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Sample records for 2-fold increase compared

  1. Does interprofessional simulation increase self-efficacy: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Watters, Colm; Reedy, Gabriel; Ross, Alastair; Morgan, Nicola J; Handslip, Rhodri; Jaye, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In this work, we have compared uniprofessional and interprofessional versions of a simulation education intervention, in an attempt to understand more about whether it improves trainees’ self-efficacy. Background Interprofessionalism has been climbing the healthcare agenda for over 50 years. Simulation education attempts to create an environment for healthcare professionals to learn, without potential safety risks for patients. Integrating simulation and interprofessional education can provide benefits to individual learners. Setting The intervention took place in a high-fidelity simulation facility located on the campus of a large urban hospital. The centre provides educational activities for an Academic Health Sciences Centre. Approximately 2500 staff are trained at the centre each year. Participants One hundred and fifteen nurses and midwives along with 156 doctors, all within the early years of their postgraduate experience participated. All were included on the basis of their ongoing postgraduate education. Methods Each course was a one-day simulation course incorporating five clinical and one communication scenarios. After each a facilitated debriefing took place. A mixed methods approach utilised precourse and postcourse questionnaires measuring self-efficacy in managing emergency situations, communication, teamwork and leadership. Results Thematic analysis of qualitative data showed improvements in communication/teamwork and leadership, for doctors and nurses undergoing simulation training. These findings were confirmed by statistical analysis showing that confidence ratings improved in nurses and doctors overall (p<0.001). Improved outcomes from baseline were observed for interprofessional versus uniprofessional trained nurses (n=115; p<0.001). Postcourse ratings for doctors showed that interprofessional training was significantly associated with better final outcomes for a communication/teamwork dimension (n=156; p<0.05). Conclusions This

  2. Debiasing comparative optimism and increasing worry for health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rose, Jason P

    2012-11-01

    Comparative optimism - feeling at less personal risk for negative outcomes than one's peers - has been linked to reduced prevention efforts. This study examined a novel debiasing technique aimed at simultaneously reducing both indirectly and directly measured comparative optimism. Before providing direct comparative estimates, participants provided absolute self and peer estimates in a joint format (same computer screen) or a separate format (different computer screens). Relative to the separate format condition, participants in the joint format condition showed (1) lower comparative optimism in absolute/indirect measures, (2) lower direct comparative optimism, and (3) heightened worry. Implications for risk perception screening are discussed.

  3. Structure of the N-terminal domain of the protein Expansion: an 'Expansion' to the Smad MH2 fold.

    PubMed

    Beich-Frandsen, Mads; Aragón, Eric; Llimargas, Marta; Benach, Jordi; Riera, Antoni; Pous, Joan; Macias, Maria J

    2015-04-01

    Gene-expression changes observed in Drosophila embryos after inducing the transcription factor Tramtrack led to the identification of the protein Expansion. Expansion contains an N-terminal domain similar in sequence to the MH2 domain characteristic of Smad proteins, which are the central mediators of the effects of the TGF-β signalling pathway. Apart from Smads and Expansion, no other type of protein belonging to the known kingdoms of life contains MH2 domains. To compare the Expansion and Smad MH2 domains, the crystal structure of the Expansion domain was determined at 1.6 Å resolution, the first structure of a non-Smad MH2 domain to be characterized to date. The structure displays the main features of the canonical MH2 fold with two main differences: the addition of an α-helical region and the remodelling of a protein-interaction site that is conserved in the MH2 domain of Smads. Owing to these differences, to the new domain was referred to as Nα-MH2. Despite the presence of the Nα-MH2 domain, Expansion does not participate in TGF-β signalling; instead, it is required for other activities specific to the protostome phyla. Based on the structural similarities to the MH2 fold, it is proposed that the Nα-MH2 domain should be classified as a new member of the Smad/FHA superfamily.

  4. Comparing Trans-Spectrum and Same-Sex-Attracted Youth in Australia: Increased Risks, Increased Activisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Tiffany; Hillier, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    Tran-spectrum youth include those who are gender questioning, transgender, intersex, genderqueer, and androgynous. Drawing on data from an Australian study of more than 3,000 same-sex-attracted and trans-spectrum youth aged 14 to 21, this article compares a group of 91 trans-spectrum youth from the study to "cisgender" same-sex-attracted…

  5. Start2Fold: a database of hydrogen/deuterium exchange data on protein folding and stability

    PubMed Central

    Pancsa, Rita; Varadi, Mihaly; Tompa, Peter; Vranken, Wim F.

    2016-01-01

    Proteins fulfil a wide range of tasks in cells; understanding how they fold into complex three-dimensional (3D) structures and how these structures remain stable while retaining sufficient dynamics for functionality is essential for the interpretation of overall protein behaviour. Since the 1950's, solvent exchange-based methods have been the most powerful experimental means to obtain information on the folding and stability of proteins. Considerable expertise and care were required to obtain the resulting datasets, which, despite their importance and intrinsic value, have never been collected, curated and classified. Start2Fold is an openly accessible database (http://start2fold.eu) of carefully curated hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) data extracted from the literature that is open for new submissions from the community. The database entries contain (i) information on the proteins investigated and the underlying experimental procedures and (ii) the classification of the residues based on their exchange protection levels, also allowing for the instant visualization of the relevant residue groups on the 3D structures of the corresponding proteins. By providing a clear hierarchical framework for the easy sharing, comparison and (re-)interpretation of HDX data, Start2Fold intends to promote a better understanding of how the protein sequence encodes folding and structure as well as the development of new computational methods predicting protein folding and stability. PMID:26582925

  6. Increased risk of malignancy for non-atypical urothelial cell groups compared to negative cytology in voided urine. Morphological changes with LBC.

    PubMed

    Granados, Rosario; Butrón, Mercedes; Santonja, Carlos; Rodríguez, José-María; Martín, Ana; Duarte, Joanny; Camarmo, Encarnación; Corrales, Teresa; Aramburu, José-Antonio

    2016-07-01

    Liquid-based cytology (LBC) has recently become the preferred method for urine cytology analysis, but differences with conventional cytology (CC) have been observed. The purpose of this study is to analyze these differences and the clinical relevance of non-atypical urothelial cell groups (UCG) in voided urine specimens. Reporting terminology is discussed. Initially, diagnostic categories from 619 LBC and 474 CC samples, reviewed by five different pathologists, were compared (phase 1). Five years after LBC was implemented and applying strict cytologic criteria for UCG diagnosis, 760 samples were analyzed (phase 2) and compared to previous LBC specimens. Diagnostic differences, interobserver variability and clinicopathological correlation with a 6-month follow-up, were analyzed. UCG increased from 6.5% with CC to 20.7% (218%, 3.2 fold, P < 0.0001) with LBC. This difference was not related to interobserver variability. Five years later, the rate of UCG had decreased to 13 2%. While 6% of cases with a negative cytology had urothelial carcinoma (UC) within 6 months of diagnosis, this percentage increased to 15.7% with UCG. The sensitivity of the UCG category for UC was low (30.4%), but the specificity and the negative predictive value (NPV) were high (87.1% and 94%, respectively). LBC increases UCG when compared to CC. This can be corrected with observeŕs experience and using set cytological criteria. Due to its association with carcinoma, the presence of UCG in voided urine should be framed in a diagnostic category other than "negative for malignancy." Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:582-590. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Medicare's Hospital Compare quality reports appear to have slowed price increases for two major procedures.

    PubMed

    Dor, Avi; Encinosa, William E; Carey, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has found that Hospital Compare, Medicare's public reporting initiative, has had little impact on patient outcomes. However, little is known about the initiative's impact on hospital prices, which may be significant because private insurers are generally well positioned to respond to quality information when negotiating prices with hospitals. We estimated difference-in-differences models of the effects of Hospital Compare quality reporting on transaction prices for two major cardiac procedures, coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). States that had mandated their own public reporting systems before the implementation of Hospital Compare formed the control group. We found that prices for these procedures continued to increase overall after the initiation of Hospital Compare quality scores, but the rate of increase was significantly lower in states with no quality reporting metrics of their own before Hospital Compare, when compared to the control states (annual rates of increase of 4.4 percent versus 8.7 percent for PCI, and 3.9 percent versus 10.6 percent for CABG, adjusted for overall inflation). This finding implies that Hospital Compare provided leverage to purchasers in moderating price increases, while adding competitive pressures on hospitals. Providing accurate quality information on both hospitals and health plans could benefit consumers.

  8. The comparative mind-set: from animal comparisons to increased purchase intentions.

    PubMed

    Xu, Alison Jing; Wyer, Robert S

    2008-09-01

    Stimulating people to state a preference for one of two commercial products can increase their willingness to purchase not only one of these products, but also other products in a totally unrelated domain. However, willingness to make a purchase in a given domain (e.g., computers) can also be increased by asking individuals (a) to indicate which of two stimuli in a different domain (e.g., vacation packages) they dislike more, (b) to compare the relative attractiveness of wild animals, (c) to compare the animals with respect to physical attributes, and (d) to estimate how similar one object is to another. Moreover, the effects generalize to decisions about dating partners, as well as consumer products. In short, making any type of comparative judgment appears likely to give rise to a comparative-judgment mind-set and, therefore, to influence decisions in subsequent situations.

  9. Increased Lung Volume in Infants and Toddlers at High Compared to Low Altitude

    PubMed Central

    Llapur, Conrado J.; Martínez, Myriam R.; Caram, María Marta; Bonilla, Federico; Cabana, Celia; Yu, Zhansheng; Tepper, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Children and adults residing at high altitude (HA) compared to low altitude (LA) have larger lung volumes; however, it is unknown whether this response to chronic hypoxia begins early in life. Our objective was to determine whether infants and toddlers at HA have larger lung volumes compared to infants and toddlers at LA. Oxygen saturation (SaO2), functional residual capacity (FRC), as well as serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and erythropoietin (EPO) were measured in infants and toddlers from HA (N = 50; 3,440 m) and LA (N = 35; 440 m). There were no significant differences in somatic size for HA and LA subjects; however, HA subjects had significantly lower SaO2 (88.5% vs. 96.7%; P < 0.0001). Subjects at HA had significantly greater FRC compared to subjects at LA (group mean: 209 and 157 ml; P < 0.0001), adjusting for body length. Male infants at HA had a significantly greater FRC compared to males at LA (57 ml; P-value < 0.001); however, the increase in FRC for females at HA compared to LA was not significant (20 ml; P-value = 0.101). VEGF and EPO were significantly higher for subjects at HA compared to LA with no gender differences. In summary, infants and toddlers at HA have lower oxygen saturations, higher serum levels of VEGF and EPO, and higher FRC compared to subjects at LA; however, chronic hypoxia appears to generate a more robust response in lung growth in male compared to female infants early in life. PMID:23401418

  10. Analysis of factors that increase motorcycle rider risk compared to car driver risk.

    PubMed

    Keall, Michael D; Newstead, Stuart

    2012-11-01

    As in other parts of the Western world, there is concern in New Zealand about increasing popularity of motorcycles because of potential increases in road trauma. This study sought to identify important factors associated with increased risk for motorcyclists to inform potential policy approaches to reduce motorcyclist injury, such as changes to motorcyclist licensing, training and education. Using data extracted from a register of all New Zealand licensed motor vehicles that were matched to crash data, statistical models were fitted to examine patterns of motorcycle risk in comparison with small cars. These showed generally elevated risks for motorcyclists compared to cars, but particularly elevated risks for motorcycle owners aged in their 20s or who lived in more urbanised settings. In crashes, motorcyclists have little protection from injury, putting the motorcyclist at high risk of injury. When comparing new motorcycles with new cars, the odds of fatal or serious injury to a motorcycle rider involved in an injury crash were almost eight times the odds for a car driver.

  11. Increased frontal electroencephalogram theta amplitude in patients with anorexia nervosa compared to healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Hestad, Knut A; Weider, Siri; Nilsen, Kristian Bernhard; Indredavik, Marit Sæbø; Sand, Trond

    2016-01-01

    Objective To conduct a blind study of quantitative electroencephalogram-band amplitudes in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and healthy controls. Methods Twenty-one patients with AN and 24 controls were examined with eyes-closed 16-channel electroencephalogram. Main variables were absolute alpha, theta, and delta amplitudes in frontal, temporal, and posterior regions. Results There were no significant differences between the AN patients and controls regarding absolute regional band amplitudes in μV. Borderline significance was found for anterior theta (P=0.051). Significantly increased left and right frontal electrode theta amplitude was found in AN patients (F3, P=0.014; F4, P=0.038) compared to controls. Significant differences were also observed for secondary variables: lower values for relative parietooccipital delta and frontocentral alpha activity among AN patients than among controls. Conclusion We observed slight excess frontal theta and lower relative alpha and delta amplitudes among AN patients than among controls. This pattern is possibly related to a slight frontal lobe dysfunction in AN, or it may reflect increased attention/vigilance or another state-related change in patients with AN compared to healthy controls. PMID:27703359

  12. Vertical farming increases lettuce yield per unit area compared to conventional horizontal hydroponics.

    PubMed

    Touliatos, Dionysios; Dodd, Ian C; McAinsh, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Vertical farming systems (VFS) have been proposed as an engineering solution to increase productivity per unit area of cultivated land by extending crop production into the vertical dimension. To test whether this approach presents a viable alternative to horizontal crop production systems, a VFS (where plants were grown in upright cylindrical columns) was compared against a conventional horizontal hydroponic system (HHS) using lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. "Little Gem") as a model crop. Both systems had similar root zone volume and planting density. Half-strength Hoagland's solution was applied to plants grown in perlite in an indoor controlled environment room, with metal halide lamps providing artificial lighting. Light distribution (photosynthetic photon flux density, PPFD) and yield (shoot fresh weight) within each system were assessed. Although PPFD and shoot fresh weight decreased significantly in the VFS from top to base, the VFS produced more crop per unit of growing floor area when compared with the HHS. Our results clearly demonstrate that VFS presents an attractive alternative to horizontal hydroponic growth systems and suggest that further increases in yield could be achieved by incorporating artificial lighting in the VFS.

  13. Comparative Effectiveness of After-School Programs to Increase Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Gesell, Sabina B.; Sommer, Evan C.; Lambert, E. Warren; Vides de Andrade, Ana Regina; Davis, Lauren; Beech, Bettina M.; Mitchell, Stephanie J.; Neloms, Stevon; Ryan, Colleen K.

    2013-01-01

    Background. We conducted a comparative effectiveness analysis to evaluate the difference in the amount of physical activity children engaged in when enrolled in a physical activity-enhanced after-school program based in a community recreation center versus a standard school-based after-school program. Methods. The study was a natural experiment with 54 elementary school children attending the community ASP and 37 attending the school-based ASP. Accelerometry was used to measure physical activity. Data were collected at baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks, with 91% retention. Results. At baseline, 43% of the multiethnic sample was overweight/obese, and the mean age was 7.9 years (SD = 1.7). Linear latent growth models suggested that the average difference between the two groups of children at Week 12 was 14.7 percentage points in moderate-vigorous physical activity (P < .001). Cost analysis suggested that children attending traditional school-based ASPs—at an average cost of $17.67 per day—would need an additional daily investment of $1.59 per child for 12 weeks to increase their moderate-vigorous physical activity by a model-implied 14.7 percentage points. Conclusions. A low-cost, alternative after-school program featuring adult-led physical activities in a community recreation center was associated with increased physical activity compared to standard-of-care school-based after-school program. PMID:23984052

  14. Comparing Canadian and American cybersecurity awareness levels: Educational strategies to increase public awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoggard, Amy

    Cybersecurity awareness is an important issue that affects everyone who uses a computer or a mobile device. Canada and the United States both recognize the value of mitigating cybersecurity risks in terms of national safety, economic stability and protection of their citizens. The research performed compared the levels of cybersecurity awareness in Canadian and American Internet users. Canadian and American users were equally aware of cybersecurity measures, but were not implementing best practices to keep themselves safe. The research suggested users needed to understand why a cybersecurity measure was important before being motivated to implement it. Educational strategies were reviewed in both Canada and the United States and it was determined that although there were significant resources available, they were not being utilized by both the educators and the public. In order to increase cybersecurity awareness levels, nations should focus on increasing the public's awareness by using various types of messaging, such as cartoons, in media. One possible consideration is a compulsory awareness model before accessing the Internet. Cybersecurity topics should be included in the curriculum for students at all levels of education and a focus on providing training and resources to teachers will help increase the cybersecurity knowledge of children and youth.

  15. Structure of the N-terminal domain of the protein Expansion: an ‘Expansion’ to the Smad MH2 fold

    SciTech Connect

    Beich-Frandsen, Mads; Aragón, Eric; Llimargas, Marta; Benach, Jordi; Riera, Antoni; Pous, Joan; Macias, Maria J.

    2015-04-01

    Expansion is a modular protein that is conserved in protostomes. The first structure of the N-terminal domain of Expansion has been determined at 1.6 Å resolution and the new Nα-MH2 domain was found to belong to the Smad/FHA superfamily of structures. Gene-expression changes observed in Drosophila embryos after inducing the transcription factor Tramtrack led to the identification of the protein Expansion. Expansion contains an N-terminal domain similar in sequence to the MH2 domain characteristic of Smad proteins, which are the central mediators of the effects of the TGF-β signalling pathway. Apart from Smads and Expansion, no other type of protein belonging to the known kingdoms of life contains MH2 domains. To compare the Expansion and Smad MH2 domains, the crystal structure of the Expansion domain was determined at 1.6 Å resolution, the first structure of a non-Smad MH2 domain to be characterized to date. The structure displays the main features of the canonical MH2 fold with two main differences: the addition of an α-helical region and the remodelling of a protein-interaction site that is conserved in the MH2 domain of Smads. Owing to these differences, to the new domain was referred to as Nα-MH2. Despite the presence of the Nα-MH2 domain, Expansion does not participate in TGF-β signalling; instead, it is required for other activities specific to the protostome phyla. Based on the structural similarities to the MH2 fold, it is proposed that the Nα-MH2 domain should be classified as a new member of the Smad/FHA superfamily.

  16. Randomized trial comparing natural and synthetic surfactant: increased infection rate after natural surfactant?

    PubMed

    Kukkonen, A K; Virtanen, M; Järvenpää, A L; Pokela, M L; Ikonen, S; Fellman, V

    2000-05-01

    The efficacy of a natural porcine surfactant and a synthetic surfactant were compared in a randomized trial. In three neonatal intensive care units, 228 neonates with respiratory distress and a ratio of arterial to alveolar partial pressure of oxygen <0.22 were randomly assigned to receive either Curosurf 100 mgkg-1 or Exosurf Neonatal 5 ml.kg-1. After Curosurf, the fraction of inspired oxygen was lower from 15 min (0.45 +/- 0.22 vs 0.70 +/- 0.22, p = 0.0001) to 6 h (0.48 +/- 0.26 vs 0.64 +/- 0.23, p = 0.0001) and the mean airway pressure was lower at 1 h (8.3 +/- 3.2 mm H20 vs 9.4 +/- 3.1 mm H20, p = 0.01). Thereafter the respiratory parameters were similar. The duration of mechanical ventilation (median 6 vs 5 d) and the duration of oxygen supplementation (median 5 vs 4 d) were similar for Curosurf and Exosurf. After Curosurf, C-reactive protein value over 40 mg l-1 occurred in 45% (vs 12%; RR 3.62, 95%CI 2.12-6.17, p = 0.001), leukopenia in 52% (vs 28%; RR 1.85, 95% CI 1.31-2.61, p = 0.001) and bacteraemia in 11% (vs 4%; RR 3.17, 95% CI 1.05-9.52, p < 0.05). We conclude that when given as rescue therapy Curosurf had no advantage compared with Exosurf in addition to the more effective initial response. Curosurf may increase the risk of infection.

  17. Atomic Scale coexistence of Periodic and quasiperiodic order in a2-fold A1-Ni-Co decagonal quasicrystal surface

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jeong Young; Ogletree, D. Frank; Salmeron, Miquel; Ribeiro,R.A.; Canfield, P.C.; Jenks, C.J.; Thiel, P.A.

    2005-11-14

    Decagonal quasicrystals are made of pairs of atomic planes with pentagonal symmetry periodically stacked along a 10-fold axis. We have investigated the atomic structure of the 2-fold surface of a decagonal Al-Ni-Co quasicrystal using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The surface consists of terraces separated by steps of heights 1.9, 4.7, 7.8, and 12.6{angstrom} containing rows of atoms parallel to the 10-fold direction with an internal periodicity of 4{angstrom}. The rows are arranged aperiodically, with separations that follow a Fibonacci sequence and inflation symmetry. The results indicate that the surfaces are preferentially Al-terminated and in general agreement with bulk models.

  18. Pet veterinarians have no increased risk of hepatitis E compared to the general population.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, J R; Valente-Gomes, G; Conceição-Neto, N; Nascimento, M S J

    2014-06-01

    The discovery of autochthonous hepatitis E in industrialized countries associated to genotype 3 has changed substantially the understanding about hepatitis E virus (HEV) circulation. In these countries transmission has been associated to the consumption and direct contact to swine, a well-known reservoir for HEV. More animal reservoirs for HEV might exist since antibodies to HEV have been detected in other animal species, such as dogs and cats. Given the intimate contact between these pets and humans, the potential zoonotic HEV transmission from dogs and cats deserves to be explored. To address this issue, 493 sera from pet veterinarians (373) and matched general population (120) were tested for the presence of anti-HEV IgG using a commercial ELISA. Antibodies to HEV were found in 9.9% veterinarians and 13.3% general population. No statistically significant difference was found between these two groups showing that pet veterinarians have no increased risk to hepatitis E compared to the general population.

  19. Comparative expression study to increase the solubility of cold adapted Vibrio proteins in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Niiranen, Laila; Espelid, Sigrun; Karlsen, Christian R; Mustonen, Milla; Paulsen, Steinar M; Heikinheimo, Pirkko; Willassen, Nils P

    2007-03-01

    Functional and structural studies require gene overexpression and purification of soluble proteins. We wanted to express proteins from the psychrophilic bacterium Vibrio salmonicida in Escherichia coli, but encountered solubility problems. To improve the solubility of the proteins, we compared the effects of six N-terminal fusion proteins (Gb1, Z, thioredoxin, GST, MBP and NusA) and an N-terminal His6-tag. The selected test set included five proteins from the fish pathogen V. salmonicida and two related products from the mesophilic human pathogen Vibrio cholerae. We tested the expression in two different expression strains and at three different temperatures (16, 23 and 37 degrees C). His6-tag was the least effective tag, and these vector constructs were also difficult to transform. MBP and NusA performed best, expressing soluble proteins with all fusion partners in at least one of the cell types. In some cases MBP, GST and thioredoxin fusions resulted in products of incorrect size. The effect of temperature is complex: in most cases level of expression increased with temperature, whereas the effect on solubility was opposite. We found no clear connection between the preferred expression temperature of the protein and the temperature of the original host organism's natural habitat.

  20. Comparing the Effectiveness of Two Dance Game Interventions for Increasing Physical Movement and Intensity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarbay, Joshua J.

    2011-01-01

    The problem addressed in this study was the increasing number of overweight and obese children and the increased demand for cost-effective methods of combating this epidemic. One method used to promote weight loss and to increase movement levels and cardiovascular endurance among school-aged children, is the Konami [R] brand dancing game, Dance…

  1. Comparing Different Classes of Reinforcement to Increase Expressive Language for Individuals with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaf, Justin B.; Dale, Stephanie; Kassardjian, Alyne; Tsuji, Kathleen H.; Taubman, Mitchell; McEachin, John J.; Leaf, Ronald B.; Oppenheim-Leaf, Misty L.

    2014-01-01

    One of the basic principles of applied behavior analysis is that behavior change is largely due to that behavior being reinforced. Therefore the use of positive reinforcement is a key component of most behavioral programs for individuals diagnosed with autism. In this study we compared four different classes of reinforcers (i.e., food, praise,…

  2. Comparing Two Classwide Interventions: Implications of Using Technology for Increasing Multiplication Fact Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musti-Rao, Shobana; Plati, Erin

    2015-01-01

    An adapted alternating treatments design with initial baseline and final best treatment phase was used to evaluate and compare the effects of two classwide interventions, detect--practice--repair (DPR), and self-mediated iPad instruction, on the multiplication math facts fluency in an inclusive third-grade classroom. Twelve students participated…

  3. 3-way Networks: Application of Hypergraphs for Modelling Increased Complexity in Comparative Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Weighill, Deborah A; Jacobson, Daniel A

    2015-01-01

    We present and develop the theory of 3-way networks, a type of hypergraph in which each edge models relationships between triplets of objects as opposed to pairs of objects as done by standard network models. We explore approaches of how to prune these 3-way networks, illustrate their utility in comparative genomics and demonstrate how they find relationships which would be missed by standard 2-way network models using a phylogenomic dataset of 211 bacterial genomes. PMID:25815802

  4. 3-way Networks: Application of Hypergraphs for Modelling Increased Complexity in Comparative Genomics

    DOE PAGES

    Weighill, Deborah A.; Jacobson, Daniel A.

    2015-03-27

    Herein we present and develop the theory of 3-way networks, a type of hypergraph in which each edge models relationships between triplets of objects as opposed to pairs of objects as done by standard network models. We explore approaches of how to prune these 3-way networks, illustrate their utility in comparative genomics and demonstrate how they find relationships which would be missed by standard 2-way network models using a phylogenomic dataset of 211 bacterial genomes.

  5. Increasing women’s sexual desire: The comparative effectiveness of estrogens and androgens

    PubMed Central

    Cappelletti, Maurand; Wallen, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Both estradiol and testosterone have been implicated as the steroid critical for modulating women’s sexual desire. By contrast, in all other female mammals only estradiol has been shown to be critical for female sexual motivation and behavior. Pharmaceutical companies have invested heavily in the development of androgen therapies for female sexual desire disorders, but today there are still no FDA approved androgen therapies for women. Nonetheless, testosterone is currently, and frequently, prescribed off-label for the treatment of low sexual desire in women, and the idea of testosterone as a cure-all for female sexual dysfunction remains popular. This paper places the ongoing debate concerning the hormonal modulation of women’s sexual desire within a historical context, and reviews controlled trials of estrogen and/or androgen therapies for low sexual desire in postmenopausal women. These studies demonstrate that estrogen-only therapies that produce periovulatory levels of circulating estradiol increase sexual desire in postmenopausal women. Testosterone at supraphysiological, but not at physiological, levels enhances the effectiveness of low-dose estrogen therapies at increasing women’s sexual desire; however, the mechanism by which supraphysiological testosterone increases women’s sexual desire in combination with an estrogen remains unknown. Because effective therapies require supraphysiological amounts of testosterone, it remains unclear whether endogenous testosterone contributes to the modulation of women’s sexual desire. The likelihood that an androgen-only clinical treatment will meaningfully increase women’s sexual desire is minimal, and the focus of pharmaceutical companies on the development of androgen therapies for the treatment of female sexual desire disorders is likely misplaced. PMID:26589379

  6. Increasing women's sexual desire: The comparative effectiveness of estrogens and androgens.

    PubMed

    Cappelletti, Maurand; Wallen, Kim

    2016-02-01

    Both estradiol and testosterone have been implicated as the steroid critical for modulating women's sexual desire. By contrast, in all other female mammals only estradiol has been shown to be critical for female sexual motivation and behavior. Pharmaceutical companies have invested heavily in the development of androgen therapies for female sexual desire disorders, but today there are still no FDA approved androgen therapies for women. Nonetheless, testosterone is currently, and frequently, prescribed off-label for the treatment of low sexual desire in women, and the idea of testosterone as a possible cure-all for female sexual dysfunction remains popular. This paper places the ongoing debate concerning the hormonal modulation of women's sexual desire within a historical context, and reviews controlled trials of estrogen and/or androgen therapies for low sexual desire in postmenopausal women. These studies demonstrate that estrogen-only therapies that produce periovulatory levels of circulating estradiol increase sexual desire in postmenopausal women. Testosterone at supraphysiological, but not at physiological, levels enhances the effectiveness of low-dose estrogen therapies at increasing women's sexual desire; however, the mechanism by which supraphysiological testosterone increases women's sexual desire in combination with an estrogen remains unknown. Because effective therapies require supraphysiological amounts of testosterone, it remains unclear whether endogenous testosterone contributes to the modulation of women's sexual desire. The likelihood that an androgen-only clinical treatment will meaningfully increase women's sexual desire is minimal, and the focus of pharmaceutical companies on the development of androgen therapies for the treatment of female sexual desire disorders is likely misplaced.

  7. Does Axillary Boost Increase Lymphedema Compared With Supraclavicular Radiation Alone After Breast Conservation?

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, Shelly B. Freedman, Gary M.; Li Tianyu; Anderson, Penny R.; Ross, Eric

    2008-12-01

    Purpose: To determine independent predictors of lymphedema (LE) after breast radiotherapy and to quantify added risks of LE from regional node irradiation (RNI). Materials and Methods: A total of 2,579 women with T1-2, N 0-3, M0 breast cancer treated with breast conservation between 1970 and 2005 were studied. A total of 2,169 patients (84%) received radiation to the breast (B), 226 (8.8%) to the breast and supraclavicular LNs (B+SC), and 184 (7.1%) to the breast, supraclavicular LNs, and a posterior axillary boost (B+SC+PAB). Median follow-up was 81 months (range, 3-271). Results: Eighteen percent of patients developed LE. LE risks were as follows: 16% (B), 23% (B+SC), and 31% (B+SC+PAB) (p < 0.0001). LE severity was greater in patients who had RNI (p = 0.0002). On multivariate analysis, RT field (p < 0.0001), obesity index (p = 0.0157), systemic therapy (p = 0.0013), and number of LNs dissected (p < 0.0001) independently predicted for LE. In N1 patients, the addition of a SC to tangents (p < 0.0001) and the addition of a PAB to tangents (p = 0.0017) conferred greater risks of LE, but adding a PAB to B+SC RT did not (p = 0.8002). In the N2 patients, adding a PAB increased the risk of LE 4.5-fold over B+SC RT (p = 0.0011). Conclusions: LE predictors included number of LNs dissected, RNI, obesity index, and systemic therapy. LE risk increased when a SC or PAB were added in the N1 subgroup. In the N2 patients, a PAB increased the risk over B+SC. The decision to boost the axilla must be weighed against the increased risk of LE that it imposes.

  8. Increased recovery of touch DNA evidence using FTA paper compared to conventional collection methods.

    PubMed

    Kirgiz, Irina A; Calloway, Cassandra

    2017-04-01

    Tape lifting and FTA paper scraping methods were directly compared to traditional double swabbing for collecting touch DNA from car steering wheels (n = 70 cars). Touch DNA was collected from the left or right side of each steering wheel (randomized) using two sterile cotton swabs, while the other side was sampled using water-soluble tape or FTA paper cards. DNA was extracted and quantified in duplicate using qPCR. Quantifiable amounts of DNA were detected for 100% of the samples (n = 140) collected independent of the method. However, the DNA collection yield was dependent on the collection method. A statistically significant difference in DNA yield was observed between FTA scraping and double swabbing methods (p = 0.0051), with FTA paper collecting a two-fold higher amount. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference in DNA yields between the double swabbing and tape lifting techniques (p = 0.21). Based on the DNA concentration required for 1 ng input, 47% of the samples collected using FTA paper would be expected to yield a short tandem repeat (STR) profile compared to 30% and 23% using double swabbing or tape, respectively. Further, 55% and 77% of the samples collected using double swabbing or tape, respectively, did not yield a high enough DNA concentration for the 0.5 ng of DNA input recommended for conventional STR kits and would be expected to result in a partial or no profile compared to 35% of the samples collected using FTA paper. STR analysis was conducted for a subset of the higher concentrated samples to confirm that the DNA collected from the steering wheel was from the driver. 32 samples were selected with DNA amounts of at least 1 ng total DNA (100 pg/μl when concentrated if required). A mixed STR profile was observed for 26 samples (88%) and the last driver was the major DNA contributor for 29 samples (94%). For one sample, the last driver was the minor DNA contributor. A full STR profile of the last driver was observed for

  9. Comparative Community Outreach to Increase Cervical Cancer Screening in the Mississippi Delta †

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Philip E.; Rausa, Alfio; Walls, Tameka; Gravitt, Patti E.; Partridge, Edward E.; Olivo, Vanessa; Niwa, Shelley; Morrissey, Kerry Grace; Tucker, Laura; Katki, Hormuzd; Scarinci, Isabel

    2011-01-01

    Objective To increase participation in cervical cancer screening of under-served women living in the Mississippi Delta, a U.S. population at high risk for cervical cancer Methods We conducted a door-to-door feasibility study of women living in the Mississippi Delta to increase participation in cervical cancer screening in 2009-10. Women (n=119) aged 26-65 years who had not been screened in last 3 years or more, were not pregnant, and had a cervix were offered a choice: clinic-based Pap testing or home self-collection with HPV DNA testing. Results Seventy-seven women (64.7%) chose self-collection with HPV testing, of which 62 (80.5%) returned their self-collected specimen. By comparison, 42 women (35.3%) chose Pap testing, of which 17 (40.5%) attended their clinic appointment. Thus there was an almost 4-fold greater participation of under-screened women in self-collection with HPV testing than in free Pap testing (78.4% vs. 21.5%). Conclusions We found that offering self-collection will increase participation in cervical cancer screening among under-screened populations living in the Mississippi Delta. Based on these preliminary results, we suggest that self-collection with HPV DNA testing might complement current Pap testing programs to reach under-screened populations of women, such as those living in the Mississippi Delta. PMID:21497619

  10. Increased Gamma Brainwave Amplitude Compared to Control in Three Different Meditation Traditions

    PubMed Central

    Cahn, B. Rael; Levy, Jonathan; Fernandez, Manuel; Delorme, Arnaud

    2017-01-01

    Despite decades of research, effects of different types of meditation on electroencephalographic (EEG) activity are still being defined. We compared practitioners of three different meditation traditions (Vipassana, Himalayan Yoga and Isha Shoonya) with a control group during a meditative and instructed mind-wandering (IMW) block. All meditators showed higher parieto-occipital 60–110 Hz gamma amplitude than control subjects as a trait effect observed during meditation and when considering meditation and IMW periods together. Moreover, this gamma power was positively correlated with participants meditation experience. Independent component analysis was used to show that gamma activity did not originate in eye or muscle artifacts. In addition, we observed higher 7–11 Hz alpha activity in the Vipassana group compared to all the other groups during both meditation and instructed mind wandering and lower 10–11 Hz activity in the Himalayan yoga group during meditation only. We showed that meditation practice is correlated to changes in the EEG gamma frequency range that are common to a variety of meditation practices. PMID:28118405

  11. Increased Gamma Brainwave Amplitude Compared to Control in Three Different Meditation Traditions.

    PubMed

    Braboszcz, Claire; Cahn, B Rael; Levy, Jonathan; Fernandez, Manuel; Delorme, Arnaud

    2017-01-01

    Despite decades of research, effects of different types of meditation on electroencephalographic (EEG) activity are still being defined. We compared practitioners of three different meditation traditions (Vipassana, Himalayan Yoga and Isha Shoonya) with a control group during a meditative and instructed mind-wandering (IMW) block. All meditators showed higher parieto-occipital 60-110 Hz gamma amplitude than control subjects as a trait effect observed during meditation and when considering meditation and IMW periods together. Moreover, this gamma power was positively correlated with participants meditation experience. Independent component analysis was used to show that gamma activity did not originate in eye or muscle artifacts. In addition, we observed higher 7-11 Hz alpha activity in the Vipassana group compared to all the other groups during both meditation and instructed mind wandering and lower 10-11 Hz activity in the Himalayan yoga group during meditation only. We showed that meditation practice is correlated to changes in the EEG gamma frequency range that are common to a variety of meditation practices.

  12. Deep sequencing increases hepatitis C virus phylogenetic cluster detection compared to Sanger sequencing.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Vincent; Olmstead, Andrea; Tang, Patrick; Cook, Darrel; Janjua, Naveed; Grebely, Jason; Jacka, Brendan; Poon, Art F Y; Krajden, Mel

    2016-09-01

    Effective surveillance and treatment strategies are required to control the hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemic. Phylogenetic analyses are powerful tools for reconstructing the evolutionary history of viral outbreaks and identifying transmission clusters. These studies often rely on Sanger sequencing which typically generates a single consensus sequence for each infected individual. For rapidly mutating viruses such as HCV, consensus sequencing underestimates the complexity of the viral quasispecies population and could therefore generate different phylogenetic tree topologies. Although deep sequencing provides a more detailed quasispecies characterization, in-depth phylogenetic analyses are challenging due to dataset complexity and computational limitations. Here, we apply deep sequencing to a characterized population to assess its ability to identify phylogenetic clusters compared with consensus Sanger sequencing. For deep sequencing, a sample specific threshold determined by the 50th percentile of the patristic distance distribution for all variants within each individual was used to identify clusters. Among seven patristic distance thresholds tested for the Sanger sequence phylogeny ranging from 0.005-0.06, a threshold of 0.03 was found to provide the maximum balance between positive agreement (samples in a cluster) and negative agreement (samples not in a cluster) relative to the deep sequencing dataset. From 77 HCV seroconverters, 10 individuals were identified in phylogenetic clusters using both methods. Deep sequencing analysis identified an additional 4 individuals and excluded 8 other individuals relative to Sanger sequencing. The application of this deep sequencing approach could be a more effective tool to understand onward HCV transmission dynamics compared with Sanger sequencing, since the incorporation of minority sequence variants improves the discrimination of phylogenetically linked clusters.

  13. Comparative community genomics in the Dead Sea: an increasingly extreme environment.

    PubMed

    Bodaker, Idan; Sharon, Itai; Suzuki, Marcelino T; Feingersch, Roi; Shmoish, Michael; Andreishcheva, Ekaterina; Sogin, Mitchell L; Rosenberg, Mira; Maguire, Michael E; Belkin, Shimshon; Oren, Aharon; Béjà, Oded

    2010-03-01

    Owing to the extreme salinity ( approximately 10 times saltier than the oceans), near toxic magnesium levels (approximately 2.0 M Mg(2+)), the dominance of divalent cations, acidic pH (6.0) and high-absorbed radiation flux rates, the Dead Sea represents a unique and harsh ecosystem. Measures of microbial presence (microscopy, pigments and lipids) indicate that during rare bloom events after exceptionally rainy seasons, the microbial communities can reach high densities. However, most of the time, when the Dead Sea level is declining and halite is precipitating from the water column, it is difficult to reliably measure the presence of microorganisms and their activities. Although a number of halophilic Archaea have been previously isolated from the Dead Sea, polar lipid analyses of biomass collected during Dead Sea blooms suggested that these isolates were not the major components of the microbial community of these blooms. In this study, in an effort to characterize the perennial microbial community of the Dead Sea and compare it with bloom assemblages, we performed metagenomic analyses of concentrated biomass from hundreds of liters of brine and of microbial material from the last massive Dead Sea bloom. The difference between the two conditions was reflected in community composition and diversity, in which the bloom was different and less diverse from the residual brine population. The distributional patterns of microbial genes suggested Dead Sea community trends in mono- and divalent cation metabolisms as well as in transposable elements. This may indicate possible mechanisms and pathways enabling these microbes to survive in such a harsh environment.

  14. Use of Power Assist-Wheels Results in Increased Distance Traveled Compared to Conventional Manual Wheeling

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Charles E.; Buman, Matthew P.; Chow, John W.; Tillman, Mark D.; Fournier, Kimberly A.; Giacobbi, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of power assist wheels (PAWs) on the distance traveled by manual wheelchair users and analyze potential cofactors in the magnitude of response: To test the hypothesis that wheelers would travel significantly further with PAWs. Design A 16-week A (Pre-intervention)-B (Intervention)- A (Post-intervention) repeated measures design. Seven women and 13 men (age 43±15 years) full-time wheelers participated. During the pre-intervention and post-intervention phases (4 weeks each), participants used their own unaltered manual wheelchairs. During the 8-week intervention phase, the manual wheels were replaced with PAWs. Daily distance was measured with bicycle-style odometers. A composite score of laboratory wheelchair tasks was used to classify wheelchair performance. Mixed model repeated measures analysis of variance analyzed changes across phases of the trial. A post-hoc analysis tabulated the amount of days wheelers exceeded their individual daily averages in each phase by two standard deviations. Results Wheelers traveled significantly greater distances during the intervention phase compared to pre- or post-intervention phases regardless of baseline wheelchair performance . Wheelers who demonstrated higher baseline wheelchair performance traveled lesser average distances in the first two weeks after receiving PAWs than in the subsequent 6 weeks. Wheelers exceeded their individual daily averages per phase on a significantly greater number of days during the intervention phase. Conclusions PAWs enabled wheelers to travel farther and to travel beyond their usual distances on more days. Future studies may be strengthened by taking into account the two-week “adjustment phase” for PAWs. PMID:20647780

  15. Increased Complications in Trapeziectomy With Ligament Reconstruction and Tendon Interposition Compared With Trapeziectomy Alone

    PubMed Central

    Naram, Aparajit; Lyons, Keith; Rothkopf, Douglas M.; Calkins, Edward R.; Breen, Thomas; Jones, Marci; Shufflebarger, John V.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the treatment of basal joint arthritis of the thumb, recent studies suggest equivalent outcomes with regard to long-term pain, mobility, and strength, in patients undergoing either trapeziectomy alone or trapeziectomy with ligament reconstruction and tendon interposition (LRTI). The goal of this study was to investigate risk factors for complications in carpometacarpal (CMC) arthroplasty. Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of 5 surgeons at a single institution performing CMC arthroplasties from November 2006 to November 2012. A total of 200 thumbs in 179 patients underwent simple trapeziectomy with or without LRTI and with or without Kirschner wire stabilization, or a Weilby procedure. The average follow-up was 11.6 months (range = 1-69 months). Data collection included sex, age, history of smoking or diabetes, and any other surgeries performed on the hand at the time of arthroplasty. Furthermore, we collected outcomes involving any adverse events, paying attention to those necessitating reoperation, antibiotics, or those who developed complex regional pain syndrome. Results: Seventy hands had a postoperative complication. Ten of these complications were considered major, defined as requiring antibiotics, reoperation, or other aggressive interventions. On multivariate analysis, risk of total complications was significantly greater only in patients undergoing either trapeziectomy with LRTI or Weilby procedure in comparison with trapeziectomy with K-wire stabilization (odds ratio = 4.30 and 6.73, respectively). Conclusions: Patients undergoing trapeziectomy with LRTI or Weilby had a greater incidence of reported complications when compared with trapeziectomy alone. These results suggest an advantage of simple trapeziectomy; however, further study is warranted. PMID:27418894

  16. Beta activity in the premotor cortex is increased during stabilized as compared to normal walking

    PubMed Central

    Bruijn, Sjoerd M.; Van Dieën, Jaap H.; Daffertshofer, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Walking on two legs is inherently unstable. Still, we humans perform remarkable well at it, mostly without falling. To gain more understanding of the role of the brain in controlling gait stability we measured brain activity using electro-encephalography (EEG) during stabilized and normal walking. Subjects walked on a treadmill in two conditions, each lasting 10 min; normal, and while being laterally stabilized by elastic cords. Kinematics of trunk and feet, electro-myography (EMG) of neck muscles, as well as 64-channel EEG were recorded. To assess gait stability the local divergence exponent, step width, and trunk range of motion were calculated from the kinematic data. We used independent component (IC) analysis to remove movement, EMG, and eyeblink artifacts from the EEG, after which dynamic imaging of coherent sources beamformers were determined to identify cortical sources that showed a significant difference between conditions. Stabilized walking led to a significant increase in gait stability, i.e., lower local divergence exponents. Beamforming analysis of the beta band activity revealed significant sources in bilateral pre-motor cortices. Projection of sensor data on these sources showed a significant difference only in the left premotor area, with higher beta power during stabilized walking, specifically around push-off, although only significant around contralateral push-off. It appears that even during steady gait the cortex is involved in the control of stability. PMID:26578937

  17. Increased prevalence of autoimmune disease in patients with unilateral compared with bilateral moyamoya disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian-Bin; Liu, Yi; Zhou, Liang-Xue; Sun, Hong; He, Min; You, Chao

    2016-05-01

    OBJECT This study explored whether there were differences between the autoimmune disease prevalence rates in unilateral and bilateral moyamoya disease (MMD). METHODS The authors performed a retrospective review of data obtained from the medical records of their hospital, analyzing and comparing the clinical characteristics and prevalence rates of all autoimmune diseases that were associated with unilateral and bilateral MMD in their hospital from January 1995 to October 2014. RESULTS Three hundred sixteen patients with bilateral MMD and 68 with unilateral MMD were identified. The results indicated that patients with unilateral MMD were more likely to be female than were patients with bilateral MMD (67.6% vs 51.3%, p = 0.014, odds ratio [OR] 1.99). Overall, non-autoimmune comorbidities tended to be more prevalent in the unilateral MMD cases than in the bilateral MMD cases (17.6% vs 9.8%, p = 0.063, OR 1.97, chi-square test). Autoimmune thyroid disease and other autoimmune diseases also tended to be more prevalent in the unilateral MMD cases than in the bilateral MMD cases (19.1% vs 10.8%, p = 0.056, OR 1.96 and 8.8% vs 3.5%, p = 0.092, OR 2.77, respectively, chi-square test). The overall autoimmune disease prevalence in the unilateral MMD cases was significantly higher than in the bilateral MMD cases (26.5% vs 13.6%, p = 0.008, OR 2.29, 95% CI 1.22-4.28, chi-square test). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that autoimmune disease was more likely to be associated with unilateral than with bilateral MMD (p = 0.039, OR 10.91, 95% CI 1.13-105.25). CONCLUSIONS This study indicated a higher overall autoimmune disease prevalence in unilateral than in bilateral MMD. Unilateral MMD may be more associated with autoimmune disease than bilateral MMD. Different pathogenetic mechanisms may underlie moyamoya vessel formation in unilateral and bilateral MMD.

  18. How to Inform: Comparing Written and Video Education Interventions to Increase Human Papillomavirus Knowledge and Vaccination Intentions in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krawczyk, Andrea; Lau, Elsa; Perez, Samara; Delisle, Vanessa; Amsel, Rhonda; Rosberger, Zeev

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy of 2 human papillomavirus (HPV) educational interventions on increasing HPV knowledge and vaccination intentions in college students. Participants: Male (n = 60) and female (n = 140) undergraduates (M[subscript age] = 20.4, SD = 2.3) recruited from a university in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, from October 2009 to…

  19. Forskolin induced increase in spontaneous activity of auditory brainstem neurons is comparable to acoustic stimulus evoked responses.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Aasef G; Finlayson, Paul G

    2012-12-07

    Contemporary proposals for the pathophysiology of tinnitus due to cochlear damage underscore increased spontaneous activity of auditory brainstem neurons. One of the several consequences of the cochlear injury is the activation of the ERK pathway, suppression of phosphodiestase E activity, and putatively setting a long-term increase in intracellular levels of cyclic AMP at central auditory neurons. Local application of forskolin also increases intracellular cyclic AMP and spontaneous neural activity. We measured the effects of locally applied forskolin on spontaneous firing rate of isolated neurons in the peri-olivary region of the superior olive complex in anesthetized adult Long Evan rats. Forskolin induced increase in spontaneous neural activity was comparable to supra-threshold tone evoke neural responses. These results are viewed in context of hyperexcitability as a correlate of tinnitus.

  20. Simulated microgravity disrupts intestinal homeostasis and increases colitis susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Li, Pingping; Shi, Junxiu; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Ke; Li, Jinglong; Liu, Hongju; Zhou, Yu; Xu, Xi; Hao, Jie; Sun, Xiuyuan; Pang, Xuewen; Li, Yan; Wu, Hounan; Chen, Xiaoping; Ge, Qing

    2015-08-01

    The immune systems can be altered by spaceflight in many aspects, but microgravity-related mucosal immune changes and its clinical significance have not been well studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether simulated microgravity influences the intestinal homeostasis and increases the susceptibility to colon inflammation. The hindlimb unloading (HU) mouse model was used to simulate the microgravity condition. Three percent dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) was given to mice to induce colitis. Compared to ground control (Ctrl) mice, the HU ones revealed an impaired intestinal homeostasis and increased susceptibility to DSS-induced colitis. This includes an early-onset, 4-fold expansion of segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB), more than 2-fold decrease in regulatory T (Treg) cell numbers and IL-10 production, ∼2-fold increase in colonic IL-1β expression, 2-fold increase in circulating neutrophils, and colonic neutrophil infiltration. The application of antibiotics ameliorated the Treg and IL-10 reductions but did not significantly dampen neutrophilia and elevated expression of colonic IL-1β. These results indicate that the intestinal microflora and innate immune system both respond to simulated microgravity and together, contribute to the proinflammatory shift in the gut microenvironment. The data also emphasize the necessity for evaluating the susceptibility to inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) in distant space travels.

  1. Serum cytokines are increased and circulating micronutrients are not altered in subjects with early compared to advanced knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Barker, Tyler; Rogers, Victoria E; Henriksen, Vanessa T; Aguirre, Dale; Trawick, Roy H; Rasmussen, G Lynn; Momberger, Nathan G

    2014-08-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a leading cause of physical disability. At the early stage of knee OA, the increase in synovial fluid cytokine concentrations could contribute to the pathogenesis of OA by degrading articular cartilage. It is unknown, however, if inflammatory cytokines increase systemically at the early or advanced stage of knee OA. The systemic increase of inflammatory cytokines could be detrimental to the endogenous status of micronutrients that protect against excessive inflammation and cytokine-mediated events. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that an increase in serum cytokines associate with a decrease in circulating micronutrients in subjects with early compared to advanced knee OA. Advanced knee OA subjects (n=14) displayed radiographic, pain, and muscular weakness symptoms of knee OA. Early knee OA subjects (n=14) were matched (age, gender, and body mass index) to the advanced OA group and displayed one or two of the aforementioned symptoms of knee OA. Inflammatory cytokines, vitamins C (ascorbic acid), D (25-hydroxyvitamin D), and E (α- and γ-tocopherols), and β-carotene were measured in fasting blood samples. In the early OA group, serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-5, IL-6, IL-12, and IL-13 concentrations were significantly (all p<0.05) increased. Circulating ascorbic acid, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, α- and γ-tocopherol's, and β-carotene concentrations were not significantly different between groups. Based on these preliminary results, we conclude that the systemic increase of inflammatory cytokines is not associated with a decrease in circulating micronutrients in subjects with early compared to advanced knee OA.

  2. Increasing Disadvantages in Cancer Survival in New Zealand Compared to Australia, between 2000-05 and 2006-10.

    PubMed

    Elwood, J Mark; Aye, Phyu Sin; Tin Tin, Sandar

    2016-01-01

    New Zealand has lower cancer survival compared to its neighbour Australia. If this were due to long established differences between the two patient populations, it might be expected to be either constant in time, or decreasing, as improving health services deals with inequities. In this study we compared trends in relative cancer survival ratios in New Zealand and Australia between 2000-05 and 2006-10, using data from the New Zealand Cancer Registry and the Australian Institute for Health and Welfare. Over this period, Australia showed significant improvements (6.0% in men, 3.0% in women) in overall 5-year cancer survival, with substantial increases in survival from major cancer sites such as lung, bowel, prostate, and breast cancers. New Zealand had only a 1.8% increase in cancer survival in men and 1.3% in women, with non-significant changes in survival from lung and bowel cancers, although there were increases in survival from prostate and breast cancers. For all cancers combined, and for lung and bowel cancer, the improvements in survival and the greater improvements in Australia were mainly in 1-year survival, suggesting factors related to diagnosis and presentation. For breast cancer, the improvements were similar in each country and seen in survival after the first year. The findings underscore the need to accelerate the efforts to improve early diagnosis and optimum treatment for New Zealand cancer patients to catch up with the progress in Australia.

  3. An oily fish diet increases insulin sensitivity compared to a red meat diet in young iron-deficient women.

    PubMed

    Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Pérez-Granados, Ana M; Schoppen, Stefanie; Vaquero, M Pilar

    2009-08-01

    Beneficial effects of n-3 fatty acids on a variety of physiological functions have been reported, but information related to the effects of oily fish consumed within a varied diet on glucose metabolism and diabetes risk is scarce. The objective of the study was to compare the effects of a diet rich in oily fish to those of a diet rich in red meat on lipid profile, oxidative status, glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in young, iron-deficient women. The study was designed attending the CONSORT statement guidelines. It was a randomised crossover dietary intervention study with two 8-week periods. Two diets were designed differing only in their oily fish or red meat content (four portions per week). Twenty-five young iron-deficient women with normal lipid, glucose and insulin levels participated in the assay. Lipid profile (total, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol, TAG), fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and oxidation (lipoperoxides) and inflammation (soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1) biomarkers were analysed. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) and Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI). Insulin levels significantly decreased and insulin sensitivity significantly increased with the oily fish diet. HDL-cholesterol significantly increased with the oily fish diet. Other parameters did not significantly differ between diets. An increase in oily fish consumption increases insulin sensitivity in young iron-deficient women. This outcome should be considered when giving dietary advice to this population.

  4. Aspartic acid aminotransferase activity is increased in actively spiking compared with non-spiking human epileptic cortex.

    PubMed Central

    Kish, S J; Dixon, L M; Sherwin, A L

    1988-01-01

    Increased concentration of the excitatory neurotransmitter aspartic acid in actively spiking human epileptic cerebral cortex was recently described. In order to further characterise changes in the aspartergic system in epileptic brain, the behaviour of aspartic acid aminotransferase (AAT), a key enzyme involved in aspartic acid metabolism has now been examined. Electrocorticography performed during surgery was employed to identify cortical epileptic spike foci in 16 patients undergoing temporal lobectomy for intractable seizures. Patients with spontaneously spiking lateral temporal cortex (n = 8) were compared with a non-spiking control group (n = 8) of patients in whom the epileptic lesions were confined to the hippocampus sparing the temporal convexity. Mean activity of AAT in spiking cortex was significantly elevated by 16-18%, with aspartic acid concentration increased by 28%. Possible explanations for the enhanced AAT activity include increased proliferation of cortical AAT-containing astrocytes at the spiking focus and/or a generalised increase in neuronal or extraneuronal metabolism consequent to the ongoing epileptic discharge. It is suggested that the data provide additional support for a disturbance of central excitatory aspartic acid mechanisms in human epileptic brain. PMID:2898010

  5. Overproduction of a single protein, Pc-Pex11p, results in 2-fold enhanced penicillin production by Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Kiel, Jan A K W; van der Klei, Ida J; van den Berg, Marco A; Bovenberg, Roel A L; Veenhuis, Marten

    2005-02-01

    Current industrial production of beta-lactam antibiotics, using the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum, is the result of many years of strain improvement by classical mutagenesis. More efficient production strains showed significant increases in the number and volume fraction of microbodies in their cells, organelles that harbor key enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of beta-lactam antibiotics. We have isolated the P. chrysogenum cDNA encoding Pc-Pex11p, a peroxin that is involved in microbody abundance. We demonstrate that overproduction of Pc-Pex11p in P. chrysogenum results in massive proliferation of tubular-shaped microbodies and a 2- to 2.5-fold increase in the level of penicillin in the culture medium. Notably, Pc-Pex11p-overproduction did not affect the levels of the enzymes of the penicillin biosynthetic pathway. Our results suggest that the stimulating effect of enhanced organelle numbers may reflect an increase in the fluxes of penicillin and/or its precursors across the now much enlarged microbody membrane.

  6. Increased Rates of Long-Term Complications after MammoSite Brachytherapy Compared with Whole Breast Radiation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rosenkranz, Kari M; Tsui, Edmund; McCabe, Elizabeth B; Gui, Jiang; Underhill, Kelly; Barth, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Due to its short duration of therapy and low rates of local recurrence, women undergoing breast conservation are increasingly opting for partial breast irradiation with the MammoSite (Cytyc/Hologic) catheter. In early follow-up studies, few complications were reported. Few data, however, exist regarding longer-term complications. We compared the long-term local toxicities of MammoSite partial breast irradiation with those resulting from whole breast radiation. STUDY DESIGN This was a retrospective study performed in a single academic medical center. All patients who underwent breast-conserving surgery between 2003 and 2008, who met institutional criteria for brachytherapy, were included. We compared women treated with MammoSite with patients treated with whole breast radiation therapy (WBRT). Endpoints included incidence of palpable masses at the lumpectomy site, telangiectasias, and local recurrence. RESULTS Seventy-one MammoSite patients and 245 WBRT patients were well matched with regard to clinical characteristics. Median follow-up was 4 years. A palpable mass developed at the site of lumpectomy in 27% of the MammoSite patients compared with 7% of the WBRT patients (p < 0.0001). Telangiectasias developed more frequently in the MammoSite group than in the WBRT group (24% vs 4%, p < 0.001). Forty-two percent of patients treated with MammoSite developed a palpable mass, telangectasia, or both. CONCLUSIONS Palpable masses and telangiectasias are frequent long-term complications after MammoSite brachytherapy and occur at a significantly higher rate after MammoSite brachytherapy than after WBRT. This increased rate of long-term local toxicity should be considered when counseling women on options for adjuvant radiation therapy after breast-conserving surgery. PMID:23830216

  7. Surgery increases cell death and induces changes in gene expression compared with anesthesia alone in the developing piglet brain

    PubMed Central

    Fierens, Igor; Rocha-Ferreira, Eridan; Hristova, Mariya; Ezzati, Mojgan; Rostami, Jamshid; Alonso-Alconada, Daniel; Chaban, Badr; Hassell, Jane; Fleiss, Bobbi; Gressens, Pierre; Sanders, Robert D.; Robertson, Nicola J.

    2017-01-01

    In a range of animal species, exposure of the brain to general anaesthesia without surgery during early infancy may adversely affect its neural and cognitive development. The mechanisms mediating this are complex but include an increase in brain cell death. In humans, attempts to link adverse cognitive development to infantile anaesthesia exposure have yielded ambiguous results. One caveat that may influence the interpretation of human studies is that infants are not exposed to general anaesthesia without surgery, raising the possibility that surgery itself, may contribute to adverse cognitive development. Using piglets, we investigated whether a minor surgical procedure increases cell death and disrupts neuro-developmental and cognitively salient gene transcription in the neonatal brain. We randomly assigned neonatal male piglets to a group who received 6h of 2% isoflurane anaesthesia or a group who received an identical anaesthesia plus 15 mins of surgery designed to replicate an inguinal hernia repair. Compared to anesthesia alone, surgery-induced significant increases in cell death in eight areas of the brain. Using RNAseq data derived from all 12 piglets per group we also identified significant changes in the expression of 181 gene transcripts induced by surgery in the cingulate cortex, pathway analysis of these changes suggests that surgery influences the thrombin, aldosterone, axonal guidance, B cell, ERK-5, eNOS and GABAA signalling pathways. This suggests a number of novel mechanisms by which surgery may influence neural and cognitive development independently or synergistically with the effects of anaesthesia. PMID:28355229

  8. Comparing tailored and narrative worksite interventions at increasing colonoscopy adherence in adults 50-75: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jakob D; King, Andy J; Carcioppolo, Nick; Krakow, Melinda; Samadder, N Jewel; Morgan, Susan

    2014-03-01

    Research has identified several communication strategies that could increase adherence to colorectal cancer screening recommendations. Two promising strategies are tailoring and narrative-based approaches. Tailoring is the personalization of information based on individual characteristics. Narrative-based approaches use stories about similar others to counter perceived barriers and cultivate self-efficacy. To compare these two approaches, a randomized controlled trial was carried out at 8 worksites in Indiana. Adults 50-75 (N = 209) received one of four messages about colorectal cancer screening: stock, narrative, tailored, tailored narrative. The primary outcome was whether participants filed a colonoscopy claim in the 18 months following the intervention. Individuals receiving narrative messages were 4 times more likely to screen than those not receiving narrative messages. Tailoring did not increase screening behavior overall. However, individuals with higher cancer information overload were 8 times more likely to screen if they received tailored messages. The results suggest that narrative-based approaches are more effective than tailoring at increasing colorectal cancer screening in worksite interventions. Tailoring may be valuable as a strategy for reaching individuals with high overload, perhaps as a follow-up effort to a larger communication campaign.

  9. [Comparative analysis of gas exchange and cardiorespiratory systems reactions to increasing normobaric hypoxia and physical load of swimmers and skiers].

    PubMed

    Krivoshchekin, S G; Divert, V E; Mel'nikov, V N; Vodianitskiĭ, S N; Girenko, L A

    2013-01-01

    Qualification comparable groups of young men engaged in cyclic kinds of sports were tested with stepwise accruing loads on bicycle ergometer and 25-minute exponential increasing normobaric hypoxia to final concentration of 10% oxygen. Group of skiers, having the greatest values of the maximal oxygen consumption at muscular work, show the relaxed cardiorespiratory reactions and more falling of blood oxygen in the hypoxia. The swimmers, having restrictions of ventilatory function in the course of trainings, form preadaptation to hypoxia with changes of external respiration and gas exchange functions that allows at hypoxia to better oxygen sate the blood in lungs. The joint assessment of aerobic capacity at physical work and physiological reactions to hypoxia shows the direct relation between individual maximal oxygen consumption and the descent rate of blood oxygen saturation at accruing hypoxia that can be useful at an assessment of a sportsman functional state and its correction at training processes.

  10. Formula milk feeding does not increase the release of the inflammatory marker calprotectin, compared to human milk.

    PubMed

    Rosti, L; Braga, M; Fulcieri, C; Sammarco, G; Manenti, B; Costa, E

    2011-01-01

    Calprotectin is a protein released into stools, used as a marker of inflammation in inflammatory bowel diseases. We tested the hypothesis that cow's milk protein in formula milk may increase the intestinal release of calprotectin, as a consequence of a subclinical inflammatory reaction. At 12 weeks of age, we measured fecal calprotectin by an immunoenzyme assay (Calprest, Eurospital, Trieste, Italy), in 38 exclusively breastfed and in 32 exclusively formula-fed infants. Fecal calprotectin levels were not different in the two groups (p = 0.09), although a trend to higher values in infants with colic, or with family history of allergies was noted. This suggest that, in general, formula milk does not promote activation of an intestinal inflammatory reaction, compared to human milk, although a subclinical activation of the inflammatory response in infants at risk for allergic diseases may be present.

  11. Increased serum concentrations of circulating glycocalyx components in HELLP syndrome compared to healthy pregnancy: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Hofmann-Kiefer, Klaus F; Knabl, J; Martinoff, N; Schiessl, B; Conzen, P; Rehm, M; Becker, B F; Chappell, D

    2013-03-01

    Severe inflammation has been shown to induce a shedding of the endothelial glycocalyx (EGX). Inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), impede the thickness of the EGX. While a controlled inflammatory reaction occurs already in normal pregnancy, women with hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets (HELLP) syndrome had an exaggerated inflammatory response. This study investigates the shedding of the glycocalyx during normal pregnancy and in women with HELLP syndrome. Glycocalyx components (syndecan 1, heparan sulfate, and hyaluronic acid) were measured in serum of healthy women throughout pregnancy (4 time points, n = 26), in women with HELLP syndrome (n = 17) before delivery and in nonpregnant volunteers (n = 10). Serum concentrations of TNF-α and soluble TNF-α receptors (sTNF-Rs) were assessed once in all 3 groups. Syndecan 1 serum concentrations constantly rose throughout normal pregnancy. Immediately before delivery, a 159-fold increase was measured compared to nonpregnant controls (P < .01). Even higher amounts were observed in patients with HELLP prior to delivery (median 12 252 ng/mL) compared to healthy women matched by gestational age (median 5943 ng/mL; P < .01). Relevantly, increased serum levels of heparan sulfate, hyaluronic acid, and sTNF-Rs were only detected in patients with HELLP (P < .01). These findings suggest that considerable amounts of syndecan 1 are released into maternal blood during uncomplicated pregnancy. The HELLP syndrome is associated with an even more pronounced shedding of glycocalyx components. The maternal vasculature as well as the placenta has to be discussed as a possible origin of circulating glycocalyx components.

  12. Comparative study of levamisole-selenium supplementation effect on CD4 increase in HlV / AIDS patients

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Feizollah; Janbakhsh, Alireza; Vaziri, Siavash; Sayad, Babak; Afsharian, Mandana; Hosseinpor, Farzaneh; Mahdavian, Behzad

    2011-01-01

    Background: Given to the abundant incidence of malnutrition in HIV+ patients and its effect on progress of AIDS disease, several studies have recommended supplementation therapy (such as Selenium, Levamisole, Zinc). Methods: This clinical trial was prefunded on patient's with HIV + in Behavior Diseases Consulting Center, Kermanshah, Iran 2006-2007. One hundred-seventy eight out of all patients with CD4 1ess than 350 cell/mm3 who did not receive antiretroviral drugs were in this study. They were divided into four groups: the first group received 200 micg selenium per day, the second group received levamisole 50 mg every other day, and third group received both two drugs. The fourth group was the control group. All four groups were studied for six months. Patients' baseline CD4 and other data were recorded in a form. CD4 was rechecked after six months and collected values were compared with basic values. CD4 changes were compared among all groups, either. Results: One hundred-seventy eight patients initiated treatment and 108 cooperated in the 6-month follow up assessment. Niuety-two (85%) were males and 15% were female. CD4 decreased in control group and Levamisole group during the study which was significant, but 13 units increase was seen in Selenium-Levamisole group. CD4 count decreased 36 units in Selenium group. Comparing CD4 count change among 4 study groups showed that only CD4 change between Selenium-Levamisole group and control group was significant. Conclusion: Regarding to collected results, Selenium-Levamisole supplementation can be used as a supplementation therapy besides antiretroviral therapies. PMID:24024019

  13. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Latex Reveals Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Increased Rubber Yield in Hevea brasiliensis Self-Rooting Juvenile Clones

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui-Liang; Guo, Dong; Zhu, Jia-Hong; Wang, Ying; Chen, Xiong-Ting; Peng, Shi-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) self-rooting juvenile clones (JCs) are promising planting materials for rubber production. In a comparative trial between self-rooting JCs and donor clones (DCs), self-rooting JCs exhibited better performance in rubber yield. To study the molecular mechanism associated with higher rubber yield in self-rooting JCs, we sequenced and comparatively analyzed the latex of rubber tree self-rooting JCs and DCs at the transcriptome level. Total raw reads of 34,632,012 and 35,913,020 bp were obtained from the library of self-rooting JCs and DCs, respectively, by using Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing technology. De novo assemblies yielded 54689 unigenes from the library of self-rooting JCs and DCs. Among 54689 genes, 1716 genes were identified as differentially expressed between self-rooting JCs and DCs via comparative transcript profiling. Functional analysis showed that the genes related to the mass of categories were differentially enriched between the two clones. Several genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, hormone metabolism and reactive oxygen species scavenging were up-regulated in self-rooting JCs, suggesting that the self-rooting JCs provide sufficient molecular basis for the increased rubber yielding, especially in the aspects of improved latex metabolisms and latex flow. Some genes encoding epigenetic modification enzymes were also differentially expressed between self-rooting JCs and DCs. Epigenetic modifications may lead to gene differential expression between self-rooting JCs and DCs. These data will provide new cues to understand the molecular mechanism underlying the improved rubber yield of H. brasiliensis self-rooting clones. PMID:27555864

  14. Increasing fruit and vegetable intake among children: comparing long-term effects of a free distribution and a multicomponent program.

    PubMed

    Reinaerts, E; Crutzen, R; Candel, M; De Vries, N K; De Nooijer, J

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of two primary school-based interventions on children's fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption on the long term (2 years after the start of the interventions). Six primary schools were recruited and randomly assigned to (i) a daily free distribution program for the whole school or (ii) a multicomponent program consisting of a classroom curriculum and parental involvement (without free F&V), and six schools served as controls. Follow-up measurements were conducted at the end of the intervention (Follow-up I) and 1 year later (Follow-up II). Random coefficient analyses for longitudinal data showed that the effects of both interventions did not differ between the two follow-up measurements. The results showed similar effects for the free distribution program and the multicomponent program in increasing children's fruit consumption over time (respectively, 7.2 and 15.2 g day(-1)). The distribution program also increased children's vegetable consumption over time (3.25 g day(-1)), even after repeating the analyses using a pessimistic scenario. Despite the large dropout and its consequences for generalizability of our results, the distribution program is considered as the preferred intervention of the two, and implementation on a larger scale should be investigated.

  15. Daily irrigation attenuates xylem abscisic acid concentration and increases leaf water potential of Pelargonium × hortorum compared with infrequent irrigation.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Richard K A; McAinsh, Martin; Dodd, Ian C

    2016-09-01

    The physiological response of plants to different irrigation frequencies may affect plant growth and water use efficiency (WUE; defined as shoot biomass/cumulative irrigation). Glasshouse-grown, containerized Pelargonium × hortorum BullsEye plants were irrigated either daily at 100% of plant evapotranspiration (ET) (well-watered; WW), or at 50% ET applied either daily [frequent deficit irrigation (FDI)] or cumulatively every 4 days [infrequent deficit irrigation (IDI)], for 24 days. Both FDI and IDI applied the same irrigation volume. Xylem sap was collected from the leaves, and stomatal conductance (gs ) and leaf water potential (Ψleaf ) measured every 2 days. As soil moisture decreased, gs decreased similarly under both FDI and IDI throughout the experiment. Ψleaf was maintained under IDI and increased under FDI. Leaf xylem abscisic acid (ABA) concentrations ([X-ABA]leaf ) increased as soil moisture decreased under both IDI and FDI, and was strongly correlated with decreased gs , but [X-ABA]leaf was attenuated under FDI throughout the experiment (at the same level of soil moisture as IDI plants). These physiological changes corresponded with differences in plant production. Both FDI and IDI decreased growth compared with WW plants, and by the end of the experiment, FDI plants also had a greater shoot fresh weight (18%) than IDI plants. Although both IDI and FDI had higher WUE than WW plants during the first 10 days of the experiment (when biomass did not differ between treatments), the deficit irrigation treatments had lower WUE than WW plants in the latter stages when growth was limited. Thus, ABA-induced stomatal closure may not always translate to increased WUE (at the whole plant level) if vegetative growth shows a similar sensitivity to soil drying, and growers must adapt their irrigation scheduling according to crop requirements.

  16. Feeding Unprotected CLA Methyl Esters Compared to Sunflower Seeds Increased Milk CLA Level but Inhibited Milk Fat Synthesis in Cows.

    PubMed

    Dohme-Meier, F; Bee, G

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare the effect of the same amount of 18:2 offered either as 18:2n-6 or as a mixture of unprotected 18:2c9t11 and 18:2t10c12 on feed intake, milk components as well as plasma and milk fatty acid profile. Fifteen cows were blocked by milk yield and milk fat percentage and within block assigned randomly to 1 of 3 treatments (n = 5). Each cow passed a 12-d adjustment period (AP) on a basal diet. After the AP cows received 1 of 3 supplements during an 18-d experimental period (EP). The supplements contained either 1.0 kg ground sunflower seeds (S), 0.5 kg conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-oil (C) or 0.75 kg of a mixture of ground sunflower seeds and CLA-oil (2:1; SC). All 3 supplements contained the same amount of 18:2 either as CLA (∑18:2c9t11+18:2t10c12, 1:1) or as 18:2c9c12. During the last 2 d of AP and the last 4 d of EP feed intake and milk yield were recorded daily and milk samples were collected at each milking. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein on d 11 of AP and d 15 and 18 of EP. The 18:2 intake increased in all treatments from AP to EP. Regardless of the amount of supplemented CLA, the milk fat percentage decreased by 2.35 and 2.10%-units in treatment C and SC, respectively, whereas in the treatment S the decrease was with 0.99%-unit less pronounced. Thus, C and SC cows excreted daily a lower amount of milk fat than S cows. The concentration of trans 18:1 in the plasma and the milk increased from AP to EP and increased with increasing dietary CLA supply. While the concentration of 18:2c9t11 and 18:2t10c12 in the plasma and that of 18:2t10c12 in the milk paralleled dietary supply, the level of 18:2c9t11 in the milk was similar in C and CS but still lower in S. Although the dietary concentration of CLA was highest in treatment C, the partial replacement of CLA by sunflower seeds had a similar inhibitory effect on milk fat synthesis. Comparable 18:2c9t11 levels in the milk in both CLA treatments implies that

  17. Feeding Unprotected CLA Methyl Esters Compared to Sunflower Seeds Increased Milk CLA Level but Inhibited Milk Fat Synthesis in Cows

    PubMed Central

    Dohme-Meier, F.; Bee, G.

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare the effect of the same amount of 18:2 offered either as 18:2n-6 or as a mixture of unprotected 18:2c9t11 and 18:2t10c12 on feed intake, milk components as well as plasma and milk fatty acid profile. Fifteen cows were blocked by milk yield and milk fat percentage and within block assigned randomly to 1 of 3 treatments (n = 5). Each cow passed a 12-d adjustment period (AP) on a basal diet. After the AP cows received 1 of 3 supplements during an 18-d experimental period (EP). The supplements contained either 1.0 kg ground sunflower seeds (S), 0.5 kg conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-oil (C) or 0.75 kg of a mixture of ground sunflower seeds and CLA-oil (2:1; SC). All 3 supplements contained the same amount of 18:2 either as CLA (∑18:2c9t11+18:2t10c12, 1:1) or as 18:2c9c12. During the last 2 d of AP and the last 4 d of EP feed intake and milk yield were recorded daily and milk samples were collected at each milking. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein on d 11 of AP and d 15 and 18 of EP. The 18:2 intake increased in all treatments from AP to EP. Regardless of the amount of supplemented CLA, the milk fat percentage decreased by 2.35 and 2.10%-units in treatment C and SC, respectively, whereas in the treatment S the decrease was with 0.99%-unit less pronounced. Thus, C and SC cows excreted daily a lower amount of milk fat than S cows. The concentration of trans 18:1 in the plasma and the milk increased from AP to EP and increased with increasing dietary CLA supply. While the concentration of 18:2c9t11 and 18:2t10c12 in the plasma and that of 18:2t10c12 in the milk paralleled dietary supply, the level of 18:2c9t11 in the milk was similar in C and CS but still lower in S. Although the dietary concentration of CLA was highest in treatment C, the partial replacement of CLA by sunflower seeds had a similar inhibitory effect on milk fat synthesis. Comparable 18:2c9t11 levels in the milk in both CLA treatments implies that

  18. Comparable Cerebral Oxygenation Patterns in Younger and Older Adults during Dual-Task Walking with Increasing Load

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Sarah A.; Dupuy, Olivier; Pouliot, Philippe; Lesage, Frédéric; Bherer, Louis

    2016-01-01

    The neuroimaging literature on dual-task gait clearly demonstrates increased prefrontal cortex (PFC) involvement when performing a cognitive task while walking. However, findings from direct comparisons of the cerebral oxygenation patterns of younger (YA) and older (OA) adults during dual-task walking are mixed and it is unclear how YA and OA respond to increasing cognitive load (difficulty) while walking. This functional near infra-red (fNIRS) study examined cerebral oxygenation of YA and OA during self-paced dual-task treadmill walking at two different levels of cognitive load (auditory n-back). Changes in accuracy (%) as well as oxygenated (HbO) and deoxygenated (HbR) hemoglobin were examined. For the HbO and HbR measures, eight regions of interest (ROIs) were assessed: the anterior and posterior dorsolateral and ventrolateral PFC (aDLPFC, pDLPFC, aVLPFC, pVLPFC) in each hemisphere. Nineteen YA (M = 21.83 years) and 14 OA (M = 66.85 years) walked at a self-selected pace while performing auditory 1-back and 2-back tasks. Walking alone (single motor: SM) and performing the cognitive tasks alone (single cognitive: SC) were compared to dual-task walking (DT = SM + SC). In the behavioural data, participants were more accurate in the lowest level of load (1-back) compared to the highest (2-back; p < 0.001). YA were more accurate than OA overall (p = 0.009), and particularly in the 2-back task (p = 0.048). In the fNIRS data, both younger and older adults had task effects (SM < DT) in specific ROIs for ΔHbO (three YA, one OA) and ΔHbR (seven YA, eight OA). After controlling for walk speed differences, direct comparisons between YA and OA did not reveal significant age differences, but did reveal a difficulty effect in HbO in the left aDLPFC (p = 0.028) and significant task effects (SM < DT) in HbR for six of the eight ROIs. Findings suggest that YA and OA respond similarly to manipulations of cognitive load when walking on a treadmill at a self-selected pace. PMID

  19. Local tissue temperature increase of a generic implant compared to the basic restrictions defined in safety guidelines.

    PubMed

    Kyriakou, Adamos; Christ, Andreas; Neufeld, Esra; Kuster, Niels

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate if persons with implantable medical devices are intrinsically protected by the current electromagnetic safety guidelines. For inter-laboratory comparisons, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has defined a generic implant as consisting of an insulated wire with noninsulated tips, simulating active implants composed of a metallic case, and insulated wires with electric contacts at the tip. In this study, we determined the amplitude of the uniform electric fields induced in body tissues that cause a local increase in the tissue temperature by 1 °C in the presence of this generic implant for a wide range of frequencies and wire lengths. The field amplitudes were compared to the basic restrictions of the current exposure guidelines for both occupational and uncontrolled exposure. Results showed that a 1 °C temperature increase in the tissues around the tips of the generic implant can be reached for field strengths much smaller than 1% of those in the basic restrictions. The simulated results were validated by experimental evaluations. The impact of perfusion was investigated and was found to lead to a reduction in the local temperature peak by only 1.6-3 times. Additional simulations inside an inhomogeneous anatomical model were performed to ascertain whether similar heating as in the generic model was observed. The significant temperature elevations due to the presence of a generic implant indicate that demonstrating compliance with the basic restrictions might not be sufficient for persons with implants. Special considerations may be required, especially in the case of novel, emerging technologies that feature strong near-fields at frequencies below 10 MHz (e.g., wireless power-transfer systems).

  20. Increasing live birth rate by preimplantation genetic screening of pooled polar bodies using array comparative genomic hybridization.

    PubMed

    Feichtinger, Michael; Stopp, Tina; Göbl, Christian; Feichtinger, Elisabeth; Vaccari, Enrico; Mädel, Ulrike; Laccone, Franco; Stroh-Weigert, Monika; Hengstschläger, Markus; Feichtinger, Wilfried; Neesen, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Meiotic errors during oocyte maturation are considered the major contributors to embryonic aneuploidy and failures in human IVF treatment. Various technologies have been developed to screen polar bodies, blastomeres and trophectoderm cells for chromosomal aberrations. Array-CGH analysis using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) arrays is widely applied for preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) using single cells. Recently, an increase in the pregnancy rate has been demonstrated using array-CGH to evaluate trophectoderm cells. However, in some countries, the analysis of embryonic cells is restricted by law. Therefore, we used BAC array-CGH to assess the impact of polar body analysis on the live birth rate. A disadvantage of polar body aneuploidy screening is the necessity of the analysis of both the first and second polar bodies, resulting in increases in costs for the patient and complex data interpretation. Aneuploidy screening results may sometimes be ambiguous if the first and second polar bodies show reciprocal chromosomal aberrations. To overcome this disadvantage, we tested a strategy involving the pooling of DNA from both polar bodies before DNA amplification. We retrospectively studied 351 patients, of whom 111 underwent polar body array-CGH before embryo transfer. In the group receiving pooled polar body array-CGH (aCGH) analysis, 110 embryos were transferred, and 29 babies were born, corresponding to live birth rates of 26.4% per embryo and 35.7% per patient. In contrast, in the control group, the IVF treatment was performed without preimplantation genetic screening (PGS). For this group, 403 embryos were transferred, and 60 babies were born, resulting in live birth rates of 14.9% per embryo and 22.7% per patient. In conclusion, our data show that in the aCGH group, the use of aneuploidy screening resulted in a significantly higher live birth rate compared with the control group, supporting the benefit of PGS for IVF couples in addition to the

  1. Selenium-Enriched Foods Are More Effective at Increasing Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) Activity Compared with Selenomethionine: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bermingham, Emma N.; Hesketh, John E.; Sinclair, Bruce R.; Koolaard, John P.; Roy, Nicole C.

    2014-01-01

    Selenium may play a beneficial role in multi-factorial illnesses with genetic and environmental linkages via epigenetic regulation in part via glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. A meta-analysis was undertaken to quantify the effects of dietary selenium supplementation on the activity of overall GPx activity in different tissues and animal species and to compare the effectiveness of different forms of dietary selenium. GPx activity response was affected by both the dose and form of selenium (p < 0.001). There were differences between tissues on the effects of selenium supplementation on GPx activity (p < 0.001); however, there was no evidence in the data of differences between animal species (p = 0.95). The interactions between dose and tissue, animal species and form were significant (p < 0.001). Tissues particularly sensitive to changes in selenium supply include red blood cells, kidney and muscle. The meta-analysis identified that for animal species selenium-enriched foods were more effective than selenomethionine at increasing GPx activity. PMID:25268836

  2. Postoperative start compared to preoperative start of low-molecular-weight heparin increases mortality in patients with femoral neck fractures

    PubMed Central

    Leer-Salvesen, Sunniva; Dybvik, Eva; Dahl, Ola E; Gjertsen, Jan-Erik; EngesæTer, Lars B

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose — Controversies exist regarding thromboprophylaxis in orthopedic surgery. Using data in the nationwide Norwegian Hip Fracture Register (NHFR) with postoperative death and reoperation in the first 6 months after surgery as endpoints in the analyses, we determined whether the thromboprophylaxis in patients who undergo hemiarthroplasty for femoral neck fracture should start preoperatively or postoperatively. Patients and methods — After each operation for hip fracture in Norway, the surgeon reports information on the patient, the fracture, and the operation to the NHFR. Cox regression analyses were performed with adjustments for age, ASA score, gender, type of implant, length of surgery, and year of surgery. Results — During the period 2005–2014, 25,019 hemiarthroplasties as treatment for femoral neck fractures were reported to the registry. Antithrombotic medication was given to 99% of the patients. Low-molecular-weight heparin predominated with dalteparin in 57% of the operations and enoxaparin in 41%. Only operations with these 2 drugs and with known information on preoperative or postoperative start of the prophylaxis were included in the analyses (n = 20,241). Compared to preoperative start of thromboprophylaxis, postoperative start of thromboprophylaxis gave a higher risk of death (risk ratio (RR) = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.06–1.21; p < 0.001) and a higher risk of reoperation for any reason (RR =1.19, 95% CI: 1.01–1.40; p = 0.04), whereas we found no effect on reported intraoperative bleeding complication or on the risk of postoperative reoperation due to hematoma. The results did not depend on whether the initial dose of prophylaxis was the full dosage or half of the standard dosage. Interpretation — Postoperative start of thromboprophylaxis increased the mortality and risk of reoperation compared to preoperative start in femoral neck fracture patients operated with hemiprosthesis. The risks of bleeding and of reoperation due to

  3. Gymnosperms have increased capacity for electron leakage to oxygen (Mehler and PTOX reactions) in photosynthesis compared with angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Shirao, Masayoshi; Kuroki, Shu; Kaneko, Kaoru; Kinjo, Yuriko; Tsuyama, Michito; Förster, Britta; Takahashi, Shunichi; Badger, Murray R

    2013-07-01

    Oxygen plays an important role in photosynthesis by participating in a number of O2-consuming reactions. O2 inhibits CO2 fixation by stimulating photorespiration, thus reducing plant production. O2 interacts with photosynthetic electron transport in the chloroplasts' thylakoids in two main ways: by accepting electrons from PSI (Mehler reaction); and by accepting electrons from reduced plastoquinone (PQ) mediated by the plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX). In this study, we show, using 101 plant species, that there is a difference in the potential for photosynthetic electron flow to O2 between angiosperms and gymnosperms. We found, from measurements of Chl fluorescence and leaf absorbance at 830 nm, (i) that electron outflow from PSII, as determined by decay kinetics of Chl fluorescence after application of a saturating light pulse, is more rapid in gymnosperms than in angiosperms; (ii) that the reaction center Chl of PSI (P700) is rapidly and highly oxidized in gymnosperms during induction of photosynthesis; and (iii) that these differences are dependent on oxygen. Finally, rates of O2 uptake measured by mass spectrometry in the absence of photorespiration were significantly promoted by illumination in dark-adapted leaves of gymnosperms, but not in those of angiosperms. The light-stimulated O2 uptake was around 10% of the maximum O2 evolution in gymnosperms and 1% in angiosperms. These results suggest that gymnosperms have increased capacity for electron leakage to oxygen in photosynthesis compared with angiosperms. The involvement of the Mehler reaction and PTOX in the electron flow to O2 is discussed.

  4. Cunninghamella bertholletiae exhibits increased resistance to human neutrophils with or without antifungal agents as compared to Rhizopus spp.

    PubMed

    Simitsopoulou, Maria; Georgiadou, Elpiniki; Walsh, Thomas J; Roilides, Emmanuel

    2010-08-01

    Among Zygomycetes, Cunninghamella bertholletiae occurs less frequently as the etiologic agent of human disease but causes more aggressive, refractory, and fatal infections despite antifungal therapy. Little is known about the differential innate host response against Cunninghamella and other Zygomycetes in the presence of antifungal agents. We therefore studied the activity of human neutrophils (PMNs) alone or in combination with caspofungin, posaconazole (PSC), and voriconazole (VRC) against hyphae of Rhizopus oryzae, Rhizopus microsporus and C. bertholletiae. Hyphal damage was measured by XTT metabolic assay and release of IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-alpha from PMNs by ELISA. Cunninghamella bertholletiae was more resistant to PMN-induced hyphal damage than either Rhizopus spp. at effector:target (E:T) ratios of 1:1, 5:1 and 10:1 (P < 0.05). The hyphal damage caused by caspofungin at 0.1 microg/ml or PSC and VRC at 0.5 microg/ml with C. bertholletiae and R. oryzae and by caspofungin against R. microsporus ranged from 18-29%. The PMN-induced hyphal damage was not modulated by combination with antifungal agents. Cunninghamella bertholletiae induced significantly decreased IL-8 (P < 0.05), but increased TNF-alpha release from PMNs compared to both Rhizopus spp. (P < 0.01). No IL-6 was released from PMNs exposed to the three Zygomycetes. In comparison to R. oryzae and R. microsporus, C. bertholletiae is more resistant to PMN-induced hyphal damage with or without antifungal therapy and is more capable of suppressing release of IL-8.

  5. Comparative proteomics and glycoproteomics reveal increased N-linked glycosylation and relaxed sequon specificity in Campylobacter jejuni NCTC11168 O.

    PubMed

    Scott, Nichollas E; Marzook, N Bishara; Cain, Joel A; Solis, Nestor; Thaysen-Andersen, Morten; Djordjevic, Steven P; Packer, Nicolle H; Larsen, Martin R; Cordwell, Stuart J

    2014-11-07

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of bacterial gastroenteritis. C. jejuni encodes a protein glycosylation (Pgl) locus responsible for the N-glycosylation of membrane-associated proteins. We examined two variants of the genome sequenced strain NCTC11168: O, a representative of the original clinical isolate, and GS, a laboratory-adapted relative of O. Comparative proteomics by iTRAQ and two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (2D-LC-MS/MS) allowed the confident identification of 1214 proteins (73.9% of the predicted C. jejuni proteome), of which 187 were present at statistically significant altered levels of abundance between variants. Proteins associated with the O variant included adhesins (CadF and FlpA), proteases, capsule biosynthesis, and cell shape determinants as well as six proteins encoded by the Pgl system, including the PglK flippase and PglB oligosaccharyltransferase. Lectin blotting highlighted specific glycoproteins more abundant in NCTC11168 O, whereas others remained unaltered. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) and LC-MS/MS identified 30 completely novel glycosites from 15 proteins. A novel glycopeptide from a 14 kDa membrane protein (Cj0455c) was identified that did not contain the C. jejuni N-linked sequon D/E-X-N-X-S/T (X ≠ Pro) but that instead contained a sequon with leucine at the -2 position. Occupied atypical sequons were also observed in Cj0958c (OxaA; Gln at the -2 position) and Cj0152c (Ala at the +2 position). The relative O and GS abundances of 30 glycopeptides were determined by label-free quantitation, which revealed a >100-fold increase in the atypical glycopeptide from Cj0455c in isolate O. Our data provide further evidence for the importance of the Pgl system in C. jejuni.

  6. Increased Neural Activation during Picture Encoding and Retrieval in 60-Year-Olds Compared to 20-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgmans, S.; van Boxtel, M. P. J.; Vuurman, E. F. P. M.; Evers, E. A. T.; Jolles, J.

    2010-01-01

    Brain aging has been associated with both reduced and increased neural activity during task execution. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether increased neural activation during memory encoding and retrieval is already present at the age of 60 as well as to obtain more insight into the mechanism behind increased activity.…

  7. An Analysis of Mathematics Interventions: Increased Time-on-Task Compared with Computer-Assisted Mathematics Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, James M., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Student achievement is not progressing on mathematics as measured by state, national, and international assessments. Much of the research points to mathematics curriculum and instruction as the root cause of student failure to achieve at levels comparable to other nations. Since mathematics is regarded as a gate keeper to many educational…

  8. Increasing Fruit and Vegetable Intake among Children: Comparing Long-Term Effects of a Free Distribution and a Multicomponent Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinaerts, E.; Crutzen, R.; Candel, M.; De Vries, N. K.; De Nooijer, J.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of two primary school-based interventions on children's fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption on the long term (2 years after the start of the interventions). Six primary schools were recruited and randomly assigned to (i) a daily free distribution program for the whole school or…

  9. Comparative Cost Analysis of Increasing Registered Nursing Staff on the Labor and Delivery Unit at the National Naval Medical Center.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    recognized L&D Nurses 9 the central role of the registered nurse. In its most recent Accreditation Manual for Hospitals, JCAHO requires that "a...far beyond that of a L&D Nurses 60 comparably-sized civilian instituCion . Above all else NNMC is a Navy hospital, with responsibilities far beyond...1990). Accreditation Manual for Hospitals, 1990. Chicago: Author. Klarman, H. E. (1974). Application of cost-benefit analysis to the health services and

  10. Wave Reflection and Central Aortic Pressure Are Increased in Response to Static and Dynamic Muscle Contraction at Comparable Workloads

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    wave reflec- tion is an important determinant of the central blood pressure response during forearm muscle contractions. tension-time index; exercise ...pressor reflex; blood pressure THE PRESSOR RESPONSE to exercise had been thought to be greater as a result of static muscle contraction compared with...equivalent peripheral blood pressure response to forearm and lower body exercise may result in very different central aortic pressures due to differential

  11. Effectiveness of an Increased Dose of Bovamine Compared to a Lower Dose to Reduce Salmonella in Fed Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Category: Pre-harvest pathogen reduction Published: unpublished to date Objective: To examine the effect of increasing the probiotic dose from Bovamine® to Bovamine® Defend™ on the prevalence of Salmonella in pen environments, fecal samples and subiliac lymph nodes of fed cattle. Experimental ...

  12. High-Tech or Low-Tech? Comparing Self-Monitoring Systems to Increase Task Independence for Students with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouck, Emily C.; Savage, Melissa; Meyer, Nancy K.; Taber-Doughty, Teresa; Hunley, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Independence is the ultimate goal for students with disabilities, including secondary students with autism. One avenue targeted for increasing independence and decreasing prompt-dependency is through self-monitoring. In this study, investigators sought to determine whether a difference exists in levels of task independence when three students with…

  13. Wave reflection and central aortic pressure are increased in response to static and dynamic muscle contraction at comparable workloads.

    PubMed

    Edwards, David G; Mastin, Corey R; Kenefick, Robert W

    2008-02-01

    We determined the effects of static and dynamic muscle contraction at equivalent workloads on central aortic pressure and wave reflection. At random, 14 healthy men and women (23 +/- 5 yr of age) performed a static handgrip forearm contraction [90 s at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC)], dynamic handgrip contractions (1 contraction/s for 180 s at 30% MVC), and a control trial. During static and dynamic trials, tension-time index was controlled by holding peak tension constant. Measurements of brachial artery blood pressure and the synthesis of a central aortic pressure waveform (by radial artery applanation tonometry and generalized transfer function) were conducted at baseline, during each trial, and during 1 min of postexercise ischemia (PEI). Aortic augmentation index (AI), an index of wave reflection, was calculated from the aortic pressure waveform. AI increased during both static and dynamic trials (static, 5.2 +/- 3.1 to 11.8 +/- 3.4%; dynamic, 5.8 +/- 3.0 to 13.3 +/- 3.4%; P < 0.05) and further increased during PEI (static, 18.5 +/- 3.1%; dynamic, 18.6 +/- 2.9%; P < 0.05). Peripheral and central systolic and diastolic pressures increased (P < 0.05) during both static and dynamic trials and remained elevated during PEI. AI and pressure responses did not differ between static and dynamic trials. Peripheral and central pressures increased similarly during static and dynamic contraction; however, the rise in central systolic pressure during both conditions was augmented by increased wave reflection. The present data suggest that wave reflection is an important determinant of the central blood pressure response during forearm muscle contractions.

  14. Increasing CO[sub 2]: Comparative responses of the C[sub 4] grass Schizachyrium and grassland invader Prosopis

    SciTech Connect

    Polley, H.W.; Johnson, H.B.; Mayeux, H.S. )

    1994-06-01

    Woody C[sub 3] Prosopis glandulosa (honey mesquite) and C[sub 4] perennial grass Schizachyrium scoparium (little bluestem) were grown along a gradient of daytime carbon dioxide concentrations from near 340 to 200 [mu]mol/mol air in a 38 m long controlled environment chamber. The authors studied the effects of historical and prehistorical increases in atmospheric CO[sub 2] concentration on growth, resource use, and competitive interactions of a species representative of C[sub 4]-dominated grasslands in the SW United States and the invasive legume P. glandulosa. Increasing CO[sub 2] concentration stimulated N[sub 2] fixation by individually grown P. glandulosa and elicited in C[sub 3] seedlings a similar relative increase in leaf intercellular CO[sub 2] concentration, net assimilation rate, and intrinsic water use efficiency (leaf net assimilation rate/stomatal conductance). Aboveground biomass of P. glandulosa was not altered by CO[sub 2] concentration, but belowground biomass and whole-plant water and nitrogen use efficiencies increased linearly with CO[sub 2] concentration in seedlings that were grown alone. Biomass produced by P. glandulosa that was grown with S. scoparium was not affected by CO[sub 2] concentration. Stomatal conductance declined and leaf assimilation rates of S. scoparium at near maximum incident light increased at higher CO[sub 2] concentration, but there was no effect of CO[sub 2] concentration on biomass production or whole-plant water use efficiency of the C[sub 4] grass. Rising CO[sub 2] concentration, especially the 27% increase since the beginning of the 19th century, may have contributed to more abundant P. glandulosa on C[sub 4] grasslands by stimulating the shrub's growth or reducing the amount of resources that the C[sub 3] required. Much of the potential response of P. glandulosa to CO[sub 2] concentration, however, appears to be contingent on the shrub's escaping competition with neighboring grasses. 62 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Huge increase of therapeutic window at a bioactive silver/titania nanocomposite coating surface compared to solution.

    PubMed

    Hrkac, Tomislav; Röhl, Claudia; Podschun, Rainer; Zaporojtchenko, Vladimir; Strunskus, Thomas; Papavlassopoulos, Heike; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter; Faupel, Franz

    2013-05-01

    A silver containing coating used in the human body, e.g., on an implant should be both effectively antimicrobial and non-cytotoxic to human cells. It is generally believed that the biologic effect originates from silver ions released from the coating. Nanocomposites with well controlled Ag filling factor were prepared by co-sputtering, and the silver surface concentration and the silver release were determined by XPS and ICP-MS, respectively. Here we show that only a small therapeutic window exists for dissolved silver but the therapeutic window is largely increased at the surface. While the toxicity observed for mammalian cells in contact with the bioactive Ag/TiO2 nanocomposite surface and for silver ions in solution is rather similar the antimicrobial activity is drastically enhanced at the surface. A model is proposed to explain the strong increase of the antimicrobial activity at the surface. The present results not only question well-established tests for antimicrobial activity but they are also important for the design of antimicrobial coatings, e.g., for biomedical devices.

  16. Near-infrared spectroscopy based neurofeedback training increases specific motor imagery related cortical activation compared to sham feedback.

    PubMed

    Kober, S E; Wood, G; Kurzmann, J; Friedrich, E V C; Stangl, M; Wippel, T; Väljamäe, A; Neuper, C

    2014-01-01

    In the present study we implemented a real-time feedback system based on multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Prior studies indicated that NIRS-based neurofeedback can enhance motor imagery related cortical activation. To specify these prior results and to confirm the efficacy of NIRS-based neurofeedback, we examined changes in blood oxygenation level collected in eight training sessions. One group got real feedback about their own brain activity (N=9) and one group saw a playback of another person's feedback recording (N=8). All participants performed motor imagery of a right hand movement. Real neurofeedback induced specific and focused brain activation over left motor areas. This focal brain activation became even more specific over the eight training sessions. In contrast, sham feedback led to diffuse brain activation patterns over the whole cortex. These findings can be useful when training patients with focal brain lesions to increase activity of specific brain areas for rehabilitation purpose.

  17. Neuronal populations in the basolateral nuclei of the amygdala are differentially increased in humans compared with apes: a stereological study.

    PubMed

    Barger, Nicole; Stefanacci, Lisa; Schumann, Cynthia M; Sherwood, Chet C; Annese, Jacopo; Allman, John M; Buckwalter, Joseph A; Hof, Patrick R; Semendeferi, Katerina

    2012-09-01

    In human and nonhuman primates, the amygdala is known to play critical roles in emotional and social behavior. Anatomically, individual amygdaloid nuclei are connected with many neural systems that are either differentially expanded or conserved over the course of primate evolution. To address amygdala evolution in humans and our closest living relatives, the apes, we used design-based stereological methods to obtain neuron counts for the amygdala and each of four major amygdaloid nuclei (the lateral, basal, accessory basal, and central nuclei) in humans, all great ape species, lesser apes, and one monkey species. Our goal was to determine whether there were significant differences in the number or percent of neurons distributed to individual nuclei among species. Additionally, regression analyses were performed on independent contrast data to determine whether any individual species deviated from allometric trends. There were two major findings. In humans, the lateral nucleus contained the highest number of neurons in the amygdala, whereas in apes the basal nucleus contained the highest number of neurons. Additionally, the human lateral nucleus contained 59% more neurons than predicted by allometric regressions on nonhuman primate data. Based on the largest sample ever analyzed in a comparative study of the hominoid amygdala, our findings suggest that an emphasis on the lateral nucleus is the main characteristic of amygdala specialization over the course of human evolution.

  18. Enriched cereal bars are more effective in increasing plasma quercetin compared with quercetin from powder-filled hard capsules.

    PubMed

    Egert, Sarah; Wolffram, Siegfried; Schulze, Beate; Langguth, Peter; Hubbermann, Eva Maria; Schwarz, Karin; Adolphi, Berit; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Rimbach, Gerald; Müller, Manfred James

    2012-02-01

    The flavonol quercetin, is one of the major flavonoids found in edible plants. The bioavailability of quercetin in humans may be influenced by the food matrix in which it is consumed as well as by its chemical and physical form. The objective of the present study was to investigate the biokinetics of quercetin from quercetin-enriched cereal bars and quercetin powder-filled hard capsules. In a randomised, single-blinded, diet-controlled cross-over study, six healthy women aged 22-28 years took a single oral dose of approximately 130 mg quercetin equivalents from either quercetin-enriched cereal bars (containing 93·3 % quercetin aglycone plus 6·7 % quercetin-4'-glucoside) or quercetin powder-filled hard capsules (100 % quercetin aglycone). Blood samples were drawn before and after quercetin administration over a 24 h period. The concentrations of quercetin and its monomethylated derivatives, isorhamnetin (3'-O-methyl quercetin) and tamarixetin (4'-O-methyl quercetin), were measured by HPLC with fluorescence detection after plasma enzymatic treatment. The systemic availability as determined by comparing the plasma concentration-time curves of quercetin was found to be five times and the cmax values six times higher after ingestion of 130 mg quercetin by quercetin-enriched cereal bars than after ingestion by quercetin capsules. In contrast, tmax did not differ significantly between the two treatments. The cmax values for isorhamnetin and tamarixetin were four and nine times higher after ingestion of quercetin by quercetin-enriched cereal bars than after ingestion by quercetin capsules. In conclusion, quercetin from quercetin-enriched cereal bars is significantly more bioavailable than from quercetin powder-filled hard capsules.

  19. Increased muscular volume and cuticular specialisations enhance jump velocity in solitarious compared with gregarious desert locusts, Schistocerca gregaria.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Stephen M; Riley, Joanna; Brighton, Caroline; Sutton, Gregory P; Cullen, Darron A; Burrows, Malcolm

    2016-03-01

    The desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria, shows a strong phenotypic plasticity. It can develop, depending upon population density, into either a solitarious or gregarious phase that differs in many aspects of behaviour, physiology and morphology. Prominent amongst these differences is that solitarious locusts have proportionately longer hind femora than gregarious locusts. The hind femora contain the muscles and energy-storing cuticular structures that propel powerful jumps using a catapult-like mechanism. We show that solitarious locusts jump on average 23% faster and 27% further than gregarious locusts, and attribute this improved performance to three sources: first, a 17.5% increase in the relative volume of their hind femur, and hence muscle volume; second, a 24.3% decrease in the stiffness of the energy-storing semi-lunar processes of the distal femur; and third, a 4.5% decrease in the stiffness of the tendon of the extensor tibiae muscle. These differences mean that solitarious locusts can generate more power and store more energy in preparation for a jump than can gregarious locusts. This improved performance comes at a cost: solitarious locusts expend nearly twice the energy of gregarious locusts during a single jump and the muscular co-contraction that energises the cuticular springs takes twice as long. There is thus a trade-off between achieving maximum jump velocity in the solitarious phase against the ability to engage jumping rapidly and repeatedly in the gregarious phase.

  20. Toxicity of terpenes on fibroblast cells compared to their hemolytic potential and increase in erythrocyte membrane fluidity.

    PubMed

    Mendanha, Sebastião A; Moura, Soraia S; Anjos, Jorge L V; Valadares, Marize C; Alonso, Antonio

    2013-02-01

    Terpenes are considered potent skin permeation enhancers with low toxicity. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of the spin label 5-doxyl stearic acid (5-DSA) was used to monitor the effect of sesquiterpene nerolidol and various monoterpenes on membrane fluidity in erythrocyte and fibroblast cells. In addition, the hemolytic levels and cytotoxic effects on cultured fibroblast cells were also measured to investigate possible relationships between the cellular irritation potentials of terpenes and the ability to modify membrane fluidity. All terpenes increased cell membrane fluidity with no significant differences between the monoterpenes, but the effect of sesquiterpene was significantly greater than that of the monoterpenes. The IC(50) values for the terpenes in the cytotoxicity assay indicated that 1,8-cineole showed lower cytotoxicity and α-terpineol and nerolidol showed higher cytotoxicity. The correlation between the hemolytic effect and the IC(50) values for fibroblast viability was low (R=0.61); however, in both tests, nerolidol was among the most aggressive of terpenes and 1,8-cineole was among the least aggressive. Obtaining information concerning the toxicity and potency of terpenes could aid in the design of topical formulations optimized to facilitate drug absorption for the treatment of many skin diseases.

  1. A strong immune response in young adult honeybees masks their increased susceptibility to infection compared to older bees.

    PubMed

    Bull, James C; Ryabov, Eugene V; Prince, Gill; Mead, Andrew; Zhang, Cunjin; Baxter, Laura A; Pell, Judith K; Osborne, Juliet L; Chandler, Dave

    2012-12-01

    Honeybees, Apis mellifera, show age-related division of labor in which young adults perform maintenance ("housekeeping") tasks inside the colony before switching to outside foraging at approximately 23 days old. Disease resistance is an important feature of honeybee biology, but little is known about the interaction of pathogens and age-related division of labor. We tested a hypothesis that older forager bees and younger "house" bees differ in susceptibility to infection. We coupled an infection bioassay with a functional analysis of gene expression in individual bees using a whole genome microarray. Forager bees treated with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae s.l. survived for significantly longer than house bees. This was concomitant with substantial differences in gene expression including genes associated with immune function. In house bees, infection was associated with differential expression of 35 candidate immune genes contrasted with differential expression of only two candidate immune genes in forager bees. For control bees (i.e. not treated with M. anisopliae) the development from the house to the forager stage was associated with differential expression of 49 candidate immune genes, including up-regulation of the antimicrobial peptide gene abaecin, plus major components of the Toll pathway, serine proteases, and serpins. We infer that reduced pathogen susceptibility in forager bees was associated with age-related activation of specific immune system pathways. Our findings contrast with the view that the immunocompetence in social insects declines with the onset of foraging as a result of a trade-off in the allocation of resources for foraging. The up-regulation of immune-related genes in young adult bees in response to M. anisopliae infection was an indicator of disease susceptibility; this also challenges previous research in social insects, in which an elevated immune status has been used as a marker of increased disease resistance and

  2. Increase in chemokines CXCL10 and CCL2 in blood from pigs infected with high compared to low virulence African swine fever virus isolates.

    PubMed

    Fishbourne, Emma; Hutet, Evelyne; Abrams, Charles; Cariolet, Roland; Le Potier, Marie-Frédérique; Takamatsu, Haru-H; Dixon, Linda K

    2013-10-01

    Modulation of the expression of chemokines and chemokine receptors in whole blood was compared following infection of pigs with high and low virulence isolates of African swine fever virus. Levels of mRNAs for CCL2, CCL3L1, CCL4, CXCL10, CCR1 and CCR5 were significantly increased in at least one time point following infection in two experiments and CCL5, CCR9 and CXCR4 mRNA were significantly increased in one of the experiments. The results showed that greatest fold increases in mRNAs for CXCL10 and CCL2 were observed following infection of pigs. CXCL10 mRNA was increased by up to 15 fold in infected compared to uninfected pigs. CXCL10 protein was also detected in serum from pigs infected with the high virulence Benin 97/1 isolate. Levels of CCL2 mRNA were increased in pigs infected with high virulence Benin 97/1 isolate compared to low virulence OURT88/3 isolate and this correlated with an increase of greater than 30 fold in levels of CCL2 protein detected in serum from pigs infected with this isolate. An increase in overall chemotaxis active compounds in defibrinated plasma samples from Benin 97/1 infected pigs was observed at 3 days post-infection (dpi) and a decrease by 7 dpi as measured by chemotaxis assay using normal pig leucocytes in vitro. Increased levels of CXCL10 may either contribute to the activation of lymphocyte priming toward the Th1 phenotype or induction of T lymphocyte apoptosis. Increased levels of CCL2, a chemoattractant for macrophages, may result in increased recruitment of monocytes from bone marrow thus increasing the pool of cells susceptible to infection.

  3. Comparing the impact of increasing condom use or HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use among female sex workers.

    PubMed

    Mukandavire, Zindoga; Mitchell, Kate M; Vickerman, Peter

    2016-03-01

    In many settings, interventions targeting female sex workers (FSWs) could significantly reduce the overall transmission of HIV. To understand the role HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) could play in controlling HIV transmission amongst FSWs, it is important to understand how its impact compares with scaling-up condom use-one of the proven HIV prevention strategies for FSWs. It is important to remember that condoms also have other benefits such as reducing the incidence of sexually transmitted infections and preventing pregnancy. A dynamic deterministic model of HIV transmission amongst FSWs, their clients and other male partners (termed 'pimps') was used to compare the protection provided by PrEP for HIV-negative FSWs with FSWs increasing their condom use with clients and/or pimps. For different HIV prevalence scenarios, levels of pimp interaction, and baseline condom use, we estimated the coverage of PrEP that gives the same reduction in endemic FSW HIV prevalence or HIV infections averted as different increases in condom use. To achieve the same impact on FSW HIV prevalence as increasing condom use by 1%, the coverage of PrEP has to increase by >2%. The relative impact of PrEP increases for scenarios where pimps contribute to HIV transmission, but not greatly, and decreases with higher baseline condom use. In terms of HIV infections averted over 10 years, the relative impact of PrEP compared to condoms was reduced, with a >3% increase in PrEP coverage achieving the same impact as a 1% increase in condom use. Condom promotion interventions should remain the mainstay HIV prevention strategy for FSWs, with PrEP only being implemented once condom interventions have been maximised or to fill prevention gaps where condoms cannot be used.

  4. In the United States, "Opt-Out" States Show No Increase in Access to Anesthesia Services for Medicare Beneficiaries Compared with Non-"Opt-Out" States.

    PubMed

    Sun, Eric C; Miller, Thomas R; Halzack, Nicholas M

    2016-05-01

    In the United States, anesthesia care can be provided by anesthesiologists or nurse anesthetists. Since 2001, 17 states have exercised their right to "opt-out" of the federal requirement that a physician supervise the administration of anesthesia by a nurse anesthetist, with the majority citing increased access to anesthesia care as the rationale for their decision. By using Medicare data, we found that most (4 of 5) cohorts of "opt-out" states likely experienced smaller growth in anesthesia utilization rates compared with non-"opt-out" states, suggesting that opt-out was not associated with an increase in access to anesthesia care.

  5. High-sugar diets increase cardiac dysfunction and mortality in hypertension compared to low-carbohydrate or high-starch diets

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Naveen; Okere, Isidore C.; Barrows, Brian R.; Lei, Biao; Duda, Monika K.; Yuan, Celvie L.; Previs, Stephen F.; Sharov, Victor G.; Azimzadeh, Agnes M.; Ernsberger, Paul; Hoit, Brian D.; Sabbah, Hani; Stanley, William C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Sugar consumption affects insulin release and, in hypertension, may stimulate cardiac signaling mechanisms that accelerate left ventricular hypertrophy and the development of heart failure. We investigated the effects of high-fructose or sucrose diets on ventricular function and mortality in hypertensive Dahl salt-sensitive rats. Methods Rats were fed chows that were either high starch (70% starch, 10% fat by energy), high fat (20% carbohydrates, 60% fat), high fructose (61% fructose, 9% starch, 10% fat), or high sucrose (61% sucrose, 9% starch, 10% fat). Hypertension was induced by adding 6% salt to the chow (n = 8–11/group). Results After 8 weeks of treatment, systolic blood pressure and left ventricular mass were similarly increased in all rats that were fed high-salt diets. Hypertension caused a switch in mRNA myosin heavy chain isoform from α to β, and this effect was greater in the high-salt sucrose and fructose groups than in starch and fat groups. The cardiac mRNA for atrial natriuretic factor was also increased in all high-salt groups compared to respective controls, with the increase being significantly greater in the hypertensive sucrose fed group. Mortality was greater in the sucrose group (44%) compared to all the other hypertensive groups (12–18%), as was cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Left ventricular ejection fraction was lower in the high-salt sucrose group, which was due to an increase in end-systolic volume, and not increased end-diastolic volume. Conclusion Diets high in sugar accelerated cardiac systolic dysfunction and mortality in hypertension compared to either a low-carbohydrate/high-fat or high-starch diet. PMID:18551017

  6. The Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and Arterial Stiffness of Pediatric Mucopolysaccharidosis Patients Are Increased Compared to Both Pediatric and Adult Controls

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Raymond Y.; Rudser, Kyle D.; Dengel, Donald R.; Braunlin, Elizabeth A.; Steinberger, Julia; Jacobs, David R.; Sinaiko, Alan R.; Kelly, Aaron S.

    2017-01-01

    Treatments for mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs) have increased longevity, but cardiovascular disease causes mortality in a significant percentage of survivors. Markers must be developed to predict MPS cardiac risk and monitor efficacy of investigational therapies.MPS patients underwent carotid artery ultrasonography from which carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and three measures of arterial stiffness were calculated: carotid artery distensibility (cCSD), compliance (cCSC), and incremental elastic modulus (cIEM). MPS carotid measurements were compared to corresponding data from pediatric and adult healthy cohorts. 33 MPS patients (17 MPS I, 9 MPS II, 4 MPS IIIA, and 3 MPS VI; mean age 12.5 ± 4.7 years), 560 pediatric controls (age 13.1 ± 4.0 years), and 554 adult controls (age 39.2 ± 2.2 years) were studied. Age and sex-adjusted aggregate MPS cIMT (0.56 ± 0.05 mm) was significantly greater than both pediatric (+0.12 mm; 95% CI +0.10 to +0.14 mm) and adult (+0.10 mm; 95% CI +0.06 to +0.14 mm) control cohorts; similar findings were observed for all MPS subtypes. Mean MPS cIMT approximated the 80th percentile of the adult cohort cIMT. MPS patients also demonstrated significantly increased adjusted arterial stiffness measurements, evidenced by reduced cCSD, cCSC, and increased cIEM, compared to pediatric and adult control cohorts. Regardless of treatment, MPS patients demonstrate increased cIMT and arterial stiffness compared to healthy pediatric and adult controls. These data suggest that relatively young MPS patients demonstrate a “structural vascular age” of at least 40 years old. PMID:28294991

  7. Compared with stearic acid, palmitic acid increased the yield of milk fat and improved feed efficiency across production level of cows.

    PubMed

    Rico, J E; Allen, M S; Lock, A L

    2014-02-01

    The effects of dietary palmitic and stearic acids on feed intake, yields of milk and milk components, and feed efficiency of dairy cows were evaluated in an experiment with a crossover arrangement of treatments with a covariate period. Cows with a wide range of milk production (38 to 65 kg/d) were used to determine if response to fat supplementation varied according to production level. Thirty-two Holstein cows (143 ± 61 d in milk) were assigned randomly to a treatment sequence within level of milk production. Treatments were diets supplemented (2% of diet dry matter) with palmitic acid (PA; 97.9% C16:0) or stearic acid (SA; 97.4% C18:0). Treatment periods were 21 d and cows were fed a nonfat supplemented diet for 14 d immediately before the first treatment period. The final 4d of each period were used for sample and data collection. Milk production measured during the covariate period (preliminary milk yield) was used as the covariate. No interactions were detected between treatment and preliminary milk yield for the production response variables measured. Compared with SA, the PA treatment increased milk fat concentration (3.66 vs. 3.55%) and yield (1.68 vs. 1.59 kg/d), and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield (47.5 vs. 45.6 kg/d). Treatment did not affect dry matter intake, milk yield, milk protein yield, body weight, or body condition score. Milk protein concentration was lower for PA compared with SA treatment (3.24 vs. 3.29%). The PA treatment increased feed efficiency (3.5% fat-corrected milk yield/dry matter intake) compared with SA (1.48 vs. 1.40). The increase in milk fat yield by PA was entirely accounted for by a 24% increase in 16-carbon fatty acid output into milk. Yields of de novo (3.2%) and preformed fatty acids (2.9%) were only slightly decreased by PA relative to SA. The PA treatment increased plasma concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (96.3 vs. 88.2 μEq/L) and glucose (56.6 vs. 55.7 mg/dL) compared with SA, but insulin and

  8. Comparative non-shivering thermogenesis in adjacent populations of the common spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus) from opposite slopes: the effects of increasing salinity.

    PubMed

    Scantlebury, Michael; Afik, Daniel; Shanas, Uri; Haim, Abraham

    2002-01-01

    We compared non-shivering thermogenesis between two adjacent populations of the common spiny mouse Acomys cahirinus from different habitats, in relation to increasing salinity. Individuals were captured from the north- and south-facing slopes of the same valley, that represent "Mediterranean" and "desert" habitats, respectively. We hypothesized that the two populations of mice would differ in their thermoregulatory capacities, reflecting their need to cope with the environmental stress in each habitat. We measured resting metabolic rate by recording oxygen consumption, body temperature and response to an injection of exogenous noradrenaline. Mice were maintained on diets with increasing levels of salt intake to examine their abilities to cope with increasing osmotic stress. Mice from north-facing slopes generally had a higher resting metabolic rate and a higher increase in oxygen consumption in response to noradrenaline than mice from south-facing slopes. Increasing salinity decreased resting metabolic rate values, body temperature, and oxygen consumption in response to noradrenaline in both populations, and diminished slope-dependant differences. We suggest that these differences could be a result of an ongoing adaptive process to different climatic conditions, typical of the Mediterranean region, that are a demonstrable example of evolution in action.

  9. Increasing of Food and Bioenergy Potato Resources by Microbial Influence on Tubers Phytohormonal Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiprushkina, Elena I.; Baranenko, Denis A.

    2014-12-01

    Potato and its by-products became a promising both food and bioenergy resource. The determination of the bacteriaantagonists influence on phytohormone status and productivity of potato tubers was studied. The indole-3-acetic acid content during the dormancy end and germinating in the tubers treated with Bacillus subtilis Ch-13 was fewer than in the control samples. L-tryptophan significant quantity compared to the control was found in the treated tubers in a state of physiological dormancy (more than 2-fold) and especially during active germination (43 times greater). Average potato yield increase at treated fields was of 18.8 %.

  10. Transcriptomic analysis of Clostridium thermocellum Populus hydrolysate-tolerant mutant strain shows increased cellular efficiency in response to Populus hydrolysate compared to the wild type strain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The thermophilic, anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium thermocellum is a model organism for consolidated processing due to its efficient fermentation of cellulose. Constituents of dilute acid pretreatment hydrolysate are known to inhibit C. thermocellum and other microorganisms. To evaluate the biological impact of this type of hydrolysate, a transcriptomic analysis of growth in hydrolysate-containing medium was conducted on 17.5% v/v Populus hydrolysate-tolerant mutant (PM) and wild type (WT) strains of C. thermocellum. Results In two levels of Populus hydrolysate medium (0% and 10% v/v), the PM showed both gene specific increases and decreases of gene expression compared to the wild-type strain. The PM had increased expression of genes in energy production and conversion, and amino acid transport and metabolism in both standard and 10% v/v Populus hydrolysate media. In particular, expression of the histidine metabolism increased up to 100 fold. In contrast, the PM decreased gene expression in cell division and sporulation (standard medium only), cell defense mechanisms, cell envelope, cell motility, and cellulosome in both media. The PM downregulated inorganic ion transport and metabolism in standard medium but upregulated it in the hydrolysate media when compared to the WT. The WT differentially expressed 1072 genes in response to the hydrolysate medium which included increased transcription of cell defense mechanisms, cell motility, and cellulosome, and decreased expression in cell envelope, amino acid transport and metabolism, inorganic ion transport and metabolism, and lipid metabolism, while the PM only differentially expressed 92 genes. The PM tolerates up to 17.5% v/v Populus hydrolysate and growth in it elicited 489 genes with differential expression, which included increased expression in energy production and conversion, cellulosome production, and inorganic ion transport and metabolism and decreased expression in transcription and cell

  11. Measures of initiation and progression to increased smoking among current menthol compared to non-menthol cigarette smokers based on data from four U.S. government surveys.

    PubMed

    Curtin, Geoffrey M; Sulsky, Sandra I; Van Landingham, Cynthia; Marano, Kristin M; Graves, Monica J; Ogden, Michael W; Swauger, James E

    2014-11-01

    There are no large-scale, carefully designed cohort studies that provide evidence on whether menthol cigarette use is associated with a differential risk of initiating and/or progressing to increased smoking. However, questions of whether current menthol cigarette smokers initiated smoking at a younger age or are more likely to have transitioned from non-daily to daily cigarette use compared to non-menthol smokers can be addressed using cross-sectional data from U.S. government surveys. Analyses of nationally representative samples of adult and youth smokers indicate that current menthol cigarette use is not associated with an earlier age of having initiated smoking or greater likelihood of being a daily versus non-daily smoker. Some surveys likewise provide information on cigarette type preference (menthol versus non-menthol) among youth at different stages or trajectories of smoking, based on number of days smoked during the past month and/or cigarettes smoked per day. Prevalence of menthol cigarette use does not appear to differ among new, less experienced youth smokers compared to established youth smokers. While there are limitations with regard to inferences that can be drawn from cross-sectional analyses, these data do not suggest any adverse effects for menthol cigarettes on measures of initiation and progression to increased smoking.

  12. Ventricular cerebrospinal fluid lactate is increased in chronic fatigue syndrome compared with generalized anxiety disorder: an in vivo 3.0 T (1)H MRS imaging study.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Sanjay J; Mao, Xiangling; Keegan, Kathryn A; Levine, Susan M; Smith, Eric L P; Heier, Linda A; Otcheretko, Viktor; Coplan, Jeremy D; Shungu, Dikoma C

    2009-04-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a controversial diagnosis because of the lack of biomarkers for the illness and its symptom overlap with neuropsychiatric, infectious, and rheumatological disorders. We compared lateral ventricular volumes derived from tissue-segmented T(1)-weighted volumetric MRI data and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lactate concentrations measured by proton MRS imaging ((1)H MRSI) in 16 subjects with CFS (modified US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria) with those in 14 patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and in 15 healthy volunteers, matched group-wise for age, sex, body mass index, handedness, and IQ. Mean lateral ventricular lactate concentrations measured by (1)H MRSI in CFS were increased by 297% compared with those in GAD (P < 0.001) and by 348% compared with those in healthy volunteers (P < 0.001), even after controlling for ventricular volume, which did not differ significantly between the groups. Regression analysis revealed that diagnosis accounted for 43% of the variance in ventricular lactate. CFS is associated with significantly raised concentrations of ventricular lactate, potentially consistent with recent evidence of decreased cortical blood flow, secondary mitochondrial dysfunction, and/or oxidative stress abnormalities in the disorder.

  13. Escherichia coli strains expressing H12 antigens demonstrate an increased ability to attach to abiotic surfaces as compared with E. coli strains expressing H7 antigens.

    PubMed

    Goulter, Rebecca M; Taran, Elena; Gentle, Ian R; Gobius, Kari S; Dykes, Gary A

    2014-07-01

    The role of Escherichia coli H antigens in hydrophobicity and attachment to glass, Teflon and stainless steel (SS) surfaces was investigated through construction of fliC knockout mutants in E. coli O157:H7, O1:H7 and O157:H12. Loss of FliC(H12) in E. coli O157:H12 decreased attachment to glass, Teflon and stainless steel surfaces (p<0.05). Complementing E. coli O157:H12 ΔfliC(H12) with cloned wildtype (wt) fliC(H12) restored attachment to wt levels. The loss of FliCH7 in E. coli O157:H7 and O1:H7 did not always alter attachment (p>0.05), but complementation with cloned fliC(H12), as opposed to cloned fliCH7, significantly increased attachment for both strains compared with wt counterparts (p<0.05). Hydrophobicity determined using bacterial adherence to hydrocarbons and contact angle measurements differed with fliC expression but was not correlated to the attachment to materials included in this study. Purified FliC was used to functionalise silicone nitride atomic force microscopy probes, which were used to measure adhesion forces between FliC and substrates. Although no significant difference in adhesion force was observed between FliC(H12) and FliCH7 probes, differences in force curves suggest different mechanism of attachment for FliC(H12) compared with FliCH7. These results indicate that E. coli strains expressing flagellar H12 antigens have an increased ability to attach to certain abiotic surfaces compared with E. coli strains expressing H7 antigens.

  14. Pork meat increases iron absorption from a 5-day fully controlled diet when compared to a vegetarian diet with similar vitamin C and phytic acid content.

    PubMed

    Bach Kristensen, Mette; Hels, Ole; Morberg, Catrine; Marving, Jens; Bügel, Susanne; Tetens, Inge

    2005-07-01

    Meat increases absorption of non-haem iron in single-meal studies. The aim of the present study was to investigate, over a 5 d period, the potential increasing effect of consumption of pork meat in a whole diet on the fractional absorption of non-haem iron and the total absorption of iron, when compared to a vegetarian diet. A randomised cross-over design with 3 x 5 d whole-diet periods with diets containing Danish-produced meat, Polish-produced meat or a vegetarian diet was conducted. Nineteen healthy female subjects completed the study. All main meals in the meat diets contained 60 g of pork meat and all diets had high phytic acid content (1250 mumol/d). All main meals were extrinsically labelled with the radioactive isotope (59)Fe and absorption of iron was measured in a whole body counter. The non-haem iron absorption from the Danish meat diet was significantly higher compared to the vegetarian diet (P=0.031). The mean fractional absorption of non-haem iron was 7.9 (se1.1), 6.8 (se 1.0) and 5.3 (se 0.6) % for the Danish and Polish meat diets and vegetarian diet, respectively. Total absorption of iron was higher for both meat diets compared to the vegetarian diet (Danish meat diet: P=0.006, Polish meat diet: P=0.003). The absorption ratios of the present study were well in accordance with absorption ratios estimated using algorithms on iron bioavailability. Neither the meat diets nor the vegetarian diets fulfilled the estimated daily requirements of absorbed iron in spite of a meat intake of 180 g/d in the meat diets.

  15. Granulopoiesis Requires Increased C/EBPα Compared to Monopoiesis, Correlated with Elevated Cebpa in Immature G-CSF Receptor versus M-CSF Receptor Expressing Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ou; Hong, SunHwa; Guo, Hong; Ghiaur, Gabriel; Friedman, Alan D.

    2014-01-01

    C/EBPα is required for the formation of granulocyte-monocyte progenitors; however, its role in subsequent myeloid lineage specification remains uncertain. Transduction of murine marrow with either of two Cebpa shRNAs markedly increases monocyte and reduces granulocyte colonies in methylcellulose or the monocyte to neutrophil ratio in liquid culture. Similar findings were found after marrow shRNA transduction and transplantation and with CEBPA knockdown in human marrow CD34+ cells. These results apparently reflect altered myeloid lineage specification, as similar knockdown allowed nearly complete 32Dcl3 granulocytic maturation. Cebpa knockdown also generated lineage-negative blasts with increased colony replating capacity but unchanged cell cycle parameters, likely reflecting complete differentiation block. The shRNA having the greatest effect on lineage skewing reduced Cebpa 3-fold in differentiating cells but 6-fold in accumulating blasts. Indicating that Cebpa is the relevant shRNA target, shRNA-resistant C/EBPα-ER rescued marrow myelopoiesis. Cebpa knockdown in murine marrow cells also increased in vitro erythropoiesis, perhaps reflecting 1.6-fold reduction in PU.1 leading to GATA-1 derepression. Global gene expression analysis of lineage-negative blasts that accumulate after Cebpa knockdown demonstrated reduction in Cebpe and Gfi1, known transcriptional regulators of granulopoiesis, and also reduced Ets1 and Klf5. Populations enriched for immature granulocyte or monocyte progenitor/precursors were isolated by sorting Lin−Sca-1−c-Kit+ cells into GCSFR+MCSFR− or GCSFR−MCSFR+ subsets. Cebpa, Cebpe, Gfi1, Ets1, and Klf5 RNAs were increased in the c-Kit+GCSFR+ and Klf4 and Irf8 in the c-Kit+MCSFR+ populations, with PU.1 levels similar in both. In summary, higher levels of C/EBPα are required for granulocyte and lower levels for monocyte lineage specification, and this myeloid bifurcation may be facilitated by increased Cebpa gene expression in granulocyte

  16. Necrosis is increased in lymphoblastoid cell lines from children with autism compared with their non-autistic siblings under conditions of oxidative and nitrosative stress

    PubMed Central

    Fenech, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental conditions characterised by impairments in reciprocal social interaction, communication and stereotyped behaviours. As increased DNA damage events have been observed in a range of other neurological disorders, it was hypothesised that they would be elevated in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) obtained from children with autism compared with their non-autistic siblings. Six case–sibling pairs of LCLs from children with autistic disorder and their non-autistic siblings were obtained from the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE) and cultured in standard RPMI-1640 tissue culture medium. Cells were exposed to medium containing either 0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 µM hydrogen peroxide (an oxidative stressor) or 0, 5, 10, 20 and 40 µM s-nitroprusside (a nitric oxide producer) for 1h. Following exposure, the cells were microscopically scored for DNA damage, cytostasis and cytotoxicity biomarkers as measured using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay. Necrosis was significantly increased in cases relative to controls when exposed to oxidative and nitrosative stress (P = 0.001 and 0.01, respectively). Nuclear division index was significantly lower in LCLs from children with autistic disorder than their non-autistic siblings when exposed to hydrogen peroxide (P = 0.016), but there was no difference in apoptosis, micronucleus frequency, nucleoplasmic bridges or nuclear buds. Exposure to s-nitroprusside significantly increased the number of micronuclei in non-autistic siblings compared with cases (P = 0.003); however, other DNA damage biomarkers, apoptosis and nuclear division did not differ significantly between groups. The findings of this study show (i) that LCLs from children with autism are more sensitive to necrosis under conditions of oxidative and nitrosative stress than their non-autistic siblings and (ii) refutes the hypothesis that children with autistic disorder are abnormally

  17. A comparative study of water-steam distillation with water-bubble distillation techniques to increase the quality of patchouli essential oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitri, Noor; Yandi, Nefri; Hermawati, Julianto, Tatang Shabur

    2017-03-01

    A comparative study of the quality of patchouli oil using Water-Steam Distillation (WSD) and Water Bubble Distillation (WBD) techniques has been studied. The raw materials were Patchouli plants from Samigaluh village, Kulon Progo district, Yogyakarta. This study is aimed to compare two distillation techniques in order to find out the optimal distillation technique to increase the content of patchouli alcohol (patchoulol) and the quality of patchouli oil. Pretreatment such as withering, drying, size reduction and light fermentation were intended to increase the yield. One kilogramm of patchouli was moisturized with 500 mL of aquadest. The light fermentation process was carried out for 20 hours in a dark container. Fermented patchouli was extracted for 6 hours using Water-Steam and Water Bubble Distillation techniques. Physical and chemical properties test of patchouli oil were performed using SNI standard No. SNI-06-2385-2006 and the chemical composition of patchouli oil was analysed by GC-MS. As the results, the higher yield oil is obtained using Water-Steam Distillation, i.e. 5.9% versus 2.4%. Spesific gravity, refractive index and acid number of patchouli oil in Water-Steam Distillation results did not meet the SNI standard, i.e. 0.991; 1.623 and 13.19, while the Water Bubble Distillation met the standard, i.e. 0.955; 1.510 and 6.61. The patchoulol content using Water Bubble Distillation technique is 61.53%, significant higher than those using Water-Steam Distillation, i.e. 38.24%. Thus, Water Bubble Distillation promises a potential technique to increase the content of patchoulol in the patchouli oil.

  18. Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin and Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Stimulation Increase the Number of Luteinized Follicles and the Progesterone Level Compared with Cabergoline Stimulation in Anoestrus Bitches.

    PubMed

    Jurczak, A; Domosławska, A; Bukowska, B; Janowski, T

    2016-08-01

    In this study, ovarian morphologies and blood progesterone concentrations following oestrous induction in bitches were examined. Fifty-three clinically healthy anoestrus bitches received cabergoline at a daily dose of 5 μg/kg of body weight per os for 21 days (group I) or subcutaneous equine chorionic gonadotropin at a dose of 20 IU/kg of body weight for five consecutive days with an additional 500 IU s.c. per bitch of human chorionic gonadotropin on the last day of treatment (group II). Twenty bitches that spontaneously displayed oestrous signs were left untreated and served as controls (group III). The induced oestrous rates and ovulation rates in groups I and II were 60.0% vs 64.3% and 86.7% vs 83.3%, respectively. Morphological assessments of the ovarian structures after ovariohysterectomy revealed an increase in the number of luteinized follicles and cysts in group II compared with the two other groups (p < 0.001). In contrast, the numbers of corpora lutea and follicles were similar in all groups. In accordance with the above-mentioned alteration, the progesterone concentration in the gonadotropin group (II) was increased (p < 0.001) in the periovulatory period compared with the other two groups. During the entire sampling period, the progesterone profiles in the cabergoline (I) and control (III) groups were similar and typical of normally cycling bitches. In conclusion, gonadotropin treatment is associated with an increased progesterone level during the periovulatory period that probably originates from luteinized follicles, whereas cabergoline treatment induces cycles with both physiological progesterone concentrations and ovarian morphologies.

  19. Necrosis is increased in lymphoblastoid cell lines from children with autism compared with their non-autistic siblings under conditions of oxidative and nitrosative stress.

    PubMed

    Main, Penelope A E; Thomas, Philip; Esterman, Adrian; Fenech, Michael F

    2013-07-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental conditions characterised by impairments in reciprocal social interaction, communication and stereotyped behaviours. As increased DNA damage events have been observed in a range of other neurological disorders, it was hypothesised that they would be elevated in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) obtained from children with autism compared with their non-autistic siblings. Six case-sibling pairs of LCLs from children with autistic disorder and their non-autistic siblings were obtained from the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE) and cultured in standard RPMI-1640 tissue culture medium. Cells were exposed to medium containing either 0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 µM hydrogen peroxide (an oxidative stressor) or 0, 5, 10, 20 and 40 µM s-nitroprusside (a nitric oxide producer) for 1h. Following exposure, the cells were microscopically scored for DNA damage, cytostasis and cytotoxicity biomarkers as measured using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay. Necrosis was significantly increased in cases relative to controls when exposed to oxidative and nitrosative stress (P = 0.001 and 0.01, respectively). Nuclear division index was significantly lower in LCLs from children with autistic disorder than their non-autistic siblings when exposed to hydrogen peroxide (P = 0.016), but there was no difference in apoptosis, micronucleus frequency, nucleoplasmic bridges or nuclear buds. Exposure to s-nitroprusside significantly increased the number of micronuclei in non-autistic siblings compared with cases (P = 0.003); however, other DNA damage biomarkers, apoptosis and nuclear division did not differ significantly between groups. The findings of this study show (i) that LCLs from children with autism are more sensitive to necrosis under conditions of oxidative and nitrosative stress than their non-autistic siblings and (ii) refutes the hypothesis that children with autistic disorder are abnormally

  20. Insulin receptor binding to erythrocytes in the first half of pregnancy is increased in healthy pregnant women as compared with non-pregnant or gestational diabetic women.

    PubMed

    Schmon, B; Desoye, G; Friedl, H; Hofmann, H; Weiss, P A; Hagmüller, K

    1993-11-30

    Insulin binding to erythrocytes was measured longitudinally by a competitive radioreceptor assay in 21 healthy pregnant (HP) and 20 well-controlled gestational diabetic women (GD) in 4-week intervals throughout pregnancy and at day 4 post-partum. Maximum insulin binding (maxbdg) at weeks 8-14 was increased (P < 0.001) in HP (median: 6.0%) but not in GD (median: 2.7%) as compared with non-pregnant control subjects (C) (median: 3.6%; previously reported: Clin. Chim. Acta 1992;207:57-71) due to an increased number of high-affinity insulin receptors. Throughout gestation the binding decreased continuously, to reach at term the levels found in C. In GD maxbdg remained close to the level of C throughout pregnancy. Binding differences between HP and GD were independent of the body mass index. Maxbdg did not differ between diet- and insulin-treated patients. It was higher in women whose offspring had low umbilical cord insulin levels (< 10 mu units/ml). The findings suggest that (a) higher insulin binding in HP could contribute to the improved glucose tolerance in early pregnancy and (b) the lack of increase in insulin binding during early pregnancy in gestational diabetes might be one factor leading to the manifestation of the disease in late pregnancy. However, it must be kept in mind that insulin receptors on erythrocytes do not necessarily resemble those on the major target tissues of insulin.

  1. Increased sensitivity to alcohol induced changes in ERK Map kinase phosphorylation and memory disruption in adolescent as compared to adult C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Spanos, Marina; Besheer, Joyce; Hodge, Clyde W

    2012-04-21

    Adolescence is a critical period of brain development that is accompanied by increased probability of risky behavior, such as alcohol use. Emerging research indicates that adolescents are differentially sensitive to the behavioral effects of acute ethanol as compared to adults but the neurobiological mechanisms of this effect remain to be fully elucidated. This study was designed to evaluate effects of acute ethanol on extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation (p-ERK1/2) in mesocorticolimbic brain regions. We also sought to determine if age-specific effects of ethanol on p-ERK1/2 are associated with ethanol-induced behavioral deficits on acquisition of the hippocampal-dependent novel object recognition (NOR) test. Adolescent and adult C57BL/6J mice were administered acute ethanol (0 0.5, 1, or 3g/kg, i.p.). Brains were removed 30-min post injection and processed for analysis of p-ERK1/2 immunoreactivity (IR). Additional groups of mice were administered ethanol (0 or 1g/kg) prior to the NOR test. Analysis of p-ERK1/2 IR showed that untreated adolescent mice had significantly higher levels of p-ERK1/2 IR in the nucleus accumbens shell, basolateral amygdala (BLA), central amygdala (CeA), and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) as compared to adults. Ethanol (1g/kg) selectively reduced p-ERK1/2 IR in the dentate gyrus and increased p-ERK1/2 IR in the BLA only in adolescent mice. Ethanol (3g/kg) produced the same effects on p-ERK1/2 IR in both age groups with increases in CeA and mPFC, but a decrease in the dentate gyrus, as compared to age-matched saline controls. Pretreatment with ethanol (1g/kg) disrupted performance on the NOR test specifically in adolescents, which corresponds with the ethanol-induced inhibition of p-ERK1/2 IR in the hippocampus. These data show that adolescent mice have differential expression of basal p-ERK1/2 IR in mesocorticolimbic brain regions. Acute ethanol produces a unique set of changes in ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the adolescent

  2. Increased presence of anti-HLA antibodies early after allogeneic granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cell transplantation compared with bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lapierre, Valérie; Aupérin, Anne; Tayebi, Hakim; Chabod, Jacqueline; Saas, Philippe; Michalet, Mauricette; François, Sylvie; Garban, Frédéric; Giraud, Christine; Tramalloni, Dominique; Oubouzar, Nadia; Blaise, Didier; Kuentz, Matthieu; Robinet, Eric; Tiberghien, Pierre

    2002-08-15

    We have recently shown that the use of allogeneic granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-mobilized peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (PBHSCT), as compared with bone marrow transplantation (BMT), is associated with increased titers of antibodies (Abs) directed against red blood cell ABO antigens. To further evaluate the influence of a G-CSF-mobilized PBHSCT graft on alloimmune Ab responses, we examined the frequency of anti-HLA Abs after transplantation in the setting of the same randomized study, comparing PBHSCT with BMT in adults. Anti-HLA Ab presence was determined by complement-dependent cytotoxicity assay (CDC) and flow cytometry in the recipient before and 30 days after transplantation as well as in the donor before graft donation. The use of PBHSCT was significantly associated with increased detection of anti-HLA immunoglobulin G (IgG) Abs early after transplantation as evidenced by flow cytometry (11 of 24 versus 4 of 27 transplant recipients, P =.03) and, less so, by CDC (5 of 24 versus 1 of 27 transplant recipients, P =.09). The difference between PBHSCT and BMT was further heightened when analysis was restricted to anti-HLA IgG Ab-negative donor/recipient pairs. In such a setting, early anti-HLA Ab was never detected after BMT but was repeatedly detected after PBHSCT (flow cytometry, 6 of 18 versus 0 of 17 transplant recipients, P =.02; CDC, 4 of 23 versus 0 of 26 transplant recipients, P =.04). Importantly, the PBHSCT-associated increase in anti-HLA Ab detection was observed despite a reduction in the median number of platelet-transfusion episodes per patient in PBHSC transplant versus BM transplant recipients (3 platelet-transfusion episodes [range, 1-21] in PBHSCT group vs 6 platelet-transfusion episodes [range, 3-33] in the BMT group; P =.02). In conclusion, this study strongly suggests that G-CSF-mobilized PBHSCT results in an increased incidence of circulating anti-HLA Abs and further confirms that the use of such a

  3. Lysogenic Streptococcus suis Isolate SS2-4 Containing Prophage SMP Showed Increased Mortality in Zebra Fish Compared to the Wild-Type Isolate

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Fang; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Chengping

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus suis (S. suis) infection is considered to be a major problem in the swine industry worldwide. Based on the capsular type, 33 serotypes of S. suis have been described, with serotype 2 (SS2) being the most frequently isolated from diseased piglets. Little is known, however, about the pathogenesis and virulence factors of S. suis. Research on bacteriophages highlights a new area in S. suis research. A S. suis serotype 2 bacteriophage, designated SMP, has been previously isolated in our laboratory. Here, we selected a lysogenic isolate in which the SMP phage was integrated into the chromosome of strain SS2-4. Compared to the wild-type isolate, the lysogenic strain showed increased mortality in zebra fish. Moreover the sensitivity of the lysogenic strain to lysozyme was seven times higher than that of the wild-type. PMID:23326601

  4. Older Thinopyrum intermedium (Poaceae) plants exhibit superior photosynthetic tolerance to cold stress and greater increases in two photosynthetic enzymes under freezing stress compared with young plants.

    PubMed

    Jaikumar, Nikhil S; Snapp, Sieglinde S; Sharkey, Thomas D

    2016-08-01

    Effects of plant age on resource acquisition and stress tolerance processes is a largely unstudied subject in herbaceous perennials. In a field experiment, we compared rates of photosynthesis (A), ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) carboxylation capacity (V Cmax), maximum electron transport rate (J max), and triose phosphate utilization (TPU), as well as concentrations of Rubisco and sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) in 5-year-old and 2-year-old intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium) under both optimal growing conditions and cold stress in early spring and autumn. This species is a relative of wheat undergoing domestication. An additional experiment compared photosynthetic rates in different cohorts at mid-season and under colder conditions. We hypothesized that photosynthetic capacity in older plants would be lower under favorable conditions but higher under cold stress. Our hypothesis was generally supported. Under cold stress, 5-year-old plants exhibited higher A, TPU, and temperature-adjusted V Cmax than younger plants, as well as 50% more SPS and 37% more Rubisco. In contrast, at mid-season, photosynthetic capacities in older plants were lower than in younger plants in one experiment, and similar in the other, independent of differences in water status. Both cohorts increased A, temperature-adjusted TPU and J max, [Rubisco], and [SPS] under cold stress, but changes were greater in older plants. Photosynthetic differences were largest at 1.2 ºC in very early spring, where older plants had 200% higher A and maintained up to 17% of their peak photosynthetic capacity. We find evidence of increased cold tolerance in older cohorts of wheatgrass, consistent with a growing body of research in woody perennials.

  5. Older Thinopyrum intermedium (Poaceae) plants exhibit superior photosynthetic tolerance to cold stress and greater increases in two photosynthetic enzymes under freezing stress compared with young plants

    PubMed Central

    Jaikumar, Nikhil S.; Snapp, Sieglinde S.; Sharkey, Thomas D.

    2016-01-01

    Effects of plant age on resource acquisition and stress tolerance processes is a largely unstudied subject in herbaceous perennials. In a field experiment, we compared rates of photosynthesis (A), ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) carboxylation capacity (V Cmax), maximum electron transport rate (J max), and triose phosphate utilization (TPU), as well as concentrations of Rubisco and sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) in 5-year-old and 2-year-old intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium) under both optimal growing conditions and cold stress in early spring and autumn. This species is a relative of wheat undergoing domestication. An additional experiment compared photosynthetic rates in different cohorts at mid-season and under colder conditions. We hypothesized that photosynthetic capacity in older plants would be lower under favorable conditions but higher under cold stress. Our hypothesis was generally supported. Under cold stress, 5-year-old plants exhibited higher A, TPU, and temperature-adjusted V Cmax than younger plants, as well as 50% more SPS and 37% more Rubisco. In contrast, at mid-season, photosynthetic capacities in older plants were lower than in younger plants in one experiment, and similar in the other, independent of differences in water status. Both cohorts increased A, temperature-adjusted TPU and J max, [Rubisco], and [SPS] under cold stress, but changes were greater in older plants. Photosynthetic differences were largest at 1.2 ºC in very early spring, where older plants had 200% higher A and maintained up to 17% of their peak photosynthetic capacity. We find evidence of increased cold tolerance in older cohorts of wheatgrass, consistent with a growing body of research in woody perennials. PMID:27401911

  6. Mesenchymal stem cells from cortical bone demonstrate increased clonal incidence, potency, and developmental capacity compared to their bone marrow–derived counterparts

    PubMed Central

    Blashki, Daniel; Murphy, Matthew B; Ferrari, Mauro; Simmons, Paul J; Tasciotti, Ennio

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we show that matrix dense cortical bone is the more potent compartment of bone than bone marrow as a stromal source for mesenchymal stem cells as isolated from adult rats. Lineage-depleted cortical bone-mesenchymal stem cells demonstrated >150-fold enrichment of colony forming unit–fibroblasts per cell incidence. compared to lineage-depleted bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells, corresponding to a 70-fold increase in absolute recovered colony forming unit–fibroblasts. The composite phenotype Lin−/CD45−/CD31−/VLA-1+/Thy-1+ enriched for clonogenic mesenchymal stem cells solely from cortical bone–derived cells from which 70% of clones spontaneously differentiated into all lineages of bone, cartilage, and adipose. Both populations generated vascularized bone tissue within subcutaneous implanted collagen scaffolds; however, cortical bone–derived cells formed significantly more osteoid than bone marrow counterparts, quantified by histology. The data demonstrate that our isolation protocol identifies and validates mesenchymal stem cells with superior clonal, proliferative, and developmental potential from cortical bone compared to the bone marrow niche although marrow persists as the typical source for mesenchymal stem cells both in the literature and current pre-clinical therapies. PMID:27579159

  7. Increasing the stability of curcumin in serum with liposomes or hybrid drug-in-cyclodextrin-in-liposome systems: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Matloob, Ahmed H; Mourtas, Spyridon; Klepetsanis, Pavlos; Antimisiaris, Sophia G

    2014-12-10

    Curcumin (CURC) was incorporated in liposomes as free drug or after formation of hydropropyl-β- or hydroxypropyl-γ-cyclodextrin (HPβCD or HPγCD) complexes prepared by coprecipitation and characterized by X-ray diffractometry. Liposomes encapsulating CURC as free drug or CD-complexes (hybrid formulations) were prepared by the dehydration-rehydration vesicle (DRV) method followed by extrusion, and characterized for size, zeta-potential and CURC loading. CURC stability (at 0.01 and 0.05 mg/mL) in 80% (v/v) fetal bovine serum (FBS) was evaluated at 37 °C. Results demonstrate that HPβCD stabilizes CURC more than HPγCD, but liposome encapsulation provides substantially more protection, than CDs. CURC stabilization is similar, when encapsulated as free compound or CD-complex. However, the last method increases CURC loading by 23 times (depending on the lipid composition of liposomes and the CD used), resulting in higher solubility. The stability profile of CURC in serum depends on the composition of liposomes and CURC concentration, since at lower concentrations larger CURC fractions are protected due to protein binding. Compared to the corresponding CD complexes, hybrid formulations provide intermediate CURC solubility (comparable to HPβCD) but profoundly higher stabilization.

  8. Mesenchymal stem cells from cortical bone demonstrate increased clonal incidence, potency, and developmental capacity compared to their bone marrow-derived counterparts.

    PubMed

    Blashki, Daniel; Murphy, Matthew B; Ferrari, Mauro; Simmons, Paul J; Tasciotti, Ennio

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we show that matrix dense cortical bone is the more potent compartment of bone than bone marrow as a stromal source for mesenchymal stem cells as isolated from adult rats. Lineage-depleted cortical bone-mesenchymal stem cells demonstrated >150-fold enrichment of colony forming unit-fibroblasts per cell incidence. compared to lineage-depleted bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells, corresponding to a 70-fold increase in absolute recovered colony forming unit-fibroblasts. The composite phenotype Lin(-)/CD45(-)/CD31(-)/VLA-1(+)/Thy-1(+) enriched for clonogenic mesenchymal stem cells solely from cortical bone-derived cells from which 70% of clones spontaneously differentiated into all lineages of bone, cartilage, and adipose. Both populations generated vascularized bone tissue within subcutaneous implanted collagen scaffolds; however, cortical bone-derived cells formed significantly more osteoid than bone marrow counterparts, quantified by histology. The data demonstrate that our isolation protocol identifies and validates mesenchymal stem cells with superior clonal, proliferative, and developmental potential from cortical bone compared to the bone marrow niche although marrow persists as the typical source for mesenchymal stem cells both in the literature and current pre-clinical therapies.

  9. Comparative assessment of 5' A/T-rich overhang sequences with optimal and sub-optimal primers to increase PCR yields and sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Arif, M; Ochoa-Corona, F M

    2013-09-01

    Efficient PCR amplifications require precisely designed and optimized oligonucleotide primers, components, and cycling conditions. Despite recent software development and reaction improvement, primer design can still be enhanced. The aims of this research are to understand (1) the effect on PCR efficiency and DNA yields of primer thermodynamics parameters, and (2) the incorporation of 5' A/T-rich overhanging sequences (flaps) during primer design. Two primer sets, one optimal (ΔG = 0) and one sub-optimal (ΔG = 0.9), were designed using web interface software Primer3, BLASTn, and mFold to target a movement protein gene of Tobacco mosaic virus. The optimal primer set amplifies a product of 195 bp and supports higher PCR sensitivity and yields compared to the sub-optimal primer set, which amplifies a product of 192 bp. Greater fluorescence was obtained using optimal primers compared to that with sub-optimal primers. Primers designed with sub-optimal thermodynamics can be substantially improved by adding 5' flaps. Results indicate that even if the performance of some primers can be improved substantially by 5' flap addition, not all primers will be similarly improved. Optimal 5' flap sequences are dependent on the primer sequences, and alter the primer's T m value. The manipulation of this feature may enhance primer's efficiency to increase the PCR sensitivity and DNA yield.

  10. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of saccharopolyspora spinosa SP06081 and PR2 strains reveals the differentially expressed proteins correlated with the increase of spinosad yield

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    comparative proteome analysis of S. spinosa strains. Our results highlight the differentially expressed proteins between the two S. spinosa strains and provide some clues to understand the molecular and metabolic mechanisms that could lead to the increased spinosad production yield. PMID:21762521

  11. Palm olein and olive oil cause a higher increase in postprandial lipemia compared with lard but had no effect on plasma glucose, insulin and adipocytokines.

    PubMed

    Teng, Kim-Tiu; Nagapan, Gowri; Cheng, Hwee Ming; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi

    2011-04-01

    Postprandial lipemia impairs insulin sensitivity and triggers the pro-inflammatory state which may lead to the progression of cardiovascular diseases. A randomized, crossover single-blind study (n = 10 healthy men) was designed to compare the effects of a high-fat load (50 g fat), rich in palmitic acid from both plant (palm olein) or animal source (lard) versus an oleic acid-rich fat (virgin olive oil) on lipemia, plasma glucose, insulin and adipocytokines. Serum triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations were significantly lower after the lard meal than after the olive oil and palm olein meals (meal effect P = 0.003; time effect P < 0.001). The greater reduction in the plasma non-esterified free fatty acids levels in the lard group compared to the olive oil meal was mirrored by the changes observed for serum TAG levels (P < 0.05). The magnitude of response for plasma glucose, insulin and adipocytokines [interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and leptin] were not altered by the type of dietary fats. A significant difference in plasma IL-1β was found over time following the three high fat loads (time effect P = 0.036). The physical characteristics and changes in TAG structure of lard may contribute to the smaller increase in postprandial lipemia compared with palm olein. A high fat load but not the type of fats influences concentrations of plasma IL-1β over time but had no effect on other pro-inflammatory markers tested in the postprandial state.

  12. Differential gene expression in liver and small intestine from lactating rats compared to age-matched virgin controls detects increased mRNA of cholesterol biosynthetic genes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Lactation increases energy demands four- to five-fold, leading to a two- to three-fold increase in food consumption, requiring a proportional adjustment in the ability of the lactating dam to absorb nutrients and to synthesize critical biomolecules, such as cholesterol, to meet the dietary needs of both the offspring and the dam. The size and hydrophobicity of the bile acid pool increases during lactation, implying an increased absorption and disposition of lipids, sterols, nutrients, and xenobiotics. In order to investigate changes at the transcriptomics level, we utilized an exon array and calculated expression levels to investigate changes in gene expression in the liver, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of lactating dams when compared against age-matched virgin controls. Results A two-way mixed models ANOVA was applied to detect differentially expressed genes. Significance calls were defined as a p < 0.05 for the overall physiologic state effect (lactation vs. control), and a within tissue pairwise comparison of p < 0.01. The proportion of false positives, an estimate of the ratio of false positives in the list of differentially expressed genes, was calculated for each tissue. The number of differentially expressed genes was 420 in the liver, 337 in the duodenum, 402 in the jejunum, and 523 in the ileum. The list of differentially expressed genes was in turn analyzed by Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) to detect biological pathways that were overrepresented. In all tissues, sterol regulatory element binding protein (Srebp)-regulated genes involved in cholesterol synthesis showed increased mRNA expression, with the fewest changes detected in the jejunum. We detected increased Scap mRNA in the liver only, suggesting an explanation for the difference in response to lactation between the liver and small intestine. Expression of Cyp7a1, which catalyzes the rate limiting step in the bile acid biosynthetic pathway, was also significantly increased in liver. In

  13. Naked mole-rat has increased translational fidelity compared with the mouse, as well as a unique 28S ribosomal RNA cleavage.

    PubMed

    Azpurua, Jorge; Ke, Zhonghe; Chen, Iris X; Zhang, Quanwei; Ermolenko, Dmitri N; Zhang, Zhengdong D; Gorbunova, Vera; Seluanov, Andrei

    2013-10-22

    The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a subterranean eusocial rodent with a markedly long lifespan and resistance to tumorigenesis. Multiple data implicate modulation of protein translation in longevity. Here we report that 28S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) of the naked mole-rat is processed into two smaller fragments of unequal size. The two breakpoints are located in the 28S rRNA divergent region 6 and excise a fragment of 263 nt. The excised fragment is unique to the naked mole-rat rRNA and does not show homology to other genomic regions. Because this hidden break site could alter ribosome structure, we investigated whether translation rate and amino acid incorporation fidelity were altered. We report that naked mole-rat fibroblasts have significantly increased translational fidelity despite having comparable translation rates with mouse fibroblasts. Although we cannot directly test whether the unique 28S rRNA structure contributes to the increased fidelity of translation, we speculate that it may change the folding or dynamics of the large ribosomal subunit, altering the rate of GTP hydrolysis and/or interaction of the large subunit with tRNA during accommodation, thus affecting the fidelity of protein synthesis. In summary, our results show that naked mole-rat cells produce fewer aberrant proteins, supporting the hypothesis that the more stable proteome of the naked mole-rat contributes to its longevity.

  14. A review of the application of propensity score methods yielded increasing use, advantages in specific settings, but not substantially different estimates compared with conventional multivariable methods

    PubMed Central

    Stürmer, Til; Joshi, Manisha; Glynn, Robert J.; Avorn, Jerry; Rothman, Kenneth J.; Schneeweiss, Sebastian

    2006-01-01

    Objective Propensity score analyses attempt to control for confounding in non-experimental studies by adjusting for the likelihood that a given patient is exposed. Such analyses have been proposed to address confounding by indication, but there is little empirical evidence that they achieve better control than conventional multivariate outcome modeling. Study design and methods Using PubMed and Science Citation Index, we assessed the use of propensity scores over time and critically evaluated studies published through 2003. Results Use of propensity scores increased from a total of 8 papers before 1998 to 71 in 2003. Most of the 177 published studies abstracted assessed medications (N=60) or surgical interventions (N=51), mainly in cardiology and cardiac surgery (N=90). Whether PS methods or conventional outcome models were used to control for confounding had little effect on results in those studies in which such comparison was possible. Only 9 out of 69 studies (13%) had an effect estimate that differed by more than 20% from that obtained with a conventional outcome model in all PS analyses presented. Conclusions Publication of results based on propensity score methods has increased dramatically, but there is little evidence that these methods yield substantially different estimates compared with conventional multivariable methods. PMID:16632131

  15. Comparative Proteomics of Ovarian Cancer Aggregate Formation Reveals an Increased Expression of Calcium-activated Chloride Channel Regulator 1 (CLCA1)*

    PubMed Central

    Musrap, Natasha; Tuccitto, Alessandra; Karagiannis, George S.; Saraon, Punit; Batruch, Ihor; Diamandis, Eleftherios P.

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a lethal gynecological disease that is characterized by peritoneal metastasis and increased resistance to conventional chemotherapies. This increased resistance and the ability to spread is often attributed to the formation of multicellular aggregates or spheroids in the peritoneal cavity, which seed abdominal surfaces and organs. Given that the presence of metastatic implants is a predictor of poor survival, a better understanding of how spheroids form is critical to improving patient outcome, and may result in the identification of novel therapeutic targets. Thus, we attempted to gain insight into the proteomic changes that occur during anchorage-independent cancer cell aggregation. As such, an ovarian cancer cell line, OV-90, was cultured in adherent and non-adherent conditions using stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC). Anchorage-dependent cells (OV-90AD) were grown in tissue culture flasks, whereas anchorage-independent cells (OV-90AI) were grown in suspension using the hanging-drop method. Cellular proteins from both conditions were then identified using LC-MS/MS, which resulted in the quantification of 1533 proteins. Of these, 13 and 6 proteins were up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively, in aggregate-forming cells compared with cells grown as monolayers. Relative gene expression and protein expression of candidates were examined in other cell line models of aggregate formation (TOV-112D and ES-2), which revealed an increased expression of calcium-activated chloride channel regulator 1 (CLCA1). Moreover, inhibitor and siRNA transfection studies demonstrated an apparent effect of CLCA1 on cancer cell aggregation. Further elucidation of the role of CLCA1 in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer is warranted. PMID:26004777

  16. Comparative Proteomics of Ovarian Cancer Aggregate Formation Reveals an Increased Expression of Calcium-activated Chloride Channel Regulator 1 (CLCA1).

    PubMed

    Musrap, Natasha; Tuccitto, Alessandra; Karagiannis, George S; Saraon, Punit; Batruch, Ihor; Diamandis, Eleftherios P

    2015-07-10

    Ovarian cancer is a lethal gynecological disease that is characterized by peritoneal metastasis and increased resistance to conventional chemotherapies. This increased resistance and the ability to spread is often attributed to the formation of multicellular aggregates or spheroids in the peritoneal cavity, which seed abdominal surfaces and organs. Given that the presence of metastatic implants is a predictor of poor survival, a better understanding of how spheroids form is critical to improving patient outcome, and may result in the identification of novel therapeutic targets. Thus, we attempted to gain insight into the proteomic changes that occur during anchorage-independent cancer cell aggregation. As such, an ovarian cancer cell line, OV-90, was cultured in adherent and non-adherent conditions using stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC). Anchorage-dependent cells (OV-90AD) were grown in tissue culture flasks, whereas anchorage-independent cells (OV-90AI) were grown in suspension using the hanging-drop method. Cellular proteins from both conditions were then identified using LC-MS/MS, which resulted in the quantification of 1533 proteins. Of these, 13 and 6 proteins were up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively, in aggregate-forming cells compared with cells grown as monolayers. Relative gene expression and protein expression of candidates were examined in other cell line models of aggregate formation (TOV-112D and ES-2), which revealed an increased expression of calcium-activated chloride channel regulator 1 (CLCA1). Moreover, inhibitor and siRNA transfection studies demonstrated an apparent effect of CLCA1 on cancer cell aggregation. Further elucidation of the role of CLCA1 in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer is warranted.

  17. Increased satiety after intake of a chocolate milk drink compared with a carbonated beverage, but no difference in subsequent ad libitum lunch intake.

    PubMed

    Harper, Angela; James, Anita; Flint, Anne; Astrup, Arne

    2007-03-01

    The rising rate of obesity has been blamed on increased consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks, such as carbonated sodas, which fail to satisfy hunger. The objective of the present study was to compare the effect on appetite and energy intake of a sugar-sweetened beverage (cola) and a chocolate milk drink, matched for energy content and volume. It was hypothesised that chocolate milk may be more satiating because of its protein content. Twenty-two healthy young men (age 23 (SD 1 x 8) years) of normal weight (BMI 22 x 2 (SD 1 x 5) kg/m2) were recruited to the randomised cross-over study. Visual analogue scales were used to record subjective appetite ratings every 30 min on each of two test days. A drink of 500 ml cola or chocolate milk (900 kJ) was ingested 30 min before an ad libitum lunch. Satiety and fullness were significantly greater (P=0 x 0007, P=0 x 0004, respectively) 30 min after chocolate milk than after cola. Ratings of prospective consumption and hunger were significantly greater after cola than after chocolate milk, both immediately after preload intake (P=0 x 008, P=0 x 01, respectively) and 30 min afterwards (P=0 x 004, P=0 x 01, respectively). There was no significant difference (P=0 x 42) in ad libitum lunch intake after ingestion of chocolate milk (3145 (SD 1268) kJ) compared with cola (3286 (SD 1346) kJ). The results support the hypothesis that sweetened soft drinks are different from milk products in their impact on short-term hunger and satiety, although differences in subjective appetite scores were not translated into differences in energy intake.

  18. Increasing inequality in age of death at shared levels of life expectancy: A comparative study of Scotland and England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Seaman, Rosie; Leyland, Alastair H; Popham, Frank

    2016-12-01

    There is a strong negative correlation between increasing life expectancy and decreasing lifespan variation, a measure of inequality. Previous research suggests that countries achieving a high level of life expectancy later in time generally do so with lower lifespan variation than forerunner countries. This may be because they are able to capitalise on lessons already learnt. However, a few countries achieve a high level of life expectancy later in time with higher inequality. Scotland appears to be such a country and presents an interesting case study because it previously experienced lower inequality when reaching the same level of life expectancy as its closest comparator England and Wales. We calculated life expectancy and lifespan variation for Scotland and England and Wales for the years 1950 to 2012, comparing Scotland to England and Wales when it reached the same level of life expectancy later on in time, and assessed the difference in the level of lifespan variation. The lifespan variation difference between the two countries was then decomposed into age-specific components. Analysis was carried out for males and females separately. Since the 1950s Scotland has achieved the same level of life expectancy at least ten years later in time than England and Wales. Initially it did so with lower lifespan variation. Following the 1980s Scotland has been achieving the same level of life expectancy later in time than England and Wales and with higher inequality, particularly for males. Decomposition revealed that higher inequality is partly explained by lower older age mortality rates but primarily by higher premature adult age mortality rates when life expectancy is the same. Existing studies suggest that premature adult mortality rates are strongly associated with the social determinants of health and may be amenable to social and economic policies. So addressing these policy areas may have benefits for both inequality and population health in Scotland.

  19. Increased risk of virologic failure to the first antiretroviral regimen in HIV-infected migrants compared to natives: data from the ICONA cohort.

    PubMed

    Saracino, A; Lorenzini, P; Lo Caputo, S; Girardi, E; Castelli, F; Bonfanti, P; Rusconi, S; Caramello, P; Abrescia, N; Mussini, C; Monno, L; d'Arminio Monforte, A

    2016-03-01

    Migrant and Italian HIV-infected patients (n = 5773) enrolled in the ICONA cohort in 2004-2014 were compared for disparities in access to an initial antiretroviral regimen and/or risk of virologic failure (VF), and determinants of failure were evaluated. Variables associated with initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) were analysed. Primary endpoint was time to failure after at least 6 months of ART and was defined as: VF, first of two consecutive virus loads (VL) >200 copies/mL; treatment discontinuation (TD) for any reason; and treatment failure as confirmed VL >200 copies/mL or TD. A Poisson multivariable analysis was performed to control for confounders. Migrants presented significantly lower CD4 counts and more frequent AIDS events at baseline. When adjusting for baseline confounders, migrants presented a lower likelihood to begin ART (odds ratio 0.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.67-0.95, p 0.012). After initiating ART, the incidence VF rate was 6.4 per 100 person-years (95% CI 4.8-8.5) in migrants and 2.7 in natives (95% CI 2.2-3.3). Multivariable analysis confirmed that migrants had a higher risk of VF (incidence rate ratio 1.90, 95% CI 1.25-2.91, p 0.003) and treatment failure (incidence rate ratio 1.16, 95% CI 1.01-1.33, p 0.031), with no differences for TD. Among migrants, variables associated with VF were age, unemployment and use of a boosted protease inhibitor-based regimen versus nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Despite the use of more potent and safer drugs in the last 10 years, and even in a universal health care setting, migrants living with HIV still present barriers to initiating ART and an increased risk of VF compared to natives.

  20. One Egg per Day Improves Inflammation when Compared to an Oatmeal-Based Breakfast without Increasing Other Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Diabetic Patients.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Martha Nydia; Valenzuela, Fabrizio; Robles, Alma E; Artalejo, Elizabeth; Aguilar, David; Andersen, Catherine J; Valdez, Herlindo; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2015-05-11

    There is concern that egg intake may increase blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, we have previously shown that eggs reduce inflammation in patients at risk for T2DM, including obese subjects and those with metabolic syndrome. Thus, we hypothesized that egg intake would not alter plasma glucose in T2DM patients when compared to oatmeal intake. Our primary endpoints for this clinical intervention were plasma glucose and the inflammatory markers tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin 6 (IL-6). As secondary endpoints, we evaluated additional parameters of glucose metabolism, dyslipidemias, oxidative stress and inflammation. Twenty-nine subjects, 35-65 years with glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values <9% were recruited and randomly allocated to consume isocaloric breakfasts containing either one egg/day or 40 g of oatmeal with 472 mL of lactose-free milk/day for five weeks. Following a three-week washout period, subjects were assigned to the alternate breakfast. At the end of each period, we measured all primary and secondary endpoints. Subjects completed four-day dietary recalls and one exercise questionnaire for each breakfast period. There were no significant differences in plasma glucose, our primary endpoint, plasma lipids, lipoprotein size or subfraction concentrations, insulin, HbA1c, apolipoprotein B, oxidized LDL or C-reactive protein. However, after adjusting for gender, age and body mass index, aspartate amino-transferase (AST) (p < 0.05) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (p < 0.01), one of our primary endpoints were significantly reduced during the egg period. These results suggest that compared to an oatmeal-based breakfast, eggs do not have any detrimental effects on lipoprotein or glucose metabolism in T2DM. In contrast, eggs reduce AST and TNF-α in this population characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation.

  1. The Alteration of Life History Traits and Increased Success of Halipegus eccentricus Through the Use of a Paratenic Host: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Stigge, Heather A; Bolek, Matthew G

    2015-12-01

    Complex life cycles are a hallmark characteristic of many parasites; however, little is known about the process by which life cycles become more complex through the addition of hosts. Paratenic hosts are present in the life cycles of several phylogenetically distinct groups of helminths; this suggests that they may play a key role during this process. This study examined the development of metacercariae of Halipegus eccentricus within intermediate microcrustacean and odonate paratenic hosts. Then a comparative approach was used to evaluate how life history traits of H. eccentricus within the anuran definitive hosts differ between metacercariae of the same age that developed within an intermediate ostracod host or a paratenic odonate host. The results of this study indicate that metacercariae of H. eccentricus do not grow at the same rate in different intermediate hosts, and significant differences exist in growth within intermediate and paratenic hosts. Individuals from odonate paratenic hosts always had larger bodies and suckers than those of metacercariae of the same age that develop within microcrustacean intermediate hosts. Furthermore, metacercariae from odonates were more successful in establishing and migrating in definitive anuran hosts. Last, individuals from paratenic hosts began reproducing earlier within anuran definitive hosts than age-matched worms that develop within the intermediate hosts. Collectively these results suggest that the variation in body and sucker sizes within odonate and microcrustacean hosts may carry over to the definitive host and in the case of H. eccentricus using the paratenic host increases transmission and alters other life history traits within definitive hosts. These results indicate that using a paratenic host can affect the success of parasites in subsequent hosts, and therefore these hosts may provide benefits other than just increasing transmission by bridging an ecological gap.

  2. Comparative genome-based identification of a cell wall-anchored protein from Lactobacillus plantarum increases adhesion of Lactococcus lactis to human epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Zuo, Fanglei; Yu, Rui; Zeng, Zhu; Ma, Huiqin; Chen, Shangwu

    2015-09-15

    Adhesion to host cells is considered important for Lactobacillus plantarum as well as other lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to persist in human gut and thus exert probiotic effects. Here, we sequenced the genome of Lt. plantarum strain NL42 originating from a traditional Chinese dairy product, performed comparative genomic analysis and characterized a novel adhesion factor. The genome of NL42 was highly divergent from its closest neighbors, especially in six large genomic regions. NL42 harbors a total of 42 genes encoding adhesion-associated proteins; among them, cwaA encodes a protein containing multiple domains, including five cell wall surface anchor repeat domains and an LPxTG-like cell wall anchor motif. Expression of cwaA in Lactococcus lactis significantly increased its autoaggregation and hydrophobicity, and conferred the new ability to adhere to human colonic epithelial HT-29 cells by targeting cellular surface proteins, and not carbohydrate moieties, for CwaA adhesion. In addition, the recombinant Lc. lactis inhibited adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli to HT-29 cells, mainly by exclusion. We conclude that CwaA is a novel adhesion factor in Lt. plantarum and a potential candidate for improving the adhesion ability of probiotics or other bacteria of interest.

  3. Increased sensitivity to age-related differences in brain functional connectivity during continuous multiple object tracking compared to resting-state.

    PubMed

    Dørum, Erlend S; Kaufmann, Tobias; Alnæs, Dag; Andreassen, Ole A; Richard, Geneviève; Kolskår, Knut K; Nordvik, Jan Egil; Westlye, Lars T

    2017-03-01

    Age-related differences in cognitive agility vary greatly between individuals and cognitive functions. This heterogeneity is partly mirrored in individual differences in brain network connectivity as revealed using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), suggesting potential imaging biomarkers for age-related cognitive decline. However, although convenient in its simplicity, the resting state is essentially an unconstrained paradigm with minimal experimental control. Here, based on the conception that the magnitude and characteristics of age-related differences in brain connectivity is dependent on cognitive context and effort, we tested the hypothesis that experimentally increasing cognitive load boosts the sensitivity to age and changes the discriminative network configurations. To this end, we obtained fMRI data from younger (n=25, mean age 24.16±5.11) and older (n=22, mean age 65.09±7.53) healthy adults during rest and two load levels of continuous multiple object tracking (MOT). Brain network nodes and their time-series were estimated using independent component analysis (ICA) and dual regression, and the edges in the brain networks were defined as the regularized partial temporal correlations between each of the node pairs at the individual level. Using machine learning based on a cross-validated regularized linear discriminant analysis (rLDA) we attempted to classify groups and cognitive load from the full set of edge-wise functional connectivity indices. While group classification using resting-state data was highly above chance (approx. 70% accuracy), functional connectivity (FC) obtained during MOT strongly increased classification performance, with 82% accuracy for the young and 95% accuracy for the old group at the highest load level. Further, machine learning revealed stronger differentiation between rest and task in young compared to older individuals, supporting the notion of network dedifferentiation in cognitive aging. Task

  4. Diets with corn oil and/or low protein increase acute acetaminophen hepatotoxicity compared to diets with beef tallow in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jinah

    2009-01-01

    It has been reported that dietary polyunsaturated fats (PUFA) increase liver injury in response to ethanol feeding. We tested the hypothesis that diets rich in linoleic acid (18:2n-6) would affect acute liver injury after acetaminophen injection and that protein restriction might exacerbate the liver injury. We examined effects of feeding diets with either 15% (wt/wt) corn oil or 14% beef tallow and 1% corn oil for six weeks with either 6 or 20 g/100 g protein on acute hepatotoxicity. After the feeding period, liver injury was induced by injecting either with 600 mg/kg body weight acetaminophen suspended in gum arabic-based vehicle, or with vehicle alone during fasting status. Samples of liver and plasma were taken for analyses of hepatic glutathione (GSH) levels and liver-specific enzymes [(Glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT)], respectively. Whereas GSH level was significantly lower in only group fed 15% corn oil with 6 g/100 g protein among acetaminophen-treated groups, activities of GPT and GOT were significantly elevated in all groups except the one fed beef tallow with 20 g/100 g protein, suggesting low protein might exacerbate drug-induced hepatotoxicity. The feeding regimens changed the ratio of 18:2n-6 to oleic acid (18:1n-9) in total liver lipids approximately five-fold, and produced modest changes in arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). We conclude that diets with high 18:2n-6 promote acetaminophen-induced liver injury compared to diets with more saturated fatty acids (SFA). In addition, protein restriction appeared to exacerbate the liver injury.

  5. A randomized controlled trial comparing Circle of Security Intervention and treatment as usual as interventions to increase attachment security in infants of mentally ill mothers: Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Psychopathology in women after childbirth represents a significant risk factor for parenting and infant mental health. Regarding child development, these infants are at increased risk for developing unfavorable attachment strategies to their mothers and for subsequent behavioral, emotional and cognitive impairments throughout childhood. To date, the specific efficacy of an early attachment-based parenting group intervention under standard clinical outpatient conditions, and the moderators and mediators that promote attachment security in infants of mentally ill mothers, have been poorly evaluated. Methods/Design This randomized controlled clinical trial tests whether promoting attachment security in infancy with the Circle of Security (COS) Intervention will result in a higher rate of securely attached children compared to treatment as usual (TAU). Furthermore, we will determine whether the distributions of securely attached children are moderated or mediated by variations in maternal sensitivity, mentalizing, attachment representations, and psychopathology obtained at baseline and at follow-up. We plan to recruit 80 mother-infant dyads when infants are aged 4-9 months with 40 dyads being randomized to each treatment arm. Infants and mothers will be reassessed when the children are 16-18 months of age. Methodological aspects of the study are systematic recruitment and randomization, explicit inclusion and exclusion criteria, research assessors and coders blinded to treatment allocation, advanced statistical analysis, manualized treatment protocols and assessments of treatment adherence and integrity. Discussion The aim of this clinical trial is to determine whether there are specific effects of an attachment-based intervention that promotes attachment security in infants. Additionally, we anticipate being able to utilize data on maternal and child outcome measures to obtain preliminary indications about potential moderators of the intervention and

  6. Increase in West Nile neuroinvasive disease after Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Caillouët, Kevin A; Michaels, Sarah R; Xiong, Xu; Foppa, Ivo; Wesson, Dawn M

    2008-05-01

    After Hurricane Katrina, the number of reported cases of West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND) sharply increased in the hurricane-affected regions of Louisiana and Mississippi. In 2006, a >2-fold increase in WNND incidence was observed in the hurricane-affected areas than in previous years.

  7. Increase in West Nile Neuroinvasive Disease after Hurricane Katrina

    PubMed Central

    Michaels, Sarah R.; Xiong, Xu; Foppa, Ivo; Wesson, Dawn M.

    2008-01-01

    After Hurricane Katrina, the number of reported cases of West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND) sharply increased in the hurricane-affected regions of Louisiana and Mississippi. In 2006, a >2-fold increase in WNND incidence was observed in the hurricane-affected areas than in previous years. PMID:18439367

  8. Nontransferrin-bound iron uptake by hepatocytes is increased in the Hfe knockout mouse model of hereditary hemochromatosis.

    PubMed

    Chua, Anita C G; Olynyk, John K; Leedman, Peter J; Trinder, Debbie

    2004-09-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is an iron-overload disorder caused by a C282Y mutation in the HFE gene. In HH, plasma nontransferrin-bound iron (NTBI) levels are increased and NTBI is bound mainly by citrate. The aim of this study was to examine the importance of NTBI in the pathogenesis of hepatic iron loading in Hfe knockout mice. Plasma NTBI levels were increased 2.5-fold in Hfe knockout mice compared with control mice. Total ferric citrate uptake by hepatocytes isolated from Hfe knockout mice (34.1 +/- 2.8 pmol Fe/mg protein/min) increased by 2-fold compared with control mice (17.8 +/- 2.7 pmol Fe/mg protein/min; P <.001; mean +/- SEM; n = 7). Ferrous ion chelators, bathophenanthroline disulfonate, and 2',2-bipyridine inhibited ferric citrate uptake by hepatocytes from both mouse types. Divalent metal ions inhibited ferric citrate uptake by hepatocytes, as did diferric transferrin. Divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) mRNA and protein expression was increased approximately 2-fold by hepatocytes from Hfe knockout mice. We conclude that NTBI uptake by hepatocytes from Hfe knockout mice contributed to hepatic iron loading. Ferric ion was reduced to ferrous ion and taken up by hepatocytes by a pathway shared with diferric transferrin. Inhibition of uptake by divalent metals and up-regulation of DMT1 expression suggested that NTBI uptake was mediated by DMT1.

  9. SymDex: increasing the efficiency of chemical fingerprint similarity searches for comparing large chemical libraries by using query set indexing.

    PubMed

    Tai, David; Fang, Jianwen

    2012-08-27

    The large sizes of today's chemical databases require efficient algorithms to perform similarity searches. It can be very time consuming to compare two large chemical databases. This paper seeks to build upon existing research efforts by describing a novel strategy for accelerating existing search algorithms for comparing large chemical collections. The quest for efficiency has focused on developing better indexing algorithms by creating heuristics for searching individual chemical against a chemical library by detecting and eliminating needless similarity calculations. For comparing two chemical collections, these algorithms simply execute searches for each chemical in the query set sequentially. The strategy presented in this paper achieves a speedup upon these algorithms by indexing the set of all query chemicals so redundant calculations that arise in the case of sequential searches are eliminated. We implement this novel algorithm by developing a similarity search program called Symmetric inDexing or SymDex. SymDex shows over a 232% maximum speedup compared to the state-of-the-art single query search algorithm over real data for various fingerprint lengths. Considerable speedup is even seen for batch searches where query set sizes are relatively small compared to typical database sizes. To the best of our knowledge, SymDex is the first search algorithm designed specifically for comparing chemical libraries. It can be adapted to most, if not all, existing indexing algorithms and shows potential for accelerating future similarity search algorithms for comparing chemical databases.

  10. More efficient mastication allows increasing intake without compromising digestibility or necessitating a larger gut: comparative feeding trials in banteng (Bos javanicus) and pygmy hippopotamus (Hexaprotodon liberiensis).

    PubMed

    Schwarm, Angela; Ortmann, Sylvia; Wolf, Christian; Streich, W Jürgen; Clauss, Marcus

    2009-04-01

    The digestion of plant material in mammalian herbivores basically depends on the chemical and structural composition of the diet, the mean particle size to which the forage is processed, and the ingesta retention time. These different factors can be influenced by the animal, and they can presumably compensate for each other. The pygmy hippopotamus, a non-ruminating foregut fermenter, has longer mean retention times than ruminants; however hippos do not achieve higher (fibre) digestibilities on comparable diets, which could be due to ineffective mastication. We performed feeding trials with six pygmy hippos (Hexaprotodon liberiensis) and six banteng cattle (Bos javanicus) on a grass diet. As predicted, both species achieved similar dry matter, organic matter, crude protein and gross energy digestibilities. However, neutral and acid detergent fibre digestibility was lower in pygmy hippos. Apparently, in these species, fibre digestibility was more influenced by particle size, which was larger in pygmy hippos compared to banteng, than by retention time. In spite of their higher relative food intake, the banteng in this study did not have greater relative gut fills than the hippos. Ruminants traditionally appear intake-limited when compared to equids, because feed particles above a certain size cannot leave the rumen. But when compared to nonruminating foregut fermenters, rumination seems to free foregut fermenters from an intrinsic food intake limitation. The higher energy intakes and metabolic rates in wild cattle compared to hippos could have life-history consequences, such as a higher relative reproductive rate.

  11. Multiple Small Diameter Drillings Increase Femoral Neck Stability Compared with Single Large Diameter Femoral Head Core Decompression Technique for Avascular Necrosis of the Femoral Head.

    PubMed

    Brown, Philip J; Mannava, Sandeep; Seyler, Thorsten M; Plate, Johannes F; Van Sikes, Charles; Stitzel, Joel D; Lang, Jason E

    2016-10-26

    Femoral head core decompression is an efficacious joint-preserving procedure for treatment of early stage avascular necrosis. However, postoperative fractures have been described which may be related to the decompression technique used. Femoral head decompressions were performed on 12 matched human cadaveric femora comparing large 8mm single bore versus multiple 3mm small drilling techniques. Ultimate failure strength of the femora was tested using a servo-hydraulic material testing system. Ultimate load to failure was compared between the different decompression techniques using two paired ANCOVA linear regression models. Prior to biomechanical testing and after the intervention, volumetric bone mineral density was determined using quantitative computed tomography to account for variation between cadaveric samples and to assess the amount of bone disruption by the core decompression. Core decompression, using the small diameter bore and multiple drilling technique, withstood significantly greater load prior to failure compared with the single large bore technique after adjustment for bone mineral density (p< 0.05). The 8mm single bore technique removed a significantly larger volume of bone compared to the 3mm multiple drilling technique (p< 0.001). However, total fracture energy was similar between the two core decompression techniques. When considering core decompression for the treatment of early stage avascular necrosis, the multiple small bore technique removed less bone volume, thereby potentially leading to higher load to failure.

  12. Increased water contamination and grow-out Pekin duck mortality when raised with water troughs compared to pin-metered water lines using a United States management system.

    PubMed

    Schenk, A; Porter, A L; Alenciks, E; Frazier, K; Best, A A; Fraley, S M; Fraley, G S

    2016-04-01

    Controversy has developed as to whether or not pin-metered water lines or water troughs are more appropriate for Pekin ducks. We hypothesized that water troughs would show improved duck body conditions and environmental quality compared to pin-metered water lines. To test this hypothesis, we housed ducks in 2 barns, one with water lines and one with water troughs. Water troughs were constructed to meet RSPCA guidelines for number and density of ducks and with recently described verandas. Ducks were divided into 4 pens per barn (n=1,000 ducks/pen). The study was then repeated (n=8 pens per water source) in a cross-over design so the barns each contained the opposite water source to the first experiment. We scored the ducks' body condition using an established scoring rubric and analyzed using SAS Proc GLM-Mix as binomial data. Ducks housed with water troughs showed higher (thus worse condition; P<0.001) scores for eyes, nostrils, feather quality, feather cleanliness, and foot pads. We also compared water condition, water quality, and duck mortality using a Student t test for both water sources each week. We found that the water troughs showed higher iron (P<0.001), nitrites (P<0.001), pH (P<0.01), and bacterial growth (P<0.001). The bacterial growth was shown to have higher (P<0.001)E. coli, coliforms, and Staphylococcusin the water troughs. Water lines typically showed no bacterial growth in culture-based assays. Ducks housed with water troughs used greater (P=0.001) volumes of water compared to ducks housed with water lines. Ducks with water troughs also showed a greater percent (P=0.008) mortality at all ages compared to ducks with water lines. These data suggest that water troughs may not be beneficial for duck welfare and could adversely impact both environment and duck or human health.

  13. Increased water contamination and grow-out Pekin duck mortality when raised with water troughs compared to pin-metered water lines using a United States management system

    PubMed Central

    Schenk, A.; Porter, A. L.; Alenciks, E.; Frazier, K.; Best, A. A.; Fraley, S. M.; Fraley, G. S.

    2016-01-01

    Controversy has developed as to whether or not pin-metered water lines or water troughs are more appropriate for Pekin ducks. We hypothesized that water troughs would show improved duck body conditions and environmental quality compared to pin-metered water lines. To test this hypothesis, we housed ducks in 2 barns, one with water lines and one with water troughs. Water troughs were constructed to meet RSPCA guidelines for number and density of ducks and with recently described verandas. Ducks were divided into 4 pens per barn (n = 1,000 ducks/pen). The study was then repeated (n = 8 pens per water source) in a cross-over design so the barns each contained the opposite water source to the first experiment. We scored the ducks’ body condition using an established scoring rubric and analyzed using SAS Proc GLM-Mix as binomial data. Ducks housed with water troughs showed higher (thus worse condition; P < 0.001) scores for eyes, nostrils, feather quality, feather cleanliness, and foot pads. We also compared water condition, water quality, and duck mortality using a Student t test for both water sources each week. We found that the water troughs showed higher iron (P < 0.001), nitrites (P < 0.001), pH (P < 0.01), and bacterial growth (P < 0.001). The bacterial growth was shown to have higher (P < 0.001) E. coli, coliforms, and Staphylococcus in the water troughs. Water lines typically showed no bacterial growth in culture-based assays. Ducks housed with water troughs used greater (P = 0.001) volumes of water compared to ducks housed with water lines. Ducks with water troughs also showed a greater percent (P = 0.008) mortality at all ages compared to ducks with water lines. These data suggest that water troughs may not be beneficial for duck welfare and could adversely impact both environment and duck or human health. PMID:26769272

  14. A Randomized Trial to Compare Alternative Educational Interventions to Increase Colorectal Cancer Screening in a Hard-to-Reach Urban Minority Population with Health Insurance.

    PubMed

    Basch, Charles E; Zybert, Patricia; Wolf, Randi L; Basch, Corey H; Ullman, Ralph; Shmukler, Celia; King, Fionnuala; Neugut, Alfred I; Shea, Steven

    2015-10-01

    This randomized controlled trial assessed different educational approaches for increasing colorectal cancer screening uptake in a sample of primarily non-US born urban minority individuals, over aged 50, with health insurance, and out of compliance with screening guidelines. In one group, participants were mailed printed educational material (n = 180); in a second, participants' primary care physicians received academic detailing to improve screening referral and follow-up practices (n = 185); in a third, physicians received academic detailing and participants received tailored telephone education (n = 199). Overall, 21.5% of participants (n = 121) received appropriate screening within one year of randomization. There were no statistically significant pairwise differences between groups in screening rate. Among those 60 years of age or older, however, the detailing plus telephone education group had a higher screening rate than the print group (27.3 vs. 7.7%, p = .02). Different kinds of interventions will be required to increase colorectal cancer screening among the increasingly small population segment that remains unscreened. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02392143.

  15. CELL RESPIRATION STUDIES : II. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE OXYGEN CONSUMPTION OF BLOOD FROM NORMAL INDIVIDUALS AND PATIENTS WITH INCREASED LEUCOCYTE COUNTS (SEPSIS; CHRONIC MYELOGENOUS LEUCEMIA).

    PubMed

    Daland, G A; Isaacs, R

    1927-06-30

    1. The oxygen consumption of blood of normal individuals, when the hemoglobin is saturated with oxygen, is practically zero within the limits of experimental error of the microspirometer used. 2. The oxygen consumed in a microspirometer by the blood of patients with chronic myelogenous leucemia with a high white blood cell count, and of one with leucocytosis from sepsis, was proportional to the number of adult polymorphonuclear neutrophils in the blood. 3. No correlation could be made between the rate of oxygen absorption and the total number of white blood cells in the blood, or the total number of immature cells, or the number of red blood cells, or the amount of oxyhemoglobin. 4. The blood of patients with chronic myelogenous leucemia continued to use oxygen in the microspirometer longer than that of normal individuals, and the hemoglobin, in the leucemic bloods, became desaturated even though exposed to air. 5. In blood in which the bulk. of the cells were immature and the mature cells few, the oxygen consumption was lower than in blood in which the mature cells predominated. The rate of oxygen consumption of the immature cells was relatively low as compared to the mature. 6. The slower rate of oxygen absorption by the immature leucocytes in chronic myelogenous leucemia as compared to the mature cells, places them, in accord with Warburg's reports, in the class of the malignant tissues in this respect rather than in the group of young or embryonic cells.

  16. Carbohydrate Intake in Form of Gel Is Associated With Increased Gastrointestinal Distress but Not With Performance Differences Compared With Liquid Carbohydrate Ingestion During Simulated Long-Distance Triathlon.

    PubMed

    Sareban, Mahdi; Zügel, David; Koehler, Karsten; Hartveg, Paul; Zügel, Martina; Schumann, Uwe; Steinacker, Jürgen Michael; Treff, Gunnar

    2016-04-01

    The ingestion of exogenous carbohydrates (CHO) during prolonged endurance exercise, such as long-distance triathlon, is considered beneficial with regard to performance. However, little is known about whether this performance benefit differs among different forms of CHO administration. To this end, the purpose of our study was to determine the impact of CHO ingestion from a semisolid source (GEL) on measures of performance and gastrointestinal (GI) comfort compared with CHO ingestion from a liquid source (LIQ). Nine well-trained triathletes participated in this randomized crossover study. Each participant completed a 60-min swim, 180-min bike exercise, and a 60-min all-out run in a laboratory environment under 2 conditions, once while receiving 67.2 ± 7.2 g · h-1 (M ± SD) of CHO from GEL and once while receiving 67.8 ± 4.2 g · h-1 of CHO from LIQ. The amount of fluid provided was matched among conditions. Respiratory exchange ratio (RER), blood glucose, and lactate as well as GI discomfort were assessed at regular intervals during the experiment. The distance covered during the final all-out run was not significantly different among participants ingesting GEL (11.81 ± 1.38 km) and LIQ (11.91 ± 1.53 km; p = .89). RER, blood glucose, and lactate did not differ significantly at any time during the experiment. Seven participants reported GI discomfort with GEL, and no athlete reported GI discomfort with LIQ (p = .016). This study suggests that administration of GEL does not alter long-distance triathlon performance when compared with LIQ, but GEL seems to be associated with reduced GI tolerance. Athletes should consider this a potential disadvantage of GEL administration during long-distance triathlon.

  17. Acute Response of Well-Trained Sprinters to a 100-m Race: Higher Sprinting Velocity Achieved With Increased Step Rate Compared With Speed Training.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Mitsuo; Kawahara, Taisuke; Isaka, Tadao

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to clarify the contribution of differences in step length and step rate to sprinting velocity in an athletic race compared with speed training. Nineteen well-trained male and female sprinters volunteered to participate in this study. Sprinting motions were recorded for each sprinter during both 100-m races and speed training (60-, 80-, and 100-m dash from a block start) for 14 days before the race. Repeated-measures analysis of covariance was used to compare the step characteristics and sprinting velocity between race and speed training, adjusted for covariates including race-training differences in the coefficients of restitution of the all-weather track, wind speed, air temperature, and sex. The average sprinting velocity to the 50-m mark was significantly greater in the race than in speed training (8.26 ± 0.22 m·s vs. 8.00 ± 0.70 m·s, p < 0.01). Although no significant difference was seen in the average step length to the 50-m mark between the race and speed training (1.81 ± 0.09 m vs. 1.80 ± 0.09 m, p = 0.065), the average step rate was significantly greater in the race than in speed training (4.56 ± 0.17 Hz vs. 4.46 ± 0.13 Hz, p < 0.01). These findings suggest that sprinters achieve higher sprinting velocity and can run with higher exercise intensity and more rapid motion during a race than during speed training, even if speed training was performed at perceived high intensity.

  18. Increased postprandial glycaemia, insulinemia, and lipidemia after 10 weeks’ sucrose-rich diet compared to an artificially sweetened diet: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Raben, Anne; Møller, Bente K.; Flint, Anne; Vasilaras, Tatjana H.; Christina Møller, A.; Juul Holst, Jens; Astrup, Arne

    2011-01-01

    Background The importance of exchanging sucrose for artificial sweeteners on risk factors for developing diabetes and cardiovascular diseases is not yet clear. Objective To investigate the effects of a diet high in sucrose versus a diet high in artificial sweeteners on fasting and postprandial metabolic profiles after 10 weeks. Design Healthy overweight subjects were randomised to consume drinks and foods sweetened with either sucrose (∼2 g/kg body weight) (n = 12) or artificial sweeteners (n = 11) as supplements to their usual diet. Supplements were similar on the two diets and consisted of beverages (∼80 weight%) and solid foods (yoghurts, marmalade, ice cream, stewed fruits). The rest of the diet was free of choice and ad libitum. Before (week 0) and after the intervention (week 10) fasting blood samples were drawn and in week 10, postprandial blood was sampled during an 8-hour meal test (breakfast and lunch). Results After 10 weeks postprandial glucose, insulin, lactate, triglyceride, leptin, glucagon, and GLP-1 were all significantly higher in the sucrose compared with the sweetener group. After adjusting for differences in body weight changes and fasting values (week 10), postprandial glucose, lactate, insulin, GIP, and GLP-1 were significantly higher and after further adjusting for differences in energy and sucrose intake, postprandial lactate, insulin, GIP, and GLP-1 levels were still significantly higher on the sucrose-rich diet. Conclusion A sucrose-rich diet consumed for 10 weeks resulted in significant elevations of postprandial glycaemia, insulinemia, and lipidemia compared to a diet rich in artificial sweeteners in slightly overweight healthy subjects. PMID:21799667

  19. Increased antitumor activity, intratumor paclitaxel concentrations, and endothelial cell transport of cremophor-free, albumin-bound paclitaxel, ABI-007, compared with cremophor-based paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Desai, Neil; Trieu, Vuong; Yao, Zhiwen; Louie, Leslie; Ci, Sherry; Yang, Andrew; Tao, Chunlin; De, Tapas; Beals, Bridget; Dykes, Donald; Noker, Patricia; Yao, Rosie; Labao, Elizabeth; Hawkins, Michael; Soon-Shiong, Patrick

    2006-02-15

    ABI-007, an albumin-bound, 130-nm particle form of paclitaxel, was developed to avoid Cremophor/ethanol-associated toxicities in Cremophor-based paclitaxel (Taxol) and to exploit albumin receptor-mediated endothelial transport. We studied the antitumor activity, intratumoral paclitaxel accumulation, and endothelial transport for ABI-007 and Cremophor-based paclitaxel. Antitumor activity and mortality were assessed in nude mice bearing human tumor xenografts [lung (H522), breast (MX-1), ovarian (SK-OV-3), prostate (PC-3), and colon (HT29)] treated with ABI-007 or Cremophor-based paclitaxel. Intratumoral paclitaxel concentrations (MX-1-tumored mice) were compared for radiolabeled ABI-007 and Cremophor-based paclitaxel. In vitro endothelial transcytosis and Cremophor inhibition of paclitaxel binding to cells and albumin was compared for ABI-007 and Cremophor-based paclitaxel. Both ABI-007 and Cremophor-based paclitaxel caused tumor regression and prolonged survival; the order of sensitivity was lung > breast congruent with ovary > prostate > colon. The LD(50) and maximum tolerated dose for ABI-007 and Cremophor-based paclitaxel were 47 and 30 mg/kg/d and 30 and 13.4 mg/kg/d, respectively. At equitoxic dose, the ABI-007-treated groups showed more complete regressions, longer time to recurrence, longer doubling time, and prolonged survival. At equal dose, tumor paclitaxel area under the curve was 33% higher for ABI-007 versus Cremophor-based paclitaxel, indicating more effective intratumoral accumulation of ABI-007. Endothelial binding and transcytosis of paclitaxel were markedly higher for ABI-007 versus Cremophor-based paclitaxel, and this difference was abrogated by a known inhibitor of endothelial gp60 receptor/caveolar transport. In addition, Cremophor was found to inhibit binding of paclitaxel to endothelial cells and albumin. Enhanced endothelial cell binding and transcytosis for ABI-007 and inhibition by Cremophor in Cremophor-based paclitaxel may account in

  20. Fluorescence-guided surgery of retroperitoneal-implanted human fibrosarcoma in nude mice delays or eliminates tumor recurrence and increases survival compared to bright-light surgery.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Fuminari; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Miwa, Shinji; Tome, Yasunori; Yano, Shuya; Yamamoto, Mako; Matsumoto, Yasunori; Maehara, Hiroki; Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Bouvet, Michael; Kanaya, Fuminori; Hoffman, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine if fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS) can eradicate human fibrosarcoma growing in the retroperitoneum of nude mice. One week after retroperitoneal implantation of human HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells, expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) (HT-1080-GFP), in nude mice, bright-light surgery (BLS) was performed on all tumor-bearing mice (n = 22). After BLS, mice were randomized into 2 treatment groups; BLS-only (n = 11) or the combination of BLS + FGS (n = 11). The residual tumors remaining after BLS were resected with FGS using a hand-held portable imaging system under fluorescence navigation. The average residual tumor area after BLS + FGS was significantly smaller than after BLS-only (0.4 ± 0.4 mm(2) and 10.5 ± 2.4 mm(2), respectively; p = 0.006). Five weeks after surgery, the fluorescent-tumor areas of BLS- and BLS + FGS-treated mice were 379 ± 147 mm(2) and 11.7 ± 6.9 mm(2), respectively, indicating that FGS greatly inhibited tumor recurrence compared to BLS. The combination of BLS + FGS significantly decreased fibrosarcoma recurrence compared to BLS-only treated mice (p < 0.001). Mice treated with BLS+FGS had a significantly higher disease-free survival rate than mice treated with BLS-only at five weeks after surgery. These results suggest that combination of BLS + FGS significantly reduced the residual fibrosarcoma volume after BLS and improved disease-free survival.

  1. Development of Serum Marker Models to Increase Diagnostic Accuracy of Advanced Fibrosis in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: The New LINKI Algorithm Compared with Established Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Lykiardopoulos, Byron; Hagström, Hannes; Fredrikson, Mats; Ignatova, Simone; Stål, Per; Hultcrantz, Rolf; Ekstedt, Mattias

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim Detection of advanced fibrosis (F3-F4) in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is important for ascertaining prognosis. Serum markers have been proposed as alternatives to biopsy. We attempted to develop a novel algorithm for detection of advanced fibrosis based on a more efficient combination of serological markers and to compare this with established algorithms. Methods We included 158 patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD. Of these, 38 had advanced fibrosis. The following fibrosis algorithms were calculated: NAFLD fibrosis score, BARD, NIKEI, NASH-CRN regression score, APRI, FIB-4, King´s score, GUCI, Lok index, Forns score, and ELF. Study population was randomly divided in a training and a validation group. A multiple logistic regression analysis using bootstrapping methods was applied to the training group. Among many variables analyzed age, fasting glucose, hyaluronic acid and AST were included, and a model (LINKI-1) for predicting advanced fibrosis was created. Moreover, these variables were combined with platelet count in a mathematical way exaggerating the opposing effects, and alternative models (LINKI-2) were also created. Models were compared using area under the receiver operator characteristic curves (AUROC). Results Of established algorithms FIB-4 and King´s score had the best diagnostic accuracy with AUROCs 0.84 and 0.83, respectively. Higher accuracy was achieved with the novel LINKI algorithms. AUROCs in the total cohort for LINKI-1 was 0.91 and for LINKI-2 models 0.89. Conclusion The LINKI algorithms for detection of advanced fibrosis in NAFLD showed better accuracy than established algorithms and should be validated in further studies including larger cohorts. PMID:27936091

  2. Increased transcript level of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP-1) in human tricuspid compared with bicuspid aortic valves correlates with the stenosis severity

    SciTech Connect

    Nagy, Edit; Caidahl, Kenneth; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Baeck, Magnus

    2012-04-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathomechanism of calcific aortic valve stenosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We assessed the transcript levels for PARP-1 (poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase), acts as a DNA damage nick sensor in stenotic valves. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Early stage of diseased tricuspid valves exhibited higher mRNA levels for PARP-1 compared to bicuspid valves. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mRNA levels for PARP-1 inversely correlated with the clinical stenosis severity in tricuspid valves. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our data demonstrated that DNA damage pathways might be associated with stenosis severity only in tricuspid valves. -- Abstract: Oxidative stress may contribute to the hemodynamic progression of aortic valve stenosis, and is associated with activation of the nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) 1. The aim of the present study was to assess the transcriptional profile and the topological distribution of PARP-1 in human aortic valves, and its relation to the stenosis severity. Human stenotic aortic valves were obtained from 46 patients undergoing aortic valve replacement surgery and used for mRNA extraction followed by quantitative real-time PCR to correlate the PARP-1 expression levels with the non invasive hemodynamic parameters quantifying the stenosis severity. Primary isolated valvular interstitial cells (VICs) were used to explore the effects of cytokines and leukotriene C{sub 4} (LTC{sub 4}) on valvular PARP-1 expression. The thickened areas of stenotic valves with tricuspid morphology expressed significantly higher levels of PARP-1 mRNA compared with the corresponding part of bicuspid valves (0.501 vs 0.243, P = 0.01). Furthermore, the quantitative gene expression levels of PARP-1 were inversely correlated with the aortic valve area (AVA) (r = -0.46, P = 0.0469) and AVA indexed for body surface area (BSA) (r = -0.498; P = 0.0298) only in tricuspid aortic valves

  3. Managed Bumble Bees (Bombus impatiens) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Caged With Blueberry Bushes at High Density Did Not Increase Fruit Set or Fruit Weight Compared to Open Pollination.

    PubMed

    Campbell, J W; O'Brien, J; Irvin, J H; Kimmel, C B; Daniels, J C; Ellis, J D

    2017-02-17

    Highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) is an important crop grown throughout Florida. Currently, most blueberry growers use honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) to provide pollination services for highbush blueberries even though bumble bees (Bombus spp.) have been shown to be more efficient at pollinating blueberries on a per bee basis. In general, contribution of bumble bees to the pollination of commercial highbush blueberries in Florida is unknown. Herein, we determined if managed bumble bees could contribute to highbush blueberry pollination. There were four treatments in this study: two treatments of caged commercial bumble bee (Bombus impatiens Cresson) colonies (low and high weight hives), a treatment excluding all pollinators, and a final treatment which allowed all pollinators (managed and wild pollinators) in the area have access to the plot. All treatments were located within a highbush blueberry field containing two cultivars of blooming plants, 'Emerald' and 'Millennia', with each cage containing 16 mature blueberry plants. We gathered data on fruit set, berry weight, and number of seeds produced per berry. When pollinators were excluded, fruit set was significantly lower in both cultivars (<8%) compared to that in all of the other treatments (>58%). Berry weight was not significantly different among the treatments, and the number of seeds per berry did not show a clear response. This study emphasizes the importance of bumble bees as an effective pollinator of blueberries and the potential beneficial implications of the addition of bumble bees in commercial blueberry greenhouses or high tunnels.

  4. Increased incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease with the continuous infusion of cyclosporine A compared to twice-daily infusion.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, N; Kanda, Y; Matsubara, M; Asano, Y; Nakagawa, M; Sakata-Yanagimoto, M; Kandabashi, K; Izutsu, K; Imai, Y; Hangaishi, A; Kurokawa, M; Tsujino, S; Ogawa, S; Aoki, K; Chiba, S; Motokura, T; Hirai, H

    2004-03-01

    We retrospectively compared the incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) before and after September 1999, when we changed the mode of cyclosporine A (CsA) administration from twice-daily infusions (TD) (n=58) to continuous infusion (CIF) (n=71). The incidence of grade II-IV acute GVHD in the CIF group (56%) was significantly higher than that in the TD group (27%, P=0.00022). Multivariate analysis identified only two independent significant risk factors for the development of grade II-IV acute GVHD; CIF of CsA (relative risk 2.59, 95% CI 1.46-4.60, P=0.0011) and the presence of HLA mismatch (2.01, 95% CI 1.15-3.53, P=0.014). The incidence of relapse was significantly lower in the CIF group when adjusted for disease status before transplantation (0.41, 95% CI 0.18-0.95, P=0.038), which resulted in better disease-free survival in high-risk patients (43 vs 16% at 2 years, P=0.039), but not in standard-risk patients (72 vs 80%, P=0.45). CIF of CsA with a target level of 250-400 ng/ml may not be appropriate for GVHD prophylaxis in standard-risk patients.

  5. Facilitating access to the renal transplant waiting list does not increase the number of transplantations: comparative study of two French regions

    PubMed Central

    Vigneau, Cécile; Laurent, Annelen; Lebbah, Saïd; Le Meur, Nolwenn; Jais, Jean-Philippe; Daugas, Eric; Bayat, Sahar

    2016-01-01

    Background In France, there are important regional disparities of access to the renal transplant waiting list and transplantation. Our objectives were to compare the characteristics of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) of two French regions (Ile-de-France and Bretagne) and to identify determinants of access to the waiting list and subsequent transplantation, with a focus on temporary inactive status (TIS) periods. Methods All 18–80-year-old incident patients who started dialysis in Ile-de-France or Bretagne between 2006 and 2009 were included (n = 6160). Associations between patients' characteristics and placement on the waiting list or transplantation were assessed using a Fine and Gray model to take into account the competing risk of death and living donor transplantation. Results At the end of the follow-up (31 December 2013), more patients had undergone transplantation in Bretagne than in Ile-de-France (30 versus 27%), although the percentage of waitlisted patients was higher in Ile-de-France than in Bretagne (47 versus 33%). More patients were on TIS and with a longer median TIS duration in Ile-de-France. Independent of age and clinical characteristics, patients in Bretagne were less likely to be waitlisted than those in Ile-de-France [subdistribution hazard ratio 0.77 (95% confidence interval 0.7–0.9)]. After waitlisting, patients in Bretagne were four times more likely to be transplanted. Conclusions Our study highlights clinical practice differences in Bretagne and Ile-de-France and shows that facilitating access to the waiting list is not sufficient to improve access to renal transplantation, which also depends on organ availability. PMID:27994866

  6. Increasing 3D Supramolecular Order by Decreasing Molecular Order. A Comparative Study of Helical Assemblies of Dendronized Nonchlorinated and Tetrachlorinated Perylene Bisimides.

    PubMed

    Partridge, Benjamin E; Leowanawat, Pawaret; Aqad, Emad; Imam, Mohammad R; Sun, Hao-Jan; Peterca, Mihai; Heiney, Paul A; Graf, Robert; Spiess, Hans W; Zeng, Xiangbing; Ungar, Goran; Percec, Virgil

    2015-04-22

    A nonplanar, twisted, and flexible tetrachlorinated perylene bisimide (Cl4PBI) was functionalized with two AB3 minidendrons containing hydrogenated or semifluorinated dodecyl groups. The hydrogenated dendron was attached to the imide groups of Cl4PBI via m = 0, 1, and 2 methylenic units, whereas the dendron containing semifluorinated groups was attached via m = 3 or a di(ethylene oxide) linker (m = 2EO). The supramolecular structures of these compounds, determined by a combination of differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, and solid-state NMR, were compared with those of nonchlorinated planar and rigid PBI reported previously, which demonstrated the thermodynamically controlled formation of 2D periodic arrays at high temperatures and 3D arrays at low temperatures. The molecularly less ordered Cl4PBI containing hydrogenated dendrons self-organize into exclusively 3D crystalline periodic arrays under thermodynamic control for m = 0 and 2, while the more highly molecularly ordered PBI produced less stable and ordered 3D crystals and also 2D assemblies. This induction of a higher degree of 3D order in supramolecular assemblies of the less well-ordered molecular building blocks was unanticipated. The semifluorinated dendronized Cl4PBI with m = 3 formed a 2D columnar hexagonal array under kinetic control, whereas the compound with m = 2EO formed an unusual 2D honeycomb-like hexagonal phase under thermodynamic control. These Cl4PBI compounds provide a new route to stable crystalline assemblies via thermodynamic control at lower temperatures than previously obtained with PBI, thus generating 3D order in an accessible range of temperature of interest for structural analysis and for technological applications.

  7. Comparative analysis of the locus control region of the rabbit beta-like gene cluster: HS3 increases transient expression of an embryonic epsilon-globin gene.

    PubMed Central

    Hardison, R; Xu, J; Jackson, J; Mansberger, J; Selifonova, O; Grotch, B; Biesecker, J; Petrykowska, H; Miller, W

    1993-01-01

    The rabbit homolog to the locus control region (LCR) of the human beta-like globin gene cluster was isolated, and long segments containing the DNase I hypersensitive sites (HS) were sequenced. The order and spacing of HS4, HS3, HS2 and HS1 are conserved between rabbit and human. Alignment of these sequences with their homologs from human, goat, and mouse shows that very long segments of DNA match between species, for over a thousand base pairs on either side of the previously identified functional cores, indicating that some important functions are found outside the cores. The activity of rabbit HS2 and HS3 was tested by attaching each to a novel reporter gene constructed by inserting the luciferase coding region into the rabbit epsilon-globin gene. In contrast to previous reports showing no effect of human or mouse HS3 on transient expression, both the rabbit HS2 and HS3 DNA fragments separately increased transient expression from the epsilon-luciferase hybrid gene and expression from stably integrated constructs in K562 erythroleukemia cells. PMID:8464710

  8. Increased expression of inflammation-related genes in cultured preadipocytes/stromal vascular cells from obese compared with non-obese Pima Indians

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Y. H.; Rousseau, E.; Tataranni, P. A.; Baier, L. J.; Bogardus, C.; Cam, M.; Permana, P. A.

    2006-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis: The specific contributions made by the various cell types in adipose tissue to obesity, particularly obesity-related inflammation, need to be clarified. The aim of this study was to elucidate the potential role of adipocyte precursor cells (preadipocytes/stromal vascular cells [SVC]). Methods: We performed Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarray expression profiling of cultured abdominal subcutaneous preadipocytes/SVC isolated from the adipose tissue of 14 non-obese (BMI 25±4 kg/m2) and 14 obese (55±8 kg/m2) non-diabetic Pima Indian subjects. Quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR) was used to verify the differential expression of several genes in an independent group of subjects. Results: We identified 218 differentially expressed genes with p values less than 0.01. Microarray expression profiling revealed that the expression of inflammation-related genes was significantly upregulated in preadipocytes/SVC of obese individuals. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the upregulation of IL8, CTSS, ITGB2, HLA-DRA, CD53, PLA2G7 and MMP9 in preadipocytes/SVC of obese subjects. Conclusions/interpretation: The upregulation of inflammation-related genes in preadipocytes/SVC of obese subjects may increase the recruitment of immune cells into adipose tissue and may also result in changes in the extracellular matrix (tissue remodelling) to accommodate adipose tissue expansion in obesity. PMID:16034612

  9. Increased diuresis, renal vascular reactivity, and blood pressure levels in young rats fed high sodium, moderately high fructose, or their association: a comparative evaluation.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Rita de Cássia Vilhena A F; de Souza, Priscila; da Silva-Santos, José Eduardo

    2016-12-01

    Excessive intakes of sodium or fructose have been described as risk factors for hypertension. We hypothesized that even a moderately high fructose diet (6% fructose), either alone or in combination with high sodium (4% NaCl), may impair diuresis and renal and systemic vascular reactivity, contributing to the onset of high blood pressure in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed chow containing 4% NaCl (HS), 6% fructose (MHF), or both 4% NaCl and 6% fructose (HSMHF) for 6 weeks and had their diuresis, plasma creatinine, vascular reactivity of perfused kidneys and systemic arterial pressure evaluated. We found no differences in augmented diuresis among animals given HS, MHF, or HSMHF diets. After 6 weeks both the HS and HSMHF groups had increased weight in their left kidneys, but only the HSMHF group showed augmented plasma creatinine. The effects of phenylephrine on renal vascular perfusion pressure were similarly enhanced in kidneys from the HS, MHF, and HSMHF groups, but not on the systemic arterial pressure. Although when evaluated in anesthetized rats, only the HSMHF group presented augmented blood pressure, evaluation in conscious animals revealed that both the MHF and HSMHF diets, but not the HS alone, were able to induce tachycardia and hypertension. In conclusion, a MHF diet containing 6% fructose was enough to render the renal vascular bed hyperreactive to phenylephrine and to induce both hypertension and tachycardia. The combination of 6% fructose with 4% NaCl led to plasma accumulation of creatinine and accelerated the development of tachycardia.

  10. Topical valproic acid increases the hair count in male patients with androgenetic alopecia: a randomized, comparative, clinical feasibility study using phototrichogram analysis.

    PubMed

    Jo, Seong Jin; Shin, Hyoseung; Park, Young Woon; Paik, Seung Hwan; Park, Won Seok; Jeong, Yeon Su; Shin, Hong Ju; Kwon, Ohsang

    2014-04-01

    Valproic acid (VPA), a widely used anticonvulsant, inhibits glycogen synthase kinase 3β and activates the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, which is associated with hair growth cycle and anagen induction. To assess the efficacy of topical VPA for treating androgenetic alopecia (AGA), we performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Male patients with moderate AGA underwent treatment with either VPA (sodium valproate, 8.3%) or placebo spray for 24 weeks. The primary end-point for efficacy was the change in hair count during treatment, which was assessed by phototrichogram analysis. Of the 40 patients enrolled in the study, 27 (n = 15, VPA group; n = 12, placebo group) completed the entire protocol with good compliance. No statistical differences in age, hair loss duration and total hair count at baseline were found between the groups. The mean change in total hair count was significantly higher in the VPA group than in the placebo group (P = 0.047). Both groups experienced mostly mild and self-limited adverse events, but their differences in prevalence rates were similar between the two groups (P = 0.72). A subject treated with topical VPA developed ventricular tachycardia, but it did not seem to be related to the VPA spray. Topical VPA increased the total hair counts of our patients; therefore, it is a potential treatment option for AGA.

  11. Phenotyping of peripheral blood mononuclear cells during acute dengue illness demonstrates infection and increased activation of monocytes in severe cases compared to classic dengue fever.

    PubMed

    Durbin, Anna P; Vargas, Maria José; Wanionek, Kimberli; Hammond, Samantha N; Gordon, Aubree; Rocha, Crisanta; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva

    2008-07-05

    In vitro studies have attempted to identify dengue virus (DEN) target cells in peripheral blood; however, extensive phenotyping of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from dengue patients has not been reported. PBMCs collected from hospitalized children suspected of acute dengue were analyzed for DEN prM, CD32, CD86, CD14, CD11c, CD16, CD209, CCR7, CD4, and CD8 by flow cytometry to detect DEN antigen in PBMCs and to phenotype DEN-positive cells. DEN prM was detected primarily in activated monocytes (CD14(+), CD32(+), CD86(+), CD11c(+)). A subset of samples analyzed for DEN nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) confirmed that approximately half of DEN antigen-positive cells contained replicating virus. A higher percentage of PBMCs from DHF patients expressed prM, CD86, CD32, and CD11c than did those from DF patients. Increased activation of monocytes and greater numbers of DEN-infected cells were associated with more severe dengue, implicating a role for monocyte activation in dengue immunopathogenesis.

  12. Increased Microbial Translocation in ≤180 Days Old Perinatally Human Immunodeficiency Virus Positive Infants as Compared with Human Immunodeficiency Virus -Exposed/Uninfected Infants of Similar Age

    PubMed Central

    PAPASAVVAS, EMMANOUIL; AZZONI, LIVIO; FOULKES, ANDREA; VIOLARI, AVY; COTTON, MARK F.; PISTILLI, MAXWELL; REYNOLDS, GRIFFIN; YIN, XIANGFAN; GLENCROSS, DEBORAH K.; STEVENS, WENDY S.; MCINTYRE, JAMES A.; MONTANER, LUIS J.

    2011-01-01

    Background We investigated the effect of early versus deferred antiretroviral treatment (ART) on plasma concentration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and host LPS-binding molecules in HIV-infected infants up to 1 year of age. Methods We evaluated 54 perinatally HIV-infected and 22 HIV-exposed/uninfected infants (controls) at the first and second semester of life. All HIV-infected infants had a baseline CD4≥25%, participated in the CIPRA-SA Children with HIV Early Antiretroviral Therapy (CHER) trial in South Africa and were randomized in: Group 1 (n=20), ART deferred until CD4<25% or severe HIV disease, and Group 2 (n=34), ART initiation within 6-12 weeks of age. LPS, endotoxin-core antibodies (EndoCAb), soluble (s)CD14, and LPS-binding protein (LBP) were measured in cryopreserved plasma. T cell activation was measured in fresh whole blood. Results At the first semester, LPS concentration was higher in HIV-infected infants than in controls; sCD14, LBP and T cell activation were higher in Group 1 than in Group 2 and controls. While LPS was not correlated with study variables, viral load was positively associated with sCD14, LBP or EndoCAb. At the second semester, LPS was not detectable and elevated host LPS-control molecules values were sustained, in all groups and in conjunction with ART in all HIV-infected infants. Conclusions While plasma concentration of LPS is higher in perinatally HIV-infected infants 0-6 months of age than in controls independent of ART initiation strategy, LPS-control molecules concentration is higher in infants with deferred ART, suggesting the presence of increased microbial translocation in HIV-infected infants with sustained early viral replication. PMID:21552185

  13. Reciprocal Recurrent Selection Compared to within-Strain Selection for Increasing Rate of Egg Lay of Tribolium under Optimal and Stress Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Orozco, Fernando; Bell, A. E.

    1974-01-01

    A replicated comparison of reciprocal recurrent selection (rrs) based on crossbred performance and within strain-selection (wss) based on purebred performance was made in three diverse environments over ten generations for the improvement of a heterotic trait, 4-day virgin egg lay of Tribolium castaneum. A selection intensity of 20% based on performance in either an optimum (33°), a mild stress (38°), or a severe stress (28°) environment was applied uniformly. Periodically, the performance of each population was measured in all three environments to provide both direct and correlated responses.—Heritability of egg lay in the base population ranged from 0.36 ± 0.03 in optimum to 0.26 ± 0.03 in severe stress. Estimates of dominance effects assumed significant proportions in severe stress only. Genetic correlations for egg lay in diverse environments were large and positive (.6 to.8).—Only in severe stress did the rrs response significantly exceed that for wss. Quadratic adjustments fitted to response curves revealed that small initial genetic gains under rrs were followed by significantly increasing rates of gain in late generations of selection. The reverse was true for wss. This and evidence from realized heritabilities and genetic correlations suggested that rrs had utilized both additive and dominance effects, but wss response was limited to additive effects.—These results agree with selection theory in demonstrating that purebred selection is more efficient than crossbred selection in utilizing additive gene effects. The latter method has merit when non-additive effects assume significant proportions, and this is the more probable case for severe stress conditions. PMID:17248651

  14. The 5XFAD Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease Exhibits an Age-Dependent Increase in Anti-Ceramide IgG and Exogenous Administration of Ceramide Further Increases Anti-Ceramide Titers and Amyloid Plaque Burden.

    PubMed

    Dinkins, Michael B; Dasgupta, Somsankar; Wang, Guanghu; Zhu, Gu; He, Qian; Kong, Ji Na; Bieberich, Erhard

    2015-01-01

    We present evidence that 5XFAD Alzheimer's disease model mice develop an age-dependent increase in antibodies against ceramide, suggesting involvement of autoimmunity against ceramide in Alzheimer's disease pathology. To test this, we increased serum anti-ceramide IgG (2-fold) by ceramide administration and analyzed amyloid plaque formation in 5XFAD mice. There were no differences in soluble or total amyloid-β levels. However, females receiving ceramide had increased plaque burden (number, area, and size) compared to controls. Ceramide-treated mice showed an increase of serum exosomes (up to 3-fold using Alix as marker), suggesting that systemic anti-ceramide IgG and exosome levels are correlated with enhanced plaque formation.

  15. Adaptive response of equine intestinal Na+/glucose co-transporter (SGLT1) to an increase in dietary soluble carbohydrate.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Jane; Al-Rammahi, Miran; Waterfall, Louise; Salmon, Kieron S H; Geor, Ray J; Bouré, Ludovic; Edwards, G Barrie; Proudman, Christopher J; Shirazi-Beechey, Soraya P

    2009-06-01

    Experimental and epidemiological evidence suggests that consumption of hydrolyzable carbohydrate, hCHO (grain), by horses is an important risk factor for colic, a common cause of equine mortality. It is unknown whether the small intestinal capacity to digest hCHO and/or to absorb monosaccharides is limiting, or even if horses can adapt to increased carbohydrate load. We investigated changes in the brush-border membrane carbohydrate digestive enzymes and glucose absorptive capacity of horse small intestine in response to increased hCHO. Expression of the Na(+)/glucose co-transporter, SGLT1, was assessed by Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, Northern blotting, QPCR, and Na(+)-dependent D-glucose transport. Glucose transport rates, SGLT1 protein, and mRNA expression were all 2-fold higher in the jejunum and 3- to 5-fold higher in the ileum of horses maintained on a hCHO-enriched diet compared to pasture forage. Activity of the disaccharidases was unaltered by diet. In a well-controlled study, we determined SGLT1 expression in the duodenal and ileal biopsies of horses switched, gradually over a 2-month period, from low (<1.0 g/kg bwt/day) to high hCHO (6.0 g/kg bwt/day) diets of known composition. We show that SGLT1 expression is enhanced, with time, 2-fold in the duodenum and 3.3-fold in the ileum. The study has important implications for dietary management of the horse.

  16. Increased susceptibility to liver injury after hemorrhagic shock in rats chronically fed ethanol: role of nuclear factor-kappa B, interleukin-6, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor.

    PubMed

    Ono, Masafumi; Yu, Bi; Hardison, Edith G; Mastrangelo, Mary-Ann A; Tweardy, David J

    2004-06-01

    Chronic ethanol use preceding severe trauma and hemorrhagic shock (HS) is associated with an increased incidence of multiorgan failure (MOF) and death; however, the molecular basis for this increased susceptibility is unknown. We previously demonstrated that production of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), mediated by nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B), each make essential contributions to organ injury and inflammation in a rodent model of controlled HS, and we proposed in this study to examine the hypothesis that the increased susceptibility to MOF after shock/trauma in the setting of chronic ethanol use is due to an exaggerated activation of NF-kappa B and production of these proinflammatory cytokines. We observed increased HS-induced liver injury 4 h after resuscitation in rats fed the ethanol-containing Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet for 8 weeks compared with rats fed the control liquid diet (3-fold increase in serum alanine aminotransferase [ALT], P = 0.008, and 2-fold increase in focal liver necrosis, P = 0.005). The increased liver injury in the ethanol-fed HS rats was accompanied by a 70% increase in liver NF-kappa B activation (P < 0.05), a 3- to 5-fold increase in hepatocyte and Kupffer cell production of IL-6 and G-CSF (P < 0.05 for each), and a 2-fold increase in neutrophil infiltration (P < 0.005) compared with the control diet-fed HS rats. Thus, increased susceptibility to HS-induced liver injury in the setting of chronic ethanol use may be mediated, at least in part, by increased NF-kappa B activation resulting in increased local production of IL-6 and G-CSF and increased infiltration of neutrophils, which can damage liver cells directly and contribute to impaired sinusoidal blood flow.

  17. Limiting youth access to tobacco: comparing the long-term health impacts of increasing cigarette excise taxes and raising the legal smoking age to 21 in the United States.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Sajjad; Billimek, John

    2007-03-01

    Although many states in the US have raised cigarette excise taxes in recent years, the size of these increases have been fairly modest (resulting in a 15% increase in the per pack purchase price), and their impact on adult smoking prevalence is likely insufficient to meet Healthy People 2010 objectives. This paper presents the results of a 75-year dynamic simulation model comparing the long-term health benefits to society of various levels of tax increase to a viable alternative: limiting youth access to cigarettes by raising the legal purchase age to 21. If youth smoking initiation is delayed as assumed in the model, increasing the smoking age would have a minimal immediate effect on adult smoking prevalence and population health, but would affect a large drop in youth smoking prevalence from 22% to under 9% for the 15-17-year-old age group in 7 years (by 2010)-better than the result of raising taxes to increase the purchase price of cigarettes by 100%. Reducing youth initiation by enforcing a higher smoking age would reduce adult smoking prevalence in the long-term (75 years in the future) to 13.6% (comparable to a 40% tax-induced price increase), and would produce a cumulative gain of 109 million QALYs (comparable to a 20% price increase). If the political climate continues to favor only moderate cigarette excise tax increases, raising the smoking age should be considered to reduce the health burden of smoking on society. The health benefits of large tax increases, however, would be greater and would accrue faster than raising the minimum legal purchase age for cigarettes.

  18. Increase in Urgent Care Center Visits for Sexually Transmitted Infections, United States, 2010–2014

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Guoyu; Kroeger, Karen; Peterman, Thomas A.

    2017-01-01

    During 2010–2014, urgent care centers saw a ≈2-fold increase in the number of visits for chlamydia and gonorrhea testing and a >3-fold increase in visits by persons with diagnosed sexually transmitted infections. As urgent care becomes more popular, vigilance is required to ensure proper management of these diseases. PMID:28098545

  19. Hyaluronan production increases the malignant properties of mesothelioma cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Y; Heldin, P

    2001-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesotheliomas is in most cases associated with elevated amounts of hyaluronan. To investigate the importance of hyaluronan for the malignant properties of mesotheliomas, we have expressed murine hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) in the non-hyaluronan producing mesothelioma cell line, Mero-25. We found that upon hyaluronan overproduction the mesothelioma cells changed their epitheloid character to a fibroblastic phenotype and were surrounded by pericellular matrices, the size of which correlated to the amount of synthesized hyaluronan. HAS2-transfected cells with the ability to synthesize about 520 ng hyaluronan/5 × 104cells/24 h exhibited about a 2-fold increase in the expression of the cell surface hyaluronan receptor CD44 and their locomotion increased compared to that of mock-transfected Mero-25 cells. Furthermore, the malignant properties of mesothelioma cell clones as determined by the ability to grow in a soft agar assay correlated to their hyaluronan production. These results provide evidence for an important role of hyaluronan in the aggressive spread of mesotheliomas in adjacent non-cancerous stromal tissues. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11506502

  20. A whole-grain cereal-rich diet increases plasma betaine, and tends to decrease total and LDL-cholesterol compared with a refined-grain diet in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Ross, Alastair B; Bruce, Stephen J; Blondel-Lubrano, Anny; Oguey-Araymon, Sylviane; Beaumont, Maurice; Bourgeois, Alexandre; Nielsen-Moennoz, Corine; Vigo, Mario; Fay, Laurent-Bernard; Kochhar, Sunil; Bibiloni, Rodrigo; Pittet, Anne-Cécile; Emady-Azar, Shahram; Grathwohl, Dominik; Rezzi, Serge

    2011-05-01

    Epidemiological studies have repeatedly found that whole-grain (WG) cereal foods reduce the risk of several lifestyle-related diseases, though consistent clinical outcomes and mechanisms are elusive. To compare the effects of a WG-rich diet with a matched refined-grain (RG) diet on plasma biomarkers and bowel health parameters, seventeen healthy subjects (eleven females and six males) completed an exploratory cross-over study with a 2-week intervention diet based on either WG- or RG-based foods, separated by a washout of at least 5 weeks. Both diets were the same except for the use of WG (150 g/d) or RG foods. Subjects undertook a 4 h postprandial challenge on day 8 of each intervention diet. After 2 weeks, the WG diet tended to decrease plasma total and LDL-cholesterol (both P = 0·09), but did not change plasma HDL-cholesterol, fasting glucose, C-reactive protein or homocysteine compared with the RG diet. Plasma betaine and alkylresorcinol concentrations were elevated after 1 week of the WG diet (P = 0·01 and P < 0·0001, respectively). Clostridium leptum populations in faeces were increased after the WG diet, along with a trend for decreased faecal water pH (P = 0·096) and increased stool frequency (P < 0·0001) compared with the RG diet. A short controlled intervention trial with a variety of commercially available WG-based products tended to improve biomarkers of CVD compared with a RG diet. Changes in faecal microbiota related to increased fibre fermentation and increased plasma betaine concentrations point to both fibre and phytochemical components of WG being important in mediating any potential health effects.

  1. A comparative evaluation of the increase in root canal surface area and canal transportation in curved root canals by three rotary systems: A cone-beam computed tomographic study

    PubMed Central

    Prasanthi, Nalam NVD; Rambabu, Tanikonda; Sajjan, Girija S; Varma, K Madhu; Satish, R Kalyan; Padmaja, M

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to measure the increase in root canal surface area and canal transportation after biomechanical preparation at 1, 3, and 5 mm short of the apex with three different rotary systems in both continuous rotary and reciprocating rotary motions. Materials and Methods: Sixty freshly extracted human mandibular molars with mesial root canal curvatures between 20° and 30° were included in the study. Teeth were randomly distributed into three groups (n = 20). Biomechanical preparations were done in all the mesial canals. In Group 1, instrumentation was done with ProTaper universal rotary files, Group 2, with K3XF rotary files, and Group 3, with LSX rotary files. Each group was further subdivided into subgroups A and B (n = 10) where instrumentation was done by continuous rotary and reciprocating rotary techniques, respectively. Increase in root canal surface area and canal transportation was measured using the preoperative and postoperative cone-beam computed tomography scans. Statistical Analysis: The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey pairwise multiple comparison tests. Results: Increase in root canal surface area was significantly more (P < 0.05) in ProTaper and K3XF groups when compared to LSX group. Canal transportation was significantly more (P < 0.05) in ProTaper group when compared to K3XF and LSX groups. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in increase of root canal surface area and canal transportation between continuous rotary and reciprocating rotary techniques for ProTaper Universal, K3XF and LSX groups. Conclusion: LSX rotary system showed minimal increase of root canal surface area and minimal canal transportation when compared to ProTaper and K3XF rotary systems. PMID:27656062

  2. gamma-Glutamyl transpeptidase overexpression increases metastatic growth of B16 melanoma cells in the mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Obrador, Elena; Carretero, Julian; Ortega, Angel; Medina, Ignacio; Rodilla, Vicente; Pellicer, José A; Estrela, José M

    2002-01-01

    B16 melanoma (B16M) cells with high glutathione (GSH) content show rapid proliferation in vitro and high metastatic activity in the liver in vivo. gamma-Glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT)-mediated extracellular GSH cleavage and intracellular GSH synthesis were studied in vitro in B16M cells with high (F10) and low (F1) metastatic potential. GGT activity was modified by transfection with the human GGT gene (B16MF1/Tet-GGT cells) or by acivicin-induced inhibition. B16MF1/Tet-GGT and B16MF10 cells exhibited higher GSH content (35 +/- 6 and 40 +/- 5 nmol/10(6) cells, respectively) and GGT activity (89 +/- 9 and 37 +/- 7 mU/10(6) cells, respectively) as compared (P <.05) with B16MF1 cells (10 +/- 3 nmol GSH and 4 mU GGT/10(6) cells). Metastasis (number of foci/100 mm(3) of liver) increased in B16MF1 cells pretreated with GSH ester ( approximately 3-fold, P <.01), and decreased in B16MF1/Tet-GGT and B16MF10 cells pretreated with the GSH synthesis inhibitor L-buthionine (S,R)-sulphoximine ( approximately 5-fold and 2-fold, respectively, P <.01). Liver, kidney, brain, lung, and erythrocyte GSH content in B16MF1/Tet-GGT- or B16MF10-bearing mice decreased as compared with B16MF1- and non-tumor-bearing mice. Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1-independent sinusoidal GSH efflux from hepatocytes increased in B16MF1/Tet-GGT- or B16MF10-bearing mice ( approximately 2-fold, P <.01) as compared with non-tumor-bearing mice. Our results indicate that tumor GGT activity and an intertissue flow of GSH can regulate GSH content of melanoma cells and their metastatic growth in the liver.

  3. Microencapsulated krill and tuna oil blend raises plasma long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels compared to tuna oil with similar increases in ileal contractility in rats.

    PubMed

    Patten, Glen S; Sanguansri, Luz; Augustin, Mary Ann; Abeywardena, Mahinda Y; Bird, Anthony R; Patch, Craig S; Belobrajdic, Damien P

    2017-03-01

    Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) may be more bioavailable from krill oil compared to fish oil due to their phospholipid structure. We tested whether a microencapsulated krill and tuna oil blend (ME-TOKO) provided greater LC n-3 PUFA bioavailability, improved blood lipid profiles and increased intestinal contractility compared to microencapsulated tuna oil (ME-TO). Rats were divided into three groups to receive isocaloric diets containing ME-TO, ME-TOKO and microencapsulated olive oil (ME-OO) at 0.3 or 2 g/100 g for 4 weeks. Final body and organ weights, feed intake and waste output were similar. ME-TOKO rats had higher plasma total LC n-3 PUFA levels compared to ME-TO, but liver LC n-3 PUFA levels and plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels were similar in non-fasted rats. Diets containing 2% ME-TO and ME-TOKO also showed similar increases in ileal contractility. In summary, ME-TO bioavailability of LC n-3 PUFA was similar to ME-TOKO.

  4. Increased expression of the Th17-IL-6R/pSTAT3/BATF/RorγT-axis in the tumoural region of adenocarcinoma as compared to squamous cell carcinoma of the lung.

    PubMed

    Balabko, Ljubov; Andreev, Katerina; Burmann, Nadine; Schubert, Melanie; Mathews, Martina; Trufa, Denis I; Reppert, Sarah; Rau, Tilmann; Schicht, Martin; Sirbu, Horia; Hartmann, Arndt; Finotto, Susetta

    2014-12-10

    Here we describe increased expression of IL6R in the tumoural region of lung tissue from patients affected by lung adenocarcinoma as compared to squamous cell lung carcinoma. Moreover, here we found increased IL6R in the tumour free part of the lung. By using a murine model of lung adenocarcinoma, we discovered that few lung tumour cells expressed IL-6R and CD4+CD25+Foxp-3+ T regulatory cells down-regulated IL-6R in the tumour bearing lungs. Downstream of IL-6R, the Th17 lineage-specification factors: Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), Basic leucine zipper transcription factor, BATF and a protein encoded by the RORC in human (RAR-related orphan receptor C) (RORγT), were also found induced in the tumoural region of lung tissue from patients affected by lung adenocarcinoma as compared to those carrying squamous cell carcinoma. Moreover, pSTAT3 protein was found phosphorylated and auto-phosphorylated in the tumoural region of patients with adeno cell carcinoma of the lung as compared to the tumoural region of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. Intranasal application of anti-IL-6R antibodies in a murine model of lung adenocarcinoma, induced T regulatory cell markers such as Foxp3, Ctla4, Icos, Il10, Il21, Folr4 and Lag3 and inhibited Rorc in lung adenocarcinoma.

  5. Increased expression of the Th17-IL-6R/pSTAT3/BATF/RorγT-axis in the tumoural region of adenocarcinoma as compared to squamous cell carcinoma of the lung

    PubMed Central

    Balabko, Ljubov; Andreev, Katerina; Burmann, Nadine; Schubert, Melanie; Mathews, Martina; Trufa, Denis I.; Reppert, Sarah; Rau, Tilmann; Schicht, Martin; Sirbu, Horia; Hartmann, Arndt; Finotto, Susetta

    2014-01-01

    Here we describe increased expression of IL6R in the tumoural region of lung tissue from patients affected by lung adenocarcinoma as compared to squamous cell lung carcinoma. Moreover, here we found increased IL6R in the tumour free part of the lung. By using a murine model of lung adenocarcinoma, we discovered that few lung tumour cells expressed IL-6R and CD4+CD25+Foxp-3+ T regulatory cells down-regulated IL-6R in the tumour bearing lungs. Downstream of IL-6R, the Th17 lineage-specification factors: Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), Basic leucine zipper transcription factor, BATF and a protein encoded by the RORC in human (RAR-related orphan receptor C) (RORγT), were also found induced in the tumoural region of lung tissue from patients affected by lung adenocarcinoma as compared to those carrying squamous cell carcinoma. Moreover, pSTAT3 protein was found phosphorylated and auto-phosphorylated in the tumoural region of patients with adeno cell carcinoma of the lung as compared to the tumoural region of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. Intranasal application of anti-IL-6R antibodies in a murine model of lung adenocarcinoma, induced T regulatory cell markers such as Foxp3, Ctla4, Icos, Il10, Il21, Folr4 and Lag3 and inhibited Rorc in lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:25491772

  6. Atherogenic diet increases cholesteryl ester transfer protein messenger RNA levels in rabbit liver.

    PubMed

    Quinet, E M; Agellon, L B; Kroon, P A; Marcel, Y L; Lee, Y C; Whitlock, M E; Tall, A R

    1990-02-01

    Cholesteryl ester transfer activity is increased in plasma of cholesterol-fed rabbits. To investigate the mechanisms leading to changes in activity, we measured cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) mass by RIA and CETP mRNA abundance by Northern and slot blot analysis using a human CETP cDNA probe in control (n = 8) and cholesterol-fed rabbits (n = 10). Cholesterol feeding (chow plus 0.5% cholesterol, 10% corn oil) for 30 d increased CETP mass in plasma 3.2-fold in the cholesterol-fed rabbits (12.45 +/- 0.82 micrograms/ml) compared with controls (3.86 +/- 0.38 micrograms/ml). In the hypercholesterolemic rabbit, liver CETP mRNA levels were increased 2.8 times control mRNA levels. Actin, apo E, lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase, and albumin mRNA abundances were unchanged. In contrast to the widespread tissue distribution in humans, CETP mRNA was not detected in extrahepatic tissues of either control or cholesterol-fed animals. Using a sensitive RNase protection assay, the increase in liver CETP mRNA was detectable within 3 d of beginning the high cholesterol diet. Thus, in response to the atherogenic diet there is an early increase in liver CETP mRNA, probably causing increased CETP synthesis and secretion, and increased plasma CETP. The results indicate that the CETP gene may be regulated by diet-induced changes in lipid metabolism.

  7. Compared with saturated fatty acids, dietary monounsaturated fatty acids and carbohydrates increase atherosclerosis and VLDL cholesterol levels in LDL receptor-deficient, but not apolipoprotein E-deficient, mice.

    PubMed

    Merkel, M; Velez-Carrasco, W; Hudgins, L C; Breslow, J L

    2001-11-06

    Heart-healthy dietary recommendations include decreasing the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA). However, the relative benefit of replacing SFA with monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), or carbohydrates (CARB) is still being debated. We have used two mouse models of atherosclerosis, low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (LDLRKO) and apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoEKO) mice to measure the effects of four isocaloric diets enriched with either SFA, MUFA, PUFA, or CARB on atherosclerotic lesion area and lipoprotein levels. In LDLRKO mice, compared with the SFA diet, the MUFA and CARB diets significantly increased atherosclerosis in both sexes, but the PUFA diet had no effect. The MUFA and CARB diets also increased very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) in males and VLDL-C levels in females. Analysis of data from LDLRKO mice on all diets showed that atherosclerotic lesion area correlated positively with VLDL-C levels (males: r = 0.47, P < 0.005; females: r = 0.52, P < 0.001). In contrast, in apoEKO mice there were no significant dietary effects on atherosclerosis in either sex. Compared with the SFA diet, the CARB diet significantly decreased VLDL-C in males and the MUFA, PUFA, and CARB diets decreased VLDL-C and the CARB diet decreased LDL-C in females. In summary, in LDLRKO mice the replacement of dietary SFA by either MUFA or CARB causes a proportionate increase in both atherosclerotic lesion area and VLDL-C. There were no significant dietary effects on atherosclerotic lesion area in apoEKO mice. These results are surprising and suggest that, depending on the underlying genotype, dietary MUFA and CARB can actually increase atherosclerosis susceptibility, probably by raising VLDL-C levels through a non-LDL receptor, apoE-dependent pathway.

  8. Microbial phytase addition resulted in a greater increase in phosphorus digestibility in dry-fed compared with liquid-fed non-heat-treated wheat-barley-maize diets for pigs.

    PubMed

    Blaabjerg, K; Thomassen, A-M; Poulsen, H D

    2015-02-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of microbial phytase (1250 FTU/kg diet with 88% dry matter (DM)) on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of phosphorus (P) in pigs fed a dry or soaked diet. Twenty-four pigs (65±3 kg) from six litters were used. Pigs were housed in metabolism crates and fed one of four diets for 12 days; 5 days for adaptation and 7 days for total, but separate collection of feces and urine. The basal diet was composed of wheat, barley, maize, soybean meal and no mineral phosphate. Dietary treatments were: basal dry-fed diet (BDD), BDD with microbial phytase (BDD+phy), BDD soaked for 24 h at 20°C before feeding (BDS) and BDS with microbial phytase (BDS+phy). Supplementation of microbial phytase increased ATTD of DM and crude protein (N×6.25) by 2 and 3 percentage units (P<0.0001; P<0.001), respectively. The ATTD of P was affected by the interaction between microbial phytase and soaking (P=0.02). This was due to a greater increase in ATTD of P by soaking of the diet containing solely plant phytase compared with the diet supplemented with microbial phytase: 35%, 65%, 44% and 68% for BDD, BDD+phy, BSD and BSD+phy, respectively. As such, supplementation of microbial phytase increased ATTD of P in the dry-fed diet, but not in the soaked diet. The higher ATTD of P for BDS compared with BDD resulted from the degradation of 54% of the phytate in BDS by wheat and barley phytases during soaking. On the other hand, soaking of BDS+phy did not increase ATTD of P significantly compared with BDD+phy despite that 76% of the phytate in BDS+phy was degraded before feeding. In conclusion, soaking of BDS containing solely plant phytase provided a great potential for increasing ATTD of P. However, this potential was not present when microbial phytase (1250 FTU/kg diet) was supplemented, most likely because soaking of BDS+phy for 24 h at 20°C did not result in a complete degradation of phytate before feeding.

  9. High-throughput method for comparative analysis of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles from human fecal samples reveals significant increases in two bifidobacterial species after inulin-type prebiotic intake.

    PubMed

    Joossens, Marie; Huys, Geert; Van Steen, Kristel; Cnockaert, Margo; Vermeire, Séverine; Rutgeerts, Paul; Verbeke, Kristin; Vandamme, Peter; De Preter, Vicky

    2011-02-01

    Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) is one of the most commonly used molecular tools to study complex microbial communities. Despite its widespread use, meaningful interpretative analysis remains a major drawback of this method. We evaluated the combination of computer-assisted band-matching with nonparametric statistics for comparative analysis of DGGE banding patterns. Fecal samples from 17 healthy volunteers who consumed 20 g of the prebiotic compound oligofructose-enriched inulin (OF-IN) for 4 weeks were analyzed before and after treatment. DGGE fingerprinting profiles were analyzed using bionumerics software version 4.6., which resulted in a data matrix that was used for statistical analysis. When comparing DGGE profiles before and after OF-IN intake with a Wilcoxon nonparametric test for paired data, two band-classes increased significantly after OF-IN intake (P<0.003 and <0.02). These two band-classes could be assigned to the species Bifidobacterium longum and Bifidobacterium adolescentis by band-sequencing analysis, and their significant increase was quantitatively confirmed with real-time PCR using species-specific primers (respectively P<0.012 and <0.010). Therefore, the nonparametric analysis of a data matrix obtained by computer-assisted band-matching of complex profiles facilitated the interpretative analysis of these profiles and provided an objective and high-throughput method for the detection of significant taxonomic differences in larger numbers of complex profiles.

  10. Increased Glyburide Clearance in the Pregnant Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lin; Zhang, Yi; Hebert, Mary F.; Unadkat, Jashvant D.

    2010-01-01

    Glyburide (GLB) is an oral sulfonylurea, commonly used for the treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus. It has been reported that the clearance of GLB in pregnant women is significantly higher than that in nonpregnant women. The molecular mechanism by which pregnancy increases the clearance of GLB is not known, but it may be caused by increased CYP3A activity. Because liver tissue from pregnant women is not readily available, in the present study, we investigated the mechanism of such pregnancy-related changes in GLB disposition in a mouse model. We demonstrated that the systemic clearance of GLB in pregnant mice was increased approximately 2-fold (p < 0.01) compared with nonpregnant mice, a magnitude of change similar to that observed in the clinical study. Plasma protein binding of GLB in mice was not altered by pregnancy. The half-life of GLB depletion in hepatic S-9 fractions of pregnant mice was significantly shorter than that of nonpregnant mice. Moreover, GLB depletion was markedly inhibited by ketoconazole, a potent inhibitor of mouse Cyp3a, suggesting that GLB metabolism in mice is primarily mediated by hepatic Cyp3a. These data suggest that the increased systemic clearance of GLB in pregnant mice is likely caused by an increase in hepatic Cyp3a activity during pregnancy, and they provide a basis for further mechanistic understanding and analysis of pregnancy-induced alterations in the disposition of GLB and drugs that are predominantly and extensively metabolized by CYP3A/Cyp3a. PMID:20558597

  11. Spaceflight impairs antigen-specific tolerance induction in vivo and increases inflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tammy T; Spurlock, Sandra M; Candelario, Tara Lynne T; Grenon, S Marlene; Hughes-Fulford, Millie

    2015-10-01

    The health risks of a dysregulated immune response during spaceflight are important to understand as plans emerge for humans to embark on long-term space travel to Mars. In this first-of-its-kind study, we used adoptive transfer of T-cell receptor transgenic OT-II CD4 T cells to track an in vivo antigen-specific immune response that was induced during the course of spaceflight. Experimental mice destined for spaceflight and mice that remained on the ground received transferred OT-II cells and cognate peptide stimulation with ovalbumin (OVA) 323-339 plus the inflammatory adjuvant, monophosphoryl lipid A. Control mice in both flight and ground cohorts received monophosphoryl lipid A alone without additional OVA stimulation. Numbers of OT-II cells in flight mice treated with OVA were significantly increased by 2-fold compared with ground mice treated with OVA, suggesting that tolerance induction was impaired by spaceflight. Production of proinflammatory cytokines were significantly increased in flight compared with ground mice, including a 5-fold increase in IFN-γ and a 10-fold increase in IL-17. This study is the first to show that immune tolerance may be impaired in spaceflight, leading to excessive inflammatory responses.

  12. Age-related arterial telomere uncapping and senescence is greater in women compared with men.

    PubMed

    Walker, Ashley E; Morgan, R Garrett; Ives, Stephen J; Cawthon, Richard M; Andtbacka, Robert H I; Noyes, Dirk; Lesniewski, Lisa A; Richardson, Russell S; Donato, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    Telomere uncapping increases with advancing age in human arteries and this telomere uncapping is associated with increased markers of senescence, independent of mean telomere length. However, whether there are sex specific differences in arterial telomere uncapping is unknown. We found that telomere uncapping (serine 139 phosphorylated histone γ-H2A.X in telomeres) in arteries was ~2.5 fold greater in post-menopausal women (n=17, 63±2 years) compared with pre-menopausal women (n=11, 30±2 years, p=0.02), while there was only a trend towards greater telomere uncapping in older men (n=26, 66±2 years) compared with young men (n=11, 31±2, p=0.11). Senescence markers, p53 bound to the p21 gene promoter and p21 gene expression, were 3-4 fold greater in post-menopausal compared with pre-menopausal women (p=0.01-0.02), but only 1.5-2 fold greater in older compared with young men (p=0.02-0.08). Blood glucose was related to telomere uncapping in women, while systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure and serum creatinine were related to telomere uncapping in men. Mean arterial telomere length decreased similarly in women and men with age (p<0.01). Thus, the age-related increase in arterial telomere uncapping and senescence is greater in women than men, despite similar age-related reductions in mean telomere length in both sexes.

  13. Mild experimental ketosis increases brain uptake of 11C-acetoacetate and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose: a dual-tracer PET imaging study in rats.

    PubMed

    Pifferi, Fabien; Tremblay, Sébastien; Croteau, Etienne; Fortier, Mélanie; Tremblay-Mercier, Jennifer; Lecomte, Roger; Cunnane, Stephen C

    2011-03-01

    Brain glucose and ketone uptake was investigated in Fisher rats subjected to mild experimental ketonemia induced by a ketogenic diet (KD) or by 48 hours fasting (F). Two tracers were used, (11)C-acetoacetate ((11)C-AcAc) for ketones and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose for glucose, in a dual-tracer format for each animal. Thus, each animal was its own control, starting first on the normal diet, then undergoing 48 hours F, followed by 2 weeks on the KD. In separate rats on the same diet conditions, expression of the transporters of glucose and ketones (glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) and monocarboxylic acid transporter (MCT1)) was measured in brain microvessel preparations. Compared to controls, uptake of (11)C-AcAc increased more than 2-fold while on the KD or after 48 hours F (P < 0.05). Similar trends were observed for (18)FDG uptake with a 1.9-2.6 times increase on the KD and F, respectively (P < 0.05). Compared to controls, MCT1 expression increased 2-fold on the KD (P < 0.05) but did not change during F. No significant difference was observed across groups for GLUT1 expression. Significant differences across the three groups were observed for plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta-HB), AcAc, glucose, triglycerides, glycerol, and cholesterol (P < 0.05), but no significant differences were observed for free fatty acids, insulin, or lactate. Although the mechanism by which mild ketonemia increases brain glucose uptake remains unclear, the KD clearly increased both the blood-brain barrier expression of MCT1 and stimulated brain (11)C-AcAc uptake. The present dual-tracer positron emission tomography approach may be particularly interesting in neurodegenerative pathologies such as Alzheimer's disease where brain energy supply appears to decline critically.

  14. Conservation Efforts May Increase Malaria Burden in the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Valle, Denis; Clark, James

    2013-01-01

    Background Large-scale forest conservation projects are underway in the Brazilian Amazon but little is known regarding their public health impact. Current literature emphasizes how land clearing increases malaria incidence, leading to the conclusion that forest conservation decreases malaria burden. Yet, there is also evidence that proximity to forest fringes increases malaria incidence, which implies the opposite relationship between forest conservation and malaria. We compare the effect of these environmental factors on malaria and explore its implications. Methods and Findings Using a large malaria dataset (∼1,300,000 positive malaria tests collected over ∼4.5 million km2), satellite imagery, permutation tests, and hierarchical Bayesian regressions, we show that greater forest cover (as a proxy for proximity to forest fringes) tends to be associated with higher malaria incidence, and that forest cover effect was 25 times greater than the land clearing effect, the often cited culprit of malaria in the region. These findings have important implications for land use/land cover (LULC) policies in the region. We find that cities close to protected areas (PA’s) tend to have higher malaria incidence than cities far from PA’s. Using future LULC scenarios, we show that avoiding 10% of deforestation through better governance might result in an average 2-fold increase in malaria incidence by 2050 in urban health posts. Conclusions Our results suggest that cost analysis of reduced carbon emissions from conservation efforts in the region should account for increased malaria morbidity, and that conservation initiatives should consider adopting malaria mitigation strategies. Coordinated actions from disparate science fields, government ministries, and global initiatives (e.g., Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation; Millenium Development Goals; Roll Back Malaria; and Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria), will be required to decrease

  15. Landslides induced by heavy rainfall in July 2012 in Northern Kyushu District, Japan and the influence of long term rainfall increase comparing with the slope destabilization due to strong seismic shaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Tetsuya; Shinohara, Yoshinori; Aditian, Aril

    2013-04-01

    1. Objective We had a deluge in July 2012 in the northern Kyushu district with intense rainfall of 800mm and 108mm/hr. This intensity yielded countless traces of debris flow and landslides, slope failures that induced tremendous damage and causalities in the area. Hence, several field investigations and reconnaissance tasks were conducted to delve into this sediment-related disaster. The various results and the information obtained through this investigation were reported, mentioning the damage, the meteorological condition, geologic-geomorphologic features and hydraulic characteristics of the debris flows, vegetation effects, and the influence of the climate change. Increase in rainfall that may be induced by the global climate change is obvious in Kyushu district, Japan, according to the analysis of rain data observed in various locations including mountainside points that are not influenced by local warming due to urbanization. On this point of view, we are intrigued to elucidate the response of landslide to this increase in rainfall. Hence, its long term impact on this landslide disaster is also analyzed comparing with the slope destabilization due to strong seismic shaking. 2. Method and target areas Field investigation on landslides slopes, slope failures and torrents where debris flows occurred are conducted to obtain the geologic data, geo-structure, vegetation feature, soil samples and topographic data i.e. cross sections, then soil shear tests and soil permeability tests are also conducted. The rainfall data at the nearest rain observatory were obtained from the database of Japan meteorological agency. The long term impact on the slope stability at some slopes in the area is analyzed by the finite element method (FEM) combined with rain infiltration and seepage analysis with the long term rainfall fluctuation data, obtaining factor of safety ( Fs) on real landslide slopes. The results are compared with the destabilized influence on the slopes due to the

  16. Enzymatic Pre-Treatment Increases the Protein Bioaccessibility and Extractability in Dulse (Palmaria palmata)

    PubMed Central

    Mæhre, Hanne K.; Jensen, Ida-Johanne; Eilertsen, Karl-Erik

    2016-01-01

    Several common protein extraction protocols have been applied on seaweeds, but extraction yields have been limited. The aims of this study were to further develop and optimize existing extraction protocols and to examine the effect of enzymatic pre-treatment on bioaccessibility and extractability of seaweed proteins. Enzymatic pre-treatment of seaweed samples resulted in a three-fold increase in amino acids available for extraction. Combining enzymatic pre-treatment with alkaline extraction resulted in a 1.6-fold increase in the protein extraction yield compared to a standard alkaline extraction protocol. A simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model showed that enzymatic pre-treatment of seaweed increased the amount of amino acids available for intestinal absorption 3.2-fold. In conclusion, enzymatic pre-treatment of seaweeds is effective for increasing the amount of amino acids available for utilization and may thus be an effective means for increasing the utilization potential of seaweed proteins. However, both the enzymatic pre-treatment protocol and the protein extraction protocol need further optimization in order to obtain optimal cost-benefit and results from the in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model need to be confirmed in clinical models. PMID:27792166

  17. Increasing physicians' awareness of the impact of statistics on research outcomes: comparative power of the t-test and and Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test in small samples applied research.

    PubMed

    Bridge, P D; Sawilowsky, S S

    1999-03-01

    To effectively evaluate medical literature, practicing physicians and medical researchers must understand the impact of statistical tests on research outcomes. Applying inefficient statistics not only increases the need for resources, but more importantly increases the probability of committing a Type I or Type II error. The t-test is one of the most prevalent tests used in the medical field and is the uniformally most powerful unbiased test (UMPU) under normal curve theory. But does it maintain its UMPU properties when assumptions of normality are violated? A Monte Carlo investigation evaluates the comparative power of the independent samples t-test and its nonparametric counterpart, the Wilcoxon Rank-Sum (WRS) test, to violations from population normality, using three commonly occurring distributions and small sample sizes. The t-test was more powerful under relatively symmetric distributions, although the magnitude of the differences was moderate. Under distributions with extreme skews, the WRS held large power advantages. When distributions consist of heavier tails or extreme skews, the WRS should be the test of choice. In turn, when population characteristics are unknown, the WRS is recommended, based on the magnitude of these power differences in extreme skews, and the modest variation in symmetric distributions.

  18. Sex ratios in the most-selective elite US undergraduate colleges and universities are consistent with the hypothesis that modern educational systems increasingly select for conscientious personality compared with intelligence.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2009-08-01

    The main predictors of examination results and educational achievement in modern societies are intelligence (IQ - or general factor 'g' intelligence) and the personality trait termed 'Conscientiousness' (C). I have previously argued that increased use of continuous assessment (e.g. course work rather than timed and supervised examinations) and increased duration of the educational process implies that modern educational systems have become increasingly selective for the personality trait of Conscientiousness and consequently less selective for IQ. I have tested this prediction (in a preliminary fashion) by looking at the sex ratios in the most selective elite US universities. My two main assumptions are: (1) that a greater proportion of individuals with very high intelligence are men than women, and (2) that women are more conscientious than men. To estimate the proportion of men and women expected at highly-selective schools, I performed demonstration calculations based on three plausible estimates of male and female IQ averages and standard deviations. The expected percentage of men at elite undergraduate colleges (selecting students with IQ above 130 - i.e. in the top 2% of the population) were 66%, 61% and 74%. When these estimates were compared with the sex ratios at 33 elite colleges and universities, only two technical institutes had more than 60% men. Elite US colleges and universities therefore seem to be selecting primarily on the basis of something other than IQ - probably conscientiousness. There is a 'missing population' of very high IQ men who are not being admitted to the most selective and prestigious undergraduate schools, probably because their high school educational qualifications and evaluations are too low. This analysis is therefore consistent with the hypothesis that modern educational systems tend to select more strongly for Conscientiousness than for IQ. The implication is that modern undergraduates at the most-selective US schools are not

  19. A novel polymorphism in human cytosine DNA-methyltransferase-3B promoter is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hongbing; Wang, Luo; Spitz, Margaret R; Hong, Waun K; Mao, Li; Wei, Qingyi

    2002-09-01

    DNA repair is central to genomic integrity. Reduced expression of several nucleotide excision repair genes has been demonstrated to be associated with increased risk of lung cancer. Because methylation of gene promoters is one of the major regulatory mechanisms of gene expression and most nucleotide excision repair gene promoters have not been fully characterized, we hypothesized that genetic variants of the genes that are responsible for regulating genomic methylation are associated with increased risk of lung cancer. Recently, we identified a C-->T transition at a novel promoter region of cytosine DNA-methyltransferase-3B (DNMT3B) and found that this polymorphic transition significantly increases the promoter activity. In this hospital-based case-control study of 319 patients with incident lung cancer and 340 healthy controls frequency matched on age (+/-5 years), sex, ethnicity, and smoking status, we genotyped subjects for this DNMT3B promoter polymorphism to determine the association between this genetic variant and risk of lung cancer. Compared with CC homozygotes, CT heterozygotes had a >2-fold increased risk of lung cancer [adjusted odds ratio (OR), 2.13; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.47-3.08] and TT homozygotes an OR of 1.42 (95% CI, 0.91-2.21). The combined variant genotype (CT + TT) was associated with a nearly 2-fold increased risk (adjusted OR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.32-2.66). These results suggest that this novel variant of DNMT3B is associated with increased risk of lung cancer and may contribute to identifying individuals genetically susceptible to tobacco-induced cancers. Additional studies on the underlying molecular mechanism of this polymorphism are warranted.

  20. Appetite - increased

    MedlinePlus

    ... Have you noticed any other symptoms such as anxiety, palpitations , increased thirst , vomiting , frequent urination , or unintentional weight gain? Tests that may be done include: Blood tests, ...

  1. Increased heterosis in selfing populations of a perennial forb

    PubMed Central

    Oakley, Christopher G.; Spoelhof, Jonathan P.; Schemske, Douglas W.

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying the importance of random genetic drift in natural populations is central to understanding the potential limits to natural selection. One approach is to estimate the magnitude of heterosis, the increased fitness of progeny derived from crosses between populations relative to crosses within populations caused by the heterozygous masking of deleterious recessive or nearly recessive alleles that have been fixed by drift within populations. Self-fertilization is expected to reduce the effective population size by half relative to outcrossing, and population bottlenecks may be common during the transition to selfing. Therefore, chance fixation of deleterious alleles due to drift in selfing populations should increase heterosis between populations. Increased homozygosity due to fixation or loss of alleles should also decrease inbreeding depression within populations. Most populations of the perennial herb Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. lyrata are self-incompatible (SI), but several have evolved self-compatibility and are highly selfing. We quantified heterosis and inbreeding depression in two predominantly self-compatible (SC) and seven SI populations in a field common garden experiment within the species' native range and examined the correlation between these metrics to gauge the similarity in their genetic basis. We measured proportion germination in the lab, and survival and fecundity (flower and seed production) for 2 years in the field, and calculated estimates of cumulative fitness. We found 7.2-fold greater heterosis in SC compared with SI populations, despite substantial heterosis in SI populations (56 %). Inbreeding depression was >61 %, and not significantly different between SC and SI populations. There was no correlation between population estimates of heterosis and inbreeding depression, suggesting that they have somewhat different genetic bases. Combined with other sources of information, our results suggest a history of bottlenecks in all of these

  2. Comparative Transcriptome Profiling of the Early Infection of Wheat Roots by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lirong; Xie, Lihua; Xue, Baoguo; Goodwin, Paul H.; Quan, Xin; Zheng, Chuanlin; Liu, Taiguo; Lei, Zhensheng; Yang, Xiaojie; Chao, Yueen; Wu, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Take-all, which is caused by the fungal pathogen, Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt), is an important soil-borne root rot disease of wheat occurring worldwide. However, the genetic basis of Ggt pathogenicity remains unclear. In this study, transcriptome sequencing for Ggt in axenic culture and Ggt-infected wheat roots was performed using Illumina paired-end sequencing. Approximately 2.62 and 7.76 Gb of clean reads were obtained, and 87% and 63% of the total reads were mapped to the Ggt genome for RNA extracted from Ggt in culture and infected roots, respectively. A total of 3,258 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified with 2,107 (65%) being 2-fold up-regulated and 1,151 (35%) being 2-fold down-regulated between Ggt in culture and Ggt in infected wheat roots. Annotation of these DEGs revealed that many were associated with possible Ggt pathogenicity factors, such as genes for guanine nucleotide-binding protein alpha-2 subunit, cellulase, pectinase, xylanase, glucosidase, aspartic protease and gentisate 1, 2-dioxygenase. Twelve DEGs were analyzed for expression by qRT-PCR, and could be generally divided into those with high expression only early in infection, only late in infection and those that gradually increasing expression over time as root rot developed. This indicates that these possible pathogenicity factors may play roles during different stages of the interaction, such as signaling, plant cell wall degradation and responses to plant defense compounds. This is the first study to compare the transcriptomes of Ggt growing saprophytically in axenic cultures to it growing parasitically in infected wheat roots. As a result, new candidate pathogenicity factors have been identified, which can be further examined by gene knock-outs and other methods to assess their true role in the ability of Ggt to infect roots. PMID:25875107

  3. Pb exposure attenuates hypersensitivity in vivo by increasing regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Fang, Liang; Zhao, Fang; Shen, Xuefeng; Ouyang, Weiming; Liu, Xinqin; Xu, Yan; Yu, Tao; Jin, Boquan; Chen, Jingyuan; Luo, Wenjing

    2012-12-01

    Pb is a common environmental pollutant affecting various organs. Exposure of the immune system to Pb leads to immunosuppression or immunodysregulation. Although previous studies showed that Pb exposure can modulate the function of helper T cells, Pb immunotoxicity remains incompletely understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of Pb exposure on T cell development, and the underlying mechanism of Pb-induced suppression of the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response in vivo. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 300 ppm Pb-acetate solution via the drinking water for six weeks, and we found that Pb exposure significantly increased Pb concentrations in the blood by 4.2-fold (p<0.05) as compared to those in the control rats. In Pb-exposed rats, the amount of thymic CD4(+)CD8(-) and peripheral CD4(+) T cells was significantly reduced, whereas, CD8(+) population was not affected. In contrast to conventional CD4(+) T cells, Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) were increased in both the thymus and peripheral lymphoid organs of Pb-exposed rats. In line with the increase of Tregs, the DTH response of Pb-exposed rats was markedly suppressed. Depletion of Tregs reversed the suppression of DTH response by Pb-exposed CD4(+) T cells in an adoptive transfer model, suggesting a critical role of the increased Tregs in suppressing the DTH response. Collectively, this study revealed that Pb-exposure may upregulate Tregs, thereby leading to immunosuppression.

  4. Surgical area contamination--comparable bacterial counts using disposable head and mask and helmet aspirator system, but dramatic increase upon omission of head-gear: an experimental study in horizontal laminar air-flow.

    PubMed

    Friberg, B; Friberg, S; Ostensson, R; Burman, L G

    2001-02-01

    The effect of different head coverings on air-borne transmission of bacteria and particles in the surgical area was studied during 30 strictly standardized sham operations performed in a horizontal laminar air flow (LAF) unit. The operating team members wore disposable gowns plus either a non-sterile head covering consisting of a squire type disposable hood and triple laminar face mask, a sterilized helmet aspirator system or no head cover at all. In the wound area both types of head cover resulted in low and comparable air (means of 8 and 4cfu/m(3)) and surface contamination (means of 69 and 126cfu/m(2)/h) rates. Omission of head-gear resulted in a three- to five-fold increase (P > or = 0.01- 0.001), depending on site sampled air contamination rate (mean of 22cfu/m(3)) whereas the bacterial sedimentation rate in the wound area increased about 60-fold ( P > or = 0.0001). A proper head cover minimized the emission of apparently heavy particles that were not removed by the horizontal LAF and contained mainly streptococci, presumably of respiratory tract origin. Dust particle counts revealed no differences between the three experimental situations. No correlation between air and surface contamination rates or between air contamination and air particle counts was found. We conclude that, from a bacteriological point of view, disposable hoods of squire type and face masks are equally as efficient as a helmet aspirator system and both will efficiently contain the substantial emission of bacteria-carrying droplets from the respiratory tract occurring when head cover is omitted. Finally, the use of bacterial air counts to assess surgical site surface contamination in horizontal LAF units must be seriously questioned.

  5. Mitochondrial phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-M) and serine biosynthetic pathway genes are co-ordinately increased during anabolic agent-induced skeletal muscle growth

    PubMed Central

    Brown, D. M.; Williams, H.; Ryan, K. J. P.; Wilson, T. L.; Daniel, Z. C. T. R.; Mareko, M. H. D.; Emes, R. D.; Harris, D. W.; Jones, S.; Wattis, J. A. D.; Dryden, I. L.; Hodgman, T. C.; Brameld, J. M.; Parr, T.

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to identify novel molecular mechanisms for muscle growth during administration of anabolic agents. Growing pigs (Duroc/(Landrace/Large-White)) were administered Ractopamine (a beta-adrenergic agonist; BA; 20 ppm in feed) or Reporcin (recombinant growth hormone; GH; 10 mg/48 hours injected) and compared to a control cohort (feed only; no injections) over a 27-day time course (1, 3, 7, 13 or 27-days). Longissimus Dorsi muscle gene expression was analyzed using Agilent porcine transcriptome microarrays and clusters of genes displaying similar expression profiles were identified using a modified maSigPro clustering algorithm. Anabolic agents increased carcass (p = 0.002) and muscle weights (Vastus Lateralis: p < 0.001; Semitendinosus: p = 0.075). Skeletal muscle mRNA expression of serine/one-carbon/glycine biosynthesis pathway genes (Phgdh, Psat1 and Psph) and the gluconeogenic enzyme, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase-M (Pck2/PEPCK-M), increased during treatment with BA, and to a lesser extent GH (p < 0.001, treatment x time interaction). Treatment with BA, but not GH, caused a 2-fold increase in phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH) protein expression at days 3 (p < 0.05) and 7 (p < 0.01), and a 2-fold increase in PEPCK-M protein expression at day 7 (p < 0.01). BA treated pigs exhibit a profound increase in expression of PHGDH and PEPCK-M in skeletal muscle, implicating a role for biosynthetic metabolic pathways in muscle growth. PMID:27350173

  6. Epigenetic priming with decitabine followed by low-dose idarubicin/cytarabine has an increased anti-leukemic effect compared to traditional chemotherapy in high-risk myeloid neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xing-Nong; Zhou, Xin-Ping; Wei, Ju-Ying; Xu, Gai-Xiang; Li, Ying; Mao, Li-Ping; Huang, Jian; Ren, Yan-Ling; Mei, Chen; Wang, Jing-Han; Lou, Yin-Jun; Ma, Li-Ya; Yu, Wen-Juan; Ye, Li; Xie, Li-Li; Luo, Yin-Wan; Hu, Chao; Niu, Lin-Mei; Dou, Min-Hua; Jin, Jie; Tong, Hong-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Decitabine (DAC) is commonly used for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Previous studies have indicated DAC sequentially combined with idarubicin was an effective treatment for myeloid neoplasms. Therefore, a clinical study was conducted of the sequential combination of DAC followed by low-dose idarubicin/cytarabine in high-risk myeloid neoplasms. A total of 30 patients with a diagnosis of high-risk MDS, AML evolving from MDS or relapsed/refractory AML were enrolled in the study. DAC was administered 20 mg/m(2) daily for 3 consecutive days. Idarubicin (3 mg/m(2)/day) was administered 24 h after the last administration of DAC for 5-7 consecutive days, combined with cytarabine (30 mg/m(2)/day) for 7-14 days. The overall complete remission rate was 66.67%. The results demonstrate that epigenetic priming with decitabine followed by low-dose idarubicin/ytarabine has an increased anti-leukemia effect compared to traditional chemotherapy in high-risk myeloid neoplasms.

  7. An energy-reduced dietary pattern, including moderate protein and increased nonfat dairy intake combined with walking promotes beneficial body composition and metabolic changes in women with excess adiposity: a randomized comparative trial

    PubMed Central

    Shlisky, Julie D; Durward, Carrie M; Zack, Melissa K; Gugger, Carolyn K; Campbell, Jessica K; Nickols-Richardson, Sharon M

    2015-01-01

    Moderate protein and nonfat dairy intake within an energy-reduced diet (ERD) may contribute to health benefits achieved with body weight (BW) loss. The current study examined the effectiveness of a weight-loss/weight-loss maintenance intervention using an ERD with moderate dietary protein (30% of kcals) and increased nonfat dairy intake (4–5 svg/d), including yogurt (INT group) and daily walking compared to an ERD with standard protein (16–17% of kcals) and standard nonfat dairy intake (3 svg/d) (COM group) with daily walking. A randomized comparative trial with 104 healthy premenopausal women with overweight/obesity was conducted in a university setting. Women were randomized to INT group or COM group. Anthropometric measurements, as well as dietary intake, selected vital signs, resting energy expenditure, blood lipids, glucose, insulin, and selected adipose-derived hormones were measured at baseline, and weeks 2, 12, and 24. Targets for dietary protein and nonfat dairy intake, while initially achieved, were not sustained in the INT group. There were no significant effects of diet group on anthropometric measurements. Women in the INT group and COM group, respectively, reduced BW (−4.9 ± 3.2 and −4.3 ± 3.3 kg, P < 0.001) and fat mass (−3.0 ± 2.2 and −2.3 ± 2.3 kg, P < 0.001) during the 12-week weight-loss phase and maintained these losses at 24 weeks. Both groups experienced significant decreases in body mass index, fat-free soft tissue mass, body fat percentage, waist and hip circumferences and serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and leptin (all P < 0.001). Healthy premenopausal women with excess adiposity effectively lost BW and fat mass and improved some metabolic risk factors following an ERD with approximately 20% protein and 3 svg/d of nonfat dairy intake. PMID:26405524

  8. An energy-reduced dietary pattern, including moderate protein and increased nonfat dairy intake combined with walking promotes beneficial body composition and metabolic changes in women with excess adiposity: a randomized comparative trial.

    PubMed

    Shlisky, Julie D; Durward, Carrie M; Zack, Melissa K; Gugger, Carolyn K; Campbell, Jessica K; Nickols-Richardson, Sharon M

    2015-09-01

    Moderate protein and nonfat dairy intake within an energy-reduced diet (ERD) may contribute to health benefits achieved with body weight (BW) loss. The current study examined the effectiveness of a weight-loss/weight-loss maintenance intervention using an ERD with moderate dietary protein (30% of kcals) and increased nonfat dairy intake (4-5 svg/d), including yogurt (INT group) and daily walking compared to an ERD with standard protein (16-17% of kcals) and standard nonfat dairy intake (3 svg/d) (COM group) with daily walking. A randomized comparative trial with 104 healthy premenopausal women with overweight/obesity was conducted in a university setting. Women were randomized to INT group or COM group. Anthropometric measurements, as well as dietary intake, selected vital signs, resting energy expenditure, blood lipids, glucose, insulin, and selected adipose-derived hormones were measured at baseline, and weeks 2, 12, and 24. Targets for dietary protein and nonfat dairy intake, while initially achieved, were not sustained in the INT group. There were no significant effects of diet group on anthropometric measurements. Women in the INT group and COM group, respectively, reduced BW (-4.9 ± 3.2 and -4.3 ± 3.3 kg, P < 0.001) and fat mass (-3.0 ± 2.2 and -2.3 ± 2.3 kg, P < 0.001) during the 12-week weight-loss phase and maintained these losses at 24 weeks. Both groups experienced significant decreases in body mass index, fat-free soft tissue mass, body fat percentage, waist and hip circumferences and serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and leptin (all P < 0.001). Healthy premenopausal women with excess adiposity effectively lost BW and fat mass and improved some metabolic risk factors following an ERD with approximately 20% protein and 3 svg/d of nonfat dairy intake.

  9. The Absence of the Transcription Factor Yrr1p, Identified from Comparative Genome Profiling, Increased Vanillin Tolerance Due to Enhancements of ABC Transporters Expressing, rRNA Processing and Ribosome Biogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xinning; Liang, Zhenzhen; Hou, Jin; Shen, Yu; Bao, Xiaoming

    2017-01-01

    Enhancing the tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to inhibitors derived from lignocellulose is conducive to producing biofuel and chemicals using abundant lignocellulosic materials. Vanillin is a major type of phenolic inhibitor in lignocellulose hydrolysates for S. cerevisiae. In the present work, the factors beneficial to vanillin resistance in yeast were identified from the vanillin-resistant strain EMV-8, which was derived from strain NAN-27 by adaptive evolution. We found 450 SNPs and 44 genes with InDels in the vanillin-tolerant strain EMV-8 by comparing the genome sequences of EMV-8 and NAN-27. To investigate the effects of InDels, InDels were deleted in BY4741, respectively. We demonstrated that the deletion of YRR1 improved vanillin tolerance of strain. In the presence of 6 mM vanillin, deleting YRR1 increase the maximum specific growth rate and the vanillin consumption rate by 142 and 51%, respectively. The subsequent transcriptome analysis revealed that deleting YRR1 resulted in changed expression of over 200 genes in the presence of 5 mM vanillin. The most marked changes were the significant up-regulation of the dehydrogenase ADH7, several ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, and dozens of genes involved in ribosome biogenesis and rRNA processing. Coincidently, the crude enzyme solution of BY4741(yrr1Δ) exhibited higher NADPH-dependent vanillin reduction activity than control. In addition, overexpressing the ABC transporter genes PDR5, YOR1, and SNQ2, as well as the RNA helicase gene DBP2, increased the vanillin tolerance of strain. Interestingly, unlike the marked changes we mentioned above, under vanillin-free conditions, there are only limited transcriptional differences between wildtype and yrr1Δ. This indicated that vanillin might act as an effector in Yrr1p-related regulatory processes. The new findings of the relationship between YRR1 and vanillin tolerance, as well as the contribution of rRNA processing and ribosome biogenesis to

  10. Increased Expression of Herpes Virus-Encoded hsv1-miR-H18 and hsv2-miR-H9-5p in Cancer-Containing Prostate Tissue Compared to That in Benign Prostate Hyperplasia Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Shinn, Helen Ki; Yan, Chunri; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Kim, Sang Tae; Kim, Won Tae; Lee, Ok-Jun; Moon, Sung-Kwon; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Kim, Jayoung; Cha, Eun-Jong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Previously, we reported the presence of virus-encoded microRNAs (miRNAs) in the urine of prostate cancer (CaP) patients. In this study, we investigated the expression of two herpes virus-encoded miRNAs in prostate tissue. Methods: A total of 175 tissue samples from noncancerous benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), 248 tissue samples from patients with CaP and BPH, and 50 samples from noncancerous surrounding tissues from these same patients were analyzed for the expression of two herpes virus-encoded miRNAs by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunocytochemistry using nanoparticles as molecular beacons. Results: Real-time reverse transcription-PCR results revealed significantly higher expression of hsv1-miR-H18 and hsv2-miRH9- 5p in surrounding noncancerous and CaP tissues than that in BPH tissue (each comparison, P<0.001). Of note, these miRNA were expressed equivalently in the CaP tissues and surrounding noncancerous tissues. Moreover, immunocytochemistry clearly demonstrated a significant enrichment of both hsv1-miR-H18 and hsv2-miR-H9 beacon-labeled cells in CaP and surrounding noncancerous tissue compared to that in BPH tissue (each comparison, P<0.05 for hsv1-miR-H18 and hsv2- miR-H9). Conclusions: These results suggest that increased expression of hsv1-miR-H18 and hsv2-miR-H95p might be associated with tumorigenesis in the prostate. Further studies will be required to elucidate the role of these miRNAs with respect to CaP and herpes viral infections. PMID:27377944

  11. The membrane expression of Neisseria meningitidis adhesin A (NadA) increases the proimmune effects of MenB OMVs on human macrophages, compared with NadA- OMVs, without further stimulating their proinflammatory activity on circulating monocytes.

    PubMed

    Tavano, Regina; Franzoso, Susanna; Cecchini, Paola; Cartocci, Elena; Oriente, Francesca; Aricò, Beatrice; Papini, Emanuele

    2009-07-01

    Hypervirulent MenB causing fatal human infections frequently display the oligomeric-coiled coil adhesin NadA, a 45-kDa intrinsic outer membrane protein implicated in binding to and invasion of respiratory epithelial cells. A recombinant soluble mutant lacking the 10-kDa COOH terminal membrane domain (NadA(Delta351-405)) also activates human monocytes/macrophages/DCs. As NadA is physiologically released during sepsis as part of OMVs, in this study, we tested the hypothesis that NadA(+) OMVs have an enhanced or modified proinflammatory/proimmune action compared with NadA(-) OMVs. To do this we investigated the activity of purified free NadA(Delta351-405) and of OMVs from MenB and Escherichia coli strains, expressing or not full-length NadA. NadA(Delta351-405) stimulated monocytes and macrophages to secrete cytokines (IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-12p40, IL-12p70, IL-10) and chemokines (IL-8, MIP-1alpha, MCP-1, RANTES), and full-length NadA improved MenB OMV activity, preferentially on macrophages, and only increased cytokine release. NadA(Delta351-405) induced the lymphocyte costimulant CD80 in monocytes and macrophages, and NadA(+) OMVs induced a wider set of molecules supporting antigen presentation (CD80, CD86, HLA-DR, and ICAM-1) more efficiently than NadA(-) OMVs only in macrophages. Moreover, membrane NadA effects, unlike NadA(Delta351-405) ones, were much less IFN-gamma-sensitive. The activity of NadA-positive E. coli OMVs was similar to that of control OMVs. NadA in MenB OMVs acted at adhesin concentrations approximately 10(6) times lower than those required to stimulate cells with free NadA(Delta351-405).

  12. Expression profiles of cytokines in the brains of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients, compared to the brains of non-demented patients with and without increasing AD pathology

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, Kaori; Horio, Juri; Satoh, Haruhisa; Sue, Lucia; Beach, Thomas; Arita, Seizaburo; Tooyama, Ikuo; Konishi, Yoshihiro

    2012-01-01

    Neuroinflammation is involved in the Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology. Our major focus was to clarify whether neuroinflammation plays important roles in AD pathogenesis, particularly prior to the manifestation of overt dementia. We analyzed cytokine expression profiles of the brain, with focus on non-demented patients with increasing AD pathology, referred to as high pathology control (HPC) patients, who provide an intermediate subset between AD and normal control subjects, referred to as low pathology control (LPC) patients. With real-time PCR techniques, we found significant differences in interleukin (IL)-1β, 10, 13, 18, and 33, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α converting enzyme (TACE), and transforming growth factor (TGF)β1 mRNA expression ratios between HPC and AD patients, while no significant differences in the expression ratios of any cytokine tested here were observed between LPC and HPC patients. The cytokine mRNA expression ratios were determined as follows: first, cytokine mRNA levels were normalized to mRNA levels of a housekeeping gene, peptidyl-prolyl isomerase A (PPIA), which showed the most stable expression among ten housekeeping genes tested here; then, the normalized data of cytokine levels in the temporal cortex were divided by those in the cerebellum, which is resistant to AD pathology. Subsequently, the expression ratios of the temporal cortex to cerebellum were compared among LPC, HPC and AD patient groups. Our results indicate that cytokines are more mobilized and implicated in the later AD stage when a significant cognitive decline occurs and develops than in the developmental course of AD pathology prior to the manifestation of overt dementia. PMID:21368376

  13. Synthesis and structure of [Ce{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}](C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2.5}(H{sub 3}C{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and Ce{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4})(H{sub 3}C{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 4}: The latter structure presents an interesting new framework, with 2-fold interpenetration

    SciTech Connect

    Trombe, J.C.

    2005-04-15

    Single crystals of two cerium complexes, with mixed-ligands oxalate and glycolate, have been prepared in a closed system, at 200{sup o}C for one month: [Ce{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}](C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2.5}(H{sub 3}C{sub 2}O{sub 3}) 1 and Ce{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4})(H{sub 3}C{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 4}2. 1 crystallizes in the orthorhombic system, space group Pbca, with a=13.0090(13)A, b=10.3870(8)A, and a=22.102(3)A while 2 crystallizes in the tetragonal system, space group P4{sub 2}/nbc, with a=11.7030(4)A, c=13.2570(2)A. For both complexes, the three-dimensional framework structure is built up by the linkages of the cerium and all the oxygen atoms of oxalate and glycolate ligands. For 2, its structure presents a nice case of two 3D identical sub-lattices, with 2-fold interpenetration. The only link between these two sub-lattices is assumed by strong hydrogen bonds between the hydroxyl function of the glycolate and the oxygen atoms of the oxalate. The schematized framework of 2, including only the cerium atoms, can be compared to that of cooperite (PtS). For 1, the two independent cerium have 9- or 10-fold coordination, forming a distorted monocapped or bicapped square antiprism polyhedron while for 2, the two independent cerium present 8-fold coordination, forming an almost regular dodecahedron. A quite relevant feature of 2 is the complete absence of water. 2 has been extended to other lanthanides (Ln=Ce...Lu, yttrium included) leading to a family, which has been characterized by infra-red and thermal analysis.

  14. Increased expression of neutrophil-related genes in patients with early sepsis-induced ARDS.

    PubMed

    Kangelaris, Kirsten Neudoerffer; Prakash, Arun; Liu, Kathleen D; Aouizerat, Bradley; Woodruff, Prescott G; Erle, David J; Rogers, Angela; Seeley, Eric J; Chu, Jeffrey; Liu, Tom; Osterberg-Deiss, Thomas; Zhuo, Hanjing; Matthay, Michael A; Calfee, Carolyn S

    2015-06-01

    The early sequence of events leading to the development of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in patients with sepsis remains inadequately understood. The purpose of this study was to identify changes in gene expression early in the course of illness, when mechanisms of injury may provide the most relevant treatment and prognostic targets. We collected whole blood RNA in critically ill patients admitted from the Emergency Department to the intensive care unit within 24 h of admission at a tertiary care center. Whole genome expression was compared in patients with sepsis and ARDS to patients with sepsis alone. We selected genes with >1 log2 fold change and false discovery rate <0.25, determined their significance in the literature, and performed pathway analysis. Several genes were upregulated in 29 patients with sepsis with ARDS compared with 28 patients with sepsis alone. The most differentially expressed genes included key mediators of the initial neutrophil response to infection: olfactomedin 4, lipocalin 2, CD24, and bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein. These gene expression differences withstood adjustment for age, sex, study batch, white blood cell count, and presence of pneumonia or aspiration. Pathway analysis demonstrated overrepresentation of genes involved in known respiratory and infection pathways. These data indicate that several neutrophil-related pathways may be involved in the early pathogenesis of sepsis-related ARDS. In addition, identifiable gene expression differences occurring early in the course of sepsis-related ARDS may further elucidate understanding of the neutrophil-related mechanisms in progression to ARDS.

  15. Increased lipid accumulation and adipogenic gene expression of adipocytes in 3D bioprinted nanocellulose scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, I; Gatenholm, P; Hägg, D A

    2017-02-21

    Compared to standard 2D culture systems, new methods for 3D cell culture of adipocytes could provide more physiologically accurate data and a deeper understanding of metabolic diseases such as diabetes. By resuspending living cells in a bioink of nanocellulose and hyaluronic acid, we were able to print 3D scaffolds with uniform cell distribution. After one week in culture, cell viability was 95%, and after two weeks the cells displayed a more mature phenotype with larger lipid droplets than standard 2D cultured cells. Unlike cells in 2D culture, the 3D bioprinted cells did not detach upon lipid accumulation. After two weeks, the gene expression of the adipogenic marker genes PPARγ and FABP4 was increased 2.0- and 2.2-fold, respectively, for cells in 3D bioprinted constructs compared with 2D cultured cells. Our 3D bioprinted culture system produces better adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells and a more mature cell phenotype than conventional 2D culture systems.

  16. Grafting Aptamers onto Gold Nanostars Increases in Vitro Efficacy in a Wide Range of Cancer Cell Types

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report the design of a nanoconstruct that can function as a cell-type independent agent by targeting the ubiquitous protein nucleolin. Gold nanostars (AuNS) loaded with high densities of nucleolin-specific DNA aptamer AS1411 (Apt-AuNS) produced anticancer effects in a panel of 12 cancer lines containing four representative subcategories. We found that the nanoconstructs could be internalized by cancer cells and trafficked to perinuclear regions. Apt-AuNS resulted in downregulation of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 mRNA expression by ca. 200% compared to cells without the nanoconstructs. The caspase 3/7 activity (apoptosis) and cell death in cancer cells treated with Apt-AuNS increased by 1.5 times and by ca. 17%, respectively, compared to cells treated with free AS1411 at over 10 times the concentration. Moreover, light-triggered release of aptamer from the AuNS further enhanced the in vitro efficacy of the nanoconstructs in the cancer line panel with a 2-fold increase in caspase activity and a 40% decrease in cell viability compared to treatment with Apt-AuNS only. In contrast, treatments of the nanoconstructs with or without light-triggered release on a panel of normal cell lines had no adverse effects. PMID:24422969

  17. SFRP2 Is Associated with Increased Adiposity and VEGF Expression

    PubMed Central

    Crowley, Rachel K.; Bujalska, Iwona J.; Hassan-Smith, Zaki K.; Hazlehurst, Jonathan M.; Foucault, Danielle R.; Stewart, Paul M.; Tomlinson, Jeremy W.

    2016-01-01

    Aims The aim of this study was to assess depot-specific expression and secretion of secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (sFRP2) by adipose tissue and its effect on adipocyte biology. We measured serum sFRP2 concentrations in 106 patients in vivo to explore its relationship to fat mass, glycaemia and insulin resistance. Methods Expression of sFRP2 in mouse and human tissues was assessed using polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Western blot confirmed secretion of sFRP2 by adipose tissue into cell culture medium. Effects of recombinant sFRP2 on lipogenesis and preadipocyte proliferation were measured. Preadipocyte expression of the angiogenic genes vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and nuclear factor of activated T-cells 3 (NFATC3) was measured after recombinant sFRP2 exposure. Complementary clinical studies correlating human serum sFRP2 with age, gender, adiposity and insulin secretion were also performed. Results sFRP2 messenger RNA (mRNA) was expressed in mouse and human adipose tissue. In humans, sFRP2 mRNA expression was 4.2-fold higher in omental than subcutaneous adipose. Omental adipose tissue secreted 63% more sFRP2 protein than subcutaneous. Treatment with recombinant sFRP2 did not impact on lipogenesis or preadipocyte proliferation but was associated with increased VEGF mRNA expression. In human subjects, circulating insulin levels positively correlated with serum sFRP2, and levels were higher in patients with abnormal glucose tolerance (34.2ng/ml) compared to controls (29.5ng/ml). A positive correlation between sFRP2 and BMI was also observed. Conclusions Circulating sFRP2 is associated with adipose tissue mass and has a potential role to drive adipose angiogenesis through enhanced VEGF expression. PMID:27685706

  18. Obesity-Hypoventilation Syndrome: Increased Risk of Death over Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Añón, Olalla; Pérez de Llano, Luis A.; De la Fuente Sánchez, Sandra; Golpe, Rafael; Méndez Marote, Lidia; Castro-Castro, Julián; González Quintela, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Aim To study whether mortality and cardiovascular morbidity differ in non-invasive ventilation (NIV)-treated patients with severe obesity-hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) as compared with CPAP-treated patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), and to identify independent predictors of mortality in OHS. Material and methods Two retrospective cohorts of OHS and OSAS were matched 1:2 according to sex, age (±10 year) and length of time since initiation of CPAP/NIV therapy (±6 months). Results Three hundred and thirty subjects (110 patients with OHS and 220 patients with OSAS) were studied. Mean follow-up time was 7±4 years. The five year mortality rates were 15.5% in OHS cohort and 4.5% in OSAS cohort (p< 0.05). Patients with OHS had a 2-fold increase (OR 2; 95% CI: 1.11–3.60) in the risk of mortality and 1.86 fold (OR 1.86; 95% CI: 1.14–3.04) increased risk of having a cardiovascular event. Diabetes, baseline diurnal SaO2 < 83%, EPAP < 7 cmH2O after titration and adherence to NIV < 4 hours independently predicted mortality in OHS. Conclusion Mortality of severe OHS is high and substantially worse than that of OSAS. Severe OHS should be considered a systemic disease that encompasses respiratory, metabolic and cardiovascular components that require a multimodal therapeutic approach. PMID:25671545

  19. Aldosterone increases the apical Na sup + permeability of toad bladder by two different mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Asher, C.; Garty, H. )

    1988-10-01

    The aldosterone-induced augmentation of Na{sup +} transport in toad bladder was analyzed by comparing the hormonal actions on the transepithelial short-circuit current and on the amiloride-sensitive {sup 22}Na{sup +} uptake in isolated membrane vesicles. Incubating bladders with 0.5 {mu}M aldosterone for 3 hr evoked more than a 2-fold increase of the short-circuit current but had no effect on the amiloride-sensitive Na{sup +} transport in apical vesicles derived from the treated tissue. A longer incubation produced an additional augmentation of the short-circuit current, which was accompanied by about a 3-fold increase of the channel activity in isolated membranes. The stimulatory effect of aldosterone sustained in vesicles was inhibited by the antagonist spironolactone and the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. It is suggested that aldosterone elevates the apical Na{sup +} permeability of target epithelia by two different mechanisms: a relatively fast effect which is insensitive to triiodothyronine or butyrate and is not sustained by the isolated membrane, and a slower or later response blocked by these reagents, which is preserved by the isolated membrane. The data also indicate that these processes are mediated by different nuclear receptors.

  20. Proteomic analysis of kidneys from selenoprotein M transgenic rats in response to increased bioability of selenium

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To characterize changes in global protein expression in kidneys of transgenic rats overexpressing human selenoprotein M (SelM) in response to increased bioabivility of selenium (Sel), total proteins extracted from kidneys of 10-week-old CMV/hSelM Tg and wild-type rats were separated by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis and measured for changes in expression. Results Ten and three proteins showing high antioxidant enzymatic activity were up- and down-regulated, respectively, in SelM-overexpressing CMV/hSelM Tg rats compared to controls based on an arbitrary 2-fold difference. Up-regulated proteins included LAP3, BAIAP2L1, CRP2, CD73 antigen, PDGF D, KIAA143 homolog, PRPPS-AP2, ZFP313, HSP-60, and N-WASP, whereas down-regulated proteins included ALKDH3, rMCP-3, and STC-1. After Sel treatment, five of the up-regulated proteins were significantly increased in expression in wild-type rats, whereas there were no changes in CMV/hSelM Tg rats. Only two of the down-regulated proteins showed reduced expression in wild-type and Tg rats after Sel treatment. Conclusions These results show the primary novel biological evidences that new functional protein groups and individual proteins in kidneys of Tg rats relate to Sel biology including the response to Sel treatment and SelM expression. PMID:23937859

  1. Conjugation of β-glucan markedly increase the immunogencity of meningococcal group Y polysaccharide conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Weilin; Ji, Shaoyang; Zhao, Yubao; Hu, Tao

    2015-04-21

    Meningococcal disease is a fatal illness of sudden onset caused by Neisseria meningitides. Meningococcal capsular polysaccharide (CPS) is a major virulence factor that generally does not induce immunological memory. Conjugation with a carrier protein can significantly increase the immunogenicity of CPS and induce immunological memory. However, it is highly desired to optimize the CPS-specific immunogenicity of the conjugate vaccine. Although adjuvant has been widely used to improve the immunogenicity of antigens, co-administration and conjugation of adjuvant with the conjugate vaccine has rarely been investigated. As a stimulator of humoral and cellular immunity, β-glucan can activate macrophages and trigger intracellular processes to secrete cytokines initiating inflammatory reactions. In the present study, a conjugate vaccine (CPS-TT) was generated by conjugation of tetanus toxoid (TT) with meningococcal group Y CPS. CPS-TT was further conjugated with β-glucan to generate CPS-TT-G. Immunization with CPS-TT-G led to an 8.2-fold increase in the CPS-specific IgG titers as compared with CPS-TT. Presumably, conjugation of β-glucan ensured the two components to simultaneously reach the antigen presenting cells and stimulate the immune response. In contrast, co-administration of β-glucan suppressed the CPS-specific immunogenicity of CPS-TT. Thus, conjugation of β-glucan is an effective strategy to markedly improve the CPS-specific immunogenicity of the conjugate vaccine.

  2. Wood Formation in Trees Is Increased by Manipulating PXY-Regulated Cell Division.

    PubMed

    Etchells, J Peter; Mishra, Laxmi S; Kumar, Manoj; Campbell, Liam; Turner, Simon R

    2015-04-20

    The woody tissue of trees is composed of xylem cells that arise from divisions of stem cells within the cambial meristem. The rate of xylem cell formation is dependent upon the rate of cell division within the cambium and is controlled by both genetic and environmental factors. In the annual plant Arabidopsis, signaling between a peptide ligand CLE41 and a receptor kinase PXY controls cambial cell divisions; however, the pathway regulating secondary growth in trees has not been identified. Here, we show that an aspen receptor kinase PttPXY and its peptide ligand PttCLE41 are functional orthologs and act to control a multifunctional pathway that regulates both the rate of cambial cell division and woody tissue organization. Ectopic overexpression of PttPXY and PttCLE41 genes in hybrid aspen resulted in vascular tissue abnormalities and poor plant growth. In contrast, precise tissue-specific overexpression generated trees that exhibited a 2-fold increase in the rate of wood formation, were taller, and possessed larger leaves compared to the controls. Our results demonstrate that the PXY-CLE pathway has evolved to regulate secondary growth and manipulating this pathway can result in dramatically increased tree growth and productivity.

  3. Exposure to dairy manure leads to greater antibiotic resistance and increased mass-specific respiration in soil microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Wepking, Carl; Avera, Bethany; Badgley, Brian; Barrett, John E; Franklin, Josh; Knowlton, Katharine F; Ray, Partha P; Smitherman, Crystal; Strickland, Michael S

    2017-03-29

    Intensifying livestock production to meet the demands of a growing global population coincides with increases in both the administration of veterinary antibiotics and manure inputs to soils. These trends have the potential to increase antibiotic resistance in soil microbial communities. The effect of maintaining increased antibiotic resistance on soil microbial communities and the ecosystem processes they regulate is unknown. We compare soil microbial communities from paired reference and dairy manure-exposed sites across the USA. Given that manure exposure has been shown to elicit increased antibiotic resistance in soil microbial communities, we expect that manure-exposed sites will exhibit (i) compositionally different soil microbial communities, with shifts toward taxa known to exhibit resistance; (ii) greater abundance of antibiotic resistance genes; and (iii) corresponding maintenance of antibiotic resistance would lead to decreased microbial efficiency. We found that bacterial and fungal communities differed between reference and manure-exposed sites. Additionally, the β-lactam resistance gene ampC was 5.2-fold greater under manure exposure, potentially due to the use of cephalosporin antibiotics in dairy herds. Finally, ampC abundance was positively correlated with indicators of microbial stress, and microbial mass-specific respiration, which increased 2.1-fold under manure exposure. These findings demonstrate that the maintenance of antibiotic resistance associated with manure inputs alters soil microbial communities and ecosystem function.

  4. Increased levels of insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 hybrid receptors and decreased glycosylation of the insulin receptor alpha- and beta-subunits in scrapie-infected neuroblastoma N2a cells.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Daniel; Gyllberg, Hanna; Ostlund, Pernilla; Bergman, Tomas; Bedecs, Katarina

    2004-06-01

    We have previously shown that ScN2a cells (scrapie-infected neuroblastoma N2a cells) express 2-fold- and 4-fold-increased levels of IR (insulin receptor) and IGF-1R (insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor) respectively. In addition, the IR alpha- and beta-subunits are aberrantly processed, with apparent molecular masses of 128 and 85 kDa respectively, as compared with 136 and 95 kDa in uninfected N2a cells. Despite the 2-fold increase in IR protein, the number of (125)I-insulin-binding sites was slightly decreased in ScN2a cells [Ostlund, Lindegren, Pettersson and Bedecs (2001) Brain Res. 97, 161-170]. In order to determine the cellular localization of IR in ScN2a cells, surface biotinylation was performed, showing a correct IR trafficking and localization to the cell surface. The present study shows for the first time that neuroblastoma N2a cells express significant levels of IR-IGF-1R hybrid receptors, and in ScN2a cells the number of hybrid receptors was 2-fold higher than that found in N2a cells, potentially explaining the apparent loss of insulin-binding sites due to a lower affinity for insulin compared with the homotypic IR. Furthermore, the decreased molecular mass of IR subunits in ScN2a cells is not caused by altered phosphorylation or proteolytic processing, but rather by altered glycosylation. Enzymic deglycosylation of immunoprecipitated IR from N2a and ScN2a cells with endoglycosidase H, peptide N-glycosidase F and neuraminidase all resulted in subunits with increased electrophoretic mobility; however, the 8-10 kDa shift remained. Combined enzymic or chemical deglycosylation using anhydrous trifluoromethane sulphonic acid treatment ultimately showed that the IR alpha- and beta-subunits from ScN2a cells are aberrantly glycosylated. The increased formation of IR-IGF-1R hybrids in ScN2a cells may be part of a neuroprotective response to prion infection. The degree and functional significance of aberrantly glycosylated proteins in ScN2a cells remain to be

  5. An energy-dense complementary food is associated with a modest increase in weight gain when compared with a fortified porridge in Malawian children aged 6-18 months

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poor complementary feeding practices are associated with stunting and growth faltering throughout the developing world. The objective was to compare the effect of using peanut-/soy-based fortified spread (FS) and corn porridge fortified with fish powder (FP) as complementary foods on growth in rural...

  6. Comparative decomposition kinetics of neutral monosaccharides by microwave and induction heating treatments.

    PubMed

    Tsubaki, Shuntaro; Oono, Kiriyo; Onda, Ayumu; Yanagisawa, Kazumichi; Azuma, Jun-ichi

    2013-06-28

    The stabilities of five neutral monosaccharides (glucose, galactose, mannose, arabinose, and xylose) were kinetically compared after the molecules were submitted to microwave heating (internal heating) and induction heating (external heating) under completely identical thermal histories by employing PID (proportional, integral, and derivative) temperature controlled ovens and homogeneous mixing. By heating in water at 200°C, the rate constants for the decomposition reactions varied from 2.13×10(-4) to 3.87×10(-4)s(-1) for microwave heating; however, the values increased by 1.1- to 1.5-fold for induction heating. Similarly, in a dilute (0.8%) sulfuric acid solution, the decomposition rate constants varied from 0.61×10(-3) to 2.00×10(-3)s(-1) for microwave heating; however, the values increased by 1.5- to 2.2-fold for induction heating. The results show that microwave heating imparts greater stability to neutral monosaccharides than does induction heating. The undesirable decomposition of monosaccharides at the surface boundary of reactor walls may have increased the probability of monosaccharide decomposition during induction heating.

  7. Humoral Dysregulation Associated with Increased Systemic Inflammation among Injection Heroin Users

    PubMed Central

    Piepenbrink, Michael S.; Samuel, Memorie; Zheng, Bo; Carter, Brittany; Fucile, Christopher; Bunce, Catherine; Kiebala, Michelle; Khan, Atif A.; Thakar, Juilee; Maggirwar, Sanjay B.; Morse, Diane; Rosenberg, Alexander F.; Haughey, Norman J.; Valenti, William; Keefer, Michael C.; Kobie, James J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Injection drug use is a growing major public health concern. Injection drug users (IDUs) have a higher incidence of co-morbidities including HIV, Hepatitis, and other infections. An effective humoral response is critical for optimal homeostasis and protection from infection; however, the impact of injection heroin use on humoral immunity is poorly understood. We hypothesized that IDUs have altered B cell and antibody profiles. Methods and Findings A comprehensive systems biology-based cross-sectional assessment of 130 peripheral blood B cell flow cytometry- and plasma- based features was performed on HIV-/Hepatitis C-, active heroin IDUs who participated in a syringe exchange program (n = 19) and healthy control subjects (n = 19). The IDU group had substantial polydrug use, with 89% reporting cocaine injection within the preceding month. IDUs exhibited a significant, 2-fold increase in total B cells compared to healthy subjects, which was associated with increased activated B cell subsets. Although plasma total IgG titers were similar between groups, IDUs had significantly higher IgG3 and IgG4, suggestive of chronic B cell activation. Total IgM was also increased in IDUs, as well as HIV Envelope-specific IgM, suggestive of increased HIV exposure. IDUs exhibited numerous features suggestive of systemic inflammation, including significantly increased plasma sCD40L, TNF-α, TGF-α, IL-8, and ceramide metabolites. Machine learning multivariate analysis distilled a set of 10 features that classified samples based on group with absolute accuracy. Conclusions These results demonstrate broad alterations in the steady-state humoral profile of IDUs that are associated with increased systemic inflammation. Such dysregulation may impact the ability of IDUs to generate optimal responses to vaccination and infection, or lead to increased risk for inflammation-related co-morbidities, and should be considered when developing immune-based interventions for this growing

  8. Upper-body resistance exercise augments vastus lateralis androgen receptor-DNA binding and canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling compared to lower-body resistance exercise in resistance-trained men without an acute increase in serum testosterone.

    PubMed

    Spillane, Mike; Schwarz, Neil; Willoughby, Darryn S

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of single bouts of lower-body (LB) and upper- and lower-body (ULB) resistance exercise on serum testosterone concentrations and the effects on muscle testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), androgen receptor (AR) protein content, and AR-DNA binding. A secondary purpose was to determine the effects on serum wingless-type MMTV integration site (Wnt4) levels and skeletal muscle β-catenin content. In a randomized cross-over design, exercise bouts consisted of a LB and ULB protocol, and each bout was separated by 1 week. Blood and muscle samples were obtained before exercise and 3 and 24h post-exercise; blood samples were also obtained at 0.5, 1, and 2 h post-exercise. Statistical analyses were performed by separate two-way factorial analyses of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures. No significant differences from baseline were observed in serum total and free testosterone and skeletal muscle testosterone and DHT with either protocol (p>0.05). AR protein was significantly increased at 3 h post-exercise and decreased at 24 h post-exercise for ULB, whereas AR-DNA binding was significantly increased at 3 and 24h post-exercise (p<0.05). In response to ULB, serum Wnt4 was significantly increased at 0.5, 1, and 2 h post-exercise (p<0.05) and β-catenin was significantly increased at 3 and 24 h post-exercise (p<0.05). It was concluded that, despite a lack of increase in serum testosterone and muscle androgen concentrations from either mode of resistance exercise, ULB resistance exercise increased Wnt4/β-catenin signaling and AR-DNA binding.

  9. La Palabra Es Salud: A Comparative Study of the Effectiveness of Popular Education vs. Traditional Education for Enhancing Health Knowledge and Skills and Increasing Empowerment among Parish-Based Community Health Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Noelle

    2010-01-01

    Popular education is a mode of teaching and learning which seeks to bring about more equitable social conditions by creating settings in which people can identify and solve their own problems. While the public health literature offers evidence to suggest that popular education is an effective strategy for increasing empowerment and improving…

  10. Association of Beta-Glucan Endogenous Production with Increased Stress Tolerance of Intestinal Lactobacilli▿

    PubMed Central

    Stack, Helena M.; Kearney, Niamh; Stanton, Catherine; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; Ross, R. Paul

    2010-01-01

    The exopolysaccharide beta-glucan has been reported to be associated with many health-promoting and prebiotic properties. The membrane-associated glycosyltransferase enzyme (encoded by the gtf gene), responsible for microbial beta-glucan production, catalyzes the conversion of sugar nucleotides into beta-glucan. In this study, the gtf gene from Pediococcus parvulus 2.6 was heterologously expressed in Lactobacillus paracasei NFBC 338. When grown in the presence of glucose (7%, wt/vol), the recombinant strain (pNZ44-GTF+) displayed a “ropy” phenotype, while scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed strands of polysaccharide-linking neighboring cells. Beta-glucan biosynthesis was confirmed by agglutination tests carried out with Streptococcus pneumoniae type 37-specific antibodies, which specifically detect glucan-producing cells. Further analysis showed a ∼2-fold increase in viscosity in broth media for the beta-glucan-producing strain over 24 h compared to the control strain, which did not show any significant increase in viscosity. In addition, we analyzed the ability of beta-glucan-producing Lactobacillus paracasei NFBC 338 to survive both technological and gastrointestinal stresses. Heat stress assays revealed that production of the polysaccharide was associated with significantly increased protection during heat stress (60-fold), acid stress (20-fold), and simulated gastric juice stress (15-fold). Bile stress assays revealed a more modest but significant 5.5-fold increase in survival for the beta-glucan-producing strain compared to that of the control strain. These results suggest that production of a beta-glucan exopolysaccharide by strains destined for use as probiotics may afford them greater performance/protection during cultivation, processing, and ingestion. As such, expression of the gtf gene may prove to be a straightforward approach to improve strains that might otherwise prove sensitive in such applications. PMID:19933353

  11. Association of beta-glucan endogenous production with increased stress tolerance of intestinal lactobacilli.

    PubMed

    Stack, Helena M; Kearney, Niamh; Stanton, Catherine; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Ross, R Paul

    2010-01-01

    The exopolysaccharide beta-glucan has been reported to be associated with many health-promoting and prebiotic properties. The membrane-associated glycosyltransferase enzyme (encoded by the gtf gene), responsible for microbial beta-glucan production, catalyzes the conversion of sugar nucleotides into beta-glucan. In this study, the gtf gene from Pediococcus parvulus 2.6 was heterologously expressed in Lactobacillus paracasei NFBC 338. When grown in the presence of glucose (7%, wt/vol), the recombinant strain (pNZ44-GTF(+)) displayed a "ropy" phenotype, while scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed strands of polysaccharide-linking neighboring cells. Beta-glucan biosynthesis was confirmed by agglutination tests carried out with Streptococcus pneumoniae type 37-specific antibodies, which specifically detect glucan-producing cells. Further analysis showed a approximately 2-fold increase in viscosity in broth media for the beta-glucan-producing strain over 24 h compared to the control strain, which did not show any significant increase in viscosity. In addition, we analyzed the ability of beta-glucan-producing Lactobacillus paracasei NFBC 338 to survive both technological and gastrointestinal stresses. Heat stress assays revealed that production of the polysaccharide was associated with significantly increased protection during heat stress (60-fold), acid stress (20-fold), and simulated gastric juice stress (15-fold). Bile stress assays revealed a more modest but significant 5.5-fold increase in survival for the beta-glucan-producing strain compared to that of the control strain. These results suggest that production of a beta-glucan exopolysaccharide by strains destined for use as probiotics may afford them greater performance/protection during cultivation, processing, and ingestion. As such, expression of the gtf gene may prove to be a straightforward approach to improve strains that might otherwise prove sensitive in such applications.

  12. Agglomerated oral dosage forms of artemisinin/β-cyclodextrin spray-dried primary microparticles showing increased dissolution rate and bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Balducci, Anna Giulia; Magosso, Enrico; Colombo, Gaia; Sonvico, Fabio; Khan, Nurzalina Abdul Karim; Yuen, Kah Hay; Bettini, Ruggero; Colombo, Paolo; Rossi, Alessandra

    2013-09-01

    Artemisinin, a poorly water-soluble antimalarial drug, presents a low and erratic bioavailability upon oral administration. The aim of this work was to study an agglomerated powder dosage form for oral administration of artemisinin based on the artemisinin/β-cyclodextrin primary microparticles. These primary microparticles were prepared by spray-drying a water-methanol solution of artemisinin/β-cyclodextrin. β-Cyclodextrin in spray-dried microparticles increased artemisinin water apparent solubility approximately sixfold. The thermal analysis evidenced a reduction in the enthalpy value associated with drug melting, due to the decrease in drug crystallinity. The latter was also evidenced by powder X-ray diffraction analysis, while (13)C-NMR analysis indicated the partial complexation with β-cyclodextrin. Agglomerates obtained by sieve vibration of spray-dried artemisinin/β-cyclodextrin primary microparticles exhibited free flowing and close packing properties compared with the non-flowing microparticulate powder. The in vitro dissolution rate determination of artemisinin from the agglomerates showed that in 10 min about 70% of drug was released from the agglomerates, whereas less than 10% of artemisinin was dissolved from raw material powder. Oral administration of agglomerates in rats yielded higher artemisinin plasma levels compared to those of pure drug. In the case of the agglomerated powder, a 3.2-fold increase in drug fraction absorbed was obtained.

  13. Increased efficacy of intermediate-dose cytarabine + G-CSF compared to DHAP + G-CSF for stem cell mobilization in patients with lymphoma: an analysis by the polish lymphoma research group.

    PubMed

    Giebel, Sebastian; Sadus-Wojciechowska, Maria; Halaburda, Kazimierz; Drozd-Sokolowska, Joanna; Wierzbowska, Agnieszka; Najda, Jacek; Mendrek, Wlodzimierz; Sobczyk-Kruszelnicka, Malgorzata; Nowicki, Mateusz; Holowiecki, Jerzy; Czerw, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Salvage regimens, like DHAP (dexamethasone, cytarabine, and cisplatin) are frequently used for stem cell mobilization in lymphoma. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of DHAP + G-CSF with intermediate-dose cytarabine (ID-AraC) + G-CSF, recently proposed as an alternative schedule. Consecutive patients with Hodgkin's or non-Hodgkin lymphoma who had received at least 2 lines of chemotherapy, mobilized with either DHAP (n = 51) or ID-AraC (n = 50) + G-CSF were included in the analysis. AraC was administered at the dose of 400 mg/m [1] bid intravenously for 2 days followed by filgrastim starting from day 5. In the AraC group, 96 % of patients collected at least 2 × 10 [2] CD34(+) cells/kg compared to 71 % in the DHAP group (p = 0.0006). The CD34(+) cell yield was 9.3 (0-30.3) × 10 [2]/kg vs. 5.6 (0-24.8) × 10 [2]/kg, respectively (p = 0.006). A single apheresis was sufficient to achieve the threshold number of CD34(+) cells in 82 % of the cases after AraC compared to 45 % after DHAP (p = 0.001). We conclude that stem cell mobilization using ID-AraC is associated with a significantly higher efficacy than DHAP, allowing for collection of the transplant material in almost all patients with lymphoma. Our observation suggests that ID-AraC + G-CSF may be a preferable mobilization regimen in this setting.

  14. Self-organized growth of graphene nanomesh with increased gas sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Ruhl, Günther; Batke, Joerg-Martin; Lemme, Max C.

    2016-01-01

    A bottom-up chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process for the growth of graphene nanomesh films is demonstrated. The process relies on silicon nanospheres to block nucleation sites for graphene CVD on copper substrates. These spheres are formed in a self-organized way through silicon diffusion through a 5 μm copper layer on a silicon wafer coated with 400 nm of silicon nitride. The temperature during the growth process disintegrates the Si3N4 layer and silicon atoms diffuse to the copper surface, where they form the nanospheres. After graphene nanomesh growth, the Si nanospheres can be removed by a simple hydrofluoric acid etch, leaving holes in the graphene film. The nanomesh films have been successfully transferred to different substrates, including gas sensor test structures, and verified and characterized by Auger, TEM and SEM measurements. Electrical/gas-exposure measurements show a 2-fold increase in ammonia sensitivity compared to plain graphene sensors. This improvement can be explained by a higher adsorption site density (edge sites). This new method for nanopatterned graphene is scalable, inexpensive and can be carried out in standard semiconductor industry equipment. Furthermore, the substrates are reusable. PMID:27523310

  15. Comparative Genomics of the Sigatoka Disease Complex on Banana Suggests a Link between Parallel Evolutionary Changes in Pseudocercospora fijiensis and Pseudocercospora eumusae and Increased Virulence on the Banana Host

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ti-Cheng; Crous, Pedro W.; Stergiopoulos, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    The Sigatoka disease complex, caused by the closely-related Dothideomycete fungi Pseudocercospora musae (yellow sigatoka), Pseudocercospora eumusae (eumusae leaf spot), and Pseudocercospora fijiensis (black sigatoka), is currently the most devastating disease on banana worldwide. The three species emerged on bananas from a recent common ancestor and show clear differences in virulence, with P. eumusae and P. fijiensis considered the most aggressive. In order to understand the genomic modifications associated with shifts in the species virulence spectra after speciation, and to identify their pathogenic core that can be exploited in disease management programs, we have sequenced and analyzed the genomes of P. eumusae and P. musae and compared them with the available genome sequence of P. fijiensis. Comparative analysis of genome architectures revealed significant differences in genome size, mainly due to different rates of LTR retrotransposon proliferation. Still, gene counts remained relatively equal and in the range of other Dothideomycetes. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on a set of 46 conserved single-copy genes strongly supported an earlier evolutionary radiation of P. fijiensis from P. musae and P. eumusae. However, pairwise analyses of gene content indicated that the more virulent P. eumusae and P. fijiensis share complementary patterns of expansions and contractions in core gene families related to metabolism and enzymatic degradation of plant cell walls, suggesting that the evolution of virulence in these two pathogens has, to some extent, been facilitated by convergent changes in metabolic pathways associated with nutrient acquisition and assimilation. In spite of their common ancestry and shared host-specificity, the three species retain fairly dissimilar repertoires of effector proteins, suggesting that they likely evolved different strategies for manipulating the host immune system. Finally, 234 gene families, including seven putative effectors, were

  16. Increased frequency of dicentric chromosomes in therapy-related MDS and AML compared to de novo disease is significantly related to previous treatment with alkylating agents and suggests a specific susceptibility to chromosome breakage at the centromere.

    PubMed

    Andersen, M K; Pedersen-Bjergaard, J

    2000-01-01

    Dicentric chromosomes are observed in many malignant diseases including myelodysplasia (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and have often been observed in a subset of these diseases, namely therapy-related MDS (t-MDS) and AML (t-AML). Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with centromere-specific probes, we investigated the frequency and type of dicentric chromosomes in 180 consecutive patients with t-MDS and t-AML and in 231 consecutive patients with de novo MDS and AML, whose karyotypes had been studied previously by conventional G-banding. Twenty-seven out of 180 patients with t-MDS or t-AML presented dicentric chromosomes compared to only seven out of 231 patients with de novo disease (P = 0.00003). A dic(1q;7p) was observed in 10 cases, a dic(5p;17q) was observed in six cases, whereas various isodicentric chromosomes were observed in six cases. Excluding these six cases with isodicentrics, all 25 patients with dicentric chromosomes had involvement of at least one of the chromosome arms 1q, 5p, or 7p resulting in monosomy for 5q or 7q, and/or trisomy for 1q. Patients with dicentric chromosomes presented significantly more often as t-MDS compared to patients without dicentrics (P = 0.046), and the presence of a dicentric chromosome was significantly related to previous therapy with alkylating agents (P = 0.026). Thus, only one out of 27 patients with a dicentric chromosome had not previously received an alkylating agent. A specific susceptibility to breakage at the centromere after exposure to alkylating agents is suggested and may explain the frequent loss of whole chromosomes, in particular chromosomes 5 and 7 in t-MDS and t-AML, if the breaks are not followed by rejoining. Leukemia (2000) 14, 105-111.

  17. Cross-Over Study Comparing Postprandial Glycemic Increase After Addition of a Fixed-Dose Mitiglinide/Voglibose Combination or a Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor to Basal Insulin Therapy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Ihana-Sugiyama, Noriko; Yamamoto-Honda, Ritsuko; Sugiyama, Takehiro; Tsujimoto, Tetsuro; Kakei, Masafumi; Noda, Mitsuhiko

    2017-01-01

    Background Although the efficacy of combination therapy consisting of basal insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) has been shown, which OHAs are the most efficient remains unclear. Material/Methods Five patients with type 2 diabetes were enrolled and treated with insulin degludec and metformin as a basal therapy. The patients were randomized in a cross-over fashion to receive a combination of mitiglinide (10 mg) and voglibose (0.2 mg) (M+V) 3 times daily or linagliptin (5 mg) (L) once daily for 8 weeks. After 8 weeks, 2 kinds of meal tolerance tests were performed as breakfast on 2 consecutive days. The first breakfast contained 460 kcal (carbohydrates, 49.1%; protein, 15.7%; fat, 35.2%), while the second contained 462 kcal (carbohydrates, 37.2%; protein, 19.6%; fat, 43.2%). Self-monitoring blood glucose levels were measured at 0, 30, 60, and 120 min after the meal tests, and the increase in the postprandial area under the curve (AUC)0–120 min was determined. The HbA1c, glycated albumin, and 1,5-anhydroglucitol (AG) levels were measured, and continuous glucose monitoring was performed. Results The increase in the postprandial AUC0–120 min was significantly smaller in the M+V group than in the L group after both meals. The 24-h average, 24-h standard deviations, 24-h AUC, and mean amplitude of glycemic excursion (MAGE) were similar for both groups and after both meals. The change in 1,5-AG was higher in the M+V group than in the L group. Conclusions The combination of M+V with basal therapy improved postprandial glucose excursion more effectively than L in T2DM patients. PMID:28242866

  18. A Comparative Analysis of the In Vitro Effects of Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Treatment on Osteogenic Differentiation of Two Different Mesenchymal Cell Lineages

    PubMed Central

    Ceccarelli, Gabriele; Bloise, Nora; Mantelli, Melissa; Gastaldi, Giulia; Fassina, Lorenzo; De Angelis, Maria Gabriella Cusella; Ferrari, Davide; Imbriani, Marcello

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising candidate cell type for regenerative medicine and tissue engineering applications. Exposure of MSCs to physical stimuli favors early and rapid activation of the tissue repair process. In this study we investigated the in vitro effects of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) treatment on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs) and adipose-tissue MSCs (ASCs), to assess if both types of MSCs could be indifferently used in combination with PEMF exposure for bone tissue healing. We compared the cell viability, cell matrix distribution, and calcified matrix production in unstimulated and PEMF-stimulated (magnetic field: 2 mT, amplitude: 5 mV) mesenchymal cell lineages. After PEMF exposure, in comparison with ASCs, BM-MSCs showed an increase in cell proliferation (p<0.05) and an enhanced deposition of extracellular matrix components such as decorin, fibronectin, osteocalcin, osteonectin, osteopontin, and type-I and -III collagens (p<0.05). Calcium deposition was 1.5-fold greater in BM-MSC–derived osteoblasts (p<0.05). The immunofluorescence related to the deposition of bone matrix proteins and calcium showed their colocalization to the cell-rich areas for both types of MSC-derived osteoblast. Alkaline phosphatase activity increased nearly 2-fold (p<0.001) and its protein content was 1.2-fold higher in osteoblasts derived from BM-MSCs. The quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed up-regulated transcription specific for bone sialoprotein, osteopontin, osteonectin, and Runx2, but at a higher level for cells differentiated from BM-MSCs. All together these results suggest that PEMF promotion of bone extracellular matrix deposition is more efficient in osteoblasts differentiated from BM-MSCs. PMID:23914335

  19. Mutations in Succinate Dehydrogenase Subunit C Increase Radiosensitivity and Bystander Responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hongning; Hei, Tom K.

    Although radiation-induced bystander effect is well studied in the past decade, the precise mech-anisms are still unclear. It is likely that a combination of pathways involving both primary and secondary signaling processes is involved in producing a bystander effect. There is recent evidence that mitochondria play a critical role in bystander responses. Recently studies found that a mutation in succinate dehydrogenese subunit C (SDHC), an integral membrane protein in complex II of the electron transport chain, resulted in increased superoxide, oxidative stress, apoptosis, tumorigenesis, and genomic instability, indicating that SDHC play a critical role in maintaining mitochondrial function. In the present study, using Chinese hamster fibroblasts (B1 cells) and the mutants (B9 cells) containing a single base substitution that produced a premature stop codon resulting in a 33-amino acid COOH-terminal truncation of the SDHC protein, we found that B9 cells had an increase in intracellular superoxide content, nitric oxide species, and mitochondrial membrane potential when compared with wild type cells. After irradiated with a grade of doses of gamma rays, B9 cells show an increased radiosensitivity, especially at high doses. The HPRT- mutant yield after gamma-ray irradiation in B9 cells was significantly higher than that of B1 cells. A single, 3Gy dose of gamma-rays increased the background mutant level by more than 4 fold. In contrast, the mutant induction was less than 2 fold in B1 cells. In addition, B9 cells produced a higher bystander mutagenesis after alpha particle irradiation than the B1 cells. Furthermore, pretreated with carboxy-2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (c-PTIO), a nitric oxide scavenger, significantly decreased the bystander effect. Our findings demonstrate that a mutation in SDHC increases radiosensitivity in both directly irradiated cells and in neighboring bystander cells, and mito-chondrial function play an essential role in

  20. Pb exposure attenuates hypersensitivity in vivo by increasing regulatory T cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Liang; Zhao, Fang; Shen, Xuefeng; Ouyang, Weiming; Liu, Xinqin; Xu, Yan; Yu, Tao; Jin, Boquan; Chen, Jingyuan; Luo, Wenjing

    2012-12-01

    Pb is a common environmental pollutant affecting various organs. Exposure of the immune system to Pb leads to immunosuppression or immunodysregulation. Although previous studies showed that Pb exposure can modulate the function of helper T cells, Pb immunotoxicity remains incompletely understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of Pb exposure on T cell development, and the underlying mechanism of Pb-induced suppression of the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response in vivo. Sprague–Dawley rats were exposed to 300 ppm Pb-acetate solution via the drinking water for six weeks, and we found that Pb exposure significantly increased Pb concentrations in the blood by 4.2-fold (p < 0.05) as compared to those in the control rats. In Pb-exposed rats, the amount of thymic CD4{sup +}CD8{sup −} and peripheral CD4{sup +} T cells was significantly reduced, whereas, CD8{sup +} population was not affected. In contrast to conventional CD4{sup +} T cells, Foxp3{sup +} regulatory T cells (Tregs) were increased in both the thymus and peripheral lymphoid organs of Pb-exposed rats. In line with the increase of Tregs, the DTH response of Pb-exposed rats was markedly suppressed. Depletion of Tregs reversed the suppression of DTH response by Pb-exposed CD4{sup +} T cells in an adoptive transfer model, suggesting a critical role of the increased Tregs in suppressing the DTH response. Collectively, this study revealed that Pb-exposure may upregulate Tregs, thereby leading to immunosuppression. -- Highlights: ► Pb exposure impaired CD4{sup +} thymic T cell development. ► Peripheral T lymphocytes were reduced following Pb exposure. ► Pb exposure increases thymic and peripheral Treg cells in rats. ► Tregs played a critical role in Pb-exposure-induced immune suppression.

  1. Over-expression of Dof-type transcription factor increases lipid production in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez-Salazar, Alejandro; Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio; Rocha-Uribe, Alejandro; Ramírez-Alonso, Jocelín Itzel; Lara-Hernández, Ignacio; Hernández-Torres, Araceli; Paz-Maldonado, Luz María Teresita; Silva-Ramírez, Ana Sonia; Bañuelos-Hernández, Bernardo; Martínez-Salgado, José Luis; Soria-Guerra, Ruth Elena

    2014-08-20

    The high demand for less polluting, newer, and cheaper fuel resources has increased the search of the most innovative options for the production of the so-called biofuels. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a photosynthetic unicellular algae with multiple biotechnological advantages such as easy handling in the laboratory, a simple scale-up to industrial levels, as well as a feasible genetic modification at nuclear and chloroplast levels. Besides, its fatty acids can be used to produce biofuels. Previous studies in plants have found that the over expression of DOF-type transcription factor genes increases the synthesis and the accumulation of total lipids in seeds. In this context, the over-expression of a DOF-type transcription factor in C. reinhardtii was applied as approach to increase the amount of lipids. The results indicate higher amounts (around 2-fold) of total lipids, which are mainly fatty acids, in the genetically C. reinhardtii modified strains when compared with the non-genetically modified strain. In order to elucidate the possible function of the introduced Dof-type transcription factor, we performed a transcription profile of 8 genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis and 6 genes involved in glycerolipid biosynthesis, by quantitative real time (qRT-PCR). Differential expression profile was observed, which can explain the increase in lipid accumulation. However, these strains did not show notable changes in the fatty acid profile. This work represents an early effort in generating a strategy to increase fatty acids production in C. reinhardtii and their use in biofuel synthesis.

  2. Quercetin increased bioavailability and decreased methylation of green tea polyphenols in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Piwen; Heber, David; Henning, Susanne M

    2012-06-01

    The extensive methylation of green tea polyphenols (GTPs) in vivo may limit their chemopreventive potential. We investigated whether quercetin, a natural inhibitor of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and multidrug resistance proteins (MRPs), will differentially increase the intracellular concentration and decrease the methylation of GTPs in different cancer cell lines. Intrinsic COMT activity was lowest in lung cancer A549 cells, intermediate in kidney 786-O cells and highest in liver HepG2 cells. Quercetin increased the cellular absorption of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) four-fold in A549 cells with a decreased methylation rate from 63 to 19%, 2-fold in 786-O cells with a decreased methylation from 97% to 56%, while no significant effect was observed in HepG2 cells. The combination significantly decreased the activity and protein expression of COMT and decreased the protein expression of MRP1 compared to individual treatments. The combination exhibited the strongest increase in antiproliferation in A549 cells, an intermediate effect in 786-O cells and lowest effect in HepG2 cells. The effect of quercetin on bioavailability and metabolism of GTPs was confirmed in vivo. Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice were administered brewed green tea (GT) and a diet supplemented with 0.4% quercetin alone or in combination for 2 weeks. We observed a 2- to 3-fold increase of total and non-methylated EGCG in lung and kidney and an increasing trend in liver. In summary, combining quercetin with GT provides a promising approach to enhance the chemoprevention of GT. Responses of different cancers to the combination may vary by tissue depending on the intrinsic COMT and MRP activity.

  3. Prolactin increases hepatic Na+/taurocholate co-transport activity and messenger RNA post partum.

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, T C; Liu, Y; Hyde, J F; Hagenbuch, B; Meier, P J; Vore, M

    1994-01-01

    We have shown that Na+/taurocholate co-transport activity is decreased in pregnancy, but rebounds post partum relative to non-pregnant controls, and that activity can be increased by treatment with ovine prolactin [Ganguly, Hyde and Vore (1993) J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 267, 82-87]. To determine the basis for these effects, Na+/taurocholate co-transport was determined in purified basolateral liver plasma-membrane (bLPM) vesicles and compared with steady-state mRNA levels encoding the Na+/taurocholate-co-transporting polypeptide (Ntcp) in non-pregnant controls, pregnant rats (19-20 days pregnant), rats post partum (48 h post partum) and rats post partum treated with bromocriptine to inhibit prolactin secretion. Na+/taurocholate co-transport activity (nmol/5 s per mg of protein) in bLPM was decreased from 10.4 +/- 1.8 in non-pregnant controls to 7.9 +/- 0.6 in bLPM in pregnant rats, but rebounded to 17.5 +/- 1.3 post partum; treatment of rats post partum with bromocriptine to inhibit prolactin secretion decreased activity to 14.1 +/- 0.9. Northern and slot-blot analyses revealed similar changes in mRNA for Ntcp, so that a positive correlation was observed between Na+/taurocholate co-transport activity and Ntcp mRNA. Furthermore, treatment of ovariectomized rats with ovine prolactin increased Ntcp mRNA 10-fold compared with solvent-treated controls, consistent with the 2-fold increase in Vmax, for Na+/taurocholate co-transport in isolated hepatocytes. These data are the first to demonstrate endogenous physiological regulation by prolactin of Ntcp mRNA in parallel with Na+/taurocholate co-transport activity. Images Figure 2 PMID:7945260

  4. Estimating the economic consequences of an increased medication adherence due to a potential improvement in the inhaler technique with Spiromax® compared with Turbuhaler® in patients with moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Darbà, Josep; Ramírez, Gabriela; García-Rivero, Juan L; Mayoralas, Sagrario; Pascual, José Francisco; Vargas, Diego; Bijedic, Adi

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to estimate the economic impact of the introduction of DuoResp® Spiromax®, budesonide/formoterol fixed-dose combination (FDC), focusing on an increase in medication adherence due to an enhancement of the inhalation technique for the treatment of COPD patients in Spain and 5 regions including Andalusia, Catalonia, Galicia, Madrid, and Valencia. Methods A 4-year budget impact model was developed for the time period of 2015–2018. This study aimed at evaluating the budget impact associated with the introduction of DuoResp Spiromax in comparison with Symbicort® Turbuhaler® and Rilast® Turbuhaler. National and regional data on COPD prevalence were obtained from the literature. Input data on health care resource utilization were obtained by clinical consultation. Resource included primary care visits, specialist visits, hospitalization, and emergency room visits as well as the length of hospital stay. Based on both pharmacological and health care resource costs, overall annual treatment cost per patient was estimated in EUR 2015. Results It was calculated that 130,777 adults were treated with budesonide/formoterol FDC delivered by a dry powder inhaler, Turbuhaler, in Spain in 2015. However, the target population decreases over the next 4 years. This pattern was observed in 4 regions, but for Andalusia, the treated population increased slightly. The overall budget savings in Spain with the market share of DuoResp Spiromax were estimated to be €6.01 million for the time period of 2015–2018. Region-specific data resulted in savings of €902,133 in Andalusia, €740,520 in Catalonia, €464,281 in Galicia, €748,996 in Madrid, and €495,812 in Valencia for the time period of 2015–2018. Conclusion The introduction of budesonide/formoterol FDC delivered by Spiromax for COPD treatment is likely to contribute in a reduction of health care costs for Spain and in 5 Spanish regions. This model forecasts that Spain and these 5

  5. Comparing Composites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathras, Michael S.

    1993-01-01

    Presents an activity that models the work of chemical engineers. Students design, fabricate, and perform mechanical tests on plaster matrix composites and compare the strength to mass ratios of several products. (PR)

  6. Increasing Capacity for the Treatment of Common Musculoskeletal Problems: A Non-Inferiority RCT and Economic Analysis of Corticosteroid Injection for Shoulder Pain Comparing a Physiotherapist and Orthopaedic Surgeon

    PubMed Central

    Bisset, Leanne; Comans, Tracy; Thomas, Michael; Ng, Shu Kay; O’Leary, Shaun; Conaghan, Philip G.; Scuffham, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    at least as clinically effective, and less expensive, compared with similar care delivered by an orthopaedic surgeon. Policy makers and service providers should consider implementing this model of care. Trial Registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry 12612000532808 PMID:27631987

  7. Comparing Futures or Comparing Pasts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowen, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Comparative education should stop trying to figure out how to borrow educational systems from one culture and transplant them into another. Instead, it should focus on how educational systems can be described and explained, comparatively, in a way that captures the intersections of forces of history, social structures, and individuals' pedagogic…

  8. Increased renal net acid excretion in prematures below 1,600 g body weight compared with prematures and small-for-date newborns above 2,100 g on alimentation with a commercial preterm formula.

    PubMed

    Kalhoff, H; Wiese, B; Kunz, C; Diekmann, L; Stock, G J; Manz, F

    1994-01-01

    In 76 low birth weight infants with an actual body weight ranging from 1,210 to 2,540 g and fed a commercial preterm formula, urine samples were collected and blood acid base status was measured on day 38 (+/- 17, mean +/- SD) of life. Infants with an actual body weight below 1,600 g demonstrated a higher daily weight gain (22 +/- 3 vs. 14 +/- 5 g/kg/day), lower blood pCO2 (35.4 +/- 5.0 vs. 38.9 +/- 3.8 mm Hg), lower urine pH (5.8 +/- 0.5 vs. 6.5 +/- 0.3), higher renal net acid (1.86 +/- 0.38 vs. 1.28 +/- 0.55 mmol/kg/day) and higher phosphorus excretion (0.67 vs. 0.52 mmol/kg/day) than infants with an actual body weight above 2,100 g. Urinary ionogram data of these 2 groups of infants show that the increased renal net acid excretion of the smaller prematures is the result of a lower urinary excretion of sodium, potassium and chloride, due to a higher daily weight gain, probably a higher retention of these minerals, and a higher urinary phosphorus excretion probably due to an age-specific lower intestinal calcium absorption, and therefore a lower rate of calcium and phosphorus retention. Considering the low renal capacity for hydrogen ion excretion, very low birth weight infants still run a considerable risk for disturbances of acid base metabolism due to the high mean level of net acid excretion in nutrition with preterm formulas and an additional age-specific augmentation of renal acid load.

  9. A comparative analysis of fatty acid composition of root and shoot lipids in Zea mays under copper and cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Chaffai, R; Seybou, T N; Marzouk, B; El Ferjani, E

    2009-03-01

    A comparative analysis of fatty acid composition was conducted in maize (Zea mays L.) under copper and cadmium stress. The unsaturation level (double-bond index) of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) was increased in response to both metal treatments, whereas the phosphatidylinositol (PI), the phosphatidylcholine (PC) showed no significant changes. The Cu-treated roots showed a marked increase (about 2-fold) in the phospholipid (PL) content, while the Cd-treated roots showed a slight but insignificant increase. The steryl lipid SL/PL ratio was markedly decreased in response to Cu stress, and therefore, may indicate an activated phospholipid biosynthesis and turnover, in response to damage caused by Cu stress. The double bond indices of chloroplastic lipids: phosphatidylglycerol (PG), monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) and sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG) revealed a similar but not identical pattern of change. The PG and MGDG contents in shoots were markedly decreased under Cu (by 53 and 48%) and Cd (by 78 and 65%) stress. The increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) content in roots induced by both metals indicates lipid peroxidation. Generally, in the presence of Cu fatty acid composition was markedly modulated but to lesser extent under Cd stress. These results suggest that changes in the fatty acid composition under Cu and Cd stress conditions are metal-specific and may therefore result in differential metal tolerance.

  10. CDK inhibitors (p16/p19/p21) induce senescence and autophagy in cancer-associated fibroblasts, “fueling” tumor growth via paracrine interactions, without an increase in neo-angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Capparelli, Claudia; Chiavarina, Barbara; Whitaker-Menezes, Diana; Pestell, Timothy G.; Pestell, Richard G.; Hulit, James; Andò, Sebastiano; Howell, Anthony; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E.; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Here, we investigated the compartment-specific role of cell cycle arrest and senescence in breast cancer tumor growth. For this purpose, we generated a number of hTERT-immortalized senescent fibroblast cell lines overexpressing CDK inhibitors, such as p16(INK4A), p19(ARF) or p21(WAF1/CIP1). Interestingly, all these senescent fibroblast cell lines showed evidence of increased susceptibility toward the induction of autophagy (either at baseline or after starvation), as well as significant mitochondrial dysfunction. Most importantly, these senescent fibroblasts also dramatically promoted tumor growth (up to ~2-fold), without any comparable increases in tumor angiogenesis. Conversely, we generated human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 cells) overexpressing CDK inhibitors, namely p16(INK4A) or p21(WAF1/CIP1). Senescent MDA-MB-231 cells also showed increased expression of markers of cell cycle arrest and autophagy, including β-galactosidase, as predicted. Senescent MDA-MB-231 cells had retarded tumor growth, with up to a near 2-fold reduction in tumor volume. Thus, the effects of CDK inhibitors are compartment-specific and are related to their metabolic effects, which results in the induction of autophagy and mitochondrial dysfunction. Finally, induction of cell cycle arrest with specific inhibitors (PD0332991) or cellular stressors [hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) or starvation] indicated that the onset of autophagy and senescence are inextricably linked biological processes. The compartment-specific induction of senescence (and hence autophagy) may be a new therapeutic target that could be exploited for the successful treatment of human breast cancer patients. PMID:22935696

  11. Increased lipids in non-lipogenic tissues are indicators of the severity of type 2 diabetes in mice.

    PubMed

    Campbell-Tofte, Joan; Hansen, Harald S; Mu, Huiling; Mølgaard, Per

    2007-01-01

    We hypothesised that the molecular changes triggered in type 2 diabetes might cause phenotypic changes in the lipid fraction of tissues. We compared tissue lipid profiles of inbred lean B6-Bom with those of the obese B6-ob/ob and diabetic BKS-db/db mice and found that genetically diabetic mice significantly accumulate fat (especially monounsaturated fatty acids, MUFA) in non-lipogenic tissues such as the eye (MUFA, 2-fold), skeletal muscle (MUFA, 13-fold) and pancreas (MUFA, 16-fold). In contrast, the B6-ob/ob mice which manifest a milder form of type 2 diabetes use the liver as their predominant lipid depot (MUFA 91-fold increase, as compared to lean mice values). The lipids in the BKS-db/db skeletal muscle and pancreas were also significantly enriched with linoleic acid (LA, (9-fold and 6-fold, respectively); and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 8.5-fold and 8-fold, respectively). MUFA, LA and ALA accumulation in the non-lipogenic tissues of BKS-db/db mice was associated with reduced liver stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 expression.

  12. A low α-linolenic intake during early life increases adiposity in the adult guinea pig

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The composition of dietary fatty acids (FA) during early life may impact adult adipose tissue (AT) development. We investigated the effects of α-linolenic acid (ALA) intake during the suckling/weaning period on AT development and metabolic markers in the guinea pig (GP). Methods Newborn GP were fed a 27%-fat diet (w/w %) with high (10%-ALA group), moderate (2.4%-ALA group) or low (0.8%-ALA group) ALA content (w/w % as total FA) until they were 21 days old (d21). Then all animals were switched to a 15%-fat diet containing 2% ALA (as total FA) until 136 days of age (d136). Results ALA and docosapentaenoic acid measured in plasma triglycerides (TG) at d21 decreased with decreasing ALA intake. Total body fat mass was not different between groups at d21. Adipose tissue TG synthesis rates and proliferation rate of total adipose cells, as assessed by 2H2O labelling, were unchanged between groups at d21, while hepatic de novo lipogenesis was significantly 2-fold increased in the 0.8%-ALA group. In older GP, the 0.8%-ALA group showed a significant 15-%-increased total fat mass (d79 and d107, p < 0.01) and epididymal AT weight (d136) and tended to show higher insulinemia compared to the 10%-ALA group. In addition, proliferation rate of cells in the subcutaneous AT was higher in the 0.8%-ALA (15.2 ± 1.3% new cells/5d) than in the 10%-ALA group (8.6 ± 1.7% new cells/5d, p = 0.021) at d136. AT eicosanoid profiles were not associated with the increase of AT cell proliferation. Conclusion A low ALA intake during early postnatal life promotes an increased adiposity in the adult GP. PMID:20205840

  13. Phosphoketolase overexpression increases biomass and lipid yield from methane in an obligate methanotrophic biocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Henard, Calvin A; Smith, Holly K; Guarnieri, Michael T

    2017-04-01

    Microbial conversion of methane to high-value bio-based chemicals and materials offers a path to mitigate GHG emissions and valorize this abundant-yet -underutilized carbon source. In addition to fermentation optimization strategies, rational methanotrophic bacterial strain engineering offers a means to reach industrially relevant titers, carbon yields, and productivities of target products. The phosphoketolase pathway functions in heterofermentative bacteria where carbon flux through two sugar catabolic pathways to mixed acids (lactic acid and acetic acid) increases cellular ATP production. Importantly, this pathway also serves as an alternative route to produce acetyl-CoA that bypasses the CO2 lost through pyruvate decarboxylation in the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway. Thus, the phosphoketolase pathway can be leveraged for carbon efficient biocatalysis to acetyl-CoA-derived intermediates and products. Here, we show that the industrially promising methane biocatalyst, Methylomicrobium buryatense, encodes two phosphoketolase isoforms that are expressed in methanol- and methane-grown cells. Overexpression of the PktB isoform led to a 2-fold increase in intracellular acetyl-CoA concentration, and a 2.6-fold yield enhancement from methane to microbial biomass and lipids compared to wild-type, increasing the potential for methanotroph lipid-based fuel production. Off-gas analysis and metabolite profiling indicated that global metabolic rearrangements, including significant increases in post-translational protein acetylation and gene expression of the tetrahydromethanopterin-linked pathway, along with decreases in several excreted products, coincided with the superior biomass and lipid yield observed in the engineered strain. Further, these data suggest that phosphoketolase may play a key regulatory role in methanotrophic bacterial metabolism. Given that acetyl-CoA is a key intermediate in several biosynthetic pathways, phosphoketolase overexpression offers a viable

  14. Comparative metabolic flux analysis of an Ashbya gossypii wild type strain and a high riboflavin-producing mutant strain.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Bo-Young; Wittmann, Christoph; Kato, Tatsuya; Park, Enoch Y

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we analyzed the central metabolic pathway of an Ashbya gossypii wild type strain and a riboflavin over-producing mutant strain developed in a previous study in order to characterize the riboflavin over-production pathway. (13)C-Metabolic flux analysis ((13)C-MFA) was carried out in both strains, and the resulting data were fit to a steady-state flux isotopomer model using OpenFLUX. Flux to pentose-5-phosphate (P5P) via the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) was 9% higher in the mutant strain compared to the wild type strain. The flux from purine synthesis to riboflavin in the mutant strain was 1.6%, while that of the wild type strain was only 0.1%, a 16-fold difference. In addition, the flux from the cytoplasmic pyruvate pool to the extracellular metabolites, pyruvate, lactate, and alanine, was 2-fold higher in the mutant strain compared to the wild type strain. This result demonstrates that increased guanosine triphosphate (GTP) flux through the PPP and purine synthesis pathway (PSP) increased riboflavin production in the mutant strain. The present study provides the first insight into metabolic flux through the central carbon pathway in A. gossypii and sets the foundation for development of a quantitative and functional model of the A. gossypii metabolic network.

  15. Comparing Pluralities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scontras, Gregory; Graff, Peter; Goodman, Noah D.

    2012-01-01

    What does it mean to compare sets of objects along a scale, for example by saying "the men are taller than the women"? We explore comparison of pluralities in two experiments, eliciting comparison judgments while varying the properties of the members of each set. We find that a plurality is judged as "bigger" when the mean size of its members is…

  16. Increased Production of IL-4 and IL-12p40 from Bronchoalveolar Lavage Cells Are Biomarkers of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the Sputum

    PubMed Central

    Nolan, Anna; Fajardo, Elaine; Huie, Maryann L.; Condos, Rany; Pooran, Anil; Dawson, Rodney; Dheda, Keertan; Bateman, Eric; Rom, William N.; Weiden, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) causes 1.45 million deaths annually world wide, the majority of which occur in the developing world. Active TB disease represents immune failure to control latent infection from airborne spread. Acid-fast bacillus (AFB) seen on sputum smear is a biomarker for contagiousness. Methods We enrolled 73 tuberculosis patients with extensive infiltrates into a research study using bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) to sample lung immune cells and assay BAL cell cytokine production. All patients had sputum culture demonstrating Mycobacterium tuberculosis and 59/73 (81%) had AFB identified by microscopy of the sputum. Compared with smear negative patients, smear positive patients at presentation had a higher proportion with smoking history, a higher proportion with temperature >38.50 C, higher BAL cells/ml, lower percent lymphocytes in BAL, higher IL-4 and IL-12p40 in BAL cell supernatants. There was no correlation between AFB smear and other BAL or serum cytokines. Increasing IL-4 was associated with BAL PMN and negatively associated with BAL lymphocytes. Each 10-fold increase in BAL IL-4 and IL-12p40 increased the odds of AFB smear positivity by 7.4 and 2.2-fold, respectively, in a multi-variable logistic model. Conclusion Increasing IL-4 and IL-12p40 production by BAL cells are biomarkers for AFB in sputum of patients who present with radiographically advanced TB. They likely reflect less effective immune control of pathways for controlling TB, leading to patients with increased infectiousness. PMID:23527200

  17. Soft drink consumption is associated with increased incidence of the metabolic syndrome only in women.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yunjin; Kim, Jihye

    2017-01-01

    Prospective studies on the association between soft drink consumption and incident risk of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) have not been carried out in Asians. We explored the sex-specific association between soft drink consumption and incident risk of the MetS in Korean adults during 10 years of follow-up. A total of 5797 subjects who were free of the MetS at baseline were studied. Soft drink consumption was assessed using a semi-quantitative FFQ. Time-dependent Cox proportional hazard model was used to examine hazard ratios (HR) of incidence of the MetS and its components in relation to soft drink consumption. In women, the multivariable-adjusted HR for developing the MetS was 1·8-fold higher in frequent consumers of soft drinks (≥4 servings/week) compared with rare consumers (95 % CI 1·23, 2·64). The adjusted HR for elevated blood pressure increased by 2-fold (95 % CI 1·24, 3·14) and for hypertriacylglycerolaemia by 1·9-fold (95 % CI 1·19, 2·88) in frequent consumers of soft drinks compared with rare consumers. However, in men, there was no association between soft drink consumption and incident risk of the MetS or its components. Frequent soft drink consumption was associated with increased risk of developing the MetS and its components only in middle-aged Korean women, suggesting sex differences for the risk of the MetS related to diet.

  18. Comparative hemorheology.

    PubMed

    Baskurt, Oguz K; Meiselman, Herbert J

    2013-01-01

    Comparative data on blood composition and blood flow properties indicate different levels of interspecies variation for several parameters. Hematocrit and hemoglobin levels have relatively low variability among mammals, while mean cell volume and red blood cell (RBC) count are more variable. There is also a difference of variability between high and low shear rate blood viscosity in mammals, with low shear rate viscosity having a higher degree of interspecies variation. This observation parallels the diversity of RBC aggregation among mammalian species. Allometric relations for blood rheology parameters indicate highly significant correlations of low shear rate blood viscosity and RBC aggregation with body weight, especially if species belonging to the order Artiodactyla are excluded. These allometric relations can be used to formulate various hypotheses about the evolutionary histories of circulatory functions, as well as hypotheses related to the role of RBC aggregation in the mammalian circulatory system. Such comparative studies and analytical reasoning based on comparative data may contribute to answering the "why" questions, and accordingly may improve our understanding of circulatory functions and hence may have possible clinical importance. During the last several decades, similar approaches to various medical concepts have yielded a new approach to medicine that is now known as Evolutionary Medicine.

  19. Increased CSF Homocysteine in Pathological Gamblers Compared with Healthy Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordin, Conny; Sjodin, Ingemar

    2009-01-01

    Neurocognitive disturbances suggesting a frontal lobe dysfunction have been observed in pathological gamblers and alcohol dependents. Given that a high homocysteine level has been suggested to be a mediating factor in alcohol-related cognitive decline, we have determined homocysteine and cobalamine in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obtained from 11…

  20. Comparative ionospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cravens, T.

    2003-04-01

    Ionospheres are created as a consequence of the ionization of the neutral atoms and molecules in a planet’s upper atmosphere either by solar radiation or by fast charged particles. Ionospheres have been detected at all the planets except for Mercury and Pluto, either remotely or by in situ instruments. Active comets have ionospheres as do many planetary satellites, including Io, Europa, Ganymede, Titan, and Triton. A comparative review of ionospheres throughout the solar system will be given in this paper. Observations and theoretical models will be included in the review.

  1. Comparative Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    Al" 56 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS(U) MASSACJWSETTS INST OF TECH 1/1 CAMBRIDGE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LAO 9 S MELD NOV B, RI-N-95i NMM4-85-K-0124...0 0 0 0 0 0 i. -~~ --- WU V1 2 fwx~, - - W-na alc F!LFI MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY CO ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY Lfl 0 Al/Memo...differential qualita- tive (DQ) analysis, which solves the task, providing explanations suitable for use by design systems, automated diagnosis, intelligent

  2. Contemporary reliance on bicarbonate acquisition predicts increased growth of seagrass Amphibolis antarctica in a high-CO2 world.

    PubMed

    Burnell, Owen W; Connell, Sean D; Irving, Andrew D; Watling, Jennifer R; Russell, Bayden D

    2014-01-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 is increasing the availability of dissolved CO2 in the ocean relative to HCO3 (-). Currently, many marine primary producers use HCO3 (-) for photosynthesis, but this is energetically costly. Increasing passive CO2 uptake relative to HCO3 (-) pathways could provide energy savings, leading to increased productivity and growth of marine plants. Inorganic carbon-uptake mechanisms in the seagrass Amphibolis antarctica were determined using the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide (AZ) and the buffer tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (TRIS). Amphibolis antarctica seedlings were also maintained in current and forecasted CO2 concentrations to measure their physiology and growth. Photosynthesis of A. antarctica was significantly reduced by AZ and TRIS, indicating utilization of HCO3 (-)-uptake mechanisms. When acclimated plants were switched between CO2 treatments, the photosynthetic rate was dependent on measurement conditions but not growth conditions, indicating a dynamic response to changes in dissolved CO2 concentration, rather than lasting effects of acclimation. At forecast CO2 concentrations, seedlings had a greater maximum electron transport rate (1.4-fold), photosynthesis (2.1-fold), below-ground biomass (1.7-fold) and increase in leaf number (2-fold) relative to plants in the current CO2 concentration. The greater increase in photosynthesis (measured as O2 production) compared with the electron transport rate at forecasted CO2 concentration suggests that photosynthetic efficiency increased, possibly due to a decrease in photorespiration. Thus, it appears that the photosynthesis and growth of seagrasses reliant on energetically costly HCO3 (-) acquisition, such as A. antarctica, might increase at forecasted CO2 concentrations. Greater growth might enhance the future prosperity and rehabilitation of these important habitat-forming plants, which have experienced declines of global significance.

  3. Compartmentalized self-replication under fast PCR cycling conditions yields Taq DNA polymerase mutants with increased DNA-binding affinity and blood resistance.

    PubMed

    Arezi, Bahram; McKinney, Nancy; Hansen, Connie; Cayouette, Michelle; Fox, Jeffrey; Chen, Keith; Lapira, Jennifer; Hamilton, Sarah; Hogrefe, Holly

    2014-01-01

    Faster-cycling PCR formulations, protocols, and instruments have been developed to address the need for increased throughput and shorter turn-around times for PCR-based assays. Although run times can be cut by up to 50%, shorter cycle times have been correlated with lower detection sensitivity and increased variability. To address these concerns, we applied Compartmentalized Self Replication (CSR) to evolve faster-cycling mutants of Taq DNA polymerase. After five rounds of selection using progressively shorter PCR extension times, individual mutations identified in the fastest-cycling clones were randomly combined using ligation-based multi-site mutagenesis. The best-performing combinatorial mutants exhibit 35- to 90-fold higher affinity (lower Kd ) for primed template and a moderate (2-fold) increase in extension rate compared to wild-type Taq. Further characterization revealed that CSR-selected mutations provide increased resistance to inhibitors, and most notably, enable direct amplification from up to 65% whole blood. We discuss the contribution of individual mutations to fast-cycling and blood-resistant phenotypes.

  4. Comparative toxicities of bismuth oxybromide and titanium dioxide exposure on human skin keratinocyte cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaoya; Wang, Yawen; Peng, Shiqi; Yue, Bin; Fan, Caimei; Chen, Weiyi; Li, Xiaona

    2015-09-01

    Nano-sized bismuth oxybromide (BiOBr) particles are being considered for applications within the semiconductor industry. However, little is known about their potential impact on human health. In this study, we comparatively investigated the cytotoxicity of BiOBr and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) using human skin keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) as a research model. Results indicate that lamellar-shaped BiOBr (length: 200 nm, width: 150 nm, and an average thickness: around 15 nm) has less toxic effects on cell viability and intracellular organelles than TiO2 (P25) NPs. BiOBr mainly induced late cell apoptosis, while for TiO2, both early apoptosis and late apoptosis were involved. Cell cycle arrest was found in cells on both NPs exposure, and more prominent in TiO2-treated cells. More cellular uptake was achieved after TiO2 exposure, particularly at 10 μg mL(-1), presence of TiO2 resulted in more than 2-fold increase in cellular granularity compared with BiOBr. Furthermore, TiO2 had a high potential to generate intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells, where a 2.7-fold increase in TiO2 group and 2.0-fold increase in BiOBr group at the same concentration of 25 μg mL(-1). Higher cellular uptake and ROS stimulation should contribute to the more hazards of TiO2 than BiOBr NPs. This knowledge is a crucial component in the environmental and human hazard assessment of BiOBr and TiO2 NPs.

  5. Comparative evaluations.

    PubMed

    Bibace, Roger

    2008-03-01

    My response to Engelmann (2008) will be based on several questions that will allow both its author and the general reader to determine whether the assumptions I make as an interpreter of this complex paper are congruent or incongruent with their own interpretations of the text. The interpretations by the writer, by any commentator, and the diverse interpretations of a general audience together with my own interpretations will, I hope, facilitate some fruitful 'comparative evaluations.' I articulate my inferences of the most dense part of the paper, namely the 'concrete immediate Consciousness and the developing absent outside.' My hope is to address Engelmann's question: "Am I in a better disposition to judge modern theories of consciousness?" The last section of my response spells out more personal comments to my all too brief and single encounter with Arno Engelmann. It is there that Arno Engelmann's fascinating statement "I am a citizen of the world" is addressed through its counterparts in my life.

  6. Comparative assessments of the effects of alcohol exposure on fetal brain development using optical coherence tomography and ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudheendran, Narendran; Bake, Shameena; Miranda, Rajesh C.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2013-02-01

    The developing fetal brain is vulnerable to a variety of environmental agents including maternal ethanol consumption. Preclinical studies on the development and amelioration of fetal teratology would be significantly facilitated by the application of high resolution imaging technologies like optical coherence tomography (OCT) and high-frequency ultrasound (US). This study investigates the ability of these imaging technologies to measure the effects of maternal ethanol exposure on brain development, ex vivo, in fetal mice. Pregnant mice at gestational day 12.5 were administered ethanol (3 g/Kg b.wt.) or water by intragastric gavage, twice daily for three consecutive days. On gestational day 14.5, fetuses were collected and imaged. Three-dimensional images of the mice fetus brains were obtained by OCT and high-resolution US, and the volumes of the left and right ventricles of the brain were measured. Ethanol-exposed fetuses exhibited a statistically significant, 2-fold increase in average left and right ventricular volumes compared with the ventricular volume of control fetuses, with OCT-derived measures of 0.38 and 0.18 mm3, respectively, whereas the boundaries of the fetal mouse lateral ventricles were not clearly definable with US imaging. Our results indicate that OCT is a useful technology for assessing ventriculomegaly accompanying alcohol-induced developmental delay. This study clearly demonstrated advantages of using OCT for quantitative assessment of embryonic development compared with US imaging.

  7. Comparative Phosphoproteomic Analysis under High-Nitrogen Fertilizer Reveals Central Phosphoproteins Promoting Wheat Grain Starch and Protein Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhen, Shoumin; Deng, Xiong; Zhang, Ming; Zhu, Gengrui; Lv, Dongwen; Wang, Yaping; Zhu, Dong; Yan, Yueming

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is a macronutrient important for plant growth and development. It also strongly influences starch and protein synthesis, closely related to grain yield and quality. We performed the first comparative phosphoproteomic analysis of developing wheat grains in response to high-N fertilizer. Physiological and biochemical analyses showed that application of high-N fertilizer resulted in significant increases in leaf length and area, chlorophyll content, the activity of key enzymes in leaves such as nitrate reductase (NR), and in grains such as sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), sucrose synthase (SuSy), and ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase). This enhanced enzyme activity led to significant improvements in starch content, grain yield, and ultimately, bread making quality. Comparative phosphoproteomic analysis of developing grains under the application of high-N fertilizer performed 15 and 25 days post-anthesis identified 2470 phosphosites among 1372 phosphoproteins, of which 411 unique proteins displayed significant changes in phosphorylation level (>2-fold or <0.5-fold). These phosphoproteins are involved mainly in signaling transduction, starch synthesis, energy metabolism. Pro-Q diamond staining and Western blotting confirmed our phosphoproteomic results. We propose a putative pathway to elucidate the important roles of the central phosphoproteins regulating grain starch and protein synthesis. Our results provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of protein phosphorylation modifications involved in grain development, yield and quality formation. PMID:28194157

  8. Aberrant Epicardial Adipose Tissue Extracellular Matrix Remodeling in Patients with Severe Ischemic Cardiomyopathy: Insight from Comparative Quantitative Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ding-Sheng; Zeng, Hao-Long; Li, Rui; Huo, Bo; Su, Yun-Shu; Fang, Jing; Yang, Qing; Liu, Li-Gang; Hu, Min; Cheng, Cai; Zhu, Xue-Hai; Yi, Xin; Wei, Xiang

    2017-01-01

    There is ample evidence indicating that epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) volume and thickness is positively associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). However, the exact pathological changes in the human EAT after myocardial ischemia remains largely unclear. In the current study, we applied a comparative quantitative proteomics to elucidate the altered biological processes in the EAT of ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) patients. A total of 1649 proteins were successfully quantified in our study, among which 165 proteins were significantly changed (ratio <0.8 or >1.2 fold and p < 0.05 in both repetitions) in EAT of ICM individuals. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis revealed that cardiac structure and cellular metabolism were over-represented among these regulated proteins. The hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, adrenergic signaling in cardiomyocytes, extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interaction, phagosome, Glycolysis/Gluconeogenesis, and PPAR signaling pathway were highlighted by the KEGG PATHWAY analysis. More importantly, we found that the proteins responsible for extracellular matrix organization were dramatically increased in EAT of ICM patients. In addition, the picrosirius red (PSR) staining results showed that the collagen fiber content was prominently increased, which indicated the EAT of ICM individuals underwent extracellular matrix remodeling and ERK1/2 activation maybe responsible for these pathological changes partially. PMID:28256566

  9. Increased localized delivery of piroxicam by cationic nanoparticles after intra-articular injection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Rae; Ho, Myoung Jin; Kim, Sang Hyun; Cho, Ha Ra; Kim, Han Sol; Choi, Yong Seok; Choi, Young Wook; Kang, Myung Joo

    2016-01-01

    Piroxicam (PRX), a potent nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is prescribed to relieve postoperative and/or chronic joint pain. However, its oral administration often results in serious gastrointestinal adverse effects including duodenal ulceration. Thus, a novel cationic nanoparticle (NP) was explored to minimize the systemic exposure and increase the retention time of PRX in the joint after intra-articular (IA) injection, by forming micrometer-sized electrostatic clusters with endogenous hyaluronic acid (HA) in the synovial cavity. PRX-loaded NPs consisting of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), Eudragit RL, and polyvinyl alcohol were constructed with the following characteristics: particle size of 220 nm, zeta potential of 11.5 mV in phosphate-buffered saline, and loading amount of 4.0% (w/w) of PRX. In optical and hyperspectral observations, the cationic NPs formed more than 50 μm-sized aggregates with HA, which was larger than the intercellular gaps between synoviocytes. In an in vivo pharmacokinetic study in rats, area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC0–24 h) and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of PRX after IA injection of the cationic NPs were <70% (P<0.05) and 60% (P<0.05), respectively, compared to those obtained from drug solution. Moreover, the drug concentration in joint tissue 24 h after dosing with the cationic NPs was 3.2-fold (P<0.05) and 1.8-fold (P<0.05) higher than that from drug solution and neutrally charged NPs, respectively. Therefore, we recommend the IA cationic NP therapy as an effective alternative to traditional oral therapy with PRX, as it increases drug retention selectively in the joint. PMID:27895468

  10. Diabetes mellitus increases the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in treatment-naïve chronic hepatitis C patients in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xu; Xu, Hongqin; Gao, Yang; Pan, Meng; Wang, Le; Gao, Pujun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We investigated the link between diabetes mellitus (DM) and hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk in treatment-naïve chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients in China. To examine the association between DM and HCC, we conducted a case–control study of 300 Chinese CHC patients with HCC, compared to an age- and sex-matched control group of 517 CHC patients not diagnosed with HCC. We found that DM was more prevalent in the HCC patient group (18.7%) than in the CHC-only patient group (10.8%). We conducted logistic regression analyses adjusting for demographics features and other HCC risk factors and found that DM increased the risk of HCC development nearly 2-fold [adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.80 (1.17–2.75)]. Meanwhile, the proportion of HCC patients and CHC-only patients with liver cirrhosis were 79.3% and 46.2%, respectively, yielding an AOR of 4.62 (95% CI, 3.31–6.46). Multivariate analyses comparing the risk of HCV-related HCC development in DM patients with and without liver cirrhosis revealed that the estimated AOR (95% CI) for those with liver cirrhosis was 5.60 (2.25–13.96). However, the HCC risk decreased significantly with a later age of diabetes onset (AOR [95% CI], 0.94 [0.89–0.99]). DM was associated with an increased risk for HCC development in treatment-naïve CHC patients in China. Furthermore, liver cirrhosis and an early DM diagnoses further increased the risks of HCC development in patients diagnosed with both CHC and DM. PMID:28353605

  11. A Comparative Study of the Bone Regenerative Effect of Chemically Modified RNA Encoding BMP-2 or BMP-9.

    PubMed

    Khorsand, Behnoush; Elangovan, Satheesh; Hong, Liu; Dewerth, Alexander; Kormann, Michael S D; Salem, Aliasger K

    2017-03-01

    Employing cost-effective biomaterials to deliver chemically modified ribonucleic acid (cmRNA) in a controlled manner addresses the high cost, safety concerns, and lower transfection efficiency that exist with protein and gene therapeutic approaches. By eliminating the need for nuclear entry, cmRNA therapeutics can potentially overcome the lower transfection efficiencies associated with non-viral gene delivery systems. Here, we investigated the osteogenic potential of cmRNA-encoding BMP-9, in comparison to cmRNA-encoding BMP-2. Polyethylenimine (PEI) was used as a vector to increase in vitro transfection efficacy. Complexes of PEI-cmRNA (encoding BMP-2 or BMP-9) were fabricated at an amine (N) to phosphate (P) ratio of 10 and characterized for transfection efficacy in vitro using human bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). The osteogenic potential of BMSCs treated with these complexes was determined by evaluating the expression of bone-specific genes as well as through the detection of bone matrix deposition. It was found that alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression 3 days post transfection in the group treated with BMP-9-cmRNA was significantly higher than that in the group that received BMP-2-cmRNA treatment. Alizarin red staining and atomic absorption spectroscopy demonstrated enhanced osteogenic differentiation as evidenced by increased bone matrix production by the BMSCs treated with BMP-9-cmRNA when compared to cells treated with BMP-2-cmRNA. In vivo studies showed increased bone formation in calvarial defects treated with the BMP-9-cmRNA and BMP-2-cmRNA collagen scaffolds when compared to empty defects. The connectivity density of the regenerated bone was higher (2-fold-higher) in the group that received BMP-9-cmRNA compared to BMP-2-cmRNA. Together, these findings suggest that cmRNA-activated matrix encoding osteogenic molecules can provide a powerful strategy for bone regeneration with significant clinical translational potential.

  12. Tobacco use is associated with increased plasma BDNF levels in depressed patients.

    PubMed

    Colle, Romain; Trabado, Séverine; Rotenberg, Samuel; Brailly-Tabard, Sylvie; Benyamina, Amine; Aubin, Henri-Jean; Hardy, Patrick; Falissard, Bruno; Becquemont, Laurent; Verstuyft, Céline; Fève, Bruno; Corruble, Emmanuelle

    2016-12-30

    Since serum Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) levels are higher in tobacco smokers than in non-smokers and since Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is associated with a 2-fold increased risk of smoking, we assessed the association of smoking and plasma BDNF levels in 359 depressed MDD patients. Plasma BDNF levels were positively correlated with the magnitude of tobacco consumption (current number of cigarettes/day and number of packs/year). Accordingly, current tobacco users had significantly higher plasma BDNF levels than non-users. In further studies of MDD, peripheral measures of BDNF should take into account tobacco use.

  13. Major increase in human monkeypox incidence 30 years after smallpox vaccination campaigns cease in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Rimoin, Anne W.; Mulembakani, Prime M.; Johnston, Sara C.; Lloyd Smith, James O.; Kisalu, Neville K.; Kinkela, Timothee L.; Blumberg, Seth; Thomassen, Henri A.; Pike, Brian L.; Fair, Joseph N.; Wolfe, Nathan D.; Shongo, Robert L.; Graham, Barney S.; Formenty, Pierre; Okitolonda, Emile; Hensley, Lisa E.; Meyer, Hermann; Wright, Linda L.; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques

    2010-01-01

    Studies on the burden of human monkeypox in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) were last conducted from 1981 to 1986. Since then, the population that is immunologically naïve to orthopoxviruses has increased significantly due to cessation of mass smallpox vaccination campaigns. To assess the current risk of infection, we analyzed human monkeypox incidence trends in a monkeypox-enzootic region. Active, population-based surveillance was conducted in nine health zones in central DRC. Epidemiologic data and biological samples were obtained from suspected cases. Cumulative incidence (per 10,000 population) and major determinants of infection were compared with data from active surveillance in similar regions from 1981 to 1986. Between November 2005 and November 2007, 760 laboratory-confirmed human monkeypox cases were identified in participating health zones. The average annual cumulative incidence across zones was 5.53 per 10,000 (2.18–14.42). Factors associated with increased risk of infection included: living in forested areas, male gender, age < 15, and no prior smallpox vaccination. Vaccinated persons had a 5.2-fold lower risk of monkeypox than unvaccinated persons (0.78 vs. 4.05 per 10,000). Comparison of active surveillance data in the same health zone from the 1980s (0.72 per 10,000) and 2006–07 (14.42 per 10,000) suggests a 20-fold increase in human monkeypox incidence. Thirty years after mass smallpox vaccination campaigns ceased, human monkeypox incidence has dramatically increased in rural DRC. Improved surveillance and epidemiological analysis is needed to better assess the public health burden and develop strategies for reducing the risk of wider spread of infection. PMID:20805472

  14. Comparative Evaluation of Biochemical Changes in Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Infected by Alternaria alternata and Its Toxic Metabolites (TeA, AOH, and AME)

    PubMed Central

    Meena, Mukesh; Zehra, Andleeb; Dubey, Manish K.; Aamir, Mohd; Gupta, Vijai K.; Upadhyay, Ram S.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we have evaluated the comparative biochemical defense response generated against Alternaria alternata and its purified toxins viz. alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), and tenuazonic acid (TeA). The necrotic lesions developed due to treatment with toxins were almost similar as those produced by the pathogen, indicating the crucial role of these toxins in plant pathogenesis. An oxidative burst reaction characterized by the rapid and transient production of a large amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) occurs following the pathogen infection/toxin exposure. The maximum concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) produced was reported in the pathogen infected samples (22.2-fold) at 24 h post inoculation followed by TeA (18.2-fold), AOH (15.9-fold), and AME (14.1-fold) in treated tissues. 3,3′- Diaminobenzidine staining predicted the possible sites of H2O2 accumulation while the extent of cell death was measured by Evans blue dye. The extent of lipid peroxidation and malondialdehyde (MDA) content was higher (15.8-fold) at 48 h in the sample of inoculated leaves of the pathogen when compared to control. The cellular damages were observed as increased MDA content and reduced chlorophyll. The activities of antioxidative defense enzymes increased in both the pathogen infected as well as toxin treated samples. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was 5.9-fold higher at 24 h post inoculation in leaves followed by TeA (5.0-fold), AOH (4.1-fold) and AME (2.3-fold) treated leaves than control. Catalase (CAT) activity was found to be increased upto 48 h post inoculation and maximum in the pathogen challenged samples followed by other toxins. The native PAGE results showed the variations in the intensities of isozyme (SOD and CAT) bands in the pathogen infected and toxin treated samples. Ascorbate peroxidase (APx) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities followed the similar trend to scavenge the excess H2O2. The reduction in CAT

  15. Comparative Evaluation of Biochemical Changes in Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Infected by Alternaria alternata and Its Toxic Metabolites (TeA, AOH, and AME).

    PubMed

    Meena, Mukesh; Zehra, Andleeb; Dubey, Manish K; Aamir, Mohd; Gupta, Vijai K; Upadhyay, Ram S

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we have evaluated the comparative biochemical defense response generated against Alternaria alternata and its purified toxins viz. alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), and tenuazonic acid (TeA). The necrotic lesions developed due to treatment with toxins were almost similar as those produced by the pathogen, indicating the crucial role of these toxins in plant pathogenesis. An oxidative burst reaction characterized by the rapid and transient production of a large amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) occurs following the pathogen infection/toxin exposure. The maximum concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) produced was reported in the pathogen infected samples (22.2-fold) at 24 h post inoculation followed by TeA (18.2-fold), AOH (15.9-fold), and AME (14.1-fold) in treated tissues. 3,3'- Diaminobenzidine staining predicted the possible sites of H2O2 accumulation while the extent of cell death was measured by Evans blue dye. The extent of lipid peroxidation and malondialdehyde (MDA) content was higher (15.8-fold) at 48 h in the sample of inoculated leaves of the pathogen when compared to control. The cellular damages were observed as increased MDA content and reduced chlorophyll. The activities of antioxidative defense enzymes increased in both the pathogen infected as well as toxin treated samples. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was 5.9-fold higher at 24 h post inoculation in leaves followed by TeA (5.0-fold), AOH (4.1-fold) and AME (2.3-fold) treated leaves than control. Catalase (CAT) activity was found to be increased upto 48 h post inoculation and maximum in the pathogen challenged samples followed by other toxins. The native PAGE results showed the variations in the intensities of isozyme (SOD and CAT) bands in the pathogen infected and toxin treated samples. Ascorbate peroxidase (APx) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities followed the similar trend to scavenge the excess H2O2. The reduction in CAT activities

  16. c-CBL E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Expression Increases Across the Spectrum of Benign and Malignant T-Cell Skin Diseases.

    PubMed

    Salva, Katrin A; Reeder, Margo J; Lloyd, Rita; Wood, Gary S

    2016-10-31

    Prolonged survival of lesional T cells plays a central role in the pathogenesis of T-cell-mediated dermatoses. We have recently shown that the ubiquitin ligase c-CBL is highly expressed in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) and that its knockdown increases activation-induced cell death, a key pathway for T-cell apoptosis. Here, we extend our work on c-CBL expression in malignant T cells to their nonneoplastic counterparts in benign inflammatory dermatoses. Immunohistochemical staining with anti-c-CBL antibody was performed on lesional biopsies from a total of 65 patients with atopic dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, pityriasis rosea, psoriasis vulgaris, lichen planus, mycosis fungoides (MF)/Sézary syndrome (SS) as well as on tonsil tissue from 5 individuals and on 5 human CTCL cell lines. Protein levels were measured in situ using multispectral image analysis, a quantitative method that is ×5 more sensitive than standard immunohistology for antigen detection. There was a significant (P < 0.05) and progressive increase of mean c-CBL expression across the spectrum of inflammatory dermatoses (2-fold), MF/SS (3-fold), and lymphoma cell lines (4-fold) as compared with tonsillar T lymphocytes. A subset of MF/SS cases expressed mean c-CBL levels above the ranges observed in inflammatory dermatoses. Given our prior finding that c-CBL inhibits activation-induced cell death, c-CBL might play a role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory dermatoses and CTCL.

  17. Zn2+ -induced changes at the root level account for the increased tolerance of acclimated tobacco plants.

    PubMed

    Bazihizina, Nadia; Taiti, Cosimo; Marti, Lucia; Rodrigo-Moreno, Ana; Spinelli, Francesco; Giordano, Cristiana; Caparrotta, Stefania; Gori, Massimo; Azzarello, Elisa; Mancuso, Stefano

    2014-09-01

    Evidence suggests that heavy-metal tolerance can be induced in plants following pre-treatment with non-toxic metal concentrations, but the results are still controversial. In the present study, tobacco plants were exposed to increasing Zn2+ concentrations (up to 250 and/or 500 μM ZnSO4) with or without a 1-week acclimation period with 30 μM ZnSO4. Elevated Zn2+ was highly toxic for plants, and after 3 weeks of treatments there was a marked (≥50%) decline in plant growth in non-acclimated plants. Plant acclimation, on the other hand, increased plant dry mass and leaf area up to 1.6-fold compared with non-acclimated ones. In non-acclimated plants, the addition of 250 μM ZnSO4 led to transient membrane depolarization and stomatal closure within 24h from the addition of the stress; by contrast, the acclimation process was associated with an improved stomatal regulation and a superior ability to maintain a negative root membrane potential, with values on average 37% more negative compared with non-acclimated plants. The different response at the plasma-membrane level between acclimated and non-acclimated plants was associated with an enhanced vacuolar Zn2+ sequestration and up to 2-fold higher expression of the tobacco orthologue of the Arabidopsis thaliana MTP1 gene. Thus, the acclimation process elicited specific detoxification mechanisms in roots that enhanced Zn2+ compartmentalization in vacuoles, thereby improving root membrane functionality and stomatal regulation in leaves following elevated Zn2+ stress.

  18. Zn2+-induced changes at the root level account for the increased tolerance of acclimated tobacco plants

    PubMed Central

    Bazihizina, Nadia; Taiti, Cosimo; Marti, Lucia; Rodrigo-Moreno, Ana; Spinelli, Francesco; Giordano, Cristiana; Caparrotta, Stefania; Gori, Massimo; Azzarello, Elisa; Mancuso, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Evidence suggests that heavy-metal tolerance can be induced in plants following pre-treatment with non-toxic metal concentrations, but the results are still controversial. In the present study, tobacco plants were exposed to increasing Zn2+ concentrations (up to 250 and/or 500 μM ZnSO4) with or without a 1-week acclimation period with 30 μM ZnSO4. Elevated Zn2+ was highly toxic for plants, and after 3 weeks of treatments there was a marked (≥50%) decline in plant growth in non-acclimated plants. Plant acclimation, on the other hand, increased plant dry mass and leaf area up to 1.6-fold compared with non-acclimated ones. In non-acclimated plants, the addition of 250 μM ZnSO4 led to transient membrane depolarization and stomatal closure within 24h from the addition of the stress; by contrast, the acclimation process was associated with an improved stomatal regulation and a superior ability to maintain a negative root membrane potential, with values on average 37% more negative compared with non-acclimated plants. The different response at the plasma-membrane level between acclimated and non-acclimated plants was associated with an enhanced vacuolar Zn2+ sequestration and up to 2-fold higher expression of the tobacco orthologue of the Arabidopsis thaliana MTP1 gene. Thus, the acclimation process elicited specific detoxification mechanisms in roots that enhanced Zn2+ compartmentalization in vacuoles, thereby improving root membrane functionality and stomatal regulation in leaves following elevated Zn2+ stress. PMID:24928985

  19. A comparative multidimensional LC-MS proteomic analysis reveals mechanisms for furan aldehyde detoxification in Thermoanaerobacter pseudethanolicus 39E

    DOE PAGES

    Clarkson, Sonya M.; Hamilton-Brehm, Scott D.; Giannone, Richard J.; ...

    2014-12-03

    Background: Chemical and physical pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass improves substrate reactivity for increased microbial biofuel production, but also restricts growth via the release of furan aldehydes such as furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF). The physiological effects of these inhibitors on thermophilic, fermentative bacteria is important to understand; especially as cellulolytic strains are being developed for consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) of lignocellulosic feedstocks. Identifying mechanisms for detoxification of aldehydes in naturally resistant strains such as Thermoanaerobacter spp. may also enable improvements in candidate CBP microorganisms. Results: T. pseudethanolicus 39E, an anaerobic, saccharolytic thermophile, was found to grow readily in the presence of 30more » mM furfural and 20 mM 5-HMF and reduce these aldehydes to their respective alcohols in situ. The proteomes of T. pseudethanolicus 39E grown in the presence or absence of 15 mM furfural were compared to identify upregulated enzymes potentially responsible for the observed reduction. A total of 225 proteins were differentially regulated in response to the 15 mM furfural treatment with 152 upregulated vs. 73 downregulated. Only 86 proteins exhibited a 2-fold change in abundance in either direction. Of these, 53 were upregulated in the presence of furfural and 33 were downregulated. Two oxidoreductases were upregulated at least 2-fold by furfural and were targeted for further investigation: Teth39_1597, encodes a predicted butanol dehydrogenase (BdhA) and Teth39_1598, a predicted aldo/keto reductase (AKR). Both genes were cloned from T. pseudethanolicus 39E, with the respective enzymes overexpressed in E. coli and specific activities determined against a variety of aldehydes. BdhA showed significant activity with all aldehydes tested, including furfural and 5-HMF, using NADPH as the cofactor. AKR also showed significant activity with NADPH, but only with four carbon butyr

  20. Comparing histological, vascular and molecular responses associated with woven and lamellar bone formation induced by mechanical loading in the rat ulna.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Jennifer A; Silva, Matthew J

    2011-02-01

    Osteogenesis occurs by formation of woven or lamellar bone. Little is known about the molecular regulation of these two distinct processes. We stimulated periosteal bone formation at the ulnar mid-diaphysis of adult rats using a single bout of forelimb compression. We hypothesized that loading that stimulates woven bone formation induces higher over-expression of genes associated with cell proliferation, angiogenesis and osteogenesis compared to loading that stimulates lamellar bone formation. We first confirmed that a single bout of 100 cycles of loading using either a rest-inserted (0.1 Hz) or haversine (2 Hz) waveform (15 N peak force) was non-damaging and increased lamellar bone formation (LBF loading). Woven bone formation (WBF loading) was stimulated using a previously described, damaging fatigue loading protocol (2 Hz, 1.3 mm disp., 18 N peak force). There were dramatic differences in gene expression levels (based on qRT-PCR) between loading protocols that produced woven and lamellar bone. In contrast, gene expression levels were not different between LBF loading protocols using a rest-inserted or haversine waveform. Cell proliferation markers Hist4 and Ccnd1 were strongly upregulated (5- to 17-fold) 1 and 3 days after WBF loading, prior to woven bone formation, but not after LBF loading. The angiogenic genes Vegf and Hif1a were upregulated within 1 h after WBF loading and were strongly up on days 1-3 (3- to 15-fold). In sharp contrast, we observed only a modest increase (<2-fold) in Vegfa and Hif1a expression on day 3 following LBF loading. Consistent with these relative differences in gene expression, vascular perfusion 3 days after loading revealed significant increases in vessel number and volume following WBF loading, but not after LBF loading. Lastly, bone formation markers (Runx2, Osx, Bsp) were more strongly upregulated for woven (4- to 89-fold) than for lamellar bone (2-fold), consistent with the differences in new bone volume observed 10 days after

  1. Elimination of hydrogenase active site assembly blocks H2 production and increases ethanol yield in Clostridium thermocellum

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Ranjita; Zheng, Tianyong; Olson, Daniel G.; Lynd, Lee R.; Guss, Adam M.

    2015-02-01

    The native ability of Clostridium thermocellum to rapidly consume cellulose and produce ethanol makes it a leading candidate for a consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) biofuel production strategy. C. thermocellum also synthesizes lactate, formate, acetate, H2, and amino acids that compete with ethanol production for carbon and electrons. Elimination of H2 production could redirect carbon flux towards ethanol production by making more electrons available for acetyl-CoA reduction to ethanol. C. thermocellum encodes four hydrogenases and rather than delete each individually, we targeted a hydrogenase maturase gene (hydG), involved in converting the three [FeFe] hydrogenase apoenzymes into holoenzymes. Further deletion of the [NiFe] hydrogenase (ech) resulted in a mutant that functionally lacks all four hydrogenases. H2 production in hydG ech was undetectable and ethanol yield increased nearly 2-fold compared to wild type. Interestingly, mutant growth improved upon the addition of acetate, which led to increased expression of genes related to sulfate metabolism, suggesting these mutants may use sulfate as a terminal electron acceptor to balance redox reactions. Genomic analysis of hydG revealed a mutation in adhE, resulting in a strain with both NADH- and NADPH-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase activities. While this same adhE mutation is found in ethanol tolerant C. thermocellum strain E50C, hydG and hydG ech are not more ethanol tolerant than wild type, illustrating the complicated interactions between redox balancing and ethanol tolerance in C. thermocellum. The dramatic increase in ethanol production here suggests that targeting protein post-translational modification is a promising new approach for inactivation of multiple enzymes simultaneously for metabolic engineering.

  2. Elimination of hydrogenase active site assembly blocks H2 production and increases ethanol yield in Clostridium thermocellum

    DOE PAGES

    Biswas, Ranjita; Zheng, Tianyong; Olson, Daniel G.; ...

    2015-02-01

    The native ability of Clostridium thermocellum to rapidly consume cellulose and produce ethanol makes it a leading candidate for a consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) biofuel production strategy. C. thermocellum also synthesizes lactate, formate, acetate, H2, and amino acids that compete with ethanol production for carbon and electrons. Elimination of H2 production could redirect carbon flux towards ethanol production by making more electrons available for acetyl-CoA reduction to ethanol. C. thermocellum encodes four hydrogenases and rather than delete each individually, we targeted a hydrogenase maturase gene (hydG), involved in converting the three [FeFe] hydrogenase apoenzymes into holoenzymes. Further deletion of the [NiFe]more » hydrogenase (ech) resulted in a mutant that functionally lacks all four hydrogenases. H2 production in hydG ech was undetectable and ethanol yield increased nearly 2-fold compared to wild type. Interestingly, mutant growth improved upon the addition of acetate, which led to increased expression of genes related to sulfate metabolism, suggesting these mutants may use sulfate as a terminal electron acceptor to balance redox reactions. Genomic analysis of hydG revealed a mutation in adhE, resulting in a strain with both NADH- and NADPH-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase activities. While this same adhE mutation is found in ethanol tolerant C. thermocellum strain E50C, hydG and hydG ech are not more ethanol tolerant than wild type, illustrating the complicated interactions between redox balancing and ethanol tolerance in C. thermocellum. The dramatic increase in ethanol production here suggests that targeting protein post-translational modification is a promising new approach for inactivation of multiple enzymes simultaneously for metabolic engineering.« less

  3. Short Communication: A Recombinant Variant with Increased Envelope Entry Efficiency Emerged During Early Infection of an HIV-1 Subtype C Dual Infected Rapid Progressor

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Kerry; Omar, Shatha; Nofemela, Andile; Bandawe, Gama; Williamson, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Mutations in functionally constrained sites of the HIV envelope (Env) can affect entry efficiency and are potential targets for vaccine and drug design. We investigated Du151, a dual-infected individual with rapid disease progression. At her death 19 months postinfection (mpi), she was infected with a recombinant variant, which outgrew both parental viruses. We aimed to determine whether the recombinant virus had enhanced Env entry efficiency compared to the parental viruses and to identify the functional determinant. We generated 15 env clones at 1, 2, 8, and 19 mpi. Pseudovirus carrying a recombinant Env clone (PSV clone), C18 (19 mpi), had significantly higher entry efficiency compared to the parents, suggesting that the recombinant virus had enhanced fitness. To identify the functional determinant, we compared two recombinant PSV clones (C18 and C63)—differing in entry efficiency (2-fold) and by four and three amino acids in gp120 and gp41, respectively. The increased entry efficiency of a C18-gp41 PSV chimera indicated that the three amino acids in the C18 gp41 region were involved (K658, G671, and F717). Site-directed mutagenesis of the three amino acids of C63 showed that a single amino acid mutation, R658K, increased pseudovirion entry efficiency. The introduction of R658 into two PSV clones (C1 and C18) decreased their entry efficiency, suggesting that R658 carries a fitness cost. Thus, our data suggest that a recombinant virus emerged at 19 mpi with enhanced Env entry efficiency. Therefore, K658 in gp41 could in part be a contributing factor to the increased viral load and rapid disease progression of Du151. PMID:25905681

  4. Comparative oncology today.

    PubMed

    Paoloni, Melissa C; Khanna, Chand

    2007-11-01

    The value of comparative oncology has been increasingly recognized in the field of cancer research, including the identification of cancer-associated genes; the study of environmental risk factors, tumor biology, and progression; and, perhaps most importantly, the evaluation of novel cancer therapeutics. The fruits of this effort are expected to be the creation of better and more specific drugs to benefit veterinary and human patients who have cancer. The state of the comparative oncology field is outlined in this article, with an emphasis on cancer in dogs.

  5. Examining the mechanisms responsible for lower ROS release rates in liver mitochondria from the long-lived house sparrow (Passer domesticus) and big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus) compared to the short-lived mouse (Mus musculus).

    PubMed

    Brown, Jason C L; McClelland, Grant B; Faure, Paul A; Klaiman, Jordan M; Staples, James F

    2009-08-01

    Lower ROS release rate in long-lived species is likely caused by decreased reduction of electron transport chain (ETC) complexes, but how this is achieved remains largely unknown. We compared liver mitochondrial H(2)O(2) release rates among endotherms of comparable size and metabolic rate: house sparrow and big brown bat (both long-lived) and house mouse (short-lived). We hypothesized that low ROS release rates in long-lived species result from (i) lower mitochondrial respiration rate, (ii) increased mitochondrial proton conductance ('uncoupling to survive'), and/or (iii) increased ETC oxidative capacity ('spare oxidative capacity'). H(2)O(2) release rate was 70% lower in bats than mice despite similar respiration rates. Consistent with 'uncoupling to survive', proton leakiness was 3-fold higher in bats at membrane potentials above 130mV. Basal H(2)O(2) release rate and respiration rates were 2-fold higher in sparrows than mice. Consistent with 'spare oxidative capacity', subsaturating succinate decreased H(2)O(2) release rate in sparrows but not mice. Moreover, succinate:Cytochrome c oxidoreductase activity was 3-fold higher in sparrows, and ETC inhibitors increased ROS release rate 20-27-fold in sparrows (with glutamate or subsaturating succinate) but only 4-5-fold in mice. Taken together these data suggest that complexes I and III are less reduced under physiological conditions in sparrows. We conclude that different long-lived species may use distinct mechanisms to lower mitochondrial ROS release rate.

  6. Building a better infarct: Modulation of collagen cross-linking to increase infarct stiffness and reduce left ventricular dilation post-myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Voorhees, Andrew P; DeLeon-Pennell, Kristine Y; Ma, Yonggang; Halade, Ganesh V; Yabluchanskiy, Andriy; Iyer, Rugmani Padmanabhan; Flynn, Elizabeth; Cates, Courtney A; Lindsey, Merry L; Han, Hai-Chao

    2015-08-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) deletion attenuates collagen accumulation and dilation of the left ventricle (LV) post-myocardial infarction (MI); however the biomechanical mechanisms underlying the improved outcome are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanisms whereby MMP-9 deletion alters collagen network composition and assembly in the LV post-MI to modulate the mechanical properties of myocardial scar tissue. Adult C57BL/6J wild-type (WT; n=88) and MMP-9 null (MMP-9(-/-); n=92) mice of both sexes underwent permanent coronary artery ligation and were compared to day 0 controls (n=42). At day 7 post-MI, WT LVs displayed a 3-fold increase in end-diastolic volume, while MMP-9(-/-) showed only a 2-fold increase (p<0.05). Biaxial mechanical testing revealed that MMP-9(-/-) infarcts were stiffer than WT infarcts, as indicated by a 1.3-fold reduction in predicted in vivo circumferential stretch (p<0.05). Paradoxically, MMP-9(-/-) infarcts had a 1.8-fold reduction in collagen deposition (p<0.05). This apparent contradiction was explained by a 3.1-fold increase in lysyl oxidase (p<0.05) in MMP-9(-/-) infarcts, indicating that MMP-9 deletion increased collagen cross-linking activity. Furthermore, MMP-9 deletion led to a 3.0-fold increase in bone morphogenetic protein-1, the metalloproteinase that cleaves pro-collagen and pro-lysyl oxidase (p<0.05) and reduced fibronectin fragmentation by 49% (p<0.05) to enhance lysyl oxidase activity. We conclude that MMP-9 deletion increases infarct stiffness and prevents LV dilation by reducing collagen degradation and facilitating collagen assembly and cross-linking through preservation of the fibronectin network and activation of lysyl oxidase.

  7. The transcription of MGAT4A glycosyl transferase is increased in white cells of peripheral blood of Type 2 Diabetes patients

    PubMed Central

    López-Orduña, Eduardo; Cruz, Miguel; García-Mena, Jaime

    2007-01-01

    Background Human glycosylase IV is involved in GLUT2 transporter regulation in pancreatic β cells. A KO of this gene along with a high fat diet in a mice model has been associated with the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The aims of this study were to measure and compare the MGAT4A mRNA levels in white blood cells (WBC) from T2D subjects and healthy subjects (T2NB), and to measure the half-life of the MGAT4A mRNA. Results We studied a sample of 73 individuals, 40 T2D subjects and 33 T2NB subjects. Anthropometrical and biochemical profiles were registered. The MGAT4A mRNA levels in WBC and the transcript half-life in Jurkat T cells were determined by Real-Time PCR. A blood differential cell counting was made for each individual. Cell counting showed T2D subjects exhibited an increased number of WBC compared to T2NB subjects (P = 0.0001). Biochemical parameters such as fasting glucose (P = 0.0001), and triglycerides (P = 0.002) were statistically significant. T2D subjects had 4.2-fold more MGAT4A transcript compared to T2NB subjects (P = 0.002). The MGAT4A mRNA had a half-life of 2.04 h in Jurkat T cells. Conclusion The results of this work suggest that in T2D subjects, high levels of glucose and triglycerides are accompanied by an increase on MGAT4A mRNA levels and WBC count; condition that suggests a pro-inflammatory state due to a chronic metabolic stress. PMID:17953760

  8. Increased intracranial pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... brain. Many conditions can increase intracranial pressure. Common causes include: Aneurysm rupture and subarachnoid hemorrhage Brain tumor Encephalitis Head injury Hydrocephalus (increased fluid around ...

  9. Increasing Accuracy and Increasing Tension in Ho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freedman, Wendy L.

    2017-01-01

    The Hubble Constant, Ho, provides a measure of the current expansion rate of the universe. In recent decades, there has been a huge increase in the accuracy with which extragalactic distances, and hence Ho, can be measured. While the historical factor-of-two uncertainty in Ho has been resolved, a new discrepancy has arisen between the values of Ho measured in the local universe, and that estimated from cosmic microwave background measurements, assuming a Lambda cold dark matter model. I will review the advances that have led to the increase in accuracy in measurements of Ho, as well as describe exciting future prospects with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and Gaia, which will make it feasible to measure extragalactic distances at percent-level accuracy in the next decade.

  10. The selective loss of the type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase in mouse thyrotrophs increases basal TSH but blunts the thyrotropin response to hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Luongo, Cristina; Martin, Cecilia; Vella, Kristen; Marsili, Alessandro; Ambrosio, Raffaele; Dentice, Monica; Harney, John W; Salvatore, Domenico; Zavacki, Ann Marie; Larsen, P Reed

    2015-02-01

    The type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase (D2) is essential for feedback regulation of TSH by T4. We genetically inactivated in vivo D2 in thyrotrophs using a mouse model of Cga-driven cre recombinase. Pituitary D2 activity was reduced 90% in the Cga-cre D2 knockout (KO) mice compared with control Dio2(fl/fl) mice. There was no growth or reproductive phenotype. Basal TSH levels were increased 1.5- to 1.8-fold, but serum T4 and T3 were not different from the controls in adult mice. In hypothyroid adult mice, suppression of TSH by T4, but not T3, was impaired. Despite mild basal TSH elevation, the TSH increase in response to hypothyroidism was 4-fold reduced in the Cga-cre D2KO compared with control mice despite an identical level of pituitary TSH α- and β-subunit mRNAs. In neonatal Cga-cre D2KO mice, TSH was also 2-fold higher than in the controls, but serum T4 was elevated. Despite a constant TSH, serum T4 increased 2-3-fold between postnatal day (P) 5 and P15 in both genotypes. The pituitary, but not cerebrocortical, D2 activity was markedly elevated in P5 mice decreasing towards adult levels by P17. In conclusion, a congenital severe reduction of thyrotroph D2 causes a major impairment of the TSH response to hypothyroidism. This would be deleterious to the compensatory adaptation of the thyroid gland to iodine deficiency.

  11. Managing Vancouver B1 fractures by cerclage system compared to locking plate fixation - a biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Katharina; Winkler, Martin; Hofstädter, Thomas; Dorn, Ulrich; Augat, Peter

    2016-06-01

    With increasing life expectancy and number of total hip arthroplasties (THA), the need for revision surgery is increasing too. The aim of this study was to evaluate the optimal fracture treatment for a clinically characteristic Vancouver B1 fracture. We hypothesized that locking plate fixation has biomechanical advantages over fixation with a simple cerclage system. Additionally, we hypothesized that removal of the primary short stem and revision with a long stem would show biomechanical benefit. The biomechanical testing was performed with a static and a dynamic loading protocol on twenty 4th Generation sawbones. These were divided into four different groups (n = 5 each). In group 1, the primary uncemented short stem remained and the fracture was stabilized with a locking plate. In group 2, the primary stem remained and the fracture was stabilized with a cerclage stabilization system containing two stabilizers and four cerclages. In group 3, the primary stem was replaced by an uncemented long revision stem and the fracture was fixed with a locking plate. In group 4, the short stem was replaced by a long revision stem and the fracture was fixed with the cerclage system. Static testing revealed that the revision of the short stem with the long stem caused a 2-fold (p < 0.001, ANOVA) increase of axial stiffness. In dynamic testing, the number of cycles to failure was 4 times (p < 0.001, ANOVA) higher with the long revision stem. Compared to locked plating cerclage wiring demonstrated a 26% more cycles to failure (p = 0.031, ANOVA). The load to failure was 91% larger (p < 0.001, ANOVA) with the long revision stem and 11% smaller with locked plating (p < 0.001, ANOVA). In conclusion, the present biomechanical study indicates that periprosthetic Vancouver B1 fractures can be sufficiently fixed by simple cerclage systems. Revision with a long replacement stem provides a superior mechanical stability regardless of type of osteosynthesis fixation and is therefore a viable

  12. Comparative genotoxicity of nanosilver in human liver HepG2 and colon Caco2 cells evaluated by a flow cytometric in vitro micronucleus assay.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Saura C; Njoroge, Joyce; Bryce, Steven M; Yourick, Jeffrey J; Sprando, Robert L

    2014-11-01

    Two widely used in vitro cell culture models, human liver HepG2 cells and human colon Caco2 cells, and flow cytometry techniques were evaluated as tools for rapid screening of potential genotoxicity of food-related nanosilver. Comparative genotoxic potential of 20 nm silver was evaluated in HepG2 and Caco2 cell cultures by a flow cytometric-based in vitro micronucleus assay. The nanosilver, characterized by the dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry analysis, showed no agglomeration of the silver nanoparticles. The inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy analysis demonstrated the uptake of 20 nm silver by both cell types. The 20 nm silver exposure of HepG2 cells increased the concentration-dependent micronucleus formation sevenfold at 10 µg ml(-1) concentration in attached cell conditions and 1.3-fold in cell suspension conditions compared to the vehicle controls. However, compared to the vehicle controls, the 20 nm silver exposure of Caco2 cells increased the micronucleus formation 1.2-fold at a concentration of 10 µg ml(-1) both in the attached cell conditions as well as in the cell suspension conditions. Our results of flow cytometric in vitro micronucleus assay appear to suggest that the HepG2 cells are more susceptible to the nanosilver-induced micronucleus formation than the Caco2 cells compared to the vehicle controls. However, our results also suggest that the widely used in vitro models, HepG2 and Caco2 cells and the flow cytometric in vitro micronucleus assay are valuable tools for the rapid screening of genotoxic potential of nanosilver and deserve more careful evaluation.

  13. Brief Telephone Intervention Increases Soy Intake in Peri- and Postmenopausal US Women: the Herbal Alternatives (HALT) Trial

    PubMed Central

    Beasley, Jeannette M.; Schenk, Jeannette M.; Ludman, Evette; Lampe, Johanna W.; Reed, Susan; Grothaus, Lou; Newton, Katherine M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Effective dietary intervention strategies that can be widely disseminated and have the potential for sustainable dietary modifications are needed. Objective To describe and evaluate the effectiveness of a telephone-based soy intervention. Design A randomized controlled trial comparing self-reported and serum measures of soy intake during a 1-year dietary soy (Soy) to fruit and vegetable (Placebo) intervention conducted in two of five arms from the Herbal Alternatives Trial between May 2001-September 2004. Subjects/setting 163 peri- and postmenopausal women (mean age 52 y) consuming self-selected diets; Pacific Northwest, US. Intervention Five telephone contacts with a dietitian during a 12-month intervention with the goal to increase soy food consumption to two servings daily. Main outcome measures Change from baseline in self-reported soy servings and serum isoflavone (daidzein and genistein) concentrations were estimated using analysis of variance and generalized estimating equations. Proportion of participants achieving the intervention goal was compared using Chi-squared tests. Results Ninety-four percent (n=74) of participants in the Soy arm and 89% (n=75) in the Placebo arm completed the trial, and just over 1/3 (n=27) received 5 phone contacts. Mean(±SD) intake of soy was similar for the Soy and Placebo arms at baseline (0.6±1.0 versus 0.4±0.8 servings/day, P>0.05). At the 12-month follow-up visit, mean±SD servings of soy per day were 1.6±1.4 for the Soy intervention compared to 0.5±0.9 within the Placebo arm (P<0.001). There were concomitant increases in serum isoflavones at 3 and 6 months from baseline in the Soy arm only, with approximately 2-fold increases in both daidzein (mean 66.4 nmol/L, 95% CI 39.0 to 93.9) and genistein (mean 100.4 nmol/L, 95% CI 60.9 to 139.9) concentrations. Mean weight changed by less than 1 kg over the 12-month period in each group and physical activity remained stable, suggesting participants incorporated soy

  14. Mildly oxidized LDL induces an increased apolipoprotein J/paraoxonase ratio.

    PubMed Central

    Navab, M; Hama-Levy, S; Van Lenten, B J; Fonarow, G C; Cardinez, C J; Castellani, L W; Brennan, M L; Lusis, A J; Fogelman, A M; La Du, B N

    1997-01-01

    We have examined the effects of mildly oxidized LDL and atherosclerosis on the levels of two proteins associated with HDL; apolipoprotein J (apoJ), and paraoxonase (PON). On an atherogenic diet, PON activity decreased by 52%, and apoJ levels increased 2.8-fold in fatty streak susceptible mice, C57BL/6J (BL/6), but not in fatty streak resistant mice, C3H/HeJ (C3H). Plasma PON activity was also significantly decreased, and apoJ levels were markedly increased in apolipoprotein E knockout mice on the chow diet, resulting in a 9.2-fold increase in the apoJ/PON ratio as compared to controls. Furthermore, a dramatic increase in the apoJ/PON ratio (over 100-fold) was observed in LDL receptor knockout mice when they were fed a 0.15%-cholesterol-enriched diet. Injection of mildly oxidized LDL (but not native LDL) into BL/6 mice (but not in C3H mice) on a chow diet resulted in a 59% decrease in PON activity (P < 0.01) and a 3.6-fold increase in apoJ levels (P < 0.01). When an acute phase reaction was induced in rabbits, or the rabbits were placed on an atherogenic diet, hepatic mRNA for apoJ was increased by 2.7-fold and 2.8-fold, respectively. Treatment of HepG2 cells in culture with mildly oxidized LDL (but not native LDL) resulted in reduced mRNA levels for PON (3.0-fold decrease) and increased mRNA levels for apoJ (2.0-fold increase). In normolipidemic patients with angiographically documented coronary artery disease who did not have diabetes and were not on lipid-lowering medication (n = 14), the total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio was 3.1+/-0.9 as compared to 2.9+/-0.4 in the controls (n = 19). This difference was not statistically significant. In contrast, the apoJ/PON ratio was 3.0+/-0.4 in the patients compared to 0.72+/-0.2 in the controls (P < 0.009). In a subset of these normolipidemic patients (n = 5), the PON activity was low (48+/-6.6 versus 98+/-17 U/ml for controls; P < 0.009), despite similar normal HDL levels, and the HDL from these patients failed to

  15. Increasing hybridization rate and sensitivity of DNA microarrays using isotachophoresis.

    PubMed

    Han, Crystal M; Katilius, Evaldas; Santiago, Juan G

    2014-08-21

    We present an on-chip electrokinetic method to increase the reaction kinetics and sensitivity of DNA microarray hybridization. We use isotachophoresis (ITP) to preconcentrate target molecules in solution and transport them over the immobilized probe sites of a microarray, greatly increasing the binding reaction rate. We show theoretically and experimentally that ITP-enhanced microarrays can be hybridized much faster and with higher sensitivity than conventional methods. We demonstrate our assay using a microfluidic system consisting of a PDMS microchannel superstructure bonded onto a glass slide on which 60 spots of 20-27 nt ssDNA oligonucleotide probes are immobilized. Our 30 min assay results in an 8.2 fold higher signal than the conventional overnight hybridization at 100 fM target concentration. We show rapid and quantitative detection over 4 orders of magnitude dynamic range of target concentration with no increase in the nonspecific signal. Our technique can be further multiplexed for higher density microarrays and extended for other reactions of target-surface immobilized ligands.

  16. Angiotensin-converting enzyme and matrix metalloproteinase inhibition with developing heart failure: comparative effects on left ventricular function and geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McElmurray, J. H. 3rd; Mukherjee, R.; New, R. B.; Sampson, A. C.; King, M. K.; Hendrick, J. W.; Goldberg, A.; Peterson, T. J.; Hallak, H.; Zile, M. R.; Spinale, F. G.

    1999-01-01

    The progression of congestive heart failure (CHF) is left ventricular (LV) myocardial remodeling. The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) contribute to tissue remodeling and therefore MMP inhibition may serve as a useful therapeutic target in CHF. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition favorably affects LV myocardial remodeling in CHF. This study examined the effects of specific MMP inhibition, ACE inhibition, and combined treatment on LV systolic and diastolic function in a model of CHF. Pigs were randomly assigned to five groups: 1) rapid atrial pacing (240 beats/min) for 3 weeks (n = 8); 2) ACE inhibition (fosinopril, 2.5 mg/kg b.i.d. orally) and rapid pacing (n = 8); 3) MMP inhibition (PD166793 2 mg/kg/day p.o.) and rapid pacing (n = 8); 4) combined ACE and MMP inhibition (2.5 mg/kg b.i.d. and 2 mg/kg/day, respectively) and rapid pacing (n = 8); and 5) controls (n = 9). LV peak wall stress increased by 2-fold with rapid pacing and was reduced in all treatment groups. LV fractional shortening fell by nearly 2-fold with rapid pacing and increased in all treatment groups. The circumferential fiber shortening-systolic stress relation was reduced with rapid pacing and increased in the ACE inhibition and combination groups. LV myocardial stiffness constant was unchanged in the rapid pacing group, increased nearly 2-fold in the MMP inhibition group, and was normalized in the ACE inhibition and combination treatment groups. Increased MMP activation contributes to the LV dilation and increased wall stress with pacing CHF and a contributory downstream mechanism of ACE inhibition is an effect on MMP activity.

  17. Membrane fusion inducers, chloroquine and spermidine increase lipoplex-mediated gene transfection

    SciTech Connect

    Wong-Baeza, Carlos; Bustos, Israel; Serna, Manuel; Tescucano, Alonso; Alcantara-Farfan, Veronica; Ibanez, Miguel; Montanez, Cecilia; Wong, Carlos; Baeza, Isabel

    2010-05-28

    Gene transfection into mammalian cells can be achieved with viral and non-viral vectors. Non-viral vectors, such as cationic lipids that form lipoplexes with DNA, are safer and more stable than viral vectors, but their transfection efficiencies are lower. Here we describe that the simultaneous treatment with a membrane fusion inducer (chlorpromazine or procainamide) plus the lysosomotropic agent chloroquine increases lipoplex-mediated gene transfection in human (HEK293 and C-33 A) and rat (PC12) cell lines (up to 9.2-fold), as well as in situ in BALB/c mice spleens and livers (up to 6-fold); and that the polyamine spermidine increases lipoplex-mediated gene transfection and expression in cell cultures. The use of these four drugs provides a novel, safe and relatively inexpensive way to considerably increase lipoplex-mediated gene transfection efficiency.

  18. NOD promoter-controlled AtIRT1 expression functions synergistically with NAS and FERRITIN genes to increase iron in rice grains.

    PubMed

    Boonyaves, Kulaporn; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Bhullar, Navreet K

    2016-02-01

    Rice is a staple food for over half of the world's population, but it contains only low amounts of bioavailable micronutrients for human nutrition. Consequently, micronutrient deficiency is a widespread health problem among people who depend primarily on rice as their staple food. Iron deficiency anemia is one of the most serious forms of malnutrition. Biofortification of rice grains for increased iron content is an effective strategy to reduce iron deficiency. Unlike other grass species, rice takes up iron as Fe(II) via the IRON REGULATED TRANSPORTER (IRT) in addition to Fe(III)-phytosiderophore chelates. We expressed Arabidopsis IRT1 (AtIRT1) under control of the Medicago sativa EARLY NODULIN 12B promoter in our previously developed high-iron NFP rice lines expressing NICOTIANAMINE SYNTHASE (AtNAS1) and FERRITIN. Transgenic rice lines expressing AtIRT1 alone had significant increases in iron and combined with NAS and FERRITIN increased iron to 9.6 µg/g DW in the polished grains that is 2.2-fold higher as compared to NFP lines. The grains of AtIRT1 lines also accumulated more copper and zinc but not manganese. Our results demonstrate that the concerted expression of AtIRT1, AtNAS1 and PvFERRITIN synergistically increases iron in both polished and unpolished rice grains. AtIRT1 is therefore a valuable transporter for iron biofortification programs when used in combination with other genes encoding iron transporters and/or storage proteins.

  19. Increased head circumference

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003305.htm Increased head circumference To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Increased head circumference is when the measured distance around the ...

  20. OVEREXPRESSION OF ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES UPREGULATES ARYL HYDROCARBON RECEPTOR EXPRESSION VIA INCREASED SP1 DNA-BINDING ACTIVITY

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Tian; Lin, Xinghua; Yang, Hong; Zhou, LiChun; Wang, Zefen; Shan, Guang; Guo, ZhongMao

    2010-01-01

    We previously reported up-regulation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) expression as a mechanism by which overexpression of Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) and/or catalase accelerates benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) detoxification in mouse aorta endothelial cells (MAECs). The objective of this study was to investigate the regulatory role of specificity protein-1 (Sp1) in AhR expression in MAECs that overexpress Cu/Zn-SOD and/or catalase. Our data demonstrated comparable levels of nuclear Sp1 protein in the transgenic and wild-type MAECs; however, binding of Sp1 protein to the AhR promoter region was more than 2-fold higher in MAECs overexpressing Cu/Zn-SOD and/or catalase than in wild-type cells. Inhibition of Sp1 binding to the AhR promoter by mithramycin A reduced AhR expression and eliminated the differences between wild-type MAECs, and three lines of transgenic cells. Functional promoter analysis indicated that AhR promoter activity was significantly higher in MAECs overexpressing catalase than in wild-type cells. Mutation of an AhR promoter Sp1-binding site or addition of hydrogen peroxide to the culture medium reduced AhR promoter activity, and decreased the differences between wild-type MAECs and transgenic cells overexpressing catalase. These results suggest that increased Sp1 binding to the AhR promoter region is an underlying mechanism for up-regulation of AhR expression in MAECs that overexpress Cu/Zn-SOD and/or catalase. PMID:20478378

  1. Engineering angiogenesis following spinal cord injury: A coculture of neural progenitor and endothelial cells in a degradable polymer implant leads to an increase in vessel density and formation of the blood-spinal cord barrier

    PubMed Central

    Rauch, Millicent Ford; Hynes, Sara Royce; Bertram, James; Redmond, Andrew; Robinson, Rebecca; Williams, Cicely; Xu, Hao; Madri, Joseph A.; Lavik, Erin B.

    2009-01-01

    Angiogenesis precedes recovery following spinal cord injury (SCI), and its extent correlates with neural regeneration suggesting that angiogenesis may play a role in repair. An important precondition for studying the role of angiogenesis is the ability to induce it in a controlled manner. Previously, we showed that a coculture of endothelial cells (ECs) and neural progenitor cells (NPCs) promoted the formation of stable tubes in vitro and stable, functional vascular networks in vivo in a subcutaneous model. We sought to test whether a similar coculture would lead to formation of stable functional vessels in the spinal cord following injury. We created microvascular networks in a biodegradable two component implant system and tested the ability of the coculture or controls (lesion control, implant alone, implant plus ECs, or implant plus NPCs) to promote angiogenesis in a rat hemisection model of spinal cord injury. The coculture implant led to a four fold increase in functional vessels compared to the lesion control, implant alone, or implant plus NPCs groups and a 2 fold increase in functional vessels over the implant plus ECs group. Furthermore, half of the vessels in the coculture implant exhibited positive staining for the endothelial barrier antigen, a marker for formation of the blood spinal cord barrier (BSB). No other groups showed positive staining for the BSB in the injury epicenter. This work provides a novel method to induce angiogenesis following SCI and a foundation for studying its role in repair. PMID:19120441

  2. Comparing the cardiovascular therapeutic indices of glycopyrronium and tiotropium in an integrated rat pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and safety model.

    PubMed

    Trifilieff, Alexandre; Ethell, Brian T; Sykes, David A; Watson, Kenny J; Collingwood, Steve; Charlton, Steven J; Kent, Toby C

    2015-08-15

    Long acting inhaled muscarinic receptor antagonists, such as tiotropium, are widely used as bronchodilator therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although this class of compounds is generally considered to be safe and well tolerated in COPD patients the cardiovascular safety of tiotropium has recently been questioned. We describe a rat in vivo model that allows the concurrent assessment of muscarinic antagonist potency, bronchodilator efficacy and a potential for side effects, and we use this model to compare tiotropium with NVA237 (glycopyrronium bromide), a recently approved inhaled muscarinic antagonist for COPD. Anaesthetized Brown Norway rats were dosed intratracheally at 1 or 6h prior to receiving increasing doses of intravenous methacholine. Changes in airway resistance and cardiovascular function were recorded and therapeutic indices were calculated against the ED50 values for the inhibition of methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction. At both time points studied, greater therapeutic indices for hypotension and bradycardia were observed with glycopyrronium (19.5 and 28.5 fold at 1h; >200 fold at 6h) than with tiotropium (1.5 and 4.2 fold at 1h; 4.6 and 5.5 fold at 6h). Pharmacokinetic, protein plasma binding and rat muscarinic receptor binding properties for both compounds were determined and used to generate an integrated model of systemic M2 muscarinic receptor occupancy, which predicted significantly higher M2 receptor blockade at ED50 doses with tiotropium than with glycopyrronium. In our preclinical model there was an improved safety profile for glycopyrronium when compared with tiotropium.

  3. Overexpression of COUP-TF1 in murine embryonic stem cells reduces retinoic acid-associated growth arrest and increases extraembryonic endoderm gene expression.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yong; Gudas, Lorraine J

    2008-09-01

    Vitamin A (retinol [Rol]) and its metabolites are essential for embryonic development. The Rol metabolite all-trans retinoic acid (RA) is a biologically active form of Rol. The orphan nuclear receptor chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription-factors (COUP-TF) proteins have been implicated in the regulation of several important biological processes, such as embryonic development and neuronal cell differentiation. Because there is evidence that COUP-TFs function in the retinoid signaling network during development and differentiation, we generated murine embryonic stem (ES) cell lines which stably and constitutively overexpress COUP-TF1 (NR2F1) and we analyzed RA-induced differentiation. COUP-TF1 overexpression resulted in reduced RA-associated growth arrest. A 2.4+/-0.17-fold higher Nanog mRNA level was seen in COUP-TF1 overexpressing lines, as compared with wild-type (WT) ES cells, after a 72 hr RA treatment. We also showed that COUP-TF1 overexpression enhanced RA-induced extraembryonic endoderm gene expression. Specifically, COUP-TF1 overexpression increased mRNA levels of GATA6 by 3.3+/-0.3-fold, GATA4 by 3.6+/-0.1-fold, laminin B1 (LAMB1) by 3.4+/-0.1-fold, LAMC1 by 3.4+/-0.2-fold, Dab2 by 2.4+0.1-fold, and SOX17 by 2.5-fold at 72 hr after RA treatment plus LIF, as compared with the increases seen in WT ES cells. However, RA-induced neurogenesis was unaffected by COUP-TF1 overexpression, as shown by the equivalent levels of expression of NeuroD1, nestin, GAP43 and other neuronal markers. Our results revealed for the first time that COUP-TF1 is an important signaling molecule during vitamin A (Rol)-mediated very early stage of embryonic development.

  4. Iridoid extracts from Ajuga iva increase the antioxidant enzyme activities in red blood cells of rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet.

    PubMed

    Bouderbala, Sherazede; Prost, Josiane; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie Aleth; Bouchenak, Malika

    2010-05-01

    The lyophilized aqueous extract of Ajuga iva (Ai) is able to reduce oxidative stress, which may prevent lipid peroxidation in hypercholesterolemic rats. Iridoids (I) were isolated from Ai. We hypothesized that the antioxidant defense status in red blood cells (RBC) and tissues in rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet and treated with Ai may be correlated to these compounds. Male Wistar rats (n = 32) weighing 120 +/- 5 g were fed a diet containing 1% cholesterol for 15 days. After this phase, hypercholesterolemic (HC) rats were divided into groups, fed the same diet, and received either the same or different doses (5, 10, or 15 mg/kg body weight by intraperitoneal injection) of I for 15 days. Compared with the HC group, total cholesterol value was 1.4- and 1.2-fold lower in the I(5)-HC and I(10)-HC groups. Serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substance content was 2.3-, 2.9-, and 3-fold lower in the I(5)-HC, I(10)-HC, and I(15)-HC groups compared with the HC group. In RBC, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and superoxide dismutase activities were significantly higher in the I(5)-HC, I(10)-HC, and I(15)-HC groups than the HC group. Liver, heart, and muscle glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities were significantly higher in the groups treated with I than the HC group. Muscle glutathione reductase activity was increased 1.4-fold in the I(5)-HC, 1.5-fold in the I(10)-HC, and 1.5-fold in the I(15)-HC group. In HC rats, different doses of I increase the antioxidant enzyme activities in RBC and act differently in tissues. Treatment with I may play an important role in suppressing oxidative stress caused by dietary cholesterol and, thus, may be useful for the prevention and/or early treatment of hypercholesterolemia.

  5. Anti-CD3 and concanavalin A-induced human T cell proliferation is associated with an increased rate of arachidonate-phospholipid remodeling. Lack of involvement of group IV and group VI phospholipase A2 in remodeling and increased susceptibility of proliferating T cells to CoA-independent transacyclase inhibitor-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Boilard, E; Surette, M E

    2001-05-18

    In this study arachidonate-phospholipid remodeling was investigated in resting and proliferating human T lymphocytes. Lymphocytes induced to proliferate with either the mitogen concanavalin A or with anti-CD3 (OKT3) in combination with interleukin 2 (OKT3/IL-2) showed a greatly accelerated rate of [3H]arachidonate-phospholipid remodeling compared with resting lymphocytes or with lymphocytes stimulated with OKT3 or IL-2 alone. The concanavalin A-stimulated cells showed a 2-fold increase in the specific activity of CoA-independent transacylase compared with unstimulated cells, indicating that this enzyme is inducible. Stimulation with OKT3 resulted in greatly increased quantities of the group VI calcium-independent phospholipase A2 but not of the quantity of group IV cytosolic phospholipase A2. However, group IV phospholipase A2 became phosphorylated in OKT3-stimulated cells, as determined by decreased electrophoretic mobility. Incubation of cells with the group VI phospholipase A2 inhibitor, bromoenol lactone, or the dual group IV/group VI phospholipase A2 inhibitor, methyl arachidonyl fluorophosphonate, did not block arachidonate-phospholipid remodeling resting or proliferating T cells, suggesting that these phospholipases A2 were not involved in arachidonate-phospholipid remodeling. The incubation of nonproliferating human lymphocytes with inhibitors of CoA-independent transacylase had little impact on cell survival. In contrast, OKT3/IL-2-stimulated T lymphocytes were very sensitive to apoptosis induced by CoA-independent transacylase inhibitors. Altogether these results indicate that increased arachidonate-phospholipid remodeling is associated with T cell proliferation and that CoA-independent transacylase may be a novel therapeutic target for proliferative disorders.

  6. A comparative multidimensional LC-MS proteomic analysis reveals mechanisms for furan aldehyde detoxification in Thermoanaerobacter pseudethanolicus 39E

    SciTech Connect

    Clarkson, Sonya M.; Hamilton-Brehm, Scott D.; Giannone, Richard J.; Engle, Nancy L.; Tschaplinski, Timothy J.; Hettich, Robert L.; Elkins, James G.

    2014-12-03

    Background: Chemical and physical pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass improves substrate reactivity for increased microbial biofuel production, but also restricts growth via the release of furan aldehydes such as furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF). The physiological effects of these inhibitors on thermophilic, fermentative bacteria is important to understand; especially as cellulolytic strains are being developed for consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) of lignocellulosic feedstocks. Identifying mechanisms for detoxification of aldehydes in naturally resistant strains such as Thermoanaerobacter spp. may also enable improvements in candidate CBP microorganisms. Results: T. pseudethanolicus 39E, an anaerobic, saccharolytic thermophile, was found to grow readily in the presence of 30 mM furfural and 20 mM 5-HMF and reduce these aldehydes to their respective alcohols in situ. The proteomes of T. pseudethanolicus 39E grown in the presence or absence of 15 mM furfural were compared to identify upregulated enzymes potentially responsible for the observed reduction. A total of 225 proteins were differentially regulated in response to the 15 mM furfural treatment with 152 upregulated vs. 73 downregulated. Only 86 proteins exhibited a 2-fold change in abundance in either direction. Of these, 53 were upregulated in the presence of furfural and 33 were downregulated. Two oxidoreductases were upregulated at least 2-fold by furfural and were targeted for further investigation: Teth39_1597, encodes a predicted butanol dehydrogenase (BdhA) and Teth39_1598, a predicted aldo/keto reductase (AKR). Both genes were cloned from T. pseudethanolicus 39E, with the respective enzymes overexpressed in E. coli and specific activities determined against a variety of aldehydes. BdhA showed significant activity with all aldehydes tested, including furfural and 5-HMF, using NADPH as the cofactor. AKR also showed significant activity with NADPH

  7. Increasingly minimal bias routing

    DOEpatents

    Bataineh, Abdulla; Court, Thomas; Roweth, Duncan

    2017-02-21

    A system and algorithm configured to generate diversity at the traffic source so that packets are uniformly distributed over all of the available paths, but to increase the likelihood of taking a minimal path with each hop the packet takes. This is achieved by configuring routing biases so as to prefer non-minimal paths at the injection point, but increasingly prefer minimal paths as the packet proceeds, referred to herein as Increasing Minimal Bias (IMB).

  8. Royalty Earnings Increase 12%.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicklin, Julie L.

    1997-01-01

    Royalties paid to universities in 1995 increased 12% over the previous year. The increase is attributed in part to federal legislation allowing institutions to patent inventions and discoveries resulting from federally-funded research. Data are based on a survey of 127 universities holding 4,272 licenses generating royalties. Licensing income and…

  9. A usage of CO2 hydrate: convenient method to increase CO2 concentration in culturing algae.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Sho; Chang, Kwang-Hyeon; Shijima, Atsushi; Miyamoto, Hiroyuki; Sato, Yukio; Noto, Yuji; Ha, Jin-Yong; Sakamoto, Masaki

    2014-11-01

    The addition of CO2 to algal culture systems can increase algal biomass effectively. Generally, gas bubbling is used to increase CO2 levels in culture systems; however, it is difficult to quantitatively operate to control the concentration using this method. In this study, we tested the usability of CO2 hydrate for phytoplankton culture. Specifically, green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata were cultured in COMBO medium that contained dissolved CO2 hydrate, after which its effects were evaluated. The experiment was conducted according to a general bioassay procedure (OECD TG201). CO2 promoted algae growth effectively (about 2-fold relative to the control), and the decrease in pH due to dissolution of the CO2 in water recovered soon because of photosynthesis. Since the CO2 hydrate method can control a CO2 concentration easily and quantitatively, it is expected to be useful in future applications.

  10. Neurite outgrowth is significantly increased by the simultaneous presentation of Schwann cells and moderate exogenous electric fields.

    PubMed

    Koppes, Abigail N; Seggio, Angela M; Thompson, Deanna M

    2011-08-01

    Axonal extension is influenced by a variety of external guidance cues; therefore, the development and optimization of a multi-faceted approach is probably necessary to address the intricacy of functional regeneration following nerve injury. In this study, primary dissociated neonatal rat dorsal root ganglia neurons and Schwann cells were examined in response to an 8 h dc electrical stimulation (0-100 mV mm(-1)). Stimulated samples were then fixed immediately, immunostained, imaged and analyzed to determine Schwann cell orientation and characterize neurite outgrowth relative to electric field strength and direction. Results indicate that Schwann cells are viable following electrical stimulation with 10-100 mV mm(-1), and retain a normal morphology relative to unstimulated cells; however, no directional bias is observed. Neurite outgrowth was significantly enhanced by twofold following exposure to either a 50 mV mm(-1) electric field (EF) or co-culture with unstimulated Schwann cells by comparison to neurons cultured alone. Neurite outgrowth was further increased in the presence of simultaneously applied cues (Schwann cells + 50 mV mm(-1) dc EF), exhibiting a 3.2-fold increase over unstimulated control neurons, and a 1.2-fold increase over either neurons cultured with unstimulated Schwann cells or the electrical stimulus alone. These results indicate that dc electric stimulation in combination with Schwann cells may provide synergistic guidance cues for improved axonal growth relevant to nerve injuries in the peripheral nervous system.

  11. A mixed-effects Statistical Model for Comparative LC-MS Proteomics Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, Don S.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Panisko, Ellen A.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Fang, Ruihua; Monroe, Matthew E.; Baker, Scott E.

    2008-03-01

    Comparing a protein’s concentrations across two or more treatments is the focus of many proteomics studies. A frequent source of measurements for these comparisons is a mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of a protein’s peptide ions separated by liquid chromatography (LC) following its enzymatic digestion. Alas, LC-MS identification and quantification of equimolar peptides can vary significantly due to their unequal digestion, separation and ionization. This unequal measurability of peptides, the largest source of LC-MS nuisance variation, stymies confident comparison of a protein’s concentration across treatments. Our objective is to introduce a mixed-effects statistical model for comparative LC-MS proteomics studies. We describe LC-MS peptide abundance with a linear model featuring pivotal terms that account for unequal peptide LC-MS measurability. We advance fitting this model to an often incomplete LC-MS dataset with REstricted Maximum Likelihood (REML) estimation, producing estimates of model goodness-offit, treatment effects, standard errors, confidence intervals, and protein relative concentrations. We illustrate the model with an experiment featuring a known dilution series of a filamentous ascomycete fungus Trichoderma reesei protein mixture. For the 781 of 1546 T.reesei proteins with sufficient data coverage, the fitted mixed-effects models capably described the LC-MS measurements. The LC-MS measurability terms effectively accounted for this major source of uncertainty. Ninety percent of the relative concentration estimates were within 1/2 fold of the true relative concentrations. Akin to the common ratio method, this model also produced biased estimates, albeit less biased. Bias decreased significantly, both absolutely and relative to the ratio method, as the number of observed peptides per protein increased. Mixed-effects statistical modeling offers a flexible, well-established methodology for comparative proteomics studies integrating common

  12. Increasing productivity: Another approach

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, F.J.

    1996-06-10

    An engineering information (EI) and information technology (IT) organization that must improve its productivity should work to further its business goals. This paper explores a comprehensive model for increasing EI/IT productivity by supporting organizational objectives.

  13. Estrogen supplementation reduces whole body leucine and carbohydrate oxidation and increases lipid oxidation in men during endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Hamadeh, Mazen J; Devries, Michaela C; Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2005-06-01

    Healthy active men exhibit higher rates of carbohydrate (CHO) and leucine oxidation and lower rates of lipid oxidation compared with their female counterparts both at rest and during moderate intensity endurance exercise. We postulated that this reduced dependence on amino acids as a fuel source in women was due to the female sex hormone estrogen. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design, we investigated the effect of supplementing 12 recreationally active men with estrogen on whole body substrate oxidation and leucine kinetics at rest and during moderate intensity endurance exercise. Subjects cycled for 90 min at an intensity of 65% maximum O(2) consumption after 8 d of either estrogen supplementation (2 mg 17beta-estradiol/d) or placebo (polycose). After a 2-wk washout period, they repeated the test after 8 d of the alternate treatment. On the test day, after a primed continuous infusion of l-[(13)C]leucine, O(2) consumption, CO(2) production, steady-state breath (13)CO(2), and plasma alpha-[(13)C]ketoisocaproate enrichments were measured at rest and at 60, 75, and 90 min during exercise in the postabsorptive state. Exercise increased energy expenditure more than 5-fold, CHO oxidation more than 6-fold, lipid oxidation more than 4-fold, and leucine oxidation 2.2-fold (all P < 0.0001), whereas it decreased the ratio of lipid to CHO oxidation by 50-70% (P = 0.003) compared with values at rest. Estrogen supplementation decreased respiratory exchange ratio during exercise (P = 0.03). Estrogen supplementation significantly decreased CHO oxidation by 5-16% (P = 0.04) and leucine oxidation by 16% (P = 0.01), whereas it significantly increased lipid oxidation by 22-44% (P = 0.024) at rest and during exercise. We conclude that estrogen influences fuel source selection at rest and during endurance exercise in recreationally active men, characterized by a reduced dependence on amino acids and CHO and an increased reliance on lipids as a fuel

  14. Shortened estrous cycle length, increased FSH levels, FSH variance, oocyte spindle aberrations, and early declining fertility in aging senescence-accelerated mouse prone-8 (SAMP8) mice: concomitant characteristics of human midlife female reproductive aging.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Lori R; Mackenzie, Amelia C L; Kraemer, Duane C; Morley, John E; Farr, Susan; Chaffin, Charles L; Merchenthaler, István

    2014-06-01

    Women experience a series of specific transitions in their reproductive function with age. Shortening of the menstrual cycle begins in the mid to late 30s and is regarded as the first sign of reproductive aging. Other early changes include elevation and increased variance of serum FSH levels, increased incidences of oocyte spindle aberrations and aneuploidy, and declining fertility. The goal of this study was to investigate whether the mouse strain senescence-accelerated mouse-prone-8 (SAMP8) is a suitable model for the study of these midlife reproductive aging characteristics. Midlife SAMP8 mice aged 6.5-7.85 months (midlife SAMP8) exhibited shortened estrous cycles compared with SAMP8 mice aged 2-3 months (young SAMP8, P = .0040). Midlife SAMP8 mice had high FSH levels compared with young SAMP8 mice, and mice with a single day of high FSH exhibited statistically elevated FSH throughout the cycle, ranging from 1.8- to 3.6-fold elevation on the days of proestrus, estrus, metestrus, and diestrus (P < .05). Midlife SAMP8 mice displayed more variance in FSH than young SAMP8 mice (P = .01). Midlife SAMP8 ovulated fewer oocytes (P = .0155). SAMP8 oocytes stained with fluorescently labeled antitubulin antibodies and scored in fluorescence microscopy exhibited increased incidence of meiotic spindle aberrations with age, from 2/126 (1.59%) in young SAMP8 to 38/139 (27.3%) in midlife SAMP8 (17.2-fold increase, P < .0001). Finally, SAMP8 exhibited declining fertility from 8.9 pups/litter in young SAMP8 to 3.5 pups/litter in midlife SAMP8 mice (P < .0001). The age at which these changes occur is younger than for most mouse strains, and their simultaneous occurrence within a single strain has not been described previously. We propose that SAMP8 mice are a model of midlife human female reproductive aging.

  15. Increased thymidylate synthase in L1210 cells possessing acquired resistance to N10-propargyl-5,8-dideazafolic acid (CB3717): development, characterization, and cross-resistance studies

    SciTech Connect

    Jackman, A.L.; Alison, D.L.; Calvert, A.H.; Harrap, K.R.

    1986-06-01

    The properties are described of a mutant L1210 cell line (L1210:C15) with acquired resistance (greater than 200-fold) to the thymidylate synthase (TS) inhibitor N10-propargyl-5,8-dideazafolic acid. TS was overproduced 45-fold and was accompanied by a small increase in the activity of dihydrofolate reductase (2.6-fold). Both the level of resistance and enzyme activities were maintained in drug-free medium (greater than 300 generations). Failure of N10-propargyl-5,8-dideazafolic acid to suppress the (/sup 3/H)-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation into the acid-precipitable material of the resistant line supported the evidence that TS overproduction was the mechanism of resistance; consequently the L1210:C15 cells were largely cross-resistant to another (but weaker) TS inhibitor, 5,8-dideazafolic acid. Minimal cross-resistance was observed to the dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors methotrexate and 5-methyl-5,8-dideazaaminopterin (5- and 2-fold, respectively). L1210 and L1210:C15 cells were, however, equally sensitive to 5-fluorodeoxyuridine (FdUrd), an unexpected finding since a metabolite, 5-fluorodeoxyuridine monophosphate, is a potent TS inhibitor; however, this cytotoxicity against the L1210:C15 cells was antagonized by coincubation with 5 microM folinic acid although folinic acid potentiated the cytotoxicity of FdUrd to the N10-propargyl-5,8-dideazafolic acid-sensitive L1210 line. Thymidine was much less effective as a FdUrd protecting agent in the L1210:C15 when compared with the L1210 cells; however, a combination of thymidine plus hypoxanthine was without any additional effect (compared with thymidine alone) against the sensitive line but effectively protected L1210:C15 cells.

  16. Seismic waves increase permeability.

    PubMed

    Elkhoury, Jean E; Brodsky, Emily E; Agnew, Duncan C

    2006-06-29

    Earthquakes have been observed to affect hydrological systems in a variety of ways--water well levels can change dramatically, streams can become fuller and spring discharges can increase at the time of earthquakes. Distant earthquakes may even increase the permeability in faults. Most of these hydrological observations can be explained by some form of permeability increase. Here we use the response of water well levels to solid Earth tides to measure permeability over a 20-year period. At the time of each of seven earthquakes in Southern California, we observe transient changes of up to 24 degrees in the phase of the water level response to the dilatational volumetric strain of the semidiurnal tidal components of wells at the Piñon Flat Observatory in Southern California. After the earthquakes, the phase gradually returns to the background value at a rate of less than 0.1 degrees per day. We use a model of axisymmetric flow driven by an imposed head oscillation through a single, laterally extensive, confined, homogeneous and isotropic aquifer to relate the phase response to aquifer properties. We interpret the changes in phase response as due to changes in permeability. At the time of the earthquakes, the permeability at the site increases by a factor as high as three. The permeability increase depends roughly linearly on the amplitude of seismic-wave peak ground velocity in the range of 0.21-2.1 cm s(-1). Such permeability increases are of interest to hydrologists and oil reservoir engineers as they affect fluid flow and might determine long-term evolution of hydrological and oil-bearing systems. They may also be interesting to seismologists, as the resulting pore pressure changes can affect earthquakes by changing normal stresses on faults.

  17. Comparative evaluation of Na(+) uptake in Cyprinodon variegatus variegatus (Lacepede) and Cyprinodon variegatus hubbsi (Carr) (Cyprinodontiformes, Teleostei): Evaluation of NHE function in high and low Na(+) freshwater.

    PubMed

    Brix, Kevin V; Esbaugh, Andrew J; Mager, Edward M; Grosell, Martin

    2015-07-01

    The euryhaline pupfish, Cyprinodon variegatus variegatus (Cvv), can successfully osmoregulate in ≥2 mM Na(+) and a freshwater population (Cyprinodon variegatus hubbsi; Cvh) osmoregulates at ≥0.1mM Na(+). We previously demonstrated that Cvv relies on an apical NKCC and NHE in the gill for Na(+) uptake in high (7mM) and intermediate (2 mM) Na(+) concentrations, while Cvh relies only on NHE for Na(+) uptake. This study investigated whether differential NHE isoform use explains differences in Na(+) uptake kinetics between these two populations. We further studied whether Cvh uses a NHE-Rh metabolon or carbonic anhydrase (CA) to overcome thermodynamic challenges of NHE function in dilute freshwater. Transfer to more dilute freshwater resulted in upregulation of nhe-2 (Cvv only) and nhe-3 (Cvv and Cvh). Relative expression of nhe-3 compared to nhe-2 was 2-fold higher in Cvv, but 200-fold higher in Cvh suggesting that nhe-3 expression is an important freshwater adaptation for Cvh. Simultaneous measurement of Na(+) and Tamm flux under various conditions provided no support for a NHE-Rh metabolon in either population. Carbonic anhydrase activity in Cvv was comparable in 7 and 2 mM Na(+) acclimated fish. In Cvh, CA activity increased by 75% in 0.1 mM Na(+) acclimated fish compared to 7 mM Na(+) fish. Ethoxzolamide had variable effects, stimulating and reducing Na(+) uptake in Cvv acclimated to 7 and 2 mM Na(+), while reducing Na(+) uptake in 7 and 0.1mM Na(+) acclimated Cvh. This suggests that CA plays important, but different roles in regulating Na(+) uptake in Cvv and Cvh.

  18. Characterization and comparative analysis of psychrophilic and mesophilic alpha-amylases from Euplotes species: a contribution to the understanding of enzyme thermal adaptation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang; Yang, Guang; Aprile, Lino; Turturo, Vincenzo; Pucciarelli, Sandra; Pucciarelli, Stefania; Miceli, Cristina

    2013-09-06

    The eukaryotic α-amylase isolated from the psychrophilic ciliated protozoon Euplotes focardii (EfAmy) was expressed in Escherichia coli and biochemically characterized. Its enzymatic activity was compared to that of the homologous protein from the mesophilic congeneric species Euplotes crassus (EcAmy). The comparison of the amino acid composition and the surface residue composition of the two enzymes indicated a preference for tiny residues and the avoidance of charged, aromatic and hydrophobic residues in EfAmy. Our comparative homology modeling study reveals a lack of surface salt bridges, a decreased number of the surface charged residues, decreased hydrogen bonds and bound ions, and a reduction of aromatic-sulfur interactions, cationic-π interactions and disulfide interactions in EfAmy. In contrast, sequence alignment and homology modeling showed five unconserved prolines located on the surface loops of EcAmy. By analyzing amylolytic activity towards soluble starch as the substrate, we determined the temperature and pH dependence, thermostability and kinetic parameters of these two enzymes. We demonstrated that EfAmy shows the characteristics of a psychrophilic α-amylase, such as the highest hydrolytic activity at low temperatures and high thermolability. In contrast, the EcAmy showed mesophilic characteristics with the highest activity at moderate temperatures and a more than 2-fold increased half-life at 50°C compared to EfAmy. The kcat and KM values of EfAmy were higher than those of the mesophilic EcAmy at all tested temperatures. Furthermore, both EfAmy and EcAmy showed maximum activities at pH 9 and maintained high activities in the presence of surfactants. These results suggest the potential applications of EfAmy and EcAmy as ingredients in detergents for industrial applications.

  19. Increased global financings

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.

    1994-10-01

    The results of a financial rankings survey for the first half of 1994 show increased financial activity over the second half of 1993. More than $10.5 billion is reported by developers and financial firms for 62 transactions during 1994`s first six months.

  20. Productivity increases in science

    SciTech Connect

    Danko, J.E.; Young, J.K.; Molton, P.M.; Dirks, J.A.

    1993-02-01

    The study quantifies the impact on the cost of experimentation of synergistic advancements in instrumentation, theory, and computation over the last two decades. The study finds that the productivity of experimental investigation (experimental results/$) is increasing as science is transformed from a linear, isolated approach to a hierarchical, multidisciplinary approach. Developments such as massively parallel processors coupled with instrumental systems with multiple probes and diverse data analysis capabilities will further this transformation and increase the productivity of scientific studies. The complexities and scale of today's scientific challenges are much greater than in the past, however, so that the costs of research are increasing. Even though science is much more productive in terms of the experimental results, the challenges facing scientific investigators are increasing at an even faster pace. New approaches to infrastructure investments must capitalize on the changing dynamics of research and allow the scientific community to maximize gains in productivity so that complex problems can be attacked cost-effectively. Research strategies that include user facilities and coordinated experimental, computational, and theoretical research are needed.

  1. Productivity increases in science

    SciTech Connect

    Danko, J.E.; Young, J.K.; Molton, P.M.; Dirks, J.A.

    1993-02-01

    The study quantifies the impact on the cost of experimentation of synergistic advancements in instrumentation, theory, and computation over the last two decades. The study finds that the productivity of experimental investigation (experimental results/$) is increasing as science is transformed from a linear, isolated approach to a hierarchical, multidisciplinary approach. Developments such as massively parallel processors coupled with instrumental systems with multiple probes and diverse data analysis capabilities will further this transformation and increase the productivity of scientific studies. The complexities and scale of today`s scientific challenges are much greater than in the past, however, so that the costs of research are increasing. Even though science is much more productive in terms of the experimental results, the challenges facing scientific investigators are increasing at an even faster pace. New approaches to infrastructure investments must capitalize on the changing dynamics of research and allow the scientific community to maximize gains in productivity so that complex problems can be attacked cost-effectively. Research strategies that include user facilities and coordinated experimental, computational, and theoretical research are needed.

  2. Increasing mobile radiography productivity.

    PubMed

    Wong, Edward; Lung, Ngan Tsz; Ng, Kris; Jeor, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Mobile radiography using computed radiography (CR) cassettes is a common equipment combination with a workflow bottleneck limited by location of CR readers. Advent of direct digital radiography (DDR) mobile x-ray machines removes this limitation by immediate image review and quality control. Through the use of key performance indicators (KPIs), the increase in efficiency can be quantified.

  3. Food allergy: is prevalence increasing?

    PubMed

    Tang, Mimi L K; Mullins, Raymond J

    2017-03-01

    It is generally accepted that the prevalence of food allergy has been increasing in recent decades, particularly in westernised countries, yet high-quality evidence that is based on challenge confirmed diagnosis of food allergy to support this assumption is lacking because of the high cost and potential risks associated with conducting food challenges in large populations. Accepting this caveat, the use of surrogate markers for diagnosis of food allergy (such as nationwide data on hospital admissions for food anaphylaxis or clinical history in combination with allergen-specific IgE (sIgE) measurement in population-based cohorts) has provided consistent evidence for increasing prevalence of food allergy at least in western countries, such as the UK, United States and Australia. Recent reports that children of East Asian or African ethnicity who are raised in a western environment (Australia and United States respectively) have an increased risk of developing food allergy compared with resident Caucasian children suggest that food allergy might also increase across Asian and African countries as their economies grow and populations adopt a more westernised lifestyle. Given that many cases of food allergy persist, mathematical principles would predict a continued increase in food allergy prevalence in the short to medium term until such time as an effective treatment is identified to allow the rate of disease resolution to be equal to or greater than the rate of new cases.

  4. Colloidal Dispersions for the Delivery of Acyclovir: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Cortesi, Rita; Ravani, Laura; Menegatti, Enea; Drechsler, M.; Esposito, Elisabetta

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a comparative study on the performances of ethosomes and solid lipid nanoparticle as delivery systems for acyclovir. Ethosomes were spontaneously produced by dissolution of phosphatidylcholine and acyclovir in ethanol followed by addition of an aqueous buffer while solid lipid nanoparticle were produced by homogenization and ultrasonication. Both colloidal systems were morphologically characterized by cryo-transmission electron microscopy. The encapsulation efficiency was 94.2±2.8% for ethosomes and 53.2±0.2% for solid lipid nanoparticle. Concerning Z potential, both formulations are close to neutrality. The diffusion coefficients of the drug from ethosomes and solid lipid nanoparticle, determined by a Franz cell method, were 9.4 and 1.2-fold lower as compared to the free acyclovir in solution, thus evidencing the ability of both colloidal systems in enhancing the diffusion of the drug. The antiviral activity against HSV-1 of both systems was tested by plaque reduction assay in monolayer cultures of Vero cells. Data showed that no significant differences in the antiviral activity were observed by acyclovir in the free or loaded forms. Taken together these results, colloidal systems could be interesting to mediate the penetration of acyclovir within Vero cells. PMID:23112407

  5. Colloidal dispersions for the delivery of acyclovir: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Cortesi, Rita; Ravani, Laura; Menegatti, Enea; Drechsler, M; Esposito, Elisabetta

    2011-11-01

    This paper describes a comparative study on the performances of ethosomes and solid lipid nanoparticle as delivery systems for acyclovir. Ethosomes were spontaneously produced by dissolution of phosphatidylcholine and acyclovir in ethanol followed by addition of an aqueous buffer while solid lipid nanoparticle were produced by homogenization and ultrasonication. Both colloidal systems were morphologically characterized by cryo-transmission electron microscopy. The encapsulation efficiency was 94.2±2.8% for ethosomes and 53.2±0.2% for solid lipid nanoparticle. Concerning Z potential, both formulations are close to neutrality. The diffusion coefficients of the drug from ethosomes and solid lipid nanoparticle, determined by a Franz cell method, were 9.4 and 1.2-fold lower as compared to the free acyclovir in solution, thus evidencing the ability of both colloidal systems in enhancing the diffusion of the drug. The antiviral activity against HSV-1 of both systems was tested by plaque reduction assay in monolayer cultures of Vero cells. Data showed that no significant differences in the antiviral activity were observed by acyclovir in the free or loaded forms. Taken together these results, colloidal systems could be interesting to mediate the penetration of acyclovir within Vero cells.

  6. Designer drilling increases recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Eck-Olsen, J.; Drevdal, K.E.

    1995-04-01

    Implementation of a new designer-well profile has resulted in increased recovery and production rates. The geologically complex Gullfaks field, located in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea, required a new type of well profile to increase total recovery and production rates from Gullfaks A, B and C platforms. Advances in steerable technology and directional drilling performance enabled a 3-D horizontal, extended-reach well profile, now designated as a designer well, to penetrate multiple targets. This article presents the concept, implementation and conclusions drawn from designer well application. Gullfaks field, in Norwegian North Sea Block 34/10, is the first license ever run by a fully Norwegian joint venture corporation. The license group consists of Statoil (operator), Norsk Hydro and Saga Petroleum. The field currently produces more than 535,000 bopd from three main Jurassic reservoirs.

  7. Comparative transcriptomic analysis reveals the oncogenic fusion protein PAX3-FOXO1 globally alters mRNA and miRNA to enhance myoblast invasion

    PubMed Central

    Loupe, J M; Miller, P J; Bonner, B P; Maggi, E C; Vijayaraghavan, J; Crabtree, J S; Taylor, C M; Zabaleta, J; Hollenbach, A D

    2016-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma, one of the most common childhood sarcomas, is comprised of two main subtypes, embryonal and alveolar (ARMS). ARMS, the more aggressive subtype, is primarily characterized by the t(2;13)(p35;p14) chromosomal translocation, which fuses two transcription factors, PAX3 and FOXO1 to generate the oncogenic fusion protein PAX3-FOXO1. Patients with PAX3-FOXO1-postitive tumors have a poor prognosis, in part due to the enhanced local invasive capacity of these cells, which leads to the increased metastatic potential for this tumor. Despite this knowledge, little is known about the role that the oncogenic fusion protein has in this increased invasive potential. In this report we use large-scale comparative transcriptomic analyses in physiologically relevant primary myoblasts to demonstrate that the presence of PAX3-FOXO1 is sufficient to alter the expression of 70 mRNA and 27 miRNA in a manner predicted to promote cellular invasion. In contrast the expression of PAX3 alters 60 mRNA and 23 miRNA in a manner predicted to inhibit invasion. We demonstrate that these alterations in mRNA and miRNA translate into changes in the invasive potential of primary myoblasts with PAX3-FOXO1 increasing invasion nearly 2-fold while PAX3 decreases invasion nearly 4-fold. Taken together, these results allow us to build off of previous reports and develop a more expansive molecular model by which the presence of PAX3-FOXO1 alters global gene regulatory networks to enhance the local invasiveness of cells. Further, the global nature of our observed changes highlights the fact that instead of focusing on a single-gene target, we must develop multi-faceted treatment regimens targeting multiple genes of a single oncogenic phenotype or multiple genes that target different oncogenic phenotypes for tumor progression. PMID:27454080

  8. Comparative toxicogenomic analysis of oral Cr(VI) exposure effects in rat and mouse small intestinal epithelia

    SciTech Connect

    Kopec, Anna K.; Thompson, Chad M.; Kim, Suntae; Forgacs, Agnes L.; Zacharewski, Timothy R.

    2012-07-15

    Continuous exposure to high concentrations of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in drinking water results in intestinal tumors in mice but not rats. Concentration-dependent gene expression effects were evaluated in female F344 rat duodenal and jejunal epithelia following 7 and 90 days of exposure to 0.3–520 mg/L (as sodium dichromate dihydrate, SDD) in drinking water. Whole-genome microarrays identified 3269 and 1815 duodenal, and 4557 and 1534 jejunal differentially expressed genes at 8 and 91 days, respectively, with significant overlaps between the intestinal segments. Functional annotation identified gene expression changes associated with oxidative stress, cell cycle, cell death, and immune response that were consistent with reported changes in redox status and histopathology. Comparative analysis with B6C3F1 mouse data from a similarly designed study identified 2790 differentially expressed rat orthologs in the duodenum compared to 5013 mouse orthologs at day 8, and only 1504 rat and 3484 mouse orthologs at day 91. Automated dose–response modeling resulted in similar median EC{sub 50}s in the rodent duodenal and jejunal mucosae. Comparative examination of differentially expressed genes also identified divergently regulated orthologs. Comparable numbers of differentially expressed genes were observed at equivalent Cr concentrations (μg Cr/g duodenum). However, mice accumulated higher Cr levels than rats at ≥ 170 mg/L SDD, resulting in a ∼ 2-fold increase in the number of differentially expressed genes. These qualitative and quantitative differences in differential gene expression, which correlate with differences in tissue dose, likely contribute to the disparate intestinal tumor outcomes. -- Highlights: ► Cr(VI) elicits dose-dependent changes in gene expression in rat intestine. ► Cr(VI) elicits less differential gene expression in rats compared to mice. ► Cr(VI) gene expression can be phenotypically anchored to intestinal changes. ► Species

  9. Alarming increase in refugees.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    Over the past decade and half there has been an alarming worldwide increase in refugees. The total rose form 2.8 million in 1976 to 8.2 million in 1980, to 17.3 million in 1990. Africa's refugees rose from 1.2 million in 1976 to 5.6 million in 1990. Asia's increase over this period was much more rapid--from a mere 180,000 to 8 million. In the Americas the numbers more than trebled, from 770,000 to 2.7 million. Europe was the smallest increase, from 570,000 to 894,000. International law defines a refugee as someone outside of their own country, who has a well-founded fear of persecution because of their political or religious beliefs or ethnic origin, and who cannot turn to their own country for protection. Most refugees are genuine by this definition. The increase reflects, in part, fallout from the cold war. Ethiopia, Mozambique and Angola accounted for almost 1/2 of Africa's refugees; Afghanistan alone for 3/4 of Asia's total. They fled, for the most part, from 1 poor country into another, where they added to shortages of land and fuelwood, and intensified environmental pressure. Malawi, 1 of the poorest countries in the world, is sheltering perhaps as many as 750,000 refugees from the war in Mozambique. But among these refugees--especially among those who turned to the rich countries for asylum--were an increasing number of people who were not suffering political persecution. Driven out of their homes by the collapse of their environment or economic despair, and ready to take any means to get across borders, they are a new category: economic and environmental refugees. The most spectacular attempts hit the television screens: the Vietnamese boat people, ships festooned with Albanians. Behind the headlines there was a growing tide of asylum seekers. The numbers rose 10-fold in Germany from 1983 to 1990. In Switzerland they multiplied by 4 times. In Europe, as a whole, they grew from 71,000 in 1983 to an estimated 550,000 in 1990. In 1990 the numbers threatened to

  10. Lead exposure increases blood pressure by increasing angiotensinogen expression.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jiandong; Wang, Miaomiao; Wang, Yiqing; Sun, Na; Li, Chunping

    2016-01-01

    Lead exposure can induce increased blood pressure. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain lead-induced hypertension. Changes in angiotensinogen (AGT) expression levels or gene variants may also influence blood pressure. In this study, we hypothesized that AGT expression levels or gene variants contribute to lead-induced hypertension. A preliminary HEK293 cell model experiment was performed to analyze the association between AGT expression and lead exposure. In a population-based study, serum AGT level was measured in both lead-exposed and control populations. To further detect the influence of AGT gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in lead-induced hypertension, two SNPs (rs699 and rs4762) were genotyped in a case-control study including 219 lead-exposed subjects and 393 controls. Lead exposure caused an increase in AGT expression level in HEK 293 cell models (P < 0.001) compared to lead-free cells, and individuals exposed to lead had higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.001). Lead-exposed individuals had higher serum AGT levels compared to controls (P < 0.001). However, no association was found between AGT gene SNPs (rs699 and rs4762) and lead exposure. Nevertheless, the change in AGT expression level may play an important role in the development of lead-induced hypertension.

  11. Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) Host Cell Engineering to Increase Sialylation of Recombinant Therapeutic Proteins by Modulating Sialyltransferase Expression

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Nan; Mascarenhas, Joaquina; Sealover, Natalie R.; George, Henry J.; Brooks, Jeanne; Kayser, Kevin J.; Gau, Brian; Yasa, Isil; Azadi, Parastoo; Archer-Hartmann, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    N-Glycans of human proteins possess both α2,6- and α2,3-linked terminal sialic acid (SA). Recombinant glycoproteins produced in Chinese hamster overy (CHO) only have α2,3-linkage due to the absence of α2,6-sialyltransferase (St6gal1) expression. The Chinese hamster ST6GAL1 was successfully overexpressed using a plasmid expression vector in three recombinant immunoglobulin G (IgG)-producing CHO cell lines. The stably transfected cell lines were enriched for ST6GAL1 overexpression using FITC-Sambucus nigra (SNA) lectin that preferentially binds α2,6-linked SA. The presence of α2,6-linked SA was confirmed using a novel LTQ Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry (LTQ MS) method including MSn fragmentation in the enriched ST6GAL1 Clone 27. Furthermore, the total SA (mol/mol) in IgG produced by the enriched ST6GAL1 Clone 27 increased by 2-fold compared to the control. For host cell engineering, the CHOZN® GS host cell line was transfected and enriched for ST6GAL1 overexpression. Single-cell clones were derived from the enriched population and selected based on FITC-SNA staining and St6gal1 expression. Two clones (“ST6GAL1 OE Clone 31 and 32”) were confirmed for the presence of α2,6-linked SA in total host cell protein extracts. ST6GAL1 OE Clone 32 was subsequently used to express SAFC human IgG1. The recombinant IgG expressed in this host cell line was confirmed to have α2,6-linked SA and increased total SA content. In conclusion, overexpression of St6gal1 is sufficient to produce recombinant proteins with increased sialylation and more human-like glycoprofiles without combinatorial engineering of other sialylation pathway genes. This work represents our ongoing effort of glycoengineering in CHO host cell lines for the development of “bio-better” protein therapeutics and cell culture vaccine production. PMID:25641927

  12. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) host cell engineering to increase sialylation of recombinant therapeutic proteins by modulating sialyltransferase expression.

    PubMed

    Lin, Nan; Mascarenhas, Joaquina; Sealover, Natalie R; George, Henry J; Brooks, Jeanne; Kayser, Kevin J; Gau, Brian; Yasa, Isil; Azadi, Parastoo; Archer-Hartmann, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    N-Glycans of human proteins possess both α2,6- and α2,3-linked terminal sialic acid (SA). Recombinant glycoproteins produced in Chinese hamster overy (CHO) only have α2,3-linkage due to the absence of α2,6-sialyltransferase (St6gal1) expression. The Chinese hamster ST6GAL1 was successfully overexpressed using a plasmid expression vector in three recombinant immunoglobulin G (IgG)-producing CHO cell lines. The stably transfected cell lines were enriched for ST6GAL1 overexpression using FITC-Sambucus nigra (SNA) lectin that preferentially binds α2,6-linked SA. The presence of α2,6-linked SA was confirmed using a novel LTQ Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry (LTQ MS) method including MSn fragmentation in the enriched ST6GAL1 Clone 27. Furthermore, the total SA (mol/mol) in IgG produced by the enriched ST6GAL1 Clone 27 increased by 2-fold compared to the control. For host cell engineering, the CHOZN(®) GS host cell line was transfected and enriched for ST6GAL1 overexpression. Single-cell clones were derived from the enriched population and selected based on FITC-SNA staining and St6gal1 expression. Two clones ("ST6GAL1 OE Clone 31 and 32") were confirmed for the presence of α2,6-linked SA in total host cell protein extracts. ST6GAL1 OE Clone 32 was subsequently used to express SAFC human IgG1. The recombinant IgG expressed in this host cell line was confirmed to have α2,6-linked SA and increased total SA content. In conclusion, overexpression of St6gal1 is sufficient to produce recombinant proteins with increased sialylation and more human-like glycoprofiles without combinatorial engineering of other sialylation pathway genes. This work represents our ongoing effort of glycoengineering in CHO host cell lines for the development of "bio-better" protein therapeutics and cell culture vaccine production.

  13. Core Noise - Increasing Importance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation is a technical summary of and outlook for NASA-internal and NASA-sponsored external research on core (combustor and turbine) noise funded by the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project. Sections of the presentation cover: the SFW system-level noise metrics for the 2015, 2020, and 2025 timeframes; turbofan design trends and their aeroacoustic implications; the emerging importance of core noise and its relevance to the SFW Reduced-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge; and the current research activities in the core-noise area, with additional details given about the development of a high-fidelity combustor-noise prediction capability as well as activities supporting the development of improved reduced-order, physics-based models for combustor-noise prediction. The need for benchmark data for validation of high-fidelity and modeling work and the value of a potential future diagnostic facility for testing of core-noise-reduction concepts are indicated. The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program has the principal objective of overcoming today's national challenges in air transportation. The SFW Reduced-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge aims to develop concepts and technologies to dramatically reduce the perceived aircraft noise outside of airport boundaries. This reduction of aircraft noise is critical to enabling the anticipated large increase in future air traffic. Noise generated in the jet engine core, by sources such as the compressor, combustor, and turbine, can be a significant contribution to the overall noise signature at low-power conditions, typical of approach flight. At high engine power during takeoff, jet and fan noise have traditionally dominated over core noise. However, current design trends and expected technological advances in engine-cycle design as well as noise-reduction methods are likely to reduce non-core noise even at engine-power points higher than approach. In addition, future low-emission combustor

  14. Elenoside increases intestinal motility

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, E; Alonso, SJ; Navarro, R; Trujillo, J; Jorge, E

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of elenoside, an arylnaph-thalene lignan from Justicia hyssopifolia, on gastro-intestinal motility in vivo and in vitro in rats. METHODS: Routine in vivo experimental assessments were catharsis index, water percentage of boluses, intestinal transit, and codeine antagonism. The groups included were vehicle control (propylene glycol-ethanol-plant oil-tween 80), elenoside (i.p. 25 and 50 mg/kg), cisapride (i.p. 10 mg/kg), and codeine phosphate (intragastric route, 50 mg/kg). In vitro approaches used isolated rat intestinal tissues (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum). The effects of elenoside at concentrations of 3.2 x 10-4, 6.4 x 10-4 and 1.2 x 10-3 mol/L, and cisapride at 10-6 mol/L were investigated. RESULTS: Elenoside in vivo produced an increase in the catharsis index and water percentage of boluses and in the percentage of distance traveled by a suspension of activated charcoal. Codeine phosphate antagonized the effect of 25 mg/kg of elenoside. In vitro, elenoside in duodenum, jejunum and ileum produced an initial decrease in the contraction force followed by an increase. Elenoside resulted in decreased intestinal frequency in duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. The in vitro and in vivo effects of elenoside were similar to those produced by cisapride. CONCLUSION: Elenoside is a lignan with an action similar to that of purgative and prokinetics drugs. Elenoside, could be an alternative to cisapride in treatment of gastrointestinal diseases as well as a preventive therapy for the undesirable gastrointestinal effects produced by opioids used for mild to moderate pain. PMID:17131476

  15. Increasing immunization coverage.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Lawrence D; Curry, Edward S; Harlor, Allen D; Laughlin, James J; Leeds, Andrea J; Lessin, Herschel R; Rodgers, Chadwick T; Granado-Villar, Deise C; Brown, Jeffrey M; Cotton, William H; Gaines, Beverly Marie Madry; Gambon, Thresia B; Gitterman, Benjamin A; Gorski, Peter A; Kraft, Colleen A; Marino, Ronald Vincent; Paz-Soldan, Gonzalo J; Zind, Barbara

    2010-06-01

    In 1977, the American Academy of Pediatrics issued a statement calling for universal immunization of all children for whom vaccines are not contraindicated. In 1995, the policy statement "Implementation of the Immunization Policy" was published by the American Academy of Pediatrics, followed in 2003 with publication of the first version of this statement, "Increasing Immunization Coverage." Since 2003, there have continued to be improvements in immunization coverage, with progress toward meeting the goals set forth in Healthy People 2010. Data from the 2007 National Immunization Survey showed that 90% of children 19 to 35 months of age have received recommended doses of each of the following vaccines: inactivated poliovirus (IPV), measles-mumps-rubella (MMR), varicella-zoster virus (VZB), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). For diphtheria and tetanus and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine, 84.5% have received the recommended 4 doses by 35 months of age. Nevertheless, the Healthy People 2010 goal of at least 80% coverage for the full series (at least 4 doses of DTaP, 3 doses of IPV, 1 dose of MMR, 3 doses of Hib, 3 doses of HBV, and 1 dose of varicella-zoster virus vaccine) has not yet been met, and immunization coverage of adolescents continues to lag behind the goals set forth in Healthy People 2010. Despite these encouraging data, a vast number of new challenges that threaten continued success toward the goal of universal immunization coverage have emerged. These challenges include an increase in new vaccines and new vaccine combinations as well as a significant number of vaccines currently under development; a dramatic increase in the acquisition cost of vaccines, coupled with a lack of adequate payment to practitioners to buy and administer vaccines; unanticipated manufacturing and delivery problems that have caused significant shortages of various vaccine products; and the rise of a public antivaccination movement that uses the

  16. The Comparative Method Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanford, Glenn M.; Lutterschmidt, William I.; Hutchison, Victor H.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the history of comparative methods and their use in biology as an investigative philosophy. Discusses Bernard's and Krogh's ideas and supports Jorgensen's arguments. Explains conceptual change in the comparative studies which is referred to as "comparative phylogenetic method". (Contains 33 references.) (YDS)

  17. Stress increases periodontal inflammation

    PubMed Central

    RIVERA, CÉSAR; MONSALVE, FRANCISCO; SUAZO, IVÁN; BECERRA, JAVIERA

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of chronic restraint stress (RS) on the severity of experimental periodontal disease in rats. A total of 32 male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were divided into four groups: i) Rats receiving two treatment regimens, chronic stress induced by movement restriction in acrylic cylinders for 1–1.5 h daily and induction of experimental periodontal disease, using a nylon ligature which was placed around the first left mandibular molars (n=8); ii) induction of periodontal disease, without RS (n=8); iii) RS (n=8) and iv) control (n=8). After 15 days, blood samples were obtained, and blood glucose levels and the corticosterone concentration were measured as stress markers. The severity of periodontal disease was analyzed according to the level of gingival and bone inflammation, leading to compromise of the teeth involved. Chronic stress was induced with movement restriction (P≤0.05, Mann-Whitney U-test) and increased the severity (P≤0.05, Mann-Whitney U-test) of experimental perio dontal disease in rats, according to the level of gingival and bone inflammation around the first left mandibular molars. The results of the present study showed that RS modulates periodontal inflammation and that the rat model described herein is suitable for investigating the association between stress and periodontal disease. PMID:23226743

  18. Methylobacteria isolated from bryophytes and the 2-fold description of the same microbial species.

    PubMed

    Schauer, S; Kutschera, U

    2013-02-01

    On the surface of healthy land plants (embryophytes), numerous non-pathogenic bacteria have been discovered and described. Among these epiphytic microbes, pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic microbes of the genus Methylobacterium are of special significance, because these microorganisms consume methanol emitted via the stomatal pores and secrete growth-promoting phytohormones. Methylobacterium funariae, Schauer and Kutschera 2011, a species isolated in our lab from the common cord moss, described as a nova species in this journal, was recently characterized for a second time as a "new taxon" under a different name, "M. bullatum." Based on a phylogenetic analysis, we show that these taxa are identical. In addition, we provide novel information on the exact cell size, and describe the correct type locality of this bacterial species, which was classified as a phytosymbiont. Finally, we discuss the hypothesis that certain methylobacteria may preferentially colonize bryophytes. With reference to our recent discovery that thalli of ferns form, like liverworts and moss protonemata, associations with methylobacteria, we argue that the haploid phase of cryptogames are preferred host organisms of these pink-pigmented microbial phytosymbionts.

  19. A thraustochytrid diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 with broad substrate specificity strongly increases oleic acid content in engineered Arabidopsis thaliana seeds

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunyu; Iskandarov, Umidjon; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2013-01-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyses the last step in acyl-CoA-dependent triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis and is an important determinant of cellular oil content and quality. In this study, a gene, designated TaDGAT2, encoding a type 2 DGAT (DGAT2)-related enzyme was identified from the oleaginous marine protist Thraustochytrium aureum. The deduced TaDGAT2 sequence contains a ~460 amino acid domain most closely related to DGAT2s from Dictyostelium sp. (45–50% identity). Recombinant TaDGAT2 restored TAG biosynthesis to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae H1246 TAG-deficient mutant, and microsomes from the complemented mutant displayed DGAT activity with C16 and C18 saturated and unsaturated fatty acyl-CoA and diacylglycerol substrates. To examine its biotechnological potential, TaDGAT2 was expressed under control of a strong seed-specific promoter in wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana and the high linoleic acid fad3fae1 mutant. In both backgrounds, little change was detected in seed oil content, but a striking increase in oleic acid content of seeds was observed. This increase was greatest in fad3fae1 seeds, where relative amounts of oleic acid increased nearly 2-fold to >50% of total fatty acids. In addition, >2-fold increase in oleic acid levels was detected in the triacylglycerol sn-2 position and in the major seed phospholipid phosphatidylcholine. These results suggest that increased seed oleic acid content mediated by TaDGAT2 is influenced in part by the fatty acid composition of host cells and occurs not by enhancing oleic acid content at the TAG sn-3 position directly but by increasing total oleic acid levels in seeds, presumably by limiting flux through phosphatidylcholine-based desaturation reactions. PMID:23814277

  20. A thraustochytrid diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 with broad substrate specificity strongly increases oleic acid content in engineered Arabidopsis thaliana seeds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunyu; Iskandarov, Umidjon; Klotz, Elliott T; Stevens, Robyn L; Cahoon, Rebecca E; Nazarenus, Tara J; Pereira, Suzette L; Cahoon, Edgar B

    2013-08-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyses the last step in acyl-CoA-dependent triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis and is an important determinant of cellular oil content and quality. In this study, a gene, designated TaDGAT2, encoding a type 2 DGAT (DGAT2)-related enzyme was identified from the oleaginous marine protist Thraustochytrium aureum. The deduced TaDGAT2 sequence contains a ~460 amino acid domain most closely related to DGAT2s from Dictyostelium sp. (45-50% identity). Recombinant TaDGAT2 restored TAG biosynthesis to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae H1246 TAG-deficient mutant, and microsomes from the complemented mutant displayed DGAT activity with C16 and C18 saturated and unsaturated fatty acyl-CoA and diacylglycerol substrates. To examine its biotechnological potential, TaDGAT2 was expressed under control of a strong seed-specific promoter in wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana and the high linoleic acid fad3fae1 mutant. In both backgrounds, little change was detected in seed oil content, but a striking increase in oleic acid content of seeds was observed. This increase was greatest in fad3fae1 seeds, where relative amounts of oleic acid increased nearly 2-fold to >50% of total fatty acids. In addition, >2-fold increase in oleic acid levels was detected in the triacylglycerol sn-2 position and in the major seed phospholipid phosphatidylcholine. These results suggest that increased seed oleic acid content mediated by TaDGAT2 is influenced in part by the fatty acid composition of host cells and occurs not by enhancing oleic acid content at the TAG sn-3 position directly but by increasing total oleic acid levels in seeds, presumably by limiting flux through phosphatidylcholine-based desaturation reactions.

  1. Comparative Analysis of Activation Phenotype, Proliferation, and IFN-γ Production by Spleen NK1.1+ and NK1.1− T Cells During Plasmodium chabaudi AS Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Freitas do Rosário, Ana Paula; Sardinha, Luiz Roberto; Castillo-Méndez, Sheyla Inés; Zago, Cláudia Augusta; Rodriguez-Málaga, Sérgio Marcelo; Álvarez Mosig, José Maria; D'Império Lima, Maria Regina

    2010-01-01

    The NK1.1 molecule participates in NK, NKT, and T-cell activation, contributing to IFN-γ production and cytotoxicity. To characterize the early immune response to Plasmodium chabaudi AS, spleen NK1.1+ and NK1.1− T cells were compared in acutely infected C57BL/6 mice. The first parasitemia peak in C57BL/6 mice correlated with increase in CD4+NK1.1+TCR-αβ+, CD8+NK1.1+TCR-αβ+, and CD4+NK1.1−TCR-αβ+ cell numbers per spleen, where a higher increment was observed for NK1.1+ T cells compared to NK1.1− T cells. According to the ability to recognize the CD1d-α-GalCer tetramer, CD4+NK1.1+ cells in 7-day infected mice were not predominantly invariant NKT cells. At that time, nearly all NK1.1+ T cells and around 30% of NK1.1− T cells showed an experienced/activated (CD44HICD69HICD122HI) cell phenotype, with high expression of Fas and PD-L1 correlating with their low proliferative capacity. Moreover, whereas IFN-γ production by CD4+NK1.1+ cells peaked at day 4 p.i., the IFN-γ response of CD4+NK1.1− cells continued to increase at day 5 of infection. We also observed, at day 7 p.i., 2-fold higher percentages of perforin+ cells in CD8+NK1.1+ cells compared to CD8+NK1.1− cells. These results indicate that spleen NK1.1+ and NK1.1− T cells respond to acute P. chabaudi malaria with different kinetics in terms of activation, proliferation, and IFN-γ production. PMID:20187775

  2. Experiencing discrimination increases risk taking.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Jeremy P; Koslov, Katrina; Nock, Matthew K; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2013-02-01

    Prior research has revealed racial disparities in health outcomes and health-compromising behaviors, such as smoking and drug abuse. It has been suggested that discrimination contributes to such disparities, but the mechanisms through which this might occur are not well understood. In the research reported here, we examined whether the experience of discrimination affects acute physiological stress responses and increases risk-taking behavior. Black and White participants each received rejecting feedback from partners who were either of their own race (in-group rejection) or of a different race (out-group rejection, which could be interpreted as discrimination). Physiological (cardiovascular and neuroendocrine) changes, cognition (memory and attentional bias), affect, and risk-taking behavior were assessed. Significant participant race × partner race interactions were observed. Cross-race rejection, compared with same-race rejection, was associated with lower levels of cortisol, increased cardiac output, decreased vascular resistance, greater anger, increased attentional bias, and more risk-taking behavior. These data suggest that perceived discrimination is associated with distinct profiles of physiological reactivity, affect, cognitive processing, and risk taking, implicating direct and indirect pathways to health disparities.

  3. What is comparable in comparative cognition?

    PubMed Central

    Chittka, Lars; Rossiter, Stephen J.; Skorupski, Peter; Fernando, Chrisantha

    2012-01-01

    To understand how complex, or ‘advanced’ various forms of cognition are, and to compare them between species for evolutionary studies, we need to understand the diversity of neural–computational mechanisms that may be involved, and to identify the genetic changes that are necessary to mediate changes in cognitive functions. The same overt cognitive capacity might be mediated by entirely different neural circuitries in different species, with a many-to-one mapping between behavioural routines, computations and their neural implementations. Comparative behavioural research needs to be complemented with a bottom-up approach in which neurobiological and molecular-genetic analyses allow pinpointing of underlying neural and genetic bases that constrain cognitive variation. Often, only very minor differences in circuitry might be needed to generate major shifts in cognitive functions and the possibility that cognitive traits arise by convergence or parallel evolution needs to be taken seriously. Hereditary variation in cognitive traits between individuals of a species might be extensive, and selection experiments on cognitive traits might be a useful avenue to explore how rapidly changes in cognitive abilities occur in the face of pertinent selection pressures. PMID:22927566

  4. Phase comparator apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Coffield, Frederick E.

    1987-01-01

    The phase change to be measured is multiply measured at artificially incred and decreased values and then averaged to result in greater accuracy. Delayed versions of the reference and input signals are compared in dual channels to the undelayed input signal and the undelayed reference signal, respectively. Resulting time-lengthened and time-shortened phase measurement signals from the dual comparator channels are algebraically combined to provide an analog output signal having an average magnitude accurately proportional to the true phase difference between the undelayed reference and the undelayed input signals. Increased linearity/reproducibility results where relatively high frequency signals (e.g., up to 70 MHz or more) are to be phase compared. An optional voltage clamp on the comparator channel outputs further improves linearity/reproducibility where very small phase differences are being measured.

  5. Comparative non-cholinergic neurotoxic effects of paraoxon and diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) on human neuroblastoma and astrocytoma cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Qian Yongchang; Venkatraj, Jijayanagaram; Barhoumi, Rola; Pal, Ranadip; Datta, Aniruddha; Wild, James R.; Tiffany-Castiglioni, Evelyn . E-mail: ecastiglioni@cvm.tamu.edu

    2007-03-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the comparative non-cholinergic neurotoxic effects of paraoxon, which is acutely neurotoxic, and diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP), which induces OPIDN, in the human neuroblastoma SY5Y and the human astrocytoma cell line CCF-STTG1. SY5Y cells have been studied extensively as a model for OP-induced neurotoxicity, but CCF cells have not previously been studied. We conducted a preliminary human gene array assay of OP-treated SY5Y cells in order to assess at the gene level whether these cells can distinguish between OP compounds that do and do not cause OPIDN. Paraoxon and DFP induced dramatically different profiles of gene expression. Two genes were upregulated and 13 downregulated by at least 2-fold in paraoxon-treated cells. In contrast, one gene was upregulated by DFP and none was downregulated at the 2-fold threshold. This finding is consistent with current and previous observations that SY5Y cells can distinguish between OPs that do or do not induce OPIDN. We also examined gene array results for possible novel target proteins or metabolic pathways for OP neurotoxicity. Protein levels of glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78) revealed that paraoxon exposure at 3 {mu}M for 24 h significantly reduced GRP78 levels by 30% in neuroblastoma cells, whereas DFP treatment had no effect. In comparison with SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, paraoxon and DFP (3 {mu}M for 24 h) each significantly increased GRP78 levels by 23-24% in CCF astrocytoma cells. As we have previously evaluated intracellular changes in Ca{sup 2+} levels in SY5Y cells, we investigated the effects of paraoxon and DFP on cellular Ca{sup 2+} homeostasis in CCF by studying cytosolic and mitochondrial basal calcium levels. A significant decrease in the ratio of mitochondrial to cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} fluorescence was detected in CCF cultures treated for either 1 or 3 days with 1, 3, 10, or 30 {mu}M paraoxon. In contrast, treatment with DFP for 1 day had no significant effect

  6. Captopril avoids hypertension, the increase in plasma angiotensin II but increases angiotensin 1-7 and angiotensin II-induced perfusion pressure in isolated kidney in SHR.

    PubMed

    Castro-Moreno, P; Pardo, J P; Hernández-Muñoz, R; López-Guerrero, J J; Del Valle-Mondragón, L; Pastelín-Hernández, G; Ibarra-Barajas, M; Villalobos-Molina, R

    2012-10-01

    We investigated captopril effects, an ACE inhibitor, on hypertension development, on Ang II and Ang-(1-7) plasma concentrations, on Ang II-induced contraction in isolated kidneys, and on kidney AT1R from spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats. Five weeks-old SHR and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats were treated with captopril at 30 mg/kg/day, in drinking water for 2 or 14 weeks. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured, and isolated kidneys were tested for perfusion pressure and AT1R expression; while Ang II and Ang-(1-7) concentrations were determined in plasma. Captopril did not modify SBP in WKY rats and avoided its increase as SHR aged. Plasma Ang-II concentration was ∼4-5 folds higher in SHR rats, and captopril reduced it (P<0.05); while captopril increased Ang-(1-7) by ∼2 fold in all rat groups. Captopril increased Ang II-induced pressor response in kidneys of WKY and SHR rats, phenomenon not observed in kidneys stimulated with phenylephrine, a α₁-adrenoceptor agonist. Captopril did not modify AT1R in kidney cortex and medulla among rat strains and ages. Data indicate that captopril increased Ang II-induced kidney perfusion pressure but not AT₁R density in kidney of WKY and SHR rats, due to blockade of angiotensin II synthesis; however, ACE inhibitors may have other actions like activating signaling processes that could contribute to their diverse effects.

  7. Increased Body Mass Index Associated with Increased Risky Sexual Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Lonna P.; Diaz, Angela; Soghomonian, Christine; Nucci-Sack, Anne T.; Weiss, Jocelyn M.; Strickler, Howard D.; Burk, Robert D.; Schlecht, Nicolas F.; Ochner, Christopher N.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objective The increasing prevalence of adolescent obesity has led to consideration of the potential effect of obesity on risky sexual behaviors. The current study examined whether body mass index (BMI) was related to age at sexual debut, type of sexual behavior, partner number, and condom use in a population of adolescent women at high risk for obesity and risky sexual behaviors. Study Design Cross-sectional examination of 860 sexually active, predominantly minority, adolescent women who received medical care at an urban health center from 2007 – 2013. Intervention Self-reported age at sexual debut, types of sexual intercourse, number of partners and condom use was compared to clinically – assessed BMI. Results Body mass index was positively associated with number of sexual partners (p = 0.001) and history of attempted anal intercourse (p = 0.002). An inverse association was observed with age at first anal intercourse (p = 0.040). Conclusions In this sample of adolescent women, increased BMI was associated with riskier sexual practices at a younger age. This study suggests that overweight and obese adolescents are a vulnerable population who may need targeted sexual health counseling. PMID:26358938

  8. Differential comparator cirucit

    DOEpatents

    Hickling, Ronald M.

    1996-01-01

    A differential comparator circuit for an Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) or other application includes a plurality of differential comparators and a plurality of offset voltage generators. Each comparator includes first and second differentially connected transistor pairs having equal and opposite voltage offsets. First and second offset control transistors are connected in series with the transistor pairs respectively. The offset voltage generators generate offset voltages corresponding to reference voltages which are compared with a differential input voltage by the comparators. Each offset voltage is applied to the offset control transistors of at least one comparator to set the overall voltage offset of the comparator to a value corresponding to the respective reference voltage. The number of offset voltage generators required in an ADC application can be reduced by a factor of approximately two by applying the offset voltage from each offset voltage generator to two comparators with opposite logical sense such that positive and negative offset voltages are produced by each offset voltage generator.

  9. Compare Gene Calls

    SciTech Connect

    Ecale Zhou, Carol L.

    2016-07-05

    Compare Gene Calls (CGC) is a Python code used for combining and comparing gene calls from any number of gene callers. A gene caller is a computer program that predicts the extends of open reading frames within genomes of biological organisms.

  10. Text File Comparator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotler, R. S.

    1983-01-01

    File Comparator program IFCOMP, is text file comparator for IBM OS/VScompatable systems. IFCOMP accepts as input two text files and produces listing of differences in pseudo-update form. IFCOMP is very useful in monitoring changes made to software at the source code level.

  11. Hybridization increases invasive knotweed success

    PubMed Central

    Parepa, Madalin; Fischer, Markus; Krebs, Christine; Bossdorf, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Hybridization is one of the fundamental mechanisms by which rapid evolution can occur in exotic species. If hybrids show increased vigour, this could significantly contribute to invasion success. Here, we compared the success of the two invasive knotweeds, Fallopia japonica and F. sachalinensis, and their hybrid, F. × bohemica, in competing against experimental communities of native plants. Using plant material from multiple clones of each taxon collected across a latitudinal gradient in Central Europe, we found that knotweed hybrids performed significantly better in competition with a native community and that they more strongly reduced the growth of the native plants. One of the parental species, F. sachalinensis, regenerated significantly less well from rhizomes, and this difference disappeared if activated carbon was added to the substrate, which suggests allelopathic inhibition of F. sachalinensis regeneration by native plants. We found substantial within-taxon variation in competitive success in all knotweed taxa, but variation was generally greatest in the hybrid. Interestingly, there was also significant variation within the genetically uniform F. japonica, possibly reflecting epigenetic differences. Our study shows that invasive knotweed hybrids are indeed more competitive than their parents and that hybridization increased the invasiveness of the exotic knotweed complex. PMID:24665343

  12. Dysregulated development of IL-17- and IL-21-expressing follicular helper T cells and increased germinal center formation in the absence of RORγt.

    PubMed

    Wichner, Katharina; Stauss, Dennis; Kampfrath, Branka; Krüger, Kerstin; Müller, Gerd; Rehm, Armin; Lipp, Martin; Höpken, Uta E

    2016-02-01

    Interleukin 17-producing helper T (Th17) cells have been widely defined by the lineage transcription factor retinoid-related orphan receptor (ROR)γt. Pathophysiologically, these cells play a crucial role in autoimmune diseases and have been linked to dysregulated germinal center (GC) reactions and autoantibody production. In this study, we used gene expression and flow cytometric analyses for the characterization of Rorγt(-/-) and Rorγt(-/-)Il21(RFP/+) mice to demonstrate a previously unknown transcriptional flexibility in the development of IL-17-producing Th-cell subsets. We found an accumulation of follicular Th (Tfh) cells by 5.2-fold, spontaneous 13-fold higher GC formation, decreased frequency of follicular Foxp3(+) T-regulatory (Treg) cells (50%), and a 3.4-fold increase in the number of proliferating follicular B cells in RORγt-deficient vs. wild-type mice. Dysregulated B-cell responses were associated with enhanced production of IL-17 (6.4-fold), IL-21 (2.2-fold), and B-cell-activating factor (BAFF) (2-fold) and were partially rescued by adoptive transfer of Treg cells. In an unexpected finding, we detected RORγt-independent IL-17 expression in ICOS(+)CXCR5(+)Tfh and in ICOS(+)CXCR5(-)Th cells. Based on the observed high Irf4 and Batf gene expression, we suggest that CD4(+) T-cell transcription factors other than RORγt can cooperatively induce differentiation of IL-17-producing Th cells, including Th17-like Tfh-cell subsets. We conclude that the occurrence of aberrant Tfh and follicular Treg cells support spontaneous GC formation and dysregulated B-cell responses in RORγt-deficient mice.

  13. Metabolic engineering of lipid catabolism increases microalgal lipid accumulation without compromising growth.

    PubMed

    Trentacoste, Emily M; Shrestha, Roshan P; Smith, Sarah R; Glé, Corine; Hartmann, Aaron C; Hildebrand, Mark; Gerwick, William H

    2013-12-03

    Biologically derived fuels are viable alternatives to traditional fossil fuels, and microalgae are a particularly promising source, but improvements are required throughout the production process to increase productivity and reduce cost. Metabolic engineering to increase yields of biofuel-relevant lipids in these organisms without compromising growth is an important aspect of advancing economic feasibility. We report that the targeted knockdown of a multifunctional lipase/phospholipase/acyltransferase increased lipid yields without affecting growth in the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana. Antisense-expressing knockdown strains 1A6 and 1B1 exhibited wild-type-like growth and increased lipid content under both continuous light and alternating light/dark conditions. Strains 1A6 and 1B1, respectively, contained 2.4- and 3.3-fold higher lipid content than wild-type during exponential growth, and 4.1- and 3.2-fold higher lipid content than wild-type after 40 h of silicon starvation. Analyses of fatty acids, lipid classes, and membrane stability in the transgenic strains suggest a role for this enzyme in membrane lipid turnover and lipid homeostasis. These results demonstrate that targeted metabolic manipulations can be used to increase lipid accumulation in eukaryotic microalgae without compromising growth.

  14. Parallel increase of dolichol pathway and nucleotide pyrophosphatases in rat hepatocytes by dexamethasone

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, M.; Mookerjea, S.

    1986-05-01

    Incorporation of (/sup 14/C)-mannose to dolichol phosphate mannose, dolichol pyrophosphate oligosaccharide and N-linked glycoproteins in cultured hepatocytes was increased by dexamethasone. Nucleotide pyrophosphatases are now measured to investigate possible control of glycosylation by the nucleotide sugar pools. Dexamethasone caused about 2 fold increase of UDP-GlcNAc and GDP-Man pyrophosphatase activity which is evident as early as 4 hr and increased up to 12 hr of incubation. The K/sub m/ for UDP-GlcNAc and GDP-Man were respectively 0.43 mM and 0.47 mM in homogenate membrane and the values remained unchanged by dexamethasone treatment. However the V/sub max/ of the enzymes were increased with both UDP-GlcNAc and GDP-Man. The broad pH optima of the enzymes (pH 8 to 10) indicated their alkaline nature. Mixing experiments of the cell homogenates from control and dexamethasone treated cells showed that UDP-GlcNAc and GDP-Man pyrophosphatase activities were additive which ruled out the possibility of presence of any activator or removal of any inhibitor due to dexamethasone. The parallel increase of nucleotide pyrophosphatase and dolichol linked pathway by dexamethasone does not support the possibility that stimulation of glycoprotein synthesis by dexamethasone is mediated by transfer of nucleotide sugars towards dolichol saccharides.

  15. Metabolic engineering of lipid catabolism increases microalgal lipid accumulation without compromising growth

    PubMed Central

    Trentacoste, Emily M.; Shrestha, Roshan P.; Smith, Sarah R.; Glé, Corine; Hartmann, Aaron C.; Hildebrand, Mark; Gerwick, William H.

    2013-01-01

    Biologically derived fuels are viable alternatives to traditional fossil fuels, and microalgae are a particularly promising source, but improvements are required throughout the production process to increase productivity and reduce cost. Metabolic engineering to increase yields of biofuel-relevant lipids in these organisms without compromising growth is an important aspect of advancing economic feasibility. We report that the targeted knockdown of a multifunctional lipase/phospholipase/acyltransferase increased lipid yields without affecting growth in the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana. Antisense-expressing knockdown strains 1A6 and 1B1 exhibited wild-type–like growth and increased lipid content under both continuous light and alternating light/dark conditions. Strains 1A6 and 1B1, respectively, contained 2.4- and 3.3-fold higher lipid content than wild-type during exponential growth, and 4.1- and 3.2-fold higher lipid content than wild-type after 40 h of silicon starvation. Analyses of fatty acids, lipid classes, and membrane stability in the transgenic strains suggest a role for this enzyme in membrane lipid turnover and lipid homeostasis. These results demonstrate that targeted metabolic manipulations can be used to increase lipid accumulation in eukaryotic microalgae without compromising growth. PMID:24248374

  16. Comparative State Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Gary H.

    1981-01-01

    Describes a college course dealing with comparative state politics. Students learn about the way in which political scientists employ the study of American state politics as a "laboratory" for the development of scientific explanations of political phenomena. (RM)

  17. Document Update and Compare

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoch, C. F.; Caldwell, D. C.; Caldwell, D. L.

    1983-01-01

    Document Update and Compare programs provide simple computerized documentmaintenance system on Data General NOVA 840 computer. Document Update program allows user to update document either by batch or terminal input. Documents are modified and lists of modifications printed out.

  18. Comparative Packaging Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele; Antonini, David

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes a comparative packaging study for use on long duration space missions. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Deliverables; 3) Food Sample Selection; 4) Experimental Design Matrix; 5) Permeation Rate Comparison; and 6) Packaging Material Information.

  19. Mechanical code comparator

    DOEpatents

    Peter, Frank J.; Dalton, Larry J.; Plummer, David W.

    2002-01-01

    A new class of mechanical code comparators is described which have broad potential for application in safety, surety, and security applications. These devices can be implemented as micro-scale electromechanical systems that isolate a secure or otherwise controlled device until an access code is entered. This access code is converted into a series of mechanical inputs to the mechanical code comparator, which compares the access code to a pre-input combination, entered previously into the mechanical code comparator by an operator at the system security control point. These devices provide extremely high levels of robust security. Being totally mechanical in operation, an access control system properly based on such devices cannot be circumvented by software attack alone.

  20. Sociological analysis and comparative education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woock, Roger R.

    1981-12-01

    It is argued that comparative education is essentially a derivative field of study, in that it borrows theories and methods from academic disciplines. After a brief humanistic phase, in which history and philosophy were central for comparative education, sociology became an important source. In the mid-50's and 60's, sociology in the United States was characterised by Structural Functionalism as a theory, and Social Survey as a dominant methodology. Both were incorporated into the development of comparative education. Increasingly in the 70's, and certainly today, the new developments in sociology are characterised by an attack on Positivism, which is seen as the philosophical position underlying both functionalism and survey methods. New or re-discovered theories with their attendant methodologies included Marxism, Phenomenological Sociology, Critical Theory, and Historical Social Science. The current relationship between comparative education and social science is one of uncertainty, but since social science is seen to be returning to its European roots, the hope is held out for the development of an integrated social theory and method which will provide a much stronger basis for developments in comparative education.

  1. Virtual Optical Comparator

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Greg

    2008-10-20

    The Virtual Optical Comparator, VOC, was conceived as a result of the limitations of conventional optical comparators and vision systems. Piece part designs for mechanisms have started to include precision features on the face of parts that must be viewed using a reflected image rather than a profile shadow. The VOC concept uses a computer generated overlay and a digital camera to measure features on a video screen. The advantage of this system is superior edge detection compared to traditional systems. No vinyl charts are procured or inspected. The part size and expensive fixtures are no longer a concern because of the range of the X-Y table of the Virtual Optical Comparator. Product redesigns require only changes to the CAD image overlays; new vinyl charts are not required. The inspection process is more ergonomic by allowing the operator to view the part sitting at a desk rather than standing over a 30 inch screen. The procurement cost for the VOC will be less than a traditional comparator with a much smaller footprint with less maintenance and energy requirements.

  2. Remodeling of Afferent Arterioles From Mice With Oxidative Stress Does Not Account for Increased Contractility but Does Limit Excessive Wall Stress.

    PubMed

    Li, Lingli; Feng, Di; Luo, Zaiming; Welch, William J; Wilcox, Christopher S; Lai, En Yin

    2015-09-01

    Because superoxide dismutase (SOD) knockout enhances arteriolar remodeling and contractility, we hypothesized that remodeling enhances contractility. In the isolated and perfused renal afferent arterioles from SOD wild type (+/+) and gene-deleted mice, contractility was assessed from reductions in luminal diameter with perfusion pressure from 40 to 80 mm Hg (myogenic responses) or angiotensin II (10(-6) mol/L), remodeling from media:lumen area ratio, superoxide (O2 (·-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) from fluorescence microscopy, and wall stress from wall tension/wall thickness. Compared with +/+ strains, arterioles from SOD1-/-, SOD2+/-, and SOD3-/- mice developed significantly (P<0.05) more O2 (·-) with perfusion pressure and angiotensin II and significantly increased myogenic responses (SOD1-/-: -20.7±2.2% versus -12.7±1.6%; SOD2+/-: -7.4±1.3% versus -12.6±1.4%; and SOD3-/-: -9.1±1.9% versus -15.8±2.2%) and angiotensin II contractions and ≈2-fold increased media:lumen ratios. Media:lumen ratios correlated with myogenic responses (r(2) =0.23; P<0.01), angiotensin II contractions (r(2)=0.57; P<0.0001), and active wall tension (r(2) =0.19; P<0.01), but not with active wall stress (r(2)=0.08; NS). Differences in myogenic responses among SOD3 mice were abolished by bath addition of SOD and were increased 3 days after inducing SOD3 knockout (-26.9±1.7% versus -20.1±0.7%; P<0.05), despite unchanged media:lumen ratios (2.01±0.09 versus 2.02±0.03; NS). We conclude that cytosolic, mitochondrial, or extracellular O2 (·-) enhance afferent arteriolar contractility and remodeling. Although remodeling does not enhance contractility, it does prevent the potentially damaging effects of increased wall stress.

  3. Comparing the cardiovascular therapeutic indices of glycopyrronium and tiotropium in an integrated rat pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and safety model

    SciTech Connect

    Trifilieff, Alexandre; Ethell, Brian T.; Sykes, David A.; Watson, Kenny J.; Collingwood, Steve; Charlton, Steven J.; Kent, Toby C.

    2015-08-15

    Long acting inhaled muscarinic receptor antagonists, such as tiotropium, are widely used as bronchodilator therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although this class of compounds is generally considered to be safe and well tolerated in COPD patients the cardiovascular safety of tiotropium has recently been questioned. We describe a rat in vivo model that allows the concurrent assessment of muscarinic antagonist potency, bronchodilator efficacy and a potential for side effects, and we use this model to compare tiotropium with NVA237 (glycopyrronium bromide), a recently approved inhaled muscarinic antagonist for COPD. Anaesthetized Brown Norway rats were dosed intratracheally at 1 or 6 h prior to receiving increasing doses of intravenous methacholine. Changes in airway resistance and cardiovascular function were recorded and therapeutic indices were calculated against the ED{sub 50} values for the inhibition of methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction. At both time points studied, greater therapeutic indices for hypotension and bradycardia were observed with glycopyrronium (19.5 and 28.5 fold at 1 h; > 200 fold at 6 h) than with tiotropium (1.5 and 4.2 fold at 1 h; 4.6 and 5.5 fold at 6 h). Pharmacokinetic, protein plasma binding and rat muscarinic receptor binding properties for both compounds were determined and used to generate an integrated model of systemic M{sub 2} muscarinic receptor occupancy, which predicted significantly higher M{sub 2} receptor blockade at ED{sub 50} doses with tiotropium than with glycopyrronium. In our preclinical model there was an improved safety profile for glycopyrronium when compared with tiotropium. - Highlights: • We use an in vivo rat model to study CV safety of inhaled muscarinic antagonists. • We integrate protein and receptor binding and PK of tiotropium and glycopyrrolate. • At ED{sub 50} doses for bronchoprotection we model systemic M{sub 2} receptor occupancy. • Glycopyrrolate demonstrates lower M

  4. Microchip-Based Single-Cell Imaging Reveals That CD56dimCD57-KIR-NKG2A+ NK Cells Have More Dynamic Migration Associated with Increased Target Cell Conjugation and Probability of Killing Compared to CD56dimCD57-KIR-NKG2A- NK Cells.

    PubMed

    Forslund, Elin; Sohlberg, Ebba; Enqvist, Monika; Olofsson, Per E; Malmberg, Karl-Johan; Önfelt, Björn

    2015-10-01

    NK cells are functionally educated by self-MHC specific receptors, including the inhibitory killer cell Ig-like receptors (KIRs) and the lectin-like CD94/NKG2A heterodimer. Little is known about how NK cell education influences qualitative aspects of cytotoxicity such as migration behavior and efficacy of activation and killing at the single-cell level. In this study, we have compared the behavior of FACS-sorted CD56(dim)CD57(-)KIR(-)NKG2A(+) (NKG2A(+)) and CD56(dim)CD57(-)KIR(-)NKG2A(-) (lacking inhibitory receptors; IR(-)) human NK cells by quantifying migration, cytotoxicity, and contact dynamics using microchip-based live cell imaging. NKG2A(+) NK cells displayed a more dynamic migration behavior and made more contacts with target cells than IR(-) NK cells. NKG2A(+) NK cells also more frequently killed the target cells once a conjugate had been formed. NK cells with serial killing capacity were primarily found among NKG2A(+) NK cells. Conjugates involving IR(-) NK cells were generally more short-lived and IR(-) NK cells did not become activated to the same extent as NKG2A(+) NK cells when in contact with target cells, as evident by their reduced spreading response. In contrast, NKG2A(+) and IR(-) NK cells showed similar dynamics in terms of duration of conjugation periods and NK cell spreading response in conjugates that led to killing. Taken together, these observations suggest that the high killing capacity of NKG2A(+) NK cells is linked to processes regulating events in the recognition phase of NK-target cell contact rather than events after cytotoxicity has been triggered.

  5. Ensembl comparative genomics resources.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Javier; Muffato, Matthieu; Beal, Kathryn; Fitzgerald, Stephen; Gordon, Leo; Pignatelli, Miguel; Vilella, Albert J; Searle, Stephen M J; Amode, Ridwan; Brent, Simon; Spooner, William; Kulesha, Eugene; Yates, Andrew; Flicek, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Evolution provides the unifying framework with which to understand biology. The coherent investigation of genic and genomic data often requires comparative genomics analyses based on whole-genome alignments, sets of homologous genes and other relevant datasets in order to evaluate and answer evolutionary-related questions. However, the complexity and computational requirements of producing such data are substantial: this has led to only a small number of reference resources that are used for most comparative analyses. The Ensembl comparative genomics resources are one such reference set that facilitates comprehensive and reproducible analysis of chordate genome data. Ensembl computes pairwise and multiple whole-genome alignments from which large-scale synteny, per-base conservation scores and constrained elements are obtained. Gene alignments are used to define Ensembl Protein Families, GeneTrees and homologies for both protein-coding and non-coding RNA genes. These resources are updated frequently and have a consistent informatics infrastructure and data presentation across all supported species. Specialized web-based visualizations are also available including synteny displays, collapsible gene tree plots, a gene family locator and different alignment views. The Ensembl comparative genomics infrastructure is extensively reused for the analysis of non-vertebrate species by other projects including Ensembl Genomes and Gramene and much of the information here is relevant to these projects. The consistency of the annotation across species and the focus on vertebrates makes Ensembl an ideal system to perform and support vertebrate comparative genomic analyses. We use robust software and pipelines to produce reference comparative data and make it freely available. Database URL: http://www.ensembl.org.

  6. Increase in hepatic expression of SREBP-2 by gemfibrozil administration to rats.

    PubMed

    Roglans, N; Peris, C; Verd, J C; Alegret, M; Vázquez, M; Sánchez, R M; Laguna, J C

    2001-09-15

    It is well known that gemfibrozil increases the biliary output of cholesterol and phospholipids, but we have little knowledge about the impact these changes have on liver cholesterol and phospholipid biosynthetic pathways. In the present study, no changes were detected in liver lipids and CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase after gemfibrozil administration to rats. On the contrary, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase mRNA (9.9-fold) and Rd activity (16.7-fold) and phosphatidate phosphohydrolase activity (1.7-fold) increased, while plasma apo B-cholesterol (40%) and triglyceride (43%) levels decreased. As a part of a compensatory homeostatic response, we report for the first time that gemfibrozil administration to rats increased the hepatic sterol regulatory element binding protein-2 (SREBP-2) mRNA (2.9-fold) and mature protein (2.2-fold) levels. An early increase in the transcriptional activity of SREBP-2 elicited by gemfibrozil administration might be responsible for the observed changes in HMG-CoA reductase, phosphatidate phosphohydrolase, and SREBP-2 expression.

  7. Increased BDNF expression in fetal brain in the valproic acid model of autism.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Luis E F; Roby, Clinton D; Krueger, Bruce K

    2014-03-01

    Human fetal exposure to valproic acid (VPA), a widely-used anti-epileptic and mood-stabilizing drug, leads to an increased incidence of behavioral and intellectual impairments including autism; VPA administration to pregnant rats and mice at gestational days 12.5 (E12.5) or E13.5 leads to autistic-like symptoms in the offspring and is widely used as an animal model for autism. We report here that this VPA administration protocol transiently increased both BDNF mRNA and BDNF protein levels 5-6-fold in the fetal mouse brain. VPA exposure in utero induced smaller increases in the expression of mRNA encoding the other neurotrophins, NT3 (2.5-fold) and NT4 (2-fold). Expression of the neurotrophin receptors, trkA, trkB and trkC were minimally affected, while levels of the low-affinity neurotrophin receptor, p75(NTR), doubled. Of the nine 5'-untranslated exons of the mouse BDNF gene, only expression of exons I, IV and VI was stimulated by VPA in utero. In light of the well-established role of BDNF in regulating neurogenesis and the laminar fate of postmitotic neurons in the developing cortex, an aberrant increase in BDNF expression in the fetal brain may contribute to VPA-induced cognitive disorders by altering brain development.

  8. Cyclic strain increases protease-activated receptor-1 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, K. T.; Frye, S. R.; Eskin, S. G.; Patterson, C.; Runge, M. S.; McIntire, L. V.

    2001-01-01

    Cyclic strain regulates many vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) functions through changing gene expression. This study investigated the effects of cyclic strain on protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) expression in VSMCs and the possible signaling pathways involved, on the basis of the hypothesis that cyclic strain would enhance PAR-1 expression, reflecting increased thrombin activity. Uniaxial cyclic strain (1 Hz, 20%) of cells cultured on elastic membranes induced a 2-fold increase in both PAR-1 mRNA and protein levels. Functional activity of PAR-1, as assessed by cell proliferation in response to thrombin, was also increased by cyclic strain. In addition, treatment of cells with antioxidants or an NADPH oxidase inhibitor blocked strain-induced PAR-1 expression. Preincubation of cells with protein kinase inhibitors (staurosporine or Ro 31-8220) enhanced strain-increased PAR-1 expression, whereas inhibitors of NO synthase, tyrosine kinase, and mitogen-activated protein kinases had no effect. Cyclic strain in the presence of basic fibroblast growth factor induced PAR-1 mRNA levels beyond the effect of cyclic strain alone, whereas no additive effect was observed between cyclic strain and platelet-derived growth factor-AB. Our findings that cyclic strain upregulates PAR-1 mRNA expression but that shear stress downregulates this gene in VSMCs provide an opportunity to elucidate signaling differences by which VSMCs respond to different mechanical forces.

  9. Slow motion increases perceived intent

    PubMed Central

    Caruso, Eugene M.; Burns, Zachary C.; Converse, Benjamin A.

    2016-01-01

    To determine the appropriate punishment for a harmful action, people must often make inferences about the transgressor’s intent. In courtrooms and popular media, such inferences increasingly rely on video evidence, which is often played in “slow motion.” Four experiments (n = 1,610) involving real surveillance footage from a murder or broadcast replays of violent contact in professional football demonstrate that viewing an action in slow motion, compared with regular speed, can cause viewers to perceive an action as more intentional. This slow motion intentionality bias occurred, in part, because slow motion video caused participants to feel like the actor had more time to act, even when they knew how much clock time had actually elapsed. Four additional experiments (n = 2,737) reveal that allowing viewers to see both regular speed and slow motion replay mitigates the bias, but does not eliminate it. We conclude that an empirical understanding of the effect of slow motion on mental state attribution should inform the life-or-death decisions that are currently based on tacit assumptions about the objectivity of human perception. PMID:27482091

  10. Comparative genomics and experimental promoter analysis reveal functional liver-specific elements in mammalian hepatic lipase genes

    PubMed Central

    van Deursen, Diederik; Botma, Gert-Jan; Jansen, Hans; Verhoeven, Adrie JM

    2007-01-01

    Background Mammalian hepatic lipase (HL) genes are transcribed almost exclusively in hepatocytes. The basis for this liver-restricted expression is not completely understood. We hypothesized that the responsible cis-acting elements are conserved among mammalian HL genes. To identify these elements, we made a genomic comparison of 30 kb of 5'-flanking region of the rat, mouse, rhesus monkey, and human HL genes. The in silico data were verified by promoter-reporter assays in transfected hepatoma HepG2 and non-hepatoma HeLa cells using serial 5'-deletions of the rat HL (-2287/+9) and human HL (-685/+13) promoter region. Results Highly conserved elements were present at the proximal promoter region, and at 14 and 22 kb upstream of the transcriptional start site. Both of these upstream elements increased transcriptional activity of the human HL (-685/+13) promoter region 2–3 fold. Within the proximal HL promoter region, conserved clusters of transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) were identified at -240/-200 (module A), -80/-40 (module B), and -25/+5 (module C) by the rVista software. In HepG2 cells, modules B and C, but not module A, were important for basal transcription. Module B contains putative binding sites for hepatocyte nuclear factors HNF1α. In the presence of module B, transcription from the minimal HL promoter was increased 1.5–2 fold in HepG2 cells, but inhibited 2–4 fold in HeLa cells. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that searching for conserved non-coding sequences by comparative genomics is a valuable tool in identifying candidate enhancer elements. With this approach, we found two putative enhancer elements in the far upstream region of the HL gene. In addition, we obtained evidence that the -80/-40 region of the HL gene is responsible for enhanced HL promoter activity in hepatoma cells, and for silencing HL promoter activity in non-liver cells. PMID:17428321

  11. Periadolescent rats (P41-50) exhibit increased susceptibility to D-methamphetamine-induced long-term spatial and sequential learning deficits compared to juvenile (P21-30 or P31-40) or adult rats (P51-60).

    PubMed

    Vorhees, Charles V; Reed, Tracy M; Morford, LaRonda L; Fukumura, Masao; Wood, Sandra L; Brown, Carrie A; Skelton, Matthew R; McCrea, Anne E; Rock, Stephanie L; Williams, Michael T

    2005-01-01

    We have previously shown that P11-20 treatment with d-methamphetamine (MA) induces impaired spatial navigation in the Morris water maze (MWM), whereas P1-10 treatment does not. Little is known about the long-term behavioral consequences of MA during juvenile, adolescent, and early adult brain development. In dose-response experiments, we tested successive 10-day intervals of exposure to MA in rats (P21-30, P31-40, P41-50, and P51-60; four doses per day). MA dosing prior to P21 produces little or no toxicity; however, we observed an increased toxicity with advancing age. Across-age comparisons revealed no MWM acquisition or Cincinnati water maze (CWM) effects after MA treatment on P21-30 (2.5-10 mg/kg/dose), P31-40 (1.25-7.5 mg/kg/dose), or P51-60 (1.25-5.0 mg/kg/dose); however, significantly impaired MWM acquisition was observed after P41-50 MA treatment at the highest dose (6.25 mg/kg/dose). Learning in the CWM was also impaired in this group. No effects were seen at 1.25, 2.5, or 5 mg/kg/dose following P41-50 MA treatment. MWM reversal learning trials after P41-50 treatment showed a trend towards longer latency in all MA dose groups, but no effect on double-reversal trials. Reversal and double-reversal also showed no effects at the other exposure ages. No differences in straight channel swimming or cued learning in the MWM were seen after MA treatment at any exposure age. P41-50 is the periadolescent stage of brain development in rodents. The effects observed at this age may suggest a previously unrecognized period of susceptibility for MA-induced cognitive deficits.

  12. Trends in Comparative Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G.

    1991-01-01

    Examines societal and academic factors influencing the development of comparative education since 1945, particularly in the United States. Discusses the dominance of structural functionalism and human capital theory in the 1960s, the recent shift to diverse research orientations and ideologies, and effects of institutional decline and…

  13. Terrestrial Planets: Comparative Planetology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Papers were presented at the 47th Annual Meteoritical Society Meeting on the Comparative planetology of Terrestrial Planets. Subject matter explored concerning terrestrial planets includes: interrelationships among planets; plaentary evolution; planetary structure; planetary composition; planetary Atmospheres; noble gases in meteorites; and planetary magnetic fields.

  14. Comparative Higher Education: Bibliography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardozier, V. R.

    This comparative higher education bibliography from the graduate program in Higher Education at University of Texas at Austin provides references with publication dates through 1990 under the following categories: "General and Canada" (85); "Africa (Sub-Sahara)" (23); "Asia" (122); "Australia and New…

  15. Comparative Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to compare cognitive development in humans and chimpanzees to illuminate the evolutionary origins of human cognition. Comparison of morphological data and life history strongly highlights the common features of all primate species, including humans. The human mother-infant relationship is characterized by the physical separation of…

  16. Expression of the transporter encoded by the cefT gene of Acremonium chrysogenum increases cephalosporin production in Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Nijland, Jeroen G; Kovalchuk, Andriy; van den Berg, Marco A; Bovenberg, Roel A L; Driessen, Arnold J M

    2008-10-01

    By introduction of the cefEF genes of Acremonium chrysogenum and the cmcH gene of Streptomyces clavuligerus, Penicillium chrysogenum can be reprogrammed to form adipoyl-7-amino-3-carbamoyloxymethyl-3-cephem-4-carboxylic acid (ad7-ACCCA), a carbamoylated derivate of adipoyl-7-aminodeacetoxy-cephalosporanic acid. The cefT gene of A. chrysogenum encodes a cephalosporin C transporter that belongs to the Major Facilitator Superfamily. Introduction of cefT into an ad7-ACCCA-producing P. chrysogenum strain results in an almost 2-fold increase in cephalosporin production with a concomitant decrease in penicillin by-product formation. These data suggest that cephalosporin production by recombinant P. chrysogenum strains is limited by the ability of the fungus to secrete these compounds.

  17. Increasing instruction time in school does increase learning

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Simon Calmar; Nandrup, Anne Brink

    2016-01-01

    Increasing instruction time in school is a central element in the attempts of many governments to improve student learning, but prior research—mainly based on observational data—disputes the effect of this approach and points out the potential negative effects on student behavior. Based on a large-scale, cluster-randomized trial, we find that increasing instruction time increases student learning and that a general increase in instruction time is at least as efficient as an expert-developed, detailed teaching program that increases instruction with the same amount of time. These findings support the value of increased instruction time. PMID:27325778

  18. Enhancer Identification through Comparative Genomics

    SciTech Connect

    Visel, Axel; Bristow, James; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2006-10-01

    With the availability of genomic sequence from numerousvertebrates, a paradigm shift has occurred in the identification ofdistant-acting gene regulatory elements. In contrast to traditionalgene-centric studies in which investigators randomly scanned genomicfragments that flank genes of interest in functional assays, the modernapproach begins electronically with publicly available comparativesequence datasets that provide investigators with prioritized lists ofputative functional sequences based on their evolutionary conservation.However, although a large number of tools and resources are nowavailable, application of comparative genomic approaches remains far fromtrivial. In particular, it requires users to dynamically consider thespecies and methods for comparison depending on the specific biologicalquestion under investigation. While there is currently no single generalrule to this end, it is clear that when applied appropriately,comparative genomic approaches exponentially increase our power ingenerating biological hypotheses for subsequent experimentaltesting.

  19. Fast Holographic Comparator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vahey, D. W.

    1982-01-01

    Comparator is integrated-optical system constructed on a LiNb03sub. waveguide chip. Only the laser, lens and detector are external to chip. Aluminized surface gratings serve as input coupler and beam splitter. Light beams striking edges are returned by ordinary total internal reflection. Three operating modes are possible: A "screening" mode, an "identification" mode and a novel "self-subtraction" mode.

  20. Compare Gene Profiles

    SciTech Connect

    2014-05-31

    Compare Gene Profiles (CGP) performs pairwise gene content comparisons among a relatively large set of related bacterial genomes. CGP performs pairwise BLAST among gene calls from a set of input genome and associated annotation files, and combines the results to generate lists of common genes, unique genes, homologs, and genes from each genome that differ substantially in length from corresponding genes in the other genomes. CGP is implemented in Python and runs in a Linux environment in serial or parallel mode.

  1. Comparing Point Clouds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-04-01

    Point clouds are one of the most primitive and fundamental surface representations. A popular source of point clouds are three dimensional shape...acquisition devices such as laser range scanners. Another important field where point clouds are found is in the representation of high-dimensional...framework for comparing manifolds given by point clouds is presented in this paper. The underlying theory is based on Gromov-Hausdorff distances, leading

  2. Banking: shop and compare.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Jennifer A; DeJarnette, Sherry

    2014-01-01

    There are many reasons to take a critical look at the practice's banking relationship(s)--technology advancements, security measures, improvements in available services, recent banking enhancements designed specifically for medical practices, the impact of the financial crisis on bank ratings and stability, changing practice needs, opportunities for operational automation at the practice--and it is just simply smart to periodically evaluate and compare the features, pricing, and potential savings offered by vendors.

  3. Teaching about Comparative Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risinger, C. Frederick

    2009-01-01

    As international relationships become increasingly important (with both friendly and not-so-friendly governments), the author believes that it is important for U.S. students to learn about how a parliamentary democracy works--how it is similar, but different from a presidential-style government. Learning about the systems of government of other…

  4. H2O2 seed priming improves tolerance to salinity; drought and their combined effect more than mannitol in Cakile maritima when compared to Eutrema salsugineum.

    PubMed

    Ellouzi, Hasna; Sghayar, Souhir; Abdelly, Chedly

    2017-03-01

    The effect of H2O2 and mannitol seed priming was investigated on plant growth, oxidative stress biomarkers and activities of antioxidant enzymes in leaves of Cakile maritima and Eutrema salsugineum, when exposed to drought and salt stress, either separately applied or combined. Under unprimed conditions, drought severely restricted growth (40% as compared to the control) and redox balance of C. maritima seedlings, whereas E. salsugineum showed these drastic effects under individual salinity (33% as compared to the control). Combined salinity and drought maintained and even stimulated the antioxidant defense of both plants from unprimed seeds. Both priming agents (mannitol and H2O2) significantly ameliorated growth and antioxidant defense of both species grown under salinity, drought and their combined effect. However, H2O2 priming appeared to be more beneficial in C. maritima seedlings. Indeed, oxidative injuries were significantly reduced, together with significantly higher concentrations of ascorbic acid (36%), glutathione (2-fold) and proline production (2-fold), leading to a greater redox balance that was closely associated with enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities, specifically under salt stress. Overall, our results indicate that it is very likely that H2O2 priming, due to its signal role, improves C. maritima tolerance to both osmotic stresses and enables the plant to memorize and to decode early signals that are rapidly activated when plants are later exposed to stress.

  5. A low vitamin A status increases the susceptibility to cigarette smoke-induced lung emphysema in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    van Eijl, S; Mortaz, E; Versluis, C; Nijkamp, F P; Folkerts, G; Bloksma, N

    2011-04-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic airway inflammation. Cigarette smoke has been considered a major player in the pathogenesis of COPD. The inflamed airways of COPD patients contain several inflammatory cells. Vitamin A metabolites have been implicated in the repair of lung damage. Exposure to cigarette smoke has been shown to depress levels of retinol in lungs of rats. The purpose of this study was to investigate if a low, but not deficient, vitamin A status potentiated susceptibility to the development of cigarette smoke-induced lung emphysema in mice. Mice were bred that were the offspring's of 3 generations of mice that were fed a purified diet containing low levels of vitamin A and exposed to cigarette smoke for 3 months, every weekday. Then, levels of 9-cis, 13-cis, and all-trans retinoic acid, retinol and retinyl palmitate were measured in plasma, liver and right lung lobe. The left lung lobe was used to assess mean linear intercept (Lm), as a measure of smoke-induced lung damage. Average feed intakes were not different between treatment groups. We show that both retinol and retinyl palmitate levels were dramatically decreased in the storage organs of mice on the low vitamin A diet (retinol 2-fold in both lung and liver, and retinyl palmitate 5- fold in lung) which shows that the depletion was successful. However, this treatment did not result in the development of lung emphysema. However, smoke exposure led to a significant increase in Lm in mice with a low vitamin A status compared to the room air-breathing controls. Lung levels of acid retinoids were similar in all mice, irrespective of diet or smoke exposure. Concluding, a low vitamin A status increases the susceptibility to the development of cigarette smoke-induced lung emphysema, possibly because of decreased anti-oxidant capacity in the lungs due to locally reduced retinol and retinyl palmitate levels. These observations indicate that human populations with a low

  6. Comparative studies between species that do and do not exhibit the washout effect.

    PubMed

    Scott, Patrick A; Overby, Darryl R; Freddo, Thomas F; Gong, Haiyan

    2007-03-01

    Ocular perfusion studies from all non-human species performed to date consistently demonstrate a perfusion-volume-dependent increase in aqueous outflow facility known as the "washout" effect. However, this "washout" effect does not occur in human eyes. We have recently documented that, in bovine eyes, the washout associated increase in facility correlates with the extent of physical separation between the juxtacanalicular connective tissue (JCT) and the inner wall endothelium lining the aqueous plexus (the bovine equivalent of Schlemm's canal). We hypothesize that if washout truly correlates with inner wall/JCT separation then this separation should not occur in human eyes that do not exhibit the washout effect, even after prolonged perfusion. Eight enucleated human and eight bovine eyes were used in this study. Aqueous humor outflow facility was measured at 15 mmHg for long-duration (3 h) or short-duration (30 min to 1 h) perfusion (n=4 for each group). All eyes were perfusion-fixed at 15 mmHg, and examined morphologically with both light and electron microscopy. In bovine eyes, outflow facility increased 81% (p=0.049) from 1.06 +/- 0.06 microl/min per mmHg (mean+/-SEM) at baseline to 1.92 +/- 0.30 microl/min per mmHg after 3 h due to washout. The pre-fixation outflow facility in long-duration eyes (1.92 +/- 0.30 microl/min per mmHg) was 2-fold greater than pre-fixation facility in short-duration eyes (0.92 +/- 0.11 microl/min per mmHg; p=0.0387). In human eyes, washout was not observed; baseline outflow facility was similar between both groups (0.18 +/- 0.02 vs. 0.25 +/- 0.08 microl/min per mmHg; p=0.518); however, pre-fixation outflow facility in long-duration eyes showed a 40% decrease compared to baseline outflow facility in those same eyes (p=0.017, paired Student's t-test). In bovine eyes, significant expansion and rarefaction of the JCT and inner wall/JCT separation was much more prevalent in long-duration eyes, and data from all bovine eyes revealed a

  7. COMPARATIVE STUDIES BETWEEN SPECIES THAT DO AND DO NOT EXHIBIT THE WASHOUT EFFECT

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Patrick A.; Overby, Darryl R.; Freddo, Thomas F.; Gong, Haiyan

    2007-01-01

    Ocular perfusion studies from all non-human species performed to date consistently demonstrate a perfusion-volume-dependent increase in aqueous outflow facility known as the “washout” effect. However, this “washout” effect does not occur in human eyes. We have recently documented that, in bovine eyes, the washout associated increase in facility correlates with the extent of physical separation between the juxtacanalicular connective tissue (JCT) and the inner wall endothelium lining the aqueous plexus (the bovine equivalent of Schlemm’s canal). We hypothesize that if washout truly correlates with inner wall/JCT separation then this separation should not occur in human eyes that do not exhibit the washout effect, even after prolonged perfusion. Eight enucleated human and eight bovine eyes were used in this study. Aqueous outflow facility was measured at 15 mmHg for long-duration (3 hr) or short-duration (30 min – 1 hr) perfusion (n=4 for each group). All eyes were perfusion-fixed at 15 mmHg, and examined morphologically with both light and electron microscopy. In bovine eyes, outflow facility increased 81% (p=0.049) from 1.06 ± 0.06 μl/min/mmHg at baseline to 1.92 ± 0.30 μl/min/mmHg after 3 hrs due to washout. The pre-fixation outflow facility in long-duration eyes (1.92 ± 0.30 μl/min/mmHg) (mean ± SEM) was 2-fold greater than pre-fixation facility in short-duration eyes (0.92 ± 0.11 μl/min/mmHg; p = 0.0387). In human eyes, washout was not observed; baseline outflow facility was similar between both groups (0.18 ± 0.02 vs. 0.25 ± 0.08 μl/min/mmHg; p=0.518); however, pre-fixation outflow facility in long-duration eyes showed a 40% decrease compared to baseline outflow facility in those same eyes (p = 0.017, paired Student’s t-test). In bovine eyes, significant expansion and rarefaction of the JCT and inner wall/JCT separation was much more prevalent in long-duration eyes, and data from all bovine eyes revealed a correlation between the

  8. Intrastriatal taurine increases striatal extracellular dopamine in a tetrodotoxin-sensitive manner in rats.

    PubMed

    Ruotsalainen, M; Ahtee, L

    1996-07-19

    In vivo effects of locally administered taurine on striatal dopamine release and metabolism were studied by microdialysis in freely moving rats. Concentrations of dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) in striatal dialysates were quantified by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) using electrochemical detection. Infusion of 150 mM taurine into the striatum for 2 h induced a 2.5-fold increase in the extracellular dopamine concentration. Extracellular DOPAC concentration increased nearly 2-fold. Taurine infusion initially decreased HVA to 70% but afterwards increased it to 140% of the control. When taurine was infused simultaneously with 1 microM tetrodotoxin starting 60 min after tetrodotoxin, the output of dopamine did not differ from that in the presence of tetrodotoxin alone. Tetrodotoxin abolished the effects of taurine on dopamine metabolites as well. Tetrodotoxin-sensitivity of the effects of taurine on dopamine and its metabolites suggests that intrastriatal taurine elevates extracellular dopamine by releasing it from neuronal pool.

  9. Angiotensin II and NADPH oxidase increase ADMA in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zaiming; Teerlink, Tom; Griendling, Kathy; Aslam, Shakil; Welch, William J; Wilcox, Christopher S

    2010-09-01

    Asymmetrical dimethylarginine inhibits nitric oxide synthase, cationic amino acid transport, and endothelial function. Patients with cardiovascular risk factors often have endothelial dysfunction associated with increased plasma asymmetrical dimethylarginine and markers of reactive oxygen species. We tested the hypothesis that reactive oxygen species, generated by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, enhance cellular asymmetrical dimethylarginine. Incubation of rat preglomerular vascular smooth muscle cells with angiotensin II doubled the activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase but decreased the activities of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase by 35% and of cationic amino acid transport by 20% and doubled cellular (but not medium) asymmetrical dimethylarginine concentrations (P<0.01). This was blocked by tempol or candesartan. Cells stably transfected with p22(phox) had a 50% decreased protein expression and activity of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase despite increased promoter activity and mRNA. The decreased DDAH protein expression and the increased asymmetrical dimethylarginine concentration in p22(phox)-transfected cells were prevented by proteosomal inhibition. These cells had enhanced protein arginine methylation, a 2-fold increased expression of protein arginine methyltransferase-3 (P<0.05) and a 30% reduction in cationic amino acid transport activity (P<0.05). Asymmetrical dimethylarginine was increased from 6+/-1 to 16+/-3 micromol/L (P<0.005) in p22(phox)-transfected cells. Thus, angiotensin II increased cellular asymmetrical dimethylarginine via type 1 receptors and reactive oxygen species. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase increased cellular asymmetrical dimethylarginine by increasing enzymes that generate it, enhancing the degradation of enzymes that metabolize it, and reducing its cellular transport. This could underlie increases in cellular asymmetrical dimethylarginine during

  10. Comparative assembly hubs: Web-accessible browsers for comparative genomics

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Ngan; Hickey, Glenn; Raney, Brian J.; Armstrong, Joel; Clawson, Hiram; Zweig, Ann; Karolchik, Donna; Kent, William James; Haussler, David; Paten, Benedict

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: Researchers now have access to large volumes of genome sequences for comparative analysis, some generated by the plethora of public sequencing projects and, increasingly, from individual efforts. It is not possible, or necessarily desirable, that the public genome browsers attempt to curate all these data. Instead, a wealth of powerful tools is emerging to empower users to create their own visualizations and browsers. Results: We introduce a pipeline to easily generate collections of Web-accessible UCSC Genome Browsers interrelated by an alignment. It is intended to democratize our comparative genomic browser resources, serving the broad and growing community of evolutionary genomicists and facilitating easy public sharing via the Internet. Using the alignment, all annotations and the alignment itself can be efficiently viewed with reference to any genome in the collection, symmetrically. A new, intelligently scaled alignment display makes it simple to view all changes between the genomes at all levels of resolution, from substitutions to complex structural rearrangements, including duplications. To demonstrate this work, we create a comparative assembly hub containing 57 Escherichia coli and 9 Shigella genomes and show examples that highlight their unique biology. Availability and implementation: The source code is available as open source at: https://github.com/glennhickey/progressiveCactus The E.coli and Shigella genome hub is now a public hub listed on the UCSC browser public hubs Web page. Contact: benedict@soe.ucsc.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25138168

  11. Increased carrying capacity with perennial forage kochia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carrying capacity can be increased on grass-dominated rangeland pastures by including perennial forage kochia (Kochia prostrata) as one of the plant components. The objectives of the study reported here were to compare the differences of traditional winter pastures versus pastures with forage kochi...

  12. Are All Item Response Functions Monotonically Increasing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wenhao

    2012-01-01

    Item response functions of the parametric logistic IRT models follow the logistic form which is monotonically increasing. However, item response functions of some real items are nonmonotonic which might lead to examinees with lower proficiency levels receiving higher scores. This study compared three nonparametric IRF estimation methods--the…

  13. Theories of Comparative Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    model of a projectile fired from a cannon in a uniform gravitational field serves to demonstrate the problems due to qualitative arithmetic. Nei...recently demonstrated the qualitative Gauss rule, a type of algebraic manip- ulation that is solution preserving. While it cannot eliminate all...projectile fired from a cannon illustrates this point. Given an increase in muzzle velocity, Vft, as a perturbation, DQ " analysis predicts that apogee

  14. Ferroelectric optical image comparator

    DOEpatents

    Butler, M.A.; Land, C.E.; Martin, S.J.; Pfeifer, K.B.

    1993-11-30

    A ferroelectric optical image comparator has a lead lanthanum zirconate titanate thin-film device which is constructed with a semi-transparent or transparent conductive first electrode on one side of the thin film, a conductive metal second electrode on the other side of the thin film, and the second electrode is in contact with a nonconducting substrate. A photoinduced current in the device represents the dot product between a stored image and an image projected onto the first electrode. One-dimensional autocorrelations are performed by measuring this current while displacing the projected image. 7 figures.

  15. Ferroelectric optical image comparator

    DOEpatents

    Butler, Michael A.; Land, Cecil E.; Martin, Stephen J.; Pfeifer, Kent B.

    1993-01-01

    A ferroelectric optical image comparator has a lead lanthanum zirconate titanate thin-film device which is constructed with a semi-transparent or transparent conductive first electrode on one side of the thin film, a conductive metal second electrode on the other side of the thin film, and the second electrode is in contact with a nonconducting substrate. A photoinduced current in the device represents the dot product between a stored image and an image projected onto the first electrode. One-dimensional autocorrelations are performed by measuring this current while displacing the projected image.

  16. Supplementation of branched-chain amino acids to a reduced-protein diet improves growth performance in piglets: involvement of increased feed intake and direct muscle growth-promoting effect.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Liufeng; Wei, Hongkui; Cheng, Chuanshang; Xiang, Quanhang; Pang, Jiaman; Peng, Jian

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether supplementing branched-chain amino acids (AA) (BCAA) along with a reduced-protein diet increases piglet growth, and whether elevated feed intake and muscle growth-promoting effect contribute to this improvement. In Expt 1, twenty-eight weanling piglets were randomly fed one of the following four diets: a positive control (PC) diet, a reduced-protein negative control (NC) diet, an NC diet supplemented with BCAA to the same levels as in the PC diet (test 1 (T1)) and an NC diet supplemented with a 2-fold dose of BCAA in T1 diet (test 2 (T2)) for 28 d. In Expt 2, twenty-one weanling piglets were randomly assigned to NC, T1 and pair-fed T1 (P) groups. NC and T1 diets were the same as in Expt 1, whereas piglets in the P group were individually pair-fed with the NC group. In Expt 1, the NC group had reduced piglet growth and feed intake compared with the PC group, which were restored in T1 and T2 groups, but no differences were detected between T1 and T2 groups. In Expt 2, T1 and P groups showed increases in growth and mass of some muscles compared with the NC group. Increased feed intake after BCAA supplementation was associated with increased mRNA expressions of agouti-related peptide and co-express neuropeptide Y (NPY) and phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), as well as decreased mRNA expressions of melanocortin-4 receptor and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript and phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α in the hypothalamus. No differences were observed among PC, T1 and T2 groups except for higher NPY mRNA expression in the T2 group than in the PC group (Expt 1). Phosphorylation of mTOR and S6K1 in muscle was enhanced after BCAA supplementation, which was independent of change in feed intake (Expt 2). In conclusion, supplementing BCAA to reduced-protein diets increases feed intake and muscle mass, and contributes to better growth

  17. Manipulator comparative testing program

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, J.V.; Handel, S.J.; Sundstrom, E.; Herndon, J.N.; Fujita, Y.; Maida, M.

    1986-01-01

    The Manipulator Comparative Testing Program compared performance of selected manipulator systems under typical remote handling conditions. The site of testing was the Remote Operations and Maintenance Demonstration Facility operated by the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Three experiment examined differences among manipulator systems from the US and Japan. The manipulator systems included the Meidensha BILARM 83A, Central Research Laboratories' (CRL's) Model M-2, and GCA PaR systems Model 6000. Six manipulator and control mode combinations were evaluated: (a) the BILARM in master-slave mode without force reflection; (b) the BILARM in master-slave mode with force reflection; (c) the Model M-2 in master-slave mode without force reflection; (d) the Model M-2 in master-slave mode with force reflection; (e) the BILARM with switchbox controls; and (f) the PaR 6000 with switchbox controls. The experiments also examined differences between master-slave systems with and without force reflections, and differences between master-slave systems and switchbox-controlled systems.

  18. Comparing pedigree graphs.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Bonnie; Reshef, Yakir; Finucane, Hilary; Jiang, Haitao; Zhu, Binhai; Karp, Richard M

    2012-09-01

    Pedigree graphs, or family trees, are typically constructed by an expensive process of examining genealogical records to determine which pairs of individuals are parent and child. New methods to automate this process take as input genetic data from a set of extant individuals and reconstruct ancestral individuals. There is a great need to evaluate the quality of these methods by comparing the estimated pedigree to the true pedigree. In this article, we consider two main pedigree comparison problems. The first is the pedigree isomorphism problem, for which we present a linear-time algorithm for leaf-labeled pedigrees. The second is the pedigree edit distance problem, for which we present (1) several algorithms that are fast and exact in various special cases, and (2) a general, randomized heuristic algorithm. In the negative direction, we first prove that the pedigree isomorphism problem is as hard as the general graph isomorphism problem, and that the sub-pedigree isomorphism problem is NP-hard. We then show that the pedigree edit distance problem is APX-hard in general and NP-hard on leaf-labeled pedigrees. We use simulated pedigrees to compare our edit-distance algorithms to each other as well as to a branch-and-bound algorithm that always finds an optimal solution.

  19. Comparability of IQ Scores over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Must, Olev; te Nijenhuis, Jan; Must, Aasa; van Vianen, Annelies E. M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the comparability of IQ scores. Three cohorts (1933/36, 1997/98, 2006) of Estonian students (N = 2173) are compared using the Estonian National Intelligence Test. After 72 years the secular rise of the IQ test scores is 0.79 SD. The mean 0.16 SD increase in the last 8 years suggests a rapid increase of the Flynn Effect (FE)…

  20. Does residual force enhancement increase with increasing stretch magnitudes?

    PubMed

    Hisey, Brandon; Leonard, Tim R; Herzog, Walter

    2009-07-22

    It is generally accepted that force enhancement in skeletal muscles increases with increasing stretch magnitudes. However, this property has not been tested across supra-physiological stretch magnitudes and different muscle lengths, thus it is not known whether this is a generic property of skeletal muscle, or merely a property that holds for small stretch magnitudes within the physiological range. Six cat soleus muscles were actively stretched with magnitudes varying from 3 to 24 mm at three different parts of the force-length relationship to test the hypothesis that force enhancement increases with increasing stretch magnitude, independent of muscle length. Residual force enhancement increased consistently with stretch amplitudes on the descending limb of the force-length relationship up to a threshold value, after which it reached a plateau. Force enhancement did not increase with stretch amplitude on the ascending limb of the force-length relationship. Passive force enhancement was observed for all test conditions, and paralleled the behavior of the residual force enhancement. Force enhancement increased with stretch magnitude when stretching occurred at lengths where there was natural passive force within the muscle. These results suggest that force enhancement does not increase unconditionally with increasing stretch magnitude, as is generally accepted, and that increasing force enhancement with stretch appears to be tightly linked to that part of the force-length relationship where there is naturally occurring passive force.

  1. Increased amounts of farnesylated p21Ras in tissues of hyperinsulinaemic animals.

    PubMed

    Goalstone, M L; Wall, K; Leitner, J W; Kurowski, T; Ruderman, N; Pan, S J; Ivy, J L; Moller, D E; Draznin, B

    1999-03-01

    We have recently demonstrated that insulin activates farnesyltransferase (FTase) and thereby increases the amounts of cellular farnesylated p21Ras in 3T3-L1 fibroblasts, adipocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells. We postulated that hyperinsulinaemia might considerably increase the the cellular pool of farnesylated p21Ras available for activation by other growth factors. To examine the role of in vivo hyperinsulinaemia in regulating farnesylated p21Ras, we measured the amounts of farnesylated p21Ras in tissues of hyperinsulinaemic animals. Liver, aorta, and skeletal muscle of ob/ob mice, and mice made obese and hyperinsulinaemic by injection of gold-thioglucose contained greater amounts of farnesylated p21Ras than tissues of their lean normoinsulinaemic counterparts. Similarly, farnesylated p21Ras was increased (67 vs. 35 % in control animals, p<0.01) in the livers of hyperinsulinaemic Zucker rats (fa/fa). Reduction of hyperinsulinaemia by exercise training (2 h/day for 7-8 weeks) resulted in decreases in the amounts of farnesylated p21Ras in these animals. Increased farnesylated p21Ras in hyperinsulinaemic animals reflected increasing increments in the activity of FTase in ob/ob mice (2-fold increase) and fa/fa Zucker rats (3.5-fold increase), while the total amounts of Ras proteins remained unchanged. In contrast to insulin-resistant hyperinsulinaemic animals, denervated insulin-resistant rat soleus muscle (in the presence of normoinsulinaemia) showed normal amounts of farnesylated p21Ras. In summary, these data confirm increased amounts of farnesylated p21Ras in tissues of hyperinsulinaemic animals.

  2. Susceptibility to the Flash-Beep Illusion Is Increased in Children Compared to Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Innes-Brown, Hamish; Barutchu, Ayla; Shivdasani, Mohit N.; Crewther, David P.; Grayden, David B.; Paolini, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Audio-visual integration was studied in children aged 8-17 (N = 30) and adults (N = 22) using the "flash-beep illusion" paradigm, where the presentation of two beeps causes a single flash to be perceived as two flashes ("fission" illusion), and a single beep causes two flashes to be perceived as one flash ("fusion" illusion). Children reported…

  3. Terminological Comparability as a Factor in Increasing International Mobility in the Sphere of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuznetsov, V. M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Mutual understanding and the strengthening of ties among the higher education systems of different countries depends largely on overcoming language barriers, and the national and international standardization of terminology would help in that process. (MSE)

  4. Comparing Two Training Strategies to Increase Competence in Solving Ethical Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Jorge; Froehlic, Robert; McGuire-Kuletz, Maureen; Rejiester, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    This study examined which of two training models delivered through the internet led to better cultural competence in resolving ethical dilemmas with a sample of rehabilitation professionals. One type of training involved teaching a transcultural integrative model of ethical decision-making while the other training involved using the same…

  5. Increased Eye Contact During Conversation Compared to Play in Children With Autism.

    PubMed

    Jones, Rebecca M; Southerland, Audrey; Hamo, Amarelle; Carberry, Caroline; Bridges, Chanel; Nay, Sarah; Stubbs, Elizabeth; Komarow, Emily; Washington, Clay; Rehg, James M; Lord, Catherine; Rozga, Agata

    2017-03-01

    Children with autism have atypical gaze behavior but it is unknown whether gaze differs during distinct types of reciprocal interactions. Typically developing children (N = 20) and children with autism (N = 20) (4-13 years) made similar amounts of eye contact with an examiner during a conversation. Surprisingly, there was minimal eye contact during interactive play in both groups. Gaze behavior was stable across 8 weeks in children with autism (N = 15). Lastly, gaze behavior during conversation but not play was associated with autism social affect severity scores (ADOS CSS SA) and the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS-2). Together findings suggests that eye contact in typical and atypical development is influenced by subtle changes in context, which has implications for optimizing assessments of social communication skills.

  6. Comparing Resource Adequacy Metrics

    SciTech Connect

    Ibanez, Eduardo; Milligan, Michael

    2014-11-13

    As the penetration of variable generation (wind and solar) increases around the world, there is an accompanying growing interest and importance in accurately assessing the contribution that these resources can make toward planning reserve. This contribution, also known as the capacity credit or capacity value of the resource, is best quantified by using a probabilistic measure of overall resource adequacy. In recognizing the variable nature of these renewable resources, there has been interest in exploring the use of reliability metrics other than loss of load expectation. In this paper, we undertake some comparisons using data from the Western Electricity Coordinating Council in the western United States.

  7. Comparative optimism about healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Sproesser, Gudrun; Klusmann, Verena; Schupp, Harald T; Renner, Britta

    2015-07-01

    The present study investigated people's perception of their own as compared to their peers' healthy eating and related these perceptions to actual healthy eating, BMI, and subsequent healthy eating behavior. Data were collected within the framework of the longitudinal cohort study Konstanz Life Study (T1: N = 770; T2: N = 510). Our results demonstrated an optimistic bias on the group level. Specifically, people rated their own eating behavior as healthier on average than that of their average peers. This comparative optimism occurred even when actual healthy eating was unfavorable and BMI was high. However, it increased with actual healthy eating behavior. Importantly, optimistic perceptions were positively related to the intention to eat healthily and healthy eating six months later. Hence, the results suggest that an optimistic comparative view of one's own healthy eating is grounded in reality and boosts rather than deters subsequent health behavior. This implies that there might not be a need to reduce optimistic perceptions of healthy eating behavior.

  8. Enhancer Identification through Comparative Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Visel, Axel; Bristow, James; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2007-01-01

    With the availability of genomic sequence from numerous vertebrates, a paradigm shift has occurred in the identification of distant-acting gene regulatory elements. In contrast to traditional gene-centric studies in which investigators randomly scanned genomic fragments that flank genes of interest in functional assays, the modern approach begins electronically with publicly available comparative sequence datasets that provide investigators with prioritized lists of putative functional sequences based on their evolutionary conservation. However, although a large number of tools and resources are now available, application of comparative genomic approaches remains far from trivial. In particular, it requires users to dynamically consider the species and methods for comparison depending on the specific biological question under investigation. While there is currently no single general rule to this end, it is clear that when applied appropriately, comparative genomic approaches exponentially increase our power in generating biological hypotheses for subsequent experimental testing. It is anticipated that cardiac-related genes and the identification of their distant-acting transcriptional enhancers are particularly poised to benefit from these modern capabilities. PMID:17276707

  9. Comparative and International Education: A Bibliography (2014)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comparative Education Review, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 "Comparative Education Review" bibliography of refereed journal articles on topics relevant to comparative and international education covers all 12 months in 2014 and includes 3,389 entries--a full 30 percent increase over the set of references assembled in the 2013 bibliography. They are drawn from 280 refereed journals, both…

  10. Poverty in Ireland in Comparative European Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whelan, Christopher T.; Maitre, Bertrand

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we seek to put Irish poverty rates in a comparative European context. We do so in a context whereby the Irish economic boom and EU enlargement have led to increasing reservations being expressed regarding rates deriving from the EU "at risk of poverty" indicator. Our comparative analysis reports findings for both overall…

  11. Comparative Genomic, MicroRNA, and Tissue Analyses Reveal Subtle Differences between Non-Diabetic and Diabetic Foot Skin

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Horacio A.; Liang, Liang; Pastar, Irena; Rosa, Ashley M.; Stojadinovic, Olivera; Zwick, Thomas G.; Kirsner, Robert S.; Maione, Anna G.; Garlick, Jonathan A.; Tomic-Canic, Marjana

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a chronic, severe disease rapidly increasing in incidence and prevalence and is associated with numerous complications. Patients with DM are at high risk of developing diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) that often lead to lower limb amputations, long term disability, and a shortened lifespan. Despite this, the effects of DM on human foot skin biology are largely unknown. Thus, the focus of this study was to determine whether DM changes foot skin biology predisposing it for healing impairment and development of DFU. Foot skin samples were collected from 20 patients receiving corrective foot surgery and, using a combination of multiple molecular and cellular approaches, we performed comparative analyses of non-ulcerated non-neuropathic diabetic foot skin (DFS) and healthy non-diabetic foot skin (NFS). MicroRNA (miR) profiling of laser captured epidermis and primary dermal fibroblasts from both DFS and NFS samples identified 5 miRs de-regulated in the epidermis of DFS though none reached statistical significance. MiR-31-5p and miR-31-3p were most profoundly induced. Although none were significantly regulated in diabetic fibroblasts, miR-29c-3p showed a trend of up-regulation, which was confirmed by qPCR in a prospective set of 20 skin samples. Gene expression profiling of full thickness biopsies identified 36 de-regulated genes in DFS (>2 fold-change, unadjusted p-value ≤ 0.05). Of this group, three out of seven tested genes were confirmed by qPCR: SERPINB3 was up-regulated whereas OR2A4 and LGR5 were down-regulated in DFS. However no morphological differences in histology, collagen deposition, and number of blood vessels or lymphocytes were found. No difference in proliferative capacity was observed by quantification of Ki67 positive cells in epidermis. These findings suggest DM causes only subtle changes to foot skin. Since morphology, mRNA and miR levels were not affected in a major way, additional factors, such as neuropathy, vascular

  12. Postural instability and consequent falls and hip fractures associated with use of hypnotics in the elderly: a comparative review.

    PubMed

    Allain, Hervé; Bentué-Ferrer, Danièle; Polard, Elisabeth; Akwa, Yvette; Patat, Alain

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this review is to establish the relationship between treatment with hypnotics and the risk of postural instability and as a consequence, falls and hip fractures, in the elderly. A review of the literature was performed through a search of the MEDLINE, Ingenta and PASCAL databases from 1975 to 2005. We considered as hypnotics only those drugs approved for treating insomnia, i.e. some benzodiazepines and the more recently launched 'Z'-compounds, i.e. zopiclone, zolpidem and zaleplon. Large-scale surveys consistently report increases in the frequency of falls and hip fractures when hypnotics are used in the elderly (2-fold risk). Benzodiazepines are the major class of hypnotics involved in this context; falls and fractures in patients taking Z-compounds are less frequently reported, and in this respect, zolpidem is considered as at risk in only one study. It is important to note, however, that drug adverse effect relationships are difficult to establish with this type of epidemiological data-mining. On the other hand, data obtained in laboratory settings, where confounding factors can be eliminated, prove that benzodiazepines are the most deleterious hypnotics at least in terms of their effects on body sway. Z-compounds are considered safer, probably because of their pharmacokinetic properties as well as their selective pharmacological activities at benzodiazepine-1 (BZ(1)) receptors. The effects of hypnotics on balance, gait and equilibrium are the consequence of differential negative impacts on vigilance and cognitive functions, and are highly dose- and time-dependent. Z-compounds have short half-lives and have less cognitive and residual effects than older medications. Some practical rules need to be followed when prescribing hypnotics in order to prevent falls and hip fractures as much as possible in elderly insomniacs, whether institutionalised or not. These are: (i) establish a clear diagnosis of the sleep disorder; (ii) take into account chronic

  13. Comparative Genomic, MicroRNA, and Tissue Analyses Reveal Subtle Differences between Non-Diabetic and Diabetic Foot Skin.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Horacio A; Liang, Liang; Pastar, Irena; Rosa, Ashley M; Stojadinovic, Olivera; Zwick, Thomas G; Kirsner, Robert S; Maione, Anna G; Garlick, Jonathan A; Tomic-Canic, Marjana

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a chronic, severe disease rapidly increasing in incidence and prevalence and is associated with numerous complications. Patients with DM are at high risk of developing diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) that often lead to lower limb amputations, long term disability, and a shortened lifespan. Despite this, the effects of DM on human foot skin biology are largely unknown. Thus, the focus of this study was to determine whether DM changes foot skin biology predisposing it for healing impairment and development of DFU. Foot skin samples were collected from 20 patients receiving corrective foot surgery and, using a combination of multiple molecular and cellular approaches, we performed comparative analyses of non-ulcerated non-neuropathic diabetic foot skin (DFS) and healthy non-diabetic foot skin (NFS). MicroRNA (miR) profiling of laser captured epidermis and primary dermal fibroblasts from both DFS and NFS samples identified 5 miRs de-regulated in the epidermis of DFS though none reached statistical significance. MiR-31-5p and miR-31-3p were most profoundly induced. Although none were significantly regulated in diabetic fibroblasts, miR-29c-3p showed a trend of up-regulation, which was confirmed by qPCR in a prospective set of 20 skin samples. Gene expression profiling of full thickness biopsies identified 36 de-regulated genes in DFS (>2 fold-change, unadjusted p-value ≤ 0.05). Of this group, three out of seven tested genes were confirmed by qPCR: SERPINB3 was up-regulated whereas OR2A4 and LGR5 were down-regulated in DFS. However no morphological differences in histology, collagen deposition, and number of blood vessels or lymphocytes were found. No difference in proliferative capacity was observed by quantification of Ki67 positive cells in epidermis. These findings suggest DM causes only subtle changes to foot skin. Since morphology, mRNA and miR levels were not affected in a major way, additional factors, such as neuropathy, vascular

  14. Manipulator comparative testing program

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, J.V.; Handel, S.J.; Sundstrom, E.; Herndon, J.N.; Fujita, Y.; Maeda, M.

    1986-01-01

    The Manipulator Comparative Testing Program examined differences among manipulator systems from the United States and Japan. The manipulator systems included the Meidensha BILARM 83A, the Model M-2 of Central Research Laboratories Division of Sargent Industries (CRL), and the GCA Corporation PaR Systems Model 6000. The site of testing was the Remote Operations Maintenance Demonstration (ROMD) facility, operated by the Fuel Recycle Division in the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In all stages of testing, operators using the CRL Model M-2 manipulator had consistently lower times to completion and error rates than they did using other machines. Performance was second best with the Meidensha BILARM 83A in master-slave mode. Performance with the BILARM in switchbox mode and the PaR 6000 manipulator was approximately equivalent in terms of criteria recorded in testing. These data show no impact of force reflection on task performance.

  15. Comparing new anticoagulants.

    PubMed

    Wooten, James M

    2012-12-01

    For years, the pharmaceutical industry has been trying to find a safe and effective drug to replace warfarin. Although warfarin is an effective anticoagulant, its pharmacology, adverse effects, and risk profiles dictate that patients taking this medication must be monitored judiciously. The US Food and Drug Administration has approved two drugs for commercial use, dabigatran and rivaroxaban, that will compete directly with warfarin for use in specific indications. Because of direct marketing to patients, physicians are being asked to comment on these new medications. This brief review illustrates the data available for the two new drugs when compared to warfarin for the specified indications. For some patients, these drugs may be highly beneficial and offer an excellent alternative to warfarin. For others, warfarin may still be the preferred drug.

  16. Comparing solar energy alternatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, J. R.

    1984-03-01

    This paper outlines a computational procedure for comparing the merits of alternative processes to convert solar radiation to heat, electrical power, or chemical energy. The procedure uses the ratio of equipment investment to useful work as an index. Comparisons with conversion counterparts based on conventional fuels are also facilitated by examining this index. The procedure is illustrated by comparisons of (1) photovoltaic converters of differing efficiencies; (2) photovoltaic converters with and without focusing concentrators; (3) photovoltaic conversion plus electrolysis vs photocatalysis for the production of hydrogen; (4) photovoltaic conversion plus plasma arcs vs photocatalysis for nitrogen fixation. Estimates for conventionally-fuelled processes are included for comparison. The reasons why solar-based concepts fare poorly in such comparisons are traced to the low energy density of solar radiation and its low stream time factor resulting from the limited number of daylight hours available and clouds obscuring the sun.

  17. Comparing dependent robust correlations.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Rand R

    2016-11-01

    Let r1 and r2 be two dependent estimates of Pearson's correlation. There is a substantial literature on testing H0  : ρ1  = ρ2 , the hypothesis that the population correlation coefficients are equal. However, it is well known that Pearson's correlation is not robust. Even a single outlier can have a substantial impact on Pearson's correlation, resulting in a misleading understanding about the strength of the association among the bulk of the points. A way of mitigating this concern is to use a correlation coefficient that guards against outliers, many of which have been proposed. But apparently there are no results on how to compare dependent robust correlation coefficients when there is heteroscedasicity. Extant results suggest that a basic percentile bootstrap will perform reasonably well. This paper reports simulation results indicating the extent to which this is true when using Spearman's rho, a Winsorized correlation or a skipped correlation.

  18. Caloric restriction increases adiponectin expression by adipose tissue and prevents the inhibitory effect of insulin on circulating adiponectin in rats.

    PubMed

    Ding, Qi; Ash, Catherine; Mracek, Tomas; Merry, Brian; Bing, Chen

    2012-08-01

    Aging is associated with redistribution of body fat and the development of insulin resistance. White adipose tissue emerges as an important organ in controlling life span. Caloric restriction (CR) delays the rate of aging possibly modulated partly by altering the amount and function of adipose tissue. Adiponectin is a major adipose-derived adipokine that has anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing properties. This study examined the effects of CR on adiposity and gene expression of adiponectin, its receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) in adipose tissue and in isolated adipocytes of Brown Norway rats that had undergone CR for 4 months or fed ad libitum. The study also determined plasma concentrations of adiponectin and insulin in these animals and whether insulin infusion for 7 days affects adiponectin expression and its circulating concentrations under CR conditions. CR markedly reduced body weight as anticipated, epididymal fat mass and adipocyte size. CR led to an increase in plasma free fatty acid and glycerol (both twofold), and adipose triglyceride lipase messenger RNA (mRNA) in adipose tissue and isolated adipocytes (both >2-fold). Adiponectin mRNA levels were elevated in adipose tissue and adipocytes (both >2-fold) as was plasma adiponectin concentration (2.8-fold) in CR rats. However, CR did not alter tissue or cellular AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 expression. Seven days of insulin infusion decreased adiponectin mRNA in adipose tissue but did not reverse the CR-induced up-regulation of circulating adiponectin levels. Our results suggest that the benefits of CR could be, at least in part, dependent on enhanced expression and secretion of adiponectin by adipocytes.

  19. Corn stover harvest increases herbicide movement to subsurface drains: RZWQM simulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shipitalo, Martin J.; Malone, Robert W.; Ma, Liwang; Nolan, Bernard T.; Kanwar, Rameshwar S.; Shaner, Dale L.; Pederson, Carl H.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Crop residue removal for bioenergy production can alter soil hydrologic properties and the movement of agrochemicals to subsurface drains. The Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM), previously calibrated using measured flow and atrazine concentrations in drainage from a 0.4 ha chisel-tilled plot, was used to investigate effects of 50 and 100% corn (Zea mays L.) stover harvest and the accompanying reductions in soil crust hydraulic conductivity and total macroporosity on transport of atrazine, metolachlor, and metolachlor oxanilic acid (OXA). RESULTS The model accurately simulated field-measured metolachlor transport in drainage. A 3-yr simulation indicated that 50% residue removal decreased subsurface drainage by 31% and increased atrazine and metolachlor transport in drainage 4 to 5-fold when surface crust conductivity and macroporosity were reduced by 25%. Based on its measured sorption coefficient, ~ 2-fold reductions in OXA losses were simulated with residue removal. CONCLUSION RZWQM indicated that if corn stover harvest reduces crust conductivity and soil macroporosity, losses of atrazine and metolachlor in subsurface drainage will increase due to reduced sorption related to more water moving through fewer macropores. Losses of the metolachlor degradation product OXA will decrease due to the more rapid movement of the parent compound into the soil.

  20. Ebolavirus comparative genomics

    DOE PAGES

    Jun, Se-Ran; Leuze, Michael R.; Nookaew, Intawat; ...

    2015-07-14

    The 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa is the largest documented for this virus. We examine the dynamics of this genome, comparing more than one hundred currently available ebolavirus genomes to each other and to other viral genomes. Based on oligomer frequency analysis, the family Filoviridae forms a distinct group from all other sequenced viral genomes. All filovirus genomes sequenced to date encode proteins with similar functions and gene order, although there is considerable divergence in sequences between the three genera Ebolavirus, Cuevavirus, and Marburgvirus within the family Filoviridae. Whereas all ebolavirus genomes are quite similar (multiple sequences of themore » same strain are often identical), variation is most common in the intergenic regions and within specific areas of the genes encoding the glycoprotein (GP), nucleoprotein (NP), and polymerase (L). We predict regions that could contain epitope-binding sites, which might be good vaccine targets. In conclusion, this information, combined with glycosylation sites and experimentally determined epitopes, can identify the most promising regions for the development of therapeutic strategies.« less

  1. Asynchronous parallel status comparator

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, J.W.; Hart, M.M.

    1992-12-15

    Disclosed is an apparatus for matching asynchronously received signals and determining whether two or more out of a total number of possible signals match. The apparatus comprises, in one embodiment, an array of sensors positioned in discrete locations and in communication with one or more processors. The processors will receive signals if the sensors detect a change in the variable sensed from a nominal to a special condition and will transmit location information in the form of a digital data set to two or more receivers. The receivers collect, read, latch and acknowledge the data sets and forward them to decoders that produce an output signal for each data set received. The receivers also periodically reset the system following each scan of the sensor array. A comparator then determines if any two or more, as specified by the user, of the output signals corresponds to the same location. A sufficient number of matches produces a system output signal that activates a system to restore the array to its nominal condition. 4 figs.

  2. Asynchronous parallel status comparator

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Jeffrey W.; Hart, Mark M.

    1992-01-01

    Apparatus for matching asynchronously received signals and determining whether two or more out of a total number of possible signals match. The apparatus comprises, in one embodiment, an array of sensors positioned in discrete locations and in communication with one or more processors. The processors will receive signals if the sensors detect a change in the variable sensed from a nominal to a special condition and will transmit location information in the form of a digital data set to two or more receivers. The receivers collect, read, latch and acknowledge the data sets and forward them to decoders that produce an output signal for each data set received. The receivers also periodically reset the system following each scan of the sensor array. A comparator then determines if any two or more, as specified by the user, of the output signals corresponds to the same location. A sufficient number of matches produces a system output signal that activates a system to restore the array to its nominal condition.

  3. Comparing Mutational Variabilities

    PubMed Central

    Houle, D.; Morikawa, B.; Lynch, M.

    1996-01-01

    We have reviewed the available data on V(M), the amount of genetic variation in phenotypic traits produced each generation by mutation. We use these data to make several qualitative tests of the mutation-selection balance hypothesis for the maintenance of genetic variance (MSB). To compare V(M) values, we use three dimensionless quantities: mutational heritability, V(M)/V(E); the mutational coefficient of variation, CV(M); and the ratio of the standing genetic variance to V(M), V(G)/V(M). Since genetic coefficients of variation for life history traits are larger than those for morphological traits, we predict that under MSB, life history traits should also have larger CV(M). This is confirmed; life history traits have a median CV(M) value more than six times higher than that for morphological traits. V(G)/V(M) approximates the persistence time of mutations under MSB in an infinite population. In order for MSB to hold, V(G)/V(M) must be small, substantially less than 1000, and life history traits should have smaller values than morphological traits. V(G)/V(M) averages about 50 generations for life history traits and 100 generations for morphological traits. These observations are all consistent with the predictions of a mutation-selection balance model. PMID:8807316

  4. Is asthma prevalence still increasing?

    PubMed

    Lundbäck, Bo; Backman, Helena; Lötvall, Jan; Rönmark, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Increased awareness of asthma in society and altered diagnostic practices makes evaluation of data on prevalence change difficult. In most parts of the world the asthma prevalence seems to still be increasing. The increase is associated with urbanization and has been documented particularly among children and teenagers in urban areas of middle- and low-level income countries. Use of validated questionnaires has enabled comparisons of studies. Among adults there are few studies based on representative samples of the general population which allow evaluation of time trends of prevalence. This review focuses mainly on studies of asthma prevalence and symptoms among adults. Parallel with increased urbanization, we can assume that the increase in asthma prevalence in most areas of the world will continue. However, in Australia and North-West Europe studies performed, particularly among children and adolescents, indicate that the increase in asthma prevalence may now be leveling off.

  5. Antenatal breastfeeding education for increasing breastfeeding duration

    PubMed Central

    Lumbiganon, Pisake; Martis, Ruth; Laopaiboon, Malinee; Festin, Mario R; Ho, Jacqueline J; Hakimi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding (BF) is well recognised as the best food for infants. The impact of antenatal BF education on the duration of BF has not been evaluated. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of antenatal BF education for increasing BF initiation and duration. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (21 April 2010), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1966 to April 2010) and SCOPUS (January 1985 to April 2010). We contacted experts and searched reference lists of retrieved articles. We updated the search of the Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register on 28 September 2011 and added the results to the awaiting classification section of the review. Selection criteria All identified published, unpublished and ongoing randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of formal antenatal BF education or comparing two different methods of formal antenatal BF education, on duration of BF. We excluded RCTs that also included intrapartum or postpartum BF education. Data collection and analysis We assessed all potential studies identified as a result of the search strategy. Two review authors extracted data from each included study using the agreed form and assessed risk of bias. We resolved discrepancies through discussion. Main results We included 17 studies with 7131 women in the review and 14 studies involving 6932 women contributed data to the analyses. We did not do any meta-analysis because there was only one study for each comparison. Five studies compared a single method of BF education with routine care. Peer counselling significantly increased BF initiation. Three studies compared one form of BF education versus another. No intervention was significantly more effective than another intervention in increasing initiation or duration of BF. Seven studies compared multiple methods versus a single method of BF education. Combined BF educational interventions were not

  6. Loving-kindness meditation increases social connectedness.

    PubMed

    Hutcherson, Cendri A; Seppala, Emma M; Gross, James J

    2008-10-01

    The need for social connection is a fundamental human motive, and it is increasingly clear that feeling socially connected confers mental and physical health benefits. However, in many cultures, societal changes are leading to growing social distrust and alienation. Can feelings of social connection and positivity toward others be increased? Is it possible to self-generate these feelings? In this study, the authors used a brief loving-kindness meditation exercise to examine whether social connection could be created toward strangers in a controlled laboratory context. Compared with a closely matched control task, even just a few minutes of loving-kindness meditation increased feelings of social connection and positivity toward novel individuals on both explicit and implicit levels. These results suggest that this easily implemented technique may help to increase positive social emotions and decrease social isolation.

  7. Increasing point-count duration increases standard error

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, W.P.; Twedt, D.J.; Hamel, P.B.; Ford, R.P.; Wiedenfeld, D.A.; Cooper, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    We examined data from point counts of varying duration in bottomland forests of west Tennessee and the Mississippi Alluvial Valley to determine if counting interval influenced sampling efficiency. Estimates of standard error increased as point count duration increased both for cumulative number of individuals and species in both locations. Although point counts appear to yield data with standard errors proportional to means, a square root transformation of the data may stabilize the variance. Using long (>10 min) point counts may reduce sample size and increase sampling error, both of which diminish statistical power and thereby the ability to detect meaningful changes in avian populations.

  8. Ebolavirus comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    Jun, Se-Ran; Leuze, Michael R; Nookaew, Intawat; Uberbacher, Edward C; Land, Miriam; Zhang, Qian; Wanchai, Visanu; Chai, Juanjuan; Nielsen, Morten; Trolle, Thomas; Lund, Ole; Buzard, Gregory S; Pedersen, Thomas D; Wassenaar, Trudy M; Ussery, David W

    2015-09-01

    The 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa is the largest documented for this virus. To examine the dynamics of this genome, we compare more than 100 currently available ebolavirus genomes to each other and to other viral genomes. Based on oligomer frequency analysis, the family Filoviridae forms a distinct group from all other sequenced viral genomes. All filovirus genomes sequenced to date encode proteins with similar functions and gene order, although there is considerable divergence in sequences between the three genera Ebolavirus, Cuevavirus and Marburgvirus within the family Filoviridae. Whereas all ebolavirus genomes are quite similar (multiple sequences of the same strain are often identical), variation is most common in the intergenic regions and within specific areas of the genes encoding the glycoprotein (GP), nucleoprotein (NP) and polymerase (L). We predict regions that could contain epitope-binding sites, which might be good vaccine targets. This information, combined with glycosylation sites and experimentally determined epitopes, can identify the most promising regions for the development of therapeutic strategies.This manuscript has been authored by UT-Battelle, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes. The Department of Energy will provide public access to these results of federally sponsored research in accordance with the DOE Public Access Plan (http://energy.gov/downloads/doe-public-access-plan).

  9. Comparing landslide inventory maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galli, Mirco; Ardizzone, Francesca; Cardinali, Mauro; Guzzetti, Fausto; Reichenbach, Paola

    Landslide inventory maps are effective and easily understandable products for both experts, such as geomorphologists, and for non experts, including decision-makers, planners, and civil defense managers. Landslide inventories are essential to understand the evolution of landscapes, and to ascertain landslide susceptibility and hazard. Despite landslide maps being compiled every year in the word at different scales, limited efforts are made to critically compare landslide maps prepared using different techniques or by different investigators. Based on the experience gained in 20 years of landslide mapping in Italy, and on the limited literature on landslide inventory assessment, we propose a general framework for the quantitative comparison of landslide inventory maps. To test the proposed framework we exploit three inventory maps. The first map is a reconnaissance landslide inventory prepared for the Umbria region, in central Italy. The second map is a detailed geomorphological landslide map, also prepared for the Umbria region. The third map is a multi-temporal landslide inventory compiled for the Collazzone area, in central Umbria. Results of the experiment allow for establishing how well the individual inventories describe the location, type and abundance of landslides, to what extent the landslide maps can be used to determine the frequency-area statistics of the slope failures, and the significance of the inventory maps as predictors of landslide susceptibility. We further use the results obtained in the Collazzone area to estimate the quality and completeness of the two regional landslide inventory maps, and to outline general advantages and limitations of the techniques used to complete the inventories.

  10. Ebolavirus comparative genomics

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Se-Ran; Leuze, Michael R.; Nookaew, Intawat; Uberbacher, Edward C.; Land, Miriam; Zhang, Qian; Wanchai, Visanu; Chai, Juanjuan; Nielsen, Morten; Trolle, Thomas; Lund, Ole; Buzard, Gregory S.; Pedersen, Thomas D.; Wassenaar, Trudy M.; Ussery, David W.

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa is the largest documented for this virus. To examine the dynamics of this genome, we compare more than 100 currently available ebolavirus genomes to each other and to other viral genomes. Based on oligomer frequency analysis, the family Filoviridae forms a distinct group from all other sequenced viral genomes. All filovirus genomes sequenced to date encode proteins with similar functions and gene order, although there is considerable divergence in sequences between the three genera Ebolavirus, Cuevavirus and Marburgvirus within the family Filoviridae. Whereas all ebolavirus genomes are quite similar (multiple sequences of the same strain are often identical), variation is most common in the intergenic regions and within specific areas of the genes encoding the glycoprotein (GP), nucleoprotein (NP) and polymerase (L). We predict regions that could contain epitope-binding sites, which might be good vaccine targets. This information, combined with glycosylation sites and experimentally determined epitopes, can identify the most promising regions for the development of therapeutic strategies. This manuscript has been authored by UT-Battelle, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes. The Department of Energy will provide public access to these results of federally sponsored research in accordance with the DOE Public Access Plan (http://energy.gov/downloads/doe-public-access-plan). PMID:26175035

  11. Comparative Digestive Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Karasov, William H.; Douglas, Angela E.

    2015-01-01

    In vertebrates and invertebrates, morphological and functional features of gastrointestinal (GI) tracts generally reflect food chemistry, such as content of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and material(s) refractory to rapid digestion (e.g., cellulose). The expression of digestive enzymes and nutrient transporters approximately matches the dietary load of their respective substrates, with relatively modest excess capacity. Mechanisms explaining differences in hydrolase activity between populations and species include gene copy number variations and single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Transcriptional and posttranscriptional adjustments mediate phenotypic changes in the expression of hydrolases and transporters in response to dietary signals. Many species respond to higher food intake by flexibly increasing digestive compartment size. Fermentative processes by symbiotic microorganisms are important for cellulose degradation but are relatively slow, so animals that rely on those processes typically possess special enlarged compartment(s) to maintain a microbiota and other GI structures that slow digesta flow. The taxon richness of the gut microbiota, usually identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, is typically an order of magnitude greater in vertebrates than invertebrates, and the interspecific variation in microbial composition is strongly influenced by diet. Many of the nutrient transporters are orthologous across different animal phyla, though functional details may vary (e.g., glucose and amino acid transport with K+ rather than Na+ as a counter ion). Paracellular absorption is important in many birds. Natural toxins are ubiquitous in foods and may influence key features such as digesta transit, enzymatic breakdown, microbial fermentation, and absorption PMID:23720328

  12. Assessing and Increasing Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Camp, Carole M.; Hayes, Lynda B.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing physical activity is a crucial component of any comprehensive approach to combat the growing obesity epidemic. This review summarizes recent behavioral research on the measurement of physical activity and interventions aimed at increasing physical activity and provides directions for future research.

  13. Sleep deprivation increases cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Hamidovic, Ajna; de Wit, Harriet

    2009-09-01

    Loss of sleep may impair the ability to abstain from drug use, through any of a number of mechanisms. Sleep loss may increase drug use by impairing attention and inhibitory control, increasing the value of drug rewards over other rewards, or by inducing mood states that facilitate use of a drug. In the present study, we examined whether sleep deprivation (SD) would increase smoking in cigarette smokers, and whether it would do so by impairing attention or inhibitory control. Healthy cigarette smokers (N=14) were tested in a two-session within subject study, after overnight SD or after a normal night's sleep. Subjects were tested in both conditions in randomized order, after abstaining from cigarettes for 48 hours. The procedure was designed to model the human relapse situation. On each 6-h laboratory session after sleep or no sleep, subjects completed mood and craving questionnaires, tasks measuring behavioral inhibition and attention, and a choice procedure in which they chose between money and smoking cigarettes. SD increased self-reported fatigue and decreased arousal, it increased the number of cigarettes subjects chose to smoke, impaired behavioral inhibition and attention. However, the impairments in inhibition or attention were not related to the increase in smoking. It is possible that SD increases smoking because smokers expect that it will reduce sleepiness. Thus, the findings suggest that sleep loss may increase the likelihood of smoking during abstinence not through inhibitory or attentional mechanisms but because of the potential of nicotine to reduce subjective sleepiness.

  14. Increased plasma clearance rate of thyroxine despite decreased 5'-monodeiodination: study with a peroxisome proliferator in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, C.A.; Seydoux, J.; Giacobino, J.P.; Girardier, L.; Burger, A.G.

    1988-03-01

    In euthyroid rats a 17-day treatment with nafenopin, a hypolipidemic agent and peroxisome proliferator, decreased serum total and free T4 concentrations to 32 +/- 5% and 62 +/- 8% (mean +/- SEM; n = 10), respectively, with no change in serum T3 and TSH concentrations. In methimazole-treated rats infused with 3 nmol T4/day/100 g BW, the nafenopin inhibitory effect was not significantly different from that in euthyroid rats. Nafenopin treatment had the following effects on peripheral T4 and T3 metabolism in euthyroid rats. The plasma clearance rate of T4 (PCR), which was measured by Alzet minipump infusion of tracer, was increased 2-fold (1.58 +/- 0.09 vs. 0.82 +/- 0.06 ml/h.100 g BW; P less than 0.001; n = 5), while the PCR of T3 was decreased (37.5 +/- 1.3 vs. 53.8 +/- 1.8; P less than 0.001; n = 5). The fecal clearance rate of radioactivity derived from T4 was increased 2-fold (1.93 +/- 0.10 vs. 0.77 +/- 0.07 ml/h.100 g BW), whereas the urinary clearance rate was not significantly modified. The 5'-deiodinase (5'D) activity, measured by deiodination of labeled rT3, was strongly inhibited in liver and kidney, not modified in brown fat and anterior pituitary, and increased in cerebral cortex. In methimazole-treated rats substituted with isopropyl-diiodothyronine only hepatic 5'D activity was decreased. It is concluded that the decrease in serum total and free T4, without alteration in serum T3 and TSH concentrations, resulting from nafenopin treatment is mainly due to changes in peripheral T4 and T3 metabolism, since it is also observed in T4-substituted animals. The increased PCR of T4 cannot be explained by an increase in deiodination activity, since the major 5'D pathways are inhibited after nafenopin treatment, and the urinary clearance rate is not modified. It can partly be explained by an increase in the fecal clearance rate of T4, which could be due to an increase in glucoronoconjugation.

  15. Volatiles Which Increase Magma Viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, S.

    2015-12-01

    The standard model of an erupting volcano is one in which the viscosity of a decompressing magma increases as the volatiles leave the melt structure to form bubbles. It has now been observed that the addition of the "volatiles" P, Cl and F result in an increase in silicate melt viscosity. This observation would mean that the viscosity of selected degassing magmas would decrease rather than increase. Here we look at P, Cl and F as three volatiles which increase viscosity through different structural mechanisms. In all three cases the volatiles increase the viscosity of peralkaline composition melts, but appear to always decrease the viscosity of peraluminous melts. Phosphorus causes the melt to unmix into a Na-P rich phase and a Na-poor silicate phase. Thus as the network modifying Na (or Ca) are removed to the phosphorus-rich melt, the matrix melt viscosity increases. With increasing amounts of added phosphorus (at network modifying Na ~ P) the addition of further phosphorus causes a decrease in viscosity. The addition of chlorine to Fe-free aluminosilicate melts results in an increase in viscosity. NMR data on these glass indicates that the chlorine sits in salt-like structures surrounded by Na and/or Ca. Such structures would remove network-modifying atoms from the melt structure and thus result in an increase in viscosity. The NMR spectra of fluorine-bearing glasses shows that F takes up at least 5 different structural positions in peralkaline composition melts. Three of these positions should result in a decrease in viscosity due to the removal of bridging oxygens. Two of the structural positons of F, however, should result in an increase in viscosity as they require the removal of network-modifying atoms from the melt structure (with one of the structures being that observed for Cl). This would imply that increasing amounts of F might result in an increase in viscosity. This proposed increase in viscosity with increasing F has now been experimentally confirmed.

  16. Comparative Pharmacokinetic Profiles of Three Protoberberine-type Alkaloids from Raw and Bile-processed Rhizoma coptidis in Heat Syndrome Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zi-min, Yuan; Yue, Chen; Hui, Gao; Jia, Lv; Gui-rong, Chen; Wang, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Bile-processed Rhizoma coptidis (BRC), which has a colder drug property than Rhizoma coptidis (RC), is widely used for the treatment of heat syndrome. We compared the pharmacokinetics of the protoberberine-type alkaloids in BRC and RC in rats with heat syndrome to elucidate the bile-processing mechanism. Material and Methods: We established a rapid and sensitive method for simultaneously determining three alkaloids: berberine, palmatine, and jatrorrhizine, in rat plasma based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. The separation was carried out on a Waters ACQUITY BEA C18 column. The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile (containing 0.1% formic acid) and water (containing 0.1% formic acid and 10 mmol/L ammonium acetate) and carbamazepine was used as an internal standard. The detection was carried out in a multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM) using electrospray ionization in the positive ion mode. Results: Pharmacokinetic profiles indicated that the Cmax of berberine and palmatine increased two times and the Tmax of the three alkaloids decreased three times after bile processing. AUC0→∞ and AUC0→t of the alkaloids were similar between RC and BRC. Conclusion: The results suggest that bile processing could increase the absorption rate of alkaloids. This study broadens our understanding of Chinese herbal medicine processing. SUMMARY Contents of berberine, palmatine and jatrorrhizine, in heat syndrome rats’ plasma between the raw and bile-processed Rhizoma coptidis (RC) were determined by UPLC-MS/MS.The whole pharmacokinetic profiles of three alkaloids in the bile-processed Rhizoma coptidis (BRC) were similar to those of RC.The shorter Tmax and increased 2-fold Cmax were obtained after RC bile-processing.Bile-processing could promote the absorption rate of alkaloids in a certain degree. Abbreviation Used: RC: Rhizoma coptidis, BRC: Bile-processed Rhizoma coptidis, HPLC: high-performance liquid chromatography

  17. Increased Renal Proximal Convoluted Tubule Transport Contributes to Hypertension in Cyp4a14 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Quigley, Raymond; Chakravarty, Sumana; Zhao, Xueying; Imig, John D.; Capdevila, Jorge H.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims Disrupting the enzyme Cyp4a14 in mice leads to hypertension, which is more severe in the male mice and appears to be due to androgen excess. Because the Cyp4a14 enzyme is located in the proximal tubule of the kidney, we hypothesized that there could be dysregulation of transport in this segment that could contribute to the hypertension. Methods Wild-type (SV/129) mice and mice that had targeted disruption of the Cyp4a14 gene were studied. Proximal convoluted tubules (PCT) from knockout and wild-type mice were dissected and perfused in vitrofor measurement of volume absorption (JV). Expression of the sodium-hydrogen exchanger 3 (NHE3), the predominant transporter responsible for sodium transport in this segment, was measured by immunoblot. Renal vascular (afferent arteriole) responses to angiotensin and endothelin were also measured. Results PCT volume absorption was elevated in tubules from the Cyp4a14 knockout mice as compared to the wild-type mice. Brush border membrane NHE3 expression was almost 2-fold higher in Cyp4a14 knockout mice than in wild-type mice. No difference was found in the afferent arteriolar response. Conclusion Thus, hypertension in the Cyp4a14 knockout mice appears to be driven by excessive fluid reabsorption in the proximal tubule, which is secondary to overexpression of NHE3. PMID:19713718

  18. Increasing hope by addressing clients' outcome expectations.

    PubMed

    Swift, Joshua K; Derthick, Annie O

    2013-09-01

    Addressing clients' outcome expectations is an important clinical process that can lead to a strong therapeutic alliance, more positive treatment outcomes, and decreased rates of premature termination from psychotherapy. Five interventions designed to foster appropriate outcome expectations are discussed, including presenting a convincing treatment rationale, increasing clients' faith in their therapists, expressing faith in clients, providing outcome education, and comparing progress with expectations. Clinical examples and research support are provided for each.

  19. Comparative Magma Oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. H.

    1999-01-01

    The question of whether the Earth ever passed through a magma ocean stage is of considerable interest. Geochemical evidence strongly suggests that the Moon had a magma ocean and the evidence is mounting that the same was true for Mars. Analyses of martian (SNC) meteorites have yielded insights into the differentiation history of Mars, and consequently, it is interesting to compare that planet to the Earth. Three primary features of Mars contrast strongly to those of the Earth: (i) the extremely ancient ages of the martian core, mantle, and crust (about 4.55 b.y.); (ii) the highly depleted nature of the martian mantle; and (iii) the extreme ranges of Nd isotopic compositions that arise within the crust and depleted mantle. The easiest way to explain the ages and diverse isotopic compositions of martian basalts is to postulate that Mars had an early magma ocean. Cumulates of this magma ocean were later remelted to form the SNC meteorite suite and some of these melts assimilated crustal materials enriched in incompatible elements. The REE pattern of the crust assimilated by these SNC magmas was LREE enriched. If this pattern is typical of the crust as a whole, the martian crust is probably similar in composition to melts generated by small degrees of partial melting (about 5%) of a primitive source. Higher degrees of partial melting would cause the crustal LREE pattern to be essentially flat. In the context of a magma ocean model, where large degrees of partial melting presumably prevailed, the crust would have to be dominated by late-stage, LREE-enriched residual liquids. Regardless of the exact physical setting, Nd and W isotopic evidence indicates that martian geochemical reservoirs must have formed early and that they have not been efficiently remixed since. The important point is that in both the Moon and Mars we see evidence of a magma ocean phase and that we recognize it as such. Several lines of theoretical inference point to an early Earth that was also hot

  20. Increasing Learning from TV News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perloff, Richard M.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes an experiment that manipulated two variables, repetition and pausing for viewer "digestion" of information in a news telecast. Concludes that the use of repetition increased viewers' retention of information, but that pauses did not. (FL)

  1. Increasing Positive Interactive Classroom Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotcher, Elaine; Doremus, Richard R.

    1973-01-01

    The question examined in this study was as follows: do teachers increase their positive classroom interactive behaviors as a result of training in systematic classroom observation techniques? (Authors/JA)

  2. Clinton proposes science funding increase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    President Bill Clinton proposed a major increase in science funding and several science and environment initiatives during his State of the Union address on January 28.As part of the White House Millennium Program the administration established to promote the nation's creativity and innovation, the President proposed a 21st Century Research Fund for scientific inquiry that would provide the largest one-year funding increase in history for the National Science Foundation (NSF), National Institutes of Health, and National Cancer Institute.

  3. Preconception stress increases the risk of infertility: results from a couple-based prospective cohort study—the LIFE study

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, C.D.; Sundaram, R.; Maisog, J.M.; Sweeney, A.M.; Buck Louis, G.M.

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Are women's stress levels prospectively associated with fecundity and infertility? SUMMARY ANSWER Higher levels of stress as measured by salivary alpha-amylase are associated with a longer time-to-pregnancy (TTP) and an increased risk of infertility. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Data suggest that stress and reproduction are interrelated; however, the directionality of that association is unclear. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION In 2005–2009, we enrolled 501 couples in a prospective cohort study with preconception enrollment at two research sites (Michigan and Texas, USA). Couples were followed for up to 12 months as they tried to conceive and through pregnancy if it occurred. A total of 401 (80%) couples completed the study protocol and 373 (93%) had complete data available for this analysis. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Enrolled women collected saliva the morning following enrollment and then the morning following their first observed study menses for the measurement of cortisol and alpha-amylase, which are biomarkers of stress. TTP was measured in cycles. Covariate data were captured on both a baseline questionnaire and daily journals. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Among the 401 (80%) women who completed the protocol, 347 (87%) became pregnant and 54 (13%) did not. After adjustment for female age, race, income, and use of alcohol, caffeine and cigarettes while trying to conceive, women in the highest tertile of alpha-amylase exhibited a 29% reduction in fecundity (longer TTP) compared with women in the lowest tertile [fecundability odds ratios (FORs) = 0.71; 95% confidence interval (CI) = (0.51, 1.00); P < 0.05]. This reduction in fecundity translated into a >2-fold increased risk of infertility among these women [relative risk (RR) = 2.07; 95% CI = (1.04, 4.11)]. In contrast, we found no association between salivary cortisol and fecundability. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION Due to fiscal and logistical concerns, we were unable to

  4. A sodium channel gene SCN9A polymorphism that increases nociceptor excitability.

    PubMed

    Estacion, Mark; Harty, T Patrick; Choi, Jin-Sung; Tyrrell, Lynda; Dib-Hajj, Sulayman D; Waxman, Stephen G

    2009-12-01

    Sodium channel Na(V)1.7, encoded by the SCN9A gene, is preferentially expressed in nociceptive primary sensory neurons, where it amplifies small depolarizations. In studies on a family with inherited erythromelalgia associated with Na(V)1.7 gain-of-function mutation A863P, we identified a nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphism within SCN9A in the affected proband and several unaffected family members; this polymorphism (c. 3448C&T, Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms database rs6746030, which produces the amino acid substitution R1150W in human Na(V)1.7 [hNa(V)1.7]) is present in 1.1 to 12.7% of control chromosomes, depending on ethnicity. In this study, we examined the effect of the R1150W substitution on function of the hNa(V)1.7 channel, and on the firing of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in which this channel is normally expressed. We show that this polymorphism depolarizes activation (7.9-11mV in different assays). Current-clamp analysis shows that the 1150W allele depolarizes (6mV) resting membrane potential and increases ( approximately 2-fold) the firing frequency in response to depolarization in DRG neurons in which it is present. Our results suggest that polymorphisms in the Na(V)1.7 channel may influence susceptibility to pain.

  5. Natural zeolite clinoptilolite increases the concentrations of sphingoid bases in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Bauman, M; Mesarić, M; Ribar, S; Marić, V; Tudja, M

    2001-01-01

    In the present paper, we studied the effect of natural zeolite clinoptilolite on sphingolipid metabolism in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. We also investigated if zeolite addition had any impact on cell shape and size, as well as on the pH alterations during the culture growth. High performance liquid chromatography analysis of sphingoid bases obtained by acid hydrolysis of complex sphingolipids from Y. lipolytica showed that their concentrations markedly rose upon the zeolite addition. The largest increase among the identified molecular species of sphingoid bases was seen in C18 phytosphingosine, whose levels rose 6.2-fold and 22.3-fold after culturing cells for 24 and 36 hours respectively in the presence of finely ground zeolite. pH measurements of the culture medium showed a similarity between pH profiles of control and zeolite-supplemented cells, suggesting that ion-exchange capacity was not probably responsible for the observed change in sphingolipid metabolism. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that zeolite affected cell size and shape. Y. lipolytica cells grown in the absence of zeolite were oval-shaped with an average cell size of 0.7-2.7 microns, whereas when cultured with zeolite, they were round-shaped and larger, having an average cell size of 1.3-2.9 microns.

  6. Hypothermia Increases Tissue Plasminogen Activator Expression and Decreases Post-Operative Intra-Abdominal Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chien-Chang; Wang, Hsuan-Mao; Chou, Tzung-Hsin; Wu, Meng-Che; Hsueh, Kuang-Lung; Chen, Shyr-Chyr

    2016-01-01

    Background Therapeutic hypothermia during operation decreases postoperative intra-abdominal adhesion formation. We sought to determine the most appropriate duration of hypothermia, and whether hypothermia affects the expression of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). Methods 80 male BALB/c mice weighing 25–30 g are randomized into one of five groups: adhesion model with infusion of 15°C saline for 15 minutes (A); 30 minutes (B); 45 minute (C); adhesion model without infusion of cold saline (D); and sham operation without infusion of cold saline (E). Adhesion scores and tPA levels in the peritoneum fluid levels were analyzed on postoperative days 1, 7, and 14. Results On day 14, the cold saline infusion groups (A, B, and C) had lower adhesion scores than the without infusion of cold saline group (D). However, only group B (cold saline infusion for 30 minutes) had a significantly lower adhesion scores than group D. Also, group B was found to have 3.4 fold, 2.3 fold, and 2.2 fold higher levels of tPA than group D on days 1, 7, and 14 respectively. Conclusions Our results suggest that cold saline infusion for 30 minutes was the optimum duration to decrease postoperative intra-abdominal adhesion formation. The decrease in the adhesion formations could be partly due to an increase in the level of tPA. PMID:27583464

  7. Low oxygen level increases proliferation and metabolic changes in bovine granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Shiratsuki, Shogo; Hara, Tomotaka; Munakata, Yasuhisa; Shirasuna, Koumei; Kuwayama, Takehito; Iwata, Hisataka

    2016-12-05

    The present study addresses molecular backgrounds underlying low oxygen induced metabolic changes and 1.2-fold change in bovine granulosa cell (GCs) proliferation. RNA-seq revealed that low oxygen (5%) upregulated genes associated with HIF-1 and glycolysis and downregulated genes associated with mitochondrial respiration than that in high oxygen level (21%). Low oxygen level induced high glycolytic activity and low mitochondrial function and biogenesis. Low oxygen level enhanced GC proliferation with high expression levels of HIF-1, VEGF, AKT, mTOR, and S6RP, whereas addition of anti-VEGF antibody decreased cellular proliferation with low phosphorylated AKT and mTOR expression levels. Low oxygen level reduced SIRT1, whereas activation of SIRT1 by resveratrol increased mitochondrial replication and decreased cellular proliferation with reduction of phosphorylated mTOR. These results suggest that low oxygen level stimulates the HIF1-VEGF-AKT-mTOR pathway and up-regulates glycolysis, which contributes to GC proliferation, and downregulation of SIRT1 contributes to hypoxia-associated reduction of mitochondria and cellular proliferation.

  8. Increased Brain Neurotensin and NTSR2 Lead to Weak Nociception in NTSR3/Sortilin Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Devader, Christelle; Moreno, Sébastien; Roulot, Morgane; Deval, Emmanuel; Dix, Thomas; Morales, Carlos R.; Mazella, Jean

    2016-01-01

    The neuropeptide neurotensin (NT) elicits numerous pharmacological effects through three different receptors (NTSR1, NTSR2, and NTSR3 also called sortilin). Pharmacological approaches and generation of NTSR1 and NTSR2-deficient mice allowed to determine the NT-induced antipsychotic like behavior, the inhibitory of weak fear memory and the nociceptive signaling in a rat formalin tonic pain model to NTSR1. Conversely, the effects of NT on thermal and tonic nociceptions were mediated by NTSR2. However, the role of NTSR3/sortilin on the neurotensinergic system was not investigated. Here, by using C57Bl/6J mouse model in which the gene coding for NTSR3/sortilin has been inactivated, we observed a modification of the expression of both NTSR2 and NT itself. Quantitative PCR and protein expression using Western blot analyses and AlphaLisa™ technology resulted in the observation that brain NTSR2 as well as brain and blood NT were 2-fold increased in KO mice leading to a resistance of these mice to thermal and chemical pain. These data confirm that NTSR3/sortilin interacts with other NT receptors (i.e., NTSR2) and that its deletion modifies also the affinity of this receptor to NT. PMID:27932946

  9. Normal platelet function in platelet concentrates requires non-platelet cells: a comparative in vitro evaluation of leucocyte-rich (type 1a) and leucocyte-poor (type 3b) platelet concentrates

    PubMed Central

    Parrish, William R; Roides, Breana; Hwang, Julia; Mafilios, Michael; Story, Brooks; Bhattacharyya, Samir

    2016-01-01

    Background Therapeutic success of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) may vary based on the composition and preparation method. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cellular components of platelet concentrates produced by a leucocyte-rich (LR-PRP) and a leucocyte-poor PRP systems (LP-PRP). Methods Parameters evaluated included platelet recovery, platelet concentration, red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) composition, platelet growth factor release and stimulation of human tendon cell proliferation in vitro. Results Platelet recoveries were 52% for LP-PRP and 89% for LR-PRP. LR-PRP demonstrated greater reproducibility with a 4.2% coefficient of variation (CV) compared with 19.4% for LP-PRP (p<0.001). LR-PRP demonstrated a greater increase in platelet concentration (7.9-fold) than LP-PRP (2.2-fold; p<0.001). LP-PRP showed 5.0-fold reductions in WBCs, while LR-PRP showed a 4.0-fold increase (p<0.001). LP-PRP reduced RBCs to a haematocrit of 0.25, while LR-PRP reduced haematocrit to 11.8. LP-PRP did not coagulate robustly on reactivation with CaCl2, and released significantly lower levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) than whole blood (p<0.03). LP-PRP also did not stimulate tendon cell proliferation greater than whole blood. In contrast, LR-PRP showed increases in each growth factor on activation with CaCl2 (p<0.01) and stimulated greater proliferation (p<0.05) compared with whole blood. Forced activation of LP-PRP with exogenous thrombin rescued the coagulation deficiency and induced greater growth factor release than comparable whole blood (p<0.03). Conclusions These data suggest that non-platelet cellular components in platelet concentrates are important for proper platelet function, including thrombin generation, growth factor release and clot retraction. PMID:27900155

  10. Pulsed electric field increases reproduction.

    PubMed

    Panagopoulos, Dimitris J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To study the effect of pulsed electric field - applied in corona discharge photography - on Drosophila melanogaster reproduction, possible induction of DNA fragmentation, and morphological alterations in the gonads. Materials and methods Animals were exposed to different field intensities (100, 200, 300, and 400 kV/m) during the first 2-5 days of their adult lives, and the effect on reproductive capacity was assessed. DNA fragmentation during early- and mid-oogenesis was investigated by application of the TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling) assay. Sections of follicles after fixation and embedding in resins were observed for possible morphological/developmental abnormalities. Results The field increased reproduction by up to 30% by increasing reproductive capacity in both sexes. The effect increased with increasing field intensities. The rate of increase diminished at the strongest intensities. Slight induction of DNA fragmentation was observed exclusively in the nurse (predominantly) and follicle cells, and exclusively at the two most sensitive developmental stages, i.e., germarium and predominantly stage 7-8. Sections of follicles from exposed females at stages of early and mid-oogennesis other than germarium and stages 7-8 did not reveal abnormalities. Conclusions (1) The specific type of electric field may represent a mild stress factor, inducing DNA fragmentation and cell death in a small percentage of gametes, triggering the reaction of the animal's reproductive system to increase the rate of gametogenesis in order to compensate the loss of a small number of gametes. (2) The nurse cells are the most sensitive from all three types of egg chamber cells. (3) The mid-oogenesis checkpoint (stage 7-8) is more sensitive to this field than the early oogenesis one (germarium) in contrast to microwave exposure. (4) Possible therapeutic applications, or applications in increasing fertility, should be investigated.

  11. Increased damping of irregular resonators.

    PubMed

    Russ, S; Sapoval, B

    2002-03-01

    It is shown that fractal drums and jagged geometry resonators may be more damped than ordinary Euclidean systems. Several damping mechanisms are examined and studied by numerical calculations. The results depend on the dissipation mechanisms but globally they increase with localization, frequency, and the irregularity of the resonator. The increased dissipation is due to the uneven spatial distribution of the vibrational amplitude in two different ways. First, it is related to the partial confinement of the vibrational modes. Secondly, increased dissipation may be due to singularities in the amplitude distribution. This is the case when a few points exist where the vibration is pinned to zero inducing local logarithmic singularities. This last effect can be spectacular: a single defect can dominate the surface damping by viscous forces of a square drum.

  12. Is serial homicide really increasing?

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, L B

    2001-01-01

    Close examination of the available crime data reveals little scientific support for the widely held belief that serial homicide is frequent and increasing. The author argues that the dramatic changes in homicide clearance rates, incidence of murders with unknown motives, and victim gender data point to a likely increase, not in serial murder, but in contract murder. This type of killing appears to be having a significant impact on society; yet there has been a complete absence of forensic psychiatric study of this crime, a circumstance that needs to change.

  13. Increasing the protein content of ice cream.

    PubMed

    Patel, M R; Baer, R J; Acharya, M R

    2006-05-01

    Vanilla ice cream was made with a mix composition of 10.5% milk fat, 10.5% milk SNF, 12% beet sugar, and 4% corn syrup solids. None of the batches made contained stabilizer or emulsifier. The control (treatment 1) contained 3.78% protein. Treatments 2 and 5 contained 30% more protein, treatments 3 and 6 contained 60% more protein, and treatments 4 and 7 contained 90% more protein compared with treatment 1 by addition of whey protein concentrate or milk protein concentrate powders, respectively. In all treatments, levels of milk fat, milk SNF, beet sugar, and corn syrup solids were kept constant at 37% total solids. Mix protein content for treatment 1 was 3.78%, treatment 2 was 4.90%, treatment 5 was 4.91%, treatments 3 and 6 were 6.05%, and treatments 4 and 7 were 7.18%. This represented a 29.89, 60.05, 89.95, 29.63, 60.05, and 89.95% increase in protein for treatment 2 through treatment 7 compared with treatment 1, respectively. Milk protein level influenced ice crystal size; with increased protein, the ice crystal size was favorably reduced in treatments 2, 4, and 5 and was similar in treatments 3, 6, and 7 compared with treatment 1. At 1 wk postmanufacture, overall texture acceptance for all treatments was more desirable compared with treatment 1. When evaluating all parameters, treatment 2 with added whey protein concentrate and treatments 5 and 6 with added milk protein concentrate were similar or improved compared with treatment 1. It is possible to produce acceptable ice cream with higher levels of protein.

  14. Fires increase Amazon forest productivity through increases in diffuse radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rap, A.; Spracklen, D. V.; Mercado, L.; Reddington, C. L.; Haywood, J. M.; Ellis, R. J.; Phillips, O. L.; Artaxo, P.; Bonal, D.; Restrepo Coupe, N.; Butt, N.

    2015-06-01

    Atmospheric aerosol scatters solar radiation increasing the fraction of diffuse radiation and the efficiency of photosynthesis. We quantify the impacts of biomass burning aerosol (BBA) on diffuse radiation and plant photosynthesis across Amazonia during 1998-2007. Evaluation against observed aerosol optical depth allows us to provide lower and upper BBA emissions estimates. BBA increases Amazon basin annual mean diffuse radiation by 3.4-6.8% and net primary production (NPP) by 1.4-2.8%, with quoted ranges driven by uncertainty in BBA emissions. The enhancement of Amazon basin NPP by 78-156 Tg C a-1 is equivalent to 33-65% of the annual regional carbon emissions from biomass burning. This NPP increase occurs during the dry season and acts to counteract some of the observed effect of drought on tropical production. We estimate that 30-60 Tg C a-1 of this NPP enhancement is within woody tissue, accounting for 8-16% of the observed carbon sink across mature Amazonian forests.

  15. The Effect of Increasing Mass upon Locomotion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeWitt, John; Hagan, Donald

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine if increasing body mass while maintaining bodyweight would affect ground reaction forces and joint kinetics during walking and running. It was hypothesized that performing gait with increased mass while maintaining body weight would result in greater ground reaction forces, and would affect the net joint torques and work at the ankle, knee and hip when compared to gait with normal mass and bodyweight. Vertical ground reaction force was measured for ten subjects (5M/5F) during walking (1.34 m/s) and running (3.13 m/s) on a treadmill. Subjects completed one minute of locomotion at normal mass and bodyweight and at four added mass (AM) conditions (10%, 20%, 30% and 40% of body mass) in random order. Three-dimensional joint position data were collected via videography. Walking and running were analyzed separately. The addition of mass resulted in several effects. Peak impact forces and loading rates increased during walking, but decreased during running. Peak propulsive forces decreased during walking and did not change during running. Stride time increased and hip extensor angular impulse and positive work increased as mass was added for both styles of locomotion. Work increased at a greater rate during running than walking. The adaptations to additional mass that occur during walking are different than during running. Increasing mass during exercise in microgravity may be beneficial to increasing ground reaction forces during walking and strengthening hip musculature during both walking and running. Future study in true microgravity is required to determine if the adaptations found would be similar in a weightless environment.

  16. Prolonged fasting increases purine recycling in post-weaned northern elephant seals.

    PubMed

    Soñanez-Organis, José Guadalupe; Vázquez-Medina, José Pablo; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Aguilar, Andres; Crocker, Daniel E; Ortiz, Rudy M

    2012-05-01

    Northern elephant seals are naturally adapted to prolonged periods (1-2 months) of absolute food and water deprivation (fasting). In terrestrial mammals, food deprivation stimulates ATP degradation and decreases ATP synthesis, resulting in the accumulation of purines (ATP degradation byproducts). Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) salvages ATP by recycling the purine degradation products derived from xanthine oxidase (XO) metabolism, which also promotes oxidant production. The contributions of HGPRT to purine recycling during prolonged food deprivation in marine mammals are not well defined. In the present study we cloned and characterized the complete and partial cDNA sequences that encode for HGPRT and xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) in northern elephant seals. We also measured XO protein expression and circulating activity, along with xanthine and hypoxanthine plasma content in fasting northern elephant seal pups. Blood, adipose and muscle tissue samples were collected from animals after 1, 3, 5 and 7 weeks of their natural post-weaning fast. The complete HGPRT and partial XOR cDNA sequences are 771 and 345 bp long and encode proteins of 218 and 115 amino acids, respectively, with conserved domains important for their function and regulation. XOR mRNA and XO protein expression increased 3-fold and 1.7-fold with fasting, respectively, whereas HGPRT mRNA (4-fold) and protein (2-fold) expression increased after 7 weeks in adipose tissue and muscle. Plasma xanthine (3-fold) and hypoxanthine (2.5-fold) levels, and XO (1.7- to 20-fold) and HGPRT (1.5- to 1.7-fold) activities increased during the last 2 weeks of fasting. Results suggest that prolonged fasting in elephant seal pups is associated with increased capacity to recycle purines, which may contribute to ameliorating oxidant production and enhancing the supply of ATP, both of which would be beneficial during prolonged food deprivation and appear to be adaptive in this species.

  17. Triiodothyronine increases calcium loss in a bed rest antigravity model for space flight.

    PubMed

    Smith, Steven R; Lovejoy, Jennifer C; Bray, George A; Rood, Jennifer; Most, Marlene M; Ryan, Donna H

    2008-12-01

    Bed rest has been used as a model to simulate the effects of space flight on bone metabolism. Thyroid hormones accelerate bone metabolism. Thus, supraphysiologic doses of this hormone might be used as a model to accelerate bone metabolism during bed rest and potentially simulate space flight. The objective of the study was to quantitate the changes in bone turnover after low doses of triiodothyronine (T(3)) added to short-term bed rest. Nine men and 5 women were restricted to bed rest for 28 days with their heads positioned 6 degrees below their feet. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive either placebo or oral T(3) at doses of 50 to 75 microg/d in a single-blind fashion. Calcium balance was measured over 5-day periods; and T(3), thyroxine, thyroid-stimulating hormone, immunoreactive parathyroid hormone, osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase, and urinary deoxypyridinoline were measured weekly. Triiodothyronine increased 2-fold in the men and 5-fold in the women during treatment, suppressing both thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone. Calcium balance was negative by 300 to 400 mg/d in the T(3)-treated volunteers, primarily because of the increased fecal loss that was not present in the placebo group. Urinary deoxypyridinoline to creatinine ratio, a marker of bone resorption, increased 60% in the placebo group during bed rest, but more than doubled in the T(3)-treated subjects (P < .01), suggesting that bone resorption was enhanced by treatment with T(3). Changes in serum osteocalcin and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, markers of bone formation, were similar in T(3)- and placebo-treated subjects. Triiodothyronine increases bone resorption and fecal calcium loss in subjects at bed rest.

  18. PMR Composites Of Increased Toughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D.; Bowles, Kenneth J.

    1988-01-01

    Toughness increased without sacrificing processability or hot strength. Resin composition provides best overall balance of composite toughness and retention of mechanical properties at 600 degree F (316 degree C) with processability obtained by substituting 20 mole percent of diamine used in PMR-15 resins with diamine containing twice number of flexible phenyl connecting groups.

  19. Increasing Positive Interactive Classroom Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotcher, Elaine; Doremus, Richard R.

    During the spring of 1972 training workshops for 88 elementary and secondary teachers of the Great Neck Public Schools held to examine four hypotheses: 1) workshops in training teachers to observe classroom behavior would significantly increase these same teachers' positive classroom interactive behaviors consisting of teacher, pupil-pupil,…

  20. Increased Spreading Activation in Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Paul S.; Yung, Raegan C.; Branch, Kaylei K.; Stringer, Kristi; Ferguson, Brad J.; Sullivan, William; Drago, Valeria

    2011-01-01

    The dopaminergic system is implicated in depressive disorders and research has also shown that dopamine constricts lexical/semantic networks by reducing spreading activation. Hence, depression, which is linked to reductions of dopamine, may be associated with increased spreading activation. However, research has generally found no effects of…

  1. Increased Challenge with the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Helen

    Research has shown that too little stress or stimulation can increase health risks. To determine the effectiveness of mild stimulation on the depression levels and feelings of self-worth of the elderly, 24 withdrawn nursing home residents participated in a non-judgemental 6-month art expression group. Half the group were assigned to a control…

  2. Increasing Enrollment through Benefit Segmentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodnow, Betty

    1982-01-01

    The applicability of benefit segmentation, a market research technique which groups people according to benefits expected from a program offering, was tested at the College of DuPage. Preferences and demographic characteristics were analyzed and program improvements adopted, increasing enrollment by 20 percent. (Author/SK)

  3. Increasing Public Understanding of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Isobel

    1998-01-01

    The Science of Genes workshop is a program designed to increase public understanding of science by demystifying the language used to describe it. Methods include analogies, models, simple experiments, and opportunities for discussion of controversial topics such as genetic engineering. (JOW)

  4. High Blood Pressure Increasing Worldwide

    MedlinePlus

    ... other ways to control blood pressure, including healthy lifestyle choices and maintaining a normal weight, Roth said. Murray said some of the factors responsible for the worldwide increase in high blood pressure are unhealthy diets and obesity. In addition, in developing countries, more people are ...

  5. How To Increase Advertising Revenue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Carmen

    1995-01-01

    Describes advertising sales strategies to help faculty advisers of community college newspapers increase revenues. Argues that sales representatives should know their product well and maintain demographic information on the paper's readership. Includes strategies for organizing advertising staff, searching for potential clients, and taking charge…

  6. Comparative Habitability of Transiting Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Rory; Meadows, Victoria S.; Evans, Nicole

    2015-12-01

    Exoplanet habitability is traditionally assessed by comparing a planet’s semimajor axis to the location of its host star’s “habitable zone,” the shell around a star for which Earth-like planets can possess liquid surface water. The Kepler space telescope has discovered numerous planet candidates near the habitable zone, and many more are expected from missions such as K2, TESS, and PLATO. These candidates often require significant follow-up observations for validation, so prioritizing planets for habitability from transit data has become an important aspect of the search for life in the universe. We propose a method to compare transiting planets for their potential to support life based on transit data, stellar properties and previously reported limits on planetary emitted flux. For a planet in radiative equilibrium, the emitted flux increases with eccentricity, but decreases with albedo. As these parameters are often unconstrained, there is an “eccentricity-albedo degeneracy” for the habitability of transiting exoplanets. Our method mitigates this degeneracy, includes a penalty for large-radius planets, uses terrestrial mass-radius relationships, and, when available, constraints on eccentricity to compute a number we call the “habitability index for transiting exoplanets” that represents the relative probability that an exoplanet could support liquid surface water. We calculate it for Kepler objects of interest and find that planets that receive between 60% and 90% of the Earth’s incident radiation, assuming circular orbits, are most likely to be habitable. Finally, we make predictions for the upcoming TESS and James Webb Space Telescope missions.

  7. COMPARATIVE HABITABILITY OF TRANSITING EXOPLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, Rory; Meadows, Victoria S.; Evans, Nicole

    2015-12-01

    Exoplanet habitability is traditionally assessed by comparing a planet’s semimajor axis to the location of its host star’s “habitable zone,” the shell around a star for which Earth-like planets can possess liquid surface water. The Kepler space telescope has discovered numerous planet candidates near the habitable zone, and many more are expected from missions such as K2, TESS, and PLATO. These candidates often require significant follow-up observations for validation, so prioritizing planets for habitability from transit data has become an important aspect of the search for life in the universe. We propose a method to compare transiting planets for their potential to support life based on transit data, stellar properties and previously reported limits on planetary emitted flux. For a planet in radiative equilibrium, the emitted flux increases with eccentricity, but decreases with albedo. As these parameters are often unconstrained, there is an “eccentricity-albedo degeneracy” for the habitability of transiting exoplanets. Our method mitigates this degeneracy, includes a penalty for large-radius planets, uses terrestrial mass–radius relationships, and, when available, constraints on eccentricity to compute a number we call the “habitability index for transiting exoplanets” that represents the relative probability that an exoplanet could support liquid surface water. We calculate it for Kepler objects of interest and find that planets that receive between 60% and 90% of the Earth’s incident radiation, assuming circular orbits, are most likely to be habitable. Finally, we make predictions for the upcoming TESS and James Webb Space Telescope missions.

  8. Integrated soil-crop system management: reducing environmental risk while increasing crop productivity and improving nutrient use efficiency in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fusuo; Cui, Zhenling; Fan, Mingsheng; Zhang, Weifeng; Chen, Xinping; Jiang, Rongfeng

    2011-01-01

    During the past 47 yr (1961-2007), Chinese cereal production has increased by 3.2-fold, successfully feeding 22% of the global human population with only 9% of the world's arable land, but at high environmental cost and resource consumption. Worse, crop production has been stagnant since 1996 while the population and demand for food continue to rise. New advances for sustainability of agriculture and ecosystem services will be needed during the coming 50 yr to reduce environmental risk while increasing crop productivity and improving nutrient use efficiency. Here, we advocate and develop integrated soil-crop system management (ISSM). In this approach, the key points are (i) to take all possible soil quality improvement measures into consideration, (ii) to integrate the utilization of various nutrient resources and match nutrient supply to crop requirements, and (iii) to integrate soil and nutrient management with high-yielding cultivation systems. Recent field experiments have shed light on how ISSM can lead to significant increases in crop yields while increasing nutrient use efficiency and reducing environmental risk.

  9. Birch Stands Growth Increase in Western Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Kuzmichev, Valeriy V.; Im, Sergey T.; Ranson, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Birch (Betula pendula Roth) growth within the Western Siberia forest-steppe was analyzed based on long-term (1897-2006) inventory data (height, diameter at breast height [dbh], and stand volume). Analysis of biometry parameters showed increased growth at the beginning of twenty-first century compared to similar stands (stands age = 40-60 years) at the end of nineteenth century. Mean height, dbh, and stem volume increased from 14 to 20 m, from 16 to 22 cm, and from approx. 63 to approx. 220 cu m/ha, respectively. Significant correlations were found between the stands mean height, dbh, and volume on the one hand, and vegetation period length (r(sub s) = 0.71 to 0.74), atmospheric CO2 concentration (r(sub s) = 0.71 to 0.76), and drought index (Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index, r(sub s) = -0.33 to -0.51) on the other hand. The results obtained have revealed apparent climate-induced impacts (e.g. increase of vegetation period length and birch habitat drying due to drought increase) on the stands growth. Along with this, a high correlation of birch biometric parameters and [CO2] in ambient air indicated an effect of CO2 fertilization. Meanwhile, further drought increase may switch birch stand growth into decline and greater mortality as has already been observed within the Trans-Baikal forest-steppe ecotone.

  10. Diesel Exhaust Exposure Increases Susceptibility to Influenza ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Mice were necropsied at day 1, 4, 8 and 14 post-infection and lung tissue was assessed for virus titers by TCID50, lung injury and inflammation. Lung and lymph node DC populations (CD11c+, MHCII, CD45+, CD80+ and CD86+) were identified by flow cytometry. Prior exposure to DE significantly increased viral titers in the lung at 4 and 8 days post infection in association with increased neutrophil influx and lung injury. Pro-inflammatory cytokines including IP-10, MCP-1, GM-CSF, and IL-1β, and the antiviral cytokine IFN-β were also increased at days 1, 4 and 8 post infection compared to air/flu controls. The number of DCs in the lung was not affected with previous exposure to DE, however the lymph nodes had increased number of mature DCs at 1, 4, and 8 days post infection compared to the air/flu controls. We conclude that exposure to DE prior to an influenza infection increases pulmonary inflammation, viral titers, and stimulates more DCs to migrate to the lymph nodes and mature as a consequence of the DE-enhanced influenza infection. Numerous studies have shown that diesel exhaust (DE) decreases resistance to respiratory infection and can alter the maturation and migration of dendritic cells (DCs). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of DE exposure on susceptibilty to influenza infection in mice and to determine if this correlated with changes in the pulmonary DC populations. BALB/c mice were exposed to air or 0.5 mg/m3 DE from a diesel-power

  11. Discourse Formation in Comparative Education. 4th, Revised Edition. Comparative Studies Series. Volume 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schriewer, Jurgen, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    New theories and theory-based methodological approaches have found their way into Comparative Education--just as into Comparative Social Science more generally--in increasing number in the recent past. The essays of this volume express and critically discuss quite a range of these positions such as, inter alia, the theory of self-organizing social…

  12. Increased tornado hazard in large metropolitan areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cusack, Stephen

    2014-11-01

    The tornado climate was compared between large metropolitan areas and neighbouring non-metro cities using modern tornado reports in the Storm Prediction Center (SPC) archives. Twenty large metro areas in the higher-risk region of the U.S. were used to boost sample sizes hence robustness of results. Observational biases were minimised by using the most densely populated zips. The analysis found 50% greater tornado frequency and a thicker-tailed severity distribution in metro areas compared to the non-metro cities. These differences are significant at the 1% level. Regarding tornado frequency, the primary question is whether the raised occurrence rates in metro areas are due to observation biases or real differences in tornado climate. Past studies found no relative biases at the population densities used here, whereas there are two potential urban drivers of tornadogenesis. First, the urban heat island raises the storm severity above and downwind of main urban areas, as recorded in precipitation and lightning datasets. Second, the increased surface roughness over metro areas raises low-level shear which in turn has been found to be favourable for tornadogenesis. Modification of convective storms over large metro areas is the more plausible explanation of raised tornado frequency. The drivers of a thicker-tailed tornado severity distribution in metro areas are less certain. Potential causes include: increased debris-loading in metro tornadoes; modification of storms' lower boundary layer by increased surface roughness in metro areas; the reduced density of damage indicators in non-metro cities.

  13. Polyploidization increases meiotic recombination frequency in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Polyploidization is the multiplication of the whole chromosome complement and has occurred frequently in vascular plants. Maintenance of stable polyploid state over generations requires special mechanisms to control pairing and distribution of more than two homologous chromosomes during meiosis. Since a minimal number of crossover events is essential for correct chromosome segregation, we investigated whether polyploidy has an influence on the frequency of meiotic recombination. Results Using two genetically linked transgenes providing seed-specific fluorescence, we compared a high number of progeny from diploid and tetraploid Arabidopsis plants. We show that rates of meiotic recombination in reciprocal crosses of genetically identical diploid and autotetraploid Arabidopsis plants were significantly higher in tetraploids compared to diploids. Although male and female gametogenesis differ substantially in meiotic recombination frequency, both rates were equally increased in tetraploids. To investigate whether multivalent formation in autotetraploids was responsible for the increased recombination rates, we also performed corresponding experiments with allotetraploid plants showing strict bivalent pairing. We found similarly increased rates in auto- and allotetraploids, suggesting that the ploidy effect is independent of chromosome pairing configurations. Conclusions The evolutionary success of polyploid plants in nature and under domestication has been attributed to buffering of mutations and sub- and neo-functionalization of duplicated genes. Should the data described here be representative for polyploid plants, enhanced meiotic recombination, and the resulting rapid creation of genetic diversity, could have also contributed to their prevalence. PMID:21510849

  14. Uncoupling protein-3 mRNA levels are increased in white adipose tissue and skeletal muscle of bezafibrate-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Cabrero, A; Llaverías, G; Roglans, N; Alegret, M; Sánchez, R; Adzet, T; Laguna, J C; Vázquez, M

    1999-07-05

    Fibrates are hypolipidemic drugs that are also able to improve glucose tolerance in animals and diabetic patients through an unknown mechanism. Since uncoupling proteins (UCP) seem to play an important role in the pathogenesis of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), we examined whether treatment of rats with bezafibrate for 3, 7, or 15 days modified UCP mRNA levels. Using RT-PCR, we observed a weak ectopic expression of UCP-1 and a 2-fold increase in UCP-3 mRNA levels in white adipose tissue after 7 and 15 days of treatment. Moreover, bezafibrate administration caused a 1. 7-fold induction in UCP-3 mRNA levels in skeletal muscle on day 7. Since UCP-3 mRNA levels are reduced in skeletal muscle of diabetic patients, this effect may be involved in the improvement of insulin sensitivity caused by bezafibrate in NIDDM.

  15. Increasing Accuracy in Environmental Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacksier, Tracey; Fernandes, Adelino; Matthew, Matt; Lehmann, Horst

    2016-04-01

    Human activity is increasing the concentrations of green house gases (GHG) in the atmosphere which results in temperature increases. High precision is a key requirement of atmospheric measurements to study the global carbon cycle and its effect on climate change. Natural air containing stable isotopes are used in GHG monitoring to calibrate analytical equipment. This presentation will examine the natural air and isotopic mixture preparation process, for both molecular and isotopic concentrations, for a range of components and delta values. The role of precisely characterized source material will be presented. Analysis of individual cylinders within multiple batches will be presented to demonstrate the ability to dynamically fill multiple cylinders containing identical compositions without isotopic fractionation. Additional emphasis will focus on the ability to adjust isotope ratios to more closely bracket sample types without the reliance on combusting naturally occurring materials, thereby improving analytical accuracy.

  16. Increasing diversity in our profession

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Ronald D.; Diswood, Samuel; Dominguez, Annette; Engel-Wilson, Ronald W.; Jefferson, Keith; Miles, A. Keith; Moore, Elizabeth F.; Reidinger, Russell; Ruther, Sherry; Valdez, Raul; Wilson, Kenneth; Zablan, Marilet A.

    2002-01-01

    The Wildlife Society's (TWS) Ethnic and Gender Diversity Committee (previously the Minority Affairs Committee) was established in 1998 and given several charges by TWS Council. This paper responds to our original charge to consider possi- ble actions and programs that TWS might undertake to increase minority participation in the wildlife profession and TWS (R.Anthony, 13 February 1998, Memo to MinorityAffairs Committee).

  17. Breech presentation: increasing maternal choice.

    PubMed

    Tiran, Denise

    2004-11-01

    Pregnant women with a third trimester breech presentation are almost invariably offered Caesarean section as the mode of delivery of first choice, especially when external version has failed to turn the fetus to cephalic. However, increasingly women are resorting to alternatives, to avoid either operative delivery or manipulative intervention in late pregnancy. This paper reviews some of the options for women with breech presentation, focusing especially on integrating these options into conventional maternity care.

  18. Heterozygosity increases microsatellite mutation rate

    PubMed Central

    Amos, William

    2016-01-01

    Whole genome sequencing of families of Arabidopsis has recently lent strong support to the heterozygote instability (HI) hypothesis that heterozygosity locally increases mutation rate. However, there is an important theoretical difference between the impact on base substitutions, where mutation rate increases in regions surrounding a heterozygous site, and the impact of HI on sequences such as microsatellites, where mutations are likely to occur at the heterozygous site itself. At microsatellite loci, HI should create a positive feedback loop, with heterozygosity and mutation rate mutually increasing each other. Direct support for HI acting on microsatellites is limited and contradictory. I therefore analysed AC microsatellites in 1163 genome sequences from the 1000 genomes project. I used the presence of rare alleles, which are likely to be very recent in origin, as a surrogate measure of mutation rate. I show that rare alleles are more likely to occur at locus-population combinations with higher heterozygosity even when all populations carry exactly the same number of alleles. PMID:26740567

  19. High Heels Increase Women's Attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Guéguen, Nicolas

    2015-11-01

    Research has found that the appearance of women's apparel helps increase their attractiveness as rated by men and that men care more about physical features in potential opposite-sex mates. However, the effect of sartorial appearance has received little interest from scientists. In a series of studies, the length of women's shoe heels was examined. A woman confederate wearing black shoes with 0, 5, or 9 cm heels asked men for help in various circumstances. In Study 1, she asked men to respond to a short survey on gender equality. In Study 2, the confederate asked men and women to participate in a survey on local food habit consumption. In Study 3, men and women in the street were observed while walking in back of the female confederate who dropped a glove apparently unaware of her loss. It was found that men's helping behavior increased as soon as heel length increased. However, heel length had no effect on women's helping behavior. It was also found that men spontaneously approached women more quickly when they wore high-heeled shoes (Study 4). Change in gait, foot-size judgment, and misattribution of sexiness and sexual intent were used as possible explanations.

  20. Comparable-Worth Adjustments: Yes--Comparable-Worth Adjustments: No.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Sue; O'Neill, June

    1985-01-01

    Two essays address the issue of pay equity and present opinions favoring and opposing comparable-worth adjustments. Movement of women out of traditionally female jobs, the limits of "equal pay," fairness of comparable worth and market-based wages, implementation and efficiency of comparable worth system, and alternatives to comparable…