications are made by adding one or more global mesh structures to the processing array. They show how our modifications allow asymptotic improvements in the efficiency of executing computations having low to medium interprocessor communication requirements (e.g., tree computations, prefix computations, finding the connected components of a graph). For computations with high interprocessor communication requirements such as sorting, they show that they offer no speedup. They also compare the modified mesh-connected parallel computer to other similar organizations including the pyramid, the X-tree, and the mesh-of-trees.

  10. Partial connectivity increases cultural accumulation within groups

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Complex technologies used in most human societies are beyond the inventive capacities of individuals. Instead, they result from a cumulative process in which innovations are gradually added to existing cultural traits across many generations. Recent work suggests that a population’s ability to develop complex technologies is positively affected by its size and connectedness. Here, we present a simple computer-based experiment that compares the accumulation of innovations by fully and partially connected groups of the same size in a complex fitness landscape. We find that the propensity to learn from successful individuals drastically reduces cultural diversity within fully connected groups. In comparison, partially connected groups produce more diverse solutions, and this diversity allows them to develop complex solutions that are never produced in fully connected groups. These results suggest that explanations of ancestral patterns of cultural complexity may need to consider levels of population fragmentation and interaction patterns between partially isolated groups. PMID:26929364

  11. Partial connectivity increases cultural accumulation within groups.

    PubMed

    Derex, Maxime; Boyd, Robert

    2016-03-15

    Complex technologies used in most human societies are beyond the inventive capacities of individuals. Instead, they result from a cumulative process in which innovations are gradually added to existing cultural traits across many generations. Recent work suggests that a population's ability to develop complex technologies is positively affected by its size and connectedness. Here, we present a simple computer-based experiment that compares the accumulation of innovations by fully and partially connected groups of the same size in a complex fitness landscape. We find that the propensity to learn from successful individuals drastically reduces cultural diversity within fully connected groups. In comparison, partially connected groups produce more diverse solutions, and this diversity allows them to develop complex solutions that are never produced in fully connected groups. These results suggest that explanations of ancestral patterns of cultural complexity may need to consider levels of population fragmentation and interaction patterns between partially isolated groups. PMID:26929364

  12. Better models are more effectively connected models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, João Pedro; Bielders, Charles; Darboux, Frederic; Fiener, Peter; Finger, David; Turnbull-Lloyd, Laura; Wainwright, John

    2016-04-01

    The concept of hydrologic and geomorphologic connectivity describes the processes and pathways which link sources (e.g. rainfall, snow and ice melt, springs, eroded areas and barren lands) to accumulation areas (e.g. foot slopes, streams, aquifers, reservoirs), and the spatial variations thereof. There are many examples of hydrological and sediment connectivity on a watershed scale; in consequence, a process-based understanding of connectivity is crucial to help managers understand their systems and adopt adequate measures for flood prevention, pollution mitigation and soil protection, among others. Modelling is often used as a tool to understand and predict fluxes within a catchment by complementing observations with model results. Catchment models should therefore be able to reproduce the linkages, and thus the connectivity of water and sediment fluxes within the systems under simulation. In modelling, a high level of spatial and temporal detail is desirable to ensure taking into account a maximum number of components, which then enables connectivity to emerge from the simulated structures and functions. However, computational constraints and, in many cases, lack of data prevent the representation of all relevant processes and spatial/temporal variability in most models. In most cases, therefore, the level of detail selected for modelling is too coarse to represent the system in a way in which connectivity can emerge; a problem which can be circumvented by representing fine-scale structures and processes within coarser scale models using a variety of approaches. This poster focuses on the results of ongoing discussions on modelling connectivity held during several workshops within COST Action Connecteur. It assesses the current state of the art of incorporating the concept of connectivity in hydrological and sediment models, as well as the attitudes of modellers towards this issue. The discussion will focus on the different approaches through which connectivity

  13. Electrically conductive connection for an electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Hornack, Thomas R.; Chilko, Robert J.

    1986-01-01

    An electrically conductive connection for an electrode assembly of an electrolyte cell in which aluminum is produced by electrolysis in a molten salt is described. The electrode assembly comprises an electrode flask and a conductor rod. The flask has a collar above an area of minimum flask diameter. The electrically conductive connection comprises the electrode flask, the conductor rod and a structure bearing against the collar and the conductor rod for pulling the conductor rod into compressive and electrical contact with the flask.

  14. SERVIR Town Hall - Connecting Space to Village

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limaye, Ashutosh S.; Searby, Nancy D.; Irwin, Daniel; Albers, Cerese

    2013-01-01

    SERVIR, a joint NASA-USAID project, strives to improve environmental decision making through the use of Earth observations, models, and geospatial technology innovations. SERVIR connects these assets with the needs of end users in Mesoamerica, East Africa, and Hindu Kush-Himalaya regions. This Town Hall meeting will engage the AGU community by exploring examples of connecting Space to Village with SERVIR science applications.

  15. Zone heated diesel particulate filter electrical connection

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.

    2010-03-30

    An electrical connection system for a particulate filter is provided. The system includes: a particulate filter (PF) disposed within an outer shell wherein the PF is segmented into a plurality of heating zones; an outer mat disposed between the particulate filter and the outer shell; an electrical connector coupled to the outer shell of the PF; and a plurality of printed circuit connections that extend along the outer surface of the PF from the electrical connector to the plurality of heating zones.

  16. Connecting forest ecosystem and microwave backscatter models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasischke, Eric S.; Christensen, Norman L., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    A procedure is outlined to connect data obtained from active microwave remote sensing systems with forest ecosystem models. The hierarchy of forest ecosystem models is discussed, and the levels at which microwave remote sensing data can be used as inputs are identified. In addition, techniques to utilize forest ecosystem models to assist in the validation of theoretical microwave backscatter models are identified. Several examples to illustrate these connecting processes are presented.

  17. NASA CONNECT: Proportionality: Modeling the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    'Proportionality: Modeling the Future' is the sixth of seven programs in the 1999-2000 NASA CONNECT series. Produced by NASA Langley Research Center's Office of Education, NASA CONNECT is an award-winning series of instructional programs designed to enhance the teaching of math, science and technology concepts in grades 5-8. NASA CONNECT establishes the 'connection' between the mathematics, science, and technology concepts taught in the classroom and NASA research. Each program in the series supports the national mathematics, science, and technology standards; includes a resource-rich teacher guide; and uses a classroom experiment and web-based activity to complement and enhance the math, science, and technology concepts presented in the program. NASA CONNECT is FREE and the programs in the series are in the public domain. Visit our web site and register. http://connect.larc.nasa.gov 'Proportionality: Modeling the Future', students will examine how patterns, measurement, ratios, and proportions are used in the research, development, and production of airplanes.

  18. NASA CONNECT: The Measurement of All Things

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    'The Measurement of All Things: Tools of the Aeronautics Trade' is the first of seven programs in the 1999-2000 NASA CONNECT series. Produced by NASA Langley Research Center's Office of Education, NASA CONNECT is an award-winning series of instructional programs designed to enhance the teaching of math, science and technology concepts in grades 5-8. NASA CONNECT establishes the 'connection' between the mathematics, science, and technology concepts taught in the classroom and NASA research. Each program in the series supports the national mathematics, science, and technology standards; includes a resource-rich teacher guide; and uses a classroom experiment and web-based activity to complement and enhance the math, science, and technology concepts presented in the program. NASA CONNECT is FREE and the programs in the series are in the public domain. Visit our web site and register. http://connect.larc.nasa.gov In 'The Measurement of All Things: Tools of the Aeronautics Trade' students will explore the concept of measurement and the tools used in measuring things, while learning 'what' and 'how' engineers and scientists use measurement during the process of developing, designing, and testing airplanes.

  19. Thalamocortical connectivity during resting state in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Klingner, Carsten M; Langbein, Kerstin; Dietzek, Maren; Smesny, Stefan; Witte, Otto W; Sauer, Heinrich; Nenadic, Igor

    2014-03-01

    Schizophrenia has been linked to disturbed connectivity between large-scale brain networks. Altered thalamocortical connectivity might be a major mechanism mediating regionally distributed dysfunction, yet it is only incompletely understood. We analysed functional magnetic resonance imaging data obtained during resting state from 22 DSM-IV schizophrenia patients and 22 matched healthy controls to directly assess the differences in thalamocortical functional connectivity. We identified significantly higher overall thalamocortical functional connectivity in patients, which was mostly accounted for by difference in thalamic connections to right ventrolateral prefrontal and bilateral secondary motor and sensory (superior temporal and lateral occipital) cortical areas. Voxelwise analysis showed group differences at the thalamic level to be mostly in medial and anterior thalamic nuclei and arising thalamocortical changes to be mostly due to higher positive correlations in prefrontal and superior temporal correlations, as well as absent negative correlations to sensory areas in patients. Our findings demonstrate that different types of thalamocortical dysfunction contribute to network alterations, including lack of inhibitory interaction attributed to the lack of significant negative thalamic/sensory cortical connections. These results emphasize the functional importance of the thalamus in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. PMID:23892770

  20. Service connectivity architecture for mobile augmented reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turunen, Tuukka; Pyssysalo, Tino; Roening, Juha

    2001-06-01

    Mobile augmented reality can be utilized in a number of different services, and it provides a lot of added value compared to the interfaces used in mobile multimedia today. Intelligent service connectivity architecture is needed for the emerging commercial mobile augmented reality services, to guarantee mobility and interoperability on a global scale. Some of the key responsibilities of this architecture are to find suitable service providers, to manage the connection with and utilization of such providers, and to allow smooth switching between them whenever the user moves out of the service area of the service provider she is currently connected to. We have studied the potential support technologies for such architectures and propose a way to create an intelligent service connectivity architecture based on current and upcoming wireless networks, an Internet backbone, and mechanisms to manage service connectivity in the upper layers of the protocol stack. In this paper, we explain the key issues of service connectivity, describe the properties of our architecture, and analyze the functionality of an example system. Based on these, we consider our proposition a good solution to the quest for global interoperability in mobile augmented reality services.

  1. 29 CFR Appendix H to Subpart R of... - Double Connections: Illustration of a Clipped End Connection and a Staggered Connection: Non...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Double Connections: Illustration of a Clipped End... CONSTRUCTION Steel Erection Pt. 1926, Subpt. R, App. H Appendix H to Subpart R of Part 1926—Double Connections... one bolt connection at all times while making the double connection....

  2. 29 CFR Appendix H to Subpart R of... - Double Connections: Illustration of a Clipped End Connection and a Staggered Connection: Non...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Double Connections: Illustration of a Clipped End... CONSTRUCTION Steel Erection Pt. 1926, Subpt. R, App. H Appendix H to Subpart R of Part 1926—Double Connections... one bolt connection at all times while making the double connection....

  3. 29 CFR Appendix H to Subpart R of... - Double Connections: Illustration of a Clipped End Connection and a Staggered Connection: Non...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Double Connections: Illustration of a Clipped End... CONSTRUCTION Steel Erection Pt. 1926, Subpt. R, App. H Appendix H to Subpart R of Part 1926—Double Connections... one bolt connection at all times while making the double connection....

  4. 29 CFR Appendix H to Subpart R of... - Double Connections: Illustration of a Clipped End Connection and a Staggered Connection: Non...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Double Connections: Illustration of a Clipped End... CONSTRUCTION Steel Erection Pt. 1926, Subpt. R, App. H Appendix H to Subpart R of Part 1926—Double Connections... one bolt connection at all times while making the double connection....

  5. 29 CFR Appendix H to Subpart R of... - Double Connections: Illustration of a Clipped End Connection and a Staggered Connection: Non...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Double Connections: Illustration of a Clipped End... CONSTRUCTION Steel Erection Pt. 1926, Subpt. R, App. H Appendix H to Subpart R of Part 1926—Double Connections... one bolt connection at all times while making the double connection....

  6. 24 CFR 3280.605 - Joints and connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and connections. (a) Tightness. Joints and connections in the plumbing system shall be gastight and... connected to a public water system, made with solder having not more than 0.2 percent lead. (4) Plastic...

  7. A Connection Formula for the q-Confluent Hypergeometric Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, Takeshi

    2013-07-01

    We show a connection formula for the q-confluent hypergeometric functions {}_2ϕ_1(a,b;0;q,x). Combining our connection formula with Zhang's connection formula for {}_2ϕ_0(a,b;-;q,x), we obtain the connection formula for the q-confluent hypergeometric equation in the matrix form. Also we obtain the connection formula of Kummer's confluent hypergeometric functions by taking the limit qto 1^{-} of our connection formula.

  8. The Connectivity Map: using gene-expression signatures to connect small molecules, genes, and disease.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Justin; Crawford, Emily D; Peck, David; Modell, Joshua W; Blat, Irene C; Wrobel, Matthew J; Lerner, Jim; Brunet, Jean-Philippe; Subramanian, Aravind; Ross, Kenneth N; Reich, Michael; Hieronymus, Haley; Wei, Guo; Armstrong, Scott A; Haggarty, Stephen J; Clemons, Paul A; Wei, Ru; Carr, Steven A; Lander, Eric S; Golub, Todd R

    2006-09-29

    To pursue a systematic approach to the discovery of functional connections among diseases, genetic perturbation, and drug action, we have created the first installment of a reference collection of gene-expression profiles from cultured human cells treated with bioactive small molecules, together with pattern-matching software to mine these data. We demonstrate that this "Connectivity Map" resource can be used to find connections among small molecules sharing a mechanism of action, chemicals and physiological processes, and diseases and drugs. These results indicate the feasibility of the approach and suggest the value of a large-scale community Connectivity Map project. PMID:17008526

  9. Connection management architecture for multiplex connection of module based personal robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Dong Hee; Choo, Sung-Ho; Park, Hong-Seong; Kim, Hong-Seok

    2005-12-01

    Personal robot is robot that live and helps human from space such as human. Personal robot intends rescue that can use assembling various module according to user's inclination or usage as is different from existent industrial robot that take charge repeated work being fixed. Because mixed module that have various structure to one platform, it acts to decentralized system. Therefore, it need technical development to accommodate these structure by use of network interface of change of distributed environment and various rescue in center concentration Computing environment. Research for middleware is studied vigorously to accommodate this different kinds of systems and heterogeneous network It need technical development to accommodate these structure by use of network interface of change of module based Robot and various rescue in center concentration Robot. Research for robot middleware is studied vigorously to accommodate heterogeneous O/S, network, and Platform. Single network connection between modules improves relativity for network. Personal robot is more important service between modules than network connectivity. Therefore, multiplex connection between modules lowers relativity about network connection, and come fault tolerant between module and raise service QoS. We propose architecture that will provide service independently with connection of network interface to user. The proposed Architecture accommodates various connection structure (ex, duplex connection structure) of selfishness species network etc.. in module based Personal Robot middleware. Module Agent that proposed structure composes network 1:1 connection, routing and multiplex service between modules through Synapse Agent possible connection structure have.

  10. Quantifying Connectivity in the Coastal Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitarai, S.; Siegel, D.; Watson, J.; Dong, C.; McWilliams, J.

    2008-12-01

    The quantification of coastal connectivity is important for a wide range of real-world applications ranging from marine pollution to nearshore fisheries management. For these purposes, coastal connectivity is best defined as the probability that water parcels from one nearshore location are advected to another site over a given time interval. Here, we demonstrate how to quantify coastal connectivity using Lagrangian probability- density function (PDF) methods, a classic modeling approach for many turbulent applications, and numerical solutions of coastal circulation for the Southern California Bight. Mean dispersal patterns from a single release site (or Lagrangian PDFs) show a strong dependency to the particle-release location and seasonal variability, reflecting circulation patterns in the Southern California Bight. Strong interannual variations, responding to El Nino and La Nina transitions are also observed. Mean connectivity patterns, deduced from Lagrangian PDFs, is spatially heterogeneous for the advection time of around 30 days or less, resulting from distinctive circulation patterns, and becomes more homogeneous for a longer advection time. A given realization of connectivity is stochastic because of eddy-driven transport and synoptic wind forcing changes. In general, mainland sites are good sources while both Northern and Southern Channel Islands are poor source sites, although they receive substantial fluxes of water parcels from the mainland. The predicted connectivity gives useful information to ecological and other applications for the Southern California Bight (e.g., designing marine protected areas, understanding gene structures, and predicting the impact of a pollution event) and provide a path for assessing connectivity for other regions of the coastal ocean.

  11. General Anesthesia and Human Brain Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract General anesthesia consists of amnesia, hypnosis, analgesia, and areflexia. Of these, the mechanism of hypnosis, or loss of consciousness, has been the most elusive, yet a fascinating problem. How anesthetic agents suppress human consciousness has been investigated with neuroimaging for two decades. Anesthetics substantially reduce the global cerebral metabolic rate and blood flow with a degree of regional heterogeneity characteristic to the anesthetic agent. The thalamus appears to be a common site of modulation by several anesthetics, but this may be secondary to cortical effects. Stimulus-dependent brain activation is preserved in primary sensory areas, suggesting that unconsciousness cannot be explained by cortical deafferentation or a diminution of cortical sensory reactivity. The effect of general anesthetics in functional and effective connectivity is varied depending on the agent, dose, and network studied. At an anesthetic depth characterized by the subjects' unresponsiveness, a partial, but not complete, reduction in connectivity is generally observed. Functional connectivity of the frontoparietal association cortex is often reduced, but a causal role of this change for the loss of consciousness remains uncertain. Functional connectivity of the nonspecific (intralaminar) thalamic nuclei is preferentially reduced by propofol. Higher-order thalamocortical connectivity is also reduced with certain anesthetics. The changes in functional connectivity during anesthesia induction and emergence do not mirror each other; the recovery from anesthesia may involve increases in functional connectivity above the normal wakeful baseline. Anesthetic loss of consciousness is not a block of corticofugal information transfer, but a disruption of higher-order cortical information integration. The prime candidates for functional networks of the forebrain that play a critical role in maintaining the state of consciousness are those based on the posterior parietal

  12. Disrupted Axonal Fiber Connectivity in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Zalesky, Andrew; Fornito, Alex; Seal, Marc L.; Cocchi, Luca; Westin, Carl-Fredrik; Bullmore, Edward T.; Egan, Gary F.; Pantelis, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Background Schizophrenia is believed to result from abnormal functional integration of neural processes thought to arise from aberrant brain connectivity. However, evidence for anatomical dysconnectivity has been equivocal, and few studies have examined axonal fiber connectivity in schizophrenia at the level of whole-brain networks. Methods Cortico-cortical anatomical connectivity at the scale of axonal fiber bundles was modeled as a network. Eighty-two network nodes demarcated functionally specific cortical regions. Sixty-four direction diffusion tensor-imaging coupled with whole-brain tractography was performed to map the architecture via which network nodes were interconnected in each of 74 patients with schizophrenia and 32 age- and gender-matched control subjects. Testing was performed to identify pairs of nodes between which connectivity was impaired in the patient group. The connectional architecture of patients was tested for changes in five network attributes: nodal degree, small-worldness, efficiency, path length, and clustering. Results Impaired connectivity in the patient group was found to involve a distributed network of nodes comprising medial frontal, parietal/occipital, and the left temporal lobe. Although small-world attributes were conserved in schizophrenia, the cortex was interconnected more sparsely and up to 20% less efficiently in patients. Intellectual performance was found to be associated with brain efficiency in control subjects but not in patients. Conclusions This study presents evidence of widespread dysconnectivity in white-matter connectional architecture in a large sample of patients with schizophrenia. When considered from the perspective of recent evidence for impaired synaptic plasticity, this study points to a multifaceted pathophysiology in schizophrenia encompassing axonal as well as putative synaptic mechanisms. PMID:21035793

  13. Connecting Network Properties of Rapidly Disseminating Epizoonotics

    PubMed Central

    Rivas, Ariel L.; Fasina, Folorunso O.; Hoogesteyn, Almira L.; Konah, Steven N.; Febles, José L.; Perkins, Douglas J.; Hyman, James M.; Fair, Jeanne M.; Hittner, James B.; Smith, Steven D.

    2012-01-01

    Background To effectively control the geographical dissemination of infectious diseases, their properties need to be determined. To test that rapid microbial dispersal requires not only susceptible hosts but also a pre-existing, connecting network, we explored constructs meant to reveal the network properties associated with disease spread, which included the road structure. Methods Using geo-temporal data collected from epizoonotics in which all hosts were susceptible (mammals infected by Foot-and-mouth disease virus, Uruguay, 2001; birds infected by Avian Influenza virus H5N1, Nigeria, 2006), two models were compared: 1) ‘connectivity’, a model that integrated bio-physical concepts (the agent’s transmission cycle, road topology) into indicators designed to measure networks (‘nodes’ or infected sites with short- and long-range links), and 2) ‘contacts’, which focused on infected individuals but did not assess connectivity. Results The connectivity model showed five network properties: 1) spatial aggregation of cases (disease clusters), 2) links among similar ‘nodes’ (assortativity), 3) simultaneous activation of similar nodes (synchronicity), 4) disease flows moving from highly to poorly connected nodes (directionality), and 5) a few nodes accounting for most cases (a “20∶80″ pattern). In both epizoonotics, 1) not all primary cases were connected but at least one primary case was connected, 2) highly connected, small areas (nodes) accounted for most cases, 3) several classes of nodes were distinguished, and 4) the contact model, which assumed all primary cases were identical, captured half the number of cases identified by the connectivity model. When assessed together, the synchronicity and directionality properties explained when and where an infectious disease spreads. Conclusions Geo-temporal constructs of Network Theory’s nodes and links were retrospectively validated in rapidly disseminating infectious diseases. They distinguished

  14. Global malaria connectivity through air travel

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Air travel has expanded at an unprecedented rate and continues to do so. Its effects have been seen on malaria in rates of imported cases, local outbreaks in non-endemic areas and the global spread of drug resistance. With elimination and global eradication back on the agenda, changing levels and compositions of imported malaria in malaria-free countries, and the threat of artemisinin resistance spreading from Southeast Asia, there is a need to better understand how the modern flow of air passengers connects each Plasmodium falciparum- and Plasmodium vivax-endemic region to the rest of the world. Methods Recently constructed global P. falciparum and P.vivax malaria risk maps, along with data on flight schedules and modelled passenger flows across the air network, were combined to describe and quantify global malaria connectivity through air travel. Network analysis approaches were then utilized to describe and quantify the patterns that exist in passenger flows weighted by malaria prevalence. Finally, the connectivity within and to the Southeast Asia region where the threat of imported artemisinin resistance arising is highest, was examined to highlight risk routes for its spread. Results The analyses demonstrate the substantial connectivity that now exists between and from malaria-endemic regions through air travel. While the air network provides connections to previously isolated malarious regions, it is clear that great variations exist, with significant regional communities of airports connected by higher rates of flow standing out. The structures of these communities are often not geographically coherent, with historical, economic and cultural ties evident, and variations between P. falciparum and P. vivax clear. Moreover, results highlight how well connected the malaria-endemic areas of Africa are now to Southeast Asia, illustrating the many possible routes that artemisinin-resistant strains could take. Discussion The continuing growth in air

  15. Resting state functional connectivity in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Phillipou, Andrea; Abel, Larry Allen; Castle, David Jonathan; Hughes, Matthew Edward; Nibbs, Richard Grant; Gurvich, Caroline; Rossell, Susan Lee

    2016-05-30

    Anorexia Nervosa (AN) is a serious psychiatric illness characterised by a disturbance in body image, a fear of weight gain and significantly low body weight. The factors involved in the genesis and maintenance of AN are unclear, though the potential neurobiological underpinnings of the condition are of increasing interest. Through the investigation of functional connectivity of the brain at rest, information relating to neuronal communication and integration of information that may relate to behaviours and cognitive symptoms can be explored. The aim of this study was to investigate functional connectivity of the default mode network, and sensorimotor and visual networks in AN. 26 females with AN and 27 healthy control participants matched for age, gender and premorbid intelligence underwent a resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. Default mode network functional connectivity did not differ between groups. AN participants displayed reduced functional connectivity between the sensorimotor and visual networks, in comparison to healthy controls. This finding is discussed in terms of differences in visuospatial processing in AN and the distortion of body image experienced by these individuals. Overall, the findings suggest that sensorimotor and visual network connectivity may be related to visuospatial processing in AN, though, further research is required. PMID:27111812

  16. Rainbow connection number of rocket graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susilawati, Salman, A. N. M.

    2015-09-01

    All graphs in this paper are simple, finite, and undirected. The concept of rainbow coloring was introduced by Chartrand et al2. Let G be a non trivial connected graph. For k ∈ℕ , we define a coloring c :E (G )→{1 ,2 ,…,k } of the edges of G such that the adjacent can be colored the same. A path P in G is a rainbow path if no two edges of P are colored the same. A path connecting two vertices u and u in G is called u-v path. A graph G is said rainbow-connected if for every two vertices u and u of G, there exist a rainbow u-v path. In this case, the coloring c is called the rainbow k-coloring of G. The minimum k such that G has rainbow k-coloring is called the rainbow connection number of G. Clearly that diam(G )≤r c (G ) where diam(G) denotes the diameter of G. In this paper we determine the rainbow connection number of rocket graphs.

  17. Apparatus for connecting aligned abutted tubes

    DOEpatents

    Williams, R.E.

    1984-11-29

    An apparatus for connecting abutted tubes and for maintaining their rotary alignment during connection. The apparatus comprises first and second tubes, a rotation prevention element, a collar and a retainer. Each tube has inside and outside walls, and first and second ends, each end having an inside and outside edge. The first tube has portions defining a first plurality of cavities located at the outside edge of its first end. An external threaded portion is on the outside wall of the first tube and next to the first plurality of cavities. The second tube has portions defining a second plurality of cavities located at the outside edge of its first end. The first plurality has a different number than the second plurality. The first ends of the first and second tubes have substantially the same outside diameter and are abutted during connection so that an orifice is formed whenever first and second tube cavities substantially overlap. A rotation prevension element is placed in the orifice to prevent rotation of the first and second tubes. A collar with an internal threaded portion is slidably disposed about the second tube. The internal threaded portion engages the external threaded portion of the first tube to connect the tubes. A lip connected to the collar prevents separation of the collar from the second tube.

  18. On connectivity of wireless ultraviolet networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Leijie; Li, Yiyang; Xu, Zhengyuan

    2011-10-01

    Non-line-of-sight optical communication can be enabled by modulating signals into an UV carrier and then transmitting them through an atmospheric scattering channel. This paper investigates some connectivity issues for such UV communication networks. We discuss k-connectivity in a multiuser interference environment. Compared with the studied case without considering multiuser interference in which more users bring higher probability of k-connectivity, a large number of noncoordinated users cause higher interference and limit the network performance. Thus, node density should be carefully designed in accordance with network configurations. Four typical scenarios are discussed, depending on whether each node transmitter is capable of adjusting its pointing angle and tracking a target receiver. They lead to different link losses and consequently the network k-connectivity properties. One of the cases simplifying the transceiver design for adjustable pointing is also illustrated, where each node is equipped with multiple transmitters to be activated via electronic on/off switching. The number of transmitters on a single node then becomes another critical parameter whose effect on k-connectivity is studied. These results will provide a guideline for system and network designers. PMID:21979501

  19. Connectivity: An emerging concept for physiotherapy practice.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, David A; Atkinson, Karen; Bjorbækmo, Wenche S; Gibson, Barbara E; Latchem, Julie; Olesen, Jens; Ralls, Jenny; Setchell, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Having spent their first century anchored to a biomedical model of practice, physiotherapists have been increasingly interested in exploring new models and concepts that will better equip them for serving the health-care needs of 21st century clients/patients. Connectivity offers one such model. With an extensive philosophical background in phenomenology, symbolic interactionism, structuralism, and postmodern research, connectivity resists the prevailing western biomedical view that health professionals should aim to increase people's independence and autonomy, preferring instead to identify and amplify opportunities for collaboration and co-dependence. Connectivity critiques the normalization that underpins modern health care, arguing that our constant search for deviance is building stigma and discrimination into our everyday practice. It offers provocative opportunities for physiotherapists to rethink some of the fundamental tenets of their profession and better align physiotherapy with 21st century societal expectations. In this paper, we provide a background to the place connectivity may play in future health care, and most especially future physiotherapy practice. The paper examines some of the philosophical antecedents that have made connectivity an increasingly interesting and challenging concept in health care today. PMID:27050116

  20. Dynamic Functional Brain Connectivity for Face Perception

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yuan; Qiu, Yihong; Schouten, Alfred C.

    2015-01-01

    Face perception is mediated by a distributed brain network comprised of the core system at occipito-temporal areas and the extended system at other relevant brain areas involving bilateral hemispheres. In this study we explored how the brain connectivity changes over the time for face-sensitive processing. We investigated the dynamic functional connectivity in face perception by analyzing time-dependent EEG phase synchronization in four different frequency bands: theta (4–7 Hz), alpha (8–14 Hz), beta (15–24 Hz), and gamma (25–45 Hz) bands in the early stages of face processing from 30 to 300 ms. High-density EEG were recorded from subjects who were passively viewing faces, buildings, and chairs. The dynamic connectivity within the core system and between the extended system were investigated. Significant differences between faces and non-faces mainly appear in theta band connectivity: (1) at the time segment of 90–120 ms between parietal area and occipito-temporal area in the right hemisphere, and (2) at the time segment of 150–180 ms between bilateral occipito-temporal areas. These results indicate (1) the importance of theta-band connectivity in the face-sensitive processing, and (2) that different parts of network are involved for the initial stage of face categorization and the stage of face structural encoding. PMID:26696870

  1. A systematic framework for functional connectivity measures

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huifang E.; Bénar, Christian G.; Quilichini, Pascale P.; Friston, Karl J.; Jirsa, Viktor K.; Bernard, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Various methods have been proposed to characterize the functional connectivity between nodes in a network measured with different modalities (electrophysiology, functional magnetic resonance imaging etc.). Since different measures of functional connectivity yield different results for the same dataset, it is important to assess when and how they can be used. In this work, we provide a systematic framework for evaluating the performance of a large range of functional connectivity measures—based upon a comprehensive portfolio of models generating measurable responses. Specifically, we benchmarked 42 methods using 10,000 simulated datasets from 5 different types of generative models with different connectivity structures. Since all functional connectivity methods require the setting of some parameters (window size and number, model order etc.), we first optimized these parameters using performance criteria based upon (threshold free) ROC analysis. We then evaluated the performance of the methods on data simulated with different types of models. Finally, we assessed the performance of the methods against different levels of signal-to-noise ratios and network configurations. A MATLAB toolbox is provided to perform such analyses using other methods and simulated datasets. PMID:25538556

  2. Techniques for Connecting Superconducting Thin Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mester, John; Gwo, Dz-Hung

    2006-01-01

    Several improved techniques for connecting superconducting thin films on substrates have been developed. The techniques afford some versatility for tailoring the electronic and mechanical characteristics of junctions between superconductors in experimental electronic devices. The techniques are particularly useful for making superconducting or alternatively normally conductive junctions (e.g., Josephson junctions) between patterned superconducting thin films in order to exploit electron quantum-tunneling effects. The techniques are applicable to both low-Tc and high-Tc superconductors (where Tc represents the superconducting- transition temperature of a given material), offering different advantages for each. Most low-Tc superconductors are metallic, and heretofore, connections among them have been made by spot welding. Most high-Tc superconductors are nonmetallic and cannot be spot welded. These techniques offer alternatives to spot welding of most low-Tc superconductors and additional solutions to problems of connecting most high-Tc superconductors.

  3. Shear Adhesive Connections for Glass Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machalická, K.; Horčičková, I.; Eliášová, M.

    2015-11-01

    Unique aesthetical properties of glass - not only transparency but also smooth, glossy and primarily reflective surface - give this material special importance in the contemporary architecture. In every structural application of glass it is necessary to solve the problem associated with connections between glass pane and other part from a different material or between two glass elements. Moreover, there are many types of hybrid structures that combine glass and different materials to achieve safe failure behaviour and high degree of transparency at the same time. Connection of brittle glass and reinforcing material is an essential part of these structures, where composite action between two parts is beneficially ensured by a glued joint. The current paper deals with the experimental analysis focused on the determination of mechanical characteristics of adhesives applied in planar connections under shear loading.

  4. From connected pathway flow to ganglion dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rücker, M.; Berg, S.; Armstrong, R. T.; Georgiadis, A.; Ott, H.; Schwing, A.; Neiteler, R.; Brussee, N.; Makurat, A.; Leu, L.; Wolf, M.; Khan, F.; Enzmann, F.; Kersten, M.

    2015-05-01

    During imbibition, initially connected oil is displaced until it is trapped as immobile clusters. While initial and final states have been well described before, here we image the dynamic transient process in a sandstone rock using fast synchrotron-based X-ray computed microtomography. Wetting film swelling and subsequent snap off, at unusually high saturation, decreases nonwetting phase connectivity, which leads to nonwetting phase fragmentation into mobile ganglia, i.e., ganglion dynamics regime. We find that in addition to pressure-driven connected pathway flow, mass transfer in the oil phase also occurs by a sequence of correlated breakup and coalescence processes. For example, meniscus oscillations caused by snap-off events trigger coalescence of adjacent clusters. The ganglion dynamics occurs at the length scale of oil clusters and thus represents an intermediate flow regime between pore and Darcy scale that is so far dismissed in most upscaling attempts.

  5. On automating domain connectivity for overset grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Ing-Tsau; Meakin, Robert L.

    1995-01-01

    An alternative method for domain connectivity among systems of overset grids is presented. Reference uniform Cartesian systems of points are used to achieve highly efficient domain connectivity, and form the basis for a future fully automated system. The Cartesian systems are used to approximate body surfaces and to map the computational space of component grids. By exploiting the characteristics of Cartesian systems, Chimera type hole-cutting and identification of donor elements for intergrid boundary points can be carried out very efficiently. The method is tested for a range of geometrically complex multiple-body overset grid systems. A dynamic hole expansion/contraction algorithm is also implemented to obtain optimum domain connectivity; however, it is tested only for geometry of generic shapes.

  6. AMTEC vapor-vapor series connected cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underwood, Mark L. (Inventor); Williams, Roger M. (Inventor); Ryan, Margaret A. (Inventor); Nakamura, Barbara J. (Inventor); Oconnor, Dennis E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    An alkali metal thermoelectric converter (AMTEC) having a plurality of cells structurally connected in series to form a septum dividing a plenum into two chambers, and electrically connected in series, is provided with porous metal anodes and porous metal cathodes in the cells. The cells may be planar or annular, and in either case a metal alkali vapor at a high temperature is provided to the plenum through one chamber on one side of the wall and returned to a vapor boiler after condensation at a chamber on the other side of the wall in the plenum. If the cells are annular, a heating core may be placed along the axis of the stacked cells. This arrangement of series-connected cells allows efficient generation of power at high voltage and low current.

  7. Manipulating Polymer Connectivity to Control Interfacial Fracture

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, Mark J.

    1999-08-23

    By studying model polymeric networks which only differ in their connectivity, the connectivity is shown to strongly control the stress-strain response and failure modes. The sequence of molecular structural deformations that lead to failure are strongly dependent upon the network connectivity. A set of ideal, ordered networks are constructed to manipulate the deformation sequence to achieve a variety of adhesive qualities. Compared to random, dynamically formed networks, these ideal networks can be made to have either much larger or smaller failure stresses and strains. Unlike the random networks, the failure stress of an ideal network can be made close to the ideal stress equal to breaking all bonds to the substrate. By varying the number of bonds to the surface, the failure mode can be controlled to be either adhesive or cohesive.

  8. Load distribution between threads in threaded connections

    SciTech Connect

    Grewal, A.S.; Sabbaghian, M.

    1997-02-01

    Threaded connections are commonly employed in axial load-bearing equipment and pressure vessel components. There are a number of parameters that affect the load distribution between the threads and the stress concentration at the thread roots. These include the thread form, the thickness of walls supporting the threads, the pitch of threads, number of threads engaged, and the boundary conditions. In this paper, the influence of these parameters on the load distribution between threads is reported. Load distribution analyses in threaded connections is performed by analytical and by finite element methods. Square and buttress-type threads have been considered. Three-dimensional nonlinear finite element analyses on threaded connections have been performed using MSC/NASTRAN finite element code. The effect of clearance between the nonmating faces of threads as well as the presence of a flexible media between the mating faces of threads are investigated.

  9. Analytic connections on Riemann surfaces and orbifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brezhnev, Yurii V.

    2015-11-01

    We give a differentially closed description of the uniformizing representation to the analytical apparatus on Riemann surfaces and orbifolds of finite analytic type. Apart from well-known automorphic functions and Abelian differentials it involves construction of the connection objects. Like functions and differentials, the connection, being also the fundamental object, is described by algorithmically derivable ODEs. Automorphic properties of all of the objects are associated to different discrete groups, among which are excessive ones. We show, in an example of the hyperelliptic curves, how can the connection be explicitly constructed. We study also a relation between classical/traditional 'linearly differential' viewpoint (principal Fuchsian equation) and uniformizing τ-representation of the theory. The latter is shown to be supplemented with the second (to the principal) Fuchsian equation.

  10. Connections with Nature and Environmental Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Liuna; Xu, Jingke; Ye, Lijuan; Zhou, Wenjun; Zhou, Kexin

    2015-01-01

    The influence of environmental attitudes on environmental behaviors has long been discussed. However, few studies have addressed the foundation of such attitudes. In the present study, we explored primitive belief underlying environmental attitudes, i.e., connections with nature, and its relationship with pro-environmental behaviors. Specifically, we used scales, a computerized Implicit Association Test, and a situational simulation experiment to examine both explicit and implicit connections with nature, both deliberate and spontaneous environmental behaviors, and to find correlations between environmental connectedness and environmental behaviors. Results showed that explicit connectedness was positively correlated with deliberate environmental behaviors, while implicit connectedness was positively correlated with spontaneous environmental behaviors. Additionally, explicit and implicit connectedness was independent of each other. In conclusion, the current study confirms the positive role played by connections with nature in promoting environmental behavior, and accordingly suggests means to encourage pro-environmental behavior by enhancing people’s connectedness to nature. PMID:25985075

  11. LR: Compact connectivity representation for triangle meshes

    SciTech Connect

    Gurung, T; Luffel, M; Lindstrom, P; Rossignac, J

    2011-01-28

    We propose LR (Laced Ring) - a simple data structure for representing the connectivity of manifold triangle meshes. LR provides the option to store on average either 1.08 references per triangle or 26.2 bits per triangle. Its construction, from an input mesh that supports constant-time adjacency queries, has linear space and time complexity, and involves ordering most vertices along a nearly-Hamiltonian cycle. LR is best suited for applications that process meshes with fixed connectivity, as any changes to the connectivity require the data structure to be rebuilt. We provide an implementation of the set of standard random-access, constant-time operators for traversing a mesh, and show that LR often saves both space and traversal time over competing representations.

  12. Eccentric connectivity index of chemical trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haoer, R. S.; Atan, K. A.; Khalaf, A. M.; Said, M. R. Md.; Hasni, R.

    2016-06-01

    Let G = (V, E) be a simple connected molecular graph. In such a simple molecular graph, vertices and edges are depicted atoms and chemical bonds respectively, we refer to the sets of vertices by V (G) and edges by E (G). If d(u, v) be distance between two vertices u, v ∈ V(G) and can be defined as the length of a shortest path joining them. Then, the eccentricity connectivity index (ECI) of a molecular graph G is ξ(G) = ∑v∈V(G) d(v) ec(v), where d(v) is degree of a vertex v ∈ V(G). ec(v) is the length of a greatest path linking to another vertex of v. In this study, we focus the general formula for the eccentricity connectivity index (ECI) of some chemical trees as alkenes.

  13. Randomness in fractals, connectivity dimensions, and percolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perreau, M.; Levy, J. C. S.

    1989-10-01

    The structural properties of random fractals embedded in a d-dimensional Euclidean space are studied by means of transfer-matrix formalism of fractal sets. For d=1, both global and local approaches have been investigated, leading to the definition of a subdimension that is different from the fractal dimension and depends on the probability distribution. This subdimension is shown to be identical for the global and local approaches; then, the scaling corrections involved in this subdimension are the same for both these approaches. For d>1, only the local approach can be generalized, characterizing the connectivity properties of these structures. There are exactly d subdimensions called connectivity dimensions that prove to be useful to describe percolation properties of these fractals. Several percolation thresholds are shown, and the fractal dimension of the sets at the percolation threshold are related to the connectivity dimensions.

  14. Quantifying Riverscape Connectivity with Graph Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbonneau, P.; Milledge, D.; Sinha, R.; Tandon, S. K.

    2013-12-01

    Fluvial catchments convey fluxes of water, sediment, nutrients and aquatic biota. At continental scales, crustal topography defines the overall path of channels whilst at local scales depositional and/or erosional features generally determine the exact path of a channel. Furthermore, constructions such as dams, for either water abstraction or hydropower, often have a significant impact on channel networks.The concept of ';connectivity' is commonly invoked when conceptualising the structure of a river network.This concept is easy to grasp but there have been uneven efforts across the environmental sciences to actually quantify connectivity. Currently there have only been a few studies reporting quantitative indices of connectivity in river sciences, notably, in the study of avulsion processes. However, the majority of current work describing some form of environmental connectivity in a quantitative manner is in the field of landscape ecology. Driven by the need to quantify habitat fragmentation, landscape ecologists have returned to graph theory. Within this formal setting, landscape ecologists have successfully developed a range of indices which can model connectivity loss. Such formal connectivity metrics are currently needed for a range of applications in fluvial sciences. One of the most urgent needs relates to dam construction. In the developed world, hydropower development has generally slowed and in many countries, dams are actually being removed. However, this is not the case in the developing world where hydropower is seen as a key element to low-emissions power-security. For example, several dam projects are envisaged in Himalayan catchments in the next 2 decades. This region is already under severe pressure from climate change and urbanisation, and a better understanding of the network fragmentation which can be expected in this system is urgently needed. In this paper, we apply and adapt connectivity metrics from landscape ecology. We then examine the

  15. Healthcare e-commerce: connecting with patients.

    PubMed

    Joslyn, J S

    2001-01-01

    Electronically connecting with patients is a challenging frontier at which technical hurdles are probably exceeded by political, legal, and other barriers. The rise of consumerism, however, compels a response focused more on revenue and strategic advantage than on pure cost savings. Among the difficulties faced by providers is choosing among various models of connectivity and component function. Emerging models include "free-floating" personal medical records largely independent of the office-based physician, systems with compatible and intertwined physician and consumer relationships using an application services provider office practice system, and systems that connect patients and providers through e-mail, office triage, prescription refills, scheduling, and so on. This article discusses these and other combinations of technology that significantly overcome the barriers involved and that may be woven together to provide solutions uniquely suited to various competitive situations. PMID:11338911

  16. Multimodal Imaging of Dynamic Functional Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Laufs, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    The study of large-scale functional interactions in the human brain with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) extends almost to the first applications of this technology. Due to historical reasons and preconceptions about the limitations of this brain imaging method, most studies have focused on assessing connectivity over extended periods of time. It is now clear that fMRI can resolve the temporal dynamics of functional connectivity, like other faster imaging techniques such as electroencephalography and magnetoencephalography (albeit on a different temporal scale). However, the indirect nature of fMRI measurements can hinder the interpretability of the results. After briefly summarizing recent advances in the field, we discuss how the simultaneous combination of fMRI with electrophysiological activity measurements can contribute to a better understanding of dynamic functional connectivity in humans both during rest and task, wakefulness, and other brain states. PMID:25762977

  17. A review of variables of urban street connectivity for spatial connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamad, W. S. N. W.; Said, I.

    2014-02-01

    Several studies on street connectivity in cities and towns have been modeled on topology, morphology, technology and psychology of people living in the urban environment. Street connectivity means the connection of streets that offers people alternative routes. However, there emerge difficulties to determine the suitable variables and analysis to be chosen in defining the accurate result for studies street connectivity. The aim of this paper is to identify variables of street connectivity by applying GIS and Space Syntax. This paper reviews the variables of street connectivity from 15 past articles done in 1990s to early 2000s from journals of nine disciplines on Environment and Behavior, Planning and Design, Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, Applied Earth Observation and Geo-information, Environment and Planning, Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Environmental Psychology, Social Science and Medicine and Building and Environment. From the review, there are four variables found for street connectivity: link (streets-streets, street-nodes or node-streets, nodes-nodes), accessibility, least-angle, and centrality. Space syntax and GIS are suitable tools to analyze the four variables relating to systematic street systems for pedestrians. This review implies that planners of the street systems, in the aspect of street connectivity in cities and towns, should consider these four variables.

  18. The Power of Well-Connected Arguments: Early Sensitivity to the Connective "because"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Stephane; Mercier, Hugo; Clement, Fabrice

    2012-01-01

    Connectives, such as "because," are routinely used by parents when addressing their children, yet we do not know to what extent children are sensitive to their use. Given children's early developing abilities to evaluate testimony and produce arguments containing connectives, it was hypothesized that young children would show an appropriate…

  19. Dissociable Connectivity within Human Angular Gyrus and Intraparietal Sulcus: Evidence from Functional and Structural Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Supekar, Kaustubh; Amin, Hitha; Rykhlevskaia, Elena; Nguyen, Daniel A.; Greicius, Michael D.; Menon, Vinod

    2010-01-01

    The inferior parietal lobule (IPL) of the human brain is a heterogeneous region involved in visuospatial attention, memory, and mathematical cognition. Detailed description of connectivity profiles of subdivisions within the IPL is critical for accurate interpretation of functional neuroimaging studies involving this region. We separately examined functional and structural connectivity of the angular gyrus (AG) and the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) using probabilistic cytoarchitectonic maps. Regions-of-interest (ROIs) included anterior and posterior AG subregions (PGa, PGp) and 3 IPS subregions (hIP2, hIP1, and hIP3). Resting-state functional connectivity analyses showed that PGa was more strongly linked to basal ganglia, ventral premotor areas, and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, while PGp was more strongly connected with ventromedial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate, and hippocampus—regions comprising the default mode network. The anterior-most IPS ROIs, hIP2 and hIP1, were linked with ventral premotor and middle frontal gyrus, while the posterior-most IPS ROI, hIP3, showed connectivity with extrastriate visual areas. In addition, hIP1 was connected with the insula. Tractography using diffusion tensor imaging revealed structural connectivity between most of these functionally connected regions. Our findings provide evidence for functional heterogeneity of cytoarchitectonically defined subdivisions within IPL and offer a novel framework for synthesis and interpretation of the task-related activations and deactivations involving the IPL during cognition. PMID:20154013

  20. DiseaseConnect: a comprehensive web server for mechanism-based disease-disease connections.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun-Chi; Tseng, Yu-Ting; Li, Wenyuan; Wu, Chia-Yu; Mayzus, Ilya; Rzhetsky, Andrey; Sun, Fengzhu; Waterman, Michael; Chen, Jeremy J W; Chaudhary, Preet M; Loscalzo, Joseph; Crandall, Edward; Zhou, Xianghong Jasmine

    2014-07-01

    The DiseaseConnect (http://disease-connect.org) is a web server for analysis and visualization of a comprehensive knowledge on mechanism-based disease connectivity. The traditional disease classification system groups diseases with similar clinical symptoms and phenotypic traits. Thus, diseases with entirely different pathologies could be grouped together, leading to a similar treatment design. Such problems could be avoided if diseases were classified based on their molecular mechanisms. Connecting diseases with similar pathological mechanisms could inspire novel strategies on the effective repositioning of existing drugs and therapies. Although there have been several studies attempting to generate disease connectivity networks, they have not yet utilized the enormous and rapidly growing public repositories of disease-related omics data and literature, two primary resources capable of providing insights into disease connections at an unprecedented level of detail. Our DiseaseConnect, the first public web server, integrates comprehensive omics and literature data, including a large amount of gene expression data, Genome-Wide Association Studies catalog, and text-mined knowledge, to discover disease-disease connectivity via common molecular mechanisms. Moreover, the clinical comorbidity data and a comprehensive compilation of known drug-disease relationships are additionally utilized for advancing the understanding of the disease landscape and for facilitating the mechanism-based development of new drug treatments. PMID:24895436

  1. Connecting to Our Community: Utilizing Photovoice as a Pedagogical Tool to Connect College Students to Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Kristin; Quigley, Cassie

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the ways in which university students connected with science through the use of photovoice (Wang & Burris, 1994) as a pedagogical tool. Results indicated that students came to appreciate their connections to the science that operates in their lives as they reflected on and became empowered with regard to the science…

  2. The Reading Writing Connection. The Clipboard Connection. Chapter I Resource Center Curriculum and Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advanced Technology, Inc., Indianapolis, IN.

    The "Clipboard Connection" is a methodology to facilitate the rapid circulation of relevant pre-existing materials from Chapter 1 Technical Assistance Centers (TACs) to their clients, teachers of educationally disadvantaged children in resource centers. Each "Clipboard Connection" consists of a lead sheet summarizing the contents of the materials…

  3. Connectivity Measures in EEG Microstructural Sleep Elements

    PubMed Central

    Sakellariou, Dimitris; Koupparis, Andreas M.; Kokkinos, Vasileios; Koutroumanidis, Michalis; Kostopoulos, George K.

    2016-01-01

    During Non-Rapid Eye Movement sleep (NREM) the brain is relatively disconnected from the environment, while connectedness between brain areas is also decreased. Evidence indicates, that these dynamic connectivity changes are delivered by microstructural elements of sleep: short periods of environmental stimuli evaluation followed by sleep promoting procedures. The connectivity patterns of the latter, among other aspects of sleep microstructure, are still to be fully elucidated. We suggest here a methodology for the assessment and investigation of the connectivity patterns of EEG microstructural elements, such as sleep spindles. The methodology combines techniques in the preprocessing, estimation, error assessing and visualization of results levels in order to allow the detailed examination of the connectivity aspects (levels and directionality of information flow) over frequency and time with notable resolution, while dealing with the volume conduction and EEG reference assessment. The high temporal and frequency resolution of the methodology will allow the association between the microelements and the dynamically forming networks that characterize them, and consequently possibly reveal aspects of the EEG microstructure. The proposed methodology is initially tested on artificially generated signals for proof of concept and subsequently applied to real EEG recordings via a custom built MATLAB-based tool developed for such studies. Preliminary results from 843 fast sleep spindles recorded in whole night sleep of 5 healthy volunteers indicate a prevailing pattern of interactions between centroparietal and frontal regions. We demonstrate hereby, an opening to our knowledge attempt to estimate the scalp EEG connectivity that characterizes fast sleep spindles via an “EEG-element connectivity” methodology we propose. The application of the latter, via a computational tool we developed suggests it is able to investigate the connectivity patterns related to the

  4. Connected brains and minds--The UMCD repository for brain connectivity matrices.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jesse A; Van Horn, John D

    2016-01-01

    We describe the USC Multimodal Connectivity Database (http://umcd.humanconnectomeproject.org), an interactive web-based platform for brain connectivity matrix sharing and analysis. The site enables users to download connectivity matrices shared by other users, upload matrices from their own published studies, or select a specific matrix and perform a real-time graph theory-based analysis and visualization of network properties. The data shared on the site span a broad spectrum of functional and structural brain connectivity information from humans across the entire age range (fetal to age 89), representing an array of different neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disease populations (autism spectrum disorder, ADHD, and APOE-4 carriers). An analysis combining 7 different datasets shared on the site illustrates the diversity of the data and the potential for yielding deeper insight by assessing new connectivity matrices with respect to population-wide network properties represented in the UMCD. PMID:26311606

  5. Connected brains and minds – the UMCD repository for brain connectivity matrices

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jesse A.; Van Horn, John D.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the USC Multimodal Connectivity Database (http://umcd.humanconnectomeproject.org ), an interactive web-based platform for brain connectivity matrix sharing and analysis. The site enables users to download connectivity matrices shared by other users, upload matrices from their own published studies, or select a specific matrix and perform a realtime graph theory-based analysis and visualization of network properties. The data shared on the site span a broad spectrum of functional and structural brain connectivity information from humans across the entire age range (fetal to age 89), representing an array of different neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disease populations (autism spectrum disorder, ADHD, and APOE-4 carriers). An analysis combining 7 different datasets shared on the site illustrates the diversity of the data and the potential for yielding deeper insight by assessing new connectivity matrices with respect to population-wide network properties represented in the UMCD. PMID:26311606

  6. Electrically conductive connection for an electrode

    DOEpatents

    Hornack, T.R.; Chilko, R.J.

    1986-09-02

    An electrically conductive connection for an electrode assembly of an electrolyte cell in which aluminum is produced by electrolysis in a molten salt is described. The electrode assembly comprises an electrode flask and a conductor rod. The flask has a collar above an area of minimum flask diameter. The electrically conductive connection comprises the electrode flask, the conductor rod and a structure bearing against the collar and the conductor rod for pulling the conductor rod into compressive and electrical contact with the flask. 2 figs.

  7. Multimodal Imaging Brain Connectivity Analysis (MIBCA) toolbox

    PubMed Central

    Lacerda, Luis Miguel; Ferreira, Hugo Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Aim. In recent years, connectivity studies using neuroimaging data have increased the understanding of the organization of large-scale structural and functional brain networks. However, data analysis is time consuming as rigorous procedures must be assured, from structuring data and pre-processing to modality specific data procedures. Until now, no single toolbox was able to perform such investigations on truly multimodal image data from beginning to end, including the combination of different connectivity analyses. Thus, we have developed the Multimodal Imaging Brain Connectivity Analysis (MIBCA) toolbox with the goal of diminishing time waste in data processing and to allow an innovative and comprehensive approach to brain connectivity. Materials and Methods. The MIBCA toolbox is a fully automated all-in-one connectivity toolbox that offers pre-processing, connectivity and graph theoretical analyses of multimodal image data such as diffusion-weighted imaging, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET). It was developed in MATLAB environment and pipelines well-known neuroimaging softwares such as Freesurfer, SPM, FSL, and Diffusion Toolkit. It further implements routines for the construction of structural, functional and effective or combined connectivity matrices, as well as, routines for the extraction and calculation of imaging and graph-theory metrics, the latter using also functions from the Brain Connectivity Toolbox. Finally, the toolbox performs group statistical analysis and enables data visualization in the form of matrices, 3D brain graphs and connectograms. In this paper the MIBCA toolbox is presented by illustrating its capabilities using multimodal image data from a group of 35 healthy subjects (19–73 years old) with volumetric T1-weighted, diffusion tensor imaging, and resting state fMRI data, and 10 subjets with 18F-Altanserin PET data also. Results. It was observed both a high inter-hemispheric symmetry

  8. On automating domain connectivity for overset grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Ing-Tsau

    1994-01-01

    An alternative method for domain connectivity among systems of overset grids is presented. Reference uniform Cartesian systems of points are used to achieve highly efficient domain connectivity, and form the basis for a future fully automated system. The Cartesian systems are used to approximated body surfaces and to map the computational space of component grids. By exploiting the characteristics of Cartesian Systems, Chimera type hole-cutting and identification of donor elements for intergrid boundary points can be carried out very efficiently. The method is tested for a range of geometrically complex multiple-body overset grid systems.

  9. API connection modification to improve pressure integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Chelette, K.D.; Bollfrass, C.A.

    1983-01-01

    The pressure sealing integrity of API Round Thread and Buttress pipe connections is established by variations in the nominal design conditions that result from the specified dimensional tolerances. Several coupling modifications and procedures are presented herein to improve the sealing integrity of API connections. This improved coupling design uses multiple thread tapers to increase internal pressure ratings by insuring the location of the sealing point, insure tensile performance by excluding pressure from the thread region, and developing proper thread interference by controlling the final assembly position.

  10. Creating Change and Staying Connected through Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Lothian, Judith A.

    2005-01-01

    In this column, a childbirth educator describes feeling overwhelmed and alone in her work. Collaboration is presented as a key agent to creating change, staying connected, and “keeping going.” The Cochrane Library, the Coalition for Improving Maternity Services, the ongoing collaboration of Lamaze International with the Maternity Center Association and DONA International, and birth networks are presented as examples of valuable collaborations. Childbirth educators benefit from these collaborative efforts by being able to access and use evidence-based information and to feel connected with like-minded colleagues. PMID:17273451

  11. DOE NHI: Progress in Nuclear Connection Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Steven R. Sherman

    2007-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI) is seeking to develop the technologies to enable the large-scale production of hydrogen from water using a nuclear powered heat source. A necessary component in any nuclear powered hydrogen production process is the energy transfer connection between the nuclear plant and the hydrogen plant. This article provides an overview of the research and development work that has been accomplished on the high-temperature heat transfer connection between the nuclear power plant and the hydrogen production plant by the NHI. A description of future work is also provided.

  12. 20 CFR 216.13 - Regular current connection test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Regular current connection test. 216.13... ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Current Connection With the Railroad Industry § 216.13 Regular current connection test. An employee has a current connection with the railroad industry if he or she meets one of...

  13. 20 CFR 216.12 - When current connection is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When current connection is required. 216.12... ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Current Connection With the Railroad Industry § 216.12 When current connection is required. (a) A current connection is required to qualify an individual for the following types of...

  14. 20 CFR 216.12 - When current connection is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When current connection is required. 216.12... ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Current Connection With the Railroad Industry § 216.12 When current connection is required. (a) A current connection is required to qualify an individual for the following types of...

  15. 20 CFR 216.12 - When current connection is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true When current connection is required. 216.12... ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Current Connection With the Railroad Industry § 216.12 When current connection is required. (a) A current connection is required to qualify an individual for the following types of...

  16. 20 CFR 216.15 - Special current connection test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Special current connection test. 216.15... ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Current Connection With the Railroad Industry § 216.15 Special current connection test. (a) For survivor annuities. An employee who does not have a current connection under the...

  17. 20 CFR 216.12 - When current connection is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true When current connection is required. 216.12... ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Current Connection With the Railroad Industry § 216.12 When current connection is required. (a) A current connection is required to qualify an individual for the following types of...

  18. 20 CFR 216.12 - When current connection is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false When current connection is required. 216.12... ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Current Connection With the Railroad Industry § 216.12 When current connection is required. (a) A current connection is required to qualify an individual for the following types of...

  19. 20 CFR 216.13 - Regular current connection test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Regular current connection test. 216.13... ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Current Connection With the Railroad Industry § 216.13 Regular current connection test. An employee has a current connection with the railroad industry if he or she meets one of...

  20. 20 CFR 216.13 - Regular current connection test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Regular current connection test. 216.13... ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Current Connection With the Railroad Industry § 216.13 Regular current connection test. An employee has a current connection with the railroad industry if he or she meets one of...

  1. 20 CFR 216.15 - Special current connection test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special current connection test. 216.15... ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Current Connection With the Railroad Industry § 216.15 Special current connection test. (a) For survivor annuities. An employee who does not have a current connection under the...

  2. 20 CFR 216.15 - Special current connection test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Special current connection test. 216.15... ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Current Connection With the Railroad Industry § 216.15 Special current connection test. (a) For survivor annuities. An employee who does not have a current connection under the...

  3. 20 CFR 216.13 - Regular current connection test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Regular current connection test. 216.13... ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Current Connection With the Railroad Industry § 216.13 Regular current connection test. An employee has a current connection with the railroad industry if he or she meets one of...

  4. 20 CFR 216.15 - Special current connection test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Special current connection test. 216.15... ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Current Connection With the Railroad Industry § 216.15 Special current connection test. (a) For survivor annuities. An employee who does not have a current connection under the...

  5. 20 CFR 216.15 - Special current connection test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Special current connection test. 216.15... ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Current Connection With the Railroad Industry § 216.15 Special current connection test. (a) For survivor annuities. An employee who does not have a current connection under the...

  6. 20 CFR 216.13 - Regular current connection test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Regular current connection test. 216.13... ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Current Connection With the Railroad Industry § 216.13 Regular current connection test. An employee has a current connection with the railroad industry if he or she meets one of...

  7. A Guide to Connected Curriculum and Action Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peppard, Judy

    Teachers in the Connecting the Curriculum (CTC) Project utilized action research to study curriculum connections. This guide provides basic information on connected curriculum and action research and explains the processes that underlie them. Chapter 1 introduces connected curriculum, including definitions, frameworks, and multidisciplinary and…

  8. 49 CFR 229.89 - Jumpers; cable connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Jumpers; cable connections. 229.89 Section 229.89....89 Jumpers; cable connections. (a) Jumpers and cable connections between locomotives shall be so...) Cable and jumper connections between locomotive may not have any of the following conditions: (1)...

  9. 49 CFR 229.89 - Jumpers; cable connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Jumpers; cable connections. 229.89 Section 229.89....89 Jumpers; cable connections. (a) Jumpers and cable connections between locomotives shall be so...) Cable and jumper connections between locomotive may not have any of the following conditions: (1)...

  10. 49 CFR 229.89 - Jumpers; cable connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Jumpers; cable connections. 229.89 Section 229.89....89 Jumpers; cable connections. (a) Jumpers and cable connections between locomotives shall be so...) Cable and jumper connections between locomotive may not have any of the following conditions: (1)...

  11. 46 CFR 64.35 - Bottom filling or discharge connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bottom filling or discharge connection. 64.35 Section 64... connection. If an MPT is designed with a filling or discharge connection in the bottom, the connection must be fitted with a bolted blank flange, threaded cap, or similar device to protect against leakage...

  12. The Vranceanu connections on the Riemannian (1, 1)-tensor bundle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altunbas, Murat; Gezer, Aydin; Dogan, Elanur

    2016-04-01

    The present paper deals with Vranceanu connections associated with the Levi-Civita connections of the Sasaki type and Cheeger-Gromoll type metrics on the (1, 1)-tensor bundle. Because of coinciding the Vranceanu connection associated with the Levi-Civita connection of the Sasaki type metric and the horizontal lift of the Levi-Civita connection of the base manifold's metric, we focus especially on the Vranceanu connection associated with the Levi-Civita connection of the Cheeger-Gromoll type metric.

  13. Inequalities, Absolute Value, and Logical Connectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parish, Charles R.

    1992-01-01

    Presents an approach to the concept of absolute value that alleviates students' problems with the traditional definition and the use of logical connectives in solving related problems. Uses a model that maps numbers from a horizontal number line to a vertical ray originating from the origin. Provides examples solving absolute value equations and…

  14. Connecting to Conscience: Shakespeare and Woody Allen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolley, Susan Arpajian

    2009-01-01

    One of the most effective techniques the author has used over the years is drawing thematic connections between works from different eras. When students see themes from classic literature receive fresh new treatments from contemporary authors, they discover the timelessness of great literature and the universality of its themes. In this article,…

  15. Connecting Formal and Informal Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Mahony, Timothy Kieran

    2010-01-01

    The learning study reports on part of a larger project being lead by the author. In this dissertation I explore one goal of this project--to understand effects on student learning outcomes as a function of using different methods for connecting out-of-school experiential learning with formal school-based instruction. There is a long history of…

  16. Encoding Specificity for Sentences in Connected Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christiaansen, Robert E.; Dooling, D. James

    The encoding specificity principle predicts that a change in context between input and test will adversely affect recognition memory. Experiment I tested this with sentences from a prose passage and no context effects were obtained. Experiments II, III, and IV compared context effects for words in random sentences versus connected discourse. In…

  17. DERIVATION AND SIGNIFICANCE OF VALENCE MOLECULAR CONNECTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The physical basis for valence molecular connectivity was studied. The sigma sup upsilon and sigma values are cardinal numbers describing the electronic structure of atoms in their valence states. The value (sigma sup upsilon) + (sigma) describes the volume of a bonding atom whil...

  18. Surprising Connections between Partitions and Divisors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osler, Thomas J.; Hassen, Abdulkadir; Chandrupatla, Tirupathi R.

    2007-01-01

    The sum of the divisors of a positive integer is one of the most interesting concepts in multiplicative number theory, while the number of ways of expressing a number as a sum is a primary topic in additive number theory. In this article, we describe some of the surprising connections between and similarities of these two concepts.

  19. Outdoor Education for Sustainability: Making Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Outdoor education should broaden its scope beyond outdoor activities to include education for sustainability. Provides practical ideas for incorporating holistic environmental awareness into programs by exploring the concepts of connection and consequence with such basic elements as water, air, food, shelter, darkness, solitude, time, and nature.…

  20. Big Broadband Connectivity in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windhausen, John, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    The economic and social future of the United States depends on answering the growing demand for very high-speed broadband connectivity, a capability termed "big broadband." Failure to take on the challenge could lead to a decline in global competitiveness and an inability to educate students. (Contains 20 notes.)

  1. Constructing network scheme of connecting with Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ganghua

    2001-06-01

    Nowadays people are more and more imminent for information's gain; time of gaining information is stressed; demand for information quantity is larger and larger. These make us have to scan again our communication pattern. Purpose of this article is comparing a few ways to connect with Internet to find a way that is proper to us.

  2. Vacuum-Gauge Connection For Shipping Container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Robert H.

    1990-01-01

    External connector enables measurement of vacuum in stored part. Remote-readout connector added to shipping container and connected to thermo-couple vacuum gauge in vacuum-insulated cryogenic line packed in container. Enables monitoring of condition of vacuum without opening container.

  3. The Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience of Functional Connectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    Developmental cognitive neuroscience is a rapidly growing field that examines the relationships between biological development and cognitive ability. In the past decade, there has been ongoing refinement of concepts and methodology related to the study of "functional connectivity" among distributed brain regions believed to underlie cognition and…

  4. Science and Literacy: Making Connections through Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Robin; Cote, Dara Dorsey

    2008-01-01

    In order to help students to make connections in science and literacy through writing, the authors present them with an open-ended question (OEQ), which is a divergent assessment in the form of a writing prompt (a situation), and directions for writing at the beginning of each major unit. Students complete this assessment by the end of the unit.…

  5. Social Constructionism and Expressionism: Contradictions and Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Maureen

    1993-01-01

    Compares and contrasts two prominent theories of composition, social constructionism and expressionism. Argues that, although these two theories tend to be viewed as polar opposites, they actually share many points of connection. Shows how these two approaches can be utilized together in the composition classroom. (HB)

  6. Always Connected, but Hard to Reach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rishi, Raju

    2007-01-01

    Students seem to be always connected through their computers, personal digital assistants (PDAs), or mobile phones, making it easy to reach them--if you are a peer. For colleges and universities, reaching students with timely and relevant information often proves a challenge. With rapid changes in both technology and social practices, what should…

  7. Working Connections: Class of 2002. Project Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Kristin; Barnett, Lynn

    Working Connections is a program resulting from a partnership between the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) and the Microsoft Corporation. The program was designed to help increase the number of skilled information technology (IT) workers by providing focused training in IT careers. Since 1998, AACC and Microsoft have awarded cash…

  8. Making a Personal Connection with Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polochanin, David

    2007-01-01

    Some teachers feel that spending any class time on topics other than the subject at hand is a waste--but in this article, the author argues that it is important for teachers to share of themselves and make personal connections with their students, particularly in middle school. Teachers who share personal vignettes and make use of "teachable…

  9. Connection Making between the Sister Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Catherine

    A literature course entitled "The Victorian Illustrated Book: A Marriage of Image and Word," offered at Skidmore College in New York, was designed to help students make connections between art and literature. Based on the premise that illustrations in Victorian books can be "decoded" much like a written text, students were introduced to…

  10. Response Ability Pathways: A Curriculum for Connecting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehler, Nancy; Seger, Vikki

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a new training curriculum for educators, youth workers, and mentors which draws from research and best practices in positive youth development and positive behavior support. Response Ability Pathways or RAP focuses on three practical interventions: connect to others for support, clarify challenging problems, and restore…

  11. Health and Literacy: What Is the Connection?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baergen-Fladager, Sharlene

    Studies in Canada have shown that between 16 percent and 38 percent of Canadians are illiterate or have low literacy skills and, therefore, have difficulties in accessing and using medical care and medical information. They have also found a contributory connection between low literacy and poor health and over-use or inappropriate use of health…

  12. Learning Connected Civics: Narratives, Practices, Infrastructures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ito, Mizuko; Soep, Elisabeth; Kligler-Vilenchik, Neta; Shresthova, Sangita; Gamber-Thompson, Liana; Zimmerman, Arely

    2015-01-01

    Bringing together popular culture studies and sociocultural learning theory, in this paper we formulate the concept of "connected civics," grounded in the idea that young people today are engaging in new forms of politics that are profoundly participatory. Often working in collaboration with adult allies, they leverage digital media and…

  13. Impact of Autocorrelation on Functional Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Arbabshirani, Mohammad R.; Damaraju, Eswar; Phlypo, Ronald; Plis, Sergey; Allen, Elena; Ma, Sai; Mathalon, Daniel; Preda, Adrian; Vaidya, Jatin G.; Adali, Tülay; Calhoun, Vince D.

    2014-01-01

    Although the impact of serial correlation (autocorrelation) in residuals of general linear models for fMRI time-series has been studied extensively, the effect of autocorrelation on functional connectivity studies has been largely neglected until recently. Some recent studies based on results from economics have questioned the conventional estimation of functional connectivity and argue that not correcting for autocorrelation in fMRI time-series results in “spurious” correlation coefficients. In this paper, first we assess the effect of autocorrelation on Pearson correlation coefficient through theoretical approximation and simulation. Then we present this effect on real fMRI data. To our knowledge this is the first work comprehensively investigating the effect of autocorrelation on functional connectivity estimates. Our results show that although FC values are altered, even following correction for autocorrelation, results of hypothesis testing on FC values remain very similar to those before correction. In real data we show this is true for main effects and also for group difference testing between healthy controls and schizophrenia patients. We further discuss model order selection in the context of autoregressive processes, effects of frequency filtering and propose a preprocessing pipeline for connectivity studies. PMID:25072392

  14. Learning Environments; The Technology-Cognition Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullmer, Eldon J.

    This paper considers the technological aspects of learning environment analysis in the instructional development process. Characteristics of a technology-based learning environment are discussed, and old and new models of technology and learning are examined. The connection between technology and cognition is addressed, and the importance of…

  15. Motivation: Connecting Each Student with the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Students are motivated to engage in social studies when they make connections to their world. This article is devoted to examples showing how social studies can motivate students. Elementary teachers can draw the student into a discussion, debate, simulation, project or other teaching strategy used during social studies instruction through the…

  16. Connecting and Communicating with Students on Facebook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Sarah Elizabeth; Jensen, Lauren A.

    2007-01-01

    Facebook is a social network that connects people with other people. Librarians have created Facebook Groups to share ideas and to debate how to use this resource as a potential marketing and/or reference tool. Based on conversations among these librarians, it appears that student response to library outreach on this medium is lackluster at best,…

  17. Squaring Matrices: Connecting Mathematics and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Robert M.; Wiegert, Elaine M.; Marshall, Jeff C.

    2008-01-01

    This article shows how a matrix can be used to represent a food chain and how the square of this matrix represents the indirect food sources for each animal in the chain. By exploring, through mathematics, the implications when the bottom of the food chain is destroyed, students will see an important connection between mathematics and science.…

  18. Classroom Activity Connections: Lessons from Fluorescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacCormac, Aoife; O'Brien, Emma; O'Kennedy, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This Classroom Activity Connections paper describes an extension to the "JCE" Classroom Activity #68 "Turning on the Light". A number of additional common items that display fluorescence under UV light are described, including fruits, vegetables, and seashells. Two classroom extensions on fluorescence are also described. From these activities,…

  19. MedlinePlus Connect: Email List

    MedlinePlus

    ... to link patient portals or electronic health record (EHR) systems to MedlinePlus, an authoritative up-to-date ... Accessibility Quality Guidelines Viewers & Players MedlinePlus Connect for EHRs For Developers U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 ...

  20. Making Connections: Explorations in Creative Expression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Sidney L.

    A series of strategies called the "Synectics Model," can be used by teachers in helping students to break away from usual thought patterns and to make new connections. Its purpose is to increase creativity and to produce lateral thinking. The activities employed involve the use of metaphor. Examples of the model are provided that were either…

  1. Connecting Reading and Writing: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Zhanfang

    2015-01-01

    Connecting reading and writing, proposed by many scholars, is realized in this case study. The 30 participants in this study are the English majors of the third year in one School of Foreign Languages in Beijing. They are encouraged to write journals every week, based on the source text materials in their Intensive Reading class, with the final…

  2. Supervised hub-detection for brain connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasenburg, Niklas; Liptrot, Matthew; Reislev, Nina Linde; Garde, Ellen; Nielsen, Mads; Feragen, Aasa

    2016-03-01

    A structural brain network consists of physical connections between brain regions. Brain network analysis aims to find features associated with a parameter of interest through supervised prediction models such as regression. Unsupervised preprocessing steps like clustering are often applied, but can smooth discriminative signals in the population, degrading predictive performance. We present a novel hub-detection optimized for supervised learning that both clusters network nodes based on population level variation in connectivity and also takes the learning problem into account. The found hubs are a low-dimensional representation of the network and are chosen based on predictive performance as features for a linear regression. We apply our method to the problem of finding age-related changes in structural connectivity. We compare our supervised hub-detection (SHD) to an unsupervised hub-detection and a linear regression using the original network connections as features. The results show that the SHD is able to retain regression performance, while still finding hubs that represent the underlying variation in the population. Although here we applied the SHD to brain networks, it can be applied to any network regression problem. Further development of the presented algorithm will be the extension to other predictive models such as classification or non-linear regression.

  3. Theory of Mind and Giftedness: New Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Cheryl L.; Shore, Bruce M.

    2011-01-01

    The social and cognitive phenomena associated with theory of mind (ToM) and research on the social and cognitive qualities of giftedness have not been sufficiently connected. The common focus areas for ToM researchers (e.g., false-belief understanding, deception, and autism) should be of interest to gifted education research because these are…

  4. Making Global Connections: The Virtual Classroom Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mark Lewental; Michael E. Kress

    2005-01-01

    During the spring of 2004, the College of Staten Island (CSI) undertook an exciting project to connect our campus in New York City with three international partners in China, Turkey and South Africa using internet based videoconferencing. Based on a model developed by East Carolina University and funded by the State Department, the plan was to…

  5. Mathematics and Molecules: Exploring Connections via Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ploger, Don; Carlock, Margaret

    1996-01-01

    Examines the self-directed activity of two students who learned about molecular structure by writing computer programs. The programs displayed the solution of a mathematics problem, then the programs were extended to represent several classes of organic molecules. Different ways to enhance mathematical connections to chemistry education are…

  6. Connecting Libraries and Schools with CLASP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Vecchio, Stephen

    1993-01-01

    Describes the Dewitt Wallace-Reader's Digest Connecting Libraries and Schools Project (CLASP) of the New York Public Library, a cooperative pilot project to encourage reading among children and youth. Sample projects described include summer reading lists, open school night outreach, and outreach to parents. The importance of materials support is…

  7. Architecture and Connectivity Govern Actin Network Contractility.

    PubMed

    Ennomani, Hajer; Letort, Gaëlle; Guérin, Christophe; Martiel, Jean-Louis; Cao, Wenxiang; Nédélec, François; De La Cruz, Enrique M; Théry, Manuel; Blanchoin, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    Actomyosin contractility plays a central role in a wide range of cellular processes, including the establishment of cell polarity, cell migration, tissue integrity, and morphogenesis during development. The contractile response is variable and depends on actomyosin network architecture and biochemical composition. To determine how this coupling regulates actomyosin-driven contraction, we used a micropatterning method that enables the spatial control of actin assembly. We generated a variety of actin templates and measured how defined actin structures respond to myosin-induced forces. We found that the same actin filament crosslinkers either enhance or inhibit the contractility of a network, depending on the organization of actin within the network. Numerical simulations unified the roles of actin filament branching and crosslinking during actomyosin contraction. Specifically, we introduce the concept of "network connectivity" and show that the contractions of distinct actin architectures are described by the same master curve when considering their degree of connectivity. This makes it possible to predict the dynamic response of defined actin structures to transient changes in connectivity. We propose that, depending on the connectivity and the architecture, network contraction is dominated by either sarcomeric-like or buckling mechanisms. More generally, this study reveals how actin network contractility depends on its architecture under a defined set of biochemical conditions. PMID:26898468

  8. Connection Development: Web Lessons from Westchester.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Maurice J.

    1996-01-01

    Committed to utilizing information technology, the Westchester Library System (New York) made the World Wide Web publicly accessible. Describes the planning, implementation, and management process; obstacles involving financing; establishing Internet connectivity; and vendor negotiations. Westchester hired a Web manager, created Internet use…

  9. Automatic discourse connective detection in biomedical text

    PubMed Central

    Polepalli Ramesh, Balaji; Prasad, Rashmi; Miller, Tim; Harrington, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Objective Relation extraction in biomedical text mining systems has largely focused on identifying clause-level relations, but increasing sophistication demands the recognition of relations at discourse level. A first step in identifying discourse relations involves the detection of discourse connectives: words or phrases used in text to express discourse relations. In this study supervised machine-learning approaches were developed and evaluated for automatically identifying discourse connectives in biomedical text. Materials and Methods Two supervised machine-learning models (support vector machines and conditional random fields) were explored for identifying discourse connectives in biomedical literature. In-domain supervised machine-learning classifiers were trained on the Biomedical Discourse Relation Bank, an annotated corpus of discourse relations over 24 full-text biomedical articles (∼112 000 word tokens), a subset of the GENIA corpus. Novel domain adaptation techniques were also explored to leverage the larger open-domain Penn Discourse Treebank (∼1 million word tokens). The models were evaluated using the standard evaluation metrics of precision, recall and F1 scores. Results and Conclusion Supervised machine-learning approaches can automatically identify discourse connectives in biomedical text, and the novel domain adaptation techniques yielded the best performance: 0.761 F1 score. A demonstration version of the fully implemented classifier BioConn is available at: http://bioconn.askhermes.org. PMID:22744958

  10. Future Schools: Connected to the World [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, William

    This 22 minute video examines how administrators, teachers, and students in the Val Verde school district near Riverside, California, have connected all of the 12 schools to each other and the resources of the Internet. The purpose of the video is to demonstrate the advantages of improving school use of computer technology and to show how people…

  11. Emotional Connections in Higher Education Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durkin, Mark; McKenna, Seamas; Cummins, Darryl

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Through examination of a case study this paper aims to describe a brand re-positioning exercise and explore how an emotionally driven approach to branding can help create meaningful connections with potential undergraduate students and can positively influence choice. Design/methodology/approach: The paper's approach is a case study…

  12. Connecting Learning Spaces Using Mobile Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Wenli; Seow, Peter; So, Hyo-Jeong; Toh, Yancy; Looi, Chee-Kit

    2010-01-01

    The use of mobile technology can help extend children's learning spaces and enrich the learning experiences in their everyday lives where they move from one context to another, switching locations, social groups, technologies, and topics. When students have ubiquitous access to mobile devices with full connectivity, the in-situ use of the mobile…

  13. Economics and the Real-Life Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Sue; Walsh, Janet

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the connection between economics and decision making in everyday life. Compares basic economic concepts such as choices, scarcity, opportunity costs, indirect costs, and decision making to the choices that students make in their personal lives. Maintains that through the study of economics, students can become responsible decision…

  14. [Pulmonary involvement in connective tissue disease].

    PubMed

    Bartosiewicz, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    The connective tissue diseases are a variable group of autoimmune mediated disorders characterized by multiorgan damage. Pulmonary complications are common, usually occur after the onset of joint symptoms, but can also be initially presenting complaint. The respiratory system may be involved in all its component: airways, vessels, parenchyma, pleura and respiratory muscles. Lung involvement is an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality in the connective tissue diseases. Clinical course is highly variable - can range from mild to rapidly progressive, some processes are reversible, while others are irreversible. Thus, the identification of reversible disease , and separately progressive disease, are important clinical issues. The frequency, clinical presentation, prognosis and responce to therapy are different, depending on the pattern of involvement as well as on specyfic diagnostic method used to identify it. High- resolution computed tompography plays an important role in identifying patients with respiratory involvement. Pulmonary function tests are a sensitive tool detecting interstitial lung disease. In this article, pulmonary lung involvement accompanying most frequently apperaing connective tissue diseases - rheumatoid arthritis, systemic sclerosis, lupus erythematosus, polymyositis/dermatomyositis, Sjögrens syndrome and mixed connective tissue disaese are reviewed. PMID:27421127

  15. Connecting biological concepts and religious behavior.

    PubMed

    Beit-Hallahmi, Benjamin

    2012-04-01

    This commentary proposes experiments to examine connections between the presence of out-group members, neurovisceral reactions, religiosity, and ethnocentrism, to clarify the meaning of the correlational findings presented in the target article. It also suggests different ways of describing religious socialization and of viewing assertions about religion and health or about the human ability to detect pathogens. PMID:22289267

  16. Notebook Connections: Strategies for the Reader's Notebook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckner, Aimee

    2009-01-01

    In "Notebook Know-How", Aimee Buckner demonstrated the power of notebooks to spark and capture students' ideas in the writing workshop. In "Notebook Connections", she turns her focus to the reading workshop, showing how to transform those "couch-potato" readers into deep thinkers. Buckner's fourth-grade students use reader's notebooks as a place…

  17. Kin and Non Kin Intergenerational Connecting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Marvin B.; Pfeifer, Susan K.

    The generation three and generation one connection of individuals not related by blood or marriage is predicted to increase in incidence in the coming decades. This will occur regardless of public policy or the concerns of family members who yearn for connectedness within the institutional family. These non-family nexi have the potential to…

  18. Accelerating networks: Effects of preferential connections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Y.-P.; McCoy, B. J.

    2007-12-01

    Networks are commonly observed structures in complex systems with interacting and interdependent parts that self-organize. For nonlinearly growing networks, when the total number of connections increases faster than the total number of nodes, the network is said to accelerate. We propose a systematic model for the dynamics of growing networks represented by distribution kinetics equations. We define the nodal-linkage distribution, construct a population dynamics equation based on the association-dissociation process, and perform the moment calculations to describe the dynamics of such networks. For nondirectional networks with finite numbers of nodes and connections, the moments are the total number of nodes, the total number of connections, and the degree (the average number of connections per node), represented by the average moment. Size independent rate coefficients yield an exponential network describing the network without preferential attachment, and size dependent rate coefficients produce a power law network with preferential attachment. The model quantitatively describes accelerating network growth data for a supercomputer (Earth Simulator), for regulatory gene networks, and for the Internet.

  19. Korean Kimchi Chemistry: A Multicultural Chemistry Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murfin, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Connecting science with different cultures is one way to interest students in science, to relate science to their lives, and at the same time to broaden their horizons in a variety of ways. In the lesson described here, students make kimchi, a delicious and popular Korean dish that can be used to explore many important chemistry concepts,…

  20. Discovering Global Connections in Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Saundra

    1990-01-01

    Discusses an undergraduate class' study of rural Clarion, Pennsylvania's linkages with the global community. Describes data collection methods. Reveals some indicators of the town's interdependence with the rest of the world. Lists questions for students concerning Clarion's global connections. Identifies possible interpretive topics that such…

  1. Behavioral Interpretations of Intrinsic Connectivity Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Angela R.; Fox, P. Mickle; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Turner, Jessica A.; Ray, Kimberly L.; McKay, D. Reese; Glahn, David C.; Beckmann, Christian F.; Smith, Stephen M.; Fox, Peter T.

    2011-01-01

    An increasingly large number of neuroimaging studies have investigated functionally connected networks during rest, providing insight into human brain architecture. Assessment of the functional qualities of resting state networks has been limited by the task-independent state, which results in an inability to relate these networks to specific…

  2. Polyimides Containing Carbonyl and Ether Connecting Groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, Paul M.; Havens, Stephen J.

    1987-01-01

    Semicrystallinity gives rise to tough, solvent-resistant polymers. New polyimides prepared from reaction of aromatic dianhydrides with new diamines containing carbonyl and ether connecting groups between aromatic rings. Damines prepared from reaction of 4-aminophenol with activated aromatic difluoro compounds in presence of potassium carbonate. These types of polymers have potential applications in molded products, films, adhesives, and composites.

  3. Self-Alining Quick-Connect Joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucy, M. H.

    1983-01-01

    Quick connect tapered joint used with minimum manipulation and force. Split ring retainer holds locking ring in place. Minimal force required to position male in female joint, at which time split-ring retainers are triggered to release split locking rings. Originally developed to assemble large space structures, joint is simple, compact, strong, lightweight, self alining, and has no loose parts.

  4. Series Connected Buck-Boost Regulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenough, Arthur G. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A Series Connected Buck-Boost Regulator (SCBBR) that switches only a fraction of the input power, resulting in relatively high efficiencies. The SCBBR has multiple operating modes including a buck, a boost, and a current limiting mode, so that an output voltage of the SCBBR ranges from below the source voltage to above the source voltage.

  5. Preservice Teachers Connecting Mathematics and Drumming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Anne Marie

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly, elementary classroom teachers are being called to teach a myriad of subjects, including visual art, dance, and music. Preservice teachers must be prepared to teach and integrate multiple subjects. To that end, preservice teachers will need experiences in their preparation that help them to see connections across content areas and…

  6. Mapping Smoking Addiction Using Effective Connectivity Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Rongxiang; Razi, Adeel; Friston, Karl J.; Tang, Yi-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Prefrontal and parietal cortex, including the default mode network (DMN; medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and posterior cingulate cortex, PCC), have been implicated in addiction. Nonetheless, it remains unclear which brain regions play a crucial role in smoking addiction and the relationship among these regions. Since functional connectivity only measures correlations, addiction-related changes in effective connectivity (directed information flow) among these distributed brain regions remain largely unknown. Here we applied spectral dynamic causal modeling (spDCM) to resting state fMRI to characterize changes in effective connectivity among core regions in smoking addiction. Compared to nonsmokers, smokers had reduced effective connectivity from PCC to mPFC and from RIPL to mPFC, a higher self-inhibition within PCC and a reduction in the amplitude of endogenous neuronal fluctuations driving the mPFC. These results indicate that spDCM can differentiate the functional architectures between the two groups, and may provide insight into the brain mechanisms underlying smoking addiction. Our results also suggest that future brain-based prevention and intervention in addiction should consider the amelioration of mPFC-PCC-IPL circuits. PMID:27199716

  7. Connections, Coherence, and Cognition in Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Elizabeth; Perfetti, Charles

    In a study conducted to show the importance of sentence connections as a way of looking at a writer's cognitive processes, three devices used to achieve coherence in written discourse were compared and proved to be unequally effective. The devices were cohesion (use of a textual reference in a sentence that has an antecedent in a preceding…

  8. 46 CFR 98.30-27 - Connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... joints and couplings to make a tight seal; (2) Use a bolt in at least every other hole and in no case less than four bolts in each temporary connection utilizing an American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard flange coupling; (3) Use a bolt in each hole of couplings other than ANSI...

  9. The Nuclear Power/Nuclear Weapons Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totten, Sam; Totten, Martha Wescoat

    1985-01-01

    Once they have nuclear power, most countries will divert nuclear materials from commercial to military programs. In excerpts from the book "Facing the Danger" (by Totten, S. and M. W., Crossing Press, 1984), five anti-nuclear activists explain how and why they have been addressing the nuclear connection. (RM)

  10. Exploring the Phenomenon of Classroom Connectivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegedus, Stephen; Kaput, James J.

    We describe highly generative and affectively powerful classroom activity structures that are made possible by applying new levels of connectivity across diverse hardware platforms. Based on teaching experiments involving core topics in basic algebra (slope-as-rate, linear functions, simultaneous conditions), we examine 3 kinds of activity…

  11. Young Children's Comprehension of Logical Connectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppes, Patrick; Feldman, Shirley

    To determine to what extent children of preschool age comprehend the meaning of logical connectives, 64 5- and 6-year-olds were told to hand differently colored and shaped wooden blocks to an experimenter. The commands involved various English idioms used for conjunction (e.g. both black and round), disjunction (either black or round), and…

  12. Connecting care competencies and culture during disasters

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Vivek

    2009-01-01

    Connecting care Competencies and Culture are core fundamentals in responding to disasters. Thick coordination between professionals, communities and agencies in different geographical areas is crucial to the happening of appropriate preparedness and thus efficient response and mitigation of a disaster. In the next few articles, we present diverse examples related to the preparedness and recovery process to adverse disasters across the globe PMID:19561968

  13. Precentral gyrus functional connectivity signatures of autism

    PubMed Central

    Nebel, Mary Beth; Eloyan, Ani; Barber, Anita D.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2014-01-01

    Motor impairments are prevalent in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and are perhaps the earliest symptoms to develop. In addition, motor skills relate to the communicative/social deficits at the core of ASD diagnosis, and these behavioral deficits may reflect abnormal connectivity within brain networks underlying motor control and learning. Despite the fact that motor abnormalities in ASD are well-characterized, there remains a fundamental disconnect between the complexity of the clinical presentation of ASD and the underlying neurobiological mechanisms. In this study, we examined connectivity within and between functional subregions of a key component of the motor control network, the precentral gyrus, using resting state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging data collected from a large, heterogeneous sample of individuals with ASD as well as neurotypical controls. We found that the strength of connectivity within and between distinct functional subregions of the precentral gyrus was related to ASD diagnosis and to the severity of ASD traits. In particular, connectivity involving the dorsomedial (lower limb/trunk) subregion was abnormal in ASD individuals as predicted by models using a dichotomous variable coding for the presence of ASD, as well as models using symptom severity ratings. These findings provide further support for a link between motor and social/communicative abilities in ASD. PMID:24860442

  14. Maximizing algebraic connectivity in air transportation networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Peng

    In air transportation networks the robustness of a network regarding node and link failures is a key factor for its design. An experiment based on the real air transportation network is performed to show that the algebraic connectivity is a good measure for network robustness. Three optimization problems of algebraic connectivity maximization are then formulated in order to find the most robust network design under different constraints. The algebraic connectivity maximization problem with flight routes addition or deletion is first formulated. Three methods to optimize and analyze the network algebraic connectivity are proposed. The Modified Greedy Perturbation Algorithm (MGP) provides a sub-optimal solution in a fast iterative manner. The Weighted Tabu Search (WTS) is designed to offer a near optimal solution with longer running time. The relaxed semi-definite programming (SDP) is used to set a performance upper bound and three rounding techniques are discussed to find the feasible solution. The simulation results present the trade-off among the three methods. The case study on two air transportation networks of Virgin America and Southwest Airlines show that the developed methods can be applied in real world large scale networks. The algebraic connectivity maximization problem is extended by adding the leg number constraint, which considers the traveler's tolerance for the total connecting stops. The Binary Semi-Definite Programming (BSDP) with cutting plane method provides the optimal solution. The tabu search and 2-opt search heuristics can find the optimal solution in small scale networks and the near optimal solution in large scale networks. The third algebraic connectivity maximization problem with operating cost constraint is formulated. When the total operating cost budget is given, the number of the edges to be added is not fixed. Each edge weight needs to be calculated instead of being pre-determined. It is illustrated that the edge addition and the

  15. Dynamic functional connectivity reveals altered variability in functional connectivity among patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Demirtaş, Murat; Tornador, Cristian; Falcón, Carles; López-Solà, Marina; Hernández-Ribas, Rosa; Pujol, Jesús; Menchón, José M; Ritter, Petra; Cardoner, Narcis; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Deco, Gustavo

    2016-08-01

    Resting-state fMRI (RS-fMRI) has become a useful tool to investigate the connectivity structure of mental health disorders. In the case of major depressive disorder (MDD), recent studies regarding the RS-fMRI have found abnormal connectivity in several regions of the brain, particularly in the default mode network (DMN). Thus, the relevance of the DMN to self-referential thoughts and ruminations has made the use of the resting-state approach particularly important for MDD. The majority of such research has relied on the grand averaged functional connectivity measures based on the temporal correlations between the BOLD time series of various brain regions. We, in our study, investigated the variations in the functional connectivity over time at global and local level using RS-fMRI BOLD time series of 27 MDD patients and 27 healthy control subjects. We found that global synchronization and temporal stability were significantly increased in the MDD patients. Furthermore, the participants with MDD showed significantly increased overall average (static) functional connectivity (sFC) but decreased variability of functional connectivity (vFC) within specific networks. Static FC increased to predominance among the regions pertaining to the default mode network (DMN), while the decreased variability of FC was observed in the connections between the DMN and the frontoparietal network. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2918-2930, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27120982

  16. Sex Differences in the Development of Neuroanatomical Functional Connectivity underlying Intelligence found using Bayesian Connectivity Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Schmithorst, Vincent J.; Holland, Scott K.

    2007-01-01

    A Bayesian method for functional connectivity analysis was adapted to investigate between-group differences. This method was applied in a large cohort of almost 300 children to investigate differences in boys and girls in the relationship between intelligence and functional connectivity for the task of narrative comprehension. For boys, a greater association was shown between intelligence and the functional connectivity linking Broca’s area to auditory processing areas, including Wernicke’s areas and the right posterior superior temporal gyrus. For girls, a greater association was shown between intelligence and the functional connectivity linking the left posterior superior temporal gyrus to Wernicke’s areas bilaterally. A developmental effect was also seen, with girls displaying a positive correlation with age in the association between intelligence and the functional connectivity linking the right posterior superior temporal gyrus to Wernicke’s areas bilaterally. Our results demonstrate a sexual dimorphism in the relationship of functional connectivity to intelligence in children and an increasing reliance on inter-hemispheric connectivity in girls with age. PMID:17223578

  17. Sex differences in the development of neuroanatomical functional connectivity underlying intelligence found using Bayesian connectivity analysis.

    PubMed

    Schmithorst, Vincent J; Holland, Scott K

    2007-03-01

    A Bayesian method for functional connectivity analysis was adapted to investigate between-group differences. This method was applied in a large cohort of almost 300 children to investigate differences in boys and girls in the relationship between intelligence and functional connectivity for the task of narrative comprehension. For boys, a greater association was shown between intelligence and the functional connectivity linking Broca's area to auditory processing areas, including Wernicke's areas and the right posterior superior temporal gyrus. For girls, a greater association was shown between intelligence and the functional connectivity linking the left posterior superior temporal gyrus to Wernicke's areas bilaterally. A developmental effect was also seen, with girls displaying a positive correlation with age in the association between intelligence and the functional connectivity linking the right posterior superior temporal gyrus to Wernicke's areas bilaterally. Our results demonstrate a sexual dimorphism in the relationship of functional connectivity to intelligence in children and an increasing reliance on inter-hemispheric connectivity in girls with age. PMID:17223578

  18. Introducing a new COST Action: ES1306: Connecting European Connectivity Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keesstra, Saskia; Cerda, Artemi; Parsons, Tony; Vericat, Damià; Wainwright, John; Heckmann, Tobias; Mueller, Eva; Poeppl, Ronald; Brazier, Richard; Nunes, Joao; Brardinoni, Francesco; Marques, Maria Jose

    2014-05-01

    In November 2013 a new COST Action entitled 'Connecting European Connectivity Research' was approved by the European Union. This Action aims to connect researchers across Europe (and beyond) that study the concept of water and sediment connectivity. Successful prediction of pathways of storm runoff generation and associated soil erosion is of considerable societal importance, including off-site impacts such as water quality and the provision of related ecosystem services. Recently, the role of connectivity in controlling runoff and erosion has received significant and increasing scientific attention, though in a disparate and uncoordinated way. There is a wealth of experience and expertise in connectivity across Europe that could be harnessed to ensure that the potential already demonstrated in key studies can be more widely fulfilled; to move forward along agreed lines and identify emerging goals, and to benefit from cross-fertilization of ideas from the fields of Hydrology, Soil Science, Geomorphology and Ecology. The key benefit of this Action will be to establish connectivity as a research paradigm. The Action will then permit transfer of current understanding into useable science, by developing it's conceptual basis and transferring it into a series of monitoring and modelling tools that will provide the platform for indices that will inform holistic management of catchment systems. In this presentation we want to show you the planned actions of this new COST Action.

  19. Amygdalar connections in the lesser hedgehog tenrec.

    PubMed

    Künzle, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    The present study analyses the overall extrinsic connectivity of the non-olfactory amygdala (Ay) in the lesser hedgehog tenrec. The data were obtained from tracer injections into the lateral and intermediate portions of the Ay as well as several non-amygdalar brain regions. Both the solitary and the parabrachial nucleus receive descending projections from the central nucleus of the Ay, but only the parabrachial nucleus appears to project to the Ay. There is one prominent region in the ventromedial hypothalamus connected reciprocally with the medial and central Ay. Amygdalar afferents clearly arise from the dorsomedial thalamus, the subparafascicular nuclei and the medial geniculate complex (GM). Similar to other subprimate species, the latter projections originate in the dorsal and most caudal geniculate portions and terminate in the dorsolateral Ay. Unusual is the presence of amygdalo-projecting cells in the marginal geniculate zone and their virtual absence in the medial GM. As in other species, amygdalo-striatal projections mainly originate in the basolateral Ay and terminate predominantly in the ventral striatum. Given the poor differentiation of the tenrec's neocortex, there is a remarkable similarity with regard to the amygdalo-cortical connectivity between tenrec and rat, particularly as to prefrontal, limbic and somatosensorimotor areas as well as the rhinal cortex throughout its length. The tenrec's isocortex dorsomedial to the caudal rhinal cortex, on the other hand, may not be connected with the Ay. An absence of such connections is expected for primary auditory and visual fields, but it is unusual for their secondary fields. PMID:21638204

  20. Knowledge Synthesis with Maps of Neural Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Tallis, Marcelo; Thompson, Richard; Russ, Thomas A.; Burns, Gully A. P. C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes software for neuroanatomical knowledge synthesis based on neural connectivity data. This software supports a mature methodology developed since the early 1990s. Over this time, the Swanson laboratory at USC has generated an account of the neural connectivity of the sub-structures of the hypothalamus, amygdala, septum, hippocampus, and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. This is based on neuroanatomical data maps drawn into a standard brain atlas by experts. In earlier work, we presented an application for visualizing and comparing anatomical macro connections using the Swanson third edition atlas as a framework for accurate registration. Here we describe major improvements to the NeuARt application based on the incorporation of a knowledge representation of experimental design. We also present improvements in the interface and features of the data mapping components within a unified web-application. As a step toward developing an accurate sub-regional account of neural connectivity, we provide navigational access between the data maps and a semantic representation of area-to-area connections that they support. We do so based on an approach called “Knowledge Engineering from Experimental Design” (KEfED) model that is based on experimental variables. We have extended the underlying KEfED representation of tract-tracing experiments by incorporating the definition of a neuronanatomical data map as a measurement variable in the study design. This paper describes the software design of a web-application that allows anatomical data sets to be described within a standard experimental context and thus indexed by non-spatial experimental design features. PMID:22053155

  1. Brain Connectivity in Pathological and Pharmacological Coma

    PubMed Central

    Noirhomme, Quentin; Soddu, Andrea; Lehembre, Rémy; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Boveroux, Pierre; Boly, Mélanie; Laureys, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) tend to support the view that awareness is not related to activity in a single brain region but to thalamo-cortical connectivity in the frontoparietal network. Functional neuroimaging studies have shown preserved albeit disconnected low-level cortical activation in response to external stimulation in patients in a “vegetative state” or unresponsive wakefulness syndrome. While activation of these “primary” sensory cortices does not necessarily reflect conscious awareness, activation in higher-order associative cortices in minimally conscious state patients seems to herald some residual perceptual awareness. PET studies have identified a metabolic dysfunction in a widespread frontoparietal “global neuronal workspace” in DOC patients including the midline default mode network (“intrinsic” system) and the lateral frontoparietal cortices or “extrinsic system.” Recent studies have investigated the relation of awareness to the functional connectivity within intrinsic and extrinsic networks, and with the thalami in both pathological and pharmacological coma. In brain damaged patients, connectivity in all default network areas was found to be non-linearly correlated with the degree of clinical consciousness impairment, ranging from healthy controls and locked-in syndrome to minimally conscious, vegetative, coma, and brain dead patients. Anesthesia-induced loss of consciousness was also shown to correlate with a global decrease in cortico-cortical and thalamo-cortical connectivity in both intrinsic and extrinsic networks, but not in auditory, or visual networks. In anesthesia, unconsciousness was also associated with a loss of cross-modal interactions between networks. These results suggest that conscious awareness critically depends on the functional integrity of thalamo-cortical and cortico-cortical frontoparietal connectivity within and between “intrinsic” and “extrinsic” brain

  2. Brain connectivity in pathological and pharmacological coma.

    PubMed

    Noirhomme, Quentin; Soddu, Andrea; Lehembre, Rémy; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Boveroux, Pierre; Boly, Mélanie; Laureys, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) tend to support the view that awareness is not related to activity in a single brain region but to thalamo-cortical connectivity in the frontoparietal network. Functional neuroimaging studies have shown preserved albeit disconnected low-level cortical activation in response to external stimulation in patients in a "vegetative state" or unresponsive wakefulness syndrome. While activation of these "primary" sensory cortices does not necessarily reflect conscious awareness, activation in higher-order associative cortices in minimally conscious state patients seems to herald some residual perceptual awareness. PET studies have identified a metabolic dysfunction in a widespread frontoparietal "global neuronal workspace" in DOC patients including the midline default mode network ("intrinsic" system) and the lateral frontoparietal cortices or "extrinsic system." Recent studies have investigated the relation of awareness to the functional connectivity within intrinsic and extrinsic networks, and with the thalami in both pathological and pharmacological coma. In brain damaged patients, connectivity in all default network areas was found to be non-linearly correlated with the degree of clinical consciousness impairment, ranging from healthy controls and locked-in syndrome to minimally conscious, vegetative, coma, and brain dead patients. Anesthesia-induced loss of consciousness was also shown to correlate with a global decrease in cortico-cortical and thalamo-cortical connectivity in both intrinsic and extrinsic networks, but not in auditory, or visual networks. In anesthesia, unconsciousness was also associated with a loss of cross-modal interactions between networks. These results suggest that conscious awareness critically depends on the functional integrity of thalamo-cortical and cortico-cortical frontoparietal connectivity within and between "intrinsic" and "extrinsic" brain networks. PMID:21191476

  3. Connect Global Positioning System RF Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, Garth W.; Young, Lawrence E.; Ciminera, Michael A.; Tien, Jeffrey Y.; Gorelik, Jacob; Okihiro, Brian Bachman; Koelewyn, Cynthia L.

    2012-01-01

    The CoNNeCT Global Positioning System RF Module (GPSM) slice is part of the JPL CoNNeCT Software Defined Radio (SDR). CoNNeCT is the Communications, Navigation, and Net working reconfigurable Testbed project that is part of NASA's Space Communication and Nav igation (SCaN) Program. The CoNNeCT project is an experimental dem onstration that will lead to the advancement of SDRs and provide a path for new space communication and navigation systems for future NASA exploration missions. The JPL CoNNeCT SDR will be flying on the International Space Station (ISS) in 2012 in support of the SCaN CoNNeCT program. The GPSM is a radio-frequency sampler module (see Figure 1) that directly sub-harmonically samples the filtered GPS L-band signals at L1 (1575.42 MHz), L2 (1227.6 MHz), and L5 (1176.45 MHz). The JPL SDR receives GPS signals through a Dorne & Margolin antenna mounted onto a choke ring. The GPS signal is filtered against interference, amplified, split, and fed into three channels: L1, L2, and L5. In each of the L-band channels, there is a chain of bandpass filters and amplifiers, and the signal is fed through each of these channels to where the GPSM performs a one-bit analog-to-digital conversion (see Figure 2). The GPSM uses a sub-harmonic, single-bit L1, L2, and L5 sampler that samples at a clock rate of 38.656 MHz. The new capability is the down-conversion and sampling of the L5 signal when previous hardware did not provide this capability. The first GPS IIF Satellite was launched in 2010, providing the new L5 signal. With the JPL SDR flying on the ISS, it will be possible to demonstrate navigation solutions with 10-meter 3-D accuracy at 10-second intervals using a field-program mable gate array (FPGA)-based feedback loop running at 50 Hz. The GPS data bits will be decoded and used in the SDR. The GPSM will also allow other waveforms that are installed in the SDR to demonstrate various GNSS tracking techniques.

  4. Piezoelectric constant for binary piezoelectric 0-3 connectivity composites and the effect of mixed connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayasundere, N.; Smith, B. V.; Dunn, J. R.

    1994-09-01

    An analytic expression is presented for the piezoelectric d constant of a binary piezoelectric 0-3 connectivity composite. The expression is developed under the limiting assumption that the dielectric constant of the ceramic is much greater than the matrix. Predictions made using the theory compare very favorably with available experimental data. A 0-3/1-3 mixed connectivity model is also described for composites in which the average piezoceramic particle size is a significant fraction of the thickness of the composite.

  5. Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease, Mixed Connective Tissue Disease, and Overlap Syndromes in Rheumatology.

    PubMed

    Pepmueller, Peri Hickman

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases often have overlapping symptoms and laboratory somewhat unfamiliar to the non-rheumatologist. Characteristic signs, symptoms, and autoantibodies define specific connective tissue diseases. Some patients have some characteristic symptoms, but cannot be definitively classified. Still other patients meet criteria for more than one specific connective tissue disease. These patients can be confusing with regard to diagnosis and prognosis. Clarification of each patient's condition can lead to improved patient care. PMID:27311225

  6. 78 FR 28626 - Te Connectivity, Industrial Division, Middletown, Pennsylvania; Te Connectivity, Corporate Shared...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-81,557; TA-W-81,557A; TA-W-81,557B; TA-W-81,557C; ;TA-W-81,557D; Ta-W-81,557e] Te Connectivity, Industrial Division, Middletown, Pennsylvania; Te Connectivity, Corporate Shared Services Group 100 & 200 Amp...

  7. Lateral Prefrontal Cortex Contributes to Fluid Intelligence Through Multinetwork Connectivity.

    PubMed

    Cole, Michael W; Ito, Takuya; Braver, Todd S

    2015-10-01

    Our ability to effectively adapt to novel circumstances--as measured by general fluid intelligence--has recently been tied to the global connectivity of lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC). Global connectivity is a broad measure that summarizes both within-network connectivity and across-network connectivity. We used additional graph theoretical measures to better characterize the nature of LPFC connectivity and its relationship with fluid intelligence. We specifically hypothesized that LPFC is a connector hub with an across-network connectivity that contributes to fluid intelligence independent of within-network connectivity. We verified that LPFC was in the top 10% of brain regions in terms of across-network connectivity, suggesting it is a strong connector hub. Importantly, we found that the LPFC across-network connectivity predicted individuals' fluid intelligence and this correlation remained statistically significant when controlling for global connectivity (which includes within-network connectivity). This supports the conclusion that across-network connectivity independently contributes to the relationship between LPFC connectivity and intelligence. These results suggest that LPFC contributes to fluid intelligence by being a connector hub with a truly global multisystem connectivity throughout the brain. PMID:26165732

  8. Geological connectivity drives microbial community structure and connectivity in polar, terrestrial ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Belinda C; Bissett, Andrew; Snape, Ian; van Dorst, Josie; Palmer, Anne S; Ji, Mukan; Siciliano, Steven D; Stark, Jonathon S; Winsley, Tristrom; Brown, Mark V

    2016-06-01

    Landscape heterogeneity impacts community assembly in animals and plants, but it is not clear if this ecological concept extends to microbes. To examine this question, we chose to investigate polar soil environments from the Antarctic and Arctic, where microbes often form the major component of biomass. We examined soil environments that ranged in connectivity from relatively well-connected slopes to patchy, fragmented landforms that comprised isolated frost boils. We found landscape connectedness to have a significant correlation with microbial community structure and connectivity, as measured by co-occurrence networks. Soils from within fragmented landforms appeared to exhibit less local environmental heterogeneity, harboured more similar communities, but fewer biological associations than connected landforms. This effect was observed at both poles, despite the geographical distances and ecological differences between them. We suggest that microbial communities inhabiting well-connected landscape elements respond consistently to regional-scale gradients in biotic and edaphic factors. Conversely, the repeated freeze thaw cycles that characterize fragmented landscapes create barriers within the landscape and act to homogenize the soil environment within individual frost boils and consequently the microbial communities. We propose that lower microbial connectivity in the fragmented landforms is a function of smaller patch size and continual disturbances following soil mixing. PMID:26310523

  9. The effect of connectives on the selection of arguments: implicit consequentiality bias for the connective "but".

    PubMed

    Rigalleau, François; Guerry, Michèle; Granjon, Lionel

    2014-08-01

    Recent studies about the implicit causality of inter-personal verbs showed a symmetric implicit consequentiality bias for psychological verbs. This symmetry is less clear for action verbs because the verbs assigning the implicit cause to the object argument (e.g. "Peter protected John because he was in danger.") tend to assign the implicit consequence to the same argument (e.g. "Peter protected John so he was not hurt."). We replicated this result by comparing continuations of inter-personal events followed by a causal connective "because" or a consequence connective "so". Moreover, we found similar results when the consequence connective was replaced by a contrastive connective "but". This result was confirmed in a second experiment where we measured the time required to imagine a consistent continuation for a fragment finishing with "but s/he ...". The results were consistent with a contrastive connective introducing a denial of a consequence of the previous event. The results were consistent with a model suggesting that thematic roles and connectives can predict preferred co-reference relations. PMID:23982891

  10. Sociology: a lost connection in social psychology.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Shigehiro; Kesebir, Selin; Snyder, Benjamin H

    2009-11-01

    For the first half of the 20th century, sociology was one of the closest allies of social psychology. Over the past four decades, however, the connection with sociology has weakened, whereas new connections with neighboring disciplines (e.g., biology, economics, political science) have formed. Along the way, the sociological perspective has been largely lost in mainstream social psychology in the United States. Most social psychologists today are not concerned with collective phenomena and do not investigate social structural factors (e.g., residential mobility, socioeconomic status, dominant religion, political systems). Even when the social structural factors are included in the analysis, psychologists typically treat them as individual difference variables. Sociologist C. Wright Mills famously promoted sociological imagination, or the ability to see distal yet important social forces operating in a larger societal context. By comparing sociological perspectives to psychological perspectives, this article highlights the insights that the sociological perspective and sociological imagination can bring to social psychology. PMID:19815492

  11. [Pulmonary manifestations of connective tissue diseases].

    PubMed

    Rehbock, B

    2015-03-01

    Systemic autoimmune diseases are responsible for about 25% of all deaths due to interstitial lung disease; therefore, an early identification of patients with pulmonary manifestation changes the management. Detection, differential diagnostic classification and staging of the pneumological pattern of findings are largely based on high-resolution computed tomography (HR-CT). The main differential diagnostic challenges are interstitial manifestations which present with radiological-histopathological phenotypes of interstitial pneumonia. The most common form of interstitial pulmonary reaction form of connective tissue diseases is the nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) pattern. In rheumatoid arthritis, a usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern is dominant. Uncharacteristic reactions of airways and pleura can be the leading symptom or present as accompanying findings. A serious complication is pulmonary hypertension. Drug-induced lung lesions can present with similar HR-CT morphology as connective tissue diseases and can only be differentiated in the temporal and clinical context. PMID:25693496

  12. Fiber-connected position localization sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Shilong; Zhu, Dan; Fu, Jianbin; Yao, Tingfeng

    2014-11-01

    Position localization has drawn great attention due to its wide applications in radars, sonars, electronic warfare, wireless communications and so on. Photonic approaches to realize position localization can achieve high-resolution, which also provides the possibility to move the signal processing from each sensor node to the central station, thanks to the low loss, immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI) and broad bandwidth brought by the photonic technologies. In this paper, we present a review on the recent works of position localization based on photonic technologies. A fiber-connected ultra-wideband (UWB) sensor network using optical time-division multiplexing (OTDM) is proposed to realize high-resolution localization and moving the signal processing to the central station. A 3.9-cm high spatial resolution is achieved. A wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) fiber-connected sensor network is also demonstrated to realize location which is independent of the received signal format.

  13. Concepts of Connectivity and Human Epileptic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lemieux, Louis; Daunizeau, Jean; Walker, Matthew C.

    2011-01-01

    This review attempts to place the concept of connectivity from increasingly sophisticated neuroimaging data analysis methodologies within the field of epilepsy research. We introduce the more principled connectivity terminology developed recently in neuroimaging and review some of the key concepts related to the characterization of propagation of epileptic activity using what may be called traditional correlation-based studies based on EEG. We then show how essentially similar methodologies, and more recently models addressing causality, have been used to characterize whole-brain and regional networks using functional MRI data. Following a discussion of our current understanding of the neuronal system aspects of the onset and propagation of epileptic discharges and seizures, we discuss the most advanced and ambitious framework to attempt to fully characterize epileptic networks based on neuroimaging data. PMID:21472027

  14. Adolescent impatience decreases with increased frontostriatal connectivity

    PubMed Central

    van den Bos, Wouter; Rodriguez, Christian A.; Schweitzer, Julie B.; McClure, Samuel M.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period associated with an increase in impulsivity. Impulsivity is a multidimensional construct, and in this study we focus on one of the underlying components: impatience. Impatience can result from (i) disregard of future outcomes and/or (ii) oversensitivity to immediate rewards, but it is not known which of these evaluative processes underlie developmental changes. To distinguish between these two causes, we investigated developmental changes in the structural and functional connectivity of different frontostriatal tracts. We report that adolescents were more impatient on an intertemporal choice task and reported less future orientation, but not more present hedonism, than young adults. Developmental increases in structural connectivity strength in the right dorsolateral prefrontal tract were related to increased negative functional coupling with the striatum and an age-related decrease in discount rates. Our results suggest that mainly increased control, and the integration of future-oriented thought, drives the reduction in impatience across adolescence. PMID:26100897

  15. Mechanical connection for a tubular assembly

    DOEpatents

    Grover, J.M.

    1984-09-12

    Disclosed is a mechanical connection assembly for connecting two telescopically related parts together in a fluidtight relation. The system uses snap-in fasteners having flexible barbed tangs which are snapped into receiving holes formed in the parts being attached together. A locking pin can be inserted into a central aperture through the snap-in fastener to secure the fastener in the receiving holes. The system also includes a seal having sealing surfaces at least one of which is formed at an angle inclined relative to a true vertical. a metallic sealing element is interposed between the sealing surfaces. The geometry of the sealing surfaces is capable of compensating for the differential thermal growth rates occurring when the two parts are made from dissimilar metals.

  16. STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING OF WELDED CONNECTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    H. SOHN; C. FARRAR; M. FUGATE; J. CZARNECKI

    2001-05-01

    Structural health monitoring is the implementation of a damage detection strategy for aerospace, civil and mechanical engineering infrastructure. Typical damage experienced by this infrastructure might be the development of fatigue cracks, degradation of structural connections, or bearing wear in rotating machinery. The goal of the research effort reported herein is to develop a robust and cost-effective monitoring system for welded beam-column connections in a moment resisting frame structure. The structural health monitoring solution for this application will integrate structural dynamics, wireless data acquisition, local actuation, micro-electromechanical systems (MEMs) technology, and statistical pattern recognition algorithms. This paper provides an example of the integrated approach to structural health monitoring being undertaken at Los Alamos National Laboratory and summarizes progress to date on various aspects of the technology development.

  17. Pregnancy and autoimmune connective tissue diseases.

    PubMed

    Marder, Wendy; Littlejohn, Emily A; Somers, Emily C

    2016-02-01

    Autoimmune connective tissue diseases predominantly affect women and often occur during the reproductive years. Thus, specialized issues in pregnancy planning and management are commonly encountered in this patient population. This chapter provides a current overview of pregnancy as a risk factor for onset of autoimmune disease, considerations related to the course of pregnancy in several autoimmune connective tissue diseases, and disease management and medication issues before pregnancy, during pregnancy, and in the postpartum period. A major theme that has emerged across these inflammatory diseases is that active maternal disease during pregnancy is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, and that maternal and fetal health can be optimized when conception is planned during times of inactive disease and through maintaining treatment regimens compatible with pregnancy. PMID:27421217

  18. Signal connection for a downhole tool string

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David S.; Bradford, Kline; Fox, Joe; Briscoe, Michael

    2006-08-29

    A signal transmission connection for a tool string used in exploration and production of natural resources, namely: oil, gas, and geothermal energy resources. The connection comprises first and second annular elements deployed in cooperative association with each other. The respective elements comprise inductive transducers that are capable of two-way signal transmission between each other, with downhole components of the tool string, and with ground-level equipment. The respective inductive transducers comprise one or more conductive loops housed within ferrite troughs, or within ferrite trough segments. When energized, the conductive loops produce a magnetic field suitable for transmitting the signal. The second element may be rotational in drilling applications. The respective elements may be fitted with electronic equipment to aid and manipulate the transmission of the signal. The first element may also be in communication with the World Wide Web.

  19. Perdurance of multiply connected de Sitter space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Díaz, Pedro F.

    1999-06-01

    This paper deals with a study of the effects that spherically symmetric first-order metric perturbations and vacuum quantum fluctuations have on the stability of the multiply connected de Sitter spacetime recently proposed by Gott and Li. It is the main conclusion of this study that although such a spacetime is stable to the classical metric perturbations for any size of the nonchronal region, it is only stable against the quantum fluctuations of vacuum if the size of the multiply connected region is of the order of the Planck scale. Therefore, boundary conditions for the state of the universe based on the notion that the universe created itself in a regime where closed timelike curves were active and stable still appear to be physically and philosophically well supported as are those boundary conditions relying on the notion that the universe was created out of nothing.

  20. Halotools: Galaxy-Halo connection models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearin, Andrew; Tollerud, Erik; Robitaille, Thomas; Droettboom, Michael; Zentner, Andrew; Bray, Erik; Craig, Matt; Bradley, Larry; Barbary, Kyle; Deil, Christoph; Tan, Kevin; Becker, Matthew R.; More, Surhud; Günther, Hans Moritz; Sipocz, Brigitta

    2016-04-01

    Halotools builds and tests models of the galaxy-halo connection and analyzes catalogs of dark matter halos. The core functions of the package include fast generation of synthetic galaxy populations using HODs, abundance matching, and related methods; efficient algorithms for calculating galaxy clustering, lensing, z-space distortions, and other astronomical statistics; a modular, object-oriented framework for designing galaxy evolution models; and end-to-end support for reducing halo catalogs and caching them as hdf5 files.

  1. Supernovae and gamma-ray bursts connection

    SciTech Connect

    Valle, Massimo Della

    2015-12-17

    I’ll review the status of the Supernova/Gamma-Ray Burst connection. Several pieces of evidence suggest that long duration Gamma-ray Bursts are associated with bright SNe-Ic. However recent works suggest that GRBs might be produced in tight binary systems composed of a massive carbon-oxygen cores and a neutron star companion. Current estimates of the SN and GRB rates yield a ratio GRB/SNe-Ibc in the range ∼ 0.4% − 3%.

  2. Supernovae and gamma-ray bursts connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valle, Massimo Della

    2015-12-01

    I'll review the status of the Supernova/Gamma-Ray Burst connection. Several pieces of evidence suggest that long duration Gamma-ray Bursts are associated with bright SNe-Ic. However recent works suggest that GRBs might be produced in tight binary systems composed of a massive carbon-oxygen cores and a neutron star companion. Current estimates of the SN and GRB rates yield a ratio GRB/SNe-Ibc in the range ˜ 0.4% - 3%.

  3. Polyimides containing amide and perfluoroisopropylidene connecting groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dezern, James F. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    New, thermooxidatively stable polyimides were prepared from the reaction of aromatic dianhydrides containing isopropylidene bridging groups with aromatic diamines containing amide connecting groups between the rings. Several of these polyimides were shown to be semi-crystalline as evidenced by wide angle x ray scattering and differential scanning calorimetry. Most of the polyimides form tough, flexible films with high tensile properties. These polyimide films exhibit enhanced solubility in organic solvents.

  4. Separation of mixtures in connected channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glukhov, A. F.; Demin, V. A.; Putin, G. F.

    2009-01-01

    The stationary modes of thermal convection of a binary mixture in connected channels of finite height were studied experimentally and theoretically. The effects of positive and negative thermal diffusion on the convection were examined. The ranges of parameters corresponding to the modes of soft and rigid initiation of convection were determined. Vertical distributions of the temperature and concentration fields were found for various values of the thermal diffusion parameter.

  5. Connecting your Apple to Octopus 7600's

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, G.W. Jr.

    1983-01-17

    In UCID-19588, Communicating between the Apple and the Wang, we described how to take Apple DOS text files and send them to the Wang, and how to return Wang files to the Apple. It is also possible to use your Apple as an Octopus terminal, and to exchange files with Octopus 7600's. Presumably, you can also talk to the Crays, or any other part of the system. This connection has another virtue. It eliminates one of the terminals in your office.

  6. Automatic target recognition on the connection machine

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, J.R. )

    1989-09-01

    Automatic target recognition (ATR) is a computationally intensive problem that benefits from the abilities of the Connection Machine (CM), a massively parallel computer used for data-level parallel computing. The large computational resources of the CM can efficiently handle an approach to ATR that uses parallel stereo-matching and neural-network algorithms. Such an approach shows promise as an ATR system of satisfactory performance. 13 refs.

  7. Connecting to Thermocouples with Fewer Lead Wires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsby, Jon C.

    2003-01-01

    A simple technique has been devised to reduce the number of lead wires needed to connect an array of thermocouples to the instruments (e.g., voltmeters) used to read their output voltages. Because thermocouple wires are usually made of expensive metal alloys, reducing the number of lead wires can effect a considerable reduction in the cost of such an array. Reducing the number of wires also reduces the number of terminals and the amount of space needed to accommodate the wires.

  8. Characterization of damped structural connections for multi-component systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Charles; Huckelbridge, Arthur A.

    1989-01-01

    The inability to model connections adequately has historically limited the ability to predict overall system dynamic response. Connections between structural components are often mechanically complex and difficult to accurataely model analytically. Improved analytical models for connections are needed to improve system dynamic predictions. This study explores combining Component Mode Synthesis methods for coupling structural components with Parameter Identification procedures for improving the analytical modeling of the connections. Improvements in the connection stiffness and damping properties are computed in terms of physical parameters so the physical characteristics of the connections can be better understood, in addition to providing improved input for the system model.

  9. Characterization of damped structural connections for multi-component systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Charles; Huckelbridge, Arthur A.

    1988-01-01

    The inability to model connections adequately has historically limited the ability to predict overall system dynamic response. Connections between structural components are often mechanically complex and difficult to accurately model analytically. Improved analytical models for connections are needed to improve system dynamic predictions. This study explores combining Component Mode Synthesis methods for coupling structural components with Parameter Identification procedures for improving the analytical modeling of the connections. Improvements in the connection stiffness and damping properties are computed in terms of physical parameters so the physical characteristics of the connections can be better understood, in addition to providing improved input for the system model.

  10. Frontal–Occipital Connectivity During Visual Search

    PubMed Central

    Pantazatos, Spiro P.; Yanagihara, Ted K.; Zhang, Xian; Meitzler, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Although expectation- and attention-related interactions between ventral and medial prefrontal cortex and stimulus category-selective visual regions have been identified during visual detection and discrimination, it is not known if similar neural mechanisms apply to other tasks such as visual search. The current work tested the hypothesis that high-level frontal regions, previously implicated in expectation and visual imagery of object categories, interact with visual regions associated with object recognition during visual search. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, subjects searched for a specific object that varied in size and location within a complex natural scene. A model-free, spatial-independent component analysis isolated multiple task-related components, one of which included visual cortex, as well as a cluster within ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), consistent with the engagement of both top-down and bottom-up processes. Analyses of psychophysiological interactions showed increased functional connectivity between vmPFC and object-sensitive lateral occipital cortex (LOC), and results from dynamic causal modeling and Bayesian Model Selection suggested bidirectional connections between vmPFC and LOC that were positively modulated by the task. Using image-guided diffusion-tensor imaging, functionally seeded, probabilistic white-matter tracts between vmPFC and LOC, which presumably underlie this effective interconnectivity, were also observed. These connectivity findings extend previous models of visual search processes to include specific frontal–occipital neuronal interactions during a natural and complex search task. PMID:22708993

  11. Structural Connectivity Networks of Transgender People.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Andreas; Kranz, Georg S; Küblböck, Martin; Kaufmann, Ulrike; Ganger, Sebastian; Hummer, Allan; Seiger, Rene; Spies, Marie; Winkler, Dietmar; Kasper, Siegfried; Windischberger, Christian; Swaab, Dick F; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2015-10-01

    Although previous investigations of transsexual people have focused on regional brain alterations, evaluations on a network level, especially those structural in nature, are largely missing. Therefore, we investigated the structural connectome of 23 female-to-male (FtM) and 21 male-to-female (MtF) transgender patients before hormone therapy as compared with 25 female and 25 male healthy controls. Graph theoretical analysis of whole-brain probabilistic tractography networks (adjusted for differences in intracranial volume) showed decreased hemispheric connectivity ratios of subcortical/limbic areas for both transgender groups. Subsequent analysis revealed that this finding was driven by increased interhemispheric lobar connectivity weights (LCWs) in MtF transsexuals and decreased intrahemispheric LCWs in FtM patients. This was further reflected on a regional level, where the MtF group showed mostly increased local efficiencies and FtM patients decreased values. Importantly, these parameters separated each patient group from the remaining subjects for the majority of significant findings. This work complements previously established regional alterations with important findings of structural connectivity. Specifically, our data suggest that network parameters may reflect unique characteristics of transgender patients, whereas local physiological aspects have been shown to represent the transition from the biological sex to the actual gender identity. PMID:25217469

  12. Behavior of Industrial Steel Rack Connections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, S. N. R.; Ramli Sulong, N. H.; Khan, R.; Jumaat, M. Z.; Shariati, M.

    2016-03-01

    Beam-to-column connections (BCCs) used in steel pallet racks (SPRs) play a significant role to maintain the stability of rack structures in the down-aisle direction. The variety in the geometry of commercially available beam end connectors hampers the development of a generalized analytic design approach for SPR BCCs. The experimental prediction of flexibility in SPR BCCs is prohibitively expensive and difficult for all types of commercially available beam end connectors. A suitable solution to derive a particular uniform M-θ relationship for each connection type in terms of geometric parameters may be achieved through finite element (FE) modeling. This study first presents a comprehensive description of the experimental investigations that were performed and used as the calibration bases for the numerical study that constituted its main contribution. A three dimensioned (3D) non-linear finite element (FE) model was developed and calibrated against the experimental results. The FE model took into account material nonlinearities, geometrical properties and large displacements. Comparisons between numerical and experimental data for observed failure modes and M-θ relationship showed close agreement. The validated FE model was further extended to perform parametric analysis to identify the effects of various parameters which may affect the overall performance of the connection.

  13. Modeling vertical coral connectivity and mesophotic refugia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holstein, Daniel M.; Paris, Claire B.; Vaz, Ana C.; Smith, Tyler B.

    2016-03-01

    Whether mesophotic reefs will behave as refugia for corals threatened by global climate change and coastal development depends on vertical exchange of larvae between diverse habitats. Here we use a biophysical model of larval dispersal to estimate vertical connectivity of a broadcasting ( Orbicella faveolata) and a brooding ( Porites astreoides) species of coral in the US Virgin Islands. Modeling predicts subsidy to shallow areas by mesophotic larvae of both species based on local hydrology, adult reproductive characteristics, larval traits, and a wide range of scenarios developed to test depth-sensitive factors, such as fertilization rates and post-settlement survivorship. In extreme model scenarios of reduced fertilization and post-settlement survivorship of mesophotic larvae, 1-10 % local mesophotic subsidy to shallow recruitment is predicted for both species, which are demographically significant. Although direct vertical connectivity is higher for the broadcaster, the brooder demonstrates higher local multigenerational vertical connectivity, which suggests that local P. astreoides populations are more resilient than those of O. faveolata, and corroborates field studies. As shallow habitat degrades, mesophotic-shallow subsidy is predicted to increase for both species. This study is the first of its kind to simulate larval dispersal and settlement between habitats of different depths, and these findings have local, regional, and global implications for predicting and managing coral reef persistence in a changing climate.

  14. Maximizing algebraic connectivity in interconnected networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakeri, Heman; Albin, Nathan; Darabi Sahneh, Faryad; Poggi-Corradini, Pietro; Scoglio, Caterina

    2016-03-01

    Algebraic connectivity, the second eigenvalue of the Laplacian matrix, is a measure of node and link connectivity on networks. When studying interconnected networks it is useful to consider a multiplex model, where the component networks operate together with interlayer links among them. In order to have a well-connected multilayer structure, it is necessary to optimally design these interlayer links considering realistic constraints. In this work, we solve the problem of finding an optimal weight distribution for one-to-one interlayer links under budget constraint. We show that for the special multiplex configurations with identical layers, the uniform weight distribution is always optimal. On the other hand, when the two layers are arbitrary, increasing the budget reveals the existence of two different regimes. Up to a certain threshold budget, the second eigenvalue of the supra-Laplacian is simple, the optimal weight distribution is uniform, and the Fiedler vector is constant on each layer. Increasing the budget past the threshold, the optimal weight distribution can be nonuniform. The interesting consequence of this result is that there is no need to solve the optimization problem when the available budget is less than the threshold, which can be easily found analytically.

  15. Stretching Impacts Inflammation Resolution in Connective Tissue.

    PubMed

    Berrueta, Lisbeth; Muskaj, Igla; Olenich, Sara; Butler, Taylor; Badger, Gary J; Colas, Romain A; Spite, Matthew; Serhan, Charles N; Langevin, Helene M

    2016-07-01

    Acute inflammation is accompanied from its outset by the release of specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs), including resolvins, that orchestrate the resolution of local inflammation. We showed earlier that, in rats with subcutaneous inflammation of the back induced by carrageenan, stretching for 10 min twice daily reduced inflammation and improved pain, 2 weeks after carrageenan injection. In this study, we hypothesized that stretching of connective tissue activates local pro-resolving mechanisms within the tissue in the acute phase of inflammation. In rats injected with carrageenan and randomized to stretch versus no stretch for 48 h, stretching reduced inflammatory lesion thickness and neutrophil count, and increased resolvin (RvD1) concentrations within lesions. Furthermore, subcutaneous resolvin injection mimicked the effect of stretching. In ex vivo experiments, stretching of connective tissue reduced the migration of neutrophils and increased tissue RvD1 concentration. These results demonstrate a direct mechanical impact of stretching on inflammation-regulation mechanisms within connective tissue. PMID:26588184

  16. Robust fluidic connections to freestanding microfluidic hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Baer, Bradly B.; Larsen, Taylor S. H.

    2015-01-01

    Biomimetic scaffolds approaching physiological scale, whose size and large cellular load far exceed the limits of diffusion, require incorporation of a fluidic means to achieve adequate nutrient/metabolite exchange. This need has driven the extension of microfluidic technologies into the area of biomaterials. While construction of perfusable scaffolds is essentially a problem of microfluidic device fabrication, functional implementation of free-standing, thick-tissue constructs depends upon successful integration of external pumping mechanisms through optimized connective assemblies. However, a critical analysis to identify optimal materials/assembly components for hydrogel substrates has received little focus to date. This investigation addresses this issue directly by evaluating the efficacy of a range of adhesive and mechanical fluidic connection methods to gelatin hydrogel constructs based upon both mechanical property analysis and cell compatibility. Results identify a novel bioadhesive, comprised of two enzymatically modified gelatin compounds, for connecting tubing to hydrogel constructs that is both structurally robust and non-cytotoxic. Furthermore, outcomes from this study provide clear evidence that fluidic interconnect success varies with substrate composition (specifically hydrogel versus polydimethylsiloxane), highlighting not only the importance of selecting the appropriately tailored components for fluidic hydrogel systems but also that of encouraging ongoing, targeted exploration of this issue. The optimization of such interconnect systems will ultimately promote exciting scientific and therapeutic developments provided by microfluidic, cell-laden scaffolds. PMID:26045731

  17. Determination of connectivity in porous materials.

    PubMed

    Caccianotti, L; Lucchelli, E; Ramello, S; Spanò, G

    2012-12-01

    A method of practical use was set up to determine the connectivity in a porous material, modelling the physical system as a lattice, whose coordination number is assumed to be an index of connectivity itself. This task was approached through the theory of percolation and input data were provided by two different experimental techniques, that is, adsorption/desorption of nitrogen and mercury porosimetry. The overall procedure is based on the calculation of probability f(P) of occupation of the porous channels and of probability F(P) of percolation. In the framework of the above--mentioned lattice model, the average coordination number Z is calculated through the best fitting of a universal curve to the values found for F(P) and f(P), adopting as fitting parameter the ratio L between the characteristic linear dimension of the whole lattice and the characteristic linear dimension of each of its cells. The procedure described was implemented through a numerical code and applied to three commercial alumina. A simple empirical relationship was found between Z and the percolation threshold, showing an excellent coefficient of statistical correlation. The three products proved different in connectivity, allowing subtle distinctions from each other, despite their hysteresis cycles in the adsorption/desorption process appeared quite similar from a qualitative standpoint. PMID:23447967

  18. Umbilical connect techniques improvement-technology study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valkema, D. C.

    1972-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop concepts, specifications, designs, techniques, and procedures capable of significantly reducing the time required to connect and verify umbilicals for ground services to the space shuttle. The desired goal was to reduce the current time requirement of several shifts for the Saturn 5/Apollo to an elapsed time of less than one hour to connect and verify all of the space shuttle ground service umbilicals. The study was conducted in four phases: (1) literature and hardware examination, (2) concept development, (3) concept evaluation and tradeoff analysis, and (4) selected concept design. The final product of this study was a detail design of a rise-off disconnect panel prototype test specimen for a LO2/LH2 booster (or an external oxygen/hydrogen tank for an orbiter), a detail design of a swing-arm mounted preflight umbilical carrier prototype test specimen, and a part 1 specification for the umbilical connect and verification design for the vehicles as defined in the space shuttle program.

  19. Transnational connections of later-life migrants.

    PubMed

    Heikkinen, Sari Johanna; Lumme-Sandt, Kirsi

    2013-04-01

    In this paper a transnational perspective is used to explain whether and how older migrants construct and sustain their social networks. The paper uses a transnational viewpoint on older migrants' lives by analysing their engagement with their former homeland, and the intensity and habitualness of those engagements in old age. The aim of this article is to study the transnational connections of later-life migrants'. Attention is especially paid to the features of old age while maintaining these connections. These considerations are based on analyses of transnational networks in the everyday lives of later-life migrants from the former Soviet Union residing in Finland. The data were collected from 11 later-life migrants. It is found that transnational relationships are a vital part of the everyday lives of older migrants, and that they are sustained in varied ways. These connections mean a concrete source of help, family affiliations, the sharing of emotions, and a larger social network. Economic limitations affect the frequency and type of communication, and various physical limitations may also cause inability to maintain contacts across borders. In these circumstances, family members or other close relatives or friends are needed to deliver messages on the older person's behalf. Old age and immigration status affect the amount and direction of communication across borders, thereby shaping these networks. PMID:23561285

  20. Structural Connectivity Networks of Transgender People

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Andreas; Kranz, Georg S.; Küblböck, Martin; Kaufmann, Ulrike; Ganger, Sebastian; Hummer, Allan; Seiger, Rene; Spies, Marie; Winkler, Dietmar; Kasper, Siegfried; Windischberger, Christian; Swaab, Dick F.; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2015-01-01

    Although previous investigations of transsexual people have focused on regional brain alterations, evaluations on a network level, especially those structural in nature, are largely missing. Therefore, we investigated the structural connectome of 23 female-to-male (FtM) and 21 male-to-female (MtF) transgender patients before hormone therapy as compared with 25 female and 25 male healthy controls. Graph theoretical analysis of whole-brain probabilistic tractography networks (adjusted for differences in intracranial volume) showed decreased hemispheric connectivity ratios of subcortical/limbic areas for both transgender groups. Subsequent analysis revealed that this finding was driven by increased interhemispheric lobar connectivity weights (LCWs) in MtF transsexuals and decreased intrahemispheric LCWs in FtM patients. This was further reflected on a regional level, where the MtF group showed mostly increased local efficiencies and FtM patients decreased values. Importantly, these parameters separated each patient group from the remaining subjects for the majority of significant findings. This work complements previously established regional alterations with important findings of structural connectivity. Specifically, our data suggest that network parameters may reflect unique characteristics of transgender patients, whereas local physiological aspects have been shown to represent the transition from the biological sex to the actual gender identity. PMID:25217469