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Sample records for 2-h oral glucose

  1. The 13C/2H-glucose test for determination of small intestinal lactase activity.

    PubMed

    Vonk, R J; Stellaard, F; Priebe, M G; Koetse, H A; Hagedoorn, R E; De Bruijn, S; Elzinga, H; Lenoir-Wijnkoop, I; Antoine, J M

    2001-03-01

    To diagnose hypolactasia, determination of lactase enzyme activity in small intestinal biopsy material is considered to be the golden standard. Because of its strongly invasive character and the sampling problems, alternative methods have been looked for. We analysed the 13C-glucose response in serum after consumption of 25 g of naturally enriched 13C-lactose. As an internal standard, 0.5 g of 2H-glucose was added and the 2H-glucose response in serum was measured simultaneously. The studies were performed in healthy volunteers with a background of genetically determined lactase nonpersistence (n = 12; low lactase activity) and lactase persistence (n = 27; high lactase activity). The results were compared with those of the lactose hydrogen breath test, the lactose 13CO2 breath test and the previously described 13C-lactose digestion test. After consumption of 13C-lactose and 2H-glucose, the mean ratio 13C-glucose/2H-glucose concentration in serum at 45-75 min was 0.26 +/- 0.09 in the low lactase activity group and 0.93 +/- 0.17 in the high lactase activity group (P < 0.01). Threshold of the ratio between digesters and maldigesters was calculated as 0.46. Accuracy of the new test was superior to all other tests. We conclude that the 13C/2H-glucose test has the potential of determining the small intestinal lactase activity in vivo and of estimating the amount of lactose which is digested in the small intestine. PMID:11264650

  2. The 13C/2H-glucose test for determination of small intestinal lactase activity.

    PubMed

    Vonk, R J; Stellaard, F; Priebe, M G; Koetse, H A; Hagedoorn, R E; De Bruijn, S; Elzinga, H; Lenoir-Wijnkoop, I; Antoine, J M

    2001-03-01

    To diagnose hypolactasia, determination of lactase enzyme activity in small intestinal biopsy material is considered to be the golden standard. Because of its strongly invasive character and the sampling problems, alternative methods have been looked for. We analysed the 13C-glucose response in serum after consumption of 25 g of naturally enriched 13C-lactose. As an internal standard, 0.5 g of 2H-glucose was added and the 2H-glucose response in serum was measured simultaneously. The studies were performed in healthy volunteers with a background of genetically determined lactase nonpersistence (n = 12; low lactase activity) and lactase persistence (n = 27; high lactase activity). The results were compared with those of the lactose hydrogen breath test, the lactose 13CO2 breath test and the previously described 13C-lactose digestion test. After consumption of 13C-lactose and 2H-glucose, the mean ratio 13C-glucose/2H-glucose concentration in serum at 45-75 min was 0.26 +/- 0.09 in the low lactase activity group and 0.93 +/- 0.17 in the high lactase activity group (P < 0.01). Threshold of the ratio between digesters and maldigesters was calculated as 0.46. Accuracy of the new test was superior to all other tests. We conclude that the 13C/2H-glucose test has the potential of determining the small intestinal lactase activity in vivo and of estimating the amount of lactose which is digested in the small intestine.

  3. N-Glucosides as human sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter 2 (hSGLT2) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yasuo; Kawanishi, Eiji; Koga, Yuichi; Sakamaki, Shigeki; Sakamoto, Toshiaki; Ueta, Kiichiro; Matsushita, Yasuaki; Kuriyama, Chiaki; Tsuda-Tsukimoto, Minoru; Nomura, Sumihiro

    2013-10-15

    Inhibition of renal sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) increases urinary glucose excretion (UGE), and thus reduces blood glucose levels in hyperglycemia. A series of N-glucosides was synthesized for biological evaluation as human SGLT2 (hSGLT2) inhibitors. Among these compounds, N-glucoside 9d possessing an indole core structure showed good in vitro activity (IC50=7.1 nM against hSGLT2). Furthermore, 9d exhibited favorable in vivo potency with regard to UGE in rats based on good pharmacokinetic profiles. PMID:23999047

  4. Monitoring breath during oral glucose tolerance tests.

    PubMed

    Ghimenti, S; Tabucchi, S; Lomonaco, T; Di Francesco, F; Fuoco, R; Onor, M; Lenzi, S; Trivella, M G

    2013-03-01

    The evolution of breath composition during oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) was analysed by thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in 16 subjects and correlated to blood glucose levels. The glucose tolerance tests classified five of the subjects as diabetics, eight as affected by impaired glucose tolerance and three as normoglycaemic. Acetone levels were generally higher in diabetics (average concentration values: diabetics, 300 ± 40 ppbv; impaired glucose tolerance, 350 ± 30 ppbv; normoglycaemic, 230 ± 20 ppbv) but the large inter-individual variability did not allow us to identify the three groups by this parameter alone. The exhalation of 3-hydroxy-butan-2-one and butane-2,3-dione, likely due to the metabolization of glucose by bacteria in the mouth, was also observed. Future work will involve the extension of the analyses to other volatile compounds by attempting to improve the level of discrimination between the various classes of subjects. PMID:23446273

  5. Diagnostic value of fasting capillary glucose, fructosamine and glycosylated haemoglobin in detecting diabetes and other glucose tolerance abnormalities compared to oral glucose tolerance test.

    PubMed

    Herdzik, E; Safranow, K; Ciechanowski, K

    2002-04-01

    New diagnostic criteria for diabetes mellitus recommend lowering of the fasting plasma glucose to 7.0 mmol/l. In contrast to recommendations of the American Diabetes Association (ADA), WHO recommends using the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in clinical practice. In this study. based on OGTT results and WHO 1998 criteria, we determined if measuring fasting capillary glycaemia (FCG) along with fructosamine and/or glycosylated haemoglobin allows the detection of glucose tolerance abnormalities better than FCG alone. OGTT was performed in 538 patients. Serum fructosamine was determined in 480 of the patients, and glycosylated haemoglobin in 234 of the patients. According to WHO 1998 criteria, the patients were divided into groups due to glucose tolerance abnormalities. Fructosamine correlated stronger with 2-h post-load glucose concentrations than with FCG. HbAlc correlated stronger with FCG than with 2-h post-load glucose. Combined use of fructosamine and FCG predicted 2-h post-load glucose better than combined use of FCG and HbA1c. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses showed that FCG was the best criterion in discriminating diabetes. Combined use of FCG and fructosamine slightly improved the ability to discriminate glucose tolerance abnormalities from normal glucose tolerance. FCG is the most effective predictor of 2-h post-load glucose and the best criterion for discriminating diabetes and other glucose tolerance abnormalities from normal glucose tolerance. Fructosamine is a potentially useful post-load glycaemia index. OGTT is irreplaceable in identification of patients with high post-load glycaemia.

  6. Analgesic Effect of Oral Glucose in Neonates.

    PubMed

    Jatana, S K; Dalal, S S; Wilson, C G

    2003-04-01

    The International Association for the Study of Pain, has defined pain as "an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience connected with actual or potential tissue damage or described in terms of such damage". It was thought that the newborn baby does not experience pain because of incompletely developed nervous system. However, it has been shown that neurological system known to be associated with pain transmission and modulation, is intact and functional. A study was conducted in our center to study the analgesic effect of administration of oral glucose in various concentrations, in neonates undergoing heel punctures, for collection of blood for investigations. This was compared with the analgesic effects of breast milk (which contains lactose). 125 full term normal neonates with no history of birth asphyxia or underlying neurological abnormality, requiring heel punctures for collection of blood for various investigations were selected for the study. They were matched for gestational age, birth weight and sex distribution and divided into 5 groups of 25 each. One group comprised control subjects and was administered sterile water. 3 groups were administered 1 ml of varying strengths of glucose solutions i.e. 10%, 25% and 50% respectively. The last group was given 1 ml of expressed breast milk (EBM). Prior to heel pricks, state of arousal, baseline heart rate (HR) and transcutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO2) were recorded by pulse oximeter in each neonate. Autolet, a mechanical device for capillary sampling, was used for heel pricks to give equal strength of painful stimulus in each procedure. Audio tape recorder was used to record the cry. The oral solution was administered slowly over 30 seconds by means of a syringe placed in the mouth. Heel puncture was done after 2 minutes, taking all aseptic precautions. HR and SpO2 were monitored using pulse oximeter. Pain response was assessed, by recording duration of crying, change in HR, change in SpO2 and facial action

  7. Conversion of oral glucose to lactate in dogs. Primary site and relative contribution to blood lactate

    SciTech Connect

    Youn, J.H.; Bergman, R.N. )

    1991-06-01

    The authors evaluated the relative contribution of oral glucose to arterial lactate and the relative role of the splanchnic bed in converting glucose to lactate in dogs. After an oral glucose load (1.2 g/kg) spiked with (U-14C)glucose (16.9 muCi/kg; protocol 1, n = 7), arterial blood lactate increased from 0.43 {plus minus} 0.03 mM at basal to a peak of 1.04 {plus minus} 0.07 mM at 45 min and then slowly decreased to 0.47 {plus minus} 0.07 mM at 240 min. Arterial blood {sup 14}Clactate peaked at 60 min and then decreased to {approximately} 35% of the peak at 4 h. When arterial blood lactate peaked at 45 min, the proportion of arterial lactate that was derived from oral glucose was 34 {plus minus} 3%. The integrated area under the curve of lactate derived from exogenous glucose was 40 {plus minus} 2% of that of total lactate. The splanchnic bed released lactate and {sup 14}Clactate during the initial 2 h after oral {sup 14}Cglucose. Thus, the splanchnic bed apparently contributed to the conversion of exogenous glucose to lactate. In the matched experiments (protocol 2, n = 5), dogs were given the same amount of oral glucose but no {sup 14}Cglucose, and (U-14C)lactate was infused into the right atrium to match the splanchnic {sup 14}Clactate release from the first experiment. Despite a well-matched splanchnic {sup 14}Clactate contribution, arterial concentrations of {sup 14}Clactate were markedly lower in protocol 2 compared with protocol 1. The integrated area under the {sup 14}Clactate profile in protocol 2 was only 11 {plus minus} 1% of that in protocol 1. These results indicate that the splanchnic bed is responsible for only 11% of arterial blood lactate that was derived from oral glucose. They concluded that (1) after oral glucose loading, a major portion of circulating lactate has its origin not in exogenous glucose but in endogenous sources, and (2) the splanchnic bed is not the major site of oral glucose conversion to lactate after glucose ingestion.

  8. Simultaneous quantification of labeled (2)H5-glycerol, (13)C6-glucose, and endogenous D-glucose in mouse plasma using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jahouh, Farid; Wang, Rong

    2015-11-01

    Monitoring the level of glucose and glycerol or their labeled derivatives in biological fluid for kinetic studies has always been challenging, especially in mice, because of the limited volume in addition to the complexity of plasma. For such application, we developed a simple, fast, and sensitive method for the simultaneous measurement of absolute concentrations of labeled (2)H5-glycerol and (13)C6-glucose as well as endogenous D-glucose using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In our study, 15.0 μL of mouse plasma was processed by a one-step protein precipitation, followed by LC-MS/MS analysis. The quantification of the analytes was carried out by monitoring the product ion scan of their corresponding deprotonated molecular ions and constructing the extracted ion fragmentogram by choosing a specific product ion for each analyte (equivalent to precursor ion to product ion transitions). The limit of detection (LOD) was evaluated to be 1.0 μM for both (2)H5-glycerol and (13)C6-glucose, and the limit of quantitation (LOQ) was observed to be 5.0 μM for both (2)H5-glycerol and (13)C6-glucose in diluted mice plasma that corresponds to 50 μM in plasma or 4.60 and 9.01 mg/dL of glycerol and glucose in plasma, respectively. The extraction recoveries are 81.9 % (CV = 8.1 %) for (2)H5-glycerol and 26.2 % (CV = 13.6 %) for (13)C6-glucose. PMID:26362155

  9. Evaluation of a Self-Administered Oral Glucose Tolerance Test

    PubMed Central

    Bethel, M. Angelyn; Price, Hermione C.; Sourij, Harald; White, Sarah; Coleman, Ruth L.; Ring, Arne; Kennedy, Irene E.C.; Tucker, Lynne; Holman, Rury R.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the feasibility of using a disposable, self-administered, capillary blood sampling oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) device in a community setting. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Eighteen healthy and 12 type 2 diabetic volunteers underwent six 75-g OGTTs using a prototype device in the following three settings: unaided at home (twice); unaided but observed in clinic (twice); and performed by a nurse with simultaneous laboratory glucose assays of 0- and 120-min venous plasma samples (twice). The device displayed no results. A detachable data recorder returned to the clinic provided plasma-equivalent 0- and 120-min glucose values and key parameters, including test date, start and end times, and time taken to consume the glucose drink. RESULTS The device was universally popular with participants and was perceived as easy to use, and the ability to test at home was well liked. Device failures meant that 0- and 120-min glucose values were obtained for only 141 (78%) of the 180 OGTTs performed, independent of setting. Device glucose measurements showed a mean bias compared with laboratory-measured values of +0.9 at 5.0 mmol/L increasing to +4.4 at 15.0 mmol/L. Paired device glucose values were equally reproducible across settings, with repeat testing showing no training effect regardless of setting order. CONCLUSIONS Self-administered OGTTs can be performed successfully by untrained individuals in a community setting. With improved device reliability and appropriate calibration, this novel technology could be used in routine practice to screen people who might need a formal OGTT to confirm the presence of impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes. PMID:23321216

  10. Effect of oral glucose on serum zinc in the elderly

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, A.L.; Kohrs, M.B.; Horwitz, D.L.; Cyborski, C.K.; Czajka-Narins, D.M.; Kamath, S.

    1986-03-05

    To determine the effect of glucose loading on serum zinc concentrations, 34 elderly subjects aged 60-86 y were studied. Anthropometric data, medical and dietary histories were obtained. Serum zinc and glucose concentrations were obtained fasting and 1/2, 1, 1 1/2, 2 and 3 h after 75 g oral glucose load; glycohemoglobin and fasting serum lipids were also determined. For comparison, the subjects were categorized as: normal or low serum zinc concentrations; normal or high body mass index BMI; normal or high sum of skinfolds and normal or high serum cholesterol. Results showed that low serum zinc concentrations increased significantly over baseline values after the glucose load and did not return to fasting levels. On the other hand, mean serum zinc concentrations significantly declined without recovery for those with normal zinc values. For the total group, no significant differences were noted between fasting values and subsequent time periods. No correlations were noted between fasting serum zinc and area under the curve for zinc except in the high BMI group (positive correlation observed). For the high BMI group, fasting serum zinc differed significantly from the succeeding measurements except for 30 min. For the group as a whole, mean serum zinc concentration was within normal limits (76.9 +/- 2.8 mcg/ml): mean zinc intake was less than 2/3rds the RDA. They conclude that glucose ingestion may alter serum zinc and should be considered in interpreting these levels.

  11. Whole body glucose kinetics in type I diabetes studied with (6,6-/sup 2/H) and (U-/sup 13/C)-glucose and the artificial B-cell

    SciTech Connect

    Darmaun, D.; Cirillo, D.; Koziet, J.; Chauvet, D.; Young, V.R.; Robert, J.J.

    1988-05-01

    Dynamic aspects of whole body glucose metabolism were assessed in ten young adult insulin-dependent (type I) diabetic men. Using a primed, continuous intravenous infusion of (6,6-/sup 2/H)glucose and (U-/sup 13/C)glucose, endogenous production, tissue uptake, carbon recycling, and oxidation of glucose were measured in the postabsorptive state. These studies were undertaken after blood glucose had been maintained overnight at 5.9 +/- 0.4 mmol/L (n = 10), and on another night at 10.5 +/- 0.4 mmol/L (n = 4) or 15.2 +/- 0.6 mmol/L (n = 6). In the normoglycemic state, endogenous glucose production averaged 2.15 +/- 0.13 mg x kg-1 x min-1. This value, as well as the rate of glucose carbon recycling (0.16 +/- 0.04 mg x kg-1 x min-1) and glucose oxidation (1.52 +/- 0.16 mg x kg-1 x min-1) are comparable to those found in nondiabetic controls. In the hyperglycemic states at 10 or 15 mmol/L, endogenous glucose production was increased by 11% (P less than .01) and 60% (P less than .01) compared to the normoglycemic states, respectively. Glucose carbon recycling contributed only a small percentage to this variation in glucose production (15% at the 15 mmol/L glucose level). This suggests that if gluconeogenesis participates in the increased glucose output, it is not dependent on a greater systemic supply of three-carbon precursors. The increased rate of glucose production in the hyperglycemic state was quantitatively offset by a rise in urinary glucose excretion. Glucose tissue uptake, as well as glucose oxidation, did not vary between normoglycemic and hyperglycemic states.

  12. Validation of pentaacetylaldononitrile derivative for dual 2H gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and 13C gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry analysis of glucose.

    PubMed

    Sauvinet, Valérie; Gabert, Laure; Qin, Du; Louche-Pélissier, Corinne; Laville, Martine; Désage, Michel

    2009-12-01

    A reference method to accurately define kinetics in response to the ingestion of glucose in terms of total, exogenous and endogenous glucose is to use stable-isotope-labelled compounds such as 2H and 13C glucose followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS) analysis. The use of the usual pentaacetyl (5Ac) derivative generates difficulties in obtaining accurate and reproducible results due to the two chromatographic peaks for the syn and anti isomers, and to the isotopic effect occurring during acetylation. Therefore, the pentaacetylaldononitrile derivative (Aldo) was validated for both isotopes, and compared with the 5Ac derivative. A correction factor including carbon atom dilution (stoichiometric equation) and the kinetic isotopic effect (KIE) was determined. Analytical validation results for the 2H GC/MS and 13C GC/C/IRMS measurements produced acceptable results with both derivatives. When 2H enrichments of plasma samples were < or = 1 mol % excess (MPE), the repeatability (RSD(Aldo Intra assay and Intra day) <0.94%, RSD(5Ac Intra assay and Intra day) <3.29%), accuracy (Aldo <3.4%, 5Ac <29.0%), and stability of the derivatized samples were significantly better when the Aldo derivatives of the plasma samples were used (p < 0.05). When the glucose kinetics were assessed in nine human subjects, after glucose ingestion, the plasma glucose 2H enrichments were identical with both derivatives, whereas the 13C enrichments needed a correction factor to fit together. Due to KIE variation, this correction factor was not constant and had to be calculated for each batch of analyses, to obtain satisfactory results. Mean quantities of exogenous glucose exhibit marked difference (20.9 +/- 1.3g (5Ac) vs. 26.7 +/- 2.5g (Aldo)) when calculated with stoichiometric correction, but fit perfectly when calculated after application of the correction factor (22.1 +/- 1.3g (5Ac) vs. 22.9 +/- 1.9g

  13. Mass spectrometry-based microassay of (2)H and (13)C plasma glucose labeling to quantify liver metabolic fluxes in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hasenour, Clinton M; Wall, Martha L; Ridley, D Emerson; Hughey, Curtis C; James, Freyja D; Wasserman, David H; Young, Jamey D

    2015-07-15

    Mouse models designed to examine hepatic metabolism are critical to diabetes and obesity research. Thus, a microscale method to quantitatively assess hepatic glucose and intermediary metabolism in conscious, unrestrained mice was developed. [(13)C3]propionate, [(2)H2]water, and [6,6-(2)H2]glucose isotopes were delivered intravenously in short- (9 h) and long-term-fasted (19 h) C57BL/6J mice. GC-MS and mass isotopomer distribution (MID) analysis were performed on three 40-μl arterial plasma glucose samples obtained during the euglycemic isotopic steady state. Model-based regression of hepatic glucose and citric acid cycle (CAC)-related fluxes was performed using a comprehensive isotopomer model to track carbon and hydrogen atom transitions through the network and thereby simulate the MIDs of measured fragment ions. Glucose-6-phosphate production from glycogen diminished, and endogenous glucose production was exclusively gluconeogenic with prolonged fasting. Gluconeogenic flux from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) remained stable, whereas that from glycerol modestly increased from short- to long-term fasting. CAC flux [i.e., citrate synthase (VCS)] was reduced with long-term fasting. Interestingly, anaplerosis and cataplerosis increased with fast duration; accordingly, pyruvate carboxylation and the conversion of oxaloacetate to PEP were severalfold higher than VCS in long-term fasted mice. This method utilizes state-of-the-art in vivo methodology and comprehensive isotopomer modeling to quantify hepatic glucose and intermediary fluxes during physiological stress in mice. The small plasma requirements permit serial sampling without stress and the affirmation of steady-state glucose kinetics. Furthermore, the approach can accommodate a broad range of modeling assumptions, isotope tracers, and measurement inputs without the need to introduce ad hoc mathematical approximations.

  14. 13C, 2h NMR studies of structural and dynamical modifications of glucose-exposed porcine aortic elastin.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Moshe C; Bilici, Kübra; Morgan, Steven W; Wang, Yunjie; Zhang, Yanhang; Boutis, Gregory S

    2015-04-01

    Elastin, the principal component of the elastic fiber of the extracellular matrix, imparts to vertebrate tissues remarkable resilience and longevity. This work focuses on elucidating dynamical and structural modifications of porcine aortic elastin exposed to glucose by solid-state NMR spectroscopic and relaxation methodologies. Results from macroscopic stress-strain tests are also presented and indicate that glucose-treated elastin is mechanically stiffer than the same tissue without glucose treatment. These measurements show a large hysteresis in the stress-strain behavior of glucose-treated elastin-a well-known signature of viscoelasticity. Two-dimensional relaxation NMR methods were used to investigate the correlation time, distribution, and population of water in these samples. Differences are observed between the relative populations of water, whereas the measured correlation times of tumbling motion of water across the samples were similar. (13)C magic-angle-spinning NMR methods were applied to investigate structural and dynamical modifications after glucose treatment. Although some overall structure is preserved, the process of glucose exposure results in more heterogeneous structures and slower mobility. The correlation times of tumbling motion of the (13)C-(1)H internuclear vectors in the glucose-treated sample are larger than in untreated samples, pointing to their more rigid structure. The (13)C cross-polarization spectra reveal a notably increased α-helical character in the alanine motifs after glucose exposure. Results from molecular dynamics simulations are provided that add further insight into dynamical and structural changes of a short repeat, [VPGVG]5, an alanine pentamer, desmosine, and isodesmosine sites with and without glucose. The simulations point to changes in the entropic and energetic contributions in the retractive forces of VPGVG and AAAAA motifs. The most notable change is the increase of the energetic contribution in the retractive

  15. 13C, 2H NMR Studies of Structural and Dynamical Modifications of Glucose-Exposed Porcine Aortic Elastin

    PubMed Central

    Silverstein, Moshe C.; Bilici, Kübra; Morgan, Steven W.; Wang, Yunjie; Zhang, Yanhang; Boutis, Gregory S.

    2015-01-01

    Elastin, the principal component of the elastic fiber of the extracellular matrix, imparts to vertebrate tissues remarkable resilience and longevity. This work focuses on elucidating dynamical and structural modifications of porcine aortic elastin exposed to glucose by solid-state NMR spectroscopic and relaxation methodologies. Results from macroscopic stress-strain tests are also presented and indicate that glucose-treated elastin is mechanically stiffer than the same tissue without glucose treatment. These measurements show a large hysteresis in the stress-strain behavior of glucose-treated elastin—a well-known signature of viscoelasticity. Two-dimensional relaxation NMR methods were used to investigate the correlation time, distribution, and population of water in these samples. Differences are observed between the relative populations of water, whereas the measured correlation times of tumbling motion of water across the samples were similar. 13C magic-angle-spinning NMR methods were applied to investigate structural and dynamical modifications after glucose treatment. Although some overall structure is preserved, the process of glucose exposure results in more heterogeneous structures and slower mobility. The correlation times of tumbling motion of the 13C-1H internuclear vectors in the glucose-treated sample are larger than in untreated samples, pointing to their more rigid structure. The 13C cross-polarization spectra reveal a notably increased α-helical character in the alanine motifs after glucose exposure. Results from molecular dynamics simulations are provided that add further insight into dynamical and structural changes of a short repeat, [VPGVG]5, an alanine pentamer, desmosine, and isodesmosine sites with and without glucose. The simulations point to changes in the entropic and energetic contributions in the retractive forces of VPGVG and AAAAA motifs. The most notable change is the increase of the energetic contribution in the retractive force

  16. Abnormal transient rise in hepatic glucose production after oral glucose in non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Thorburn, A; Litchfield, A; Fabris, S; Proietto, J

    1995-05-01

    A transient rise in hepatic glucose production (HGP) after an oral glucosa load has been reported in some insulin-resistant states such as in obese fa/fa Zucker rats. The aim of this study was to determine whether this rise in HGP also occurs in subjects with established non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Glucose kinetics were measured basally and during a double-label oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in 12 NIDDM subjects and 12 non-diabetic 'control' subjects. Twenty minutes after the glucose load, HGP had increased 73% above basal in the NIDDM subjects (7.29 +/- 0.52 to 12.58 +/- 1.86 mumol/kg/min, P < 0.02). A transient rise in glucagon (12 pg/ml above basal, P < 0.004) occurred at a similar time. In contrast, the control subjects showed no rise in HGP or plasma glucagon. HGP began to suppress 40-50 min after the OGTT in both the NIDDM and control subjects. A 27% increase in the rate of gut-derived glucose absorption was also observed in the NIDDM group, which could be the result of increased gut glucose absorption or decreased first pass extraction of glucose by the liver. Therefore, in agreement with data in animal models of NIDDM, a transient rise in HGP partly contributes to the hyperglycemia observed after an oral glucose load in NIDDM subjects. PMID:7587920

  17. Glycemic variability in relation to oral disposition index in the subjects with different stages of glucose tolerance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Glucose variability could be an independent risk factor for diabetes complications in addition to average glucose. The deficiency in islet β cell secretion and insulin sensitivity, the two important pathophysiological mechanisms of diabetes, are responsible for glycemic disorders. The oral disposition index evaluated by product of insulin secretion and sensitivity is a useful marker of islet β cell function. The aim of the study is to investigate glycemic variability in relation to oral disposition index in the subjects across a range of glucose tolerance from the normal to overt type 2 diabetes. Methods 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed in total 220 subjects: 47 with normal glucose regulation (NGR), 52 with impaired glucose metabolism (IGM, 8 with isolated impaired fasting glucose [IFG], 18 with isolated impaired glucose tolerance [IGT] and 26 with combined IFG and IGT), 61 screen-diagnosed diabetes by isolated 2-h glucose (DM2h) and 60 newly diagnosed diabetes by both fasting and 2-h glucose (DM). Insulin sensitivity index (Matsuda index, ISI), insulin secretion index (ΔI30/ΔG30), and integrated β cell function measured by the oral disposition index (ΔI30/ΔG30 multiplied by the ISI) were derived from OGTT. All subjects were monitored using the continuous glucose monitoring system for consecutive 72 hours. The multiple parameters of glycemic variability included the standard deviation of blood glucose (SD), mean of blood glucose (MBG), high blood glucose index (HBGI), continuous overlapping net glycemic action calculated every 1 h (CONGA1), mean of daily differences (MODD) and mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE). Results From the NGR to IGM to DM2h to DM group, the respective values of SD (mean ± SD) (0.9 ± 0.3, 1.5 ± 0.5, 1.9 ± 0.6 and 2.2 ± 0.6 mmol/), MBG (5.9 ± 0.5, 6.7 ± 0.7, 7.7 ± 1.0 and 8.7 ± 1.5 mmol/L), HGBI [median(Q1–Q3)][0.8(0.2–1.2), 2.0(1.2–3.7), 3

  18. Serum progranulin concentrations are not responsive during oral lipid tolerance test and oral glucose tolerance test.

    PubMed

    Schmid, A; Leszczak, S; Ober, I; Schäffler, A; Karrasch, T

    2015-07-01

    The postprandial regulation of progranulin by oral uptake of lipids and carbohydrates in healthy individuals has not yet been investigated. The regulation of progranulin in 2 large cohorts of healthy volunteers during oral lipid tolerance test (OLTT; n=100) and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; n=100) was analyzed. One hundred healthy volunteers underwent OLTT and OGTT in an outpatient setting. Venous blood was drawn at 0 hours (h) (fasting) and at 2, 4, and 6 h in OLTT or 1 and 2 h in OGTT. A novel OLTT solution completely free of carbohydrates and protein was applied. Subjects were characterized by anthropometric and laboratory parameters. Serum concentrations of progranulin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Circulating progranulin levels remained unchanged during OLTT and OGTT. Fasting progranulin levels ranged between 31.3±8.7 and 40.6±7.7 ng/ml and were not different in subgroups addressing BMI, gender, family history, smoking habits, and hormonal contraception. There was a reciprocal correlation of progranulin with HDL (negative) and LDL cholesterol levels (positive). In healthy adults, fasting and postprandial circulating progranulin levels are not different in BMI subgroups. Oral uptake of carbohydrates and lipids does not influence circulating progranulin levels in a short-term manner. A postprandial and short-term regulation of this adipokine is absent, at least in healthy subjects. There is a negative correlation of progranulin with HDL cholesterol, but a positive correlation with LDL cholesterol. This reciprocal association might be of physiological importance for an individual's atherosclerotic risk. PMID:25565096

  19. A composite hydrogel system containing glucose-responsive nanocarriers for oral delivery of insulin.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Jiang, Guohua; Yu, Weijiang; Liu, Depeng; Chen, Hua; Liu, Yongkun; Huang, Qin; Tong, Zaizai; Yao, Juming; Kong, Xiangdong

    2016-12-01

    Development of an oral delivery strategy for insulin therapeutics has drawn much attention in recent years. In this study, a glucose-responsive nanocarriers for loading of insulin has been prepared firstly. The resultant nanocarriers exhibited relative low cytotoxicity against Caco-2 cells and excellent stability against protein solution. The insulin release behaviors were evaluated triggered by pH and glucose in vitro. In order to enhance the oral bioavailability of insulin, the insulin-loaded glucose-responsive nanocarriers were further encapsulated into a three-dimensional (3D) hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogel environment for overcoming multiple barriers and providing multi-protection for insulin during the transport process. The hypoglycemic effect for oral delivery of insulin was studied in vivo. After oral administration to the diabetic rats, the released insulin from hydrogel systems containing insulin-loaded glucose-responsive nanocarriers exhibited an effective hypoglycemic effect for longer time compared with insulin-loaded nanocarriers. PMID:27612686

  20. Effects of oral administration of titanium dioxide fine-sized particles on plasma glucose in mice.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ning; Hu, Hailong; Guo, Qian; Jin, Sanli; Wang, Changlin; Oh, Yuri; Feng, Yujie; Wu, Qiong

    2015-12-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is an authorized additive used as a food colorant, is composed of nano-sized particles (NP) and fine-sized particles (FP). Previous study reported that oral administration of TiO2 NPs triggers an increase in plasma glucose of mice. However, no previous studies have focused on toxic effects of TiO2 FPs on plasma glucose homeostasis following oral administration. In the current study, mice were orally administered TiO2 FPs greater than 100 nm in size (64 mg/kg body weight per day), and effects on plasma glucose levels examined. Our results showed that titanium levels was not changed in mouse blood, livers and pancreases after mice were orally administered TiO2 FPs. Biochemical analyzes showed that plasma glucose and ROS levels were not affected by TiO2 FPs. Histopathological results showed that TiO2 FPs did not induce pathology changes in organs, especially plasma glucose homeostasis regulation organs, such as pancreas and liver. Western blotting showed that oral administration of TiO2 FPs did not induce insulin resistance (IR) in mouse liver. These results showed that, TiO2 FPs cannot be absorbed via oral administration and affect plasma glucose levels in mice. PMID:26472183

  1. Effects of oral administration of titanium dioxide fine-sized particles on plasma glucose in mice.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ning; Hu, Hailong; Guo, Qian; Jin, Sanli; Wang, Changlin; Oh, Yuri; Feng, Yujie; Wu, Qiong

    2015-12-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is an authorized additive used as a food colorant, is composed of nano-sized particles (NP) and fine-sized particles (FP). Previous study reported that oral administration of TiO2 NPs triggers an increase in plasma glucose of mice. However, no previous studies have focused on toxic effects of TiO2 FPs on plasma glucose homeostasis following oral administration. In the current study, mice were orally administered TiO2 FPs greater than 100 nm in size (64 mg/kg body weight per day), and effects on plasma glucose levels examined. Our results showed that titanium levels was not changed in mouse blood, livers and pancreases after mice were orally administered TiO2 FPs. Biochemical analyzes showed that plasma glucose and ROS levels were not affected by TiO2 FPs. Histopathological results showed that TiO2 FPs did not induce pathology changes in organs, especially plasma glucose homeostasis regulation organs, such as pancreas and liver. Western blotting showed that oral administration of TiO2 FPs did not induce insulin resistance (IR) in mouse liver. These results showed that, TiO2 FPs cannot be absorbed via oral administration and affect plasma glucose levels in mice.

  2. Pancreatic islet hormone response to oral glucose in morbidly obese patients.

    PubMed Central

    Sirinek, K R; O'Dorisio, T M; Howe, B; McFee, A S

    1985-01-01

    Pancreatic islet peptides, as well as other gastrointestinal hormones, have been implicated in both the pathogenesis of obesity and the etiology of associated metabolic derangements. This study evaluated the pancreatic islet and gastrointestinal (GI) hormone response to oral glucose in 20 morbidly obese (151% above ideal body weight) patients. Glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinism, and exaggerated gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) release occurred following glucose ingestion. Significant release of PP occurred in 14 patients, while only six patients had release of somatostatin. No significant changes in plasma concentrations of glucagon occurred. Since GIP is insulinotropic in the presence of hyperglycemia, the hyperinsulinism of morbid obesity may be secondary to the abnormally high glucose-stimulated GIP levels in these patients. Failure of glucagon suppression in response to oral glucose many contribute to the hyperglycemia noted. Somatostatin and pancreatic polypeptide may be responsible for some of the metabolic derangements of morbid obesity. PMID:2860876

  3. Failure of Hyperglycemia and Hyperinsulinemia to Compensate for Impaired Metabolic Response to an Oral Glucose Load

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, M; Janghorbani, M; Schuette, S; Considine, RV; Chisholm, RL; Mather, KJ

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether the augmented insulin and glucose response to a glucose challenge is sufficient to compensate for defects in glucose utilization in obesity and type 2 diabetes, using a breath test measurement of integrated glucose metabolism. Methods Non-obese, obese normoglycemic and obese Type 2 diabetic subjects were studied on 2 consecutive days. A 75g oral glucose load spiked with 13C-glucose was administered, measuring exhaled breath 13CO2 as an integrated measure of glucose metabolism and oxidation. A hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp was performed, measuring whole body glucose disposal rate. Body composition was measured by DEXA. Multivariable analyses were performed to evaluate the determinants of the breath 13CO2. Results Breath 13CO2 was reduced in obese and type 2 diabetic subjects despite hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. The primary determinants of breath response were lean mass, fat mass, fasting FFA concentrations, and OGTT glucose excursion. Multiple approaches to analysis showed that hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia were not sufficient to compensate for the defect in glucose metabolism in obesity and diabetes. Conclusions Augmented insulin and glucose responses during an OGTT are not sufficient to overcome the underlying defects in glucose metabolism in obesity and diabetes. PMID:25511878

  4. Hepatic glycogen in humans. II. Gluconeogenetic formation after oral and intravenous glucose

    SciTech Connect

    Radziuk, J. )

    1989-08-01

    The amount of glycogen that is formed by gluconeogenetic pathways during glucose loading was quantitated in human subjects. Oral glucose loading was compared with its intravenous administration. Overnight-fasted subjects received a constant infusion or (3-{sup 3}H)glucose and a marker for gluconeogenesis, (U-{sup 14}C)lactate or sodium ({sup 14}C)bicarbonate ({sup 14}C)bicarbonate. An unlabeled glucose load was then administered. Postabsorptively, or after glucose infusion was terminated, a third tracer ((6-{sup 3}H)glucose) infusion was initiated along with a three-step glucagon infusion. Without correcting for background stimulation of ({sup 14}C)glucose production or for dilution of {sup 14}C with citric acid cycle carbon in the oxaloacetate pool, the amount of glycogen mobilized by the glucagon infusion that was produced by gluconeogenesis during oral glucose loading was 2.9 +/- 0.7 g calculated from (U-{sup 14}C)-lactate incorporation and 7.4 +/- 1.3 g calculated using ({sup 14}C)bicarbonate as a gluconeogenetic marker. During intravenous glucose administration the latter measurement also yielded 7.2 +/- 1.1 g. When the two corrections above are applied, the respective quantities became 5.3 +/- 1.7 g for (U-{sup 14}C)lactate as tracer and 14.7 +/- 4.3 and 13.9 +/- 3.6 g for oral and intravenous glucose with ({sup 14}C)bicarbonate as tracer (P less than 0.05, vs. ({sup 14}C)-lactate as tracer). When (2-{sup 14}C)acetate was infused, the same amount of label was incorporated into mobilized glycogen regardless of which route of glucose administration was used. Comparison with previous data also suggests that {sup 14}CO{sub 2} is a potentially useful marker for the gluconeogenetic process in vivo.

  5. Administration of tauroursodeoxycholic acid prevents endothelial dysfunction caused by an oral glucose load.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Lauren K; Restaino, Robert M; Neuringer, Martha; Manrique, Camila; Padilla, Jaume

    2016-11-01

    Postprandial hyperglycaemia leads to a transient impairment in endothelial function; however, the mechanisms remain largely unknown. Previous work in cell culture models demonstrate that high glucose results in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and, in animal studies, ER stress has been implicated as a cause of endothelial dysfunction. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that acute oral administration of tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA, 1500 mg), a chemical chaperone known to alleviate ER stress, would prevent hyperglycaemia-induced endothelial dysfunction. In 12 young healthy subjects (seven men, five women), brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was assessed at baseline, and at 60 and 120 min after an oral glucose challenge. Subjects were tested on two separate visits in a single-blind randomized cross-over design: after oral ingestion of TUDCA or placebo capsules. FMD was reduced from baseline during hyperglycaemia under the placebo condition (-32% at 60 min and -28% at 120 min post oral glucose load; P<0.05 from baseline) but not under the TUDCA condition (-4% at 60 min and +0.3% at 120 min post oral glucose load; P>0.05 from baseline). Postprandial plasma glucose and insulin were not altered by TUDCA ingestion. Plasma oxidative stress markers 3-nitrotyrosine and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) remained unaltered throughout the oral glucose challenge in both conditions. These results suggest that hyperglycaemia-induced endothelial dysfunction can be mitigated by oral administration of TUDCA, thus supporting the hypothesis that ER stress may contribute to endothelial dysfunction during postprandial hyperglycaemia.

  6. Metabolic Profiling of the Response to an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test Detects Subtle Metabolic Changes

    PubMed Central

    Wopereis, Suzan; Rubingh, Carina M.; van Erk, Marjan J.; Verheij, Elwin R.; van Vliet, Trinette; Cnubben, Nicole H. P.; Smilde, Age K.; van der Greef, Jan; van Ommen, Ben; Hendriks, Henk F. J.

    2009-01-01

    Background The prevalence of overweight is increasing globally and has become a serious health problem. Low-grade chronic inflammation in overweight subjects is thought to play an important role in disease development. Novel tools to understand these processes are needed. Metabolic profiling is one such tool that can provide novel insights into the impact of treatments on metabolism. Methodology To study the metabolic changes induced by a mild anti-inflammatory drug intervention, plasma metabolic profiling was applied in overweight human volunteers with elevated levels of the inflammatory plasma marker C-reactive protein. Liquid and gas chromatography mass spectrometric methods were used to detect high and low abundant plasma metabolites both in fasted conditions and during an oral glucose tolerance test. This is based on the concept that the resilience of the system can be assessed after perturbing a homeostatic situation. Conclusions Metabolic changes were subtle and were only detected using metabolic profiling in combination with an oral glucose tolerance test. The repeated measurements during the oral glucose tolerance test increased statistical power, but the metabolic perturbation also revealed metabolites that respond differentially to the oral glucose tolerance test. Specifically, multiple metabolic intermediates of the glutathione synthesis pathway showed time-dependent suppression in response to the glucose challenge test. The fact that this is an insulin sensitive pathway suggests that inflammatory modulation may alter insulin signaling in overweight men. PMID:19242536

  7. Allergenicity potential of red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) proteins in orally treated BALB/c mice and passively sensitized RBL-2H3 cells.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Sharma, Akanksha; Verma, Alok K; Chaudhari, B P; Das, Mukul; Jain, S K; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2013-01-01

    Red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is one the most commonly consumed legumes that requires an in depth understanding of its allergenicity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the allergenicity of red kidney bean proteins following oral exposure in BALB/c mice and elucidate the levels of Th1/Th2 transcription factors induced by red kidney bean proteins in rat basophilic leukemia cells (RBL-2H3 cells) passively sensitized with the sera of red kidney bean sensitized mice. Red kidney bean proteins showed enhanced levels of total and specific IgE, anaphylactic symptoms, thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and peritoneal albumin over control. Enhanced release of β-hexosaminidase along with up regulated expressions of GATA-3, STAT-6, T-bet, c-MAF and NFAT were observed in the RBL-2H3 cells exposed with red kidney bean proteins when compared to that of the controls. Taken together, exposure of red kidney bean proteins may cause allergic symptoms in mice and the ambivalent effect on Th2/Th1 transcription factors in RBL-2H3 cells. PMID:23916877

  8. In search of a super solution: controlled trial of glycine-glucose oral rehydration solution in infantile diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Patra, F C; Mahalanabis, D; Jalan, K N; Sen, A; Banerjee, P

    1984-01-01

    In a double blind trial a glycine fortified oral glucose electrolyte solution was evaluated in a group of infants and small children (n=25) with moderate to severe dehydration due to acute diarrhoea, and was compared with a matched control group (n=26) receiving only glucose based oral rehydration solution. It is seen that the diarrhoea stool output, duration of diarrhoea, and volume of oral rehydration fluid required to achieve and maintain hydration are significantly lower in the group receiving glycine fortified glucose electrolyte solution. The possibility of developing an oral rehydration solution which could also act as an absorption promoting drug is discussed.

  9. Oral glucose for pain relief during examination for retinopathy of prematurity: a masked randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Marlene Coelho; Eckert, Gabriela Unchalo; Fortes, Bárbara Gastal Borges; Filho, João Borges Fortes; Silveira, Rita C.; Procianoy, Renato S

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Ophthalmologic examination for retinopathy of prematurity is a painful procedure. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions have been proposed to reduce pain during eye examinations. This study aims to evaluate the analgesic effect of 25% glucose using a validated pain scale during the first eye examination for retinopathy of prematurity in preterm infants with birth weight ≤1,500 g and/or gestational age ≤32 weeks. METHODS: A masked, randomized clinical trial for one dose of 1 ml of oral 25% glucose solution 2 minutes before the first ophthalmologic examination for retinopathy of prematurity was conducted between March 2008 and April 2010. The results were compared to those of a control group that did not receive oral glucose solution. Pain was evaluated using a Neonatal Infant Pain Scale immediately before and immediately after the ophthalmologic examination in both groups. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00648687 RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-four patients who were examined for the first time for retinopathy of prematurity were included. Seventy were included in the intervention group and 54 in the control group. The number of patients with pain immediately before the procedure was similar in both groups. The number of patients with pain after ophthalmologic examination was 15.7% in the intervention group and 68.5% in the control group (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: One ml of oral 25% glucose solution given 2 minutes before an ophthalmologic examination for retinopathy of prematurity was an effective measure for pain relief. PMID:23525316

  10. Oral administration of osteocalcin improves glucose utilization by stimulating glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion.

    PubMed

    Mizokami, Akiko; Yasutake, Yu; Higashi, Sen; Kawakubo-Yasukochi, Tomoyo; Chishaki, Sakura; Takahashi, Ichiro; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Hirata, Masato

    2014-12-01

    Uncarboxylated osteocalcin (GluOC), a bone-derived hormone, regulates energy metabolism by stimulating insulin secretion and pancreatic β-cell proliferation. We previously showed that the effect of GluOC on insulin secretion is mediated largely by glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secreted from the intestine in response to GluOC exposure. We have now examined the effect of oral administration of GluOC on glucose utilization as well as the fate of such administered GluOC in mice. Long-term intermittent or daily oral administration of GluOC reduced the fasting blood glucose level and improved glucose tolerance in mice without affecting insulin sensitivity. It also increased the fasting serum insulin concentration as well as the β-cell area in the pancreas. A small proportion of orally administered GluOC reached the small intestine and remained there for at least 24h. GluOC also entered the general circulation, and the serum GLP-1 concentration was increased in association with the presence of GluOC in the intestine and systemic circulation. The putative GluOC receptor, GPRC6A was detected in intestinal cells, and was colocalized with GLP-1 in some of these cells. Our results suggest that orally administered GluOC improved glucose handling likely by acting from both the intestinal lumen and the general circulation, with this effect being mediated in part by stimulation of GLP-1 secretion. Oral administration of GluOC warrants further study as a safe and convenient option for the treatment or prevention of metabolic disorders. PMID:25230237

  11. Oral rehydration in infantile diarrhoea. Controlled trial of a low sodium glucose electrolyte solution.

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, A; Mahalanabis, D; Jalan, K N; Maitra, T K; Agarwal, S K; Dutta, B; Khatua, S P; Bagchi, D K

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes the first controlled trial of an oral glucose electrolyte solution designed on the basis of the optimum pathophysiological needs for rehydration in infantile diarrahoea. The solution, having a sodium concentration of 50 mmol/l, was tried in a group of 20 infants with moderate to severe dehydration due to acute diarrhoea and was compared with a matched group of 19 infants predominantly under 2 years of age taking a 'standard' oral solution with a sodium concentration of 90 mmol/l. They could be hydrated as well with a low sodium oral solution alone as with the standard solution. Intravenous fluid was not required in either group. The group treated with the high soldium 'standard' solution appeared to develop hypernatraemia and/or periorbital oedema more frequently than the other group. Also, the low sodium solution eliminated the need for additional free water orally. PMID:348125

  12. Post-glucose-load urinary C-peptide and glucose concentration obtained during OGTT do not affect oral minimal model-based plasma indices.

    PubMed

    Jainandunsing, Sjaam; Wattimena, J L Darcos; Rietveld, Trinet; van Miert, Joram N I; Sijbrands, Eric J G; de Rooij, Felix W M

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how renal loss of both C-peptide and glucose during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) relate to and affect plasma-derived oral minimal model (OMM) indices. All individuals were recruited during family screening between August 2007 and January 2011 and underwent a 3.5-h OGTT, collecting nine plasma samples and urine during OGTT. We obtained the following three subgroups: normoglycemic, at risk, and T2D. We recruited South Asian and Caucasian families, and we report separate analyses if differences occurred. Plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide concentrations were analyzed as AUCs during OGTT, OMM estimate of renal C-peptide secretion, and OMM beta-cell and insulin sensitivity indices were calculated to obtain disposition indices. Post-glucose load glucose and C-peptide in urine were measured and related to plasma-based indices. Urinary glucose corresponded well with plasma glucose AUC (Cau r = 0.64, P < 0.01; SA r = 0.69, P < 0.01), S I (Cau r = -0.51, P < 0.01; SA r = -0.41, P < 0.01), Φ dynamic (Cau r = -0.41, P < 0.01; SA r = -0.57, P < 0.01), and Φ oral (Cau r = -0.61, P < 0.01; SA r = -0.73, P < 0.01). Urinary C-peptide corresponded well to plasma C-peptide AUC (Cau r = 0.45, P < 0.01; SA r = 0.33, P < 0.05) and OMM estimate of renal C-peptide secretion (r = 0.42, P < 0.01). In general, glucose excretion plasma threshold for the presence of glucose in urine was ~10-10.5 mmol L(-1) in non-T2D individuals, but not measurable in T2D individuals. Renal glucose secretion during OGTT did not influence OMM indices in general nor in T2D patients (renal clearance range 0-2.1 %, with median 0.2 % of plasma glucose AUC). C-indices of urinary glucose to detect various stages of glucose intolerance were excellent (Cau 0.83-0.98; SA 0.75-0.89). The limited role of renal glucose secretion validates the neglecting of urinary glucose secretion in kinetic models of glucose homeostasis using plasma glucose concentrations. Both C

  13. SGLT1 sugar transporter/sensor is required for post-oral glucose appetition.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, Anthony; Koepsell, Hermann; Ackroff, Karen

    2016-04-01

    Recent findings suggest that the intestinal sodium-glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) glucose transporter and sensor mediates, in part, the appetite-stimulation actions of intragastric (IG) glucose and nonmetabolizable α-methyl-d-glucopyranoside (MDG) infusions in mice. Here, we investigated the role of SGLT1 in sugar conditioning using SGLT1 knockout (KO) and C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) mice. An initial experiment revealed that both KO and WT mice maintained on a very low-carbohydrate diet display normal preferences for saccharin, which was used in the flavored conditioned stimulus (CS) solutions. In experiment 2, mice were trained to drink one flavored solution (CS+) paired with an IG MDG infusion and a different flavored solution (CS-) paired with IG water infusion. In contrast to WT mice, KO mice decreased rather than increased the intake of the CS+ during training and failed to prefer the CS+ over the CS- in a choice test. In experiment 3, the KO mice also decreased their intake of a CS+ paired with IG glucose and avoided the CS+ in a choice test, unlike WT mice, which preferred the CS+ to CS-. In experiment 4, KO mice, like WT mice preferred a glucose + saccharin solution to a saccharin solution. These findings support the involvement of SGLT1 in post-oral glucose and MDG conditioning. The results also indicate that sugar malabsorption in KO mice has inhibitory effects on sugar intake but does not block their natural preference for sweet taste.

  14. Diurnal Variation in Oral Glucose Tolerance: Blood Sugar and Plasma Insulin Levels Morning, Afternoon, and Evening

    PubMed Central

    Jarrett, R. J.; Baker, I. A.; Keen, H.; Oakley, N. W.

    1972-01-01

    Twenty-four subjects received three oral glucose tolerance tests, in the morning, afternoon, and evening of separate days. The mean blood sugar levels in the afternoon and evening tests were similar, and they were both significantly higher than those in the morning test. Plasma immunoreactive insulin levels, however, were highest in the morning test. The pattern of insulin levels during the afternoon and evening tests resembled that described as typical of maturity-onset diabetes. PMID:5058728

  15. The opposing effects of the flavonoids isoquercitrin and sissotrin, isolated from Pterospartum tridentatum, on oral glucose tolerance in rats.

    PubMed

    Paulo, Alexandra; Martins, Sofia; Branco, Pedro; Dias, Teresa; Borges, Carlos; Rodrigues, Ana Isabel; Costa, Maria do Céu; Teixeira, Adriano; Mota-Filipe, Hélder

    2008-04-01

    The effect of an aqueous extract of Pterospartum tridentatum on the blood glucose levels of normal Wistar rats was investigated in a situation of oral glucose challenge. The extract at 300 mg/kg showed an antihyperglycaemic effect in the first 30 min after glucose challenge but then the blood glucose levels rose above those of the control group, indicating the presence of compounds with different effects on glucose tolerance. Nine compounds of isoflavone and flavonol skeletons were identified in the extract by HPLC-ESI-MS(n), four of them being identified for the first time in this species. The isoflavone sissotrin and the flavonol derivative, isoquercitrin, were selected for the oral glucose tolerance test. Isoquercitrin (100 mg/kg) showed time-dependent antihyperglycaemic activity by delaying the post-oral glucose load glycaemic peak at 30 min, as did the sodium-dependent glucose transporter inhibitor phloridzin (100 mg/kg). In contrast, sissotrin (100 mg/kg) showed an opposite effect, impairing glucose tolerance. In conclusion, these preliminary results indicate that the effect of the extract on blood glucose may be either antihyperglycaemic or hyperglycaemic. Additionally, as far as is known, these are the first in vivo results on the acute antihyperglycaemic potential of isoquercitrin.

  16. Nitrogenous compounds stimulate glucose-derived acid production by oral Streptococcus and Actinomyces.

    PubMed

    Norimatsu, Yuka; Kawashima, Junko; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2015-09-01

    Both Streptococcus and Actinomyces can produce acids from dietary sugars and are frequently found in caries lesions. In the oral cavity, nitrogenous compounds, such as peptides and amino acids, are provided continuously by saliva and crevicular gingival fluid. Given that these bacteria can also utilize nitrogen compounds for their growth, it was hypothesized that nitrogenous compounds may influence their acid production; however, no previous studies have examined this topic. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the effects of nitrogenous compounds (tryptone and glutamate) on glucose-derived acid production by Streptococcus and Actinomyces. Acid production was evaluated using a pH-stat method under anaerobic conditions, whereas the amounts of metabolic end-products were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography. Tryptone enhanced glucose-derived acid production by up to 2.68-fold, whereas glutamate enhanced Streptococcus species only. However, neither tryptone nor glutamate altered the end-product profiles, indicating that the nitrogenous compounds stimulate the whole metabolic pathways involving in acid production from glucose, but are not actively metabolized, nor do they alter metabolic pathways. These results suggest that nitrogenous compounds in the oral cavity promote acid production by Streptococcus and Actinomyces in vivo.

  17. Use of anesthesia dramatically alters the oral glucose tolerance and insulin secretion in C57Bl/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Windeløv, Johanne A; Pedersen, Jens; Holst, Jens J

    2016-06-01

    Evaluation of the impact of anesthesia on oral glucose tolerance in mice. Anesthesia is often used when performing OGTT in mice to avoid the stress of gavage and blood sampling, although anesthesia may influence gastrointestinal motility, blood glucose, and plasma insulin dynamics. C57Bl/6 mice were anesthetized using the following commonly used regimens: (1) hypnorm/midazolam repetitive or single injection; (2) ketamine/xylazine; (3) isoflurane; (4) pentobarbital; and (5) A saline injected, nonanesthetized group. Oral glucose was administered at time 0 min and blood glucose measured in the time frame -15 to +150 min. Plasma insulin concentration was measured at time 0 and 20 min. All four anesthetic regimens resulted in impaired glucose tolerance compared to saline/no anesthesia. (1) hypnorm/midazolam increased insulin concentrations and caused an altered glucose tolerance; (2) ketamine/xylazine lowered insulin responses and resulted in severe hyperglycemia throughout the experiment; (3) isoflurane did not only alter the insulin secretion but also resulted in severe hyperglycemia; (4) pentobarbital resulted in both increased insulin secretion and impaired glucose tolerance. All four anesthetic regimens altered the oral glucose tolerance, and we conclude that anesthesia should not be used when performing metabolic studies in mice. PMID:27255361

  18. Oral Administration of Collagen Hydrolysates Improves Glucose Tolerance in Normal Mice Through GLP-1-Dependent and GLP-1-Independent Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Iba, Yoshinori; Yokoi, Koji; Eitoku, Itsuka; Goto, Masaki; Koizumi, Seiko; Sugihara, Fumihito; Oyama, Hiroshi; Yoshimoto, Tadashi

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic properties of collagen hydrolysates (CHs). CHs exhibited dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitory activity and stimulated glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion in vitro. We also determined whether CHs improve glucose tolerance in normal mice. Oral administration of CHs suppressed the glycemic response during the oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests (OGTT and IPGTT), but the effects were weaker in IPGTT than in OGTT. CHs had no effect on the gastric emptying rate. A pretreatment with the GLP-1 receptor antagonist, exendin 9-39 (Ex9), partially reversed the glucose-lowering effects of CHs, but only when coadministered with glucose. CHs administered 45 min before the glucose load potentiated the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. This potentiating effect on insulin secretion was not reversed by the pretreatment with Ex9, it appeared to be enhanced. These results suggest that CHs improve glucose tolerance by inhibiting intestinal glucose uptake and enhancing insulin secretion, and also demonstrated that GLP-1 was partially involved in the inhibition of glucose uptake, but not essential for the enhancement of insulin secretion. PMID:27540823

  19. Plasma Lactate Levels Increase during Hyperinsulinemic Euglycemic Clamp and Oral Glucose Tolerance Test.

    PubMed

    Berhane, Feven; Fite, Alemu; Daboul, Nour; Al-Janabi, Wissam; Msallaty, Zaher; Caruso, Michael; Lewis, Monique K; Yi, Zhengping; Diamond, Michael P; Abou-Samra, Abdul-Badi; Seyoum, Berhane

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance, which plays a central role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D), is an early indicator that heralds the occurrence of T2D. It is imperative to understand the metabolic changes that occur at the cellular level in the early stages of insulin resistance. The objective of this study was to determine the pattern of circulating lactate levels during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (HIEC) study in normal nondiabetic subjects. Lactate and glycerol were determined every 30 minutes during OGTT and HIEC on 22 participants. Lactate progressively increased throughout the HIEC study period (P < 0.001). Participants with BMI < 30 had significantly higher mean M-values compared to those with BMI ≥ 30 at baseline (P < 0.05). This trend also continued throughout the OGTT. In addition, those with impaired glucose tolerance test (IGT) had significantly higher mean lactate levels compared to those with normal glucose tolerance (P < 0.001). In conclusion, we found that lactate increased during HIEC study, which is a state of hyperinsulinemia similar to the metabolic milieu seen during the early stages in the development of T2D. PMID:25961050

  20. [Role of classical oral glucose-lowering medications in current treatment].

    PubMed

    Carramiñana Barrera, F C

    2014-07-01

    Classical oral glucose were discovered in the mid twentieth century. Despite the time elapsed since then and the lack of large studies to support the use of some of these drugs, they continue to be employed, are indicated in all clinical practice guidelines and consensus documents and, overall, remain among the most widely prescribed drugs in the national health system. The main arguments for their continued use are their widespread and prolonged prescription, their effectiveness, and cost. Their main disadvantages have always been and continue to be their adverse gastrointestinal effects, weight gain, the risk of hypoglycemia and other adverse effects, which have encouraged the development of new glucose-lowering drugs with an improved pharmacological profile that would cover the various mechanisms of hyperglycemia. Currently, deep knowledge of glucose-lowering drugs is required in the patient-centered management of diabetes. Furthermore, this knowledge should be adapted to each individual patient to acquire the experience necessary to achieve effective metabolic control, delay the development of chronic complications, and improve the quality of life and life expectancy of patients with diabetes.

  1. Opuntia ficus-indica ingestion stimulates peripheral disposal of oral glucose before and after exercise in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Van Proeyen, Karen; Ramaekers, Monique; Pischel, Ivo; Hespel, Peter

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) cladode and fruit-skin extract on blood glucose and plasma insulin increments due to high-dose carbohydrate ingestion, before and after exercise. Healthy, physically active men (n = 6; 21.0 ± 1.6 years, 78.1 ± 6.0 kg) participated in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study involving 2 experimental sessions. In each session, the subjects successively underwent an oral glucose tolerance test at rest (OGTT(R)), a 30-min cycling bout at ~75% VO(2max), and another OGTT after exercise (OGTT(EX)). They received capsules containing either 1,000 mg OFI or placebo (PL) 30 min before and immediately after the OGTT(R). Blood samples were collected before (t₀) and at 30-min intervals after ingestion of 75 g glucose for determination of blood glucose and serum insulin. In OGTT(EX) an additional 75-g oral glucose bolus was administered at t₆₀. In OGTT(R), OFI administration reduced the area under the glucose curve (AUC(GLUC)) by 26%, mainly due to lower blood glucose levels at t₃₀ and t₆₀ (p < .05). Furthermore, a higher serum insulin concentration was noted after OFI intake at baseline and at t₃₀ (p < .05). In OGTT(EX), blood glucose at t₆₀ was ~10% lower in OFI than in PL, which resulted in a decreased AUC(GLUC) (-37%, p < .05). However, insulin values and AUC(INS) were not different between OFI and PL. In conclusion, the current study shows that OFI extract can increase plasma insulin and thereby facilitate the clearance of an oral glucose load from the circulation at rest and after endurance exercise in healthy men.

  2. Changes in plasma glucose in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats after oral administration of maple syrup.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Noriaki; Yamamoto, Tetsushi; Tanabe, Wataru; Ito, Yoshimasa; Kurabuchi, Satoshi; Mitamura, Kuniko; Taga, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    We investigate whether maple syrup is a suitable sweetener in the management of type 2 diabetes using the Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat. The enhancement in plasma glucose (PG) and glucose absorption in the small intestine were lower after the oral administration of maple syrup than after sucrose administration in OLETF rats, and no significant differences were observed in insulin levels. These data suggested that maple syrup might inhibit the absorption of glucose from the small intestine and preventing the enhancement of PG in OLETF rats. Therefore, maple syrup might help in the prevention of type 2 diabetes.

  3. Insulin resistance in the oral glucose tolerance test--a link with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Cederholm, J; Wibell, L

    1991-03-01

    Insulin resistance was evaluated in 807 middle-aged subjects at a health survey, with use of an index measured in 75 g oral glucose tolerance tests. The mean value of insulin resistance was higher in a hypertensive group than among the normotensives, independent of body mass index, physical activity, smoking sex, age, and thiazide treatment. One-third of the hypertensives had a high resistance value. Another third of the hypertensives, and also about one-third of the normotensives, had a slightly increased resistance. The remaining third of the hypertensives had a normal-low resistance. A high resistance was also independently related to obesity, low physical leisure time activity, and a family history of NIDDM, but not to a family history of hypertension. The statistical analysis implied a sequence of events: low physical activity might cause high resistance, which in turn might cause high blood pressure.

  4. Effects of oral glucose on exercise thermoregulation in men after water immersion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dearborn, Alan S.; Ertl, Andrew C.; Greenleaf, John E.; Barnes, Paul R.; Jackson, Catherine G. R.; Breckler, Jennifer L.

    1994-01-01

    To test the hypothesis elevated blood glucose would attenuate the rise in exercise rectal temperature, six men age 35 plus or minus S.D. 7 years participated in each of three trials by 4-hr water immersion to the neck: (1) 2.0 g/kg body wt of oral glucose (33.8 percent wt./vol.) was consumed followed by 80 min controlled rest (Glu/Rest), and 70 min horizontal supine cycle exercise at 62.8 percent plus or minus S.E. 0.5 percent (1.97 plus or minus 0.02 L/min) of peak O2 uptake followed by 10 min recovery (2) with (Glu/Ex) and (3) without prior flucose (No Glu/Ex). Blood samples were taken at -25, 0, 15, 45, and 68 min of exercise and after plus 10 min of recovery for measurement of hemoglobin, hematocrit, and blood glucose. Both mean skin (T sub sk) (from six sites) and rectal temperatures (T sub re) were monitored continuously. Sweat rate was measured by resistanc hygrometry. The mean of delta PV for the exercise trials was -12.2 plus or minus 2.1 percent. Mean blood glucose for the Glu/Ex trial was higher than that of the No Glu/Ex trial was (108.4 equal or minus 3.9 and 85.6 plus or minus 1.6 mg/dl, respectively, P less than 0.05. At the end of exercise T(sub sk) for the Glu/Ex trial was lower than for No Glu/Ex(32.0 plus or minus 0.3 and 32.4 equals or minus 0.2 C, respectively, P less than 0.05); T(sub re) for the Glu/Ex trial was lower than for No Glu/Es (38.22 plus or minus 0.17 and 38.60 plus or minus 0.11 C, respectively, P less than 0.05); and forearm sweat rate for the Glu/Ex trial (0.34 plus or minus 0.04 and 0.43 plus or minus g/sq cm, respectively, P less than 0.05). These data suggest that elevation of blood glucose prior to horizontal exercise following hypohydration attenuates the increase in body temperature without altering heat production or exercise hypovolemia.

  5. Fructose- and glucose-conditioned preferences in FVB mice: strain differences in post-oral sugar appetition.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, Anthony; Zukerman, Steven; Ackroff, Karen

    2014-12-15

    Recent studies indicate that, unlike glucose, fructose has little or no post-oral preference conditioning actions in C57BL/6J (B6) mice. The present study determined whether this is also the case for FVB mice, which overconsume fructose relative to B6 mice. In experiment 1, FVB mice strongly preferred a noncaloric 0.1% sucralose + 0.1% saccharin (S+S) solution to 8% fructose in a 2-day choice test but switched their preference to fructose after separate experience with the two sweeteners. Other FVB mice displayed a stronger preference for 8% glucose over S+S. In a second experiment, ad libitum-fed FVB mice trained 24 h/day acquired a significant preference for a flavor (CS+) paired with intragastric (IG) self-infusions of 16% fructose over a different flavor (CS-) paired with IG water infusions. IG fructose infusions also conditioned flavor preferences in food-restricted FVB mice trained 1 h/day. IG infusions of 16% glucose conditioned stronger preferences in FVB mice trained 24- or 1 h/day. Thus, fructose has post-oral flavor conditioning effects in FVB mice, but these effects are less pronounced than those produced by glucose. Further studies of the differential post-oral conditioning effects of fructose and glucose in B6 and FVB mice should enhance our understanding of the physiological processes involved in sugar reward.

  6. Identification of Differential Responses to an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Ciara; O’Grada, Colm; Ryan, Miriam; Roche, Helen M.; Gibney, Michael J.; Gibney, Eileen R.; Brennan, Lorraine

    2013-01-01

    Background In recent years an individual’s ability to respond to an acute dietary challenge has emerged as a measure of their biological flexibility. Analysis of such responses has been proposed to be an indicator of health status. However, for this to be fully realised further work on differential responses to nutritional challenge is needed. This study examined whether metabolic phenotyping could identify differential responders to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and examined the phenotypic basis of the response. Methods and Results A total of 214 individuals were recruited and underwent challenge tests in the form of an OGTT and an oral lipid tolerance test (OLTT). Detailed biochemical parameters, body composition and fitness tests were recorded. Mixed model clustering was employed to define 4 metabotypes consisting of 4 different responses to an OGTT. Cluster 1 was of particular interest, with this metabotype having the highest BMI, triacylglycerol, hsCRP, c-peptide, insulin and HOMA- IR score and lowest VO2max. Cluster 1 had a reduced beta cell function and a differential response to insulin and c-peptide during an OGTT. Additionally, cluster 1 displayed a differential response to the OLTT. Conclusions This work demonstrated that there were four distinct metabolic responses to the OGTT. Classification of subjects based on their response curves revealed an “at risk” metabolic phenotype. PMID:23991163

  7. Effects of three day bed-rest on circulatory, metabolic and hormonal responses to oral glucose load in endurance trained athletes and untrained subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smorawinski, J.; Kubala, P.; Kaciuba-Uociako, H.; Nazar, K.; Titow-Stupnicka, E.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1996-01-01

    Endurance trained long distance runners and untrained individuals underwent three days of bed rest and oral glucose loading. Before and after bed rest, individuals were given glucose tolerance tests, and their heart rates, blood pressure, blood glucose levels, insulin levels, and catecholamine interactions were measured. Results indicated that glucose tolerance is more affected by bed rest-induced deconditioning in untrained individuals than in trained individuals.

  8. Glucose-induced incretin hormone release and inactivation are differently modulated by oral fat and protein in mice.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsson, P Thomas; Winzell, Maria Sörhede; Deacon, Carolyn F; Larsen, Marianne O; Jelic, Katarina; Carr, Richard D; Ahrén, Bo

    2006-07-01

    Monounsaturated fatty acids, such as oleic acid (OA), and certain milk proteins, especially whey protein (WP), have insulinotropic effects and can reduce postprandial glycemia. This effect may involve the incretin hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). To explore this, we examined the release and inactivation of GIP and GLP-1 after administration of glucose with or without OA or WP through gastric gavage in anesthetized C57BL/6J mice. Insulin responses to glucose (75 mg) were 3-fold augmented by addition of WP (75 mg; P < 0.01), which was associated with enhanced oral glucose tolerance (P < 0.01). The insulin response to glucose was also augmented by addition of OA (34 mg; P < 0.05) although only 1.5-fold and with no associated increase in glucose elimination. The slope of the glucose-insulin curve was increased by OA (1.7-fold; P < 0.05) and by WP (4-fold; P < 0.01) compared with glucose alone, suggesting potentiation of glucose-stimulated insulin release. WP increased GLP-1 secretion (P < 0.01), whereas GIP secretion was unaffected. OA did not affect GIP or GLP-1 secretion. Nevertheless, WP increased the levels of both intact GIP and intact GLP-1 (both P < 0.01), and OA increased the levels of intact GLP-1 (P < 0.05). WP inhibited dipeptidyl peptidase IV activity in the proximal small intestine by 50% (P < 0.05), suggesting that luminal degradation of WP generates small fragments, which are substrates for dipeptidyl peptidase IV and act as competitive inhibitors. We therefore conclude that fat and protein may serve as exogenous regulators of secretion and inactivation of the incretin hormones with beneficial influences on glucose metabolism.

  9. Mild insulin resistance during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in women with acne.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, H; Niimura, M

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate serum levels of basal insulin and glucose-stimulated insulin, and to evaluate their correlations with androgen levels in women with acne. Serum levels of total testosterone (T), free testosterone (FT), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IFG-1), and immunoreactive insulin (IRI) were measured and compared in thirty women with moderate or severe acne and thirteen healthy controls. Serum FT, DHT and DHEA-S levels in the acne group were significantly higher than those in the control group. In the acne group, there were no significant correlations between insulin or IGF-1 levels and T, FT, DHT and SHBG, despite the positive correlation between insulin and IGF-1. In order to determine the effects of insulin secretion as a dynamic response to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) on serum androgen levels in acne patients, we examined the responses of serum insulin and androgen levels to a 75 g, 2 hour OGTT in the acne group and in the control group. Basal insulin levels were not significantly higher than those in the control group, but the summed insulin levels during the OGTT in the acne group were significantly higher than those in the control group. Serum T and FT levels in the acne group decreased during the OGTT, but these changes were not so significant when compared to normal controls. In conclusion, we tried to demonstrate mild insulin resistance during the OGTT in acne patients. However, postmeal transient hyperinsulinemia does not seem to play an important role in determining hyperandrogenemia in acne patients. PMID:8854583

  10. Pre-Type 1 Diabetes Dysmetabolism: Maximal sensitivity achieved with Both Oral and Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Testing

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Jennifer M.; McFann, Kim; Harrison, Leonard C.; Fourlanos, Spiros; Krischer, Jeffrey; Cuthbertson, David; Chase, H. Peter; Eisenbarth, George S.; Group, the DPT-1 Study

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship of intravenous (IVGTT) and oral (OGTT) glucose tolerance tests abnormalities to diabetes development in a high-risk pre-diabetic cohort and identify an optimal testing strategy for detecting pre-clinical diabetes. Study design Diabetes Prevention Trial Type 1 randomized subjects to oral (n=372) and parenteral (n=339) insulin prevention trials. Subjects were followed with IVGTTs and OGTTs. Factors associated with progression to diabetes were evaluated. Results Survival analysis revealed that higher quartiles of 2-hour glucose and lower quartiles of FPIR at baseline were associated with decreased diabetes-free survival. Cox proportional hazards modeling showed that baseline BMI, FPIR and 2-hour glucose levels were significantly associated with an increased hazard for diabetes. On testing performed within 6 months of diabetes diagnosis, 3% (1/32) had normal first phase insulin response (FPIR) and normal 2-hour glucose on OGTT. The sensitivities for impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and low FPIR performed within 6 months of diabetes diagnosis were equivalent (76% vs. 73%). Conclusions Most (97%) subjects had abnormal IVGTTs and/or OGTTs prior to the development of diabetes. The highest sensitivity is achieved using both tests. PMID:17188609

  11. Novel Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Analog Delivered Orally Reduces Postprandial Glucose Excursions in Porcine and Canine Models

    PubMed Central

    Eldor, Roy; Kidron, Miriam; Greenberg-Shushlav, Yael; Arbit, Ehud

    2010-01-01

    Background Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and its analogs are associated with a gamut of physiological processes, including induction of insulin release, support of normoglycemia, β-cell function preservation, improved lipid profiles, and increased insulin sensitivity. Thus, GLP-1 harbors significant therapeutic potential for regulating type 2 diabetes mellitus, where its physiological impact is markedly impaired. To date, GLP-1 analogs are only available as injectable dosage forms, and its oral delivery is expected to provide physiological portal/peripheral concentration ratios while fostering patient compliance and adherence. Methods Healthy, fasting, enterically cannulated pigs and beagle canines were administered a single dose of the exenatide-based ORMD-0901 formulation 30 min before oral glucose challenges. Blood samples were collected every 15 min for evaluation of ORMD-0901 safety and efficacy in regulating postchallenge glucose excursions. Results Enterically delivered ORMD-0901 was well tolerated by all animals. ORMD-0901 formulations RG3 and AG2 led to reduced glucose excursions in pigs when delivered prior to a 5 g/kg glucose challenge, where area under the curve (AUC)0–120 values were up to 43% lower than in control sessions. All canines challenged with a glucose load with no prior exposure to exenatide, demonstrated higher AUC0–150 values than in their exenatide-treated sessions. Subcutaneous exenatide delivery amounted to a 51% reduction in mean glucose AUC0–150, while formulations AG4 and AG3 prompted 43% and 29% reductions, respectively. Conclusions When delivered enterically, GLP-1 (ORMD-0901) is absorbed from the canine and porcine gastrointestinal tracts and retains its biological activity. Further development of this drug class in an oral dosage form is expected to enhance diabetes control and patient compliance. PMID:21129350

  12. Lead, cadmium and aluminum in Canadian infant formulae, oral electrolytes and glucose solutions

    PubMed Central

    Dabeka, Robert; Fouquet, Andre; Belisle, Stephane; Turcotte, Stephane

    2011-01-01

    Lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and aluminum (Al) were determined in 437 individual samples of infant formulae, oral electrolytes and 5% glucose solutions available in Canada. In the electrolytes, Cd and Pb concentrations were all below 0.01 and 0.041 ng g−1, respectively. In the 5% glucose solutions, Pb and Cd levels averaged 0.01 and 0.09 ng g−1, respectively. Reported on an as-consumed basis, Pb levels in milk- and soya-based formulae averaged 0.90 and 1.45 ng g−1, respectively, while Cd levels averaged 0.23 and 1.18 ng g−1, respectively Average Al levels on an as-consumed basis were 440 ng g−1 (range 10–3400 ng g−1) in milk-based formulae and 730 ng g−1 (range 230–1100 ng g−1) in soy-based formulae. Al concentrations increased in the following order: plain formula < low-iron formula < iron-supplemented formula < casein hydrolysate formula ≈ premature formula ≤ soy formula. For example, in the powdered formulae, average Al concentrations were 18 ng g−1 for plain milk-based, 37 ng g−1 for low-iron, 128 ng g−1 for iron supplemented, 462 ng g−1 for lactose-free, 518 ng g−1 for hypoallergenic and 619 ng g−1 for soy-based formula. Al concentrations, as-consumed, increased with decreasing levels of concentration: powder < concentrated liquid < ready-to-use. Formulae stored in glass bottles contained between 100 and 300 ng g−1 more Al than the same formulae stored in cans. The source of the increased Al did not appear to be the glass itself, because most electrolytes and glucose solutions, also stored in glass, contained less than 8 ng g−1 Al. Corresponding differences in Pb and Cd levels were not observed. Al concentrations varied substantially among manufacturers; however, all manufacturers were able to produce plain milk-based formulae containing less than 50 ng g−1 Al, i.e. within the range of Al concentrations found in human milk. Next to soya-based and hypoallergenic formulae, premature formulae contained among the highest

  13. Return for Postpartum Oral Glucose Tolerance Test Following Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Mohd Suan, Mohd Azri

    2015-09-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence and characteristics of women who received a postpartum oral glucose tolerance test and to examine barriers as reported by women who failed to return for the test. Data were collected using a mobile phone-based short messaging service. Only 352 (81.9%) women returned for the test. Women who failed to return for the test were younger (30.1 vs 32.1, P = .003) and did not have a previous history of gestational diabetes (93.6% vs 84.9%, P = .043) compared to women who returned for the test. The commonest reasons given for not returning for the test was "Still waiting for the appointment date for the test" (37.2%), "had family/health problems" (11.5%), and "busy/no time" (10.3%). Flexible time for the test, active involvement from health care staff, and strengthening continuous care system were among the interventions needed to improve the return rate for this screening test.

  14. Return for Postpartum Oral Glucose Tolerance Test Following Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Mohd Suan, Mohd Azri

    2015-09-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence and characteristics of women who received a postpartum oral glucose tolerance test and to examine barriers as reported by women who failed to return for the test. Data were collected using a mobile phone-based short messaging service. Only 352 (81.9%) women returned for the test. Women who failed to return for the test were younger (30.1 vs 32.1, P = .003) and did not have a previous history of gestational diabetes (93.6% vs 84.9%, P = .043) compared to women who returned for the test. The commonest reasons given for not returning for the test was "Still waiting for the appointment date for the test" (37.2%), "had family/health problems" (11.5%), and "busy/no time" (10.3%). Flexible time for the test, active involvement from health care staff, and strengthening continuous care system were among the interventions needed to improve the return rate for this screening test. PMID:26041835

  15. Detecting Prediabetes and Diabetes: Agreement between Fasting Plasma Glucose and Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Thai Adults

    PubMed Central

    Aekplakorn, Wichai; Tantayotai, Valla; Numsangkul, Sakawduan; Sripho, Wilarwan; Tatsato, Nutchanat; Burapasiriwat, Tuanjai; Pipatsart, Rachada; Sansom, Premsuree; Luckanajantachote, Pranee; Chawarokorn, Pongpat; Thanonghan, Anek; Lakhamkaew, Watchira; Mungkung, Aungsumalin; Boonkean, Rungnapa; Chantapoon, Chanidsa; Kungsri, Mayuree; Luanseng, Kasetsak; Chaiyajit, Kornsinun

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate an agreement in identifying dysglycemia between fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and the 2 hr postprandial glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in a population with high risk of diabetes. Methods. A total of 6,884 individuals aged 35–65 years recruited for a community-based diabetes prevention program were tested for prediabetes including impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and diabetes. The agreement was assessed by Kappa statistics. Logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with missed prediabetes and diabetes by FPG. Results. A total of 2671 (38.8%) individuals with prediabetes were identified. The prevalence of prediabetes identified by FPG and OGTT was 32.2% and 22.3%, respectively. The proportions of diabetes classified by OGTT were two times higher than those identified by FPG (11.0% versus 5.4%, resp.). The Kappa statistics for agreement of both tests was 0.55. Overall, FPG missed 46.3% of all prediabetes and 54.7% of all diabetes cases. Prediabetes was more likely to be missed by FPG among female, people aged <45 yrs, and those without family history of diabetes. Conclusion. The detection of prediabetes and diabetes using FPG only may miss half of the cases. Benefit of adding OGTT to FPG in some specific groups should be confirmed. PMID:26347060

  16. Interstitial lactate levels in human skin at rest and during an oral glucose load: a microdialysis study.

    PubMed

    Petersen, L J

    1999-05-01

    In vitro data have suggested that the skin is a significant lactate source. The purpose of the present study was to measure lactate and glucose concentrations in intact human skin in vivo using the microdialysis technique. Microdialysis fibres of 216 microns were inserted intradermally and perfused at a rate of 3 microliters min-1. In the first experimental protocol, dialysis fibres were calibrated by the method of no net flux in eight subjects. Skin lactate concentrations of 2.48 +/- 0.17 mmol l-1 were significantly greater than lactate concentrations of 0.84 +/- 0.15 mmol l-1 in venous plasma (P < 0.01). Glucose concentrations in skin and venous plasma were similar (5.49 +/- 0.18 vs. 5.26 +/- 0.24 mmol l-1). In the second experimental protocol, changes in lactate and glucose levels were studied in 10 subjects after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). After the OGTT, plasma glucose and lactate levels increased by 54% and 39% to peak levels at 30 and 60 min respectively. In comparison, skin glucose and lactate increased by 41% and 18% at 60 and 90 min. No changes in skin blood flow were observed during the OGTT. The data suggest that resting skin is a significant lactate source with no significant lactate production during OGTT. The cellular source of lactate in the skin remains undetermined to date.

  17. Development and assessment of the disposition index based on the oral glucose tolerance test in subjects with different glycaemic status.

    PubMed

    Santos, J L; Yévenes, I; Cataldo, L R; Morales, M; Galgani, J; Arancibia, C; Vega, J; Olmos, P; Flores, M; Valderas, J P; Pollak, F

    2016-06-01

    Insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity indexes are related by hyperbolic functions, allowing the calculation of the disposition index (DI) as the product of the acute insulin response (AIR) and the insulin sensitivity index (Si) from intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT). Our objective was to develop an oral-DI based on the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and to assess its association with glucose tolerance status. This research is structured in three studies. Study 1: OGTT were performed in 833 non-diabetic Chilean women (18-60 years) without family history of diabetes mellitus. Study 2: an independent group of n = 57 non-diabetic (18-46 years) without family history of diabetes mellitus carried out an OGTT and an abbreviated IVGTT. Study 3: a sample of 1674 Chilean adults (18-60 years) with different glycaemic status performed an OGTT. An adequate statistical fit for a rectangular hyperbola was found between the area under the curve of insulin-to-glucose ratio (AUCI/G-R) and the Matsuda ISI-COMP index (study 1). The oral-DI derived as AUCI/G-R × ISI-COMP was previously termed insulin-secretion-sensitivity index-2 (ISSI-2). ISSI-2 significantly correlated with DI from IVGTT (rho = 0.34; p = 0.009) (study 2). ISSI-2 shows important differences across groups of subjects with different glycaemic status (study 3). We have confirmed that ISSI-2 replicates the mathematical properties of DI, showing significant correlations with DI from the abbreviated MM-IVGTT. These results indicate that ISSI-2 constitutes a surrogate measure of insulin secretion relative to insulin sensitivity and emphasizes the pivotal role of impaired insulin secretion in the development of glucose homeostasis dysregulation.

  18. Are the WHO (1980) criteria for the 75 g oral glucose tolerance test appropriate for pregnant women?

    PubMed

    Cheng, L C; Salmon, Y M

    1993-07-01

    To assess the normal response to the 75 gm oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in normal pregnant women, healthy Chinese and Malay women who had been referred to the antenatal clinic of the Department of Reproductive Medicine, Kandang Kerbau Hospital, Singapore, were evaluated. The women were selected on the basis of having none of the generally accepted risk factors for diabetes mellitus: their age was 35 years, they weighed 80 kg, they did not have a personal history of diabetes or a family history of diabetes or a family history of diabetes in first degree relatives, nor did they have a history of babies weighing 4000 gm at birth, still-births, neonatal deaths, congenital malformations, or recurrent miscarriages. All OGTTs were performed after 28 weeks of gestation. The fasting blood sample was taken from the antecubital vein. Further samples were taken 1 and 2 hours after the glucose drink. A glucose analyzer using 5 mcl of plasma was employed. The analytical method was based on the glucose oxidase/peroxidase/aminophenazone process. There was no significant difference in mean glucose levels at corresponding points of the OGTT in Chinese and Malay women. correlation calculations confirmed the absence of any influence of gestational age after 28 weeks on glucose tolerance. Of the 64 women, 47 were Chinese and 17 Malays; 20 wee nulliparous, and 44 were parous. Their mean age was 27.2 years (range 18-35). The mean birthweight of the infants was 3140 gm (range 2094-4240 gm). There were 33 female and 31 male infants. The mean apgar scores at 1 and 5 min were 8.8 (range 7-9) and 9.0 (range 6-10). The mean values and the proposed upper limits of normality for the 75 gm OGTT were 3.9 and 4.9 mmol/1, respectively. 6 women had abnormal OGTT results according to the WHO criteria (fasting glucose 6 mmol/1; 2 hour glucose 8 mmol/1).

  19. Assessment of incretins in oral glucose and lipid tolerance tests may be indicative in the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome aggravation.

    PubMed

    Kiec-Klimczak, M; Malczewska-Malec, M; Razny, U; Zdzienicka, A; Gruca, A; Goralska, J; Pach, D; Gilis-Januszewska, A; Dembinska-Kiec, A; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, A

    2016-04-01

    Incretins stimulated by oral meals are claimed to be protective for the pancreatic beta cells, to increase insulin secretion, to inhibit glucagon release, slow gastric emptying (glucagon-like peptide-1) and suppress appetite. Recently it has however been suggested that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is putative early biomarker of metabolic consequences of the obesity associated proinflammatory state. The study was aimed to compare the release of incretins and some of early markers of inflammation at the fasting and postprandial period induced by functional oral glucose as well as lipid load in healthy controls and patients with metabolic syndrome (MS) to see if functional tests may be helpful in searching for the inflammatory status of patients. Fifty patients with MS and 20 healthy volunteers (C) participated in this study. The 3-hour oral glucose (OGTT) and the 8-hour oral lipid (OLTT) tolerance tests were performed. At fasting leptin and adiponectin, as well as every 30 minutes of OGTT and every 2 hours of OLTT blood concentration of GLP-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucose, insulin, triglycerides, free fatty acids, glutathione peroxidase, interleukin-6, sE-selectin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP1) and visfatin were measured. At fasting and during both OGTT and OLTT the level of incretins did not differ between the MS and the C group. Both glucose and lipids reach food activated incretins secretion. Glucose was the main GLP-1 release activator, while the lipid load activated evidently GIP secretion. A significantly larger AUC-GIP after the lipid-rich meal over the carbohydrate meal was observed, while statistically bigger value of AUC-GLP-1 was noticed in OGTT than in OLTT (P < 0.001) within each of the investigated groups. In patients with the highest fasting plasma GIP concentration (3(rd) tertile), IL-6, MCP-1, sE-selectin and visfatin blood levels were increased and correlated with glutathione peroxydase, leptin

  20. A Randomized Clinical Trial of an Intensive Behavior Education Program in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Women Designed to Improve Glucose Levels on the 2-Hour Oral Glucose Tolerance Test.

    PubMed

    Durnwald, Celeste P; Kallan, Michael J; Allison, Kelly C; Sammel, Mary D; Wisch, Susan; Elovitz, Michal; Parry, Samuel

    2016-10-01

    Objective To evaluate whether women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) enrolled in an intensive behavior education program (IBEP) demonstrate lower mean fasting glucose levels on the 2-hour 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (2-hour OGTT) at 6 to 12 weeks postpartum compared with women who undergo routine GDM management. Study Design A prospective randomized controlled trial of women diagnosed with GDM was conducted. Exclusion criteria were GDM diagnosis ≥ 33 weeks or < 20 weeks. Women were randomly assigned to one of two treatment arms: (1) routine GDM management or (2) an IBEP. Women underwent a 2-hour OGTT at 6 to 12 weeks postpartum. Fisher exact test, t-test, and Wilcoxon rank sum test were used as appropriate. Results Of the 101 women randomized, 49 were assigned to IBEP and 52 received routine GDM management. There was no difference in mean fasting and 2-hour glucose levels on the postpartum 2-hour OGTT between the IBEP and routine management group (88.5 ± 22.9 mg/dL vs. 85.2 ± 13.3 mg/dL, p = 0.49 and 109.8 ± 38.5 mg/dL vs. 109.4 ± 40.8 mg/dL, p = 0.97, respectively). Conclusion GDM women enrolled in a healthy lifestyle intervention program did not demonstrate lower glucose values on the postpartum 2-hour OGTT.

  1. Comparison of glycosylated hemoglobin with the oral glucose tolerance test. A study in subjects with normoglycemia, glucose intolerance and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Cederholm, J; Ronquist, G; Wibell, L

    1984-10-01

    At a health survey of 819 subjects, 47-54 years old, the rate of glucose intolerance (GI) was 6.2% (51 subjects) according to 75 g oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) and WHO criteria. In GI-subjects, the mean HbA1 was 7.3% (10th-90th percentile range 6.2-8.3%), and significantly higher than the mean HbA1 in 150 subjects with normal OGTT, which was 6.5% (10th-90th percentile range 5.7-7.4%). With an upper normal limit of 7.8% (mean + 2 SD) only 20% of all GI-subjects had a raised HbA1. The differences between 31 GI-subjects, with low HbA1 (mean 6.9%), and 20 GI-subjects, with relatively high HbA1 (mean 7.9%), were not significant with respect to fasting and 2-hour blood glucose, area under glucose curve, body mass index, index of physical activity, rate of hypertension or rate of first degree relatives with diabetes. In an unselected group of 157 subjects, sampled consecutively during the first part of the survey, the mean HbA1 was 6.6% (10th-90th percentile range 5.8-7.5 %) 150 subjects were those with normal OGTT, 6 subjects had GI and only one subject had previously unknown diabetes. No distinct correlations between HbA1 and OGTT fasting or 2 hour values were found in this sample. No correlation was found within the separate groups of 51 GI-subjects and 150 normal subjects.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Short-Term Regulation of Lipocalin-2 but not RBP-4 During Oral Lipid Tolerance Test and Oral Glucose Tolerance Test.

    PubMed

    Schmid, A; Leszczak, S; Ober, I; Schäffler, A; Karrasch, T

    2016-02-01

    The postprandial regulation of lipocalin-2 and retinol binding protein-4 (RBP-4) by oral uptake of lipids and carbohydrates in healthy individuals has not yet been investigated. The regulation of lipocalin-2 and RBP-4 in 2 large cohorts of healthy volunteers during oral lipid tolerance test (OLTT; n=100) and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; n=100) was analyzed. One hundred healthy volunteers underwent OLTT and OGTT in an outpatient setting. Venous blood was drawn after 0, 2, 4, and 6 h in OLTT and after 0, 1, and 2 h in OGTT. In order to dissect carbohydrate-induced from lipid-induced effects, a novel OLTT solution completely free of carbohydrates and protein was applied. Subjects were characterized by anthropometric and laboratory parameters. Serum concentrations of lipocalin-2 and RBP-4 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Whereas RBP-4 levels remained unchanged during OGTT, lipocalin-2 concentrations significantly decreased during OGTT. During OLTT, RBP-4 levels were not influenced, whereas lipocalin-2 levels decreased significantly and stepwise. Fasting concentrations of RBP-4 were negatively correlated with BMI and waist-hip ratio, whereas lipocalin-2 levels were positively associated with BMI and waist-hip ratio. Female users of hormonal contraception had higher RBP-4 levels than females not on contraceptives. There is no significant short-term regulation of RBP-4 by orally ingested lipids or carbohydrates. Lipocalin-2 is downregulated after lipid and carbohydrate ingestion and this kind of regulation was not predicted by age, sex, triglycerides, glucose, or insulin levels. PMID:26069091

  3. Breed differences in insulin sensitivity and insulinemic responses to oral glucose in horses and ponies of moderate body condition score.

    PubMed

    Bamford, N J; Potter, S J; Harris, P A; Bailey, S R

    2014-04-01

    Breed-related differences may occur in the innate insulin sensitivity (SI) of horses and ponies, an important factor believed to be associated with the risk of laminitis. The aim of this study was to measure the glucose and insulin responses of different breeds of horses and ponies in moderate body condition to a glucose-containing meal and to compare these responses with the indices of SI as determined by a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGT). Eight Standardbred horses, 8 mixed-breed ponies, and 7 Andalusian-cross horses with a mean ± SEM BCS 5.0 ± 0.3 of 9 were used in this study. Each animal underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in which they were fed a fiber-based ration (2.0 g/kg BW) containing 1.5 g/kg BW added glucose, as well as a standard FSIGT with minimal model analysis. The glucose response variables from the OGTT were similar between groups; however, the peak insulin concentration was higher in ponies (94.1 ± 29.1 μIU/mL; P = 0.003) and Andalusians (85.3 ± 18.6; P = 0.004) than in Standardbreds (21.2 ± 3.5). The insulin area under the curve was also higher in ponies (13.5 ± 3.6 IU · min · L(-1); P = 0.009) and Andalusians (15.0 ± 2.7; P = 0.004) than in Standardbreds (3.1 ± 0.6). Insulin sensitivity, as determined by the FSIGT, was lower in Andalusians (0.99 ± 0.18 × 10(-4)/[mIU · min]) than in Standardbreds (5.43 ± 0.94; P < 0.001) and in ponies (2.12 ± 0.44; P = 0.003) than in Standardbreds. Peak insulin concentrations from the OGTT were negatively correlated with SI (P < 0.001; rs = -0.75). These results indicate that there are clear breed-related differences in the insulin responses of horses and ponies to oral and intravenous glucose. All animals were in moderate body condition, indicating that breed-related differences in insulin dynamics occurred independent of obesity. PMID:24308928

  4. Plasma glucose and insulin response to two oral nutrition supplements in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Huhmann, Maureen B; Smith, Kristen N; Schwartz, Sherwyn L; Haller, Stacie K; Irvin, Sarah; Cohen, Sarah S

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this clinical trial was to compare the glucose usage of two oral nutritional supplement (ONS) products and to assess whether a diabetes-specific formulation provides improved glucose stabilization and management compared with a standard formula. Research design and methods A total of 12 subjects with type 2 diabetes (7 males and 5 females) completed a randomized, cross-over design trial. Each subject consumed isocaloric amounts of either the standard ONS or the diabetes-specific formula ONS on different dates, 1 week apart. Glucose and insulin measures were recorded at baseline, and 10, 20, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210 and 240 min after the beverage was consumed and then used to calculate area under the curve (AUC) for each subject. Results The mean glucose AUC was lower in the diabetes-specific ONS group than in the standard group (p<0.0001), but there was not a significant difference observed for mean insulin AUC (p=0.068). A sensitivity analysis of the mean insulin AUC measures was performed by removing a potential outlier from the analysis, and this resulted in a significant difference between the groups (p=0.012). First-phase insulin measures and an insulinogenic index calculated for the beverages showed no significant differences. Conclusions On the basis of the results of this trial of 12 subjects, the diabetes-specific ONS appears to provide better glucose maintenance in persons with type 2 diabetes when compared to the standard formula ONS. Trial registration number NCT02612675. PMID:27648290

  5. Plasma glucose and insulin response to two oral nutrition supplements in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Huhmann, Maureen B; Smith, Kristen N; Schwartz, Sherwyn L; Haller, Stacie K; Irvin, Sarah; Cohen, Sarah S

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this clinical trial was to compare the glucose usage of two oral nutritional supplement (ONS) products and to assess whether a diabetes-specific formulation provides improved glucose stabilization and management compared with a standard formula. Research design and methods A total of 12 subjects with type 2 diabetes (7 males and 5 females) completed a randomized, cross-over design trial. Each subject consumed isocaloric amounts of either the standard ONS or the diabetes-specific formula ONS on different dates, 1 week apart. Glucose and insulin measures were recorded at baseline, and 10, 20, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210 and 240 min after the beverage was consumed and then used to calculate area under the curve (AUC) for each subject. Results The mean glucose AUC was lower in the diabetes-specific ONS group than in the standard group (p<0.0001), but there was not a significant difference observed for mean insulin AUC (p=0.068). A sensitivity analysis of the mean insulin AUC measures was performed by removing a potential outlier from the analysis, and this resulted in a significant difference between the groups (p=0.012). First-phase insulin measures and an insulinogenic index calculated for the beverages showed no significant differences. Conclusions On the basis of the results of this trial of 12 subjects, the diabetes-specific ONS appears to provide better glucose maintenance in persons with type 2 diabetes when compared to the standard formula ONS. Trial registration number NCT02612675.

  6. An inverse U-shaped association of late and peak insulin levels during an oral glucose load with glucose intolerance in a Japanese population: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Takahara, Mitsuyoshi; Katakami, Naoto; Matsuoka, Taka-Aki; Noguchi, Midori; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated the association of post-load insulin levels with glucose tolerance in a Japanese population. A total of 1450 Japanese employees who underwent a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were included. Glucose tolerance was assessed by 120-min glucose levels during a 75-g OGTT. A penalized cubic regression spline model analysis revealed that the 60- and 120-min insulin levels, but not 0- or 30-min insulin levels, had an inverse U-shaped relationship to the 120-min glucose level. Furthermore, peak insulin level followed an inverse U shape in relation to the 120-min glucose level, whereas the peak of insulin appeared at a later point in time as the 120-min glucose level increased. These associations were similarly observed in both obese and non-obese subgroups, although obesity was associated with higher insulin levels. Peak insulin levels also demonstrated an inverse U shape in association with 0-min glucose levels and indices of β cell function, assessed by the disposition index and the β-cell function index. In conclusion, peak insulin levels followed an inverse U shape in relation to glucose intolerance in a Japanese population, whereas the impairment of glucose tolerance was associated with a delay in the time to reach peak insulin levels.

  7. Modeling insulin kinetics: responses to a single oral glucose administration or ambulatory-fed conditions.

    PubMed

    Lenbury, Y; Ruktamatakul, S; Amornsamarnkul, S

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a nonlinear mathematical model of the glucose-insulin feedback system, which has been extended to incorporate the beta-cells' function on maintaining and regulating plasma insulin level in man. Initially, a gastrointestinal absorption term for glucose is utilized to effect the glucose absorption by the intestine and the subsequent release of glucose into the bloodstream, taking place at a given initial rate and falling off exponentially with time. An analysis of the model is carried out by the singular perturbation technique in order to derive boundary conditions on the system parameters which identify, in particular, the existence of limit cycles in our model system consistent with the oscillatory patterns often observed in clinical data. We then utilize a sinusoidal term to incorporate the temporal absorption of glucose in order to study the responses in the patients under ambulatory-fed conditions. A numerical investigation is carried out in this case to construct a bifurcation diagram to identify the ranges of parametric values for which chaotic behavior can be expected, leading to interesting biological interpretations. PMID:11226623

  8. Oral vanadate and Tiron in treatment of diabetes mellitus in rats: improvement of glucose homeostasis and negative side-effects.

    PubMed

    Domingo, J L; Sanchez, D J; Gomez, M; Llobet, J M; Corbella, J

    1993-12-01

    It has been shown that improvement of glucose homeostasis by oral vanadate or vanadyl treatment in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats is accompanied by severe negative side effects (some deaths, decreased weight gain, alteration in renal function as well as tissue vanadium accumulation) which argue against the use of vanadium compounds in diabetes treatment. The present study was undertaken to assess the effectiveness in alleviating some signs of diabetes in streptozotocin-treated rats with oral therapy with sodium metavanadate (NaVO3) and sodium 4,5 dihydroxybenzene-1,3-disulfonate (Tiron), a chelating agent effective in mobilizing vanadium. In a preliminary experiment, diabetic rats were given aqueous solutions of 0.20 mg NaVO3/ml for 4 days. Vanadium-treated rats which showed blood glucose levels significantly lower (p < 0.001) than vanadate-untreated diabetic rats were selected for subsequent experiments. These animals were given 0.20 mg NaVO3/ml in drinking water and 0, 125.6, 314 or 628 mg Tiron/kg/d by gavage for 2 w. Although most of the animals did not become normoglycemic, several characteristic signs of diabetes (hyperglycemia, hyperphagia and polydipsia) were alleviated by the NaVO3 treatment. The administration of 314 mg Tiron/kg/d (approximately 1 NaVO3: 5 Tiron, mole ratio) did not diminish the ameliorative effects of NaVO3 with respect to diabetes, but significantly decreased the level of vanadium accumulation in target organs. These results show that some of the beneficial effects of NaVO3 are maintained in diabetic animals given Tiron, while the administration of the chelator results in a significant decrease in tissue vanadium accumulation. Accordingly, this would diminish the possibility of toxic side effects derived from prolonged oral vanadium administration.

  9. Synthesized Peptides from Yam Dioscorin Hydrolysis in Silico Exhibit Dipeptidyl Peptidase-IV Inhibitory Activities and Oral Glucose Tolerance Improvements in Normal Mice.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yin-Shiou; Han, Chuan-Hsiao; Lin, Shyr-Yi; Hou, Wen-Chi

    2016-08-24

    RRDY, RL, and DPF were the top 3 of 21 peptides for inhibitions against dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) from the pepsin hydrolysis of yam dioscorin in silico and were further investigated in a proof-of-concept study in normal ICR mice for regulating glucose metabolism by the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The sample or sitagliptin (positive control) was orally administered by a feeding gauge; 30 min later, the glucose loads (2.5 g/kg) were performed. RRDY, yam dioscorin, or sitagliptin preload, but not DPF, lowered the area under the curve (AUC0-120) of blood glucose and DPP-IV activity and elevated the AUC0-120 of blood insulin, which showed significant differences compared to control (P < 0.05 or 0.001). These results suggested that RRDY and yam dioscorin might be beneficial in glycemic control in normal mice and need further investigations in diabetic animal models. PMID:27499387

  10. Efficacy of standard glucose-based and reduced-osmolarity maltodextrin-based oral rehydration solutions: effect of sugar malabsorption.

    PubMed Central

    el-Mougi, M.; Hendawi, A.; Koura, H.; Hegazi, E.; Fontaine, O.; Pierce, N. F.

    1996-01-01

    Previously we reported that standard oral rehydration salts (ORS) solution is not as effective as a reduced-osmolarity glucose-based ORS for the treatment of children with acute noncholera diarrhoea: with standard ORS the diarrhoea lasts longer, stool output is greater, serum sodium is higher, and there is more need for supplemental intravenous infusion. We studied a reduced-osmolarity maltodextrin (MD)-based ORS to determine whether it had similar benefits, and also the effect of sugar malabsorption on the efficacy of standard and MD-based ORS. A total of 90 boys aged 3-24 months with acute noncholera diarrhoea and moderate dehydration were randomly assigned to either standard ORS (glucose 20 g/l, osmolarity 311 mmol/l) or MD-ORS (MD 50 g/l, osmolarity 227 mmol/l). There were no differences in treatment results. Some 46% of subjects had a high total stool output (> 300 g/kg), which was unrelated to the type of ORS given. High stool output was significantly associated with a longer duration of diarrhoea (33 vs. 15 hours; P < 0.001), a persistently elevated serum sodium (149 vs. 144 mmol/l at 24 h; P < 0.02), the need for intravenous infusion (11/41 vs. 0/48; P < 0.002), and an increase in faecal reducing substances (10.8 vs. 3.4 g/l at 24 h; P < 0.001). We conclude that some children given standard ORS develop osmotic diarrhoea owing to the combined effect of transient sugar malabsorption and slight hypertonicity of the ORS. Earlier studies show that this adverse outcome can largely be avoided when extra water is given in reduced-osmolarity glucose-based ORS. Reduced osmolarity has no benefit, however, when glucose is replaced by maltodextrin, probably because the sugars released by hydrolysis of MD, when malabsorbed, raise the intraluminal osmolarity to equal or exceed that of standard ORS. Thus, reduced-osmolarity glucose-based ORS is superior to both standard ORS and reduced-osmolarity solutions based on maltodextrin and probably other complex carbohydrates

  11. Effect of long-term oral administration of green tea extract on weight gain and glucose tolerance in Zucker diabetic (ZDF) rats.

    PubMed

    Janle, Elsa M; Portocarrero, Carla; Zhu, Yongxin; Zhou, Qin

    2005-01-01

    There have been some claims that green tea reduces weight and lowers blood glucose in diabetes. Intraperitoneal injections of green tea catechins in diabetic rats have shown beneficial effects. To determine if oral administration of green tea would prevent development of diabetes, young Zucker diabetic rats were dosed with green tea extract containing 50-125 mg/kg of Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) starting at 7 weeks of age, before the appearance of excessive weight gain and glucose elevation. While there was a trend toward lower weight gain and average daily glucose, there was no statistically significant difference.

  12. The long term oral regulation of blood glucose in diabetic patients by using of Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 expressing CTB-IGF-1 hybrid protein.

    PubMed

    Bazi, Zahra; Jalili, Mahsa; Hekmatdoost, Azita

    2013-11-01

    Regarding to the high prevalence and comorbidities of chronic high blood glucose in diabetic patients and the limited efficacy and current painful treatments. It is necessary to improve new treatments that are non-invasive and long-term for controlling blood glucose. Recent studies have shown that the healthy microflora in different body organs can perform as the gene vectors for expressing different types of gene therapies in situ. We have proposed that by constructing a recombinant Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 that expresses CTB-IGF-1 hybrid gene under control of ompC glucose sensitive promoter, the intestinal glucose level can be regulated. This method in comparison with other methods is a non-invasive way to control the blood glucose orally and it can be used for all types of diabetes. PMID:24074833

  13. Glucose tolerance factor extracted from yeast: oral insulin-mimetic and insulin-potentiating agent: in vivo and in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Weksler-Zangen, Sarah; Mizrahi, Tal; Raz, Itamar; Mirsky, Nitsa

    2012-09-01

    In search for an effective oral treatment for diabetes, we examined the capacity of glucose tolerance factor (GTF) extracted from yeast and administered orally to reduce hyperglycaemia in rat models exhibiting insulin deficiency. The cellular effect of GTF on the insulin signalling pathway was investigated in vitro. GTF (oral bolus), insulin (intraperitoneal) or their combination was administered to streptozotocin-diabetic (STZ) or hyperglycaemic Cohen diabetic-sensitive (hyp-CDs) rats. Blood glucose (BG) and insulin levels were measured in the postprandial (PP) state and during an oral glucose tolerance test. Deoxy-glucose transport and insulin signal transduction were assessed in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and myoblasts incubated with the GTF. Low dose of insulin produced a 34 and 12·5 % reduction in the PP-BG levels of hyp-CDs and STZ rats, respectively. GTF induced a 33 and 17 % reduction in the PP-BG levels of hyp-CDs and STZ rats, respectively. When combined with insulin, a respective decrease (58 and 42 %) in BG levels was observed, suggesting a partially additive (hyp-CDs) or synergistic (STZ rats) effect of the GTF and insulin. GTF did not induce insulin secretion in hyp-CDs rats, yet it lowered their BG levels, proposing an effect on glucose clearance by peripheral tissues. GTF induced a dose-dependent increase in deoxy-glucose transport into myoblasts and fat cells similar to insulin, while the combined treatment resulted in augmented transport rate. GTF induced a dose- and time-dependent phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1, Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase independent of insulin receptor phosphorylation. GTF exerts remarkable insulin-mimetic and insulin-potentiating effects, both in vivo and in vitro. It produces an insulin-like effect by acting on cellular signals downstream of the insulin receptor. These results demonstrate a potential source for a novel oral medication for diabetes.

  14. Amino Acid and Biogenic Amine Profile Deviations in an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test: A Comparison between Healthy and Hyperlipidaemia Individuals Based on Targeted Metabolomics

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qi; Gu, Wenbo; Ma, Xuan; Liu, Yuxin; Jiang, Lidan; Feng, Rennan; Liu, Liyan

    2016-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia (HLP) is characterized by a disturbance in lipid metabolism and is a primary risk factor for the development of insulin resistance (IR) and a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. The aim of this work was to investigate the changes in postprandial amino acid and biogenic amine profiles provoked by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in HLP patients using targeted metabolomics. We used ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry to analyze the serum amino acid and biogenic amine profiles of 35 control and 35 HLP subjects during an OGTT. The amino acid and biogenic amine profiles from 30 HLP subjects were detected as independent samples to validate the changes in the metabolites. There were differences in the amino acid and biogenic amine profiles between the HLP individuals and the healthy controls at baseline and after the OGTT. The per cent changes of 13 metabolites from fasting to the 2 h samples during the OGTT in the HLP patients were significantly different from those of the healthy controls. The lipid parameters were associated with the changes in valine, isoleucine, creatine, creatinine, dimethylglycine, asparagine, serine, and tyrosine (all p < 0.05) during the OGTT in the HLP group. The postprandial changes in isoleucine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) during the OGTT were positively associated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; all p < 0.05) in the HLP group. Elevated oxidative stress and disordered energy metabolism during OGTTs are important characteristics of metabolic perturbations in HLP. Our findings offer new insights into the complex physiological regulation of metabolism during the OGTT in HLP. PMID:27338465

  15. Amino Acid and Biogenic Amine Profile Deviations in an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test: A Comparison between Healthy and Hyperlipidaemia Individuals Based on Targeted Metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Gu, Wenbo; Ma, Xuan; Liu, Yuxin; Jiang, Lidan; Feng, Rennan; Liu, Liyan

    2016-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia (HLP) is characterized by a disturbance in lipid metabolism and is a primary risk factor for the development of insulin resistance (IR) and a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. The aim of this work was to investigate the changes in postprandial amino acid and biogenic amine profiles provoked by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in HLP patients using targeted metabolomics. We used ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry to analyze the serum amino acid and biogenic amine profiles of 35 control and 35 HLP subjects during an OGTT. The amino acid and biogenic amine profiles from 30 HLP subjects were detected as independent samples to validate the changes in the metabolites. There were differences in the amino acid and biogenic amine profiles between the HLP individuals and the healthy controls at baseline and after the OGTT. The per cent changes of 13 metabolites from fasting to the 2 h samples during the OGTT in the HLP patients were significantly different from those of the healthy controls. The lipid parameters were associated with the changes in valine, isoleucine, creatine, creatinine, dimethylglycine, asparagine, serine, and tyrosine (all p < 0.05) during the OGTT in the HLP group. The postprandial changes in isoleucine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) during the OGTT were positively associated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; all p < 0.05) in the HLP group. Elevated oxidative stress and disordered energy metabolism during OGTTs are important characteristics of metabolic perturbations in HLP. Our findings offer new insights into the complex physiological regulation of metabolism during the OGTT in HLP. PMID:27338465

  16. Glucose screening tests during pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Oral glucose tolerance test - pregnancy; OGTT - pregnancy; Glucose challenge test - pregnancy; Gestational diabetes - glucose screening ... first step, you will have a glucose screening test: You DO NOT need to prepare or change ...

  17. Oral green tea catechins transiently lower plasma glucose concentrations in female db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Wein, Silvia; Schrader, Eva; Rimbach, Gerald; Wolffram, Siegfried

    2013-04-01

    Polyphenols, including green tea catechins, are secondary plant compounds often discussed in the context of health-promoting potential. Evidence for such effects is mainly derived from epidemiological and cell culture studies. The aim of the present study was to investigate antidiabetic, antiadipogenic, and anti-inflammatory effects at nonpharmacological doses in an obese diabetic mouse model that exerts early relevant clinical signs of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Female db/db mice received a flavonoid-poor diet either without additive, with rosiglitazone (RSG, 0.02 g/kg diet), or with green tea extract (low-dose green tea extract [LGTE] and high-dose green tea extract [HGTE], 0.1 and 1 g/kg diet). Food and water were freely available. The body weight was monitored weekly. Blood was sampled (12-h fasted) from the tail vein on day 28 and analyzed for glucose, cholesterol, triacylglycerol, nonesterified fatty acids, insulin, adiponectin, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1). Blood glucose was also analyzed on day 14. Furthermore, sICAM-1 release was investigated in tumor necrosis factor alpha-stimulated EAhy926 cells. After 14 days, fasting glycemia was improved by RSG or HGTE supplementation compared to controls. However, at the end of the study (day 28), only RSG exhibited glucose-lowering effects and induced plasma adiponectin concentrations, paralleled by higher body weight gain and reduced periuterine fat pads compared to controls. However, only GTE treatment reduced sICAM-1 release in vitro and in vivo. Nonpharmacological HGTE supplementation in db/db mice caused (1) no adiponectin-inducing or antiadipogenic effects, (2) reduced sICAM-1 release, thereby potentially exerting anti-inflammatory effects in the progressive diabetic state, and (3) a transient improvement in glycemia.

  18. Oral green tea catechins transiently lower plasma glucose concentrations in female db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Wein, Silvia; Schrader, Eva; Rimbach, Gerald; Wolffram, Siegfried

    2013-04-01

    Polyphenols, including green tea catechins, are secondary plant compounds often discussed in the context of health-promoting potential. Evidence for such effects is mainly derived from epidemiological and cell culture studies. The aim of the present study was to investigate antidiabetic, antiadipogenic, and anti-inflammatory effects at nonpharmacological doses in an obese diabetic mouse model that exerts early relevant clinical signs of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Female db/db mice received a flavonoid-poor diet either without additive, with rosiglitazone (RSG, 0.02 g/kg diet), or with green tea extract (low-dose green tea extract [LGTE] and high-dose green tea extract [HGTE], 0.1 and 1 g/kg diet). Food and water were freely available. The body weight was monitored weekly. Blood was sampled (12-h fasted) from the tail vein on day 28 and analyzed for glucose, cholesterol, triacylglycerol, nonesterified fatty acids, insulin, adiponectin, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1). Blood glucose was also analyzed on day 14. Furthermore, sICAM-1 release was investigated in tumor necrosis factor alpha-stimulated EAhy926 cells. After 14 days, fasting glycemia was improved by RSG or HGTE supplementation compared to controls. However, at the end of the study (day 28), only RSG exhibited glucose-lowering effects and induced plasma adiponectin concentrations, paralleled by higher body weight gain and reduced periuterine fat pads compared to controls. However, only GTE treatment reduced sICAM-1 release in vitro and in vivo. Nonpharmacological HGTE supplementation in db/db mice caused (1) no adiponectin-inducing or antiadipogenic effects, (2) reduced sICAM-1 release, thereby potentially exerting anti-inflammatory effects in the progressive diabetic state, and (3) a transient improvement in glycemia. PMID:23514230

  19. Proglucagon Promoter Cre-Mediated AMPK Deletion in Mice Increases Circulating GLP-1 Levels and Oral Glucose Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Sayers, Sophie R.; Reimann, Frank; Gribble, Fiona M.; Parker, Helen; Zac-Varghese, Sagen; Bloom, Stephen R.; Foretz, Marc; Viollet, Benoit; Rutter, Guy A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Enteroendocrine L-cells synthesise and release the gut hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in response to food transit. Deletion of the tumour suppressor kinase LKB1 from proglucagon-expressing cells leads to the generation of intestinal polyps but no change in circulating GLP-1 levels. Here, we explore the role of the downstream kinase AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in these cells. Method Loss of AMPK from proglucagon-expressing cells was achieved using a preproglucagon promoter-driven Cre (iGluCre) to catalyse recombination of floxed alleles of AMPKα1 and α2. Oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance were measured using standard protocols. L-cell mass was measured by immunocytochemistry. Hormone and peptide levels were measured by electrochemical-based luminescence detection or radioimmunoassay. Results Recombination with iGluCre led to efficient deletion of AMPK from intestinal L- and pancreatic alpha-cells. In contrast to mice rendered null for LKB1 using the same strategy, mice deleted for AMPK displayed an increase (WT: 0.05 ± 0.01, KO: 0.09±0.02%, p<0.01) in L-cell mass and elevated plasma fasting (WT: 5.62 ± 0.800 pg/ml, KO: 14.5 ± 1.870, p<0.01) and fed (WT: 15.7 ± 1.48pg/ml, KO: 22.0 ± 6.62, p<0.01) GLP-1 levels. Oral, but not intraperitoneal, glucose tolerance was significantly improved by AMPK deletion, whilst insulin and glucagon levels were unchanged despite an increase in alpha to beta cell ratio (WT: 0.23 ± 0.02, KO: 0.33 ± 0.03, p<0.01). Conclusion AMPK restricts L-cell growth and GLP-1 secretion to suppress glucose tolerance. Targeted inhibition of AMPK in L-cells may thus provide a new therapeutic strategy in some forms of type 2 diabetes. PMID:27010458

  20. Structural Elucidation of a Novel Polysaccharide from Pseudostellaria heterophylla and Stimulating Glucose Uptake in Cells and Distributing in Rats by Oral.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinlong; Pang, Wensheng; Shi, Wentao; Yang, Bin; Kan, Yongjun; He, Zhaodong; Hu, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The semi-refined polysaccharide of Pseudostellaria heterophylla is a complex polysaccharide that exhibits significantly hypoglycemic activities. A novel homogeneous polysaccharide, named as H-1-2, was isolated from the semi-refined polysaccharide. The mean molecular weight of H-1-2 was 1.4 × 10⁴ Da and it was only composed of d-glucose monosaccharide. Structure elucidation indicated that H-1-2 contains pyranride, and has the characteristics of the α-iso-head configuration, a non-reducing end (T-), 4-, 1,6-, and 1,4,6-connection, in all four ways to connect glucose. H-1-2 was a type of glucan, where chemical combination exists in the main chain between 1→4 linked glucose, and contains a small amount of 1,6-linked glucose, which was in the branched chain. In vitro HepG2, 3T3-L1, and L6 cells were used to assess cellular glucose consumption and cellular glucose uptake by glucose oxidase, and the transport of 2-NBDG fluorescence probe results showed that H-1-2 could clearly increase glucose uptake and utilization in muscle and adipose cells, which is beneficial to screen for in the discovery of anti-diabetes lead compounds. H-1-2 was labeled with radioisotopes ((99m)Tc-pertechnetate). (99m)Tc-labeled-H-1-2 was performed by SPECT/CT analysis images after oral administration in rats. At 4 h post ingestion, about 50% of the radioactivity was observed in the intestine. No significant radioactivity was found in the heart, liver, and kidney, conjecturing that absorption of (99m)Tc-labeled H-1-2 might, via intestinal mucosa, be absorbed into systemic circulation. This problem, as to whether the polysaccharide is absorbed orally, will need further examination. PMID:27649122

  1. Oral Glucose Tolerance Testing identifies HIV+ infected women with Diabetes Mellitus (DM) not captured by standard DM definition

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Fang; Anastos, Kathryn; Cohen, Mardge H; Tien, Phyllis C

    2016-01-01

    Objective HIV-infected (HIV+) individuals may have differential risk of diabetes mellitus (DM) compared to the general population, and the optimal diagnostic algorithm for DM in HIV+ persons remains unclear. We aimed to assess the utility of oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) for DM diagnosis in a cohort of women with or at risk for HIV infection. Methods Using American Diabetic Association DM definitions, DM prevalence and incidence were assessed among women enrolled in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study. DM was defined by 2-hour OGTT ≥ 200 mg/dL (DM_OGTT) or a clinical definition (DM_C) that included any of the following: (i) anti-diabetic medication use or self-reported DM confirmed by either fasting glucose (FG) ≥126 mg/dL or HbA1c ≥ 6.5%, (ii) FG ≥ 126 mg/dL confirmed by a second FG ≥ 126 mg/dL or HbA1c 6.5%, or (iii) HbA1c 6.5% confirmed by FG ≥ 126 mg/dL cohort. Results Overall, 390 women (285 HIV+, median age 43 years; 105 HIV−, median age 37 years) were enrolled between 2003-2006. Over half of all women were African American. Using DM_C, DM prevalence rates were 5.6% and 2.8% among HIV+ and HIV− women, respectively. Among HIV+ women, adding DM_OGTT to DM_C increased DM prevalence from 5.6% to 7.4%, a 31% increase in the number of diabetes cases diagnosed (p=0.02). In HIV− women, no additional cases were diagnosed by DM-OGTT. Conclusion In HIV+ women, OGTT identified DM cases that were not identified by a standardized clinical definition. Further investigation is needed to determine whether OGTT should be considered as an adjunctive tool for DM diagnosis in the setting of HIV infection. PMID:27066296

  2. Glucose-Reducing Effect of the ORMD-0801 Oral Insulin Preparation in Patients with Uncontrolled Type 1 Diabetes: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Eldor, Roy; Arbit, Ehud; Corcos, Asher; Kidron, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    The unpredictable behavior of uncontrolled type 1 diabetes often involves frequent swings in blood glucose levels that impact maintenance of a daily routine. An intensified insulin regimen is often unsuccessful, while other therapeutic options, such as amylin analog injections, use of continuous glucose sensors, and islet or pancreas transplantation are of limited clinical use. In efforts to provide patients with a more compliable treatment method, Oramed Pharmaceuticals tested the capacity of its oral insulin capsule (ORMD-0801, 8 mg insulin) in addressing this resistant clinical state. Eight Type I diabetes patients with uncontrolled diabetes (HbA1c: 7.5–10%) were monitored throughout the 15-day study period by means of a blind continuous glucose monitoring device. Baseline patient blood glucose behavior was monitored and recorded over a five-day pretreatment screening period. During the ensuing ten-day treatment phase, patients were asked to conduct themselves as usual and to self-administer an oral insulin capsule three times daily, just prior to meal intake. CGM data sufficient for pharmacodynamics analyses were obtained from 6 of the 8 subjects. Treatment with ORMD-0801 was associated with a significant 24.4% reduction in the frequencies of glucose readings >200 mg/dL (60.1±7.9% pretreatment vs. 45.4±4.9% during ORMD-0801 treatment; p = 0.023) and a significant mean 16.6% decrease in glucose area under the curve (AUC) (66055±5547 mg/dL/24 hours vs. 55060±3068 mg/dL/24 hours, p = 0.023), with a greater decrease during the early evening hours. In conclusion, ORMD-0801 oral insulin capsules in conjunction with subcutaneous insulin injections, well tolerated and effectively reduced glycemia throughout the day. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00867594. PMID:23593142

  3. Serum Galanin Levels in Young Healthy Lean and Obese Non-Diabetic Men during an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval-Alzate, Héctor Fabio; Agudelo-Zapata, Yessica; González-Clavijo, Angélica María; Poveda, Natalia E.; Espinel-Pachón, Cristian Felipe; Escamilla-Castro, Jorge Augusto; Márquez-Julio, Heidy Lorena; Alvarado-Quintero, Hernando; Rojas-Rodríguez, Fabián Guillermo; Arteaga-Díaz, Juan Manuel; Eslava-Schmalbach, Javier Hernando; Garcés-Gutiérrez, Maria Fernanda; Vrontakis, Maria; Castaño, Justo P.; Luque, Raul M.; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén; Caminos, Jorge E.

    2016-01-01

    Galanin (GAL) is a neuropeptide involved in the homeostasis of energy metabolism. The objective of this study was to investigate the serum levels of GAL during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in lean and obese young men. This cross-sectional study included 30 obese non-diabetic young men (median 22 years; mean BMI 37 kg/m2) and 30 healthy lean men (median 23 years; mean BMI 22 kg/m2). Serum GAL was determined during OGTT. The results of this study include that serum GAL levels showed a reduction during OGTT compared with basal levels in the lean subjects group. Conversely, serum GAL levels increased significantly during OGTT in obese subjects. Serum GAL levels were also higher in obese non-diabetic men compared with lean subjects during fasting and in every period of the OGTT (p < 0.001). Serum GAL levels were positively correlated with BMI, total fat, visceral fat, HOMA–IR, total cholesterol, triglycerides and Leptin. A multiple regression analysis revealed that serum insulin levels at 30, 60 and 120 minutes during the OGTT is the most predictive variable for serum GAL levels (p < 0.001). In conclusion, serum GAL levels are significantly higher in the obese group compared with lean subjects during an OGTT. PMID:27550417

  4. Serum Galanin Levels in Young Healthy Lean and Obese Non-Diabetic Men during an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test.

    PubMed

    Sandoval-Alzate, Héctor Fabio; Agudelo-Zapata, Yessica; González-Clavijo, Angélica María; Poveda, Natalia E; Espinel-Pachón, Cristian Felipe; Escamilla-Castro, Jorge Augusto; Márquez-Julio, Heidy Lorena; Alvarado-Quintero, Hernando; Rojas-Rodríguez, Fabián Guillermo; Arteaga-Díaz, Juan Manuel; Eslava-Schmalbach, Javier Hernando; Garcés-Gutiérrez, Maria Fernanda; Vrontakis, Maria; Castaño, Justo P; Luque, Raul M; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén; Caminos, Jorge E

    2016-01-01

    Galanin (GAL) is a neuropeptide involved in the homeostasis of energy metabolism. The objective of this study was to investigate the serum levels of GAL during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in lean and obese young men. This cross-sectional study included 30 obese non-diabetic young men (median 22 years; mean BMI 37 kg/m(2)) and 30 healthy lean men (median 23 years; mean BMI 22 kg/m(2)). Serum GAL was determined during OGTT. The results of this study include that serum GAL levels showed a reduction during OGTT compared with basal levels in the lean subjects group. Conversely, serum GAL levels increased significantly during OGTT in obese subjects. Serum GAL levels were also higher in obese non-diabetic men compared with lean subjects during fasting and in every period of the OGTT (p < 0.001). Serum GAL levels were positively correlated with BMI, total fat, visceral fat, HOMA-IR, total cholesterol, triglycerides and Leptin. A multiple regression analysis revealed that serum insulin levels at 30, 60 and 120 minutes during the OGTT is the most predictive variable for serum GAL levels (p < 0.001). In conclusion, serum GAL levels are significantly higher in the obese group compared with lean subjects during an OGTT. PMID:27550417

  5. Relation between Delayed Superfluous Insulin Secretion during An Oral Glucose Tolerance Test and Metabolic Disorders in Obese Japanese Children.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hidetoshi; Kikuchi, Toru; Harada, Waka; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Ito, Sueshi; Uchiyama, Makoto

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the relation between postprandial hyperinsulinemia and metabolic disorders in obese children. Twenty-eight obese Japanese children (8.8-16.2 yr) were divided into four groups: without impaired liver function and dyslipidemia (Group A), with impaired liver function (Group B), with dyslipidemia (Group C), and with impaired liver function and dyslipidemia (Group D). The levels of PG, serum immunoreactive insulin (IRI) and serum C-peptide (CPR) were measured during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The subjects had delayed superfluous insulin and CPR secretion during the OGTT compared with healthy references. In regard to the insulin secretion pattern, Group A's response peaked at 60 min and then decreased gradually until 120 min, Group B's response peaked at 60 min, remained at the peak until 120 min and then decreased gradually until 180 min, Group C's response peaked at 120 min and then decreased gradually until 180 min, and Group D's response peaked at 120 min and remained at the peak until 180 min. These results suggest that delayed superfluous insulin secretion during an OGTT is related to metabolic disorders in obese Japanese children and that these patients will experience a vicious cycle of postprandial hyperinsulinemia and metabolic disorders. It is important to prevent healthy children from becoming obese and to improve management of childhood obesity.

  6. Impact of Glucose Tolerance Status, Sex, and Body Size on Glucose Absorption Patterns During OGTTs

    PubMed Central

    Færch, Kristine; Pacini, Giovanni; Nolan, John J.; Hansen, Torben; Tura, Andrea; Vistisen, Dorte

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We studied whether patterns of glucose absorption during oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) were abnormal in individuals with impaired glucose regulation and whether they were related to sex and body size (height and fat-free mass). We also examined how well differences in insulin sensitivity and β-cell function measured by gold-standard tests were reflected in the corresponding OGTT-derived estimates. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS With validated methods, various aspects of glucose absorption were estimated from 12-point, 3-h, 75-g OGTTs in 66 individuals with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), isolated impaired fasting glucose (i-IFG), or isolated impaired glucose tolerance (i-IGT). Insulin sensitivity and β-cell function were measured with the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp and intravenous glucose tolerance tests, respectively. Surrogate markers of both conditions were calculated from OGTTs. RESULTS More rapid glucose absorption (P ≤ 0.036) and reduced late glucose absorption (P ≤ 0.039) were observed in the i-IFG group relative to NGT and i-IGT groups. Women with i-IGT had a lower early glucose absorption than did men with i-IGT (P = 0.041); however, this difference did not persist when differences in body size were taken into account (P > 0.28). Faster glucose absorption was related to higher fasting (P = 0.001) and lower 2-h (P = 0.001) glucose levels and to greater height and fat-free mass (P < 0.001). All OGTT-derived measures of insulin sensitivity, but only one of three measures of β-cell function, reflected the differences for these parameters between those with normal and impaired glucose regulation as measured by gold-standard tests. CONCLUSIONS Glucose absorption patterns during an OGTT are significantly related to plasma glucose levels and body size, which should be taken into account when estimating β-cell function from OGTTs in epidemiological studies. PMID:24062321

  7. The effect of endurance training and subsequent physical inactivity on glycaemic control after oral glucose load and physical exercise in healthy men

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radikova, Zofia; Ksinantova, Lucia; Kaciuba-Uscilko, Hanna; Nazar, Krystyna; Vigas, Milan; Koska, Juraj

    2007-02-01

    Physical inactivity during space flight has a profound effect on glucose metabolism. The aim of this study was to test whether endurance training (ET) may improve a negative effect of subsequent -6∘ head-down bed rest (HDBR) on glucose metabolism. Fourteen healthy males completed the study consisting of 6 weeks lasting ET followed by 6 days HDBR. Treadmill exercise at 80% of pre-training VO2max and 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were performed before and after ET as well as after HDBR. ET increased VO2max by 11%. ET significantly lowered while HDBR had no effect on fasting and OGTT plasma glucose levels. ET had no effect while HDBR was followed by an augmentation of insulin and C-peptide response to OGTT. Insulin sensitivity tended to increase after ET and to decrease during HDBR, however, mostly without statistical significance. Plasma glucose, insulin and C-peptide response to exercise were elevated after HDBR only. Our study shows that antecedent physical training could ameliorate a negative effect of simulated microgravity on insulin-mediated glucose metabolism.

  8. Glucose- but not rice-based oral rehydration therapy enhances the production of virulence determinants in the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Kühn, Juliane; Finger, Flavio; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Borgeaud, Sandrine; Gatto, Marino; Rinaldo, Andrea; Blokesch, Melanie

    2014-12-01

    Despite major attempts to prevent cholera transmission, millions of people worldwide still must address this devastating disease. Cholera research has so far mainly focused on the causative agent, the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, or on disease treatment, but rarely were results from both fields interconnected. Indeed, the treatment of this severe diarrheal disease is mostly accomplished by oral rehydration therapy (ORT), whereby water and electrolytes are replenished. Commonly distributed oral rehydration salts also contain glucose. Here, we analyzed the effects of glucose and alternative carbon sources on the production of virulence determinants in the causative agent of cholera, the bacterium Vibrio cholerae during in vitro experimentation. We demonstrate that virulence gene expression and the production of cholera toxin are enhanced in the presence of glucose or similarly transported sugars in a ToxR-, TcpP- and ToxT-dependent manner. The virulence genes were significantly less expressed if alternative non-PTS carbon sources, including rice-based starch, were utilized. Notably, even though glucose-based ORT is commonly used, field studies indicated that rice-based ORT performs better. We therefore used a spatially explicit epidemiological model to demonstrate that the better performing rice-based ORT could have a significant impact on epidemic progression based on the recent outbreak of cholera in Haiti. Our results strongly support a change of carbon source for the treatment of cholera, especially in epidemic settings. PMID:25474211

  9. Fasting and 2-Hour Plasma Glucose and Insulin

    PubMed Central

    Libman, Ingrid M.; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Bartucci, Andrea; Chaves-Gnecco, Diego; Robertson, Robert; Arslanian, Silva

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether elevated fasting or 2-h plasma glucose and/or insulin better reflects the presence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk markers in an overweight pediatric population with normal glucose tolerance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 151 overweight youths (8–17 years old) were evaluated with oral glucose tolerance tests and measurement of CVD risk factors. The study population was categorized according to quartiles of fasting and 2-h glucose and insulin levels. ANCOVA, adjusted for age, sex, race, Tanner stage, and percent body fat (measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), was used to compare metabolic variables between the quartiles of glucose and insulin groups. RESULTS Increasing quartiles of fasting and 2-h insulin were associated with increasing CVD risk factors. Glucose quartiles on the other hand, either fasting or at 2 h, were not. CONCLUSIONS These data suggest that hyperinsulinemia may be the earliest and/or primary metabolic alteration in childhood associated with risk markers for CVD. Prospective studies are needed. PMID:21115769

  10. Drug-drug interactions with sodium-glucose cotransporters type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, new oral glucose-lowering agents for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Scheen, André J

    2014-04-01

    Inhibitors of sodium-glucose cotransporters type 2 (SGLT2) reduce hyperglycaemia by decreasing renal glucose threshold and thereby increasing urinary glucose excretion. They are proposed as a novel approach for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. They have proven their efficacy in reducing glycated haemoglobin, without inducing hypoglycaemia, as monotherapy or in combination with various other glucose-lowering agents, with the add-on value of promoting some weight loss and lowering arterial blood pressure. As they may be used concomitantly with many other drugs, we review the potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs) regarding the three leaders in the class (dapagliglozin, canagliflozin and empagliflozin). Most of the available studies were performed in healthy volunteers and have assessed the pharmacokinetic interferences with a single administration of the SGLT2 inhibitor. The exposure [assessed by peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC)] to each SGLT2 inhibitor tested was not significantly influenced by the concomitant administration of other glucose-lowering agents or cardiovascular agents commonly used in patients with type 2 diabetes. Reciprocally, these medications did not influence the pharmacokinetic parameters of dapagliflozin, canagliflozin or empagliflozin. Some modest changes were not considered as clinically relevant. However, drugs that could specifically interfere with the metabolic pathways of SGLT2 inhibitors [rifampicin, inhibitors or inducers of uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT)] may result in significant changes in the exposure of SGLT2 inhibitors, as shown for dapagliflozin and canagliflozin. Potential DDIs in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving chronic treatment with an SGLT2 inhibitor deserve further attention, especially in individuals treated with several medications or in more fragile patients with hepatic and/or renal impairment.

  11. Predictive Value of Glucose Parameters Obtained From Oral Glucose Tolerance Tests in Identifying Individuals at High Risk for the Development of Diabetes in Korean Population.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hae Kyung; Ha, Hee-Sung; Rhee, Marie; Lee, Jin-Hee; Park, Yong-Moon; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Yim, Hyeon-Woo; Kang, Moo-Il; Lee, Won-Chul; Son, Ho-Young; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Yoon, Kun-Ho

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies suggest that the future risk for type 2 diabetes is not similar among subjects in the same glucose tolerance category. In this study, we aimed to evaluate simple intuitive indices to identify subjects at high risk for future diabetes development by using 0, 30, 120 minute glucose levels obtained during 75 g OGTTs from participants of a prospective community-based cohort in Korea.Among subjects enrolled at the Chungju Metabolic disease Cohort, those who performed an OGTT between 2007 and 2010 and repeated the test between 2011 and 2014 were recruited after excluding subjects with diabetes at baseline. Subjects were categorized according to their 30 minute glucose (G30) and the difference between 120 and 0 minute glucose (G(120-0)) levels with cutoffs of 9.75 and 2.50 mmol/L, respectively.Among 1126 subjects, 117 (10.39%) developed type 2 diabetes after 4 years. In diabetes nonconverters, increased insulin resistance was accompanied by compensatory insulin secretion, but this was not observed in converters during 4 years of follow-up. Subjects with G(120-0) ≥ 2.50 mmol/L or G30 ≥ 9.75 mmol/L demonstrated lower degrees of insulin secretion, higher degrees of insulin resistance, and ∼6-fold higher risk of developing future diabetes compared to their lower counterparts after adjustment for possible confounding factors. Moreover, subjects with high G(120-0) and high G30 demonstrated 22-fold higher risk for diabetes development compared to subjects with low G(120-0) and low G30.By using the G(120-0) and G30 values obtained during the OGTT, which are less complicated measurements than previously reported methods, we were able to select individuals at risk for future diabetes development. Further studies in different ethnicities are required to validate our results.

  12. Predictive Value of Glucose Parameters Obtained From Oral Glucose Tolerance Tests in Identifying Individuals at High Risk for the Development of Diabetes in Korean Population.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hae Kyung; Ha, Hee-Sung; Rhee, Marie; Lee, Jin-Hee; Park, Yong-Moon; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Yim, Hyeon-Woo; Kang, Moo-Il; Lee, Won-Chul; Son, Ho-Young; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Yoon, Kun-Ho

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies suggest that the future risk for type 2 diabetes is not similar among subjects in the same glucose tolerance category. In this study, we aimed to evaluate simple intuitive indices to identify subjects at high risk for future diabetes development by using 0, 30, 120 minute glucose levels obtained during 75 g OGTTs from participants of a prospective community-based cohort in Korea.Among subjects enrolled at the Chungju Metabolic disease Cohort, those who performed an OGTT between 2007 and 2010 and repeated the test between 2011 and 2014 were recruited after excluding subjects with diabetes at baseline. Subjects were categorized according to their 30 minute glucose (G30) and the difference between 120 and 0 minute glucose (G(120-0)) levels with cutoffs of 9.75 and 2.50 mmol/L, respectively.Among 1126 subjects, 117 (10.39%) developed type 2 diabetes after 4 years. In diabetes nonconverters, increased insulin resistance was accompanied by compensatory insulin secretion, but this was not observed in converters during 4 years of follow-up. Subjects with G(120-0) ≥ 2.50 mmol/L or G30 ≥ 9.75 mmol/L demonstrated lower degrees of insulin secretion, higher degrees of insulin resistance, and ∼6-fold higher risk of developing future diabetes compared to their lower counterparts after adjustment for possible confounding factors. Moreover, subjects with high G(120-0) and high G30 demonstrated 22-fold higher risk for diabetes development compared to subjects with low G(120-0) and low G30.By using the G(120-0) and G30 values obtained during the OGTT, which are less complicated measurements than previously reported methods, we were able to select individuals at risk for future diabetes development. Further studies in different ethnicities are required to validate our results. PMID:26962830

  13. Corticosteroid-binding globulin, cortisol, free cortisol, and sex hormone-binding globulin responses following oral glucose challenge in spinal cord-injured and able-bodied men.

    PubMed

    Lewis, J G; Jones, L M; Legge, M; Elder, P A

    2010-11-01

    Circulating cortisol, corticosteroid-binding globulin, and sex hormone-binding globulin were measured retrospectively in plasma samples following the oral glucose tolerance test in 20 spinal cord-injured men and 20 able-bodied controls. Plasma-free cortisol responses attenuated more rapidly in the able-bodied men, compared to spinal cord-injured subjects, due to significant rise in circulating corticosteroid-binding globulin whereas changes in total plasma cortisol were similar in both groups. The changes in plasma-free cortisol in both groups paralleled changes in insulin and glucose and show that spinal cord-injured men had heightened exposure to free cortisol during this dynamic test. This raises the possibility that the mechanism of abdominal obesity and the propensity towards insulin resistance in spinal cord-injured men could be subtly mediated by perturbations in free cortisol. There were no significant changes in plasma sex hormone-binding globulin in either group.

  14. Discovery of a Plasmodium falciparum glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase 6- phosphogluconolactonase inhibitor (R,Z)-N-((1-ethylpyrrolidin-2-yl)methyl)-2-(2-fluorobenzylidene)-3-oxo-3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[b][1,4]thiazine-6-carboxamide (ML276) that reduces parasite growth in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Preuss, Janina; Maloney, Patrick; Peddibhotla, Satyamaheshwar; Hedrick, Michael P.; Hershberger, Paul; Gosalia, Palak; Milewski, Monika; Li, Yujie Linda; Sugarman, Eliot; Hood, Becky; Suyama, Eigo; Nguyen, Kevin; Vasile, Stefan; Sergienko, Eduard; Mangravita-Novo, Arianna; Vicchiarelli, Michael; McAnally, Danielle; Smith, Layton H.; Roth, Gregory P.; Diwan, Jena; Chung, Thomas D.Y.; Jortzik, Esther; Rahlfs, Stefan; Becker, Katja; Pinkerton, Anthony B.; Bode, Lars

    2012-01-01

    A high throughput screen of the NIH’s MLSMR collection of ~340,000 compounds was undertaken to identify compounds that inhibit Plasmodium falciparum glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (PfG6PD). PfG6PD is essential for proliferating and propagating P. falciparum and differs structurally and mechanistically from the human ortholog. The reaction catalyzed by glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is the first, rate-limiting step in the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), a key metabolic pathway sustaining anabolic needs in reductive equivalents and synthetic materials in fastgrowing cells. In P. falciparum the bifunctional enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-6- phosphogluconolactonase (PfGluPho) catalyzes the first two steps of the PPP. Because P. falciparum and infected host red blood cells rely on accelerated glucose flux, they depend on the G6PD activity of PfGluPho. The lead compound identified from this effort, (R,Z)-N-((1-ethylpyrrolidin-2-yl)methyl)-2- (2-fluorobenzylidene)-3-oxo-3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[b][1,4]thiazine-6-carboxamide, 11, (ML276), is a submicromolar inhibitor of PfG6PD (IC50 = 889 nM). It is completely selective for the enzyme’s human isoform, displays micromolar potency (IC50 = 2.6 μM) against P. falciparum in culture, and has good drug-like properties, including high solubility and moderate microsomal stability. Studies testing the potential advantage of inhibiting PfG6PD in vivo are in progress. PMID:22813531

  15. Glucose Homeostatic Law: Insulin Clearance Predicts the Progression of Glucose Intolerance in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Uda, Shinsuke; Kubota, Hiroyuki; Iwaki, Toshinao; Fukuzawa, Hiroki; Komori, Yasunori; Fujii, Masashi; Toyoshima, Yu; Sakaguchi, Kazuhiko; Ogawa, Wataru; Kuroda, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    Homeostatic control of blood glucose is regulated by a complex feedback loop between glucose and insulin, of which failure leads to diabetes mellitus. However, physiological and pathological nature of the feedback loop is not fully understood. We made a mathematical model of the feedback loop between glucose and insulin using time course of blood glucose and insulin during consecutive hyperglycemic and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps in 113 subjects with variety of glucose tolerance including normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We analyzed the correlation of the parameters in the model with the progression of glucose intolerance and the conserved relationship between parameters. The model parameters of insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion significantly declined from NGT to IGT, and from IGT to T2DM, respectively, consistent with previous clinical observations. Importantly, insulin clearance, an insulin degradation rate, significantly declined from NGT, IGT to T2DM along the progression of glucose intolerance in the mathematical model. Insulin clearance was positively correlated with a product of insulin sensitivity and secretion assessed by the clamp analysis or determined with the mathematical model. Insulin clearance was correlated negatively with postprandial glucose at 2h after oral glucose tolerance test. We also inferred a square-law between the rate constant of insulin clearance and a product of rate constants of insulin sensitivity and secretion in the model, which is also conserved among NGT, IGT and T2DM subjects. Insulin clearance shows a conserved relationship with the capacity of glucose disposal among the NGT, IGT and T2DM subjects. The decrease of insulin clearance predicts the progression of glucose intolerance. PMID:26623647

  16. Effect of Oral Sebacic Acid on Postprandial Glycemia, Insulinemia, and Glucose Rate of Appearance in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Iaconelli, Amerigo; Gastaldelli, Amalia; Chiellini, Chiara; Gniuli, Donatella; Favuzzi, Angela; Binnert, Christophe; Macé, Katherine; Mingrone, Geltrude

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Dicarboxylic acids are natural products with the potential of being an alternate dietary source of energy. We aimed to evaluate the effect of sebacic acid (a 10-carbon dicarboxylic acid; C10) ingestion on postprandial glycemia and glucose rate of appearance (Ra) in healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects. Furthermore, the effect of C10 on insulin-mediated glucose uptake and on GLUT4 expression was assessed in L6 muscle cells in vitro. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Subjects ingested a mixed meal (50% carbohydrates, 15% proteins, and 35% lipids) containing 0 g (control) or 10 g C10 in addition to the meal or 23 g C10 as a substitute of fats. RESULTS In type 2 diabetic subjects, the incremental glucose area under the curve (AUC) decreased by 42% (P < 0.05) and 70% (P < 0.05) in the 10 g C10 and 23 g C10 groups, respectively. At the largest amounts used, C10 reduced the glucose AUC in healthy volunteers also. When fats were substituted with 23 g C10, AUC of Ra was significantly reduced on the order of 18% (P < 0.05) in both healthy and diabetic subjects. The insulin-dependent glucose uptake by L6 cells was increased in the presence of C10 (38.7 ± 10.3 vs. 11.4 ± 5.4%; P = 0.026). This increase was associated with a 1.7-fold raise of GLUT4. CONCLUSIONS Sebacic acid significantly reduced hyperglycemia after a meal in type 2 diabetic subjects. This beneficial effect was associated with a reduction in glucose Ra, probably due to lowered hepatic glucose output and increased peripheral glucose disposal. PMID:20724647

  17. Limitations in the use of indices using glucose and insulin levels to predict insulin sensitivity: impact of race and gender and superiority of the indices derived from oral glucose tolerance test in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Pisprasert, Veeradej; Ingram, Katherine H; Lopez-Davila, Maria F; Munoz, A Julian; Garvey, W Timothy

    2013-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the utility of commonly used insulin sensitivity indices in nondiabetic European Americans (EAs) and African Americans (AAs). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Two-hundred forty nondiabetic participants were studied. Euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp was the gold standard approach to assess glucose disposal rates (GDR) normalized by lean body mass. The homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) were calculated from fasting plasma glucose and insulin (FIL). Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed to determine Matsuda index, the simple index assessing insulin sensitivity (SI(is)OGTT), Avignon index, and Stomvoll index. Relationships among these indices with GDR were analyzed by multiple regression. RESULTS GDR values were similar in EA and AA subgroups; even so, AA exhibited higher FIL and were insulin-resistant compared with EA, as assessed by HOMA-IR, QUICKI, Matsuda index, SI(is)OGTT, Avignon index, and Stumvoll index. In the overall study population, GDR was significantly correlated with all studied insulin sensitivity indices (/r/ = 0.381-0.513); however, these indices were not superior to FIL in predicting GDR. Race and gender affected the strength of this relationship. In AA males, FIL and HOMA-IR were not correlated with GDR. In contrast, Matsuda index and SI(is)OGTT were significantly correlated with GDR in AA males, and Matsuda index was superior to HOMA-IR and QUICKI in AAs overall. CONCLUSIONS Insulin sensitivity indices based on glucose and insulin levels should be used cautiously as measures of peripheral insulin sensitivity when comparing mixed gender and mixed race populations. Matsuda index and SI(is)OGTT are reliable in studies that include AA males.

  18. Anti-proliferative activity of oral anti-hyperglycemic agents on human vascular smooth muscle cells: thiazolidinediones (glitazones) have enhanced activity under high glucose conditions

    PubMed Central

    Little, Peter J; Osman, Narin; de Dios, Stephanie T; Cemerlang, Nelly; Ballinger, Mandy; Nigro, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Background Inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell (vSMC) proliferation by oral anti-hyperglycemic agents may have a role to play in the amelioration of vascular disease in diabetes. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) inhibit vSMC proliferation but it has been reported that they anomalously stimulate [3H]-thymidine incorporation. We investigated three TZDs, two biguanides and two sulfonylureas for their ability of inhibit vSMC proliferation. People with diabetes obviously have fluctuating blood glucose levels thus we determined the effect of media glucose concentration on the inhibitory activity of TZDs in a vSMC preparation that grew considerably more rapidly under high glucose conditions. We further explored the mechanisms by which TZDs increase [3H]-thymidine incorporation. Methods VSMC proliferation was investigated by [3H]-thymidine incorporation into DNA and cell counting. Activation and inhibition of thymidine kinase utilized short term [3H]-thymidine uptake. Cell cycle events were analyzed by FACS. Results VSMC cells grown for 3 days in DMEM with 5% fetal calf serum under low (5 mM glucose) and high (25 mM glucose) increased in number by 2.5 and 4.7 fold, respectively. Rosiglitazone and pioglitazone showed modest but statistically significantly greater inhibitory activity under high versus low glucose conditions (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively). We confirmed an earlier report that troglitazone (at low concentrations) causes enhanced incorporation of [3H]-thymidine into DNA but did not increase cell numbers. Troglitazone inhibited serum mediated thymidine kinase induction in a concentration dependent manner. FACS analysis showed that troglitazone and rosiglitazone but not pioglitazone placed a slightly higher percentage of cells in the S phase of a growing culture. Of the biguanides, metformin had no effect on proliferation assessed as [3H]-thymidine incorporation or cell numbers whereas phenformin was inhibitory in both assays albeit at high concentrations

  19. Discovery of 2-{4-[(3S)-piperidin-3-yl]phenyl}-2H-indazole-7-carboxamide (MK-4827): a novel oral poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) inhibitor efficacious in BRCA-1 and -2 mutant tumors.

    PubMed

    Jones, Philip; Altamura, Sergio; Boueres, Julia; Ferrigno, Federica; Fonsi, Massimiliano; Giomini, Claudia; Lamartina, Stefania; Monteagudo, Edith; Ontoria, Jesus M; Orsale, Maria Vittoria; Palumbi, Maria Cecilia; Pesci, Silvia; Roscilli, Giuseppe; Scarpelli, Rita; Schultz-Fademrecht, Carsten; Toniatti, Carlo; Rowley, Michael

    2009-11-26

    We disclose the development of a novel series of 2-phenyl-2H-indazole-7-carboxamides as poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) 1 and 2 inhibitors. This series was optimized to improve enzyme and cellular activity, and the resulting PARP inhibitors display antiproliferation activities against BRCA-1 and BRCA-2 deficient cancer cells, with high selectivity over BRCA proficient cells. Extrahepatic oxidation by CYP450 1A1 and 1A2 was identified as a metabolic concern, and strategies to improve pharmacokinetic properties are reported. These efforts culminated in the identification of 2-{4-[(3S)-piperidin-3-yl]phenyl}-2H-indazole-7-carboxamide 56 (MK-4827), which displays good pharmacokinetic properties and is currently in phase I clinical trials. This compound displays excellent PARP 1 and 2 inhibition with IC(50) = 3.8 and 2.1 nM, respectively, and in a whole cell assay, it inhibited PARP activity with EC(50) = 4 nM and inhibited proliferation of cancer cells with mutant BRCA-1 and BRCA-2 with CC(50) in the 10-100 nM range. Compound 56 was well tolerated in vivo and demonstrated efficacy as a single agent in a xenograft model of BRCA-1 deficient cancer.

  20. Reducing blood glucose levels in TIDM mice with an orally administered extract of sericin from hIGF-I-transgenic silkworm cocoons.

    PubMed

    Song, Zuowei; Zhang, Mengyao; Xue, Renyu; Cao, Guangli; Gong, Chengliang

    2014-05-01

    In previous studies, we reported that the blood glucose levels of mice with type I diabetes mellitus (TIDM) was reduced with orally administered silk gland powder from silkworms transgenic for human insulin-like growth factor-I (hIGF-I). However, potential safety hazards could not be eliminated because the transgenic silk gland powder contained heterologous DNA, including the green fluorescent protein (gfp) and neomycin resistance (neo) genes. These shortcomings might be overcome if the recombinant hIGF-I were secreted into the sericin layer of the cocoon. In this study, silkworm eggs were transfected with a novel piggyBac transposon vector, pigA3GFP-serHS-hIGF-I-neo, containing the neo, gfp, and hIGF-I genes controlled by the sericin-1 (ser-1) promoter with the signal peptide DNA sequence of the fibrin heavy chain (Fib-H) and a helper plasmid containing the piggyBac transposase sequence under the control of the Bombyx mori actin 3 (A3) promoter, using sperm-mediated gene transfer to generate the transformed silkworms. The hIGF-I content estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was approximately 162.7 ng/g. To estimate the biological activity of the expressed hIGF-I, streptozotocin-induced TIDM mice were orally administered sericin from the transgenic silkworm. The blood glucose levels of the mice were significantly reduced, suggesting that the extract from the transgenic hIGF-I silkworm cocoons can be used as an orally administered drug.

  1. Comparison of the enhancement of plasma glucose levels in type 2 diabetes Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats by oral administration of sucrose or maple syrup.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Noriaki; Ito, Yoshimasa; Taga, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    Maple syrup is used as a premium natural sweeter, and is known for being good for human health. In the present study, we investigate whether maple syrup is suitable as a sweetener in the management of type 2 diabetes using Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. OLETF rats develop type 2 diabetes mellitus by 30 weeks of age, and 60-week-old OLETF rats show hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia via pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. The administration of sucrose or maple syrup following an OGT test increased plasma glucose (PG) levels in OLETF rats, but the enhancement in PG following the oral administration of maple syrup was lower than in the case of sucrose administration in both 30- and 60-week-old OLETF rats. Although, the insulin levels in 30-week-old OLETF rats also increased following the oral administration of sucrose or maple syrup, no increase in insulin levels was seen in 60-week-old OLETF rats following the oral administration of either sucrose or maple syrup. No significant differences were observed in insulin levels between sucrose- and maple syrup-administered OLETF rats at either 30 or 60 weeks of age. The present study strongly suggests that the maple syrup may have a lower glycemic index than sucrose, which may help in the prevention of type 2 diabetes.

  2. Quantitation of methadone enantiomers in humans using stable isotope-labeled (2H3)-, (2H5)-, and (2H8)Methadone

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, K.; Hachey, D.L.; Kreek, M.J.; Irving, C.S.; Klein, P.D.

    1982-01-01

    A new technique for simultaneous stereoselective kinetic studies of methadone enantiomers was developed using three deuterium-labeled forms of methadone and GLC-chemical-ionization mass spectrometry. A racemic mixture (1:1) of (R)-(-)-(2H5)methadone (l-form) and (S)-(R)-(2H3)methadone (d-form) was administered orally in place of a single daily dose of unlabeled (+/-)-(2H0)methadone in long-term maintenance patients. Racemic (+/-)-(2H8)methadone was used as an internal standard for the simultaneous quantitation of (2H0)-, (2H3)-, and (2H5)methadone in plasma and urine. A newly developed extraction procedure, using a short, disposable C18 reversed-phase cartridge and improved chemical-ionization procedures employing ammonia gas, resulted in significant reduction of the background impurities contributing to the ions used for isotopic abundance measurements. These improvements enabled the measurement of labeled plasma methadone levels for 120 hr following a single dose. This methodology was applied to the study of methadone kinetics in two patients; in both patients, the analgesically active l-enantiomer of the drug had a longer plasma elimination half-life and a smaller area under the plasma disappearance curve than did the inactive d-form.

  3. Glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant

    MedlinePlus

    Oral glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant; OGTT - non-pregnant; Diabetes - glucose tolerance test ... The most common glucose tolerance test is the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Before the test begins, a sample of blood will be taken. You will then ...

  4. Influence of Oral Antidiabetic Drugs on Hyperglycemic Response to Foods in Persons with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus as Assessed by Continuous Glucose Monitoring System: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Karolina, Peterson; Chlup, Rudolf; Jana, Zapletalova; Kohnert, Klaus Dieter; Kudlova, Pavla; Bartek, Josef; Nakladalova, Marie; Doubravova, Blanka; Seckar, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Background The purpose of this prospective open-label trial was (1) to assess the influence of oral antidiabetic drugs (OAD) on the glycemic index (GI), glucose response curves (GRCs), daily mean plasma glucose (MPG) and (2) to compare the GI of foods in persons with OAD-treated type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with the respective GI in healthy persons (HP). Methods Tested foods containing 50 g of carbohydrates were eaten for breakfast and dinner after 10 and 4 h of fasting, respectively. Glycemic index, GRC, and MPG were obtained using the CGMS®System Gold™ (CGMS). In T2DM patients [n = 16; age (mean ± standard error) 56.0 ± 2.25 years], foods were tested four times: tests 1, 2, and 3 were performed within one week in which placebo was introduced on day 2, and test 4 was carried out five weeks after reintroduction of OAD. Glycemic indexes, GRC, and MPG from tests 1, 2, 3, and 4 were compared. In a control group of 20 HP (age 24.4 ± 0.71 years), the mean GIs were calculated as the mean from 20 subject-related GIs. Results In T2DM patients, subject-related assessment of GIs, GRC, and MPG distinguished persons with and without OAD effect. Nevertheless, the group-related GIs and the MPG on days 2, 8, and 39 showed no significant difference. There was no significant difference between the GIs in OAD-treated T2DM patients (test 4) versus HP (except in apple baby food). Glucose response curves were significantly larger in T2DM patients (test 4) versus HP. Conclusions Determination of GRC and subject-related GI using the CGMS appears to be a potential means for the evaluation of efficacy of OAD treatment. Further studies are underway. PMID:20663465

  5. Detection of orally administered inositol stereoisomers in mouse blood plasma and their effects on translocation of glucose transporter 4 in skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Yoko; Yamaoka, Masaru; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Ashida, Hitoshi; Yoshida, Ken-ichi

    2013-05-22

    Simple pharmacological studies on inositol stereoisomers are presented in this study. Male ICR mice were orally administered 1 g/kg BW of three inositol stereoisomers, myo-inositol (MI), d-chiro-inositol (DCI), and scyllo-inositol (SI), and blood plasma samples and skeletal muscle fractions were prepared after an hour. The plasma samples were subjected to gas chromatography-coupled time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) analysis. None of the three stereoisomers was seen in untreated samples, but substantial amounts ranging from 2.5 to 6.5 mM were detected only after administration, indicating that orally administered inositol stereoisomers were readily absorbed and their levels elevated in the bloodstream. In addition, plasma of SI-administered animals contained substantial MI, suggesting a possible metabolic conversion of SI to MI. In the skeletal muscle fractions, glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) content in the plasma membrane increased, indicating that inositol stereoisomers stimulated GLUT4 translocation.

  6. Effect of oral administration of bark extracts of Pterocarpus santalinus L. on blood glucose level in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Kameswara Rao, B; Giri, R; Kesavulu, M M; Apparao, C

    2001-01-01

    The effect of administration of different doses of Pterocarpus santalinus L. bark extracts in normal and diabetic rats, on blood glucose levels was evaluated in this study. Among the three fractions (aqueous, ethanol and hexane), ethanolic fraction at the dose of 0.25 g/kg body weight showed maximum antihyperglycemic activity. The same dose did not cause any hypoglycemic activity in normal rats. The results were compared with the diabetic rats treated with glibenclamide and the antihyperglycemic activity of ethanolic extract of PS bark at the dose of 0.25 g/kg b.w. was found to be more effective than that of glibenclamide. PMID:11137350

  7. Blood levels of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines during an oral glucose tolerance test in patients with symptoms suggesting reactive hypoglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Eik, W.; Marcon, S.S.; Krupek, T.; Previdelli, I.T.S.; Pereira, O.C.N.; Silva, M.A.R.C.P.; Bazotte, R.B.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the impact of postprandial glycemia on blood levels of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines during an oral glucose tolerance test in non-diabetic patients with symptoms suggesting reactive hypoglycemia. Eleven patients with clinical symptoms suggesting reactive hypoglycemia received an oral glucose solution (75 g) Blood was collected at 0 (baseline), 30, 60, 120 and 180 min after glucose ingestion and the plasma concentrations of interferon-α (IFN-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), interleukin 2 (IL-2), interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R), interleukin 4 (IL-4), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 8 (IL-8), interleukin 10 (IL-10), interleukin-12 (IL-12), interleukin 13 (IL-13), interleukin 15 (IL-15), interleukin 17 (IL-17), IFN-γ inducible protein 10 (IP-10), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP1), monokine induced by IFN-γ (MIG), macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage CSF (GM-CSF), basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-basic), eotaxin, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), epidermal growth factor (EGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), and 1β (MIP-1β) were evaluated. Overall, glycemic levels increased, reached its maximum at 30 min (phase 1), returned to baseline levels at 120 min (phase 2), followed by a mild hypoglycemia at 180 min (phase 3). During phase 1, cytokine blood levels were maintained. However, we observed a synchronous fall (P<0.05) in the concentrations of pro-inflammatory (IL-15, IL-17, MCP-1) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (FGF-basic, IL-13, IL-1RA) during phase 2. Furthermore, a simultaneous rise (P<0.05) of pro-inflammatory (IL-2, IL-5, IL-17) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-1RA, IL-2R, IL-13, FGF-basic) occurred during phase 3. Thus, mild acute hypoglycemia but not a physiological increase of glycemia

  8. Blood levels of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines during an oral glucose tolerance test in patients with symptoms suggesting reactive hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Eik, W; Marcon, S S; Krupek, T; Previdelli, I T S; Pereira, O C N; Silva, M A R C P; Bazotte, R B

    2016-07-11

    We evaluated the impact of postprandial glycemia on blood levels of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines during an oral glucose tolerance test in non-diabetic patients with symptoms suggesting reactive hypoglycemia. Eleven patients with clinical symptoms suggesting reactive hypoglycemia received an oral glucose solution (75 g) Blood was collected at 0 (baseline), 30, 60, 120 and 180 min after glucose ingestion and the plasma concentrations of interferon-α (IFN-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), interleukin 2 (IL-2), interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R), interleukin 4 (IL-4), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 8 (IL-8), interleukin 10 (IL-10), interleukin-12 (IL-12), interleukin 13 (IL-13), interleukin 15 (IL-15), interleukin 17 (IL-17), IFN-γ inducible protein 10 (IP-10), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP1), monokine induced by IFN-γ (MIG), macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage CSF (GM-CSF), basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-basic), eotaxin, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), epidermal growth factor (EGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), and 1β (MIP-1β) were evaluated. Overall, glycemic levels increased, reached its maximum at 30 min (phase 1), returned to baseline levels at 120 min (phase 2), followed by a mild hypoglycemia at 180 min (phase 3). During phase 1, cytokine blood levels were maintained. However, we observed a synchronous fall (P<0.05) in the concentrations of pro-inflammatory (IL-15, IL-17, MCP-1) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (FGF-basic, IL-13, IL-1RA) during phase 2. Furthermore, a simultaneous rise (P<0.05) of pro-inflammatory (IL-2, IL-5, IL-17) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-1RA, IL-2R, IL-13, FGF-basic) occurred during phase 3. Thus, mild acute hypoglycemia but not a physiological increase of glycemia

  9. Discovery of sodium R-(+)-4-{2-[5-(2-fluoro-3-methoxyphenyl)-3-(2-fluoro-6-[trifluoromethyl]benzyl)-4-methyl-2,6-dioxo-3,6-dihydro-2H-pyrimidin-1-yl]-1-phenylethylamino}butyrate (elagolix), a potent and orally available nonpeptide antagonist of the human gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Wu, Dongpei; Guo, Zhiqiang; Xie, Qiu; Reinhart, Greg J; Madan, Ajay; Wen, Jenny; Chen, Takung; Huang, Charles Q; Chen, Mi; Chen, Yongsheng; Tucci, Fabio C; Rowbottom, Martin; Pontillo, Joseph; Zhu, Yun-Fei; Wade, Warren; Saunders, John; Bozigian, Haig; Struthers, R Scott

    2008-12-11

    The discovery of novel uracil phenylethylamines bearing a butyric acid as potent human gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (hGnRH-R) antagonists is described. A major focus of this optimization was to improve the CYP3A4 inhibition liability of these uracils while maintaining their GnRH-R potency. R-4-{2-[5-(2-fluoro-3-methoxyphenyl)-3-(2-fluoro-6-[trifluoromethyl]benzyl)-4-methyl-2,6-dioxo-3,6-dihydro-2H-pyrimidin-1-yl]-1-phenylethylamino}butyric acid sodium salt, 10b (elagolix), was identified as a potent and selective hGnRH-R antagonist. Oral administration of 10b suppressed luteinizing hormone in castrated macaques. These efforts led to the identification of 10b as a clinical compound for the treatment of endometriosis.

  10. Association of fasting glucose with subclinical cerebrovascular disease in older adults without Type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Sims, R. C.; Katzel, L. I.; Lefkowitz, D. M.; Siegel, E.L.; Rosenberger, W.F.; Manukyan, Z.; Whitfield, K.E.; Waldstein, S.R.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To examine how fasting glucose and glucose tolerance are related to magnetic resonance imaging-assessed indicators of subclinical cerebrovascular disease and brain atrophy and their variation according to age, sex and education. Methods Participants in the present study were 172 healthy, community-dwelling older adults. An oral glucose tolerance test was administered and magnetic resonance imaging performed. Fasting, 2-h, and 2-h area-under-the-curve glucose levels, their associations with subclinical cerebrovascular disease and brain atrophy, and their respective interactions with age, sex and education were examined. Results A positive association between fasting glucose and subclinical cerebrovascular disease (but not brain atrophy) emerged; this association was more pronounced for participants with < 12 years of education; however, glucose tolerance was not related to subclinical cerebrovascular disease or brain atrophy. Conclusions Findings revealed a potential link between fasting glucose levels and the presence of subclinical cerebrovascular disease indicators — white matter hyperintensities and silent brain infarction — in older adults without diabetes and with an education level below high school. Additional research is needed to confirm these associations and to determine the need for interventions aimed at closely monitoring and preventing elevated glucose levels in this population to reduce the prevalence of subclinical cerebrovascular disease. PMID:24344757

  11. Distribution of proteins similar to IIIManH and IIIManL of the Streptococcus salivarius phosphoenolpyruvate:mannose-glucose phosphotransferase system among oral and nonoral bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Pelletier, M; Frenette, M; Vadeboncoeur, C

    1995-01-01

    In Streptococcus salivarius, the phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP):mannose-glucose phosphotransferase system, which concomitantly transports and phosphorylates mannose, glucose, fructose, and 2-deoxyglucose, is composed of the general energy-coupling proteins EI and HPr, the specific membrane-bound IIIMan, and two forms of a protein called IIIMan, with molecular weights of 38,900 (IIIManH) and 35,200 (IIIManL), that are found in the cytoplasm as well as associated with the membrane. Several lines of evidence suggest that IIIManH and/or IIIManL are involved in the control of sugar metabolism. To determine whether other bacteria possess these proteins, we tested for their presence in 28 oral streptococcus strains, 3 nonoral streptococcus strains, 2 lactococcus strains, 2 enterococcus strains, 2 bacillus strains, 1 lactobacillus strain, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. Three approaches were used to determine whether the IIIMan proteins were present in these bacteria: (i) Western blot (immunoblot) analysis of cytoplasmic and membrane proteins, using anti-IIIManH and anti-IIIManH rabbit polyclonal antibodies; (ii) analysis of PEP-dependent phosphoproteins by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; and (iii) inhibition by anti-IIIMan antibodies of the PEP-dependent phosphorylation of 2-deoxyglucose (a mannose analog) by crude cellular extracts. Only the species S. salivarius and Streptococcus vestibularis possessed the two forms of IIIMan. Fifteen other streptococcal species possessed one protein with a molecular weight between 35,200 and 38,900 that cross-reacted with both antibodies. In the case of 9 species, a protein possessing the same electrophoretic mobility was phosphorylated at the expense of PEP. No such phosphoprotein, however, could be detected in the other six species. A III(Man)-like protein with a molecular weight of 35,500 was also detected in Lactobacillus casei by Western blot experiments as well as by PEP-dependent phosphoprotein analysis, and a

  12. Acute elevation of endogenous prolactin does not influence glucose homeostasis in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Vigas, M; Klimes, I; Jurcovicová, J; Jezová, D

    1993-01-01

    The diabetogenic effect of prolactin observed in patients with pathological hyperprolactinaemia was verified in healthy subjects. Plasma prolactin elevation was induced by administration of a dopamine antagonist drug domperidone (Motilium 10 mg orally, 9 subjects) and 2 h later the oral glucose tolerance test was performed. The influence of dopamine receptor stimulation on glucose homeostasis was tested by dopamine infusion (0.3 mg in saline or 20% glucose, 1 g/min for 60 min, 11 subjects). After the blockade of dopamine receptors, a significant and prolonged increase of prolactin concentration was found. However, the levels of glucose, insulin, and C-peptide either before or after the glucose load were not different from control ones. The decreased number of insulin receptors (1.97 +/- 0.41 vs 0.51 +/- 0.14 pmol per 2.10(9) red blood cells) was compensated by increased affinity (0.51 +/- 0.17 vs 1.00 +/- 0.22 Ke 10(8) mol.-1 per l]) of insulin receptors. The stimulation of dopamine receptors showed a negligible effect on glucose regulation. It may be suggested that an endogenous increase of prolactin concentration in the physiological range does not participate in the regulation of glucose homeostasis in healthy subjects. PMID:8130181

  13. The oral glucose tolerance test for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus in patients during acute coronary syndrome hospitalization: a meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The appropriateness of the routine performance of an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) to screen for diabetes mellitus (DM) during acute coronary syndrome hospitalization is still under debate. Methods A systematic search of databases (MEDLINE [1985 to March 2012], EMBASE [1985 to March 2012]) was conducted. All prospective cohort studies assessing the accuracy or reproducibility of an OGTT in ACS or non-ACS individuals were included. A bivariate model was used to calculate the pooled sensitivity (SEN), specificity (SPE), positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR). Heterogeneity was explored using subgroup analysis and meta-regression. Results Fifteen studies with 8,027 participants were included (10 ACS and 5 non-ACS studies). The pooled results on SEN, SPE, PLR, NLR, and DOR were 0.70 (95% CI, 0.60-0.78), 0.91 (95% CI, 0.86-0.94), 7.6 (95% CI, 4.9-11.7), 0.33 (95% CI, 0.25-0.45), and 23 (95% CI, 12–41), respectively. The OGTT has a slightly lower SPE in diagnosing DM in ACS than in non-ACS patients (0.86 [95% CI 0.81-0.92] versus 0.95 [95% CI 0.93-0.98], p<0.01), while the SEN values are comparable (0.71 [95% CI 0.60-0.82] versus 0.67 [95% CI 0.54-0.81], p=0.43). After adjusting the interval between repeated tests and age, the meta-regression did not show a difference in DOR between ACS and non-ACS studies. Conclusions Despite the discrepancy in the interval between the two OGTTs, performing an OGTT in patients with ACS provides accuracy that is similar to that in in non-ACS patients. It is reasonable to screen patients hospitalized for ACS for previously undiagnosed DM using an OGTT. PMID:23270530

  14. Fetal growth and impaired glucose tolerance in men and women.

    PubMed

    Phipps, K; Barker, D J; Hales, C N; Fall, C H; Osmond, C; Clark, P M

    1993-03-01

    A follow-up study was carried out to determine whether reduced fetal growth is associated with the development of impaired glucose tolerance in men and women aged 50 years. Standard oral glucose tolerance tests were carried out on 140 men and 126 women born in Preston (Lancashire, UK) between 1935 and 1943, whose size at birth had been measured in detail. Those subjects found to have impaired glucose tolerance or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus had lower birthweight, a smaller head circumference and were thinner at birth. They also had a higher ratio of placental weight to birthweight. The prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes fell from 27% in subjects who weighed 2.50 kg (5.5 pounds) or less at birth to 6% in those who weighed more than 3.41 kg (7.5 pounds) (p < 0.002 after adjusting for body mass index). Plasma glucose concentrations taken at 2-h in the glucose tolerance test fell progressively as birthweight increased (p < 0.004), as did 2-h plasma insulin concentrations (p < 0.001). The trends with birthweight were independent of duration of gestation and must therefore be related to reduced rates of fetal growth. These findings confirm the association between impaired glucose tolerance in adult life and low birthweight previously reported in Hertfordshire (UK), and demonstrate it in women as well as men. It is suggested that the association reflects the long-term effects of reduced growth of the endocrine pancreas and other tissues in utero. This may be a consequence of maternal undernutrition. PMID:8462770

  15. Impaired Glucose Regulation is Associated with Poorer Performance on the Stroop Task

    PubMed Central

    Gluck, Marci E.; Ziker, Cindy; Schwegler, Matthew; Thearle, Marie; Votruba, Susanne B.; Krakoff, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes is a risk factor for development of cognitive dysfunction. Impairments in glucose regulation have been associated with poorer performance on tests of executive function and information processing speed. Methods We administered the Stroop Color Word Task, where higher interference scores are indicative of decreased selective attention, to 98 non-diabetic volunteers (64m; %fat=37±12; age=36±9 y, race=41 NA/30 C/13 H/14 AA) on our inpatient unit. After 3d on a weight maintaining diet, % body fat was measured by DXA and a 75g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was administered. Impaired glucose regulation (IGR) was defined as: fasting plasma glucose ≥100 and ≤125 mg/dL and/or 2h plasma glucose between ≥140 and ≤199 mg/dL (IGR; n = 48; NGR; n = 50). Total and incremental area under the curve (AUC) for insulin and glucose were calculated. Results Stroop interference scores were not significantly associated with any measure of adiposity or insulin concentrations. Individuals with IGR had significantly higher interference scores than those with normal glucose regulation (NGR; p=0.003). Higher interference scores were significantly correlated with fasting plasma glucose concentrations (r=0.26, p = 0.007) and total glucose AUC (r=0.30, p = 0.02) and only trending so for iAUC and 2h plasma glucose (r=0.18, p=0.08; r=0.17, p=0.09 respectively). In separate multivariate linear models, fasting plasma glucose (p = 0.002) and total glucose AUC (p = 0.0005) remained significant predictors of Stroop interference scores, even after adjustment for age, sex, race, education and %fat. Conclusions Individuals with IGR had decreased performance on a test of selective attention. Fasting plasma glucose was more strongly associated with lower performance scores than 2h plasma glucose. Our results indicate that even mild hyperglycemia in the non-diabetic range is associated with attentional processing difficulties in a sample of younger adults. Whether

  16. Postprandial Differences in the Amino Acid and Biogenic Amines Profiles of Impaired Fasting Glucose Individuals after Intake of Highland Barley

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Liyan; Wang, Xinyang; Li, Ying; Sun, Changhao

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the postprandial changes in amino acid and biogenic amine profiles in individuals with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and to investigate the changes of postprandial amino acid and biogenic amine profiles after a meal of highland barley (HB). Firstly, 50 IFG and 50 healthy individuals were recruited for the measurement of 2 h postprandial changes of amino acid and biogenic amine profiles after a glucose load. Secondly, IFG individuals received three different loads: Glucose (GL), white rice (WR) and HB. Amino acid and biogenic amine profiles, glucose and insulin were assayed at time zero and 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after the test load. The results showed fasting and postprandial amino acid and biogenic amine profiles were different between the IFG group and the controls. The level of most amino acids and their metabolites decreased after an oral glucose tolerance test, while the postprandial level of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) increased significantly in IFG individuals. After three different test loads, the area under the curve for glucose, insulin, lysine and GABA after a HB load decreased significantly compared to GL and WR loads. Furthermore, the postprandial changes in the level of GABA between time zero and 120 min during a HB load were associated positively with 2 h glucose and fasting insulin secretion in the IFG individuals. Thus, the HB load produced low postprandial glucose and insulin responses, which induced changes in amino acid and biogenic amine profiles and improved insulin sensitivity. PMID:26184292

  17. Postprandial Differences in the Amino Acid and Biogenic Amines Profiles of Impaired Fasting Glucose Individuals after Intake of Highland Barley.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liyan; Wang, Xinyang; Li, Ying; Sun, Changhao

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the postprandial changes in amino acid and biogenic amine profiles in individuals with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and to investigate the changes of postprandial amino acid and biogenic amine profiles after a meal of highland barley (HB). Firstly, 50 IFG and 50 healthy individuals were recruited for the measurement of 2 h postprandial changes of amino acid and biogenic amine profiles after a glucose load. Secondly, IFG individuals received three different loads: Glucose (GL), white rice (WR) and HB. Amino acid and biogenic amine profiles, glucose and insulin were assayed at time zero and 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after the test load. The results showed fasting and postprandial amino acid and biogenic amine profiles were different between the IFG group and the controls. The level of most amino acids and their metabolites decreased after an oral glucose tolerance test, while the postprandial level of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) increased significantly in IFG individuals. After three different test loads, the area under the curve for glucose, insulin, lysine and GABA after a HB load decreased significantly compared to GL and WR loads. Furthermore, the postprandial changes in the level of GABA between time zero and 120 min during a HB load were associated positively with 2 h glucose and fasting insulin secretion in the IFG individuals. Thus, the HB load produced low postprandial glucose and insulin responses, which induced changes in amino acid and biogenic amine profiles and improved insulin sensitivity.

  18. Glucose tolerance, blood lipid, insulin and glucagon concentration after single or continuous administration of aspartame in diabetics.

    PubMed

    Okuno, G; Kawakami, F; Tako, H; Kashihara, T; Shibamoto, S; Yamazaki, T; Yamamoto, K; Saeki, M

    1986-04-01

    A nutritive sweetener, aspartame (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methylester) was administered orally to normal controls and diabetic patients in order to evaluate effects on blood glucose, lipids and pancreatic hormone secretion. An oral glucose tolerance test was also performed in the same subjects as a control study of aspartame administration. In 7 normal controls and 22 untreated diabetics, a single dose of 500 mg aspartame, equivalent to 100 g glucose in sweetness, induced no increase in blood glucose concentration. Rather, a small but significant decrease in blood glucose was noticed 2 or 3 h after administration. The decrease in blood glucose was found to be smallest in the control and became greater as the diabetes increased in severity. No significant change in blood insulin or glucagon concentration during a 3-h period was observed in either the controls or the diabetics. The second study was designed to determine the effects of 2 weeks' continuous administration of 125 mg aspartame, equal in sweetness to the mean daily consumption of sugar (20-30 g) in Japan, to 9 hospitalized diabetics with steady-state glycemic control. The glucose tolerance showed no significant change after 2 weeks' administration. Fasting, 1 h and 2 h postprandial blood glucose, blood cholesterol, triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol were also unaffected. From these and other published results, aspartame would seem to be a useful alternative nutrient sweetener for patients with diabetes mellitus.

  19. Oral administration of SR-110, a peroxynitrite decomposing catalyst, enhances glucose homeostasis, insulin signaling, and islet architecture in B6D2F1 mice fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Johns, Michael; Esmaeili Mohsen Abadi, Sakineh; Malik, Nehal; Lee, Joshua; Neumann, William L; Rausaria, Smita; Imani-Nejad, Maryam; McPherson, Timothy; Schober, Joseph; Kwon, Guim

    2016-04-15

    Peroxynitrite has been implicated in type 2 diabetes and diabetic complications. As a follow-up study to our previous work on SR-135 (Arch Biochem Biophys 577-578: 49-59, 2015), we provide evidence that this series of compounds are effective when administered orally, and their mechanisms of actions extend to the peripheral tissues. A more soluble analogue of SR-135, SR-110 (from a new class of Mn(III) bis(hydroxyphenyl)-dipyrromethene complexes) was orally administered for 2 weeks to B6D2F1 mice fed a high fat-diet (HFD). Mice fed a HFD for 4 months gained significantly higher body weights compared to lean diet-fed mice (52 ± 1.5 g vs 34 ± 1.3 g). SR-110 (10 mg/kg daily) treatment significantly reduced fasting blood glucose and insulin levels, and enhanced glucose tolerance as compared to HFD control or vehicle (peanut butter) group. SR-110 treatment enhanced insulin signaling in the peripheral organs, liver, heart, and skeletal muscle, and reduced lipid accumulation in the liver. Furthermore, SR-110 increased insulin content, restored islet architecture, decreased islet size, and reduced tyrosine nitration. These results suggest that a peroxynitrite decomposing catalyst is effective in improving glucose homeostasis and restoring islet morphology and β-cell insulin content under nutrient overload. PMID:26970045

  20. Identifying glucose thresholds for incident diabetes by physiological analysis: a mathematical solution.

    PubMed

    Ferrannini, Ele; Manca, Maria Laura

    2015-04-01

    Plasma glucose thresholds for diagnosis of type 2 diabetes are currently based on outcome data (risk of retinopathy), an inherently ill-conditioned approach. A radically different approach is to consider the mechanisms that control plasma glucose, rather than its relation to an outcome. We developed a constraint optimization algorithm to find the minimal glucose levels associated with the maximized combination of insulin sensitivity and β-cell function, the two main mechanisms of glucose homeostasis. We used a training cohort of 1,474 subjects (22% prediabetic, 7.7% diabetic) in whom insulin sensitivity was measured by the clamp technique and β-cell function was determined by mathematical modeling of an oral glucose tolerance test. Optimized fasting glucose levels were ≤ 87 and ≤ 89 mg/dl in ≤ 45-yr-old women and men, respectively, and ≤ 92 and ≤ 95 mg/dl in >45-yr-old women and men, respectively; the corresponding optimized 2-h glucose levels were ≤ 96, ≤ 98, ≤ 103, and ≤ 105 mg/dl. These thresholds were validated in three prospective cohorts of nondiabetic subjects (Relationship Between Insulin Sensitivity and Cardiovascular Disease Study, Botnia Study, and Mexico City Diabetes Study) with baseline and follow-up oral glucose tolerance tests. Of 5,593 participants, 452 progressed to diabetes. Similarly, in the three cohorts, subjects with glucose levels above the estimated thresholds had an odds ratio of 3.74 (95% confidence interval = 2.64-5.48) of progressing, substantially higher than the risk carried by baseline conventionally defined prediabetes [odds ratio = 2.32 (95% confidence interval = 1.91-2.81)]. The concept that optimization of glucose concentrations by direct measures of insulin sensitivity and β-cell function identifies gender- and age-specific thresholds that bear on disease progression is proven in a physiologically sound, quantifiable manner.

  1. Identifying glucose thresholds for incident diabetes by physiological analysis: a mathematical solution.

    PubMed

    Ferrannini, Ele; Manca, Maria Laura

    2015-04-01

    Plasma glucose thresholds for diagnosis of type 2 diabetes are currently based on outcome data (risk of retinopathy), an inherently ill-conditioned approach. A radically different approach is to consider the mechanisms that control plasma glucose, rather than its relation to an outcome. We developed a constraint optimization algorithm to find the minimal glucose levels associated with the maximized combination of insulin sensitivity and β-cell function, the two main mechanisms of glucose homeostasis. We used a training cohort of 1,474 subjects (22% prediabetic, 7.7% diabetic) in whom insulin sensitivity was measured by the clamp technique and β-cell function was determined by mathematical modeling of an oral glucose tolerance test. Optimized fasting glucose levels were ≤ 87 and ≤ 89 mg/dl in ≤ 45-yr-old women and men, respectively, and ≤ 92 and ≤ 95 mg/dl in >45-yr-old women and men, respectively; the corresponding optimized 2-h glucose levels were ≤ 96, ≤ 98, ≤ 103, and ≤ 105 mg/dl. These thresholds were validated in three prospective cohorts of nondiabetic subjects (Relationship Between Insulin Sensitivity and Cardiovascular Disease Study, Botnia Study, and Mexico City Diabetes Study) with baseline and follow-up oral glucose tolerance tests. Of 5,593 participants, 452 progressed to diabetes. Similarly, in the three cohorts, subjects with glucose levels above the estimated thresholds had an odds ratio of 3.74 (95% confidence interval = 2.64-5.48) of progressing, substantially higher than the risk carried by baseline conventionally defined prediabetes [odds ratio = 2.32 (95% confidence interval = 1.91-2.81)]. The concept that optimization of glucose concentrations by direct measures of insulin sensitivity and β-cell function identifies gender- and age-specific thresholds that bear on disease progression is proven in a physiologically sound, quantifiable manner. PMID:25552659

  2. Synthesis of [2H7]indatraline.

    PubMed

    Allmendinger, L; Wanner, K T

    2014-11-01

    Deuterium-labelled indatraline was synthesized in high efficiency employing a Friedel-Crafts alkylation of [(2)H6]benzene with (E)-3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)acrylic acid as a key step. The desired labelling of the final compound was ascertained in two ways, by incorporation of [(2)H6]benzene in the target molecule and additionally by deuterium transfer to the non-deuterated aryl moiety of the Friedel-Crafts alkylation product from [(2)H6]benzene, the latter thus serving as reagent and solvent. PMID:25382822

  3. A Comparison of hs-CRP Levels in New Diabetes Groups Diagnosed Based on FPG, 2-hPG, or HbA1c Criteria.

    PubMed

    Tutuncu, Yildiz; Satman, Ilhan; Celik, Selda; Dinccag, Nevin; Karsidag, Kubilay; Telci, Aysegul; Genc, Sema; Issever, Halim; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Omer, Beyhan

    2016-01-01

    Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) have been used to diagnose new-onset diabetes mellitus (DM) in order to simplify the diagnostic tests compared with the 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; 2-hPG). We aimed to identify optimal cut-off points of high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in new-onset DM people based on FPG, 2-hPG, or HbA1c methods. Data derived from recent population-based survey in Turkey (TURDEP-II). The study included 26,499 adult people (63% women, response rate 85%). The mean serum concentration of hs-CRP in women was higher than in men (p < 0.001). The people with new-onset DM based on HbA1c had higher mean hs-CRP level than FPG based and 2-hPG based DM cases. In HbA1c, 2-hPG, and FPG based new-onset DM people, cut-off levels of hs-CRP in women were 2.9, 2.1, and 2.5 mg/L [27.5, 19.7, and 23.5 nmol/L] and corresponding values in men were 2.0, 1.8, and 1.8 mg/L (19.0, 16.9, and 16.9 nmol/L), respectively (sensitivity 60-65% and specificity 54-64%). Our results revealed that hs-CRP may not further strengthen the diagnosis of new-onset DM. Nevertheless, the highest hs-CRP level observed in new-onset DM people diagnosed with HbA1c criterion supports the general assumption that this method might recognize people in more advanced diabetic stage compared with other diagnostic methods.

  4. Diagnostic effectiveness of 75 g oral glucose tolerance test for gestational diabetes in India based on the International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Nikhat, Irfana; Nirmalan, Praveen K

    2013-01-01

    Background To determine the diagnostic effectiveness of the fasting and one-hour plasma glucose levels for gestational diabetes (GDM) based on International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria. Methods A Cross-sectional study that included 2348 pregnant women booked for antenatal care in 2011 at a tertiary care perinatal institute. Pregnant women underwent a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation. Outcome measures include the incidence of GDM based on the IADPSG criteria and the diagnostic effectiveness of the recommended fasting and one-hour plasma glucose cut-off if used in isolation. Results The incidence of GDM was 21.81% (n = 520, 95% CI: 20.15, 23.57) with the IADPSG criteria. A fasting plasma glucose cut-off 92 mg/dL, in isolation, correctly classified 87.16% of GDM, with a specificity of 96.08%, clinically significant positive likelihood ratio (14.08) and a post-test probability of 79.71%. The one-hour 75 g test, in isolation, correctly classified 85.74% of GDM, had specificity of 99.68% and clinically significant positive likelihood ratio (111.12) and post-test probability of 96.87%. The application of the World Health Organization criteria would misclassify 11.91% (95% CI: 10.66, 13.26) of GDM as normal. Conclusions Additional testing of plasma glucose levels can be avoided for 18.25% (n = 435, 95% CI: 16.73, 19.84) if the IADPSG diagnostic criteria for GDM are applied with exit on a positive fasting or one-hour test result.

  5. Family resemblance for glucose tolerance in a Melanesian population, the Tolai.

    PubMed

    King, H; Rao, D C; Bhatia, K; Koki, G; Collins, A; Zimmet, P

    1989-01-01

    Path analysis of family resemblance for plasma glucose concentration, 2 h after an oral glucose challenge, failed to detect significant genetic heritability. There were no intergenerational differences and marital resemblance was moderate. Over one-third of sibling environmental similarity was due to non-inherited factors. Cultural inheritance was very strong, tending to mimic genetic inheritance, and cultural heritability was considerable. Measures of obesity were included in the environmental index, an estimate of familial environment, in this analysis, for comparability with previous studies. Since obesity appears, in part, to be a heritable trait, in future studies a bivariate approach to family resemblance for both glucose tolerance and obesity could yield important additional insight.

  6. Does an L-glutamine-containing, Glucose-free, Oral Rehydration Solution Reduce Stool Output and Time to Rehydrate in Children with Acute Diarrhoea? A Double-blind Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Claudia; Villa, Sofía; Mota, Felipe R.; Calva, Juan J.

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed whether an oral rehydration solution (ORS) in which glucose is replaced by L-glutamine (L-glutamine ORS) is more effective than the standard glucose-based rehydration solution recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO-ORS) in reducing the stool volume and time to rehydrate in acute diarrhoea. In a double-blind, randomized controlled trial in a Mexican hospital, 147 dehydrated children, aged 1–60 month(s), were assigned either to the WHO-ORS (74 children), or to the L-glutamine ORS (73 children) and followed until successful rehydration. There were no significant differences between the groups in stool output during the first four hours, time to successful rehydration, volume of ORS required for rehydration, urinary output, and vomiting. This was independent of rotavirus-associated infection. An L-glutamine-containing glucose-free ORS seems not to offer greater clinical benefit than the standard WHO-ORS in mildly-to-moderately-dehydrated children with acute non-cholera diarrhoea. PMID:18330060

  7. Inflammatory Mediators and Glucose in Pregnancy: Results from a Subset of the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) Study

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Lynn P.; Metzger, Boyd E.; Lowe, William L.; Dyer, Alan R.; McDade, Thomas W.; McIntyre, H. David

    2010-01-01

    Context: Inflammatory mediators are associated with type 2 and gestational diabetes. It is unknown whether there are associations with glucose in pregnant women with lesser degrees of hyperglycemia. Objective: The objective of the study was to examine associations of inflammatory mediators with maternal glucose levels and neonatal size in a subset of participants in the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) Study. Design: Eligible pregnant women underwent a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test between 24 and 32 wk gestation, and levels of C-peptide, adiponectin, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1), C-reactive protein (CRP), and resistin were measured in fasting serum samples. Associations of inflammatory mediators with maternal glucose and with birth size were assessed using multiple linear regression analyses, adjusting for maternal body mass index (BMI), fasting C-peptide, and other potential confounders. Results: Mean levels of adiponectin declined, and PAI-1 and CRP increased across increasing levels of maternal glucose, BMI, and C-peptide. For example, for fasting plasma glucose less than 75 mg/dl and fasting plasma glucose of 90 mg/dl or greater, adiponectin was 22.5 and 17.4 μg/ml and PAI-1 was 30.9 and 34.2 ng/ml, respectively. Associations with 1- and 2-h plasma glucose remained significant for adiponectin (P < 0.001), PAI-1 (P < 0.05), and CRP (P < 0.01) after adjustment for BMI and C-peptide. Adiponectin and CRP were inversely associated with birth weight, sum of skinfolds and percent body fat, and PAI-1 with sum of skinfolds (all P < 0.05) after adjustment for confounders. Resistin was not associated with 1- or 2-h glucose or birth size. Conclusion: Levels of inflammatory mediators are associated with levels of maternal glucose in pregnant women without overt diabetes. PMID:20843942

  8. Effects of Exercise Intensity on Postprandial Improvement in Glucose Disposal and Insulin Sensitivity in Prediabetic Adults

    PubMed Central

    Rynders, Corey A.; Weltman, Judy Y.; Jiang, Boyi; Breton, Marc; Patrie, James; Barrett, Eugene J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: A single bout of exercise improves postprandial glycemia and insulin sensitivity in prediabetic patients; however, the impact of exercise intensity is not well understood. The present study compared the effects of acute isocaloric moderate (MIE) and high-intensity (HIE) exercise on glucose disposal and insulin sensitivity in prediabetic adults. Methods: Subjects (n = 18; age 49 ± 14 y; fasting glucose 105 ± 11 mg/dL; 2 h glucose 170 ± 32 mg/dL) completed a peak O2 consumption/lactate threshold (LT) protocol plus three randomly assigned conditions: 1) control, 1 hour of seated rest, 2) MIE (at LT), and 3) HIE (75% of difference between LT and peak O2 consumption). One hour after exercise, subjects received an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide concentrations were sampled at 5- to 10-minute intervals at baseline, during exercise, after exercise, and for 3 hours after glucose ingestion. Total, early-phase, and late-phase area under the glucose and insulin response curves were compared between conditions. Indices of insulin sensitivity (SI) were derived from OGTT data using the oral minimal model. Results: Compared with control, SI improved by 51% (P = .02) and 85% (P < .001) on the MIE and HIE days, respectively. No differences in SI were observed between the exercise conditions (P = .62). Improvements in SI corresponded to significant reductions in the glucose, insulin, and C-peptide area under the curve values during the late phase of the OGTT after HIE (P < .05), with only a trend for reductions after MIE. Conclusion: These results suggest that in prediabetic adults, acute exercise has an immediate and intensity-dependent effect on improving postprandial glycemia and insulin sensitivity. PMID:24243632

  9. Effects of sitagliptin on ectopic fat contents and glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetic patients with fatty liver: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Takahiro; Tamura, Yoshifumi; Kakehi, Saori; Funayama, Takashi; Gastaldelli, Amalia; Takeno, Kageumi; Kawaguchi, Minako; Yamamoto, Risako; Sato, Fumihiko; Ikeda, Shin-ichi; Taka, Hikari; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Fujitani, Yoshio; Kawamori, Ryuzo; Watada, Hirotaka

    2015-01-01

    Aims/Introduction Recent data have shown that ectopic fat accumulation in the liver worsens hepatic glucose metabolism, suggesting that fatty liver in patients with type 2 diabetes is a therapeutic target. Glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 improves fatty liver, but the effect of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor on fatty liver is still unclear. The present pilot study determined the effects of 12-week treatment with sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, on liver fat content in type 2 diabetes with fatty liver. We also evaluated intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) and glucose kinetics during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) before and after the treatment. Materials and Methods The study participants were seven type 2 diabetes patients with fatty liver who were studied at baseline and 12 weeks after sitagliptin treatment. Intrahepatic lipid (IHL) and IMCL were assessed by 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Glucose kinetics was assessed during double-tracer OGTT (U-[13C]-glucose orally and 6,6-[2H2]-glucose intravenously). Results Sitagliptin significantly reduced glycated hemoglobin (from 7.1 ± 0.2 to 6.5 ± 0.3%, P < 0.005), but had no effects on IHL and IMCL. The glucose level diminished, whereas GLP-1 concentration increased during OGTT at the end of treatment. These changes were not accompanied by significant changes in insulin or glucagon levels. However, long-term sitagliptin treatment partially decreased the rate of appearance of oral glucose during OGTT, but did not affect endogenous glucose production or the rate of disappearance. Conclusions It was found that 12-week sitagliptin treatment improved glycated hemoglobin and glucose excursion during OGTT in type 2 diabetes with fatty liver, independent of changes in lipid accumulation in the liver. This trial was registered with the Japan Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR000005666). PMID:25802724

  10. Metabolic profile of normal glucose-tolerant subjects with elevated 1-h plasma glucose values

    PubMed Central

    Pramodkumar, Thyparambil Aravindakshan; Priya, Miranda; Jebarani, Saravanan; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Mohan, Viswanathan; Pradeepa, Rajendra

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the metabolic profiles of subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) with and without elevated 1-h postglucose (1HrPG) values during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Methodology: The study group comprised 996 subjects without known diabetes seen at tertiary diabetes center between 2010 and 2014. NGT was defined as fasting plasma glucose <100 mg/dl (5.5 mmol/L) and 2-h plasma glucose <140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/L) after an 82.5 g oral glucose (equivalent to 75 g of anhydrous glucose) OGTT. Anthropometric measurements and biochemical investigations were done using standardized methods. The prevalence rate of generalized and central obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome (MS) was determined among the NGT subjects stratified based on their 1HrPG values as <143 mg/dl, ≥143–<155 mg/dl, and ≥155 mg/dl, after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, alcohol consumption, smoking, and family history of diabetes. Results: The mean age of the 996 NGT subjects was 48 ± 12 years and 53.5% were male. The mean glycated hemoglobin for subjects with 1HrPG <143 mg/dl was 5.5%, for those with 1HrPG ≥143–<155 mg/dl, 5.6% and for those with 1HrPG ≥155 mg/dl, 5.7%. NGT subjects with 1HrPG ≥143–<155 mg/dl and ≥155 mg/dl had significantly higher BMI, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride, total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio, triglyceride/HDL ratio, leukocyte count, and gamma glutamyl aminotransferase (P < 0.05) compared to subjects with 1HrPG <143 mg/dl. The odds ratio for MS for subjects with 1HrPG ≥143 mg/dl was 1.84 times higher compared to subjects with 1HrPG <143 mg/dl taken as the reference. Conclusion: NGT subjects with elevated 1HrPG values have a worse metabolic profile than those with normal 1HrPG during an OGTT. PMID:27730069

  11. Dose selection using a semi-mechanistic integrated glucose-insulin-glucagon model: designing phase 2 trials for a novel oral glucokinase activator.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Schneck, Karen; Bue-Valleskey, Juliana; Yeo, Kwee Poo; Heathman, Michael; Sinha, Vikram

    2013-02-01

    Selecting dosing regimens for phase 2 studies for a novel glucokinase activator LY2599506 is challenging due to the difficulty in modeling and assessing hypoglycemia risk. A semi-mechanistic integrated glucose-insulin-glucagon (GIG) model was developed in NONMEM based on pharmacokinetic, glucose, insulin, glucagon, and meal data obtained from a multiple ascending dose study in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with LY2599506 for up to 26 days. The series of differential equations from the NONMEM model was translated into an R script to prospectively predict 24-h glucose profiles following LY2599506 treatment for 3 months for a variety of doses and dosing regimens. The reduction in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) at the end of the 3-month treatment was estimated using a transit compartment model based on the simulated fasting glucose values. Two randomized phase 2 studies, one with fixed dosing and the other employing conditional dose titration were conducted. The simulation suggested that (1) Comparable HbA1c lowering with lower hypoglycemia risk occurs with titration compared to fixed-dosing; and (2) A dose range of 50-400 mg BID provides either greater efficacy or lower hypoglycemia incidence or both than glyburide. The predictions were in reasonable agreement with the observed clinical data. The model predicted HbA1c reduction and hypoglycemia risk provided the basis for the decision to focus on the dose-titration trial and for the selection of doses for the demonstration of superiority of LY2599506 to glyburide. The integrated GIG model represented a valuable tool for the evaluation of hypoglycemia incidence. PMID:23263772

  12. Dissociative recombination of N2H+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, S. Fonseca; Ngassam, V.; Orel, A. E.; Larson, Å.

    2016-08-01

    The direct and indirect mechanisms of dissociative recombination of N2H+ are theoretically studied. At low energies, the electron capture is found to be driven by recombination into bound Rydberg states, while at collision energies above 0.1 eV, the direct capture and dissociation along electronic resonant states becomes important. Electron-scattering calculations using the complex Kohn variational method are performed to obtain the scattering matrix as well as energy positions and autoionization widths of resonant states. Potential-energy surfaces of electronic bound states of N2H and N2H+ are computed using structure calculations with the multireference configuration interaction method. The cross section for the indirect mechanism is calculated using a vibrational frame transformation of the elements of the scattering matrix at energies just above the ionization threshold. Here vibrational excitations of the ionic core from v =0 to v =1 and v =2 for all three normal modes are considered and autoionization is neglected. The cross section for the direct dissociation along electronic resonant states is computed with wave-packet calculations using the multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree method, where all three internal degrees of freedom are considered. The calculated cross sections are compared to measurements.

  13. Detection of Abnormal Glucose Tolerance in Africans Is Improved by Combining A1C With Fasting Glucose: The Africans in America Study

    PubMed Central

    Thoreson, Caroline K.; O'Connor, Michelle Y.; Ricks, Madia; Chung, Stephanie T.; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K.; Lozier, Jay N.; Sacks, David B.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Abnormal glucose tolerance is rising in sub-Saharan Africa. Hemoglobin A1c by itself and in combination with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) is used to diagnose abnormal glucose tolerance. The diagnostic ability of A1C in Africans with heterozygous variant hemoglobin, such as sickle cell trait or hemoglobin C trait, has not been rigorously evaluated. In U.S.-based Africans, we determined by hemoglobin status the sensitivities of 1) FPG ≥5.6 mmol/L, 2) A1C ≥ 5.7% (39 mmol/mol), and 3) FPG combined with A1C (FPG ≥5.6 mmol/L and/or A1C ≥5.7% [39 mmol/mol]) for the detection of abnormal glucose tolerance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed in 216 African immigrants (68% male, age 37 ± 10 years [mean ± SD], range 20–64 years). Abnormal glucose tolerance was defined as 2-h glucose ≥7.8 mmol/L. RESULTS Variant hemoglobin was identified in 21% (46 of 216). Abnormal glucose tolerance occurred in 33% (72 of 216). When determining abnormal glucose tolerance from the OGTT (2-h glucose ≥7.8 mmol/L), sensitivities of FPG for the total, normal, and variant hemoglobin groups were 32%, 32%, and 33%, respectively. Sensitivities for A1C were 53%, 54%, and 47%. For FPG and A1C combined, sensitivities were 64%, 63%, and 67%. Sensitivities for FPG and A1C and the combination did not vary by hemoglobin status (all P > 0.6). For the entire cohort, sensitivity was higher for A1C than FPG and for both tests combined than for either test alone (all P values ≤ 0.01). CONCLUSIONS No significant difference in sensitivity of A1C by variant hemoglobin status was detected. For the diagnosis of abnormal glucose tolerance in Africans, the sensitivity of A1C combined with FPG is significantly superior to either test alone. PMID:25338926

  14. Urinary recovery of orally administered chromium 51-labeled EDTA, lactulose, rhamnose, d-xylose, 3-O-methyl-d-glucose, and sucrose in healthy adult male Beagles.

    PubMed

    Frias, Rafael; Steiner, Jörg M; Williams, David A; Sankari, Satu; Westermarck, Elias

    2012-05-01

    Objective-To provide values for gastrointestinal permeability and absorptive function tests (GIPFTs) with chromium 51 ((51)Cr)-labeled EDTA, lactulose, rhamnose, d-xylose, 3-O-methyl-d-glucose, and sucrose in Beagles and to evaluate potential correlations between markers. Animals-19 healthy adult male Beagles. Procedures-A test solution containing 3.7 MBq of (51)Cr-labeled EDTA, 2 g of lactulose, 2 g of rhamnose, 2 g of d-xylose, 1 g of 3-O-methyl-d-glucose, and 8 g of sucrose was administered intragastrically to each dog. Urinary recovery of each probe was determined 6 hours after administration. Results-Mean ± SD (range) percentage urinary recovery was 6.3 ± 1.6% (4.3% to 9.7%) for (51)Cr-labeled EDTA, 3.3 ± 1.1% (1.7% to 5.3%) for lactulose, 25.5 ± 5.0% (16.7% to 36.9%) for rhamnose, and 58.8% ± 11.0% (40.1% to 87.8%) for 3-O-methyl-d-glucose. Mean (range) recovery ratio was 0.25 ± 0.06 (0.17 to 0.37) for (51)Cr-labeled EDTA to rhamnose, 0.13 ± 0.04 (0.08 to 0.23) for lactulose to rhamnose, and 0.73 ± 0.09 (0.60 to 0.90) for d-xylose to 3-O-methyl-d-glucose. Median (range) percentage urinary recovery was 40.3% (31.6% to 62.7%) for d-xylose and 0% (0% to 0.8%) for sucrose. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Reference values in healthy adult male Beagles for 6 of the most commonly used GIPFT markers were determined. The correlation between results for (51)Cr-labeled EDTA and lactulose was not as prominent as that reported for humans and cats; thus, investigators should be cautious in the use and interpretation of GIPFTs performed with sugar probes in dogs with suspected intestinal dysbiosis.

  15. Synthesis Of [2h, 13c] And [2h3, 13c]Methyl Aryl Sulfides

    DOEpatents

    Martinez, Rodolfo A.; Alvarez, Marc A.; Silks, III, Louis A.; Unkefer, Clifford J.

    2004-03-30

    The present invention is directed to labeled compounds, [.sup.2 H.sub.1, .sup.13 C], [.sup.2 H.sub.2, .sup.13 C] and [.sup.2 H.sub.3, .sup.13 C]methyl aryl sulfides wherein the .sup.13 C methyl group attached to the sulfur of the sulfide includes exactly one, two or three deuterium atoms and the aryl group is selected from the group consisting of 1-naphthyl, substituted 1-naphthyl, 2-naphthyl, substituted 2-naphthyl, and phenyl groups with the structure ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, and R.sub.5 are each independently, hydrogen, a C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 lower alkyl, a halogen, an amino group from the group consisting of NH.sub.2, NHR and NRR' where R and R' are each a C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 lower alkyl, a phenyl, or an alkoxy group. The present invention is also directed to processes of preparing [.sup.2 H.sub.1, .sup.13 C], [.sup.2 H.sub.2,.sup.13 C] and [.sup.2 H.sub.3, .sup.13 C]methyl aryl sulfides wherein the .sup.13 C methyl group attached to the sulfur of the sulfide includes exactly one, two or three deuterium atoms. The present invention is also directed to the labeled compounds of [.sup.2 H.sub.1, .sup.13 C]methyl iodide and [.sup.2 H.sub.2, .sup.13 C]methyl iodide.

  16. Kidney Function, β-Cell Function and Glucose Tolerance in Older Men

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Ting; Risérus, Ulf; Xu, Hong; Lindholm, Bengt; Ärnlöv, Johan; Sjögren, Per; Cederholm, Tommy; Larsson, Tobias E.; Ikizler, Talat Alp

    2015-01-01

    Context: Kidney dysfunction induces insulin resistance, but it is unknown if β cell function is affected. Objective: To investigate insulin release (β cell function) and glucose tolerance following a standardized oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) across kidney function strata. Setting and Design: Community-based cohort study from the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM). Participants and Main Outcome Measure: Included were 1015 nondiabetic Swedish men aged 70–71 years. All participants underwent OGTT and euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp (HEGC) tests, allowing determination of insulin sensitivity, β cell function, and glucose tolerance. Kidney function was estimated by cystatin C-algorithms. Mixed models were used to identify determinants of insulin secretion after the hyperglycemic load. Results: As many as 466 (46%) of participants presented moderate-advanced kidney disease. Insulin sensitivity (by HEGC) decreased across decreasing kidney function quartiles. After the OGTT challenge, however, β cell function indices (area under the curve for insulin release, the estimated first phase insulin release, and the insulinogenic index) were incrementally higher. Neither the oral disposition index nor the 2-h postload glucose tolerance differed across the kidney function strata. Mixed models showed that dynamic insulin release during the OGTT was inversely associated with kidney function, despite the correction for each individual's insulin sensitivity or its risk factors. Conclusions: In older men, β cell function after a hyperglycemic load appropriately compensated the loss in insulin sensitivity that accompanies kidney dysfunction. As a result, the net balance between insulin sensitivity and β cell function was preserved. PMID:25429626

  17. Thz Spectroscopy of D_2H^+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shanshan; Pearson, John; Amano, Takayoshi

    2015-06-01

    Pure rotational transitions of D_2H^+ observed by high-resolution spectroscopy have been limited so far to the J = 110-101 transition at 691.7 GHz, J=220-211 at 1.370 THz, and J=111-000 at 1.477 THz. As this ion is a light asymmetric-top molecule, spectroscopic characterization and prediction of other rotational transition frequencies are not straightforward. In this presentation, we extended the measurements up to 2 THz by using the JPL frequency multiplier chains, and observed three new THz lines and re-measured the three known transitions. D_2H^+ was generated in an extended negative glow discharge cell cooled to liquid nitrogen temperature. Six rotational transition frequencies together with the combination differences derived from three fundamental bands were subject to least square analysis to determine the molecular constants. New THz measurements are definitely useful for better characterization of spectroscopic properties. The improved molecular constants provide better predictions of other unobserved rotational transitions. T. Hirao and T. Amano, Ap. J.,597, L85 (2003) K. M. Evenson et al cited by O. L. Polyansky and A. R. W. McKellar, J. Chem. Phys., 92, 4039 (1990) O. Asvany et al, Phys. Rev. Lett., 100, 233004 (2008)

  18. Food-based solutions are a viable alternative to glucose-electrolyte solutions for oral hydration in acute diarrhoea--studies in a rat model of secretory diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Rolston, D D; Mathew, P; Mathan, V I

    1990-01-01

    A survey of acute diarrhoea and its treatment, in 3 groups of villages in south India, revealed that use of the World Health Organization oral rehydration solution (WHO-ORS) was poor or virtually non-existent and that several liquid foods were given to children during acute diarrhoea. The effects of the most commonly used, boiled and cooled supernatants of these liquid foods [rice (Oryza sativa)-water, ragi (Eleusine coracana)-water, arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea)-water], and tender coconut-water, and of the bicarbonate- and citrate-WHO-ORS on intestinal water transport were evaluated using a rat model of secretory diarrhoea. All solutions either decreased cholera toxin-induced net water secretion (arrowroot-water) or reversed it to net absorption. Ragi-water produced maximum net water absorption, significantly greater than the WHO oral rehydration solutions. WHO-ORS utilization is poor in some developing countries, and locally used food-based solutions could be used for maintaining hydration or correcting the dehydration due to acute diarrhoea once their effectiveness has been proved by clinical trials. PMID:2345922

  19. Food-based solutions are a viable alternative to glucose-electrolyte solutions for oral hydration in acute diarrhoea--studies in a rat model of secretory diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Rolston, D D; Mathew, P; Mathan, V I

    1990-01-01

    A survey of acute diarrhoea and its treatment, in 3 groups of villages in south India, revealed that use of the World Health Organization oral rehydration solution (WHO-ORS) was poor or virtually non-existent and that several liquid foods were given to children during acute diarrhoea. The effects of the most commonly used, boiled and cooled supernatants of these liquid foods [rice (Oryza sativa)-water, ragi (Eleusine coracana)-water, arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea)-water], and tender coconut-water, and of the bicarbonate- and citrate-WHO-ORS on intestinal water transport were evaluated using a rat model of secretory diarrhoea. All solutions either decreased cholera toxin-induced net water secretion (arrowroot-water) or reversed it to net absorption. Ragi-water produced maximum net water absorption, significantly greater than the WHO oral rehydration solutions. WHO-ORS utilization is poor in some developing countries, and locally used food-based solutions could be used for maintaining hydration or correcting the dehydration due to acute diarrhoea once their effectiveness has been proved by clinical trials.

  20. Leptin Gene Epigenetic Adaptation to Impaired Glucose Metabolism During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Bouchard, Luigi; Thibault, Stéphanie; Guay, Simon-Pierre; Santure, Marta; Monpetit, Alexandre; St-Pierre, Julie; Perron, Patrice; Brisson, Diane

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To verify whether the leptin gene epigenetic (DNA methylation) profile is altered in the offspring of mothers with gestational impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Placental tissues and maternal and cord blood samples were obtained from 48 women at term including 23 subjects with gestational IGT. Leptin DNA methylation, gene expression levels, and circulating concentration were measured using the Sequenom EpiTYPER system, quantitative real-time RT-PCR, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. IGT was assessed after a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at 24–28 weeks of gestation. RESULTS We have shown that placental leptin gene DNA methylation levels were correlated with glucose levels (2-h post-OGTT) in women with IGT (fetal side: ρ = −0.44, P ≤ 0.05; maternal side: ρ = 0.53, P ≤ 0.01) and with decreased leptin gene expression (n = 48; ρ ≥ −0.30, P ≤ 0.05) in the whole cohort. Placental leptin mRNA levels accounted for 16% of the variance in maternal circulating leptin concentration (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS IGT during pregnancy was associated with leptin gene DNA methylation adaptations with potential functional impacts. These epigenetic changes provide novel mechanisms that could contribute to explaining the detrimental health effects associated with fetal programming, such as long-term increased risk of developing obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:20724651

  1. Plasma Efavirenz Concentrations Are Associated With Lipid and Glucose Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Sinxadi, Phumla Zuleika; McIlleron, Helen Margaret; Dave, Joel Alex; Smith, Peter John; Levitt, Naomi Sharlene; Haas, David William; Maartens, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been associated with dyslipidemia and dysglycemia, risk factors for cardiovascular disease. However, the pathogenesis is not well understood. We characterized relationships between plasma efavirenz concentrations and lipid and glucose concentrations in HIV-infected South Africans.Participants on efavirenz-based ART were enrolled into a cross-sectional study. The oral glucose tolerance test was performed after an overnight fast, and plasma drawn for mid-dosing interval efavirenz, fasting total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides concentrations.Among 106 participants (77 women), median age was 38 years, median CD4 + T-cell count was 322 cells/μL, median duration on ART was 18 months, and median (interquartile range) efavirenz concentration was 2.23 (1.66 to 4.10) μg/mL. On multivariable analyses (adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, and ART duration) doubling of efavirenz concentrations resulted in mean changes in mmol/L (95%CI) of: total cholesterol (0.40 [0.22 to 0.59]), LDL cholesterol (0.19 [0.04 to 0.30]), HDL cholesterol (0.14 [0.07 to 0.20]), triglycerides (0.17 [0.03 to 0.33]), fasting glucose (0.18 [0.03 to 0.33]), and 2-h glucose concentrations (0.33 [0.08 to 0.60]). Among 57 participants with CYP2B6 genotype data, associations between slow metabolizer genotypes and metabolic profiles were generally consistent with those for measured efavirenz concentrations.Higher plasma efavirenz concentrations are associated with higher plasma lipid and glucose concentrations. This may have implications for long-term cardiovascular complications of efavirenz-based ART, particularly among populations with high prevalence of CYP2B6 slow metabolizer genotypes. PMID:26765416

  2. Placental weight and placental weight-to-birth weight ratio are increased in diet- and exercise-treated gestational diabetes mellitus subjects but not in subjects with one abnormal value on 100-g oral glucose tolerance test.

    PubMed

    Kucuk, Mert; Doymaz, Fadime

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether the placental weight and placental weight-to-birth weight ratio (PW/BW) increased in pregnant women with one abnormal value (OAV) on 100-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and diet- and exercise-treated, non-insulin-requiring gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) subjects. The 50-g glucose challenge test (GCT) was administered to 324 pregnant women. Women with abnormal 50-g test received a 100-g, 3-h OGTT using National Diabetes Data Group criteria. Women with GDM and OAV were treated with diet and exercise. Twenty subjects who required insulin or met exclusion criteria were excluded from the study. After the exclusion of 20 subjects, the GDM group consisted of 30 (9.7%) pregnant women and the OAV group consisted of 32 (9.9%) pregnant women. The control group consisted of 242 pregnant women. Birth weight (GDM: 3288.3+/-364.2 g; OAV: 3278.1+/-409.9 g; control group: 3270.6+/-346.5 g) did not differ significantly between groups (P>.05). Significantly higher placental weights (GDM: 694.8+/-152.1 g; OAV: 622.2+/-105.3 g; control group: 610.2+/-116.6 g; P<.01) and PW/BW (GDM: 0.21+/-0.03; OAV: 0.193+/-0.04; control group: 0.188+/-0.04; P<.01) were observed in GDM group compared to OAV and control group. No significant difference was found for OAV group in terms of placental weight and PW/BW compared to the control group. Our data indicated that women with OAV delivered infants and placenta of similar weight to those of normal pregnancies.

  3. Kwashiorkor and marasmus are both associated with impaired glucose clearance related to pancreatic β-cell dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Spoelstra, Martijn N; Mari, Andrea; Mendel, Marijke; Senga, Edward; van Rheenen, Patrick; van Dijk, Theo H; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan; Zegers, Remco G T; Heikens, Geert Tom; Bandsma, Robert H J

    2012-09-01

    Severe malnutrition is a major health problem in developing countries and can present as kwashiorkor or marasmus. Kwashiorkor is associated with septicaemia, profound metabolic changes including hepatic steatosis, altered protein metabolism and increased oxidative stress. Limited data suggest that children with kwashiorkor have an impaired glucose tolerance and insulin secretion. Our objective was to determine glucose tolerance in children with kwashiorkor compared to marasmus and its relation to insulin secretion and sensitivity. Six children with kwashiorkor and 8 children with marasmus were studied. We were also able to include 3 healthy children for comparison. They received a primed (13 mg/kg), constant infusion (0.15 mg/kg/min) of [6,6-(2)H(2)]glucose for 4 h with serial blood sampling. In addition, an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed with labeled 10 mg/g [U-(13)C]glucose. Glucose clearance was determined using mathematical modeling. Glucose clearance rates during the OGTT were -392 (range 309) mL/kg in children with kwashiorkor, -156 (426) mL/kg in marasmus and 279 (345) mL/kg in the control group. Glucose clearance rates correlated with plasma albumin concentrations (r=0.67, P=.001). Insulin responses were strongly impaired in both kwashiorkor and marasmus. There was no indication of peripheral or hepatic insulin resistance in the malnourished groups. We show that glucose clearance rates are affected in both children with marasmus as well as kwashiorkor, which correlate with plasma albumin concentrations. The disturbed glucose clearance in malnutrition is related to an impairment in insulin availability.

  4. Effect of Chinese Herbal Medicine Jinlida Granule in Treatment of Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ya-Lin; Liu, Wen-Juan; Zhang, Xiao-Fang; Su, Wei-Juan; Chen, Ning-Ning; Lu, Shu-Hua; Wang, Li-Ying; Shi, Xiu-Lin; Li, Zhi-Bin; Yang, Shu-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) remains a major health problem worldwide. Several clinical trials have shown the superiority of the Traditional Chinese Medicine in delaying or reversing the development and progression of DM. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Jinlida (JLD) granule, a Chinese herbal recipe, in the treatment of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and its effect on the prevention of DM. Methods: Sixty-five IGT patients were randomized to receive one bag of JLD granules three times daily (JLD group, n = 34) or no drug intervention (control group, n = 31) for 12 weeks. Oral glucose tolerance test, glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), body mass index, blood lipids levels, fasting insulin, and insulin resistance calculated using homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR) of all the patients were observed and compared before and after the treatment. Results: Sixty-one participants completed the trial (32 in JLD group and 29 in the control group). There were statistically significant decreases in HbA1c (P < 0.001), 2-h plasma glucose (P < 0.001), and HOMA-IR (P = 0.029) in JLD group compared with the control group after 12 weeks of treatment. After 12 weeks of treatment, two (6.9%) patients returned to normal blood glucose, and five (17.2%) patients turned into DM in control group, while in the JLD group, 14 (43.8%) returned to normal blood glucose and 2 (6.2%) turned into DM. There was a significant difference in the number of subjects who had normal glucose at the end of the study between two groups (P = 0.001). Conclusions: JLD granule effectively improved glucose control, increased the conversion of IGT to normal glucose, and improved the insulin resistance in patients with IGT. This Chinese herbal medicine may have a clinical value for IGT. PMID:27647185

  5. Oral administration of penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose suppresses triple-negative breast cancer xenograft growth and metastasis in strong association with JAK1-STAT3 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo-Jeong; Seo, Nam-Jun; Jeong, Soo-Jin; Park, Yongjin; Jung, Deok-Beom; Koh, Wonil; Lee, Hyo-Jung; Lee, Eun-Ok; Ahn, Kwang Seok; Ahn, Kyoo Seok; Lü, Junxuan; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2011-06-01

    There is an urgent clinical need for chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive drugs for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBCa). Extending on our recent work, we hypothesize that the herbal compound 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose (PGG) can inhibit the growth and metastasis of TNBCa xenograft and target Janus-activated kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3-signaling axis. Daily oral gavage of 10 mg PGG/kg body wt decreased MDA-MB-231 xenograft weight by 49.3% (P < 0.01) at 40 days postinoculation, whereas weekly intraperitoneal injections of Taxol at the same dosage resulted in a 21.4% reduction (P > 0.1). PGG treatment also decreased the incidence of lung metastasis. Immunohistochemical staining detected decreased Ki-67 (proliferation) index and increased terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling (apoptosis) index in PGG-treated and Taxol-treated xenografts. However, the CD34 (angiogenesis) index was decreased only in PGG-treated xenografts along with decreased phospho-STAT3. In cell culture of MDA-MB-231 cells, PGG decreased pSTAT3 and its downstream target proteins, decreased its upstream kinase pJAK1 and induced the expression of SHP1, a JAK1 upstream tyrosine phosphatase, within as early as 1 h of exposure. The phosphatase inhibitor pervanadate reversed the PGG-induced downregulation of pSTAT3 and caspase activation. Orally administered PGG can inhibit TNBCa growth and metastasis, probably through anti-angiogenesis, antiproliferation and apoptosis induction. Mechanistically, PGG-induced inhibition of JAK1-STAT3 axis may contribute to the observed in vivo efficacy and the effects on the cellular processes.

  6. An improved technique for the 2H/1H analysis of urines from diabetic volunteers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coplen, T.B.; Harper, I.T.

    1994-01-01

    The H2-H2O ambient-temperature equilibration technique for the determination of 2H/1H ratios in urinary waters from diabetic subjects provides improved accuracy over the conventional Zn reduction technique. The standard deviation, ~ 1-2???, is at least a factor of three better than that of the Zn reduction technique on urinary waters from diabetic volunteers. Experiments with pure water and solutions containing glucose, urea and albumen indicate that there is no measurable bias in the hydrogen equilibration technique.The H2-H2O ambient-temperature equilibration technique for the determination of 2H/1H ratios in urinary waters from diabetic subjects provides improved accuracy over the conventional Zn reduction technique. The standard deviation, approximately 1-2%, is at least a factor of three better than that of the Zn reduction technique on urinary waters from diabetic volunteers. Experiments with pure water and solutions containing glucose, urea and albumen indicate that there is no measurable bias in the hydrogen equilibration technique.

  7. Acute Effects of Decaffeinated Coffee and the Major Coffee Components Chlorogenic Acid and Trigonelline on Glucose Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Aimée E.; Olthof, Margreet R.; Meeuse, Joke C.; Seebus, Elin; Heine, Rob J.; van Dam, Rob M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Coffee consumption has been associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes. We evaluated the acute effects of decaffeinated coffee and the major coffee components chlorogenic acid and trigonelline on glucose tolerance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We conducted a randomized crossover trial of the effects of 12 g decaffeinated coffee, 1 g chlorogenic acid, 500 mg trigonelline, and placebo (1 g mannitol) on glucose and insulin concentrations during a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in 15 overweight men. RESULTS Chlorogenic acid and trigonelline ingestion significantly reduced glucose (−0.7 mmol/l, P = 0.007, and −0.5 mmol/l, P = 0.024, respectively) and insulin (−73 pmol/l, P = 0.038, and −117 pmol/l, P = 0.007) concentrations 15 min following an OGTT compared with placebo. None of the treatments affected insulin or glucose area under the curve values during the OGTT compared with placebo. CONCLUSIONS Chlorogenic acid and trigonelline reduced early glucose and insulin responses during an OGTT. PMID:19324944

  8. Diagnosis of prediabetes in cats: glucose concentration cut points for impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Reeve-Johnson, M K; Rand, J S; Vankan, D; Anderson, S T; Marshall, R; Morton, J M

    2016-10-01

    Diabetes is typically diagnosed in cats once clinical signs are evident. Diagnostic criteria for prediabetes in cats have not been defined. The objective of the study was to establish methodology and cut points for fasting and 2-h blood glucose concentrations in healthy client-owned senior cats (≥8 yr) using ear/paw samples and a portable glucose meter calibrated for feline blood. Of the 78 cats, 27 were ideal (body condition score [BCS] 4 or 5 of 9), 31 overweight (BCS 6 or 7), and 20 obese (BCS 8 or 9); 19 were Burmese and 59 non-Burmese. After an 18-24-h fast and an ear/paw blood glucose measurement using a portable glucose meter, glucose (0.5 g/kg bodyweight) was administered intravenous and blood glucose measured at 2 min and 2 h. Cut points for fasting and 2-h glucose concentrations were defined as the upper limits of 95% reference intervals using cats with BCS 4 or 5. The upper cut point for fasting glucose was 6.5 mmol/L. Of the overweight and obese cats, 1 (BCS 7) was above this cut point indicating evidence of impaired fasting glucose. The cut point for 2-h glucose was 9.8 mmol/L. A total of 7 cats (4 with BCS 8 or 9 including 1 Burmese; 3 with BCS 6 or 7, non-Burmese) were above this cut point and thus had evidence of impaired glucose tolerance. In conclusion, the methodology and cutpoints for diagnosis of prediabetes are defined for use in healthy cats 8 yr and older with a range of BCSs. PMID:27565231

  9. Conversion from Tacrolimus to Cyclosporine A Improves Glucose Tolerance in HCV-Positive Renal Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Handisurya, Ammon; Kerscher, Corinna; Tura, Andrea; Herkner, Harald; Payer, Berit Anna; Mandorfer, Mattias; Werzowa, Johannes; Winnicki, Wolfgang; Reiberger, Thomas; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Pacini, Giovanni; Säemann, Marcus; Schmidt, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Background Calcineurin-inhibitors and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection increase the risk of post-transplant diabetes mellitus. Chronic HCV infection promotes insulin resistance rather than beta-cell dysfunction. The objective was to elucidate whether a conversion from tacrolimus to cyclosporine A affects fasting and/or dynamic insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion or all in HCV-positive renal transplant recipients. Methods In this prospective, single-center study 10 HCV-positive renal transplant recipients underwent 2h-75g-oral glucose tolerance tests before and three months after the conversion of immunosuppression from tacrolimus to cyclosporine A. Established oral glucose tolerance test-based parameters of fasting and dynamic insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion were calculated. Data are expressed as median (IQR). Results After conversion, both fasting and challenged glucose levels decreased significantly. This was mainly attributable to a significant amelioration of post-prandial dynamic glucose sensitivity as measured by the oral glucose sensitivity-index OGIS [422.17 (370.82–441.92) vs. 468.80 (414.27–488.57) mL/min/m2, p = 0.005), which also resulted in significant improvements of the disposition index (p = 0.017) and adaptation index (p = 0.017) as markers of overall glucose tolerance and beta-cell function. Fasting insulin sensitivity (p = 0.721), insulinogenic index as marker of first-phase insulin secretion [0.064 (0.032–0.106) vs. 0.083 (0.054–0.144) nmol/mmol, p = 0.093) and hepatic insulin extraction (p = 0.646) remained unaltered. No changes of plasma HCV-RNA levels (p = 0.285) or liver stiffness (hepatic fibrosis and necroinflammation, p = 0.463) were observed after the conversion of immunosuppression. Conclusions HCV-positive renal transplant recipients show significantly improved glucose-stimulated insulin sensitivity and overall glucose tolerance after conversion from tacrolimus to cyclosporine A. Considering the HCV

  10. Parameters of glucose metabolism and the aging brain: a magnetization transfer imaging study of brain macro- and micro-structure in older adults without diabetes.

    PubMed

    Akintola, Abimbola A; van den Berg, Annette; Altmann-Schneider, Irmhild; Jansen, Steffy W; van Buchem, Mark A; Slagboom, P Eline; Westendorp, Rudi G; van Heemst, Diana; van der Grond, Jeroen

    2015-08-01

    Given the concurrent, escalating epidemic of diabetes mellitus and neurodegenerative diseases, two age-related disorders, we aimed to understand the relation between parameters of glucose metabolism and indices of pathology in the aging brain. From the Leiden Longevity Study, 132 participants (mean age 66 years) underwent a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test to assess glucose tolerance (fasted and area under the curve (AUC) glucose), insulin sensitivity (fasted and AUC insulin and homeostatic model assessment of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IS)) and insulin secretion (insulinogenic index). 3-T brain MRI was used to detect macro-structural damage (atrophy, white matter hyper-intensities, infarcts and/or micro-bleeds) and magnetization transfer imaging (MTI) to detect loss of micro-structural homogeneity that remains otherwise invisible on conventional MRI. Macro-structurally, higher fasted glucose was significantly associated with white matter atrophy (P = 0.028). Micro-structurally, decreased magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) peak height in gray matter was associated with higher fasted insulin (P = 0.010), AUCinsulin (P = 0.001), insulinogenic index (P = 0.008) and lower HOMA-IS index (P < 0.001). Similar significant associations were found for white matter. Thus, while higher glucose was associated with macro-structural damage, impaired insulin action was associated more strongly with reduced micro-structural brain parenchymal homogeneity. These findings offer some insight into the association between different parameters of glucose metabolism (impairment of which is characteristic of diabetes mellitus) and brain aging.

  11. 21 CFR 520.550 - Glucose/glycine/electrolyte.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Glucose/glycine/electrolyte. 520.550 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.550 Glucose/glycine..., potassium citrate 0.12 gram, aminoacetic acid (glycine) 6.36 grams, and glucose 44.0 grams. (b) Sponsor....

  12. 21 CFR 520.550 - Glucose/glycine/electrolyte.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Glucose/glycine/electrolyte. 520.550 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.550 Glucose/glycine..., potassium citrate 0.12 gram, aminoacetic acid (glycine) 6.36 grams, and glucose 44.0 grams. (b) Sponsor....

  13. 21 CFR 520.550 - Glucose/glycine/electrolyte.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Glucose/glycine/electrolyte. 520.550 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.550 Glucose/glycine..., potassium citrate 0.12 gram, aminoacetic acid (glycine) 6.36 grams, and glucose 44.0 grams. (b) Sponsor....

  14. 21 CFR 520.550 - Glucose/glycine/electrolyte.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Glucose/glycine/electrolyte. 520.550 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.550 Glucose/glycine..., potassium citrate 0.12 gram, aminoacetic acid (glycine) 6.36 grams, and glucose 44.0 grams. (b) Sponsor....

  15. Glucose control.

    PubMed

    Preiser, Jean-Charles

    2013-01-01

    Stress-related hyperglycemia is a common finding in acutely ill patients, and is related to the severity and outcome of the critical illness. The pathophysiology of stress hyperglycemia includes hormonal and neural signals, leading to increased production of glucose by the liver and peripheral insulin resistance mediated by the translocation of transmembrane glucose transporters. In one pioneering study, tight glycemic control by intensive insulin therapy in critically ill patients was associated with improved survival. However, this major finding was not confirmed in several other prospective randomized controlled trials. The reasons underlying the discrepancy between the first and the subsequent studies could include nutritional strategy (amount of calories provided, use of parenteral nutrition), case-mix, potential differences in the optimal blood glucose level (BG) in different types of patients, hypoglycemia and its correction, and the magnitude of glucose variability. Therefore, an improved understanding of the physiology and pathophysiology of glycemic regulation during acute illness is needed. Safe and effective glucose control will need improvement in the definition of optimal BG and in the measurement techniques, perhaps including continuous monitoring of insulin algorithms and closed-loop systems. PMID:23075589

  16. Analysis of glucose metabolism in farmed European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) using deuterated water.

    PubMed

    Viegas, Ivan; Mendes, Vera M; Leston, Sara; Jarak, Ivana; Carvalho, Rui A; Pardal, Miguel Â; Manadas, Bruno; Jones, John G

    2011-11-01

    Glucose metabolism in free-swimming fasted and fed seabass was studied using deuterated water ((2)H(2)O). After transfer to seawater enriched with 4.9% (2)H(2)O for 6-h or for 72-h, positional and mole percent enrichment (MPE) of plasma glucose and water were quantified by (2)H NMR and ESI-MS/MS. Plasma water (2)H-enrichment reached that of seawater within 6h. In both fasted and fed fish, plasma glucose MPE increased asymptotically attaining ~55% of plasma water enrichment by 72 h. The distribution of (2)H-enrichment between the different glucose positions was relatively uniform. The gluconeogenic contribution to glucose that was synthesized during (2)H(2)O administration was estimated from the ratio of position 5 and 2 glucose enrichments. For both fed and fasted fish, gluconeogenesis accounted for 98±1% of the glucose that was produced during the 72-h (2)H(2)O administration period. For fasted fish, gluconeogenic contributions measured after 6h were identical to 72-h values (94±3%). For fed fish, the apparent gluconeogenic contribution at 6-h was significantly lower compared to 72-h (79±5% versus 98±1%, p<0.05). This may reflect a brief augmentation of gluconeogenic flux by glycogenolysis after feeding and/or selective enrichment of plasma glucose position 2 via futile glucose-glucose-6-phosphate cycling. PMID:21777686

  17. Rate Coefficients of C2H with C2H4, C2H6, and H2 from 150 to 359 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opansky, Brian J.; Leone, Stephen R.

    1996-01-01

    Rate coefficients for the reactions C2H with C2H4, C2H6, and H2 are measured over the temperature range 150-359 K using transient infrared laser absorption spectroscopy. The ethynyl radical is formed by photolysis of C2H2 with a pulsed excimer laser at 193 nm, and its transient absorption is monitored with a color center laser on the Q(sub 11)(9) line of the A(sup 2) Pi-Chi(sup 2) Sigma transition at 3593.68 cm(exp -1). Over the experimental temperature range 150-359 K the rate constants of C2H with C2H4, C2H6, and H2 can be fitted to the Arrhenius expressions k(sub C2H4) = (7.8 +/- 0.6) x 10(exp -11) exp[(134 +/- 44)/T], k(sub C2H6) = (3.5 +/- 0.3) x 10(exp -11) exp[(2.9 +/- 16)/T], and k(sub H2) = (1.2 +/- 0.3) x 10(exp -11) exp[(-998 +/- 57)]/T cm(exp 3) molecule(exp -1) sec(exp -1). The data for C2H with C2H4 and C2H6 indicate a negligible activation energy to product formation shown by the mild negative temperature dependence of both reactions. When the H2 data are plotted together with the most recent high-temperature results from 295 to 854 K, a slight curvature is observed. The H2 data can be fit to the non-Arrhenius form k(sub H2) = 9.2 x 10(exp -18) T(sup 2.17 +/- 0.50) exp[(-478 +/- 165)/T] cm(exp 3) molecules(exp -1) sec(exp -1). The curvature in the Arrhenius plot is discussed in terms of both quantum mechanical tunneling of the H atom from H2 to the C2H radical and bending mode contributions to the partition function.

  18. An XPS investigation of the interaction of CH 4, C 2H 2, C 2H 4 and C 2H 6 with a barium surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhoeven, J. A. Th.; Van Doveren, H.

    1982-12-01

    The generation and pumping of hydrocarbon gases by a barium getter layer in electronic vacuum devices has been investigated by characterizing a barium film in an ultra high vacuum equipment by means of XPS before, during and after exposures to respectively CH 4, C 2H 2, C 2H 4 and C 2H 6. The reaction conditions (temperatures and pretreatment of the surface, background pressure and exposure doses) closely resemble those in electronic vacuum devices. The probability that a barium layer will react with CH 4 and C 2H 6 was below the detection limit. C 2H 2 and C 2H 4 give rise to the formation of barium carbide compounds and with a high reaction probability. In addition, the interaction with C 2H 2 reveals the formation of carbon-containing surface complexes. Investigations by means of XPS on the C Is spectral features show the presence of at least two groups of carbon-containing surface complexes, which behave differently in response to moderate heating and to an exposure to water vapour. In cases where oxygen is present at the surface, oxygen-containing (hydro) carbon adsorbates are present too. XPS observations of the behaviour of these surface complexes show similarities with reaction steps in the mechanisms proposed for the hydrogenation of CO in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis of hydrocarbons. Low-pressure hydrogenation of these adsorbates containing hydrocarbons and oxygen can led to the formation of hydrocarbon gases in electronic vacuum devices.

  19. Synthesis Of [2h, 13c]M [2h2m 13c], And [2h3,, 13c] Methyl Aryl Sulfones And Sulfoxides

    DOEpatents

    Martinez, Rodolfo A.; Alvarez, Marc A.; Silks, III, Louis A.; Unkefer, Clifford J.; Schmidt, Jurgen G.

    2004-07-20

    The present invention is directed to labeled compounds, [.sup.2 H.sub.1, .sup.13 C], [.sup.2 H.sub.2, .sup.13 C] and [.sup.2 H.sub.3, .sup.13 C]methyl aryl sulfones and [.sup.2 H.sub.1, .sup.13 C], [.sup.2 H.sub.2, .sup.13 C] and [.sup.2 H.sub.3, .sup.13 C]methyl aryl sulfoxides, wherein the .sup.13 C methyl group attached to the sulfur of the sulfone or sulfoxide includes exactly one, two or three deuterium atoms and the aryl group is selected from the group consisting of 1-naphthyl, substituted 1-naphthyl, 2-naphthyl, substituted 2-naphthyl, and phenyl groups with the structure: ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4 and R.sub.5 are each independently, hydrogen, a C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 lower alkyl, a halogen, an amino group from the group consisting of NH.sub.2, NHR and NRR' where R and R' are each a C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 lower alkyl, a phenyl, or an alkoxy group. The present invention is also directed to processes of preparing methyl aryl sulfones and methyl aryl sulfoxides.

  20. New insulin glargine 300 U/ml versus glargine 100 U/ml in Japanese people with type 2 diabetes using basal insulin and oral antihyperglycaemic drugs: glucose control and hypoglycaemia in a randomized controlled trial (EDITION JP 2)

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, M.; Cheng, X.; Takahashi, Y.; Riddle, M. C.; Bolli, G. B.; Hirose, T.

    2016-01-01

    Aims To compare the efficacy and safety of insulin glargine 300 U/ml (Gla‐300) with glargine 100 U/ml (Gla‐100) in Japanese people with type 2 diabetes using basal insulin plus oral antihyperglycaemic drug(s) [OAD(s)]. Methods The EDITION JP 2 study (NCT01689142) was a 6‐month, multicentre, open‐label, phase III study. Participants (n = 241, male 61%, mean diabetes duration 14 years, mean weight 67 kg, mean body mass index 25 kg/m2, mean glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) 8.02 %, mean basal insulin dose 0.24 U/kg/day) were randomized to Gla‐300 or Gla‐100, while continuing OAD(s). Basal insulin was titrated to target fasting self‐monitored plasma glucose 4.4−5.6 mmol/l. The primary efficacy endpoint was HbA1c change over 6 months. Safety endpoints included hypoglycaemia and weight change. Results Gla‐300 was non‐inferior to Gla‐100 for HbA1c reduction [least squares (LS) mean difference 0.10 (95% confidence interval [CI] −0.08, 0.27) %]. The mean HbA1c at month 6 was 7.56 and 7.52 % with Gla‐300 and Gla‐100, respectively. Nocturnal confirmed (≤3.9 mmol/l) or severe hypoglycaemia risk was 38% lower with Gla‐300 versus Gla‐100 [relative risk 0.62 (95% CI 0.44, 0.88)]; annualized rates were 55% lower at night [rate ratio 0.45 (95% CI 0.21, 0.96)] and 36% lower at any time [24 h; rate ratio 0.64 (95% CI 0.43, 0.96)]. Severe hypoglycaemia was infrequent. A significant between‐treatment difference in weight change favoured Gla‐300 [LS mean difference −1.0 (95% CI −1.5, −0.5) kg; p = 0.0003]. Adverse event rates were comparable between groups. Conclusions Japanese people with type 2 diabetes using basal insulin plus OAD(s) experienced less hypoglycaemia with Gla‐300 than with Gla‐100, while glycaemic control did not differ. PMID:26662838

  1. Hydroxycitric acid delays intestinal glucose absorption in rats.

    PubMed

    Wielinga, Peter Y; Wachters-Hagedoorn, Renate E; Bouter, Brenda; van Dijk, Theo H; Stellaard, Frans; Nieuwenhuizen, Arie G; Verkade, Henkjan J; Scheurink, Anton J W

    2005-06-01

    In this study, we investigated in rats if hydroxycitric acid (HCA) reduces the postprandial glucose response by affecting gastric emptying or intestinal glucose absorption. We compared the effect of regulator HCA (310 mg/kg) and vehicle (control) on the glucose response after an intragastric or intraduodenal glucose load to investigate the role of altered gastric emptying. Steele's one-compartment model was used to investigate the effect of HCA on systemic glucose appearance after an intraduodenal glucose load, using [U-(13)C]-labeled glucose and d-[6,6-(2)H(2)]-labeled glucose. Because an effect on postabsorptive glucose clearance could not be excluded, the effect of HCA on the appearance of enterally administered glucose in small intestinal tissue, liver, and portal and systemic circulation was determined by [U-(14)C]glucose infusion. Data show that HCA treatment delays the intestinal absorption of enterally administered glucose at the level of the small intestinal mucosa in rats. HCA strongly attenuated postprandial blood glucose levels after both intragastric (P < 0.01) and intraduodenal (P < 0.001) glucose administration, excluding a major effect of HCA on gastric emptying. HCA delayed the systemic appearance of exogenous glucose but did not affect the total fraction of glucose absorbed over the study period of 150 min. HCA treatment decreased concentrations of [U-(14)C]glucose in small intestinal tissue at 15 min after [U-(14)C]glucose administration (P < 0.05), in accordance with the concept that HCA delays the enteral absorption of glucose. These data support a possible role for HCA as food supplement in lowering postprandial glucose profiles. PMID:15604199

  2. Dynamics of adipose tissue development by 2H2O labeling.

    PubMed

    Pouteau, Etienne; Beysen, Carine; Saad, Nabil; Turner, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Adipose tissue development undergoes remodeling in terms of newly synthesized cells (hyperplasia) and newly synthesized lipids that accumulate in adipocytes (hypertrophy). Synthesis and/or breakdown rates of adipose cells and lipids follow a continuous and dynamic pattern, e.g., during obesity development. This chapter describes a unique in vivo method to measure the dynamics of adipose tissue growth using 2H2O labeling and mass spectrometry analyses. The approach uses 2H2O as a metabolic tracer to label the adipose tissue components such as the triglycerides (TG), the fatty acids, and the genomic DNA. Deuterium from 2H2O incorporates in the C-H bonds of glycerol moiety of TG through glyceroneogenesis as well as in palmitate moiety through de novo lipogenesis (DNL). Deuterium also incorporates into DNA through the de novo nucleoside synthesis pathway. The labeled water, 2H2O, is administrated intraperitoneally and/or orally in rodents or in humans for a defined duration and biopsies are collected at the end of the labeling period. We describe the procedure to extract, isolate, and purify the adipose components (TG-glycerol, TG-palmitate, and genomic DNA) and the derivation procedure to analyze the isotopic 2H-enrichment of these components by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The calculation principles are described to obtain the fractional and absolute synthesis rates of TG, of DNL, and of DNA measured in the adipose tissues. The method is nonradioactive, nonhazardous, accurate, reproducible, and very sensitive. We present recent in vivo data on the ontogeny of adipose tissue growth dynamics in young and adult obese Zucker rats compared with lean Zucker rats. PMID:19763484

  3. Is fructose sweeter than glucose for rats?

    PubMed

    Ramirez, I

    1996-11-01

    Because it is generally thought that the intensity of the taste of fructose is greater than that of glucose for rats, it seemed surprising when sham-fed rats drank substantially less of a mixture of 6% fructose plus saccharin than of a mixture of 6% glucose plus saccharin. At least 3 different factors contribute to this effect. First, the taste of fructose is less attractive to rats than is the taste of glucose; sham-fed rats strongly preferred glucose over fructose (no saccharin was used in this experiment). The second factor is experience. Rats having substantial previous experience with glucose, but not with fructose, consistently preferred glucose over fructose. Conversely, rats having substantial previous experience with fructose, but not with glucose, initially showed no consistent preference but subsequently tended to prefer glucose. The third factor is an interaction between saccharin and the type of sugar. Rats given only one solution at a time drink approximately as much fructose as glucose when the solutions contain no saccharin. The addition of 0.25% saccharin to 6% glucose stimulated intake, whereas the addition of the same amount of saccharin to 6% fructose did not stimulate intake. As a result, rats ingested substantially more of a mixture of 0.25% saccharin plus 6% glucose than they did of a comparable mixture of saccharin and fructose, even though rats ingest similar amounts of fructose and glucose without saccharin in single-bottle tests. Because the differential effect of saccharin on intake appeared within 2 h in naive rats, and did not greatly change over a 3-day period, it is probably not attributable to conditioning. These results suggest that these sugars have qualitatively different tastes. PMID:8916185

  4. Temperature and pressure dependent rate coefficients for the reaction of C2H4 + HO2 on the C2H4O2H potential energy surface.

    PubMed

    Guo, JunJiang; Xu, JiaQi; Li, ZeRong; Tan, NingXin; Li, XiangYuan

    2015-04-01

    The potential energy surface (PES) for reaction C2H4 + HO2 was examined by using the quantum chemical methods. All rates were determined computationally using the CBS-QB3 composite method combined with conventional transition state theory(TST), variational transition-state theory (VTST) and Rice-Ramsberger-Kassel-Marcus/master-equation (RRKM/ME) theory. The geometries optimization and the vibrational frequency analysis of reactants, transition states, and products were performed at the B3LYP/CBSB7 level. The composite CBS-QB3 method was applied for energy calculations. The major product channel of reaction C2H4 + HO2 is the formation C2H4O2H via an OH(···)π complex with 3.7 kcal/mol binding energy which exhibits negative-temperature dependence. We further investigated the reactions related to this complex, which were ignored in previous studies. Thermochemical properties of the species involved in the reactions were determined using the CBS-QB3 method, and enthalpies of formation of species were compared with literature values. The calculated rate constants are in good agreement with those available from literature and given in modified Arrhenius equation form, which are serviceable in combustion modeling of hydrocarbons. Finally, in order to illustrate the effect for low-temperature ignition of our new rate constants, we have implemented them into the existing mechanisms, which can predict ethylene ignition in a shock tube with better performance.

  5. Temperature and pressure dependent rate coefficients for the reaction of C2H4 + HO2 on the C2H4O2H potential energy surface.

    PubMed

    Guo, JunJiang; Xu, JiaQi; Li, ZeRong; Tan, NingXin; Li, XiangYuan

    2015-04-01

    The potential energy surface (PES) for reaction C2H4 + HO2 was examined by using the quantum chemical methods. All rates were determined computationally using the CBS-QB3 composite method combined with conventional transition state theory(TST), variational transition-state theory (VTST) and Rice-Ramsberger-Kassel-Marcus/master-equation (RRKM/ME) theory. The geometries optimization and the vibrational frequency analysis of reactants, transition states, and products were performed at the B3LYP/CBSB7 level. The composite CBS-QB3 method was applied for energy calculations. The major product channel of reaction C2H4 + HO2 is the formation C2H4O2H via an OH(···)π complex with 3.7 kcal/mol binding energy which exhibits negative-temperature dependence. We further investigated the reactions related to this complex, which were ignored in previous studies. Thermochemical properties of the species involved in the reactions were determined using the CBS-QB3 method, and enthalpies of formation of species were compared with literature values. The calculated rate constants are in good agreement with those available from literature and given in modified Arrhenius equation form, which are serviceable in combustion modeling of hydrocarbons. Finally, in order to illustrate the effect for low-temperature ignition of our new rate constants, we have implemented them into the existing mechanisms, which can predict ethylene ignition in a shock tube with better performance. PMID:25774424

  6. Neural control of blood glucose level.

    PubMed

    Niijima, A

    1986-01-01

    All of the experimental results described above can be categorized as follows: the relationship between glucose levels and pancreatic and adrenal nerve activities; innervations of the liver and their role in the regulation of blood glucose level; central integration of blood glucose level; glucose-sensitive afferent nerve fibers in the liver and regulation of blood glucose; oral and intestinal inputs involved in reflex control of blood glucose level. We showed that an increase in blood glucose content produced an increase in the activity of the pancreatic branch of the vagus nerve, whereas it induced a decrease in the activity of the adrenal nerve. It was also shown that a decrease in blood glucose activated the sympatho-adrenal system and suppressed the vago-pancreatic system. It seems rational that these responses are involved in the maintenance of blood glucose level. Studies on the innervation of the liver led us to a conclusion that sympathetic innervation of the liver might play a role in eliciting a prompt hyperglycemic response through liberation of norepinephrine from the nerve terminals, and that the vagal innervation synergically worked with the humoral factor (insulin) for glycogen synthesis in the hyperglycemic condition. The glucose-sensitive afferents from the liver seem to initiate a reflex control of blood glucose level. The gustatory information on EIR response, reported by STEFFENS, is supported by the electrophysiological observations. MEI's reports also indicated the importance of information from the intestinal glucoreceptors in the reflex control of insulin secretion. The role of integrative functions of the hypothalamus and brainstem through neuronal networks on neural control of blood glucose levels is also evident. A schematic diagram of the nervous networks involved in the regulation of the blood glucose levels is shown in Fig. 3. PMID:3550186

  7. Diurnal Variation in Response to Intravenous Glucose*

    PubMed Central

    Whichelow, Margaret J.; Sturge, R. A.; Keen, H.; Jarrett, R. J.; Stimmler, L.; Grainger, Susan

    1974-01-01

    Intravenous glucose tolerance tests (25 g) were performed in the morning and afternoon on 13 apparently normal persons. The individual K values (rate of decline of blood sugar) were all higher in the morning tests, and the mean values were significantly higher in the morning. Fasting blood sugar levels were slightly lower in the afternoon. There was no difference between the fasting morning and afternoon plasma insulin levels, but the levels after glucose were lower in the afternoon. Growth hormone levels were low at all times in non-apprehensive subjects and unaffected by glucose. The results suggest that the impaired afternoon intravenous glucose tolerance, like oral glucose tolerance, is associated with impaired insulin release and insulin resistance. PMID:4817160

  8. Heterozygous FA2H mutations in autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Widespread abnormalities in white matter development are frequently reported in cases of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and could be involved in the disconnectivity suggested in these disorders. Homozygous mutations in the gene coding for fatty-acid 2-hydroxylase (FA2H), an enzyme involved in myelin synthesis, are associated with complex leukodystrophies, but little is known about the functional impact of heterozygous FA2H mutations. We hypothesized that rare deleterious heterozygous mutations of FA2H might constitute risk factors for ASD. Methods We searched deleterious mutations affecting FA2H, by genotyping 1256 independent patients with ASD genotyped using Genome Wide SNP arrays, and also by sequencing in independent set of 186 subjects with ASD and 353 controls. We then explored the impact of the identified mutations by measuring FA2H enzymatic activity and expression, in transfected COS7 cells. Results One heterozygous deletion within 16q22.3-q23.1 including FA2H was observed in two siblings who share symptoms of autism and severe cognitive impairment, axial T2-FLAIR weighted MRI posterior periventricular white matter lesions. Also, two rare non-synonymous mutations (R113W and R113Q) were reported. Although predictive models suggested that R113W should be a deleterious, we did not find that FA2H activity was affected by expression of the R113W mutation in cultured COS cells. Conclusions While our results do not support a major role for FA2H coding variants in ASD, a screening of other genes related to myelin synthesis would allow us to better understand the role of non-neuronal elements in ASD susceptibility. PMID:24299421

  9. C2H observations toward the Orion Bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, Z.; Ossenkopf, V.; Van der Tak, F. F. S.; Faure, A.; Makai, Z.; Bergin, E. A.

    2015-06-01

    Context. The ethynyl radical (C2H) is one of the first radicals to be detected in the interstellar medium. Its higher rotational transitions have recently become available with the Herschel Space Observatory. Aims: We aim to constrain the physical parameters of the C2H emitting gas toward the Orion Bar. Methods: We analyze the C2H line intensities measured toward the Orion Bar CO+ Peak and Herschel/HIFI maps of C2H, CH, and HCO+ and a NANTEN map of [Ci]. We interpret the observed C2H emission using the combination of Herschel/HIFI and NANTEN data with radiative transfer and PDR models. Results: Five rotational transitions of C2H (from N = 6-5 up to N = 10-9) have been detected in the HIFI frequency range toward the CO+ peak of the Orion Bar. Based on the five detected C2H transitions, a single component rotational diagram analysis gives a rotation temperature of ~64 K and a beam-averaged C2H column density of 4 × 1013 cm-2. The rotational diagram is also consistent with a two-component fit, resulting in rotation temperatures of 43 ± 0.2 K and 123 ± 21 K and in beam-averaged column densities of ~8.3 × 1013 cm-2 and ~2.3 × 1013 cm-2 for the three lower-N and for the three higher-N transitions, respectively. The measured five rotational transitions cannot be explained by any single parameter model. According to a non-LTE model, most of the C2H column density produces the lower-N C2H transitions and traces a warm (Tkin ~ 100-150 K) and dense (n(H2) ~ 105-106 cm-3) gas. A small fraction of the C2H column density is required to reproduce the intensity of the highest-N transitions (N = 9-8 and N = 10-9) originating in a high-density (n(H2) ~5 × 106 cm-3) hot (Tkin ~ 400 K) gas. The total beam-averaged C2H column density in the model is 1014 cm-2. A comparison of the spatial distribution of C2H to those of CH, HCO+, and [Ci] shows the best correlation with CH. Conclusions: Both the non-LTE radiative transfer model and a simple PDR model representing the Orion Bar

  10. No difference in exogenous carbohydrate oxidation during exercise in children with and without impaired glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Chu, Lisa; Morrison, Katherine M; Riddell, Michael C; Raha, Sandeep; Timmons, Brian W

    2016-09-01

    The capacity to match carbohydrate (CHO) utilization with availability is impaired in insulin-resistant, obese adults at rest. Understanding exogenous carbohydrate (CHOexo) oxidation during exercise and its association to insulin resistance (IR) is important, especially in children at risk for type 2 diabetes. Our objective was to examine the oxidative efficiency of CHOexo during exercise in obese children with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Children attended two visits and were identified as NGT (n = 22) or IGT (n = 12) based on 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) glucose levels of <7.8 mmol/l or ≥7.8 mmol/l, respectively. Anthropometry, body composition, and aerobic fitness (V̇o2max) were assessed. Insulin and glucose at baseline, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min during the OGTT were used to calculate measures of insulin sensitivity. On a separate day, a (13)C-enriched CHO drink was ingested before exercise (3 × 20 min bouts) at 45% V̇o2max Breath measurements were collected to calculate CHOexo oxidative efficiency. CHOexo oxidative efficiency during exercise was similar in IGT (17.0 ± 3.6%) compared with NGT (17.1 ± 4.4%) (P = 0.90) despite lower whole body insulin sensitivity in IGT at rest (P = 0.02). Area under the curve for insulin (AUCins) measured at rest during the OGTT was greater in IGT compared with NGT (P = 0.04). The ability of skeletal muscle to utilize CHOexo was not impaired during exercise in children with IGT. PMID:27493197

  11. Beneficial effect of chromium-rich yeast on glucose tolerance and blood lipids in elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Offenbacher, E G; Pi-Sunyer, F X

    1980-11-01

    Twenty-four volunteers, mean age 78, including eight mildly non-insulin-dependent diabetics, were randomly allocated to one of two groups and were fed (daily for 8 wk) 9 g of either chromium-rich brewers' yeast (experimental) or chromium-poor torula yeast (control). Before and after yeast supplementation, the serum glucose and insulin response to 100 g oral glucose was measured at 30 min intervals for 2 h. Fasting serum cholesterol, total lipids, and triglycerides were also determined. In the total experimental group (normals + diabetics) and in both the diabetic and nondiabetic experimental subgroups, glucose tolerance improved significantly and insulin output decreased after supplementation. Cholesterol and total lipids fell significantly after supplementation in the total experimental group. The cholesterol decrease was particularly marked in hypercholesterolemic subjects (cholesterol > 300 mg/dl). In the control group, no significant change in glucose tolerance, insulin, triglycerides, or total lipids was found. Cholesterol was significantly lowered in the nondiabetic but not in the diabetic group. Thus, chromium-rich brewers' yeast improved glucose tolerance and total lipids in elderly subjects, while chromium-poor torula yeast did not. An improvement in insulin sensitivity also occurred with brewers' yeast supplementation. This supports the thesis that elderly people may have a low level of chromium and that an effective source for chromium repletion, such as brewers' yeast, may improve their carbohydrate tolerance and total lipids. The improvement in serum cholesterol in some control subjects, as well as in the total experimental group, also suggests the presence of a hypocholesterolemic factor other than chromium in both brewers' and torula yeast.

  12. No difference in exogenous carbohydrate oxidation during exercise in children with and without impaired glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Chu, Lisa; Morrison, Katherine M; Riddell, Michael C; Raha, Sandeep; Timmons, Brian W

    2016-09-01

    The capacity to match carbohydrate (CHO) utilization with availability is impaired in insulin-resistant, obese adults at rest. Understanding exogenous carbohydrate (CHOexo) oxidation during exercise and its association to insulin resistance (IR) is important, especially in children at risk for type 2 diabetes. Our objective was to examine the oxidative efficiency of CHOexo during exercise in obese children with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Children attended two visits and were identified as NGT (n = 22) or IGT (n = 12) based on 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) glucose levels of <7.8 mmol/l or ≥7.8 mmol/l, respectively. Anthropometry, body composition, and aerobic fitness (V̇o2max) were assessed. Insulin and glucose at baseline, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min during the OGTT were used to calculate measures of insulin sensitivity. On a separate day, a (13)C-enriched CHO drink was ingested before exercise (3 × 20 min bouts) at 45% V̇o2max Breath measurements were collected to calculate CHOexo oxidative efficiency. CHOexo oxidative efficiency during exercise was similar in IGT (17.0 ± 3.6%) compared with NGT (17.1 ± 4.4%) (P = 0.90) despite lower whole body insulin sensitivity in IGT at rest (P = 0.02). Area under the curve for insulin (AUCins) measured at rest during the OGTT was greater in IGT compared with NGT (P = 0.04). The ability of skeletal muscle to utilize CHOexo was not impaired during exercise in children with IGT.

  13. Oral processing effort, appetite and acute energy intake in lean and obese adults.

    PubMed

    Mattes, Richard D; Considine, Robert V

    2013-08-15

    Chewing reportedly contributes to satiation and satiety signals. Attempts to document and quantify this have led to small and inconsistent effects. The present trial manipulated oral processing effort though required chewing of gums of different hardness and measured appetitive sensations, energy intake, gastric emptying, GI transit time, and concentrations of glucose, insulin, GLP-1, ghrelin and pancreatic polypeptide. Sixty adults classified by sex and BMI (15 each of lean females, obese females, lean males and obese males) were tested in a randomized, controlled, cross-over trial with three arms. They chewed nothing, soft gum or hard gum for 15 min while sipping grape juice (10% of individual energy needs) containing acetaminophen and lactulose on one day each separated by 7 days. Electromyographic recordings and self-reports were obtained during and after chewing to quantify oral processing effort. Blood was sampled through an indwelling catheter and appetite ratings were obtained at baseline and at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 240 min after chewing initiation. Breath samples were collected at 10 min intervals for the first 2h and at 30 min intervals for the next 2h. No effects of chewing were observed for appetitive sensations or gut peptide concentrations. Energy intake tended to decline in lean and increase in obese participants so that daily energy intake differed significantly between the two groups when chewing either gum, while no difference was observed on the non-chewing day. Serum glucose and insulin were significantly lower at selected time points 90-240 min after chewing compared to baseline and the non-chewing day. These data indicate chewing effort does not affect appetitive sensations or gut peptide secretion, but may exert a small differential effect on acute energy intake in lean and obese individuals and lead to greater post-prandial declines of serum glucose and insulin. The efficacy of gum chewing as a substitute for eating for weight

  14. Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other Dental Problems Diabetic Eye Disease Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia) What is hypoglycemia? Hypoglycemia, also called low ... actions can also help prevent hypoglycemia: Check blood glucose levels Knowing your blood glucose level can help ...

  15. Glucose test (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... person with diabetes constantly manages their blood's sugar (glucose) levels. After a blood sample is taken and tested, it is determined whether the glucose levels are low or high. If glucose levels ...

  16. Effects of the New Dual PPARα/δ Agonist GFT505 on Lipid and Glucose Homeostasis in Abdominally Obese Patients With Combined Dyslipidemia or Impaired Glucose Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Cariou, Bertrand; Zaïr, Yassine; Staels, Bart; Bruckert, Eric

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We evaluated the metabolic effects and tolerability of GFT505, a novel dual peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor α/δ agonist, in abdominally obese patients with either combined dyslipidemia or prediabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The S1 study was conducted in 94 patients with combined dyslipidemia while the S2 study was conducted in 47 patients with prediabetes. Participants were randomly assigned in a double-blind manner to GFT505 at 80 mg/day or placebo for 28 (S1) or 35 (S2) days. Primary efficacy end points were changes from baseline at week 4 in both fasting plasma triglycerides and HDL cholesterol in the S1 group and 2-h glucose upon oral glucose tolerance test in the S2 group. RESULTS In comparison with placebo, GFT505 significantly reduced fasting plasma triglycerides (S1: least squares means −16.7% [95% one-sided CI −∞ to −5.3], P = 0.005; S2: −24.8% [−∞ to −10.5], P = 0.0003) and increased HDL cholesterol (S1: 7.8% [3.0 to ∞], P = 0.004; S2: 9.3% [1.7 to ∞], P = 0.009) in both studies, whereas LDL cholesterol only decreased in S2 (−11.0% [ −∞ to −3.5], P = 0.002). In S2, GFT505 did not reduce 2-h glucose (−0.52 mmol/L [−∞ to 0.61], P = 0.18) but led to a significant decrease of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (−31.4% [−∞ to 12.5], P = 0.001), fasting plasma glucose (−0.37 mmol/L [−∞ to −0.10], P = 0.01) and fructosamine (−3.6% [−∞ to −0.20], P = 0.02). GFT505 also reduced γ glutamyl transferase levels in both studies (S1: −19.9% [−∞ to −12.8], P < 0.0001; S2: −15.1% [−∞ to −1.1], P = 0.004). No specific adverse safety signals were reported during the studies. CONCLUSIONS GFT505 may be considered a new drug candidate for the treatment of lipid and glucose disorders associated with the metabolic syndrome. PMID:21816979

  17. Meridional Variations of C2H2 and C2H6 in Jupiter's Atmosphere from Cassini CIRS Infrared Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, C. A.; Achterberg, R. K.; Conrath, B. J.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Fouchet, T.; Parrish, P. D.; Romani, P. N.; Abbas, M.; LeClair, A.; Strobel, D.

    2004-01-01

    Hydrocarbons such as acetylene (C2H2) and ethane (C2H6) are important tracers in Jupiter's atmosphere, constraining our models of the chemical and dynamical processes. However, our knowledge of the vertical and meridional variations of their abundances has remained sparse. During the flyby of the Cassini spacecraft in December 2000, the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) instrument was used to map the spatial variation of emissions from 10-1400 cm(sup -1) (1000-7 microns). In this paper we analyze a zonally-averaged set of CIRS spectra taken at the highest (0.5 cm(sup -1)) resolution, to infer atmospheric temperatures in the stratosphere at 0.5-20 mbar via the v4 band of CH4, and in the troposphere at 150-400 mbar, via the H2 absorption at 600-800 cm(sup -1). Simultaneously, we retrieve the abundances of C2H2 and C2H6 via the v5 and vg bands respectively. Tropospheric absorption and stratospheric emission are highly anti-correlated at the CIRS resolution, introducing a non-uniqueness into the retrievals, such that vertical gradient and column abundance cannot both be found without additional constraints. Assuming profile gradients from photochemical calculations, we show that the column abundance of C2H2 decreases sharply towards the poles by a factor approximately 4, while C2H6 is unchanged in the north and increasing in the south, by a factor approximately 1.8. An explanation for the meridional trends is proposed in terms of a combination of photochemistry and dynamics. Poleward, the decreasing UV flux is predicted to decrease the abundances of C2H2 and C2H6 by factors 2.7 and 3.5 respectively at a latitude 70 deg. However, the lifetime of C2H6 in the stratosphere (5 x 10(exp 9)) is much longer than the dynamical timescale for meridional motions inferred from SL-9 debris (5 x 10(exp 8 s)), and therefore the constant or rising abundance towards high latitudes likely indicates that meridional mixing dominates over photochemical effects. For C2H2, the opposite

  18. Okara ameliorates glucose tolerance in GK rats.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, Masaya; Katsukawa, Michiko; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Hitomi; Okuno, Sonomi; Tsuda, Kinsuke; Iritani, Nobuko

    2016-05-01

    Okara, a food by-product from the production of tofu and soy milk, is rich in three beneficial components: insoluble dietary fiber, β-conglycinin, and isoflavones. Although isoflavones and β-conglycinin have recently been shown to improve glucose tolerance, the effects of okara have not yet been elucidated. Therefore, we herein investigated the effects of okara on glucose tolerance in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, a representative animal model of Japanese type 2 diabetes. Male GK rats were fed a 10% lard diet with or without 5% dry okara powder for 2 weeks and an oral glucose tolerance test was performed. Rats were then fed each diet for another week and sacrificed. The expression of genes that are the master regulators of glucose metabolism in adipose tissue was subsequently examined. No significant differences were observed in body weight gain or food intake between the two groups of GK rats. In the oral glucose tolerance test, increases in plasma glucose levels were suppressed by the okara diet. The mRNA expression levels of PPARγ, adiponectin, and GLUT4, which up-regulate the effects of insulin, were increased in epididymal adipose tissue by the okara diet. These results suggest that okara provides a useful means for treating type 2 diabetes. PMID:27257347

  19. Dosakaya Juice Assuages Development of Sucrose Induced Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Imbalance in Antioxidant Defense

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Dommati Anand; Sweeya, Pisupati S. R.; Shukla, Srishti; Anusha, Sanga Venkata; Akshara, Dasari; Madhusudana, Kuncha; Tiwari, Ashok Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to explore the effect of Dosakaya (DK) (Cucumis melo var. chito) juice on sucrose induced dysglycemia and disturbances in antioxidant defense in rats. Materials and Methods: Rats were preconditioned with DK juice before administration of sucrose beverage continuously for 1-month. Blood glucose tolerance test and glutathione (GSH) homeostasis pathways in kidney were analyzed in different group of animals at the end of the study. Results: DK juice diffused (P < 0.001) hypertriglyceridemia inducing effect of sucrose and arrested sucrose induced weight gain. It improved glucose tolerance ability by significantly reducing (P < 0.05) first-hour glycemic excursion and decreasing 2 h glycemic load (P < 0.05) following oral glucose tolerance test in sucrose fed animals. Furthermore, disturbances in antioxidant defense mechanisms in terms of GSH homeostasis in kidney were restored due to juice feeding. DK juice administration checked reduction in GSH-S-transferase and glyoxalase-I activity, thus, significantly mitigated lipid peroxidation (P < 0.05), and formation of advanced glycation end-products (P < 0.001) in kidney and serum (P < 0.01). Quantitative analysis of juice found it a rich source of protein and polyphenols. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis revealed the presence of multiple protein bands in whole fruit juice. Therefore, SDS-PAGE protein fingerprint of DK juice may serve as a quality control tool for standardization of juice. Conclusion: The whole fruit juice of DK may become cost-effective, affordable health beverage in extenuating ill-health effects of sugar consumption. This is the first report identifying DK juice in preventing development dysglycemia, dyslipidemia, and oxidative stress induced due to chronic sucrose feeding in rats. SUMMARY Chronic sucrose consumption induced development of dysglycemia and also impaired antioxidant defense mechanism in rats. The oral administration of

  20. [Oral ulcers].

    PubMed

    Bascones-Martínez, Antonio; Figuero-Ruiz, Elena; Esparza-Gómez, Germán Carlos

    2005-10-29

    Ulcers commonly occur in the oral cavity, their main symptom being pain. There are different ways to classify oral ulcers. The most widely accepted form divides them into acute ulcers--sudden onset and short lasting--and chronic ulcers--insidious onset and long lasting. Commonest acute oral ulcers include traumatic ulcer, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, viral and bacterial infections and necrotizing sialometaplasia. On the other hand, oral lichen planus, oral cancer, benign mucous membrane pemphigoid, pemphigus and drug-induced ulcers belong to the group of chronic oral ulcers. It is very important to make a proper differential diagnosis in order to establish the appropriate treatment for each pathology. PMID:16277953

  1. [Oral ulcers].

    PubMed

    Bascones-Martínez, Antonio; Figuero-Ruiz, Elena; Esparza-Gómez, Germán Carlos

    2005-10-29

    Ulcers commonly occur in the oral cavity, their main symptom being pain. There are different ways to classify oral ulcers. The most widely accepted form divides them into acute ulcers--sudden onset and short lasting--and chronic ulcers--insidious onset and long lasting. Commonest acute oral ulcers include traumatic ulcer, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, viral and bacterial infections and necrotizing sialometaplasia. On the other hand, oral lichen planus, oral cancer, benign mucous membrane pemphigoid, pemphigus and drug-induced ulcers belong to the group of chronic oral ulcers. It is very important to make a proper differential diagnosis in order to establish the appropriate treatment for each pathology.

  2. Cold tolerance in CCl4-treated rats and its modification by administration of garlic oil and glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatia, B.; Ahujarai, P. L.

    1984-06-01

    Male Wistar rats weighing 150 200 g maintained under standard laboratory conditions and given Hindustan Lever Pellets and water ad libitum were exposed to -20°C for determination of the rate of fall of rectal temperature and survival time. The rate of fall of body temperature was significantly increased and the survival time was reduced, when animals were given an intraperitoneal injection of 1 ml/kg BW of CCl4 24 h but not 2 h earlier. Pre-treatment of the animals with 0.006 ml of garlic oil in a 2% solution of arachis oil for 3 days gave a significant protection to the animals against the CCl4-induced fall in cold tolerance. Administration of glucose orally 300 mg in 2 ml of saline eliminated the CCl4-induced fall in cold tolerance. The animals displayed a hypoglycemia 24 h, but not 2 h after injection of CCl4. CCl4-induced hypoglycemia was reduced by pre-treatment with garlic oil. The results indicate that the CCl4-induced reduction in cold tolerance is secondary to hypoglycemia and not due to the direct effect of CCl4 on the thermoregulatory mechanism in the CNS. The critical level of blood glucose below which the cold tolerance is reduced was found to be 76 mg/100 ml of blood.

  3. Postprandial glucose and insulin profiles following a glucose-loaded meal in cats and dogs.

    PubMed

    Hewson-Hughes, Adrian K; Gilham, Matthew S; Upton, Sarah; Colyer, Alison; Butterwick, Richard; Miller, Andrew T

    2011-10-01

    Data from intravenous (i.v.) glucose tolerance tests suggest that glucose clearance from the blood is slower in cats than in dogs. Since different physiological pathways are activated following oral administration compared with i.v. administration, we investigated the profiles of plasma glucose and insulin in cats and dogs following ingestion of a test meal with or without glucose. Adult male and female cats and dogs were fed either a high-protein (HP) test meal (15 g/kg body weight; ten cats and eleven dogs) or a HP + glucose test meal (13 g/kg body-weight HP diet + 2 g/kg body-weight D-glucose; seven cats and thirteen dogs) following a 24 h fast. Marked differences in plasma glucose and insulin profiles were observed in cats and dogs following ingestion of the glucose-loaded meal. In cats, mean plasma glucose concentration reached a peak at 120 min (10.2, 95 % CI 9.7, 10.8 mmol/l) and returned to baseline by 240 min, but no statistically significant change in plasma insulin concentration was observed. In dogs, mean plasma glucose concentration reached a peak at 60 min (6.3, 95 % CI 5.9, 6.7 mmol/l) and returned to baseline by 90 min, while plasma insulin concentration was significantly higher than pre-meal values from 30 to 120 min following the glucose-loaded meal. These results indicate that cats are not as efficient as dogs at rapidly decreasing high blood glucose levels and are consistent with a known metabolic adaptation of cats, namely a lack of glucokinase, which is important for both insulin secretion and glucose uptake from the blood. PMID:22005400

  4. Meridional Variations of C2H2 and C2H6 in Jupiter's Atmosphere from Cassini CIRS Infrared Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, C. A.; Achterberg, R. K.; Conrath, B. J.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Fouchet, T.; Parrish, P. D.; Abbas, M.; LeClaire, A.; Romani, P. N.; Simon-Miller, A. A.

    2004-01-01

    The abundances of hydrocarbons such as acetylene (C2H2) and ethane (C2H6) in Jupiter's atmosphere are important physical quantities, constraining our models of the chemical and dynamical processes. However, our knowledge of these quantities and their vertical and latitudinal variations has remained sparse. The flyby of the Cassini spacecraft with Jupiter at the end of 2000 provided an excellent opportunity to observe the infrared spectrum with the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) instrument, mapping the spatial variation of emissions from 10-1400 cm-1. CIRS spectra taken at the highest resolution (0.5 cm-1) in early December 2000 have been analysed to infer atmospheric temperatures in the stratosphere at 0.5-20 mbar via the v4 of CH4, and in the troposphere at 100-400 mbar, via the hydrogen collision-induced continuum absorption at 600-800 cm. Simultaneously, we have searched for meridional abundance variations in C2H2 and C2H6 via the v5 and vg bands respectively. Tropospheric absorption and stratospheric emission are highly anti-correlated at the CIM resolution, introducing a non-uniqueness into the retrievals, which means that vertical gradient and column abundance cannot be simultaneously found without additional constraints. If we assume the profile shapes from photochemical model calculations, we show that the column abundance of C2H2 must decrease sharply towards the poles, while C2H6 is constant or slightly increasing. The relevance of these results to current photochemical and dynamical knowledge of Jupiter's atmosphere is discussed.

  5. Evaluation of an electrochemical N2/H2 gas separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, R. D.; Wynveen, R. A.; Carlson, J. N.

    1973-01-01

    A program was successfully completed to evaluate an electrochemical nitrogen/hydrogen (N2/H2) separator for use in a spacecraft nitrogen (N2) generator. Based on the technical data obtained a N2/H2 separator subsystem consisting of an organic polymer gas permeator first stage and an electrochemical second and third stage was estimated to have the lowest total spared equivalent weight, 257 kg (566 lb), for a 15 lb/day N2 generation rate. A pre-design analysis of the electrochemical N2/H2 separator revealed that its use as a first stage resulted in too high a power requirement to be competitive with the organic polymer membrane and the palladium-silver membrane separation methods. As a result, program emphasis was placed on evaluating the electrochemical. A parametric test program characterized cell performance and established second- and third-stage electrochemical N2/H2 separator operating conditions. A design verification test was completed on the second and third stages. The second stage was then successfully endurance tested for 200 hours.

  6. The Effect of Metformin and Metformin-Testosterone Combination on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Men with Late-onset Hypogonadism and Impaired Glucose Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Krysiak, R; Gilowski, W; Okopien, B

    2015-11-01

    No previous study has investigated the effect of metformin, administered alone or together with testosterone, on cardiometabolic risk factors in men with hypogonadism. The study included 30 men with late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) who had been complying with lifestyle intervention. After 12 weeks of metformin treatment (1.7 g daily), the participants were allocated to one of 2 groups treated for the following 12 weeks with oral testosterone undecanoate (120 mg daily, n=15) or not receiving androgen therapy (n=15). Plasma lipids, glucose homeostasis markers, as well as plasma levels of androgens, uric acid, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), homocysteine and fibrinogen were determined before and after 12 and 24 weeks of therapy with the final dose of metformin. Patients with LOH and IGT had higher levels of hsCRP, homocysteine and fibrinogen than subjects with only LOH (n=12) or only IGT (n=15). Metformin administered alone improved insulin sensitivity, as well as reduced 2-h postchallenge plasma glucose and triglycerides. Testosterone-metformin combination therapy decreased also total and LDL cholesterol, uric acid, hsCRP, homocysteine and fibrinogen, as well as increased plasma testosterone. The effect of this combination therapy on testosterone, insulin sensitivity, hsCRP, homocysteine and fibrinogen was stronger than that of metformin alone. The obtained results indicate that IGT men with LOH receiving metformin may gain extra benefits if they are concomitantly treated with oral testosterone. PMID:26600057

  7. Oral cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - mouth; Mouth cancer; Head and neck cancer; Squamous cell cancer - mouth; Malignant neoplasm - oral ... Oral cancer most commonly involves the lips or the tongue. It may also occur on the: Cheek lining Floor ...

  8. Blood Test: Glucose

    MedlinePlus

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Blood Test: Glucose KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: Glucose Print A A A Text Size What's in ... de sangre: glucosa What It Is A blood glucose test measures the amount of glucose (the main ...

  9. CSF glucose test

    MedlinePlus

    Glucose test - CSF; Cerebrospinal fluid glucose test ... The glucose level in the CSF should be 50 to 80 mg/100 mL (or greater than 2/3 ... Abnormal results include higher and lower glucose levels. Abnormal ... or fungus) Inflammation of the central nervous system Tumor

  10. Smoking is associated with impaired glucose regulation and a decrease in insulin sensitivity and the disposition index in first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetes subjects independently of the presence of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Piatti, PierMarco; Setola, Emanuela; Galluccio, Elena; Costa, Sabrina; Fontana, Barbara; Stuccillo, Michela; Crippa, Valentina; Cappelletti, Alberto; Margonato, Alberto; Bosi, Emanuele; Monti, Lucilla D

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate glucose tolerance, insulin secretion and insulin resistance according to smoking habits in first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetes patients, a population at high risk for developing diabetes. One thousand three hundred (646 females and 654 males) subjects underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) to investigate their glucose metabolism and answered questionnaires about their lifestyle habits. Smoker subjects showed significant impairment compared with non-smoker subjects in 2-h post-oral glucose tolerance test (2hOGTT, 129.3 ± 40.2 vs. 117.7 ± 37.6 mg/dl, p < 0.001), the OGTT insulin sensitivity (386.3 ± 54.9 vs. 400.5 ± 53.4 ml min(-1) m(2), p < 0.01) method and the insulin sensitivity and secretion index-2 (ISSI-2, 1.7 ± 0.8 vs. 2.0 ± 1.0, p < 0.005). Metabolic syndrome (MS) was higher in the smoker than in the non-smoker group (46.5 vs. 29.7 %, p < 0001), and smokers were more sedentary than non-smokers (3.94 ± 3.77 vs. 4.86 ± 4.41 h/week, p < 0.001). Smokers showed an increased risk of impaired glucose regulation (IGR: impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes mellitus) with a hazard ratio (HR) adjusted by gender, metabolic syndrome and physical activity of 1.78, 95 % CI 1.27-2.47 (p < 0.001). The association between smoking and MS conferred a risk of IGR that was five times higher (HR 5.495, 95 % CI 4.07-7.41, p < 0.001). Smoking habit was a significant explanatory variable in a multiple forward stepwise regression analysis performed using 2hOGTT and ISSI-2 as dependent variables (p < 0.0001, R = 0.313 and p < 0.0001, R = 0.347, respectively). In conclusions, our results show that tobacco smoking is tightly associated with impairments in glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion.

  11. Estriol blunts postprandial blood glucose rise in male rats through regulating intestinal glucose transporters.

    PubMed

    Yamabe, Noriko; Kang, Ki Sung; Lee, Woojung; Kim, Su-Nam; Zhu, Bao Ting

    2015-03-01

    Despite increased total food intake in healthy, late-stage pregnant women, their peak postprandial blood sugar levels are normally much lower than the levels seen in healthy nonpregnant women. In this study, we sought to determine whether estriol (E3), an endogenous estrogen predominantly produced during human pregnancy, contributes to the regulation of the postprandial blood glucose level in healthy normal rats. In vivo studies using rats showed that E3 blunted the speed and magnitude of the blood glucose rise following oral glucose administration, but it did not appear to affect the total amount of glucose absorbed. E3 also did not affect insulin secretion, but it significantly reduced the rate of intestinal glucose transport compared with vehicle-treated animals. Consistent with this finding, expression of the sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 and 2 was significantly downregulated by E3 treatment in the brush-border membrane and basolateral membrane, respectively, of enterocytes. Most of the observed in vivo effects were noticeably stronger with E3 than with 17β-estradiol. Using differentiated human Caco-2 enterocyte monolayer culture as an in vitro model, we confirmed that E3 at physiologically relevant concentrations could directly inhibit glucose uptake via suppression of glucose transporter 2 expression, whereas 17β-estradiol did not have a similar effect. Collectively, these data showed that E3 can blunt the postprandial glycemic surge in rats through modulating the level of intestinal glucose transporters.

  12. The infrared spectra of C2H4(+) and C2H3 trapped in solid neon.

    PubMed

    Jacox, Marilyn E; Thompson, Warren E

    2011-02-14

    When a mixture of ethylene in a large excess of neon is codeposited at 4.3 K with a beam of neon atoms that have been excited in a microwave discharge, two groups of product absorptions appear in the infrared spectrum of the deposit. Similar studies using C(2)H(4)-1-(13)C and C(2)D(4) aid in product identification. The first group of absorptions arises from a cation product which possesses two identical carbon atoms, giving the first infrared identification of two fundamentals of C(2)H(4)(+) and three of C(2)D(4)(+), as well as a tentative identification of ν(9) of C(2)H(4)(+). The positions of these absorptions are consistent with the results of density functional calculations and of earlier photoelectron studies. All of the members of the second group of product absorptions possess two inequivalent carbon atoms. They are assigned to the vinyl radical, C(2)H(3), and to C(2)D(3), in agreement with other recent infrared assignments for those species.

  13. Observations of CH4, C2H6, and C2H2 in the stratosphere of Jupiter.

    PubMed

    Sada, P V; Bjoraker, G L; Jennings, D E; McCabe, G H; Romani, P N

    1998-12-01

    We have performed high-resolution spectral observations at mid-infrared wavelengths of CH4 (8.14 micrometers), C2H6 (12.16 micrometers), and C2H2 (13.45 micrometers) on Jupiter. These emission features probe the stratosphere of the planet and provide information on the carbon-based photochemical processes taking place in that region of the atmosphere. The observations were performed using our cryogenic echelle spectrometer CELESTE, in conjunction with the McMath-Pierce 1.5-m solar telescope between November 1994 and February 1995. We used the methane observations to derive the temperature profile of the jovian atmosphere in the 1-10 mbar region of the stratosphere. This profile was then used in conjunction with height-dependent mixing ratios of each hydrocarbon to determine global abundances for ethane and acetylene. The resulting mixing ratios are 3.9(+1.9)(-1.3) x 10(-6) for C2H6 (5 mbar pressure level), and 2.3 +/- 0.5 x 10(-8) for C2H2 (8 mbar pressure level), where the quoted uncertainties are derived from model variations in the temperature profile which match the methane observation uncertainties. PMID:11878354

  14. Search for the isomers of C2H3NO and C2H3NS in the Interstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etim, Emmanuel; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Das, Ankan; Gorai, Prasanta; Arunan, Elangannan

    2016-07-01

    With about 40% of all the known interstellar and circumstellar molecules having their isomeric analogues as known astromolecules, isomerism remains one of the leading themes in interstellar chemistry. In this regard, the recent detection of methyl isocyanate (with a number of isomeric analogues) in the Sgr B2(N) giant molecular cloud opens a new window for the possible astronomical detection of other C_2H_3NO isomers. The present work looks at the possibility of detecting other isomers of methyl isocyanate by considering different factors such as thermodynamic stability of the different isomers with respect to the Energy, Stability and Abundance (ESA) relationship, effect of interstellar hydrogen bonding with respect to the formation these isomers on the surface of the interstellar dust grains, possible formation routes for these isomers, spectroscopic parameters for potential astromolecules among these isomers, chemical modeling among other studies. The same studies are repeated for the C_2H_3NS isomers which are the isoelectroninc analogues of the C_2H_3NO isomers taking into account the unique chemistry of S and O-containing interstellar molecular species. Among the C_2H_3NS isomers, methyl isothiocyanate remains the most potential candidate for astronomical observation.

  15. ADRB2 haplotype is associated with glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in obese postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Prior, Steven J; Goldberg, Andrew P; Ryan, Alice S

    2011-02-01

    The β(2)-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) mediates obesity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and insulin resistance. We examined the hypothesis that ADRB2 Arg16Gly-Gln27Glu haplotype is associated with body composition, glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity in obese, postmenopausal women. Obese (>35% body fat), postmenopausal (age 45-75 years) women (n = 123) underwent genotyping, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and computed tomography scans, exercise testing (VO(2(max))), 2-h oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs), and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps (80 mU/m(2)/min). Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) tested for differences among haplotypes, with race, % body fat, and VO(2(max)) as covariates. We found that ADRB2 haplotype was independently associated with % body fat, abdominal fat distribution, VO(2(max)), insulin sensitivity (M/ΔInsulin), and glucose tolerance (ANOVA, P < 0.05 for all). Women homozygous for Gly16-Gln27 haplotype had the highest % body fat (52.7 ± 1.9%), high abdominal fat, low M/ΔInsulin (0.49 ± 0.08 mg/kg/min/pmol/l/10(2)), and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) during an OGTT (G(120) = 10.2 ± 0.9 mmol/l). Women homozygous for Gly16-Glu27 haplotype also had low M/ΔInsulin (0.51 ± 0.05 mg/kg/min/pmol/l/10(2)) and IGT (G(120) = 8.2 ± 0.7 mmol/l). Subjects with Arg16-Gln27/Gly16-Gln27 haplotype combination had the highest VO(2(max)) (1.84 ± 0.07 l/min) and M/ΔInsulin (0.7 ± 0.04 mg/kg/min/pmol/l/10(2)), and normal glucose tolerance (G(120) = 6.4 ± 0.4 mmol/l), despite being obese. These data show associations of the ADRB2 Arg16Gly-Gln27Glu haplotype with VO(2(max)) and body composition, and an independent association with glucose metabolism, which persists after controlling for body composition and fitness. This suggests that ADRB2 haplotypes may mediate insulin action, glucose tolerance, and potentially risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in obese, postmenopausal women.

  16. Refractive index and birefringence of 2H silicon carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    The refractive indices of 2H SiC were measured over the wavelength range 435.8 to 650.9 nm by the method of minimum deviation. At the wavelength lambda = 546.1 nm, the ordinary index n sub 0 was 2.6480 and the extraordinary index n sub e was 2.7237. The estimated error (standard deviation) in the measured values is 0.0006 for n sub 0 and 0.0009 for n sub e. The experimental data were curve fitted to the Cauchy equation for the index of refraction as a function of wavelength. The birefringence of 2H SiC was found to vary from 0.0719 at lambda = 650.9 nm to 0.0846 at lambda = 435.8 nm.

  17. Charge transfer in energetic Li^2+ - H collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancev, I.

    2008-07-01

    The total cross sections for charge transfer in Li^2+ - H collisions have been calculated, using the four-body first Born approximation with correct boundary conditions (CB1-4B) and four-body continuum distorted wave method (CDW-4B) in the energy range 10 - 5000 keV/amu. Present results call for additional experimental data at higher impact energies than presently available.

  18. Thermodynamic properties of solid C2H4

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Shao-mu; Eyring, Henry

    1979-01-01

    The significant structures procedure of liquids has been used to calculate the thermodynamic properties of solid C2H4. Two degeneracy terms were used to describe the behavior in the vicinities of the two phase transitions. The calculated entropy and specific heat agree well with experimental results from a few kelvins to the melting point. Less satisfactory agreement is obtained for compressibility and thermal expansion coefficients. This simple model represents surprisingly well the phase transitions in the solid state. PMID:16592659

  19. C(2)H(4) metabolism in morning glory flowers.

    PubMed

    Beyer, E M; Sundin, O

    1978-06-01

    Flowers of Ipomoea tricolor Cav. (cv. Heavenly Blue) were cut at various stages of development and evaluated for their ability to metabolize ethylene. Freshly cut buds or flowers were treated in glass containers for 8 hours with 6 mul/liter of highly purified (14)C(2)H(4). Following removal of dissolved (14)C(2)H(4), radioactivity was determined for the different flower tissues and trappd CO(2). (14)C(2)H(4) oxidation to (14)CO(2) and tissue incorporation occurred at very low to nondetectable levels 2 to 3 days prior to flower opening. About 1 day prior to full bloom, just at the time when mature buds become responsive to ethylene (Kende and Hanson, Plant Physiol 1976, 57: 523-527), there was a dramatic increase in the capacity of the buds to oxidize (14)C(2)H(4) to (14)CO(2). This activity continued to increase until the flower was fully opened reaching a peak activity of 2,500 dpm per three flowers per 8 hours. It then declined as the flower closed and rapidly senesced. A similar but smaller peak occurred in tissue incorporation and it was followed by a second peak during late flower senescence. This first peak in tissue incorporation and the dramatic peak in ethylene oxidation slightly preceded a large peak of natural ethylene production which accompanied flower senescence. The ethylene metabolism observed was clearly dependent on cellular metabolism and did not involve microorganisms since heat killing destroyed this activity and badly contaminated heat-killed flowers were unable to metabolize ethylene.

  20. Clean conversion of cellulose into fermentable glucose.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yong; Zhuang, Junping; Lin, Lu; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2009-01-01

    We studied the process of conversion of microcrystalline-cellulose into fermentable glucose in the formic acid reaction system using cross polarization/magic angle spinning (13)C-nuclear magnetic resonance, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results indicated that formic acid as an active agent was able to effectively penetrate into the interior space of the cellulose molecules, thus collapsing the rigid crystalline structure and allowing hydrolysis to occur easily in the amorphous zone as well as in the crystalline zone. The microcrystalline-cellulose was hydrolyzed using formic acid and 4% hydrochloric acid under mild conditions. The effects of hydrochloric acid concentration, the ratio of solid to liquid, temperature (55-75 degrees C) and retention time (0-9 h), and the concentration of glucose were analyzed. The hydrolysis velocities of microcrystalline-cellulose were 6.14 x 10(-3) h(-1) at 55 degrees C, 2.94 x 10(-2) h(-1) at 65 degrees C, and 6.84x10(-2) h(-1) at 75 degrees C. The degradation velocities of glucose were 0.01 h(-1) at 55 degrees C, 0.14 h(-1) at 65 degrees C, 0.34 h(-1) at 75 degrees C. The activation energy of microcrystalline-cellulose hydrolysis was 105.61 kJ/mol, and the activation energy of glucose degradation was 131.37 kJ/mol.

  1. The distribution of ND2H in LDN 1689N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerin, M.; Lis, D. C.; Philipp, S.; Güsten, R.; Roueff, E.; Reveret, V.

    2006-08-01

    Aims.Finding tracers of the innermost regions of prestellar cores is important for understanding their chemical and dynamical evolution before the onset of gravitational collapse. While classical molecular tracers, such as CO and CS, have been shown to be strongly depleted in cold, dense gas by condensation on grain mantles, it has been a subject of discussion to what extent nitrogen-bearing species, such as ammonia, are affected by this process. As deuterium fractionation is efficient in cold, dense gas, deuterated species are excellent tracers of prestellar cores. A comparison of the spatial distribution of neutral and ionized deuterated species with the dust continuum emission can thus provide important insights into the physical and chemical structure of such regions. Methods: .We study the spatial distribution of the ground-state 335.5 GHz line of ND2H in LDN 1689N, using APEX, and compare it with the distribution of the DCO+(3-2) line, as well as the 350 μm dust continuum emission observed with the SHARC II bolometer camera at CSO. Results: .While the distribution of the ND2H emission in LDN 1689N is generally similar to that of the 350 μm dust continuum emission, the peak of the ND2H emission is offset by ~10'' to the East from the dust continuum and DCO+ emission peak. ND2H and ND3 share the same spatial distribution. The observed offset between the ND2H and DCO+ emission is consistent with the hypothesis that the deuterium peak in LDN 1689N is an interaction region between the outflow shock from IRAS 16293-2422 and the dense ambient gas. We detect the J = 4 → 3 line of H13CO+ at 346.998 GHz in the image side band serendipitously. This line shows the same spatial distribution as DCO+(3-2), and peaks close to the 350 μm emission maximum which provides further support for the shock interaction scenario.

  2. Dosing obese cats based on body weight spuriously affects some measures of glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Reeve-Johnson, M K; Rand, J S; Anderson, S T; Appleton, D J; Morton, J M; Vankan, D

    2016-10-01

    The primary objective was to investigate whether dosing glucose by body weight results in spurious effects on measures of glucose tolerance in obese cats because volume of distribution does not increase linearly with body weight. Healthy research cats (n = 16; 6 castrated males, 10 spayed females) were used. A retrospective study was performed using glucose concentration data from glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity tests before and after cats were fed ad libitum for 9 to 12 mo to promote weight gain. The higher dose of glucose (0.5 vs 0.3 g/kg body weight) in the glucose tolerance tests increased 2-min glucose concentrations (P < 0.001), and there was a positive correlation between 2-min and 2-h glucose (r = 0.65, P = 0.006). Two-min (P = 0.016 and 0.019, respectively), and 2-h (P = 0.057 and 0.003, respectively) glucose concentrations, and glucose half-life (T1/2; P = 0.034 and <0.001 respectively) were positively associated with body weight and body condition score. Glucose dose should be decreased by 0.05 g for every kg above ideal body weight. Alternatively, for every unit of body condition score above 5 on a 9-point scale, observed 2-h glucose concentration should be adjusted down by 0.1 mmol/L. Dosing glucose based on body weight spuriously increases glucose concentrations at 2 h in obese cats and could lead to cats being incorrectly classified as having impaired glucose tolerance. This has important implications for clinical studies assessing the effect of interventions on glucose tolerance when lean and obese cats are compared. PMID:27572923

  3. Dietary lipids do not contribute to the higher hepatic triglyceride levels of fructose- compared to glucose-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Patricia M; Wright, Alan J; Veltien, Andor; van Asten, Jack J A; Tack, Cees J; Jones, John G; Heerschap, Arend

    2014-05-01

    Fructose consumption has been associated with the surge in obesity and dyslipidemia. This may be mediated by the fructose effects on hepatic lipids and ATP levels. Fructose metabolism provides carbons for de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and stimulates enterocyte secretion of apoB48. Thus, fructose-induced hepatic triglyceride (HTG) accumulation can be attributed to both DNL stimulation and dietary lipid absorption. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of fructose diet on HTG and ATP content and the contributions of dietary lipids and DNL to HTG. Measurements were performed in vivo in mice by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and novel magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) approaches. Abdominal adipose tissue volume and intramyocellular lipid levels were comparable between 8-wk fructose- and glucose-fed mice. HTG levels were ∼1.5-fold higher in fructose-fed than in glucose-fed mice (P<0.05). Metabolic flux analysis by (13)C and (2)H MRS showed that this was not due to dietary lipid absorption, but due to DNL stimulation. The contribution of oral lipids to HTG was, after 5 h, 1.60 ± 0.23% for fructose and 2.16 ± 0.35% for glucose diets (P=0.26), whereas that of DNL was higher in fructose than in glucose diets (2.55±0.51 vs.1.13±0.24%, P=0.01). Hepatic energy status, assessed by (31)P MRS, was similar for fructose- and glucose-fed mice. Fructose-induced HTG accumulation is better explained by DNL and not by dietary lipid uptake, while not compromising ATP homeostasis.

  4. Measurement of regional cerebral blood flow in cat brain using intracarotid 2H2O and 2H NMR imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Detre, J.A.; Subramanian, V.H.; Mitchell, M.D.; Smith, D.S.; Kobayashi, A.; Zaman, A.; Leigh, J.S. Jr. )

    1990-05-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured in cat brain in vivo at 2.7 T using 2H NMR to monitor the washout of deuterated saline injected into both carotid arteries via the lingual arteries. In anesthetized cats, global CBF varied directly with PaCO{sub 2} over a range of 20-50 mm Hg, and the corresponding global CBF values ranged from 25 to 125 ml.100 g-1.min-1. Regional CBF was measured in a 1-cm axial section of cat brain using intracarotid deuterated saline and gradient-echo 2H NMR imaging. Blood flow images with a maximum pixel resolution of 0.3 x 0.3 x 1.0 cm were generated from the deuterium signal washout at each pixel. Image derived values for CBF agreed well with other determinations, and decreased significantly with hypocapnia.

  5. The rate of the reaction between C2H and C2H2 at interstellar temperatures.

    PubMed

    Herbst, E; Woon, D E

    1997-11-01

    The reaction between the radical C2H and the stable hydrocarbon C2H2 is one of the simplest neutral-neutral hydrocarbon reactions in chemical models of dense interstellar clouds and carbon-rich circumstellar shells. Although known to be rapid at temperatures > or = 300 K, the reaction has yet to be studied at lower temperatures. We present here ab initio calculations of the potential surface for this reaction and dynamical calculations to determine its rate at low temperature. Despite a small potential barrier in the exit channel, the calculated rate is large, showing that this reaction and, most probably, more complex analogs contribute to the formation of complex organic molecules in low-temperature sources.

  6. The rate of the reaction between C2H and C2H2 at interstellar temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbst, E.; Woon, D. E.

    1997-01-01

    The reaction between the radical C2H and the stable hydrocarbon C2H2 is one of the simplest neutral-neutral hydrocarbon reactions in chemical models of dense interstellar clouds and carbon-rich circumstellar shells. Although known to be rapid at temperatures > or = 300 K, the reaction has yet to be studied at lower temperatures. We present here ab initio calculations of the potential surface for this reaction and dynamical calculations to determine its rate at low temperature. Despite a small potential barrier in the exit channel, the calculated rate is large, showing that this reaction and, most probably, more complex analogs contribute to the formation of complex organic molecules in low-temperature sources.

  7. Ceylon cinnamon does not affect postprandial plasma glucose or insulin in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Wickenberg, Jennie; Lindstedt, Sandra; Berntorp, Kerstin; Nilsson, Jan; Hlebowicz, Joanna

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies on healthy subjects have shown that the intake of 6 g Cinnamomum cassia reduces postprandial glucose and that the intake of 3 g C. cassia reduces insulin response, without affecting postprandial glucose concentrations. Coumarin, which may damage the liver, is present in C. cassia, but not in Cinnamomum zeylanicum. The aim of the present study was to study the effect of C. zeylanicum on postprandial concentrations of plasma glucose, insulin, glycaemic index (GI) and insulinaemic index (GII) in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). A total of ten subjects with IGT were assessed in a crossover trial. A standard 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was administered together with placebo or C. zeylanicum capsules. Finger-prick capillary blood samples were taken for glucose measurements and venous blood for insulin measurements, before and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min after the start of the OGTT. The ingestion of 6 g C. zeylanicum had no significant effect on glucose level, insulin response, GI or GII. Ingestion of C. zeylanicum does not affect postprandial plasma glucose or insulin levels in human subjects. The Federal Institute for Risk Assessment in Europe has suggested the replacement of C. cassia by C. zeylanicum or the use of aqueous extracts of C. cassia to lower coumarin exposure. However, the positive effects seen with C. cassia in subjects with poor glycaemic control would then be lost.

  8. Anti-diabetic and anti-adipogenic effects of a novel selective 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibitor, 2-(3-benzoyl)-4-hydroxy-1,1-dioxo-2H-1,2-benzothiazine-2-yl-1-phenylethanone (KR-66344).

    PubMed

    Park, Ji Seon; Rhee, Sang Dal; Kang, Nam Sook; Jung, Won Hoon; Kim, Hee Youn; Kim, Jun Hyoung; Kang, Seung Kyu; Cheon, Hyae Gyeong; Ahn, Jin Hee; Kim, Ki Young

    2011-04-15

    The selective inhibitors of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) have considerable potential for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. In the present study, we investigated the anti-diabetic and anti-adipogenic effects of 2-(3-benzoyl)-4-hydroxy-1,1-dioxo-2H-1,2-benzothiazine-2-yl-1-phenylethanone (KR-66344), as a 11β-HSD1 inhibitor; we also investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms in the cortisone-induced 3T3-L1 adipogenesis model system and C57BL/6-Lep(ob/ob) mice. KR-66344 concentration-dependently inhibited 11β-HSD1 activity in human liver microsome, mouse C2C12 myotube and human SW982 cells. In the C57BL/6-Lep(ob/ob) mice study, the administration of KR-66344 (200mg/kg/d, orally for 5 days) improved the glucose intolerance as determined by the oral glucose tolerance test, in which the area under the curve (AUC) of the plasma glucose concentration was significantly reduced by 27% compared with the vehicle treated group. Further, KR-66344 suppressed adipocyte differentiation on cortisone-induced adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells is associated with the suppression of the cortisone-induced mRNA levels of FABP4, G3PD, PPARγ2 and Glut4, and 11β-HSD1 expression and activity. Our results additionally demonstrate evidence showing that KR-66344 improved glycemic control and inhibited adipogenesis via 11β-HSD1 enzyme activity. Taken together, these results may provide evidence of the therapeutic potential of KR-66344, as a 11β-HSD1 inhibitor, in obesity and type 2 diabetes patients with metabolic syndrome.

  9. Glucose, memory, and aging.

    PubMed

    Korol, D L; Gold, P E

    1998-04-01

    Circulating glucose concentrations regulate many brain functions, including learning and memory. Much of the evidence for this view comes from experiments assessing stress-related release of epinephrine with subsequent increases in blood glucose concentrations. One application of this work has been to investigate whether age-related memory impairments result from dysfunctions in the neuroendocrine regulation of the brain processes responsible for memory. Like humans, aged rodents exhibit some memory impairments that can be reversed by administration of epinephrine or glucose. In elderly humans, ingestion of glucose enhances some cognitive functions, with effects best documented thus far on tests of verbal contextual and noncontextual information. Glucose also effectively enhances cognition in persons with Alzheimer disease or Down syndrome. Although earlier evidence suggested that glucose does not enhance cognitive function in healthy young adults, more recent findings suggest that glucose is effective in this population, provided the tests are sufficiently difficult. In college students, glucose consumption significantly enhanced memory of material in a paragraph. Glucose also appeared to enhance attentional processes in these students. Neither face and word recognition nor working memory was influenced by treatment with glucose. The neurobiological mechanisms by which glucose acts are under current investigation. Initial evidence suggests that glucose or a metabolite may activate release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in rats when they are engaged in learning. Consequently, the issue of nutrition and cognition becomes increasingly important in light of evidence that circulating glucose concentrations have substantial effects on brain and cognitive functions.

  10. CO2/H(+) sensing: peripheral and central chemoreception.

    PubMed

    Lahiri, Sukhamay; Forster, Robert E

    2003-10-01

    H(+) is maintained constant in the internal environment at a given body temperature independent of external environment according to Bernard's principle of "milieu interieur". But CO2 relates to ventilation and H(+) to kidney. Hence, the title of the chapter. In order to do this, sensors for H(+) in the internal environment are needed. The sensor-receptor is CO2/H(+) sensing. The sensor-receptor is coupled to integrate and to maintain the body's chemical environment at equilibrium. This chapter dwells on this theme of constancy of H(+) of the blood and of the other internal environments. [H(+)] is regulated jointly by respiratory and renal systems. The respiratory response to [H(+)] originates from the activities of two groups of chemoreceptors in two separate body fluid compartments: (A) carotid and aortic bodies which sense arterial P(O2) and H(+); and (B) the medullary H(+) receptors on the ventrolateral medulla of the central nervous system (CNS). The arterial chemoreceptors function to maintain arterial P(O2) and H(+) constant, and medullary H(+) receptors to maintain H(+) of the brain fluid constant. Any acute change of H(+) in these compartments is taken care of almost instantly by pulmonary ventilation, and slowly by the kidney. This general theme is considered in Section 1. The general principles involving cellular CO2 reactions mediated by carbonic anhydrase (CA), transport of CO2 and H(+) are described in Section 2. Since the rest of the chapter is dependent on these key mechanisms, they are given in detail, including the role of Jacobs-Stewart Cycle and its interaction with carbonic anhydrase. Also, this section deals briefly with the mechanisms of membrane depolarization of the chemoreceptor cells because this is one mechanism on which the responses depend. The metabolic impact of endogenous CO2 appears in the section with a historical twist, in the context of acclimatization to high altitude (Section 3). Because low P(O2) at high altitude stimulates

  11. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003671.htm Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a type of ...

  12. Your Glucose Meter

    MedlinePlus

    ... by Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Your Glucose Meter Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Español Basic Facts 7 Tips for Testing Your Blood Sugar and Caring for Your Meter Glucose meters test ...

  13. Theoretical kinetics of O + C2H4

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Xiaohu; Jasper, Ahren W.; Zádor, Judit; Miller, James A.; Klippenstein, Stephen J.

    2016-06-01

    The reaction of atomic oxygen with ethylene is a fundamental oxidation step in combustion and is prototypical of reactions in which oxygen adds to double bonds. For 3O+C2H4 and for this class of reactions generally, decomposition of the initial adduct via spin-allowed reaction channels on the triplet surface competes with intersystem crossing (ISC) and a set of spin-forbidden reaction channels on the ground-state singlet surface. The two surfaces share some bimolecular products but feature different intermediates, pathways, and transition states. In addition, the overall product branching is therefore a sensitive function of the ISC rate. The 3O+C2H4 reaction has beenmore » extensively studied, but previous experimental work has not provided detailed branching information at elevated temperatures, while previous theoretical studies have employed empirical treatments of ISC. Here we predict the kinetics of 3O+C2H4 using an ab initio transition state theory based master equation (AITSTME) approach that includes an a priori description of ISC. Specifically, the ISC rate is calculated using Landau–Zener statistical theory, consideration of the four lowest-energy electronic states, and a direct classical trajectory study of the product branching immediately after ISC. The present theoretical results are largely in good agreement with existing low-temperature experimental kinetics and molecular beam studies. Good agreement is also found with past theoretical work, with the notable exception of the predicted product branching at elevated temperatures. Above ~1000 K, we predict CH2CHO+H and CH2+CH2O as the major products, which differs from the room temperature preference for CH3+HCO (which is assumed to remain at higher temperatures in some models) and from the prediction of a previous detailed master equation study.« less

  14. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of Ethynyl Radical, C2H

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Anh T.; Hall, Gregory; Sears, Trevor

    2016-06-01

    The ethynyl radical, C_2H, is a reactive intermediate important in various combustion processes and also widely observed in the interstellar medium. In spite of extensive previous spectroscopic studies, the characterization of the near infrared transitions from the tilde{X}2Σ+ state to the mixed vibrational overtone and tilde{A}2Π states is incomplete. A strong band of C_2H at 7064 cm-1 was first observed in a neon matrix and assigned as the tilde{A}2Π(002)1 - tilde{X}2Σ+ transition by Forney et al. Subsequent theoretical work of Tarroni and Carter attributed the strong absorptions in this region to transitions terminating in two upper states, each a mixture of vibrationally excited tilde{X} states and different zero-order tilde{A}-state bending levels: a 2Σ+ symmetry combination of tilde{X}(0,20,3) and tilde{A}(0,3,0)0κ and a 2Π symmetry combination of tilde{X}(0,31,3) and tilde{A}(0,0,2)1. Transitions to them from the zero point level of the tilde{X} state are calculated to differ in energy by less than 10 cm-1 and to be within a factor of two in intensity. Diode laser transient absorption was used to record Doppler-limited spectra between 7020 and 7130 cm-1, using 193 nm photolysis of CF_3C_2H as a source of C_2H. Two interleaved, rotationally resolved bands were observed, consistent with a 2Σ - 2Σ transition at 7088 cm-1 and a 2Π - 2Σ transition at 7108 cm-1, in good accord with the Tarroni and Carter calculation. Progress on the assignment and fitting of the spectra will be reported. Acknowledgements: Work at Brookhaven National Laboratory was carried out under Contract No. DE-SC0012704 with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, and supported by its Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences. D. Forney, M.E. Jacox, and W.E. Thompson, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 170, 178 (1995). R. Tarroni and S. Carter, Mol. Phys. 102, 2167 (2004)

  15. Synthesis Of 2h- And 13c-Substituted Dithanes

    DOEpatents

    Martinez, Rodolfo A.; Alvarez, Marc A.; Silks, III, Louis A.; Unkefer, Clifford J.

    2004-05-04

    The present invention is directed to labeled compounds, [2-.sup.13 C]dithane wherein the .sup.13 C atom is directly bonded to one or two deuterium atoms. The present invention is also directed to processes of preparing [2-.sup.13 C]dithane wherein the .sup.13 C atom is directly bonded to one or two deuterium atoms. The present invention is also directed to labeled compounds, e.g., [.sup.2 H.sub.1-2, .sup.13 C]methanol (arylthio)-, acetates wherein the .sup.13 C atom is directly bonded to exactly one or two deuterium atoms.

  16. Synthesis of 2H- and 13C-substituted dithanes

    DOEpatents

    Martinez, Rodolfo A.; Alvarez, Marc A.; Silks, III, Louis A.; Unkefer, Clifford J.

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is directed to labeled compounds, [2-.sup.13 C]dithiane wherein the .sup.13 C atom is directly bonded to one or two deuterium atoms. The present invention is also directed to processes of preparing [2-.sup.13 C]dithiane wherein the .sup.13 C atom is directly bonded to one or two deuterium atoms. The present invention is also directed to labeled compounds, e.g., [.sup.2 H.sub.1-2, .sup.13 C]methanol (arylthio)-, acetates wherein the .sup.13 C atom is directly bonded to exactly one or two deuterium atoms.

  17. Enhanced glucose tolerance by intravascularly administered piceatannol in freely moving healthy rats.

    PubMed

    Oritani, Yukihiro; Okitsu, Teru; Nishimura, Eisaku; Sai, Masahiko; Ito, Tatsuhiko; Takeuchi, Shoji

    2016-02-12

    Piceatannol is a phytochemical in the seeds of passion fruit that has a hypoglycemic effect when orally administered. To elucidate the contribution of intact and metabolites of piceatannol after gastro-intestinal absorption to hypoglycemic effect, we examined the influence of piceatannol and isorhapontigenin on blood glucose concentrations during fasting and glucose tolerance tests by administering them intravascularly to freely moving healthy rats. We found that intravascularly administered piceatannol reduced the blood glucose concentrations during both fasting and glucose tolerance tests, but isorhapontigenin did not during either of them. Furthermore, we found that piceatannol increased the insulinogenic index during glucose tolerance tests and that piceatannol had no influence on insulin sensitivity by performing hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamping tests. These results suggest that piceatannol orally intaken may enhance glucose tolerance by the effect of intact piceatannol through enhanced early-phase secretion of insulin. Therefore, oral intake of piceatannol might contribute to proper control of postprandial glycemic excursions in healthy subjects.

  18. Determining diabetes prevalence: a rational basis for the use of fasting plasma glucose concentrations?

    PubMed

    Finch, C F; Zimmet, P Z; Alberti, K G

    1990-08-01

    The World Health Organization and the National Diabetes Data Group each recommend a diagnostic cut-off point for diabetes of 7.8 mmol l-1 for fasting plasma glucose concentrations as part of the diagnostic criteria for epidemiological studies. However, this cut-off has been shown to be insensitive compared with a screening test based on 2-h plasma glucose levels. In thirteen Pacific populations, from four ethnic groups (Asian Indian, Melanesian, Micronesian, and Polynesian), we have examined whether a different cut-off point for fasting plasma glucose would be more accurate for obtaining an estimate of the prevalence of diabetes when compared with 2-h levels. A fasting plasma glucose diagnostic cut-off of 7.0 mmol l-1 gave an estimate of prevalence not significantly different from that based on the 2-h plasma glucose in 12 of the 13 populations (mean difference 0.27, range -1.51 to +2.44,%). On the other hand, when a cut-off of 7.8 mmol l-1 for fasting plasma glucose was used, the resulting prevalence over-estimated the 2-h glucose prevalence in all populations (mean difference 1.91, range 0.14-5.80,%). Thus for Pacific populations, a fasting plasma glucose cut-off of 7.0 mmol l-1 provides estimates of prevalence that are equivalent to those based on 2-h plasma glucose levels. In epidemiological studies designed to estimate diabetes prevalence, we recommend use of a fasting plasma glucose cut-off of 7.0 mmol l-1 in preference to a detection level of 7.8 mmol l-1, if glucose loading is not possible.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Bitter taste receptors influence glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Dotson, Cedrick D; Zhang, Lan; Xu, Hong; Shin, Yu-Kyong; Vigues, Stephan; Ott, Sandra H; Elson, Amanda E T; Choi, Hyun Jin; Shaw, Hillary; Egan, Josephine M; Mitchell, Braxton D; Li, Xiaodong; Steinle, Nanette I; Munger, Steven D

    2008-01-01

    TAS1R- and TAS2R-type taste receptors are expressed in the gustatory system, where they detect sweet- and bitter-tasting stimuli, respectively. These receptors are also expressed in subsets of cells within the mammalian gastrointestinal tract, where they mediate nutrient assimilation and endocrine responses. For example, sweeteners stimulate taste receptors on the surface of gut enteroendocrine L cells to elicit an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) and secretion of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), an important modulator of insulin biosynthesis and secretion. Because of the importance of taste receptors in the regulation of food intake and the alimentary responses to chemostimuli, we hypothesized that differences in taste receptor efficacy may impact glucose homeostasis. To address this issue, we initiated a candidate gene study within the Amish Family Diabetes Study and assessed the association of taste receptor variants with indicators of glucose dysregulation, including a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus and high levels of blood glucose and insulin during an oral glucose tolerance test. We report that a TAS2R haplotype is associated with altered glucose and insulin homeostasis. We also found that one SNP within this haplotype disrupts normal responses of a single receptor, TAS2R9, to its cognate ligands ofloxacin, procainamide and pirenzapine. Together, these findings suggest that a functionally compromised TAS2R receptor negatively impacts glucose homeostasis, providing an important link between alimentary chemosensation and metabolic disease. PMID:19092995

  20. B2H6 PLAD Doped PMOS Device Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Z.; Miller, T.; Winder, E.; Persing, H.; Arevalo, E.; Gupta, A.; Parrill, T.; Singh, V.; Qin, S.; McTeer, A.

    2006-11-13

    Plasma doping (PLAD) achieves high wafer throughput by directly extracting ions across the plasma sheath. PLAD profiles are typically surface peaked instead of retrograde as obtained from beamline (BL) implant. It may require optimization of PLAD energy and dose in order to match BL doping results. From device optimization point of view, it is necessary to understand the impact of doping parameters to device characteristics. In this paper we present the PMOS device performance with the poly gate and source drain (SD) implants carried out using B2H6 PLAD. The BL control conditions are 2-5 keV 11B+ 4-6x1015 cm-2. Equivalent device performance for p+ poly gate doping is obtained using PLAD with B2H6 / H2. In SD doping using same gas mixture, nearly 50% reduction in SD contact resistance is observed in the PLAD splits. The reduction in SD contact resistance leads to 10-15% increase in device on-current, hence demonstrating the process advantages of using PLAD in addition to having a high wafer throughput.

  1. Oral cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Chunduri, Nagendra S; Goteki, Venkateswarulu; Gelli, Vamsi; Madasu, Krishnaveni

    2013-03-01

    Cysticercosis is a common disease in developing countries, but oral lesions caused by this parasitic infestation are rare. We report here a rare case of oral cysticercosis in a 17 year old male who sought treatment for an asymptomatic nodule of the lower lip that had previously been diagnosed as a mucocele. PMID:23691623

  2. Oral cenesthopathy.

    PubMed

    Umezaki, Yojiro; Miura, Anna; Watanabe, Motoko; Takenoshita, Miho; Uezato, Akihito; Toriihara, Akira; Nishikawa, Toru; Toyofuku, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Cenesthopathy is characterized by abnormal and strange bodily sensations and is classified as a 'delusional disorder, somatic type' or 'somatoform disorder' according to the DSM 5. The oral cavity is one of the frequent sites of cenesthopathy, thus the term 'oral cenesthopathy.' Patients with oral cenesthopathy complain of unusual sensations without corresponding abnormal findings in the oral area, such as excessive mucus secretion, a slimy sensation, or a feeling of coils or wires being present within the oral region. They usually visit multiple dentists rather than psychiatrists. Without a proper diagnosis, they repeatedly pursue unnecessary surgical procedures to remove their 'foreign body'. This sometimes creates a dilemma between the dentists and patients. The nosography of oral cenesthopathy has been discussed in some case reports and reviews but is overlooked in mainstream medicine. This review focuses on the various aspects of oral cenesthopathy. The estimated prevalence of cenesthopathy was 0.2 to 1.9 % in a study done at a Japanese university psychiatry clinic and 27 % in a study done at a Japanese psychosomatic dentistry clinic. Oral cenesthopathy do not have clear disposition, while some studies reported that elderly women were most commonly affected. Its pathophysiology has not been fully elucidated. However, recent studies have suggested a right > left asymmetrical pattern of the cerebral blood flow of patients with oral cenesthopathy. Antidepressants, antipsychotic drugs, electroconvulsive therapy, and psychotherapy might be effective in some cases, though it is known to be intractable. To date, the epidemiology, pathophysiology, etiology, classification and treatment of oral cenesthopathy are unknown due to the few reports on the disorder, though there are a few case reports. To overcome this difficult medical condition, clinico-statistical and case-control studies done under rigorous criteria and with a large sample size are required. PMID

  3. Nateglinide Oral

    MedlinePlus

    ... normally and therefore cannot control the amount of sugar in the blood) in people whose diabetes cannot ... helps your body regulate the amount of glucose (sugar) in your blood. It decreases the amount of ...

  4. Insulin and glucose regulation.

    PubMed

    Ralston, Sarah L

    2002-08-01

    Abnormally high or low blood glucose and insulin concentrations after standardized glucose tolerance tests can reflect disorders such as pituitary dysfunction, polysaccharide storage myopathies, and other clinical disorders. Glucose and insulin responses, however, are modified by the diet to which the animal has adapted, time since it was last fed, and what it was fed. Body fat (obesity), fitness level, physiologic status, and stress also alter glucose and insulin metabolism. Therefore, it is important to consider these factors when evaluating glucose and insulin tests, especially if only one sample it taken. This article describes the factors affecting glucose and insulin metabolism in horses and how they might influence the interpretation of standardized tests of glucose tolerance.

  5. [Glucose Metabolism: Stress Hyperglycemia and Glucose Control].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Katsuya; Tsutsumi, Yasuo M

    2016-05-01

    It is important for the anesthesiologists to understand pathophysiology of perioperative stress hyperglycemia, because it offers strategies for treatment of stress hyperglycemia. The effect of glucose tolerance is different in the choice of the anesthetic agent used in daily clinical setting. Specifically, the volatile anesthetics inhibit insulin secretion after glucose load and affects glucose tolerance. During minor surgery by the remifentanil anesthesia, the stress reaction is hard to be induced, suggesting that we should consider low-dose glucose load. Finally it is necessary to perform the glycemic control of the patients who fell into stress hyperglycemia depending on the individual patient. However, there are a lot of questions to be answered in the future. The prognosis of the perioperative patients is more likely to be greatly improved if we can control stress hyperglycemia.

  6. [Glucose Metabolism: Stress Hyperglycemia and Glucose Control].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Katsuya; Tsutsumi, Yasuo M

    2016-05-01

    It is important for the anesthesiologists to understand pathophysiology of perioperative stress hyperglycemia, because it offers strategies for treatment of stress hyperglycemia. The effect of glucose tolerance is different in the choice of the anesthetic agent used in daily clinical setting. Specifically, the volatile anesthetics inhibit insulin secretion after glucose load and affects glucose tolerance. During minor surgery by the remifentanil anesthesia, the stress reaction is hard to be induced, suggesting that we should consider low-dose glucose load. Finally it is necessary to perform the glycemic control of the patients who fell into stress hyperglycemia depending on the individual patient. However, there are a lot of questions to be answered in the future. The prognosis of the perioperative patients is more likely to be greatly improved if we can control stress hyperglycemia. PMID:27319094

  7. Interaction of Peptide Transporter 1 With D-Glucose and L-Glutamic Acid; Possible Involvement of Taste Receptors.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Hiroshi; Ohmachi, Taichi; Ichiba, Kiko; Kamioka, Hiroki; Tomono, Takumi; Kanagawa, Masahiko; Idota, Yoko; Hatano, Yasuko; Yano, Kentaro; Morimoto, Kaori; Ogihara, Takuo

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the influence of sweet and umami (savory) tastants on the intestinal absorption of cephalexin (CEX), a substrate of peptide transporter 1 (PEPT1, SLC15A1) in rats. After oral administration of glucose or mannitol to rats, CEX was administered together with a second dose of glucose or mannitol. Western blot analysis indicated that expression of PEPT1 in rat jejunum membrane was decreased by glucose, compared to mannitol. Furthermore, the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of orally administered CEX was reduced by glucose compared to mannitol. The effect of glucose was diminished by nifedipine, a L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker. We also found that Cmax of orally administered CEX was reduced by treatment with L-glutamic acid, compared to D-glutamic acid. Thus, excessive intake of glucose and L-glutamic acid may impair oral absorption of PEPT1 substrates. PMID:26852864

  8. Stable-label intravenous glucose tolerance test minimal model

    SciTech Connect

    Avogaro, A.; Bristow, J.D.; Bier, D.M.; Cobelli, C.; Toffolo, G. )

    1989-08-01

    The minimal model approach to estimating insulin sensitivity (Sl) and glucose effectiveness in promoting its own disposition at basal insulin (SG) is a powerful tool that has been underutilized given its potential applications. In part, this has been due to its inability to separate insulin and glucose effects on peripheral uptake from their effects on hepatic glucose inflow. Prior enhancements, with radiotracer labeling of the dosage, permit this separation but are unsuitable for use in pregnancy and childhood. In this study, we labeled the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) dosage with (6,6-{sup 2}H{sub 2})glucose, (2-{sup 2}H)glucose, or both stable isotopically labeled glucose tracers and modeled glucose kinetics in six postabsorptive, nonobese adults. As previously found with the radiotracer model, the tracer-estimated S*l derived from the stable-label IVGTT was greater than Sl in each case except one, and the tracer-estimated SG* was less than SG in each instance. More importantly, however, the stable-label IVGTT estimated each parameter with an average precision of +/- 5% (range 3-9%) compared to average precisions of +/- 74% (range 7-309%) for SG and +/- 22% (range 3-72%) for Sl. In addition, because of the different metabolic fates of the two deuterated tracers, there were minor differences in basal insulin-derived measures of glucose effectiveness, but these differences were negligible for parameters describing insulin-stimulated processes. In conclusion, the stable-label IVGTT is a simple, highly precise means of assessing insulin sensitivity and glucose effectiveness at basal insulin that can be used to measure these parameters in individuals of all ages, including children and pregnant women.

  9. The ultraviolet spectrum of Herbig-Haro object 2H

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brugel, E. W.; Seab, C. G.; Shull, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    IUE spectra of Herbig-Haro object 2H are presented. The spectra show a strong 'excess' UV continuum and prominent emission lines of C, N, O, Si, Mg, and possibly Al. The continuum, F(lambda), exhibits a turnover shortward of about 1450 A, confirming for the first time the H0 two-photon nature of the emission source. A possible absorption feature near 1680 A, which could result from a new grain or molecular constituent in these protostellar objects is also noted. Recently computed models of steady shocks into partially ionized gas reproduce the two-photon spectral shape, but its observed intensity relative to H-beta and the Balmer continuum is anomalously high. It is suggested that a range of shock velocities, 70-100 km/s, or nonsteady, 'truncated' shocks may be responsible. Future high-sensitivity UV observations of HH objects may be used to probe grain extinction curves in star-forming regions.

  10. Vibrational and Rotational Spectroscopy of CD_2H^+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asvany, Oskar; Jusko, Pavol; Brünken, Sandra; Schlemmer, Stephan

    2016-06-01

    The lowest rotational levels (J=0-5) of the CD_2H^+ ground state have been probed by high-resolution rovibrational and pure rotational spectroscopy in a cryogenic 22-pole ion trap. For this, the ν_1 rovibrational band has been revisited, detecting 107 transitions, among which 35 are new. The use of a frequency comb system allowed to measure the rovibrational transitions with high precision and accuracy, typically better than 1 MHz. The high precision has been confirmed by comparing combination differences in the ground and vibrationally excited state. For the ground state, this allowed for equally precise predictions of pure rotational transitions, 24 of which have been measured directly by a novel IR - mm-wave double resonance method. M.-F. Jagod et al, J. Molec. Spectrosc. 153, 666, 1992 S. Gartner et al, J. Phys. Chem. A 117, 9975, 2013

  11. One dimensional 1H, 2H and 3H

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, A. J.; Astrakharchik, G. E.; Vranješ Markić, L.; Boronat, J.

    2016-05-01

    The ground-state properties of one-dimensional electron-spin-polarized hydrogen 1H, deuterium 2H, and tritium 3H are obtained by means of quantum Monte Carlo methods. The equations of state of the three isotopes are calculated for a wide range of linear densities. The pair correlation function and the static structure factor are obtained and interpreted within the framework of the Luttinger liquid theory. We report the density dependence of the Luttinger parameter and use it to identify different physical regimes: Bogoliubov Bose gas, super-Tonks-Girardeau gas, and quasi-crystal regimes for bosons; repulsive, attractive Fermi gas, and quasi-crystal regimes for fermions. We find that the tritium isotope is the one with the richest behavior. Our results show unambiguously the relevant role of the isotope mass in the properties of this quantum system.

  12. Detailed Studies of Hydrocarbon Radicals: C2H Dissociation

    SciTech Connect

    Wittig, Curt

    2014-10-06

    A novel experimental technique was examined whose goal was the ejection of radical species into the gas phase from a platform (film) of cold non-reactive material. The underlying principle was one of photo-initiated heat release in a stratum that lies below a layer of CO2 or a layer of amorphous solid water (ASW) and CO2. A molecular precursor to the radical species of interest is deposited near or on the film's surface, where it can be photo-dissociated. It proved unfeasible to avoid the rampant formation of fissures, as opposed to large "flakes." This led to many interesting results, but resulted in our aborting the scheme as a means of launching cold C2H radical into the gas phase. A journal article resulted that is germane to astrophysics but not combustion chemistry.

  13. 2H NMR studies of supercooled and glassy aspirin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, R.; Nowaczyk, A.; Geil, B.; Bohmer, R.

    2007-11-01

    Acetyl salicylic acid, deuterated at the methyl group, was investigated using 2H-NMR in its supercooled and glassy states. Just above the glass transition temperature the molecular reorientations were studied using stimulated-echo spectroscopy and demonstrated a large degree of similarity with other glass formers. Deep in the glassy phase the NMR spectra look similar to those reported for the crystal [A. Detken, P. Focke, H. Zimmermann, U. Haeberlen, Z. Olejniczak, Z. T. Lalowicz, Z. Naturforsch. A 50 (1995) 95] and below 20 K they are indicative for rotational tunneling with a relatively large tunneling frequency. Measurements of the spin-lattice relaxation times for temperatures below 150 K reveal a broad distribution of correlation times in the glass. The dominant energy barrier characterizing the slow-down of the methyl group is significantly smaller than the well defined barrier in the crystal.

  14. Doping dependent plasmon dispersion in 2 H -transition metal dichalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Eric; Büchner, Bernd; Habenicht, Carsten; König, Andreas; Knupfer, Martin; Berger, Helmuth; Huotari, Simo

    2016-07-01

    We report the behavior of the charge carrier plasmon of 2 H -transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) as a function of intercalation with alkali metals. Intercalation and concurrent doping of the TMD layers have a substantial impact on plasmon energy and dispersion. While the plasmon energy shifts are related to the intercalation level as expected within a simple homogeneous electron gas picture, the plasmon dispersion changes in a peculiar manner independent of the intercalant and the TMD materials. Starting from a negative dispersion, the slope of the plasmon dispersion changes sign and grows monotonously upon doping. Quantitatively, the increase of this slope depends on the orbital character (4 d or 5 d ) of the conduction bands, which indicates a decisive role of band structure effects on the plasmon behavior.

  15. 2H and 18O Freshwater Isoscapes of Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier-Augenstein, Wolfram; Hoogewerff, Jurian; Kemp, Helen; Frew, Danny

    2013-04-01

    Scotland's freshwater lochs and reservoirs provide a vital resource for sustaining biodiversity, agriculture, food production as well as for human consumption. Regular monitoring of freshwaters by the Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA) fulfils legislative requirements with regards to water quality but new scientific methods involving stable isotope analysis present an opportunity combining these mandatory monitoring schemes with fundamental research to inform and deliver on current and nascent government policies [1] through gaining a greater understanding of Scottish waters and their importance in the context of climate change, environmental sustainability and food security. For example, 2H and 18O isoscapes of Scottish freshwater could be used to underpin research and its applications in: • Climate change - Using longitudinal changes in the characteristic isotope composition of freshwater lochs and reservoirs as proxy, isoscapes will provide a means to assess if and how changes in temperature and weather patterns might impact on precipitation patterns and amount. • Scottish branding - Location specific stable isotope signatures of Scottish freshwater have the potential to be used as a tool for provenancing and thus protecting premium Scottish produce such as Scottish beef, Scottish soft fruit and Scottish Whisky. During 2011 and 2012, with the support of SEPA more than 110 samples from freshwater lochs and reservoirs were collected from 127 different locations across Scotland including the Highlands and Islands. Here we present the results of this sampling and analysis exercise isotope analyses in form of 2H and 18O isoscapes with an unprecedented grid resolution of 26.5 × 26.5 km (or 16.4 × 16.4 miles). [1] Adaptation Framework - Adapting Our Ways: Managing Scotland's Climate Risk (2009): Scotland's Biodiversity: It's in Your Hands - A strategy for the conservation and enhancement of biodiversity in Scotland (2005); Recipe For Success - Scotland

  16. Syntheses of D-Glucose Derivatives Emitting Blue Fluorescence through Pd-Catalyzed C-N Coupling.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Yuji; Sasaki, Ayako; Teshima, Tadashi; Yamada, Katsuya; Yamamoto, Toshihiro

    2016-03-18

    Green fluorescence-emitting D-glucose derivatives such as 2-NBDG have been effectively used to monitor D-glucose uptake through glucose transporters GLUTs at the single cell level. By contrast, GLUT-permeable D-glucose derivatives emitting blue fluorescence have been long awaited. A glucose tracer, 2-deoxy-2-(2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yl)amino-D-glucose (CDG) (1), together with related compounds have been synthesized by Pd-catalyzed C-N coupling. Of these, CDG (1) is a promising blue fluorescence-emitting candidate molecule that may enter into mammalian cells through GLUTs.

  17. Acute and chronic effects of glyceryl trinitrate therapy on insulin and glucose regulation in humans.

    PubMed

    Jedrzkiewicz, Sean; Parker, John D

    2013-05-01

    This study examined the effect of acute and sustained transdermal glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) therapy on insulin and glucose regulation. Totally, 12 males (18-30 years) underwent a glucose tolerance test at baseline (visit 1), 90 minutes after acute transdermal GTN 0.6 mg/h (visit 2), following 7 days of continuous GTN (visit 3), and 2 to 3 days after stopping GTN (visit 4). At each visit, plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were measured before and 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after a 75-g oral glucose load. Indices of glucose metabolism that were examined included the insulin sensitivity index, the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and the insulinogenic index. The acute administration of GTN had no effect on glucose and insulin responses (visit 2). However, after 7 days of GTN exposure (visit 3) there was an increase in the mean glucose concentration measured after the oral glucose load. On visit 1, the mean glucose concentration (± standard deviation) following the 75 g oral glucose challenge was 5.7 ± 0.5 µmol/L. On visit 3, after 7 days of transdermal GTN therapy, the mean glucose concentration after the oral glucose was significantly higher; 6.2 ± 0.5 µmol/L (P < .015; 95% confidence intervals 0.25-0.77). There was also an increase in the HOMA-IR index; on visit 1, the median HOMA-IR (interquartile range) was 5.2 (3.9) versus 6.9 (6.8) on visit 3 (P < .015). Other indices of glucose metabolism did not change. These observations document that GTN therapy modifies glucose metabolism causing evidence of increased insulin resistance during sustained therapy in normal humans.

  18. Application of chirally-deuterated (S)-D-(6-2H1)glucose to conformational studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Deuterated sugars are widely used to elucidate mechanisms of biosynthesis and of chemical reactions, and to confirm assignments of complex NMR or mass spectra. To date, however, there are few reported syntheses for regio and stereospecifically deuterated pyranoses. Chirally-deuterated (S)-D-(6-**2...

  19. Ab initio study of {sup 2}H(d,{gamma}){sup 4}He, {sup 2}H(d,p){sup 3}H, and {sup 2}H(d,n){sup 4}He reactions and the tensor force

    SciTech Connect

    Arai, K.; Aoyama, S.; Suzuki, Y.; Descouvemont, P.; Baye, D.

    2012-11-12

    The {sup 2}H(d,p){sup 3}H, {sup 2}H(d,n){sup 3}He, and {sup 2}H(d,{gamma}){sup 4}He reactions at low energies are studied with realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions in an ab initio approach. The obtained astrophysical S-factors are all in very good agreement with experiment. The most important channels for both transfer and radiative capture are all found to dominate thanks to the tensor force.

  20. Ampicillin Oral

    MedlinePlus

    ... capsule, liquid, and pediatric drops to take by mouth. It is usually taken every 6 hours (four ... blood thinners') such as warfarin (Coumadin), atenolol (Tenormin), oral contraceptives, probenecid (Benemid), rifampin, sulfasalazine, and vitamins.tell ...

  1. Oral pathology.

    PubMed

    Niemiec, Brook A

    2008-05-01

    Oral disease is exceedingly common in small animal patients. In addition, there is a very wide variety of pathologies that are encountered within the oral cavity. These conditions often cause significant pain and/or localized and systemic infection; however, the majority of these conditions have little to no obvious clinical signs. Therefore, diagnosis is not typically made until late in the disease course. Knowledge of these diseases will better equip the practitioner to effectively treat them. This article covers the more common forms of oral pathology in the dog and cat, excluding periodontal disease, which is covered in its own chapter. The various pathologies are presented in graphic form, and the etiology, clinical signs, recommended diagnostic tests, and treatment options are discussed. Pathologies that are covered include: persistent deciduous teeth, fractured teeth, intrinsically stained teeth, feline tooth resorption, caries, oral neoplasia, eosinophilic granuloma complex, lymphoplasmacytic gingivostomatitis, enamel hypoplasia, and "missing" teeth.

  2. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... swallowing A lump in your neck An earache Oral cancer treatments may include surgery, radiation therapy or chemotherapy. Some patients have a combination of treatments. NIH: National Cancer Institute

  3. Oral Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... its box has the American Dental Association's (ADA) seal of acceptance, it is good for your oral ... dispensed solutions have the American Dental Association (ADA) seal. Other over-the-counter whitening products include whitening ...

  4. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... use. Some oral cancers are linked to human papilloma virus (HPV) infections of the mouth and throat. ... The number of oropharyngeal cancers linked to human papilloma virus (HPV) has risen dramatically over the past ...

  5. A glucose-centric perspective of hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Ramasarma, T; Rafi, M

    2016-02-01

    Digestion of food in the intestines converts the compacted storage carbohydrates, starch and glycogen, to glucose. After each meal, a flux of glucose (> 200 g) passes through the blood pool (4-6 g) in a short period of 2 h, keeping its concentration ideally in the range of 80-120 mg/100 mL. Tissue-specific glucose transporters (GLUTs) aid in the distribution of glucose to all tissues. The balance glucose after meeting the immediate energy needs is converted into glycogen and stored in liver (up to 100 g) and skeletal muscle (up to 300 g) for later use. High blood glucose gives the signal for increased release of insulin from pancreas. Insulin binds to insulin receptor on the plasma membrane and activates its autophosphorylation. This initiates the post-insulin-receptor signal cascade that accelerates synthesis of glycogen and triglyceride. Parallel control by phos-dephos and redox regulation of proteins exists for some of these steps. A major action of insulin is to inhibit gluconeogensis in the liver decreasing glucose output into blood. Cases with failed control of blood glucose have alarmingly increased since 1960 coinciding with changed life-styles and large scale food processing. Many of these turned out to be resistant to insulin, usually accompanied by dysfunctional glycogen storage. Glucose has an extended stay in blood at 8 mM and above and then indiscriminately adds on to surface protein-amino groups. Fructose in common sugar is 10-fold more active. This random glycation process interferes with the functions of many proteins (e.g., hemoglobin, eye lens proteins) and causes progressive damage to heart, kidneys, eyes and nerves. Some compounds are known to act as insulin mimics. Vanadium-peroxide complexes act at post-receptor level but are toxic. The fungus-derived 2,5-dihydroxybenzoquinone derivative is the first one known to act on the insulin receptor. The safe herbal products in use for centuries for glucose control have multiple active principles and

  6. A glucose-centric perspective of hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Ramasarma, T; Rafi, M

    2016-02-01

    Digestion of food in the intestines converts the compacted storage carbohydrates, starch and glycogen, to glucose. After each meal, a flux of glucose (> 200 g) passes through the blood pool (4-6 g) in a short period of 2 h, keeping its concentration ideally in the range of 80-120 mg/100 mL. Tissue-specific glucose transporters (GLUTs) aid in the distribution of glucose to all tissues. The balance glucose after meeting the immediate energy needs is converted into glycogen and stored in liver (up to 100 g) and skeletal muscle (up to 300 g) for later use. High blood glucose gives the signal for increased release of insulin from pancreas. Insulin binds to insulin receptor on the plasma membrane and activates its autophosphorylation. This initiates the post-insulin-receptor signal cascade that accelerates synthesis of glycogen and triglyceride. Parallel control by phos-dephos and redox regulation of proteins exists for some of these steps. A major action of insulin is to inhibit gluconeogensis in the liver decreasing glucose output into blood. Cases with failed control of blood glucose have alarmingly increased since 1960 coinciding with changed life-styles and large scale food processing. Many of these turned out to be resistant to insulin, usually accompanied by dysfunctional glycogen storage. Glucose has an extended stay in blood at 8 mM and above and then indiscriminately adds on to surface protein-amino groups. Fructose in common sugar is 10-fold more active. This random glycation process interferes with the functions of many proteins (e.g., hemoglobin, eye lens proteins) and causes progressive damage to heart, kidneys, eyes and nerves. Some compounds are known to act as insulin mimics. Vanadium-peroxide complexes act at post-receptor level but are toxic. The fungus-derived 2,5-dihydroxybenzoquinone derivative is the first one known to act on the insulin receptor. The safe herbal products in use for centuries for glucose control have multiple active principles and

  7. Noninvasive blood glucose monitoring with laser diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiqin; Chen, Jianhong; Ooi, Ean Tat; Yeo, Joon Hock

    2006-02-01

    The non-invasive measurement of blood sugar level was studied by use of near infrared laser diodes. The in vitro and in vivo experiments were carried out using six laser diodes having wavelengths range from 1550 nm to 1750nm. Several volunteers were tested for OGTT (Oral Glucose Tolerance Test) experiment. We took blood from a fingertip and measured its concentration with a glucose meter while taking signal voltage from laser diodes system. The data of signal voltage were processed to do calibration and prediction; in this paper PLS (Partial Least Square) method was used to do modeling. For in vitro experiment, good linear relationship between predicted glucose concentration and real glucose concentration was obtained. For in vivo experiments, we got the blood sugar level distributions in Clarke error grid that is a reference for doctors to do diagnosis and treatment. In the Clarke error grid, 75% of all data was in area A and 25 % was in area B. From the in vitro and in vivo results we know that multiple laser diodes are suitable for non-invasive blood glucose monitoring.

  8. Model dependence of the {sup 2}H electric dipole moment

    SciTech Connect

    Afnan, I. R.; Gibson, B. F.

    2010-12-15

    Background: Direct measurement of the electric dipole moment (EDM) of the neutron is in the future; measurement of a nuclear EDM may well come first. The deuteron is one nucleus for which exact model calculations are feasible. Purpose: We explore the model dependence of deuteron EDM calculations. Methods: Using a separable potential formulation of the Hamiltonian, we examine the sensitivity of the deuteron EDM to variation in the nucleon-nucleon interaction. We write the EDM as the sum of two terms, the first depending on the target wave function with plane-wave intermediate states, and the second depending on intermediate multiple scattering in the {sup 3}P{sub 1} channel, the latter being sensitive to the off-shell behavior of the {sup 3}P{sub 1} amplitude. Results: We compare the full calculation with the plane-wave approximation result, examine the tensor force contribution to the model results, and explore the effect of short-range repulsion found in realistic, contemporary potential models of the deuteron. Conclusions: Because one-pion exchange dominates the EDM calculation, separable potential model calculations will provide an adequate description of the {sup 2}H EDM until such time as a measurement better than 10% is obtained.

  9. 2F and 2H evaporator loop evaluation closure report

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, W.F.

    1994-01-28

    As a result of the Concentrate Transfer System (CTS) tank ventilation system contamination event, a task team was formed to evaluate instrument loops associated with waste reduction equipment. During the event a conductivity probe designed to provide an alarm and initiate an interlock failed to respond to the presence of liquid. An investigation revealed that the probe had become disconnected from the loop. The daily functional check of the conductivity probe circuit only tested the circuit continuity from the ventilation unit to the control room and did not actually test the probe. To test the continuity, a test switch was used to simulate the conducting probe. Because the functional check did not test each part of the loop, the test could be satisfactorily completed even though the probe itself was inoperable. The function of the task team was to develop a list of loops and interlocks prioritized by importance and likelihood of similar failure. The team evaluated the associated loop calibration and functional test procedures to verify that they are adequate to ensure loop performance on a periodic frequency. This report documents the evaluation findings and associated actions required prior to startup of the 2F and 2H evaporators.

  10. Ca2+/H+ exchange in acidic vacuoles of Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed Central

    Vercesi, A E; Moreno, S N; Docampo, R

    1994-01-01

    The use of digitonin to permeabilize the plasma membrane of Trypanosoma brucei procyclic and bloodstream trypomastigotes allowed the identification of a non-mitochondrial nigericin-sensitive Ca2+ compartment. The proton ionophore carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP) was able to cause Ca2+ release from this compartment, which was also sensitive to sodium orthovanadate. Preincubation of the cells with the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin A1 greatly reduced the nigericin-sensitive Ca2+ compartment. Bafilomycin A1 inhibited the initial rate of ATP-dependent non-mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake and stimulated the initial rate of nigericin-induced Ca2+ release by permeabilized procyclic trypomastigotes. ATP-dependent and bafilomycin A1- and 7-chloro-4-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBD-Cl)-sensitive Acridine Orange uptake was demonstrated in permeabilized cells. Under these conditions Acridine Orange was concentrated in abundant cytoplasmic round vacuoles by a process inhibited by bafilomycin A1, NBD-Cl, nigericin, and Ca2+. Vanadate or EGTA significantly increased Acridine Orange uptake, while Ca2+ released Acridine Orange from these preparations, thus suggesting that the dye and Ca2+ were being accumulated in the same acidic vacuole. Acridine Orange uptake was reversed by nigericin, bafilomycin A1 and NH4Cl. The results are consistent with the presence of a Ca2+/H(+)-ATPase system pumping Ca2+ into an acidic vacuole, that we tentatively named the acidocalcisome. Images Figure 5 PMID:7998937

  11. Oral biopsy: oral pathologist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Kumaraswamy, K L; Vidhya, M; Rao, Prasanna Kumar; Mukunda, Archana

    2012-01-01

    Many oral lesions may need to be diagnosed by removing a sample of tissue from the oral cavity. Biopsy is widely used in the medical field, but the practice is not quite widespread in dental practice. As oral pathologists, we have found many artifacts in the tissue specimen because of poor biopsy technique or handling, which has led to diagnostic pitfalls and misery to both the patient and the clinician. This article aims at alerting the clinicians about the clinical faults arising preoperatively, intraoperatively and postoperatively while dealing with oral biopsy that may affect the histological assessment of the tissue and, therefore, the diagnosis. It also reviews the different techniques, precautions and special considerations necessary for specific lesions.

  12. Global distributions of C2H6, C2H2, HCN, and PAN retrieved from MIPAS reduced spectral resolution measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiegele, A.; Glatthor, N.; Höpfner, M.; Grabowski, U.; Kellmann, S.; Linden, A.; Stiller, G.; von Clarmann, T.

    2011-08-01

    Vertical profiles of mixing ratios of C2H6, C2H2, HCN, and PAN were retrieved from MIPAS reduced spectral resolution nominal mode limb emission measurements. The retrieval strategy followed that of the analysis of MIPAS high resolution measurements, with occasional adjustments to cope with the reduced spectral resolution under which MIPAS is operated since 2005. Largest mixing ratios are found in the troposphere, and reach 1.2 ppbv for C2H6, 1 ppbv for HCN, 600 pptv for PAN, and 450 pptv for C2H2. The estimated precision in case of significantly enhanced mixing ratios (including measurement noise and propagation of uncertain parameters randomly varying in the time domain) and altitude resolution are typically 10 %, 3-4.5 km for C2H6, 15 %, 4-6 km for HCN, 6 %, 2.5-3.5 km for PAN, and 7 %, 2.5-4 km for C2H2.

  13. Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    by G6PC (GSDIa) or SLC37A4 (GSDIb) gene analysis, and the indications of liver biopsy to measure G6P activity are getting rarer and rarer. Differential diagnoses include the other GSDs, in particular type III (see this term). However, in GSDIII, glycemia and lactacidemia are high after a meal and low after a fast period (often with a later occurrence than that of type I). Primary liver tumors and Pepper syndrome (hepatic metastases of neuroblastoma) may be evoked but are easily ruled out through clinical and ultrasound data. Antenatal diagnosis is possible through molecular analysis of amniocytes or chorionic villous cells. Pre-implantatory genetic diagnosis may also be discussed. Genetic counseling should be offered to patients and their families. The dietary treatment aims at avoiding hypoglycemia (frequent meals, nocturnal enteral feeding through a nasogastric tube, and later oral addition of uncooked starch) and acidosis (restricted fructose and galactose intake). Liver transplantation, performed on the basis of poor metabolic control and/or hepatocarcinoma, corrects hypoglycemia, but renal involvement may continue to progress and neutropenia is not always corrected in type Ib. Kidney transplantation can be performed in case of severe renal insufficiency. Combined liver-kidney grafts have been performed in a few cases. Prognosis is usually good: late hepatic and renal complications may occur, however, with adapted management, patients have almost normal life span. Disease name and synonyms Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency or G6P deficiency or glycogen storage disease type I or GSDI or type I glycogenosis or Von Gierke disease or Hepatorenal glycogenosis. PMID:21599942

  14. Age as independent determinant of glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Shimokata, H; Muller, D C; Fleg, J L; Sorkin, J; Ziemba, A W; Andres, R

    1991-01-01

    It has been proposed that the decline in glucose tolerance with age is not a primary aging effect but is secondary to a combination of other age-associated characteristics, i.e., disease, medication, obesity, central and upper-body fat deposition, and inactivity. To test this hypothesis, we first eliminated from analysis the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging participants with identifiable diseases or medications known to influence glucose tolerance. Seven hundred forty-three men and women, aged 17-92 yr, remained for analysis. As indices of fatness, body mass index and percent body fat were determined. As indices of body fat distribution, waist-hip ratio and subscapular triceps skin-fold ratio were calculated. As indices of fitness, physical activity level, determined by detailed questionnaire, and maximum 02 consumption were calculated. We tested whether the effect of age on glucose tolerance remains when data were adjusted for fatness, fitness, and fat distribution; 2-h glucose values were 6.61, 6.78, and 7.83 mM for young (17-39 yr), middle-aged (40-59 yr), and old (60-92 yr) men and 6.22, 6.22, and 7.28 mM for the three groups of women, respectively. The differences between the young and middle-aged groups were not significant, but the old groups had significantly higher values than young or middle-aged groups. Fatness, fitness, and fat distribution can account for the decline in glucose tolerance from the young adult to the middle-aged years. However, age remains a significant determinant of the further decline in glucose tolerance of healthy old subjects.

  15. 2H NMR studies of glycerol dynamics in protein matrices.

    PubMed

    Herbers, C R; Sauer, D; Vogel, M

    2012-03-28

    We use (2)H NMR spectroscopy to investigate the rotational motion of glycerol molecules in matrices provided by the connective tissue proteins elastin and collagen. Analyzing spin-lattice relaxation, line-shape properties, and stimulated-echo decays, we determine the rates and geometries of the motion as a function of temperature and composition. It is found that embedding glycerol in an elastin matrix leads to a mild slowdown of glycerol reorientation at low temperatures and glycerol concentrations, while the effect vanishes at ambient temperatures or high solvent content. Furthermore, it is observed that the nonexponential character of the rotational correlation functions is much more prominent in the elastin matrix than in the bulk liquid. Results from spin-lattice relaxation and line shape measurements indicate that, in the mixed systems, the strong nonexponentiality is in large part due to the existence of distributions of correlation times, which are broader on the long-time flank and, hence, more symmetric than in the neat system. Stimulated-echo analysis of slow glycerol dynamics reveals that, when elastin is added, the mechanism for the reorientation crosses over from small-angle jump dynamics to large-angle jump dynamics and the geometry of the motion changes from isotropic to anisotropic. The results are discussed against the background of present and previous findings for glycerol and water dynamics in various protein matrices and compared with observations for other dynamically highly asymmetric mixtures so as to ascertain in which way the viscous freezing of a fast component in the matrix of a slow component differs from the glassy slowdown in neat supercooled liquids. PMID:22462878

  16. 2H NMR studies of glycerol dynamics in protein matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbers, C. R.; Sauer, D.; Vogel, M.

    2012-03-01

    We use 2H NMR spectroscopy to investigate the rotational motion of glycerol molecules in matrices provided by the connective tissue proteins elastin and collagen. Analyzing spin-lattice relaxation, line-shape properties, and stimulated-echo decays, we determine the rates and geometries of the motion as a function of temperature and composition. It is found that embedding glycerol in an elastin matrix leads to a mild slowdown of glycerol reorientation at low temperatures and glycerol concentrations, while the effect vanishes at ambient temperatures or high solvent content. Furthermore, it is observed that the nonexponential character of the rotational correlation functions is much more prominent in the elastin matrix than in the bulk liquid. Results from spin-lattice relaxation and line shape measurements indicate that, in the mixed systems, the strong nonexponentiality is in large part due to the existence of distributions of correlation times, which are broader on the long-time flank and, hence, more symmetric than in the neat system. Stimulated-echo analysis of slow glycerol dynamics reveals that, when elastin is added, the mechanism for the reorientation crosses over from small-angle jump dynamics to large-angle jump dynamics and the geometry of the motion changes from isotropic to anisotropic. The results are discussed against the background of present and previous findings for glycerol and water dynamics in various protein matrices and compared with observations for other dynamically highly asymmetric mixtures so as to ascertain in which way the viscous freezing of a fast component in the matrix of a slow component differs from the glassy slowdown in neat supercooled liquids.

  17. Full-dimensional quantum dynamics study of the H2 + C2H → H + C2H2 reaction on an ab initio potential energy surface.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liuyang; Shao, Kejie; Chen, Jun; Yang, Minghui; Zhang, Dong H

    2016-05-21

    This work performs a time-dependent wavepacket study of the H2 + C2H → H + C2H2 reaction on a new ab initio potential energy surface (PES). The PES is constructed using neural network method based on 68 478 geometries with energies calculated at UCCSD(T)-F12a/aug-cc-pVTZ level and covers H2 + C2H↔H + C2H2, H + C2H2 → HCCH2, and HCCH2 radial isomerization reaction regions. The reaction dynamics of H2 + C2H → H + C2H2 are investigated using full-dimensional quantum dynamics method. The initial-state selected reaction probabilities are calculated for reactants in eight vibrational states. The calculated results showed that the H2 vibrational excitation predominantly enhances the reactivity while the excitation of bending mode of C2H slightly inhibits the reaction. The excitations of two stretching modes of C2H molecule have negligible effect on the reactivity. The integral cross section is calculated with J-shift approximation and the mode selectivity in this reaction is discussed. The rate constants over 200-2000 K are calculated and agree well with the experimental measured values.

  18. Ion-neutral reaction of the C2H2N+ cation with C2H2: An experimental and theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathi, P.; Geppert, W. D.; Kaiser, A.; Ascenzi, D.

    2016-03-01

    The ion-neutral reactions of the C2H2N+ cation with C2H2 have been investigated using a Guided Ion Beam Mass Spectrometer (GIB-MS). The following ionic products were observed: CH3+, C2H2+, C2H3+, HNC+ /HCN+ , HCNH+, C3H+ , C2N+ , C3H3+, HCCN+ and C4H2N+ . Theoretical calculations have been carried out to propose reaction pathways leading to the observed products. These processes are of relevance for the generation of long chain nitrogen-containing species and they may be of interest for the chemistry of Titan's ionosphere or circumstellar envelopes.

  19. Theoretical study of the C-H bond dissociation energies of CH4, C2H2, C2H4, and H2C2O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.

    1991-01-01

    The successive C-H bond dissociation energies of CH4, C2H2, C2H4, and H2C2O (ketene) are determined using large-basis sets and a high level of correlation treatment. For CH4, C2H2, and C2H4 the computed values are in excellent agreement with experiment. Using these results, the values 107.9 + or - 2.0 and 96.7 + or - 2.0 kcal/mol are recommended for the C-H bond dissociation energies of H2C2O and HC2O, respectively.

  20. Glucose: detection and analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glucose is an aldosic monosaccharide that is centrally entrenched in the processes of photosynthesis and respiration, serving as an energy reserve and metabolic fuel in most organisms. As both a monomer and as part of more complex structures such as polysaccharides and glucosides, glucose also pla...

  1. Monitor blood glucose - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100220.htm Monitoring blood glucose - Series—Monitoring blood glucose: Using a self-test meter To use the ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Blood Sugar A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  2. Slow post meal walking reduces the blood glucose response: an exploratory study in female Pakistani immigrants.

    PubMed

    Lunde, Marianne S H; Hjellset, Victoria Telle; Høstmark, Arne T

    2012-10-01

    Postprandial physical activity may blunt the blood glucose response. In diabetes prone female immigrants only slow walking is regularly performed raising the question of whether also this type of physical activity can attenuate their post meal blood glucose elevation. Using a cross over design, 11 female Pakistani immigrants living in Oslo were recruited to participate in three experiments where their blood glucose concentration was measured every 15 min for 2 h after intake of a high glycemic food, either while resting after the meal or doing very light post meal walking of two durations. Postprandial blood glucose peak value and incremental area under the 2 h blood glucose curve decreased with increasing duration of slow post meal walking. Also the blood pressure was lowered. Post meal walking can strongly attenuate the glycemic response to carbohydrates and reduce blood pressure in a high risk group of immigrants.

  3. Effects of xylitol on carbohydrate digesting enzymes activity, intestinal glucose absorption and muscle glucose uptake: a multi-mode study.

    PubMed

    Chukwuma, Chika Ifeanyi; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigated the possible mechanism(s) behind the effects of xylitol on carbohydrate digesting enzymes activity, muscle glucose uptake and intestinal glucose absorption using in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo experimental models. The effects of increasing concentrations of xylitol (2.5%-40% or 164.31 mM-2628.99 mM) on alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase activity in vitro and intestinal glucose absorption and muscle glucose uptake were investigated under ex vivo conditions. Additionally, the effects of an oral bolus dose of xylitol (1 g per kg BW) on gastric emptying and intestinal glucose absorption and digesta transit in the different segments of the intestinal tract were investigated in normal and type 2 diabetic rats at 1 hour after dose administration, when phenol red was used as a recovery marker. Xylitol exhibited concentration-dependent inhibition of alpha amylase (IC₅₀ = 1364.04 mM) and alpha glucosidase (IC₅₀ = 1127.52 mM) activity in vitro and small intestinal glucose absorption under ex vivo condition. Xylitol also increased dose dependent muscle glucose uptake with and without insulin, although the uptake was not significantly affected by the addition of insulin. Oral single bolus dose of xylitol significantly delayed gastric emptying, inhibited intestinal glucose absorption but increased the intestinal digesta transit rate in both normal and diabetic rats compared to their respective controls. The data of this study suggest that xylitol reduces intestinal glucose absorption via inhibiting major carbohydrate digesting enzymes, slowing gastric emptying and fastening the intestinal transit rate, but increases muscle glucose uptake in normal and type 2 diabetic rats.

  4. Quantifying the extent to which random plasma glucose underestimates diabetes prevalence in the Nauruan population.

    PubMed

    Finch, C F; Dowse, G K; Collins, V R; Zimmet, P Z

    1990-10-01

    The extent to which random plasma glucose levels underestimate the true prevalence of diabetes has been determined in Micronesian Nauruans. In 337 individuals who were screened on the basis of their random plasma glucose levels, the age-standardised prevalence based on a cut-off of 11.1 mmol/l underestimated the population prevalence based on a complete oral glucose tolerance test by 42% in males and 63% in females. At a cut-off level of 7.8 mmol/l the true age-standardised prevalence was underestimated by 16 and 38%, in males and females, respectively. The use of random plasma glucose concentrations to determine the prevalence of diabetes, as currently defined, seems inappropriate. Performing oral glucose tolerance tests on smaller representative population samples should provide more accurate data at less expense than through large-scale screening utilizing random glucose levels.

  5. Improvements in glucose tolerance with Bikram Yoga in older obese adults: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Stacy D; Dhindsa, Mandeep; Cunningham, Emily; Tarumi, Takashi; Alkatan, Mohammed; Tanaka, Hirofumi

    2013-10-01

    Bikram yoga is an exotic form of physical activity combining hatha yoga and thermal therapy that could positively impact metabolic health. Although this increasingly popular alternative exercise may be ideal for obese adults due to its low impact nature, few studies have elucidated the health benefits associated with it. As an initial step, we determined the effect of Bikram yoga on glucose tolerance. Fourteen young lean and 15 older obese subjects completed an 8-week Bikram yoga intervention in which classes were completed 3 times per week. Glucose tolerance was assessed using a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. The area under the glucose curve following the oral glucose tolerance test was significantly reduced as a result of the Bikram Yoga intervention in older obese (P < 0.05) but not in young lean subjects. We concluded that a short-term Bikram yoga intervention improved glucose tolerance in older obese, but not in young lean adults. PMID:24138995

  6. Oral candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Millsop, Jillian W; Fazel, Nasim

    2016-01-01

    Oral candidiasis (OC) is a common fungal disease encountered in dermatology, most commonly caused by an overgrowth of Candida albicans in the mouth. Although thrush is a well-recognized presentation of OC, it behooves clinicians to be aware of the many other presentations of this disease and how to accurately diagnose and manage these cases. The clinical presentations of OC can be broadly classified as white or erythematous candidiasis, with various subtypes in each category. The treatments include appropriate oral hygiene, topical agents, and systemic medications. This review focuses on the various clinical presentations of OC and treatment options.

  7. 6-Hydroxy-1,2,4-triazine-3,5(2H,4H)-dione Derivatives as Novel d-Amino Acid Oxidase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A series of 2-substituted 6-hydroxy-1,2,4-triazine-3,5(2H,4H)-dione derivatives were synthesized as inhibitors of d-amino acid oxidase (DAAO). Many compounds in this series were found to be potent DAAO inhibitors, with IC50 values in the double-digit nanomolar range. The 6-hydroxy-1,2,4-triazine-3,5(2H,4H)-dione pharmacophore appears metabolically resistant to O-glucuronidation unlike other structurally related DAAO inhibitors. Among them, 6-hydroxy-2-(naphthalen-1-ylmethyl)-1,2,4-triazine-3,5(2H,4H)-dione 11h was found to be selective over a number of targets and orally available in mice. Furthermore, oral coadministration of d-serine with 11h enhanced the plasma levels of d-serine in mice compared to the oral administration of d-serine alone, demonstrating its ability to serve as a pharmacoenhancer of d-serine. PMID:26309148

  8. Thermoinactivation Mechanism of Glucose Isomerase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Leng Hong; Saville, Bradley A.

    In this article, the mechanisms of thermoinactivation of glucose isomerase (GI) from Streptomyces rubiginosus (in soluble and immobilized forms) were investigated, particularly the contributions of thiol oxidation of the enzyme's cysteine residue and a "Maillard-like" reaction between the enzyme and sugars in high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). Soluble GI (SGI) was successfully immobilized on silica gel (13.5 μm particle size), with an activity yield between 20 and 40%. The immobilized GI (IGI) has high enzyme retention on the support during the glucose isomerization process. In batch reactors, SGI (half-life =145 h) was more stable than IGI (half-life=27 h) at 60°C in HFCS, whereas at 80°C, IGI (half-life=12 h) was more stable than SGI (half-life=5.2 h). IGI was subject to thiol oxidation at 60°C, which contributed to the enzyme's deactivation. IGI was subject to thiol oxidation at 80°C, but this did not contribute to the deactivation of the enzyme. SGI did not undergo thiol oxidation at 60°C, but at 80°C SGI underwent severe precipitation and thiol oxidation, which caused the enzyme to deactivate. Experimental results show that immobilization suppresses the destablizing effect of thiol oxidation on GI. A "Maillard-like" reaction between SGI and the sugars also caused SGI thermoinactivation at 60, 70, and 80°C, but had minimal effect on IGI. At 60 and 80°C, IGI had higher thermostability in continuous reactors than in batch reactors, possibily because of reduced contact with deleterious compounds in HFCS.

  9. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... What are the effects of oral cancer on speech and swallowing? The effects of cancer on speech and swallowing depend on the location and size ... movement. This could result in unclear production of speech sounds made with the lips such as /p/, / ...

  10. Oral Warts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Title: Oral Warts Description: Warts are small, white, gray, or pinkish rough bumps that look like cauliflower. They can appear inside the lips and on other parts of the mouth. Credit: NIDCR publication: Mouth Problems + HIV Download: Low-Resolution Image High- ...

  11. Oral care.

    PubMed

    Hitz Lindenmüller, Irène; Lambrecht, J Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Adequate dental and oral hygiene may become a challenge for all users and especially for elderly people and young children because of their limited motor skills. The same holds true for patients undergoing/recovering from chemo-/radiotherapy with accompanying sensitive mucosal conditions. Poor dental hygiene can result in tooth decay, gingivitis, periodontitis, tooth loss, bad breath (halitosis), fungal infection and gum diseases. The use of a toothbrush is the most important measure for oral hygiene. Toothbrushes with soft bristles operated carefully by hand or via an electric device help to remove plaque and to avoid mucosal trauma. A handlebar with a grip cover can be helpful for manually disabled patients or for those with reduced motor skills. In case of oral hygiene at the bedside or of patients during/after chemo-/radiotherapy a gauze pad can be helpful for gently cleaning the teeth, gums and tongue. The use of fluoride toothpaste is imperative for the daily oral hygiene. Detergents such as sodium lauryl sulphate improve the cleaning action but may also dehydrate and irritate the mucous membrane. The use of products containing detergents and flavouring agents (peppermint, menthol, cinnamon) should therefore be avoided by bedridden patients or those with dry mouth and sensitive mucosa. Aids for suitable interdental cleaning, such as dental floss, interdental brushes or dental sticks, are often complicated to operate. Their correct use should be instructed by healthcare professionals. To support dental care, additional fluoridation with a fluoride gel or rinse can be useful. Products further containing antiseptics such as chlorhexidine or triclosan reduce the quantity of bacteria in the mouth. For patients undergoing or having undergone radio-/chemotherapy, a mouthwash that concomitantly moisturizes the oral mucosa is advisable. PMID:21325845

  12. Oral care.

    PubMed

    Hitz Lindenmüller, Irène; Lambrecht, J Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Adequate dental and oral hygiene may become a challenge for all users and especially for elderly people and young children because of their limited motor skills. The same holds true for patients undergoing/recovering from chemo-/radiotherapy with accompanying sensitive mucosal conditions. Poor dental hygiene can result in tooth decay, gingivitis, periodontitis, tooth loss, bad breath (halitosis), fungal infection and gum diseases. The use of a toothbrush is the most important measure for oral hygiene. Toothbrushes with soft bristles operated carefully by hand or via an electric device help to remove plaque and to avoid mucosal trauma. A handlebar with a grip cover can be helpful for manually disabled patients or for those with reduced motor skills. In case of oral hygiene at the bedside or of patients during/after chemo-/radiotherapy a gauze pad can be helpful for gently cleaning the teeth, gums and tongue. The use of fluoride toothpaste is imperative for the daily oral hygiene. Detergents such as sodium lauryl sulphate improve the cleaning action but may also dehydrate and irritate the mucous membrane. The use of products containing detergents and flavouring agents (peppermint, menthol, cinnamon) should therefore be avoided by bedridden patients or those with dry mouth and sensitive mucosa. Aids for suitable interdental cleaning, such as dental floss, interdental brushes or dental sticks, are often complicated to operate. Their correct use should be instructed by healthcare professionals. To support dental care, additional fluoridation with a fluoride gel or rinse can be useful. Products further containing antiseptics such as chlorhexidine or triclosan reduce the quantity of bacteria in the mouth. For patients undergoing or having undergone radio-/chemotherapy, a mouthwash that concomitantly moisturizes the oral mucosa is advisable.

  13. Electron swarm parameters in pure C2H2 and in C2H2-Ar mixtures and electron collision cross sections for the C2H2 molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Yoshiharu

    2010-09-01

    Electron swarm parameters (the drift velocity and the longitudinal diffusion coefficient) were measured in pure C2H2 and also in C2H2-Ar mixtures containing 0.517% and 5.06% acetylene over wide E/N ranges. These swarm parameters were analysed using a Boltzmann equation analysis and a set of electron collision cross sections for the C2H2 molecule was derived so that it was consistent with the present swarm data and published ionization coefficient. The present result suggested the presence of a Ramsauer-Townsend minimum in the elastic momentum transfer cross section at 0.08 eV and prominent threshold and resonance peaks in the ν4/ν5 vibrational excitation cross section. The present cross section set was also confirmed to be consistent with the published experimental total cross section of C2H2.

  14. Nocturnal Glucose Metabolism in Type 1 Diabetes: A Study Comparing Single Versus Dual Tracer Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Mallad, Ashwini; Hinshaw, Ling; Dalla Man, Chiara; Cobelli, Claudio; Basu, Rita; Lingineni, Ravi; Carter, Rickey E.; Kudva, Yogish C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Understanding the effect size, variability, and underlying physiology of the dawn phenomenon is important for next-generation closed-loop control algorithms for type 1 diabetes (T1D). Subjects and Methods: We used an iterative protocol design to study 16 subjects with T1D on individualized insulin pump therapy for two successive nights. Endogenous glucose production (EGP) rates at 3 a.m. and 7 a.m. were measured with [6,6-2H2]glucose as a single tracer, infused from midnight to 7 a.m. in all subjects. To explore possibility of tracer recycling due to prolonged [6,6-2H2]glucose infusion, which was highly probable after preplanned interim data analyses, we infused a second tracer, [6-3H]glucose, from 4 a.m. to 7 a.m. in the last seven subjects to measure EGP at 7 a.m. Results: Cortisol concentrations increased during both nights, but changes in glucagon and insulin concentration were inconsistent. Although the plasma glucose concentrations rose from midnight to 7 a.m. during both nights, EGP measured with [6,6-2H2]glucose between 3 a.m. and 7 a.m. did not differ during Night 1 but fell in Night 2. However, EGP measured with [6-3H]glucose at 7 a.m. was higher than that measured with [6,6-2H2]glucose during both nights, thereby suggesting tracer recycling probably underestimating EGP calculated at 7 a.m. with [6,6-2H2]glucose. Likewise, EGP was higher at 7 a.m. with [6-3H]glucose than at 3 a.m. with [6,6-2H2]glucose during both nights. Conclusions: The data demonstrate a consistent overnight rise in glucose concentrations through increased EGP, mediated likely by rising cortisol concentrations. The observations with the dual tracer approach imply significant tracer recycling leading to underestimation of EGP measured by longer-duration tracer infusion. PMID:26121060

  15. Oral Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Research Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Key Points Oral cavity and ...

  16. Effect of hydroxyethyl starch on blood glucose levels

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Soo Bin; Choi, Woo Young

    2016-01-01

    Background Hydroxyethyl starch (HES), a commonly used resuscitation fluid, has the property to induce hyperglycemia as it contains large ethyl starch, which can be metabolized to produce glucose. We evaluated the effect of 6% HES-130 on the blood glucose levels in non-diabetic patients undergoing surgery under spinal anesthesia. Methods Patients scheduled to undergo elective lower limb surgery were enrolled. Fifty-eight patients were divided into two groups according to the type of the main intravascular fluid used before spinal anesthesia (Group LR: lactated Ringer's solution, n = 30 vs. Group HES: 6% hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4, n = 28). Blood glucose levels were measured at the following time points: 0 (baseline), 20 min (T1), 1 h (T2), 2 h (T3), 4 h (T4), and 6 h (T6). Results Mean blood glucose levels at T5 in the LR group and T4, T5 in the HES group, increased significantly compared to baseline. There were no significant changes in the serial differences of mean blood glucose levels from baseline between the two groups. Conclusions Administration of 6% HES-130 increased blood glucose levels within the physiologic limits, but the degree of glucose increase was not greater than that caused by administration of lactated Ringer's solution. In conclusion, we did not find evidence that 6% HES-130 induces hyperglycemia in non-diabetic patients. PMID:27482311

  17. Alterations in glucose kinetics induced by pentobarbital anesthesia

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, C.H.; Bagby, G.J.; Hargrove, D.M.; Hyde, P.M.; Spitzer, J.J. )

    1987-12-01

    Because pentobarbital is often used in investigations related to carbohydrate metabolism, the in vivo effect of this drug on glucose homeostasis was studied. Glucose kinetics assessed by the constant intravenous infusion of (6-{sup 3}H)- and (U-{sup 14}C)glucose, were determined in three groups of catheterized fasted rats: conscious, anesthetized and body temperature maintained, and anesthetized but body temperature not maintained. After induction of anesthesia, marked hypothermia developed in rats not provided with external heat. Anesthetized rats that developed hypothermia showed a decrease in mean arterial blood pressure (25%) and heart rate (40%). Likewise, the plasma lactate concentration and the rates of glucose appearance, recycling, and metabolic clearance were reduced by 30-50% in the hypothermic anesthetized rats. Changes in whole-body carbohydrate metabolism were prevented when body temperature was maintained. Because plasma pentobarbital levels were similar between the euthermic and hypothermic rats during the first 2 h of the experiment, the rapid reduction in glucose metabolism in this latter group appears related to the decrease in body temperature. The continuous infusion of epinephrine produced alterations in glucose kinetics that were not different between conscious animals and anesthetized rats with body temperature maintained. Thus pentobarbital-anesthetized rats became hypothermic when kept at room temperature and exhibited marked decreases in glucose metabolism. Such changes were absent when body temperature was maintained during anesthesia.

  18. Blood Glucose Monitoring Devices

    MedlinePlus

    ... Glucose NIH Medline Plus - Diabetes Spotlight FDA permits marketing of first system of mobile medical apps for ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  19. Vascular Glucose Sensor Symposium

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Jeffrey I; Torjman, Marc C.; Strasma, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, and glycemic variability have been associated with increased morbidity, mortality, length of stay, and cost in a variety of critical care and non–critical care patient populations in the hospital. The results from prospective randomized clinical trials designed to determine the risks and benefits of intensive insulin therapy and tight glycemic control have been confusing; and at times conflicting. The limitations of point-of-care blood glucose (BG) monitoring in the hospital highlight the great clinical need for an automated real-time continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) that can accurately measure the concentration of glucose every few minutes. Automation and standardization of the glucose measurement process have the potential to significantly improve BG control, clinical outcome, safety and cost. PMID:26078254

  20. All about Blood Glucose

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood Glucose Before meals: 80 to 130 mg/dl My Usual Results My Goals ______ to ______ ______ to ______ 2 ... the start of a meal: below 180 mg/dl below ______ below ______ What’s the best way to keep ...

  1. Recombinant glucose uptake system

    DOEpatents

    Ingrahm, Lonnie O.; Snoep, Jacob L.; Arfman, Nico

    1997-01-01

    Recombinant organisms are disclosed that contain a pathway for glucose uptake other than the pathway normally utilized by the host cell. In particular, the host cell is one in which glucose transport into the cell normally is coupled to PEP production. This host cell is transformed so that it uses an alternative pathway for glucose transport that is not coupled to PEP production. In a preferred embodiment, the host cell is a bacterium other than Z. mobilis that has been transformed to contain the glf and glk genes of Z. mobilis. By uncoupling glucose transport into the cell from PEP utilization, more PEP is produced for synthesis of products of commercial importance from a given quantity of biomass supplied to the host cells.

  2. Glucose: Detection and analysis.

    PubMed

    Galant, A L; Kaufman, R C; Wilson, J D

    2015-12-01

    Glucose is an aldosic monosaccharide that is centrally entrenched in the processes of photosynthesis and respiration, serving as an energy reserve and metabolic fuel in most organisms. As both a monomer and as part of more complex structures such as polysaccharides and glucosides, glucose also plays a major role in modern food products, particularly where flavor and or structure are concerned. Over the years, many diverse methods for detecting and quantifying glucose have been developed; this review presents an overview of the most widely employed and historically significant, including copper iodometry, HPLC, GC, CZE, and enzyme based systems such as glucose meters. The relative strengths and limitations of each method are evaluated, and examples of their recent application in the realm of food chemistry are discussed.

  3. Effect of subcutaneous insulin detemir on glucose flux, lipolysis and electroencephalography in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Herring, R; Knight, R; Shojaee-Moradie, F; Johnsen, S; Umpleby, A M; Jackson, N; Jones, R; Dijk, D-J; Russell-Jones, D L

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of subcutaneous detemir on glucose flux, lipid metabolism and brain function. Twelve people with type 1 diabetes received, in random order, 0.5 units/kg body weight detemir or NPH insulin. Glucose concentration was clamped at 5 mmol/l then increased to 10 mmol/l. Glucose production rate (glucose Ra), glucose uptake (glucose Rd) and glycerol production (glycerol Ra) were measured with a constant intravenous infusion of [6,6(2) H(2)]glucose and [(2)H(5)]glycerol. Electroencephalography direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC) potentials were measured. While detemir induced similar effects on glucose Ra, glucose Rd and glycerol Ra during euglycaemia compared with NPH, it triggered a distinct negative shift in DC potentials, with a significant treatment effect in frontal cerebrocortical channels (p < 0.001). AC spectral power showed significant differences in theta and alpha frequencies during euglycaemia (p = 0.03). Subcutaneous detemir exerts different effects on brain function when compared with NPH in people with type 1 diabetes. This may be an important mechanism behind the limitation of weight gain with detemir. PMID:26272173

  4. Cell-free conversion of 1 prime -deoxy- sup 2 H-ABA to sup 2 H-ABA in extracts from Cercospora rosicola

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Nimri, L.; Coolbaugh, R.C. )

    1990-05-01

    The characteristics of the enzyme converting 1{prime}-deoxy-ABA into ABA have been studied in the fungus C. rosicola. Enzyme extracts were prepared from cold-pressed mycelia of C. rosicola. The suspension was a high speed supernatant and a microsomal fraction. A cell-free system was developed to convert 1{prime}-deoxy-{sup 2}H-ABA into {sup 2}H-ABA using a reaction mixture containing 300 {mu}l enzyme extract, 10 {mu}m 1{prime}-deoxy-{sup 2}H-ABA. The reaction products were chromatographed by reverse phase HPLC. The presumptive ABA fractions were collected and {sup 2}H-ABA was quantified by GC-MS using a {sup 2}H-(2Z, 4E)-ABA standard curve. 1{prime}-deoxy-{sup 2}H-ABA was converted to an average of 1.47 pmole {sup 2}H-ABA/mg protein per min. Most of the enzymic activity was found in the microsomal fraction. The reaction required NADPH and was enhanced by FAD. The reaction was not inhibited by triarimol.

  5. An acoustic glucose sensor.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ruifen; Stevenson, Adrian C; Lowe, Christopher R

    2012-05-15

    In vivo glucose monitoring is required for tighter glycaemic control. This report describes a new approach to construct a miniature implantable device based on a magnetic acoustic resonance sensor (MARS). A ≈ 600-800 nm thick glucose-responsive poly(acrylamide-co-3-acrylamidophenylboronic acid) (poly(acrylamide-co-3-APB)) film was polymerised on the quartz disc (12 mm in diameter and 0.25 mm thick) of the MARS. The swelling/shrinking of the polymer film induced by the glucose binding to the phenylboronate caused changes in the resonance amplitude of the quartz disc in the MARS. A linear relationship between the response of the MARS and the glucose concentration in the range ≈ 0-15 mM was observed, with the optimum response of the MARS sensor being obtained when the polymer films contained ≈ 20 mol% 3-APB. The MARS glucose sensor also functioned under flow conditions (9 μl/min) with a response almost identical to the sensor under static or non-flow conditions. The results suggest that the MARS could offer a promising strategy for developing a small subcutaneously implanted continuous glucose monitor.

  6. Depletion of norepinephrine of the central nervous system Down-regulates the blood glucose level in d-glucose-fed and restraint stress models.

    PubMed

    Park, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Sung-Su; Lee, Jae-Ryeong; Sharma, Naveen; Suh, Hong-Won

    2016-05-01

    DSP-4[N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride] is a neurotoxin that depletes norepinephrine. The catecholaminergic system has been implicated in the regulation of blood glucose level. In the present study, the effect of DSP-4 administered intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) or intrathecally (i.t.) on blood glucose level was examined in d-glucose-fed and restraint stress mice models. Mice were pretreated once i.c.v. or i.t. with DSP-4 (10-40μg) for 3days, and d-glucose (2g/kg) was fed orally. Blood glucose level was measured 0 (prior to glucose feeding or restraint stress), 30, 60, and 120min after d-glucose feeding or restraint stress. The i.c.v. or i.t. pretreatment with DSP-4 attenuated blood glucose level in the d-glucose-fed model. Plasma corticosterone level was downregulated in the d-glucose-fed model, whereas plasma insulin level increased in the d-glucose-fed group. The i.c.v. or i.t. pretreatment with DSP-4 reversed the downregulation of plasma corticosterone induced by feeding d-glucose. In addition, the d-glucose-induced increase in plasma insulin was attenuated by the DSP-4 pretreatment. Furthermore, i.c.v. or i.t. pretreatment with DSP-4 reduced restraint stress-induced increases in blood glucose levels. Restraint stress increased plasma corticosterone and insulin levels. The i.c.v. pretreatment with DSP-4 attenuated restraint stress-induced plasma corticosterone and insulin levels. Our results suggest that depleting norepinephrine at the supraspinal and spinal levels appears to be responsible for downregulating blood glucose levels in both d-glucose-fed and restraint stress models.

  7. Environmental, trophic, and ecological factors influencing bone collagen δ2H

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topalov, Katarina; Schimmelmann, Arndt; David Polly, P.; Sauer, Peter E.; Lowry, Mark

    2013-06-01

    Organic deuterium/hydrogen stable isotope ratios (i.e., 2H/1H, expressed as δ2H value in ‰) in animal tissues are related to the 2H/1H in diet and ingested water. Bone collagen preserves the biochemical 2H/1H isotopic signal in the δ2H value of collagen's non-exchangeable hydrogen. Therefore, δ2H preserved in bone collagen has the potential to constrain environmental and trophic conditions, which is of interest to researchers studying of both living and fossil vertebrates. Our data examine the relationship of δ2H values of collagen with geographic variation in δ2H of meteoric waters, with local variations in the ecology and trophic level of species, and with the transition from mother's milk to adult diet. Based on 97 individuals from 22 marine and terrestrial vertebrates (predominately mammals), we found the relationships of collagen δ2H to both geographic variation in meteoric water δ2H (R2 = 0.55) and to δ15N in bone collagen (R2 = 0.17) statistically significant but weaker than previously reported. The second strongest control on collagen δ2H in our data is dietary, with nearly 50 percent of the variance in δ2H explained by trophic level (R2 = 0.47). Trophic level effects potentially confound the local meteoric signal if not held constant: herbivores tend to have the lowest δ2H values, omnivores have intermediate ones, and carnivores have the highest values. Body size (most likely related to mass-specific metabolic rates) has a strong influence on collagen δ2H (R2 = 0.30), by causing greater sensitivity in smaller animals to seasonal climate variations and/or high evapotranspiration leading to 2H-enrichment in tissues. In marine mammals weaning produces a dramatic effect on collagen δ2H with adult values being universally higher than pup values (R2 = 0.79). Interestingly, the shift in δ15N at weaning is downward, even though normally hydrogen and nitrogen isotope ratios are positively correlated with one another in respect to trophic level. Our

  8. Probing the aromaticity of the [(HtAc)3(μ2-H)6], [(HtTh)3(μ2-H)6],+, and [(HtPa)3(μ2-H)6] clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Tagle, Rodrigo; Alvarado-Soto, Leonor; Arratia-Perez, Ramiro; Bast, Radovan; Alvarez-Thon, Luis

    2011-09-01

    In this study we report about the aromaticity of the prototypical [(HtAc)3(μ2-H)6], [(HtTh)3(μ2-H)6]+, and [(HtPa)3(μ2-H)6] clusters via two magnetic criteria: nucleus-independent chemical shifts (NICS) and the magnetically induced current density. All-electron density functional theory calculations were carried out using the two-component zeroth-order regular approach and the four-component Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian, including scalar and spin-orbit relativistic effects. Four-component current density maps and the integration of induced ring-current susceptibilities clearly show that the clusters [(HtAc)3(μ2-H)6] and [(HtTh)3(μ2-H)6]+ are non-aromatic whereas [(HtPa)3(μ2-H)6] is anti-aromatic. However, for the thorium cluster we find a discrepancy between the current density plots and the classification through the NICS index. Our results also demonstrate the increasing influence of f orbitals, on bonding and magnetic properties, with increasing atomic number in these clusters. We think that the enhanced electron mobility in [(HtPa)3(μ2-H)6] is due the significant 5f character of its valence shell. Also the participation of f orbitals in bonding is the reason why the protactinium cluster has the shortest bond lengths of the three clusters. This study provides another example showing that the magnetically induced current density approach can give more reliable results than the NICS index.

  9. Probing the aromaticity of the [(H(t)Ac)3(μ2-H)6], [(H(t)Th)3(μ2-H)6],(+), and [(H(t)Pa)3(μ2-H)6] clusters.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Tagle, Rodrigo; Alvarado-Soto, Leonor; Arratia-Perez, Ramiro; Bast, Radovan; Alvarez-Thon, Luis

    2011-09-14

    In this study we report about the aromaticity of the prototypical [(H(t)Ac)(3)(μ(2)-H)(6)], [(H(t)Th)(3)(μ(2)-H)(6)](+), and [(H(t)Pa)(3)(μ(2)-H)(6)] clusters via two magnetic criteria: nucleus-independent chemical shifts (NICS) and the magnetically induced current density. All-electron density functional theory calculations were carried out using the two-component zeroth-order regular approach and the four-component Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian, including scalar and spin-orbit relativistic effects. Four-component current density maps and the integration of induced ring-current susceptibilities clearly show that the clusters [(H(t)Ac)(3)(μ(2)-H)(6)] and [(H(t)Th)(3)(μ(2)-H)(6)](+) are non-aromatic whereas [(H(t)Pa)(3)(μ(2)-H)(6)] is anti-aromatic. However, for the thorium cluster we find a discrepancy between the current density plots and the classification through the NICS index. Our results also demonstrate the increasing influence of f orbitals, on bonding and magnetic properties, with increasing atomic number in these clusters. We think that the enhanced electron mobility in [(H(t)Pa)(3)(μ(2)-H)(6)] is due the significant 5f character of its valence shell. Also the participation of f orbitals in bonding is the reason why the protactinium cluster has the shortest bond lengths of the three clusters. This study provides another example showing that the magnetically induced current density approach can give more reliable results than the NICS index.

  10. Probing the aromaticity of the [(H(t)Ac)3(μ2-H)6], [(H(t)Th)3(μ2-H)6],(+), and [(H(t)Pa)3(μ2-H)6] clusters.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Tagle, Rodrigo; Alvarado-Soto, Leonor; Arratia-Perez, Ramiro; Bast, Radovan; Alvarez-Thon, Luis

    2011-09-14

    In this study we report about the aromaticity of the prototypical [(H(t)Ac)(3)(μ(2)-H)(6)], [(H(t)Th)(3)(μ(2)-H)(6)](+), and [(H(t)Pa)(3)(μ(2)-H)(6)] clusters via two magnetic criteria: nucleus-independent chemical shifts (NICS) and the magnetically induced current density. All-electron density functional theory calculations were carried out using the two-component zeroth-order regular approach and the four-component Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian, including scalar and spin-orbit relativistic effects. Four-component current density maps and the integration of induced ring-current susceptibilities clearly show that the clusters [(H(t)Ac)(3)(μ(2)-H)(6)] and [(H(t)Th)(3)(μ(2)-H)(6)](+) are non-aromatic whereas [(H(t)Pa)(3)(μ(2)-H)(6)] is anti-aromatic. However, for the thorium cluster we find a discrepancy between the current density plots and the classification through the NICS index. Our results also demonstrate the increasing influence of f orbitals, on bonding and magnetic properties, with increasing atomic number in these clusters. We think that the enhanced electron mobility in [(H(t)Pa)(3)(μ(2)-H)(6)] is due the significant 5f character of its valence shell. Also the participation of f orbitals in bonding is the reason why the protactinium cluster has the shortest bond lengths of the three clusters. This study provides another example showing that the magnetically induced current density approach can give more reliable results than the NICS index. PMID:21932909

  11. Gestational diabetes mellitus: Screening with fasting plasma glucose.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Mukesh M

    2016-07-25

    Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) as a screening test for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has had a checkered history. During the last three decades, a few initial anecdotal reports have given way to the recent well-conducted studies. This review: (1) traces the history; (2) weighs the advantages and disadvantages; (3) addresses the significance in early pregnancy; (4) underscores the benefits after delivery; and (5) emphasizes the cost savings of using the FPG in the screening of GDM. It also highlights the utility of fasting capillary glucose and stresses the value of the FPG in circumventing the cumbersome oral glucose tolerance test. An understanding of all the caveats is crucial to be able to use the FPG for investigating glucose intolerance in pregnancy. Thus, all health professionals can use the patient-friendly FPG to simplify the onerous algorithms available for the screening and diagnosis of GDM - thereby helping each and every pregnant woman. PMID:27525055

  12. Gestational diabetes mellitus: Screening with fasting plasma glucose

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Mukesh M

    2016-01-01

    Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) as a screening test for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has had a checkered history. During the last three decades, a few initial anecdotal reports have given way to the recent well-conducted studies. This review: (1) traces the history; (2) weighs the advantages and disadvantages; (3) addresses the significance in early pregnancy; (4) underscores the benefits after delivery; and (5) emphasizes the cost savings of using the FPG in the screening of GDM. It also highlights the utility of fasting capillary glucose and stresses the value of the FPG in circumventing the cumbersome oral glucose tolerance test. An understanding of all the caveats is crucial to be able to use the FPG for investigating glucose intolerance in pregnancy. Thus, all health professionals can use the patient-friendly FPG to simplify the onerous algorithms available for the screening and diagnosis of GDM - thereby helping each and every pregnant woman. PMID:27525055

  13. Contribution of abnormal muscle and liver glucose metabolism to postprandial hyperglycemia in NIDDM

    SciTech Connect

    Mitrakou, A.; Kelley, D.; Veneman, T.; Jenssen, T.; Pangburn, T.; Reilly, J.; Gerich, J. )

    1990-11-01

    To assess the role of muscle and liver in the pathogenesis of postprandial hyperglycemia in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), we administered an oral glucose load enriched with (14C)glucose to 10 NIDDM subjects and 10 age- and weight-matched nondiabetic volunteers and compared muscle glucose disposal by measuring forearm balance of glucose, lactate, alanine, O2, and CO2. In addition, we used the dual-lable isotope method to compare overall rates of glucose appearance (Ra) and disappearance (Rd), suppression of endogenous glucose output, and splanchnic glucose sequestration. During the initial 1-1.5 h after glucose ingestion, plasma glucose increased by approximately 8 mM in NIDDM vs. approximately 3 mM in nondiabetic subjects (P less than 0.01); overall glucose Ra was nearly 11 g greater in NIDDM than nondiabetic subjects, but glucose Rd was not significantly different in NIDDM and nondiabetic subjects. The greater overall glucose Ra of NIDDM subjects was due to 6.8 g greater endogenous glucose output (13.7 +/- 1.1 vs. 6.8 +/- 1.0 g, P less than 0.01) and 3.8 g less oral glucose splanchnic sequestration of the oral load (31.4 +/- 1.5 vs. 27.5 +/- 0.9 g, P less than 0.05). Although glucose taken up by muscle was not significantly different in NIDDM and nondiabetic subjects (39.3 +/- 3.5 vs. 41.0 +/- 2.5 g/5 h), a greater amount of the glucose taken up by muscle in NIDDM was released as lactate and alanine (11.7 +/- 1.0 vs. 5.2 +/- 0.3 g in nondiabetic subjects, P less than 0.01), and less was stored (11.7 +/- 1.3 vs. 16.9 +/- 1.5 g, P less than 0.05). We conclude that increased systemic glucose delivery, due primarily to reduced suppression of endogenous hepatic glucose output and, to a lesser extent, reduced splanchnic glucose sequestration, is the predominant factor responsible for postprandial hyperglycemia in NIDDM.

  14. Glucose metabolism in the newborn rat. Temporal studies in vivo.

    PubMed

    Snell, K; Walker, D G

    1973-04-01

    1. The concentrations of plasma d-glucose, l-lactate, free fatty acids and ketone bodies and of liver glycogen were measured in caesarian-delivered newborn rats at time-intervals up to 4h after delivery. Glucose and lactate concentrations decreased markedly during the first hours after delivery, but there was a delay of 60-90min before significant glycogen mobilization occurred. 2. The specific radioactivity of plasma d-glucose was measured as a function of time for up to 75min after the intraperitoneal injection of d-[6-(14)C]glucose and d-[6-(3)H]glucose into caesarian-delivered rats at 0, 1 and 2h after delivery. Calculations revealed that there was an appreciable rate of glucose formation at all ages studied, but immediately after delivery this was exceeded by the rate of glucose utilization. Around 2h post partum the rate of glucose utilization decreased dramatically and this coincided with a reversal of the immediately postnatal hypoglycaemia. 3. The specific radioactivity of plasma l-lactate and the incorporation of (14)C into plasma d-glucose and liver glycogen was measured as a function of time after the intraperitoneal injection of l-[U-(14)C]lactate into rats immediately after delivery. The logarithm of the specific radioactivity of plasma l-[U-(14)C]lactate decreased linearly with time for at least 60min after injection and the calculated rate of lactate utilization exceeded the rate of lactate formation. 4. (14)C incorporation into plasma d-glucose was maximal from 30-60min after injection of l-[U-(14)C]lactate and the amount incorporated at 60min was 23% of that present in plasma lactate. Although (14)C was also incorporated into liver glycogen the amount was always less than 3% of that present in plasma glucose. 5. The results are discussed in relationship to the adaptation of the newly born rat to the extra-uterine environment and the possible involvement of gluconeogenesis at this time before feeding is established.

  15. Use of deuterium labelled glucose in evaluating the pathway of hepatic glycogen synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, M.N.; Masuoka, L.K.; deRopp, J.S.; Jones, A.D.

    1989-03-15

    Deuterium labelled glucose has been used to study the pathway of hepatic glycogen synthesis during the fasted-refed transition in rats. Deuterium enrichment of liver glycogen was determined using nuclear magnetic resonance as well as mass spectroscopy. Sixty minutes after oral administration of deuterated glucose to fasted rats, the portal vein blood was fully enriched with deuterated glucose. Despite this, less than half of the glucose molecules incorporated into liver glycogen contained deuterium. The loss of deuterium label from glucose is consistent with hepatic glycogen synthesis by an indirect pathway requiring prior metabolism of glucose. The use of deuterium labelled glucose may prove to be a useful probe to study hepatic glycogen metabolism. Its use may also find application in the study of liver glycogen metabolism in humans by a noninvasive means.

  16. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange of diborane in superacid solution through diboranonium (B sub 2 H sub 7 sup + ) and diboranium (B sub 2 H sub 5 sup + ) ions

    SciTech Connect

    Olah, G.A.; Aniszfeld, R.; Surya Prakash, G.K.; Williams, R.E.; Lammertsma, K.; Guener, O.F.

    1988-11-09

    The slow proton/deuterium exchange of B{sub 2}H{sub 6} in the superacidic FSO{sub 3}D SbF{sub 5}/SO{sub 2}ClF medium at low temperature involving the corresponding isotopomeric diboranonium ions B{sub 2}H{sub 7}{sup +} is reported here. The structure of the B{sub 2}H{sub 7}{sup +} ion has also been probed by ab inito theoretical calculations. The H/D exchange is rationalized by the pathway that deuteriation occurs exclusively on an unbridged (terminal B-H) bond resulting in a B{sub 2}H{sub 6}D{sup +} ion which is expected to undergo polytopol (bond-to-bond) rearrangement scrambling all hydrogens and deuteriums followed by proton loss leading to the exchanged product. 18 references.

  17. The role of isovalency in the reactions of the cyano (CN), boron monoxide (BO), silicon nitride (SiN), and ethynyl (C2H) radicals with unsaturated hydrocarbons acetylene (C2H2) and ethylene (C2H4).

    PubMed

    Parker, D S N; Mebel, A M; Kaiser, R I

    2014-04-21

    The classification of chemical reactions based on shared characteristics is at the heart of the chemical sciences, and is well exemplified by Langmuir's concept of isovalency, in which 'two molecular entities with the same number of valence electrons have similar chemistries'. Within this account we further investigate the ramifications of the isovalency of four radicals with the same X(2)Σ(+) electronic structure - cyano (CN), boron monoxide (BO), silicon nitride (SiN), and ethynyl (C2H), and their reactions with simple prototype hydrocarbons acetylene (C2H2) and ethylene (C2H4). The fact that these four reactants own the same X(2)Σ(+) electronic ground state should dictate the outcome of their reactions with prototypical hydrocarbons holding a carbon-carbon triple and double bond. However, we find that other factors come into play, namely, atomic radii, bonding orbital overlaps, and preferential location of the radical site. These doublet radical reactions with simple hydrocarbons play significant roles in extreme environments such as the interstellar medium and planetary atmospheres (CN, SiN and C2H), and combustion flames (C2H, BO). PMID:24418936

  18. Primary branching ratios for the low-temperature reaction of state-prepared N2+ with CH4, C2H2, and C2H4.

    PubMed

    Gichuhi, Wilson K; Suits, Arthur G

    2011-06-30

    Product branching ratios (BRs) are reported for ion-molecule reactions of state-prepared nitrogen cation (N(2)(+)) with methane (CH(4)), acetylene (C(2)H(2)). and ethylene (C(2)H(4)) at low temperature using a modified ion imaging apparatus. These reactions are performed in a supersonic nozzle expansion characterized by a rotational temperature of 40 ± 5K. For the N(2)(+) + CH(4) reaction, a BR of 0.83:0.17 is obtained for the dissociative charge-transfer (CT) reaction that gives rise to the formation of CH(3)(+) and CH(2)(+) product ions, respectively. The N(2)(+) + C(2)H(2) ion-molecule reaction proceeds through a nondissociative CT process that results in the sole formation of C(2)H(2)(+) product ions. The reaction of N(2)(+) with C(2)H(4) leads to the formation of C(2)H(3)(+) and C(2)H(2)(+) product ions with a BR of 0.74:0.26, respectively. The reported BR for the N(2)(+) + C(2)H(4) reaction is supportive of a nonresonant dissociative CT mechanism similar to the one that accompanies the N(2)(+) + CH(4) reaction. No dependence of the branching ratios on N(2)(+) rotational level was observed. In addition to providing direct insight into the dynamics of the state-prepared N(2)(+) ion-molecule reactions with the target neutral hydrocarbon molecules, the reported low-temperature BRs are also important for accurate modeling of the nitrogen-dominated upper atmosphere of Saturn's moon, Titan.

  19. Nickel Catalysis Enables Oxidative C(sp(2) )-H/C(sp(2) )-H Cross-Coupling Reactions between Two Heteroarenes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yangyang; Wu, Yimin; Tan, Guangyin; You, Jingsong

    2016-09-26

    Nickel can be used to promote oxidative C(sp(2) )-H/C(sp(2) )-H cross-coupling between two heteroarenes. The reaction scope can be extended to aromatic carboxamides as the coupling partner. The reaction exhibits high functional-group compatibility and broad substrate scope. The silver oxidant can be recycled to reduce costs and waste, which is very useful for practical applications. PMID:27596265

  20. Microwave Spectra and Geometries of C2H2\\cdots AuI and C2H4\\cdots AuI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Susanna Louise; Mullaney, John Connor; Sprawling, Matt John; Tew, David Peter; Walker, Nick; Legon, Anthony

    2014-06-01

    A chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave spectrometer has been used to measure the microwave spectra of both C2H2\\cdots AuI and C2H4\\cdots AuI. These complexes are generated via laser ablation at 532 nm of a gold surface in the presence of CF3I and either C2H2 or C2H4 and argon and are stabilized by a supersonic expansion. Rotational (A0, B0, C0) and centrifugal distortion constants (ΔJ, ΔJK and δJ) of each molecule have been determined as well the nuclear electric quadrupole coupling constants of gold and iodine atoms (χaa(Au}, χbb-χcc(Au), χaa(I) and χbb-χcc(I)). The spectrum of each molecule is consistent with a C2v structure in which the metal atom interacts with the π-orbital of the ethene or ethyne molecule. Isotopic substitutions of atoms within the C2H2 or C2H4 subunits are in progress and in conjunction with high level ab initio calculations will allow for accurate determination of the geometry of each molecule.

  1. The effects of a combined strength and aerobic exercise program on glucose control and insulin action in women with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Tokmakidis, Savvas P; Zois, Christos E; Volaklis, Konstantinos A; Kotsa, Kaliopi; Touvra, Anna-Maria

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the short- and long-term effects of a combined strength and aerobic training program on glycemic control, insulin action, exercise capacity and muscular strength in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. Nine postmenopausal women, aged 55.2 (6.7) years, with type 2 diabetes participated in a supervised training program for 4 months consisting of two strength training sessions (3 sets of 12 repetitions at 60% one-repetition maximum strength) and two aerobic training sessions (60-70% of maximum heart rate at the beginning, and 70-80% of maximum heart rate after 2 months). Anthropometrical measurements, percentage glycated hemoglobin, a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test, exercise stress testing and maximum strength were measured at the beginning, and after 4 and 16 weeks of the exercise program. Significant reductions were observed in both the glucose (8.1% P<0.01) and insulin areas under the curve (20.7%, P<0.05) after 4 weeks of training. These adaptations were further improved after 16 weeks (glucose 12.5%, insulin 38%, P<0.001). Glycated hemoglobin was significantly decreased after 4 weeks [7.7 (1.7) vs 7.1 (1.3)%, P<0.05] and after 16 weeks [7.7 (1.7) vs 6.9 (1.0)%, P<0.01] of exercise training. Furthermore, exercise time and muscular strength were significantly improved after 4 weeks (P<0.01) as well as after 16 weeks (P<0.001) of training. Body mass and body-mass index, however, were not significantly altered throughout the study. The results indicated that a combined training program of strength and aerobic exercise could induce positive adaptations on glucose control, insulin action, muscular strength and exercise tolerance in women with type 2 diabetes. PMID:15232701

  2. Zinc status affects glucose homeostasis and insulin secretion in patients with thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Fung, Ellen B; Gildengorin, Ginny; Talwar, Siddhant; Hagar, Leah; Lal, Ashutosh

    2015-06-02

    Up to 20% of adult patients with Thalassemia major (Thal) live with diabetes, while 30% may be zinc deficient. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between zinc status, impaired glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in Thal patients. Charts from thirty subjects (16 male, 27.8 ± 9.1 years) with Thal were reviewed. Patients with low serum zinc had significantly lower fasting insulin, insulinogenic and oral disposition indexes (all p < 0.05) and elevated glucose response curve, following a standard 75 g oral load of glucose compared to those with normal serum zinc after controlling for baseline (group × time interaction p = 0.048). Longitudinal data in five patients with a decline in serum zinc over a two year follow up period (-19.0 ± 9.6 μg/dL), showed consistent increases in fasting glucose (3.6 ± 3.2 mg/dL) and insulin to glucose ratios at 120 min post glucose dose (p = 0.05). Taken together, these data suggest that the frequently present zinc deficiency in Thal patients is associated with decreased insulin secretion and reduced glucose disposal. Future zinc trials will require modeling of oral glucose tolerance test data and not simply measurement of static indices in order to understand the complexities of pancreatic function in the Thal patient.

  3. A mechanistic study to increase understanding of titanium dioxide nanoparticles-increased plasma glucose in mice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hailong; Li, Li; Guo, Qian; Jin, Sanli; Zhou, Ying; Oh, Yuri; Feng, Yujie; Wu, Qiong; Gu, Ning

    2016-09-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticle (TiO2 NP) is an authorized food additive. Previous studies determined oral administration of TiO2 NPs increases plasma glucose in mice via inducing insulin resistance. An increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been considered the possible mechanism of increasing plasma glucose. However, persistently high plasma glucose is also a mechanism of increasing ROS. This study aims to explore whether TiO2 NPs increase plasma glucose via ROS. We found after oral administration of TiO2 NPs, an increase in ROS preceded an increase in plasma glucose. Subsequently, mice were treated with two antioxidants (resveratrol and vitamin E) at the same time as oral administration of TiO2 NPs. Results showed resveratrol and vitamin E reduced TiO2 NPs-increased ROS. An increase in plasma glucose was also inhibited. Further research showed resveratrol and vitamin E inhibited the secretion of TNF-α and IL-6, and the phosphorylation of JNK and p38 MAPK, resulting in improved insulin resistance. These results suggest TiO2 NPs increased ROS levels, and then ROS activated inflammatory cytokines and phosphokinases, and thus induced insulin resistance, resulting in an increase in plasma glucose. Resveratrol and vitamin E can reduce TiO2 NPs-increased ROS and thereby inhibit an increase in plasma glucose in mice. PMID:27430421

  4. A mechanistic study to increase understanding of titanium dioxide nanoparticles-increased plasma glucose in mice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hailong; Li, Li; Guo, Qian; Jin, Sanli; Zhou, Ying; Oh, Yuri; Feng, Yujie; Wu, Qiong; Gu, Ning

    2016-09-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticle (TiO2 NP) is an authorized food additive. Previous studies determined oral administration of TiO2 NPs increases plasma glucose in mice via inducing insulin resistance. An increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been considered the possible mechanism of increasing plasma glucose. However, persistently high plasma glucose is also a mechanism of increasing ROS. This study aims to explore whether TiO2 NPs increase plasma glucose via ROS. We found after oral administration of TiO2 NPs, an increase in ROS preceded an increase in plasma glucose. Subsequently, mice were treated with two antioxidants (resveratrol and vitamin E) at the same time as oral administration of TiO2 NPs. Results showed resveratrol and vitamin E reduced TiO2 NPs-increased ROS. An increase in plasma glucose was also inhibited. Further research showed resveratrol and vitamin E inhibited the secretion of TNF-α and IL-6, and the phosphorylation of JNK and p38 MAPK, resulting in improved insulin resistance. These results suggest TiO2 NPs increased ROS levels, and then ROS activated inflammatory cytokines and phosphokinases, and thus induced insulin resistance, resulting in an increase in plasma glucose. Resveratrol and vitamin E can reduce TiO2 NPs-increased ROS and thereby inhibit an increase in plasma glucose in mice.

  5. Zinc Status Affects Glucose Homeostasis and Insulin Secretion in Patients with Thalassemia

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Ellen B.; Gildengorin, Ginny; Talwar, Siddhant; Hagar, Leah; Lal, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    Up to 20% of adult patients with Thalassemia major (Thal) live with diabetes, while 30% may be zinc deficient. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between zinc status, impaired glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in Thal patients. Charts from thirty subjects (16 male, 27.8 ± 9.1 years) with Thal were reviewed. Patients with low serum zinc had significantly lower fasting insulin, insulinogenic and oral disposition indexes (all p < 0.05) and elevated glucose response curve, following a standard 75 g oral load of glucose compared to those with normal serum zinc after controlling for baseline (group × time interaction p = 0.048). Longitudinal data in five patients with a decline in serum zinc over a two year follow up period (−19.0 ± 9.6 μg/dL), showed consistent increases in fasting glucose (3.6 ± 3.2 mg/dL) and insulin to glucose ratios at 120 min post glucose dose (p = 0.05). Taken together, these data suggest that the frequently present zinc deficiency in Thal patients is associated with decreased insulin secretion and reduced glucose disposal. Future zinc trials will require modeling of oral glucose tolerance test data and not simply measurement of static indices in order to understand the complexities of pancreatic function in the Thal patient. PMID:26043030

  6. Direct analysis of δ2H and δ18O in natural and enriched human urine using laser-based, off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Berman, Elena S F; Fortson, Susan L; Snaith, Steven P; Gupta, Manish; Baer, Douglas S; Chery, Isabelle; Blanc, Stephane; Melanson, Edward L; Thomson, Peter J; Speakman, John R

    2012-11-20

    The stable isotopes of hydrogen (δ(2)H) and oxygen (δ(18)O) in human urine are measured during studies of total energy expenditure by the doubly labeled water method, measurement of total body water, and measurement of insulin resistance by glucose disposal among other applications. An ultrasensitive laser absorption spectrometer based on off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy was demonstrated for simple and inexpensive measurement of stable isotopes in natural isotopic abundance and isotopically enriched human urine. Preparation of urine for analysis was simple and rapid (approximately 25 samples per hour), requiring no decolorizing or distillation steps. Analysis schemes were demonstrated to address sample-to-sample memory while still allowing analysis of 45 natural or 30 enriched urine samples per day. The instrument was linear over a wide range of water isotopes (δ(2)H = -454 to +1702 ‰ and δ(18)O = -58.3 to +265 ‰). Measurements of human urine were precise to better than 0.65 ‰ 1σ for δ(2)H and 0.09 ‰ 1σ for δ(18)O for natural urines, 1.1 ‰ 1σ for δ(2)H and 0.13 ‰ 1σ for δ(18)O for low enriched urines, and 1.0 ‰ 1σ for δ(2)H and 0.08 ‰ 1σ for δ(18)O for high enriched urines. Furthermore, the accuracy of the isotope measurements of human urines was verified to better than ±0.81 ‰ in δ(2)H and ±0.13 ‰ in δ(18)O (average deviation) against three independent isotope-ratio mass spectrometry laboratories. The ability to immediately and inexpensively measure the stable isotopes of water in human urine is expected to increase the number and variety of experiments which can be undertaken.

  7. Direct analysis of δ2H and δ18O in natural and enriched human urine using laser-based, off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Berman, Elena S F; Fortson, Susan L; Snaith, Steven P; Gupta, Manish; Baer, Douglas S; Chery, Isabelle; Blanc, Stephane; Melanson, Edward L; Thomson, Peter J; Speakman, John R

    2012-11-20

    The stable isotopes of hydrogen (δ(2)H) and oxygen (δ(18)O) in human urine are measured during studies of total energy expenditure by the doubly labeled water method, measurement of total body water, and measurement of insulin resistance by glucose disposal among other applications. An ultrasensitive laser absorption spectrometer based on off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy was demonstrated for simple and inexpensive measurement of stable isotopes in natural isotopic abundance and isotopically enriched human urine. Preparation of urine for analysis was simple and rapid (approximately 25 samples per hour), requiring no decolorizing or distillation steps. Analysis schemes were demonstrated to address sample-to-sample memory while still allowing analysis of 45 natural or 30 enriched urine samples per day. The instrument was linear over a wide range of water isotopes (δ(2)H = -454 to +1702 ‰ and δ(18)O = -58.3 to +265 ‰). Measurements of human urine were precise to better than 0.65 ‰ 1σ for δ(2)H and 0.09 ‰ 1σ for δ(18)O for natural urines, 1.1 ‰ 1σ for δ(2)H and 0.13 ‰ 1σ for δ(18)O for low enriched urines, and 1.0 ‰ 1σ for δ(2)H and 0.08 ‰ 1σ for δ(18)O for high enriched urines. Furthermore, the accuracy of the isotope measurements of human urines was verified to better than ±0.81 ‰ in δ(2)H and ±0.13 ‰ in δ(18)O (average deviation) against three independent isotope-ratio mass spectrometry laboratories. The ability to immediately and inexpensively measure the stable isotopes of water in human urine is expected to increase the number and variety of experiments which can be undertaken. PMID:23075099

  8. Effect and potential mechanism of action of sea cucumber saponins on postprandial blood glucose in mice.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xueyuan; Wen, Min; Han, Xiuqing; Yanagita, Teruyoshi; Xue, Yong; Wang, Jingfeng; Xue, Changhu; Wang, Yuming

    2016-06-01

    Postprandial blood glucose control is the major goal in the treatment of diabetes. Here, we investigated the effect of sea cucumber saponins (SCSs) on postprandial blood glucose levels. SCS inhibited yeast as well as rat intestinal α-glucosidase activity in a dose-dependent manner and showed better inhibition of yeast α-glucosidases compared to the positive control. Further studies were performed using ICR mice treated with SCS and starch or SCS alone by oral gavage. Unexpectedly, SCS increased postprandial blood glucose levels a short time (1 h) after oral gavage. The serum corticosterone (CORT) level showed a consistent correlation with glucose levels. In vitro experiments confirmed that SCS treatment increased the secretion of CORT in the Y1 adrenal cell line. Overall, these studies demonstrated that SCS gavage could inhibit α-glucosidase activity but cannot attenuate postprandial blood glucose level within short time periods. The underlying mechanisms are probably related to increased serum CORT levels. PMID:26932154

  9. Effect and potential mechanism of action of sea cucumber saponins on postprandial blood glucose in mice.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xueyuan; Wen, Min; Han, Xiuqing; Yanagita, Teruyoshi; Xue, Yong; Wang, Jingfeng; Xue, Changhu; Wang, Yuming

    2016-06-01

    Postprandial blood glucose control is the major goal in the treatment of diabetes. Here, we investigated the effect of sea cucumber saponins (SCSs) on postprandial blood glucose levels. SCS inhibited yeast as well as rat intestinal α-glucosidase activity in a dose-dependent manner and showed better inhibition of yeast α-glucosidases compared to the positive control. Further studies were performed using ICR mice treated with SCS and starch or SCS alone by oral gavage. Unexpectedly, SCS increased postprandial blood glucose levels a short time (1 h) after oral gavage. The serum corticosterone (CORT) level showed a consistent correlation with glucose levels. In vitro experiments confirmed that SCS treatment increased the secretion of CORT in the Y1 adrenal cell line. Overall, these studies demonstrated that SCS gavage could inhibit α-glucosidase activity but cannot attenuate postprandial blood glucose level within short time periods. The underlying mechanisms are probably related to increased serum CORT levels.

  10. A glucose sensor protein for continuous glucose monitoring.

    PubMed

    Veetil, Jithesh V; Jin, Sha; Ye, Kaiming

    2010-12-15

    In vivo continuous glucose monitoring has posed a significant challenge to glucose sensor development due to the lack of reliable techniques that are non- or at least minimally-invasive. In this proof-of-concept study, we demonstrated the development of a new glucose sensor protein, AcGFP1-GBPcys-mCherry, and an optical sensor assembly, capable of generating quantifiable FRET (fluorescence resonance energy transfer) signals for glucose monitoring. Our experimental data showed that the engineered glucose sensor protein can generate measurable FRET signals in response to glucose concentrations varying from 25 to 800 μM. The sensor developed based on this protein had a shelf-life of up to 3 weeks. The sensor response was devoid of interference from compounds like galactose, fructose, lactose, mannose, and mannitol when tested at physiologically significant concentrations of these compounds. This new glucose sensor protein can potentially be used to develop implantable glucose sensors for continuous glucose monitoring.

  11. TCA Cycle Turnover And Serum Glucose Sources By Automated Bayesian Analysis Of NMR Spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Merritt, Matthew E.; Burgess, Shawn; Jeffrey, F. Mark; Sherry, A. Dean; Malloy, Craig; Bretthorst, G. Larry

    2004-04-21

    Changes in sources of serum glucose are indicative of a variety of pathological metabolic states. It is possible to measure the sources of serum glucose by the administration of deuterated water to a subject followed by analysis of the 2H enrichment levels in glucose extracted from plasma from a single blood draw by 2H NMR. Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulations of the posterior probability densities may then be used to evaluate the contribution of glycogenolysis, glycerol, and the Kreb's cycle to serum glucose. Experiments with simulated NMR spectra show that in spectra with a S/N of 20 to 1, the resulting metabolic information may be evaluated with an accuracy of about 4 percent.

  12. TCA Cycle Turnover And Serum Glucose Sources By Automated Bayesian Analysis Of NMR Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merritt, Matthew E.; Burgess, Shawn; Jeffrey, F. Mark; Sherry, A. Dean; Malloy, Craig; Bretthorst, G. Larry

    2004-04-01

    Changes in sources of serum glucose are indicative of a variety of pathological metabolic states. It is possible to measure the sources of serum glucose by the administration of deuterated water to a subject followed by analysis of the 2H enrichment levels in glucose extracted from plasma from a single blood draw by 2H NMR. Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulations of the posterior probability densities may then be used to evaluate the contribution of glycogenolysis, glycerol, and the Kreb's cycle to serum glucose. Experiments with simulated NMR spectra show that in spectra with a S/N of 20 to 1, the resulting metabolic information may be evaluated with an accuracy of about 4 percent.

  13. Oral rehydration of children with acute diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Hirschhorn, N; Westley, T A

    1972-09-01

    A simple, reproducible method for preparing glucose-electrolyte solution for oral rehydration of infantile diarrhea victims is presented briefly in this letter. Using reagent-grade materials and a nested set of measuring spoons labeled as to content, the following measurements are made: sodium chloride, 1/2 teaspoon; sodium bicarbonate, 1/2 teaspoon; potassium chloride, 1/4 teaspoon; and glucose, 2 tablespoons. Combine these powders in a plastic vial and cap; when ready for use, dissolve in 1 liter of solution. This method was tested 10 times with a range of error of only +/-5% of the mean.

  14. Prediabetes Phenotype Influences Improvements in Glucose Homeostasis with Resistance Training

    PubMed Central

    Eikenberg, Joshua D.; Savla, Jyoti; Marinik, Elaina L.; Davy, Kevin P.; Pownall, John; Baugh, Mary E.; Flack, Kyle D.; Boshra, Soheir; Winett, Richard A.; Davy, Brenda M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine if prediabetes phenotype influences improvements in glucose homeostasis with resistance training (RT). Methods Older, overweight individuals with prediabetes (n = 159; aged 60±5 yrs; BMI 33±4 kg/m2) completed a supervised RT program twice per week for 12 weeks. Body weight and composition, strength, fasting plasma glucose, 2-hr oral glucose tolerance, and Matsuda-Defronza estimated insulin sensitivity index (ISI) were assessed before and after the intervention. Participants were categorized according to their baseline prediabetes phenotype as impaired fasting glucose only (IFG) (n = 73), impaired glucose tolerance only (IGT) (n = 21), or combined IFG and IGT (IFG/IGT) (n = 65). Results Chest press and leg press strength increased 27% and 18%, respectively, following the 12-week RT program (both p<0.05). Waist circumference (-1.0%; pre 109.3±10.3 cm, post 108.2±10.6 cm) and body fat (-0.6%; pre 43.7±6.8%, post 43.1±6.8%) declined, and lean body mass (+1.3%; pre 52.0±10.4 kg, post 52.7±10.7 kg) increased following the intervention. Fasting glucose concentrations did not change (p>0.05) following the intervention. However, 2-hr oral glucose tolerance improved in those with IGT (pre 8.94±0.72 mmol/l, post 7.83±1.11 mmol/l, p<0.05) and IFG/IGT (pre 9.66±1.11mmol/l, post 8.60±2.00 mmol/l) but not in those with IFG (pre 6.27±1.28mmol/l, post 6.33± 1.55 mmol/l). There were no significant changes in ISI or glucose area under the curve following the RT program. Conclusions RT without dietary intervention improves 2-hr oral glucose tolerance in individuals with prediabetes. However, the improvements in glucose homeostasis with RT appear limited to those with IGT or combined IFG and IGT. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01112709 PMID:26840904

  15. Elucidating proline dynamics in spider dragline silk fibre using 2H-13C HETCOR MAS NMR.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiangyan; Yarger, Jeffery L; Holland, Gregory P

    2014-05-14

    (2)H-(13)C HETCOR MAS NMR is performed on (2)H/(13)C/(15)N-Pro enriched A. aurantia dragline silk. Proline dynamics are extracted from (2)H NMR line shapes and T1 in a site-specific manner to elucidate the backbone and side chain molecular dynamics for the MaSp2 GPGXX β-turn regions for spider dragline silk in the dry and wet, supercontracted states.

  16. Contribution of net hepatic glycogenolysis to glucose production during the early postprandial period.

    PubMed

    Petersen, K F; Price, T; Cline, G W; Rothman, D L; Shulman, G I

    1996-01-01

    Relative contributions of net hepatic glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis to glucose production during the first 12 h of a fast were studied in 13 healthy volunteers by noninvasively measuring hepatic glycogen content using 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Rates of net hepatic glycogenolysis were calculated by multiplying the change in liver glycogen content with liver volume determined by magnetic resonance imaging. Rates of gluconeogenesis were calculated as the difference between rates of glucose production determined with an infusion of [6,6-2H]-glucose and net hepatic glycogenolysis. At 6 P.M. a liquid mixed meal (1,000 kcal; 60% as glucose) was given, to which [2-2H]glucose was added to trace glucose absorption. Hepatic glycogen content was measured between 11 P.M. and 1 A.M. and between 3 and 6 A.M. At 11 P.M. the concentration was 470 mM and it decreased linearly during the night. The mean liver volume was 1.47 +/- 0.06 liters. Net hepatic glycogenolysis (5.8 +/- 0.8 mumol.kg body wt-1.min-1) accounted for, on average, 45 +/- 6% and gluconeogenesis for 55 +/- 6% of the rate of whole body glucose production (12.6 +/- 0.6 mumol.kg body wt-1.min-1). In conclusion, this study shows that, even early in the phase of the postabsorptive period when liver glycogen stores are maximal, gluconeogenesis contributes approximately 50% to hepatic glucose production.

  17. The SNF2H chromatin remodeling enzyme has opposing effects on cytokine gene expression.

    PubMed

    Precht, Patricia; Wurster, Andrea L; Pazin, Michael J

    2010-07-01

    Cytokine gene expression is a key control point in the function of the immune system. Cytokine gene regulation is linked to changes in chromatin structure; however, little is known about the remodeling enzymes mediating these changes. Here we investigated the role of the ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling enzyme SNF2H in mouse T cells; to date, SNF2H has not been investigated in T cells. We found that SNF2H repressed expression of IL-2 and other cytokines in activated cells. By contrast, SNF2H activated expression of IL-3. The ISWI components SNF2H and ACF1 bound to the tested loci, suggesting the regulation was direct. SNF2H decreased accessibility at some binding sites within the IL2 locus, and increased accessibility within some IL3 binding sites. The changes in gene expression positively correlated with accessibility changes, suggesting a simple model that accessibility enables transcription. We also found that loss of the ISWI ATPase SNF2H reduced binding to target genes and protein expression of ACF1, a binding partner for SNF2H, suggesting complex formation stabilized ACF1. Together, these findings reveal a direct role for SNF2H in both repression and activation of cytokine genes.

  18. The SNF2H Chromatin Remodeling Enzyme Has Opposing Effects on Cytokine Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Precht, Patricia; Wurster, Andrea L.; Pazin, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Cytokine gene expression is a key control point in the function of the immune system. Cytokine gene regulation is linked to changes in chromatin structure; however, little is known about the remodeling enzymes mediating these changes. Here we investigated the role of the ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling enzyme SNF2H in mouse T cells; to date, SNF2H has not been investigated in T cells. We found that SNF2H repressed expression of IL-2 and other cytokines in activated cells. By contrast, SNF2H activated expression of IL-3. The ISWI components SNF2H and ACF1 bound to the tested loci, suggesting the regulation was direct. SNF2H decreased accessibility at some binding sites within the IL2 locus, and increased accessibility within some IL3 binding sites. The changes in gene expression positively correlated with accessibility changes, suggesting a simple model that accessibility enables transcription. We also found that loss of the ISWI ATPase SNF2H reduced binding to target genes and protein expression of ACF1, a binding partner for SNF2H, suggesting complex formation stabilized ACF1. Together, these findings reveal a direct role for SNF2H in both repression and activation of cytokine genes. PMID:20471682

  19. Tracing bacterial metabolism using multi-nuclear (1H, 2H, and 13C) Solid State NMR: Realizing an Idea Initiated by James Scott

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cody, G.; Fogel, M. L.; Jin, K.; Griffen, P.; Steele, A.; Wang, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Approximately 6 years ago, while at the Geophysical Laboratory, James Scott became interested in the application of Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy to study bacterial metabolism. As often happens, other experiments intervened and the NMR experiments were not pursued. We have revisited Jame's question and find that using a multi-nuclear approach (1H, 2H, and 13C Solid State NMR) on laboratory cell culture has some distinct advantages. Our experiments involved batch cultures of E. coli (MG1655) harvested at stationary phase. In all experiments the growth medium consisted of MOPS medium for enterobacteria, where the substrate is glucose. In one set of experiments, 10 % of the water was D2O; in another 10 % of the glucose was per-deuterated. The control experiment used both water and glucose at natural isotopic abundance. A kill control of dead E. coli immersed in pure D2O for an extended period exhibited no deuterium incorporation. In both deuterium enriched experiments, considerable incorporation of deuterium into E. coli's biomolecular constituents was detected via 2H Solid State NMR. In the case of the D2O enriched experiment, 58 % of the incorporated deuterium is observed in a sharp peak at a frequency of 0.31 ppm, consistent with D incorporation in the cell membrane lipids, the remainder is observed in a broad peak at a higher frequency (centered at 5.4 ppm, but spanning out to beyond 10 ppm) that is consistent with D incorporation into predominantly DNA and RNA. In the case of the D-glucose experiments, 61 % of the deuterium is observed in a sharp resonance peak at 0.34 ppm, also consistent with D incorporation into membrane lipids, the remainder of the D is observed at a broad resonance peak centered at 4.3 ppm, consistent with D enrichment in glycogen. Deuterium abundance in the E. coli cells grown in 10 % D2O is nearly 2X greater than that grown with 10 % D-glucose. Very subtle differences are observed in both the 1H and 13C solid

  20. Calculational and Experimental Investigations of the Pressure Effects on Radical - Radical Cross Combinations Reactions: C2H5 + C2H3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahr, Askar; Halpern, Joshua B.; Tardy, Dwight C.

    2007-01-01

    Pressure-dependent product yields have been experimentally determined for the cross-radical reaction C2H5 + C2H3. These results have been extended by calculations. It is shown that the chemically activated combination adduct, 1-C4H8*, is either stabilized by bimolecular collisions or subject to a variety of unimolecular reactions including cyclizations and decompositions. Therefore the "apparent" combination/disproportionation ratio exhibits a complex pressure dependence. The experimental studies were performed at 298 K and at selected pressures between about 4 Torr (0.5 kPa) and 760 Torr (101 kPa). Ethyl and vinyl radicals were simultaneously produced by 193 nm excimer laser photolysis of C2H5COC2H3 or photolysis of C2H3Br and C2H5COC2H5. Gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry/flame ionization detection (GC/MS/FID) were used to identify and quantify the final reaction products. The major combination reactions at pressures between 500 (66.5 kPa) and 760 Torr are (1c) C2H5 + C2H3 yields 1-butene, (2c) C2H5 + C2H5 yields n-butane, and (3c) C2H3 + C2H3 yields 1,3-butadiene. The major products of the disproportionation reactions are ethane, ethylene, and acetylene. At moderate and lower pressures, secondary products, including propene, propane, isobutene, 2-butene (cis and trans), 1-pentene, 1,4-pentadiene, and 1,5-hexadiene are also observed. Two isomers of C4H6, cyclobutene and/or 1,2-butadiene, were also among the likely products. The pressure-dependent yield of the cross-combination product, 1-butene, was compared to the yield of n-butane, the combination product of reaction (2c), which was found to be independent of pressure over the range of this study. The [ 1-C4H8]/[C4H10] ratio was reduced from approx.1.2 at 760 Torr (101 kPa) to approx.0.5 at 100 Torr (13.3 kPa) and approx.0.1 at pressures lower than about 5 Torr (approx.0.7 kPa). Electronic structure and RRKM calculations were used to simulate both unimolecular and bimolecular processes. The relative importance

  1. Mechanisms of impaired fasting glucose and glucose intolerance induced by an approximate 50% pancreatectomy.

    PubMed

    Matveyenko, Aleksey V; Veldhuis, Johannes D; Butler, Peter C

    2006-08-01

    Impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) often coexist and as such represent a potent risk factor for subsequent development of type 2 diabetes. beta-Cell mass is approximately 50% deficient in IFG and approximately 65% deficient in type 2 diabetes. To establish the effect of a approximately 50% deficit in beta-cell mass on carbohydrate metabolism, we performed a approximately 50% partial pancreatectomy versus sham surgery in 14 dogs. Insulin secretion was quantified from insulin concentrations measured in the portal vein at 1-min sampling intervals under basal conditions, after a 30-g oral glucose, and during a hyperglycemic clamp. Insulin sensitivity was measured by a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp combined with isotope dilution. Partial pancreatectomy resulted in IFG and IGT. After partial pancreatectomy both basal and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion were decreased through the mechanism of a selective approximately 50 and approximately 80% deficit in insulin pulse mass, respectively (P < 0.05). These defects in insulin secretion were partially offset by decreased hepatic insulin clearance (P < 0.05). Partial pancreatectomy also caused a approximately 40% decrease in insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (P < 0.05), insulin sensitivity after partial pancreatectomy being related to insulin pulse amplitude (r = 0.9, P < 0.01). We conclude that a approximately 50% deficit in beta-cell mass can recapitulate the alterations in glucose-mediated insulin secretion and insulin action in humans with IFG and IGT. These data support a mechanistic role of a deficit in beta-cell mass in the evolution of IFG/IGT and subsequently type 2 diabetes. PMID:16873700

  2. Hyperfine excitation of N2H+ by H2: towards a revision of N2H+ abundance in cold molecular clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lique, François; Daniel, Fabien; Pagani, Laurent; Feautrier, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    The modelling of emission spectra of molecules seen in interstellar clouds requires the knowledge of collisional rate coefficients. Among the commonly observed species, N2H+ is of particular interest since it was shown to be a good probe of the physical conditions of cold molecular clouds. Thus, we have calculated hyperfine-structure-resolved excitation rate coefficients of N2H+(X1Σ+) by H2(j = 0), the most abundant collisional partner in the cold interstellar medium. The calculations are based on a new potential energy surface, obtained from highly correlated ab initio calculations. State-to-state rate coefficients between the first hyperfine levels were calculated, for temperatures ranging from 5 to 70 K. By comparison with previously published N2H+-He rate coefficients, we found significant differences which cannot be reproduced by a simple scaling relationship. As a first application, we also performed radiative transfer calculations, for physical conditions typical of cold molecular clouds. We found that the simulated line intensities significantly increase when using the new H2 rate coefficients, by comparison with the predictions based on the He rate coefficients. In particular, we revisited the modelling of the N2H+ emission in the LDN 183 core, using the new collisional data, and found that all three of the density, gas kinetic temperature and N2H+ abundance had to be revised.

  3. Mouthguard biosensor with telemetry system for monitoring of saliva glucose: A novel cavitas sensor.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Takahiro; Kuroki, Yusuke; Nitta, Hiroki; Chouhan, Prem; Toma, Koji; Sawada, Shin-Ichi; Takeuchi, Shuhei; Sekita, Toshiaki; Akiyoshi, Kazunari; Minakuchi, Shunsuke; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2016-10-15

    We develop detachable "Cavitas sensors" to apply to the human oral cavity for non-invasive monitoring of saliva glucose. A salivary biosensor incorporating Pt and Ag/AgCl electrodes on a mouthguard support with an enzyme membrane is developed and tested. Electrodes are formed on the polyethylene terephthalate glycol (PETG) surface of the mouthguard. The Pt working electrode is coated with a glucose oxidase (GOD) membrane. The biosensor seamlessly is integrated with a glucose sensor and a wireless measurement system. When investigating in-vitro performance, the biosensor exhibits a robust relationship between output current and glucose concentration. In artificial saliva composed of salts and proteins, the glucose sensor is capable of highly sensitive detection over a range of 5-1000µmol/L of glucose, which encompasses the range of glucose concentrations found in human saliva. We demonstrate the ability of the sensor and wireless communication module to monitor saliva glucose in a phantom jaw imitating the structure of the human oral cavity. Stable and long-term real-time monitoring (exceeding 5h) with the telemetry system is achieved. The mouthguard biosensor will be useful as a novel method for real-time non-invasive saliva glucose monitoring for better management of dental patients. PMID:26725934

  4. Glucose Tolerance and Hyperkinesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langseth, Lillian; Dowd, Judith

    Examined were medical records of 265 hyperkinetic children (7-9 years old). Clinical blood chemistries, hematology, and 5-hour glucose tolerance test (GTT) results indicated that hematocrit levels were low in 27% of the Ss, eosinophil levels were abnormally high in 86% of the Ss, and GTT results were abnormal in a maority of Ss. (CL)

  5. Blood glucose monitoring.

    PubMed

    Davey, Sarah

    2014-06-10

    I found the CPD article on blood glucose monitoring and management in acute stroke care interesting and informative. As I am a mental health nursing student, my knowledge of chronic physical conditions is limited, so I learned a lot. PMID:24894257

  6. Use of an Oral Elemental Diet in Infants with Severe Intractable Diarrhea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Joseph O.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Evaluated was the use of an oral elemental diet consisting of crystalline amino acids, glucose, electrolytes, and vitamins to control severe intractable diarrhea in 27 infants (1-day to 9-months of age). (DB)

  7. [Oral pain].

    PubMed

    Benslama, Lotfi

    2002-02-15

    Pain, a major symptom of stomatological disease, usually leads to a specialist consultation. Most commonly it is caused by dental caries and differs in nature and in intensity according to the stage of disease: dentinitis, pulpitis, desmodontitis and dental abscess. Added to this is peridental pain and the pre- and post-operative pains related to these diseases. Almost all oral-maxillary pathology is painful, be it boney such as in osteomyelitis and fractures, mucosal in gingivo-stomatitis and aphthous ulcers, or tumourous. However, besides the "multidisciplinary" facial pains such as facial neuralgia and vascular pain, two pain syndromes are specific to stomatology: pain of the tempero-mandibular joint associated with problems of the bite and glossodynia, a very common somatic expression of psychological problems.

  8. [Oral contraception].

    PubMed

    Guillat, J C

    1980-04-20

    OC (oral contraception) includes the combined and sequential methods, postcoital and progestin only contraception, mini pills, and macro pills. The mechanism of action of OC modifies the hypothalamo-hypophysary secretion, the uterine mucosa, and the cervical mucus. Effectiveness of OC is nearly 100%; prescription of OC requires a complete clinical and biological evaluation of the patient. Contraindications to OC are any form of cancer, hypertension, vascular or thrombotic antecedents, obesity, tabagism, diabetes. OC users must be checked at least every 6 months, and treatment can last, if there are no evident signs of side effects, until about age 40. The most commonly known side effects of OC are menstruation disorders, cardio- and cerebrovascular effects, hepatic and metabolic effects; there is no evidence that OC can cause carcinogenic effects, but it can increase teratogenic risk. The association of OC with such drugs as Rifampicine, anticonvulsants and/or tranquillizers, can nullify contraceptive effectiveness. PMID:6900393

  9. Photoabsorption and photoionization cross sections of NH3, PH3, H2S, C2H2, and C2H4 in the VUV region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xia, T. J.; Chien, T. S.; Wu, C. Y. Robert; Judge, D. L.

    1991-01-01

    Using synchrotron radiation as a continuum light source, the photoabsorption and photoionization cross sections of NH3, PH3, H2S, C2H2, and C2H4 have been measured from their respective ionization thresholds to 1060 A. The vibrational constants associated with the nu(2) totally symmetric, out-of-plane bending vibration of the ground electronic state of PH3(+) have been obtained. The cross sections and quantum yields for producing neutral products through photoexcitation of these molecules in the given spectral regions have also been determined. In the present work, autoionization processes were found to be less important than dissociation and predissociation processes in NH3, PH3, and C2H4. Several experimental techniques have been employed in order to examine the various possible systematic errors critically.

  10. 77 FR 74283 - Clearing Requirement Determination Under Section 2(h) of the CEA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ...\\ Clearing Requirement Determination Under Section 2(h) of the CEA; Proposed Rule, 77 FR 47170 (Aug. 7, 2012... result of these failures, unprecedented governmental intervention was required to ensure the stability of... to Trade Under Section 2(h)(8) of the Commodity Exchange Act, 76 FR 77728 (Dec. 14, 2011)....

  11. SysZNF: the C2H2 zinc finger gene database.

    PubMed

    Ding, Guohui; Lorenz, Peter; Kreutzer, Michael; Li, Yixue; Thiesen, Hans-Juergen

    2009-01-01

    C2H2 zinc finger (C2H2-ZNF) genes are one of the largest and most complex gene super-families in metazoan genomes, with hundreds of members in the human and mouse genome. The ongoing investigation of this huge gene family requires computational support to catalog genotype phenotype comparisons of C2H2-ZNF genes between related species and finally to extend the worldwide knowledge on the evolution of C2H2-ZNF genes in general. Here, we systematically collected all the C2H2-ZNF genes in the human and mouse genome and constructed a database named SysZNF to deposit available datasets related to these genes. In the database, each C2H2-ZNF gene entry consists of physical location, gene model (including different transcript forms), Affymetrix gene expression probes, protein domain structures, homologs (and synteny between human and mouse), PubMed references as well as links to relevant public databases. The clustered organization of the C2H2-ZNF genes is highlighted. The database can be searched using text strings or sequence information. The data are also available for batch download from the web site. Moreover, the graphical gene model/protein view system, sequence retrieval system and some other tools embedded in SysZNF facilitate the research on the C2H2 type ZNF genes under an integrative view. The database can be accessed from the URL http://epgd.biosino.org/SysZNF.

  12. MICROWAVE SPECTRA AND GEOMETRIES OF C2H_{2\\cdots AgI} and C2H_{4\\cdots AgI}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Susanna L.; Tew, David Peter; Walker, Nick; Legon, Anthony

    2015-06-01

    A chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave spectrometer has been used to measure the microwave spectra of both C2H_{2\\cdots AgI} and C2H_{4\\cdots AgI}. These complexes are generated via laser ablation at 532 nm of a silver surface in the presence of CF3I and either C2H_{2} or C2H_{4} and argon and are stabilized by a supersonic expansion. Rotational (A0, B0, C0) and centrifugal distortion constants (ΔJ and ΔJK) of each molecule have been determined as well the nuclear electric quadrupole coupling constants the iodine atom (χaa(I) and χbb-χcc(I)). The spectrum of each molecule is consistent with a C2v structure in which the metal atom interacts with the π-orbital of the ethene or ethyne molecule. Isotopic substitutions of atoms within the C2H_{2} or C2H_{4} subunits are in progress and in conjunction with high level ab initio calculations will allow for accurate determination of the geometry of each molecule. These to complexes are put in the context of the recently studied H2S\\cdots AgI, OC\\cdotsAgI, H3N\\cdots AgI and (CH3)_{3N\\cdots AgI}. S.Z. Riaz, S.L. Stephens, W. Mizukami, D.P. Tew, N.R. Walker, A.C. Legon, Chem. Phys. Let., 531, 1-12 (2012) S.L. Stephens, W. Mizukami, D.P. Tew, N.R. Walker, A.C. Legon, J. Chem. Phys., 136(6), 064306 (2012) D.M. Bittner, D.P. Zaleski, S.L. Stephens, N.R. Walker, A.C. Legon, Study in progress.

  13. Experience with the high-intensity sweetener saccharin impairs glucose homeostasis and GLP-1 release in rats.

    PubMed

    Swithers, Susan E; Laboy, Alycia F; Clark, Kiely; Cooper, Stephanie; Davidson, T L

    2012-07-15

    Previous work from our lab has demonstrated that experience with high-intensity sweeteners in rats leads to increased food intake, body weight gain and adiposity, along with diminished caloric compensation and decreased thermic effect of food. These changes may occur as a result of interfering with learned relations between the sweet taste of food and the caloric or nutritive consequences of consuming those foods. The present experiments determined whether experience with the high-intensity sweetener saccharin versus the caloric sweetener glucose affected blood glucose homeostasis. The results demonstrated that during oral glucose tolerance tests, blood glucose levels were more elevated in animals that had previously consumed the saccharin-sweetened supplements. In contrast, during glucose tolerance tests when a glucose solution was delivered directly into the stomach, no differences in blood glucose levels between the groups were observed. Differences in oral glucose tolerance responses were not accompanied by differences in insulin release; insulin release was similar in animals previously exposed to saccharin and those previously exposed to glucose. However, release of GLP-1 in response to an oral glucose tolerance test, but not to glucose tolerance tests delivered by gavage, was significantly lower in saccharin-exposed animals compared to glucose-exposed animals. Differences in both blood glucose and GLP-1 release in saccharin animals were rapid and transient, and suggest that one mechanism by which exposure to high-intensity sweeteners that interfere with a predictive relation between sweet tastes and calories may impair energy balance is by suppressing GLP-1 release, which could alter glucose homeostasis and reduce satiety.

  14. Effect of glucose in mice after acute experimental poisoning with arsenic trioxide (As2O3).

    PubMed

    Reichl, F X; Szinicz, L; Kreppel, H; Fichtl, B; Forth, W

    1990-01-01

    Carbohydrate depletion (glucose and glycogen) was reported to be a major problem in acute arsenic poisoning. In the present paper the effectiveness of glucose substitution was investigated in mice after acute experimental poisoning with As2O3. Four groups of ten mice each received As2O3, 12.9 mg/kg, s.c. After the injection the first group remained without further treatment, the second received saline every 2 h, the third 5% glucose, and the fourth 5% glucose +0.12 IE insulin/kg i.p. Groups 5 and 6, five mice each, received either saline or glucose only. Group 7, five mice, remained without any treatment. Immediately after death the livers were removed for the enzymatic determination of glucose and glycogen. Mice receiving As2O3 only died within 22 h. The mean survival time was 12.4 h. In mice receiving As2O3 and after that saline, glucose, or glucose + insulin, an increase in the survival time to 30.8, 40.7, and 43.6 h, respectively, was observed. All mice which died showed a significant decrease in the liver glucose and glycogen content, compared to control animals. In livers of survivors, the glucose and glycogen content was not different to the control groups. The data support the assumption that carbohydrate depletion is an important factor in arsenic toxicity, and its substitution should be considered in the treatment of arsenic poisoning.

  15. Bi(OTf)3-catalyzed addition of isocyanides to 2H-chromene acetals: an efficient pathway for accessing 2-carboxamide-2H-chromenes.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Longyun; Jin, Ming Yu; He, Qijie; Xie, Han; Bian, Zhaoxiang; Wang, Jun

    2016-09-14

    Bismuth triflate (Bi(OTf)3) is identified as an efficient catalyst for the direct addition of isocyanides to 2H-chromene acetals. The large scope of isocyanides and chromene acetals makes them suitable substrates in this catalytic system. By this synthetic strategy, a polyfunctional molecular scaffold, 2-carboxamide-2H-chromenes could be prepared efficiently in one step up to 95% yield. In addition, this efficient and practical protocol proceeded smoothly in the gram scale even when the catalytic loading was reduced to 2 mol%. PMID:27503764

  16. The transcriptional regulator c2h2 accelerates mushroom formation in Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Pelkmans, Jordi F; Vos, Aurin M; Scholtmeijer, Karin; Hendrix, Ed; Baars, Johan J P; Gehrmann, Thies; Reinders, Marcel J T; Lugones, Luis G; Wösten, Han A B

    2016-08-01

    The Cys2His2 zinc finger protein gene c2h2 of Schizophyllum commune is involved in mushroom formation. Its inactivation results in a strain that is arrested at the stage of aggregate formation. In this study, the c2h2 orthologue of Agaricus bisporus was over-expressed in this white button mushroom forming basidiomycete using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Morphology, cap expansion rate, and total number and biomass of mushrooms were not affected by over-expression of c2h2. However, yield per day of the c2h2 over-expression strains peaked 1 day earlier. These data and expression analysis indicate that C2H2 impacts timing of mushroom formation at an early stage of development, making its encoding gene a target for breeding of commercial mushroom strains. PMID:27207144

  17. Amplitude Higgs mode in the 2H-NbSe2 superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méasson, M.-A.; Gallais, Y.; Cazayous, M.; Clair, B.; Rodière, P.; Cario, L.; Sacuto, A.

    2014-02-01

    We report experimental evidence for the observation of the superconducting amplitude mode, the so-called ``Higgs" mode, in the charge density wave superconductor 2H-NbSe2 using Raman scattering. By comparing 2H-NbSe2 and its isostructural partner 2H-NbS2 which shows superconductivity but lacks the charge density wave order, we demonstrate that the superconducting mode in 2H-NbSe2 owes its spectral weight to the presence of the coexisting charge density wave order. In addition, temperature dependent measurements in 2H-NbSe2 show a full spectral weight transfer from the charge density wave mode to the superconducting mode upon entering the superconducting phase. Both observations are fully consistent with a superconducting amplitude mode or Higgs mode.

  18. Breath Hydrogen as a Biomarker for Glucose Malabsorption after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Andalib, Iman; Shah, Hiral; Bal, Bikram S.; Shope, Timothy R.; Finelli, Frederick C.; Koch, Timothy R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Abdominal symptoms are common after bariatric surgery, and these individuals commonly have upper gut bacterial overgrowth, a known cause of malabsorption. Breath hydrogen determination after oral glucose is a safe and inexpensive test for malabsorption. This study is designed to investigate breath hydrogen levels after oral glucose in symptomatic individuals who had undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Methods. This is a retrospective study of individuals (n = 63; 60 females; 3 males; mean age 49 years) who had gastric bypass surgery and then glucose breath testing to evaluate abdominal symptoms. Results. Among 63 postoperative individuals, 51 (81%) had a late rise (≥45 minutes) in breath hydrogen or methane, supporting glucose malabsorption; 46 (90%) of these 51 subjects also had an early rise (≤30 minutes) in breath hydrogen or methane supporting upper gut bacterial overgrowth. Glucose malabsorption was more frequent in subjects with upper gut bacterial overgrowth compared to subjects with no evidence for bacterial overgrowth (P < 0.001). Conclusion. These data support the presence of intestinal glucose malabsorption associated with upper gut bacterial overgrowth in individuals with abdominal symptoms after gastric bypass surgery. Breath hydrogen testing after oral glucose should be considered to evaluate potential malabsorption in symptomatic, postoperative individuals. PMID:26538792

  19. Comparison of the effect of sorbitol and glucose on calcium absorption in postmenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, R.M.; Peacock, M.; Barkworth, S.A.; Marshall, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    It has been suggested that the oral administration of sorbitol promotes calcium absorption, while glucose has no effect. We have therefore compared the effect of oral sorbitol and glucose on the absorption of radiocalcium from low and high carrier loads in healthy postmenopausal women. In a control group of 20 women given neither sorbitol nor glucose, the mean +/- SEM fractional radiocalcium absorption rate from a low carrier load was 0.65 +/- 0.05 (fraction of dose/h). In a second group of 10 women the fractional absorption rate from the low carrier load was lower (p less than 0.05) with 10 g sorbitol (0.48 +/- 0.05) than with 10 g glucose (0.65 +/- 0.08). Fractional absorption of radiocalcium from a high carrier load measured in a third group of seven women using two isotopes (oral 45Ca, IV 47Ca) was also lower (p less than 0.001) with 10 g sorbitol (0.22 +/- 0.01, fraction/3 h) than with 10 g glucose (0.29 +/- 0.02). The results suggest that calcium absorption from a low carrier load is unaltered by glucose but that absorption of calcium from both low and high carrier loads is lower with sorbitol than with glucose.

  20. High-resolution solid-state 2H NMR spectroscopy of polymorphs of glycine.

    PubMed

    Aliev, Abil E; Mann, Sam E; Rahman, Aisha S; McMillan, Paul F; Corà, Furio; Iuga, Dinu; Hughes, Colan E; Harris, Kenneth D M

    2011-11-10

    High-resolution solid-state (2)H MAS NMR studies of the α and γ polymorphs of fully deuterated glycine (glycine-d(5)) are reported. Analysis of spinning sideband patterns is used to determine the (2)H quadrupole interaction parameters, and is shown to yield good agreement with the corresponding parameters determined from single-crystal (2)H NMR measurements (the maximum deviation in quadrupole coupling constants determined from these two approaches is only 1%). From analysis of simulated (2)H MAS NMR sideband patterns as a function of reorientational jump frequency (κ) for the -N(+)D(3) group in glycine-d(5), the experimentally observed differences in the (2)H MAS NMR spectrum for the -N(+)D(3) deutrons in the α and γ polymorphs is attributed to differences in the rate of reorientation of the -N(+)D(3) group. These simulations show severe broadening of the (2)H MAS NMR signal in the intermediate motion regime, suggesting that deuterons undergoing reorientational motions at rates in the range κ ≈ 10(4)-10(6) s(-1) are likely to be undetectable in (2)H MAS NMR measurements for materials with natural isotopic abundances. The (1)H NMR chemical shifts for the α and γ polymorphs of glycine have been determined from the (2)H MAS NMR results, taking into account the known second-order shift. Further quantum mechanical calculations of (2)H quadrupole interaction parameters and (1)H chemical shifts reveal the structural dependence of these parameters in the two polymorphs and suggest that the existence of two short intermolecular C-H···O contacts for one of the H atoms of the >CH(2) group in the α polymorph have a significant influence on the (2)H quadrupole coupling and (1)H chemical shift for this site. PMID:21939265

  1. Discovery and Rational Design of Natural-Product-Derived 2-Phenyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[f]chromen-3-amine Analogs as Novel and Potent Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 (DPP-4) Inhibitors for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Li, Shiliang; Xu, Hongling; Cui, Shichao; Wu, Fangshu; Zhang, Youli; Su, Mingbo; Gong, Yinghui; Qiu, Shaobing; Jiao, Qian; Qin, Chun; Shan, Jiwei; Zhang, Ming; Wang, Jiawei; Yin, Qiao; Xu, Minghao; Liu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Rui; Zhu, Lili; Li, Jia; Xu, Yufang; Jiang, Hualiang; Zhao, Zhenjiang; Li, Jingya; Li, Honglin

    2016-07-28

    Starting from the lead isodaphnetin, a natural product inhibitor of DPP-4 discovered through a target fishing docking based approach, a series of novel 2-phenyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[f]chromen-3-amine derivatives as potent DPP-4 inhibitors are rationally designed utilizing highly efficient 3D molecular similarity based scaffold hopping as well as electrostatic complementary methods. Those ingenious drug design strategies bring us approximate 7400-fold boost in potency. Compounds 22a and 24a are the most potent ones (IC50 ≈ 2.0 nM) with good pharmacokinetic profiles. Compound 22a demonstrated stable pharmacological effect. A 3 mg/kg oral dose provided >80% inhibition of DPP-4 activity within 24 h, which is comparable to the performance of the long-acting control omarigliptin. Moreover, the efficacy of 22a in improving the glucose tolerance is also comparable with omarigliptin. In this study, not only promising DPP-4 inhibitors as long acting antidiabetic that are clinically on demand are identified, but the target fish docking and medicinal chemistry strategies were successfully implemented.

  2. Glucose and Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ely, John T. A.

    2008-04-01

    When a human's enzymes attach glucose to proteins they do so at specific sites on a specific molecule for a specific purpose that also can include ascorbic acid (AA) at a high level such as 1 gram per hour during exposure. In an AA synthesizing animal the manifold increase of AA produced in response to illness is automatic. In contrast, the human non-enzymatic process adds glucose haphazardly to any number of sites along available peptide chains. As Cerami clarified decades ago, extensive crosslinking of proteins contributes to loss of elasticity in aging tissues. Ascorbic acid reduces the random non-enyzmatic glycation of proteins. Moreover, AA is a cofactor for hydroxylase enzymes that are necessary for the production and replacement of collagen and other structural proteins. We will discuss the relevance of ``aging is scurvy'' to the biochemistry of human aging.

  3. Synthesis of [.sup.13C] and [.sup.2H] substituted methacrylic acid, [.sup.13C] and [.sup.2H] substituted methyl methacrylate and/or related compounds

    DOEpatents

    Alvarez, Marc A.; Martinez, Rodolfo A.; Unkefer, Clifford J.

    2008-01-22

    The present invention is directed to labeled compounds of the formulae ##STR00001## wherein Q is selected from the group consisting of --S--, --S(.dbd.O)--, and --S(.dbd.O).sub.2--, Z is selected from the group consisting of 1-naphthyl, substituted 1-naphthyl, 2-naphthyl, substituted 2-naphthyl, and phenyl groups with the structure ##STR00002## wherein R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4 and R.sub.5 are each independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a C.sub.1-C.sub.4 lower alkyl, a halogen, and an amino group selected from the group consisting of NH.sub.2, NHR and NRR' where R and R' are each independently selected from the group consisting of a C.sub.1-C.sub.4 lower alkyl, an aryl, and an alkoxy group, and X is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a C.sub.1-C.sub.4 lower alkyl group, and a fully-deuterated C.sub.1-C.sub.4 lower alkyl group. The present invention is also directed to a process of preparing labeled compounds, e.g., process of preparing [.sup.13C]methacrylic acid by reacting a (CH.sub.3CH.sub.2O--.sup.13C(O)--.sup.13CH.sub.2)-- aryl sulfone precursor with .sup.13CHI to form a (CH.sub.3CH.sub.2O--.sup.13C(O)--.sup.13C(.sup.13CH.sub.3).sub.2)-- aryl sulfone intermediate, and, reacting the (CH.sub.3CH.sub.2O--.sup.13C(O)--.sup.13C(.sup.13CH.sub.3).sub.2)-- aryl sulfone intermediate with sodium hydroxide, followed by acid to form [.sup.13C]methacrylic acid. The present invention is further directed to a process of preparing [.sup.2H.sub.8]methyl methacrylate by reacting a (HOOC--C(C.sup.2H.sub.3).sub.2-- aryl sulfinyl intermediate with CD.sub.3I to form a (.sup.2H.sub.3COOC--C(C.sup.2H.sub.3).sub.2)-- aryl sulfinyl intermediate, and heating the(.sup.2H.sub.3COOC--C(C.sup.2H.sub.3).sub.2)-- aryl sulfinyl intermediate at temperatures and for time sufficient to form [.sup.2H.sub.8]methyl methacrylate.

  4. Saturn's latitudinal C 2H 2 and C 2H 6 abundance profiles from Cassini/CIRS and ground-based observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesman, Brigette E.; Jennings, Donald E.; Sada, Pedro V.; Bjoraker, Gordon L.; Achterberg, Richard K.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Anderson, Carrie M.; Boyle, Robert J.; Nixon, Conor A.; Fletcher, Leigh N.; McCabe, George H.

    2009-07-01

    Hydrocarbons in the upper atmosphere of Saturn are known, from Voyager, ground-based, and early Cassini results, to vary in emission intensity with latitude. Of particular interest is the marked increase in hydrocarbon line intensity near the south pole during southern summer, as the increased line intensity cannot be simply explained by the increased temperatures observed in that region since the variations between C2H2 and C2H6 emission in the south pole region are different. In order to measure the latitudinal variations of hydrocarbons in Saturn's southern hemisphere we have used 3 cm-1 resolution Cassini CIRS data from 2006 and combined this with measurements from the ground in October 2006 at NASA's IRTF using Celeste, an infrared high-resolution cryogenic grating spectrometer. These two data sets have been used to infer the molecular abundances of C2H2 and C2H6 across the southern hemisphere in the 1-10 mbar altitude region. We find that the latitudinal acetylene profile follows the yearly average mean daily insolation except at the southern pole where it peaks in abundance. Near the equator (5° S) the C2H2 abundance at the 1.2 mbar level is (1.6 ± 0.19) ×10-7 and it decreases by a factor of 2.7 from the equator toward the pole. However, at the pole (∼87° S) the C2H2 abundance jumps to (1.8 ± 0.3) ×10-7, approximately the equatorial value. The C2H6 abundance near the equator at the 2 mbar level is (0.7 ± 0.1) ×10-5 and stays approximately constant until mid-latitudes where it increases gradually toward the pole, attaining a value of (1.4 ± 0.4) ×10-5 there. The increase in ethane toward the pole with the corresponding decrease in acetylene is consistent with southern hemisphere meridional winds [Greathouse, T.K., Lacy, J.H., Bézard, B., Moses, J.I., Griffith, C.A., Richter, M.J., 2005. Icarus 177, 18-31]. The localized increase in acetylene at the pole provides evidence that there is dynamical transport of hydrocarbons from the equator to the

  5. Structural reassignment, absolute configuration, and conformation of hypurticin, a highly flexible polyacyloxy-6-heptenyl-5,6-dihydro-2H-pyran-2-one.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Espinoza, José Alberto; López-Vallejo, Fabian; Fragoso-Serrano, Mabel; Pereda-Miranda, Rogelio; Cerda-García-Rojas, Carlos M

    2009-04-01

    The structural reassignment, absolute configuration, and conformational behavior of the highly flexible natural product hypurticin (pectinolide E), 6S-[3'S,5'R,6'S-triacetoxy-1Z-heptenyl]-5S-acetoxy-5,6-dihydro-2H-pyran-2-one (1), were ascertained by a molecular modeling protocol, which includes extensive conformational searching, geometry optimization by DFT B3LYP/DGDZVP calculations, and comparison between the theoretical (DFT) and experimental (1)H-(1)H NMR coupling constants. Hyptolide (2), a related cytotoxic 5,6-dihydro-2H-pyran-2-one that increased the S phase of the HeLa cell cycle, was employed as a reference substance to validate the theoretical protocol designed to characterize the 3D properties of compound 1. The related synthetic derivative, tri-O-acetyl-3,6-dideoxy-d-glucose diphenyldithioacetal (14), was prepared by a six-step reaction sequence starting from d-glucose and served as an enantiopure building block to reinforce the structural and configurational assignment of 1. This protocol proved to be an important tool for the structural characterization of highly flexible bioactive polyoxygenated natural products. PMID:19265396

  6. Chromatin remodeling enzyme Snf2h regulates embryonic lens differentiation and denucleation.

    PubMed

    He, Shuying; Limi, Saima; McGreal, Rebecca S; Xie, Qing; Brennan, Lisa A; Kantorow, Wanda Lee; Kokavec, Juraj; Majumdar, Romit; Hou, Harry; Edelmann, Winfried; Liu, Wei; Ashery-Padan, Ruth; Zavadil, Jiri; Kantorow, Marc; Skoultchi, Arthur I; Stopka, Tomas; Cvekl, Ales

    2016-06-01

    Ocular lens morphogenesis is a model for investigating mechanisms of cellular differentiation, spatial and temporal gene expression control, and chromatin regulation. Brg1 (Smarca4) and Snf2h (Smarca5) are catalytic subunits of distinct ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes implicated in transcriptional regulation. Previous studies have shown that Brg1 regulates both lens fiber cell differentiation and organized degradation of their nuclei (denucleation). Here, we employed a conditional Snf2h(flox) mouse model to probe the cellular and molecular mechanisms of lens formation. Depletion of Snf2h induces premature and expanded differentiation of lens precursor cells forming the lens vesicle, implicating Snf2h as a key regulator of lens vesicle polarity through spatial control of Prox1, Jag1, p27(Kip1) (Cdkn1b) and p57(Kip2) (Cdkn1c) gene expression. The abnormal Snf2h(-/-) fiber cells also retain their nuclei. RNA profiling of Snf2h(-/) (-) and Brg1(-/-) eyes revealed differences in multiple transcripts, including prominent downregulation of those encoding Hsf4 and DNase IIβ, which are implicated in the denucleation process. In summary, our data suggest that Snf2h is essential for the establishment of lens vesicle polarity, partitioning of prospective lens epithelial and fiber cell compartments, lens fiber cell differentiation, and lens fiber cell nuclear degradation. PMID:27246713

  7. New determination of the {sup 2}H(d,p){sup 3}H and {sup 2}H(d,n){sup 3}He reaction rates at astrophysical energies

    SciTech Connect

    Tumino, A.; Spartà, R.; Spitaleri, C.; Pizzone, R. G.; La Cognata, M.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M. L.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Typel, S.; Tognelli, E.; Degl'Innocenti, S.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Burjan, V.; Kroha, V.; Hons, Z.; Mrazek, J.; Piskor, S.; Lamia, L.

    2014-04-20

    The cross sections of the {sup 2}H(d,p){sup 3}H and {sup 2}H(d,n){sup 3}He reactions have been measured via the Trojan Horse method applied to the quasi-free {sup 2}H({sup 3}He,p {sup 3}H){sup 1}H and {sup 2}H({sup 3}He,n {sup 3}He){sup 1}H processes at 18 MeV off the proton in {sup 3}He. For the first time, the bare nucleus S(E) factors have been determined from 1.5 MeV, across the relevant region for standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis, down to the thermal energies of deuterium burning in the pre-main-sequence (PMS) phase of stellar evolution, as well as of future fusion reactors. Both the energy dependence and the absolute value of the S(E) factors deviate by more than 15% from the available direct data and existing fitting curves, with substantial variations in the electron screening by more than 50%. As a consequence, the reaction rates for astrophysics experience relevant changes, with a maximum increase of up to 20% at the temperatures of the PMS phase. From a recent primordial abundance sensitivity study, it turns out that the {sup 2}H(d,n){sup 3}He reaction is quite influential on {sup 7}Li, and the present change in the reaction rate leads to a decrease in its abundance by up to 10%. The present reaction rates have also been included in an updated version of the FRANEC evolutionary code to analyze their influence on the central deuterium abundance in PMS stars with different masses. The largest variation of about 10%-15% pertains to young stars (≤1 Myr) with masses ≥1 M {sub ☉}.

  8. Appearance of Novel Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Isoforms in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii during Growth on Nitrate.

    PubMed Central

    Huppe, H. C.; Turpin, D. H.

    1996-01-01

    Extractable glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity is higher from N-limited Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells than from N-sufficient cells. Native gels reveal that the isoform complexity varies depending on the form of N supplied. The isoforms associated with NO3- growth appear within 2 h of switching cells from NH4+ to NO3-. PMID:12226271

  9. 14C2H4: Its Incorporation and Metabolism by Pea Seedlings under Aseptic Conditions 1

    PubMed Central

    Beyer, Elmo M.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of various treatments on the recently reported system in pea (Pisum sativum cv. Alaska), which results in (a) the incorporation of 14C2H4 into the tissue and (b) the conversion of 14C2H4 to 14CO2, was investigated using 2-day-old etiolated seedlings which exhibit a maximum response. Heat treatment (80 C, 1 min) completely inhibited both a and b, whereas homogenization completely inhibited b but only partially inhibited a. Detaching the cotyledons from the root-shoot axis immediately before exposing the detached cotyledons together with the root-shoot axis to 14C2H4 markedly reduced both a and b. Increasing the 14C2H4 concentration from 0.14 to over 100 μl/l progressively increased the rate of a and b with tissue incorporation being greater than 14C2H4 to 14CO2 conversion only below 0.3 μl/l 14C2H4. Reduction of the O2 concentration reduced both a and b, with over 99% inhibition occurring under anaerobic conditions. The addition of CO2 (5%) severely inhibited 14C2H4 to 14CO2 conversion without significantly affecting tissue incorporation. Exposure of etiolated seedlings to fluorescent light during 14C2H4 treatment was without effect. Similarly, indoleacetic acid, gibberellic acid, benzyladenine, abscisic acid, and dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate had no significant effect on either a or b. The possibilities that the incorporation of 14C2H4 into pea tissues and its conversion to 14CO2 is linked to ethylene action, or that it represents a means of reducing the endogenous ethylene level, are discussed. Several problems encountered with the use of polyethylene vials, rubber serum stoppers, Clorox, and microbial contamination are also described. Images PMID:16659286

  10. C(2)H(4): Its Incorporation and Metabolism by Pea Seedlings under Aseptic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Beyer, E M

    1975-08-01

    The effects of various treatments on the recently reported system in pea (Pisum sativum cv. Alaska), which results in (a) the incorporation of (14)C(2)H(4) into the tissue and (b) the conversion of (14)C(2)H(4) to (14)CO(2), was investigated using 2-day-old etiolated seedlings which exhibit a maximum response. Heat treatment (80 C, 1 min) completely inhibited both a and b, whereas homogenization completely inhibited b but only partially inhibited a. Detaching the cotyledons from the root-shoot axis immediately before exposing the detached cotyledons together with the root-shoot axis to (14)C(2)H(4) markedly reduced both a and b. Increasing the (14)C(2)H(4) concentration from 0.14 to over 100 mul/l progressively increased the rate of a and b with tissue incorporation being greater than (14)C(2)H(4) to (14)CO(2) conversion only below 0.3 mul/l (14)C(2)H(4). Reduction of the O(2) concentration reduced both a and b, with over 99% inhibition occurring under anaerobic conditions. The addition of CO(2) (5%) severely inhibited (14)C(2)H(4) to (14)CO(2) conversion without significantly affecting tissue incorporation. Exposure of etiolated seedlings to fluorescent light during (14)C(2)H(4) treatment was without effect. Similarly, indoleacetic acid, gibberellic acid, benzyladenine, abscisic acid, and dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate had no significant effect on either a or b.The possibilities that the incorporation of (14)C(2)H(4) into pea tissues and its conversion to (14)CO(2) is linked to ethylene action, or that it represents a means of reducing the endogenous ethylene level, are discussed.Several problems encountered with the use of polyethylene vials, rubber serum stoppers, Clorox, and microbial contamination are also described. PMID:16659286

  11. First Clinical Evaluation of a New Percutaneous Optical Fiber Glucose Sensor for Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Achim Josef; Knuth, Monika; Nikolaus, Katharina Sibylle; Krivánek, Roland; Küster, Frank; Hasslacher, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Background This article describes a new fiber-coupled, percutaneous fluorescent continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) system that has shown 14 days of functionality in a human clinical trial. Method The new optical CGM system (FiberSense) consists of a transdermal polymer optical fiber containing a biochemical glucose sensor and a small fluorescence photometer optically coupled to the fiber. The glucose-sensitive optical fiber was implanted in abdominal and upper-arm subcutaneous tissue of six diabetes patients and remained there for up to 14 days. The performance of the system was monitored during six visits to the study center during the trial. Blood glucose changes were induced by oral carbohydrate intake and insulin injections, and capillary blood glucose samples were obtained from the finger tip. The data were analyzed using linear regression and the consensus error grid analysis. Results The FiberSense worn at the upper arm exhibited excellent results during 14 wearing days, with an overall mean absolute relative difference (MARD) of 8.3% and 94.6% of the data in zone A of the consensus error grid. At the abdominal application site, FiberSense resulted in a MARD of 11.4 %, with 93.8% of the data in zone A. Conclusions The FiberSense CGM system provided consistent, reliable measurements of subcutaneous glucose levels in human clinical trial patients with diabetes for up to 14 days. PMID:23439156

  12. The metabolic impact of oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Krauss, R M; Burkman, R T

    1992-10-01

    The hormonal components of oral contraceptives exert major effects on plasma lipoprotein metabolism. Estrogens may increase production of plasma triglycerides, leading to increased levels of very low-density lipoproteins, but they may also reduce levels of cholesterol-enriched and potentially atherogenic intermediate- and low-density lipoproteins. Furthermore, estrogens increase levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs), particularly the HDL2 subspecies, an effect linked to reduced mortality rates from cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women receiving hormone replacement therapy. All combination oral contraceptives in use in the United States tend to raise levels of plasma triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, and HDL3 to varying degrees. In contrast, changes in HDL and HDL2 reflect the combined effects of estrogen dose and relative androgenicity of the progestin component. Although in general, the lipoprotein changes are greater in magnitude with higher dose oral contraceptive preparations, they can be significant in lower dose preparations as well. Oral contraceptives also affect carbohydrate metabolism, primarily through the activity of progestin. Studies have demonstrated insulin resistance, rises in plasma insulin, and relative glucose intolerance by means of curve analysis of glucose tolerance tests. These effects are far less pronounced with lower dose preparations and with formulations using the newer progestins.

  13. Kinetic Resolution of 2H-Azirines by Asymmetric Imine Amidation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Haipeng; Liu, Yangbin; Lin, Lili; Zhang, Yuheng; Liu, Xiaohua; Feng, Xiaoming

    2016-08-16

    Highly efficient kinetic resolution of 2H-azirines by an asymmetric imine amidation was achieved in the presence of a chiral N,N'-dioxide/Sc(III) complex, thus providing a promising method to obtain the enantioenriched 2H-azirine derivatives and protecting-group free aziridines at the same time. It is rare to find an example of N1 of an oxindole participating in a reaction over C3. Moreover, chiral 2H-azirines were stereospecifically transformed into an unprotected aziridine and α-amino ketone. PMID:27384910

  14. Relative high-resolution absorption cross sections of C2H6 at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargreaves, R. J.; Bernath, P. F.; Appadoo, D. R. T.

    2015-09-01

    Synchrotron radiation has been used to record absorption cross sections of ethane, C2H6, in the far-infrared with very high spectral resolution (up to 0.00096 cm-1). C2H6 is present in the atmospheres of the Gas Giant planets and Titan but the vapor pressure at relevant atmospheric temperatures (i.e., between 70 and 200 K) is low. This makes laboratory measurements difficult. We demonstrate the effectiveness of a unique "enclosive flow" cold cell, located at the Australian Synchrotron, that enables high-resolution absorption cross sections of gaseous C2H6 to be recorded at 90 K.

  15. Homotopy Algorithm for Fixed Order Mixed H2/H(infinity) Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whorton, Mark; Buschek, Harald; Calise, Anthony J.

    1996-01-01

    Recent developments in the field of robust multivariable control have merged the theories of H-infinity and H-2 control. This mixed H-2/H-infinity compensator formulation allows design for nominal performance by H-2 norm minimization while guaranteeing robust stability to unstructured uncertainties by constraining the H-infinity norm. A key difficulty associated with mixed H-2/H-infinity compensation is compensator synthesis. A homotopy algorithm is presented for synthesis of fixed order mixed H-2/H-infinity compensators. Numerical results are presented for a four disk flexible structure to evaluate the efficiency of the algorithm.

  16. A practical way to synthesize chiral fluoro-containing polyhydro-2H-chromenes from monoterpenoids

    PubMed Central

    Mikhalchenko, Oksana S; Korchagina, Dina V; Salakhutdinov, Nariman F

    2016-01-01

    Summary Conditions enabling the single-step preparative synthesis of chiral 4-fluoropolyhydro-2H-chromenes in good yields through a reaction between monoterpenoid alcohols with para-menthane skeleton and aldehydes were developed for the first time. The BF3·Et2O/H2O system is used both as a catalyst and as a fluorine source. The reaction can involve aliphatic aldehydes as well as aromatic aldehydes containing various acceptor and donor substituents. 4-Hydroxyhexahydro-2H-chromenes were demonstrated to be capable of converting to 4-fluorohexahydro-2H-chromenes under the developed conditions, the reaction occurs with inversion of configuration. PMID:27340456

  17. Determination of the delta(2H/1H)of Water: RSIL Lab Code 1574

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Revesz, Kinga; Coplen, Tyler B.

    2008-01-01

    Reston Stable Isotope Laboratory (RSIL) lab code 1574 describes a method used to determine the relative hydrogen isotope-ratio delta(2H,1H), abbreviated hereafter as d2H of water. The d2H measurement of water also is a component of the National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) schedules 1142 and 1172. The water is collected unfiltered in a 60-mL glass bottle and capped with a Polyseal cap. In the laboratory, the water sample is equilibrated with gaseous hydrogen using a platinum catalyst (Horita, 1988; Horita and others, 1989; Coplen and others, 1991). The reaction for the exchange of one hydrogen atom is shown in equation 1.

  18. A practical way to synthesize chiral fluoro-containing polyhydro-2H-chromenes from monoterpenoids.

    PubMed

    Mikhalchenko, Oksana S; Korchagina, Dina V; Volcho, Konstantin P; Salakhutdinov, Nariman F

    2016-01-01

    Conditions enabling the single-step preparative synthesis of chiral 4-fluoropolyhydro-2H-chromenes in good yields through a reaction between monoterpenoid alcohols with para-menthane skeleton and aldehydes were developed for the first time. The BF3·Et2O/H2O system is used both as a catalyst and as a fluorine source. The reaction can involve aliphatic aldehydes as well as aromatic aldehydes containing various acceptor and donor substituents. 4-Hydroxyhexahydro-2H-chromenes were demonstrated to be capable of converting to 4-fluorohexahydro-2H-chromenes under the developed conditions, the reaction occurs with inversion of configuration. PMID:27340456

  19. Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Healthy Men Treated with St. John's Wort.

    PubMed

    Stage, Tore Bjerregaard; Damkier, Per; Christensen, Mette Marie Hougaard; Nielsen, Lene Buch-Krogh; Højlund, Kurt; Brøsen, Kim

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the over-the-counter herbal medicinal plant St. John's wort affects glucose tolerance in healthy men. To do this, we included 10 healthy men who were examined by a 2-hr oral glucose tolerance test on three occasions: A: baseline; B: after 21 days of treatment with St. John's wort; and C: at least 6 weeks after the last capsule of St. John's wort was ingested. Plasma glucose, serum insulin and C-peptide levels were measured during an oral glucose tolerance test and used for estimation of area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) as well as indices of insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion. We found that treatment with St. John's wort increased total and incremental glucose AUC and 2-hr plasma glucose levels. Surprisingly, this effect was sustained and even further increased 6 weeks after the last capsule of St. John's wort was taken. No effect on indices of insulin sensitivity was seen, but indices of insulin secretion were reduced even after adjustment for insulin sensitivity. In conclusion, this study indicates that long-term treatment with St. John's wort may impair glucose tolerance by reducing insulin secretion in young, healthy men. The unregulated use of this over-the-counter drug might be a risk factor for impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes.

  20. Low glucokinase activity and high rates of gluconeogenesis contribute to hyperglycemia in barn owls (Tyto alba) after a glucose challenge.

    PubMed

    Myers, M R; Klasing, K C

    1999-10-01

    Barn owls (Tyto alba) and leghorn chickens were fed a low protein high glucose (33.44% protein, 23.67% glucose) or a high protein low glucose (55.35% protein, 1.5% glucose) diet. After an intravenous glucose infusion, the peak in plasma glucose was not affected by diet in either species and was 22.6 and 39.4 mmol/L in chickens and barn owls, respectively. Glucose levels returned to normal within 30 min in chickens, but remained elevated for 3.5 h in barn owls. An oral glucose challenge also resulted in greater and longer hyperglycemia in barn owls than in chickens. The activities of hepatic glucokinase, malic enzyme and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase of barn owls were 16, 35, and 333% of the levels in chickens. Malic enzyme (P = 0.024) was less affected by dietary glucose level in barn owls than in chickens. Cultured hepatocytes from chickens produced 43% more glucose from lactate than hepatocytes from barn owls and, conversely, barn owl hepatocytes produced 87% more glucose from threonine than chickens (P = 0.001). Gluconeogenesis from lactate was greatly suppressed by high media glucose in chicken hepatocytes but not in those of barn owls (P = 0.0001 for species by glucose level interaction). When threonine was the substrate, gluconeogenesis was suppressed by increased glucose in both species but to a greater relative extent in chickens (P = 0.007 for species by glucose level interaction). Owls were glucose intolerant at least in part because of low hepatic glucokinase activity and an inadequate suppression of gluconeogenesis in the presence of exogenous glucose, apparently because they evolved with large excesses of amino acids and limited glucose in their normal diet. PMID:10498765

  1. Effect of amiloride, or amiloride plus hydrochlorothiazide, versus hydrochlorothiazide on glucose tolerance and blood pressure (PATHWAY-3): a parallel-group, double-blind randomised phase 4 trial

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Morris J; Williams, Bryan; Morant, Steve V; Webb, David J; Caulfield, Mark J; Cruickshank, J Kennedy; Ford, Ian; McInnes, Gordon; Sever, Peter; Salsbury, Jackie; Mackenzie, Isla S; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; MacDonald, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Potassium depletion by thiazide diuretics is associated with a rise in blood glucose. We assessed whether addition or substitution of a potassium-sparing diuretic, amiloride, to treatment with a thiazide can prevent glucose intolerance and improve blood pressure control. Methods We did a parallel-group, randomised, double-blind trial in 11 secondary and two primary care sites in the UK. Eligible patients were aged 18–80 years; had clinic systolic blood pressure of 140 mm Hg or higher and home systolic blood pressure of 130 mmHg or higher on permitted background drugs of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers, β blockers, calcium-channel blockers, or direct renin inhibitors (previously untreated patients were also eligible in specific circumstances); and had at least one component of the metabolic syndrome in addition to hypertension. Patients with known diabetes were excluded. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to 24 weeks of daily oral treatment with starting doses of 10 mg amiloride, 25 mg hydrochlorothiazide, or 5 mg amiloride plus 12·5 mg hydrochlorothiazide; all doses were doubled after 12 weeks. Random assignment was done via a central computer system. Both participants and investigators were masked to assignment. Our hierarchical primary endpoints, assessed on a modified intention-to-treat basis at 12 and 24 weeks, were the differences from baseline in blood glucose measured 2 h after a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), compared first between the hydrochlorothiazide and amiloride groups, and then between the hydrochlorothiazide and combination groups. A key secondary endpoint was change in home systolic blood pressure at 12 and 24 weeks. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00797862, and the MHRA, Eudract number 2009-010068-41, and is now complete. Findings Between Nov 18, 2009, and Dec 15, 2014, 145 patients were randomly assigned to amiloride, 146 to

  2. High Blood Glucose Levels Correlate with Tumor Malignancy in Colorectal Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Ge; Zhang, Ting; Ren, Fan; Feng, Wen-Ming; Yao, Yunliang; Cui, Jie; Zhu, Guo-Liang; Shi, Qi-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Background Research shows that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) affects the risk and prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Here, we conducted a retrospective study to investigate whether the clinicopathological features of CRC patients correlate with their blood glucose levels. Material/Methods We enrolled 391 CRC patients hospitalized in our center between 2008 and 2013. Data of their first fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2-h postprandial glucose (2hPPG) level after admission, their clinicopathological features, and survival were collected. The correlations between blood glucose level and clinicopathological features were analyzed by Pearson chi-square analysis. Patient survival was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier and Cox-regression analysis. Results There were 116 out of the 391 CRC patients who had high blood glucose level (H-G group, 29.67%), among which 58 (14.83%), 18 (4.60%), and 40 (10.23%) were diabetes mellitus (DM), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and impaired fasting glucose (IFG), respectively, while 275 (70.33%) patients had normal glucose level (N-G group). Compared with the N-G group, patients in the H-G group had larger tumor diameters and lower tumor differentiation (p<0.05). A higher ratio of patients in the H-G group also had more advanced TNM staging and more ulcerative CRC gross type (p<0.05). No significant difference was observed in patient overall survival among different glucose groups. No effect of insulin therapy on CRC development and patient survival was observed. Conclusions Blood glucose level in CRC patients correlates significantly with local tumor malignancy, but no significant effect on distant metastasis and patient overall survival was observed. PMID:26644185

  3. Nutrient Excess and AMPK Downregulation in Incubated Skeletal Muscle and Muscle of Glucose Infused Rats

    PubMed Central

    Valentine, Rudy J.; Petrocelli, Robert; Schultz, Vera; Brandon, Amanda; Cooney, Gregory J.; Kraegen, Edward W.; Ruderman, Neil B.; Saha, Asish K.

    2015-01-01

    We have previously shown that incubation for 1h with excess glucose or leucine causes insulin resistance in rat extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle by inhibiting AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). To examine the events that precede and follow these changes, studies were performed in rat EDL incubated with elevated levels of glucose or leucine for 30min-2h. Incubation in high glucose (25mM) or leucine (100μM) significantly diminished AMPK activity by 50% within 30min, with further decreases occurring at 1 and 2h. The initial decrease in activity at 30min coincided with a significant increase in muscle glycogen. The subsequent decreases at 1h were accompanied by phosphorylation of αAMPK at Ser485/491, and at 2h by decreased SIRT1 expression and increased PP2A activity, all of which have previously been shown to diminish AMPK activity. Glucose infusion in vivo, which caused several fold increases in plasma glucose and insulin, produced similar changes but with different timing. Thus, the initial decrease in AMPK activity observed at 3h was associated with changes in Ser485/491 phosphorylation and SIRT1 expression and increased PP2A activity was a later event. These findings suggest that both ex vivo and in vivo, multiple factors contribute to fuel-induced decreases in AMPK activity in skeletal muscle and the insulin resistance that accompanies it. PMID:25996822

  4. Population screening for glucose intolerant subjects using decision tree analyses.

    PubMed

    Barriga, K J; Hamman, R F; Hoag, S; Marshall, J A; Shetterly, S M

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a method of screening for impaired glucose tolerance and previously undiagnosed NIDDM that could be used preliminary to the administration of an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) for final classification of glucose tolerance status. The purpose of a preliminary screening of this type would be to reduce the number of OGTT's needed to identify cases of IGT and NIDDM in the population. We used NIDDM risk indicators and decision tree analysis methods (CART software) to identify subgroups of the population at increased risk. We examined a population of Hispanic (n = 583) and non-Hispanic white (n = 768) subjects without a prior history of diabetes. Subjects were classified as normal, IGT or NIDDM (WHO criteria) based on results from a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Sensitivity (SEN) and specificity (SPE) of the CART models were calculated using the OGTT as the 'gold standard.' Two approaches to screening were simulated. In the simultaneous approach all risk variables were entered into CART models at once. In the serial approach, risk variables were grouped according to degree of effort required for data collection, and were entered into CART models in stages. Fasting glucose, age and body mass index (BMI) were selected as risk variables by CART when simulating the simultaneous approach (SEN = 91%, SPE = 55%). In the serial approach, CART used age and BMI to eliminate 35% of the population from further screening, and then used fasting glucose, glycohemoglobin, age and BMI to classify the remaining higher risk subjects (SEN = 85%, SPE = 64%). These models suggest that screening for IGT and previously undiagnosed NIDDM can be based on measurement of relatively simple indicators, and yet maintain a level of both sensitivity and specificity acceptable for this type of preliminary screening. PMID:9015666

  5. Alcohol Chemistry: Tentative Detections of Two New Interstellar Big Molecules CH_3OC_2H_5 and (C_2H_5)_2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuan, Y.-J.; Charnley, S. B.; Wilson, T. L.; Ohishi, M.; Huang, H.-C.; Snyder, L. E.

    1999-05-01

    Recent modeling of gas-grain chemistry demonstrated that many of the organic species are not the products of grain-surface reactions but are in fact synthesized in the warm gas from simpler species produced on grains. To test gas-grain chemistry, in particular alcohol chemistry, we have thus searched for (C_2H_5)_2O (diethyl ether) and CH_3OC_2H_5 (methyl ethyl ether), using the NRAO 12-m, in the giant molecular cloud cores Sgr B2(N), W51 e1/e2 and Orion-KL, where alcohols have been evaporated from ice mantles. In addition, we have also used the BIMA array to observe the 3-mm transitions of the two molecules toward Sgr B2. The preliminary 12-m results indicate clean detections of various line transitions of the two molecular species in the 1-mm, 2-mm and 3-mm regimes in all 3 molecular cloud cores. Furthermore our BIMA maps show a clear concentration of CH_3OH toward Sgr B2(N), the Large Molecule Heimat; sole detections of CH_3OC_2H_5 and (C_2H_5)_2O toward Sgr B2(N), instead of the more evolved Sgr B2(M), are also observed unambiguously as predicted by alcohol chemistry. Our detections of the two complex molecules not only further confirm the gas-grain chemistry but also require specifically that methanol (CH_3OH) and ethanol (C_2H_5OH) to be formed in grain mantles. In addition, the detections of diethyl ether and methyl ethyl ether lead to the discovery of two new molecules, including the largest ever, (C_2H_5)_2O. This work was partially supported by: NSC grants 87-2112-M-003-007 and 88-2112-M-003-013 of Taiwan, National Taiwan Normal University, Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, NSF AST 96-13999, the University of Illinois, and NASA's Exobiology Program.

  6. (2) H and (139) La NMR Spectroscopy in Aqueous Solutions at Geochemical Pressures.

    PubMed

    Ochoa, Gerardo; Pilgrim, Corey D; Martin, Michele N; Colla, Christopher A; Klavins, Peter; Augustine, Matthew P; Casey, William H

    2015-12-14

    Nuclear spin relaxation rates of (2) H and (139) La in LaCl3 +(2) H2 O and La(ClO4 )3 +(2) H2 O solutions were determined as a function of pressure in order to demonstrate a new NMR probe designed for solution spectroscopy at geochemical pressures. The (2) H longitudinal relaxation rates (T1 ) vary linearly to 1.6 GPa, consistent with previous work at lower pressures. The (139) La T1 values vary both with solution chemistry and pressure, but converge with pressure, suggesting that the combined effects of increased viscosity and enhanced rates of ligand exchange control relaxation. This simple NMR probe design allows experiments on aqueous solutions to pressures corresponding roughly to those at the base of the Earth's continental crust. PMID:26404025

  7. Epitaxial growth and electronic structure of oxyhydride SrVO2H thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Tsukasa; Chikamatsu, Akira; Yamada, Keisuke; Shigematsu, Kei; Onozuka, Tomoya; Minohara, Makoto; Kumigashira, Hiroshi; Ikenaga, Eiji; Hasegawa, Tetsuya

    2016-08-01

    Oxyhydride SrVO2H epitaxial thin films were fabricated on SrTiO3 substrates via topotactic hydridation of oxide SrVO3 films using CaH2. Structural and composition analyses suggested that the SrVO2H film possessed one-dimensionally ordered V-H--V bonds along the out-of-plane direction. The synthesis temperature could be lowered by reducing the film thickness, and the SrVO2H film was reversible to SrVO3 by oxidation through annealing in air. Photoemission and X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements revealed the V3+ valence state in the SrVO2H film, indicating that the hydrogen existed as hydride. Furthermore, the electronic density of states was highly suppressed at the Fermi energy, consistent with the prediction that tetragonal distortion induces metal to insulation transition.

  8. Infrared and Ultraviolet Spectra of Diborane(6): B2H6 and B2D6.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yu-Chain; Chou, Sheng-Lung; Lo, Jen-Iu; Lin, Meng-Yeh; Lu, Hsiao-Chi; Cheng, Bing-Ming; Ogilvie, J F

    2016-07-21

    We recorded absorption spectra of diborane(6), B2H6 and B2D6, dispersed in solid neon near 4 K in both mid-infrared and ultraviolet regions. For gaseous B2H6 from 105 to 300 nm, we report quantitative absolute cross sections; for solid B2H6 and for B2H6 dispersed in solid neon, we measured ultraviolet absorbance with relative intensities over a wide range. To assign the mid-infrared spectra to specific isotopic variants, we applied the abundance of (11)B and (10)B in natural proportions; we undertook quantum-chemical calculations of wavenumbers associated with anharmonic vibrational modes and the intensities of the harmonic vibrational modes. To aid an interpretation of the ultraviolet spectra, we calculated the energies of electronically excited singlet and triplet states and oscillator strengths for electronic transitions from the electronic ground state. PMID:27351464

  9. Acidosis effects on insulin response during glucose tolerance tests in Jersey cows.

    PubMed

    Bigner, D R; Goff, J P; Faust, M A; Burton, J L; Tyler, H D; Horst, R L

    1996-12-01

    The effect of metabolic alkalosis and acidosis on insulin response to glucose tolerance tests was determined for cows fed a high cation diet to induce a state of metabolic acidosis. The anion diet to induce a state of metabolic acidosis. The glucose tolerance test (500 mg of glucose/kg of BW infused i.v. over 10 min) caused a rapid increase in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. Plasma glucose concentrations were highest, and plasma insulin concentrations were lowest, during metabolic acidosis. These results suggest that insulin secretion is impaired during metabolic acidosis, which may reduce tissue uptake of glucose. Correction of metabolic acidosis by oral administration of sodium bicarbonate prior to glucose tolerance testing increased blood pH and bicarbonate concentrations and partially restored insulin response to the glucose tolerance test. Interestingly, sodium bicarbonate also caused an elevation in plasma cortisol concentrations. We concluded that glucose utilization is altered in cows with metabolic acidosis. The correction of acidosis associated with diseases such as diarrhea and ketosis may improve the therapeutic benefit of glucose infusions used to treat these diseases.

  10. Optical coherence tomography technique for noninvasive blood glucose monitoring: phantom, animal, and human studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larin, Kirill V.; Ashitkov, Taras V.; Larina, Irina V.; Petrova, Irina Y.; Eledrisi, Mohsen S.; Motamedi, Massoud; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2002-06-01

    Continuous noninvasive monitoring of blood glucose concentration can improve management of Diabetes Mellitus, reduce mortality, and considerably improve quality of life of diabetic patients. Recently, we proposed to use the OCT technique for noninvasive glucose monitoring. In this paper, we tested noninvasive blood glucose monitoring with the OCT technique in phantoms, animals, and human subjects. An OCT system with the wavelength of 1300 nm was used in our experiments. Phantom studies performed on aqueous suspensions of polystyrene microspheres and milk showed 3.2% decrease of exponential slope of OCT signals when glucose concentration increased from 0 to 100 mM. Theoretical calculations based on the Mie theory of scattering support the results obtained in phantoms. Bolus glucose injections and glucose clamping experiments were performed in animals (New Zealand rabbits and Yucatan micropigs). Good correlation between changes in the OCT signal slope and actual blood glucose concentration were observed in these experiments. First studies were performed in healthy human subjects (using oral glucose tolerance tests). Dependence of the slope of the OCT signals on the actual blood glucose concentration was similar to that obtained in animal studies. Our studies suggest that the OCT technique can potentially be used for noninvasive blood glucose monitoring.

  11. Oral Health in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hartnett, Erin; Haber, Judith; Krainovich-Miller, Barbara; Bella, Abigail; Vasilyeva, Anna; Lange Kessler, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Oral health is crucial to overall health. Because of normal physiologic changes, pregnancy is a time of particular vulnerability in terms of oral health. Pregnant women and their providers need more knowledge about the many changes that occur in the oral cavity during pregnancy. In this article we describe the importance of the recognition, prevention, and treatment of oral health problems in pregnant women. We offer educational strategies that integrate interprofessional oral health competencies. PMID:27281467

  12. A Ring of C2H in the Molecular Disk Orbiting TW Hya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastner, Joel H.; Qi, Chunhua; Gorti, Uma; Hily-Blant, Pierre; Oberg, Karin; Forveille, Thierry; Andrews, Sean; Wilner, David

    2015-06-01

    We have used the Submillimeter Array to image, at ˜1.″5 resolution, C2H N=3\\to 2 emission from the circumstellar disk orbiting the nearby (D = 54 pc), ˜8 Myr-old, ˜0.8 {{M}⊙ } classical T Tauri star TW Hya. The SMA imaging reveals that the C2H emission exhibits a ring-like morphology. Based on a model in which the C2H column density follows a truncated radial power-law distribution, we find that the inner edge of the ring lies at ˜45 AU, and that the ring extends to at least ˜120 AU. Comparison with previous (single-dish) observations of C2H N=4\\to 3 emission indicates that the C2H molecules are subthermally excited and, hence, that the emission arises from the relatively warm (T≳ 40 K), tenuous (n\\ll {{10}7} cm-3) upper atmosphere of the disk. Based on these results and comparisons of the SMA C2H map with previous submillimeter and scattered-light imaging, we propose that the C2H emission most likely traces particularly efficient photo-destruction of small grains and/or photodesorption and photodissociation of hydrocarbons derived from grain ice mantles in the surface layers of the outer disk. The presence of a C2H ring in the TW Hya disk hence likely serves as a marker of dust grain processing and radial and vertical grain size segregation within the disk.

  13. Recent advances in the chemistry of SmI(2)-H(2)O.

    PubMed

    Sautier, Brice; Procter, David J

    2012-01-01

    Recent work from our laboratories has shown SmI(2)-H(2)O to be a versatile, readily-accessible and non-toxic reductant that is more powerful than SmI(2). This review describes the reduction of functional groups that were previously thought to lie beyond the reach of SmI(2) and complexity-generating cyclisations and cyclisation cascades triggered by the reduction of the ester carbonyl group with SmI(2)-H(2)O.

  14. Synthesis of 2H-Indazoles by the [3 + 2] Dipolar Cycloaddition of Sydnones with Arynes

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Yuesi; Wu, Chunrui; Larock, Richard C.; Shi, Feng

    2011-01-01

    A rapid and efficient synthesis of 2H-indazoles has been developed using a [3 + 2] dipolar cycloaddition of sydnones and arynes. A series of 2H-indazoles have been prepared in good to excellent yields using this protocol, and subsequent Pd-catalyzed coupling reactions can be applied to the halogenated products to generate a structurally diverse library of indazoles. PMID:21970468

  15. Natural-abundance solid-state 2H NMR spectroscopy at high magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Aliev, Abil E; Mann, Sam E; Iuga, Dinu; Hughes, Colan E; Harris, Kenneth D M

    2011-06-01

    High-resolution solid-state (2)H NMR spectroscopy provides a method for measuring (1)H NMR chemical shifts in solids and is advantageous over the direct measurement of high-resolution solid-state (1)H NMR spectra, as it requires only the application of routine magic angle sample spinning (MAS) and routine (1)H decoupling methods, in contrast to the requirement for complex pulse sequences for homonuclear (1)H decoupling and ultrafast MAS in the case of high-resolution solid-state (1)H NMR. However, a significant obstacle to the routine application of high-resolution solid-state (2)H NMR is the very low natural abundance of (2)H, with the consequent problem of inherently low sensitivity. Here, we explore the feasibility of measuring (2)H MAS NMR spectra of various solids with natural isotopic abundances at high magnetic field (850 MHz), focusing on samples of amino acids, peptides, collagen, and various organic solids. The results show that high-resolution solid-state (2)H NMR can be used successfully to measure isotropic (1)H chemical shifts in favorable cases, particularly for mobile functional groups, such as methyl and -N(+)H(3) groups, and in some cases phenyl groups. Furthermore, we demonstrate that routine (2)H MAS NMR measurements can be exploited for assessing the relative dynamics of different functional groups in a molecule and for assessing whole-molecule motions in the solid state. The magnitude and field-dependence of second-order shifts due to the (2)H quadrupole interaction are also investigated, on the basis of analysis of simulated and experimental (1)H and (2)H MAS NMR spectra of fully deuterated and selectively deuterated samples of the α polymorph of glycine at two different magnetic field strengths.

  16. Food intake and blood glucose in normal and diabetic cats fed ad libitum.

    PubMed

    Martin, G J; Rand, J S

    1999-12-01

    Ten diabetic cats were studied at intervals for up to 12 months with twice-daily insulin injections. Ten clinically healthy cats were also studied. Diets fed were based on the individual cat's performance, using mainly commercial dry or canned cat foods and fresh meat. In most cases more than one food was offered. Food was given fresh twice daily, and the cats allowed to eat ad libitum. The food intake and blood glucose were measured every 2 h in diabetic cats after insulin injection and in diabetic and normal cats without insulin injections. Food was quantified by the energy consumed (kJ ME), crude protein (g), crude fat (g), and carbohydrate (g). The blood glucose in 10 diabetic cats was measured for 2 h following a 20-min meal. Both diabetic cats and normal cats showed similar patterns of eating, with a higher food intake in the 2 h after fresh food was placed. Both groups of cats ate multiple small meals spread through the day and night. There was little or no correlation between the blood glucose and the amount of food consumed over the previous 2-h period, in insulin- or non-insulin-treated diabetic cats, or in normal cats. An overnight fast did not significantly alter morning blood glucose in diabetic cats. No demonstrable appetite stimulation occurred following an occurrence of low blood glucose; however, recorded incidences were few. No post-prandial hyperglycaemia was seen in the 10 diabetic cats during a 2-h period following the ingestion of typical cat foods.

  17. Direct ab initio study of the C6H6 + CH3/C2H5 = C6H5 + CH4/C2H6 reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, Tam V.-T.; Ratkiewicz, Artur; Duong, Minh v.; Huynh, Lam K.

    2016-02-01

    A kinetic study of the reactions C6H6 + CH3/C2H5 = C6H5 + CH4/C2H6 was carried out in the temperature range of 300-2500 K using high levels of electronic structure theory, namely, CCSD(T)/CBS//BH&HLYP/cc-pVDZ, and canonical variational transition state theory (CVT) with corrections for small curvature tunneling (SCT) and hindered internal rotation (HIR) treatments. It is found that variational effect is not important and both SCT and HIR corrections noticeably affect the rate constants. Being in good agreement with literature data, the calculated results provide solid basis information for the investigation of the polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) + alkyl radical reaction, an important class in combustion and soot formation.

  18. EPR of Cu 2+ and VO 2+ in a cobalt saccharin complex, [Co(sac) 2(H 2O) 4]·2H 2O, single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yerli, Y.; Köksal, F.; Karadag, A.

    2003-09-01

    Cu 2+ and VO 2+ doped single crystals of [Co(sac) 2(H 2O) 4]·2H 2O (Cosacaqua) complex were investigated using EPR technique at ambient temperature. Detailed investigation of the EPR spectra indicated that the Cu 2+ and VO 2+ substitute the Co 2+. Two sites were observed for Cu 2+ and VO 2+. But each site of V 4+ corresponds two different orientations of VO 2+. The principal values of the g and the hyperfine tensors were obtained. The spectra indicate that the ground state for Cu 2+ is mainly 3 dx2- y2. The covalent bonding parameters for Cu 2+ and VO 2+ and Fermi contact terms were obtained.

  19. REASSESSMENT OF THE DISSOCIATIVE RECOMBINATION OF N{sub 2}H{sup +} AT CRYRING

    SciTech Connect

    Vigren, E.; Zhaunerchyk, V.; Hamberg, M.; Af Ugglas, M.; Larsson, M.; Thomas, R. D.; Geppert, W. D.; Kaminska, M.; Semaniak, J.

    2012-09-20

    The dissociative recombination (DR) of N{sub 2}H{sup +} has been reinvestigated at the heavy ion storage ring CRYRING at the Manne Siegbahn Laboratory in Stockholm, Sweden. Thermal rate coefficients for electron temperatures between 10 and 1000 K have been deduced. We show that electron recombination is expected to play an approximately equally important role as CO in the removal of N{sub 2}H{sup +} in dark interstellar clouds. We note that a deeper knowledge on the influence of the ions' rotational temperature in the DR of N{sub 2}H{sup +} would be helpful to set further constraints on the relative importance of the different destruction mechanisms for N{sub 2}H{sup +} in these environments. The branching fractions in the DR of N{sub 2}H{sup +} have been reinvestigated at {approx}0 eV relative kinetic energy, showing a strong dominance of the N{sub 2} + H production channel (93{sup +4}{sub -2}%) with the rest leading to NH + N. These results are in good agreement with flowing afterglow experiments and in disagreement with an earlier measurement at CRYRING.

  20. Low-temperature rate coefficients for the reaction of ethynyl radical (C2H) with benzene.

    PubMed

    Goulay, Fabien; Leone, Stephen R

    2006-02-01

    The reaction of the C2H radical with benzene is studied at low temperature using a pulsed Laval nozzle apparatus. The C2H radical is prepared by 193-nm photolysis of acetylene, and the C2H concentration is monitored using CH(A2Delta) chemiluminescence from the C2H + O2 reaction. Measurements at very low photolysis energy are performed using CF3C2H as the C2H precursor to study the influence of benzene photodissociation on the rate coefficient. Rate coefficients are obtained over a temperature range between 105 and 298 K. The average rate coefficient is found to be five times greater than the estimated value presently used in the photochemical modeling of Titan's atmosphere. The reaction exhibits a slight negative temperature dependence which can be fitted to the expression k(cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1)) = 3.28(+/-1.0) x 10(-10) (T/298)(-0.18(+/-0.18)). The results show that this reaction has no barrier and may play an important role in the formation of large molecules and aerosols at low temperature. Our results are consistent with the formation of a short lifetime intermediate that decomposes to give the final products.

  1. Vibrationally resolved photoelectron imaging of Cu2H- and AgCuH- and theoretical calculations.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hua; Li, Xiaoyi; Zhao, Lijuan; Liu, Zhiling; Qin, Zhengbo; Wu, Xia; Tang, Zichao; Xing, Xiaopeng

    2013-02-28

    Vibrationally resolved photoelectron spectra have been obtained for Cu(2)H(-) and AgCuH(-) using photoelectron imaging at 355 nm. Two transition bands X and A are observed for each spectrum. The X bands in both spectra show the vibration progressions of the Cu-H stretching mode and the broad peaks of these progressions indicate significant structural changes from Cu(2)H(-) and AgCuH(-) to their neutral ground states. The A bands in the spectra of Cu(2)H(-) and CuAgH(-) show stretching progressions of Cu-Cu and Ag-Cu, respectively. The contours of these two progressions are pretty narrow, indicating relatively small structural changes from Cu(2)H(-) and AgCuH(-) to their neutral excited states. Calculations based on density functional theory indicate that the ground states of Cu(2)H(-) and AgCuH(-) and the first excited states of their neutrals are linear, whereas their neutral ground states are bent. The photoelectron detachment energies and vibrational frequencies from these calculations are in good agreement with the experimental observations. Especially, the theoretical predication of linear structures for the anions and the neutral excited states are supported by the spectral features of A bands, in which the bending modes are inactive. Comparisons among the vertical detachment energies of Cu(2)H(-), AgCuH(-), and their analogs help to elucidate electronic characteristics of coinage metal elements and hydrogen in small clusters.

  2. C2H4 adsorption on Cu(210), revisited: bonding nature and coverage effects.

    PubMed

    Amino, Shuichi; Arguelles, Elvis; Agerico Diño, Wilson; Okada, Michio; Kasai, Hideaki

    2016-08-24

    With the aid of density functional theory (DFT)-based calculations, we investigate the adsorption of C2H4 on Cu(210). We found two C2H4 adsorption sites, viz., the top of the step-edge atom (S) and the long bridge between two step-edge atoms (SS) of Cu(210). The step-edge atoms on Cu(210) block the otherwise active terrace sites found on copper surfaces with longer step sizes. This results in the preference for π-bonded over di-σ-bonded C2H4. We also found two stable C2H4 adsorption orientations on the S- and SS-sites, viz., with the C2H4 C[double bond, length as m-dash]C bond parallel (fit) and perpendicular (cross) to [001]. Furthermore, we found that the three peaks observed in previous temperature programmed desorption (TPD) experiment [Surf. Sci., 2011, 605, 934-940] could be attributed to C2H4 in the S-fit or S-cross, S-fit and S-cross-fit (S-cross and S-fit configurations that both exist in the same unit cell) configurations on Cu(210). PMID:27506302

  3. Involvement of plant C(2)H(2)-type zinc finger transcription factors in stress responses.

    PubMed

    Kiełbowicz-Matuk, Agnieszka

    2012-04-01

    Abiotic and biotic stresses frequently impose constraints on plant distribution and affect agricultural productivity. Various aspects of the multiplicity and the complexity of stress responsive gene networks have been previously studied. Many of individual transcription factors in plants and their family classes that regulate the expression of several genes in responses to environmental stresses have been identified. One such class of transcription regulators is the C(2)H(2) class of zinc finger proteins. Numerous members of the C(2)H(2)-type zinc finger family have been shown to play diverse roles in the plant stress response and the hormone signal transduction. Transcription profiling analyses have demonstrated that the transcript level of many C(2)H(2)-type zinc finger proteins is elevated under different abiotic stress conditions such as low temperature, salt, drought, osmotic stress and oxidative stress. Some C(2)H(2)-type proteins are additionally involved in the biotic stress signaling pathway. Moreover, it has been reported that overexpression of some C(2)H(2)-type zinc finger protein genes resulted in both the activation of some stress-related genes and enhanced tolerance to various stresses. Current genetic studies have focused on possible interactions between different zinc finger transcription factors during stresses to regulate transcription. This review highlights the role of the C(2)H(2) class of the zinc finger proteins in regulating abiotic and biotic stress tolerance in the plants.

  4. delta(13)C and delta(2)H isotope ratios in amphetamine synthesized from benzaldehyde and nitroethane.

    PubMed

    Collins, Michael; Salouros, Helen; Cawley, Adam T; Robertson, James; Heagney, Aaron C; Arenas-Queralt, Andrea

    2010-06-15

    Previous work in these laboratories and by Butzenlechner et al. and Culp et al. has demonstrated that the delta(2)H isotope value of industrial benzaldehyde produced by the catalytic oxidation of toluene is profoundly positive, usually in the range +300 per thousand to +500 per thousand. Synthetic routes leading to amphetamine, methylamphetamine or their precursors and commencing with such benzaldehyde may be expected to exhibit unusually positive delta(2)H values. Results are presented for delta(13)C and delta(2)H isotope values of 1-phenyl-2-nitropropene synthesized from an industrial source of benzaldehyde, having a positive delta(2)H isotope value, by a Knoevenagel condensation with nitroethane. Results are also presented for delta(13)C and delta(2)H isotope values for amphetamine prepared from the resulting 1-phenyl-2-nitropropene. The values obtained were compared with delta(13)C and delta(2)H isotope values obtained for an amphetamine sample prepared using a synthetic route that did not involve benzaldehyde. Finally, results are presented for samples of benzaldehyde, 1-phenyl-2-nitropropene and amphetamine that had been seized at a clandestine amphetamine laboratory.

  5. Broad N2H+ Emission toward the Protostellar Shock L1157-B1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Codella, C.; Viti, S.; Ceccarelli, C.; Lefloch, B.; Benedettini, M.; Busquet, G.; Caselli, P.; Fontani, F.; Gómez-Ruiz, A.; Podio, L.; Vasta, M.

    2013-10-01

    We present the first detection of N2H+ toward a low-mass protostellar outflow, namely, the L1157-B1 shock, at ~0.1 pc from the protostellar cocoon. The detection was obtained with the IRAM 30 m antenna. We observed emission at 93 GHz due to the J = 1-0 hyperfine lines. Analysis of this emission coupled with HIFI CHESS multiline CO observations leads to the conclusion that the observed N2H+(1-0) line originated from the dense (>=105 cm-3) gas associated with the large (20''-25'') cavities opened by the protostellar wind. We find an N2H+ column density of a few 1012 cm-2 corresponding to an abundance of (2-8) × 10-9. The N2H+ abundance can be matched by a model of quiescent gas evolved for more than 104 yr, i.e., for more than the shock kinematical age (sime2000 yr). Modeling of C-shocks confirms that the abundance of N2H+ is not increased by the passage of the shock. In summary, N2H+ is a fossil record of the pre-shock gas, formed when the density of the gas was around 104 cm-3, and then further compressed and accelerated by the shock.

  6. {sup 2}H(d,p){sup 3}H and {sup 2}H(d,n){sup 3}He reactions at sub-coulomb energies

    SciTech Connect

    Tumino, A.; Spitaleri, C.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Typel, S.; Sparta, R.; Aliotta, M.; Kroha, V.; Hons, Z.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Pizzone, R. G.; Mrazek, J.; Pizzone, R. G.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M. L.

    2012-11-20

    The {sup 2}H({sup 3}He,p{sup 3}H){sup 1}H and {sup 2}H({sup 3}He,n{sup 3}He){sup 1}H processes have been measured in quasi free kinematics to investigate for the first time the {sup 2}H(d,p){sup 3}H and {sup 2}H(d,n){sup 3}He reactions by means of the Trojan Horse Method. The {sup 3}He+d experiment was performed at 18 MeV, corresponding the a d-d energy range from 1.5 MeV down to 2 keV. This range overlaps with the relevant region for Standard Big Bang Nucleosynthesis as well as with the thermal energies of future fusion reactors and deuterium burning in the Pre Main Sequence phase of stellar evolution. This is the first pioneering experiment in quasi free regime where the charged spectator is detected. Both the energy dependence and the absolute value of the bare nucleus S(E) factors have been extracted for the first time. They deviate by more than 15% from available direct data with new S(0) values of 57.4{+-}1.8 MeVb for {sup 3}H+p and 60.1{+-}1.9 MeVb for {sup 3}He+n. None of the existing fitting curves is able to provide the correct slope of the new data in the full range, thus calling for a revision of the theoretical description. This has consequences in the calculation of the reaction rates with more than a 25% increase at the temperatures of future fusion reactors.

  7. DISSOCIATION OF B2H6 AND ADSORPTION OF THE FRAGMENTS OF B2H6 ON THE STEPPED Ge(100) SURFACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Türkmenoğlu, Mustafa; Katircioğlu, Şenay

    2012-06-01

    In this work, the p-type doping of the SA type stepped Ge(100) surface by a diborane (B2H6) gas flow has been simulated by the possible dissociation and adsorption models. The most probable dissociation model of B2H6 and adsorption models of the fragments of B2H6 on the stepped Ge(100) surface have been determined by the local minimum total energy and/or binding energy calculations based on the Density functional (B3LYP/6-3g) and Hartree-Fock (HF/STO-3g) theories, respectively. The present calculations have shown that, the step region (for both up and down terraces) of the stepped Ge(100) surface has the most attractive sites for BH3 molecules determined to be the first dissociation fragments of B2H6 by an external energy of 1.3 eV. It has been found that, at the first step of the adsorption, BH3 can dissociate to BH2 and BH fragments on the stepped Ge(100) surface. While BH3 and BH2 products prefer to be attached to a single surface Ge atom, BH is bridged between two adjacent surface Ge atoms. According to the present optimization calculations, the p-type doping process of the stepped Ge(100) surface has started with the adsorption of BH3 on the electron deficient site (buckled down) of the Ge dimer bond close to the step edge and ended with the substitutional occupation of the Ge site in the layers of the surface by B atom. The beginning of the p-type doping of the stepped Ge(100) surface has been illustrated by the electronic states of B appeared in the optical energy gap of Ge very close to the edge of the HOMO.

  8. Laboratory studies of 2H evaporator scale dissolution in dilute nitric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L.

    2014-09-23

    The rate of 2H evaporator scale solids dissolution in dilute nitric acid has been experimentally evaluated under laboratory conditions in the SRNL shielded cells. The 2H scale sample used for the dissolution study came from the bottom of the evaporator cone section and the wall section of the evaporator cone. The accumulation rate of aluminum and silicon, assumed to be the two principal elemental constituents of the 2H evaporator scale aluminosilicate mineral, were monitored in solution. Aluminum and silicon concentration changes, with heating time at a constant oven temperature of 90 deg C, were used to ascertain the extent of dissolution of the 2H evaporator scale mineral. The 2H evaporator scale solids, assumed to be composed of mostly aluminosilicate mineral, readily dissolves in 1.5 and 1.25 M dilute nitric acid solutions yielding principal elemental components of aluminum and silicon in solution. The 2H scale dissolution rate constant, based on aluminum accumulation in 1.5 and 1.25 M dilute nitric acid solution are, respectively, 9.21E-04 ± 6.39E-04 min{sup -1} and 1.07E-03 ± 7.51E-05 min{sup -1}. Silicon accumulation rate in solution does track the aluminum accumulation profile during the first few minutes of scale dissolution. It however diverges towards the end of the scale dissolution. This divergence therefore means the aluminum-to-silicon ratio in the first phase of the scale dissolution (non-steady state conditions) is different from the ratio towards the end of the scale dissolution. Possible causes of this change in silicon accumulation in solution as the scale dissolution progresses may include silicon precipitation from solution or the 2H evaporator scale is a heterogeneous mixture of aluminosilicate minerals with several impurities. The average half-life for the decomposition of the 2H evaporator scale mineral in 1.5 M nitric acid is 12.5 hours, while the half-life for the decomposition of the 2H evaporator scale in 1.25 M nitric acid is 10

  9. Effects of sleep restriction on glucose control and insulin secretion during diet-induced weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Nedeltcheva, A. V.; Imperial, J. G.; Penev, P. D.

    2012-01-01

    Insufficient sleep is associated with changes in glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, and insulin action. Despite widespread use of weight-loss diets for metabolic risk reduction, the effects of insufficient sleep on glucose regulation in overweight dieters are not known. To examine the consequences of recurrent sleep restriction on 24-hour blood glucose control during diet-induced weight loss, 10 overweight and obese adults (3F/7M; mean [SD] age 41 [5] y; BMI 27.4 [2.0] kg/m2) completed two 14-day treatments with hypocaloric diet and 8.5 or 5.5-h nighttime sleep opportunity in random order 7 [3] months apart. Oral and intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) data, fasting lipids and free-fatty acids (FFA), and 24-hour blood glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and counter-regulatory hormone measurements were collected after each treatment. Participants had comparable weight loss (1.0 [0.3] BMI units) during each treatment. Bedtime restriction reduced sleep by 131 [30] min/day. Recurrent sleep curtailment decreased 24-hour serum insulin concentrations (i.e. enhanced 24-hour insulin economy) without changes in oral glucose tolerance and 24-hour glucose control. This was accompanied by a decline in fasting blood glucose, increased fasting FFA which suppressed normally following glucose ingestion, and lower total and LDL cholesterol concentrations. Sleep-loss-related changes in counter-regulatory hormone secretion during the IVGTT limited the utility of the test in this study. In conclusion, sleep restriction enhanced 24-hour insulin economy without compromising glucose homeostasis in overweight individuals placed on a balanced hypocaloric diet. The changes in fasting blood glucose, insulin, lipid and FFA concentrations in sleep-restricted dieters resembled the pattern of human metabolic adaptation to reduced carbohydrate availability. PMID:22513492

  10. Glucose repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kayikci, Ömur; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-09-01

    Glucose is the primary source of energy for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although yeast cells can utilize a wide range of carbon sources, presence of glucose suppresses molecular activities involved in the use of alternate carbon sources as well as it represses respiration and gluconeogenesis. This dominant effect of glucose on yeast carbon metabolism is coordinated by several signaling and metabolic interactions that mainly regulate transcriptional activity but are also effective at post-transcriptional and post-translational levels. This review describes effects of glucose repression on yeast carbon metabolism with a focus on roles of the Snf3/Rgt2 glucose-sensing pathway and Snf1 signal transduction in establishment and relief of glucose repression.

  11. Glucose repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Kayikci, Ömur; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Glucose is the primary source of energy for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although yeast cells can utilize a wide range of carbon sources, presence of glucose suppresses molecular activities involved in the use of alternate carbon sources as well as it represses respiration and gluconeogenesis. This dominant effect of glucose on yeast carbon metabolism is coordinated by several signaling and metabolic interactions that mainly regulate transcriptional activity but are also effective at post-transcriptional and post-translational levels. This review describes effects of glucose repression on yeast carbon metabolism with a focus on roles of the Snf3/Rgt2 glucose-sensing pathway and Snf1 signal transduction in establishment and relief of glucose repression. PMID:26205245

  12. Investigation of the Blood Glucose Lowering Potential of the Jamaican Momordica charantia (Cerasee) Fruit in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Burnett, A; McKoy, M-L; Singh, P

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Momordica charantia (MC) fruit has been documented to possess antidiabetic properties. However, these studies were not without controversy surrounding the blood glucose-lowering ability and the mechanism of action in diabetes therapy. In an effort to evaluate such claims in the Jamaican MC species known as cerasee, aqueous extracts of the unripe fruit were studied in normal and diabetic rats. Normal male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into groups (n = 6) orally administered distilled water, 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution, the aqueous extract (400 mg/kg body weight) and glibenclamide (15 mg/kg body weight), respectively prior to assessment of fasting blood glucose (FBG) concentration. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was conducted in normoglycaemic rats orally administered distilled water, 10% DMSO solution, glibenclamide (15 mg/kg body weight) or aqueous extracts of the fruit (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight). Blood glucose concentration was also monitored in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats administered the aqueous extract (250 mg/kg body weight) or water vehicle after an overnight fast. The aqueous extracts showed no hypoglycaemic or antidiabetic activity. However, the administration of the aqueous extracts (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) resulted in significant improvement in glucose tolerance of glucose-primed normoglycaemic rats during the OGTT. These data suggest that the glucose-lowering mechanism of the Jamaican MC fruit species likely involves altered glucose absorption across the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:26624580

  13. Thermoresponsive amperometric glucose biosensor.

    PubMed

    Pinyou, Piyanut; Ruff, Adrian; Pöller, Sascha; Barwe, Stefan; Nebel, Michaela; Alburquerque, Natalia Guerrero; Wischerhoff, Erik; Laschewsky, André; Schmaderer, Sebastian; Szeponik, Jan; Plumeré, Nicolas; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    2016-03-01

    The authors report on the fabrication of a thermoresponsive biosensor for the amperometric detection of glucose. Screen printed electrodes with heatable gold working electrodes were modified by a thermoresponsive statistical copolymer [polymer I: poly(ω-ethoxytriethylenglycol methacrylate-co-3-(N,N-dimethyl-N-2-methacryloyloxyethyl ammonio) propanesulfonate-co-ω-butoxydiethylenglycol methacrylate-co-2-(4-benzoyl-phenoxy)ethyl methacrylate)] with a lower critical solution temperature of around 28 °C in aqueous solution via electrochemically induced codeposition with a pH-responsive redox-polymer [polymer II: poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-allyl methacrylate-co-poly(ethylene glycol)methacrylate-co-butyl acrylate-co-2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate)-[Os(bpy)2(4-(((2-(2-(2-aminoethoxy)ethoxy)ethyl)amino)methyl)-N,N-dimethylpicolinamide)](2+)] and pyrroloquinoline quinone-soluble glucose dehydrogenase acting as biological recognition element. Polymer II bears covalently bound Os-complexes that act as redox mediators for shuttling electrons between the enzyme and the electrode surface. Polymer I acts as a temperature triggered immobilization matrix. Probing the catalytic current as a function of the working electrode temperature shows that the activity of the biosensor is dramatically reduced above the phase transition temperature of polymer I. Thus, the local modulation of the temperature at the interphase between the electrode and the bioactive layer allows switching the biosensor from an on- to an off-state without heating of the surrounding analyte solution. PMID:26702635

  14. Waist circumference and cardiorespiratory fitness are independently associated with glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in obese women.

    PubMed

    Shalev-Goldman, Einat; McGuire, K Ashlee; Ross, Robert

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the independent associations between physical activity (PA), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), abdominal obesity and insulin action in obese women. We studied 141 abdominally obese women (waist circumference (WC): 106.4 ± 10.2 cm). PA duration (min/day) and intensity (counts/min) were obtained by accelerometry. CRF was measured using a treadmill. WC was measured at the iliac crest; abdominal adiposity was measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Glucose and insulin measures were obtained during a 75-g, 2-h glucose tolerance test. The homeostasis model of assessment iHOMA2-IS was used to estimate insulin sensitivity. PA duration and intensity were not associated with glucose or insulin metabolism (p > 0.05). However, moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) duration was associated with fasting insulin and iHOMA2-IS (p < 0.01). CRF was associated with fasting insulin and iHOMA2-IS (r = 0.27, p ≤ 0.01), whereas WC was associated with fasting insulin (r = 0.50, p < 0.01) and iHOMA2-IS (r = -0.52, p ≤ 0.01). Following adjustment for CRF, MVPA, and age, WC remained associated with fasting glucose, insulin, 2-h glucose and iHOMA2-IS (r = -0.44, p ≤ 0.01). CRF was associated with fasting glucose as well as 1- and 2-h glucose (r = 0.24, p < 0.01) after adjusting for WC, MVPA, and age. MVPA was not associated with glucose or insulin measures after control for CRF and WC (p > 0.05). Mediation analysis revealed that CRF and WC combined mediated the relationship between MVPA and both glucose tolerance and insulin resistance (p < 0.05). In conclusion, among abdominally obese women, WC and CRF are independently associated with measures of glucose tolerance and insulin resistance and mediate the association between MVPA and insulin resistance.

  15. Optical monitoring of glucose concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, I. N.; Mbanu, A.

    1985-02-01

    A device for the monitoring of blood glucose levels is investigated. It measures the sugar concentration using the effect of the glucose on the optical refractive index. Light is transmitted along an optical fibre, and, as most of the internal rays are incident at the fibre surface at an angle less than the critical angle, the refractive index of the surrounding liquid can be calculated. The device can measure glucose concentrations with a sensitivity of better than 0.1%.

  16. Optoelectronic Apparatus Measures Glucose Noninvasively

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; Rovati, Luigi L.

    2003-01-01

    An optoelectronic apparatus has been invented as a noninvasive means of measuring the concentration of glucose in the human body. The apparatus performs polarimetric and interferometric measurements of the human eye to acquire data from which the concentration of glucose in the aqueous humor can be computed. Because of the importance of the concentration of glucose in human health, there could be a large potential market for instruments based on this apparatus.

  17. Different Serum Free Fatty Acid Profiles in NAFLD Subjects and Healthy Controls after Oral Fat Load

    PubMed Central

    Gambino, Roberto; Bugianesi, Elisabetta; Rosso, Chiara; Mezzabotta, Lavinia; Pinach, Silvia; Alemanno, Natalina; Saba, Francesca; Cassader, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Background: Free fatty acid (FFA) metabolism can impact on metabolic conditions, such as obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This work studied the increase in total FFA shown in NAFLD subjects to possibly characterize which fatty acids significantly accounted for the whole increase. Methods: 21 patients with NAFLD were selected according to specified criteria. The control group consisted of nine healthy subjects. All subjects underwent an oral standard fat load. Triglycerides; cholesterol; FFA; glucose and insulin were measured every 2 h with the determination of fatty acid composition of FFA. Results: higher serum FFA levels in NAFLD subjects are mainly due to levels of oleic, palmitic and linoleic acids at different times. Significant increases were shown for docosahexaenoic acid, linolenic acid, eicosatrienoic acid, and arachidonic acid, although this was just on one occasion. In the postprandial phase, homeostatic model assessment HOMA index positively correlated with the ω3/ω6 ratio in NAFLD patients. Conclusions: the higher serum levels of FFA in NAFLD subjects are mainly due to levels of oleic and palmitic acids which are the most abundant circulating free fatty acids. This is almost exactly corresponded with significant increases in linoleic acid. An imbalance in the n-3/n-6 fatty acids ratio could modulate postprandial responses with more pronounced effects in insulin-resistant subjects, such as NAFLD patients. PMID:27043543

  18. Aldosterone aggravates glucose intolerance induced by high fructose.

    PubMed

    Sherajee, Shamshad J; Rafiq, Kazi; Nakano, Daisuke; Mori, Hirohito; Kobara, Hideki; Hitomi, Hirofumi; Fujisawa, Yoshihide; Kobori, Hiroyuki; Masaki, Tsutomu; Nishiyama, Akira

    2013-11-15

    We previously reported that aldosterone impaired vascular insulin signaling in vivo and in vitro. Fructose-enriched diet induces metabolic syndrome including hypertension, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia and diabetes in animal. In the current study, we hypothesized that aldosterone aggravated fructose feeding-induced glucose intolerance in vivo. Rats were divided into five groups for six-week treatment; uninephrectomy (Unx, n=8), Unx+aldosterone (aldo, 0.75 µg/h, s.c., n=8), Unx+fructose (fruc, 10% in drinking water, n=8), Unx+aldo+fruc, (aldo+fruc, n=8), and Unx+aldo+fruc+spironolactone, a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (aldo+fruc+spiro, 20mg/kg/day, p.o., n=8). Aldo+fruc rats manifested the hypertension, and induced glucose intolerance compared to fruc intake rats assessed by oral glucose tolerance test, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp study. Spironolactone, significantly improved the aldosterone-accelerated glucose intolerance. Along with improvement in insulin resistance, spironolactone suppressed upregulated mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) target gene, serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinases-1 mRNA expression in skeletal muscle in aldo+fruc rats. In conclusion, these data suggested that aldosterone aggravates fructose feeding-induced glucose intolerance through MR activation.

  19. [Oral viral infections].

    PubMed

    Parent, Dominique

    2016-02-01

    Exclude herpes infection in the presence of acute oral ulcers of unknown origin, particularly in patients in poor general condition. Remember that asymptomatic HSV-1 shedding in saliva may result in an oral-genital transmission. Perform an anogenital examination and a screening for other sexually transmitted diseases when oral warts are diagnosed. Search for immunosuppression and monitor the patient (screening for a potential associated carcinoma) when there is rapid growth of oral warts. Consider all the clinical signs (systemic, skin, other mucosa, immunity...) when a patient has an enanthem or oral ulcerations. Ask for a HIV test when an oral Kaposi's sarcoma, a hairy leukoplakia or major aphthae are diagnosed. PMID:26854091

  20. Impaired glucose utilization in man during acute exposure to environmental heat.

    PubMed

    Tatár, P; Vigas, M; Jurcovicová, J; Jezová, D; Strec, V; Palát, M

    1985-12-01

    In 6 healthy males the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed after the administration of 100 g glucose during the hyperthermic Finnish sauna bath (85 degrees C) of 30 min duration. The lowered insulin response (P less than 0.001) to glucose challenge during heating and the subsequent prolonged hyperglycemia (P less than 0.001) after heating were observed, when compared to OGTT under thermoneutral conditions (23 degrees C). It is suggested that the heat-induced decrease in visceral blood flow and stimulation of sympathoadrenomedullary and pituitary activity may be responsible for this effect. PMID:3910408

  1. Synthesis and biological characterization of spiro[2H-(1,3)-benzoxazine-2,4'-piperidine] based histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Thaler, Florian; Varasi, Mario; Abate, Agnese; Carenzi, Giacomo; Colombo, Andrea; Bigogno, Chiara; Boggio, Roberto; Zuffo, Roberto Dal; Rapetti, Daniela; Resconi, Anna; Regalia, Nickolas; Vultaggio, Stefania; Dondio, Giulio; Gagliardi, Stefania; Minucci, Saverio; Mercurio, Ciro

    2013-06-01

    Histone Deacetylases (HDACs) have become important targets for the treatment of cancer and other diseases. In previous studies we described the development of novel spirocyclic HDAC inhibitors based on the combination of privileged structures with hydroxamic acid moieties as zinc binding group. Herein, we report further explorations, which resulted in the discovery of a new class of spiro[2H-(1,3)-benzoxazine-2,4'-piperidine] derivatives. Several compounds showed good potency of around 100 nM and less in the HDAC inhibition assays, submicromolar IC50 values when tested against tumour cell lines and a remarkable stability in human and mouse microsomes. Two representative examples exhibited a good pharmacokinetic profile with an oral bioavailability equal or higher than 35% and one of them studied in an HCT116 murine xenograft model showing a robust tumour growth inhibition. In addition, the two benzoxazines were found to have a minor affinity for the hERG potassium channel compared to their corresponding ketone analogues.

  2. Effect of a single dose of dexamethasone on glucose homeostasis in healthy horses by using the combined intravenous glucose and insulin test.

    PubMed

    Haffner, J C; Eiler, H; Hoffman, R M; Fecteau, K A; Oliver, J W

    2009-01-01

    Sustained dexamethasone administration to horses results in insulin resistance, which may predispose them to laminitis. A single dose of dexamethasone is commonly used as a diagnostic aid, yet the effect of a single dose of dexamethasone on glucose homeostasis in horses is not well defined. The objective of this study was to characterize the change in glucose dynamics over time in response to a single dose of dexamethasone. A combined glucose-insulin tolerance test (CGIT) was performed on 6 adult geldings before and at 2, 24, and 72 h postdexamethasone (40 microg/kg of BW, i.v.); a minimum of 1 wk of rest was allowed between treatments. Before any treatment, the CGIT resulted in a hyperglycemic phase followed by a hypoglycemic phase. Dexamethasone affected glucose dynamics in 3 ways: 1) at 2 h, dexamethasone shortened the ascending branch of the negative phase (P < 0.001) of the test, indicating moderate insulin resistance; 2) at 24 h, dexamethasone impaired glucose clearance by extending the positive phase and eliminating the negative phase while insulin was elevated before the CGIT, indicating a decreased response to insulin; and 3) at 72 h, dexamethasone caused a deeper nadir value (P < 0.001) compared with predexamethasone, indicating an increased response to insulin. It was concluded that dexamethasone decreased the response to insulin as early as 2 h and maximally at 24 h. At 72 h, dexamethasone caused an increased response to insulin, which was unexpected.

  3. The glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucose-stimulated insulin response to exercise training and diet in obesity.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Karen R; Brooks, Latina M; Solomon, Thomas P J; Kashyap, Sangeeta R; O'Leary, Valerie B; Kirwan, John P

    2009-06-01

    Aging and obesity are characterized by decreased beta-cell sensitivity and defects in the potentiation of nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion by GIP. Exercise and diet are known to improve glucose metabolism and the pancreatic insulin response to glucose, and this effect may be mediated through the incretin effect of GIP. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a 12-wk exercise training intervention (5 days/wk, 60 min/day, 75% Vo(2 max)) combined with a eucaloric (EX, n = 10) or hypocaloric (EX-HYPO, pre: 1,945 +/- 190, post: 1,269 +/- 70, kcal/day; n = 9) diet on the GIP response to glucose in older (66.8 +/- 1.5 yr), obese (34.4 +/- 1.7 kg/m(2)) adults with impaired glucose tolerance. In addition to GIP, plasma PYY(3-36), insulin, and glucose responses were measured during a 3-h, 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Both interventions led to a significant improvement in Vo(2 max) (P < 0.05). Weight loss (kg) was significant in both groups but was greater after EX-HYPO (-8.3 +/- 1.1 vs. -2.8 +/- 0.5, P = 0.002). The glucose-stimulated insulin response was reduced after EX-HYPO (P = 0.02), as was the glucose-stimulated GIP response (P < 0.05). Furthermore, after the intervention, changes in insulin (DeltaI(0-30)/DeltaG(0-30)) and GIP (Delta(0-30)) secretion were correlated (r = 0.69, P = 0.05). The PYY(3-36) (Delta(0-30)) response to glucose was increased after both interventions (P < 0.05). We conclude that 1) a combination of caloric restriction and exercise reduces the GIP response to ingested glucose, 2) GIP may mediate the attenuated glucose-stimulated insulin response after exercise/diet interventions, and 3) the increased PYY(3-36) response represents an improved capacity to regulate satiety and potentially body weight in older, obese, insulin-resistant adults.

  4. Glucose Absorption by the Bacillary Band of Trichuris muris

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Michael; Nejsum, Peter; Mejer, Helena; Denwood, Matthew; Thamsborg, Stig M.

    2016-01-01

    Background A common characteristic of Trichuris spp. infections in humans and animals is the variable but low efficacy of single-dose benzimidazoles currently used in mass drug administration programmes against human trichuriasis. The bacillary band, a specialised morphological structure of Trichuris spp., as well as the unique partly intracellular habitat of adult Trichuris spp. may affect drug absorption and perhaps contribute to the low drug accumulation in the worm. However, the exact function of the bacillary band is still unknown. Methodology We studied the dependency of adult Trichuris muris on glucose and/or amino acids for survival in vitro and the absorptive function of the bacillary band. The viability of the worms was evaluated using a motility scale from 0 to 3, and the colorimetric assay Alamar Blue was utilised to measure the metabolic activity. The absorptive function of the bacillary band in living worms was explored using a fluorescent glucose analogue (6-NBDG) and confocal microscopy. To study the absorptive function of the bacillary band in relation to 6-NBDG, the oral uptake was minimised or excluded by sealing the oral cavity with glue and agarose. Principal Findings Glucose had a positive effect on both the motility (p < 0.001) and metabolic activity (p < 0.001) of T. muris in vitro, whereas this was not the case for amino acids. The 6-NBDG was observed in the pores of the bacillary band and within the stichocytes of the living worms, independent of oral sealing. Conclusions/Significance Trichuris muris is dependent on glucose for viability in vitro, and the bacillary band has an absorptive function in relation to 6-NBDG, which accumulates within the stichocytes. The absorptive function of the bacillary band calls for an exploration of its possible role in the uptake of anthelmintics, and as a potential anthelmintic target relevant for future drug development. PMID:27588682

  5. Ambivalent role of gallated catechins in glucose tolerance in humans: a novel insight into non-absorbable gallated catechin-derived inhibitors of glucose absorption.

    PubMed

    Park, J H; Jin, J Y; Baek, W K; Park, S H; Sung, H Y; Kim, Y K; Lee, J; Song, D K

    2009-12-01

    Prolonged postprandial hyperglycemia is a detrimental factor for type 2 diabetes and obesity. The benefit of green tea extract (GTE) consumption still requires confirmation. We report the effects of circulating green tea catechins on blood glucose and insulin levels. Oral glucose loading 1 h after GTE ingestion in humans led to higher blood glucose and insulin levels than in control subjects. Gallated catechins were required for these effects, although within the intestinal lumen they have been known to decrease glucose and cholesterol absorption. Treatment with epigallocatechin-3-gallate hindered 2-deoxyglucose uptake into liver, fat, pancreatic beta-cell, and skeletal muscle cell lines. The glucose intolerance was ameliorated by gallated catechin-deficient GTE or GTE mixed with polyethylene glycol, which was used as an inhibitor of intestinal absorption of gallated catechins. These findings may suggest that the gallated catechin when it is in the circulation elevates blood glucose level by blocking normal glucose uptake into the tissues, resulting in secondary hyperinsulinemia, whereas it decreases glucose entry into the circulation when they are inside the intestinal lumen. These findings encourage the development of non-absorbable derivatives of gallated catechins for preventative treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity, which would specifically induce only the positive luminal effect.

  6. Drivers of δ2H variations in an idealized extratropical cyclone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dütsch, Marina; Pfahl, Stephan; Wernli, Heini

    2016-05-01

    Numerical model simulations of stable water isotopes help to improve our understanding of the complex processes driving isotopic variability in atmospheric moisture. We use the isotope-enabled Consortium for Small-Scale Modelling (COSMO) model to study the governing mechanisms of δ2H variations in an idealized extratropical cyclone. A set of experiments with differing initial conditions of δ2H in vapor and partly deactivated isotopic fractionation allows us to quantify the relative roles of cloud fractionation and vertical and horizontal advection for the simulated δ2H signals associated with the cyclone and fronts. Horizontal transport determines the large-scale pattern of δ2H in both vapor and precipitation, while fractionation and vertical transport are more important on a smaller scale, near the fronts. During the passage of the cold front fractionation leads to a V-shaped trend of δ2H in precipitation and vapor, which is, for vapor, superimposed on a gradual decrease caused by the arrival of colder air masses.

  7. Blood brain barrier breakdown was found in non-infarcted area after 2-h MCAO.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaona; Liu, Yushan; Sun, Yanyun; Liu, Wenlan; Jin, Xinchun

    2016-04-15

    The blood brain barrier (BBB) could be damaged within the thrombolytic time window and is considered to be a precursor to hemorrhagic transformation during reperfusion. Although we have recently reported the association between BBB damage and tissue injury within the thrombolytic time window, our knowledge about this early BBB damage is limited. In this study, rats were subjected to 2-h middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by 10 min reperfusion with Evan's blue as a tracer to detect BBB damage. Rat brain was sliced into 10 consecutive sections and with TTC staining, a macro and full view of the spatial distribution of BBB damage and tissue injury could be clearly seen in the same group of animals. After 2-h MCAO, tissue injury started from 2nd slice and the BBB leakage started from the 5th slice, of note, there is no colocalization between BBB damage and tissue injury. Fluoro Jade B was employed to explore the localization of neuronal degeneration, and our results showed that 2-h MCAO produced greater number of positive cells in ischemic cortex and dorsal striatum than other areas. More important, 2-h MCAO induced occludin but not claudin-5 degradation in the ischemic hemisphere and pretreatment with MMP inhibitor GM6001 significantly reduced occludin degradation as well as BBB damage detected by IgG leakage. Taken together, our findings demonstrated a "mismatch" between ischemic tissue injury and BBB leakage and a differential degradation of occludin and claudin-5 by MMP-2 after 2-h MCAO. PMID:27000223

  8. Prediction of the existence of the N2H- molecular anion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lique, François; Halvick, Philippe; Stoecklin, Thierry; Hochlaf, Majdi

    2012-06-01

    We predict the existence of the N2H- anion from first principle calculations. We present the three-dimensional potential energy surface and the bound states of the N2H-/D- van der Waals anion. The electronic calculations were performed using state-of-the-art ab initio methods and the nuclear motions were solved using a quantum close-coupling scattering theory. A T-shaped equilibrium structure was found, with a well depth of 349.1 cm-1, where 18 bound states have been located for N2H- and 25 for N2D- for total angular momentum J = 0. We also present the absorption spectra of the N2H- complex. This anion could be formed after low energy collisions between N2 and H- through radiative association. The importance of this prediction in astrophysics and the possible use of N2H- as a tracer of N2 and H- in the interstellar medium is discussed.

  9. Imidacloprid inhibits IgE-mediated RBL-2H3 cell degranulation and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Linbo; Zou, Li; Gao, Jinyan; Xu, Huaing; Shi, Xiaoyun

    2016-01-01

    Background Imidacloprid has been commonly used as a pesticide for crop protection and acts as nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists. Little information about the relationship between imidacloprid and allergy is available. Objective This study aims to examine the effects of imidacoprid on IgE-mediated mast cell activation. Methods The rat basophilic leukemia cell line RBL-2H3 (RBL-2H3 cells) were treated with 10-3 – 10-12 mol/L imidacloprid, followed by measuring the mediator production, influx of Ca2+ in IgE-activated RBL-2H3 cells, and the possible effects of imidacoprid on anti-dinitrophenyl IgE-induced passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA). Results It was shown that imidacoprid suppressed the production of histamine, β-hexosaminidase, leukotriene C4, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and Ca2+ mobilization in IgE-activated RBL-2H3 cells and decreased vascular extravasation in IgE-induced PCA. Conclusion It is the first time to show that imidacloprid suppressed the activation of RBL-2H3 cells. PMID:27803884

  10. Synthesis, spectral characterization and larvicidal activity of acridin-1(2H)-one analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subashini, R.; Bharathi, A.; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Rajakumar, G.; Abdul Rahuman, A.; Gullanki, Pavan Kumar

    Acridin-1(2H)-one analogue of 7-chloro-3,4-dihydro-9-phenyl-2-[(pyridine-2yl) methylene] acridin-1(2H)-one, 5 was prepared by using 7-chloro-3,4-dihydro-9-phenylacridin-1(2H)-one, 3 and picolinaldehyde, 4 in the presence of KOH at room temperature. These compounds were characterized by analytical and spectral analyses. The purpose of the present study was to assess the efficacy of larvicidal and repellent activity of synthesized 7-chloro-3,4-dihydro-9-phenyl-acridin-1(2H)-one analogues such as compounds 3 and 5 against the early fourth instar larvae of filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus and Japanese encephalitis vector, Culex gelidus (Diptera: Culicidae). The compound exhibited high larvicidal effects at 50 mg/L against both the mosquitoes with LC50 values of 25.02 mg/L (r2 = 0.998) and 26.40 mg/L (r2 = 0.988) against C. quinquefasciatus and C. gelidus, respectively. The 7-chloro-3,4-dihydro-9-phenyl-acridin-1(2H)-one analogues that are reported for the first time to our best of knowledge can be better explored for the control of mosquito population. This is an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of Japanese encephalitis vectors, C. quinquefasciatus and C. gelidus.

  11. (15)N- and (2)H proteomic stable isotope probing links nitrogen flow to archaeal heterotrophic activity.

    PubMed

    Justice, Nicholas B; Li, Zhou; Wang, Yingfeng; Spaudling, Susan E; Mosier, Annika C; Hettich, Robert L; Pan, Chongle; Banfield, Jillian F

    2014-10-01

    Understanding how individual species contribute to nutrient transformations in a microbial community is critical to prediction of overall ecosystem function. We conducted microcosm experiments in which floating acid mine drainage (AMD) microbial biofilms were submerged - recapitulating the final stage in a natural biofilm life cycle. Biofilms were amended with either (15)NH4(+) or deuterium oxide ((2)H2O) and proteomic stable isotope probing (SIP) was used to track the extent to which different members of the community used these molecules in protein synthesis across anaerobic iron-reducing, aerobic iron-reducing and aerobic iron-oxidizing environments. Sulfobacillus spp. synthesized (15)N-enriched protein almost exclusively under iron-reducing conditions whereas the Leptospirillum spp. synthesized (15)N-enriched protein in all conditions. There were relatively few (15)N-enriched archaeal proteins, and all showed low atom% enrichment, consistent with Archaea synthesizing protein using the predominantly (14)N biomass derived from recycled biomolecules. In parallel experiments using (2)H2O, extensive archaeal protein synthesis was detected in all conditions. In contrast, the bacterial species showed little protein synthesis using (2)H2O. The nearly exclusive ability of Archaea to synthesize proteins using (2)H2O may be due to archaeal heterotrophy, whereby Archaea offset deleterious effects of (2)H by accessing (1)H generated by respiration of organic compounds.

  12. Non-nutritive sweeteners: no class effect on the glycaemic or appetite responses to ingested glucose.

    PubMed

    Bryant, C E; Wasse, L K; Astbury, N; Nandra, G; McLaughlin, J T

    2014-05-01

    There is considerable interest in whether non-nutritive sweeteners are sensed in the gastrointestinal tract to modulate appetitive or absorptive responses to ingested carbohydrate. We determined the effect of a panel of non-nutritive sweeteners, aspartame, saccharin and acesulfame-K, delivered in doses that would be consumed in normal usage. Each was given in combination with glucose, assessing their effect on glycemic responses and appetite in 10 healthy human subjects. There was no additional effect of aspartame or saccharin on the blood glucose response to oral glucose at any time point, although acesulfame-K exerted a small effect. However, none had an effect on perceptions of hunger or fullness. We conclude that there is no consistent evidence that non-nutrient sweeteners, when acutely consumed with glucose in dietetically relevant doses, have a class effect in modulating blood glucose in healthy human subjects. However, acesulfame-K may require further exploration.

  13. Insulin, catecholamines, glucose and antioxidant enzymes in oxidative damage during different loads in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Koska, J; Blazícek, P; Marko, M; Grna, J D; Kvetnanský, R; Vigas, M

    2000-01-01

    Exercise, insulin-induced hypoglycemia and oral glucose loads (50 g and 100 g) were used to compare the production of malondialdehyde and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in healthy subjects. Twenty male volunteers participated in the study. Exercise consisted of three consecutive work loads on a bicycle ergometer of graded intensity (1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 W/kg, 6 min each). Hypoglycemia was induced by insulin (Actrapid MC Novo, 0.1 IU/kg, i.v.). Oral administration of 50 g and 100 g of glucose was given to elevate plasma glucose. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was determined in red blood cells, whereas glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity was measured in whole blood. The concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) was determined by HPLC, catecholamines were assessed radioenzymatically and glucose was measured by the glucose-oxidase method. Exercise increased MDA concentrations, GSH-Px and SOD activities as well as plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline levels. Insulin hypoglycemia increased plasma adrenaline levels, but the concentrations of MDA and the activities of GSH-Px and SOD were decreased. Hyperglycemia increased plasma MDA concentrations, but the activities of GSH-Px and SOD were significantly higher after a larger dose of glucose only. Plasma catecholamines were unchanged. These results indicate that the transient increase of plasma catecholamine and insulin concentrations did not induce oxidative damage, while glucose already in the low dose was an important triggering factor for oxidative stress. PMID:10984077

  14. Alteration in Expression and Methylation of IGF2/H19 in Placenta and Umbilical Cord Blood Are Associated with Macrosomia Exposed to Intrauterine Hyperglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Su, Rina; Wang, Chen; Feng, Hui; Lin, Li; Liu, Xinyue; Wei, Yumei; Yang, Huixia

    2016-01-01

    Objective Macrosomia is one of the most common complications in gestational diabetes mellitus. Insulin-like growth factor 2 and H19 are two of the imprinted candidate genes that are involved in fetal growth and development. Change in methylation at differentially methylated region of the insulin-like growth factor 2 and H19 has been proved to be an early event related to the programming of metabolic profile, including macrosomia and small for gestational age in offspring. Here we hypothesize that alteration in methylation at differentially methylated region of the insulin-like growth factor 2 and H19 is associated with macrosomia induced by intrauterine hyperglycemia. Results The expression of insulin-like growth factor 2 is significant higher in gestational diabetes mellitus group (GDM group) compared to normal glucose tolerance group (NGT group) both in umbilical cord blood and placenta, while the expression of H19 is significant lower in GDM group in umbilical cord blood. The expression of insulin-like growth factor 2 is significant higher in normal glucose tolerance with macrosomia group (NGT-M) compared to normal glucose tolerance with normal birthweight group (NGT-NBW group) both in placenta and umbilical cord blood. A model with interaction term of gene expression of IGF2 and H19 found that IGF2 and the joint action of IGF2 and H19 in placenta showed significantly relationship with GDM/NGT and GDM-NBW/NGT-NBW. A borderline significant association was seen among IGF2 and H19 in cord blood and GDM-M/NGT-M. The methylation level at different CpG sites of insulin-like growth factor 2 and H19 in umbilical cord blood was also significantly different among groups. Based on the multivariable linear regression analysis, the methylation of the insulin-like growth factor 2 / H19 is closely related to birth weight and intrauterine hyperglycemia. Conclusions We confirmed the existence of alteration in DNA methylation in umbilical cord blood exposed to intrauterine

  15. Review of Glucose Oxidases and Glucose Dehydrogenases: A Bird's Eye View of Glucose Sensing Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, Stefano; Kojima, Katsuhiro; Sode, Koji

    2011-01-01

    The evolution from first-generation through third-generation glucose sensors has witnessed the appearance of a number of very diverse oxidoreductases, which vary tremendously in terms of origin, structure, substrate specificity, cofactor used as primary electron acceptor, and acceptable final electron acceptor. This article summarizes our present knowledge of redox enzymes currently utilized in commercially available glucose monitoring systems to promote a fuller appreciation of enzymatic properties and principles employed in blood glucose monitoring to help avoid potential errors. PMID:22027299

  16. Voluntary Oral Administration of Losartan in Rats.

    PubMed

    Diogo, Lucília N; Faustino, Inês V; Afonso, Ricardo A; Pereira, Sofia A; Monteiro, Emília C; Santos, Ana I

    2015-09-01

    Gavage is a widely performed technique for daily dosing in laboratory rodents. Although effective, gavage comprises a sequence of potentially stressful procedures for laboratory animals that may introduce bias into experimental results, especially when the drugs to be tested interfere with stress-dependent parameters. We aimed to test vehicles suitable for drug delivery by voluntary ingestion in rats. Specifically, Male Wistar rats (age, 2 to 3 mo) were used to test nut paste (NUT), peanut butter (PB), and sugar paste (SUG) as vehicles for long-term voluntary oral administration of losartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker. Vehicles were administered for 28 d without drug to assess effects on the glucose level and serum lipid profile. Losartan was mixed with vehicles and either offered to the rats or administered by gavage (14 d) for subsequent quantification of losartan plasma levels by HPLC. After a 2-d acclimation period, all rats voluntarily ate the vehicles, either alone or mixed with losartan. NUT administration reduced blood glucose levels. The SUG group had higher concentrations of losartan than did the gavage group, without changes in lipid and glucose profiles. Our results showed that NUT, PB, and SUG all are viable for daily single-dose voluntary ingestion of losartan and that SUG was the best alternative overall. Drug bioavailability was not reduced after voluntary ingestion, suggesting that this method is highly effective for chronic oral administration of losartan to laboratory rodents. PMID:26424254

  17. Voluntary Oral Administration of Losartan in Rats.

    PubMed

    Diogo, Lucília N; Faustino, Inês V; Afonso, Ricardo A; Pereira, Sofia A; Monteiro, Emília C; Santos, Ana I

    2015-09-01

    Gavage is a widely performed technique for daily dosing in laboratory rodents. Although effective, gavage comprises a sequence of potentially stressful procedures for laboratory animals that may introduce bias into experimental results, especially when the drugs to be tested interfere with stress-dependent parameters. We aimed to test vehicles suitable for drug delivery by voluntary ingestion in rats. Specifically, Male Wistar rats (age, 2 to 3 mo) were used to test nut paste (NUT), peanut butter (PB), and sugar paste (SUG) as vehicles for long-term voluntary oral administration of losartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker. Vehicles were administered for 28 d without drug to assess effects on the glucose level and serum lipid profile. Losartan was mixed with vehicles and either offered to the rats or administered by gavage (14 d) for subsequent quantification of losartan plasma levels by HPLC. After a 2-d acclimation period, all rats voluntarily ate the vehicles, either alone or mixed with losartan. NUT administration reduced blood glucose levels. The SUG group had higher concentrations of losartan than did the gavage group, without changes in lipid and glucose profiles. Our results showed that NUT, PB, and SUG all are viable for daily single-dose voluntary ingestion of losartan and that SUG was the best alternative overall. Drug bioavailability was not reduced after voluntary ingestion, suggesting that this method is highly effective for chronic oral administration of losartan to laboratory rodents.

  18. Voluntary Oral Administration of Losartan in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Diogo, Lucília N; Faustino, Inês V; Afonso, Ricardo A; Pereira, Sofia A; Monteiro, Emília C; Santos, Ana I

    2015-01-01

    Gavage is a widely performed technique for daily dosing in laboratory rodents. Although effective, gavage comprises a sequence of potentially stressful procedures for laboratory animals that may introduce bias into experimental results, especially when the drugs to be tested interfere with stress-dependent parameters. We aimed to test vehicles suitable for drug delivery by voluntary ingestion in rats. Specifically, Male Wistar rats (age, 2 to 3 mo) were used to test nut paste (NUT), peanut butter (PB), and sugar paste (SUG) as vehicles for long-term voluntary oral administration of losartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker. Vehicles were administered for 28 d without drug to assess effects on the glucose level and serum lipid profile. Losartan was mixed with vehicles and either offered to the rats or administered by gavage (14 d) for subsequent quantification of losartan plasma levels by HPLC. After a 2-d acclimation period, all rats voluntarily ate the vehicles, either alone or mixed with losartan. NUT administration reduced blood glucose levels. The SUG group had higher concentrations of losartan than did the gavage group, without changes in lipid and glucose profiles. Our results showed that NUT, PB, and SUG all are viable for daily single-dose voluntary ingestion of losartan and that SUG was the best alternative overall. Drug bioavailability was not reduced after voluntary ingestion, suggesting that this method is highly effective for chronic oral administration of losartan to laboratory rodents. PMID:26424254

  19. Influence of temperature on the precision of noninvasive glucose sensing by near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Rong; Chen, Wenliang; Chen, Yun; Xu, Kexin

    2008-02-01

    The use of near-infrared spectroscopy for the monitoring of blood glucose concentration is limited by many ambiguous factors, which leads to the prediction precision is not satisfied. Due to the weak interested signal and the difficulty to quantify the physiological noise directly, the absorbance induced by glucose concentration and temperature was analyzed based on Beer-Lambert Law and displacement between glucose and water. Then the transmittance of glucose aqueous solution in different temperatures was measured by spectrometer to investigate the influence of glucose concentration and temperature. As it's difficult to distinguish the influence of temperature from the diffuse reflectance, the Monte Carlo simulation was used to compute the light intensity induced by the change in glucose concentration and physiological temperature. Finally, the influence of actual physiological temperature on the prediction model of glucose concentration was estimated based on the oral glucose tolerance tests of two diabetics. The result showed that, near the normal physiological temperature, the intensity of diffuse reflectance caused by -0.1 °C change in temperature was equivalent to that caused by 2.7 mmol/L change in glucose concentration. Moreover, the proportion of prediction error induced by temperature to the total error was more than 50%.

  20. Monitoring of tissue optical properties using OCT: application for blood glucose analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larin, Kirill V.; Eledrisi, Mohsen S.; Ashitkov, Taras V.; Motamedi, Massoud; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2002-07-01

    Noninvasive monitoring of tissue optical properties in real time could significantly improve diagnostics and management of various diseases. Recently we proposed to use high- resolution Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) technique for measurement of tissue scattering coefficient at the depth of up to 1mm. Our pilot studies performed in vitro and in vivo demonstrated that measurement of tissue scattering with this technique can potentially be applied for noninvasive monitoring of blood glucose concentration. High resolution and coherent photon detection of the OCT technique allowed detection of glucose-induced changes in the scattering coefficient. In this paper we report results of in vivo studies performed in dog, New Zealand rabbits, and first human subjects. OCT system with the wavelength of 1300 nm was used in our experiments. OCT signal slope was measured and compared with actual blood glucose concentration. Bolus glucose injections and glucose clamping administrations were used in animal studies. OCT signals were recorded form human subjects during oral glucose tolerance test. Results obtained form both animal and human studies show good correlation between slope of the OCT signals and actual blood glucose concentration measured using standard glucometesr. Sensitivity and accuracy of blood glucose concentrations monitoring with the OCT is discussed. Obtained result suggest that OCT is a promising technique for noninvasive monitoring of tissue analytes including glucose.

  1. Nighttime Administration of Nicotine Improves Hepatic Glucose Metabolism via the Hypothalamic Orexin System in Mice.

    PubMed

    Tsuneki, Hiroshi; Nagata, Takashi; Fujita, Mikio; Kon, Kanta; Wu, Naizhen; Takatsuki, Mayumi; Yamaguchi, Kaoru; Wada, Tsutomu; Nishijo, Hisao; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Sakurai, Takeshi; Sasaoka, Toshiyasu

    2016-01-01

    Nicotine is known to affect the metabolism of glucose; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Therefore, we here investigated whether nicotine promoted the central regulation of glucose metabolism, which is closely linked to the circadian system. The oral intake of nicotine in drinking water, which mainly occurred during the nighttime active period, enhanced daily hypothalamic prepro-orexin gene expression and reduced hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetic db/db mice without affecting body weight, body fat content, and serum levels of insulin. Nicotine administered at the active period appears to be responsible for the effect on blood glucose, because nighttime but not daytime injections of nicotine lowered blood glucose levels in db/db mice. The chronic oral treatment with nicotine suppressed the mRNA levels of glucose-6-phosphatase, the rate-limiting enzyme of gluconeogenesis, in the liver of db/db and wild-type control mice. In the pyruvate tolerance test to evaluate hepatic gluconeogenic activity, the oral nicotine treatment moderately suppressed glucose elevations in normal mice and mice lacking dopamine receptors, whereas this effect was abolished in orexin-deficient mice and hepatic parasympathectomized mice. Under high-fat diet conditions, the oral intake of nicotine lowered blood glucose levels at the daytime resting period in wild-type, but not orexin-deficient, mice. These results indicated that the chronic daily administration of nicotine suppressed hepatic gluconeogenesis via the hypothalamic orexin-parasympathetic nervous system. Thus, the results of the present study may provide an insight into novel chronotherapy for type 2 diabetes that targets the central cholinergic and orexinergic systems. PMID:26492471

  2. Nighttime Administration of Nicotine Improves Hepatic Glucose Metabolism via the Hypothalamic Orexin System in Mice.

    PubMed

    Tsuneki, Hiroshi; Nagata, Takashi; Fujita, Mikio; Kon, Kanta; Wu, Naizhen; Takatsuki, Mayumi; Yamaguchi, Kaoru; Wada, Tsutomu; Nishijo, Hisao; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Sakurai, Takeshi; Sasaoka, Toshiyasu

    2016-01-01

    Nicotine is known to affect the metabolism of glucose; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Therefore, we here investigated whether nicotine promoted the central regulation of glucose metabolism, which is closely linked to the circadian system. The oral intake of nicotine in drinking water, which mainly occurred during the nighttime active period, enhanced daily hypothalamic prepro-orexin gene expression and reduced hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetic db/db mice without affecting body weight, body fat content, and serum levels of insulin. Nicotine administered at the active period appears to be responsible for the effect on blood glucose, because nighttime but not daytime injections of nicotine lowered blood glucose levels in db/db mice. The chronic oral treatment with nicotine suppressed the mRNA levels of glucose-6-phosphatase, the rate-limiting enzyme of gluconeogenesis, in the liver of db/db and wild-type control mice. In the pyruvate tolerance test to evaluate hepatic gluconeogenic activity, the oral nicotine treatment moderately suppressed glucose elevations in normal mice and mice lacking dopamine receptors, whereas this effect was abolished in orexin-deficient mice and hepatic parasympathectomized mice. Under high-fat diet conditions, the oral intake of nicotine lowered blood glucose levels at the daytime resting period in wild-type, but not orexin-deficient, mice. These results indicated that the chronic daily administration of nicotine suppressed hepatic gluconeogenesis via the hypothalamic orexin-parasympathetic nervous system. Thus, the results of the present study may provide an insight into novel chronotherapy for type 2 diabetes that targets the central cholinergic and orexinergic systems.

  3. Perioperative insulin and glucose infusion maintains normal insulin sensitivity after surgery.

    PubMed

    Nygren, J O; Thorell, A; Soop, M; Efendic, S; Brismar, K; Karpe, F; Nair, K S; Ljungqvist, O

    1998-07-01

    Elective surgery was performed after overnight fasting, a routine that may affect the metabolic response to surgery. We investigated the effects of insulin and glucose infusions before and during surgery on postoperative substrate utilization and insulin sensitivity. Seven patients were given insulin and glucose infusions 3 h before and during surgery (insulin group), and a control group of six patients underwent surgery after fasting overnight. Insulin sensitivity and glucose kinetics (D-[6,6-2H2]glucose) were measured before and immediately after surgery using a hyperinsulinemic, normoglycemic clamp. Glucose infusion rates and whole body glucose disposal decreased after surgery in the control group (-40 and -29%, respectively), whereas no significant change was found in the insulin group (+16 and +25%). Endogenous glucose production remained unchanged in both groups. Postoperative changes in cortisol, glucagon, fat oxidation, and free fatty acids were attenuated in the insulin group (vs. control). We conclude that perioperative insulin and glucose infusions minimize the endocrine stress response and normalize postoperative insulin sensitivity and substrate utilization.

  4. Glucose uptake in rat soleus - Effect of acute unloading and subsequent reloading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henriksen, Eric J.; Tischler, Marc E.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of acutely reduced weight bearing (unloading) on the in vitro uptake of 2-1,2-H-3-deoxy-D-glucose was studied in the soleus muscle by tail casting and suspending rats. After just 4 h, the uptake of 2-deoxy-D-glucose fell (-19 percent) and declined further after an additional 20 h of unloading. This diminution at 24 h was associated with slower oxidation of C-14-glucose and incorporation of C-14-glucose into glycogen. At 3 days of unloading, basal uptake of 2-deoxy-D-glucose did not differ from control. Reloading of the soleus after 1 or 3 days of unloading increased uptake of 2-deoxy-D-glucose above control and returned it to normal within 6 h and 4 days, respectively. These effects of unloading and recovery were caused by local changes in the soleus, because the extensor digitorum longus from the same hindlimbs did not display any alterations in uptake of 2-deoxy-D-glucose or metabolism of glucose.

  5. Oral Cancer Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Famous People Famous historical Arts & Entertainment Sports figures ... The Oral Cancer Foundation The Oral Cancer Foundation is a national public service, non-profit entity designed to reduce suffering ...

  6. Photodetectors and birefringence in ZnP2-С2h5 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamov, I. G.; Syrbu, N. N.; Dorogan, A. V.

    2013-03-01

    The spectral dependences of refractive indexes no(n⊥), ne(n||) and Δn=no(n⊥)-ne(n||) were studied in ZnP2-C2h5 crystals. The intersection of no(n⊥) and ne(n||) was found for λ0=0.906 μm. The crystal possesses positive dispersion Δn=no(n⊥)-ne(n||) in the region where λ>λ0, and a negative dispersion is observed in the region where λ<λ0. The electrical, spectral and azimuth characteristics of monolith n-р- and Ме-n-р-ZnP2C2h5 and discrete ZnP2-C2h5-ZnP2-D48 structures were studied, and a prognosis was made on the usage perspective of these devices.

  7. Analysis Of 2H-Evaporator Scale Pot Bottom Sample [HTF-13-11-28H

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L. N.

    2013-07-15

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is planning to remove a buildup of sodium aluminosilicate scale from the 2H-evaporator pot by loading and soaking the pot with heated 1.5 M nitric acid solution. Sampling and analysis of the scale material from the 2H evaporator has been performed so that the evaporator can be chemically cleaned beginning July of 2013. Historically, since the operation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), silicon in the DWPF recycle stream combines with aluminum in the typical tank farm supernate to form sodium aluminosilicate scale mineral deposits in the 2H-evaporator pot and gravity drain line. The 2H-evaporator scale samples analyzed by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) came from the bottom cone sections of the 2H-evaporator pot. The sample holder from the 2H-evaporator wall was virtually empty and was not included in the analysis. It is worth noting that after the delivery of these 2H-evaporator scale samples to SRNL for the analyses, the plant customer determined that the 2H evaporator could be operated for additional period prior to requiring cleaning. Therefore, there was no need for expedited sample analysis as was presented in the Technical Task Request. However, a second set of 2H evaporator scale samples were expected in May of 2013, which would need expedited sample analysis. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) confirmed the bottom cone section sample from the 2H-evaporator pot consisted of nitrated cancrinite, (a crystalline sodium aluminosilicate solid), clarkeite and uranium oxide. There were also mercury compound XRD peaks which could not be matched and further X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis of the sample confirmed the existence of elemental mercury or mercuric oxide. On ''as received'' basis, the scale contained an average of 7.09E+00 wt % total uranium (n = 3; st.dev. = 8.31E-01 wt %) with a U-235 enrichment of 5.80E-01 % (n = 3; st.dev. = 3.96E-02 %). The measured U-238 concentration was 7.05E+00 wt % (n=3, st

  8. Detection of C2H4 Neptune from ISO/PHT-S Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulz, B.; Encrenaz, Th.; Bezard, B.; Romani, P. N.; Lellouch, E.; Atreya, S. K.

    1999-01-01

    The 6-12 micrometer spectrum of Neptune has been recorded with the PHT-S instrument of the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) at a resolution of 0.095 micrometer. In addition to the emissions of CH4, CH3D and C2H6 previously identified, the spectrum shows the first firm identification of ethylene C2H4. The inferred column density above the 0.2-mbar level is in the range (1.1 - 3) x 10(exp 14) molecules/cm. To produce this low amount, previous photochemical models invoked rapid mixing between the source and sink regions of C2H4. We show that this requirement can be relaxed if recent laboratory measurements of CH4 photolysis branching ratios at Lyman alpha are used.

  9. Theoretical study of the C-H bond dissociation energy of C2H

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.

    1990-01-01

    A theoretical study of the convergence of the C-H bond dissociation energy D(0) in C2H with respect to both the one- and n-particle spaces is presented. The calculated C-H bond energies of C2H2 and C2H4, which are in excellent agreement with experiment, are used for calibration. The best estimate for D(0) of 112.4 + or - 2.0 kcal/mol is slightly below the recent experimental value of 116.3 + or - 2.6 kcal/mol, but substantially above a previous theoretical estimate of 102 kcal/mol. The remaining discrepancy with experiment may reflect primarily the uncertainty in the experimental D(0) value of C2 required in the analysis.

  10. N2H(+) in the Orion ambient ridge - Cloud clumping versus rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Womack, Maria; Ziurys, L. M.; Sage, L. J.

    1993-01-01

    The IRAM 30-m telescope is used to obtain spectra of the J = 1 yields 0 transition of N2H(+) over a 2 x 2 arcsec area toward the Orion-KL/IRc2 star-forming region with 26-arcsec angular resolution. The N2H(+) emission, which exclusively traces the ridge gas, exhibits multiple radial velocities which appear to arise from the presence of at least four clouds of quiescent material. It is argued that the velocity structure of N2H(+) does not uniformly change across OMC-1 and, consequently, is inconsistent with the presence of large-scale differential rotation of the extended ridge along the SW-NE axis about IRc2. The coincidence of the two larger clouds with star-forming activity in Orion-KL suggests that either the quiescent gas is being pushed apart or that the star formation may have been triggered by a cloud-cloud interaction.

  11. Oral candidiasis mimicking an oral squamous cell carcinoma: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Hélder Antônio Rebelo; Paiva, Helena Borges; de Freitas Silva, Brunno Santos; Fonseca, Felipe Paiva; da Silva, Fernanda Bragança Monteiro; Pontes, Flávia Sirotheau Corrêa; Dos Santos Pinto, Décio

    2012-03-01

    Oral candidiasis is a significant problem in immune-compromised patients. The most common forms of mucosal candidiasis are oropharyngeal, oesophageal and vaginal, and more than 90% of HIV positive persons will manifest at least one episode of oropharyngeal candidiasis. Local and systemic factors such as uninterrupted daily use of a prosthesis by patients, smoking habit, as well as high glucose intake may contribute to the development of the lesion. The aim of this article is to report an uncommon case of oral candidiasis presenting an aggressive clinical behaviour in a 64-year-old male patient, with a significant smoking habit and a medical history of non-controlled diabetes. The lesion affected the hard and soft palate of the right side, revealing erythematous and ulcerated areas, elevated borders and central portions resembling necrosis, mimicking the clinical features of oral squamous cell carcinoma. However, the correct diagnosis of oral candidiasis was obtained after histopathological and cytological examinations and the patient was easily treated with traditional antifungal drugs and correction of his glucose levels.

  12. Oral Steroids for Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Andrew D; Clarke, Jesse; Williams, Timothy K

    2015-01-01

    Contact/allergic dermatitis is frequently treated inappropriately with lower-than-recommended doses or inadequate duration of treatment with oral and intramuscular glucocorticoids. This article highlights a case of dermatitis in a Ranger Assessment and Selection Program student who was improperly treated over 2 weeks with oral steroids after being bit by Cimex lectularius, commonly known as bed bugs. The article also highlights the pitfalls of improper oral steroid dosing and provides reasoning for longer-duration oral steroid treatment.

  13. HAD Oral History Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbrook, Jarita

    2014-01-01

    The Historical Astronomy Division is the recipient of an American Institute of Physics Neils Bohr Library Grant for Oral History. HAD has assembled a team of volunteers to conduct oral history interviews since May 2013. Each oral history interview varies in length between two and six hours. This presentation is an introduction to the HAD Oral History Project and the activities of the team during the first six months of the grant.

  14. Oral Steroids for Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Andrew D; Clarke, Jesse; Williams, Timothy K

    2015-01-01

    Contact/allergic dermatitis is frequently treated inappropriately with lower-than-recommended doses or inadequate duration of treatment with oral and intramuscular glucocorticoids. This article highlights a case of dermatitis in a Ranger Assessment and Selection Program student who was improperly treated over 2 weeks with oral steroids after being bit by Cimex lectularius, commonly known as bed bugs. The article also highlights the pitfalls of improper oral steroid dosing and provides reasoning for longer-duration oral steroid treatment. PMID:26125159

  15. Glucose metabolism in Acetobacter aceti.

    PubMed

    Flückiger, J; Ettlinger, L

    1977-08-26

    Acetobacter aceti NCIB 8554 grows on a minimal medium with ethanol but not with glucose as carbon and energy source. Addition of glucose to a wild type culture on ethanol has no influence on growth of the organism. Growth of a glucose sensitive mutant A5 is inhibited by the addition of glucose until all glucose has disappeared from the medium. In order to determine the routes by which glucose is metabolised in wild type and mutant, radiorespirometric, enzymatic, and uptake experiments have been performed. For the radiorespirometric experiments of the "continuous substrate feeding" type as apparatus has been constructed. Of the glucose entering the cells about 30% is excreted as gluconate and 6% metabolised with liberation of C-1 as CO2. The rest is accumulated intracellularly. No differences were found between wild type and mutant. Under different growth conditions and with different enzymatic assay methods no pyruvate kinase activity (EC 2.7.1.40) could be detected. This might explain the inability of A. aceti to grow on glucose.

  16. Antihypertensive drugs and glucose metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Rizos, Christos V; Elisaf, Moses S

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension plays a major role in the development and progression of micro- and macrovascular disease. Moreover, increased blood pressure often coexists with additional cardiovascular risk factors such as insulin resistance. As a result the need for a comprehensive management of hypertensive patients is critical. However, the various antihypertensive drug categories have different effects on glucose metabolism. Indeed, angiotensin receptor blockers as well as angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors have been associated with beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis. Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) have an overall neutral effect on glucose metabolism. However, some members of the CCBs class such as azelnidipine and manidipine have been shown to have advantageous effects on glucose homeostasis. On the other hand, diuretics and β-blockers have an overall disadvantageous effect on glucose metabolism. Of note, carvedilol as well as nebivolol seem to differentiate themselves from the rest of the β-blockers class, being more attractive options regarding their effect on glucose homeostasis. The adverse effects of some blood pressure lowering drugs on glucose metabolism may, to an extent, compromise their cardiovascular protective role. As a result the effects on glucose homeostasis of the various blood pressure lowering drugs should be taken into account when selecting an antihypertensive treatment, especially in patients which are at high risk for developing diabetes. PMID:25068013

  17. Alginate cryogel based glucose biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatoni, Amin; Windy Dwiasi, Dian; Hermawan, Dadan

    2016-02-01

    Cryogel is macroporous structure provides a large surface area for biomolecule immobilization. In this work, an alginate cryogel based biosensor was developed to detect glucose. The cryogel was prepared using alginate cross-linked by calcium chloride under sub-zero temperature. This porous structure was growth in a 100 μL micropipette tip with a glucose oxidase enzyme entrapped inside the cryogel. The glucose detection was based on the colour change of redox indicator, potassium permanganate, by the hydrogen peroxide resulted from the conversion of glucose. The result showed a porous structure of alginate cryogel with pores diameter of 20-50 μm. The developed glucose biosensor was showed a linear response in the glucose detection from 1.0 to 5.0 mM with a regression of y = 0.01x+0.02 and R2 of 0.994. Furthermore, the glucose biosensor was showed a high operational stability up to 10 times of uninterrupted glucose detections.

  18. First-principles characterization of potassium intercalation in the hexagonal 2H-MoS2

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, Amity; Kathmann, Shawn M.; Lilga, Michael A.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Hallen, Richard T.; Mei, Donghai

    2012-01-12

    Periodic density functional theory calculations were performed to study the structural and electronic properties of potassium intercalated into hexagonal MoS{sub 2} (2H-MoS{sub 2}). Metallic potassium (K) atoms are incrementally loaded in the hexagonal sites of the interstitial spaces between MoS2 sheets of the 2H-MoS{sub 2} bulk structure generating 2H-KxMoS2 (0.125 {<=} x {<=} 1.0) structures. To accommodate the potassium atoms, the interstitial spacing c parameter in the 2H-MoS{sub 2} bulk expands from 12.816 {angstrom} in 2H-MoS{sub 2} to 16.086 {angstrom} in 2H-K{sub 0.125}MoS{sub 2}. The second lowest potassium loading concentration (K{sub 0.25}MoS{sub 2}) results in the largest interstitial spacing expansion (to c = 16.726 {angstrom}). Our calculations show that there is a small gradual contraction of the interstitial spacing as the potassium loading increases with c = 14.839 {angstrom} for KMoS{sub 2}. This interstitial contraction is correlated with an in-plane expansion of the MoS{sub 2} sheets, which is in good agreement with experimental X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. The electronic analysis shows that potassium readily donates its 4s electron to the conduction band of the 2H-K{sub x}MoS{sub 2}, and is largely ionic in character. As a result of the electron donation, the 2H-K{sub x}MoS{sub 2} system changes from a semiconductor to a more metallic system with increasing potassium intercalation. For loadings 0.25 {<=} x {<=} 0.625, triangular Mo-Mo-Mo moieties are prominent and tend to form rhombitrihexagonal motifs. Intercalation of H{sub 2}O molecules that solvate the K atoms is likely to occur in catalytic conditions. The inclusion of two H{sub 2}O molecules per K atom in the K{sub 0.25}MoS{sub 2} structure shows good agreement with XRD measurements.

  19. Terahertz Spectroscopy of the Bending Vibrations of Acetylene 12C2H2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shanshan; Drouin, Brian J.; Pearson, John C.

    2009-11-01

    Twenty P-branch transitions of 12C2H2 have been measured in the 0.8-1.6 THz region of its bending vibrational difference band. The accuracy of these measurements is estimated to be 100 kHz. The 12C2H2 molecules were generated under room temperature by passing 150 mTorr H2O vapor through calcium carbide (CaC2) powder. The observed transitions were modeled together with prior far-infrared data involving the bending levels with ∑\

  20. Low-temperature solid-state phase transformations in 2H silicon carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Will, H. A.; Powell, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    Single crystals of 2H SiC were observed to undergo phase transformations at temperatures as low as 400 C. Some 2H crystals transformed to a structure with one-dimensional disorder along the crystal c axis. Others transformed to a faulted cubic/6H structure. The transformation is time and temperature dependent and is greatly enhanced by dislocations. Observations indicate that the transformation takes place by means of a slip process perpendicular to the c axis. Cubic SiC crystals were observed to undergo a solid state transformation above 1400 C.

  1. Implications of C2H photochemistry on the modeling of C2 distributions in comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, William M.; Bao, Yihan; Urdahl, Randall S.

    1991-01-01

    Laboratory studies of the secondary photolysis of the C2H radical are summarized and used to explain some discrepancies between models of C2 emission in comets. These studies show that several states of the C2 radicals produced in the photolysis of C2H2 at 193 nm have bimodal rotational distributions when plotted as a Boltzmann diagram. They also establish that the C2 radicals are formed with varying degrees of vibrational excitation, so that if they are formed in a similar manner in comets, the C2 radicals must start out with this initial vibrational excitation.

  2. Calculation of the Aluminosilicate Half-Life Formation Time in the 2H Evaporator

    SciTech Connect

    Fondeur, F.F.

    2000-09-21

    The 2H Evaporator contains large quantities of aluminosilicate solids deposited on internal fixtures. The proposed cleaning operations will dissolve the solids in nitric acid. Operations will then neutralize the waste prior to transfer to a waste tank. Combining recent calculations of heat transfer for the 2H Evaporator cleaning operations and laboratory experiments for dissolution of solid samples from the pot, the authors estimated the re-formation rate for aluminosilicates during cooling. The results indicate a half-life formation of 17 hours when evaporator solution cools from 60 degrees C and 9 hours when cooled from 90 degrees C.

  3. Davis–Beirut Reaction: Route to Thiazolo-, Thiazino-, and Thiazepino-2H-indazoles

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Methods for the construction of thiazolo-, thiazino-, and thiazepino-2H-indazoles from o-nitrobenzaldehydes or o-nitrobenzyl bromides and S-trityl-protected 1°-aminothioalkanes are reported. The process consists of formation of the requisite N-(2-nitrobenzyl)(tritylthio)alkylamine, subsequent deprotection of the trityl moiety with TFA, and immediate treatment with aq. KOH in methanol under Davis–Beirut reaction conditions to deliver the target thiazolo-, thiazino-, or thiazepino-2H-indazole in good overall yield. Subsequent S-oxidation gives the corresponding sulfone. PMID:25019525

  4. High-resolution absorption cross sections of C2H6 at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargreaves, Robert J.; Buzan, Eric; Dulick, Michael; Bernath, Peter F.

    2015-11-01

    Infrared absorption cross sections near 3.3 μm have been obtained for ethane, C2H6. These were acquired at elevated temperatures (up to 773 K) using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and tube furnace with a resolution of 0.005 cm-1. The integrated absorption was calibrated using composite infrared spectra taken from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). These new measurements are the first high-resolution infrared C2H6 cross sections at elevated temperatures.

  5. Developing Oral Communication Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    Intended for use by both elementary and secondary school teachers, the two papers in this report stress the importance of developing students' oral and written communication skills. The first paper, "Relationship of Oral Communication to Reading," by Phil Backlund and John Johnson, argues that ability in oral communication is a prerequisite to the…

  6. Bibliography on Oral History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waserman, Manfred J., Comp.

    This annotated bibliography covers articles and books dealing with oral history published between 1950 and 1970. In addition to works treating oral history as a methodology for historical discovery, the guide includes a separate annotated list of twenty selected books that use oral history material in the development of their themes and…

  7. Oral Contraceptives and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... oral contraceptives are available in the United States today? How could oral contraceptives influence cancer risk? How ... oral contraceptives are available in the United States today? Two types of oral contraceptives (birth control pills) ...

  8. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Neck and Oral Pathology Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Close to 42,000 Americans will be diagnosed ... Neck and Oral Pathology Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Close to 42,000 Americans will be diagnosed ...

  9. Unfolding the Quantum Nature of Proton Bound Symmetric Dimers of (MeOH)2H+ and (Me2O)2H+: a Theoretical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Jake Acedera; Kuo, Jer-Lai

    2014-06-01

    A proton under a tug of war between two competing Lewis bases is a common motif in biological systems and proton transfer processes. Over the past decades, model compounds for such motifs can be prepared by delicate stoichiometric control of salt solutions. Unfortunately, condensed phase studies, which aims to identify the key vibrational signatures are complicated to analyze. As a result, gas-phase studies do provide promising insights on the behavior of the shared proton. This study attempts to understand the quantum nature of the shared proton under theoretical paradigms. Proton bound symmetric dimers of (MeOH)2H+ and (Me2O)2H+ are chosen as the model compounds. The simulation is performed using Density Functional Theory (DFT) at the B3LYP level with 6-311+G(d,p) as the basis set. It was found out that stretching mode of shared proton couples with several other normal modes and its corresponding oscillator strength do distribute to other normal modes. J.R. Roscioli, L.R. McCunn and M.A. Johnson. Science 2007, 316, 249 T.E. DeCoursey. Physiol. Rev., 2003, 83, 475 E.S. Stoyanov. Psys. Chem. Phys., 2000,2,1137

  10. The conformational dynamics of H2-H3n and S2-H6 in gating ligand entry into the buried binding cavity of vitamin D receptor

    PubMed Central

    Tee, Wei-Ven; Ripen, Adiratna Mat; Mohamad, Saharuddin Bin

    2016-01-01

    Crystal structures of holo vitamin D receptor (VDR) revealed a canonical conformation in which the ligand is entrapped in a hydrophobic cavity buried in the ligand-binding domain (LBD). The mousetrap model postulates that helix 12 is positioned away from the domain to expose the interior cavity. However, the extended form of helix 12 is likely due to artifacts during crystallization. In this study, we set out to investigate conformational dynamics of apo VDR using molecular dynamics simulation on microsecond timescale. Here we show the neighboring backbones of helix 2-helix 3n and beta strand 2-helix 6 of LBD, instead of the helix 12, undergo large-scale motion, possibly gating the entrance of ligand to the ligand binding domain. Docking analysis to the simulated open structure of VDR with the estimated free energy of −37.0 kJ/mol, would emphasise the role of H2-H3n and S2-H6 in facilitating the entrance of calcitriol to the LBD of VDR. PMID:27786277

  11. Glucose, insulin concentrations and obesity in childhood and adolescence as predictors of NIDDM.

    PubMed

    McCance, D R; Pettitt, D J; Hanson, R L; Jacobsson, L T; Bennett, P H; Knowler, W C

    1994-06-01

    Metabolic abnormalities antedate the development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) by some years. How these metabolic abnormalities relate to the genetic component of the disease and to the subsequent prediction of diabetes is unknown. The present study was designed to examine the association of parental diabetes with relative weight, fasting and 2-h plasma glucose and fasting and 2-h serum insulin in childhood, and to identify which of these variables were most predictive of subsequent NIDDM. Subjects comprised 1258 Pima Indians aged 5-19 years with normal glucose tolerance participating in a longitudinal population-based study. Age-sex-adjusted values of relative weight, fasting and 2-h glucose and fasting and 2-h insulin were positively associated with parental diabetes. Only one of 138 subjects with two non-diabetic parents developed diabetes. Among 1120 subjects with at least one diabetic parent, 101 (9.0%) developed diabetes during a mean follow up of 8.4 years. Fasting insulin was a significant predictor of diabetes, but did not add to the predictive value of relative weight. Relative weight and 2-h and fasting plasma glucose were the variables most predictive of NIDDM in childhood and adolescence. Against a background of parental diabetes, high fasting insulin concentrations predict diabetes, compatible with the hypothesis that insulin resistance is an early metabolic abnormality leading to NIDDM. In this study, however, its predictive power did not add significantly to that of relative weight, with which it was correlated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Glucose-stat, a glucose-controlled continuous culture.

    PubMed Central

    Kleman, G L; Chalmers, J J; Luli, G W; Strohl, W R

    1991-01-01

    A predictive and feedback proportional control algorithm, developed for fed-batch fermentations and described in a companion paper (G. L. Kleman, J. J. Chalmers, G. W. Luli, and W. R. Strohl, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57:910-917, 1991), was used in this work to control a continuous culture on the basis of the soluble-glucose concentration (called the glucose-stat). This glucose-controlled continuous-culture system was found to reach and maintain steady state for 11 to 24 residence times when four different background glucose concentrations (0.27, 0.50, 0.7, and 1.5 g/liter) were used. The predictive-plus-feedback control system yielded very tight control of the continuous nutristat cultures; glucose concentrations were maintained at the set points with less than 0.003 standard error. Acetate production by Escherichia coli B in glucose-stats was found not to be correlated with the level of steady-state soluble-glucose concentration. PMID:2059050

  13. Glucose-stat, a glucose-controlled continuous culture.

    PubMed

    Kleman, G L; Chalmers, J J; Luli, G W; Strohl, W R

    1991-04-01

    A predictive and feedback proportional control algorithm, developed for fed-batch fermentations and described in a companion paper (G. L. Kleman, J. J. Chalmers, G. W. Luli, and W. R. Strohl, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57:910-917, 1991), was used in this work to control a continuous culture on the basis of the soluble-glucose concentration (called the glucose-stat). This glucose-controlled continuous-culture system was found to reach and maintain steady state for 11 to 24 residence times when four different background glucose concentrations (0.27, 0.50, 0.7, and 1.5 g/liter) were used. The predictive-plus-feedback control system yielded very tight control of the continuous nutristat cultures; glucose concentrations were maintained at the set points with less than 0.003 standard error. Acetate production by Escherichia coli B in glucose-stats was found not to be correlated with the level of steady-state soluble-glucose concentration. PMID:2059050

  14. Rapid rehydration and moderate plasma glucose elevation by fluid containing enzymatically synthesized glycogen.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Kei; Ishihara, Kengo; Ishida, Mariko; Watanabe, Ai; Fujiwara, Mika; Komatsu, Yuko; Shirai, Mika; Kato, Yoshiho; Takanezawa, Ami; Furuyashiki, Takashi; Takata, Hiroki; Seyama, Yousuke

    2011-01-01

    Enzymatically synthesized glycogen (ESG) has high solubility and its solution has low osmotic pressure. Therefore ESG solution could be rapidly absorbed and could be adequate for water rehydration and carbohydrate supplementation during exercise. The object of this study was to evaluate the gastric emptying time and plasma glucose elevation after an administration of ESG solution in comparison with another carbohydrate solution by using a laboratory animal. Male BALB/c mice were administered 10% w/v solution of glucose, maltodextrin, starch, naturally synthesized glycogen (NSG) and ESG at a dose of 20 µL/g body weight for the measurement of gastric emptying rate (Experiment 1) and 10 µL/g body weight for the measurement of plasma glucose elevation (Experiment 2). The osmolarity of gastric content was lower in the ESG and maltodextrin group than the other carbohydrate group. Weight of gastric fluid was significantly lower in the ESG and water group than the glucose group (p<0.01). Plasma glucose level was significantly lower in the ESG group than the glucose group from 0 to 60 min after administration (p<0.01), whereas plasma glucose level was same from 60 to 120 min for the ESG and glucose group (p=0.948). In Experiment 3, BALB/c mice ran on a treadmill for 2 h and were administered 8% of ESG or glucose solution (1.75, 3.5 or 7.0 µL/g body weight) every 20 min during running. There was no difference in post-exercise muscle glycogen level. These data suggest that 1) ESG beverage does not disturb water absorption because of its short gastric emptying time and 2) ESG slowly elevates plasma glucose level and maintains it for a prolonged time compared to the glucose solution.

  15. Does hyperketonemia affect protein or glucose kinetics in postabsorptive or traumatized man

    SciTech Connect

    Crowe, P.J.; Royle, G.T.; Wagner, D.; Burke, J.F. )

    1989-10-01

    Leucine and glucose turnover were measured using simultaneous infusions of (13C)leucine and (2H)glucose before and during an infusion of Na DL-hydroxybutyrate (Na DL-HB) in overnight-fasted patients the day before and 3 days after total hip replacement. The ketone body infusion before surgery resulted in a significant increase in plasma leucine concentration and leucine turnover, while glucose concentration and turnover decreased. Surgery increased leucine turnover. Ketone body infusion after surgery caused a further increased leucine turnover while turnover fell as before surgery. We suggest that exogenous ketone bodies decrease hepatic glucose production and probably stimulate a rise in protein synthesis above breakdown leading to a decreased nitrogen excretion as observed by other investigators. Despite the metabolic adaptation to trauma, this response was not affected by surgery.

  16. Freeze-thawing behaviour of highly concentrated aqueous alkali chloride-glucose systems.

    PubMed

    Kajiwara, K; Motegi, A; Murase, N

    2001-01-01

    The freeze-thawing behaviour of highly concentrated aqueous alkali chloride-glucose systems was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In the aqueous NaCl-glucose solution system, single or double glass transitions followed by the corresponding devitrification exotherms were observed during rewarming. In the aqueous KCl-glucose solution system, on the other hand, a single glass transition followed by an exotherm was observed during rewarming. The presence of double glass transitions observed for a certain composition of the aqueous NaCl-glucose solution was taken as an evidence for the liquid-liquid immiscibility at low temperatures. Two kinds of crystallisation accompanied by exotherms during rewarming were identified by X-ray diffraction as ice and ice/NaCl x 2H(2)O, or ice/KCl eutectic component. PMID:11788873

  17. KDT501, a Derivative from Hops, Normalizes Glucose Metabolism and Body Weight in Rodent Models of Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Konda, Veera R.; Desai, Anuradha; Darland, Gary; Grayson, Neile; Bland, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    Aims/Hypothesis We developed KDT501, a novel substituted 1,3-cyclopentadione chemically derived from hop extracts, and evaluated it in various in vitro and in vivo models of diabetes and insulin sensitivity. Methods KDT501 was evaluated for anti-inflammatory effects in monocyte/macrophage cells; agonistic activity for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR); lipogenesis and gene expression profile in human subcutaneous adipocytes. Body composition, glucose, insulin sensitivity, and lipids were assessed in diet-induced obesity (DIO) mice and Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats after oral administration. Results KDT501 mediated lipogenesis in 3T3L1 and human subcutaneous adipocytes; however, the gene expression profile of KDT501 differed from that of the full PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone, suggesting that KDT501 has pleiotropic biological activities. In addition, KDT501 showed only modest, partial PPARγ agonist activity and exhibited anti-inflammatory effects in monocytes/macrophages that were not observed with rosiglitazone. In a DIO mouse model, oral administration of KDT501 significantly reduced fed blood glucose, glucose/insulin AUC following an oral glucose bolus, and body fat. In ZDF rats, oral administration of KDT501 significantly reduced fed glucose, fasting plasma glucose, and glucose AUC after an oral glucose bolus. Significant, dose-dependent reductions of plasma hemoglobin A1c, weight gain, total cholesterol, and triglycerides were also observed in animals receiving KDT501. Conclusion These results indicate that KDT501 produces a unique anti-diabetic profile that is distinct in its spectrum of pharmacological effects and biological mechanism from both metformin and pioglitazone. KDT501 may thus constitute a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes and associated conditions. PMID:24498211

  18. Mathematical Modeling of Renal Tubular Glucose Absorption after Glucose Load

    PubMed Central

    De Gaetano, Andrea; Panunzi, Simona; Eliopoulos, Dimitris; Hardy, Thomas; Mingrone, Geltrude

    2014-01-01

    A partial differential Progressive Tubular Reabsorption (PTR) model, describing renal tubular glucose reabsorption and urinary glucose excretion following a glucose load perturbation, is proposed and fitted to experimental data from five subjects. For each subject the Glomerular Filtration Rate was estimated and both blood and urine glucose were sampled following an Intra-Venous glucose bolus. The PTR model was compared with a model representing the conventional Renal Threshold Hypothesis (RTH). A delay bladder compartment was introduced in both formulations. For the RTH model, the average threshold for glycosuria varied between 9.90±4.50 mmol/L and 10.63±3.64 mmol/L (mean ± Standard Deviation) under different hypotheses; the corresponding average maximal transport rates varied between 0.48±0.45 mmol/min (86.29±81.22 mg/min) and 0.50±0.42 mmol/min (90.62±76.15 mg/min). For the PTR Model, the average maximal transports rates varied between 0.61±0.52 mmol/min (109.57±93.77 mg/min) and 0.83±0.95 mmol/min (150.13±171.85 mg/min). The time spent by glucose inside the tubules before entering the bladder compartment varied between 1.66±0.73 min and 2.45±1.01 min. The PTR model proved much better than RTH at fitting observations, by correctly reproducing the delay of variations of glycosuria with respect to the driving glycemia, and by predicting non-zero urinary glucose elimination at low glycemias. This model is useful when studying both transients and steady-state glucose elimination as well as in assessing drug-related changes in renal glucose excretion. PMID:24489817

  19. Glucose stimulates calcium-activated chloride secretion in small intestinal cells.

    PubMed

    Yin, Liangjie; Vijaygopal, Pooja; MacGregor, Gordon G; Menon, Rejeesh; Ranganathan, Perungavur; Prabhakaran, Sreekala; Zhang, Lurong; Zhang, Mei; Binder, Henry J; Okunieff, Paul; Vidyasagar, Sadasivan

    2014-04-01

    The sodium-coupled glucose transporter-1 (SGLT1)-based oral rehydration solution (ORS) used in the management of acute diarrhea does not substantially reduce stool output, despite the fact that glucose stimulates the absorption of sodium and water. To explain this phenomenon, we investigated the possibility that glucose might also stimulate anion secretion. Transepithelial electrical measurements and isotope flux measurements in Ussing chambers were used to study the effect of glucose on active chloride and fluid secretion in mouse small intestinal cells and human Caco-2 cells. Confocal fluorescence laser microscopy and immunohistochemistry measured intracellular changes in calcium, sodium-glucose linked transporter, and calcium-activated chloride channel (anoctamin 1) expression. In addition to enhancing active sodium absorption, glucose increased intracellular calcium and stimulated electrogenic chloride secretion. Calcium imaging studies showed increased intracellular calcium when intestinal cells were exposed to glucose. Niflumic acid, but not glibenclamide, inhibited glucose-stimulated chloride secretion in mouse small intestines and in Caco-2 cells. Glucose-stimulated chloride secretion was not seen in ileal tissues incubated with the intracellular calcium chelater BAPTA-AM and the sodium-potassium-2 chloride cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) blocker bumetanide. These observations establish that glucose not only stimulates active Na absorption, a well-established phenomenon, but also induces a Ca-activated chloride secretion. This may explain the failure of glucose-based ORS to markedly reduce stool output in acute diarrhea. These results have immediate potential to improve the treatment outcomes for acute and/or chronic diarrheal diseases by replacing glucose with compounds that do not stimulate chloride secretion.

  20. Involvement of pregnane X receptor in the impaired glucose utilization induced by atorvastatin in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Ling, Zhaoli; Shu, Nan; Xu, Ping; Wang, Fan; Zhong, Zeyu; Sun, Binbin; Li, Feng; Zhang, Mian; Zhao, Kaijing; Tang, Xiange; Wang, Zhongjian; Zhu, Liang; Liu, Li; Liu, Xiaodong

    2016-01-15

    Accumulating evidences demonstrated that statins impaired glucose utilization. This study was aimed to investigate whether PXR was involved in the atorvastatin-impaired glucose utilization. Rifampicin/PCN served as PXR activator control. Glucose utilization, glucose uptake, protein levels of GLUT2, GCK, PDK2, PEPCK1 and G6Pase in HepG2 cells were measured. PXR inhibitors, PXR overexpression and PXR siRNA were applied to verify the role of PXR in atorvastatin-impaired glucose utilization in cells. Hypercholesterolemia rats induced by high fat diet feeding, orally received atorvastatin (5 and 10 mg/kg), pravastatin (10 mg/kg) for 14 days, or intraperitoneally received PCN (35 mg/kg) for 4 days. Results showed that glucose utilization was markedly inhibited by atorvastatin, simvastatin, pitavastatin, lovastatin and rifampicin. Neither rosuvastatin nor pravastatin showed the similar effect. Atorvastatin and pravastatin were selected for the following study. Atorvastatin and rifampicin significantly inhibited glucose uptake and down-regulated GLUT2 and GCK expressions. Similarly, overexpressed PXR significantly down-regulated GLUT2 and GCK expressions and impaired glucose utilization. Ketoconazole and resveratrol attenuated the impaired glucose utilization by atorvastatin and rifampicin in both parental and overexpressed PXR cells. PXR knockdown significantly up-regulated GLUT2 and GCK proteins and abolished the decreased glucose consumption and uptake by atorvastatin and rifampicin. Animal experiments showed that atorvastatin and PCN significantly elicited postprandial hyperglycemia, leading to increase in glucose AUC. Expressions of GLUT2 and GCK in rat livers were markedly down-regulated by atorvastatin and PCN. In conclusion, atorvastatin impaired glucose utilization in hepatocytes via repressing GLUT2 and GCK expressions, which may be partly due to PXR activation. PMID:26616219

  1. Involvement of pregnane X receptor in the impaired glucose utilization induced by atorvastatin in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Ling, Zhaoli; Shu, Nan; Xu, Ping; Wang, Fan; Zhong, Zeyu; Sun, Binbin; Li, Feng; Zhang, Mian; Zhao, Kaijing; Tang, Xiange; Wang, Zhongjian; Zhu, Liang; Liu, Li; Liu, Xiaodong

    2016-01-15

    Accumulating evidences demonstrated that statins impaired glucose utilization. This study was aimed to investigate whether PXR was involved in the atorvastatin-impaired glucose utilization. Rifampicin/PCN served as PXR activator control. Glucose utilization, glucose uptake, protein levels of GLUT2, GCK, PDK2, PEPCK1 and G6Pase in HepG2 cells were measured. PXR inhibitors, PXR overexpression and PXR siRNA were applied to verify the role of PXR in atorvastatin-impaired glucose utilization in cells. Hypercholesterolemia rats induced by high fat diet feeding, orally received atorvastatin (5 and 10 mg/kg), pravastatin (10 mg/kg) for 14 days, or intraperitoneally received PCN (35 mg/kg) for 4 days. Results showed that glucose utilization was markedly inhibited by atorvastatin, simvastatin, pitavastatin, lovastatin and rifampicin. Neither rosuvastatin nor pravastatin showed the similar effect. Atorvastatin and pravastatin were selected for the following study. Atorvastatin and rifampicin significantly inhibited glucose uptake and down-regulated GLUT2 and GCK expressions. Similarly, overexpressed PXR significantly down-regulated GLUT2 and GCK expressions and impaired glucose utilization. Ketoconazole and resveratrol attenuated the impaired glucose utilization by atorvastatin and rifampicin in both parental and overexpressed PXR cells. PXR knockdown significantly up-regulated GLUT2 and GCK proteins and abolished the decreased glucose consumption and uptake by atorvastatin and rifampicin. Animal experiments showed that atorvastatin and PCN significantly elicited postprandial hyperglycemia, leading to increase in glucose AUC. Expressions of GLUT2 and GCK in rat livers were markedly down-regulated by atorvastatin and PCN. In conclusion, atorvastatin impaired glucose utilization in hepatocytes via repressing GLUT2 and GCK expressions, which may be partly due to PXR activation.

  2. Accuracy of a Novel Noninvasive Multisensor Technology to Estimate Glucose in Diabetic Subjects During Dynamic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Sobel, Sandra I.; Chomentowski, Peter J.; Vyas, Nisarg; Andre, David

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether an approach of multisensor technology with integrated data analysis in an armband system (SenseWear® Pro Armband, SWA) can provide estimates of plasma glucose concentration in diabetes. In all, 41 subjects with diabetes participated. On day 1 subjects underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and on day 2 a 60-minute treadmill test (TT). SWA plasma glucose estimates were compared against reference peripheral venous glucose concentrations. A continuous glucose monitoring device (CGM) was also placed on each subject to serve as a reference for clinical comparison. Pearson coefficient, Clarke error grid (CEG), and mean absolute relative difference (MARD) analyses were used to compare the performance of plasma glucose estimation. There were significant correlations between plasma glucose concentrations estimated by the SWA and the reference plasma glucose concentration during the OGTT (r = .65, P < .05) and the TT (r = .91, P < .05). CEG analysis revealed that during the OGTT, 93% of plasma glucose concentration readings were in the clinically acceptable zone A+B for the SWA and 95% for the CGM. During the TT, the SWA had 96% of readings in zone A+B, compared to 97% for the CGM. During OGTTs, MARDs for the SWA and CGM were 26% and 18%, respectively. During TTs, MARDs were 16% and 12%, respectively. Plasma glucose concentration estimation by the SWA’s noninvasive multisensor approach appears to be feasible and its performance in estimating glucose approaches that of a CGM. The success of this pilot study suggests that multisensor technology holds promising potential for the development of a wearable, noninvasive, painless glucose monitor. PMID:24876538

  3. The effect of retrograde and anterograde glucose administration on memory performance in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Sünram-Lea, Sandra I; Foster, Jonathan K; Durlach, Paula; Perez, Catalina

    2002-08-21

    Memory for a list of 20 words can be enhanced by preceding learning by consumption of 25 g of glucose, compared with consumption of an equally sweet aspartame solution (Psychopharmacology 137 (1998) 259; Psychopharmacology 157 (2001) 46). However, using this anterograde administration procedure, it is impossible to separate whether glucose affects encoding, consolidation, or retrieval. The present placebo-controlled, double-blind study investigated the effect of anterograde and retrograde administration on memory performance in healthy young participants. In order to evaluate whether post-acquisition administration of glucose can improve memory performance and to compare possible differences in the size of the effect, participants were administered 25 g of glucose immediately before or immediately after presentation of a word list. Moreover, in order to investigate whether the effect of glucose administration on memory performance is time-dependent, a third group received 25 g of glucose 15 min before learning the word list. Word- list recall was tested 30 min and 24 h after word list presentation. Measures of spatial memory performance and working memory were also evaluated. The results of this study showed that both pre- and post-acquisition oral glucose administration (25 g) can improve memory performance. However, as the time interval between anterograde glucose administration and memory encoding increased, the glucose memory facilitation effect decreased. This study provides evidence that glucose enhances memory performance in healthy young people even when it is given after learning has taken place, and that this effect is observed at least up to 24 h after glucose administration. Moreover, it provides evidence that the effect of glucose on memory performance may be time-dependent, as the enhancement of retention was decreased when the administration-learning interval was increased.

  4. Beta-cell function, incretin effect, and incretin hormones in obese youth along the span of glucose tolerance from normal to prediabetes to Type 2 diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using the hyperglycemic and euglycemic clamp, we demonstrated impaired Beta-cell function in obese youth with increasing dysglycemia. Herein we describe oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)-modeled Beta-cell function and incretin effect in obese adolescents spanning the range of glucose tolerance. Bet...

  5. Essentials of oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, César

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers in the world, with a delayed clinical detection, poor prognosis, without specific biomarkers for the disease and expensive therapeutic alternatives. This review aims to present the fundamental aspects of this cancer, focused on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC), moving from its definition and epidemiological aspects, addressing the oral carcinogenesis, oral potentially malignant disorders, epithelial precursor lesions and experimental methods for its study, therapies and future challenges. Oral cancer is a preventable disease, risk factors and natural history is already being known, where biomedical sciences and dentistry in particular are likely to improve their poor clinical indicators. PMID:26617944

  6. Essentials of oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Rivera, César

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers in the world, with a delayed clinical detection, poor prognosis, without specific biomarkers for the disease and expensive therapeutic alternatives. This review aims to present the fundamental aspects of this cancer, focused on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC), moving from its definition and epidemiological aspects, addressing the oral carcinogenesis, oral potentially malignant disorders, epithelial precursor lesions and experimental methods for its study, therapies and future challenges. Oral cancer is a preventable disease, risk factors and natural history is already being known, where biomedical sciences and dentistry in particular are likely to improve their poor clinical indicators. PMID:26617944

  7. Infant oral health and oral habits.

    PubMed

    Nowak, A J; Warren, J J

    2000-10-01

    Many oral diseases and conditions, including dental caries (cavities) and malocclusions, have their origins early in life. Prudent anticipatory guidance by the medical and dental professions can help prevent many of the more common oral health problems. This article provides information on the rationale for early dental examination and instructions for pediatric and family practitioners in scheduling and conducting an early oral intervention appointment. In addition, feeding practices, non-nutritive sucking, mouth breathing, and bruxing are discussed, including their effects on orofacial growth and development.

  8. MCH receptor deletion does not impair glucose-conditioned flavor preferences in mice.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, Anthony; Adamantidis, Antoine; Ackroff, Karen

    2016-09-01

    The post-oral actions of glucose stimulate intake and condition flavor preferences in rodents. Hypothalamic melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) neurons are implicated in sugar reward, and this study investigated their involvement in glucose preference conditioning in mice. In Exp. 1 MCH receptor 1 knockout (KO) and C57BL/6 wildtype (WT) mice learned to prefer 8% glucose over an initially more-preferred non-nutritive 0.1% sucralose+saccharin (S+S) solution. In contrast, the KO and WT mice preferred S+S to 8% fructose, which is consistent with this sugar's weak post-oral reinforcing action. In Exp. 2 KO and WT mice were trained to drink a flavored solution (CS+) paired with intragastric (IG) infusion of 16% glucose and a different flavored solution (CS-) paired with IG water. Both groups drank more CS+ than CS- in training and preferred the CS+ to CS- in a 2-bottle test. These results indicate that MCH receptor signaling is not required for flavor preferences conditioned by the post-oral actions of glucose. This contrasts with other findings implicating MCH signaling in other types of sugar reward processing. PMID:27195455

  9. Pulsed supersonic molecular-beam coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy of C2H2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, M. D.; Byer, R. L.; Osterlin, P.

    1981-01-01

    A high-resolution coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectrum of C2H2 in a pulsed molecular beam was obtained and the resolved Q-branch spectrum was used to study the properties of the expansion. Cluster formation limited the minimum observed rotational temperature in the pure-acetylene expansion to 30 K.

  10. TES/Aura L2 Water Vapor (H2O) Limb (TL2H2OL)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-02-06

    TES/Aura L2 Water Vapor (H2O) Limb (TL2H2OL) News:  TES News ... Level:  L2 Platform:  TES/Aura L2 Water Vapor Spatial Coverage:  27 x 23 km Limb ... Access: OPeNDAP Parameters:  H2O Water Volume Mixing Radio Precision Vertical Resolution Order ...

  11. Preliminary investigations on the synthesis and antitumor activity of 3(2H)-furanones.

    PubMed

    Rappai, J P; Raman, V; Unnikrishnan, P A; Prathapan, S; Thomas, S K; Paulose, C S

    2009-02-01

    Two triaryl-3(2H)-furanones were synthesized and their antitumor activity was evaluated. These compounds inhibited the proliferation of DLA cell line in vitro. In vivo studies also showed that these compounds were active against tumor cell proliferation. PMID:19121938

  12. Identification of microdomains involved in association of "Arabidopsis" Ca(2+)/H(+) exchangers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In planta, high capacity tonoplast Ca2+/H+ antiport is mediated in part by a family of CAtion Exchangers (CAX). Each CAX can be divided into two weakly homologous halves (N- and C-) at the negatively charged loop between transmembrane (TM) 6 and TM7. Some CAX halves (N+C) co-expressed in yeast cells...

  13. Slow recrystallization of tripalmitoylglycerol from MCT oil observed by 2H NMR.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kevin W; Smith, Paul R; Furó, István; Pettersson, Erik Thyboll; Cain, Fred W; Favre, Loek; Talbot, Geoff

    2007-10-17

    The crystallization and recrystallization of fats have a significant impact on the properties and quality of many food products. While crystallization has been the subject of a number of studies using pure triacylglycerols (TAG), recrystallization in similarly pure systems is rarely studied. In this work, perdeuterated tripalmitoylglycerol ( (2)H-PPP) was dissolved in medium chain triacylglycerol oil (MCT) to yield a saturated solution. The solution was heated to cause partial melting of the solid and dissolution of the molten fraction of (2)H-PPP in MCT and was then cooled to the original temperature to induce recrystallization from the supersaturated solution. (2)H NMR was used to monitor the disappearance of (2)H-PPP from the solution and showed that recrystallization occurred in two steps. The first step was rapid, taking place over a few minutes, and accounted for more than two-thirds of the total recrystallization. The second step was much slower, taking place over a remarkably long timescale of hours to days. It is proposed that dissolution occurs from all parts of the crystals, leaving an etched and pitted surface. The first step of crystallization is the infilling of these pits, while the second step is the continued growth on the smoothed crystal faces.

  14. Photo-induced reactions in the ion-molecule complex Mg+-OCNC2H5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ju-Long; Liu, Haichuan; Han, Ke-Li; Yang, Shihe

    2003-06-01

    Ion-molecule complexes of magnesium cation with ethyl isocyanate were produced in a laser-ablation supersonic expansion nozzle source. Photo-induced reactions in the 1:1 complexes have been studied in the spectral range of 230-410 nm. Photodissociation mass spectrometry revealed the persistent product Mg+ from nonreactive quenching throughout the entire wavelength range. As for the reactive channels, the photoproducts, Mg+OCN and C2H5+, were produced only in the blue absorption band of the complex with low yields. The action spectrum of Mg+(OCNC2H5) consists of two pronounced peaks on the red and blue sides of the Mg+ 32P←32S atomic transition. The ground state geometry of Mg+-OCNC2H5 was fully optimized at B3LYP/6-31+G** level by using GAUSSIAN 98 package. The calculated absorption spectrum of the complex using the optimized structure of its ground state agrees well with the observed action spectrum. Photofragment branching fractions of the products are almost independent of the photolysis photon energy for the 3Px,y,z excitations. The very low branching ratio of reactive products to nonreactive fragment suggests that evaporation is the main relaxation pathway in the photo-induced reactions of Mg+(OCNC2H5).

  15. Improved watermelon quality using bottle gourd rootstock expressing a Ca(2+)/H(+) antiporter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bottle gourd ("Lagenaria siceraria" Standl.) has been commonly used as a source of rootstock for watermelon. To improve its performance as a rootstock without adverse effects on the scion, the bottle gourd was genetically engineered using a modified "Arabidopsis" Ca(2+)/H(+) exchanger sCAX2B. This t...

  16. Fluorescence from photoexcitation of C2H5OH by vacuum ultraviolet radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, J. C.; Suto, Masako; Lee, L. C.

    1989-01-01

    The photoabsorption and fluorescence cross sections of C2H5OH have been measured in the 46-200 nm region. Fluorescence is dispersed to identify the emission systems, which are mainly OH(A-X), CH(A,B-X), and the H Balmer series. The photodissociation processes that produce the observed emissions are discussed.

  17. Plasma glucose kinetics and response of insulin and GIP following a cereal breakfast in female subjects: effect of starch digestibility

    PubMed Central

    Péronnet, F; Meynier, A; Sauvinet, V; Normand, S; Bourdon, E; Mignault, D; St-Pierre, D H; Laville, M; Rabasa-Lhoret, R; Vinoy, S

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Foods with high contents of slowly digestible starch (SDS) elicit lower glycemic responses than foods with low contents of SDS but there has been debate on the underlying changes in plasma glucose kinetics, that is, respective contributions of the increase in the rates of appearance and disappearance of plasma glucose (RaT and RdT), and of the increase in the rate of appearance of exogenous glucose (RaE) and decrease in endogenous glucose production (EGP). Subjects/Methods: Sixteen young healthy females ingested in random order four types of breakfasts: an extruded cereal (0.3% SDS: Lo-SDS breakfast) or one of three biscuits (39–45% SDS: Hi-SDS breakfasts). The flour in the cereal products was labeled with 13C, and plasma glucose kinetics were measured using [6,6-2H2]glucose infusion, along with the response of plasma glucose, insulin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) concentrations. Results: When compared with the Lo-SDS breakfast, after the three Hi-SDS breakfasts, excursions in plasma glucose, the response of RaE, RaT and RdT, and the reduction in EGP were significantly lower (P<0.05). The amount of exogenous glucose absorbed over the 4.5-h postprandial period was also significantly lower by ~31% (P<0.001). These differences were associated with lower responses of GIP and insulin concentrations. Conclusions: Substituting extruded cereals with biscuits slows down the availability of glucose from the breakfast and its appearance in peripheral circulation, blunts the changes in plasma glucose kinetics and homeostasis, reduces excursions in plasma glucose, and possibly distributes the glucose ingested over a longer period following the meal. PMID:25852025

  18. The Rate Constant for the Reaction H + C2H5 at T = 295 - 150K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pimentel, Andre S.; Payne, Walter A.; Nesbitt, Fred L.; Cody, Regina J.; Stief, Louis J.

    2004-01-01

    The reaction between the hydrogen atom and the ethyl (C2H3) radical is predicted by photochemical modeling to be the most important loss process for C2H5 radicals in the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn. This reaction is also one of the major sources for the methyl radicals in these atmospheres. These two simplest hydrocarbon radicals are the initial species for the synthesis of larger hydrocarbons. Previous measurements of the rate constant for the H + C2H5 reaction varied by a factor of five at room temperature, and some studies showed a dependence upon temperature while others showed no such dependence. In addition, the previous studies were at higher temperatures and generally higher pressures than that needed for use in planetary atmospheric models. The rate constant for the reaction H + C2H5 has been measured directly at T = 150, 202 and 295 K and at P = 1.0 Torr He for all temperatures and additionally at P = 0.5 and 2.0 Torr He at T = 202 K. The measurements were performed in a discharge - fast flow system. The decay of the C2H5 radical in the presence of excess hydrogen was monitored by low-energy electron impact mass spectrometry under pseudo-first order conditions. H atoms and C2H5 radicals were generated rapidly and simultaneously by the reaction of fluorine atoms with H2 and C2H6, respectively. The total rate constant was found to be temperature and pressure independent. The measured total rate constant at each temperature are: k(sub 1)(295K) = (1.02+/-0.24)x10(exp -10), k(sub 1)(202K) = (1.02+/-0.22)x10(exp -10) and k(sub 1)(150K) = (0.93+/-0.21)x10(exp -10), all in units of cu cm/molecule/s. The total rate constant derived from all the combined measurements is k(sub 1) = (l.03+/-0.17)x10(exp -10) cu cm/molecule/s. At room temperature our results are about a factor of two higher than the recommended rate constant and a factor of three lower than the most recently published study.

  19. LITERATURE REVIEW ON IMPACT OF GLYCOLATE ON THE 2H EVAPORATOR AND THE EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Adu-Wusu, K.

    2012-05-10

    Glycolic acid (GA) is being studied as an alternate reductant in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed preparation process. It will either be a total or partial replacement for the formic acid that is currently used. A literature review has been conducted on the impact of glycolate on two post-DWPF downstream systems - the 2H Evaporator system and the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). The DWPF recycle stream serves as a portion of the feed to the 2H Evaporator. Glycolate enters the evaporator system from the glycolate in the recycle stream. The overhead (i.e., condensed phase) from the 2H Evaporator serves as a portion of the feed to the ETF. The literature search revealed that virtually no impact is anticipated for the 2H Evaporator. Glycolate may help reduce scale formation in the evaporator due to its high complexing ability. The drawback of the solubilizing ability is the potential impact on the criticality analysis of the 2H Evaporator system. It is recommended that at least a theoretical evaluation to confirm the finding that no self-propagating violent reactions with nitrate/nitrites will occur should be performed. Similarly, identification of sources of ignition relevant to glycolate and/or update of the composite flammability analysis to reflect the effects from the glycolate additions for the 2H Evaporator system are in order. An evaluation of the 2H Evaporator criticality analysis is also needed. A determination of the amount or fraction of the glycolate in the evaporator overhead is critical to more accurately assess its impact on the ETF. Hence, use of predictive models like OLI Environmental Simulation Package Software (OLI/ESP) and/or testing are recommended for the determination of the glycolate concentration in the overhead. The impact on the ETF depends on the concentration of glycolate in the ETF feed. The impact is classified as minor for feed glycolate concentrations {le} 33 mg/L or 0.44 mM. The ETF unit operations that will have

  20. CD226 reduces endothelial cell glucose uptake under hyperglycemic conditions with inflammation in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Zilong; Zhang, Jinxue; Sun, Yizheng; Jin, Boquan; Gao, Feng; Guo, Shuzhong; Zhuang, Ran

    2016-01-01

    CD226 is a co-stimulatory adhesion molecule found on immune and endothelial cells. Here, we evaluated a possible role for CD226 in inhibiting glucose uptake in isolated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and in wild-type (WT) and CD226 knockout (KO) mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced type 2 diabetes (T2DM). CD226 expression increased under hyperglycemic conditions in the presence of TNF-α. Furthermore, CD226 knockdown improved glucose uptake in endothelial cells, and CD226 KO mice exhibited increased glucose tolerance. Levels of soluble CD226 in plasma were higher in T2DM patients following an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) than under fasting conditions. Our results indicate that low-grade inflammation coupled with elevated blood glucose increases CD226 expression, resulting in decreased endothelial cell glucose uptake in T2DM. PMID:26910838

  1. Microbial H2 cycling does not affect δ2H values of ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landmeyer, J.E.; Chapelle, F.H.; Bradley, P.M.

    2000-01-01

    Stable hydrogen-isotope values of ground water (δ2H) and dissolved hydrogen concentrations (H(2(aq)) were quantified in a petroleum-hydrocarbon contaminated aquifer to determine whether the production/consumption of H2 by subsurface microorganisms affects ground water &delta2H values. The range of &delta2H observed in monitoring wells sampled (-27.8 ‰c to -15.5 ‰c) was best explained, however, by seasonal differences in recharge temperature as indicated using ground water δ18O values, rather than isotopic exchange reactions involving the microbial cycling of H2 during anaerobic petroleum-hydrocarbon biodegradation. The absence of a measurable hydrogen-isotope exchange between microbially cycled H2 and ground water reflects the fact that the amount of H2 available from the anaerobic decomposition of petroleum hydrocarbons is small relative to the amount of hydrogen present in water, even though milligram per liter concentrations of readily biodegradable contaminants are present at the study site. Additionally, isotopic fractionation calculations indicate that in order for H2 cycling processes to affect δ2H values of ground water, relatively high concentrations of H2 (>0.080 M) would have to be maintained, considerably higher than the 0.2 to 26 nM present at this site and characteristic of anaerobic conditions in general. These observations suggest that the conventional approach of using δ2H and δ18O values to determine recharge history is appropriate even for those ground water systems characterized by anaerobic conditions and extensive m