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Sample records for 2-knockout mice exposed

  1. Arginase enzymes in isolated airways from normal and nitric oxide synthase 2-knockout mice exposed to ovalbumin

    SciTech Connect

    Bratt, Jennifer M.; Franzi, Lisa M.; Linderholm, Angela L.; Last, Michael S.; Kenyon, Nicholas J. Last, Jerold A.

    2009-02-01

    Arginase has been suggested to compete with nitric oxide synthase (NOS) for their common substrate, L-arginine. To study the mechanisms underlying this interaction, we compared arginase expression in isolated airways and the consequences of inhibiting arginase activity in vivo with NO production, lung inflammation, and lung function in both C57BL/6 and NOS2 knockout mice undergoing ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation, a mouse model of asthma. Arginases I and II were measured by western blot in isolated airways from sensitized C57BL/6 mice exposed to ovalbumin aerosol. Physiological and biochemical responses - inflammation, lung compliance, airway hyperreactivity, exhaled NO concentration, arginine concentration - were compared with the responses of NOS2 knockout mice. NOS2 knockout mice had increased total cells in lung lavage, decreased lung compliance, and increased airway hyperreactivity. Both arginase I and arginase II were constitutively expressed in the airways of normal C57BL/6 mice. Arginase I was up-regulated approximately 8-fold in the airways of C57BL/6 mice exposed to ovalbumin. Expression of both arginase isoforms were significantly upregulated in NOS2 knockout mice exposed to ovalbumin, with about 40- and 4-fold increases in arginases I and II, respectively. Arginine concentration in isolated airways was not significantly different in any of the groups studied. Inhibition of arginase by systemic treatment of C57BL/6 mice with a competitive inhibitor, N{omega}-hydroxy-nor-L-arginine (nor-NOHA), significantly decreased the lung inflammatory response to ovalbumin in these animals. We conclude that NOS2 knockout mice are more sensitive to ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation and its sequelae than are C57BL/6 mice, as determined by increased total cells in lung lavage, decreased lung compliance, and increased airway hyperreactivity, and that these findings are strongly correlated with increased expression of both arginase isoforms in the airways of the

  2. Arginase inhibition in airways from normal and nitric oxide synthase 2-knockout mice exposed to ovalbumin

    SciTech Connect

    Bratt, Jennifer M.; Franzi, Lisa M.; Linderholm, Angela L.; O'Roark, Erin M.; Kenyon, Nicholas J.; Last, Jerold A.

    2010-01-01

    Arginase1 and nitric oxide synthase2 (NOS2) utilize L-arginine as a substrate, with both enzymes expressed at high levels in the asthmatic lung. Inhibition of arginase in ovalbumin-exposed C57BL/6 mice with the transition state inhibitor N{sup o}mega-hydroxy-nor-L-arginine (nor-NOHA) significantly increased total L-arginine content in the airway compartment. We hypothesized that such an increase in L-arginine content would increase the amount of nitric oxide (NO) being produced in the airways and thereby decrease airway hyperreactivity and eosinophilic influx. We further hypothesized that despite arginase inhibition, NOS2 knockout (NOS2-/-) mice would be unable to up-regulate NO production in response to allergen exposure and would demonstrate higher amounts of airway hyperreactivity and eosinophilia under conditions of arginase inhibition than C57BL/6 animals. We found that administration of nor-NOHA significantly decreased airway hyperreactivity and eosinophilic airway inflammation in ovalbumin-exposed C57BL/6 mice, but these parameters were unchanged in ovalbumin-exposed NOS2-/- mice. Arginase1 protein content was increased in mice exposed to ovalbumin, an effect that was reversed upon nor-NOHA treatment in C57BL/6 mice. Arginase1 protein content in the airway compartment directly correlated with the degree of airway hyperreactivity in all treatment groups. NOS2-/- mice had significantly greater arginase1 and arginase2 concentrations compared to their respective C57BL/6 groups, indicating that inhibition of arginase may be dependent upon NOS2 expression. Arginase1 and 2 content were not affected by nor-NOHA administration in the NOS2-/- mice. We conclude that L-arginine metabolism plays an important role in the development of airway hyperreactivity and eosinophilic airway inflammation. Inhibition of arginase early in the allergic inflammatory response decreases the severity of the chronic inflammatory phenotype. These effects appear to be attributable to NOS2

  3. Sleep in Kcna2 knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Christopher L; Vyazovskiy, Vladyslav; Southard, Teresa; Chiu, Shing-Yan; Messing, Albee; Tononi, Giulio; Cirelli, Chiara

    2007-01-01

    Background Shaker codes for a Drosophila voltage-dependent potassium channel. Flies carrying Shaker null or hypomorphic mutations sleep 3–4 h/day instead of 8–14 h/day as their wild-type siblings do. Shaker-like channels are conserved across species but it is unknown whether they affect sleep in mammals. To address this issue, we studied sleep in Kcna2 knockout (KO) mice. Kcna2 codes for Kv1.2, the alpha subunit of a Shaker-like voltage-dependent potassium channel with high expression in the mammalian thalamocortical system. Results Continuous (24 h) electroencephalograph (EEG), electromyogram (EMG), and video recordings were used to measure sleep and waking in Kcna2 KO, heterozygous (HZ) and wild-type (WT) pups (P17) and HZ and WT adult mice (P67). Sleep stages were scored visually based on 4-s epochs. EEG power spectra (0–20 Hz) were calculated on consecutive 4-s epochs. KO pups die by P28 due to generalized seizures. At P17 seizures are either absent or very rare in KO pups (< 1% of the 24-h recording time), and abnormal EEG activity is only present during the seizure. KO pups have significantly less non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep (-23%) and significantly more waking (+21%) than HZ and WT siblings with no change in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep time. The decrease in NREM sleep is due to an increase in the number of waking episodes, with no change in number or duration of sleep episodes. Sleep patterns, daily amounts of sleep and waking, and the response to 6 h sleep deprivation are similar in HZ and WT adult mice. Conclusion Kv1.2, a mammalian homologue of Shaker, regulates neuronal excitability and affects NREM sleep. PMID:17925011

  4. Kv4.2 knockout mice demonstrate increased susceptibility to convulsant stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Barnwell, L. Forbes S.; Lugo, Joaquin N.; Lee, Wai Ling; Willis, Sarah E.; Gertz, Shira J.; Hrachovy, Richard A.; Anderson, Anne E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Kv4.2 subunits contribute to the pore-forming region of channels that express a transient, A-type K+ current (A-current) in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cell dendrites. Here, the A-current plays an important role in signal processing and synaptic integration. Kv4.2 knockout mice show a near elimination of the A-current in area CA1 dendrites producing increased excitability in this region. In these studies, we evaluated young adult Kv4.2 knockout mice for spontaneous seizures and the response to convulsant stimulation in the whole animal in vivo and in hippocampal slices in vitro. Methods Electroencephalogram electrode-implanted Kv4.2 knockout and wildtype mice were observed for spontaneous behavioral and electrographic seizures. The latency to seizure and status epilepticus onset in Kv4.2 knockout and wildtype mice was assessed following intraperitoneal injection of kainate. Extracellular field potential recordings were performed in hippocampal slices from Kv4.2 knockout and wildtype mice following the bath application of bicuculline. Results No spontaneous behavioral or electrographic seizures were observed in Kv4.2 knockout mice. Following kainate, Kv4.2 knockout mice demonstrated a decreased seizure and status epilepticus latency as well as increased mortality compared to wildtype littermates. The background strain modified the seizure susceptibility phenotype in Kv4.2 knockout mice. In response to bicuculline, slices from Kv4.2 knockout mice exhibited an increase in epileptiform bursting in area CA1 as compared to wildtype littermates. Discussion These studies show that loss of Kv4.2 channels is associated with enhanced susceptibility to convulsant stimulation, supporting the concept that Kv4.2 deficiency may contribute to aberrant network excitability and regulate seizure threshold. PMID:19453702

  5. Dcdc2 knockout mice display exacerbated developmental disruptions following knockdown of doublecortin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Yin, X; Rosen, G; Gabel, L; Guadiana, S M; Sarkisian, M R; Galaburda, A M; Loturco, J J

    2011-09-08

    The dyslexia-associated gene DCDC2 is a member of the DCX family of genes known to play roles in neurogenesis, neuronal migration, and differentiation. Here we report the first phenotypic analysis of a Dcdc2 knockout mouse. Comparisons between Dcdc2 knockout mice and wild-type (wt) littermates revealed no significant differences in neuronal migration, neocortical lamination, neuronal cilliogenesis or dendritic differentiation. Considering previous studies showing genetic interactions and potential functional redundancy among members of the DCX family, we tested whether decreasing Dcx expression by RNAi would differentially impair neurodevelopment in Dcdc2 knockouts and wild-type mice. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found that deficits in neuronal migration, and dendritic growth caused by RNAi of Dcx were more severe in Dcdc2 knockouts than in wild-type mice with the same transfection. These results indicate that Dcdc2 is not required for neurogenesis, neuronal migration or differentiation in mice, but may have partial functional redundancy with Dcx.

  6. Subchronic exposure to ethyl tertiary butyl ether resulting in genetic damage in Aldh2 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Weng, Zuquan; Suda, Megumi; Ohtani, Katsumi; Mei, Nan; Kawamoto, Toshihiro; Nakajima, Tamie; Wang, Rui-Sheng

    2013-09-15

    Ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE) is biofuel additive recently used in Japan and some other countries. Limited evidence shows that ETBE has low toxicity. Acetaldehyde (AA), however, as one primary metabolite of ETBE, is clearly genotoxic and has been considered to be a potential carcinogen. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ALDH2 gene on ETBE-induced genotoxicity and metabolism of its metabolites after inhalation exposure to ETBE. A group of wild-type (WT) and Aldh2 knockout (KO) C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 500ppm ETBE for 1-6h, and the blood concentrations of ETBE metabolites, including AA, tert-butyl alcohol and 2-methyl-1,2-propanediol, were measured. Another group of mice of WT and KO were exposed to 0, 500, 1750, or 5000ppm ETBE for 6h/day with 5 days per weeks for 13 weeks. Genotoxic effects of ETBE in these mice were measured by the alkaline comet assay, 8-hydroxyguanine DNA-glycosylase modified comet assay and micronucleus test. With short-term exposure to ETBE, the blood concentrations of all the three metabolites in KO mice were significantly higher than the corresponding concentrations of those in WT mice of both sexes. After subchronic exposure to ETBE, there was significant increase in DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner in KO male mice, while only 5000ppm exposure significantly increased DNA damage in male WT mice. Overall, there was a significant sex difference in genetic damage in both genetic types of mice. These results showed that ALDH2 is involved in the detoxification of ETBE and lack of enzyme activity may greatly increase the sensitivity to the genotoxic effects of ETBE, and male mice were more sensitive than females.

  7. Altered behavioral development in Nrf2 knockout mice following early postnatal exposure to valproic acid

    PubMed Central

    Furnari, Melody A.; Saw, Constance Lay-Lay; Kong, Ah-Ng; Wagner, George C

    2015-01-01

    Early exposure to valproic acid results in autism-like neural and behavioral deficits in humans and other animals through oxidative stress-induced neural damage. In the present study, valproic acid was administered to genetically altered mice lacking the Nrf2 (nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2) gene on postnatal day 14 (P14). Nrf2 is a transcription factor that induces genes that protect against oxidative stress. It was found that valproic acid-treated Nrf2 knockout mice were less active in open field activity chambers, less successful on the rotorod, and had deficits in learning and memory in the Morris water maze compared to the valproic acid-treated wild type mice. Given these results, it appears that Nrf2 knockout mice were more sensitive to the neural damage caused by valproic acid administered during early development. PMID:25454122

  8. Altered behavioral development in Nrf2 knockout mice following early postnatal exposure to valproic acid.

    PubMed

    Furnari, Melody A; Saw, Constance Lay-Lay; Kong, Ah-Ng; Wagner, George C

    2014-10-01

    Early exposure to valproic acid results in autism-like neural and behavioral deficits in humans and other animals through oxidative stress-induced neural damage. In the present study, valproic acid was administered to genetically altered mice lacking the Nrf2 (nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2) gene on postnatal day 14 (P14). Nrf2 is a transcription factor that induces genes that protect against oxidative stress. It was found that valproic acid-treated Nrf2 knockout mice were less active in open field activity chambers, less successful on the rotorod, and had deficits in learning and memory in the Morris water maze compared to the valproic acid-treated wild type mice. Given these results, it appears that Nrf2 knockout mice were more sensitive to the neural damage caused by valproic acid administered during early development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Kv4.2 Knockout Mice Have Hippocampal-Dependent Learning and Memory Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lugo, Joaquin N.; Brewster, Amy L.; Spencer, Corinne M.; Anderson, Anne E.

    2012-01-01

    Kv4.2 channels contribute to the transient, outward K[superscript +] current (A-type current) in hippocampal dendrites, and modulation of this current substantially alters dendritic excitability. Using Kv4.2 knockout (KO) mice, we examined the role of Kv4.2 in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. We found that Kv4.2 KO mice showed a deficit…

  10. Kv4.2 Knockout Mice Have Hippocampal-Dependent Learning and Memory Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lugo, Joaquin N.; Brewster, Amy L.; Spencer, Corinne M.; Anderson, Anne E.

    2012-01-01

    Kv4.2 channels contribute to the transient, outward K[superscript +] current (A-type current) in hippocampal dendrites, and modulation of this current substantially alters dendritic excitability. Using Kv4.2 knockout (KO) mice, we examined the role of Kv4.2 in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. We found that Kv4.2 KO mice showed a deficit…

  11. Cnga2 Knockout Mice Display Alzheimer's-Like Behavior Abnormities and Pathological Changes.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ao-Ji; Liu, En-Jie; Huang, He-Zhou; Hu, Yu; Li, Ke; Lu, Youming; Wang, Jian-Zhi; Zhu, Ling-Qiang

    2016-09-01

    Olfactory dysfunction is recognized as a potential risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have reported previously that olfactory deprivation by olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) induced Alzheimer's-like pathological changes and behavioral abnormalities. However, the acute OBX model undergoes surgical-induced brain parenchyma loss and unexpected massive hemorrhage so that it cannot fully mimic the progressive olfactory loss and neurodegeneration in AD. Here, we employed the mice loss of cyclic nucleotide-gated channel alpha 2 (Cnga2) which is critical for olfactory sensory transduction, to investigate the role of olfactory dysfunction in AD pathological process. We found that impaired learning and memory abilities, loss of dendrite spines, as well as decrement of synaptic proteins were displayed in Cnga2 knockout mice. Moreover, Aβ overproduction, tau hyperphosphorylation, and somatodendritic translocation were also found in Cnga2 knockout mice. Our findings suggest that progressive olfactory loss leads to Alzheimer's-like behavior abnormities and pathological changes.

  12. TRPV2 KNOCKOUT MICE ARE SUSCEPTIBLE TO PERINATAL LETHALITY BUT DISPLAY NORMAL THERMAL AND MECHANICAL NOCICEPTION

    PubMed Central

    Park, Una; Vastani, Nisha; Guan, Yun; Raja, Srinivasa N.; Koltzenburg, Martin; Caterina, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    TRPV2 is a nonselective cation channel expressed prominently in medium- to large-diameter sensory neurons that can be activated by extreme heat (>52°C). These features suggest that TRPV2 might be a transducer of noxious heat in vivo. TRPV2 can also be activated by hypoosmolarity or cell stretch, suggesting potential roles in mechanotransduction. To address the physiological functions of TRPV2 in somatosensation, we generated TRPV2 knockout mice and examined their behavioral and electrophysiological responses to heat and mechanical stimuli. TRPV2 knockout mice showed reduced embryonic weight and perinatal viability. As adults, surviving knockout mice also exhibited a slightly reduced body weight. TRPV2 knockout mice showed normal behavioral responses to noxious heat over a broad range of temperatures and normal responses to punctate mechanical stimuli, both in the basal state and under hyperalgesic conditions such as peripheral inflammation and L5 spinal nerve ligation. Moreover, behavioral assays of TRPV1/TRPV2 double knockout mice or of TRPV2 knockout mice treated with resiniferatoxin to desensitize TRPV1-expressing afferents revealed no thermosensory consequences of TRPV2 absence. In line with behavioral findings, electrophysiological recordings from skin afferents showed that C-fiber responses to heat and C- and Aδ-fiber responses to noxious mechanical stimuli were unimpaired in the absence of TRPV2. The prevalence of thermosensitive Aδ-fibers was too low to permit comparison between genotypes. Thus, TRPV2 is important for perinatal viability but is not essential for heat or mechanical nociception or hypersensitivity in the adult mouse. PMID:21832173

  13. Altered Expression of EPO Might Underlie Hepatic Hemangiomas in LRRK2 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Kaifu; Zhang, Zhuohua

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder caused by progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta of the midbrain. The molecular mechanism of PD pathogenesis is unclear. Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene are a common genetic cause of familial and sporadic PD. However, studies on LRRK2 mutant mice revealed no visible dopaminergic neuronal loss in the midbrain. While surveying a LRRK2 knockout mouse strain, we found that old animals developed age-dependent hepatic vascular growths similar to cavernous hemangiomas. In livers of these hemangioma-positive LRRK2 knockout mice, we detected an increased expression of the HIF-2α protein and significant reactivation of the expression of the HIF-2α target gene erythropoietin (EPO), a finding consistent with a role of the HIF-2α pathway in blood vessel vascularization. We also found that the kidney EPO expression was reduced to 20% of the wild-type level in 18-month-old LRRK2 knockout mice. Unexpectedly, this reduction was restored to wild-type levels when the knockout mice were 22 months to 23 months old, implying a feedback mechanism regulating kidney EPO expression. Our findings reveal a novel function of LRRK2 in regulating EPO expression and imply a potentially novel relationship between PD genes and hematopoiesis. PMID:27872856

  14. Altered Expression of EPO Might Underlie Hepatic Hemangiomas in LRRK2 Knockout Mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ben; Xiao, Kaifu; Zhang, Zhuohua; Ma, Long

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder caused by progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta of the midbrain. The molecular mechanism of PD pathogenesis is unclear. Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene are a common genetic cause of familial and sporadic PD. However, studies on LRRK2 mutant mice revealed no visible dopaminergic neuronal loss in the midbrain. While surveying a LRRK2 knockout mouse strain, we found that old animals developed age-dependent hepatic vascular growths similar to cavernous hemangiomas. In livers of these hemangioma-positive LRRK2 knockout mice, we detected an increased expression of the HIF-2α protein and significant reactivation of the expression of the HIF-2α target gene erythropoietin (EPO), a finding consistent with a role of the HIF-2α pathway in blood vessel vascularization. We also found that the kidney EPO expression was reduced to 20% of the wild-type level in 18-month-old LRRK2 knockout mice. Unexpectedly, this reduction was restored to wild-type levels when the knockout mice were 22 months to 23 months old, implying a feedback mechanism regulating kidney EPO expression. Our findings reveal a novel function of LRRK2 in regulating EPO expression and imply a potentially novel relationship between PD genes and hematopoiesis.

  15. Lack of stress responses to long-term effects of corticosterone in Caps2 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Mishima, Yuriko; Shinoda, Yo; Sadakata, Tetsushi; Kojima, Masami; Wakana, Shigeharu; Furuichi, Teiichi

    2015-03-10

    Chronic stress is associated with anxiety and depressive disorders, and can cause weight gain. Ca(2+)-dependent activator protein for secretion 2 (CAPS2) is involved in insulin release. Caps2 knockout (KO) mice exhibit decreased body weight, reduced glucose-induced insulin release, and abnormal psychiatric behaviors. We chronically administered the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT), which induces anxiety/depressive-like behavior and normally increases plasma insulin levels, via the drinking water for 10 weeks, and we examined the stress response in KO mice. Chronic CORT exposure inhibited stress-induced serum CORT elevation in wild-type (WT) mice, but not in KO mice. Poor weight gain in CORT-treated animals was observed until week 6 in WT mice, but persisted for the entire duration of the experiment in KO mice, although there is no difference in drug*genotype interaction. Among KO mice, food consumption was unchanged, while water consumption was higher, over the duration of the experiment in CORT-treated animals, compared with untreated animals. Moreover, serum insulin and leptin levels were increased in CORT-treated WT mice, but not in KO mice. Lastly, both WT and KO mice displayed anxiety/depressive-like behavior after CORT administration. These results suggest that Caps2 KO mice have altered endocrine responses to CORT administration, while maintaining CORT-induced anxiety/depressive-like behavior.

  16. Alleviation of high-fat diet-induced fatty liver damage in group IVA phospholipase A2-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Ii, Hiromi; Yokoyama, Naoki; Yoshida, Shintaro; Tsutsumi, Kae; Hatakeyama, Shinji; Sato, Takashi; Ishihara, Keiichi; Akiba, Satoshi

    2009-12-01

    Hepatic fat deposition with hepatocellular damage, a feature of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, is mediated by several putative factors including prostaglandins. In the present study, we examined whether group IVA phospholipase A(2) (IVA-PLA(2)), which catalyzes the first step in prostanoid biosynthesis, is involved in the development of fatty liver, using IVA-PLA(2)-knockout mice. Male wild-type mice on high-fat diets (20% fat and 1.25% cholesterol) developed hepatocellular vacuolation and liver hypertrophy with an increase in the serum levels of liver damage marker aminotransferases when compared with wild-type mice fed normal diets. These high-fat diet-induced alterations were markedly decreased in IVA-PLA(2)-knockout mice. Hepatic triacylglycerol content was lower in IVA-PLA(2)-knockout mice than in wild-type mice under normal dietary conditions. Although high-fat diets increased hepatic triacylglycerol content in both genotypes, the degree was lower in IVA-PLA(2)-knockout mice than in wild-type mice. Under the high-fat dietary conditions, IVA-PLA(2)-knockout mice had lower epididymal fat pad weight and smaller adipocytes than wild-type mice. The serum level of prostaglandin E(2), which has a fat storage effect, was lower in IVA-PLA(2)-knockout mice than in wild-type mice, irrespective of the kind of diet. In both genotypes, high-fat diets increased serum leptin levels equally between the two groups, but did not affect the serum levels of adiponectin, resistin, free fatty acid, triacylglycerol, glucose, or insulin. Our findings suggest that a deficiency of IVA-PLA(2) alleviates fatty liver damage caused by high-fat diets, probably because of the lower generation of IVA-PLA(2) metabolites, such as prostaglandin E(2). IVA-PLA(2) could be a promising therapeutic target for obesity-related diseases including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

  17. Hesr2 knockout mice develop aortic valve disease with advancing age.

    PubMed

    Kokubo, Hiroki; Miyagawa-Tomita, Sachiko; Nakashima, Yasumi; Kume, Tsutomu; Yoshizumi, Masao; Nakanishi, Toshio; Saga, Yumiko

    2013-03-01

    Acquired heart diseases, such as valve disease, are major causes of human morbidity and mortality. However, the pathological mechanisms underlying these diseases are largely unknown. Our aim is to identify the role of the hairy and enhancer of split-related (Hesr)-2 gene in the adult heart. Echocardiography detected heart dysfunctions indicative of aortic valve anomalies, stenosis, and regurgitation, in ≈59% of >12-month-old Hesr2 knockout survivor mice. Morphological and histological analyses revealed thickened semilunar valves with increased fibrotic areas, indicating that sclerotic degeneration of valves is the main cause of aortic valve disease. The expression of osteogenic genes, such as osteopontin and sclerostin, were upregulated in the mutants, and the overexpression of sclerostin in endothelial cells resulted in thickened semilunar valves with increased fibrotic areas, similar to that seen in the Hesr2 knockout mice, suggesting that Hesr2 can regulate osteogenic gene expression in valves. Reduced left ventricular function, which may be caused by increased ventricular interstitial fibrosis, and enlarged myocardial cell size without ventricular wall thickening were found in both aortic valve stenosis/regurgitation-positive (33%) and aortic valve stenosis/regurgitation-negative (38%) subpopulations in 12-month-old survivor mice. Dilated left ventricular internal dimensions were specifically detected in the aortic valve stenosis/regurgitation-positive subpopulation, thus suggesting that the degeneration of cardiomyocytes is influenced by irregular hemodynamics. These data revealed that survivor mice lacking the Hesr2 gene exhibit fibrosis in the aortic valve and ventricle in adulthood, thus suggesting that Hesr2 plays an important role in maintaining the homeostasis of the aortic valve and ventricle.

  18. Angiotensin-II Induced Hypertension and Renovascular Remodeling in TIMP2 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    PUSHPAKUMAR, Sathnur; KUNDU, Sourav; PRYOR, Tyranny; GIVVIMANI, Srikanth; LEDERER, Eleanor; TYAGI, Suresh C.; SEN, Utpal

    2014-01-01

    Sustained hypertension induces renovascular remodeling by altering extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are Zn-dependent enzymes that regulate ECM turnover in concert with their inhibitors, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases, TIMPs. Increased MMP-2 & -9 have been implicated in hypertensive complications; however, the contribution of individual MMPs/TIMPs in renal remodeling has not been fully elucidated. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of TIMP2 deficiency and thus MMP-2 on Ang-II induced renal remodeling. C57BL/6J (WT) and TIMP2 knockout mice were infused with Angiotensin-II (Ang-II) at 250 ng. kg-1. min-1 for 4 weeks. Blood pressure was measured weekly and end-point laser Doppler flowmetry was done to assess cortical blood flow. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for collagen and elastin analyses. The activity of MMP-9, and -2 was determined by Gelatin zymography. Ang-II induced similar elevation in mean blood pressure in TIMP2-/- and WT mice. In TIMP2-/- mice, Ang-II treatment was associated with a greater reduction in renal cortical blood flow and barium angiography demonstrated decreased vascular density compared to Ang-II treated WT mice. Peri-glomerular and vascular collagen deposition was increased and elastin content was decreased causing increased wall-to-lumen ratio in TIMP2-/- mice compared to WT mice receiving Ang-II. Ang-II increased the expression and activity of MMP-9 predominantly in TIMP2-/- mice than in WT mice. These results suggest that TIMP2 deficiency exacerbates renovascular remodeling in agonist induced hypertension by a mechanism which may, in part, be attributed to increased activity of MMP-9. PMID:24077247

  19. Metabolism and tissue distribution of sulforaphane in Nrf2 knockout and wild-type mice.

    PubMed

    Clarke, John D; Hsu, Anna; Williams, David E; Dashwood, Roderick H; Stevens, Jan F; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Ho, Emily

    2011-12-01

    To determine the metabolism and tissue distribution of the dietary chemoprotective agent sulforaphane following oral administration to wild-type and Nrf2 knockout (Nrf2(-/-)) mice. Male and female wild-type and Nrf2(-/-) mice were given sulforaphane (5 or 20 μmoles) by oral gavage; plasma, liver, kidney, small intestine, colon, lung, brain and prostate were collected at 2, 6 and 24 h (h). The five major metabolites of sulforaphane were measured in tissues by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Sulforaphane metabolites were detected in all tissues at 2 and 6 h post gavage, with the highest concentrations in the small intestine, prostate, kidney and lung. A dose-dependent increase in sulforaphane concentrations was observed in all tissues except prostate. At 5 μmole, Nrf2(-/-) genotype had no effect on sulforaphane metabolism. Only Nrf2(-/-) females given 20 μmoles sulforaphane for 6 h exhibited a marked increase in tissue sulforaphane metabolite concentrations. The relative abundance of each metabolite was not strikingly different between genders and genotypes. Sulforaphane is metabolized and reaches target tissues in wild-type and Nrf2(-/-) mice. These data provide further evidence that sulforaphane is bioavailable and may be an effective dietary chemoprevention agent for several tissue sites.

  20. Delayed skin wound repair in proline-rich protein tyrosine kinase 2 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Koppel, Aaron C; Kiss, Alexi; Hindes, Anna; Burns, Carole J; Marmer, Barry L; Goldberg, Gregory; Blumenberg, Miroslav; Efimova, Tatiana

    2014-05-15

    Proline-rich protein tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2) is a member of the focal adhesion kinase family. We used Pyk2 knockout (Pyk2-KO) mice to study the role of Pyk2 in cutaneous wound repair. We report that the rate of wound closure was delayed in Pyk2-KO compared with control mice. To examine whether impaired wound healing of Pyk2-KO mice was caused by a keratinocyte cell-autonomous defect, the capacities of primary keratinocytes from Pyk2-KO and wild-type (WT) littermates to heal scratch wounds in vitro were compared. The rate of scratch wound repair was decreased in Pyk2-KO keratinocytes compared with WT cells. Moreover, cultured human epidermal keratinocytes overexpressing the dominant-negative mutant of Pyk2 failed to heal scratch wounds. Conversely, stimulation of Pyk2-dependent signaling via WT Pyk2 overexpression induced accelerated scratch wound closure and was associated with increased expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, MMP-9, and MMP-10. The Pyk2-stimulated increase in the rate of scratch wound repair was abolished by coexpression of the dominant-negative mutant of PKCδ and by GM-6001, a broad-spectrum inhibitor of MMP activity. These results suggest that Pyk2 is essential for skin wound reepithelialization in vivo and in vitro and that it regulates epidermal keratinocyte migration via a pathway that requires PKCδ and MMP functions.

  1. Reduced oxazolone-induced skin inflammation in MAPKAP kinase 2 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Funding, Anne T; Johansen, Claus; Gaestel, Matthias; Bibby, Bo M; Lilleholt, Louise L; Kragballe, Knud; Iversen, Lars

    2009-04-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) AP kinase 2 (MK2) is a serine/threonine kinase that is phosphorylated and activated by p38 MAPK. MK2 regulates the expression of various proinflammatory cytokines including TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, and IL-8. Recently, MK2 was demonstrated to be activated in lesional psoriatic epidermis. This study investigates for the first time the role of MK2 in skin inflammation using the model of oxazolone-induced acute allergic contact dermatitis in mice. We show that oxazolone treatment leads to increased expression and sustained activation of both p38 MAPK and MK2. The inflammatory response was determined by ear thickness, myeloperoxidase activity, and histology after oxazolone challenge. Pretreatment with the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB202190 and genetic ablation of MK2 inhibit this inflammatory response. In particular, IL-1beta and, to a smaller but significant extent, also TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma expression were decreased in MK2 knockout mice compared with wild-type mice. These results indicate that MK2 is a potential target for the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases.

  2. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling is altered in the forebrain of Engrailed-2 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Zunino, G; Messina, A; Sgadò, P; Baj, G; Casarosa, S; Bozzi, Y

    2016-06-02

    Engrailed-2 (En2), a homeodomain transcription factor involved in regionalization and patterning of the midbrain and hindbrain regions has been associated to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). En2 knockout (En2(-/-)) mice show ASD-like features accompanied by a significant loss of GABAergic subpopulations in the hippocampus and neocortex. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a crucial factor for the postnatal development of forebrain GABAergic neurons, and altered GABA signaling has been hypothesized to underlie the symptoms of ASD. Here we sought to determine whether interneuron loss in the En2(-/-) forebrain might be related to altered expression of BDNF and its signaling receptors. We first evaluated the expression of different BDNF mRNA isoforms in the neocortex and hippocampus of wild-type (WT) and En2(-/-) mice. Quantitative RT-PCR showed a marked down-regulation of several splicing variants of BDNF mRNA in the neocortex but not hippocampus of adult En2(-/-) mice, as compared to WT controls. Accordingly, levels of mature BDNF protein were lower in the neocortex but not hippocampus of En2(-/-) mice, as compared to WT. Increased levels of phosphorylated TrkB and decreased levels of p75 receptor were also detected in the neocortex of mutant mice. Accordingly, the expression of low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and RhoA, two genes regulated via p75 was significantly altered in forebrain areas of mutant mice. These data indicate that BDNF signaling alterations might be involved in the anatomical changes observed in the En2(-/-) forebrain and suggest a pathogenic role of altered BDNF signaling in this mouse model of ASD.

  3. Cntnap2 Knockout Rats and Mice Exhibit Epileptiform Activity and Abnormal Sleep-Wake Physiology.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Alexia M; Schwartz, Michael D; Saxe, Michael D; Kilduff, Thomas S

    2017-01-01

    Although recent innovations have enabled modification of the rat genome, it is unclear whether enhanced utility of rodents as human disease models will result. We compared electroencephalogram (EEG) and behavioral phenotypes of rats and mice with homozygous deletion of Cntnap2, a gene associated with cortical dysplasia-focal epilepsy (CDFE) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Male contactin-associated protein-like 2 (Cntnap2) knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) rats and male Cntnap2 KO and WT mice were implanted with telemeters to record EEG, electromyogram, body temperature, and locomotor activity. Animals were subjected to a test battery for ASD-related behaviors, followed by 24-hr EEG recordings that were analyzed for sleep-wake parameters and subjected to spectral analysis. Cntnap2 KO rats exhibited severe motor seizures, hyperactivity, and increased consolidation of wakefulness and REM sleep. By contrast, Cntnap2 KO mice demonstrated absence seizure-like events, hypoactivity, and wake fragmentation. Although seizures observed in Cntnap2 KO rats were more similar to those in CDFE patients than in KO mice, neither model fully recapitulated the full spectrum of disease symptoms. However, KOs in both species had reduced spectral power in the alpha (9-12 Hz) range during wake, suggesting a conserved EEG biomarker. Deletion of Cntnap2 impacts similar behaviors and EEG measures in rats and mice, but with profound differences in nature and phenotypic severity. These observations highlight the importance of cross-species comparisons to understand conserved gene functions and the limitations of single- species models to provide translational insights relevant to human diseases.

  4. Lipidomic profiling of tryptophan hydroxylase 2 knockout mice reveals novel lipid biomarkers associated with serotonin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Weng, Rui; Shen, Sensen; Burton, Casey; Yang, Li; Nie, Honggang; Tian, Yonglu; Bai, Yu; Liu, Huwei

    2016-04-01

    Serotonin is an important neurotransmitter that regulates a wide range of physiological, neuropsychological, and behavioral processes. Consequently, serotonin deficiency is involved in a wide variety of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and depression. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying serotonin deficiency, particularly from a lipidomics perspective, remain poorly understood. This study therefore aimed to identify novel lipid biomarkers associated with serotonin deficiency by lipidomic profiling of tryptophan hydroxylase 2 knockout (Tph2-/-) mice. Using a high-throughput normal-/reversed-phase two-dimensional liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (NP/RP 2D LC-QToF-MS) method, 59 lipid biomarkers encompassing glycerophospholipids (glycerophosphocholines, lysoglycerophosphocholines, glycerophosphoethanolamines, lysoglycerophosphoethanolamines glycerophosphoinositols, and lysoglycerophosphoinositols), sphingolipids (sphingomyelins, ceramides, galactosylceramides, glucosylceramides, and lactosylceramides) and free fatty acids were identified. Systemic oxidative stress in the Tph2-/- mice was significantly elevated, and a corresponding mechanism that relates the lipidomic findings has been proposed. In summary, this work provides preliminary findings that lipid metabolism is implicated in serotonin deficiency.

  5. Nrf2-Knockout Protects from Intestinal Injuries in C57BL/6J Mice Following Abdominal Irradiation with γ Rays.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenyan; Sun, Zhijuan; Yang, Bing; Wang, Qin

    2017-07-31

    Radiation-induced intestinal injuries (RIII) commonly occur in patients who suffer from pelvic or abdominal cancer. Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a key transcriptional regulator of antioxidant, and the radioprotective role of Nrf2 is found in bone marrow, lung, and intestine, etc. Here, we investigated the effect of Nrf2 knockout on radiation-induced intestinal injuries using Nrf2 knockout (Nrf2(-/-)) mice and wild-type (Nrf2(+/+)) C57BL/6J mice following 13 Gy abdominal irradiation (ABI). It was found that Nrf2 knockout promoted the survival of irradiated mice, protected the crypt-villus structure of the small intestine, and elevated peripheral blood lymphocyte count and thymus coefficients. The DNA damage of peripheral blood lymphocytes and the apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) of irradiated Nrf2(-/-) mice were decreased. Furthermore, compared with that of Nrf2(+/+) mice, Nrf2 knockout increased the number of Lgr5⁺ intestinal stem cells (ISCs) and their daughter cells including Ki67⁺ transient amplifying cells, Villin⁺ enterocytes, and lysozyme⁺ Paneth cells. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) was accumulated in the crypt base nuclei of the small intestine, and the mRNA expression of NF-κB target genes Bcl-2, uPA, and Xiap of the small intestine from irradiated Nrf2(-/-) mice were increased. Collectively, Nrf2 knockout has the protective effect on small intestine damage following abdominal irradiation by prompting the proliferation and differentiation of Lgr5⁺ intestinal stem cells and activation of NF-κB.

  6. Nrf2-Knockout Protects from Intestinal Injuries in C57BL/6J Mice Following Abdominal Irradiation with γ Rays

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wenyan; Sun, Zhijuan; Yang, Bing; Wang, Qin

    2017-01-01

    Radiation-induced intestinal injuries (RIII) commonly occur in patients who suffer from pelvic or abdominal cancer. Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a key transcriptional regulator of antioxidant, and the radioprotective role of Nrf2 is found in bone marrow, lung, and intestine, etc. Here, we investigated the effect of Nrf2 knockout on radiation-induced intestinal injuries using Nrf2 knockout (Nrf2−/−) mice and wild-type (Nrf2+/+) C57BL/6J mice following 13 Gy abdominal irradiation (ABI). It was found that Nrf2 knockout promoted the survival of irradiated mice, protected the crypt-villus structure of the small intestine, and elevated peripheral blood lymphocyte count and thymus coefficients. The DNA damage of peripheral blood lymphocytes and the apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) of irradiated Nrf2−/− mice were decreased. Furthermore, compared with that of Nrf2+/+ mice, Nrf2 knockout increased the number of Lgr5+ intestinal stem cells (ISCs) and their daughter cells including Ki67+ transient amplifying cells, Villin+ enterocytes, and lysozyme+ Paneth cells. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) was accumulated in the crypt base nuclei of the small intestine, and the mRNA expression of NF-κB target genes Bcl-2, uPA, and Xiap of the small intestine from irradiated Nrf2−/− mice were increased. Collectively, Nrf2 knockout has the protective effect on small intestine damage following abdominal irradiation by prompting the proliferation and differentiation of Lgr5+ intestinal stem cells and activation of NF-κB. PMID:28758961

  7. Basal Bone Phenotype and Increased Anabolic Responses to Intermittent Parathyroid Hormone in Healthy Male COX-2 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Manshan; Choudhary, Shilpa; Voznesensky, Olga; Gao, Qi; Adams, Douglas; Diaz-Doran, Vilmaris; Wu, Qian; Goltzman, David; Raisz, Lawrence G.; Pilbeam, Carol C.

    2011-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) knockout (KO) mice in inbred strains can have renal dysfunction with secondary hyperparathyroidism (HPTH), making direct effects of COX-2 KO on bone difficult to assess. COX-2 KO mice in an outbred CD-1 background did not have renal dysfunction but still had two-fold elevated PTH compared to wild type (WT) mice. Compared to WT mice, KO mice had increased serum markers of bone turnover, decreased femoral bone mineral density (BMD) and cortical bone thickness, but no differences in trabecular bone volume by μCT or dynamic histomorphometry. Because PTH is a potent inducer of COX-2 and prostaglandin (PG) production, we examined effects of COX-2 KO on bone responses after three weeks of intermittent PTH. Intermittent PTH increased femoral BMD and cortical bone area more in KO mice than in WT mice and increased trabecular bone volume in the distal femur in both WT and KO mice. Although not statistically significant, PTH-stimulated increases in trabecular bone tended to be greater in KO mice than in WT mice. PTH increased serum markers of bone formation and resorption more in KO than in WT mice but increased the ratio of osteoblastic surface to osteoclastic surface only in KO mice. PTH also increased femoral mineral apposition rates and bone formation rates in KO mice more than in WT mice. Acute mRNA responses to PTH of genes that might mediate some anabolic and catabolic effects of PTH tended to be greater in KO than WT mice. We conclude that (1) the basal bone phenotype in male COX-2 KO mice might reflect HPTH, COX-2 deficiency or both, and (2) increased responses to intermittent PTH in COX-2 KO mice, despite the presence of chronic HPTH, suggest that absence of COX-2 increased sensitivity to PTH. It is possible that manipulation of endogenous PGs could have important clinical implications for anabolic therapy with PTH. PMID:20471507

  8. Retraction. Clc-2 knockout attenuated experimental temporal lobe epilepsy in mice by tonic inhibition mediated by GABAA receptors.

    PubMed

    Ge, Yu-Xing; Tian, Xiang-Zhu

    2016-03-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), the most prevalent form of epilepsy, is often associated with drug-resistant seizures. In TLE, altered function of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptors (GABAARs) results in potentiation of excitatory and/or failure of inhibitory neurotransmission, which contributes to seizure induction and propagation. Our previous study suggested that chloride channel-2 (Clc-2) contributed to chronically elevated tonic inhibition mediated by GABAARs in a rat model of TLE. In the present study, we used Clc-2 knockout mice to investigate further the role of Clc-2 and its interaction with tonic GABAergic inhibition in a model of TLE. The results revealed that knockout of Clc-2 decreased tonic seizure protection, latency of clonic seizure, seizure threshold and mortality protection in mice. Clc-2 knockout decreased the action potential (AP)peak and APthreshold, Clc-2 currents and GABAAR-mediated tonic inhibition in CA1 pyramidal neurons. Thus, the voltage-gated chloride channel Clc-2, which was functionally upregulated in CA1 pyramidal cells after seizures, may provide protection against TLE by its regulation of action potentials, Clc-2 currents and GABAARs in the CA1 region of the hippocampus.

  9. Aldh2 knockout mice were more sensitive to DNA damage in leukocytes due to ethyl tertiary butyl ether exposure.

    PubMed

    Weng, Zuquan; Suda, Megumi; Ohtani, Katsumi; Mei, Nan; Kawamoto, Toshihiro; Nakajima, Tamie; Wang, Rui-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    To clarify the genotoxicity of ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE), a gasoline additive, male and female C57BL/6 mice of Aldh2+/+ and Aldh2-/- genotypes, aged 8 wk, were exposed to 0, 500, 1,750, or 5,000 ppm ETBE for 6 h/day, 5 d per week for 13 wk. DNA damage in leukocytes was measured by the alkaline comet assay and expressed quantitatively as Tail Intensity (TI). For male mice, TI was significantly higher in all three groups exposed to ETBE than in those without exposure within Aldh2-/- mice, whereas within Aldh2+/+ mice, TI increased only in those exposed to 5,000 ppm of ETBE as compared with mice without exposure. For female mice, a significant increase in TI values was observed in the group exposed to 5,000 ppm of ETBE as compared with those without exposure within Aldh2-/- mice; TI in Aldh2-/- mice exposed to 1,750 and 5,000 ppm was significantly higher than in Aldh2+/+ mice without exposure. TI did not significantly increase in any of the groups exposed to ETBE within female Aldh2+/+ mice. Based on the results we suggest that Aldh2-/- mice are more sensitive to DNA damage caused by ETBE than Aldh2+/+ mice and that males seem more susceptible to this effect than females.

  10. Glucose and fat metabolism in adipose tissue of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Oh, WonKeun; Abu-Elheiga, Lutfi; Kordari, Parichher; Gu, Zeiwei; Shaikenov, Tattym; Chirala, Subrahmanyam S.; Wakil, Salih J.

    2005-01-01

    Acc2-/- mutant mice, when fed a high-fat/high-carbohydrate (HF/HC) diet, were protected against diet-induced obesity and diabetes. To investigate the role of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 (ACC2) in the regulation of energy metabolism in adipose tissues, we studied fatty acid and glucose oxidation in primary cultures of adipocytes isolated from wild-type and Acc2-/- mutant mice fed either normal chow or a HF/HC diet. When fed normal chow, oxidation of [14C]palmitate in adipocytes of Acc2-/- mutant mice was ≈80% higher than in adipocytes of WT mice, and it remained significantly higher in the presence of insulin. Interestingly, in addition to increased fatty acid oxidation, we also observed increased glucose oxidation in adipocytes of Acc2-/- mutant mice compared with that of WT mice. When fed a HF/HC diet for 4-5 months, adipocytes of Acc2-/- mutant mice maintained a 25% higher palmitate oxidation and a 2-fold higher glucose oxidation than WT mice. The mRNA level of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) decreased several fold in the adipose tissue of WT mice fed a HF/HC diet; however, in the adipose tissue of Acc2-/- mutant mice, it was 7-fold higher. Moreover, lipolysis activity was higher in adipocytes of Acc2-/- mutant mice compared with that in WT mice. These findings suggest that continuous fatty acid oxidation in the adipocytes of Acc2-/- mutant mice, combined with a higher level of glucose oxidation and a higher rate of lipolysis, are major factors leading to efficient maintenance of insulin sensitivity and leaner Acc2-/- mutant mice. PMID:15677334

  11. Differential genotoxic effects of subchronic exposure to ethyl tertiary butyl ether in the livers of Aldh2 knockout and wild-type mice.

    PubMed

    Weng, Zuquan; Suda, Megumi; Ohtani, Katsumi; Mei, Nan; Kawamoto, Toshihiro; Nakajima, Tamie; Wang, Rui-Sheng

    2012-04-01

    Ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE) is used as an additive to gasoline to reduce carbon monoxide emissions in some developed countries. So far, ETBE was not found with positive results in many genotoxic assays. This study is undertaken to investigate the modifying effects of deficiency of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) on the toxicity of ETBE in the livers of mice. Eight-week-old wild-type (WT) and Aldh2 knockout (KO) C57BL/6 mice of both sexes were exposed to 0, 500, 1,750, and 5,000 ppm ETBE for 6 h/day with 5 days per weeks for 13 weeks. Histopathology assessments and measurements of genetic effects in the livers were performed. Significantly increased accidences of centrilobular hypertrophy were observed in the livers of WT and KO mice of both sexes in 5,000 ppm group; there was a sex difference in centrilobular hypertrophy between male and female KO mice, with more severe damage in the males. In addition, DNA strand breaks, 8-hydroxyguanine DNA-glycosylase (hOGG1)-modified oxidative base modification, and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine as genetic damage endpoints were significantly increased in three exposure groups in KO male mice, while these genotoxic effects were only found in 5,000 ppm group of KO female mice. In WT mice, significant DNA damage was seen in 5,000 ppm group of male mice, but not in females. Thus, sex differences in DNA damage were found not only in KO mice, but also in WT mice. These results suggest that ALDH2 polymorphisms and sex should be taken into considerations in predicting human health effects of ETBE exposure.

  12. Anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors in olfactory deficient Cnga2 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanmei; Liu, Xiaofen; Jia, Xianglei; Zong, Wei; Ma, Yuanye; Xu, Fuqiang; Wang, Jianhong

    2014-12-15

    There is a close neuroanatomical connection between odor and emotional processing. Olfactory dysfunction is found in various neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, mice take the cyclic nucleotide gated channel 2 mutant gene (Cnga2), which is critical for olfactory sensory neurons to generate odor induced action potentials were used. The Cnga2 mice were congenitally anosmic. Adult mice were tested in a series behavioral paradigm such as open field, light/dark box, forced swim test and Y-maze. Our study found that Cnga2 mice showed increased anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors than their wide type siblings. However, Cnga2 mice showed no difference from the wide types when tested in the two-trial recognition Y-maze. The results indicate that innate olfactory deficiency might modulate emotional behaviors in mice.

  13. Aggressive mammary carcinoma progression in Nrf2 knockout mice treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2), which belongs to the basic leucine zipper transcription factor family, is a strategy for cancer chemopreventive phytochemicals. It is an important regulator of genes induced by oxidative stress, such as glutathione S-transferases, heme oxygenase-1 and peroxiredoxin 1, by activating the antioxidant response element (ARE). We hypothesized that (1) the citrus coumarin auraptene may suppress premalignant mammary lesions via activation of Nrf2/ARE, and (2) that Nrf2 knockout (KO) mice would be more susceptible to mammary carcinogenesis. Methods Premalignant lesions and mammary carcinomas were induced by medroxyprogesterone acetate and 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene treatment. The 10-week pre-malignant study was performed in which 8 groups of 10 each female wild-type (WT) and KO mice were fed either control diet or diets containing auraptene (500 ppm). A carcinogenesis study was also conducted in KO vs. WT mice (n = 30-34). Comparisons between groups were evaluated using ANOVA and Kaplan-Meier Survival statistics, and the Mann-Whitney U-test. Results All mice treated with carcinogen exhibited premalignant lesions but there were no differences by genotype or diet. In the KO mice, there was a dramatic increase in mammary carcinoma growth rate, size, and weight. Although there was no difference in overall survival, the KO mice had significantly lower mammary tumor-free survival. Also, in the KO mammary carcinomas, the active forms of NF-κB and β-catenin were increased ~2-fold whereas no differences in oxidized proteins were observed. Many other tumors were observed, including lymphomas. Interestingly, the incidences of lung adenomas in the KO mice were significantly higher than in the WT mice. Conclusions We report, for the first time, that there was no apparent difference in the formation of premalignant lesions, but rather, the KO mice exhibited rapid, aggressive mammary carcinoma progression

  14. Salivary Gland Hypofunction in tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase-2 Knockout Mice Is Due to Primary Hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Westmuckett, Andrew D.; Siefert, Joseph C.; Tesiram, Yasvir A.; Pinson, David M.; Moore, Kevin L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Protein-tyrosine sulfation is a post-translational modification of an unknown number of secreted and membrane proteins mediated by two known Golgi tyrosylprotein sulfotransferases (TPST-1 and TPST-2). We reported that Tpst2-/- mice have mild-moderate primary hypothyroidism, whereas Tpst1-/- mice are euthyroid. While using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to look at the thyroid gland we noticed that the salivary glands in Tpst2-/- mice appeared smaller than in wild type mice. This prompted a detailed analysis to compare salivary gland structure and function in wild type, Tpst1-/-, and Tpst2 -/- mice. Methodology/Principal Findings Quantitative MRI imaging documented that salivary glands in Tpst2-/- females were ≈ 30% smaller than wild type or Tpst1-/- mice and that the granular convoluted tubules in Tpst2-/- submandibular glands were less prominent and were almost completely devoid of exocrine secretory granules compared to glands from wild type or Tpst1-/- mice. In addition, pilocarpine–induced salivary flow and salivary α-amylase activity in Tpst2-/- mice of both sexes was substantially lower than in wild type and Tpst1-/- mice. Anti-sulfotyrosine Western blots of salivary gland extracts and saliva showed no differences between wild type, Tpst1-/-, and Tpst2-/- mice, suggesting that the salivary gland hypofunction is due to factor(s) extrinsic to the salivary glands. Finally, we found that all indicators of hypothyroidism (serum T4, body weight) and salivary gland hypofunction (salivary flow, salivary α-amylase activity, histological changes) were restored to normal or near normal by thyroid hormone supplementation. Conclusions/Significance Our findings conclusively demonstrate that low body weight and salivary gland hypofunction in Tpst2-/- mice is due solely to primary hypothyroidism. PMID:23951251

  15. Autistic-like phenotypes in Cadps2-knockout mice and aberrant CADPS2 splicing in autistic patients

    PubMed Central

    Sadakata, Tetsushi; Washida, Miwa; Iwayama, Yoshimi; Shoji, Satoshi; Sato, Yumi; Ohkura, Takeshi; Katoh-Semba, Ritsuko; Nakajima, Mizuho; Sekine, Yukiko; Tanaka, Mika; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Iwata, Yasuhide; Tsuchiya, Kenji J.; Mori, Norio; Detera-Wadleigh, Sevilla D.; Ichikawa, Hironobu; Itohara, Shigeyoshi; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Furuichi, Teiichi

    2007-01-01

    Autism, characterized by profound impairment in social interactions and communicative skills, is the most common neurodevelopmental disorder, and its underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Ca2+-dependent activator protein for secretion 2 (CADPS2; also known as CAPS2) mediates the exocytosis of dense-core vesicles, and the human CADPS2 is located within the autism susceptibility locus 1 on chromosome 7q. Here we show that Cadps2-knockout mice not only have impaired brain-derived neurotrophic factor release but also show autistic-like cellular and behavioral phenotypes. Moreover, we found an aberrant alternatively spliced CADPS2 mRNA that lacks exon 3 in some autistic patients. Exon 3 was shown to encode the dynactin 1–binding domain and affect axonal CADPS2 protein distribution. Our results suggest that a disturbance in CADPS2-mediated neurotrophin release contributes to autism susceptibility. PMID:17380209

  16. Virally expressed connexin26 restores gap junction function in the cochlea of conditional Gjb2 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Q; Wang, Y; Chang, Q; Wang, J; Gong, S; Li, H; Lin, X

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in GJB2, which codes for the gap junction (GJ) protein connexin26 (Cx26), are the most common causes of human nonsyndromic hereditary deafness. We inoculated modified adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors into the scala media of early postnatal conditional Gjb2 knockout mice to drive exogenous Cx26 expression. We found extensive virally expressed Cx26 in cells lining the scala media, and intercellular GJ network was re-established in the organ of Corti of mutant mouse cochlea. Widespread ectopic Cx26 expression neither formed ectopic GJs nor affected normal hearing thresholds in wild-type (WT) mice, suggesting that autonomous cellular mechanisms regulate proper membrane trafficking of exogenously expressed Cx26 and govern the functional manifestation of them. Functional recovery of GJ-mediated coupling among the supporting cells was observed. We found that both cell death in the organ of Corti and degeneration of spiral ganglion neurons in the cochlea of mutant mice were substantially reduced, although auditory brainstem responses did not show significant hearing improvement. This is the first report demonstrating that virally mediated gene therapy restored extensive GJ intercellular network among cochlear non-sensory cells in vivo. Such a treatment performed at early postnatal stages resulted in a partial rescue of disease phenotypes in the cochlea of the mutant mice.

  17. Epithelial cancer in Fanconi anemia complementation group D2 (Fancd2) knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Houghtaling, Scott; Timmers, Cynthia; Noll, Meenakshi; Finegold, Milton J; Jones, Stephen N; Meyn, M Stephen; Grompe, Markus

    2003-08-15

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetic disorder characterized by hypersensitivity to DNA damage, bone marrow failure, congenital defects, and cancer. To further investigate the in vivo function of the FA pathway, mice with a targeted deletion in the distally acting FA gene Fancd2 were created. Similar to human FA patients and other FA mouse models, Fancd2 mutant mice exhibited cellular sensitivity to DNA interstrand cross-links and germ cell loss. In addition, chromosome mispairing was seen in male meiosis. However, Fancd2 mutant mice also displayed phenotypes not observed in other mice with disruptions of proximal FA genes. These include microphthalmia, perinatal lethality, and epithelial cancers, similar to mice with Brca2/Fancd1 hypomorphic mutations. These additional phenotypes were not caused by defects in the ATM-mediated S-phase checkpoint, which was intact in primary Fancd2 mutant fibroblasts. The phenotypic overlap between Fancd2-null and Brca2/Fancd1 hypomorphic mice is consistent with a common function for both proteins in the same pathway, regulating genomic stability.

  18. Altered prostanoid signaling contributes to increased skin tumorigenesis in Tpl2 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    DeCicco-Skinner, Kathleen L; Nolan, Sabrina J; Deshpande, Monika M; Trovato, Erika L; Dempsey, Taylor A; Wiest, Jonathan S

    2013-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma is the second most common form of skin cancer with the incidence expected to double over the next 20 years. Inflammation is believed to be a critical component in skin cancer progression. Therefore, understanding genes involved in the regulation of inflammatory pathways is vital to the design of targeted therapies. Numerous studies show cyclooxygenases (COXs) play an essential role in inflammation-associated cancers. Tpl2 (MAP3K8) is a protein kinase in the MAP Kinase signal transduction cascade. Previous research using a two-stage skin carcinogenesis model revealed that Tpl2(-/-) mice have significantly higher tumor incidence and inflammatory response than wild-type (WT) controls. The current study investigates whether cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and COX-2- regulated prostaglandins and prostaglandin receptors drive the highly tumorigenic state of Tpl2(-/-) mice by investigating the relationship between Tpl2 and COX-2. Keratinocytes from newborn WT or Tpl2(-/-) mice were treated with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) for various times over 24 hours. Western analysis revealed significant differences in COX-2 and COX-2 dependent prostanoids and prostanoid receptors. Additionally, in vivo experiments confirmed that COX-2 and COX-2 downstream factors were elevated in TPA-treated Tpl2(-/-) skin, as well as in papillomas from Tpl2(-/-) mice. Use of the selective COX-2 inhibitor Celecoxib showed the increased tumorigenesis in the Tpl2(-/-) mice to primarily be mediated through COX-2. These experiments illustrate COX-2 induction in the absence of Tpl2 may be responsible for the increased tumorigenesis found in Tpl2(-/-) mice. Defining the relationship between Tpl2 and COX-2 may lead to new ways to downregulate COX-2 through the modulation of Tpl2.

  19. Sohlh2 knockout mice are male-sterile because of degeneration of differentiating type A spermatogonia.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jing; Yamamoto, Miwako; Richardson, Timothy E; Chapman, Karen M; Denard, Bray S; Hammer, Robert E; Zhao, Guang Quan; Hamra, F Kent

    2008-06-01

    The spermatogenesis and oogenesis-specific transcription factor Sohlh2 is normally expressed only in premeiotic germ cells. In this study, Sohlh2 and several other germ cell transcripts were found to be induced in mouse embryonic stem cells when cultured on a feeder cell line that overexpresses bone morphogenetic protein 4. To study the function of Sohlh2 in germ cells, we generated mice harboring null alleles of Sohlh2. Male Sohlh2-deficient mice were infertile because of a block in spermatogenesis. Although normal prior to birth, Sohlh2-null mice had reduced numbers of intermediate and type B spermatogonia by postnatal day 7. By day 10, development to the preleptotene spermatocyte stage was severely disrupted, rendering seminiferous tubules with only Sertoli cells, undifferentiated spermatogonia, and degenerating colonies of differentiating spermatogonia. Degenerating cells resembled type A2 spermatogonia and accumulated in M-phase prior to death. A similar phenotype was observed in Sohlh2-null mice on postnatal days 14, 21, 35, 49, 68, and 151. In adult Sohlh2-mutant mice, the ratio of undifferentiated type A spermatogonia (DAZL+/PLZF+) to differentiating type A spermatogonia (DAZL+/PLZF-) was twice normal levels. In culture, undifferentiated type A spermatogonia isolated from Sohlh2-null mice proliferated normally but linked the mutant phenotype to aberrant cell surface expression of the receptor-tyrosine kinase cKit. Thus, Sohlh2 is required for progression of differentiating type A spermatogonia into type B spermatogonia. One conclusion originating from these studies would be that testicular factors normally regulate the viability of differentiating spermatogonia by signaling through Sohlh2. This regulation would provide a crucial checkpoint to optimize the numbers of spermatocytes entering meiosis during each cycle of spermatogenesis. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article.

  20. A Bivalent Vaccine Based on a PB2-Knockout Influenza Virus Protects Mice From Secondary Pneumococcal Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Uraki, Ryuta; Piao, Zhenyu; Akeda, Yukihiro; Iwatsuki-Horimoto, Kiyoko; Kiso, Maki; Ozawa, Makoto; Oishi, Kazunori; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2015-12-15

    Secondary bacterial infections after influenza can be a serious problem, especially in young children and the elderly, yet the efficacy of current vaccines is limited. Earlier work demonstrated that a replication-incompetent PB2-knockout (PB2-KO) influenza virus possessing a foreign gene in the coding region of its PB2 segment can serve as a platform for a bivalent vaccine. In the current study, we generated the PB2-KO virus expressing pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA), PB2-KO-PspA virus, the replication of which is restricted to PB2-expressing cells. We then examined the protective efficacy of intranasal immunization with this virus as a bivalent vaccine in a mouse model. High levels of influenza virus-specific and PspA-specific antibodies were induced in the serum and airways of immunized mice. The intranasally immunized mice were protected from lethal doses of influenza virus or Streptococcus pneumoniae. These mice were also completely protected from secondary pneumococcal pneumonia after influenza virus infection. These findings indicate that our recombinant influenza virus serves as a novel and powerful bivalent vaccine against primary and secondary pneumococcal pneumonia as well as influenza. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Kv4.2 knockout mice display learning and memory deficits in the Lashley maze

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Gregory D.; Gao, Nan; Lugo, Joaquin N.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Potassium channels have been shown to be involved in neural plasticity and learning. Kv4.2 is a subunit of the A-type potassium channel. Kv4.2 channels modulate excitability in the dendrites of pyramidal neurons in the cortex and hippocampus. Deletion of Kv4.2 results in spatial learning and conditioned fear deficits; however, previous studies have only examined deletion of Kv4.2 in aversive learning tests. Methods: For the current study, we used the Lashley maze as an appetitive learning test. We examined Kv4.2 wildtype (WT) and knockout (KO) mice in the Lashley maze over 4 days during adulthood. The first day consisted of habituating the mice to the maze. The mice then received five trials per day for the next 3 days. The number of errors and the time to the goal box was recorded for each trial. The goal box contained a weigh boat with an appetitive reward (gelatin with sugar). There was an intertrial interval of 15 minutes. Results: We found that Kv4.2 KO mice committed more errors across the trials compared to the WT mice p<0.001. There was no difference in the latency to find the goal box over the period. Discussion: Our finding that deletion of Kv4.2 resulted in more errors in the Lashley maze across 15 trials contribute to a growing body of evidence that Kv4.2 channels are significantly involved in learning and memory. PMID:28163893

  2. Raman spectroscopy for assessment of bone quality in MMP-2 knockout mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Xiaohong; Nyman, Jeffry S.; Patil, Chetan A.; Masui, Philip; Lynch, Conor; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita

    2009-02-01

    Knocking out a gene in mice provide the means to investigate potential regulators of the compositional, structural, and biomechanical properties of bone. Suppressing genes related to matrix turnover (bone remodeling) can have a significant effect on properties related to overall bone quality, which are normally measured using tests such as micro-computed tomography (μ-CT) and three point-bending to determine the structural and mechanical properties, respectively. Although Raman spectroscopy is known to non-destructively characterize biochemical properties of bone such as degree of mineralization and crystallinity, the correlation between these measurements and those of overall bone quality has not yet been systematically investigated. In this study we present a comparison of structural and mechanical properties of bone from mice deficient in matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) to compositional properties measured with RS. Femora were collected from MMP2+/+ and MMP2-/- mice at 16 weeks of age. Multiple Raman spectra were collected from the mid-diaphysis of intact femora in order to measure the bone's average compositional properties. In addition, μ-CT was used to characterize the structure and bone mineral density (BMD) at the mid-diaphysis, and three-point bending assessed the biomechanical properties of the same bones. Raman derived measurements of mineralization (ratio of Phosphate ν1 to CH2 bending), mineral crystallinity, collagen and mineral contents were significantly lower in the MMP null mice and demonstrated correlation with volumetric BMD, bending strength and modulus. In addition, all these measurements were shown to inversely correlate with post-yield-deflection (p<0.01). These results indicate the potential for RS to qualitatively assess bone quality.

  3. Novel role of NADPH oxidase in ischemic myocardium: a study with Nox2 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Thirunavukkarasu, Mahesh; Adluri, Ram Sudheer; Juhasz, Bela; Samuel, Samson Mathews; Zhan, Lijun; Kaur, Anupinder; Maulik, Gautam; Sanchez, Juan A; Hager, Janet; Maulik, Nilanjana

    2012-08-01

    Several potential sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells exist. One source is NADPH oxidase, which is especially important for superoxide radical production. Nox2 is a primary regulatory subunit of NADPH oxidase. In the present study, we examined the role of ROS and NADPH oxidase in ischemic preconditioning (IP)-mediated cardioprotection by using Nox2(-/-) mice. Both wild-type (WT) and Nox2(-/-) mice were subjected to either 30 min of ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion (IR) or IP prior to 30 min ischemia and 2 h of reperfusion. Reduction in left ventricular developed pressure (60.1 versus 63 mmHg), dp/dt (max) (893 versus 1,027 mmHg/s), and aortic flow (0.9 versus 1.8 ml/min) was observed in Nox2(-/-)IPIR compared to WTIPIR along with increased infarct size (33% versus 22%) and apoptosis after 120 min of reperfusion. Differentially regulated genes were demonstrated by comparing gene expression in WTIPIR versus Nox2(-/-) IPIR hearts. Selected differentially regulated genes such as β-catenin, SRPK3, ERDR1, ACIN1, Syntaxin-8, and STC1 were validated by real-time PCR. Taken together, this is the first report identifying important, differentially expressed genes during ischemic preconditioning in Nox2(-/-) mice by using microarray analysis.

  4. Intact colonic KCa1.1 channel activity in KCNMB2 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Casper K; Praetorius, Helle A; Leipziger, Jens; Sorensen, Mads V

    2017-03-01

    Mammalian potassium homeostasis results from tightly regulated renal and colonic excretion, which balances the unregulated dietary K(+) intake. Colonic K(+) secretion follows the pump-leak model, in which the large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel (KCa1.1) is well established as the sole, but highly regulated apical K(+) conductance. The physiological importance of auxiliary β and γ subunits of the pore-forming α-subunit of the KCa1.1 channel is not yet fully established. This study investigates colonic K(+) secretion in a global knockout mouse of the KCa1.1-β2-subunit (KCNMB2(-/-)), which apparently is the only β-subunit of the colonic enterocyte KCa1.1 channel. We can report that: (1) Neither KCa1.1 α- nor the remaining β-subunits were compensatory transcriptional regulated in colonic epithelia of KCNMB2(-/-) mice. (2) Colonic epithelia from KCNMB2(-/-) mice displayed equal basal and ATP-induced KCa1.1-mediated K(+) conductance as compared to KCNMB2(+/+) (3) K(+) secretion was increased in KCNMB2(-/-) epithelia compared to wild-type epithelia from animals fed an aldosterone-inducing diet. (4) Importantly, the apical K(+) conductance was abolished by the specific blocker of KCa1.1 channel iberiotoxin in both KCNMB2(+/+) and KCNMB2(-/-) mice. Recently a novel family of auxiliary γ-subunits of the KCa1.1 channel has been described. (5) We detected the γ1-subunit (LRRC26) mRNA in colonic epithelia. To investigate the physiological role of the γ1-subunit of KCa1.1 channels in colonic K(+) secretion, we acquired an LRRC26 knockout mouse. (6) Unexpectedly, LRRC26 mice had a perinatal lethal phenotype, thus preventing functional measurements. On this basis we conclude that colonic K(+) secretion is intact or even increased in mice lacking the β2-subunit of KCa1.1 channel complex despite no additional compensatory induction of KCa1.1 β-subunits. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The

  5. Ethanol and Acetaldehyde After Intraperitoneal Administration to Aldh2-Knockout Mice-Reflection in Blood and Brain Levels.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Mostofa; Ameno, Kiyoshi; Tanaka, Naoko; Ito, Asuka; Takakura, Ayaka; Kumihashi, Mitsuru; Kinoshita, Hiroshi

    2016-05-01

    This paper reports, for the first time, on the analysis of ethanol (EtOH) and acetaldehyde (AcH) concentrations in the blood and brains of Aldh2-knockout (Aldh2-KO) and C57B6/6J (WT) mice. Animals were administrated EtOH (1.0, 2.0 or 4.0 g/kg) or 4-methylpyrazole (4-MP, 82 mg/kg) plus AcH (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. During the blood tests, samples from the orbital sinus of the eye were collected. During the brain tests, dialysates were collected every 5 min (equal to a 15 µl sample) from the striatum using in vivo brain microdialysis. Samples were collected at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 60 min intervals post-EtOH and -AcH injection, and then analyzed by head-space GC. In the EtOH groups, high AcH levels were found in the blood and brains of Aldh2-KO mice, while only small traces of AcH were seen in the blood and brains of WT mice. No significant differences in EtOH levels were observed between the WT and the Aldh2-KO mice for either the EtOH dose. EtOH concentrations in the brain were comparable to the EtOH concentrations in the blood, but the AcH concentrations in the brain were four to five times lower compared to the AcH concentrations in the blood. In the AcH groups, high AcH levels were found in both WT and Aldh2-KO mice. Levels reached a sharp peak at 5 min and then quickly declined for 60 min. Brain AcH concentrations were almost equal to the concentrations found in the blood, where the AcH concentrations were approximately two times higher in the Aldh2-KO mice than in the WT mice, both in the blood and the brain. Our results suggest that systemic EtOH and AcH administration can cause a greater increase in AcH accumulation in the blood and brains of Aldh2-KO mice, where EtOH concentrations in the Aldh2-KO mice were comparable to the EtOH concentrations in the WT mice. Furthermore, detection of EtOH and AcH in the blood and brain was found to be dose-dependent in both genotypes.

  6. Development of Single Retinofugal Axon Arbors in Normal and β2 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dhande, Onkar S.; Hua, Ethan W.; Guh, Emily; Yeh, Jonathan; Bhatt, Shivani; Zhang, Yueyi; Ruthazer, Edward S.; Feller, Marla B.; Crair, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    The maturation of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axon projections in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) and the superior colliculus (SC) relies on both molecular and activity-dependent mechanisms. Despite the increasing popularity of the mouse as a mammalian visual system model, little is known in this species about the normal development of individual RGC axon arbors or the role of activity in this process. We used a novel in vivo single RGC labeling technique to quantitatively characterize the elaboration and refinement of RGC axon arbors in the dLGN and SC in wild type (WT) and β2-nAChR mutant (β2−/−) mice, which have perturbed retinal waves, during the developmental period when eye-specific lamination and retinotopic refinement occurs. Our results suggest that eye-specific segregation and retinotopic refinement in WT mice are not the result of refinement of richly exuberant arbors, but rather the elaboration of arbors pre-positioned in the proper location combined with the elimination of inappropriately targeted sparse branches. We found that retinocollicular arbors mature about one week earlier than retinogeniculate arbors, even though RGC axons reach the dLGN and SC at roughly the same age. We also observed striking differences between contralateral and ipsilateral RGC axon arbors in the SC but not in the LGN. These data suggest a strong influence of target specific cues during arbor maturation. In β2−/− mice, we found that retinofugal single axon arbors are well ramified but enlarged, particularly in the SC, indicating that activity-dependent visual map development occurs through the refinement of individual RGC arbors. PMID:21368050

  7. Cadium pathways during gestation and lactation in control vs. metallothionein 1,2-knockout mice.

    SciTech Connect

    Brako, E. E.; Wilson, A. K.; Jonah, M. M.; Blum, C. A.; Cerny, E. A.; Williams, K. L.; Bhattacharyya, M. H.; Winona State Univ.; Benedictine Univ.; Dominican Univ.

    2003-01-01

    Effects of metallothionein (MT) on cadmium absorption and transfer pathways during gestation and lactation in mice were investigated. Female 129/SvJ metallothionein-knockout (MT1,2KO) and metallothionein-normal (MTN) mice received drinking water containing trace amounts of {sup 109}CdCl{sub 2} (0.15 ng Cd/ml; 0.074 {mu}Ci {sup 109}Cd/ml). {sup 109}Cd and MT in maternal, fetal, and pup tissues were measured on gestation days 7, 14, and 17 and lactation day 11. In dams, MT influenced both the amount of {sup 109}Cd transferred from intestine into body (two- to three-fold higher in MT1,2KO than MTN dams) and tissue-specific {sup 109}Cd distribution (higher liver/kidney ratio in MT1,2KO dams). Placental {sup 109}Cd concentrations in MT1,2KO dams were three- and seven-fold higher on gestation days 14 and 17, respectively, than in MTN dams. Fetal {sup 109}Cd levels were low in both mouse types, but at least 10-fold lower in MTN fetuses. MT had no effect on the amount of {sup 109}Cd transferred to pups via milk; furthermore, 85--90% of total pup {sup 109}Cd was recovered in gastrointestinal tracts of both types, despite high duodenal MT only in MTN pups. A relatively large percentage of milk-derived intestinal {sup 109}Cd was transferred to other pup tissues in both MT1,2KO and MTN pups (14 and 10%, respectively). These results demonstrate that specific sequestration of cadmium by both maternal and neonatal intestinal tract does not require MT. Although MT decreased oral cadmium transfer from intestine to body tissues at low cadmium exposure levels, MT did not play a major role in restricting transfer of cadmium from dam to fetus via placenta and to neonate via milk.

  8. Cadmium pathways during gestation and lactation in control versus metallothoinein 1,2-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Brako, Emmanuel E; Wilson, Allison K; Jonah, Margaret M; Blum, Carmen A; Cerny, Elizabeth A; Williams, Kanesha L; Bhattacharyya, Maryka H

    2003-02-01

    Effects of metallothionein (MT) on cadmium absorption and transfer pathways during gestation and lactation in mice were investigated. Female 129/SvJ metallothionein-knockout (MT1,2KO) and metallothionein-normal (MTN) mice received drinking water containing trace amounts of (109)CdCl(2) (0.15 ng Cd/ml; 0.074 micro Ci (109)Cd/ml). (109)Cd and MT in maternal, fetal, and pup tissues were measured on gestation days 7, 14, and 17 and lactation day 11. In dams, MT influenced both the amount of (109)Cd transferred from intestine into body (two- to three-fold higher in MT1,2KO than MTN dams) and tissue-specific (109)Cd distribution (higher liver/kidney ratio in MT1,2KO dams). Placental (109)Cd concentrations in MT1,2KO dams were three- and seven-fold higher on gestation days 14 and 17, respectively, than in MTN dams. Fetal (109)Cd levels were low in both mouse types, but at least 10-fold lower in MTN fetuses. MT had no effect on the amount of (109)Cd transferred to pups via milk; furthermore, 85-90% of total pup (109)Cd was recovered in gastrointestinal tracts of both types, despite high duodenal MT only in MTN pups. A relatively large percentage of milk-derived intestinal (109)Cd was transferred to other pup tissues in both MT1,2KO and MTN pups (14 and 10%, respectively). These results demonstrate that specific sequestration of cadmium by both maternal and neonatal intestinal tract does not require MT. Although MT decreased oral cadmium transfer from intestine to body tissues at low cadmium exposure levels, MT did not play a major role in restricting transfer of cadmium from dam to fetus via placenta and to neonate via milk.

  9. Long-term rescue of cone photoreceptor degeneration in retinitis pigmentosa 2 (RP2)-knockout mice by gene replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Mookherjee, Suddhasil; Hiriyanna, Suja; Kaneshiro, Kayleigh; Li, Linjing; Li, Yichao; Li, Wei; Qian, Haohua; Li, Tiansen; Khanna, Hemant; Colosi, Peter; Swaroop, Anand; Wu, Zhijian

    2015-11-15

    Retinal neurodegenerative diseases are especially attractive targets for gene replacement therapy, which appears to be clinically effective for several monogenic diseases. X-linked forms of retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP) are relatively severe blinding disorders, resulting from progressive photoreceptor dysfunction primarily caused by mutations in RPGR or RP2 gene. With a goal to develop gene therapy for the XLRP-RP2 disease, we first performed detailed characterization of the Rp2-knockout (Rp2-KO) mice and observed early-onset cone dysfunction, which was followed by progressive cone degeneration, mimicking cone vision impairment in XLRP patients. The mice also exhibited distinct and significantly delayed falling phase of photopic b-wave of electroretinogram (ERG). Concurrently, we generated a self-complementary adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector carrying human RP2-coding sequence and demonstrated its ability to mediate stable RP2 protein expression in mouse photoreceptors. A long-term efficacy study was then conducted in Rp2-KO mice following AAV-RP2 vector administration. Preservation of cone function was achieved with a wide dose range over 18-month duration, as evidenced by photopic ERG and optomotor tests. The slower b-wave kinetics was also completely restored. Morphologically, the treatment preserved cone viability, corrected mis-trafficking of M-cone opsin and restored cone PDE6 expression. The therapeutic effect was achieved even in mice that received treatment at an advanced disease stage. The highest AAV-RP2 dose group demonstrated retinal toxicity, highlighting the importance of careful vector dosing in designing future human trials. The wide range of effective dose, a broad treatment window and long-lasting therapeutic effects should make the RP2 gene therapy attractive for clinical development. Published by Oxford University Press 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  10. Long-term rescue of cone photoreceptor degeneration in retinitis pigmentosa 2 (RP2)-knockout mice by gene replacement therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mookherjee, Suddhasil; Hiriyanna, Suja; Kaneshiro, Kayleigh; Li, Linjing; Li, Yichao; Li, Wei; Qian, Haohua; Li, Tiansen; Khanna, Hemant; Colosi, Peter; Swaroop, Anand; Wu, Zhijian

    2015-01-01

    Retinal neurodegenerative diseases are especially attractive targets for gene replacement therapy, which appears to be clinically effective for several monogenic diseases. X-linked forms of retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP) are relatively severe blinding disorders, resulting from progressive photoreceptor dysfunction primarily caused by mutations in RPGR or RP2 gene. With a goal to develop gene therapy for the XLRP-RP2 disease, we first performed detailed characterization of the Rp2-knockout (Rp2-KO) mice and observed early-onset cone dysfunction, which was followed by progressive cone degeneration, mimicking cone vision impairment in XLRP patients. The mice also exhibited distinct and significantly delayed falling phase of photopic b-wave of electroretinogram (ERG). Concurrently, we generated a self-complementary adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector carrying human RP2-coding sequence and demonstrated its ability to mediate stable RP2 protein expression in mouse photoreceptors. A long-term efficacy study was then conducted in Rp2-KO mice following AAV-RP2 vector administration. Preservation of cone function was achieved with a wide dose range over 18-month duration, as evidenced by photopic ERG and optomotor tests. The slower b-wave kinetics was also completely restored. Morphologically, the treatment preserved cone viability, corrected mis-trafficking of M-cone opsin and restored cone PDE6 expression. The therapeutic effect was achieved even in mice that received treatment at an advanced disease stage. The highest AAV-RP2 dose group demonstrated retinal toxicity, highlighting the importance of careful vector dosing in designing future human trials. The wide range of effective dose, a broad treatment window and long-lasting therapeutic effects should make the RP2 gene therapy attractive for clinical development. PMID:26358772

  11. Altered GABAergic markers, increased binocularity and reduced plasticity in the visual cortex of Engrailed-2 knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Allegra, Manuela; Genovesi, Sacha; Maggia, Marika; Cenni, Maria C.; Zunino, Giulia; Sgadò, Paola; Caleo, Matteo; Bozzi, Yuri

    2014-01-01

    The maturation of the GABAergic system is a crucial determinant of cortical development during early postnatal life, when sensory circuits undergo a process of activity-dependent refinement. An altered excitatory/inhibitory balance has been proposed as a possible pathogenic mechanism of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The homeobox-containing transcription factor Engrailed-2 (En2) has been associated to ASD, and En2 knockout (En2−/−) mice show ASD-like features accompanied by a partial loss of cortical GABAergic interneurons. Here we studied GABAergic markers and cortical function in En2−/− mice, by exploiting the well-known anatomical and functional features of the mouse visual system. En2 is expressed in the visual cortex at postnatal day 30 and during adulthood. When compared to age-matched En2+/+ controls, En2−/− mice showed an increased number of parvalbumin (PV+), somatostatin (SOM+), and neuropeptide Y (NPY+) positive interneurons in the visual cortex at P30, and a decreased number of SOM+ and NPY+ interneurons in the adult. At both ages, the differences in distinct interneuron populations observed between En2+/+ and En2−/− mice were layer-specific. Adult En2−/− mice displayed a normal eye-specific segregation in the retino-geniculate pathway, and in vivo electrophysiological recordings showed a normal development of basic functional properties (acuity, response latency, receptive field size) of the En2−/− primary visual cortex. However, a significant increase of binocularity was found in P30 and adult En2−/− mice, as compared to age-matched controls. Differently from what observed in En2+/+ mice, the En2−/− primary visual cortex did not respond to a brief monocular deprivation performed between P26 and P29, during the so-called “critical period.” These data suggest that altered GABAergic circuits impact baseline binocularity and plasticity in En2−/− mice, while leaving other visual functional properties unaffected

  12. 2,3,7, 8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN (TCDD)-MEDIATED OXIDATIVE STRESS IN FEMALE CYP1A-2 KNOCKOUT (CYP1A2-/-) MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlordibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-Mediated Oxidative Stress in Female CYP1A2 Knockout (CYP1A2-/-) Mice

    Deborah Burgin1, Janet Diliberto2, Linda Birnbaum2
    1UNC Toxicology; 2USEPA/ORD/NHEERL, RTP, NC

    Most of the effects due to TCDD exposure are mediated via...

  13. 2,3,7, 8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN (TCDD)-MEDIATED OXIDATIVE STRESS IN FEMALE CYP1A-2 KNOCKOUT (CYP1A2-/-) MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlordibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-Mediated Oxidative Stress in Female CYP1A2 Knockout (CYP1A2-/-) Mice

    Deborah Burgin1, Janet Diliberto2, Linda Birnbaum2
    1UNC Toxicology; 2USEPA/ORD/NHEERL, RTP, NC

    Most of the effects due to TCDD exposure are mediated via...

  14. Physiological and pharmacological roles of ABCG2 (BCRP): recent findings in Abcg2 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Vlaming, Maria L H; Lagas, Jurjen S; Schinkel, Alfred H

    2009-01-31

    The multidrug transporter ABCG2 (BCRP/MXR/ABCP) can actively extrude a broad range of endogenous and exogenous substrates across biological membranes. ABCG2 limits oral availability and mediates hepatobiliary and renal excretion of its substrates, and thus influences the pharmacokinetics of many drugs. Recent work, relying mainly on the use of Abcg2(-/-) mice, has revealed important contributions of ABCG2 to the blood-brain, blood-testis and blood-fetal barriers. Together, these functions indicate a primary biological role of ABCG2 in protecting the organism from a range of xenobiotics. In addition, several other physiological functions of ABCG2 have been observed, including extrusion of porphyrins and/or porphyrin conjugates from hematopoietic cells, liver and harderian gland, as well as secretion of vitamin B(2) (riboflavin) and possibly other vitamins (biotin, vitamin K) into breast milk. However, the physiological significance of these processes has been difficult to establish, indicating that there is still a lot to learn about this intriguing protein.

  15. GCAP1 rescues rod photoreceptor response in GCAP1/GCAP2 knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Howes, Kim A.; Pennesi, Mark E.; Sokal, Izabela; Church-Kopish, Jill; Schmidt, Ben; Margolis, David; Frederick, Jeanne M.; Rieke, Fred; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Wu, Samuel M.; Detwiler, Peter B.; Baehr, Wolfgang

    2002-01-01

    Visual transduction in retinal photoreceptors operates through a dynamic interplay of two second messengers, Ca2+ and cGMP. Ca2+ regulates the activity of guanylate cyclase (GC) and the synthesis of cGMP by acting on a GC-activating protein (GCAP). While this action is critical for rapid termination of the light response, the GCAP responsible has not been identified. To test if GCAP1, one of two GCAPs present in mouse rods, supports the generation of normal flash responses, transgenic mice were generated that express only GCAP1 under the control of the endogenous promoter. Paired flash responses revealed a correlation between the degree of recovery of the rod a-wave and expression levels of GCAP1. In single cell recordings, the majority of the rods generated flash responses that were indistinguishable from wild type. These results demonstrate that GCAP1 at near normal levels supports the generation of wild-type flash responses in the absence of GCAP2. PMID:11927539

  16. Increased susceptibility to retinoid-induced teratogenesis in TGF-beta2 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Nugent, Paul; Pisano, Michele M; Weinrich, Martin C; Greene, Robert M

    2002-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and retinoic acid (RA) have been implicated in normal and abnormal embryonic development. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of TGF-beta2 gene deletion on susceptibility to RA-induced teratogenesis in a mouse model. TGF-beta2 heterozygous or wild-type mice were mated and the dams dosed with a teratogenic dose of RA, or with control vehicle. The incidence of RA-induced cleft palate (CP) was 48% in wild-type embryos from wild-type dams, increasing to 71% in TGF-beta2 heterozygous littermates. Wild-type and TGF-beta2 heterozygous embryos from heterozygous dams exhibited a CP incidence of 74 and 77% respectively, following treatment with RA. Ninety-one percent of littermates nullizygous for TGF-beta2 were dead when examined; the remainder exhibited a CP. We conclude that the genotype of the dam and embryo with respect to TGF-beta2 affects the incidence of RA-induced teratogenesis.

  17. Excitation/inhibition imbalance and impaired synaptic inhibition in hippocampal area CA3 of Mecp2 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Calfa, Gaston; Li, Wei; Rutherford, John M; Pozzo-Miller, Lucas

    2015-02-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopment disorder associated with intellectual disabilities and caused by loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding the transcriptional regulator Methyl-CpG-binding Protein-2 (MeCP2). Neuronal dysfunction and changes in cortical excitability occur in RTT individuals and Mecp2-deficient mice, including hippocampal network hyperactivity and higher frequency of spontaneous multiunit spikes in the CA3 cell body layer. Here, we describe impaired synaptic inhibition and an excitation/inhibition (E/I) imbalance in area CA3 of acute slices from symptomatic Mecp2 knockout male mice (referred to as Mecp2(-/y) ). The amplitude of TTX-resistant miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSC) was smaller in CA3 pyramidal neurons of Mecp2(-/y) slices than in wildtype controls, while the amplitude of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSC) was significantly larger in Mecp2(-/y) neurons. Consistently, quantitative confocal immunohistochemistry revealed significantly lower intensity of the alpha-1 subunit of GABAA Rs in the CA3 cell body layer of Mecp2(-/y) mice, while GluA1 puncta intensities were significantly higher in the CA3 dendritic layers of Mecp2(-/y) mice. In addition, the input/output (I/O) relationship of evoked IPSCs had a shallower slope in CA3 pyramidal neurons Mecp2(-/y) neurons. Consistent with the absence of neuronal degeneration in RTT and MeCP2-based mouse models, the density of parvalbumin- and somatostatin-expressing interneurons in area CA3 was not affected in Mecp2(-/y) mice. Furthermore, the intrinsic membrane properties of several interneuron subtypes in area CA3 were not affected by Mecp2 loss. However, mEPSCs are smaller and less frequent in CA3 fast-spiking basket cells of Mecp2(-/y) mice, suggesting an impaired glutamatergic drive in this interneuron population. These results demonstrate that a loss-of-function mutation in Mecp2 causes impaired E/I balance onto CA3 pyramidal neurons, leading to a

  18. Excitation/Inhibition Imbalance and Impaired Synaptic Inhibition in Hippocampal Area CA3 of Mecp2 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Calfa, Gaston; Li, Wei; Rutherford, John M.; Pozzo-Miller, Lucas

    2014-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopment disorder associated with intellectual disabilities and caused by loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding the transcriptional regulator Methyl-CpG-binding Protein-2 (MeCP2). Neuronal dysfunction and changes in cortical excitability occur in RTT individuals and Mecp2-deficient mice, including hippocampal network hyperactivity and higher frequency of spontaneous multi-unit spikes in the CA3 cell body layer. Here, we describe impaired synaptic inhibition and an excitation/inhibition (E/I) imbalance in area CA3 of acute slices from symptomatic Mecp2 knockout male mice (referred to as Mecp2-/y). The amplitude of TTX-resistant miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSC) was smaller in CA3 pyramidal neurons of Mecp2-/y slices than in wildtype controls, while the amplitude of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSC) was significantly larger in Mecp2-/y neurons. Consistently, quantitative confocal immunohistochemistry revealed significantly lower intensity of the alpha-1 subunit of GABAARs in the CA3 cell body layer of Mecp2-/y mice, while GluA1 puncta intensities were significantly higher in the CA3 dendritic layers of Mecp2-/y mice. In addition, the input/output (I/O) relationship of evoked IPSCs had a shallower slope in CA3 pyramidal neurons Mecp2-/y neurons. Consistent with the absence of neuronal degeneration in RTT and MeCP2-based mouse models, the density of parvalbumin- and somatostatin-expressing interneurons in area CA3 was not affected in Mecp2-/y mice. Furthermore, the intrinsic membrane properties of several interneuron subtypes in area CA3 were not affected by Mecp2 loss. However, mEPSCs are smaller and less frequent in CA3 fast-spiking basket cells of Mecp2-/y mice, suggesting an impaired glutamatergic drive in this interneuron population. These results demonstrate that a loss-of-function mutation in Mecp2 causes impaired E/I balance onto CA3 pyramidal neurons, leading to a hyperactive

  19. Onecut-2 knockout mice fail to thrive during early postnatal period and have altered patterns of gene expression in small intestine

    PubMed Central

    Dusing, Mary R.; Maier, Elizabeth A.; Aronow, Bruce J.

    2010-01-01

    Ablation of the mouse genes for Onecut-2 and Onecut-3 was reported previously, but characterization of the resulting knockout mice was focused on in utero development, principally embryonic development of liver and pancreas. Here we examined postnatal development of these Onecut knockout mice, especially the critical period before weaning. Onecut-3 knockout mice develop normally during this period. However, Onecut-2 knockout mice fail to thrive, lagging behind their littermates in size and weight. By postnatal day (d)19, they are consistently 25–30% smaller. Onecut-2 knockout mice also have a much higher level of mortality before weaning, with only ∼70% survival. Interestingly, Onecut-2 knockout mice that are heterozygous for the Onecut-3 knockout allele are diminished even further in their ability to thrive. They are ∼50–60% as large as their normal-sized littermates at d19, and less than half of these mice survive to weaning. As reported previously, the Onecut-2/Onecut-3 double knockout is a perinatal lethal. Microarray technology was used to determine the effect of Onecut-2 ablation on gene expression in duodenum, whose epithelium has among the highest levels of Onecut-2. A subset of intestinally expressed genes showed dramatically altered patterns of expression. Many of these genes encode proteins associated with the epithelial membrane, including many involved in transport and metabolism. Previously, we reported that Onecut-2 was critical to temporal regulation of the adenosine deaminase gene in duodenum. Many of the genes with altered patterns of expression in Onecut-2 knockout mouse duodenum displayed changes in the timing of gene expression. PMID:20354101

  20. β-arrestin 2 knockout mice exhibit sensitized dopamine release and increased reward in response to a low dose of alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Björk, Karl; Tronci, Valeria; Thorsell, Annika; Tanda, Gianluigi; Hirth, Natalie; Heilig, Markus; Hansson, Anita C; Sommer, Wolfgang H

    2013-01-01

    Rationale The rewarding effects of alcohol have been attributed to interactions between opioid and dopaminergic system within the mesolimbic reward pathway. We have previously shown that ablation of β-arrestin 2 (Arrb2), a crucial regulator of μ-opioid receptor function, attenuates alcohol-induced hyperlocomotion and c-fos activation in the nucleus accumbens. Objectives Here, we further investigated the role of Arrb2 in modulating alcohol-induced dopamine (DA) release and conditioned place preference (CPP). We also assessed the functional importance of Arrb2 for μ-opioid receptor surface expression and signaling following an acute alcohol challenge. Methods Alcohol-evoked (0.375, 0.75 and 1.5 g/kg intraperitoneally, i.p.) DA release was measured by in vivo microdialysis in the shell of nucleus accumbens. Reward was assessed by the CPP paradigm. Receptor function was assessed by μ-receptor binding and [35S]GTP-γ-S autoradiography. Results In Arrb2 knockout mice accumbal DA levels reach maximum response at a lower dose compared to wild-type (wt) animals. In line with these results, Arrb2 knockout mice display increased CPP for alcohol as compared to wt mice. Finally, Arrb2 mutant mice display increased μ-opioid receptor signaling in the ventral and dorsal striatum and amygdala in response to a low dose of alcohol, indicating impaired desensitization mechanisms in these mice. Conclusions Our results show that Arrb2 modulates the response to low doses of alcohol on various levels including μ-opioid receptor signaling, DA release, and reward. They also reveal a clear dissociation between the effects of Arrb2 on psychomotor and reward behaviors. PMID:23779257

  1. Heterozygosity for p53 (Trp53+/-) accelerates epithelial tumor formation in fanconi anemia complementation group D2 (Fancd2) knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Houghtaling, Scott; Granville, Laura; Akkari, Yassmine; Torimaru, Yumi; Olson, Susan; Finegold, Milton; Grompe, Markus

    2005-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by progressive bone marrow failure and an increased susceptibility to cancer. FA is genetically heterogeneous, consisting of at least 11 complementation groups, FA-A through L, including FA-D1 (BRCA2) and D2. We have previously reported an increased incidence of epithelial tumors in Fancd2 knockout mice. To further investigate the role of the FA pathway in tumor prevention, Fancd2 mutant mice were crossed to mice with a null mutation in the tumor suppressor gene, Trp53. The tumor spectrum in Fancd2(-/-)/Trp53(+/-) mice included sarcomas expected in Trp53 heterozygotes, as well as mammary and lung adenocarcinomas that occur rarely in Trp53 heterozygotes. These tumors occurred earlier than in Fancd2(-/-) control mice. Therefore, the Fancd2(-/-)/Trp53(+/-) mice represent an improved model for the study of adenocarcinoma in FA. In addition, it was found that Fancd2(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts but not Fancd2(-/-)/Trp53(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts arrest following DNA damage. Therefore, Trp53 is required for the S phase checkpoint activation observed in Fancd2 mutant cells. Fancd2(-/-)/Trp53(-/-) cells showed an increase in aneuploidy and had multiple gross chromosomal rearrangements.

  2. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-mediated oxidative stress in CYP1A2 knockout (CYP1A2-/-) mice.

    PubMed

    Slezak, B P; Diliberto, J J; Birnbaum, L S

    1999-10-22

    The objective of the study was to compare alterations in indicators of oxidative stress following 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exposure in cytochrome P4501A2 (CYP1A2) knockout mice and their parental lineage strains (C57BL/6N and 129/Sv). This study will aid in determining the role, if any, of CYP1A2 in TCDD-mediated oxidative stress. Formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) as a measurement of lipid peroxidation, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via the in vitro reduction of cytochrome c in tissue homogenate, and changes in the biochemical antioxidant glutathione were monitored to determine oxidative stress 7 days following a single oral dose of 25 microg TCDD/kg. TBARS, reduction of cytochrome c, and changes in glutathione demonstrated a similar response in CYP1A2 knockout and parental strains. These data suggest that CYP1A2 does not play a critical role in the acute oxidative stress response following TCDD exposure.

  3. Effects of postweaning administration of conjugated linoleic acid on development of obesity in nescient basic helix-loop-helix 2 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoo; Kim, Daeyoung; Good, Deborah J; Park, Yeonhwa

    2015-06-03

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been reported to prevent body weight gain and fat accumulation in part by improving physical activity in mice. However, the effects of postweaning administration of CLA on the development of obesity later in life have not yet been demonstrated. The current study investigated the role of postweaning CLA treatment on skeletal muscle energy metabolism in genetically induced inactive adult-onset obese model, nescient basic helix-loop-helix 2 knockout (N2KO) mice. Four-week-old male N2KO and wild type mice were fed either control or a CLA-containing diet (0.5%) for 4 weeks, and then CLA was withdrawn and control diet provided to all mice for the following 8 weeks. Postweaning CLA supplementation in wild type animals, but not N2KO mice, may activate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-δ (PPARδ) as well as promote desensitization of phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) and sensitization of protein kinase B (AKT) at threonine 308 in gastrocnemius skeletal muscle, improving voluntary activity and glucose homeostasis. We suggest that postweaning administration of CLA may in part stimulate the underlying molecular targets involved in muscle energy metabolism to reduce weight gain in normal animals, but not in the genetically induced inactive adult-onset animal model.

  4. Ethanol- and acetaldehyde-induced cholinergic imbalance in the hippocampus of Aldh2-knockout mice does not affect nerve growth factor or brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Mostofa; Ameno, Kiyoshi; Ruby, Mostofa; Miki, Takanori; Tanaka, Naoko; Nakamura, Yu; Kinoshita, Hiroshi

    2013-11-20

    Neurotrophins, including nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), play an important role in the maintenance of cholinergic-neuron function. The objective of this study was to investigate whether ethanol (EtOH)- and acetaldehyde (AcH)- induced cholinergic effects would cause neurotrophic alterations in the hippocampus of mice. We used Aldh2 knockout (Aldh2-KO) mice, a model of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2)-deficiency in humans, to examine the effects of acute administration of EtOH and the role of AcH. Hippocampal slices were collected and the mRNA and protein levels of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), NGF and BDNF were analyzed 30 min after the i.p. administration of EtOH (0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 g/kg). We show that treatment with 2.0 g/kg of EtOH decreased ChAT mRNA and protein levels in Aldh2-KO mice but not in wild-type (WT) mice, which suggests a role for AcH in the mechanism of action of EtOH. The administration of 2.0 g/kg of EtOH increased AChE mRNA in both strains of mice. EtOH failed to change the levels of NGF or BDNF at any dose. Aldh2-KO mice exhibited a distinctly lower expression of ChAT and a higher expression of NGF both at mRNA and protein levels in the hippocampus compared with WT mice. Our observations suggest that administration of EtOH and elevated AcH can alter cholinergic markers in the hippocampus of mice, and this effect did not change the levels of NGF or BDNF.

  5. Increased oxidative stress and apoptosis in the hypothalamus of diabetic male mice in the insulin receptor substrate-2 knockout model

    PubMed Central

    Canelles, Sandra; Argente, Jesús; Barrios, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Insulin receptor substrate-2-deficient (IRS2−/−) mice are considered a good model to study the development of diabetes because IRS proteins mediate the pleiotropic effects of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin on metabolism, mitogenesis and cell survival. The hypothalamus might play a key role in the early onset of diabetes, owing to its involvement in the control of glucose homeostasis and energy balance. Because some inflammatory markers are elevated in the hypothalamus of diabetic IRS2−/− mice, our aim was to analyze whether the diabetes associated with the absence of IRS2 results in hypothalamic injury and to analyze the intracellular mechanisms involved. Only diabetic IRS2−/− mice showed increased cell death and activation of caspase-8 and -3 in the hypothalamus. Regulators of apoptosis such as FADD, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and p53 were also increased, whereas p-IκB and c-FLIPL were decreased. This was accompanied by increased levels of Nox-4 and catalase, enzymes involved in oxidative stress. In summary, the hypothalamus of diabetic IRS2−/− mice showed an increase in oxidative stress and inflammatory markers that finally resulted in cell death via substantial activation of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. Conversely, non-diabetic IRS2−/− mice did not show cell death in the hypothalamus, possibly owing to an increase in the levels of circulating IGF-I and in the enhanced hypothalamic IGF-IR phosphorylation that would lead to the stimulation of survival pathways. In conclusion, diabetes in IRS2-deficient male mice is associated with increased oxidative stress and apoptosis in the hypothalamus. PMID:27013528

  6. Increased oxidative stress and apoptosis in the hypothalamus of diabetic male mice in the insulin receptor substrate-2 knockout model.

    PubMed

    Baquedano, Eva; Burgos-Ramos, Emma; Canelles, Sandra; González-Rodríguez, Agueda; Chowen, Julie A; Argente, Jesús; Barrios, Vicente; Valverde, Angela M; Frago, Laura M

    2016-05-01

    Insulin receptor substrate-2-deficient (IRS2(-/-)) mice are considered a good model to study the development of diabetes because IRS proteins mediate the pleiotropic effects of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin on metabolism, mitogenesis and cell survival. The hypothalamus might play a key role in the early onset of diabetes, owing to its involvement in the control of glucose homeostasis and energy balance. Because some inflammatory markers are elevated in the hypothalamus of diabetic IRS2(-/-) mice, our aim was to analyze whether the diabetes associated with the absence of IRS2 results in hypothalamic injury and to analyze the intracellular mechanisms involved. Only diabetic IRS2(-/-) mice showed increased cell death and activation of caspase-8 and -3 in the hypothalamus. Regulators of apoptosis such as FADD, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and p53 were also increased, whereas p-IκB and c-FLIPL were decreased. This was accompanied by increased levels of Nox-4 and catalase, enzymes involved in oxidative stress. In summary, the hypothalamus of diabetic IRS2(-/-) mice showed an increase in oxidative stress and inflammatory markers that finally resulted in cell death via substantial activation of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. Conversely, non-diabetic IRS2(-/-) mice did not show cell death in the hypothalamus, possibly owing to an increase in the levels of circulating IGF-I and in the enhanced hypothalamic IGF-IR phosphorylation that would lead to the stimulation of survival pathways. In conclusion, diabetes in IRS2-deficient male mice is associated with increased oxidative stress and apoptosis in the hypothalamus. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Not all water mazes are created equal: cyclin D2 knockout mice with constitutively suppressed adult hippocampal neurogenesis do show specific spatial learning deficits.

    PubMed

    Garthe, A; Huang, Z; Kaczmarek, L; Filipkowski, R K; Kempermann, G

    2014-04-01

    Studies using the Morris water maze to assess hippocampal function in animals, in which adult hippocampal neurogenesis had been suppressed, have yielded seemingly contradictory results. Cyclin D2 knockout (Ccnd2(-/-)) mice, for example, have constitutively suppressed adult hippocampal neurogenesis but had no overt phenotype in the water maze. In other paradigms, however, ablation of adult neurogenesis was associated with specific deficits in the water maze. Therefore, we hypothesized that the neurogenesis-related phenotype might also become detectable in Ccnd2(-/-) mice, if we used the exact setup and protocol that in our previous study had revealed deficits in mice with suppressed adult neurogenesis. Ccnd2(-/-) mice indeed learned the task and developed a normal preference for the goal quadrant, but were significantly less precise for the exact goal position and were slower in acquiring efficient and spatially more precise search strategies. Upon goal reversal (when the hidden platform was moved to a new position) Ccnd2(-/-) mice showed increased perseverance at the former platform location, implying that they were less flexible in updating the previously learned information. Both with respect to adult neurogenesis and behavioral performance, Ccnd2(+/-) mice ranged between wild types and knockouts. Importantly, hippocampus-dependent learning was not generally impaired by the mutation, but specifically functional aspects relying on precise and flexible encoding were affected. Whether ablation of adult neurogenesis causes a specific behavioral phenotype thus also depends on the actual task demands. The test parameters appear to be important variables influencing whether a task can pick up a contribution of adult neurogenesis to test performance. © 2014 The Authors. Genes, Brain and Behavior published by International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Pharmacological inhibition of ASBT changes bile composition and blocks progression of sclerosing cholangitis in mdr2 knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Miethke, Alexander G; Zhang, Wujuan; Simmons, Julie; Taylor, Amy; Shi, Tiffany; Shanmukhappa, Shiva Kumar; Karns, Rebekah; White, Shana; Jegga, Anil G; Lages, Celine S; Nkinin, Stephenson; Keller, Bradley T; Setchell, Kenneth D. R.

    2015-01-01

    Deficiency for mdr2, a canalicular phospholipid floppase, leads to excretion of low phospholipid “toxic” bile causing progressive cholestasis. We hypothesize that pharmacological inhibition of the ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) blocks progression of sclerosing cholangitis in mdr2−/− mice. 30-day-old, female mdr2−/− mice were fed high-fat chow containing 0.006% SC-435, a minimally absorbed, potent inhibitor of ASBT, providing on average 11 mg/kg/day of compound. Bile acids (BA) and phospholipids were measured by mass spectrometry. Compared with untreated mdr2−/− mice, SC-435 treatment for 14 days increased fecal BA excretion by 8-fold, lowered total BA concentration in liver by 65%, reduced total BA and individual hydrophobic BA concentrations in serum by >98%, and decreased plasma ALT, total bilirubin, and serum alkaline phosphatase levels by 86, 93 and 55%, respectively. Liver histology of sclerosing cholangitis improved, and extent of fibrosis decreased concomitant with reduction of hepatic profibrogenic gene expression. Biliary BA concentrations significantly decreased and phospholipids remained low and unchanged with treatment. The phosphatidylcholine/BA ratio in treated mice corrected towards a ratio of 0.28 found in wild type mice, indicating decreased bile toxicity. Hepatic RNAseq studies revealed upregulation of putative anti-inflammatory and antifibrogenic genes, including Ppara and Igf1 and downregulation of several pro-inflammatory genes, including Ccl2 and Lcn2, implicated in leukocyte recruitment. Flow cytometric analysis revealed significant reduction of frequencies of hepatic CD11b+F4/80+ Kupffer cells and CD11b+Gr1+ neutrophils, accompanied by expansion of anti-inflammatory Ly6C− monocytes in treated mdr2−/− mice. Conclusion Inhibition of ASBT reduces BA pool size and retention of hydrophobic BA, favorably alters the biliary PC/BA ratio, profoundly changes the hepatic transcriptome, attenuates

  9. Common arterial trunk and ventricular non-compaction in Lrp2 knockout mice indicate a crucial role of LRP2 in cardiac development.

    PubMed

    Baardman, Maria E; Zwier, Mathijs V; Wisse, Lambertus J; Gittenberger-de Groot, Adriana C; Kerstjens-Frederikse, Wilhelmina S; Hofstra, Robert M W; Jurdzinski, Angelika; Hierck, Beerend P; Jongbloed, Monique R M; Berger, Rolf M F; Plösch, Torsten; DeRuiter, Marco C

    2016-04-01

    Lipoprotein-related receptor protein 2 (LRP2) is important for development of the embryonic neural crest and brain in both mice and humans. Although a role in cardiovascular development can be expected, the hearts ofLrp2knockout (KO) mice have not yet been investigated. We studied the cardiovascular development ofLrp2KO mice between embryonic day 10.5 (E10.5) and E15.5, applying morphometry and immunohistochemistry, using antibodies against Tfap2α (neural crest cells), Nkx2.5 (second heart field), WT1 (epicardium derived cells), tropomyosin (myocardium) and LRP2. TheLrp2KO mice display a range of severe cardiovascular abnormalities, including aortic arch anomalies, common arterial trunk (persistent truncus arteriosus) with coronary artery anomalies, ventricular septal defects, overriding of the tricuspid valve and marked thinning of the ventricular myocardium. Both the neural crest cells and second heart field, which are essential for the lengthening and growth of the right ventricular outflow tract, are abnormally positioned in theLrp2KO. This explains the absence of the aorto-pulmonary septum, which leads to common arterial trunk and ventricular septal defects. Severe blebbing of the epicardial cells covering the ventricles is seen. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition does occur; however, there are fewer WT1-positive epicardium-derived cells in the ventricular wall as compared to normal, coinciding with the myocardial thinning and deep intertrabecular spaces. LRP2 plays a crucial role in cardiovascular development in mice. This corroborates findings of cardiac anomalies in humans withLRP2mutations. Future studies should reveal the underlying signaling mechanisms in which LRP2 is involved during cardiogenesis. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Common arterial trunk and ventricular non-compaction in Lrp2 knockout mice indicate a crucial role of LRP2 in cardiac development

    PubMed Central

    Baardman, Maria E.; Zwier, Mathijs V.; Wisse, Lambertus J.; Gittenberger-de Groot, Adriana C.; Kerstjens-Frederikse, Wilhelmina S.; Hofstra, Robert M. W.; Jurdzinski, Angelika; Hierck, Beerend P.; Jongbloed, Monique R. M.; Berger, Rolf M. F.; Plösch, Torsten; DeRuiter, Marco C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lipoprotein-related receptor protein 2 (LRP2) is important for development of the embryonic neural crest and brain in both mice and humans. Although a role in cardiovascular development can be expected, the hearts of Lrp2 knockout (KO) mice have not yet been investigated. We studied the cardiovascular development of Lrp2 KO mice between embryonic day 10.5 (E10.5) and E15.5, applying morphometry and immunohistochemistry, using antibodies against Tfap2α (neural crest cells), Nkx2.5 (second heart field), WT1 (epicardium derived cells), tropomyosin (myocardium) and LRP2. The Lrp2 KO mice display a range of severe cardiovascular abnormalities, including aortic arch anomalies, common arterial trunk (persistent truncus arteriosus) with coronary artery anomalies, ventricular septal defects, overriding of the tricuspid valve and marked thinning of the ventricular myocardium. Both the neural crest cells and second heart field, which are essential for the lengthening and growth of the right ventricular outflow tract, are abnormally positioned in the Lrp2 KO. This explains the absence of the aorto-pulmonary septum, which leads to common arterial trunk and ventricular septal defects. Severe blebbing of the epicardial cells covering the ventricles is seen. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition does occur; however, there are fewer WT1-positive epicardium-derived cells in the ventricular wall as compared to normal, coinciding with the myocardial thinning and deep intertrabecular spaces. LRP2 plays a crucial role in cardiovascular development in mice. This corroborates findings of cardiac anomalies in humans with LRP2 mutations. Future studies should reveal the underlying signaling mechanisms in which LRP2 is involved during cardiogenesis. PMID:26822476

  11. Conditioned odor aversion induces social anxiety towards females in wild-type and TrpC2 knockout male mice.

    PubMed

    Beny, Y; Kimchi, T

    2016-11-01

    Female-emitted pheromonal inputs possess an intrinsic rewarding value for conspecific males, promoting approach and investigation of the potential mating partner. In mice these inputs are detected mainly by the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and the main olfactory epithelium (MOE). We investigated the role of VNO-mediated inputs in experience-dependent plasticity of reproductive responses. We applied a sex-specific conditioned odor aversion (COA) paradigm on adult, wild-type (WT) male mice and on male mice impaired in VNO-mediated signal transduction (TrpC2(-/-) ). We found that WT males, which underwent COA to female-soiled bedding, lost their innate preference to female odors and presented lower motivation to approach a sexually receptive female. COA also abolished the testosterone surge normally seen following exposure to female odors. Moreover, the conditioned males displayed impairments in copulatory behaviors, which lasted for several weeks. Surprisingly, these males also exhibited phobic behaviors towards receptive females, including freezing and fleeing responses. In contrast, WT males which underwent COA specifically to male pheromones showed no change in olfactory preference and only a marginally significant elevation in intermale aggression. Finally, we show that TrpC2(-/-) males were able to acquire aversion to female-soiled bedding and presented similar behavioral alterations following COA in their responses to female cues. Our results demonstrate that the intrinsic rewarding value of female pheromones can be overridden through associative olfactory learning, which occurs independently of VNO inputs, probably through MOE signaling. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  12. COMPARISON OF OVERALL METABOLISM OF 2, 3, 7, 8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN IN CYP1A2(-/-) KNOCKOUT AND C57BL/6N PARENTAL STRAINS OF MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Comparison of Overall Metabolism of 2,3,7,8-TCDD
    in CYP1A2 (-/-) Knockout and C57BL/6N Parental Strains of Mice

    Heldur Hakk* and Janet J. Diliberto**

    * USDA-ARS Biosciences Research Laboratory, P.O. Box 5674, Fargo, ND, USA
    ** US-EPA ORD, National Health Eff...

  13. COMPARISON OF OVERALL METABOLISM OF 2, 3, 7, 8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN IN CYP1A2(-/-) KNOCKOUT AND C57BL/6N PARENTAL STRAINS OF MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Comparison of Overall Metabolism of 2,3,7,8-TCDD
    in CYP1A2 (-/-) Knockout and C57BL/6N Parental Strains of Mice

    Heldur Hakk* and Janet J. Diliberto**

    * USDA-ARS Biosciences Research Laboratory, P.O. Box 5674, Fargo, ND, USA
    ** US-EPA ORD, National Health Eff...

  14. Islets of Langerhans from prohormone convertase-2 knockout mice show α-cell hyperplasia and tumorigenesis with elevated α-cell neogenesis.

    PubMed

    Jones, Huw B; Reens, Jaimini; Brocklehurst, Simon R; Betts, Catherine J; Bickerton, Sue; Bigley, Alison L; Jenkins, Richard P; Whalley, Nicky M; Morgan, Derrick; Smith, David M

    2014-02-01

    Antagonism of the effects of glucagon as an adjunct therapy with other glucose-lowering drugs in the chronic treatment of diabetes has been suggested to aggressively control blood glucose levels. Antagonism of glucagon effects, by targeting glucagon secretion or disabling the glucagon receptor, is associated with α-cell hyperplasia. We evaluated the influence of total glucagon withdrawal on islets of Langerhans using prohormone convertase-2 knockout mice (PC2-ko), in which α-cell hyperplasia is present from a young age and persists throughout life, in order to understand whether or not sustained glucagon deficit would lead to islet tumorigenesis. PC2-ko and wild-type (WT) mice were maintained drug-free, and cohorts of these groups sampled at 3, 12 and 18 months for plasma biochemical and morphological (histological, immunohistochemical, electron microscopical and image analytical) assessments. WT mice showed no islet tumours up to termination of the study, but PC2-ko animals displayed marked changes in islet morphology from α-cell hypertrophy/hyperplasia/atypical hyperplasia, to adenomas and carcinomas, these latter being first encountered at 6-8 months. Islet hyperplasias and tumours primarily consisted of α-cells associated to varying degrees with other islet endocrine cell types. In addition to substantial increases in islet neoplasia, increased α-cell neogenesis associated primarily with pancreatic duct(ule)s was present. We conclude that absolute blockade of the glucagon signal results in tumorigenesis and that the PC2-ko mouse represents a valuable model for investigation of islet tumours and pancreatic ductal neogenesis.

  15. UCP2 knockout suppresses mouse skin carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenjuan; Zhang, Chunjing; Jackson, Kasey; Shen, Xingui; Jin, Rong; Li, Guohong; Kevil, Christopher G; Gu, Xin; Shi, Runhua; Zhao, Yunfeng

    2015-06-01

    Mitochondrial uncoupling (uncouples electron transport from ATP production) has recently been proposed as a novel survival mechanism for cancer cells, and reduction in free radical generation is the accepted mechanism of action. However, there is no direct evidence supporting that uncoupling proteins promote carcinogenesis. Herein, we examined whether mitochondrial uncoupling affects mouse skin carcinogenesis using uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) homozygous knockout and wild-type mice. The results indicate that knockout of Ucp2 significantly reduced the formation of both benign (papilloma) and malignant (squamous cell carcinoma) tumors. UCP2 knockout did not cause increases in apoptosis during skin carcinogenesis. The rates of oxygen consumption were decreased only in the carcinogen-treated UCP2 knockout mice, whereas glycolysis was increased only in the carcinogen-treated wild-type mice. Finally, the levels of metabolites pyruvate, malate, and succinate showed different trends after carcinogen treatments between the wild-type and UCP2 knockout mice. Our study is the first to demonstrate that Ucp2 knockout suppresses carcinogenesis in vivo. Together with early studies showing that UCP2 is overexpressed in a number of human cancers, UCP2 could be a potential target for cancer prevention and/or therapy. Cancer Prev Res; 8(6); 487-91. ©2015 AACR. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. Alternative Roles of STAT3 and MAPK Signaling Pathways in the MMPs Activation and Progression of Lung Injury Induced by Cigarette Smoke Exposure in ACE2 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Yi-Han; Hsieh, Wen-Yeh; Hsieh, Jih-Sheng; Liu, Fon-Chang; Tsai, Chin-Hung; Lu, Li-Che; Huang, Chen-Yi; Wu, Chien-Liang; Lin, Chih-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation-mediated abnormalities in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are implicated in the pathogenesis of lung injury. Angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2), an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) homologue that displays antagonist effects on ACE/angiotensin II (Ang II) axis, could also play a protective role against lung diseases. However, the relationship between ACE2 and MMPs activation in lung injury is still largely unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether MMPs activity could be affected by ACE2 and which ACE2 derived signaling pathways could be also involved via using a mouse model with lung injury induced by cigarette smoke (CS) exposure for 1 to 3 weeks. Wild-type (WT; C57BL/6) and ACE2 KO mice (ACE2-/-) were utilized to study CS-induced lung injury. Increases in the resting respiratory rate (RRR), pulmonary immunokines, leukocyte infiltration and bronchial hyperplasia were observed in the CS-exposed mice. Compared to WT mice, more serious physiopathological changes were found in ACE2-/- mice in the first week of CS exposure. CS exposure increased pulmonary ACE and ACE2 activities in WT mice, and significantly increased ACE in ACE2-/- mice. Furthermore, the activity of pulmonary MMPs was decreased in CS-exposed WT mice, whereas this activity was increased in ACE2-/- mice. CS exposure increased the pulmonary p-p38, p-JNK and p-ERK1/2 level in all mice. In ACE2-/- mice, a significant increase p-STAT3 signaling was detected; however, no effect was observed on the p-STAT3 level in WT mice. Our results support the hypothesis that ACE2 deficiency influences MMPs activation and STAT3 phosphorylation signaling to promote more pulmonary inflammation in the development of lung injury. PMID:27019629

  17. Alternative Roles of STAT3 and MAPK Signaling Pathways in the MMPs Activation and Progression of Lung Injury Induced by Cigarette Smoke Exposure in ACE2 Knockout Mice.

    PubMed

    Hung, Yi-Han; Hsieh, Wen-Yeh; Hsieh, Jih-Sheng; Liu, Fon-Chang; Tsai, Chin-Hung; Lu, Li-Che; Huang, Chen-Yi; Wu, Chien-Liang; Lin, Chih-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation-mediated abnormalities in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are implicated in the pathogenesis of lung injury. Angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2), an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) homologue that displays antagonist effects on ACE/angiotensin II (Ang II) axis, could also play a protective role against lung diseases. However, the relationship between ACE2 and MMPs activation in lung injury is still largely unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether MMPs activity could be affected by ACE2 and which ACE2 derived signaling pathways could be also involved via using a mouse model with lung injury induced by cigarette smoke (CS) exposure for 1 to 3 weeks. Wild-type (WT; C57BL/6) and ACE2 KO mice (ACE2(-/-)) were utilized to study CS-induced lung injury. Increases in the resting respiratory rate (RRR), pulmonary immunokines, leukocyte infiltration and bronchial hyperplasia were observed in the CS-exposed mice. Compared to WT mice, more serious physiopathological changes were found in ACE2(-/-) mice in the first week of CS exposure. CS exposure increased pulmonary ACE and ACE2 activities in WT mice, and significantly increased ACE in ACE2(-/-) mice. Furthermore, the activity of pulmonary MMPs was decreased in CS-exposed WT mice, whereas this activity was increased in ACE2(-/-) mice. CS exposure increased the pulmonary p-p38, p-JNK and p-ERK1/2 level in all mice. In ACE2(-/-) mice, a significant increase p-STAT3 signaling was detected; however, no effect was observed on the p-STAT3 level in WT mice. Our results support the hypothesis that ACE2 deficiency influences MMPs activation and STAT3 phosphorylation signaling to promote more pulmonary inflammation in the development of lung injury.

  18. A selective histone deacetylase-6 inhibitor improves BDNF trafficking in hippocampal neurons from Mecp2 knockout mice: implications for Rett syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xin; Kozikowski, Alan P.; Pozzo-Miller, Lucas

    2014-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the transcriptional modulator methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2). One of the most prominent gene targets of MeCP2 is brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf), a potent modulator of activity-dependent synaptic development, function and plasticity. Dysfunctional BDNF signaling has been demonstrated in several pathophysiological mechanisms of RTT disease progression. To evaluate whether the dynamics of BDNF trafficking is affected by Mecp2 deletion, we analyzed movements of BDNF tagged with yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) in cultured hippocampal neurons by time-lapse fluorescence imaging. We found that both anterograde and retrograde vesicular trafficking of BDNF-YFP are significantly impaired in Mecp2 knockout hippocampal neurons. Selective inhibitors of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) show neuroprotective effects in neurodegenerative diseases and stimulate microtubule-dependent vesicular trafficking of BDNF-containing dense core vesicles. Here, we show that the selective HDAC6 inhibitor Tubastatin-A increased the velocity of BDNF-YFP vesicles in Mecp2 knockout neurons in both directions by increasing α–tubulin acetylation. Tubastatin-A also restored activity-dependent BDNF release from Mecp2 knockout neurons to levels comparable to those shown by wildtype neurons. These findings demonstrate that a selective HDAC6 inhibitor is a potential pharmacological strategy to reverse cellular and synaptic impairments in RTT resulting from impaired BDNF signaling. PMID:24639629

  19. Studies of styrene, styrene oxide and 4-hydroxystyrene toxicity in CYP2F2 knockout and CYP2F1 humanized mice support lack of human relevance for mouse lung tumors.

    PubMed

    Cruzan, G; Bus, J; Hotchkiss, J; Sura, R; Moore, C; Yost, G; Banton, M; Sarang, S

    2013-06-01

    Styrene (S) is lung tumorigenic in mice but not in rats. S and its alkene-oxidized metabolite styrene oxide (SO) were not lung toxic in CYP2F2(-/-) [knockout] mice, indicating S-induced mouse lung tumors are mediated through mouse-specific CYP2F2-generated ring-oxidized metabolite(s) in lung bronchioles. The human relevance of the CYP2F MOA was assessed by insertion of a human CYP2F1, 2A13, 2B6 transgene into CYP2F2(-/-) mice; CYP2F1 expression and activity were confirmed in the transgenic (TG) mice. No evidence of cytotoxicity or increased cell proliferation (BrdU labeling) was seen in TG mice treated with either S or SO (200mg/kg/day ip for 5days). In contrast to S and SO, 4HS (105mg/kg/day ip for 5days) increased BrdU labeling 5-10-fold in WT mice, <3-fold increase in KO mice and 2-4-fold in TG mice. The limited response of 4HS in KO and TG mice may result from intrinsic toxicity or from further metabolism; regardless of the MOA, these findings indicate that the CYP2F-mediated tumorigenic MOA in WT mice is not operative for S, SO, or for 4HS putatively derived from metabolism of S by CYP2F1 in humans, and thus S-induced mouse lung tumors are unlikely to be relevant to human risk.

  20. The erythroid function of transferrin receptor 2 revealed by Tmprss6 inactivation in different models of transferrin receptor 2 knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Nai, Antonella; Pellegrino, Rosa M.; Rausa, Marco; Pagani, Alessia; Boero, Martina; Silvestri, Laura; Saglio, Giuseppe; Roetto, Antonella; Camaschella, Clara

    2014-01-01

    Transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2) is a transmembrane glycoprotein expressed in the liver and in the erythroid compartment, mutated in a form of hereditary hemochromatosis. Hepatic TFR2, together with HFE, activates the transcription of the iron-regulator hepcidin, while erythroid TFR2 is a member of the erythropoietin receptor complex. The TMPRSS6 gene, encoding the liver-expressed serine protease matriptase-2, is the main inhibitor of hepcidin and inactivation of TMPRSS6 leads to iron deficiency with high hepcidin levels. Here we evaluate the phenotype resulting from the genetic loss of Tmprss6 in Tfr2 total (Tfr2−/−) and liver-specific (Tfr2LCKO) knockout mice. Tmprss6−/−Tfr2−/− and Tmprss6−/−Tfr2LCKO mice have increased hepcidin levels and show iron-deficiency anemia like Tmprss6−/−mice. However, while Tmprss6−/−Tfr2LCKO are phenotypically identical to Tmprss6−/− mice, Tmprss6−/−Tfr2−/− mice have increased red blood cell count and more severe microcytosis than Tmprss6−/− mice. In addition hepcidin expression in Tmprss6−/−Tfr2−/− mice is higher than in the wild-type animals, but lower than in Tmprss6−/− mice, suggesting partial inhibition of the hepcidin activating pathway. Our results prove that hepatic TFR2 acts upstream of TMPRSS6. In addition Tfr2 deletion causes a relative erythrocytosis in iron-deficient mice, which likely attenuates the effect of over-expression of hepcidin in Tmprss6−/− mice. Since liver-specific deletion of Tfr2 in Tmprss6−/− mice does not modify the erythrocyte count, we speculate that loss of Tfr2 in the erythroid compartment accounts for the hematologic phenotype of Tmprss6−/−Tfr2−/− mice. We propose that TFR2 is a limiting factor for erythropoiesis, particularly in conditions of iron restriction. PMID:24658816

  1. Rescue of Cyclic AMP Mediated Long Term Potentiation Impairment in the Hippocampus of Mecp2 Knockout (Mecp2(-/y) ) Mice by Rolipram.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Saju; Niebert, Marcus; Richter, Diethelm W

    2016-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) patients experience learning difficulties and memory loss. Analogous deficits of hippocampal plasticity are reported in mouse models of RTT. To elucidate the underlying pathophysiology, we studied long term potentiation (LTP) at the CA3 to CA1 synapses in the hippocampus in acute brain slices from WT and Mecp2(-/y) mice, by either activating cAMP dependent pathway or using high frequency stimulation, by means of patch clamp. We have observed that, the NMDA channel current characteristics remain unchanged in the Mecp2(-/y) mice. The adenylyl cyclase (AC) agonist forskolin evoked a long lasting potentiation of evoked EPSCs in WT CA1 neurons, but only minimally enhanced the EPSCs in the Mecp2(-/y) mice. This weaker potentiation in Mecp2 (-/) (y) mice was ameliorated by application of phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor rolipram. The hyperpolarization activated cyclic nucleotide gated channel current (I h) was potentiated to similar extent by forskolin in both phenotypes. Multiple tetanus induced cAMP-dependent plasticity was also impaired in the Mecp2 (-/) (y) mice, and was also partially rescued by rolipram. Western blot analysis of CA region of Mecp2 (-/) (y) mice hippocampus revealed more than twofold up-regulation of protein kinase A (PKA) regulatory subunits, while the expression of the catalytic subunit remained unchanged. We hypothesize that the overexpressed PKA regulatory subunits buffer cAMP and restrict the PKA mediated phosphorylation of target proteins necessary for LTP. Blocking the degradation of cAMP, thereby saturating the regulatory subunits alleviated this defect.

  2. Rescue of Cyclic AMP Mediated Long Term Potentiation Impairment in the Hippocampus of Mecp2 Knockout (Mecp2-/y) Mice by Rolipram

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, Saju; Niebert, Marcus; Richter, Diethelm W.

    2016-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) patients experience learning difficulties and memory loss. Analogous deficits of hippocampal plasticity are reported in mouse models of RTT. To elucidate the underlying pathophysiology, we studied long term potentiation (LTP) at the CA3 to CA1 synapses in the hippocampus in acute brain slices from WT and Mecp2-/y mice, by either activating cAMP dependent pathway or using high frequency stimulation, by means of patch clamp. We have observed that, the NMDA channel current characteristics remain unchanged in the Mecp2-/y mice. The adenylyl cyclase (AC) agonist forskolin evoked a long lasting potentiation of evoked EPSCs in WT CA1 neurons, but only minimally enhanced the EPSCs in the Mecp2-/y mice. This weaker potentiation in Mecp2-/y mice was ameliorated by application of phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor rolipram. The hyperpolarization activated cyclic nucleotide gated channel current (Ih) was potentiated to similar extent by forskolin in both phenotypes. Multiple tetanus induced cAMP-dependent plasticity was also impaired in the Mecp2-/y mice, and was also partially rescued by rolipram. Western blot analysis of CA region of Mecp2-/y mice hippocampus revealed more than twofold up-regulation of protein kinase A (PKA) regulatory subunits, while the expression of the catalytic subunit remained unchanged. We hypothesize that the overexpressed PKA regulatory subunits buffer cAMP and restrict the PKA mediated phosphorylation of target proteins necessary for LTP. Blocking the degradation of cAMP, thereby saturating the regulatory subunits alleviated this defect. PMID:26869885

  3. Continuous fat oxidation in acetyl–CoA carboxylase 2 knockout mice increases total energy expenditure, reduces fat mass, and improves insulin sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Cheol Soo; Savage, David B.; Abu-Elheiga, Lutfi; Liu, Zhen-Xiang; Kim, Sheene; Kulkarni, Ameya; Distefano, Alberto; Hwang, Yu-Jin; Reznick, Richard M.; Codella, Roberto; Zhang, Dongyan; Cline, Gary W.; Wakil, Salih J.; Shulman, Gerald I.

    2007-01-01

    Acetyl–CoA carboxylase 2 (ACC)2 is a key regulator of mitochondrial fat oxidation. To examine the impact of ACC2 deletion on whole-body energy metabolism, we measured changes in substrate oxidation and total energy expenditure in Acc2−/− and WT control mice fed either regular or high-fat diets. To determine insulin action in vivo, we also measured whole-body insulin-stimulated liver and muscle glucose metabolism during a hyperinsulinemic–euglycemic clamp in Acc2−/− and WT control mice fed a high-fat diet. Contrary to previous studies that have suggested that increased fat oxidation might result in lower glucose oxidation, both fat and carbohydrate oxidation were simultaneously increased in Acc2−/− mice. This increase in both fat and carbohydrate oxidation resulted in an increase in total energy expenditure, reductions in fat and lean body mass and prevention from diet-induced obesity. Furthermore, Acc2−/− mice were protected from fat-induced peripheral and hepatic insulin resistance. These improvements in insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism were associated with reduced diacylglycerol content in muscle and liver, decreased PKCθ activity in muscle and PKCε activity in liver, and increased insulin-stimulated Akt2 activity in these tissues. Taken together with previous work demonstrating that Acc2−/− mice have a normal lifespan, these data suggest that Acc2 inhibition is a viable therapeutic option for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:17923673

  4. Ultrastructural characterization of the mesostriatal dopamine innervation in mice, including two mouse lines of conditional VGLUT2 knockout in dopamine neurons.

    PubMed

    Bérubé-Carrière, Noémie; Guay, Ginette; Fortin, Guillaume M; Kullander, Klas; Olson, Lars; Wallén-Mackenzie, Åsa; Trudeau, Louis-Eric; Descarries, Laurent

    2012-02-01

    Despite the increasing use of genetically modified mice to investigate the dopamine (DA) system, little is known about the ultrastructural features of the striatal DA innervation in the mouse. This issue is particularly relevant in view of recent evidence for expression of the vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2) by a subset of mesencephalic DA neurons in mouse as well as rat. We used immuno-electron microscopy to characterize tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-labeled terminals in the core and shell of nucleus accumbens and the neostriatum of two mouse lines in which the Vglut2 gene was selectively disrupted in DA neurons (cKO), their control littermates, and C57BL/6/J wild-type mice, aged P15 or adult. The three regions were also examined in cKO mice and their controls of both ages after dual TH-VGLUT2 immunolabeling. Irrespective of the region, age and genotype, the TH-immunoreactive varicosities appeared similar in size, vesicular content, percentage with mitochondria, and exceedingly low frequency of synaptic membrane specialization. No dually labeled axon terminals were found at either age in control or in cKO mice. Unless TH and VGLUT2 are segregated in different axon terminals of the same neurons, these results favor the view that the glutamatergic cophenotype of mesencephalic DA neurons is more important during the early development of these neurons than for the establishment of their scarce synaptic connectivity. They also suggest that, in mouse even more than rat, the mesostriatal DA system operates mainly through non-targeted release of DA, diffuse transmission and the maintenance of an ambient DA level.

  5. Transcriptome profile reveals AMPA receptor dysfunction in the hippocampus of the Rsk2-knockout mice, an animal model of Coffin-Lowry syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mehmood, Tahir; Schneider, Anne; Sibille, Jérémie; Sibillec, Jérémie; Marques Pereira, Patricia; Pannetier, Solange; Ammar, Mohamed Raafet; Dembele, Doulaye; Thibault-Carpentier, Christelle; Rouach, Nathalie; Hanauer, André

    2011-03-01

    Coffin-Lowry syndrome (CLS) is a syndromic form of mental retardation caused by loss of function mutations in the X-linked RPS6KA3 gene, which encodes RSK2, a serine/threonine kinase acting in the MAPK/ERK pathway. The mouse invalidated for the Rps6ka3 (Rsk2-KO) gene displays learning and long-term spatial memory deficits. In the current study, we compared hippocampal gene expression profiles from Rsk2-KO and normal littermate mice to identify changes in molecular pathways. Differential expression was observed for 100 genes encoding proteins acting in various biological pathways, including cell growth and proliferation, cell death and higher brain function. The twofold up-regulated gene (Gria2) was of particular interest because it encodes the subunit GLUR2 of the AMPA glutamate receptor. AMPA receptors mediate most fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. We provide evidence that in the hippocampus of Rsk2-KO mice, expression of GLUR2 at the mRNA and at the protein levels is significantly increased, whereas basal AMPA receptor-mediated transmission in the hippocampus of Rsk2-KO mice is significantly decreased. This is the first time that such deregulations have been demonstrated in the mouse model of the Coffin-Lowry syndrome. Our findings suggest that a defect in AMPA neurotransmission and plasticity contribute to mental retardation in CLS patients.

  6. The effect of dose on 2,3,7,8-TCDD tissue distribution, metabolism and elimination in CYP1A2 (-/-) knockout and C57BL/6N parental strains of mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hakk, Heldur; Diliberto, Janet J.; Birnbaum, Linda S.

    2009-11-15

    Numerous metabolism studies have demonstrated that the toxic contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is poorly metabolized. A hallmark feature of TCDD exposure is induction of hepatic CYP1A2 and subsequent sequestration leading to high liver-to-fat concentration ratios. This study was initiated to determine whether TCDD was inherently poorly metabolized or unavailable for metabolism because of sequestration to CYP1A2. [{sup 3}H]TCDD was administered as a single, oral dose (0.1 and 10 mug/kg) to 12 male C57BL/6N mice or 12 CYP1A2 (-/-) mice. At 96 h, less than 5% of the dose was eliminated in the urine of all groups, and TCDD detected in urine was bound to mouse major urinary protein (mMUP). Feces were the major elimination pathway (24-31% of dose), and fecal extracts and non-extractables were quantitated by HPLC for metabolites. No great differences in urinary or fecal elimination (% dose) were observed between the high and low dose treatments. TCDD concentrations were the highest in adipose tissue for CYP1A2 knockout mice but in liver for C57BL/6N mice supporting the role of hepatic CYP1A2 in the sequestration of TCDD. Overall metabolism between parental and knockout strains showed no statistical differences at either the high or low doses. The data suggested that metabolism of TCDD is inherently slow, due principally to CYP1A1, and that hepatic CYP1A2 is not an active participant in the metabolism of TCDD in male mice. Rather, CYP1A2 governs the pharmacokinetics of TCDD by making it unavailable for hepatic CYP1A1 through sequestration and attenuating extrahepatic tissue disposition.

  7. The aberrantly expressed long non-coding RNA in the substantia nigra and corpus striatum of Nrf2-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian; Xu, Yali; Kang, Yunxiao; Cao, Shanhu; Shi, Geming; Cui, Huixian; Sun, Shaoguang; Wang, Lei

    2017-10-01

    Nuclear factor erythroid 2 like 2 (Nrf2) functions as a neuroprotective agent in Parkinson's disease (PD). This study aimed to investigate the key long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) correlated with Nrf2, which might provide valuable information for the exploration of pathogenesis of PD. The lncRNA and mRNA expression profiling of substantia nigra and corpus striatum of Nrf2 (-/-) mice model was obtained from microarray analysis. The animal experiments conducted for this study were approved by the ethics committee of Hebei Medical University. Bioinformatics analyses were conducted, including differentially expressed lncRNAs/mRNA (differentially expressed lncRNA, DEL/differentially expressed mRNA, DEM) identification, DEL-DEM coexpression network construction, and biological functions prediction. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was subjected to validate abnormally expressed DELs and DEMs in the substantia nigra and corpus striatum of Nrf2 (-/-) mice model. A total of 48 DELs (37 down-regulated and 11 up-regulated) were identified both in Nrf2 (-/-) substantia nigra and corpus striatum; 96 DEMs and 643 DEMs were identified in the substantia nigra and corpus striatum, respectively. DEL-DEM coexpressed network was constructed. LncRNA AK076880, AK036620, and AK020330 had high connectivity with DEMs both in the substantia nigra and corpus striatum. These DEMs were significantly enriched in signaling pathways such as the calcium signaling pathway, Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's disease, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway, and the Wnt signaling pathway. Generally, qRT-PCR validation results of selected DEMs and DELs were consistent with microarray data. The dysregulated DELs and DEMs in the substantia nigra and corpus striatum of Nrf2 (-/-) mice were identified. Our results might provide useful information for further exploring the pathogenesis mechanism of PD. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  8. A novel bivalent vaccine based on a PB2-knockout influenza virus protects mice from pandemic H1N1 and highly pathogenic H5N1 virus challenges.

    PubMed

    Uraki, Ryuta; Kiso, Maki; Iwatsuki-Horimoto, Kiyoko; Fukuyama, Satoshi; Takashita, Emi; Ozawa, Makoto; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2013-07-01

    Vaccination is an effective means to protect against influenza virus. Although inactivated and live-attenuated vaccines are currently available, each vaccine has disadvantages (e.g., immunogenicity and safety issues). To overcome these problems, we previously developed a replication-incompetent PB2-knockout (PB2-KO) influenza virus that replicates only in PB2 protein-expressing cells. Here, we generated two PB2-KO viruses whose PB2-coding regions were replaced with the HA genes of either A/California/04/2009 (H1N1pdm09) or A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1). The resultant viruses comparably, or in some cases more efficiently, induced virus-specific antibodies in the serum, nasal wash, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of mice relative to a conventional formalin-inactivated vaccine. Furthermore, mice immunized with these PB2-KO viruses were protected from lethal challenges with not only the backbone virus strain but also strains from which their foreign HAs originated, indicating that PB2-KO viruses with antigenically different HAs could serve as bivalent influenza vaccines.

  9. Tissue-specific conditional CCM2 knockout mice establish the essential role of endothelial CCM2 in angiogenesis: implications for human cerebral cavernous malformations

    PubMed Central

    Boulday, Gwénola; Blécon, Anne; Petit, Nathalie; Chareyre, Fabrice; Garcia, Luis A.; Niwa-Kawakita, Michiko; Giovannini, Marco; Tournier-Lasserve, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM) are vascular malformations of the brain that lead to cerebral hemorrhages. In 20% of CCM patients, this results from an autosomal dominant condition caused by loss-of-function mutations in one of the three CCM genes. High expression levels of the CCM genes in the neuroepithelium indicate that CCM lesions might be caused by a loss of function of these genes in neural cells rather than in vascular cells. However, their in vivo function, particularly during cerebral angiogenesis, is totally unknown. We developed mice with constitutive and tissue-specific CCM2 deletions to investigate CCM2 function in vivo. Constitutive deletion of CCM2 leads to early embryonic death. Deletion of CCM2 from neuroglial precursor cells does not lead to cerebrovascular defects, whereas CCM2 is required in endothelial cells for proper vascular development. Deletion of CCM2 from endothelial cells severely affects angiogenesis, leading to morphogenic defects in the major arterial and venous blood vessels and in the heart, and results in embryonic lethality at mid-gestation. These findings establish the essential role of endothelial CCM2 for proper vascular development and strongly suggest that the endothelial cell is the primary target in the cascade of events leading from CCM2 mutations to CCM cerebrovascular lesions. PMID:19259391

  10. Neural Tube Defects In Mice Exposed To Tap Water

    PubMed Central

    Mallela, Murali K; Werre, Stephen R; Hrubec, Terry C

    2010-01-01

    In May of 2006 we suddenly began to observe neural tube defects (NTDs) in embryos of untreated control mice. We hypothesized the mice were being exposed unknowingly to a teratogenic agent and investigated the cause. Our results suggested that NTDs were not resulting from bedding material, feed, strain or source of the mice. Additionally, mice were negative for routine and comprehensive screens of pathogens. To further test whether the NTDs resulted from infectious or genetic cause localized to our facility, we obtained three strains of timed pregnant mice from commercial suppliers located in 4 different states. All strains and sources of mice arrived in our laboratory with NTDs, implying that commercially available mice were possibly exposed to a teratogen prior to purchase. Our investigation eventually concluded that exposure to tap water was causing the NTDs. The incidence of NTDs was greatest in purchased mice provided tap water and lowest in purchased mice provided distilled deionized water (DDI). Providing mice DDI water for two generations (F2-DDI) eliminated the NTDs. When F2-DDI mice were provided tap water from three different urban areas prior to breeding, their offspring again developed NTDs. Increased length of exposure to tap water significantly increased the incidence of NTDs. These results indicate that a contaminant in municipal tap water is likely causing NTDs in mice. The unknown teratogen appears to have a wide geographic distribution but has not yet been identified. Water analysis is currently underway to identify candidate contaminants that might be responsible for the malformations. PMID:20549630

  11. Skin cancer development in mice exposed chronically to immunosuppressive agents.

    PubMed

    Daynes, R A; Harris, C C; Connor, R J; Eichwald, E J

    1979-04-01

    Inbred female C3Hf/HeN, murine mammary tumor virus-negative mice exposed to either UV light or benzo[a]pyrene (BP), were subjected to four different chronic immunosuppressive regimens to determine their effect on skin cancer development. The immunosuppressive agents were cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, cortisone, and heterologous antilymphocyte globulin. Because of an unexpectedly high morbidity and mortality of mice exposed to chronic immunosuppressive measures, the dosages were kept at a level that permitted them to survive but did not prolong allogeneic skin graft survival and lower antibody titers, nor did this level diminish proliferative responses of lymphocytes to mitogens or allogeneic lymphocytes. Nevertheless, the latency periods (time interval between beginning of medication and appearance of skin tumors) of tumors in mice exposed to immunosuppressant measures were significantly shortened in several groups of mice exposed to UV and subjected to cyclophosphamide, cortisone, or antilymphocyte globulin and mice exposed to BP and subjected to cortisone acetate. In 3 groups, spindle cell tumors (fibrosarcomas) shifted to squamous cell carcinomas. A suppressed immune function would not be regarded as the mechanism for the observed responses because immunosuppression was not detected in the experimental mice.

  12. Whole DNA methylome profiling in mice exposed to secondhand smoke

    PubMed Central

    Tommasi, Stella; Zheng, Albert; Yoon, Jae-In; Li, Arthur Xuejun; Wu, Xiwei; Besaratinia, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Aberration of DNA methylation is a prime epigenetic mechanism of carcinogenesis. Aberrant DNA methylation occurs frequently in lung cancer, with exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) being an established risk factor. The causal role of SHS in the genesis of lung cancer, however, remains elusive. To investigate whether SHS can cause aberrant DNA methylation in vivo, we have constructed the whole DNA methylome in mice exposed to SHS for a duration of 4 mo, both after the termination of exposure and at ensuing intervals post-exposure (up to 10 mo). Our genome-wide and gene-specific profiling of DNA methylation in the lung of SHS-exposed mice revealed that all groups of SHS-exposed mice and controls share a similar pattern of DNA methylation. Furthermore, the methylation status of major repetitive DNA elements, including long-interspersed nuclear elements (LINE L1), intracisternal A particle long-terminal repeat retrotransposons (IAP-LTR), and short-interspersed nuclear elements (SINE B1), in the lung of all groups of SHS-exposed mice and controls remains comparable. The absence of locus-specific gain of DNA methylation and global loss of DNA methylation in the lung of SHS-exposed mice within a timeframe that precedes neoplastic-lesion formation underscore the challenges of lung cancer biomarker development. Identifying the initiating events that cause aberrant DNA methylation in lung carcinogenesis may help improve future strategies for prevention, early detection and treatment of this highly lethal disease. PMID:23051858

  13. Temporal changes in respiratory dynamics in mice exposed to phosgene.

    PubMed

    Sciuto, Alfred M; Lee, Robyn B; Forster, Jeffry S; Cascio, Matthew B; Clapp, Diana L; Moran, Ted S

    2002-05-01

    One hallmark of phosgene inhalation toxicity is the latent formation of life-threatening, noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of phosgene inhalation on respiratory dynamics over 12 h. CD-1 male mice, 25-30 g, were exposed to 32 mg/m(3) (8 ppm) phosgene for 20 min (640 mg min/m(3)) followed by a 5-min air washout. A similar group of mice was exposed to room air for 25 min. After exposure, conscious mice were placed unrestrained in a whole-body plethysmograph to determine breathing frequency (f), inspiration (Ti) and expiration (Te) times, tidal volume (TV), minute ventilation (MV), end inspiratory pause (EIP), end expiratory (EEP) pause, peak inspiratory flows (PIF), peak expiratory flows (PEF), and a measure of bronchoconstriction (Penh). All parameters were evaluated every 15 min for 12 h. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) protein concentration and lung wet/dry weight ratios (W/D) were also determined at 1, 4, 8, and 12 h. A treatment x time repeated-measures two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant differences between air and phosgene for EEP, EIP, PEF, PIF, TV, and MV, p < or =.05, across 12 h. Phosgene-exposed mice had a significantly longer mean Ti, p < or =.05, compared with air-exposed mice over time. Mice exposed to phosgene showed marked increases (approximately double) in Penh across all time points, beginning at 5 h, when compared with air-exposed mice, p < or =.05. BALF protein, an indicator of air/blood barrier integrity, and W/D were significantly higher, 10- to 12-fold, in phosgene-exposed than in air-exposed mice 4-12 h after exposure, p

  14. Induction of alopecia in mice exposed to cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    D'Agostini, F; Balansky, R; Pesce, C; Fiallo, P; Lubet, R A; Kelloff, G J; De Flora, S

    2000-04-03

    Besides being responsible for a high proportion of those chronic degenerative diseases that are the leading causes of death in the population, tobacco smoking has been associated with skin diseases. Smoke genotoxicants are metabolized in hair follicle cells, where they form DNA adducts and cause DNA damage. The suspicion was raised that, in humans, a link may exist between smoking and both premature grey hair and hair loss. In order to check this hypothesis, we carried out a study in C57BL/6 mice exposed whole-body to a mixture of sidestream and mainstream cigarette smoke. After 3 months exposure, most mice developed areas of alopecia and grey hair, while no such lesions occurred either in sham-exposed mice or in smoke-exposed mice receiving the chemopreventive agent N-acetylcysteine with drinking water. Cell apoptosis occurred massively in the hair bulbs at the edge of alopecia areas. Smoke-exposed mice had extensive atrophy of the epidermis, reduced thickness of the subcutaneous tissue, and scarcity of hair follicles. On the whole, exposure to smoke genotoxic components appears to alter the hair cycle with a dystrophic anagen pattern. Although this mechanism is different from that of genotoxic cytostatic drugs, N-acetylcysteine appears to exert protective effects in both conditions.

  15. Proteomic Profiling of Bladders from Mice Exposed with Sodium Arsenite

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic, an environmental contaminant, has been linked with cancer of the bladder in humans. To study the mode of action of arsenic, female CH3 mice were exposed to 85 ppm sodium arsenite in their drinking water for 30 days. Following the exposure a comparative proteomic analysis...

  16. Proteomic Profiling of Bladders from Mice Exposed with Sodium Arsenite

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic, an environmental contaminant, has been linked with cancer of the bladder in humans. To study the mode of action of arsenic, female CH3 mice were exposed to 85 ppm sodium arsenite in their drinking water for 30 days. Following the exposure a comparative proteomic analysis...

  17. T-cell homeostasis in mice exposed to airborne xenobiotics

    PubMed Central

    Drela, Nadzieja; Bień, Justyna; Kozłowska, Ewa

    2005-01-01

    Many effects of environmental toxic agents contribute to the deregulation of immune system homeostasis. Here we demonstrate that the effect of airborne suspended matter (ASM) on the generation of mouse T cells is reversible. This reversal can be achieved by an active process that returns the T cells to homeostasis and does not result from the simple effect of ASM deprivation. An accelerated development of thymocytes and increased influx of T-cell progenitors to the thymus in mice exposed to environmental xenobiotics has been postulated. This hypothesis has been confirmed by parallel increases in the percentages of single-positive and triple-negative thymocytes. Enhanced expression of thymocyte surface markers related to positive selection has also been observed. The pathway of T-cell progenitor development is favoured in the bone marrow of mice exposed to ASM. PMID:15804284

  18. Genetic Analysis of Mice Skin Exposed by Hyper-Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Rika; Terada, Masahiro; Seki, Masaya; Higashibata, Akira; Majima, Hideyuki J.; Ohira, Yoshinobu; Mukai, Chiaki; Ishioka, Noriaki

    2013-02-01

    In the space environment, physiological alterations, such as low bone density, muscle weakness and decreased immunity, are caused by microgravity and cosmic radiation. On the other hand, it is known that the leg muscles are hypertrophy by 2G-gravity. An understanding of the effects on human body from microgravity to hyper-gravity is very important. Recently, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has started a project to detect the changes on gene expression and mineral metabolism caused by microgravity by analyzing the hair of astronauts who stay in the international Space Station (ISS) for a long time. From these results of human hair’s research, the genetic effects of human hair roots by microgravity will become clear. However, it is unclear how the gene expression of hair roots was effected by hypergravity. Therefore, in this experiment, we analyzed the effect on mice skin contained hair roots by comparing microgravity or hypergravity exposed mice. The purpose of this experiment is to evaluate the genetic effects on mice skin by microgravity or 2G-gravity. The samples were taken from mice exposed to space flight (FL) or hypergravity environment (2G) for 3-months, respectively. The extracted and amplified RNA from these mice skin was used to DNA microarray analysis. in this experiment, we analyzed the effect of gravity by using mice skin contained hair roots, which exposed space (FL) and hyper-gravity (2G) for 3 months and each control. By DNA microarray analysis, we found the common 98 genes changed in both FL and 2G. Among these 98 genes, the functions and pathways were identified by Gene Ontology (GO) analysis and Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) software. Next, we focused the one of the identified pathways and compared the effects on each molecules in this pathways by the different environments, such as FL and 2G. As the results, we could detect some interesting molecules, which might be depended on the gravity levels. In addition, to investigate

  19. Embryo- and fetotoxicity of chromium in pregestationally exposed mice

    SciTech Connect

    Junaid, M.; Murthy, R.C.; Saxena, D.K.

    1996-10-01

    Chromium, an essential element in the human body required for proper carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism, is reported to impair gestational development of offspring of workers chronically exposed to this metal in the work place. Workers in chromium based industries can be exposed to concentrations two orders of magnitude higher than the general population. Among the general population, residents living near chromate production sites may be exposed to high levels of chromium (VI) in air or to elevated levels (40 - 50,000 ppm) of chromium in effluents. Shmitova reported afterbirth and puerperal hemorrhages in women industrially exposed to this metal and observed high chromium levels in blood and urine of pregnant women and in fetal and cord blood. Chromium readily passes the placental barrier and reaches the growing fetus. Exposure of mice to chromium during various gestational periods resulted in embryo and fetotoxic effects. This study looks at the role of body chromium accumulated pregestationally on embryo and fetal development and its subsequent transfer to feto-placental sites. 25 refs., 3 tabs.

  20. Neurobehavioral changes in mice exposed to fast neutrons in utero.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Yuka; Ohmachi, Yasushi; Takai, Nobuhiko; Hiraoka, Takeshi; Ogiu, Toshiaki; Nishikawa, Tetsu; Nishimura, Yoshikazu; Shimada, Yoshiya

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have revealed that radiation causes brain development abnormalities in atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero. Rat and mouse studies have also shown that prenatal exposure to low-linear energy transfer radiation induces developmental brain anomalies. Because the effects of prenatal irradiation on adult behavior patterns remain largely unknown, the present study investigated the effects of neutron exposure in utero on postnatal behavior patterns in mice. [C57BL/6J × C3H/He] hybrid (B6C3F1) mice were exposed to cyclotron-derived fast neutrons with peak energy of 10 MeV (0.02-0.2 Gy) or Cs-137 gamma-rays (0.2-1.5 Gy) on embryonic day 13.5. At 5.5-8 months of age, the neurobehavior of male offspring was examined by Rota-rod treadmill and locomotor activity. The accumulation of radio-labeled drug at muscarinic acetylcholine and serotonin receptors in mice from control and neutron-irradiated groups was determined by the tracer method. Locomotor activity during the dark period increased in the 0.02 Gy neutron-irradiated group. Furthermore, at 5.5 months of age, tracer binding in vivo to the muscarinic acetylcholine increased and to the serotonin receptors decreased in the 0.02 Gy neutron-irradiated group. In conclusion, the present study reveals that a certain "low-dose window" may exist for radiation-induced changes in neurobehavior and binding to neurotransmitter receptors, because there was correlation in neurobehavior and binding to neurotransmitter receptors in the 0.02 Gy neutron-irradiated group though there was not correlation in the neutron-irradiated groups more than 0.05 Gy.

  1. Generation of a New Model Rat: Nrf2 Knockout Rats Are Sensitive to Aflatoxin B1 Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Keiko; Takaku, Misaki; Egner, Patricia A; Morita, Masanobu; Kaneko, Takehito; Mashimo, Tomoji; Kensler, Thomas W; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2016-07-01

    THE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR NRF2: (NF-E2-related-factor 2) REGULATES A BATTERY OF ANTIOXIDATIVE STRESS-RESPONSE GENES AND DETOXICATION GENES, AND NRF2 KNOCKOUT LINES OF MICE HAVE BEEN CONTRIBUTING CRITICALLY TO THE CLARIFICATION OF ROLES THAT NRF2 PLAYS FOR CELL PROTECTION HOWEVER, THERE ARE APPARENT LIMITATIONS IN USE OF THE MOUSE MODELS FOR INSTANCE, RATS EXHIBIT MORE SUITABLE FEATURES FOR TOXICOLOGICAL OR PHYSIOLOGICAL EXAMINATIONS THAN MICE IN THIS STUDY, WE GENERATED 2 LINES OF NRF2 KNOCKOUT RATS BY USING A GENOME EDITING TECHNOLOGY; 1 LINE HARBORS A 7-BP DELETION Δ7 AND THE OTHER LINE HARBORS A 1-BP INSERTION +1 IN THE NRF2 GENE IN THE LIVERS OF RATS HOMOZYGOUSLY DELETING THE NRF2 GENE, AN ACTIVATOR OF NRF2 SIGNALING, CDDO-IM, COULD NOT INDUCE EXPRESSION OF REPRESENTATIVE NRF2 TARGET GENES TO EXAMINE ALTERED TOXICOLOGICAL RESPONSE, WE TREATED THE NRF2 KNOCKOUT RATS WITH AFLATOXIN B1 AFB1, A CARCINOGENIC MYCOTOXIN THAT ELICITS GENE MUTATIONS THROUGH BINDING OF ITS METABOLITES TO DNA AND FOR WHICH THE RAT HAS BEEN PROPOSED AS A REASONABLE SURROGATE FOR HUMAN TOXICITY INDEED, IN THE NRF2 KNOCKOUT RAT LIVERS THE ENZYMES OF THE AFB1 DETOXICATION PATHWAY WERE SIGNIFICANTLY DOWNREGULATED SINGLE DOSE ADMINISTRATION OF AFB1 INCREASED HEPATOTOXICITY AND BINDING OF AFB1-N7-GUANINE TO HEPATIC DNA IN NRF2 KNOCKOUT RATS COMPARED WITH WILD-TYPE NRF2 KNOCKOUT RATS REPEATEDLY TREATED WITH AFB1 WERE PRONE TO LETHALITY AND CDDO-IM WAS NO LONGER PROTECTIVE THESE RESULTS DEMONSTRATE THAT NRF2 KNOCKOUT RATS ARE QUITE SENSITIVE TO AFB1 TOXICITIES AND THIS RAT GENOTYPE EMERGES AS A NEW MODEL ANIMAL IN TOXICOLOGY.

  2. Iron Regulatory Protein-2 Knockout Increases Perihematomal Ferritin Expression and Cell Viability after Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mai; Awe, Olatilewa O.; Chen-Roetling, Jing; Regan, Raymond F.

    2010-01-01

    Iron is deposited in perihematomal tissue after an intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and may contribute to oxidative injury. Cell culture studies have demonstrated that enhancing ferritin expression by targeting iron regulatory protein (IRP) binding activity reduces cellular vulnerability to iron and hemoglobin. In order to assess the therapeutic potential of this approach after striatal ICH, the effect of IRP1 or IRP2 gene knockout on ferritin expression and injury was quantified. Striatal ferritin in IRP1 knockout mice was similar to that in wild-type controls three days after stereotactic injection of artificial CSF or autologous blood. Corresponding levels in IRP2 knockouts were increased by 11-fold and 8.4-fold, respectively, compared with wild-type. Protein carbonylation, a sensitive marker of hemoglobin neurotoxicity, was increased by 2.4-fold in blood-injected wild-type striata, was not altered by IRP1 knockout, but was reduced by approximately 60% by IRP2 knockout. Perihematomal cell viability in wild-type mice, assessed by MTT assay, was approximately half of that in contralateral striata at three days, and was significantly increased in IRP2 knockouts but not in IRP1 knockouts. Protection was also observed when hemorrhage was induced by collagenase injection. These results suggest that IRP2 binding activity reduces ferritin expression in the striatum after ICH, preventing an optimal response to elevated local iron concentrations. IRP2 binding activity may be a novel therapeutic target after hemorrhagic CNS injuries. PMID:20399759

  3. Iron regulatory protein-2 knockout increases perihematomal ferritin expression and cell viability after intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mai; Awe, Olatilewa O; Chen-Roetling, Jing; Regan, Raymond F

    2010-06-14

    Iron is deposited in perihematomal tissue after an intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and may contribute to oxidative injury. Cell culture studies have demonstrated that enhancing ferritin expression by targeting iron regulatory protein (IRP) binding activity reduces cellular vulnerability to iron and hemoglobin. In order to assess the therapeutic potential of this approach after striatal ICH, the effect of IRP1 or IRP2 gene knockout on ferritin expression and injury was quantified. Striatal ferritin in IRP1 knockout mice was similar to that in wild-type controls 3 days after stereotactic injection of artificial CSF or autologous blood. Corresponding levels in IRP2 knockouts were increased by 11-fold and 8.4-fold, respectively, compared with wild-type. Protein carbonylation, a sensitive marker of hemoglobin neurotoxicity, was increased by 2.4-fold in blood-injected wild-type striata, was not altered by IRP1 knockout, but was reduced by approximately 60% by IRP2 knockout. Perihematomal cell viability in wild-type mice, assessed by MTT assay, was approximately half of that in contralateral striata at 3 days, and was significantly increased in IRP2 knockouts but not in IRP1 knockouts. Protection was also observed when hemorrhage was induced by collagenase injection. These results suggest that IRP2 binding activity reduces ferritin expression in the striatum after ICH, preventing an optimal response to elevated local iron concentrations. IRP2 binding activity may be a novel therapeutic target after hemorrhagic CNS injuries.

  4. Melatonin protects uterus and oviduct exposed to nicotine in mice

    PubMed Central

    Saadat, Seyedeh Nazanin Seyed; Jahromi, Sina Khajeh; Homafar, Mohammad Amin; Haghiri, Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    Smoking is associated with higher infertility risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate protective effects of melatonin on the uterus and oviduct in mice exposed to nicotine. Adult female mice (n=32) were divided into four groups. Group A: control animals received normal saline, Group B: injected with nicotine 40µg/kg, Group C: injected with melatonin 10 µg, Group D: injected with nicotine 40µg/kg and melatonin 10 µg. All animals were treated over 15 days intraperitoneally. On the 16th day, animals in the estrus phase were dissected and their uterus and oviducts were removed. Immunohistochemistry was recruited for studying apoptosis and for detection of estrogen receptor (ER) alpha in luminal epithelium of the uterus and oviduct. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used for serum estradiol level determination. Nicotine in group B decreased estradiol level and ERalpha numbers both in the uterus and oviduct (p<0.05). Co-administration of melatonin-nicotine in Group D ameliorated the histology of the uterus and oviduct, increased ERalpha numbers and reduced apoptosis in the uterus and oviduct compared with the nicotine Group B (p<0.05). This study indicates that nicotine impairs the histology of the uterus and oviduct and co-administration of melatonin-nicotine ameliorates these findings, partly through alteration in ERalpha numbers and reduction of apoptosis. PMID:26038675

  5. Enhanced erythropoiesis in mice exposed to low environmental temperature.

    PubMed

    Maekawa, Shun; Iemura, Hitomi; Kato, Takashi

    2013-03-01

    Hematopoietic responses to environmental factors are not fully characterized. Polycythemia has been reported during exposure to low temperatures in ectothermic animals. The relationship between the causes of polycythemia and erythropoiesis during low temperature exposure is not fully understood. In this study, we exposed C57BL/6 mice to 5°C and monitored the blood cell counts and erythropoiesis. The hematocrit level increased from 45.6 to 52.2% after 14 days. Likewise, the hemoglobin concentration, initially 15.1 g dl(-1), rose to 16.0 g dl(-1). The reticulocyte production index significantly increased from 4 to 8% after 7 days. We examined the anatomy and cell composition of the spleens of the mice. On day 5, the spleens were ∼6 mg g(-1) of body mass, which was twofold greater than the spleens on day 0. Flow cytometry showed fourfold more proerythroblasts on day 5, compared with day 0. Additionally, the number of late-stage mature erythroblasts increased on day 14. Erythropoietin mRNA levels increased in the kidneys, and hypoxia-inducible genes were enhanced in the kidney. Our findings indicated that low ambient temperature is a novel erythropoietic stress, which induces polycythemia by enhanced erythropoiesis.

  6. Akt2 knockout mitigates chronic iNOS inhibition-induced cardiomyocyte atrophy and contractile dysfunction despite persistent insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Roe, Nathan D; Ren, Jun

    2011-12-15

    Increased levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) during cardiac stress such as ischemia-reperfusion, sepsis and hypertension may display both beneficial and detrimental roles in cardiac contractile performance. However, the precise role of iNOS in the maintenance of cardiac contractile function remains elusive. This study was designed to determine the impact of chronic iNOS inhibition on cardiac contractile function and the underlying mechanism involved with a special focus on the NO downstream signaling molecule Akt. Male C57 or Akt2 knockout [Akt2(-/-)] mice were injected with the specific iNOS inhibitor 1400W (2 mg/kg/d) or saline for 7 days. Both 1400W and Akt2 knockout dampened glucose and insulin tolerance without additive effects. Treatment of 1400W decreased heart and liver weights as well as cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area in C57 but not Akt2 knockout mice. 1400W but not Akt2 knockout compromised cardiomyocyte mechanical properties including decreased peak shortening and maximal velocity of shortening/relengthening, prolonged relengthening duration, reduced intracellular Ca(2+) release and decay rate, the effects of which were ablated or attenuated by Akt2 knockout. Akt2 knockout but not 1400W increased the levels of intracellular Ca(2+) regulatory proteins including SERCA2a and phospholamban phosphorylation. 1400W reduced the level of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, the effect of which was unaffected by Akt2 knockout. Neither 1400W nor Akt2 knockout significantly affected ER stress, autophagy, the post-insulin receptor signaling Akt, GSK3β and AMPK, as well as the stress signaling IκB, JNK, ERK and p38 with the exception of elevated IκB phosphorylation with jointed effect of 1400W and Akt2 knockout. Taken together, these data indicated that an essential role of iNOS in the maintenance of cardiac morphology and function possibly through an Akt2-dependent mechanism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Electrophoresis pattern of serum from mice exposed to different concentrations of sulfur dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J.

    1977-01-01

    Three day old mice were continuously exposed to sulphur dioxide concentrations at 0ppm, 0.05ppm, 0.15ppm and 1ppm for eight weeks. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected and centrifuged for electrophoresis studies of the serum in 5 percent acrylamide gel. The length of bands of different serum proteins from the SO2 exposed mice was at a variance as compared with the length of bands from the control exposed mice and alpha-1 band seems to be missing from the serum of SO2 exposed mice.

  8. Immunological studies on mice exposed subacutely to methyl isocyanate

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, A.N.; Bucher, J.R.; Germolec, D.R.; Silver, M.T.; Vore, S.J.; Luster, M.I.

    1987-06-01

    The immunotoxicity of methyl isocyanate (MIC) was evaluated in female B6C3F1 mice exposed via inhalation to 0, 1, or 3 ppm for 6 hr per day on 4 consecutive days. The antibody response to sheep erythrocytes and natural killer cell activity were found to be unaffected by MIC exposure. Although lymphoproliferative responses to mitogens were moderately suppressed by MIC, the differences were not statistically significant. The response of splenic lymphocytes to allogeneic leukocytes in a mixed leukocyte response (MLR) was suppressed in a dose-related fashion and was significantly different from the control response at the 3 ppm level. This effect was thought to be secondary and a result of general toxicity rather than a direct effect of MIC on the immune system. Furthermore, resistance to the infectious agents Listeria monocytogenes, mouse malaria parasite, and influenza virus, or to transplantable tumor cells was not compromised by MIC exposure. Thus, the immune system does not appear to be a primary target for MIC toxicity.

  9. Changes in delayed hypersensitivity reaction in mice exposed to O/sub 3/

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimaki, H.; Shiraishi, F.; Ashikawa, T.; Murakami, M.

    1987-06-01

    BALB/c mice were continuously exposed to 0.8 ppm O/sub 3/ for 1, 3, 7, and 14 days. Ozone exposure suppressed the delayed hypersensitivity (DH) reaction to sheep red blood cells (SRBC). The maximum effect was seen after 7 days of exposure. To estimate the suppression of the DH reaction by O/sub 3/ exposure, the numbers of lymphocytes in thymus and blood of exposed mice were compared with those of control mice. A decrease in the numbers of lymphocytes in both thymus and blood was observed in O/sub 3/-exposed mice. The percentage of T and B lymphocytes in blood of exposed mice was the same as that in blood of control mice. These results suggest that 0.8 ppm O/sub 3/ exposure affects the T lymphocytes required for DH reactions.

  10. Dominant lethal mutation test in male mice exposed to 900MHz radiofrequency fields.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shunxing; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Chun; He, Qina; Vijayalaxmi; Prihoda, Thomas J; Tong, Jian; Cao, Yi

    2015-10-01

    Adult male ICR mice were exposed to continuous wave 900MHz radiofrequency fields (RF) at 1.6mW/cm(2) power intensity (whole body average specific absorption rate of 0.731W/kg) for 4 hour/day for 15 days. At the end of exposure, each mouse was caged with 3 mature virgin female mice for mating. After 7 days, each male mouse was transferred to a fresh cage and mated with a second batch of 3 females. This process was repeated for a total of 4 consecutive weeks. Sham exposed male mice and those subjected to an acute 2Gy γ-irradiation (GR) were handled similarly and used as un-exposed and positive controls, respectively. All females were sacrificed on the 18th day of gestation and presumptive mating and, the contents in their uteri were examined. The overall observations during the 4 weeks of mating indicated that the un-exposed female mice mated to RF-exposed male mice showed no significant differences in the percentage of pregnancies, total implants, live implants and dead implants when compared with those mated with sham-exposed mice. In contrast, female mice mated with GR-exposed males showed a consistent pattern of significant differences in the above indices in each and all 4 weeks of mating. Thus, the data indicated an absence of mutagenic potential of RF exposure in the germ cells of male mice.

  11. Endocrine disrupting potential and reproductive dysfunction in male mice exposed to deltamethrin.

    PubMed

    Ben Slima, A; Chtourou, Y; Barkallah, M; Fetoui, H; Boudawara, T; Gdoura, R

    2017-03-01

    Pesticide exposure may affect semen quality and male fertility in humans. The aim of the present work was to elucidate the adverse effects of deltamethrin (Delta), a synthetic pyrethroid, on exposed male mice and their offspring. Adult male Albino/Swiss mice received deltamethrin (5 mg/kg) daily for 35 days and mated with untreated females to produce offspring. Classical measurements of ejaculate and sperm quality and testicular histopathological changes were assessed. Deltamethrin treatment affects sperm quality and quantity in the ejaculated semen of mice that had also markedly impaired libido as measured by indices of mating and fertility and number of pregnant females housed with male mice exposed to this pesticide. Exposure mice to deltamethrin significantly decreased their testosterone and inhibin B levels and affected reproductive performance. Testes of exposed mice showed marked histopathological alterations as compared to the control group. The mice exposed to 5 mg/kg body weight/day of deltamethrin showed severe alterations of the seminiferous tubules, sloughing of the germ cells, the vacuolization of germ cell cytoplasm, and the disruption of spermatogenic cells compared to the control group. Altered pregnancy outcomes were directly attributed to damage of sperm of male mice exposed to deltamethrin compared to the control group. We concluded that exposure to deltamethrin affected the reproductive system of male mice explored by altered total sperm density, motility, and morphology in mice spermatozoa.

  12. Induction of adaptive response in mice exposed to 900MHz radiofrequency fields: application of micronucleus assay.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bingcheng; Zong, Chunyan; Zhao, Hua; Ji, Yongxin; Tong, Jian; Cao, Yi

    2013-03-18

    Adult male ICR mice were pre-exposed to non-ionizing radiofrequency fields (RF), 900MHz at 120μW/cm(2) power density for 4h/day for 7 days (adaptation dose, AD) and then subjected to an acute whole body dose of 3Gy γ-radiation (challenge dose, CD). The classical micronucleus (MN) assay was used to determine the extent of genotoxicity in immature erythrocytes in peripheral blood and bone marrow. The data obtained in mice exposed to AD+CD were compared with those exposed to CD alone. The results indicated that in both tissues, the MN indices were similar in un-exposed controls and those exposed to AD alone while a significantly increased MN frequency was observed in mice exposed to CD alone. Exposure of mice to AD+CD resulted in a significant decrease in MN indices compared to those exposed to CD alone. Thus, the data suggested that pre-exposure of mice to non-ionizing RF is capable of 'protecting' the erythrocytes in the blood and bone marrow from genotoxic effects of subsequent γ-radiation. Such protective phenomenon is generally described as 'adaptive response' (AR) and is well documented in human and animal cells which were pre-exposed to very low doses of ionizing radiation. It is interesting to observe AR being induced by non-ionizing RF.

  13. Ethanol reduces lifespan, body weight, and serum alanine aminotransferase level of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 knockout mouse.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Akiko; Vasiliou, Vasilis; Kawamoto, Toshihiro; Tanaka, Keitaro; Ichiba, Masayoshi

    2014-07-01

    The aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (Aldh2) knockout mouse is an animal model of a polymorphism at the human ALDH2 locus (ALDH2*2). To detect differences in the basic phenotype of this animal model, lifespan, body weight (BW), and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level were evaluated. Aldh2(+/+) , Aldh2(+/-) , and Aldh2(-/-) mice were maintained, from 10 weeks of age, on standard solid food, with liquid supplied as ethanol (EtOH) solution at a concentration of 0 to 20% (forced EtOH consumption). For animals provided with water (without EtOH), mice of the distinct genotypes exhibited no difference in lifespan, with the mean values ranging from 90 to 96 weeks for female mice and 97 to 105 weeks for male mice. For animals provided with EtOH, there was a dose-dependent reduction of lifespan in Aldh2(-/-) mice with p for trend <0.001. For example, the mean lifespans of the Aldh2(-/-) females in the 0, 3, 10, and 20% groups were 95, 85, 70, and 29 weeks, respectively. No influence on lifespan was found for Aldh2(+/+) and Aldh2(+/-) mice. BW and ALT level of Aldh2(-/-) mice were significantly lower than those of Aldh2(+/+) mice when the mice were treated with EtOH. While multiple regression analysis suggested that the BW and ALT level in Aldh2(-/-) mice correlated with lifespan, adjustment for EtOH concentration revealed that this correlation was not significant (i.e., reflected EtOH dependence). Aldh2(-/-) mice were unchanged in terms of their basic phenotype under standard laboratory conditions. However, chronic EtOH administration (forced consumption) in these mice resulted in dose-dependent reductions in lifespan, BW, and serum ALT level. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  14. Immunization of mice with Trypanosoma rhodesiense exposed to ultraviolet irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Charoenvit, Y.; Campbell, G.H.

    1981-11-01

    Exposure time of Trypanosoma rhodesiense as short as 1 minute to ultraviolet (uv) light prevents the organisms from causing infection. Live trypanosome challenge of mice immunized with uv-irradiated trypanosomes results in sterile immunity. This allows a method for the induction of protective immunity to experimental trypanosomiasis which can be performed in most laboratories using uv germicidal lamps found in sterile hoods.

  15. Relationship between field strength and arousal response in mice exposed to 60-Hz electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, R.S.; Duffy, P.H.; Sacher, G.A.; Ehret, C.F.

    1983-01-01

    White-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus, were exposed to 60-Hz electric fields to study the relationship between field strength and three measures of the transient arousal response previously reported to occur with exposures at 100 kV/m. Five groups of 12 mice each were given a series of four 1-h exposures, separated by an hour, with each group exposed at one of the following field strengths: 75, 50, 35, 25, and 10 kV/m; 8 additional mice were sham-exposed with no voltage applied to the field generator. All mice were experimentally naive before the start of the experiment, and all exposures occurred during the inactive (lights-on) phase of the circadian cycle. The first exposure produced immediate increases in arousal measures, but subsequent exposures had no significant effect on any measure. These arousal responses were defined by significant increases of gross motor activity, carbon dioxide production, and oxygen consumption, and were frequently recorded with field strengths of 50 kV/m or higher. Significant arousal responses rarely occurred with exposures at lower field strengths. Responses of mice exposed at 75 and 50 kV/m were similar to previously described transient arousal responses in mice exposed to 100-kV/m electric fields. Less than half of the mice in each of the field strength groups below 50 kV/m showed arousal response based on Z (standard) scores, but the arousals of the mice that did respond were similar to those of mice exposed at higher field strengths. Polynomial regression was used to calculate the field strength producing the greatest increases for each of the arousal measures. The results show that the amplitude of the transient arousal response is related to the strength of the electric field, but different measures of arousal may have different relationships to field strength.

  16. RAG1/2 knockout pigs with severe combined immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiao; Guo, Xiaogang; Fan, Nana; Song, Jun; Zhao, Bentian; Ouyang, Zhen; Liu, Zhaoming; Zhao, Yu; Yan, Quanmei; Yi, Xiaoling; Schambach, Axel; Frampton, Jon; Esteban, Miguel A; Yang, Dongshan; Yang, Huaqiang; Lai, Liangxue

    2014-08-01

    Pigs share many physiological, biochemical, and anatomical similarities with humans and have emerged as valuable large animal models for biomedical research. Considering the advantages in immune system resemblance, suitable size, and longevity for clinical practical and monitoring purpose, SCID pigs bearing dysfunctional RAG could serve as important experimental tools for regenerative medicine, allograft and xenograft transplantation, and reconstitution experiments related to the immune system. In this study, we report the generation and phenotypic characterization of RAG1 and RAG2 knockout pigs using transcription activator-like effector nucleases. Porcine fetal fibroblasts were genetically engineered using transcription activator-like effector nucleases and then used to provide donor nuclei for somatic cell nuclear transfer. We obtained 27 live cloned piglets; among these piglets, 9 were targeted with biallelic mutations in RAG1, 3 were targeted with biallelic mutations in RAG2, and 10 were targeted with a monoallelic mutation in RAG2. Piglets with biallelic mutations in either RAG1 or RAG2 exhibited hypoplasia of immune organs, failed to perform V(D)J rearrangement, and lost mature B and T cells. These immunodeficient RAG1/2 knockout pigs are promising tools for biomedical and translational research.

  17. Assessment of the immune responsiveness of mice exposed to a 1. 5-Tesla stationary magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Tenforde, T.S.; Shifrine, M.

    1984-01-01

    Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses were assayed following a 6-day exposure of LAF1/J mice to a 1.50 Tesla (1 T . 10(4) Gauss) stationary magnetic field. In tests of the immune response to sheep erythrocytes, the number of Jerne plaques formed by spleen lymphocytes and the level of serum IgM were not significantly different for the exposed mice in comparison with control animals. Tests for mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation also demonstrated no significant differences in the response of spleen lymphocytes from exposed and control groups of mice.

  18. Adaptive Response in Mice Exposed to 900 MHz Radiofrequency Fields: Primary DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhen; Zhang, Jie; Tong, Jian; Cao, Yi

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenon of adaptive response (AR) in animal and human cells exposed to ionizing radiation is well documented in scientific literature. We have examined whether such AR could be induced in mice exposed to non-ionizing radiofrequency fields (RF) used for wireless communications. Mice were pre-exposed to 900 MHz RF at 120 µW/cm2 power density for 4 hours/day for 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 days and then subjected to an acute dose of 3 Gy γ-radiation. The primary DNA damage in the form of alkali labile base damage and single strand breaks in the DNA of peripheral blood leukocytes was determined using the alkaline comet assay. The results indicated that the extent of damage in mice which were pre-exposed to RF for 1 day and then subjected to γ-radiation was similar and not significantly different from those exposed to γ-radiation alone. However, mice which were pre-exposed to RF for 3, 5, 7 and 14 days showed progressively decreased damage and was significantly different from those exposed to γ-radiation alone. Thus, the data indicated that RF pre-exposure is capable of inducing AR and suggested that the pre-exposure for more than 4 hours for 1 day is necessary to elicit such AR. PMID:22389679

  19. Increased Myeloid Cell Production and Lung Bacterial Clearance in Mice Exposed to Cigarette Smoke.

    PubMed

    Basilico, Paola; Cremona, Tiziana P; Oevermann, Anna; Piersigilli, Alessandra; Benarafa, Charaf

    2016-03-01

    Pneumonia is a leading cause of hospitalization in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although most patients with COPD are smokers, the effects of cigarette smoke exposure on clearance of lung bacterial pathogens and on immune and inflammatory responses are incompletely defined. Here, clearance of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and associated immune responses were examined in mice exposed to cigarette smoke or after smoking cessation. Mice exposed to cigarette smoke for 6 weeks or 4 months demonstrated decreased lung bacterial burden compared with air-exposed mice when infected 16 to 24 hours after exposure. When infection was performed after smoke cessation, bacterial clearance kinetics of mice previously exposed to smoke reversed to levels comparable to those of control mice, suggesting that the observed defects were not dependent on adaptive immunological memory to bacterial determinants found in smoke. Comparing cytokine levels and myeloid cell production before infection in mice exposed to cigarette smoke with mice never exposed or after smoke cessation revealed that reduced bacterial burden was most strongly associated with higher levels of IL-1β and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in the lungs and with increased neutrophil reserve and monocyte turnover in the bone marrow. Using Serpinb1a-deficient mice with reduced neutrophil numbers and treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor showed that increased neutrophil numbers contribute only in part to the effect of smoke on infection. Our findings indicate that cigarette smoke induces a temporary and reversible increase in clearance of lung pathogens, which correlates with local inflammation and increased myeloid cell output from the bone marrow.

  20. Differential cellular responses in healthy mice and in mice with established airway inflammation when exposed to hematite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Åsa; Bergström, Ulrika; Ågren, Lina; Österlund, Lars; Sandström, Thomas; Bucht, Anders

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the inflammatory and immunological responses in airways and lung-draining lymph nodes (LDLNs), following lung exposure to iron oxide (hematite) nanoparticles (NPs). The responses to the hematite NPs were evaluated in both healthy non-sensitized mice, and in sensitized mice with an established allergic airway disease. The mice were exposed intratracheally to either hematite NPs or to vehicle (PBS) and the cellular responses were evaluated on days 1, 2, and 7, post-exposure. Exposure to hematite NPs increased the numbers of neutrophils, eosinophils, and lymphocytes in the airways of non-sensitized mice on days 1 and 2 post-exposure; at these time points the number of lymphocytes was also elevated in the LDLNs. In contrast, exposing sensitized mice to hematite NPs induced a rapid and unspecific cellular reduction in the alveolar space on day 1 post-exposure; a similar decrease of lymphocytes was also observed in the LDLN. The results indicate that cells in the airways and in the LDLN of individuals with established airway inflammation undergo cell death when exposed to hematite NPs. A possible explanation for this toxic response is the extensive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the pro-oxidative environment of inflamed airways. This study demonstrates how sensitized and non-sensitized mice respond differently to hematite NP exposure, and it highlights the importance of including individuals with respiratory disorders when evaluating health effects of inhaled nanomaterials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Curcumin improves liver damage in male mice exposed to nicotine

    PubMed Central

    Salahshoor, Mohammadreza; Mohamadian, Sabah; Kakabaraei, Seyran; Roshankhah, Shiva; Jalili, Cyrus

    2015-01-01

    The color of turmeric (薑黃 jiāng huáng) is because of a substance called curcumin. It has different pharmacological effects, such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Nicotine is a major pharmacologically active substance in cigarette smoke. It is mainly metabolized in the liver and causes devastating effects. This study was designed to evaluate the protective role of curcumin against nicotine on the liver in mice. Forty-eight mice were equally divided into eight groups; control (normal saline), nicotine (2.5 mg/kg), curcumin (10, 30, and 60 mg/kg) and curcumin plus nicotine-treated groups. Curcumin, nicotine, and curcumin plus nicotine (once a day) were intraperitoneally injected for 4 weeks. The liver weight and histology, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and serum nitric oxide levels have been studied. The results indicated that nicotine administration significantly decreased liver weight and increased the mean diameter of hepatocyte, central hepatic vein, liver enzymes level, and blood serum nitric oxide level compared with the saline group (p < 0.05). However, curcumin and curcumin plus nicotine administration substantially increased liver weight and decreased the mean diameter of hepatocyte, central hepatic vein, liver enzymes, and nitric oxide levels in all groups compared with the nicotine group (p < 0.05). Curcumin demonstrated its protective effect against nicotine-induced liver toxicity. PMID:27114942

  2. Hematological changes in mice exposed to biting of the bedbug: Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hamid, Yousrya M; Soliman, Mohamed I

    2010-12-01

    The studies on hematologic changes in humans or animals as a result of bedbug bites are lacking. This study was undertaken to examine changes in the blood picture of mice (Mus musculus) exposed to Cimex lectularius biting. As compared to the check animals, mice exposed to bedbug bites either once or twice within 7 days showed insignificantly higher WBC's (1.6 and 2.8% increase, respectively) and lower HGB content (0.5 and 0.8% decrease, respectively) and significantly higher PLT's (P < 0.01) by 2.2% and 3.0%, respectively. Significantly higher (P < 0.01) RBC's counts in mice bitten once than those of normal animals or those exposed to twice bites (5.3 and 5.9% increase, respectively). Bedbug biting exerts its effects largely upon the differential WBC's. Mice bitten once or twice showed significantly lower number of neutrophils (1.2% & 12.1% decrease, respectively) than those for normal animals. Mice exposed to twice bites showed significantly (P < 0.01) higher numbers of lymphocyte (18.8%), monocyte (13.6%), eosinophil (200.0%) and basophil (500%) than those of normal mice.

  3. Regional Heterogeneity in Murine Lung Fibroblasts from Normal Mice or Mice Exposed Once to Cigarette Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Preobrazhenska, Olena; Wright, Joanne L.; Churg, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) is characterized by matrix deposition in the small airways but matrix loss from the parenchyma, phenomena which must depend on the ability of local fibroblasts to produce matrix after smoke exposure. To investigate this idea, we exposed C57Bl/6 mice once to cigarette smoke or to air (control) and prepared primary cultures of lung fibroblasts by microdissecting large airways (trachea, LAF), medium size airways (major bronchi, MAF) and parenchyma (PF). Control PF showed the lowest rate of wound closure and wound closure was depressed in all lines by a single in vivo smoke exposure. Gene expression of matrix proteins differed considerably among the sites; decorin, which may sequester TGFβ, was markedly higher in PF. PF showed higher intrinsic ratios of pSmad2/Smad2. Smoke caused much greater increases in secreted and matrix deposited collagens 1 and 3 in PF than in LAF or MAF. Expression of Thy-1, a gene that suppresses myofibroblast differentiation, was increased by smoke in PF. We conclude that there is considerable regional heterogeneity in murine lung fibroblasts in terms of matrix production, either basally or after in vivo smoke exposure; that PF have lower ability to repair wounds and higher intrinsic TGFβ signaling; and that a single exposure to smoke produces lasting changes in the pattern of matrix production and wound repair, changes that may be mediated in part by smoke-induced release of TGFβ. However, PF still retain the ability to repair by producing new matrix after a single in vivo smoke exposure. PMID:22761892

  4. Impairment of humoral immune responses in mice exposed to nitrogen dioxide and ozone mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimaki, H.

    1989-04-01

    The relationship between immune defense mechanisms and environmental pollutants remains unknown because of uncertainty about the effects of combined or mixed pollutants. To investigate whether exposure to toxic gas mixtures change the effect of a single gas exposure on immune function, BALB/c mice were continuously exposed to 4.0 ppm nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/), 0.8 ppm ozone (O/sub 3/), or the mixture of NO/sub 2/ plus O/sub 3/ for 3, 7, 14, and 56 days. Organ weights (lung, thymus, and spleen) and antibody responses to sheep red blood cells (SRBC), and to DNP-Ficoll were measured immediately after the exposure. Lung weights in mice exposed to O/sub 3/ or the mixture were increased significantly in all exposure periods. The weights of thymus and spleen in mice exposed for 3, 7, and 14 days to the mixture were decreased. O/sub 3/ exposure for 56 days showed significant decreases of the weights of both organs. Antibody response to SRBC in mice exposed for 3, 7, and 14 days to O/sub 3/ or the mixture was markedly suppressed, but exposure to the mixture for 56 days did not show the suppression of anti-SRBC antibody response. No differences in anti-DNP antibody response between exposed and control mice were observed, except those exposed to O/sub 3/ or the mixture for 14 days. These results suggest that mixed gas exposures variously modify the effects of a single gas exposure on antibody production in mice.

  5. A quantitative study of the facial nerve in mice prenatally exposed to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Suguru; Sasaki, Yasuo; Shiota, Kohei

    2003-03-01

    Pregnant ICR mice were given 20% ethanol intraperitoneally twice on day 13 of gestation and allowed to give birth to offspring. The offspring were killed at 56 days of age and the motor root of their facial nerve was examined histologically and morphometrically. The cross-sectional area of the facial nerve of mice prenatally exposed to ethanol was significantly smaller than that of the control mice. There was no significant difference in the total number of myelinated axons or the mean axonal diameter between control and ethanol-exposed mice, but the mean diameter of myelinated fibers (axon + myelin sheath) and the thickness of myelin sheath were significantly decreased in the treated group. These results suggest that prenatal exposure to ethanol disturbs myelination of the motor root of the facial nerve and may cause permanent neurological effects.

  6. Automated measurement of pulmonary emphysema and small airway remodeling in cigarette smoke-exposed mice.

    PubMed

    Laucho-Contreras, Maria E; Taylor, Katherine L; Mahadeva, Ravi; Boukedes, Steve S; Owen, Caroline A

    2015-01-16

    COPD is projected to be the third most common cause of mortality world-wide by 2020((1)). Animal models of COPD are used to identify molecules that contribute to the disease process and to test the efficacy of novel therapies for COPD. Researchers use a number of models of COPD employing different species including rodents, guinea-pigs, rabbits, and dogs((2)). However, the most widely-used model is that in which mice are exposed to cigarette smoke. Mice are an especially useful species in which to model COPD because their genome can readily be manipulated to generate animals that are either deficient in, or over-express individual proteins. Studies of gene-targeted mice that have been exposed to cigarette smoke have provided valuable information about the contributions of individual molecules to different lung pathologies in COPD((3-5)). Most studies have focused on pathways involved in emphysema development which contributes to the airflow obstruction that is characteristic of COPD. However, small airway fibrosis also contributes significantly to airflow obstruction in human COPD patients((6)), but much less is known about the pathogenesis of this lesion in smoke-exposed animals. To address this knowledge gap, this protocol quantifies both emphysema development and small airway fibrosis in smoke-exposed mice. This protocol exposes mice to CS using a whole-body exposure technique, then measures respiratory mechanics in the mice, inflates the lungs of mice to a standard pressure, and fixes the lungs in formalin. The researcher then stains the lung sections with either Gill's stain to measure the mean alveolar chord length (as a readout of emphysema severity) or Masson's trichrome stain to measure deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins around small airways (as a readout of small airway fibrosis). Studies of the effects of molecular pathways on both of these lung pathologies will lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of COPD.

  7. Involvement of MIF in basement membrane damage in chronically UVB-exposed skin in mice.

    PubMed

    Yoshihisa, Yoko; Norisugi, Osamu; Matsunaga, Kenji; Nishihira, Jun; Shimizu, Tadamichi

    2014-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet (UV) B radiation is known to induce matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that degrade collagen in the basement membrane. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pluripotent cytokine that plays an essential role in the pathophysiology of skin inflammation induced by UV irradiation. This study examined the effects of MIF on basement membrane damage following chronic UVB irradiation in mice. The back skin of MIF transgenic (Tg) and wild-type (WT) mice was exposed to UVB three times a week for 10 weeks. There was a decrease in intact protein levels of type IV collagen and increased basement membrane damage in the exposed skin of the MIF Tg mice compared to that observed in the WT mice. Moreover, the skin of the MIF Tg mice exhibited higher MIF, MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression and protein levels than those observed in the WT mice. We also found that chronic UVB exposure in MIF Tg mice resulted in higher levels of neutrophil infiltration in the dermis compared with that observed in the WT mice. In vitro experiments revealed that MIF induced increases in the MMPs expression, including that of MMP-9 in keratinocytes and MMP-2 in fibroblasts. Cultured neutrophils also secreted MMP-9 stimulated by MIF. Therefore, MIF-mediated basement membrane damage occurs primarily through MMPs activation and neutrophil influx in murine skin following chronic UVB irradiation.

  8. Involvement of MIF in Basement Membrane Damage in Chronically UVB-Exposed Skin in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yoshihisa, Yoko; Norisugi, Osamu; Matsunaga, Kenji; Nishihira, Jun; Shimizu, Tadamichi

    2014-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet (UV) B radiation is known to induce matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that degrade collagen in the basement membrane. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pluripotent cytokine that plays an essential role in the pathophysiology of skin inflammation induced by UV irradiation. This study examined the effects of MIF on basement membrane damage following chronic UVB irradiation in mice. The back skin of MIF transgenic (Tg) and wild-type (WT) mice was exposed to UVB three times a week for 10 weeks. There was a decrease in intact protein levels of type IV collagen and increased basement membrane damage in the exposed skin of the MIF Tg mice compared to that observed in the WT mice. Moreover, the skin of the MIF Tg mice exhibited higher MIF, MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression and protein levels than those observed in the WT mice. We also found that chronic UVB exposure in MIF Tg mice resulted in higher levels of neutrophil infiltration in the dermis compared with that observed in the WT mice. In vitro experiments revealed that MIF induced increases in the MMPs expression, including that of MMP-9 in keratinocytes and MMP-2 in fibroblasts. Cultured neutrophils also secreted MMP-9 stimulated by MIF. Therefore, MIF-mediated basement membrane damage occurs primarily through MMPs activation and neutrophil influx in murine skin following chronic UVB irradiation. PMID:24586879

  9. Autism-relevant social abnormalities in mice exposed perinatally to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Alsaeed, Ibrahim; Al-Somali, Faisal; Sakhnini, Lama; Aljarallah, Omar S; Hamdan, Rayan M M; Bubishate, Saleh A; Sarfaraz, Ziyab Khan; Kamal, Amer

    2014-10-01

    The incidence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been rising, but the causes of ASD remain largely unidentified. Collective data have implicated the increased human exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) in the increasing incidence of ASD. There are established biological effects of extremely low-frequency (ELF) EMF, but the relation to ASD is not investigated enough. In this study we examined the effects of perinatal exposure to ELF EMF on some ASD-relevant behavioral parameters in mice. The EMF was delivered via a Helmholtz coil pair. Male BALB/C mice were used and divided into exposed and control groups (n=8 and n=9, respectively). Tests were used to assess sociability, preference for social novelty, locomotion, anxiety, exploratory behavior, motor coordination, and olfaction. The examined mice were all males and exposed to EMF during the last week of gestation and for 7 days after delivery. The exposed mice demonstrated a lack of normal sociability and preference for social novelty while maintaining normal anxiety-like behavior, locomotion, motor coordination, and olfaction. Exposed mice also demonstrated decreased exploratory activity. We concluded that these results are supportive of the hypothesis of a causal link between exposure to ELF-EMF and ASD; however, replications of the study with further tests are recommended.

  10. The commensal microbiota exacerbate infectious colitis in stressor-exposed mice.

    PubMed

    Galley, Jeffrey D; Parry, Nicola M; Ahmer, Brian M M; Fox, James G; Bailey, Michael T

    2017-02-01

    Exposure to a prolonged restraint stressor disrupts the colonic microbiota community composition, and is associated with an elevated inflammatory response to colonic pathogen challenge. Since the stability of the microbiota has been implicated in the development and modulation of mucosal immune responses, we hypothesized that the disruptive effect of the stressor upon the microbiota composition directly contributed to the stressor-induced exacerbation of pathogen-induced colitis. In order to establish a causative role for stressor-induced changes in the microbiota, conventional mice were exposed to prolonged restraint to change the microbiota. Germfree mice were then colonized by microbiota from either stressor-exposed or non-stressed control mice. One day after colonization, mice were infected with the colonic pathogen, Citrobacter rodentium. At six days post-infection, mice that received microbiota from stressor-exposed animals had significant increases in colonic pathology and pro-inflammatory cytokine (e.g. IL-1β) and chemokine (e.g. CCL2) levels after C. rodentium infection in comparison with mice that received microbiota from non-stressed mice. 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that microbial communities from stressed mice did not have any detectable Bifidobacterium present, a stark contrast with the microbial communities from non-stressed mice, suggesting that stressor-induced alterations in commensal, immunomodulatory Bifidobacterium levels may predispose to an increased inflammatory response to pathogen challenge. This study demonstrates that the commensal microbiota directly contribute to excessive inflammatory responses to C. rodentium during stressor exposure, and may help to explain why gastrointestinal disorders are worsened during stressful experiences.

  11. Tiotropium Attenuates Virus-Induced Pulmonary Inflammation in Cigarette Smoke–Exposed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bucher, Hannes; Duechs, Matthias J.; Tilp, Cornelia; Jung, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Viral infections trigger exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and tiotropium, a M3 receptor antagonist, reduces exacerbations in patients by unknown mechanisms. In this report, we investigated whether tiotropium has anti-inflammatory effects in mice exposed to cigarette smoke (CS) and infected with influenza virus A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) or respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and compared these effects with those of steroid fluticasone and PDE4-inhibitor roflumilast. Mice were exposed to CS; infected with H1N1 or RSV; and treated with tiotropium, fluticasone, or roflumilast. The amount of cells and cytokine levels in the airways, lung function, and viral load was determined. NCI-H292 cells were infected with H1N1 or RSV and treated with the drugs. In CS/H1N1-exposed mice, tiotropium reduced neutrophil and macrophage numbers and levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in the airways and improved lung function. In contrast, fluticasone increased the loss of body weight; failed to reduce neutrophil or macrophage numbers; increased IL-6, KC, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the lungs; and worsened lung function. Treatment with roflumilast reduced macrophage numbers, IL-6, and KC in the lungs but had no effect on neutrophil numbers or lung function. In CS/RSV-exposed mice, treatment with tiotropium, but not fluticasone or roflumilast, reduced neutrophil numbers and IL-6 and TNF-α levels in the lungs. Viral load of H1N1 and RSV was significantly elevated in CS/virus-exposed mice and NCI-H292 cells after fluticasone treatment, whereas tiotropium and roflumilast had no effect. In conclusion, tiotropium has anti-inflammatory effects on CS/virus-induced inflammation in mice that are superior to the effects of roflumilast and fluticasone. This finding might help to explain the observed reduction of exacerbation rates in COPD patients. PMID:27016458

  12. Carbocisteine reduces virus-induced pulmonary inflammation in mice exposed to cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Yageta, Yuichi; Ishii, Yukio; Morishima, Yuko; Ano, Satoshi; Ohtsuka, Shigeo; Matsuyama, Masashi; Takeuchi, Kaoru; Itoh, Ken; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Hizawa, Nobuyuki

    2014-05-01

    Carbocisteine (S-CMC) inhibits viral infection and prevents acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We recently demonstrated the protective effects of NF-E2-related factor (Nrf) 2 against influenza virus (FluV)-induced pulmonary inflammation in mice exposed to cigarette smoke (CS). In our current study, we investigated the effects of S-CMC on Nrf2 activation in cultured macrophages, and in mice infected with influenza after exposure to CS. Nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and the expression of Nrf2-targeted antioxidant genes, such as heavy and light subunits of γ glutamyl cysteine synthetase and heme oxigenase-1, were enhanced in a dose-dependent manner after treatment with S-CMC in peritoneal and alveolar macrophages of wild-type mice, but not in those of Nrf2-deficient mice. Nuclear translocation of Nrf2 in macrophages was inhibited by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor, LY294002. Phosphorylated Akt, Nrf2, and heme oxigenase-1 were induced in the alveolar macrophages of the lungs in wild-type mice after S-CMC administration. The extent of oxidative stress, inflammatory cell infiltration, pulmonary edema, and goblet cell hyperplasia was suppressed by S-CMC administration in the lungs of wild-type mice after exposure to both CS and FluV. Our findings suggest that S-CMC reduces pulmonary inflammation and mucus overproduction in mice exposed to CS after infection with FluV via the activation of Nrf2.

  13. Factors that influence the suppression of pulmonary antibacterial defenses in mice exposed to ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmour, M.I.; Park, P.; Doerfler, D.; Selgrade, M.J.K.

    1993-01-01

    Exposure to ozone (O3) has been shown to increase susceptibility of mice to bacterial infection; however, the underlying mechanism has not been well elucidated. The study investigated the effect of O3 exposure on the ability of mice to combat an infectious challenge of Streptococcus zooepidemicus. Following a 3-h exposure to either air, 0.4 ppm O3, or 0.8 ppm O3, 5- and 9-week-old mice received an aerosol infection of bacteria. Intrapulmonary killing of the bacteria was impaired in the O3-exposed mice. The effect was most severe at the higher dose of O3 in the younger mice, and showed good correlation to subsequent mortality assessed over a 20-day period. Alveolar macrophages (AM) from O3-exposed mice had an impaired ability to phagocytose the bacteria. Additionally, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels, which are known to depress AM function, were increased in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of the younger mice following exposure to O3, while pretreatment with indomethacin in the drinking water blunted the increased of PGE2 and reduced O3 enhanced mortality from 53 to 33%. The data show that O3 inhalation can reduce the defensive capability of the murine lung and that this is associated with a reduction in AM phagocytosis. (Copyright (c) 1993 Taylor Francis.)

  14. Iron and copper accumulation in the brain of coxsackievirus-infected mice exposed to cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Ilbaeck, N.-G. . E-mail: nils-gunnar.ilback@slv.se; Lindh, U.; Minqin, R.; Friman, G.; Watt, F.

    2006-11-15

    Cadmium (Cd) is a potentially toxic metal widely distributed in the environment and known to cause adverse health effects in humans. During coxsackievirus infection, the concentrations of essential and nonessential trace elements (e.g., iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and Cd) change in different target organs of the infection. Fe and Cu are recognized cofactors in host defence reactions, and Fe is known to be associated with certain pathological conditions of the brain. However, whether nonessential trace elements could influence the balance of essential trace elements in the brain is unknown. In this study the brain Fe, Cu, and Cd contents were measured through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and their distributions determined by nuclear microscopy in the early phase (day 3) of coxsackievirus B3 (CB3) infection in nonexposed and in Cd-exposed female Balb/c mice. In CB3 infection the brain is a well-known target that has not been studied with regard to trace element balance. The brain concentration of Cu compared with that of noninfected control mice was increased by 9% (P<0.05) in infected mice not exposed to Cd and by 10% (not significant) in infected Cd-exposed mice. A similar response was seen for Fe, which in infected Cd-exposed mice, compared to noninfected control mice, tended to increase by 16%. Cu showed an even tissue distribution, whereas Fe was distributed in focal deposits. Changes in Cd concentration in the brain of infected mice were less consistent but evenly distributed. Further studies are needed to define whether the accumulation and distribution of trace elements in the brain have an impact on brain function.

  15. The growth and development of Schistosoma mansoni in mice exposed to sublethal doses of radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Aitken, R.; Wilson, R.A. )

    1989-12-01

    The maturation of Schistosoma mansoni was studied in mice exposed to various sublethal doses of radiation. Although the treatment of mice with 500 rads of radiation prior to infection did not alter parasite maturation, doses in excess of 500 rads led to a reduction in worm burden. This could not be attributed to a delay in the arrival of parasites in the hepatic portal system. Worms developing in mice treated with 800 rads commenced egg-laying about 1 wk later than worms in intact mice, and the rate of egg deposition appeared to be lower in irradiated hosts. The data demonstrate that exposure of C57BL/6 mice to doses of radiation in excess of 500 rads impairs their ability to carry infections of S. mansoni. The findings do not support the hypothesis that primary worm burdens in the mouse are controlled by a host immune response.

  16. REPRODUCTIVE AND GENOMIC EFFECTS IN TESTES FROM MICE EXPOSED TO THE WATER DISINFECTANT BYPRODUCT BROMOCHLOROACETIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    A byproduct of drinking water disinfection, bromochloroacetic acid (BCA), acts as a reproductive toxicant in rats. To determine if BCA produces similar reproductive toxicity in mice, juvenile and adult C57BL/6 males were exposed to 0, 8, 24, 72 or 216 mg/kg of BC...

  17. EARLY GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN THE LIVERS OF MICE EXPOSED TO DICHLOROACETIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    EARLY GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN THE LIVERS OF MICE EXPOSED TO DICHLOROACETIC ACID

    Dichloroacetic acid (DCA) is a major by-product of water disinfection by chlorination. Several studies have shown that DCA induces liver tumors in rodents when administered in drinking wate...

  18. EARLY GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN THE LIVERS OF MICE EXPOSED TO DICHOLORACETC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    EARLY GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN THE LIVERS OF MICE EXPOSED TO DICHLOROACETIC ACID

    Dichloroacetic acid COCA) is a major by-product ofwater disinfection by cWorination. Several
    studies have shown that DCA induces liver tumors in rodents when administered in drinkmg wate...

  19. EARLY GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN THE LIVERS OF MICE EXPOSED TO DICHLOROACETIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    EARLY GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN THE LIVERS OF MICE EXPOSED TO DICHLOROACETIC ACID

    Dichloroacetic acid (DCA) is a major by-product of water disinfection by chlorination. Several studies have shown that DCA induces liver tumors in rodents when administered in drinking wate...

  20. REPRODUCTIVE AND GENOMIC EFFECTS IN TESTES FROM MICE EXPOSED TO THE WATER DISINFECTANT BYPRODUCT BROMOCHLOROACETIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    A byproduct of drinking water disinfection, bromochloroacetic acid (BCA), acts as a reproductive toxicant in rats. To determine if BCA produces similar reproductive toxicity in mice, juvenile and adult C57BL/6 males were exposed to 0, 8, 24, 72 or 216 mg/kg of BC...

  1. EARLY GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN THE LIVERS OF MICE EXPOSED TO DICHOLORACETC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    EARLY GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN THE LIVERS OF MICE EXPOSED TO DICHLOROACETIC ACID

    Dichloroacetic acid COCA) is a major by-product ofwater disinfection by cWorination. Several
    studies have shown that DCA induces liver tumors in rodents when administered in drinkmg wate...

  2. Postexposure aerosolized heparin reduces lung injury in chlorine-exposed mice

    PubMed Central

    Zarogiannis, Sotirios G.; Wagener, Brant M.; Basappa, Susanna; Doran, Stephen; Rodriguez, Cilina A.; Jurkuvenaite, Asta; Pittet, Jean Francois

    2014-01-01

    Chlorine (Cl2) is a highly reactive oxidant gas that, when inhaled, may cause acute lung injury culminating in death from respiratory failure. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that exposure of mice to Cl2 causes intra-alveolar and systemic activation of the coagulation cascade that plays an important role in development of lung injury. C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to Cl2 (400 for 30 min or 600 ppm for 45 min) in environmental chambers and then returned to room air for 1 or 6 h. Native coagulation (NATEM) parameters such as blood clotting time and clot formation time were measured in whole blood by the viscoelastic technique. D-dimers and thrombin-anti-thrombin complexes were measured in both plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) by ELISA. Our results indicate that mice exposed to Cl2 gas had significantly increased clotting time, clot formation time, and D-dimers compared with controls. The thrombin-anti-thrombin complexes were also increased in the BALF of Cl2 exposed animals. To test whether increased coagulation contributed to the development of acute lung injury, mice exposed to Cl2 and returned to room air were treated with aerosolized heparin or vehicle for 20 min. Aerosolized heparin significantly reduced protein levels and the number of inflammatory cells in the BALF at 6 h postexposure. These findings highlight the importance of coagulation abnormities in the development of Cl2-induced lung injury. PMID:25038191

  3. Assessment of locomotion in chlorine exposed mice by computer vision and neural networks.

    PubMed

    Filippidis, Aristotelis S; Zarogiannis, Sotirios G; Randich, Alan; Ness, Timothy J; Matalon, Sadis

    2012-03-01

    Assessment of locomotion following exposure of animals to noxious or painful stimuli can offer significant insights into underlying mechanisms of injury and the effectiveness of various treatments. We developed a novel method to track the movement of mice in two dimensions using computer vision and neural network algorithms. By using this system we demonstrated that mice exposed to chlorine (Cl(2)) gas developed impaired locomotion and increased immobility for up to 9 h postexposure. Postexposure administration of buprenorphine, a common analgesic agent, increased locomotion and decreased immobility times in Cl(2)- but not air-exposed mice, most likely by decreasing Cl(2)-induced pain. This method can be adapted to assess the effectiveness of various therapies following exposure to a variety of chemical and behavioral noxious stimuli.

  4. Impaired resistance to Listeria monocytogenes in mice chronically exposed to cadmium.

    PubMed Central

    Simonet, M; Berche, P; Fauchere, J L; Veron, M

    1984-01-01

    It is shown in this work that resistance to Listeria monocytogenes is greatly impaired in C57BL/6 mice chronically exposed to cadmium (Cd) chloride. Animals received 0.5 mg/kg Cd by an intraperitoneal route three times a week during a 4-week period and were then infected with L. monocytogenes. Susceptibility to this pathogenic bacteria was not due to a defect of the specific immune response, since mice developed normal levels of anti-Listeria T cell-mediated immunity and did not show any impairment of macrophage activation. In fact, bacterial growth in organs was rapid in Cd-exposed mice during the early phase of infection, suggesting an impairment of non-specific defence mechanisms. Experimental data indicate that the susceptibility to L. monocytogenes might be due to a defect of macrophage recruitment in sites of infection during the early phase of the host response. PMID:6332063

  5. Assessment of locomotion in chlorine exposed mice by computer vision and neural networks

    PubMed Central

    Filippidis, Aristotelis S.; Zarogiannis, Sotirios G.; Randich, Alan; Ness, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    Assessment of locomotion following exposure of animals to noxious or painful stimuli can offer significant insights into underlying mechanisms of injury and the effectiveness of various treatments. We developed a novel method to track the movement of mice in two dimensions using computer vision and neural network algorithms. By using this system we demonstrated that mice exposed to chlorine (Cl2) gas developed impaired locomotion and increased immobility for up to 9 h postexposure. Postexposure administration of buprenorphine, a common analgesic agent, increased locomotion and decreased immobility times in Cl2- but not air-exposed mice, most likely by decreasing Cl2-induced pain. This method can be adapted to assess the effectiveness of various therapies following exposure to a variety of chemical and behavioral noxious stimuli. PMID:22207722

  6. Gene expression in the lung of p53 mutant mice exposed to cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Izzotti, Alberto; Cartiglia, Cristina; Longobardi, Mariagrazia; Bagnasco, Maria; Merello, Andrea; You, Ming; Lubet, Ronald A; De Flora, Silvio

    2004-12-01

    We showed previously that p53 mutations play a role in cigarette smoke-related carcinogenesis not only in humans but also in A/J mice. In fact, (UL53-3 x A/J)F(1) mice, carrying a dominant-negative germ-line p53 mutation, responded to exposure to environmental cigarette smoke more efficiently than their wild-type (wt) littermate controls in terms of molecular alterations, cytogenetic damage, and lung tumor yield. To clarify the mechanisms involved, we analyzed by cDNA array the expression of 1,185 cancer-related genes in the lung of the same mice. Neither environmental cigarette smoke nor the p53 status affected the expression of the p53 gene, but the p53 mutation strikingly increased the basal levels of p53 nuclear protein in the lung. Environmental cigarette smoke increased p53 protein levels in wt mice only. The p53 mutation enhanced the expression of positive cell cycle regulators in sham-exposed mice, which suggests a physiologic protective role of p53. In environmental cigarette smoke-exposed mice, the p53 mutation resulted in a lack of induction of proapoptotic genes and in overexpression of genes involved in cell proliferation, signal transduction, angiogenesis, inflammation, and immune response. Mutant mice and wt mice reacted to environmental cigarette smoke in a similar manner regarding genes involved in metabolism of xenobiotics, multidrug resistance, and protein repair. Irrespective of the p53 status, environmental cigarette smoke poorly affected the expression of oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, and DNA repair genes. Taken together, these findings may explain the increased susceptibility of p53 mutant mice to smoke-related alterations of intermediate biomarkers and lung carcinogenesis.

  7. Mice exposed to dim light at night exaggerate inflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Fonken, Laura K; Weil, Zachary M; Nelson, Randy J

    2013-11-01

    The mammalian circadian system regulates many physiological functions including inflammatory responses. Appropriately timed light information is essential for maintaining circadian organization. Over the past ∼120 years, urbanization and the widespread adoption of electric lights have dramatically altered lighting environments. Exposure to light at night (LAN) is pervasive in modern society and disrupts core circadian clock mechanisms. Because microglia are the resident macrophages in the brain and macrophages contain intrinsic circadian clocks, we hypothesized that chronic exposure to LAN would alter microglia cytokine expression and sickness behavior following LPS administration. Exposure to 4 weeks of dim LAN elevated inflammatory responses in mice. Mice exposed to dimly lit, as compared to dark, nights exaggerated changes in body temperature and elevated microglia pro-inflammatory cytokine expression following LPS administration. Furthermore, dLAN mice had a prolonged sickness response following the LPS challenge. Mice exposed to dark or dimly lit nights had comparable sickness behavior directly following the LPS injection; however, dLAN mice showed greater reductions in locomotor activity, increased anorectic behavior, and increased weight loss than mice maintained in dark nights 24h post-LPS injection. Overall, these data suggest that chronic exposure to even very low levels of light pollution may alter inflammatory responses. These results may have important implications for humans and other urban dwelling species that commonly experience nighttime light exposure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Lung inflammation and thrombogenic responses in a time course study of Csb mice exposed to ozone.

    PubMed

    Kooter, Ingeborg M; Frederix, Kim; Spronk, Henri M H; Boere, A John F; Leseman, Daan L A C; van Steeg, Harry; ten Cate, Hugo; Cassee, Flemming R

    2008-08-01

    Ozone is a well-known oxidant air pollutant, inhalation of which can result in oxidative stress, and lead to pulmonary inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the time-course events after a single ozone exposure in transcription-coupled repair defective Csb and wild type mice. Mice were exposed for 3 h to 2 ppm ozone and biological parameters related to oxidative stress and inflammation were examined in the lungs at 0, 4, 9, 24 and 48 h after exposure. In addition the procoagulant and thrombomodulin activities were explored by a combination of assays for tissue factor and thrombin generation. This study revealed a significant biological response to ozone, for both Csb and wild type mice. The onset of inflammation in Csb mice, as indicated by an increase in interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and total cell influx, occurred earlier compared with those seen in wild type mice. On the other hand, Csb mice showed a delayed antioxidant reaction compared with wild type mice. Both genotypes developed a procoagulant reaction characterized by a stably increased tissue factor activity and a progressive increase in thrombin generation after 2 days. These experiments have shown that ozone, a well-known toxic substance from the environment, induces not only inflammation, but also procoagulant reactions in the lungs of mice. These results have implications for understanding the systemic effects induced by oxidant air pollutants. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Potent carcinogenicity of cigarette smoke in mice exposed early in life.

    PubMed

    Balansky, Roumen; Ganchev, Gancho; Iltcheva, Marietta; Steele, Vernon E; D'Agostini, Francesco; De Flora, Silvio

    2007-10-01

    In spite of the dominant role of cigarette smoke (CS) in cancer epidemiology, all studies performed during the past 60 years have shown that this complex mixture is either negative or weakly tumorigenic in experimental animals. We implemented studies aimed at evaluating whether exposure of mice early in life may enhance susceptibility to CS carcinogenicity. A total of 98 newborn Swiss albino mice were either untreated (controls) or received a subcutaneous injection of benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] (positive control) or were exposed whole-body to mainstream cigarette smoke (MCS) for 120 days, starting within 12 h after birth. Complete necropsy and histopathological analyses were performed at periodical intervals. In contrast with the lack of lung tumors in controls, MCS-exposed mice developed microscopically detectable tumors, starting only 75 days after birth and reaching an overall incidence of 78.3% after 181-230 days. The mean lung tumor multiplicities were 6.1 and 13.6 tumors per mouse in males and females, respectively, showing a significant intergender difference. Most tumors were microadenomas or adenomas, but 18.4% of the mice additionally had malignant lung cancer. MCS also induced bronchial and alveolar epithelial hyperplasia, and blood vessel proliferation. Furthermore, malignant tumors, some of which may have a metastatic origin, were detected in the urinary tract and liver of MCS-exposed mice. A somewhat different spectrum of tumors was observed in B(a)P-treated mice. In conclusion, MCS is a potent and broad spectrum carcinogen in mice when exposure starts early in life, covering stages of life corresponding to neonatal, childhood and adolescence periods in humans. This animal model will be useful to explore the mechanisms involved in CS-induced carcinogenesis and to investigate the protective effects of dietary agents and chemopreventive drugs.

  10. Hematological parameters' changes in mice subchronically exposed to static magnetic fields of different orientations.

    PubMed

    Djordjevich, Drago M; De Luka, Silvio R; Milovanovich, Ivan D; Janković, Saša; Stefanović, Srdjan; Vesković-Moračanin, Slavica; Cirković, Saša; Ilić, Andjelija Ž; Ristić-Djurović, Jasna L; Trbovich, Alexander M

    2012-07-01

    Static magnetic fields (SMFs) are time independent fields whose intensity can be spatially dependent. This study investigates influence of subchronic continuous exposure to upward and downward directed SMF on hematological parameters and spleen cellularity in mice. The experiment is performed on the Northern hemisphere; consequently, the vertical component of geomagnetic field is directed downward. Male, Swiss-Webster, 6 weeks old mice were exposed to the vertically declining SMF. Mice were divided in three groups and continuously exposed or not exposed for 28 days to the SMF characterized by the averaged field of 16 mT and averaged field gradient of 10 mT/cm. Differently oriented SMF did not alter hemoglobin and hematocrit content among the groups. However, the groups exposed to the upward and downward fields had statistically significant higher levels of serum transferrin compared to the control. Moreover, spleen cellularity in animals in the downward group was significantly higher compared to the upward and control group. In addition, spleen lymphocytes in both of the exposed groups were significantly higher than in the control group. In contrast, spleen granulocytes in the exposed groups were significantly lower than in the control group. Significant decrease was also observed in brain and liver iron content with concomitant increase of iron in serum and spleen in exposed animals. Subchronic continuous exposure to 16 mT SMF caused lymphocyte and granulocyte redistribution between spleen and blood. This distribution is typical for stress induced hematological changes. These results suggest that observed changes were not due to an unspecific stress response, but that they were rather caused by specific adaptation to subchronic SMF exposure.

  11. Factors that influence the suppression of pulmonary antibacterial defenses in mice exposed to ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmour, M.I.; Park, P.; Doerfler, D.; Selgrade, M.K. )

    1993-05-01

    Exposure to ozone (O3) has been shown to increase susceptibility of mice to bacterial infection; however, the underlying mechanism has not been well elucidated. This study investigated the effect of O3 exposure on the ability of mice to combat an infectious challenge of Streptococcus zooepidemicus. Following a 3-h exposure to either air, 0.4 ppm O3, or 0.8 ppm O3, 5- and 9-week-old mice received an aerosol infection of bacteria. Intrapulmonary killing of the bacteria was impaired in the O3-exposed mice. The effect was most severe at the higher dose of O3 in the younger mice, and showed good correlation to subsequent mortality assessed over a 20-day period. Alveolar macrophages (AM) from O3-exposed mice had an impaired ability to phagocytose the bacteria. Additionally, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels, which are known to depress AM function, were increased in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of the younger mice following exposure to O3, while pretreatment with indomethacin in the drinking water blunted the increased of PGE2 and reduced O3 enhanced mortality from 53 to 33%. The data show that O3 inhalation can reduce the defensive capability of the murine lung and that this is associated with a reduction in AM phagocytosis. The defect is more marked in young mice, suggesting that they may be more susceptible to oxidant exposure. Further studies are required to distinguish between direct toxicity of O3 on the AM and indirect suppression due to modulation of pharmacologic or inflammatory mediators.

  12. Disruption of cerebellar microzonal organization in GluD2 (GluRδ2) knockout mouse

    PubMed Central

    Hashizume, Miki; Miyazaki, Taisuke; Sakimura, Kenji; Watanabe, Masahiko; Kitamura, Kazuo; Kano, Masanobu

    2013-01-01

    Cerebellar cortex has an elaborate rostrocaudal organization comprised of numerous microzones. Purkinje cells (PCs) in the same microzone show synchronous activity of complex spikes (CSs) evoked by excitatory inputs from climbing fibers (CFs) that arise from neurons in the inferior olive (IO). The synchronous CS activity is considered to depend on electrical coupling among IO neurons and anatomical organization of the olivo-cerebellar projection. To determine how the CF–PC wiring contributes to the formation of microzone, we examined the synchronous CS activities between neighboring PCs in the glutamate receptor δ2 knockout (GluD2 KO) mouse in which exuberant surplus CFs make ectopic innervations onto distal dendrites of PCs. We performed in vivo two-photon calcium imaging for PC populations to detect CF inputs. Neighboring PCs in GluD2 KO mice showed higher synchrony of calcium transients than those in wild-type (control) mice. Moreover, the synchrony in GluD2 KO mice hardly declined with mediolateral separation between PCs up to ~200 μm, which was in marked contrast to the falloff of the synchrony in control mice. The enhanced synchrony was only partially affected by the blockade of gap junctional coupling. On the other hand, transverse CF collaterals in GluD2 KO mice extended beyond the border of microzone and formed locally clustered ectopic synapses onto dendrites of neighboring PCs. Furthermore, PCs in GluD2 KO mice exhibited clustered firing (Cf), the characteristic CF response that was not found in PCs of wild-type mice. Importantly, Cf was often associated with localized calcium transients in distal dendrites of PCs, which are likely to contribute to the enhanced synchrony of calcium signals in GluD2 KO mice. Thus, our results indicate that CF signals in GluD2 KO mice propagate across multiple microzones, and that proper formation of longitudinal olivo-cerebellar projection is essential for the spatiotemporal organization of CS activity in the

  13. Anti-apoptotic role of retinoic acid in the inner ear of noise-exposed mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Joong Ho; Kang, Hun Hee; Kim, Young-Jin; Chung, Jong Woo . E-mail: jwchung@amc.seoul.kr

    2005-09-23

    Exposure to loud noise can induce temporary or permanent hearing loss, and acoustic trauma is the major cause of hearing impairment in industrial nations. However, the mechanisms underlying the death of hair cells after acoustic trauma remain unclear. In addition to its involvement in cellular stress and apoptosis, the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family, is involved in cell survival, transformation, embryonic morphogenesis, and differentiation. JNK is primarily activated by various environmental stresses including noise, and the phenotypic result appears be to cell death. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is an active metabolite of vitamin A that regulates a wide range of biological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and morphogenesis. We evaluated the role of ATRA in preserving hearing in mice exposed to noise that can induce permanent hearing loss. Mice fed with ATRA before and during 3 consecutive days of noise exposure had a more preserved hearing threshold than mice fed sesame oil or saline. Histological and TUNEL staining of the cochlea showed significantly enhanced preservation of the organ of Corti, including outer hair cells and relatively low apoptotic nuclei, in mice-fed ATRA than in mice-fed sesame oil or saline. Phospho-JNK immunohistochemistry showed that ATRA inhibited the activation of JNK. These results suggest that ATRA has an anti-apoptotic effect on cochleae exposed to noise.

  14. Effect of Tocopheryl Acetate on Maternal Cigarette Smoke Exposed Swiss Albino Mice Inbred Fetus

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Janardan; Shamal, SN; Supriya, K; Srivastava, Mona; More, RS

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cigarette smoking is worldwide problem which can be correlated with teratogenicity. Tocopheryl acetate plays as an antioxidant against the oxidative stress evolved by cigarette smoke exposure during pregnancy. Aim To study the effect of maternal exposure to cigarette smoke and Tocopheryl acetate on fetuses of mice. Materials and Methods Pregnant mice randomly assigned to different groups (Group I (control), Group II (Tocopheryl acetate), Group III(soyabean oil used as vehicle for Tocopheryl acetate), Group IV (Cigarette smoke Exposed), Group V (Cigarette smoke exposed plus Tocopheryl acetate) and Group VI(Cigarette smoke exposed plus soyabean oil) were exposed to cigarette smoke 3 times a day for 20 minutes each time and Tocopheryl acetate with dose of 200mg/kg/day in 0.3ml of soyabean oil as vehicle orally through oral gavage from the 5th day of gestation to 15th day. Results Cigarette smoke exposed mice showed significant fetal weight loss, resorption, placental anomalies, severe growth retardation, venous congestion, haemorrhage, limbs defects and enphalocele. Negligible abnormalities were seen among the control and Tocopheryl acetate group. Cigarette smoke exposed group with Tocopheryl acetate exhibited weight gain among the fetus as well as no gross abnormalities. The oxidative stress was significantly increased by increasing Malondialdehyde (MDA) 293±81.57 μmol/mg (p<0.0001) and decreasing Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) 1.43 ± 0.23mg/ml, (p<0.0001) Reduced Glutathione (GR) 0.017±0.002mg/ml, (p<0.01) and Catalase (CAT) 0.248±0.005mg/ml, (p<0.0001). Tocopheryl acetate induced group significantly maintained the oxidative stress with all p <0.0001. Conclusion It can be concluded that Tocopheryl acetate may have an ameliorating effect on the cigarette smoke during pregnancy on fetus. PMID:27891325

  15. Protective effect of vitamin C in female Swiss mice dermally-exposed to the tannery effluent.

    PubMed

    Rabelo, Letícia Martins; Estrela, Fernanda Neves; E Silva, Bianca Costa; Mendes, Bruna de Oliveira; Vaz, Boniek Gontijo; Rodrigues, Aline Sueli de Lima; Malafaia, Guilherme

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies involving the oral exposure of mice to tannery effluents have found neurotoxic effects. However, studies about the effects the dermal exposure to pollutant have on the cognitive function of females have not been found in the literature. Thus, the aim of the current study is to investigate whether the dermal exposure of female Swiss mice to tannery effluents (2 h/day for 20 days) can cause cognitive impairment, as it was already evidenced in male Swiss mice. Furthermore, based on the administration of vitamin C (before or after the exposure to the xenobiotic), the current study also aims to assess the protective effect of vitamin C in female Swiss mice dermally-exposed to the tannery effluent. Female Swiss mice exposed to the tannery effluent (without vitamin supplementation) have shown lower novel object recognition index during the test session of the novel object recognition task, and they have descended significantly faster from the inhibitory avoidance platform when they were compared to mice belonging to the other groups, therefore evidencing memory deficit. However, the test performance of females receiving vitamin C was similar to that of control animals. Thus, the current study confirms the initial hypothesis that the dermal exposure to the pollutant, even for a short period, causes cognitive deficit in female Swiss mice. The herein presented findings also provide evidence that the mechanisms of action of the tannery effluent in these animals are related to oxidative damages in specific brain regions directed to the formation of short memory to perform aversive and object recognition tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Specific Accumulation of Lipid Droplets in Hepatocyte Nuclei of PFOA-exposed BALB/c Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ling; Wang, Yu; Liang, Yong; Li, Jia; Liu, Yuchen; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Aiqian; Fu, Jianjie; Jiang, Guibin

    2013-07-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs), which are important storage structures for neutral lipids and organelles of diverse functions, participate in various cellular activities. In this study, BALB/c mice, fed a regular or a high-fat diet, were exposed to the synthetic perfluorinated compound, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). PFOA-exposed mice had altered serum lipid and lipoprotein levels, and hydropic degeneration or ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes. Moreover, we report for the first time that LDs accumulate in hepatic nuclei after PFOA exposure. As PFOA resembles fatty acids (FA) in its structure, this chemical may interfere with the transportation and metabolism of FA as well as LDs in the cell. This abnormal localization of LDs in the nucleus may be related to the cause of PFOA toxicity.

  17. TNF-α and temporal changes in sleep architecture in mice exposed to sleep fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Kaushal, Navita; Ramesh, Vijay; Gozal, David

    2012-01-01

    TNF-α plays critical roles in host-defense, sleep-wake regulation, and the pathogenesis of various disorders. Increases in the concentration of circulating TNF-α after either sleep deprivation or sleep fragmentation (SF) appear to underlie excessive daytime sleepiness in patients with sleep apnea (OSA). Following baseline recordings, mice were subjected to 15 days of SF (daily for 12 h/day from 07.00 h to 19.00 h), and sleep parameters were recorded on days1, 7 and 15. Sleep architecture and sleep propensity were assessed in both C57BL/6J and in TNF-α double receptor KO mice (TNFR KO). To further confirm the role of TNF-α, we also assessed the effect of treatment with a TNF- α neutralizing antibody in C57BL/6J mice. SF was not associated with major changes in global sleep architecture in C57BL/6J and TNFR KO mice. TNFR KO mice showed higher baseline SWS delta power. Further, following 15 days of SF, mice injected with TNF-α neutralizing antibody and TNFR KO mice showed increased EEG SWS activity. However, SWS latency, indicative of increased propensity to sleep, was only decreased in C57BL/6J, and was unaffected in TNFR KO mice as well as in C57BL/6J mice exposed to SF but treated with TNF-α neutralizing antibody. Taken together, our findings show that the excessive sleepiness incurred by recurrent arousals during sleep may be due to activation of TNF-alpha-dependent inflammatory pathways, despite the presence of preserved sleep duration and global sleep architecture.

  18. A POSSIBLE SOURCE OF SECONDARY INVADING STAPHYLOCOCCI IN SALMONELLA INFECTED MICE EXPOSED TO ACUTE COLD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    within a few days, yet the incidence of tissue invasion was unaltered. The coagulase negative strains normally present in feces and in tissues persisted...In a effort to determine the origin of the staphylococci known to invade the deep tissues (liver, spleen, kidneys, lungs and heart) of mice exposed...when fecal suspensions were inoculated into selective media. Substitution of 0. 01 N hydrochloric acid for drinking water eliminated staphylococci

  19. Susceptibility to pulmonary hypertension in inbred strains of mice exposed to cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Nadziejko, Christine; Fang, Kaije; Bravo, Antonio; Gordon, Terry

    2007-05-01

    Cor pulmonale is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with emphysema, but it is not known whether alveolar destruction is directly involved in the disease pathogenesis. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between susceptibility to smoking-induced cor pulmonale and alveolar destruction in eight inbred strains of mice: 129XI/SvJ, A/J, A/HeJ, BALB/cJ, C3H/HeJ, C57BL/6J, DBA/2J, and SWR/J. The mice were exposed to filtered air or mainstream cigarette smoke at a concentration of 250 mg/m(3) for 5.5 h/day, 5 days/wk for 5 mo, housed for 4 more months, and killed. The ratio of the weight of the right ventricle/left ventricle plus septum [RV/(LV + S)] was used to assess right ventricular hypertrophy. Alveolar mean linear intercept was used to quantify severity of alveolar destruction. Morphometric determination of blood vessel muscularization was done on sections from four mouse strains. Smoke exposure resulted in significant increases in RV/(LV + S) in the A/J and A/HeJ strains compared with air-exposed controls. The magnitude of the smoking-induced increase in RV/(LV + S) decreased as a function of the genetic distance of the other strains from the A/J and A/HeJ strains. Pulmonary vascular muscularization was significantly increased in smoke-exposed A/J and BALB/cJ mice but not in C3H/HeJ and C57BL/6 mice. Also, mouse strain susceptibility to smoking-induced pulmonary vascular muscularization did not correlate with changes in mean linear intercept. The data from this study suggest that alveolar destruction by itself is not sufficient to cause smoking-induced cor pulmonale in inbred mice.

  20. Mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to alveolar developmental arrest in hyperoxia-exposed mice.

    PubMed

    Ratner, Veniamin; Starkov, Anatoly; Matsiukevich, Dzmitry; Polin, Richard A; Ten, Vadim S

    2009-05-01

    This study investigated whether mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to alveolar developmental arrest in a mouse model of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). To induce BPD, 3-day-old mice were exposed to 75% O2. Mice were studied at two time points of hyperoxia (72 h or 2 wk) and after 3 weeks of recovery in room air (RA). A separate cohort of mice was exposed to pyridaben, a complex-I (C-I) inhibitor, for 72 hours or 2 weeks. Alveolarization was quantified by radial alveolar count and mean linear intercept methods. Pulmonary mitochondrial function was defined by respiration rates, ATP-production rate, and C-I activity. At 72 hours, hyperoxic mice demonstrated significant inhibition of C-I activity, reduced respiration and ATP production rates, and significantly decreased radial alveolar count compared with controls. Exposure to pyridaben for 72 hours, as expected, caused significant inhibition of C-I and ADP-phosphorylating respiration. Similar to hyperoxic littermates, these pyridaben-exposed mice exhibited significantly delayed alveolarization compared with controls. At 2 weeks of exposure to hyperoxia or pyridaben, mitochondrial respiration was inhibited and associated with alveolar developmental arrest. However, after 3 weeks of recovery from hyperoxia or 2 weeks after 72 hours of exposure to pyridaben alveolarization significantly improved. In addition, there was marked normalization of C-I and mitochondrial respiration. The degree of hyperoxia-induced pulmonary simplification and recovery strongly (r(2) = 0.76) correlated with C-I activity in lung mitochondria. Thus, the arrest of alveolar development induced by either hyperoxia or direct inhibition of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation indicates that bioenergetic failure to maintain normal alveolar development is one of the fundamental mechanisms responsible for BPD.

  1. Lack of fear response in mice (Mus musculus) exposed to human urine odor.

    PubMed

    Rivard, Germain F; Moser, Emily G; D'Ambrose, Steven P; Lin, David M

    2014-03-01

    A goal of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals is to improve animal welfare by minimizing sources of fear, anxiety, and stress. As a result, it includes recommendations on overcrowding, frequency of cage changes, enrichment, and group housing. However, human odorants are a potential but unexplored source of fear, anxiety, and stress. Although mice have been maintained for decades for animal research, whether mice perceive humans as predators is unknown. If so, this would necessitate changes in animal care and use procedures to minimize this source of chronic fear, anxiety, and stress. Odorants from predator urine are well known to elicit strong fear responses in mice, leading to modification of animal behavior and elevated levels of stress. To begin asking whether human odors influence mouse behavior, we tested the effect of human urine odor on fear response in mice. We assessed mouse behavior by using a modified shuttle cage to record various parameters of mouse exposure to odorants. We found that mice displayed fear responses to 2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline, a synthetic analog of red fox feces, but no fear response to DMSO, the diluent for 2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline. In contrast, mice exposed to human urine samples showed no significant fear response.

  2. Lack of Fear Response in Mice (Mus musculus) Exposed to Human Urine Odor

    PubMed Central

    Rivard, Germain F; Moser, Emily G; D'Ambrose, Steven P; Lin, David M

    2014-01-01

    A goal of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals is to improve animal welfare by minimizing sources of fear, anxiety, and stress. As a result, it includes recommendations on overcrowding, frequency of cage changes, enrichment, and group housing. However, human odorants are a potential but unexplored source of fear, anxiety, and stress. Although mice have been maintained for decades for animal research, whether mice perceive humans as predators is unknown. If so, this would necessitate changes in animal care and use procedures to minimize this source of chronic fear, anxiety, and stress. Odorants from predator urine are well known to elicit strong fear responses in mice, leading to modification of animal behavior and elevated levels of stress. To begin asking whether human odors influence mouse behavior, we tested the effect of human urine odor on fear response in mice. We assessed mouse behavior by using a modified shuttle cage to record various parameters of mouse exposure to odorants. We found that mice displayed fear responses to 2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline, a synthetic analog of red fox feces, but no fear response to DMSO, the diluent for 2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline. In contrast, mice exposed to human urine samples showed no significant fear response. PMID:24602539

  3. Behavioral studies with mice exposed to DC and 60-Hz magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, H.P.; Mizumori, S.J.Y.; Allen, H.; Rosenzweig, M.R.; Bennett, E.L.; Tenforde, T.S.

    1984-01-01

    Behavioral measures were evaluated in adult CD-1 and LAF-1 mice continuously exposed for 72 h to a 1.5-Tesla (1 T = 10/sup 4/ Gauss) homogeneous DC magnetic field, and in LAF-1 mice continuously exposed for 72 h to a sinusoidal 60-Hz, 1.65-mT (rms) homogeneous AC field. Three types of behavioral tests were employed: (1) memory of an electroshock-motivated passive avoidance task was assessed in animals that had been trained immediately prior to the field exposure. The strength of memory was varied either by altering the strength of the electric footshock during training, or by administering a cerebral protein synthesis inhibitor, anisomycin, at the time of training. (2) General locomotor activity was measured using a quadrant-crossing test immediately after termination of the magnetic field exposure. (3) Sensitivity of the experimental subjects to the seizure-inducing neuropharmacological agent, pentylenetetrazole, was assessed immediately after the field exposure on the basis of three criteria: (a) the percentage of subjects exhibiting a generalized seizure, (b) the mean time to seizure, and (c) the mean seizure level. The results of these studies revealed no behavior alterations in exposed mice relative to controls in any of the experimental tests with the 1.5-T DC field or the 60-Hz, 1.65-mT (rms) AC field. 57 references, 6 figures, 1 table.

  4. Circulating microRNA signatures in mice exposed to lipoteichoic acid

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previously, we had identified a specific whole blood–derived microRNAs (miRNAs) signature in mice following in vivo injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) originated from Gram-negative bacteria. This study was designed to profile the circulating miRNAs expression in mice exposed to lipoteichoic acid (LTA) which is a major component of the wall of Gram-positive bacteria. Results C57BL/6 mice received intraperitoneal injections of 100 μg of LTA originated from Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus aureus were killed 6 h and the whole blood samples were obtained for miRNA expression analysis using a miRNA array (Phalanx miRNA OneArray® 1.0). Up-regulated expression of miRNA targets in the whole blood, serum and white blood cells (WBCs) of C57BL/6 and Tlr2−/− mice upon LTA treatment in 10, 100, or 1000 ug concentrations was quantified at indicated time (2, 6, 24, and 72 h) using real-time RT-PCR and compared with that in the serum of C57BL/6 mice injected with 100 ug of LPS. A significant increase of 4 miRNAs (miR-451, miR-668, miR-1902, and miR-1904) was observed in the whole blood and the serum in a dose- and time-dependent fashion following LTA injection. Induction of miRNA occurred in the serum after 2 h and persisted for at least 6 h. No increased expression of these 4 miRNAs was found in the WBCs. Higher but not significant expression level of these 4 miRNAs were observed following LTA treatment in the serum of Tlr2−/−against that of C57BL6 mice. In contrast, LPS exposure induced moderate expression of miR-451 but not of the other 3 miRNA targets. Conclusions We identified a specific circulating miRNA signature in mice exposed to LTA. That expression profile is different from those of mice exposed to LPS. Those circulating miRNAs induced by LTA or LPS treatment may serve as promising biomarkers for the differentiation between exposures to Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:23286671

  5. Aortic smooth muscle cell alterations in mice systemically exposed to arsenic.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Shin-Yin; Lin, Wen-Ting; Yang, Rei-Cheng; Yu, Hsin-Su

    2016-05-01

    Previous epidemiological studies showed that chronic arsenic exposure is related to increased cardiovascular disease incidence. The detailed biochemical mechanisms by which arsenic exerts its effects remain unknown. Vascular disease progression is characterized by smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotypic switching, vessel wall reorganization, and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) production. The objective of this study was to examine early biochemical and structural changes in the aortas of ICR mice systemically exposed to arsenic. Animals were fed sodium arsenite (20 mg/kg) via gavage 5 days/week or Milli-Q water only (control) for 8 weeks. Aortic proteins were subjected to two-dimensional (2-D) differential gel electrophoresis and proteomic studies. Two 2-D gel protein spots were identified as the same protein, smooth muscle (SM)22α, using proteomics. SM22α and Rho kinase 2 gene and protein expression were significantly decreased in the aortic tissue of arsenic-exposed mice compared with that of control mice. No atherosclerotic lesion formation or tissue injury was detected in the aortic wall of either the arsenic-fed or the control group. However, the percent (%) SMC area of the aortic wall was significantly decreased in arsenic-fed mice compared with that in control mice. Additionally, the expression levels of PDGF-BB and early growth response-1 (Egr-1) were significantly higher in the arsenic group than that in the control group. These findings reveal biochemical alterations of SM22α, PDGF, and Egr-1 in conjunction with decreased SMC area in the aortic wall of arsenic-fed mice. Arsenic may initiate aortic SMC alterations that subsequently lead to vascular dysfunction.

  6. Teratogenic, biochemical, and histological studies with mice prenatally exposed to 2. 45-GHz microwave radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Nawrot, P.S.; McRee, D.I.; Galvin, M.J.

    1985-04-01

    Pregnant CD-1 mice were exposed to 2.45-GHz continuous wave microwave radiation at an incident power density of 30 mW/Cm/sup 2/. The local specific absorption rate near the uterine area (deep colonic location), as determined from time-temperature profiles measured with a Vitek thermistor probe, was 40.2 mW/G. Groups of mice were exposed 8 hr per day through Days 1-6 or 6-15 of pregnancy. Other groups of animals were exposed to an elevated ambient temperature of 31/sup 0/C which increased the colonic temperature 2.3/sup 0/C, the same as that produced by the microwaves. For the two conditions, temperature exposed and sham exposed, two groups of animals were used. One group was handled in the same manner as the microwave-irradiated group and the other group was not handled so as to evaluate the effects of stressing the animals by handling. On Day 18 of gestation the dams of all experimental groups were sacrificed and their reproductive status was determined. The fetuses were examined for visceral and skeletal alterations. Brain cholinesterase activity and histology were evaluated in the groups exposed on Days 6-15. The results show that microwave radiation increases embryo lethality at the early stages of gestation. Fetal toxicity and teratogenicity were not significantly increased by exposure to microwaves on either Days 1-6 or 6-15 of gestation. Cholinesterase activity and histology of the brain of 18-day-old fetuses were not adversely affected.

  7. Increased vulnerability to self-administer cocaine in mice prenatally exposed to cocaine.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Beatriz A; Mead, Andy N; Kosofsky, Barry E

    2002-09-01

    At least 40,000 infants born each year in the U.S. are estimated to have been exposed to crack cocaine and, therefore, may be at risk for increased vulnerability to cocaine addiction. The present study tested the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to cocaine significantly increased subsequent cocaine-taking behavior in mice. Swiss Webster male mice that had been exposed to cocaine in utero were tested at 5 months of age in the cocaine self-administration paradigm. They were the offspring of dams that received one of the following treatments during gestation days 8-17: cocaine (40 mg/kg or 20 mg/kg per day; COC40 and COC20 mice, respectively), saline with access to food ad libitum (SAL mice), or saline with access to food restricted to that of the COC40 dams (i.e., pair-fed; SPF40 mice). Mice were initially trained to lever press for a condensed-milk solution, were implanted with an indwelling intravenous (i.v.) catheter and, subsequently, allowed to self-administer cocaine (0.25, 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 mg/kg per injection) under a fixed ratio (FR) 1 schedule of reinforcement. Latency for acquisition of food-reinforced responding appeared to be independent of prenatal treatment, as was acquisition of cocaine self-administration, which was found to be dose dependent. Both COC40 and SAL mice reached cocaine self-administration criteria at 1.0 mg/kg or 2.0 mg/kg per injection doses, while neither group did so at lower doses. It was also observed that, at each of the doses tested, a higher number of COC40 mice reached criteria for acquisition. A logistic regression analysis confirmed that the likelihood for acquiring cocaine self-administration was positively correlated to prenatal exposure to cocaine and the dose of cocaine tested. These data provide evidence, for the first time, that prenatal exposure to higher doses of cocaine increase the probability of acquiring cocaine self-administration at moderate doses during adulthood and modulate vulnerability to cocaine

  8. Neurobehavioral phenotype of C57BL/6J mice prenatally and neonatally exposed to cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Amos-Kroohs, Robyn M; Williams, Michael T; Braun, Amanda A; Graham, Devon L; Webb, Cynthia L; Birtles, Todd S; Greene, Robert M; Vorhees, Charles V; Pisano, M Michele

    2013-01-01

    Although maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy is a well-documented risk factor for a variety of adverse pregnancy outcomes, how prenatal cigarette smoke exposure affects postnatal neurobehavioral/cognitive development remains poorly defined. In order to investigate the cause of an altered behavioral phenotype, mice developmentally exposed to a paradigm of 'active' maternal cigarette smoke is needed. Accordingly, cigarette smoke exposed (CSE) and air-exposed C57BL/6J mice were treated for 6h per day in paired inhalation chambers throughout gestation and lactation and were tested for neurobehavioral effects while controlling for litter effects. CSE mice exhibited less than normal anxiety in the elevated zero maze, transient hypoactivity during a 1h locomotor activity test, had longer latencies on the last day of cued Morris water maze testing, impaired hidden platform learning in the Morris water maze during acquisition, reversal, and shift trials, and impaired retention for platform location on probe trials after reversal but not after acquisition or shift. CSE mice also showed a sexually dimorphic response in central zone locomotion to a methamphetamine challenge (males under-responded and females over-responded), and showed reduced anxiety in the light-dark test by spending more time on the light side. No differences on tests of marble burying, acoustic startle response with prepulse inhibition, Cincinnati water maze, matching-to-sample Morris water maze, conditioned fear, forced swim, or MK-801-induced locomotor activation were found. Collectively, the data indicate that developmental cigarette smoke exposure induces subnormal anxiety in a novel environment, impairs spatial learning and reference memory while sparing other behaviors (route-based learning, fear conditioning, and forced swim immobility). The findings add support to mounting evidence that developmental cigarette smoke exposure has long-term adverse effects on brain function. Copyright © 2013

  9. Neurobehavioral phenotype of C57BL/6J mice prenatally and neonatally exposed to cigarette smoke

    PubMed Central

    Amos-Kroohs, Robyn M.; Williams, Michael T.; Braun, Amanda A.; Graham, Devon L; Webb, Cynthia L.; Birtles, Todd S.; Greene, Robert M.; Vorhees, Charles V.; Pisano, M. Michele

    2013-01-01

    Although maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy is a well-documented risk factor for a variety of adverse pregnancy outcomes, how prenatal cigarette smoke exposure affects postnatal neurobehavioral/cognitive development remains poorly defined. In order to investigate the cause of an altered behavioral phenotype, mice developmentally exposed to a paradigm of ‘active’ maternal cigarette smoke is needed. Accordingly, cigarette smoke exposed (CSE) and air-exposed C57BL/6J mice were treated for 6 h per day in paired inhalation chambers throughout gestation and lactation and were tested for neurobehavioral effects while controlling for litter effects. CSE mice exhibited less than normal anxiety in the elevated zero maze, transient hypoactivity during a 1 h locomotor activity test, had longer latencies on the last day of cued Morris water maze testing, impaired hidden platform learning in the Morris water maze during acquisition, reversal, and shift trials, and impaired retention for platform location on probe trials after reversal but not after acquisition or shift. CSE mice also showed a sexually dimorphic response in central zone locomotion to a methamphetamine challenge (males under-responded and females over-responded), and showed reduced anxiety in the light-dark test by spending more time on the light side. No differences on tests of marble burying, acoustic startle response with prepulse inhibition, Cincinnati water maze, matching-to-sample Morris water maze, conditioned fear, forced swim, or MK-801-induced locomotor activation were found. Collectively, the data indicate that developmental cigarette smoke exposure induces subnormal anxiety in a novel environment, impairs spatial learning and reference memory while sparing other behaviors (route-based learning, fear conditioning, and forced swim immobility). The findings add support to mounting evidence that developmental cigarette smoke exposure has long-term adverse effects on brain function. PMID

  10. Inbred mice strain shows neurobehavioral changes when exposed to tannery effluent.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Joyce Moreira; da Silva, Wellington Alves Mizael; de Oliveira Mendes, Bruna; Guimarães, Abraão Tiago Batista; de Lima Rodrigues, Aline Sueli; Montalvão, Mateus Flores; da Costa Estrela, Dieferson; da Silva, Anderson Rodrigo; Malafaia, Guilherme

    2017-01-01

    The bovine leather processing (tanning industries) stands as a generating activity of potentially toxic waste. The emission of untreated effluents into the environment may cause serious harm to human and environmental health. Nevertheless, few studies have investigated the possible effects of intake of these effluents in experimental mammalian models. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the neurobehavioral effects of chronic intake of different tannery effluent concentrations diluted with water (0.1, 1, and 5%) in male C57BL/6J mice. After 120 days of exposure, the animals were subjected to different behavioral tests, predictive of anxiety (elevated plus maze (EPM), open-field (OF), and neophobia test), depression (forced swim), and memory deficits (object recognition test). From the EPM test, it was observed that the mice exposed to 0.1, 1, and 5% of tannery effluents showed higher anxiety scores compared to the animals in the control group. However, the results of this study revealed no differences among the experimental groups in the proportion (percentage) of locomotion in the central quarters/total locomotion calculated (by OF), considered an indirect measure for anxiety. At neophobia test, all the animals exposed to chronic intake of tannery effluents showed higher latency time to start eating, which corresponds to an anxiogenic behavior. Regarding the forced swim test, it was observed that the animals exposed to tannery effluents had longer time in immobility behavior, suggesting a predictive behavior to depression. Finally, the object recognition test showed that the treatments did not cause damage to the animals' memory. The recognition rate of the new object did not differ among the experimental groups. Thus, it is concluded that male C57BL/6J mice (inbred strain) exposed to tannery effluents have predictive neurobehavioral changes of anxiety and depression, without memory deficit.

  11. [Apoptosis of pulmonary epithelial cells and endothelial cells in mice exposed to phosgene].

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-li; Hai, Chun-xu; Yang, Chen; Li, Bo; Liu, Rui; Zhang, Xiao-di

    2005-08-01

    To study apoptosis of pulmonary epithelial cells and endothelial cells in mice with pulmonary edema induced by phosgene exposure. Thirty-two mice were divided into normal group and phosgene group with 16 mice in each group. The mice in phosgene group were exposed to phosgene (11.9 mg/L) for 5 min and those in the control group to air. Four hours after exposure, alveolar type II cells were isolated and cultured to observe their apoptosis by electron microscope and flow cytometry. The lung tissues were also taken for DNA gel electrophoresis and TUNEL assay. Apoptotic bodies were observed in alveolar type II cells under electron microscope in phosgene group, which had higher cell apoptosis rate than the control group [(40.26+/-7.74)% vs (1.58+/-1.01)%, P<0.001] as determined by flow cytometry. Ladder-like DNA fragmentation pattern was observed in DNA gel electrophoresis in phosgene group with apoptosis of the pulmonary epithelial and endothelial cells observed by TUNEL. Phosgene can induce pulmonary epithelial and endothelial cell apoptosis in mice, suggesting that the mechanism of phosgene-induced pulmonary edema involves apoptosis of the lung cells.

  12. Radioprotective activity of betalains from red beets in mice exposed to gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaoling; Wang, Yuping; Zhang, Zesheng

    2009-08-01

    We investigated the radioprotective activity of betalains from red beets in mice irradiated by a (60)Co gamma (gamma) ray (6.0 Gy, at a dose of 1.5 Gy min(-1)). Mice were randomly divided into five groups, namely the control group and four experimental groups which were given one of four concentrations of betalains from red beets (0, 5, 20 and 80 mg/kg, equivalent to betanin) for 30 days. The four experimental groups of mice were then exposed to the (60)Co gamma-rays and were given betalains from red beets for a further 3 days. The number of white blood cells, karyota of the femur and the number of micronuclei in polychromatophilic erythrocytes of bone marrow in mice were determined. The activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, malondialdehyde, spleen index and thymus index were also determined. The results indicate that the administration of betalains from red beets is radioprotective in mice irradiated by (60)Co in vivo. The underlying mechanism remains unclear but appears to be mediated by the antioxidant activity of the betalains from red beets and modulation of the immune system.

  13. Neuroprotective effects of sildenafil against oxidative stress and memory dysfunction in mice exposed to noise stress.

    PubMed

    Sikandaner, Hu Erxidan; Park, So Young; Kim, Min Jung; Park, Shi Nae; Yang, Dong Won

    2017-02-15

    Noise exposure has been well characterized as an environmental stressor, and is known to have auditory and non-auditory effects. Phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors affect memory and hippocampus plasticity through various signaling cascades which are regulated by cGMP. In this study, we investigated the effects of sildenafil on memory deficiency, neuroprotection and oxidative stress in mice caused by chronic noise exposure. Mice were exposed to noise for 4h every day up to 14days at 110dB SPL of noise level. Sildenafil (15mg/kg) was orally administered 30min before noise exposure for 14days. Behavioral assessments were performed using novel object recognition (NOR) test and radial arm maze (RAM) test. Higher levels of memory dysfunction and oxidative stress were observed in noise alone-induced mice compared to control group. Interestingly, sildenafil administration increased memory performance, decreased oxidative stress, and increased neuroprotection in the hippocampus region of noise alone-induced mice likely through affecting memory related pathways such as cGMP/PKG/CREB and p25/CDK5, and induction of free radical scavengers such as SOD1, SOD2, SOD3, Prdx5, and catalase in the brain of stressed mice.

  14. Gait Analysis in a Mecp2 Knockout Mouse Model of Rett Syndrome Reveals Early-Onset and Progressive Motor Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Riddell, John S.; Bailey, Mark E. S.; Cobb, Stuart R.

    2014-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a genetic disorder characterized by a range of features including cognitive impairment, gait abnormalities and a reduction in purposeful hand skills. Mice harbouring knockout mutations in the Mecp2 gene display many RTT-like characteristics and are central to efforts to find novel therapies for the disorder. As hand stereotypies and gait abnormalities constitute major diagnostic criteria in RTT, it is clear that motor and gait-related phenotypes will be of importance in assessing preclinical therapeutic outcomes. We therefore aimed to assess gait properties over the prodromal phase in a functional knockout mouse model of RTT. In male Mecp2 knockout mice, we observed alterations in stride, coordination and balance parameters at 4 weeks of age, before the onset of other overt phenotypic changes as revealed by observational scoring. These data suggest that gait measures may be used as a robust and early marker of MeCP2-dysfunction in future preclinical therapeutic studies. PMID:25392929

  15. Fetal loss in mice exposed to magnetic fields during early pregnancy

    SciTech Connect

    Svedenstaal, B.M.; Johanson, K.J.

    1995-12-01

    The effects of low-frequency magnetic fields (MFs) on early pregnancy were studied in CBA/S mice. The magnetic field was a 20 kHz, 15 {micro}T sawtooth. Pregnant females were divided into four groups, two control groups and two exposed groups. One group was exposed to MFs continuously from day 1 postconception (pc) until day 5.5 pc, and the other group was exposed continuously until day 7 pc. All animals were sacrificed on day 19 pc, the day before partus, and their uterine contents were analyzed. No significant increase in the resorption (early fetal death) rate was found in the exposed animals compared to the sham controls. In the group exposed during days 1.0--5.5 pc, the body weight and length of the living fetuses were significantly decreased. Except on day 3 pc (progesterone) and day 13 pc (calcium) in the treated groups, there were no significant differences in progesterone and calcium levels in peripheral blood. Implantation occurred on the same day in MF-treated and control animals.

  16. Exacerbation of allergic inflammation in mice exposed to diesel exhaust particles prior to viral infection

    PubMed Central

    Jaspers, Ilona; Sheridan, Patricia A; Zhang, Wenli; Brighton, Luisa E; Chason, Kelly D; Hua, Xiaoyang; Tilley, Stephen L

    2009-01-01

    Background Viral infections and exposure to oxidant air pollutants are two of the most important inducers of asthma exacerbation. Our previous studies have demonstrated that exposure to diesel exhaust increases the susceptibility to influenza virus infections both in epithelial cells in vitro and in mice in vivo. Therefore, we examined whether in the setting of allergic asthma, exposure to oxidant air pollutants enhances the susceptibility to respiratory virus infections, which in turn leads to increased virus-induced exacerbation of asthma. Ovalbumin-sensitized (OVA) male C57BL/6 mice were instilled with diesel exhaust particles (DEP) or saline and 24 hours later infected with influenza A/PR/8. Animals were sacrificed 24 hours post-infection and analyzed for markers of lung injury, allergic inflammation, and pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Results Exposure to DEP or infection with influenza alone had no significant effects on markers of injury or allergic inflammation. However, OVA-sensitized mice that were exposed to DEP and subsequently infected with influenza showed increased levels of eosinophils in lung lavage and tissue. In addition Th2-type cytokines, such as IL-4 and IL-13, and markers of eosinophil chemotaxis, such as CCL11 and CCR3, were increased in OVA-sensitized mice exposed to DEP prior to infection with influenza. These mice also showed increased levels of IL-1α, but not IL-10, RANTES, and MCP-1 in lung homogenates. Conclusion These data suggest that in the setting of allergic asthma, exposure to diesel exhaust could enhance virus-induced exacerbation of allergic inflammation. PMID:19682371

  17. Association of Diet With Skin Histological Features in UV-B-Exposed Mice.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Tapan K; Hsia, Yvonne; Weeks, David M; Dixon, Tatiana K; Lepe, Jessica; Thomas, J Regan

    2017-09-01

    Long-term exposure to solar radiation produces deleterious photoaging of the skin. It is not known if diet can influence skin photoaging. To study the influence of a calorie-restricted diet and an obesity diet in mice exposed to long-term UV-B irradiation to assess if there is an association between diet and histopathological response to UV-B irradiation. In this animal model study in an academic setting, the dorsal skin of SKH1 hairless mice receiving normal, calorie-restricted, and obesity diets was exposed to UV-B irradiation 3 times a week for 10 weeks and were compared with corresponding controls. The mice were placed in the following groups, with 8 animals in each group: (1) intact control (C) with regular diet and no UV-B exposure, (2) intact control with UV-B exposure (CR), (3) calorie-restricted diet (CrC), (4) calorie-restricted diet with UV-B exposure (CrR), (5) obesity diet (OC), and (6) obesity diet with UV-B exposure (OR). The experiment was conducted during October through December 2013. Tissue processing and histological analysis were completed in 2016. Histomorphometric analysis was performed on paraffin-embedded skin sections stained by histological and immunohistochemical methods for estimation of epidermal thickness, epidermal proliferating cell nuclear antigen index, collagen I, elastic fibers, fibroblasts, mast cells, dermal cellularity, and adipose layer ratio. Changes in wrinkles were noted. Hairless female mice (age range, 6-8 weeks) were obtained. With a normal diet, changes from UV-B irradiation occurred in epidermal thickness, epidermal proliferating cell nuclear antigen index, collagen I, elastic fibers, fibroblasts, and mast cells, which were modestly influenced by an obesity diet. Calorie restriction influenced the skin in nonirradiated control animals, with higher values for most variables. After UV-B exposure in animals with calorie restriction, epidermal thickness was increased, but other variables were unaffected. Animals

  18. Environmental enrichment attenuates behavioral abnormalities in valproic acid-exposed autism model mice.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Hara, Yuta; Ago, Yukio; Takano, Erika; Hasebe, Shigeru; Nakazawa, Takanobu; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Matsuda, Toshio; Takuma, Kazuhiro

    2017-08-30

    We recently demonstrated that prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA) at embryonic day 12.5 causes autism spectrum disorder (ASD)-like phenotypes such as hypolocomotion, anxiety-like behavior, social deficits and cognitive impairment in mice and that it decreases dendritic spine density in the hippocampal CA1 region. Previous studies show that some abnormal behaviors are improved by environmental enrichment in ASD rodent models, but it is not known whether environmental enrichment improves cognitive impairment. In the present study, we examined the effects of early environmental enrichment on behavioral abnormalities and neuromorphological changes in prenatal VPA-treated mice. We also examined the role of dendritic spine formation and synaptic protein expression in the hippocampus. Mice were housed for 4 weeks from 4 weeks of age under either a standard or enriched environment. Enriched housing was found to increase hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA levels in both control and VPA-exposed mice. Furthermore, in VPA-treated mice, the environmental enrichment improved anxiety-like behavior, social deficits and cognitive impairment, but not hypolocomotion. Prenatal VPA treatment caused loss of dendritic spines in the hippocampal CA1 region and decreases in mRNA levels of postsynaptic density protein-95 and SH3 and multiple ankyrin repeat domains 2 in the hippocampus. These hippocampal changes were improved by the enriched housing. These findings suggest that the environmental enrichment improved most ASD-like behaviors including cognitive impairment in the VPA-treated mice by enhancing dendritic spine function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Localization of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in the lungs of silica-exposed mice.

    PubMed Central

    Nario, R C; Hubbard, A K

    1997-01-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is expressed on a variety of cells including endothelial cells, alveolar epithelial cells, and alveolar macrophages. Endothelial/epithelial cell ICAM-1 participates in the migration of leukocytes out of the blood in response to pulmonary inflammation, whereas alveolar macrophage ICAM-1 may represent cell activation. Our previous studies have shown that there is increased expression of ICAM-1 in lung tissue during acute inflammation following intratracheal injection with silica particles (2 mg/mouse). This increased expression was shown to play a role, in part, in the migration of neutrophils from the circulation into the tissue parenchyma. The aim of the current work is to localize expression of ICAM-1 during acute inflammation in lungs of mice exposed to either silica or the nuisance dust, titanium dioxide. In silica-exposed mice, a significant increase in ICAM-1 was detected on day-1 and localized by immunohistochemistry to aggregates of pulmonary macrophages and to type II epithelial cells. Areas of the lung with increased ICAM-1 expression also showed increased tumor necrosis factor alpha expression. Immunocytochemical staining of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells demonstrated increased ICAM-1 expression associated with alveolar macrophages 3, 5, and 7 days following silica exposure. Finally, soluble ICAM-1 levels in the BAL fluid were significantly increased in mice exposed to silica on the same days. Titanium dioxide exposure elicited a minimal increase in expression of ICAM-1 in the lungs. These data demonstrate that exposure to the toxic particle silica specifically increases ICAM-1 expression localized to pulmonary macrophages and type II epithelial cells. Images Figure 2. B Figure 2. A Figure 2. D Figure 2. C Figure 3. A Figure 3. B Figure 5. B Figure 5. A Figure 5. C PMID:9400721

  20. The protective effect of amifostine on ultraviolet B-exposed xeroderma pigmentosum mice

    PubMed Central

    Henry, SL; Christiansen, D; Kazmier, FR; Besch-Williford, CL; Concannon, MJ

    2010-01-01

    Background: Amifostine is a pharmaceutical agent that is used clinically to counteract the side-effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. It acts as a free radical scavenger that protects against harmful DNA cross-linking. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of amifostine on the development of skin cancer in xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) mice exposed to ultraviolet B radiation (UVB). Methods: Twenty-five XP mice were equally divided into five groups. Group 1 (control) received no amifostine and no UVB exposure. Group 2 also received no amifostine, but was exposed to UVB at a dose of 200 mJ/cm2 every other day. The remaining groups were subjected to the same irradiation, but were given amifostine at a dose of 50 mg/kg (group 3), 100 mg/kg (group 4), or 200 mg/kg (group 5) immediately prior to each exposure. Results: No tumours were seen in the control group. The animals in group 2 (no amifostine) developed squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) at 3.5–4.5 months (mean 3.9 months). Groups 3 and 4 (low- and medium-dose amifostine) developed SCC at 4.0–7.0 months (mean 5.3 months), representing a statistically significant delay in tumour presentation (p = 0.04). An even greater delay was seen in group 5 (high-dose amifostine), which developed SCC at 7.0–9.0 months (mean 8.5 months, p < 0.001 versus groups 3 and 4). Ocular keratitis developed in all animals except the unexposed controls and the high-dose treatment group. Conclusion: Treatment with amifostine significantly delays the onset of skin cancer and prevents ocular keratitis in UVB-exposed XP mice. PMID:22276030

  1. Small Molecule Metabolite Biomarker Candidates in Urine from Mice Exposed to Formaldehyde

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Juan; Sun, Rongli; Chen, Yue; Tan, Kehong; Wei, Haiyan; Yin, Lihong; Pu, Yuepu

    2014-01-01

    Formaldehyde (FA) is a ubiquitous compound used in a wide variety of industries, and is also a major indoor pollutant emitted from building materials, furniture, etc. Because FA is rapidly metabolized and endogenous to many materials, specific biomarkers for exposure have not been identified. In this study, we identified small metabolite biomarkers in urine that might be related FA exposure. Mice were allowed to inhale FA (0, 4, 8 mg/m3) 6 h per day for 7 consecutive days, and urine samples were collected on the 7th day of exposure. Liquid chromatography coupled with time of flight-mass spectrometry and principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to determine alterations of endogenous metabolites in urine. Additionally, immune toxicity studies were conducted to ensure that any resultant toxic effects could be attributed to inhalation of FA. The results showed a significant decrease in the relative rates of T lymphocyte production in the spleen and thymus of mice exposed to FA. Additionally, decreased superoxide dismutase activity and increased reactive oxygen species levels were found in the isolated spleen cells of exposed mice. A total of 12 small molecules were found to be altered in the urine, and PCA analysis showed that urine from the control and FA exposed groups could be distinguished from each other based on the altered molecules. Hippuric acid and cinnamoylglycine were identified in urine using exact mass and fragment ions. Our results suggest that the pattern of metabolites found in urine is significantly changed following FA inhalation, and hippuric acid and cinnamoylglycine might represent potential biomarker candidates for FA exposure. PMID:25233128

  2. Small molecule metabolite biomarker candidates in urine from mice exposed to formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juan; Sun, Rongli; Chen, Yue; Tan, Kehong; Wei, Haiyan; Yin, Lihong; Pu, Yuepu

    2014-09-17

    Formaldehyde (FA) is a ubiquitous compound used in a wide variety of industries, and is also a major indoor pollutant emitted from building materials, furniture, etc. Because FA is rapidly metabolized and endogenous to many materials, specific biomarkers for exposure have not been identified. In this study, we identified small metabolite biomarkers in urine that might be related FA exposure. Mice were allowed to inhale FA (0, 4, 8 mg/m3) 6 h per day for 7 consecutive days, and urine samples were collected on the 7th day of exposure. Liquid chromatography coupled with time of flight-mass spectrometry and principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to determine alterations of endogenous metabolites in urine. Additionally, immune toxicity studies were conducted to ensure that any resultant toxic effects could be attributed to inhalation of FA. The results showed a significant decrease in the relative rates of T lymphocyte production in the spleen and thymus of mice exposed to FA. Additionally, decreased superoxide dismutase activity and increased reactive oxygen species levels were found in the isolated spleen cells of exposed mice. A total of 12 small molecules were found to be altered in the urine, and PCA analysis showed that urine from the control and FA exposed groups could be distinguished from each other based on the altered molecules. Hippuric acid and cinnamoylglycine were identified in urine using exact mass and fragment ions. Our results suggest that the pattern of metabolites found in urine is significantly changed following FA inhalation, and hippuric acid and cinnamoylglycine might represent potential biomarker candidates for FA exposure.

  3. Inhalation of progesterone inhibits chronic airway inflammation of mice exposed to ozone.

    PubMed

    Fei, Xia; Bao, Wuping; Zhang, Pengyu; Zhang, Xue; Zhang, Guoqing; Zhang, Yingying; Zhou, Xin; Zhang, Min

    2017-05-01

    Chronic ozone exposure leads to a model of mice with lung inflammation, emphysema and oxidative stress. Progesterone plays an important role in attenuating the neuroinflammation. We assume that progesterone will reduce the chronic airway inflammation exposed to ozone and evaluate whether combination of progesterone with glucocorticoids results in synergistic effects. C57/BL6 mice were exposed to ozone (2.5ppm, 3h) 12 times over 6 weeks, and were administered with progesterone (0.03 or 0.3mg/L; inhaled) alone or combined with budesonide (BUD) (0.2g/L) after each exposure until the tenth week. Mice were studied 24h after final exposure, cells and inflammatory mediators were assessed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lungs used for evaluation of glucocorticoids receptors (GR), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation and nuclear transcription factor κB (NF-κB) activation. Exposure to ozone resulted in a marked lung neutrophilia. Moreover, in ozone-exposed group, the levels of oxidative stress-related interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17A, activated NF-κB and p38MAPK, airway inflammatory cells infiltration density, mean linear intercept (Lm) were greatly increased, FEV25 and glucocorticoids receptors (GR) were markedly decreased. Comparable to BUD, progesterone treatment dose-dependently led to a significant reduction of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17A, activated NF-κB and p38MAPK, and an increase of FEV25 and GR. Progesterone combined with BUD resulted in dramatic changes, compared to monotherapy of BUD or progesterone. Therefore, these results demonstrate that chronic ozone exposure has profound airway inflammatory effects counteracted by progesterone and progesterone acts synergistically with glucocorticoids in attenuating the airway inflammation dose-dependently. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Adult Behavior in Male Mice Exposed to E-Cigarette Nicotine Vapors during Late Prenatal and Early Postnatal Life.

    PubMed

    Smith, Dani; Aherrera, Angela; Lopez, Armando; Neptune, Enid; Winickoff, Jonathan P; Klein, Jonathan D; Chen, Gang; Lazarus, Philip; Collaco, Joseph M; McGrath-Morrow, Sharon A

    2015-01-01

    Timed-pregnant C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 2.4% nicotine in propylene glycol (PG) or 0% nicotine /PG once a day from gestational day 15 until delivery. After delivery, offspring and mothers were exposed to E-cigarette vapors for an additional 14 days from postnatal day 2 through 16. Following their last exposure serum cotinine levels were measured in female juvenile mice. Male mice underwent behavioral testing at 14 weeks of age to assess sensorimotor, affective, and cognitive functional domains. Adult male mice exposed to 2.4% nicotine/PG E-cigarette vapors had significantly more head dips in the zero maze test and higher levels of rearing activity in the open field test compared to 0% nicotine/PG exposed mice and untreated controls. In the water maze test after reversal training, the 2.4% nicotine/PG mice spent more than 25% of time in the new location whereas the other groups did not. Adult male mice exhibited increased levels of activity in the zero maze and open field tests when exposed to E-cigarette vapor containing nicotine during late prenatal and early postnatal life. These findings indicate that nicotine exposure from E-cigarettes may cause persistent behavioral changes when exposure occurs during a period of rapid brain growth.

  5. Altered host resistance to Listeria monocytogenes in mice exposed to 1-chloroacetophenone (CN) vapours

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, P.; Kumar, P.; Zachariah, K.; Rai, G.P.; Vijayraghavan, R. )

    1992-06-01

    Short term repeated exposure of 1-chloroacetophenone (CN) vapours at a concentration of 0.153 mg per litre for 15 minutes daily on 10 consecutive days in Swiss albino male mice resulted in increased mortality to Listeria monocytogenes. Significantly elevated bacterial growth was observed in the spleen and liver of the CN exposed animals. The increased bacterial count in these organs was evident within 4-6 days post challenge as compared to vehicle exposed infected and unexposed infected animals. Increased susceptibility to infection has been considered to be the function of immune alteration due to cumulative short term effects of CN vapour inhalation. This may be attributed to immunotoxic effects of CN on T-cells mediated macrophage functions.

  6. Lymphoidal involution and delayed homograft rejection in hypoxia-exposed mice.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kmetz, J. M.; Anthony, A.

    1972-01-01

    Investigation of the relationship between histologic and cytochemical response patterns of the thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes of mice exposed to moderate hypoxia (380 mm Hg), and study, by histologic analysis, of the effect of hypoxia exposure on the skin homograft reaction used as an index of immunologic potential. The results obtained include the finding that functional changes in lymphatic organs occur during early weeks of hypoxia acclimation and that these changes probably reduce the ability of an animal to react to an immunological challenge.

  7. Statins do not alter the incidence of mesothelioma in asbestos exposed mice or humans.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Cleo; Alfonso, Helman; Woo, Samantha; Walsh, Amy; Olsen, Nola; Musk, Arthur W; Robinson, Bruce W S; Nowak, Anna K; Lake, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Mesothelioma is principally caused by asbestos and may be preventable because there is a long latent period between exposure and disease development. The most at-risk are a relatively well-defined population who were exposed as a consequence of their occupations. Although preventative agents investigated so far have not been promising, discovery of such an agent would have a significant benefit world-wide on healthcare costs and personal suffering. Statins are widely used for management of hypercholesterolemia and cardiovascular risk; they can induce apoptosis in mesothelioma cells and epidemiological data has linked their use to a lower incidence of cancer. We hypothesised that statins would inhibit the development of asbestos-induced mesothelioma in mice and humans. An autochthonous murine model of asbestos-induced mesothelioma was used to test this by providing atorvastatin daily in the feed at 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg. Continuous administration of atorvastatin did not alter the rate of disease development nor increase the length of time that mice survived. Latency to first symptoms of disease and disease progression were also unaffected. In a parallel study, the relationship between the use of statins and development of mesothelioma was investigated in asbestos-exposed humans. In a cohort of 1,738 asbestos exposed people living or working at a crocidolite mine site in Wittenoom, Western Australia, individuals who reported use of statins did not have a lower incidence of mesothelioma (HR = 1.01; 95% CI = 0.44-2.29, p = 0.99). Some individuals reported use of both statins and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or COX-2 inhibitors, and these people also did not have an altered risk of mesothelioma development (HR = 1.01; 95% CI = 0.61-1.67, p = 0.97). We conclude that statins do not moderate the rate of development of mesothelioma in either a mouse model or a human cohort exposed to asbestos.

  8. Arginase I and II in Lungs of Ovalbumin-Sensitized Mice Exposed to Ovalbumin: Sources and consequences

    PubMed Central

    Kenyon, Nicholas J.; Bratt, Jennifer M.; Linderholm, Angela L.; Last, Michael S.; Last, Jerold A.

    2008-01-01

    Arginase gene expression in the lung has been linked to asthma both in clinical studies of human patients and in the well-studied mouse model of ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation. Arginase is thought to regulate NO levels in the lung by its ability to divert arginine, the substrate for nitric oxide synthases that produce citrulline and NO, into an alternative metabolic pathway producing ornithine and urea. In the present study arginase I and arginase II concentrations were measured in isolated microdissected airway preparations from sensitized Balb/c mice exposed to ovalbumin aerosol. We found that arginase II was constitutively expressed in the airways of normal mice, whereas arginase I was undetectable in normal airways, while its expression was increased in airways of mice exposed to ovalbumin. The expression of arginase I strongly correlated with the presence of lung inflammation, as quantified by differential cell counts in lung lavage, suggesting that most, or all, of the arginase I in lungs of mice exposed to ovalbumin is present in the inflammatory cells rather than in the airway epithelium. There was also a significant correlation between increased expression of arginase I in the isolated airways and decreased lung compliance. On the other hand, while we found arginase II expression to also be significantly increased in airways from mice exposed to ovalbumin as compared with normal airways, the relative increase was much less than that observed for arginase I, suggesting that there was a smaller contribution of inflammatory cells to the arginase II content of the airways in mice exposed to ovalbumin. There was no apparent correlation between the content of arginase in isolated airways and exhaled NO concentration in the expired air from mice exposed to ovalbumin. However, there was a correlation between exhaled NO concentration from mice exposed to ovalbumin and the lymphocyte content of the lung lavage. The concentration of arginine found in isolated

  9. Arginases I and II in lungs of ovalbumin-sensitized mice exposed to ovalbumin: Sources and consequences

    SciTech Connect

    Kenyon, Nicholas J.; Bratt, Jennifer M.; Linderholm, Angela L.; Last, Michael S.; Last, Jerold A.

    2008-08-01

    Arginase gene expression in the lung has been linked to asthma both in clinical studies of human patients and in the well-studied mouse model of ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation. Arginase is thought to regulate NO levels in the lung by its ability to divert arginine, the substrate for nitric oxide synthases that produce citrulline and NO, into an alternative metabolic pathway producing ornithine and urea. In the present study arginase I and arginase II concentrations were measured in isolated microdissected airway preparations from sensitized Balb/c mice exposed to ovalbumin aerosol. We found that arginase II was constitutively expressed in the airways of normal mice, whereas arginase I was undetectable in normal airways, while its expression was increased in airways of mice exposed to ovalbumin. The expression of arginase I strongly correlated with the presence of lung inflammation, as quantified by differential cell counts in lung lavage, suggesting that most, or all, of the arginase I in lungs of mice exposed to ovalbumin is present in the inflammatory cells rather than in the airway epithelium. There was also a significant correlation between increased expression of arginase I in the isolated airways and decreased lung compliance. On the other hand, while we found arginase II expression to also be significantly increased in airways from mice exposed to ovalbumin as compared with normal airways, the relative increase was much less than that observed for arginase I, suggesting that there was a smaller contribution of inflammatory cells to the arginase II content of the airways in mice exposed to ovalbumin. There was no apparent correlation between the content of arginase in isolated airways and exhaled NO concentration in the expired air from mice exposed to ovalbumin. However, there was a correlation between exhaled NO concentration from mice exposed to ovalbumin and the lymphocyte content of the lung lavage. The concentration of arginine found in isolated

  10. Apocynin and ebselen reduce influenza A virus-induced lung inflammation in cigarette smoke-exposed mice

    PubMed Central

    Oostwoud, L. C.; Gunasinghe, P.; Seow, H. J.; Ye, J. M.; Selemidis, S.; Bozinovski, S.; Vlahos, R.

    2016-01-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) infections are a common cause of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). Oxidative stress is increased in COPD, IAV-induced lung inflammation and AECOPD. Therefore, we investigated whether targeting oxidative stress with the Nox2 oxidase inhibitors and ROS scavengers, apocynin and ebselen could ameliorate lung inflammation in a mouse model of AECOPD. Male BALB/c mice were exposed to cigarette smoke (CS) generated from 9 cigarettes per day for 4 days. On day 5, mice were infected with 1 × 104.5 PFUs of the IAV Mem71 (H3N1). BALF inflammation, viral titers, superoxide production and whole lung cytokine, chemokine and protease mRNA expression were assessed 3 and 7 days post infection. IAV infection resulted in a greater increase in BALF inflammation in mice that had been exposed to CS compared to non-smoking mice. This increase in BALF inflammation in CS-exposed mice caused by IAV infection was associated with elevated gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and proteases, compared to CS alone mice. Apocynin and ebselen significantly reduced the exacerbated BALF inflammation and pro-inflammatory cytokine, chemokine and protease expression caused by IAV infection in CS mice. Targeting oxidative stress using apocynin and ebselen reduces IAV-induced lung inflammation in CS-exposed mice and may be therapeutically exploited to alleviate AECOPD. PMID:26877172

  11. Modulation of neurological related allergic reaction in mice exposed to low-level toluene

    SciTech Connect

    Tin-Tin-Win-Shwe; Yamamoto, Shoji; Nakajima, Daisuke; Furuyama, Akiko; Fukushima, Atsushi; Ahmed, Sohel; Goto, Sumio; Fujimaki, Hidekazu . E-mail: fujimaki@nies.go.jp

    2007-07-01

    The contributing role of indoor air pollution to the development of allergic disease has become increasingly evident in public health problems. It has been reported that extensive communication exists between neurons and immune cells, and neurotrophins are molecules potentially responsible for regulating and controlling this neuroimmune crosstalk. The adverse effects of volatile organic compounds which are main indoor pollutants on induction or augmentation of neuroimmune interaction have not been fully characterized yet. To investigate the effects of low-level toluene inhalation on the airway inflammatory responses, male C3H mice were exposed to filtered air (control), 9 ppm, and 90 ppm toluene for 30 min by nose-only inhalation on Days 0, 1, 2, 7, 14, 21, and 28. Some groups of mice were injected with ovalbumin intraperitoneally before starting exposure schedule and these mice were then challenged with aerosolized ovalbumin as booster dose. For analysis of airway inflammation, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were collected to determine inflammatory cell influx and lung tissue and blood samples were collected to determine cytokine and neurotrophin mRNA and protein expressions and plasma antibody titers using real-time RT-PCR and ELISA methods respectively. Exposure of the ovalbumin-immunized mice to low-level toluene resulted in (1) increased inflammatory cells infiltration in BAL fluid; (2) increased IL-5 mRNA, decreased nerve growth factor receptor tropomyosin-related kinase A and brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNAs in lung; and (3) increased IgE and IgG{sub 1} antibodies and nerve growth factor content in the plasma. These findings suggest that low-level toluene exposure aggravates the airway inflammatory responses in ovalbumin-immunized mice by modulating neuroimmune crosstalk.

  12. Streptococcus pneumoniae Colonization Is Required To Alter the Nasal Microbiota in Cigarette Smoke-Exposed Mice.

    PubMed

    Shen, Pamela; Whelan, Fiona J; Schenck, L Patrick; McGrath, Joshua J C; Vanderstocken, Gilles; Bowdish, Dawn M E; Surette, Michael G; Stämpfli, Martin R

    2017-10-01

    Smokers have nasal microbiota dysbiosis, with an increased frequency of colonizing bacterial pathogens. It is possible that cigarette smoke increases pathogen acquisition by perturbing the microbiota and decreasing colonization resistance. However, it is difficult to disentangle microbiota dysbiosis due to cigarette smoke exposure from microbiota changes caused by increased pathogen acquisition in human smokers. Using an experimental mouse model, we investigated the impact of cigarette smoke on the nasal microbiota in the absence and presence of nasal pneumococcal colonization. We observed that cigarette smoke exposure alone did not alter the nasal microbiota composition. The microbiota composition was also unchanged at 12 h following low-dose nasal pneumococcal inoculation, suggesting that the ability of the microbiota to resist initial nasal pneumococcal acquisition was not impaired in smoke-exposed mice. However, nasal microbiota dysbiosis occurred as a consequence of established high-dose nasal pneumococcal colonization at day 3 in smoke-exposed mice. Similar to clinical reports on human smokers, an enrichment of potentially pathogenic bacterial genera such as Fusobacterium, Gemella, and Neisseria was observed. Our findings suggest that cigarette smoke exposure predisposes to pneumococcal colonization independent of changes to the nasal microbiota and that microbiota dysbiosis observed in smokers may occur as a consequence of established pathogen colonization. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  13. CCR2 knockout exacerbates cerulein-induced chronic pancreatitis with hyperglycemia via decreased GLP-1 receptor expression and insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yuji; Kanai, Takanori; Saeki, Keita; Takabe, Miho; Irie, Junichiro; Miyoshi, Jun; Mikami, Yohei; Teratani, Toshiaki; Suzuki, Takahiro; Miyata, Naoteru; Hisamatsu, Tadakazu; Nakamoto, Nobuhiro; Yamagishi, Yoshiyuki; Higuchi, Hajime; Ebinuma, Hirotoshi; Hozawa, Shigenari; Saito, Hidetsugu; Itoh, Hiroshi; Hibi, Toshifumi

    2013-04-15

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) promotes insulin release; however, the relationship between the GLP-1 signal and chronic pancreatitis is not well understood. Here we focus on chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) and its receptor (CCR2) axis, which regulates various immune cells, including macrophages, to clarify the mechanism of GLP-1-mediated insulin secretion in chronic pancreatitis in mice. One and multiple series of repetitive cerulein administrations were used to induce acute and chronic cerulein pancreatitis, respectively. Acute cerulein-administered CCR2-knockout (KO) mice showed suppressed infiltration of CD11b(+)Gr-1(low) macrophages and pancreatic inflammation and significantly upregulated insulin secretion compared with paired wild-type (WT) mice. However, chronic cerulein-administered CCR2-KO mice showed significantly increased infiltration of CD11b(+)/Gr-1(-) and CD11b(+)/Gr-1(high) cells, but not CD11b(+)/Gr-1(low) cells, in pancreas with severe inflammation and significantly decreased insulin secretion compared with their WT counterparts. Furthermore, although serum GLP-1 levels in chronic cerulein-administered WT and CCR2-KO mice were comparably upregulated after cerulein administrations, GLP-1 receptor levels in pancreases of chronic cerulein-administered CCR2-KO mice were significantly lower than in paired WT mice. Nevertheless, a significantly higher hyperglycemia level in chronic cerulein-administered CCR2-KO mice was markedly restored by treatment with a GLP-1 analog to a level comparable to the paired WT mice. Collectively, the CCR2/CCL2 axis-mediated CD11b(+)-cell migration to the pancreas is critically involved in chronic pancreatitis-mediated hyperglycemia through the modulation of GLP-1 receptor expression and insulin secretion.

  14. Risk assessment of laboratory rats and mice chronically exposed to formaldehyde vapors

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.G.

    1985-09-01

    Experimental data from the Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology (CIIT) are used to estimate the risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal cavity in Fischer 344 (F344) rats over a range of ambient air concentrations of formaldehyde that includes current exposure guidelines for the workplace and home. These values are presented as a best estimate envelope obtained from five mathematical dose-response formulations. The response of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats dosed at 15 ppm in a separate study at New York University is consistent with the predicted lifetime response for F344 rats at a slightly lower concentration (13-14 ppm). A dose-related mortality effect beyond what is attributable to the occurrenece of nasal carcinomas is found in F344 rats at all CIIT exposure levels (2,6, and 155 ppm). There is no evidence of a mortality effect in B6C3F1 mice of the CIIT study, and data for SD rats of the NYU experiment are inconclusive. In the CIIT study, rats exposed to 15 ppm exhibited a high incidence of nasal cavity squamous cell carcinomas and polypoid adenomas. Polypoid adenomas were also observed with increased incidences at 2 ppm and 6 ppm. Statistical comparisons with matched controls, and the low historical rate of spontaneous occurrence both suggest that polypoid adenomas may be a risk to F344 rats at exposure levels below the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standard of 3 ppm. Squamous cell carcinomas were observed in two mice exposed to 15 ppm. This finding may be biologically significant since this tumor is rare and has not been previously reported in 4932 untreated B6C3F1 mice from recent National Toxicology Program (NTP) feeding studies.

  15. Alteration of cytokine profiles in mice exposed to chronic low-dose ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Suk Chul; Lee, Kyung-Mi; Kang, Yu Mi; Kim, Kwanghee; Kim, Cha Soon; Yang, Kwang Hee; Jin, Young-Woo; Kim, Chong Soon; Kim, Hee Sun

    2010-07-09

    While a high-dose of ionizing radiation is generally harmful and causes damage to living organisms, a low-dose of radiation has been shown to be beneficial in a variety of animal models. To understand the basis for the effect of low-dose radiation in vivo, we examined the cellular and immunological changes evoked in mice exposed to low-dose radiation at very low (0.7 mGy/h) and low (3.95 mGy/h) dose rate for the total dose of 0.2 and 2 Gy, respectively. Mice exposed to low-dose radiation, either at very low- or low-dose rate, demonstrated normal range of body weight and complete blood counts. Likewise, the number and percentage of peripheral lymphocyte populations, CD4{sup +} T, CD8{sup +} T, B, or NK cells, stayed unchanged following irradiation. Nonetheless, the sera from these mice exhibited elevated levels of IL-3, IL-4, leptin, MCP-1, MCP-5, MIP-1{alpha}, thrombopoietin, and VEGF along with slight reduction of IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-17, and IFN-{gamma}. This pattern of cytokine release suggests the stimulation of innate immunity facilitating myeloid differentiation and activation while suppressing pro-inflammatory responses and promoting differentiation of naive T cells into T-helper 2, not T-helper 1, types. Collectively, our data highlight the subtle changes of cytokine milieu by chronic low-dose {gamma}-radiation, which may be associated with the functional benefits observed in various experimental models.

  16. Impaired lipid and glucose homeostasis in hexabromocyclododecane-exposed mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, Rie; Koike, Eiko; Win-Shwe, Tin-Tin; Yamamoto, Megumi; Takano, Hirohisa

    2014-03-01

    Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is an additive flame retardant used in the textile industry and in polystyrene foam manufacturing. Because of its lipophilicity and persistency, HBCD accumulates in adipose tissue and thus has the potential of causing metabolic disorders through disruption of lipid and glucose homeostasis. However, the association between HBCD and obesity remains unclear. We investigated whether exposure to HBCD contributes to initiation and progression of obesity and related metabolic dysfunction in mice fed a normal diet (ND) or a high-fat diet (HFD). Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a HFD (62.2 kcal% fat) or a ND and treated orally with HBCD (0, 1.75, 35, or 700 μg/kg body weight) weekly from 6 to 20 weeks of age. We examined body weight, liver weight, blood biochemistry, histopathological changes, and gene expression profiles in the liver and adipose tissue. In HFD-fed mice, body and liver weight were markedly increased in mice treated with the high (700 μg/kg) and medium (35 μg/kg) doses of HBCD compared with vehicle. This effect was more prominent in the high-dose group. These increases were paralleled by increases in random blood glucose and insulin levels and enhancement of microvesicular steatosis and macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue. HBCD-treated HFD-fed mice also had increased mRNA levels of Pparg (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ) in the liver and decreased mRNA levels of Glut4 (glucose transporter 4) in adipose tissue compared with vehicle-treated HFD-fed mice. Our findings suggest that HBCD may contribute to enhancement of diet-induced body weight gain and metabolic dysfunction through disruption of lipid and glucose homeostasis, resulting in accelerated progression of obesity. Yanagisawa R, Koike E, Win-Shwe TT, Yamamoto M, Takano H. 2014. Impaired lipid and glucose homeostasis in hexabromocyclododecane-exposed mice fed a high-fat diet. Environ Health Perspect 122:277-283; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307421.

  17. Impaired Lipid and Glucose Homeostasis in Hexabromocyclododecane-Exposed Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Koike, Eiko; Win-Shwe, Tin-Tin; Yamamoto, Megumi; Takano, Hirohisa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is an additive flame retardant used in the textile industry and in polystyrene foam manufacturing. Because of its lipophilicity and persistency, HBCD accumulates in adipose tissue and thus has the potential of causing metabolic disorders through disruption of lipid and glucose homeostasis. However, the association between HBCD and obesity remains unclear. Objectives: We investigated whether exposure to HBCD contributes to initiation and progression of obesity and related metabolic dysfunction in mice fed a normal diet (ND) or a high-fat diet (HFD). Methods: Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a HFD (62.2 kcal% fat) or a ND and treated orally with HBCD (0, 1.75, 35, or 700 μg/kg body weight) weekly from 6 to 20 weeks of age. We examined body weight, liver weight, blood biochemistry, histopathological changes, and gene expression profiles in the liver and adipose tissue. Results: In HFD-fed mice, body and liver weight were markedly increased in mice treated with the high (700 μg/kg) and medium (35 μg/kg) doses of HBCD compared with vehicle. This effect was more prominent in the high-dose group. These increases were paralleled by increases in random blood glucose and insulin levels and enhancement of microvesicular steatosis and macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue. HBCD-treated HFD-fed mice also had increased mRNA levels of Pparg (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ) in the liver and decreased mRNA levels of Glut4 (glucose transporter 4) in adipose tissue compared with vehicle-treated HFD-fed mice. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that HBCD may contribute to enhancement of diet-induced body weight gain and metabolic dysfunction through disruption of lipid and glucose homeostasis, resulting in accelerated progression of obesity. Citation: Yanagisawa R, Koike E, Win-Shwe TT, Yamamoto M, Takano H. 2014. Impaired lipid and glucose homeostasis in hexabromocyclododecane-exposed mice fed a high-fat diet. Environ Health

  18. [Distribution of arsenic species and its DNA damage in subchronic arsenite-exposed mice].

    PubMed

    Li, Hanjun; Lin, Jing; Li, Yufeng; Yan, Jinting; Li, Bai; Zhang, Wei; Dong, Zeqin; Chen, Chunying

    2013-09-01

    To study the arsenic distribution, speciation, its effects on the balance of other elements and the DNA damage by subchronic arsenite exposure in mice. The 8-week-old C57BL/6N mice were matched by weight and divided into control group and supplementation group, which were given 0 or 10 microg/ml of sodium arsenite in the drinking water, and continuous exposed for 6 months. Arsenic was found in various tissues and organs. The highest ones were in the kidney, lung and liver, reached (563.9 +/- 222.5), (458.6 +/- 191.0) and (279.8 +/- 81.2) ng/g, respectively while the lowest in the blood and brain, reached (82.2 +/- 26.7) ng/ml and (101.8 +/- 30.1) ng/g, respectively. Arsenic exists mainly in the form of dimethylarsinous acid (DMA). Compared to the control group, there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between arsenic and chromium, copper, zinc, selenium, lead in some organs of arsenic exposed group, but not cadmium. Furthermore, the 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) level of the exposed group was (149.1 +/- 1.0) ng/ml, which was significantly higher than the control group of (76.4 +/- 27.9) ng/ml. Arsenic accumulated in various tissues and organs mainly in the form of DMA, which affected the balance of chromium, copper, zinc, selenium and lead in the body, and led to DNA damage after subchronic exposure.

  19. Regional and splenic lymphocyte proliferative responses of mice exposed to normal or irradiated Schistosoma mansoni cercariae

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, F.A.; Wilson, E.M.

    1982-05-01

    Developing larvae of Schistosoma mansoni migrate through various tissues en route to the liver and mesenteric veins of their definitive host. Regional (lymph node) and systemic (spleen) blastogenic responses to cercarial, adult and egg antigens were measured in CBA/J mice at various times after exposure to normal or irradiated S. mansoni cercariae. Among the separate lymph node groups studied were those draining the tail, thoracic region, intestines, head and neck, and the pelvis. Blastogenic responses were assayed by a micromethod requiring 10(5) cells in 20 microliter volumes per culture. Up to 5 weeks post-cercarial exposure the pattern of responses in lymphoid tissues of infected mice coincided with the migratory route of the parasites. Following oviposition, cellular reactivity was pronounced in all lymph node groups. The reactivity of mice exposed to irradiated cercariae followed a pattern suggestive of a sustained antigenic stimulus only in the nodes draining the tail and lungs. Splenic (systemic) reactivity was roughly comparable between the two exposure groups. These data show the independence and vast differences in the host regional responses following normal or irradiated cercarial exposure.

  20. Pretreatment with Pyridoxamine Mitigates Isolevuglandin-associated Retinal Effects in Mice Exposed to Bright Light*

    PubMed Central

    Charvet, Casey D.; Saadane, Aicha; Wang, Meiyao; Salomon, Robert G.; Brunengraber, Henri; Turko, Illarion V.; Pikuleva, Irina A.

    2013-01-01

    The benefits of antioxidant therapy for treating age-related macular degeneration, a devastating retinal disease, are limited. Perhaps species other than reactive oxygen intermediates should be considered as therapeutic targets. These could be lipid peroxidation products, including isolevuglandins (isoLGs), prototypical and extraordinarily reactive γ-ketoaldehydes that avidly bind to proteins, phospholipids, and DNA and modulate the properties of these biomolecules. We found isoLG adducts in aged human retina but not in the retina of mice kept under dim lighting. Hence, to test whether scavenging of isoLGs could complement or supplant antioxidant therapy, we exposed mice to bright light and found that this insult leads to retinal isoLG-adduct formation. We then pretreated mice with pyridoxamine, a B6 vitamer and efficient scavenger of γ-ketoaldehydes, and found that the levels of retinal isoLG adducts are decreased, and morphological changes in photoreceptor mitochondria are not as pronounced as in untreated animals. Our study demonstrates that preventing the damage to biomolecules by lipid peroxidation products, a novel concept in vision research, is a viable strategy to combat oxidative stress in the retina. PMID:23970548

  1. Enhanced platelet reactivity and thrombosis in Apoe-/- mice exposed to cigarette smoke is attenuated by P2Y12 antagonism.

    PubMed

    Dong, Anping; Caicedo, Jessica; Han, Sung Gu; Mueller, Paul; Saha, Sibu; Smyth, Susan S; Gairola, C Gary

    2010-10-01

    Smoking increases the risk of acute arterial thrombosis, including myocardial infarction, likely due to multi-factorial effects on the vasculature. Heightened platelet reactivity may be among the adverse effects of smoke exposure. To examine the effects of smoke exposure on platelet function in an atherosclerotic environment, Apoe-deficient female mice, maintained on a Western diet, were exposed (4 hrs/d, 5 d/wk) to sidestream cigarette smoke in a whole-body exposure chamber for 12 weeks. A separate group of wild type C57BL/6J mice were also exposed to smoke in an identical fashion. In comparison to control Apoe-/- mice exposed to filtered ambient air, smoke-exposed Apoe-/- mice displayed a 1.8±0.3 fold enhanced ADP-induced fibrinogen binding ex vivo (P<0.001) and had a shorter time to thrombotic occlusion following ferric chloride injury of the carotid artery (median time to thrombosis of 8 vs. 13 min; P=0.015). Administration of the direct-acting P2Y12 antagonist cangrelor blunted ex vivo fibrinogen binding and attenuated thrombosis (median time 20 min) in Apoe-/- mice exposed to sidestream smoke. The effects of smoke exposure required a proatherosclerotic background, as wild-type C57Bl/6J mice exposed to smoke displayed similar fibrinogen binding and thrombotic occlusion times as did control mice. Our results demonstrate that exposure to smoke heightens platelet reactivity and thrombosis in Apoe-/- mice and implicate signaling through platelet P2Y12 receptor as a mediator of the adverse consequence of smoke exposure. These results may partially explain the recent observations that smokers derive greater clinical benefit from the P2Y12 antagonist clopidogrel than do non-smokers. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Ethanol and acetaldehyde differentially alter extracellular dopamine and serotonin in Aldh2-knockout mouse dorsal striatum: A reverse microdialysis study.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Mostofa; Ameno, Kiyoshi; Miki, Takanori; Tanaka, Naoko; Ito, Asuka; Ono, Junichiro; Takakura, Ayaka; Kumihashi, Mitsuru; Kinoshita, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) seem to be involved in several of the effects of ethanol (EtOH). Acetaldehyde (AcH), especially in the brain, induces effects that mimic those of EtOH. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of local perfusion of EtOH and AcH on extracellular DA and 5-HT in the dorsal striatum of Aldh2-knockout (Aldh2-KO) and wild-type (WT) mice. Aldh2-KO mice were used as a model of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 deficiency in humans to examine the effects of AcH. Mice were perfused with Ringer's solution (control), EtOH (100, 200, or 500mM) and AcH (100, 200, or 500μM) into the dorsal striatum. Dialysate samples were collected every 5min, and then analyzed with HPLC coupled to an ECD. We found that local perfusion with 500mM EtOH increased extracellular levels of DA (p<0.05) in both Aldh2-KO and WT mice, while 5-HT levels remain unchanged. EtOH at a dose of 200mM also increased DA in WT mice, but this was limited to a 30-40-min time-point. In contrast, perfusion with 200 and 500μM AcH decreased both DA and 5-HT (p<0.05) in Aldh2-KO mice, but this decrease was not found in WT mice at any AcH dose, indicating an effect of AcH on DA and 5-HT levels. There were no genotype effects on the basal levels of DA and 5-HT. These results indicate that high EtOH can stimulate DA, whereas high AcH can depress both DA and 5-HT in the dorsal striatum of mice.

  3. Decreased fertility in mice exposed to environmental air pollution in the city of Sao Paulo.

    PubMed

    Mohallem, Soraya Vecci; de Araújo Lobo, Débora Jã; Pesquero, Célia Regina; Assunção, João Vicente; de Andre, Paulo Afonso; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Dolhnikoff, Marisa

    2005-06-01

    It has largely been shown that air pollution can affect human health. Effects on human fertility have been shown mainly in males by a decrease in semen quality. Few studies have focused on the environmental effects on female fertility. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of air pollution in the city of Sao Paulo on mouse female fertility. Four groups of female Balb/c mice were placed in two chambers 10 days (newborn) or 10 weeks (adults) after birth. Mice were maintained in the chambers 24 h a day, 7 days a week, for 4 months. The first chamber received air that had passed through an air filter (clean chamber) and the second received ambient air (polluted chamber). We measured PM10 and NO2 inside both chambers. Mice belonging to the adult groups were bred to male mice after living for 3 months inside the chambers. The newborn groups mated after reaching reproductive age (12 weeks). After 19 days of pregnancy the numbers of live-born pups, reabsorptions, fetal deaths, corpora lutea, and implantation failures were determined. PM10 and NO2 concentrations in the clean chamber were 50% and 77.5% lower than in the polluted chamber, respectively. Differences in fertility parameters between groups were observed only in animals exposed to air pollution at an early age (10 days after birth). We observed a higher number of live-born pups per animal in the clean chamber than per animal from the polluted chamber (median=6.0 and 4.0, respectively; P=0.037). There was a higher incidence of implantation failures in the polluted group than in the clean group (median=3.5 and 2.0, respectively; P=0.048). There were no significant differences in the other reproductive parameters between groups. These results support the concept that female reproductive health represents a target of air pollutants.

  4. Effect of intestinal microflora on the survival time of mice exposed to lethal whole-body. gamma. irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Onoue, M.; Uchida, K.; Yokokura, T.; Takahashi, T.; Mutai, M.

    1981-11-01

    The effect of intestinal microflora on the survival time of mice exposed to 2-kR whole-body ..gamma.. irradiation was studied using germfree, monoassociated, and conventionalized ICR mice. The germfree mice were monoassociated with 1 of 11 bacterial strains, which were isolated from the fresh feces of conventional mice, 2 weeks prior to irradiation. All mice died within 3 weeks after irradiation. Monoassociation with Fusobacterium sp., Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, or Pseudomonas sp. significantly reduced the mean survival time compared to that of germfree mice. In contrast, monoassociation with Clostridium sp., Bifidobacterium pseudolongum, or Lactobacillus acidophilus significantly prolonged the mean survival time compared to that of germfree mice. This suggests that the latter organisms may perform some activity to protect the mice from radiation injury. In this histopathological autopsy examination, the main lesions were hypocellularity in hematopoietic organs and hemorrhage in various organs. Neither karyorrhexis nor desquamation of intestinal mucosal cells was observed in any mice. From these observations, it is suggested that the death of these mice was related to hematopoietic damage. Bacterial invasion into various organs was observed in conventionalized and Pseudomonas-, E. coli-, or S. faecalis-monoassociated mice but not in Clostridium-, B. pseudolongum-, L. acidophilus-, or Fusobacterium-monoassociated mice.

  5. Metabolomics in Lung Inflammation: A High Resolution 1H NMR Study of Mice Exposed to Silica Dust

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jian Zhi; Rommereim, Donald N.; Minard, Kevin R.; Woodstock, Angie; Harrer, Bruce J.; Wind, Robert A.; Phipps, Richard P.; Sime, Patricia J.

    2010-01-01

    Here we report the first 1H NMR metabolomics studies on excised lungs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from mice exposed to crystalline silica. High resolution 1H NMR metabolic profiling on intact excised lungs was performed using slow magic angle sample spinning (slow-MAS) 1H PASS (phase altered spinning sidebands) at a sample spinning rate of 80 Hz. Metabolic profiling on BALF was completed using fast magic angle spinning at 2kHz. Major findings are that the relative concentrations of choline, phosphocholine (PC) and glycerophosphocholine(GPC) were statistically significantly increased in silica-exposed mice compared to sham controls, indicating an altered membrane choline phospholipids metabolism (MCPM). The relative concentrations of glycogen/glucose, lactate and creatine were also statistically significantly increased in mice exposed to silica dust, suggesting that cellular energy pathways were affected by silica dust. Elevated levels of glycine, lysine, glutamate, proline and 4-hydroxyproline were also increased in exposed mice, suggesting the activation of a collagen pathway. Furthermore, metabolic profiles in mice exposed to silica dust were found to be spatially heterogeneous, in consistent with regional inflammation revealed by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). PMID:20020862

  6. [Effect of phosgene on apoptosis of alveolar type II cells and vascular endothelial growth factor in exposed mice].

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-li; Hai, Chun-xu; Qin, Xu-jun; Liang, Xin; Chen, Hong-li

    2004-06-01

    To study the apoptosis of alveolar type II cells, alterations of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF receptor (Flt1) in serum and lung and expression of VEGF mRNA in lung in pulmonary edema mice induced by phosgene. Twenty-six BALB/C mice were randomly divided into 2 groups: control group, exposed group (13 mice in each group). Mice of exposed group were intoxicated by inhalation of phosgene 11.9 mg/L for 5 minutes. Mice of control group were treated as the same way by inhalation of air. Isolation of mice alveolus type II cells 4 h after intoxication was carried out to observe their apoptosis under electron microscope. Contents of VEGF and Flt1 in lung and serum by ELISA, and expression of VEGF mRNA were determined. Alveolar type II cells were identified by tannic acid staining and electron microscopy. After exposed to 11.9 mg/L of phosgene for 5 minutes, the apoptotic body in alveolus type II cells was found in exposed group. The contents of VEGF in serum and lung and Flt1 in lung of exposed mice [(134.07 +/- 120.26), (477.76 +/- 98.06), (1,2818.48 +/- 2,304.15) pg/ml] were significantly lower than those of control group [(445.57 +/- 173.30), (1,026.87 +/- 474.56), (21,976.51 +/- 7,421.01) pg/ml, P < 0.05] but the content of Flt1 in serum [(2,369.56 +/- 381.70) pg/ml] was higher than that in control group [(1,898.00 +/- 453.69) pg/ml, P < 0.05]. The expression of VEGF mRNA in pulmonary edema mice was decreased. Phosgene can induce apoptosis of alveolar type II cells, and decrease in the content of VEGF and Flt1, and expression of VEGF mRNA in lung.

  7. Statins Do Not Alter the Incidence of Mesothelioma in Asbestos Exposed Mice or Humans

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Cleo; Alfonso, Helman; Woo, Samantha; Walsh, Amy; Olsen, Nola; Musk, Arthur W.; Robinson, Bruce W. S.; Nowak, Anna K.; Lake, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Mesothelioma is principally caused by asbestos and may be preventable because there is a long latent period between exposure and disease development. The most at-risk are a relatively well-defined population who were exposed as a consequence of their occupations. Although preventative agents investigated so far have not been promising, discovery of such an agent would have a significant benefit world-wide on healthcare costs and personal suffering. Statins are widely used for management of hypercholesterolemia and cardiovascular risk; they can induce apoptosis in mesothelioma cells and epidemiological data has linked their use to a lower incidence of cancer. We hypothesised that statins would inhibit the development of asbestos-induced mesothelioma in mice and humans. An autochthonous murine model of asbestos-induced mesothelioma was used to test this by providing atorvastatin daily in the feed at 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg. Continuous administration of atorvastatin did not alter the rate of disease development nor increase the length of time that mice survived. Latency to first symptoms of disease and disease progression were also unaffected. In a parallel study, the relationship between the use of statins and development of mesothelioma was investigated in asbestos-exposed humans. In a cohort of 1,738 asbestos exposed people living or working at a crocidolite mine site in Wittenoom, Western Australia, individuals who reported use of statins did not have a lower incidence of mesothelioma (HR = 1.01; 95% CI = 0.44–2.29, p = 0.99). Some individuals reported use of both statins and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or COX-2 inhibitors, and these people also did not have an altered risk of mesothelioma development (HR = 1.01; 95% CI = 0.61–1.67, p = 0.97). We conclude that statins do not moderate the rate of development of mesothelioma in either a mouse model or a human cohort exposed to asbestos. PMID:25093718

  8. Metabolic changes and DNA hypomethylation in cerebellum are associated with behavioral alterations in mice exposed to trichloroethylene postnatally

    PubMed Central

    Blossom, Sarah J.; Cooney, Craig A.; Melnyk, Stepan B.; Rau, Jenny L.; Swearingen, Christopher J.; Wessinger, William D.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that low-level postnatal and early life exposure to the environmental contaminant, trichloroethylene (TCE), in the drinking water of MRL+/+ mice altered glutathione redox homeostasis and increased biomarkers of oxidative stress indicating a more oxidized state. Plasma metabolites along the interrelated transmethylation pathway were also altered indicating impaired methylation capacity. Here we extend these findings to further characterize the impact of TCE exposure in mice exposed to water only or two doses of TCE in the drinking water (0, 2, and 28 mg/kg/day) postnatally from birth until 6 weeks of age on redox homeostasis and biomarkers of oxidative stress in the cerebellum. In addition, pathway intermediates involved in methyl metabolism and global DNA methylation patterns were examined in cerebellar tissue. Because the cerebellum is functionally important for coordinating motor activity, including exploratory and social approach behaviors, these parameters were evaluated in the present study. Mice exposed to 28 mg/kg/day TCE exhibited increased locomotor activity over time as compared with control mice. In the novel object exploration test, these mice were more likely to enter the zone with the novel object as compared to control mice Similar results were obtained in a second test when an unfamiliar mouse was introduced into the testing arena. The results show for the first time that postnatal exposure to TCE causes key metabolic changes in the cerebellum that may contribute to global DNA methylation deficits and behavioral alterations in TCE-exposed mice. PMID:23566951

  9. Mycotoxin binders potential on histological of ovary mice exposed by zearalenone

    PubMed Central

    Samik, Abdul; Safitri, Erma

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to examine the potential of mycotoxin binder in ceasing zearalenone (ZEN) effect on mice reproduction. ZEN mycotoxin can induce reactive oxygen species that may cause damage and cell death. ZEN is estrogenic so that it may affect the reproductive organs failure. Materials and Methods: Mycotoxin binder administration to female mice exposed to ZEN was aimed to count the number of primary follicles, secondary follicles, tertiary follicles, de Graaf’s follicles, and the corpus luteum (CL). Negative control group (C) was not exposed to ZEN and without the administration of mycotoxin binders, while positive control group (C+) was exposed to 0.1 mg/mouse/day ZEN and without the provision of mycotoxin binders. Treatment groups (T1, T2, T3) were exposed to 0.1 mg/mouse/day ZEN and mycotoxin binders 0.5; 1; 2 mg/BW/day. Results: ZEN and mycotoxin binders administration was conducted for 10 days. The number of primary follicles, secondary, tertiary, de Graaf’s follicles and CL in negative control (C−) was 14.2±1.36, 11.2±0.28, 6.5±0.53, 7.5±0.74, and 2.3±0.35. The number in positive control (C+) group was as follows 7.1±0.12, 3.7±1.17, 3.8±1.21, 1.5±0.62, and 2.3±0.34. Results in treatment 1 (T1) were as follows 6.2±0.16, 5.2±0.16, 3.6±0.16, 2.6±0.19, and 2.6±0.10; in treatment 2 (T2) 7.8±0.28, 5.8±0.53, 3.7±0.26, 2.7±0.26, and 2.5±0.10; and in treatment 3 (T3) 8.4±0.34, 8.4±0.34, 4.6±0.34, 4.5±1.01, and 3.4±0.23. Conclusion: The number of follicles and CL more in line with increasing doses of mycotoxin binders. Required more than 2 mg/mouse/day mycotoxin binders to inhibit the effects of ZEN so that its can maintain the number of primary follicle, secondary follicle, tertiary follicle, the de Graaf’s follicle, and the number of CL in the ovary of ZEN-exposed female mice (Mus musculus). PMID:28435200

  10. Sister chromatid exchange analysis in lung and peripheral blood lymphocytes of mice exposed to methyl isocyanate by inhalation

    SciTech Connect

    Kligerman, A.D.; Campbell, J.A.; Erexson, G.L.; Allen, J.W.; Shelby, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    Mice were exposed to 1, 3, or 6 ppm methyl isocyanate (MIC) for 6 hr/day for four consecutive days. Lung cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) were removed and cultured for analysis of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and cell cycle kinetics. MIC caused a small but significant increase in SCE frequency of cultured lung cells from mice exposed to 1, 3, or 6 ppm MIC. MIC did not significantly increase SCE levels in PBLs of mice exposed to concentrations as high as 6 ppm. In cultured PBLs, MIC had a stimulatory effect on cell cycling rates as measured by the replicative index, and it caused a significant reduction in mononuclear leucocyte counts and the mitotic indices.

  11. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for rats and mice orally exposed to chromium.

    PubMed

    Kirman, C R; Hays, S M; Aylward, L L; Suh, M; Harris, M A; Thompson, C M; Haws, L C; Proctor, D M

    2012-10-25

    A multi-compartment physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed to describe the behavior of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in rats and mice following long-term oral exposure. Model compartments were included for GI lumen, oral mucosa, forestomach/stomach, small intestinal mucosa (duodenum, jejunum, ileum), blood, liver, kidney, bone, and a combined compartment for remaining tissues. Data from ex vivo Cr(VI) reduction studies were used to characterize reduction of Cr(VI) in fed rodent stomach fluid as a second-order, pH-dependent process. For model development, tissue time-course data for total chromium were collected from rats and mice exposed to Cr(VI) in drinking water for 90 days at six concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 180 mg Cr(VI)/L. These data were used to supplement the tissue time-course data collected in other studies with oral administration of Cr(III) and Cr(VI), including that from recent NTP chronic bioassays. Clear species differences were identified for chromium delivery to the target tissue (small intestines), with higher concentrations achieved in mice than in rats, consistent with small intestinal tumor formation, which was observed upon chronic exposures in mice but not in rats. Erythrocyte:plasma chromium ratios suggest that Cr(VI) entered portal circulation at drinking water concentrations equal to and greater than 60 mg/L in rodents. Species differences are described for distribution of chromium to the liver and kidney, with liver:kidney ratios higher in mice than in rats. Overall, the PBPK model provides a good description of chromium toxicokinetics, with model predictions for tissue chromium within a factor of 3 for greater than 80% of measurements evaluated. The tissue data and PBPK model predictions indicate a concentration gradient in the small intestines (duodenum > jejunum > ileum), which will be useful for assessing the tumor response gradient observed in mouse small intestines in terms of target tissue dose. The rodent PBPK

  12. Ferulic acid inhibits neuro-inflammation in mice exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ya-Min; Shen, Ji-Duo; Xu, Li-Ping; Li, Han-Bing; Li, Yu-Cheng; Yi, Li-Tao

    2017-04-01

    Ferulic acid is a hydroxycinnamic acid that widely presents in plant cell wall components. It has been demonstrated that ferulic acid can attenuate depressive-like behaviors in both forced swimming test and tail suspension test. Considering that depression is an inflammatory related mental disease, our present study was aimed to investigate the role of ferulic acid in the regulation of microglia activation, pro-inflammatory cytokines, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in mice exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). Our results firstly showed that decreased sucrose preference and increased immobility time were completely reversed by administration with ferulic acid and fluoxetine for four weeks. Then, we found that CUMS significantly caused interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) up-regulation, microglia, NF-κB signaling and NLRP3 inflammasome activation in the prefrontal cortex. On the contrary, these activated inflammatory response induced by CUMS were reversed by ferulic acid and fluoxetine as well, suggesting that anti-inflammatory related mechanism was involved in the antidepressant-like effects of ferulic acid in stressed mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Changes in Serum Adiponectin in Mice Chronically Exposed to Inorganic Arsenic in Drinking Water.

    PubMed

    Song, Xuanbo; Li, Ying; Liu, Junqiu; Ji, Xiaohong; Zhao, Lijun; Wei, Yudan

    2017-02-11

    Cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus are prominent features of glucose and lipid metabolism disorders. Adiponectin is a key adipokine that is largely involved in glucose and lipid metabolism processes. A growing body of evidence suggests that chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic is associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. We hypothesized that arsenic exposure may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus by affecting the level of adiponectin. In this study, we examined serum adiponectin levels, as well as serum levels of metabolic measures (including fasting blood glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol) in C57BL/6 mice exposed to inorganic arsenic in drinking water (5 and 50 ppm NaAsO2) for 18 weeks. Body mass and adiposity were monitored throughout the study. We found no significant changes in serum insulin and glucose levels in mice treated with arsenic for 18 weeks. However, arsenic exposure decreased serum levels of adiponectin, triglyceride, and HDL-cholesterol. Further, an inverse relationship was observed between urinary concentrations of total arsenic and serum levels of adiponectin. This study suggests that arsenic exposure could disturb the metabolism of lipids and increase the risk of cardiovascular disease by reducing the level of adiponectin.

  14. Memory and depressive effect on male and female Swiss mice exposed to tannery effluent.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Abraão Tiago Batista; de Oliveira Ferreira, Raíssa; de Lima Rodrigues, Aline Sueli; Malafaia, Guilherme

    2017-03-10

    Although tannery industries generate substantial profits to the countries they are located in, they work with one of the most environmentally harmful human activities. Tannery effluents (TE) are highly toxic; thus, their improper release into water bodies may cause severe problems to individuals depending on this water. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to assess the effects of oral exposure to TE on the anxiety-, memory deficit- and depression-predictive behaviors in male and female Swiss adult mice. The following experimental groups were set in order to do so, control, positive control (reference drugs) and effluent. The animals in the effluent group were treated with 5% TE diluted in potable water for 15 consecutive days. The neurobehavioral tests started on the 12th experimental day. The results found through the elevated plus-maze test (for anxiety prediction) showed no anxiogenic or anxiolytic effects on animals exposed to TE. On the other hand, animals treated with TE showed short- and long-term memory deficit in the object recognition test, as well as depression-predictive behavior in the forced swimming test. These results may concern the high concentration of heavy metals and neurotoxic organic compounds in the TE. Therefore, the oral exposure to TE, even for a short period-of-time, has effects on the central nervous system (CNS) that lead to neurobehavioral changes. Thus, the current study broadens the knowledge on this research field by demonstrating the neurotoxicity of xenobiotics to male and female Swiss mice.

  15. DNA damage in bone marrow and blood cells of mice exposed to municipal sludge leachates.

    PubMed

    Tewari, Anamika; Dhawan, Alok; Gupta, Shrawan Kumar

    2006-05-01

    Leachates of municipal solid waste from unsecured disposal sites contaminate sources of potable water and affect human health. In the present study, we have used the Comet assay to evaluate the DNA damage in mice exposed to municipal sludge leachates. Ten percent leachates were prepared from municipal sludge obtained from two different disposal drains. Male Swiss albino mice were treated daily with 0.1-0.4 ml of the leachates by oral gavage for 15 days, and the DNA damage was evaluated in bone marrow and blood using Olive tail moment, % tail DNA, and tail length as measures of DNA damage. Physicochemical and metal analysis of the leachates detected the presence of cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc, as well as elevated concentrations of sulfate and nitrate. Both of the leachates produced significant dose-responsive increases in DNA damage in both mouse tissues. There were no significant differences in the responses for any of the Comet endpoints between tissues (for the same leachate sample) or between leachate samples (for the same tissue). The results of this study indicate that municipal waste leachates produce DNA damage in vivo.

  16. Prophylactic efficacy of Coriandrum sativum (Coriander) on testis of lead-exposed mice.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Veena; Kansal, Leena; Sharma, Arti

    2010-09-01

    Lead poisoning is a worldwide health problem, and its treatment is under investigation. The aim of this study was to access the efficacy of Coriandrum sativum (coriander) in reducing lead-induced changes in mice testis. Animal exposed to lead nitrate showed significant decrease in testicular SOD, CAT, GSH, total protein, and tissue lead level. This was accompanied by simultaneous increase in the activities of LPO, AST, ALT, ACP, ALP, and cholesterol level. Serum testosterone level and sperm density were suppressed in lead-treated group compared with the control. These influences of lead were prevented by concurrent daily administration of C. sativum extracts to some extent. Treating albino mice with lead-induced various histological changes in the testis and treatment with coriander led to an improvement in the histological testis picture. The results thus led us to conclude that administration of C. sativum significantly protects against lead-induced oxidative stress. Further work need to be done to isolate and purify the active principle involved in the antioxidant activity of this plant.

  17. Transmission probabilities of mouse parvovirus 1 to sentinel mice chronically exposed to serial dilutions of contaminated bedding.

    PubMed

    Besselsen, David G; Myers, Erin L; Franklin, Craig L; Korte, Scott W; Wagner, April M; Henderson, Kenneth S; Weigler, Benjamin J

    2008-04-01

    Intermittent serodetection of mouse parvovirus (MPV) infections in animal facilities occurs frequently when soiled bedding sentinel mouse monitoring systems are used. We evaluated induction of seroconversion in naïve single-caged weanling ICR mice (n = 10 per group) maintained on 5-fold serially diluted contaminated bedding obtained from SCID mice persistently shedding MPV1e. Soiled bedding from the infected SCID mice was collected, diluted, and redistributed weekly to cages housing ICR mice to represent chronic exposure to MPV at varying prevalence in a research colony. Sera was collected every other week for 12 wk and evaluated for reactivity to MPV nonstructural and capsid antigens by multiplex fluorescent immunoassay. Mice were euthanized after seroconversion, and DNA extracted from lymph node and spleen was evaluated by quantitative PCR. Cumulative incidence of MPV infection for each of the 7 soiled bedding dilution groups (range, 1:5 to 1:78125 [v/v]) was 100%, 100%, 90%, 20%, 70%, 60%, and 20%, respectively. Most seropositive mice (78%) converted within the first 2 to 3 wk of soiled bedding exposure, correlating to viral exposure when mice were 4 to 7 wk of age. Viral DNA was detected in lymphoid tissues collected from all mice that were seropositive to VP2 capsid antigen, whereas viral DNA was not detected in lymphoid tissue of seronegative mice. These data indicate seroconversion occurs consistently in young mice exposed to high doses of virus equivalent to fecal MPV loads observed in acutely infected mice, whereas seroconversion is inconsistent in mice chronically exposed to lower doses of virus.

  18. A Comprehensive Metabolomic Investigation in Urine of Mice Exposed to Strontium-90

    PubMed Central

    Goudarzi, Maryam; Weber, Waylon M.; Mak, Tytus D.; Chung, Juijung; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Melo, Dunstana R.; Strawn, Steven J.; Brenner, David J.; Guilmette, Raymond A.; Fornace, Albert J.

    2017-01-01

    Internal emitters such as Strontium-90 (90Sr) pose a substantial health risk during and immediately after a nuclear disaster or detonation of an improvised device. The environmental persistency and potency of 90Sr calls for urgent development of high-throughput tests to establish levels of exposure and to help triage potentially exposed individuals who were in the immediate area of the disaster. In response to these concerns, our team focused on developing a robust metabolomic profile for 90Sr exposure in urine using a mouse model. The sensitivity of modern time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) combined with the separation power of ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) was used to determine perturbations in the urinary metabolome of mice exposed to 90Sr. The recently developed statistical suite, MetaboLyzer, was used to explore the mass spectrometry data. The results indicated a significant change in the urinary abundances of metabolites pertaining to butanoate metabolism, vitamin B metabolism, glutamate and fatty acid oxidation. All of these pathways are either directly or indirectly connected to the central energy production pathway, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. To our knowledge, this is the first in vivo metabolomics to evaluate the effects of exposure to 90Sr using the easily accessible biofluid, urine. PMID:26010713

  19. Frontal Cortex Transcriptome Analysis of Mice Exposed to Electronic Cigarettes During Early Life Stages

    PubMed Central

    Lauterstein, Dana E.; Tijerina, Pamella B.; Corbett, Kevin; Akgol Oksuz, Betul; Shen, Steven S.; Gordon, Terry; Klein, Catherine B.; Zelikoff, Judith T.

    2016-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), battery-powered devices containing nicotine, glycerin, propylene glycol, flavorings, and other substances, are increasing in popularity. They pose a potential threat to the developing brain, as nicotine is a known neurotoxicant. We hypothesized that exposure to e-cigarettes during early life stages induce changes in central nervous system (CNS) transcriptome associated with adverse neurobiological outcomes and long-term disease states. To test the hypothesis, pregnant C57BL/6 mice were exposed daily (via whole body inhalation) throughout gestation (3 h/day; 5 days/week) to aerosols produced from e-cigarettes either with nicotine (13–16 mg/mL) or without nicotine; following birth, pups and dams were exposed together to e-cigarette aerosols throughout lactation beginning at postnatal day (PND) 4–6 and using the same exposure conditions employed during gestational exposure. Following exposure, frontal cortex recovered from ~one-month-old male and female offspring were excised and analyzed for gene expression by RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq). Comparisons between the treatment groups revealed that e-cigarette constituents other than nicotine might be partly responsible for the observed biological effects. Transcriptome alterations in both offspring sexes and treatment groups were all significantly associated with downstream adverse neurobiological outcomes. Results from this study demonstrate that e-cigarette exposure during early life alters CNS development potentially leading to chronic neuropathology. PMID:27077873

  20. The transgenerational inheritance of autism-like phenotypes in mice exposed to valproic acid during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Chang Soon; Gonzales, Edson Luck; Kim, Ki Chan; Yang, Sung Min; Kim, Ji-Woon; Mabunga, Darine Froy; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Han, Seol-Heui; Bahn, Geon Ho; Shin, Chan Young

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneously pervasive developmental disorder in which various genetic and environmental factors are believed to underlie its development. Recently, epigenetics has been suggested as a novel concept for ASD aetiology with a proposition that epigenetic marks can be transgenerationally inherited. Based on this assumption of epigenetics, we investigated the transgenerational inheritance of ASD-like behaviours and their related synaptic changes in the VPA animal model of ASD. The first generation (F1) VPA-exposed offspring exhibited autistic-like impaired sociability and increased marble burying. They also showed increased seizure susceptibility, hyperactivity and decreased anxiety. We mated the VPA-exposed F1 male offspring with naïve females to produce the second generation (F2), and then similarly mated the F2 to deliver the third generation (F3). Remarkably, the autism-like behavioural phenotypes found in F1 persisted to the F2 and F3. Additionally, the frontal cortices of F1 and F3 showed some imbalanced expressions of excitatory/inhibitory synaptic markers, suggesting a transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. These results open the idea that E/I imbalance and ASD-like behavioural changes induced by environmental insults in mice can be epigenetically transmitted, at least, to the third generation. This study could help explain the unprecedented increase in ASD prevalence. PMID:27819277

  1. A Comprehensive Metabolomic Investigation in Urine of Mice Exposed to Strontium-90.

    PubMed

    Goudarzi, Maryam; Weber, Waylon M; Mak, Tytus D; Chung, Juijung; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Melo, Dunstana R; Strawn, Steven J; Brenner, David J; Guilmette, Raymond A; Fornace, Albert J

    2015-06-01

    Internal emitters such as Strontium-90 ((90)Sr) pose a substantial health risk during and immediately after a nuclear disaster or detonation of an improvised device. The environmental persistency and potency of (90)Sr calls for urgent development of high-throughput tests to establish levels of exposure and to help triage potentially exposed individuals who were in the immediate area of the disaster. In response to these concerns, our team focused on developing a robust metabolomic profile for (90)Sr exposure in urine using a mouse model. The sensitivity of modern time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) combined with the separation power of ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) was used to determine perturbations in the urinary metabolome of mice exposed to (90)Sr. The recently developed statistical suite, MetaboLyzer, was used to explore the mass spectrometry data. The results indicated a significant change in the urinary abundances of metabolites pertaining to butanoate metabolism, vitamin B metabolism, glutamate and fatty acid oxidation. All of these pathways are either directly or indirectly connected to the central energy production pathway, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. To our knowledge, this is the first in vivo metabolomics to evaluate the effects of exposure to (90)Sr using the easily accessible biofluid, urine.

  2. Frontal Cortex Transcriptome Analysis of Mice Exposed to Electronic Cigarettes During Early Life Stages.

    PubMed

    Lauterstein, Dana E; Tijerina, Pamella B; Corbett, Kevin; Akgol Oksuz, Betul; Shen, Steven S; Gordon, Terry; Klein, Catherine B; Zelikoff, Judith T

    2016-04-12

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), battery-powered devices containing nicotine, glycerin, propylene glycol, flavorings, and other substances, are increasing in popularity. They pose a potential threat to the developing brain, as nicotine is a known neurotoxicant. We hypothesized that exposure to e-cigarettes during early life stages induce changes in central nervous system (CNS) transcriptome associated with adverse neurobiological outcomes and long-term disease states. To test the hypothesis, pregnant C57BL/6 mice were exposed daily (via whole body inhalation) throughout gestation (3 h/day; 5 days/week) to aerosols produced from e-cigarettes either with nicotine (13-16 mg/mL) or without nicotine; following birth, pups and dams were exposed together to e-cigarette aerosols throughout lactation beginning at postnatal day (PND) 4-6 and using the same exposure conditions employed during gestational exposure. Following exposure, frontal cortex recovered from ~one-month-old male and female offspring were excised and analyzed for gene expression by RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq). Comparisons between the treatment groups revealed that e-cigarette constituents other than nicotine might be partly responsible for the observed biological effects. Transcriptome alterations in both offspring sexes and treatment groups were all significantly associated with downstream adverse neurobiological outcomes. Results from this study demonstrate that e-cigarette exposure during early life alters CNS development potentially leading to chronic neuropathology.

  3. Ultrastructural alterations in liver of mice exposed chronically and transgenerationally to aqueous extract of betel nut: Implications in betel nut-induced carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Yashmin; Sharan, Rajeshwar N

    2010-05-01

    The aqueous extract of betel nut (AEBN) induces the formation of preneoplastic nodules in the liver of Swiss Albino mice and leads to increased predisposition to cancer when administered transgenerationally. The aim of this investigation was to elucidate the alterations in ultrastructure of subcellular organelles in the liver nodules using transmission electron microscopy and to determine whether these alterations have implications in AEBN-induced carcinogenesis. Male and female Swiss Albino mice were exposed to AEBN chronically and transgenerationally at a dose of 2 mg/mL in drinking water for 24 weeks. Extensive polymorphism was noted in nuclear shape and heterochromatin organization. Heterochromatin aggregation and marginalization were observed in the nuclei of chronically exposed mice, whereas transgenerationally exposed mice exhibited dispersion or loss of heterochromatin. The nuclear envelope was disrupted, and the nucleoli were enlarged in chronically exposed mice, whereas in transgenerationally exposed mice the nucleoli were reduced in size or totally absent. The cisternae of the rough endoplasmic reticulum were dilated and disrupted, and a large number of autophagic vesicles were observed in both chronically and transgenerationally exposed mice. Atypical mitochondria that underwent extensive cristolysis and progressively declined in size and number from the chronically exposed mice to the different generations of transgenerationally exposed mice were also observed. Thus, exposure to AEBN resulted in severe loss of ultrastructural integrity of cells in the liver nodules, and the progressive loss of mitochondrial function appeared to play a significant role in increasing the predisposition to cancer of mice exposed transgenerationally to AEBN.

  4. Time course of pulmonary burden in mice exposed to residual oil fly ash

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Giovanna Marcella Cavalcante; Nagato, Lilian Katiê da Silva; Fagundes, Sheila da Silva; dos Santos, Flávia Brandão; Calheiros, Andrea Surrage; Malm, Olaf; Bozza, Patricia Torres; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário N.; Faffe, Débora Souza; Rocco, Patricia Rieken Macedo; Zin, Walter Araujo

    2014-01-01

    Residual oil fly ash (ROFA) is a common pollutant in areas where oil is burned. This particulate matter (PM) with a broad distribution of particle diameters can be inhaled by human beings and putatively damage their respiratory system. Although some studies deal with cultured cells, animals, and even epidemiological issues, so far a comprehensive analysis of respiratory outcomes as a function of the time elapsed after exposure to a low dose of ROFA is wanted. Thus, we aimed to investigate the time course of mechanical, histological, and inflammatory lung changes, as well as neutrophils in the blood, in mice exposed to ROFA until 5 days after exposure. BALB/c mice (25 ± 5 g) were randomly divided into 7 groups and intranasally instilled with either 10 μL of sterile saline solution (0.9% NaCl, CTRL) or ROFA (0.2 μg in 10 μL of saline solution). Pulmonary mechanics, histology (normal and collapsed alveoli, mononuclear and polymorphonuclear cells, and ultrastructure), neutrophils (in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) were determined at 6 h in CTRL and at 6, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h after ROFA exposure. ROFA contained metal elements, especially iron, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and organochlorines. Lung resistive pressure augmented early (6 h) in the course of lung injury and other mechanical, histological and inflammatory parameters increased at 24 h, returning to control values at 120 h. Blood neutrophilia was present only at 24 and 48 h after exposure. Swelling of endothelial cells with adherent neutrophils was detected after ROFA instillation. No neutrophils were present in the lavage fluid. In conclusion, the exposure to ROFA, even in low doses, induced early changes in pulmonary mechanics, lung histology and accumulation of neutrophils in blood of mice that lasted for 4 days and disappeared spontaneously. PMID:25309454

  5. Cardiovascular Changes in Atherosclerotic ApoE-Deficient Mice Exposed to Co60 (γ) Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Kumarathasan, Prem; Vincent, Renaud; Blais, Erica; Saravanamuthu, Anu; Gupta, Pallavi; Wyatt, Heather; Mitchel, Ronald; Hannan, Mohammed; Trivedi, Akilesh; Whitman, Stewart

    2013-01-01

    Background There is evidence for a role of ionizing radiation in cardiovascular diseases. The goal of this work was to identify changes in oxidative and nitrative stress pathways and the status of the endothelinergic system during progression of atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient mice after single and repeated exposure to ionizing radiation. Methods and Results B6.129P2-ApoE tmlUnc mice on a low-fat diet were acutely exposed (whole body) to Co60 (γ) (single dose 0, 0.5, and 2 Gy) at a dose rate of 36.32 cGy/min, or repeatedly (cumulative dose 0 and 2 Gy) at a dose-rate of 0.1 cGy/min for 5 d/wk, over a period of 4 weeks. Biological endpoints were investigated after 3–6 months of recovery post-radiation. The nitrative stress marker 3-nitrotyrosine and the vasoregulator peptides endothelin-1 and endothelin-3 in plasma were increased (p<0.05) in a dose-dependent manner 3–6 months after acute or chronic exposure to radiation. The oxidative stress marker 8-isoprostane was not affected by radiation, while plasma 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine decreased (p<0.05) after treatment. At 2Gy radiation dose, serum cholesterol was increased (p = 0.008) relative to controls. Percent lesion area increased (p = 0.005) with age of animal, but not with radiation treatment. Conclusions Our observations are consistent with persistent nitrative stress and activation of the endothelinergic system in ApoE−/− mice after low-level ionizing radiation exposures. These mechanisms are known factors in the progression of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases. PMID:23840332

  6. Innate Lymphoid Cells Mediate Pulmonary Eosinophilic Inflammation, Airway Mucous Cell Metaplasia, and Type 2 Immunity in Mice Exposed to Ozone.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Kazuyoshi; Lewandowski, Ryan P; Jackson-Humbles, Daven N; Buglak, Nicholas; Li, Ning; White, Kaylin; Van Dyken, Steven J; Wagner, James G; Harkema, Jack R

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to elevated levels of ambient ozone in photochemical smog is associated with eosinophilic airway inflammation and nonatopic asthma in children. In the present study, we determined the role of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in the pathogenesis of ozone-induced nonatopic asthma by using lymphoid cell-sufficient C57BL/6 mice, ILC-sufficient Rag2(-/-) mice (devoid of T and B cells), and ILC-deficient Rag2(-/-)Il2rg(-/-) mice (depleted of all lymphoid cells including ILCs). Mice were exposed to 0 or 0.8 parts per million ozone for 1 day or 9 consecutive weekdays (4 hr/day). A single exposure to ozone caused neutrophilic inflammation, airway epithelial injury, and reparative DNA synthesis in all strains of mice, irrespective of the presence or absence of ILCs. In contrast, 9-day exposures induced eosinophilic inflammation and mucous cell metaplasia only in the lungs of ILC-sufficient mice. Repeated ozone exposures also elicited increased messenger RNA expression of transcripts associated with type 2 immunity and airway mucus production in ILC-sufficient mice. ILC-deficient mice repeatedly exposed to ozone had no pulmonary pathology or increased gene expression related to type 2 immunity. These results suggest a new paradigm for the biologic mechanisms underlying the development of a phenotype of childhood nonatopic asthma that has been linked to ambient ozone exposures.

  7. Sex- and Tissue-Specific Methylome Changes in Brains of Mice Perinatally Exposed to Lead

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Martín, Francisco Javier; Lindquist, Diana M.; Landero-Figueroa, Julio; Zhang, Xiang; Chen, Jing; Cecil, Kim M.; Medvedovic, Mario; Puga, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Changes in DNA methylation and subsequent changes in gene expression regulation are the hallmarks of age- and tissue-dependent epigenetic drift and plasticity resulting from the combinatorial integration of genetic determinants and environmental cues. To determine whether perinatal lead exposure caused persistent DNA methylation changes in target tissues, we exposed mouse dams to 0, 3 or 30 ppm of lead acetate in drinking water for a period extending from 2 months prior to mating, through gestation, until weaning of pups at postnatal day-21, and analyzed whole-genome DNA methylation in brain cortex and hippocampus of 2-month old exposed and unexposed progeny. Lead exposure resulted in hypermethylation of three differentially methylated regions in the hippocampus of females, but not males. These regions mapped to Rn4.5s, Sfi1, and Rn45s loci in mouse chromosomes 2, 11 and 17, respectively. At a conservative fdr<0.001, 1,623 additional CpG sites were differentially methylated in female hippocampus, corresponding to 117 unique genes. Sixty of these genes were tested for mRNA expression and showed a trend towards negative correlation between mRNA expression and methylation in exposed females but not males. No statistically significant methylome changes were detected in male hippocampus or in cortex of either sex. We conclude that exposure to lead during embryonic life, a time when the organism is most sensitive to environmental cues, appears to have a sex- and tissue-specific effect on DNA methylation that may produce pathological or physiological deviations from the epigenetic plasticity operative in unexposed mice. PMID:25530354

  8. Metabolic changes and DNA hypomethylation in cerebellum are associated with behavioral alterations in mice exposed to trichloroethylene postnatally

    SciTech Connect

    Blossom, Sarah J.; Cooney, Craig A.; Melnyk, Stepan B.; Rau, Jenny L.; Swearingen, Christopher J.; Wessinger, William D.

    2013-06-15

    Previous studies demonstrated that low-level postnatal and early life exposure to the environmental contaminant, trichloroethylene (TCE), in the drinking water of MRL +/+ mice altered glutathione redox homeostasis and increased biomarkers of oxidative stress indicating a more oxidized state. Plasma metabolites along the interrelated transmethylation pathway were also altered indicating impaired methylation capacity. Here we extend these findings to further characterize the impact of TCE exposure in mice exposed to water only or two doses of TCE in the drinking water (0, 2, and 28 mg/kg/day) postnatally from birth until 6 weeks of age on redox homeostasis and biomarkers of oxidative stress in the cerebellum. In addition, pathway intermediates involved in methyl metabolism and global DNA methylation patterns were examined in cerebellar tissue. Because the cerebellum is functionally important for coordinating motor activity, including exploratory and social approach behaviors, these parameters were evaluated in the present study. Mice exposed to 28 mg/kg/day TCE exhibited increased locomotor activity over time as compared with control mice. In the novel object exploration test, these mice were more likely to enter the zone with the novel object as compared to control mice. Similar results were obtained in a second test when an unfamiliar mouse was introduced into the testing arena. The results show for the first time that postnatal exposure to TCE causes key metabolic changes in the cerebellum that may contribute to global DNA methylation deficits and behavioral alterations in TCE-exposed mice. - Highlights: • We exposed male mice to low-level trichloroethylene from postnatal days 1 through 42. • This exposure altered redox potential and increased oxidative stress in cerebellum. • This exposure altered metabolites important in cellular methylation in cerebellum. • This exposure promoted DNA hypomethylation in cerebellum. • This exposure enhanced locomotor

  9. Accretion of biopsy specimens of vaginal adenosis from patients exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol, when transplanted to athymic nude mice.

    PubMed

    Pienkowski, M M; Mann, L C; Rosloniec, E F; Welsch, C W

    1979-03-01

    Vaginal adenosis biopsy specimens from 10 patients exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol were transplanted for 30 days into athymic (nude) mice. Almost all grafts were recovered, and they had morphologic features closely resembling those of the original biopsy specimens, i.e., cystic, complex, and simple occult glands covered mainly with an endocervical type of epithelium showing extensive squamous metaplasia. Autoradiographic analysis of these grafts after pulse administration of [3H]thymidine into the mice revealed extensive labeling of epithelial cells. These results imply that female athymic (nude) mice are compatible hosts for accretion of the human adenosis.

  10. The temporal profile of cytokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in mice exposed to the industrial gas phosgene.

    PubMed

    Sciuto, Alfred M; Clapp, Diana L; Hess, Zoe A; Moran, Ted S

    2003-06-01

    Diagnosis of an exposure to airborne toxicants can be problematic. Phosgene is used widely in industry for the production of many synthetic products, such as polyfoam rubber, plastics, and dyes. Although nearly 100% of the gas is consumed during processing, there is the potential problem of accidental or even intentional exposure to this irritant/choking agent. Exposure to phosgene has been known to cause latent life-threatening pulmonary edema. A major problem is that there is a clinical latency phase from 3 to 24 h in people before irreversible acute lung injury occurs. Assessment of markers of acute lung injury after a suspected exposure would be useful in developing rational treatment strategies. These experiments were designed to assess bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) for the presence of the early markers of exposure to phosgene in mice from 1 to 72 h after exposure. Separate groups of 40 CD-1 male mice (Crl:CD-1(ICR)BR) weighing 29 +/- 1 g were exposed whole-body to either air or a concentration x time (c x t) amount of 32 mg/m(3) (8 ppm) phosgene for 20 min (640 mg x min/m(3)). BALF from air- or phosgene-exposed mice was taken at 1, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h postexposure. After euthanasia, the trachea was excised, and 800 micro l saline was instilled into the lungs and washed 5x. BALF was assessed for interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha, IL-1alpha, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2, and IL-10. At 4 h postexposure, IL-6 was 15-fold higher for phosgene-exposed mice than for the time-matched air-exposed control group. At 8 and 12 h, IL-6, IL-1beta, MIP-2, and IL-10 were significantly higher in phosgene-exposed mice than in time-matched air-exposed controls, p < or = 0.05 to p < or = 0.001, whereas TNF alpha reached peak significance from 24 to 72 h. IL-4 was significantly lower in the phosgene-exposed mice than in the air-exposed mice from 4 to 8 h after exposure. These data show that BALF is an important tool in assessing pro

  11. B cells play key roles in th2-type airway immune responses in mice exposed to natural airborne allergens.

    PubMed

    Drake, Li Yin; Iijima, Koji; Hara, Kenichiro; Kobayashi, Takao; Kephart, Gail M; Kita, Hirohito

    2015-01-01

    Humans are frequently exposed to various airborne allergens. In addition to producing antibodies, B cells participate in immune responses via various mechanisms. The roles of B cells in allergic airway inflammation and asthma have been controversial. We examined the functional importance of B cells in a mouse model of asthma, in which mice were exposed repeatedly to common airborne allergens. Naïve wild-type BALB/c mice or B cell-deficient JH-/- mice were exposed intranasally to a cocktail of allergen extracts, including Alternaria, Aspergillus, and house dust mite, every other day for two weeks. Ovalbumin was included in the cocktail to monitor the T cell immune response. Airway inflammation, lung pathology, and airway reactivity were analyzed. The airway exposure of naïve wild type mice to airborne allergens induced robust eosinophilic airway inflammation, increased the levels of Th2 cytokines and chemokines in the lung, and increased the reactivity to inhaled methacholine. These pathological changes and immune responses were attenuated in B cell-deficient JH-/- mice. The allergen-induced expansion of CD4+ T cells was impaired in the lungs and draining lymph nodes of JH-/- mice. Furthermore, lymphocytes from JH-/- mice failed to produce Th2 cytokines in response to ovalbumin re-stimulation in vitro. Our results suggest that B cells are required for the optimal development of Th2-type immune responses and airway inflammation when exposed to common airborne allergens. The therapeutic targeting of B cells may be beneficial to treat asthma in certain patients.

  12. Dissociation of spontaneous seizures and brainstem seizure thresholds in mice exposed to eight flurothyl-induced generalized seizures

    PubMed Central

    Kadiyala, Sridhar B.; Ferland, Russell J.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Objective C57BL/6J mice exposed to eight flurothyl-induced generalized clonic seizures exhibit a change in seizure phenotype following a 28-day incubation period and subsequent flurothyl rechallenge. Mice now develop a complex seizure semiology originating in the forebrain and propagating into the brainstem seizure network (a forebrain→brainstem seizure). In contrast, this phenotype change does not occur in seizure-sensitive DBA/2J mice. The underlying mechanism(s) was the focus of these studies. Methods DBA2/J mice were exposed to eight flurothyl-induced seizures (1/day) followed by 24-hour video-electroencephalographic recordings for 28-days. Forebrain and brainstem seizure thresholds were determined in C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice following one or eight flurothyl-induced seizures, or after eight flurothyl-induced seizures, a 28-day incubation period, and final flurothyl rechallenge. Results Similar to C57BL/6J mice, DBA2/J mice expressed spontaneous seizures. However, unlike C57BL/6J mice, DBA2/J mice continued to have spontaneous seizures without remission. Because DBA2/J mice do not express forebrain→brainstem seizures following flurothyl rechallenge after a 28-day incubation period, this indicated that spontaneous seizures were not sufficient for the evolution of forebrain→brainstem seizures. Therefore, we determined whether brainstem seizure thresholds were changing during this repeated-flurothyl model and whether this could account for the expression of forebrain→brainstem seizures. Brainstem seizure thresholds were not different between C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice on day one or on the last induction seizure trial (day eight). However, brainstem seizure thresholds did differ significantly on flurothyl rechallenge (day 28) with DBA/2J mice showing no lowering of their brainstem seizure thresholds. Significance These results demonstrated that DBA/2J mice exposed to the repeated-flurothyl model develop spontaneous seizures without evidence of seizure

  13. Dissociation of spontaneous seizures and brainstem seizure thresholds in mice exposed to eight flurothyl-induced generalized seizures.

    PubMed

    Kadiyala, Sridhar B; Ferland, Russell J

    2017-03-01

    C57BL/6J mice exposed to eight flurothyl-induced generalized clonic seizures exhibit a change in seizure phenotype following a 28-day incubation period and subsequent flurothyl rechallenge. Mice now develop a complex seizure semiology originating in the forebrain and propagating into the brainstem seizure network (a forebrain→brainstem seizure). In contrast, this phenotype change does not occur in seizure-sensitive DBA/2J mice. The underlying mechanism(s) was the focus of these studies. DBA2/J mice were exposed to eight flurothyl-induced seizures (1/day) followed by 24-hour video-electroencephalographic recordings for 28-days. Forebrain and brainstem seizure thresholds were determined in C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice following one or eight flurothyl-induced seizures, or after eight flurothyl-induced seizures, a 28-day incubation period, and final flurothyl rechallenge. Similar to C57BL/6J mice, DBA2/J mice expressed spontaneous seizures. However, unlike C57BL/6J mice, DBA2/J mice continued to have spontaneous seizures without remission. Because DBA2/J mice do not express forebrain→brainstem seizures following flurothyl rechallenge after a 28-day incubation period, this indicated that spontaneous seizures were not sufficient for the evolution of forebrain→brainstem seizures. Therefore, we determined whether brainstem seizure thresholds were changing during this repeated-flurothyl model and whether this could account for the expression of forebrain→brainstem seizures. Brainstem seizure thresholds were not different between C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice on day one or on the last induction seizure trial (day eight). However, brainstem seizure thresholds did differ significantly on flurothyl rechallenge (day 28) with DBA/2J mice showing no lowering of their brainstem seizure thresholds. These results demonstrated that DBA/2J mice exposed to the repeated-flurothyl model develop spontaneous seizures without evidence of seizure remission and provide a new model of

  14. Molecular mechanisms mediating a deficit in recall of fear extinction in adult mice exposed to cocaine in utero.

    PubMed

    Kabir, Zeeba D; Katzman, Aaron C; Kosofsky, Barry E

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal cocaine exposure has been shown to alter cognitive processes of exposed individuals, presumed to be a result of long-lasting molecular alterations in the brain. In adult prenatal cocaine exposed (PCOC) mice we have identified a deficit in recall of fear extinction, a behavior that is dependent on the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the hippocampus. While we observed no change in the constitutive expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein and mRNA in the mPFC and hippocampus of adult PCOC mice, we observed blunted BDNF signaling in the mPFC of adult PCOC mice after fear extinction compared to the control animals. Specifically, during the consolidation phase of the extinction memory, we observed a decrease in BDNF protein and it's phospho-TrkB receptor expression. Interestingly, at this same time point there was a significant increase in total Bdnf mRNA levels in the mPFC of PCOC mice as compared with controls. In the Bdnf gene, we identified decreased constitutive binding of the transcription factors, MeCP2 and P-CREB at the promoters of Bdnf exons I and IV in the mPFC of PCOC mice, that unlike control mice remained unchanged when measured during the behavior. Finally, bilateral infusion of recombinant BDNF protein into the infralimbic subdivision of the mPFC during the consolidation phase of the extinction memory rescued the behavioral deficit in PCOC mice. In conclusion, these findings extend our knowledge of the neurobiologic impact of prenatal cocaine exposure on the mPFC of mice, which may lead to improved clinical recognition and treatment of exposed individuals.

  15. Menthol Attenuates Respiratory Irritation and Elevates Blood Cotinine in Cigarette Smoke Exposed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Michael A.; Smith, Gregory J.; Cichocki, Joseph A.; Fan, Lu; Liu, Yi-Shiuan; Caceres, Ana I.; Jordt, Sven Eric; Morris, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Addition of menthol to cigarettes may be associated with increased initiation of smoking. The potential mechanisms underlying this association are not known. Menthol, likely due to its effects on cold-sensing peripheral sensory neurons, is known to inhibit the sensation of irritation elicited by respiratory irritants. However, it remains unclear whether menthol modulates cigarette smoke irritancy and nicotine absorption during initial exposures to cigarettes, thereby facilitating smoking initiation. Using plethysmography in a C57Bl/6J mouse model, we examined the effects of L-menthol, the menthol isomer added to cigarettes, on the respiratory sensory irritation response to primary smoke irritants (acrolein and cyclohexanone) and smoke of Kentucky reference 2R4 cigarettes. We also studied L-menthol’s effect on blood levels of the nicotine metabolite, cotinine, immediately after exposure to cigarette smoke. L-menthol suppressed the irritation response to acrolein with an apparent IC₅₀ of 4 ppm. Suppression was observed even at acrolein levels well above those necessary to produce a maximal response. Cigarette smoke, at exposure levels of 10 mg/m³ or higher, caused an immediate and marked sensory irritation response in mice. This response was significantly suppressed by L-menthol even at smoke concentrations as high as 300 mg/m³. Counterirritation by L-menthol was abolished by treatment with a selective inhibitor of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8 (TRPM8), the neuronal cold/menthol receptor. Inclusion of menthol in the cigarette smoke resulted in roughly a 1.5-fold increase in plasma cotinine levels over those observed in mice exposed to smoke without added menthol. These findings document that, L-menthol, through TRPM8, is a strong suppressor of respiratory irritation responses, even during highly noxious exposures to cigarette smoke or smoke irritants, and increases blood cotinine. Therefore, L-menthol, as a cigarette additive, may promote smoking

  16. Brain deposition and neurotoxicity of manganese in adult mice exposed via the drinking water

    PubMed Central

    Saritha, Krishna; Celia, Dodd A.; Shahryar, Hekmatyar K.; Nikolay, Filipov M.

    2013-01-01

    Natural leaching processes and/or anthropogenic contamination can result in ground water concentrations of the essential metal manganese (Mn) that far exceed the current regulatory standards. Neurological consequences of Mn drinking water (DW) overexposure to experimental animals, i.e. mice, including its brain deposition/distribution and behavioral effects are understudied. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were exposed to Mn via the DW for 8 weeks. After 5 weeks of Mn exposure, magnetic resonance imaging revealed significant Mn deposition in all examined brain regions; the degree of Mn deposition did not increase further a week later. Behaviorally, early hyperactivity and more time spent in the center of the arenas in an open field test, decreased forelimb grip strength and less time swimming in a forced swim test were observed after 6 weeks of Mn DW exposure. Eight-week Mn DW exposure did not alter striatal dopamine, its metabolites, or the expression of key dopamine homeostatic proteins, but it significantly increased striatal 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (a serotonin metabolite) level, without affecting the levels of serotonin itself. Increased expression (mRNA) of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, an astrocyte activation marker), heme oxygenase-1 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (oxidative and nitrosative stress markers, respectively) were observed 8 weeks post Mn DW exposure in the substantia nigra. Besides mRNA increases, GFAP protein expression was increased in the substantia nigra pars reticulata. In summary, the neurobehavioral deficits, characterized by locomotor and emotional perturbations, and nigral glial activation associated with significant brain Mn deposition are among the early signs of Mn neurotoxicity caused by DW overexposure. PMID:23832297

  17. Sub-chronically exposing mice to a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon increases lipid accumulation in their livers.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yuanxiang; Miao, Wenyu; Lin, Xiaojian; Wu, Tao; Shen, Hangjie; Chen, Shan; Li, Yanhong; Pan, Qiaoqiao; Fu, Zhengwei

    2014-09-01

    The potential for exposing humans and wildlife to environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has increased. Risk assessments describing how PAHs disturb lipid metabolism and induce hepatotoxicity have only received limited attention. In the present study, seven-week-old male ICR mice received intraperitoneal injections of 0, 0.01, 0.1 or 1mg/kg body weight 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC) per week for 10 weeks. A high-fat diet was provided during the exposure. Histopathological lipid accumulation and lipid metabolism-related genes were measured. We observed that sub-chronic 3MC exposure significantly increased lipid droplet and triacylglycerol (TG) levels in the livers. A low dose of 3MC activated the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, which negatively regulated lipid synthesis in the livers. The primary genes including acetyl-CoA carboxylase (Acc), fatty acid synthase (Fas) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (Scd1) decreased significantly when compared with those in the control group, indicating that de novo fatty acid synthesis in the hepatocytes was significantly inhibited by the sub-chronic 3MC exposure. However, the free fatty acid (FFA) synthesis in the adipose tissue was greatly enhanced by up-regulating the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP1C) and target genes including Acc, Fas and Scd1. The synthesized FFA was released into the blood and then transported into the liver by the up-regulation of Fat and Fatp2, which resulted in the gradual accumulation of lipids in the liver. In conclusion, histological examinations and molecular level analyses highlighted the development of lipid accumulation and confirmed that 3MC significantly impaired lipid metabolism in mice.

  18. Brain deposition and neurotoxicity of manganese in adult mice exposed via the drinking water.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Saritha; Dodd, Celia A; Hekmatyar, Shahryar K; Filipov, Nikolay M

    2014-01-01

    Natural leaching processes and/or anthropogenic contamination can result in ground water concentrations of the essential metal manganese (Mn) that far exceed the current regulatory standards. Neurological consequences of Mn drinking water (DW) overexposure to experimental animals, i.e., mice, including its brain deposition/distribution and behavioral effects are understudied. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were exposed to Mn via the DW for 8 weeks. After 5 weeks of Mn exposure, magnetic resonance imaging revealed significant Mn deposition in all examined brain regions; the degree of Mn deposition did not increase further a week later. Behaviorally, early hyperactivity and more time spent in the center of the arenas in an open field test, decreased forelimb grip strength and less time swimming in a forced swim test were observed after 6 weeks of Mn DW exposure. Eight-week Mn DW exposure did not alter striatal dopamine, its metabolites, or the expression of key dopamine homeostatic proteins, but it significantly increased striatal 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (a serotonin metabolite) levels, without affecting the levels of serotonin itself. Increased expression (mRNA) of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, an astrocyte activation marker), heme oxygenase-1 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (oxidative and nitrosative stress markers, respectively) were observed 8 weeks post-Mn DW exposure in the substantia nigra. Besides mRNA increases, GFAP protein expression was increased in the substantia nigra pars reticulata. In summary, the neurobehavioral deficits, characterized by locomotor and emotional perturbations, and nigral glial activation associated with significant brain Mn deposition are among the early signs of Mn neurotoxicity caused by DW overexposure.

  19. DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF METHANOL: PATHOGENESIS IN CD-1 AND C57BL/6J MICE EXPOSED IN WHOLE EMBRYO CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Methanol causes axial skeleton and craniofacial defects in both CD-1 and C57BL/6J mice during gastrulation, but C57BL/6J embryos are more severely affected. We evaluated methanol-induced pathogenesis in CD-1 and C57BL/6J embryos exposed during gastrulation in whole em...

  20. DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF METHANOL: PATHOGENESIS IN CD-1 AND C57BL/6J MICE EXPOSED IN WHOLE EMBRYO CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Methanol causes axial skeleton and craniofacial defects in both CD-1 and C57BL/6J mice during gastrulation, but C57BL/6J embryos are more severely affected. We evaluated methanol-induced pathogenesis in CD-1 and C57BL/6J embryos exposed during gastrulation in whole em...

  1. Reciprocal Translocation in Somatic and Germ Cells of Mice Chronically Exposed by Inhalation to Ethylene Oxide: Implication for Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Groups of male B6C3F1 mice were exposed by inhalation to 0, 25, 50, 100 or 200 ppm EO for up to 48 weeks (6 hours/day, 5 days/week). Animals were sacrificed at 6, 12, 24, and 48 weeks after the startt of the exposure for analyses of reciprocal translocations in peripheral blood ...

  2. Cause of death and neoplasia in mice continuously exposed to very low dose rates of gamma rays.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, I B; Tanaka, S; Ichinohe, K; Matsushita, S; Matsumoto, T; Otsu, H; Oghiso, Y; Sato, F

    2007-04-01

    Four thousand 8-week-old SPF B6C3F1 mice (2000 of each sex) were divided into four groups, one nonirradiated (control) and three irradiated. The irradiated groups were exposed to (137)Cs gamma rays at dose rates of 21, 1.1 and 0.05 mGy day(-1) for approximately 400 days with total doses equivalent to 8000, 400 and 20 mGy, respectively. All mice were kept until natural death, and pathological examination was performed to determine the cause of death. Neoplasms accounted for >86.7% of all deaths. Compared to the nonirradiated controls, the frequency of myeloid leukemia in males, soft tissue neoplasms and malignant granulosa cell tumors in females, and hemangiosarcoma in both sexes exposed to 21 mGy day(-1) were significantly increased. The number of multiple primary neoplasms per mouse was significantly increased in mice irradiated at 21 mGy day(-1). Significant increases in body weights were observed from 32 to 60 weeks of age in males and females exposed to 1.1 mGy day(-1) and 21 mGy day(-1), respectively. Our results suggest that life shortening (Tanaka et al., Radiat. Res. 160, 376-379, 2003) in mice continuously exposed to low-dose-rate gamma rays is due to early death from a variety of neoplasms and not from increased incidence of specific neoplasms.

  3. Maternal docosahexaenoic acid supplementation decreases lung inflammation in hyperoxia-exposed newborn mice.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Lynette K; Valentine, Christina J; Pennell, Michael; Velten, Markus; Britt, Rodney D; Dingess, Kelly; Zhao, Xuilan; Welty, Stephen E; Tipple, Trent E

    2011-02-01

    DHA is a long-chain fatty acid that has potent antiinflammatory properties. Whereas maternal DHA dietary supplementation has been shown to improve cognitive development in infants fed DHA-supplemented milk, the antiinflammatory effects of maternal DHA supplementation on the developing fetus and neonate have not been extensively explored. Pregnant C3H/HeN dams were fed purified control or DHA-supplemented diets (~0.25% of total fat) at embryonic d 16 and consumed these diets throughout the study. At birth, the nursing mouse pups were placed in room air (RA; 21% O(2)) or >95% O(2) (hyperoxia) for up to 7 d. These studies tested the hypothesis that maternal DHA supplementation would decrease inflammation and improve alveolarization in the lungs of newborn mouse pups exposed to hyperoxia. Survival, inflammatory responses, and lung growth were compared among control diet/RA, DHA/RA, control/O(2), and DHA/O(2) pups. There were fewer neutrophils and macrophages in lung tissues from pups nursed by DHA-supplemented dams than in those nursed by dams fed the control diet at 7 d of hyperoxia exposure (P < 0.015). Although differences due to hyperoxia exposure were observed, maternal diet did not affect keratinocyte-derived chemokine, macrophage inflammatory protein-2, IL-1β, or TNFα mRNA levels in pup tissues. Hyperoxia also induced NF-κB activity, but maternal diet did not affect NF-κB or PPARγ activities. In mice, DHA supplementation decreases leukocyte infiltration in the offspring exposed to hyperoxia, suggesting a potential role for DHA supplementation as a therapy to reduce inflammation in preterm infants.

  4. Strain-Dependent Differences in Susceptibility to Lung Cancer in Inbred Mice Exposed to Mainstream Cigarette Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Terry; Bosland, Maarten

    2009-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that genetic susceptibility is an important host factor determining the effects of exposure to a number of airborne particles and gases. Although numerous studies have identified a genetic component for spontaneous pulmonary tumor development and for chemically-induced lung cancer (e.g., urethane) in mice, a systematic examination of murine interstrain differences in response to cigarette smoke inhalation has not been conducted. We addressed this research gap by examining the strain distribution pattern of lung cancer in 9 inbred strains of mice exposed to 258 mg/m3 mainstream cigarette smoke for 5 months followed by 4 months of rest. Lung tumors were enumerated on fixed-lungs visualized at low magnification and on serial step sections examined microscopically. With the low magnification examination, we observed statistically significant increases in the number of lung tumors in cigarette smoke-exposed A/J and the genetically-related A/HeJ mice (p < 0.05). While fewer tumors were identified by the microscopic enumeration method, it confirmed that significant increases in lung tumors occurred only in A/J and A/HeJ mice exposed to cigarette smoke (p<0.05). Thus, as predicted by epidemiologic studies and animal experiments using chemically-induced lung cancer models, these findings suggest that genetic host factors play a significant role in the pulmonary tumorigenic response of mice to mainstream cigarette smoke. PMID:19118942

  5. Long-term sex selective hormonal and behavior alterations in mice exposed to low doses of chlorpyrifos in utero.

    PubMed

    Haviland, Julia A; Butz, Daniel E; Porter, Warren P

    2010-01-01

    Chlorpyrifos, O,O-diethyl-O-(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl) phosphorothioate, is an organophosphate insecticide known to be present in human urine. In utero exposure to chlorpyrifos may cause long-term hormonal and behavior alterations. In this study mice were exposed to 0, 1 or 5mg/kg chlorpyrifos on gestational days 17-20. In utero exposed mice were then tested in a novel foraging behavior maze and assayed for thyroid hormones. Free Thyroxine Index increased significantly in females, but not males. Learning latency and reduced learning ability was evident during training sessions 5-9 in female mice exposed to 1 or 5mg/kg chlorpyrifos. No learning deficiencies were observed in male mice. No differences were seen in behavior when using a standard radial arm maze during the nine training sessions. These data suggest that mice are susceptible to neuro-endocrine reprogramming by chlorpyrifos, and demonstrate the efficacy of the novel foraging maze as an efficient behavior assay tool.

  6. Micronuclei in peripheral blood and bone marrow cells of mice exposed to 42 GHz electromagnetic millimeter waves.

    PubMed

    Vijayalaxmi; Logani, Mahendra K; Bhanushali, Ashok; Ziskin, Marvin C; Prihoda, Thomas J

    2004-03-01

    The genotoxic potential of 42.2 +/- 0.2 GHz electromagnetic millimeter-wave radiation was investigated in adult male BALB/c mice. The radiation was applied to the nasal region of the mice for 30 min/day for 3 consecutive days. The incident power density used was 31.5 +/- 5.0 mW/cm2. The peak specific absorption rate was calculated as 622 +/- 100 W/kg. Groups of mice that were injected with cyclophosphamide (15 mg/kg body weight), a drug used in the treatment of human malignancies, were also included to determine if millimeter-wave radiation exposure had any influence on drug-induced genotoxicity. Concurrent sham-exposed and untreated mice were used as controls. The extent of genotoxicity was assessed from the incidence of micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes of peripheral blood and bone marrow cells collected 24 h after treatment. The results indicated that the incidence of micronuclei in 2000 polychromatic erythrocytes was not significantly different among untreated, millimeter wave-exposed, and sham-exposed mice. The group mean incidences were 6.0 +/- 1.6, 5.1 +/- 1.5 and 5.1 +/- 1.3 in peripheral blood and 9.1 +/- 1.1, 9.3 +/- 1.6 and 9.1 +/- 1.6 in bone marrow cells, respectively. Mice that were injected with cyclophosphamide exhibited significantly increased numbers of micronuclei, 14.6 +/- 2.7 in peripheral blood and 21.3 +/- 3.9 in bone marrow cells (P< 0.0001). The drug-induced micronuclei were not significantly different in millimeter wave-exposed and sham-exposed mice; the mean incidences were 14.3 +/- 2.8 and 15.4 +/- 3.0 in peripheral blood and 23.5 +/- 2.3 and 22.1 +/- 2.5 in bone marrow cells, respectively. Thus there was no evidence for the induction of genotoxicity in the peripheral blood and bone marrow cells of mice exposed to electromagnetic millimeter-wave radiation. Also, millimeter-wave radiation exposure did not influence cyclophosphamide-induced micronuclei in either type of cells.

  7. Protective Effect of Porcine Cerebral Hydrolysate Peptides on Learning and Memory Deficits and Oxidative Stress in Lead-Exposed Mice.

    PubMed

    Zou, Ye; Feng, Weiwei; Wang, Wei; Chen, Yao; Zhou, Zhaoxiang; Li, Qian; Zhao, Ting; Mao, Guanghua; Wu, Xiangyang; Yang, Liuqing

    2015-12-01

    In this study, lead acetate solution and porcine cerebral hydrolysate peptides (PCHPs) were administered to developing mice. Porcine cerebral protein pretreated by ultrasound was hydrolyzed with alcalase, and 11 peptide fragments were obtained by Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis of PCHPs. Our data showed that PCHPs significantly decreased Pb2+-induced spontaneous locomotor activity, latencies to reach the platform, and the time in target quadrant. It also decreased the accumulation of lead in the blood and brain of Pb2+-exposed developing mice. Co-administration of PCHPs and dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) did not only reduce the accumulation of lead in blood but also increased the absorption of zinc and iron in Pb2+-exposed mice. Administration of PCHPs individually significantly enhanced hematopoietic parameters compared with the Pb2+-exposed group. PCHPs significantly reduced the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) but increased glutathione (GSH) content and anti-oxidant enzymes and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activities in Pb2+-exposed brain. Our findings suggest that PCHPs have the ability to protect against Pb2+-exposed learning and memory deficits and oxidative damage.

  8. Neurobehavioural defects in adult mice neonatally exposed to nicotine: changes in nicotine-induced behaviour and maze learning performance.

    PubMed

    Ankarberg, E; Fredriksson, A; Eriksson, P

    2001-09-14

    Neonatal exposure to low doses of nicotine has been shown to disturb the development of low-affinity nicotinic binding sites in the cerebral cortex and to elicit a deviant behavioural response to nicotine in adult mice. In this study, 10-day-old male NMRI mice were exposed to one of three different doses of nicotine (3.3, 33, or 66 microg nicotine-base/kg body wt.) s.c. twice daily on 5 consecutive days to study dose-response effects of nicotine on adult spontaneous and nicotine-induced motor behaviour. The nicotine-induced behaviour test revealed a hypoactive response to nicotine in 4-month-old mice neonatally exposed to 33 or 66 microg nicotine-base, whereas the response to nicotine in control animals and mice exposed to 3.3 microg nicotine-base was an increased activity. Learning and memory functions were also investigated in adult animals neonatally exposed to 66 microg nicotine-base/kg body wt. in the same manner, in the Morris water maze and in the Radial arm maze. In the swim maze and the Radial arm maze tests, no significant differences were observed between nicotine-treated and control animals at the age of 4 months. At 7 months, however, a significant difference in performance was evident, indicating a time-response/time-dependent effect. Furthermore, it was shown that in mice exposed neonatally to a nicotine dose known to inhibit the development of the nicotinic low affinity-binding site (LA), the response to nicotine could not cause any increase in spontaneous motor activity as seen in controls.

  9. Cardiovascular protection by ezetimibe and influence on oxidative stress in mice exposed to intermittent hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Kato, Ryuji; Nishioka, Satoshi; Nomura, Atsuo; Ijiri, Yoshio; Miyamura, Masatoshi; Ukimura, Akira; Okada, Yoshikatsu; Kitaura, Yasushi; Hayashi, Tetsuya

    2015-10-15

    Ezetimibe is as an inhibitor of NPC1L1 protein, which has a key role in cholesterol absorption. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of ezetimibe on the plasma lipid profile, atherosclerotic lesions, and cardiomyocyte ultrastructure in an animal model of atherosclerosis with intermittent hypoxia. Apolipoprotein E-knockout mice received a high-fat diet for 30 days. Then animals were exposed to intermittent hypoxia for 10 days or were maintained under normoxic conditions. In the ezetimibe group, ezetimibe (5 mg/kg/day) was added to the diet. Under normoxic conditions, the total cholesterol level was significantly lower in the ezetimibe group (63.6±6.6 mg/dl) than in the control group (116.3±16.9 mg/dl, P<0.001). Intermittent hypoxia accelerated atherosclerosis associated with increased superoxide production, which also caused degeneration of cardiomyocytes, mitochondrial abnormalities, and interstitial fibrosis. Compared with the control group, the ezetimibe group showed significantly less advanced atherosclerotic lesions and lower superoxide production in the thoracic aorta, as well as reduced oxidative stress, preservation of cardiomyocyte ultrastructure, and reduced interstitial fibrosis in the left ventricular myocardium. In conclusion, ezetimibe not only reduces total cholesterol, but also prevents the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events due to intermittent hypoxia at least partly through suppression of oxidative stress.

  10. Grape skin extract reduced pulmonary oxidative response in mice exposed to cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Pires, Karla Maria Pereira; Valença, Samuel Santos; Resende, Ângela Castro; Porto, Luís Cristóvão S; Queiroz, Emerson Ferreira; Moreira, Daniele Dal Col; de Moura, Roberto Soares

    2011-08-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and cigarette smoke (CS) is known to be one of the major sources of oxidants in the lungs. We postulated that acute administration of GSE (grape skin extract) would either reduce or protect the ALI (acute lung inflammation) produced by CS via NO release. We adopted a nutritional approach by investigating the inflammatory cells, metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) activity, and oxidative stress markers (superoxide dismutase - SOD; catalase - CAT; glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and malondialdehyde - MDA - levels) that play a role in the development of acute lung inflammation (ALI). Therefore, we tested an orally active antioxidant produced from grape skin manipulation (grape skin extract - GSE), in mice exposed to CS from 6 cigarettes a day for 5 days. In addition, we used a separate group treated with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (an NO inhibitor) to confirm nitric oxide (NO) involvement in GSE effects. We showed for the first time that administration of GSE inhibited ALI and oxidative damage induced by CS. This is associated with decreased MMP-9 activity, decreased number of inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and reduced levels of lipid peroxidation. Our results indicate that beneficial effects of GSE are NO-dependent. The study indicates that alteration of the oxidant-antioxidant balance is important in the pathogenesis of CS-induced ALI and suggests lung protective effects of GSE treatment in the mouse.

  11. Homogeneous static magnetic field of different orientation induces biological changes in subacutely exposed mice.

    PubMed

    Milovanovich, Ivan D; Ćirković, Saša; De Luka, Silvio R; Djordjevich, Drago M; Ilić, Andjelija Ž; Popović, Tamara; Arsić, Aleksandra; Obradović, Danilo D; Oprić, Dejan; Ristić-Djurović, Jasna L; Trbovich, Alexander M

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that static magnetic field (SMF) of moderate intensity produces considerable impact on biological systems. SMF can be homogeneous or inhomogeneous. In many studies, inhomogeneous SMF was employed. Aware that inhomogeneous SMF could result in experimental variability, we investigated the influence of a vertical homogeneous SMF of different orientation. Male Swiss-Webster 9- to 10-week-old mice were subacutely exposed to upward- and downward-oriented SMF of 128 mT generated by a cyclotron for 1 h/day during a 5-day period. We found that SMF affected various organs and that these effects were, to some degree, dependent on SMF orientation. Both upward- and downward-oriented SMF caused a reduction in the amount of total white blood cells (WBC) and lymphocytes in serum, a decrease of granulocytes in the spleen, kidney inflammation, and an increase in the amount of high-density lipoprotein (HDL). In addition, upward-oriented SMF caused brain edema and increased spleen cellularity. In contrast, downward-oriented SMF induced liver inflammation and a decrease in the amount of serum granulocytes. These effects might represent a specific redistribution of pro-inflammatory cells in blood and among various organs. It appears that homogeneous SMF of 128 mT affected specific organs in the body, rather than simultaneously and equally influencing the entire body system.

  12. Hepatic Transcriptome Responses in Mice (Mus musculus) Exposed to the Nafion Membrane and Its Combustion Products

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Mingbao; Qu, Ruijuan; Habteselassie, Mussie; Wu, Jun; Yang, Shaogui; Sun, Ping; Huang, Qingguo; Wang, Zunyao

    2015-01-01

    Nafion 117 membrane (N117), an important polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM), has been widely used for numerous chemical technologies. Despite its increasing production and use, the toxicity data for N117 and its combustion products remain lacking. Toxicity studies are necessary to avoid problems related to waste disposal in landfills and incineration that may arise. In this study, we investigated the histopathological alterations, oxidative stress biomarker responses, and transcriptome profiles in the liver of male mice exposed to N117 and its combustion products for 24 days. An ion-chromatography system and liquid chromatography system coupled to a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry were used to analyze the chemical compositions of these combustion products. The transcriptomics analysis identified several significantly altered molecular pathways, including the metabolism of xenobiotics, carbohydrates and lipids; signal transduction; cellular processes; immune system; and signaling molecules and interaction. These studies provide preliminary data for the potential toxicity of N117 and its combustion products on living organisms and may fill the information gaps in the toxicity databases for the currently used PEMs. PMID:26057616

  13. Enhanced oxidative stress in the skin of vitamin E deficient mice exposed to semisynthetic metal working fluids.

    PubMed

    Shvedova, Anna A; Kisin, Elena; Murray, Ashley; Smith, Charlotte; Castranova, Vincent; Kommineni, Choudari

    2002-07-01

    Metal working fluids (MWFs) are widely used in industry for metal cutting, drilling, shaping, lubricating, and milling. Many occupational health concerns have arisen for workers exposed to MWFs. It has been reported earlier that occupational exposure to MWFs causes allergic and irritant contact dermatitis. Previously, we have shown that dermal exposure of female and male B6C3F1 mice to 5% MWFs for 3 months resulted in accumulation of mast cells and elevation of histamine in the skin. Topical exposure to MWFs also resulted in elevated oxidative stress in the liver of both sexes and the testes in males. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether preexisting oxidative stress in the skin exacerbated mast cell influx after MWFs treatment. Oxidative stress in the skin of B6C3F1 mice was generated by dietary vitamin E deprivation. Mice were given vitamin E deficient (5-10 i.v./kg of vitamin E) or basal (50 i.v./kg of vitamin E) diets for 34 weeks. Topical treatment with MWFs (100 microl, 30%) started after 18 weeks of alimentary vitamin E deprivation. Histology of the skin after 16 weeks of exposure to MWFs revealed a 53% increase in mast cell accumulation in vitamin E deficient diets compared to mice given a vitamin E sufficient diet. Total antioxidant reserve in skin of vitamin E deprived mice treated with MWFs was decreased by 66% as compared to those mice given a vitamin E sufficient diet. GSH and protein thiols in the dermis of vitamin E deprived mice exposed to MWFs were also decreased 39 and 42%, respectively, as compared to mice given basal diet. This study clearly delineates the role of oxidative stress in enhancing mast cell accumulation caused by topical exposure to MWFs.

  14. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of lycopene in mice lungs exposed to cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Campos, Keila Karine Duarte; Araújo, Glaucy Rodrigues; Martins, Thais Lourenço; Bandeira, Ana Carla Balthar; Costa, Guilherme de Paula; Talvani, André; Garcia, Camila Carrião Machado; Oliveira, Laser Antônio Machado; Costa, Daniela Caldeira; Bezerra, Frank Silva

    2017-10-01

    Lycopene is a carotenoid with known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We aimed to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo effects of lycopene on reducing the redox imbalance and inflammation induced by cigarette smoke (CS). For the in vitro study, J774A.1 (macrophages) cells were incubated in the presence of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0, 10.0 and 25 μM of lycopene for 3, 6 and 24 h or in the presence of 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 0.625%, 1.25%, 2.25%, 5% and 10% cigarette smoke extract (CSE) for 3, 6 and 24 h to assess cell viability and measurement of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). For the in vivo study, 40 mice were divided into 5 groups: a control exposed to ambient air (CG), a vehicle-control group that received 200 μl of sunflower oil by orogastric gavage, a group exposed to CS and two groups administered lycopene (diluted in sunflower oil) at doses of either 25 or 50 mg/kg/day prior to exposure to CS (LY25+CS and LY50+CS). The total treatment time lasted 5 days. A cell viability decrease was observed at 10- and 25-μM concentrations of lycopene in 3, 6 and 24 h compared with CG. There was an increase of ROS production in 24 h in CS compared with CG. Lycopene concentrations of 1 μM and 2 μM were able to reduce the production of ROS in 24 h compared with CS. In the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, the total number of leukocytes increased in the CS group compared with the control groups (CG). Administration with lycopene at the highest dose suppressed this CS-induced increase in leukocytes. Lipid peroxidation and DNA damage increased in the CS group compared with that in the controls, and this increase was suppressed by lycopene at the highest dose. In contrast, superoxide dismutase activity decreased in the CS group compared with that in the controls. Catalase activity also increased in the CS group compared with that in both control groups, and this increase was suppressed in LY25+CS and LY50+CS. There was an increase in the levels of tumor necrosis

  15. Early detection of susceptibility to acute lung inflammation by molecular imaging in mice exposed to cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rial, Sandra; Del Puerto-Nevado, Laura; González-Mangado, Nicolás; Peces-Barba, Germán

    2011-10-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are extracellular proteolytic enzymes involved in acute lung inflammation in response to cigarette smoke exposure (CSE). We present the in vivo detection of MMP activity using a specific MMP-activatable, near-infrared, polymer-based proteolytic probe in strains of mice with different susceptibility to developing smoking-induced emphysema (susceptible mice, C57BL/6j, and resistant mice, 129S2/SvHsd) to characterize the distinctive profile of CSE-induced acute inflammation. In vivo imaging of pulmonary inflammation expressing MMPs revealed a significantly different median ratio twofold higher in smoker than in nonsmoker susceptible mice (C57BL/6j) and no significant differences between the smoker and the nonsmoker group in resistant mice (129S2/SvHsd). Ex vivo imaging of the lungs of each group of mice confirmed the same in vivo experiment results obtained for both strains of mice. In the biochemical study of lung tissue, the proteolytic signal colocalized with the endogenously expressed MMP protein levels, with MMP-9 levels that are 2.2 times higher than in the nonsmoke-exposed group in C57BL/6j mice and no significant differences in the 129S2/SvHsd mice. The MMP-activatable probe provides a useful reagent for the in vivo and ex vivo detection of MMP-selective proteolytic activity. We are able to distinguish between susceptible and resistant strains of mice in terms of the profile of MMP activity in the early stages of pulmonary disease.

  16. Blood and lung microRNAs as biomarkers of pulmonary tumorigenesis in cigarette smoke-exposed mice.

    PubMed

    Izzotti, Alberto; Balansky, Roumen; Ganchev, Gancho; Iltcheva, Marietta; Longobardi, Mariagrazia; Pulliero, Alessandra; Geretto, Marta; Micale, Rosanna T; La Maestra, Sebastiano; Miller, Mark Steven; Steele, Vernon E; De Flora, Silvio

    2016-12-20

    Cigarette smoke (CS) is known to dysregulate microRNA expression profiles in the lungs of mice, rats, and humans, thereby modulating several pathways involved in lung carcinogenesis and other CS-related diseases. We designed a study aimed at evaluating (a) the expression of 1135 microRNAs in the lung of Swiss H mice exposed to mainstream CS during the first 4 months of life and thereafter kept in filtered air for an additional 3.5 months, (b) the relationship between lung microRNA profiles and histopathological alterations in the lung, (c) intergender differences in microRNA expression, and (d) the comparison with microRNA profiles in blood serum. CS caused multiple histopathological alterations in the lung, which were almost absent in sham-exposed mice. An extensive microRNA dysregulation was detected in the lung of CS-exposed mice. Modulation of microRNA profiles was specifically related to the histopathological picture, no effect being detected in lung fragments with non-neoplastic lung diseases (emphysema or alveolar epithelial hyperplasia), whereas a close association occurred with the presence and multiplicity of preneoplastic lesions (microadenomas) and benign lung tumors (adenomas). Three microRNAs regulating estrogen and HER2-dependent mechanisms were modulated in the lung of adenoma-bearing female mice. Blood microRNAs were also modulated in mice affected by early neoplastic lesions. However, there was a poor association between lung microRNAs and circulating microRNAs, which can be ascribed to an impaired release of mature microRNAs from the damaged lung. Studies in progress are evaluating the feasibility of analyzing blood microRNAs as a molecular tool for lung cancer secondary prevention.

  17. Blood and lung microRNAs as biomarkers of pulmonary tumorigenesis in cigarette smoke-exposed mice

    PubMed Central

    Izzotti, Alberto; Balansky, Roumen; Ganchev, Gancho; Iltcheva, Marietta; Longobardi, Mariagrazia; Pulliero, Alessandra; Geretto, Marta; Micale, Rosanna T.; La Maestra, Sebastiano; Miller, Mark Steven; Steele, Vernon E.; De Flora, Silvio

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) is known to dysregulate microRNA expression profiles in the lungs of mice, rats, and humans, thereby modulating several pathways involved in lung carcinogenesis and other CS-related diseases. We designed a study aimed at evaluating (a) the expression of 1135 microRNAs in the lung of Swiss H mice exposed to mainstream CS during the first 4 months of life and thereafter kept in filtered air for an additional 3.5 months, (b) the relationship between lung microRNA profiles and histopathological alterations in the lung, (c) intergender differences in microRNA expression, and (d) the comparison with microRNA profiles in blood serum. CS caused multiple histopathological alterations in the lung, which were almost absent in sham-exposed mice. An extensive microRNA dysregulation was detected in the lung of CS-exposed mice. Modulation of microRNA profiles was specifically related to the histopathological picture, no effect being detected in lung fragments with non-neoplastic lung diseases (emphysema or alveolar epithelial hyperplasia), whereas a close association occurred with the presence and multiplicity of preneoplastic lesions (microadenomas) and benign lung tumors (adenomas). Three microRNAs regulating estrogen and HER2-dependent mechanisms were modulated in the lung of adenoma-bearing female mice. Blood microRNAs were also modulated in mice affected by early neoplastic lesions. However, there was a poor association between lung microRNAs and circulating microRNAs, which can be ascribed to an impaired release of mature microRNAs from the damaged lung. Studies in progress are evaluating the feasibility of analyzing blood microRNAs as a molecular tool for lung cancer secondary prevention. PMID:27713172

  18. Toxicity of furfuryl alcohol to F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice exposed by inhalation.

    PubMed

    Irwin, R D; Chou, B J; Mellick, P W; Miller, R A; Mahler, J; Roycroft, J

    1997-01-01

    Groups of F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed to furfuryl alcohol vapor for 6 hours per day, 5 days per week for 14 days (0, 16, 31, 63, 125, 250 ppm) or 13 weeks (0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 ppm). Reduced survival was observed in the 14-day study at 250 ppm. Final mean body weights of rats and mice exposed to 125 ppm and of female mice exposed to 63 ppm were lower than controls at the end of the 14-day study; there were no significant differences in mean body weight among chemical-exposed and control groups in the 13-week study. Exposure to furfuryl alcohol had no toxicologically significant effect on organ weights in either rats or mice, and did not cause any adverse changes in hematology or serum chemistry parameters evaluated in rates in the 13-week study. Microscopic lesions associated with exposure to furfuryl alcohol were present in the nose of both rats and mice at all exposure concentrations in both the 14-day and 13-week studies. Lesions observed in the 14-day study consisted of inflammation of the nasal turbinates accompanied by necrosis and squamous metaplasia of the respiratory epithelium and necrosis and degeneration of the olfactory epithelium. Similar lesions were observed in both rats and mice in the 13-week study. In addition, squamous metaplasia and goblet cell hyperplasia of the respiratory epithelium, squamous metaplasia of the transitional epithelium and degeneration, hyperplasia and some respiratory metaplasia of the olfactory epithelium were also observed in rats in the 13-week study, and hyaline droplets in the respiratory epithelium and chronic inflammation and respiratory metaplasia in the olfactory epithelium were observed in mice in the 13-week study. In general the nasal passages of mice appeared less sensitive than those of rats at the concentrations used in the 13-week study; a no-observable-effect level was not achieved in either the 14-day or the 13-week study.

  19. Expression Profiling Reveals Novel Hypoxic Biomarkers in Peripheral Blood of Adult Mice Exposed to Chronic Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Zeiger, Ulrike; Khurana, Tejvir S.

    2012-01-01

    Hypoxia induces a myriad of changes including an increase in hematocrit due to erythropoietin (EPO) mediated erythropoiesis. While hypoxia is of importance physiologically and clinically, lacunae exist in our knowledge of the systemic and temporal changes in gene expression occurring in blood during the exposure and recovery from hypoxia. To identify these changes expression profiling was conducted on blood obtained from cohorts of C57Bl-10 wild type mice that were maintained at normoxia (NX), exposed for two weeks to normobaric chronic hypoxia (CH) or two weeks of CH followed by two weeks of normoxic recovery (REC). Using stringent bioinformatic cut-offs (0% FDR, 2 fold change cut-off), 230 genes were identified and separated into four distinct temporal categories. Class I) contained 1 transcript up-regulated in both CH and REC; Class II) contained 202 transcripts up-regulated in CH but down-regulated after REC; Class III) contained 9 transcripts down-regulated both in CH and REC; Class IV) contained 18 transcripts down-regulated after CH exposure but up-regulated after REC. Profiling was independently validated and extended by analyzing expression levels of selected genes as novel biomarkers from our profile (e.g. spectrin alpha-1, ubiquitin domain family-1 and pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase-1) by performing qPCR at 7 different time points during CH and REC. Our identification and characterization of these genes define transcriptome level changes occurring during chronic hypoxia and normoxic recovery as well as novel blood biomarkers that may be useful in monitoring a variety of physiological and pathological conditions associated with hypoxia. PMID:22629407

  20. Monoclonal antibodies against toluene diisocyanate haptenated proteins from vapor-exposed mice.

    PubMed

    Ruwona, Tinashe B; Johnson, Victor J; Schmechel, Detlef; Simoyi, Reuben H; Beezhold, Donald; Siegel, Paul D

    2010-06-01

    Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) is an industrially important polymer cross-linker used in the production of polyurethane. Workplace exposure to TDI and other diisocyanates is reported to be a leading cause of low molecular weight-induced occupational asthma (OA). Currently we have a limited understanding of the pathogenesis of OA. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that recognize TDI bound proteins would be valuable tools/reagents, both in exposure monitoring and in TDI-induced asthma research. We sought to develop toluene diisocyanate (TDI)-specific MAbs for potential use in the development of standardized immunoassays for exposure and biomarker assessments. Mice were exposed 4 h/day for 12 consecutive weekdays to 50 ppb, 2,4;2,6 TDI vapor (80/20 mixture). Splenocytes were isolated 24 h after the last exposure for hybridoma production. Hybridomas were screened in a solid-phase indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) against a 2,4 TDI-human serum albumin (2,4 TDI-HSA) protein conjugate. Three hybridomas producing 2,4 TDI-HSA reactive IgM MAbs were obtained. The properties of these MAbs (isotype and reactivity to various protein-isocyanate conjugate epitopes) were characterized using ELISA, dot blot, and Western blot analyses. Western blot analyses demonstrated that some TDI conjugates form inter- and intra-molecular links, resulting in multimers and a change in the electrophoretic mobility of the conjugate. These antibodies may be useful tools for the isolation of endogenous diisocyanate-modified proteins after natural or experimental exposures and for characterization of the toxicity of specific dNCOs.

  1. Monoclonal Antibodies Against Toluene Diisocyanate Haptenated Proteins from Vapor-Exposed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ruwona, Tinashe B.; Johnson, Victor J.; Schmechel, Detlef; Simoyi, Reuben H.; Beezhold, Donald

    2010-01-01

    Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) is an industrially important polymer cross-linker used in the production of polyurethane. Workplace exposure to TDI and other diisocyanates is reported to be a leading cause of low molecular weight–induced occupational asthma (OA). Currently we have a limited understanding of the pathogenesis of OA. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that recognize TDI bound proteins would be valuable tools/reagents, both in exposure monitoring and in TDI-induced asthma research. We sought to develop toluene diisocyanate (TDI)-specific MAbs for potential use in the development of standardized immunoassays for exposure and biomarker assessments. Mice were exposed 4 h/day for 12 consecutive weekdays to 50 ppb, 2,4;2,6 TDI vapor (80/20 mixture). Splenocytes were isolated 24 h after the last exposure for hybridoma production. Hybridomas were screened in a solid-phase indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) against a 2,4 TDI–human serum albumin (2,4 TDI-HSA) protein conjugate. Three hybridomas producing 2,4 TDI-HSA reactive IgM MAbs were obtained. The properties of these MAbs (isotype and reactivity to various protein-isocyanate conjugate epitopes) were characterized using ELISA, dot blot, and Western blot analyses. Western blot analyses demonstrated that some TDI conjugates form inter- and intra-molecular links, resulting in multimers and a change in the electrophoretic mobility of the conjugate. These antibodies may be useful tools for the isolation of endogenous diisocyanate-modified proteins after natural or experimental exposures and for characterization of the toxicity of specific dNCOs. PMID:20568997

  2. 7-Alkylguanine adduct levels in urine, lungs and liver of mice exposed to styrene by inhalation

    SciTech Connect

    Vodicka, Pavel Erik . E-mail: pvodicka@biomed.cas.cz; Linhart, Igor; Novak, Jan; Koskinen, Mikko; Vodickova, Ludmila; Hemminki, Kari

    2006-01-15

    This study describes urinary excretion of two nucleobase adducts derived from styrene 7,8-oxide (SO), i.e., 7-(2-hydroxy-1-phenylethyl)guanine (N7{alpha}G) and 7-(2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl)guanine (N7{beta}G), as well as a formation of N7-SO-guanine adducts in lungs and liver of two month old male NMRI mice exposed to styrene by inhalation in a 3-week subacute study. Strikingly higher excretion of both isomeric nucleobase adducts in the first day of exposure was recorded, while the daily excretion of nucleobase adducts in following time intervals reached the steady-state level at 4.32 + 1.14 and 6.91 + 1.17 pmol/animal for lower and higher styrene exposure, respectively. {beta}-SO-guanine DNA adducts in lungs increased with exposure in a linear way (F = 13.7 for linearity and 0.17 for non-linearity, respectively), reaching at the 21st day the level of 23.0 adducts/10{sup 8} normal nucleotides, i.e., 0.74 fmol/{mu}g DNA of 7-alkylguanine DNA adducts for the concentration of 1500 mg/m{sup 3}, while no 7-SO-guanine DNA adducts were detected in the liver after 21 days of inhalation exposure to both of styrene concentrations. A comparison of 7-alkylguanines excreted in urine with 7-SO-guanines in lungs (after correction for depurination and for missing {alpha}-isomers) revealed that persisting 7-SO-guanine DNA adducts in lungs account for about 0.5% of the total alkylation at N7 of guanine. The total styrene-specific 7-guanine alkylation accounts for about 1.0 x 10{sup -5}% of the total styrene uptake, while N1-adenine alkylation contributes to this percentage only negligibly.

  3. Effects of exogenous methionine on arsenic burden and NO metabolism in brain of mice exposed to arsenite through drinking water.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fenghong; Wang, Yan; Jin, Yaping; Zhong, Yuan; Yu, Xiaoyun; Li, Gexin; Lv, Xiuqiang; Sun, Guifan

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effects of exogenous methionine (Met) on arsenic burden and metabolism of nitric oxide (NO) in the brain of mice exposed to arsenite via drinking water. Mice were exposed to sodium arsenite through drinking water contaminated with 50 mg/L arsenic for four consecutive weeks, and treated intraperitoneally with saline solution, 100 mg/kg body weight (b.w), 200 mg/kg b.w or 400 mg/kg b.w of Met, respectively at the fourth week. Levels of inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylarsenic acid (MMAs), and dimethylarsenic acid (DMAs) in the liver, blood and brain were determined by method of hydride generation coupled with atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activities and NO levels in the brain were determined by colorimetric method. Compared with mice exposed to arsenite alone, administration of Met increased significantly the primary methylation ratio in the liver, which resulted in decrease of percent iAs and increase of percent DMAs in the liver, and decrease of iAs, MMAs and total arsenic levels (TAs) in the blood and DMAs and TAs in the brain. NOS activities and NO levels in the brain of mice exposed to arsenite alone were significantly lower than those in control, however administration of Met could increase significantly NO levels. Findings from this study suggested that exogenous Met could benefit the primary arsenic methylation in the liver, which might increase the production of methylated arsenicals and facilitate arsenic excretion. As a consequence, arsenic burden in both blood and brain was reduced, and toxic effects on NO metabolism in the brain were ameliorated. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Ethylene oxide in blood of ethylene-exposed B6C3F1 mice, Fischer 344 rats, and humans.

    PubMed

    Filser, Johannes Georg; Kessler, Winfried; Artati, Anna; Erbach, Eva; Faller, Thomas; Kreuzer, Paul Erich; Li, Qiang; Lichtmannegger, Josef; Numtip, Wanwiwa; Klein, Dominik; Pütz, Christian; Semder, Brigitte; Csanády, György András

    2013-12-01

    The gaseous olefin ethylene (ET) is metabolized in mammals to the carcinogenic epoxide ethylene oxide (EO). Although ET is the largest volume organic chemical worldwide, the EO burden in ET-exposed humans is still uncertain, and only limited data are available on the EO burden in ET-exposed rodents. Therefore, EO was quantified in blood of mice, rats, or 4 volunteers that were exposed once to constant atmospheric ET concentrations of between 1 and 10 000 ppm (rodents) or 5 and 50 ppm (humans). Both the compounds were determined by gas chromatography. At ET concentrations of between 1 and 10 000 ppm, areas under the concentration-time curves of EO in blood (µmol × h/l) ranged from 0.039 to 3.62 in mice and from 0.086 to 11.6 in rats. At ET concentrations ≤ 30 ppm, EO concentrations in blood were 8.7-fold higher in rats and 3.9-fold higher in mice than that in the volunteer with the highest EO burdens. Based on measured EO concentrations, levels of EO adducts to hemoglobin and lymphocyte DNA were calculated for diverse ET concentrations and compared with published adduct levels. For given ET exposure concentrations, there were good agreements between calculated and measured levels of adducts to hemoglobin in rats and humans and to DNA in rats and mice. Reported hemoglobin adduct levels in mice were higher than calculated ones. Furthermore, information is given on species-specific background adduct levels. In summary, the study provides most relevant data for an improved assessment of the human health risk from exposure to ET.

  5. Ethylene Oxide in Blood of Ethylene-Exposed B6C3F1 Mice, Fischer 344 Rats, and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Filser, Johannes Georg; Erbach, Eva; Faller, Thomas; Kreuzer, Paul Erich; Li, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    The gaseous olefin ethylene (ET) is metabolized in mammals to the carcinogenic epoxide ethylene oxide (EO). Although ET is the largest volume organic chemical worldwide, the EO burden in ET-exposed humans is still uncertain, and only limited data are available on the EO burden in ET-exposed rodents. Therefore, EO was quantified in blood of mice, rats, or 4 volunteers that were exposed once to constant atmospheric ET concentrations of between 1 and 10 000 ppm (rodents) or 5 and 50 ppm (humans). Both the compounds were determined by gas chromatography. At ET concentrations of between 1 and 10 000 ppm, areas under the concentration-time curves of EO in blood (µmol × h/l) ranged from 0.039 to 3.62 in mice and from 0.086 to 11.6 in rats. At ET concentrations ≤ 30 ppm, EO concentrations in blood were 8.7-fold higher in rats and 3.9-fold higher in mice than that in the volunteer with the highest EO burdens. Based on measured EO concentrations, levels of EO adducts to hemoglobin and lymphocyte DNA were calculated for diverse ET concentrations and compared with published adduct levels. For given ET exposure concentrations, there were good agreements between calculated and measured levels of adducts to hemoglobin in rats and humans and to DNA in rats and mice. Reported hemoglobin adduct levels in mice were higher than calculated ones. Furthermore, information is given on species-specific background adduct levels. In summary, the study provides most relevant data for an improved assessment of the human health risk from exposure to ET. PMID:24068676

  6. Hesperidin promotes cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer repair in UVB-exposed mice epidermis.

    PubMed

    Jin, S; Zhou, B; Luo, D

    2011-09-01

    To investigate whether topical application of hesperin affords protection to Balb/C mice epidermis from UVB-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs). A DNA damage model of UVB irradiation-induced mice epidermis was established. The immunohistochemical staining and southwestern dot blotting were used for CPDs detection; western blotting was used for P53 detection. Topical application of hesperidin on Balb/C mice skin significantly decreased the amount of epidermal CPDs 24 and 48 h after 180 mJ/cm(2) of UVB irradiation as compared to untreated mice. UVB-induced p53 expression was more pronounced in hesperidin-treated mice epidermis compared to that of untreated mice. Taken together, these results suggest that topical hesperidin application promotes DNA photo-damage repair. Hesperidin is therefore a promising protective substance against UVB radiation.

  7. Antioxidant and micronutrient-rich milk formula reduces lead poisoning and related oxidative damage in lead-exposed mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Li, Qingqing; Liu, Xiaojie; Zhu, Hui; Song, Aihua; Jiao, Jingjing

    2013-07-01

    Lead poisoning is a global environmental disease that induces lifelong adverse health effects. The effect of a milk formula consisting of antioxidant of bamboo leaves (AOB), vitamin C (Vc), calcium lactate (CaLac), ferrous sulfate (FeSO₄) and zinc sulfate (ZnSO₄) on the reduction of lead and lead-induced oxidative damage in lead-exposed mice was studied. The lead-reducing effect of milk formula was investigated via a 7-week toxicokinetics study and a tissue distribution level examination. The ameliorating effect of milk formula on lead-induced oxidative damage was investigated. Results demonstrated current milk formula could effectively reduce blood lead levels (BLLs) and lead distribution levels of liver, kidneys, thighbones and brain in mice based on metal ion-mediated antagonism and chelation mechanisms. This milk formula could not only protect lead-susceptible tissues against lead poisoning, but also maintain normal absorption and distribution of essential elements in vivo. Meanwhile, current milk formula could prevent the reduction of δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD) activity and enhancement of free erythrocyte protoporphyrins (FEP) levels in blood erythrocytes of mice. Also, this formula could indirectly protect blood cell membranes against lead-induced lipid peroxidation. We conclude that current optimized milk formula effectively reduces lead poisoning and lead-induced in vivo oxidative damage in lead-exposed mice.

  8. Gender difference in protein expression of vascular wall in mice exposed to chronic intermittent hypoxia: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Li, Q Y; Feng, Y; Lin, Y N; Li, M; Guo, Q; Gu, S Y; Liu, J L; Zhang, R F; Wan, H Y

    2014-10-20

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases such as systemic arterial hypertension, ischemic heart disease, stroke, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, and cardiac sudden death. The pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in OSA is thought to be induced primarily by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), a specific pattern of change in oxygenation during sleep. However, the underlying mechanisms of CIH-induced vasculature injury and gender differences are not well documented. The iTRAQ Quantitative Proteomic method enables analysis of a number of different proteins among several groups. Thus, we explored gender differences in protein expression in the vascular walls of mice exposed to CIH. C57BL/6J mice of each gender were exposed to CIH with a fractional inspired O2 (FiO2) nadir of 5% or control, with a treatment time of 8 h/day for 28 days. Differential proteins related to CIH-induced vascular injury between genders were identified using iTRAQ proteomic technology. A total of 163 proteins were identified, of which 34 showed significant differences between genders, which may correlate with vascular injury by CIH. Twenty up-regulated proteins and 14 downregulated proteins were observed in female mice compared with male mice. We identified different vascular proteins expressed under CIH between genders, suggesting that these proteins may be biomarkers of vascular injury by CIH.

  9. Efficacy of rutin in inhibiting neuronal apoptosis and cognitive disturbances in sevoflurane or propofol exposed neonatal mice

    PubMed Central

    Man, Yi-Gang; Zhou, Rui-Gang; Zhao, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Sevoflurane and propofol are widely used in pediatric anesthesia. Neurotoxicity of sevoflurane and propofol in developing brain has been reported and these effects raise concerns on the usage of the drugs. We investigated the influence of rutin, a flavonoid on the neurodegenerative effects of sevoflurane and propofol and on memory and cognition in neonatal rodent model. Separate groups of neonatal mice (C57BL/6) were administered with rutin at 25 or 50 mg/kg body weight (b.wt) from post natal day 2 (P1) to P21. P7 mice were exposed to 2.9% sevoflurane and/or propofol (150 mg/kg b.wt). Neuroapoptosis was assessed by measuring activated caspase-3 and by Fluoro-Jade C staining. Plasma S100β levels were detected by ELISA. Morris water maze test was performed to test learning and memory impairments in the animals. General behaviour of the mice was also assessed. Anesthesia exposure caused severe neuroapoptosis and also raised the levels of plasma S100β. Neuroapoptosis, memory and cognitive deficits observed following anesthetics were comparatively more profound in mice on exposure to combined drug (sevoflurane and propofol) than in those exposed to either of the anesthetics. Rutin at both the doses was effective in reducing the apoptotic cell counts and enhanced the memory and cognitive abilities. Rutin supplementation offered significant protection against anesthetic induced neurodegeneration and learning and memory disturbances. PMID:26550427

  10. Modulation by Ethanol of Cigarette Smoke Clastogenicity in Cells of Adult Mice and of Transplacentally Exposed Fetuses

    PubMed Central

    Balansky, Roumen; La Maestra, Sebastiano; Micale, Rosanna T.; Iltcheva, Marietta; Kirov, Krassimir; De Flora, Silvio

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) and ethanol (EtOH) are known to synergize in the causation of cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract and of the liver. Little is known about possible interactions between these agents in other organs. These premises prompted us to evaluate the clastogenic effects resulting from the inhalation for 3 weeks of mainstream CS and oral administration of EtOH, which were tested either individually or in combination in cells of adult BDF1 mice and their fetuses. CS exerted clastogenic effects in haematopoietic cells of adult male mice by increasing the frequency of micronucleated erythroid cells both in bone marrow and in peripheral blood as well as the frequency of micronucleated and polynucleated pulmonary alveolar macrophages. Likewise, exposure to CS of pregnant mice resulted in a clastogenic damage in maternal bone marrow cells and in the liver and peripheral blood of their fetuses. Under all experimental conditions, EtOH was consistently devoid of clastogenic effects when given alone. In adult mice, EtOH exhibited a mild stimulating effect on the clastogenicity of CS in haematopoietic cells, while an opposite effect was observed in the respiratory tract, where EtOH attenuated the cytogenetic alterations induced by CS in pulmonary alveolar macrophages. At variance with the mild synergism observed in haematopoietic cells of adult mice, EtOH inhibited the clastogenicity of CS in the liver and peripheral blood cells of transplacentally exposed fetuses. Therefore, the effects of EtOH in CS-exposed mice show different trends depending both on the life stage and on the cells analyzed. PMID:27907070

  11. Evaluation of adaptogenic-like property of methyl jasmonate in mice exposed to unpredictable chronic mild stress.

    PubMed

    Umukoro, Solomon; Aluko, Oritoke Modupe; Eduviere, Anthony T; Owoeye, Olatunde

    2016-03-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the adaptogenic-like activity of methyl jasmonate (MJ) in mice exposed to unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS). Male Swiss mice were treated with MJ (25-100mg/kg, i.p.) 30 min before exposure to UCMS daily for 14 days prior to testing for memory and anxiety. Thereafter, the blood glucose and serum corticosterone levels were estimated using glucometer and ELISA. The brain concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) were estimated using spectrophotometer. Brain histology and the population of healthy neurons in the hippocampal regions were also assessed. MJ reversed anxiety and memory impairment produced by UCMS, which suggest adaptogenic-like property. The reduction in the weight of adrenal gland and liver in MJ-treated groups further indicates adaptogenic activity. It further decreases the blood glucose and serum corticosterone levels in UCMS-mice. Also, MJ decreases the concentrations of MDA and elevated the levels of GSH in the brain of mice exposed to UCMS. Brain histology revealed that MJ attenuated UCMS-induced degeneration and death of neuronal cells in the pyramidal layer of the cornu ammonis 3 (CA3) and the sub-granular zone of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Moreover, MJ decreased the population of dead neuronal cells of the pyramidal layer of the CA3 and the sub-granular zone of the dentate gyrus of the UCMS-mice, which suggests neuroprotection. Taken together, these findings suggest that MJ demonstrated adaptogenic-like activity in mice; which might be related to modulation of serum corticosterone levels, inhibition of oxidative stress and neuroprotection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Microvascular dysfunction with increased vascular leakage response in mice systemically exposed to arsenic.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Shin-Yin; Lu, Chi-Yu; Hsu, Ya-Hung; Wang, Dean-Chuan

    2014-09-01

    The mechanisms underlying cardiovascular disease induced by arsenic exposure are not completely understood. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether arsenic-fed mice have an increased vascular leakage response to vasoactive agents and whether enhanced type-2 protein phosphatase (PP2A) activity is involved in mustard oil-induced leakage. ICR mice were fed water or sodium arsenite (20 mg/kg) for 4 or 8 weeks. The leakage response to vasoactive agents was quantified using the Evans blue (EB) technique or vascular labeling with carbon particles. Increased EB leakage and high density of carbon-labeled microvessels were detected in arsenic-fed mice treated with mustard oil. Histamine induced significantly higher vascular leakage in arsenic-fed mice than in water-fed mice. Pretreatment with the PP2A inhibitor okadaic acid or the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) blocker RP67580 significantly reduced mustard oil-induced vascular leakage in arsenic-fed mice. The protein levels of PP2Ac and NK1R were similar in both groups. PP2A activity was significantly higher in the arsenic-fed mice compared with the control group. These findings indicate that microvessels generally respond to vasoactive agents, and that the increased PP2A activity is involved in mustard oil-induced vascular leakage in arsenic-fed mice. Arsenic may initiate endothelial dysfunction, resulting in vascular leakage in response to vasoactive agents.

  13. Effects of exogenous glutathione on arsenic burden and NO metabolism in brain of mice exposed to arsenite through drinking water.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Zhao, Fenghong; Jin, Yaping; Zhong, Yuan; Yu, Xiaoyun; Li, Gexin; Lv, Xiuqiang; Sun, Guifan

    2011-03-01

    Chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) is associated with neurotoxicity. Studies to date have disclosed that methylation of ingested iAs is the main metabolic pathway, and it is a process relying on reduced glutathione (GSH). The aim of this study was to explore the effects of exogenous GSH on arsenic burden and metabolism of nitric oxide (NO) in the brain of mice exposed to arsenite via drinking water. Mice were exposed to sodium arsenite through drinking water contaminated with 50 mg/L arsenic for 4 weeks and treated intraperitoneally with saline solution, 200 mg/kg body weight (b.w), 400 mg/kg b.w, or 800 mg/kg b.w GSH, respectively, at the 4th week. Levels of iAs, monomethylarsenic acid, and dimethylarsenic acid (DMAs) in the liver, blood, and brain were determined by method of hydride generation coupled with atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Activities of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and contents of NO in the brain were determined by colorimetric method. Compared with mice exposed to arsenite alone, administration of GSH increased dose-dependently the primary and secondary methylation ratio in the liver, which caused the decrease in percent iAs and increase in percent DMAs in the liver, as a consequence, resulted in significant decrease in iAs levels in the blood and total arsenic levels in both blood and brain. NOS activities and NO levels in the brain of mice in iAs group were significantly lower than those in control; however, administration of GSH could increase significantly activities of NOS and contents of NO. Findings from this study suggested that exogenous GSH could promote both primary and secondary arsenic methylation capacity in the liver, which might facilitate excretion of arsenicals, and consequently reduce arsenic burden in both blood and brain and furthermore ameliorate the effects of arsenicals on NO metabolism in the brain.

  14. Short-term social memory deficits in adult female mice exposed to tannery effluent and possible mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Estrela, Fernanda Neves; Rabelo, Letícia Martins; Vaz, Boniek Gontijo; de Oliveira Costa, Denys Ribeiro; Pereira, Igor; de Lima Rodrigues, Aline Sueli; Malafaia, Guilherme

    2017-10-01

    The accumulated organic residues in tannery-plant courtyards are an eating attraction to small rodents; however, the contact of these animals with these residues may change their social behavior. Thus, the aim of the present study is to investigate whether the exposure to tannery effluent (TE) can damage the social recognition memory of female Swiss mice, as well as to assess whether vitamin C supplementation could provide information about how TE constituents can damage these animals' memory. We have observed that resident females exposed to TE (without vitamin supplementation) did not explore the anogenital region, their body or chased intruding females for shorter time or with lower frequency during the retest session of the social recognition test, fact that indicates social recognition memory deficit in these animals. Such finding is reinforced by the confirmation that there was no change in the animals' olfactory function during the buried food test, or locomotor changes in females exposed to the pollutant. Since no behavioral change was observed in the females exposed to TE and treated with vitamin C (before or after the exposure), it is possible saying that these social cognitive impairments seem to be directly related to the imbalance between the cellular production of reactive oxygen species and the counteracting antioxidant mechanisms (oxidative stress) in female mice exposed to the pollutant (without vitamin supplementation). Therefore, the present study evidences that the direct contact with tannery effluent, even for a short period-of-time, may cause short-term social memory deficits in adult female Swiss mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Study of acetylcholinesterase activity and apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells and mice exposed to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenjun; Chen, Liangjing; Zheng, Wei; Wei, Xiaoan; Wu, Wenqi; Duysen, Ellen G; Jiang, Wei

    2017-06-01

    Ethanol is one of the most commonly abused psychotropic substances with deleterious effects on the central nervous system. Ethanol exposure during development results in the loss of neurons in brain regions and when exposed to ethanol cultured cells undergo apoptosis. To date no information is available on whether abnormally high AChE activity is characteristic of apoptosis in animals exposed to ethanol. The aims of the present study were to determine whether induction of AChE activity is associated with ethanol-induced apoptosis and to explore the mechanism of enhanced AChE activity induced by ethanol. For this purpose, in vitro and in vivo experiments were performed. AChE activity was quantified by spectrophotometry and apoptosis by flow cytometer in SH-SY5Y cells exposed to ethanol. The results showed that cells treated with 500mM ethanol for 24h had a 9-fold increase in apoptotic cells and a 6-fold increase in AChE activity compared with controls. Mice exposed acutely to 200μl of 20% ethanol daily on days 1-4 had elevated AChE activity in plasma on days 3-7. On day 4, plasma AChE activity was 2.4-fold higher than pretreatment activity. More apoptotic cells were found in the brains of treated mice compared to controls. Cells in brain sections that were positive in the TUNEL assay stained for AChE activity. In conclusion, AChE activity and apoptosis were induced in SH-SY5Y cells and mice treated with ethanol, which may indicate that increased AChE may related to apoptosis induced by ethanol. Unusually high AChE activity may be an effect marker of exposure to ethanol. The relationship between AChE and apoptosis might represent a novel mechanism of ethanol-associated neuronal injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Chronic elevation of phosphocholine containing lipids in mice exposed to Gulf War agents pyridostigmine bromide and permethrin.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Laila; Evans, James E; Montague, Hannah; Reed, Jon M; Moser, Ann; Crynen, Gogce; Gonzalez, Ariel; Zakirova, Zuchra; Ross, Ivan; Mullan, Chris; Mullan, Michael; Ait-Ghezala, Ghania; Crawford, Fiona

    2013-01-01

    For two decades, 25% of the veterans who served in the 1991 Gulf War (GW) have been living with Gulf War Illness (GWI), a chronic multisymptom illness. Evidence suggests that brain structures involved in cognitive function may be affected in GWI. Gulf War agents such as the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor pyridostigmine bromide (PB) and the pesticide permethrin (PER) are considered key etiogenic factors in GWI. We therefore developed a mouse model of GW agent exposure by co-administering PB and PER and showed that this model exhibits cognitive impairment and anxiety, and increased astrogliosis at chronic post-exposure time-points. Since GW agents inhibit AChE, we hypothesized that PB+PER exposure will modulate phosphatidylcholine (PC) and sphingomyelin (SM), which are reservoirs of phosphocholine required for endogenous ACh synthesis. Lipidomic analyses showed that PC and SM were elevated in the brains of exposed compared to control mice. Brain ether PC (ePC) species were increased but lyso-platelet activating factors (lyso-PAF) that are products of ePC were decreased in exposed animals compared to controls. Catalase expression (a marker for peroxisomes) was increased in GW agent exposed mice compared to controls. Ether PC and lyso-PAF modulation was also evident in the plasma of GW agent exposed mice compared to controls. These studies suggest peroxisomal and lysosomal dysfunction in the brain at a chronic post-exposure timepoint following GW agent exposure. Our studies provide a new direction for GWI research, which will be useful for developing suitable therapies for treating GWI.

  17. Antidepressant Effects of Aripiprazole Augmentation for Cilostazol-Treated Mice Exposed to Chronic Mild Stress after Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yu Ri; Kim, Ha Neui; Hong, Ki Whan; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Choi, Byung Tae

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects and underlying mechanism of aripiprazole (APZ) augmentation for cilostazol (CLS)-treated post-ischemic stroke mice that were exposed to chronic mild stress (CMS). Compared to treatment with either APZ or CLS alone, the combined treatment resulted in a greater reduction in depressive behaviors, including anhedonia, despair-like behaviors, and memory impairments. This treatment also significantly reduced atrophic changes in the striatum, cortex, and midbrain of CMS-treated ischemic mice, and inhibited neuronal cell apoptosis, particularly in the striatum and the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Greater proliferation of neuronal progenitor cells was also observed in the ipsilateral striatum of the mice receiving combined treatment compared to mice receiving either drug alone. Phosphorylation of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein (CREB) was increased in the striatum, hippocampus, and midbrain of mice receiving combined treatment compared to treatment with either drug alone, particularly in the neurons of the striatum and hippocampus, and dopaminergic neurons of the midbrain. Our results suggest that APZ may augment the antidepressant effects of CLS via co-regulation of the CREB signaling pathway, resulting in the synergistic enhancement of their neuroprotective effects. PMID:28208711

  18. MexTAg mice exposed to asbestos develop cancer that faithfully replicates key features of the pathogenesis of human mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Cleo; Walsh, Amy; Larma, Irma; O'Halloran, Sean; Nowak, Anna K; Lake, Richard A

    2011-01-01

    Animal models provide an important tool for investigating the biology of cancer and for testing the efficacy of novel treatments. Here we describe several aspects of the transgenic MexTAg mouse that develops asbestos-induced mesothelioma. Targeted expression of the TAg transgene causes mesothelioma to develop more rapidly after asbestos exposure in wild-type mice with 100% incidence compared to 30% incidence in wild-type mice. MexTAg mice do not develop spontaneous mesothelioma and exhibit a very low incidence of other tumours. Here we show that TAg does not affect the aggressiveness or rate of progression of the mesotheliomas, suggesting that the oncogene alters only the rate at which disease is initiated. The instillation of an alternative inflammatory agent, thioglycollate, did not induce mesotheliomas, demonstrating acute inflammation is not sufficient for tumour development in MexTAg mice. We found that neither the age of a mouse at the time of exposure nor its gender were prognostic factors. MexTAg mice with mesotheliomas respond to treatment with a cytotoxic drug in a similar way to that of patients with mesothelioma, demonstrating the validity of the model. We also show that long-term treatment with a COX-2 inhibitor prior to the development of disease does not have a survival benefit, suggesting that this is not a useful cancer prevention therapy for asbestos-exposed individuals. The model is robust and suitable for testing a wide variety of protocols and a range of translational studies.

  19. Altered BRCA1 and BRCA2 responses and mutation of BRCA1 gene in mice exposed chronically and transgenerationally to aqueous extract of betel nut (AEBN).

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Yashmin; Sharan, Rajeshwar N

    2011-01-01

    The Brca1 and Brca2 tumor suppressor genes are involved in the maintenance of genomic integrity as they facilitate error free DNA repair. This study was designed to understand the role of Brca1 and Brca2 in betel nut (BN) induced chronic and transgenerational carcinogenesis in mice. Young male and female Swiss Albino mice were chronically as well as transgenerationally exposed to aqueous extract of betel nut (AEBN) in drinking water (2 mg ml(-1)) for up to 24 weeks. In chronically exposed mice, the levels of Brca1 and Brca2 proteins were elevated to approximately 1.4-fold over the age matched controls after 2 weeks of exposure to AEBN, followed by a decline below the controls. In transgenerationally exposed mice, both Brca1 and Brca2 proteins remained below the controls from the onset of AEBN exposure and rapidly declined further, indicating a loss of tumor suppressor protection. Nucleotide sequencing of exon 11 of Brca1 and exon 27 of Brca2 did not reveal mutation in liver nodules of chronically exposed mice, while a G → C mutation Brca1 was observed in liver nodules as well as in solid tumors developing in transgenerationally exposed mice. Thus, the genomic instability arising due to the lowering in the levels of Brca1 and Brca2 proteins and mutation in exon 11 of Brca1 gene contributed to the increased risk of cancer in mice exposed transgenerationally to AEBN.

  20. Vascular hyperpermeability in response to inflammatory mustard oil is mediated by Rho kinase in mice systemically exposed to arsenic.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shih-Chieh; Liu, Chun-Chih; Huang, Shin-Yin; Chiou, Shean-Jaw

    2011-09-01

    The mechanisms underlying vascular dysfunction and cardiovascular disease induced by chronic arsenic exposure are not completely understood. We have previously shown that mice chronically fed sodium arsenite are hypersensitive to the permeability-increasing effects of inflammatory mustard oil. The aim of this study was to investigate whether RhoA/Rho kinase (ROCK)-mediated vascular leakage (hyperpermeability) is induced by mustard oil in mice systemically exposed to arsenic. Animals were orally fed water (control group) or sodium arsenite for 8weeks. We compared the blood pressure and microvessel density of the ears between these two groups. Both control and arsenic groups exhibited a similar mean arterial pressure and microvessel density. Microvessel permeability changes that occurred following mustard oil treatment in the presence of Y-27632, a ROCK inhibitor, were quantified using the Evans blue (EB) technique and vascular labeling with carbon particles. Both the excessive leakiness of EB and the high density of carbon-labeled microvessels upon stimulation with mustard oil in the arsenic-fed mice were reduced by Y-27632 treatment. However, RhoA and ROCK2 expression levels were similar between control and arsenic-fed mice. We further investigated ROCK2 levels and ROCK activity in the ears following mustard oil challenge. ROCK2 levels in mouse ears treated with mustard oil were higher in the arsenic group as compared with the control group. Following mustard oil application, ROCK activity was significantly higher in the arsenic-fed mice compared with the control mice. These findings indicate that increased ROCK2 levels and enhanced ROCK activity are responsible for mustard oil-induced vascular hyperpermeability in arsenic-fed mice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Circadian rhythm entrainment with melatonin, melatonin receptor antagonist S22153 or their combination in mice exposed to constant light.

    PubMed

    Li, X M; Beau, J; Delagrange, P; Mocaër, E; Lévi, F

    2004-10-01

    The ability of daily melatonin and the melatonin receptor antagonist, S22153, to entrain circadian system function was investigated in mice with atypical melatonin rhythm. B6D2F(1) mice were first synchronized to a LD 12:12 for approximately 2 wk, then exposed to continuous light (LL) until study completion. After 10-18 days of LL exposure, mice received daily subcutaneous (s.c.) melatonin at a dose of 0.1, 1 or 10 mg/kg/day (exp. 1) or daily intraperitoneal (i.p.) S22153 (20 mg/kg/day) with or without melatonin (1 mg/kg/day, exp. 2) at subjective zeitgeber time (ZT) 10 for 19 days. Then all the mice were exposed to LL for another 10 days. Spectral analysis showed that initial LL lengthened the period of both rhythms by approximately 1.5 hr as compared with LD 12:12. No entrainment of either rhythm was found in controls. Conversely, daily melatonin-only, S22153-only or their combination set the temperature and activity periods to approximately 24 hr and produced a significant increase of the circadian amplitude of both rhythms as compared with controls. However, after treatment withdrawal, the dominant period lengthened to approximately 25.5 hr in mice receiving either melatonin or S22153. On the contrary, the period remained close to 24 hr for the 10 days following withdrawal of combined S22153 and melatonin. Such sustained pharmacological resetting of circadian function could display therapeutic potential against external resynchronization resulting from defective photoperiodic entrainment.

  2. Protective effect of taurine on the decreased biogenic amine neurotransmitter levels in the brain of mice exposed to arsenic.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaohui; Piao, Fengyuan; Li, Yachen

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic (As) exposure has a toxic effect on the central nervous system, especially on learning and memory. Norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), and serotonin (5-HT) play an important role in learning and memory function of the brain. In the present study, the protective effect of taurine on the disturbed biogenic amine neurotransmitter levels in the mouse brain induced by arsenic was examined. Sixty SPF mice were divided into three groups. The As exposure group was administered with 4 ppm As(2)O(3) through drinking water for 60 days. The protective group was treated with both 4 ppm As(2)O(3) and 150 mg/kg taurine. The control group was given drinking water alone. The levels of NE, DA, and 5-HT were determined by HPLC in the cerebrum and cerebellum of mice. Ultrastructure of synapses in brain tissue of mice was observed in these groups by transmission electron microscopy. The mRNA expressions of dopamine beta hydroxylase (DBH), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) as NE, DA, and 5-HT synzymes were also analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. The results showed that the concentrations of NE, DA, and 5-HT; the number of synaptic vesicles; and the expressions of TH, TPH, and DBH genes in the brains of mice exposed to As alone were significantly decreased. However, administration of taurine significantly alleviated the toxic effect on biochemicals detected in the experiment, compared with that in the brain of mice exposed to As alone. These results indicated that taurine was effective in counteracting the decreased biogenic amine neurotransmitter level and the mRNA expressions of their synzymes induced by arsenic.

  3. DNA damage, cell kinetics and ODC activities studied in CBA mice exposed to electromagnetic fields generated by transmission lines.

    PubMed

    Svedenstål, B M; Johanson, K J; Mattsson, M O; Paulsson, L E

    1999-01-01

    CBA mice were exposed outdoors to 50 Hz electromagnetic fields (EMF), with a flux density of about 8 microT rms (root mean square), generated by a 220 kV transmission line. Assays were performed in order to investigate, the possible genotoxic effects after 11, 20 and 32 days of exposure, as well as the effects on body weight, leukocytes, erythrocytes, and the level of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity in spleen and testis. DNA migration was studied on brain cells by single cell electrophoresis (comet assay). After 32 days of exposure a highly significant change of the tail/head ratio of the comets was observed (p < 0.001), showing DNA-damage. Further, a decreased number of mononuclear leukocytes (0.02 < p < 0.05) was observed in mice EMF-exposed for 20 days. In summary, our data indicate that transmission lines of this type may induce genotoxic effects in mice, seen as changes in the DNA migration. These results might have an important implication for health effects.

  4. Histological Changes of the Ovary in Pregnant Mice Vaginally Exposed to Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Eslamirad, Zahra; Bayat, Parvin-Dokht; Babaei, Saeid

    2015-01-01

    Congenital toxoplasmosis is one cause of abortion. Infection can disrupt ovarian cycles and because toxoplasmosis is an infectious disease may have a similar effect on the ovaries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pathological changes in the ovaries due to toxoplasmosis. Tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii were harvested from peritoneal fluid of mice, experimentally infected. Two females and one male mouse were housed per cage for mating in the overnight. The pregnant mice were divided into experimental and control groups. Experimental group were infected by parasite but the control group received the normal saline. The experimental and control mice were euthanized. Ovaries and uterine horns of animals were removed and prepared for light microscopy. Ovaries of infected pregnant mice presented gross morphological differences compared to the control groups. In ovaries of experimental groups, changes of corpus luteum were observed. The comparison of experimental and control groups revealed that the number of primary follicles, secondary follicle, atretic primary follicles and atretic secondary follicles had significant differences (P≤0.001). Toxoplasma gondii alters ovarian follicular growth and development in mice. In addition, it alters number of different phases of follicles and corpus luteum in ovaries of mice.

  5. Cardiac structure/function, protein expression, and DNA methylation are changed in adult female mice exposed to diethylstilbestrol in utero.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Rami; Kasneci, Amanda; Sebag, Igal A; Chalifour, Lorraine E

    2013-09-01

    The detrimental effects of in utero exposure to the non-steroidal estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES) are particularly marked in women. Fetal hearts express estrogen receptors, making them potentially responsive to DES. To examine whether gestational exposure to DES would impact the heart, we exposed pregnant C57bl/6n dams to DES (0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 μg·(kg body mass)(-1)·day(-1)) on gestation days 11.5-14.5, and examined the measured cardiac structure/function and calcium homeostasis protein expression in adult females. At baseline, echocardiography revealed eccentric hypertrophy in mice treated with 10.0 μg·(kg body mass)(-1)·day(-1) DES, and immunoblots showed increased SERCA2a in all DES-treated mice. Mice were swim-trained to assess cardiac remodeling. Swim-trained vehicle-treated mice developed eccentric hypertrophy without changing SERCA2 or calsequestrin 2 expression. In contrast, no DES-treated mice hypertrophied, and all increased in SERCA2a and calsequestrin 2 expression after training. To determine whether DES-induced changes in DNA methylation is part of the mechanism for its long-term effects, we measured DNA methyltransferase expression and DNA methylation. Global DNA methylation and DNA methyltransferase 3a expression were unchanged. However, DES-treated mice had increased DNA methylation in the calsequestrin 2 promoter. Thus, gestational exposure to DES altered female ventricular DNA, cardiac structure/function, and calcium homeostasis protein expression. We conclude that gestational exposure to estrogenizing compounds may impact cardiac structure/function in adult females.

  6. Interleukin-6 neutralization alleviates pulmonary inflammation in mice exposed to cigarette smoke and poly(I:C).

    PubMed

    Hubeau, Cedric; Kubera, John E; Masek-Hammerman, Katherine; Williams, Cara M M

    2013-11-01

    Increased systemic and pulmonary levels of IL-6 (interleukin-6) are associated with the severity of exacerbations and decline of lung function in patients with COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). Whether IL-6 is directly involved or plays a bystander role in the pathophysiology of COPD remains unclear. Here we hypothesized that neutralizing circulating levels of IL-6 would modulate episodes of acute pulmonary inflammation following CS (cigarette smoke) exposure and virus-like challenges. For this purpose, we used a model where C57BL/6 mice were exposed to CS twice daily via a nose-only system, and concomitant periodic intranasal challenge with poly(I:C), a synthetic ligand for TLR3 (Toll-like receptor 3) that mimics the encounter with double stranded RNA that is carried by influenza-like viruses. This protocol recapitulates several aspects of acute pulmonary inflammation associated with COPD, including prominent airway neutrophilia, insensitivity to steroid treatment and increased levels of several inflammatory cytokines in BAL (bronchoalveolar lavage) samples. Although IL-6-deficient mice exposed to CS/poly(I:C) developed pulmonary inflammation similar to WT (wild-type) controls, WT mice exposed to CS/poly(I:C) and treated intraperitoneally with IL-6-neutralizing antibodies showed significantly lower blood counts of lymphocytes and monocytes, lower BAL levels of IL-6 and CXCL1 (CXC chemokine ligand 1)/KC (keratinocyte chemoattractant), as well as reduced numbers of BAL neutrophils, lymphocytes and macrophages. Our results thus indicate that the systemic neutralization of IL-6 significantly reduces CS/poly(I:C)-induced pulmonary inflammation, which may be a relevant approach to the treatment of episodes of acute pulmonary inflammation associated with COPD.

  7. Nitric oxide synthase enzymes in the airways of mice exposed to ovalbumin: NOS2 expression is NOS3 dependent.

    PubMed

    Bratt, Jennifer M; Williams, Keisha; Rabowsky, Michelle F; Last, Michael S; Franzi, Lisa M; Last, Jerold A; Kenyon, Nicholas J

    2010-01-01

    The function of the airway nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms and the lung cell types responsible for its production are not fully understood. We hypothesized that NO homeostasis in the airway is important to control inflammation, which requires upregulation, of NOS2 protein expression by an NOS3-dependent mechanism. Mice from a C57BL/6 wild-type, NOS1(-/-), NOS2(-/-), and NOS3(-/-) genotypes were used. All mice strains were systemically sensitized and exposed to filtered air or ovalbumin (OVA) aerosol for two weeks to create a subchronic model of allergen-induced airway inflammation. We measured lung function, lung lavage inflammatory and airway epithelial goblet cell count, exhaled NO, nitrate and nitrite concentration, and airway NOS1, NOS2, and NOS3 protein content. Deletion of NOS1 or NOS3 increases NOS2 protein present in the airway epithelium and smooth muscle of air-exposed animals. Exposure to allergen significantly reduced the expression of NOS2 protein in the airway epithelium and smooth muscle of the NOS3(-/-) strain only. This reduction in NOS2 expression was not due to the replacement of epithelial cells with goblet cells as remaining epithelial cells did not express NOS2. NOS1(-/-) animals had significantly reduced goblet cell metaplasia compared to C57Bl/6 wt, NOS2(-/-), and NOS3(-/-) allergen-exposed mice. The airway epithelial and smooth muscle cells maintain a stable airway NO concentration under noninflammatory conditions. This "homeostatic" mechanism is unable to distinguish between NOS derived from the different constitutive NOS isoforms. NOS3 is essential for the expression of NOS2 under inflammatory conditions, while NOS1 expression contributes to allergen-induced goblet cell metaplasia.

  8. Nitric Oxide Synthase Enzymes in the Airways of Mice Exposed to Ovalbumin: NOS2 Expression Is NOS3 Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Bratt, Jennifer M.; Williams, Keisha; Rabowsky, Michelle F.; Last, Michael S.; Franzi, Lisa M.; Last, Jerold A.; Kenyon, Nicholas J.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives and Design. The function of the airway nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms and the lung cell types responsible for its production are not fully understood. We hypothesized that NO homeostasis in the airway is important to control inflammation, which requires upregulation, of NOS2 protein expression by an NOS3-dependent mechanism. Materials or Subjects. Mice from a C57BL/6 wild-type, NOS1−/−, NOS2−/−, and NOS3−/− genotypes were used. All mice strains were systemically sensitized and exposed to filtered air or ovalbumin (OVA) aerosol for two weeks to create a subchronic model of allergen-induced airway inflammation. Methods. We measured lung function, lung lavage inflammatory and airway epithelial goblet cell count, exhaled NO, nitrate and nitrite concentration, and airway NOS1, NOS2, and NOS3 protein content. Results. Deletion of NOS1 or NOS3 increases NOS2 protein present in the airway epithelium and smooth muscle of air-exposed animals. Exposure to allergen significantly reduced the expression of NOS2 protein in the airway epithelium and smooth muscle of the NOS3−/− strain only. This reduction in NOS2 expression was not due to the replacement of epithelial cells with goblet cells as remaining epithelial cells did not express NOS2. NOS1−/− animals had significantly reduced goblet cell metaplasia compared to C57Bl/6 wt, NOS2−/−, and NOS3−/− allergen-exposed mice. Conclusion. The airway epithelial and smooth muscle cells maintain a stable airway NO concentration under noninflammatory conditions. This “homeostatic” mechanism is unable to distinguish between NOS derived from the different constitutive NOS isoforms. NOS3 is essential for the expression of NOS2 under inflammatory conditions, while NOS1 expression contributes to allergen-induced goblet cell metaplasia. PMID:20953358

  9. Induction of the Adaptive Response in Mice Exposed to He-Ne Laser and X-Ray Radiation.

    PubMed

    Zaichkina, S I; Dyukina, A R; Rozanova, O M; Simonova, N B; Romanchenko, S P; Sorokina, S S; Zakrzhevskaya, D T; Yusupov, V I; Bagratashvili, V N

    2016-05-01

    We studied the dose-dependent induction of in vivo adaptive response in the bone marrow and blood of mice exposed to low-intensity radiation of He-Ne laser (633 nm) and X-ray radiation by the severity of cytogenetic injury and intensity of ROS production, respectively. Induction of the adaptive response in mice preexposed to He-Ne laser and X-ray radiation depended on the adaptive dose and the interval between the adaptive and main doses and correlated with changes in ROS generation. The adaptive response after exposure to low-intensity ionizing and non-ionizing radiation was observed in the same dose range, which attests to similar mechanisms of its induction.

  10. Marked rapid alterations in nocturnal pineal serotonin metabolism in mice and rats exposed to weak intermittent magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Lerchl, A.; Nonaka, K.O.; Stokkan, K.A.; Reiter, R.J. )

    1990-05-31

    Adult AMES mice and male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to an artificial magnetic field, generated by Helmholtz coils. 3.5 hours after the onset of darkness the coils were activated for one hour resulting in an inversion of the horizontal component of the earth's magnetic field. The coils were activated and deactivated at 5 min intervals during the 1 hour exposure period. In both mice and rats, the levels of serotonin in the pineal were markedly increased by the exposure. In rats, an increase of pineal 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid and a decrease of the activity of the pineal enzyme serotonin-N-acetyltransferase also was observed. However, pineal and serum melatonin levels were not altered. The results indicate that the metabolism of serotonin in the pineal is quickly affected by the exposure of animals to a magnetic field.

  11. Anxiety-like behaviour in mice exposed to tannery wastewater: The effect of photoelectrooxidation treatment.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Ionara Rodrigues; Vanzella, Cláudia; Bianchetti, Paula; Rodrigues, Marco Antonio Siqueira; Stülp, Simone

    2011-01-01

    The leather industry is a major producer of wastewaters and releases large quantities of many different chemical agents used in hide processing into the environment. Since the central nervous system is sensitive to many different contaminants, our aim was to investigate the neurobehavioral effects of exposure of mice to tannery effluents using animal models of depression and anxiety, namely forced swim and elevated plus-maze. In order to propose a clean technology for the treatment of this effluent, we also investigated the exposure of mice to effluents treated by photoelectrooxidation process (PEO). Adult male Swiss albino mice (CF1 strain) were given free access to water bottles containing an effluent treated by a tannery (non-PEO) or PEO-treated tannery wastewater (0.1 and 1% in drinking water). Exposure to tannery wastewater induced behavioural changes in the mice in elevated plus-maze. Exposure to non-PEO 1% decreased the percentage of time spent in the open arms, indicating anxiety-like behaviour. Exposure to tannery wastewater did not alter immobility time in the forced swim test, suggesting that tannery effluents did not induce depression-like behaviour in the mice. These behavioural data suggest that non-PEO tannery effluent has an anxiogenic effect, whereas PEO-treated tannery effluents do not alter anxiety levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of seed extract of Syzygium Cumini (Jamun) on mice exposed to different doses of gamma-radiation.

    PubMed

    Jagetia, Ganesh Chandra; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath; Venkatesh, Ponemone

    2005-03-01

    The radioprotective activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of jamun seeds (SCE) was studied in mice exposed to different doses of gamma radiation. The mice were injected with 0, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140 or 160 mg/kg body weight of SCE, before exposure to 10 Gy of gamma radiation, to select the optimum dose of radiation protection. The 80 mg/kg SCE was found to offer highest protection, therefore, further studies were carried out using this dose. The drug was more effective when administered through the intraperitoneal route at equimolar doses than the oral route. Since higher survival was observed for the i.p. route (50%), than the oral route (29.2%), all other studies were carried out by injecting SCE intraperitoneally. The mice treated with 80 mg/kg body weight SCE intraperitoneally before exposure to 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11 Gy of gamma radiation showed reduction in the symptoms of radiation sickness and mortality at all exposure doses and caused a significant increase in the animal survival when compared with the concurrent double distilled water (DDW) + irradiation group. The SCE treatment protected mice against the gastrointestinal as well as bone marrow deaths and the DRF was found to be 1.24.

  13. PIXE analysis of trace metals in selenium and copper deficient mice exposed to influenza virus and salicylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres, J. M.; Hurd, R. W.; Van Rinsvelt, H. A.; Small, P. A.; Maenhaut, W.; Vandenhaute, J.

    1987-03-01

    Reye's syndrome is an acute illness in children manifested by encephalopathy, fatty infiltration of liver, and thymic hypoplasia. The syndrome usually occurs in a susceptible individual with a viral illness who has ingested salicylate. We previously investigated the metal status of children with this syndrome; serum Se and Cu levels were noted to be decreased. Chronic aspirin treatment of rats also produced alterations of serum Se, and liver Se and Cu. We now report our observations for an experimental model of Reye's syndrome. Analysis by PIXE of various metals in Se- and Cu-deficient mice exposed to virus and salicylate are discussed.

  14. Noninvasive assessment of cutaneous alterations in mice exposed to whole body gamma irradiation using optical imaging techniques.

    PubMed

    Sharma, P; Sahu, K; Kushwaha, P K; Kumar, S; Swami, M K; Kumawat, J; Patel, H S; Kher, S; Sahani, P K; Haridas, G; Gupta, P K

    2017-07-11

    We report the results of a study carried out to investigate the potential of optical techniques such as optical coherence tomography, Mueller matrix spectroscopy, and cross-polarization imaging for noninvasive monitoring of the ionizing radiation exposure-induced alterations in cutaneous tissue of mice. Radiation dose-dependent changes were observed in tissue microvasculature and tissue optical parameters like retardance and depolarization as early as 1 h post radiation exposure. Results suggest that these optical techniques may allow early detection of radiation dose-dependent alterations which could help in screening of population exposed to radiation.

  15. Neurochemical effects of a 20 kHz magnetic field on the central nervous system in prenatally exposed mice

    SciTech Connect

    Dimberg, Y.

    1995-09-01

    C57/B1 mice were exposed during pregnancy (gestation days 0--19) to a 20 kHz magnetic field (MF). The asymmetric sawtooth-waveform magnetic field in the exposed racks had a flux density of 15 {micro}T (peak to peak). After 19 days, the exposure was terminated, and the mice were housed individually under normal laboratory conditions. On postnatal day (PD) 1, PD21, and PD308, various neurochemical markers in the brains of the offspring were investigated and the brains weighed. No significant difference was found in the whole brain weight at PD1 or PD21 between exposed offspring and control animals. However, on PD308, a significant decrease in weight of the whole brain was detected in exposed animals. No significant differences were found in the weight of cortex, hippocampus, septum, or cerebellum on nay of the sampling occasions, nor were any significant differences detected in protein-, DNA-level, nerve growth factor (NGF), acetylcholine esterase- (AChE), or 2{prime},3{prime}-cyclic nucleotide 3{prime}-phosphodiesterase- (CNP; marker for oligodendrocytes) activities on PD21 in cerebellum. Cortex showed a more complex pattern of response to MF: MF treatment resulted in a decrease in DNA level and increases in the activities of CNP, AChE, and NGF protein. On PD308, the amount of DNA was significantly reduced in MF-treated cerebellum and CNP activity was still enhanced in MF-treated cortex compared to controls. Most of the effect of MF treatment during the embryonic period were similar to those induced by ionizing radiation but much weaker. However, the duration of the exposure required to elucidate the response of different markers to MF seems to be greater and effects appear later during development compared to responses to ionizing radiation.

  16. Inflammation and emphysema in cigarette smoke-exposed mice when instilled with poly (I:C) or infected with influenza A or respiratory syncytial viruses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: The length of time for cigarette smoke (CS) exposure to cause emphysema in mice is drastically reduced when CS exposure is combined with viral infection. However, the extent of inflammatory responses and lung pathologies of mice exposed to CS and infected with influenza A virus (IAV), re...

  17. Proteomic identification of carbonylated proteins in the kidney of trichloroethene-exposed MRL+/+ mice

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xiuzhen; Wang, Gangduo; English, Robert D.; Khan, M. Firoze

    2013-01-01

    Trichloroethene (TCE), a common environmental and occupational pollutant, is associated with multi-organ toxicity. Kidney is one of major target organs affected as a result of TCE exposure. Our previous studies have shown that exposure to TCE causes increased protein oxidation (protein carbonylation) in the kidneys of autoimmune-prone MRL +/+ mice, and suggested a potential role of protein oxidation in TCE-mediated nephrotoxicity. To assess the impact of chronic TCE exposure on protein oxidation, particularly to identify the carbonylated proteins in kidneys, female MRL+/+ mice were treated with TCE at the dose of 2 mg/ml via drinking water for 36 weeks and kidney protein extracts were analyzed for protein carbonyls and carbonylated proteins identified using proteomic approaches (2D gel, Western blot, MALDI TOF/TOF MS/MS, etc.). TCE treatment led to significantly increased protein carbonyls in the kidney protein extracts (20,000g pellet fraction). Interestingly, among 18 identified carbonylated proteins, 10 were found only in the kidneys of TCE-treated mice, whereas other 8 were present in the kidneys of both control and TCE-treated mice. The identified carbonylated proteins represent skeletal proteins, chaperones, stress proteins, enzymes, plasma protein, and proteins involved in signaling pathways. The findings provide a map for further exploring the role of carbonylated proteins in TCE-mediated nephrotoxicity. PMID:24024666

  18. EFFECTS OF PERFLUOROOCTANOIC ACID (PFOA) ON MICE EXPOSED IN UTERO AT SPECIFIC GESTATIONAL STAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanoic acid is developmentally toxic resulting in embryonic and postnatal deaths and growth retardation. Previous studies showed that dosing mice from gestation day (GD)2-18 with 5 mg PFOA/kg body weight impacts the growth and development of the fetus and newborns. The...

  19. NICOTINE EFFECTS ON THE ACTIVITY OF MICE EXPOSED PRENATALLY TO THE NICOTINIC AGONIST ANATOXIN-A.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Considerable research has shown long-lasting effects of early exposure in experimental animals to nicotine. Anatoxin-a is produced by cyanobacteria and has been shown to be a potent nicotinic agonist. This experiment evaluated the motor activity of adult mice, and their respons...

  20. NICOTINE EFFECTS ON THE ACTIVITY OF MICE EXPOSED PRENATALLY TO THE NICOTINIC AGONIST ANATOXIN-A.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Considerable research has shown long-lasting effects of early exposure in experimental animals to nicotine. Anatoxin-a is produced by cyanobacteria and has been shown to be a potent nicotinic agonist. This experiment evaluated the motor activity of adult mice, and their respons...

  1. GENE PROFILING IN WILD TYPE AND PPARÁ NULL MICE EXPOSED TO PFOA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perflurooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a perfluoroalkyl acid used in a variety of commercial applications. Concerns have been raised because PFOA is ubiquitous in the environment and can be detected in human tissues. PFOA is a rodent carcinogen and a developmental toxicant in mice. W...

  2. Altered sperm chromatin structure in mice exposed to sodium fluoride through drinking water.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zilong; Niu, Ruiyan; Wang, Bin; Wang, Jundong

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of sodium fluoride (NaF) on sperm abnormality, sperm chromatin structure, protamine 1 and protamine 2 (P1 and P2) mRNA expression, and histones expression in sperm in male mice. NaF was orally administrated to male mice at 30, 70, and 150 mg/l for 49 days (more than one spermatogenic cycle). Sperm head and tail abnormalities were significantly enhanced at middle and high doses. Similarly, sperm chromatin structure was also adversely affected by NaF exposure, indicating DNA integrity damage. Furthermore, middle and high NaF significantly reduced the mRNA expressions of P1 and P2, and P1/P2 ratio, whereas the sperm histones level was increased, suggesting the abnormal histone-protamine replacement. Therefore, we concluded that the mechanism by which F induced mice sperm abnormality and DNA integrity damage may involved in the alterations in P1, P2, and histones expression in sperm of mice.

  3. Exposing to cadmium stress cause profound toxic effect on microbiota of the mice intestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yehao; Li, Yuhui; Liu, Kaiyong; Shen, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd), one of the heavy metals, is an important environmental pollutant and a potent toxicant to organism. It poses a severe threat to the growth of the organism, and also has been recognized as a human carcinogen. However, the toxicity of cadmium and its influences on microbiota in mammal's intestine are still unclear. In our experiment, the changes of intestinal microbiota in two groups of mice were investigated, which were supplied with 20 and 100 mg kg(-1) cadmium chloride respectively for 3 weeks. The control group was treated with water free from cadmium chloride only. This study demonstrated that Cd accumulated in some tissues of mice after Cd administration and the gut barrier was impaired. Cd exposure also significantly elevated the colonic level of TNF-α. On the other hand, Cd-treatment could slow down the growth of gut microbiota and reduced the abundance of total intestinal bacteria of the mice. Among them, the growth of Bacteroidetes was significantly suppressed while Firmicutes growth was not. The probiotics including Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium were notably inhibited. We also observed that the copies of key genes involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates to short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were lower in Cd-treated groups than control. As a result, the levels of short-chain fatty acids in colonic decreased significantly. In summary, this study provides valuable insight into the effects of Cd intake on mice gut microbiota.

  4. Sex differences in aging, life span and spontaneous tumorigenesis in 129/Sv mice neonatally exposed to metformin

    PubMed Central

    Anisimov, Vladimir N; Popovich, Irina G; Zabezhinski, Mark A; Egormin, Peter A; Yurova, Maria N; Semenchenko, Anna V; Tyndyk, Margarita L; Panchenko, Andrey V; Trashkov, Alexandr P; Vasiliev, Andrey G; Khaitsev, Nikolai V

    2015-01-01

    The perinatal (prenatal and early neonatal) period is a critical stage for hypothalamic programming of sexual differentiation as well as for the development of energy and metabolic homeostasis. We hypothesized that neonatal treatment with antidiabetic drug biguanide metformin would positively modify regulation of growth hormone – IGF-1 – insulin signaling pathway slowing down aging and improving cancer preventive patterns in rodents. To test this hypothesis male and female 129/Sv mice were s.c. injected with metformin (100 mg/kg) at the 3rd, 5th and 7th days after birth. Metformin-treated males consumed less food and water and their body weight was decreased as compared with control mice practically over their entire lifespan. There were no significant differences in age-related dynamics of food and water consumption in females and they were heavier than controls. The fraction of mice with regular estrous cycles decreased with age and demonstrated a tendency to decrease in the females neonatally treated with metformin. Neonatal exposure to metformin practically failed to change the extent of hormonal and metabolic parameters in blood serum of male and female mice. In males, neonatal metformin treatment significantly increased the mean life span (+20%, P < 0.05) and slightly increased the maximum life span (+3.5%). In females, the mean life span and median in metformin-treated groups were slightly decreased (−9.1% and −13.8% respectively, P > 0.05) in comparison to controls, whereas mean life span of last 10% survivors and maximum life span were the same as in controls. Almost half (45%) of control male mice and 71.8% male mice neonatally exposed to metformin survived up to 800 d of age, the same age was achieved by 54.3% of mice in control female group and 30% of metformin-treated females (P < 0.03). Thus, neonatal metformin exposure slows down aging and prolongs lifespan in male but not in female mice. PMID:25483062

  5. Comparison of Neurodegeneration and Cognitive Impairment in Neonatal Mice Exposed to Propofol or Isoflurane

    PubMed Central

    Khojasteh, Soorena; Wu, Zhen; Yang, Wenqiong; Joseph, Donald; Wei, Huafeng

    2014-01-01

    Background While previous studies have demonstrated neuronal apoptosis and associated cognitive impairment after isoflurane or propofol exposure in neonatal rodents, the effects of these two anesthetics have not been directly compared. Here, we compare and contrast the effectiveness of isoflurane and propofol to cause neurodegeneration in the developing brain and associated cognitive dysfunction. Methods Seven-day-old mice were used. Mice in the isoflurane treatment group received 6 h of 1.5% isoflurane, while mice in propofol treatment group received one peritoneal injection (150 mg/kg), which produced persistent anesthesia with loss of righting for at least 6 h. Mice in control groups received carrying gas or a peritoneal injection of vehicle (intralipid). At 6 h after anesthetic treatment, a subset of each group was sacrificed and examined for evidence of neurodegeneration, using plasma levels of S100β, and apoptosis using caspase-3 immunohistochemistry in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus and Western blot assays of the cortex. In addition, biomarkers for inflammation (interleukin-1, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha) were examined with Western blot analyses of the cortex. In another subset of mice, learning and memory were assessed 32 days after the anesthetic exposures using the Morris water maze. Results Isoflurane significantly increased plasma S100β levels compared to controls and propofol. Both isoflurane and propofol significantly increased caspase-3 levels in the cortex and hippocampus, though isoflurane was significantly more potent than propofol. However, there were no significant differences in the inflammatory biomarkers in the cortex or in subsequent learning and memory between the experimental groups. Conclusion Both isoflurane and propofol caused significant apoptosis in the mouse developing brain, with isoflurane being more potent. Isoflurane significantly increased levels of the plasma neurodegenerative biomarker, S100

  6. Modulatory Influence of Segmented Filamentous Bacteria on Transcriptomic Response of Gnotobiotic Mice Exposed to TCDD.

    PubMed

    Stedtfeld, Robert D; Chai, Benli; Crawford, Robert B; Stedtfeld, Tiffany M; Williams, Maggie R; Xiangwen, Shao; Kuwahara, Tomomi; Cole, James R; Kaminski, Norbert E; Tiedje, James M; Hashsham, Syed A

    2017-01-01

    Environmental toxicants such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), are known to induce host toxicity and structural shifts in the gut microbiota. Key bacterial populations with similar or opposing functional responses to AhR ligand exposure may potentially help regulate expression of genes associated with immune dysfunction. To examine this question and the mechanisms for AhR ligand-induced bacterial shifts, C57BL/6 gnotobiotic mice were colonized with and without segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) - an immune activator. Mice were also colonized with polysaccharide A producing Bacteroides fragilis - an immune suppressor to serve as a commensal background. Following colonization, mice were administered TCDD (30 μg/kg) every 4 days for 28 days by oral gavage. Quantified with the nCounter(®) mouse immunology panel, opposing responses in ileal gene expression (e.g., genes associated with T-cell differentiation via the class II major histocompatibility complex) as a result of TCDD dosing and SFB colonization were observed. Genes that responded to TCDD in the presence of SFB did not show a significant response in the absence of SFB, and vice versa. Regulatory T-cells examined in the mesenteric lymph-nodes, spleen, and blood were also less impacted by TCDD in mice colonized with SFB. TCDD-induced shifts in abundance of SFB and B. fragilis compared with previous studies in mice with a traditional gut microbiome. With regard to the mouse model colonized with individual populations, results indicate that TCDD-induced host response was significantly modulated by the presence of SFB in the gut microbiome, providing insight into therapeutic potential between AhR ligands and key commensals.

  7. Modulatory Influence of Segmented Filamentous Bacteria on Transcriptomic Response of Gnotobiotic Mice Exposed to TCDD

    PubMed Central

    Stedtfeld, Robert D.; Chai, Benli; Crawford, Robert B.; Stedtfeld, Tiffany M.; Williams, Maggie R.; Xiangwen, Shao; Kuwahara, Tomomi; Cole, James R.; Kaminski, Norbert E.; Tiedje, James M.; Hashsham, Syed A.

    2017-01-01

    Environmental toxicants such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), are known to induce host toxicity and structural shifts in the gut microbiota. Key bacterial populations with similar or opposing functional responses to AhR ligand exposure may potentially help regulate expression of genes associated with immune dysfunction. To examine this question and the mechanisms for AhR ligand-induced bacterial shifts, C57BL/6 gnotobiotic mice were colonized with and without segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) – an immune activator. Mice were also colonized with polysaccharide A producing Bacteroides fragilis – an immune suppressor to serve as a commensal background. Following colonization, mice were administered TCDD (30 μg/kg) every 4 days for 28 days by oral gavage. Quantified with the nCounter® mouse immunology panel, opposing responses in ileal gene expression (e.g., genes associated with T-cell differentiation via the class II major histocompatibility complex) as a result of TCDD dosing and SFB colonization were observed. Genes that responded to TCDD in the presence of SFB did not show a significant response in the absence of SFB, and vice versa. Regulatory T-cells examined in the mesenteric lymph-nodes, spleen, and blood were also less impacted by TCDD in mice colonized with SFB. TCDD-induced shifts in abundance of SFB and B. fragilis compared with previous studies in mice with a traditional gut microbiome. With regard to the mouse model colonized with individual populations, results indicate that TCDD-induced host response was significantly modulated by the presence of SFB in the gut microbiome, providing insight into therapeutic potential between AhR ligands and key commensals. PMID:28936204

  8. Fos-tau-LacZ mice expose light-activated pathways in the visual system.

    PubMed

    Greferath, Ursula; Nag, Nupur; Zele, Andrew J; Bui, Bang V; Wilson, Yvette; Vingrys, Algis J; Murphy, Mark

    2004-11-01

    We have employed fos-tau-LacZ (FTL) transgenic mice to examine functional activation in the visual areas of the nervous system. The FTL mice express the marker gene lacZ in neurons and their processes following many different stimuli, and allow the imaging of activation from the level of the entire brain surface through individual neurons and their projections. Analysis of FTL expression in the retinas of mice following diurnal exposure to light shows that bipolar cells, specific classes of amacrine cells, ganglion cells, and a dense network of processes in the inner plexiform layer are functionally activated. In animals deprived of light, there is almost no activity in the retina. In the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), light exposure appears responsible for FTL expression in dorsal nuclei, but not for expression in the ventral nuclei or the intergeniculate leaflet. In the superficial layers of the superior colliculus, FTL expression is highly dependent on light exposure. Similarly, light exposure is required for FTL expression in primary visual cortex (area 17), but some expression remains in area 18 of dark-adapted animals. Finally, using mice with one or both eyes missing, we have determined which parts of the visual system are dependent on the presence of a functional connectivity from the eye. These data demonstrate the usefulness of the FTL mice to map functional activation within the entire visual system. Furthermore, we can capture visual activation in a conscious animal. Our findings give an insight into the architecture of activity within the retina and throughout the visual system.

  9. Quantitation and localization of intracellular redox active metals by X-ray fluorescence microscopy in cortical neurons derived from APP and APLP2 knockout tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Ciccotosto, Giuseppe D.; James, Simon A.; Altissimo, Matteo; Paterson, David; Vogt, Stefan; Lai, Barry; de Jonge, Martin D.; Howard, Daryl L.; Bush, Ashley I.; Cappai, Roberto

    2014-10-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene family includes APP and the amyloid precursor-like proteins, APLP1 and APLP2. These proteins contain metal binding sites for copper, zinc and iron and are known to have physiological roles in modulating the metal homeostasis in brain cells. Here we report the application of X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) to investigate the subcellular distribution patterns of the metal ions Cu, Zn, Fe, and Ca in individual neurons derived from APP and APLP2 knockout mice brains to further define their role in metal homeostasis. These studies add to the growing body of data that the APP family of proteins are metalloproteins that have shared as well as distinct effects on metals. As we continue to delineate the cellular effects of the APP family of proteins it is important to consider how metals are involved in their actions.

  10. Quantitation and localization of intracellular redox active metals by X-ray fluorescence microscopy in cortical neurons derived from APP and APLP2 knockout tissue

    DOE PAGES

    Ciccotosto, Giuseppe D.; James, Simon A.; Altissimo, Matteo; ...

    2014-10-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene family includes APP and the amyloid precursor-like proteins, APLP1 and APLP2. These proteins contain metal binding sites for copper, zinc and iron and are known to have physiological roles in modulating the metal homeostasis in brain cells. Here we report the application of X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) to investigate the subcellular distribution patterns of the metal ions Cu, Zn, Fe, and Ca in individual neurons derived from APP and APLP2 knockout mice brains to further define their role in metal homeostasis. These studies add to the growing body of data that the APP familymore » of proteins are metalloproteins that have shared as well as distinct effects on metals. As we continue to delineate the cellular effects of the APP family of proteins it is important to consider how metals are involved in their actions.« less

  11. An enhanced postnatal autoimmune profile in 24 week-old C57BL/6 mice developmentally exposed to TCDD

    SciTech Connect

    Mustafa, A.; Holladay, S.D.; Goff, M.; Witonsky, S.G.; Kerr, R.; Reilly, C.M.; Sponenberg, D.P.; Gogal, R.M.

    2008-10-01

    Developmental exposure of mice to the environmental contaminant and AhR agonist, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), causes persistent postnatal suppression of T cell-mediated immune responses. The extent to which prenatal TCDD may induce or exacerbate postnatal autoimmune disease remains unknown. In the present study, time-pregnant high affinity AhR C57BL/6 mice received a single oral administration of 0, 2.5, or 5 {mu}g/kg TCDD on gestation day (gd) 12. Offspring of these mice (n = 5/gender/treatment) were evaluated at 24 weeks-of-age and showed considerable immune dysregulation that was often gender-specific. Decreased thymic weight and percentages of CD4{sup +}CD8{sup +} thymocytes, and increased CD4{sup +}CD8{sup -} thymocytes, were present in the female but not male offspring. Males but not females showed decreased CD4{sup -}CD8{sup +} T cells, and increased V{beta}3{sup +} and V{beta}17a{sup +} T cells, in the spleen. Males but not females also showed increased percentages of bone marrow CD24{sup -}B220{sup +} B cell progenitors. Antibody titers to dsDNA, ssDNA and cardiolipin displayed increasing trends in both male and female mice, reaching significance for anti-dsDNA in both genders and for ssDNA in males at 5 {mu}g/kg TCDD. Immunofluorescent staining of IgG and C3 deposition in kidney glomeruli increased in both genders of prenatal TCDD-exposed mice, suggestive of early stages of autoimmune glomerulonephritis. Collectively, these results show that exposure to TCDD during immune system development causes persistent humoral immune dysregulation as well as altered cell-mediated responses, and induces an adult profile of changes suggestive of increased risk for autoimmune disease.

  12. Mice exposed in situ to urban air pollution exhibit pulmonary alterations in gene expression in the lipid droplet synthesis pathways.

    PubMed

    Rowan-Carroll, Andrea; Halappanavar, Sabina; Williams, Andrew; Somers, Christophers M; Yauk, Carole L

    2013-05-01

    It is clear that particulate air pollution poses a serious risk to human health; however, the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. We investigated pulmonary transcriptional responses in mice following in-situ exposure to ambient air in a heavily industrialized urban environment. Mature C57BL/CBA male mice were caged in sheds near two working steel mills and a major highway in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada in the spring/summer of 2004. Control mice were housed in the same environment, but received only high-efficiency particle filtered air (HEPA). Whole lung tissues were collected from mice exposed for 3, 10, or for 10 weeks followed by 6 weeks recovery in the laboratory (16 weeks). DNA microarrays were used to profile changes in pulmonary gene expression. Transcriptional profiling revealed changes in the expression of genes implicated in the lipid droplet synthesis (Plin I, Dgat2, Lpl, S3-12, and Agpat2), and antioxidant defense (Ucp1) pathways in mice breathing unfiltered air. We postulate that exposure to urban air, containing an abundance of particulate matter adsorbed with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, triggers lipid droplet (holding depots for lipids and malformed/excess proteins tagged for degradation) synthesis in the lungs, which may act to sequester particulates. Increased lipid droplet synthesis could lead to endogenous/stressor-induced production of reactive oxygen species and activation of antioxidant mechanisms. Further investigation into the stimulation of lipid droplet synthesis in the lung in response to air pollution and the resulting health implications is warranted. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Establishment of MAGEC2-knockout cells and functional investigation of MAGEC2 in tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingjing; Song, Xiao; Guo, Chengli; Wang, Ying; Yin, Yanhui

    2016-12-01

    Cancer/testis antigen MAGEC2, a member of the type I melanoma-associated antigen family, is expressed in a wide variety of cancer types but not in normal somatic cells. MAGEC2 has long been recognized as a tumor-specific target, however, its functions remain largely unknown. In this study, we established MAGEC2-knockout A375 melanoma cell lines using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Seven clonal cell lines were generated by using four single guide RNAs targeting the coding region of the MAGEC2 gene, which produced indels that abolished MAGEC2 protein expression. To identify the differentially expressed protein profiles associated with MAGEC2 loss, isobaric tag for relative quantitation-based comparative proteomics experiments were carried out on the MAGEC2-knockcout and control A375 cells. Mining of the proteomics data identified a total 224 (61.6% upregulated and 38.4% downregulated) proteins to be significantly altered in expression level in MAGEC2-knockcout cells. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis indicated that the significantly altered proteins were involved in critical neoplasia-related biological functions such as cell death, proliferation, and movement. Gene ontology analysis identified "apoptosis signaling" as the top-most upregulated pathway associated with MAGEC2 loss. We showed that knockout or knockdown of the MAGEC2 gene sensitized melanoma cells to tumor necrosis factor-α-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, actin-based motility by Rho and RhoA signaling, known to promote cell migration, were also identified as the top downregulated pathways in MAGEC2-knockout A375 cells. In short, our study provides a suitable cell model for exploring the biological functions of MAGEC2 in malignant cells, and sheds light on the molecular pathway by which MAGEC2 promotes tumor development.

  14. Effects of exogenous GSH and methionine on methylation of inorganic arsenic in mice exposed to arsenite through drinking water.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yaping; Zhao, Fenghong; Zhong, Yuan; Yu, Xiaoyun; Sun, Di; Liao, Yingjun; Lv, Xiuqiang; Li, Gexin; Sun, Guifan

    2010-08-01

    We hypothesized that chronic exposure to arsenic would deplete the reduced glutathione (GSH) and methionine in vivo, thereby impair the methylation capacity of inorganic arsenic (iAs) ingested. Our experiment was designed to explore the effects of exogenous GSH and methionine on arsenic methylation in mice exposed to arsenite via drinking water. Levels of iAs, monomethylarsenic acid (MMAs), and dimethylarsenic acid (DMAs) in the liver and blood were determined by the method of hydride generation coupled with atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Compared with mice exposed to arsenite alone, administration of GSH or methionine increased the secondary methylation index in the liver and primary methylation index in the blood, which resulted in the consequent increase of DMAs percent and decrease of iAs percent in the blood. Moreover, administration of GSH resulted in the increase of DMAs percent in the liver and total arsenic in the blood. Increase of total arsenic in the blood was mainly due to the increase of DMAs. Findings from the present study suggested that administration of GSH or methionine might potentiate the methylation capacity of arsenic in both liver and extrahepatic tissues, which may facilitate the excretion of arsenic and decrease arsenic related toxicities in the body.

  15. Pulmonary hypertension and vascular oxidative damage in cigarette smoke exposed eNOS(-/-) mice and human smokers.

    PubMed

    Wright, J L; Zhou, S; Churg, A

    2012-09-01

    Cigarette smoke is known to be associated with pulmonary hypertension in humans and in animal models. Although the etiology of pulmonary hypertension in smokers is not understood, recent work has suggested a role for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in inducing oxidative stress. To further evaluate this question, we assessed eNOS-/- mice exposed to air or cigarette smoke for the presence of pulmonary hypertension and examined vascular remodeling and expression of nitrotyrosine, a marker of reactive nitrogen species-induced oxidative damage, using immunohistochemistry. To ascertain whether oxidants may play a role in humans, we also examined lung tissue from nonsmokers, and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with and without pulmonary hypertension. We found that eNOS(-/-) mice developed increased pulmonary arterial pressure after six months cigarette smoke exposure, and this was associated with vascular remodeling and increased vascular nitrotyrosine staining. iNOS gene expression was decreased in the pulmonary arteries of the smoke exposed animals, and no protein was detectable by immunohistochemistry. In humans, vascular nitrotyrosine staining intensity was increased in smokers with COPD compared to nonsmokers, and further increased in smokers with combined COPD and pulmonary hypertension. We conclude that cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary hypertension is associated with evidence of oxidative vascular damage by reactive nitrogen species, but that iNOS does not appear to be the major contributor to such damage. Most likely the source of reactive nitrogen species is the cigarette smoke itself.

  16. Acceleration of atherogenesis in ApoE−/− mice exposed to acute or low-dose-rate ionizing radiation

    PubMed Central

    Mancuso, Mariateresa; Pasquali, Emanuela; Braga-Tanaka, Ignacia; Tanaka, Satoshi; Pannicelli, Alessandro; Giardullo, Paola; Pazzaglia, Simonetta; Tapio, Soile; Atkinson, Michael J.; Saran, Anna

    2015-01-01

    There is epidemiological evidence for increased non-cancer mortality, primarily due to circulatory diseases after radiation exposure above 0.5 Sv. We evaluated the effects of chronic low-dose rate versus acute exposures in a murine model of spontaneous atherogenesis. Female ApoE−/− mice (60 days) were chronically irradiated for 300 days with gamma rays at two different dose rates (1 mGy/day; 20 mGy/day), with total accumulated doses of 0.3 or 6 Gy. For comparison, age-matched ApoE−/− females were acutely exposed to the same doses and sacrificed 300 days post-irradiation. Mice acutely exposed to 0.3 or 6 Gy showed increased atherogenesis compared to age-matched controls, and this effect was persistent. When the same doses were delivered at low dose rate over 300 days, we again observed a significant impact on global development of atherosclerosis, although at 0.3 Gy effects were limited to the descending thoracic aorta. Our data suggest that a moderate dose of 0.3 Gy can have persistent detrimental effects on the cardiovascular system, and that a high dose of 6 Gy poses high risks at both high and low dose rates. Our results were clearly nonlinear with dose, suggesting that lower doses may be more damaging than predicted by a linear dose response. PMID:26359350

  17. Lack of Genomic Instability in Bone Marrow Cells of SCID Mice Exposed Whole-Body to Low-Dose Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Rithidech, Kanokporn Noy; Udomtanakunchai, Chatchanok; Honikel, Louise; Whorton, Elbert

    2013-01-01

    It is clear that high-dose radiation is harmful. However, despite extensive research, assessment of potential health-risks associated with exposure to low-dose radiation (at doses below or equal to 0.1 Gy) is still challenging. Recently, we reported that 0.05 Gy of 137Cs gamma rays (the existing limit for radiation-exposure in the workplace) was incapable of inducing significant in vivo genomic instability (measured by the presence of late-occurring chromosomal damage at 6 months post-irradiation) in bone marrow (BM) cells of two mouse strains, one with constitutively high and one with intermediate levels of the repair enzyme DNA-dependent protein-kinase catalytic-subunit (DNA-PKcs). In this study, we present evidence for a lack of genomic instability in BM cells of the severely combined-immunodeficiency (SCID/J) mouse (which has an extremely low-level of DNA-PKcs activity) exposed whole-body to low-dose radiation (0.05 Gy). Together with our previous report, the data indicate that low-dose radiation (0.05 Gy) is incapable of inducing genomic instability in vivo (regardless of the levels of DNA-PKcs activity of the exposed mice), yet higher doses of radiation (0.1 and 1 Gy) do induce genomic instability in mice with intermediate and extremely low-levels of DNA-PKcs activity (indicating an important role of DNA-PKcs in DNA repair). PMID:23549227

  18. Immunomodulation in progeny from thymectomized primiparous mice exposed to benzo(a)pyrene during mid-pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Wolisi, G O; Majekodunmi, J; Bailey, G B; Urso, P

    2001-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that Benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P3) given to non-thymectomized (NTX) female mice alters expression of T cell subsets and suppresses cell mediated immunity (CMI) and humoral immunity (HI) in the progeny. Thus, maternal exposure to B(a)P may influence changes in progeny immune status. To understand how maternal cellular and humoral factors influence embryonic development of progeny immunity, adult female mice were thymectomized (TX) at 6 weeks, mated and injected with 150 microg B(a)P)/g body weight at 12 days of pregnancy. After B(a)P exposure, the following studies were performed: (A) Maternal reproductive capacity and survival rate of progeny; (B) Detection of T cells in progeny thymus; (C) Functional characteristics of progeny thymus or spleen. Maternal thymectomy and B(a)P exposure reduced average litter size by 40%. Serological sensitivity of thymus cells with anti-Thyl + complement occurred at a higher dilution of mAb in progeny from TX mothers exposed to B(a)P, suggesting that B(a)P-thymectomy led to increased sensitivity of developing thymocytes to mAb plus complement. Progeny from TX mothers exposed to B(a)P showed enhanced thymic CMI, but suppressed splenic CMI and HI. Thus, thymectomy prevents CMI immunosuppression by B(a)P, while HI is still suppressed. These results indicate that the maternal thymus is necessary for incurring the effect of B(a)P on progeny CMI.

  19. Sclerostin antibody inhibits skeletal deterioration in mice exposed to partial weight-bearing.

    PubMed

    Spatz, J M; Ellman, R; Cloutier, A M; Louis, L; van Vliet, M; Dwyer, D; Stolina, M; Ke, H Z; Bouxsein, M L

    2017-02-01

    Whereas much is known regarding the musculoskeletal responses to full unloading, little is known about the physiological effects and response to pharmacological agents in partial unloading (e.g. Moon and Mars) environments. To address this, we used a previously developed ground-based model of partial weight-bearing (PWB) that allows chronic exposure to reduced weight-bearing in mice to determine the effects of murine sclerostin antibody (SclAbII) on bone microstructure and strength across different levels of mechanical unloading. We hypothesize that treatment with SclAbII would improve bone mass, microarchitecture and strength in all loading conditions, but that there would be a greater skeletal response in the normally loaded mice than in partially unloaded mice suggesting the importance of combined countermeasures for exploration-class long duration spaceflight missions. Eleven-week-old female mice were assigned to one of four loading groups: normal weight-bearing controls (CON) or weight-bearing at 20% (PWB20), 40% (PWB40) or 70% (PWB70) of normal. Mice in each group received either SclAbII (25mg/kg) or vehicle (VEH) via twice weekly subcutaneous injection for 3 weeks. In partially-unloaded VEH-treated groups, leg BMD decreased -5 to -10% in a load-dependent manner. SclAbII treatment completely inhibited bone deterioration due to PWB, with bone properties in SclAbII-treated groups being equal to or greater than those of CON, VEH-treated mice. SclAbII treatment increased leg BMD from +14 to +18% in the PWB groups and 30 ± 3% in CON (p< 0.0001 for all). Trabecular bone volume, assessed by μCT at the distal femur, was lower in all partially unloaded VEH-treated groups vs. CON-VEH (p< 0.05), and was 2-3 fold higher in SclAbII-treated groups (p< 0.001). Midshaft femoral strength was also significantly higher in SclAbII vs. VEH-groups in all-loading conditions. These results suggest that greater weight bearing leads to greater benefits of SclAbII on bone

  20. Sclerostin antibody inhibits skeletal deterioration in mice exposed to partial weight-bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spatz, J. M.; Ellman, R.; Cloutier, A. M.; Louis, L.; van Vliet, M.; Dwyer, D.; Stolina, M.; Ke, H. Z.; Bouxsein, M. L.

    2017-02-01

    Whereas much is known regarding the musculoskeletal responses to full unloading, little is known about the physiological effects and response to pharmacological agents in partial unloading (e.g. Moon and Mars) environments. To address this, we used a previously developed ground-based model of partial weight-bearing (PWB) that allows chronic exposure to reduced weight-bearing in mice to determine the effects of murine sclerostin antibody (SclAbII) on bone microstructure and strength across different levels of mechanical unloading. We hypothesize that treatment with SclAbII would improve bone mass, microarchitecture and strength in all loading conditions, but that there would be a greater skeletal response in the normally loaded mice than in partially unloaded mice suggesting the importance of combined countermeasures for exploration-class long duration spaceflight missions. Eleven-week-old female mice were assigned to one of four loading groups: normal weight-bearing controls (CON) or weight-bearing at 20% (PWB20), 40% (PWB40) or 70% (PWB70) of normal. Mice in each group received either SclAbII (25 mg/kg) or vehicle (VEH) via twice weekly subcutaneous injection for 3 weeks. In partially-unloaded VEH-treated groups, leg BMD decreased -5 to -10% in a load-dependent manner. SclAbII treatment completely inhibited bone deterioration due to PWB, with bone properties in SclAbII-treated groups being equal to or greater than those of CON, VEH-treated mice. SclAbII treatment increased leg BMD from +14 to +18% in the PWB groups and 30 ± 3% in CON (p < 0.0001 for all). Trabecular bone volume, assessed by μCT at the distal femur, was lower in all partially unloaded VEH-treated groups vs. CON-VEH (p < 0.05), and was 2-3 fold higher in SclAbII-treated groups (p < 0.001). Midshaft femoral strength was also significantly higher in SclAbII vs. VEH-groups in all-loading conditions. These results suggest that greater weight bearing leads to greater benefits of SclAbII on bone mass

  1. Evaluating the transcriptomic and metabolic profile of mice exposed to source drinking water.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Xuxiang; Wu, Bing; Cheng, Shupei

    2012-01-03

    Transcriptomic and metabonomic methods were used to investigate mice's responses to drinking source water (DSW) exposure. After mice were fed with DSW for 90 days, hepatic transcriptome was characterized by microarray and serum metabonome were determined by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. A total of 243 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, among which 141 genes were up-regulated and 102 genes were down-regulated. Metabonomics revealed significant changes in concentrations of creatine, pyruvate, glutamine, lysine, choline, acetate, lipids, taurine, and trimethylamine oxide. Four biological pathways were identified by Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis where both gene expression and metabolite concentrations were altered in response to DSW exposure. These results highlight the significance of combined use of transcriptomic and metabonomic approaches in evaluating potential health risk induced by DSW contaminated with various hazardous materials.

  2. Genomic expression profiles in liver of mice exposed to purified terephthalic acid manufacturing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zongyao; Ma, Liping; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Li, Weixin; Zhang, Yan; Wu, Bing; Yang, Liuyan; Cheng, Shupei

    2010-09-15

    DNA micorarray was used to analyze hepatic transcriptional profile of male mice (Mus musculus) after 35-d intragastric perfusion treatment with purified terephthalic acid (PTA) manufacturing wastewater. Haematological analysis demonstrated that the levels of glutamyl transferase and lactate dehydrogenase in serum were significantly decreased, and DNA microarray showed that a total of 306 genes were differentially expressed in PTA wastewater-treated mice. According to Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes pathway database, the differentially expressed genes were mainly grouped to metabolic pathways (58 genes) and biological processes (101 genes). PTA wastewater had significant impacts upon metabolisms of lipid, carbohydrate, amino acid, vitamin and nucleotide. Several signal transduction pathways are most susceptible to PTA wastewater, including mitogen-activated protein kinases, Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription and calcium signaling pathways. Potential public health problems may arise from the discharge of PTA wastewater into the environment.

  3. Renal Cell Carcinomas in Vinylidene Chloride Exposed Male B6C3F1 Mice Are Characterized by Oxidative Stress and TP53 Pathway Dysregulation

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Schantel A.; Pandiri, Arun R.; Ton, Thai-vu T.; Hong, Hue-Hua L.; Clayton, Natasha P.; Shockley, Keith R.; Peddada, Shyamal D.; Gerrish, Kevin; Wyde, Michael; Sills, Robert C.; Hoenerhoff, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Vinylidene Chloride (VDC) has been widely used in the production of plastics and flame retardants. Exposure of B6C3F1 mice to VDC in the 2-year National Toxicology Program carcinogenicity bioassay resulted in a dose-dependent increases in renal cell hyperplasia, adenoma, and carcinoma (RCCs). Among those differentially expressed genes between controls and RCC from VDC-exposed mice, there was an overrepresentation of genes from pathways associated with chronic xenobiotic and oxidative stress, as well as c-Myc overexpression and dysregulation of TP53 cell cycle checkpoint and DNA damage repair pathways in RCC. Trend analysis comparing RCC, VDC-exposed kidney, and chamber control kidney showed a conservation of pathway dysregulation in terms of overrepresentation of xenobiotic and oxidative stress, and DNA damage and cell cycle checkpoint pathways in both VDC-exposed kidney and RCC, suggesting that these mechanisms play a role in the pathogenesis of RCC in VDC-exposed mice. PMID:26682919

  4. Exaggerated phosphorylation of brain tau protein in CRH KO mice exposed to repeated immobilization stress.

    PubMed

    Kvetnansky, Richard; Novak, Petr; Vargovic, Peter; Lejavova, Katarina; Horvathova, Lubica; Ondicova, Katarina; Manz, George; Filipcik, Peter; Novak, Michal; Mravec, Boris

    2016-07-01

    Neuroendocrine and behavioral stress responses are orchestrated by corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and norepinephrine (NE) synthesizing neurons. Recent findings indicate that stress may promote development of neurofibrillary pathology in Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, we investigated relationships among stress, tau protein phosphorylation, and brain NE using wild-type (WT) and CRH-knockout (CRH KO) mice. We assessed expression of phosphorylated tau (p-tau) at the PHF-1 epitope and NE concentrations in the locus coeruleus (LC), A1/C1 and A2/C2 catecholaminergic cell groups, hippocampus, amygdala, nucleus basalis magnocellularis, and frontal cortex of unstressed, singly stressed or repeatedly stressed mice. Moreover, gene expression and protein levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and CRH receptor mRNA were determined in the LC. Plasma corticosterone levels were also measured. Exposure to a single stress increases tau phosphorylation throughout the brain in WT mice when compared to singly stressed CRH KO animals. In contrast, repeatedly stressed CRH KO mice showed exaggerated tau phosphorylation relative to WT controls. We also observed differences in extent of tau phosphorylation between investigated structures, e.g. the LC and hippocampus. Moreover, CRH deficiency leads to different responses to stress in gene expression of TH, NE concentrations, CRH receptor mRNA, and plasma corticosterone levels. Our data indicate that CRH effects on tau phosphorylation are dependent on whether stress is single or repeated, and differs between brain regions. Our findings indicate that CRH attenuates mechanisms responsible for development of stress-induced tau neuropathology, particularly in conditions of chronic stress. However, the involvement of central catecholaminergic neurons in these mechanisms remains unclear and is in need of further investigation.

  5. Histopathological and Ultrastructural Studies of Liver Tissue from TCDD-Exposed Beach Mice (Peromyscus polionotus).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    gross developmental .7so-i defects such as cleft palate , cleft lip and polydactyly. Body and organ weights were recorded, internal organs were examined...according to the study, sex and treatment , placed in glass jars, frozed and subnitted for TCDD analysis. Hepatic Ultrastructural Study After the liver was...weights per se was not attempted since the ages of the beach mice were not known and the animals could only be classified by sex and treatment . The

  6. Abnormal in vitro development of ovarian follicles explanted from mice exposed to tetrachlorvinphos.

    PubMed

    Nayudu, P L; Kiesel, P S; Nowshari, M A; Hodges, J K

    1994-01-01

    A system of mouse ovarian follicle culture in which follicles can be grown from a preantral stage of development through antral formation has been developed and modified recently by Nayudu and colleagues. Follicles have been shown to grow in this culture system at a relatively constant rate and show responsiveness to LH at the end of the culture by ovulation of mature oocytes. Reported here are the distinctly different in vitro growth patterns of follicles explanted from 22- to 24-day-old mice during a period when the colony was being treated for skin parasites with tetrachlorvinphos (TCVP) (Rabond). There is to date no information on the effects of this compound on the mammalian female reproductive system. For follicles from the TCVP treated group, the duration of growth as intact follicles was markedly reduced in comparison to mice of the same strain and source not treated with TCVP. In the treated group, premature termination of follicular growth was also associated with the spontaneous expulsion of oocytes with immature nuclei and without cumulus cells. For those follicles from treated mice that did remain in culture until the day luteinizing hormone was given, the ovulatory response was poor and the maturation response of the oocytes was low in comparison with the follicles from untreated mice. The effect of the treatment on the follicles was further characterized by obvious differences in the patterns of growth. Follicles in the untreated group grew in a linear pattern at around 25 microns/day; a single phase, fast pattern for the whole culture period.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Acute Toxicity of Amorphous Silica Nanoparticles in Intravenously Exposed ICR Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen; Jin, Minghua; Du, Zhongjun; Li, Yanbo; Duan, Junchao; Yu, Yongbo; Sun, Zhiwei

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the acute toxicity of intravenously administrated amorphous silica nanoparticles (SNPs) in mice. The lethal dose, 50 (LD50), of intravenously administrated SNPs was calculated in mice using Dixon's up-and-down method (262.45±33.78 mg/kg). The acute toxicity was evaluated at 14 d after intravenous injection of SNPs at 29.5, 103.5 and 177.5 mg/kg in mice. A silicon content analysis using ICP-OES found that SNPs mainly distributed in the resident macrophages of the liver (10.24%ID/g), spleen (34.78%ID/g) and lung (1.96%ID/g). TEM imaging showed only a small amount in the hepatocytes of the liver and in the capillary endothelial cells of the lung and kidney. The levels of serum LDH, AST and ALT were all elevated in the SNP treated groups. A histological examination showed lymphocytic infiltration, granuloma formation, and hydropic degeneration in liver hepatocytes; megakaryocyte hyperplasia in the spleen; and pneumonemia and pulmonary interstitial thickening in the lung of the SNP treated groups. A CD68 immunohistochemistry stain indicated SNPs induced macrophage proliferation in the liver and spleen. The results suggest injuries induced by the SNPs in the liver, spleen and lungs. Mononuclear phagocytic cells played an important role in the injury process. PMID:23593469

  8. Expression Changes of Apoptotic Genes in Tissues from Mice Exposed to Nicotine

    PubMed

    Jalili, Cyrus; Salahshoor, Mohammad Reza; Moradi, Mohammad Taher; Ahookhash, Maryam; Taghadosi, Mehdi; Sohrabi, Maryam

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Smoking is the leading preventable cause of various diseases such as lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cardiovascular disease. Nicotine, one of the major toxic components of tobacco, contributes to the pathogenesis of different diseases. Methods: Given the controversy about nicotine toxicity, the present study was conducted to determine apoptotic effects of nicotine on the heart, kidney, lung and liver of male mice. Real-time PCR was performed to identify mRNA expression changes in apoptotic-related genes between nicotine treated and control mice. Result: In the heart and lung, nicotine caused significant decrease in P53, Bax and Caspase-3 mRNA expression levels compared to the control group. However, in the kidney and liver, the result was significant increase in Bax, Caspase-2, Caspase-3 and a significant decrease in P53 mRNA expression (p<0.01). DNA fragmentation assays indicated no fragmentation in the heart and lung, but in the kidney and liver of nicotine treated mice, isolated DNA was fragmented. Conclusion: Our study provided insight into the molecular mechanisms of nicotine anti-apoptotic effects on the heart and lung as well as pro-apoptotic effects on kidney and liver via a P53-independent pathway. Creative Commons Attribution License

  9. Brain gangliosides in hibernating dormice (Glis glis) and cold-exposed laboratory mice.

    PubMed

    Mühleisen, M; Hilbig, R; Rahmann, H

    1984-01-01

    The concentration of proteins, sialo-glycoproteins and gangliosides and the ganglioside composition of 8 brain regions from normothermic and hibernating fat dormice (Glis glis) and from laboratory mice being acclimated to 6, 22 and 28 degrees C were investigated. During hibernation the concentration of sialo-glycoproteins and gangliosides decreased significantly in brain of dormice; the protein content remained uninfluenced. Cold-exposure of laboratory mice yielded generally a slightly decreased sialo-glycoprotein concentration in brain; the data on ganglioside concentration in the CNS were not uniform. The ganglioside composition of brain of laboratory mice being kept at different environmental temperatures did not show any alterations. The brain gangliosides of hibernating dormice in contrast to their normothermic counterparts are more polar (higher amount of GTlb and GQlb.). Most striking is the complete absence of a distinct ganglioside fraction (O-acetylated-GTlb) during hibernation. Brain gangliosides of normothermic dormice were found to be more sensitive against neuraminidase treatment than those of hibernating animals. The results are discussed with regard to modulatory functions of neuronal gangliosides for the process of synaptic transmission during seasonal adaptation.

  10. Alteration of the serum N-glycome of mice locally exposed to high doses of ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Chaze, Thibault; Slomianny, Marie-Christine; Milliat, Fabien; Tarlet, Georges; Lefebvre-Darroman, Tony; Gourmelon, Patrick; Bey, Eric; Benderitter, Marc; Michalski, Jean-Claude; Guipaud, Olivier

    2013-02-01

    Exposure of the skin to ionizing radiation leads to characteristic reactions that will often turn into a pathophysiological process called the cutaneous radiation syndrome. The study of this disorder is crucial to finding diagnostic and prognostic bioindicators of local radiation exposure or radiation effects. It is known that irradiation alters the serum proteome content and potentially post-translationally modifies serum proteins. In this study, we investigated whether localized irradiation of the skin alters the serum glycome. Two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis of serum proteins from a man and from mice exposed to ionizing radiation showed that potential post-translational modification changes occurred following irradiation. Using a large-scale quantitative mass-spectrometry-based glycomic approach, we performed a global analysis of glycan structures of serum proteins from non-irradiated and locally irradiated mice exposed to high doses of γ-rays (20, 40, and 80 Gy). Non-supervised descriptive statistical analyses (principal component analysis) using quantitative glycan structure data allowed us to discriminate between uninjured/slightly injured animals and animals that developed severe lesions. Decisional statistics showed that several glycan families were down-regulated whereas others increased, and that particular structures were statistically significantly changed in the serum of locally irradiated mice. The observed increases in multiantennary N-glycans and in outer branch fucosylation and sialylation were associated with the up-regulation of genes involved in glycosylation in the liver, which is the main producer of serum proteins, and with an increase in the key proinflammatory serum cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and TNFα, which can regulate the expression of glycosylation genes. Our results suggest for the first time a role of serum protein glycosylation in response to irradiation. These protein-associated glycan structure changes might

  11. Alteration of the Serum N-glycome of Mice Locally Exposed to High Doses of Ionizing Radiation*

    PubMed Central

    Chaze, Thibault; Slomianny, Marie-Christine; Milliat, Fabien; Tarlet, Georges; Lefebvre-Darroman, Tony; Gourmelon, Patrick; Bey, Eric; Benderitter, Marc; Michalski, Jean-Claude; Guipaud, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Exposure of the skin to ionizing radiation leads to characteristic reactions that will often turn into a pathophysiological process called the cutaneous radiation syndrome. The study of this disorder is crucial to finding diagnostic and prognostic bioindicators of local radiation exposure or radiation effects. It is known that irradiation alters the serum proteome content and potentially post-translationally modifies serum proteins. In this study, we investigated whether localized irradiation of the skin alters the serum glycome. Two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis of serum proteins from a man and from mice exposed to ionizing radiation showed that potential post-translational modification changes occurred following irradiation. Using a large-scale quantitative mass-spectrometry-based glycomic approach, we performed a global analysis of glycan structures of serum proteins from non-irradiated and locally irradiated mice exposed to high doses of γ-rays (20, 40, and 80 Gy). Non-supervised descriptive statistical analyses (principal component analysis) using quantitative glycan structure data allowed us to discriminate between uninjured/slightly injured animals and animals that developed severe lesions. Decisional statistics showed that several glycan families were down-regulated whereas others increased, and that particular structures were statistically significantly changed in the serum of locally irradiated mice. The observed increases in multiantennary N-glycans and in outer branch fucosylation and sialylation were associated with the up-regulation of genes involved in glycosylation in the liver, which is the main producer of serum proteins, and with an increase in the key proinflammatory serum cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and TNFα, which can regulate the expression of glycosylation genes. Our results suggest for the first time a role of serum protein glycosylation in response to irradiation. These protein-associated glycan structure changes might

  12. Hypothalamic transcriptomic alterations in male and female California mice (Peromyscus californicus) developmentally exposed to bisphenol A or ethinyl estradiol.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sarah A; Spollen, William G; Manshack, Lindsey K; Bivens, Nathan J; Givan, Scott A; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S

    2017-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) prevalent in many household items. Rodent models and human epidemiological studies have linked this chemical to neurobehavior impairments. In California mice, developmental exposure to BPA results in sociosexual disorders at adulthood, including communication and biparental care deficits, behaviors that are primarily regulated by the hypothalamus. Thus, we sought to examine the transcriptomic profile in this brain region of juvenile male and female California mice offspring exposed from periconception through lactation to BPA or ethinyl estradiol (EE, estrogen present in birth control pills and considered a positive estrogen control for BPA studies). Two weeks prior to breeding, P0 females were fed a control diet, or this diet supplemented with 50 mg BPA/kg feed weight or 0.1 ppb EE, and continued on the diets through lactation. At weaning, brains from male and female offspring were collected, hypothalamic RNA isolated, and RNA-seq analysis performed. Results indicate that BPA and EE groups clustered separately from controls with BPA and EE exposure leading to unique set of signature gene profiles. Kcnd3 was downregulated in the hypothalamus of BPA- and EE-exposed females, whereas Tbl2, Topors, Kif3a, and Phactr2 were upregulated in these groups. Comparison of transcripts differentially expressed in BPA and EE groups revealed significant enrichment of gene ontology terms associated with microtubule-based processes. Current results show that perinatal exposure to BPA or EE can result in several transcriptomic alterations, including those associated with microtubule functions, in the hypothalamus of California mice. It remains to be determined whether these genes mediate BPA-induced behavioral disruptions.

  13. Antibody recognition of rodent malaria parasite antigens exposed at the infected erythrocyte surface: specificity of immunity generated in hyperimmune mice.

    PubMed

    Mota, M M; Brown, K N; Do Rosário, V E; Holder, A A; Jarra, W

    2001-04-01

    In regions where malaria is endemic, inhabitants remain susceptible to repeated reinfection as they develop and maintain clinical immunity. This immunity includes responses to surface-exposed antigens on Plasmodium sp.-infected erythrocytes. Some of these parasite-encoded antigens may be diverse and phenotypically variable, and the ability to respond to this diversity and variability is an important component of acquired immunity. Characterizing the relative specificities of antibody responses during the acquisition of immunity and in hyperimmune individuals is thus an important adjunct to vaccine research. This is logistically difficult to do in the field but is relatively easily carried out in animal models. Infections in inbred mice with rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi AS represent a good model for Plasmodium falciparum in humans. This model has been used in the present study in a comparative analysis of cross-reactive and specific immune responses in rodent malaria. CBA/Ca mice were rendered hyperimmune to P. chabaudi chabaudi (AS or CB lines) or Plasmodium berghei (KSP-11 line) by repeated infection with homologous parasites. Serum from P. chabaudi chabaudi AS hyperimmune mice reacted with antigens released from disrupted P. chabaudi chabaudi AS-infected erythrocytes, but P. chabaudi chabaudi CB and P. berghei KSP-11 hyperimmune serum also contained cross-reactive antibodies to these antigens. However, antibody activity directed against antigens exposed at the surfaces of intact P. chabaudi chabaudi-infected erythrocytes was mainly parasite species specific and, to a lesser extent, parasite line specific. Importantly, this response included opsonizing antibodies, which bound to infected erythrocytes, leading to their phagocytosis and destruction by macrophages. The results are discussed in the context of the role that antibodies to both variable and invariant antigens may play in protective immunity in the face of continuous susceptibility

  14. [Effects of enriched environment and impoverished environment on learning and memory ability of manganese-exposed mice].

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhong-xin; Li, Wen-yu; Li, Jun-ran; Li, Hong-lin; Wei, Ke; Yang, Bo-ning

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the effects of enriched environment and impoverished environment on the learning and memory ability of manganese-exposed mice and the mechanism. Forty female Kunming mice were randomly and equally divided into 4 group: control group (CG), standard environment and manganese exposure group (SEG), enriched environment and manganese exposure group (EEG), and impoverished environment and manganese exposure group (IEG). The mouse model of manganese poisoning was established by intraperitoneal injection of manganese chloride. The learning and memory ability was tested by Morris water maze. The expression of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in area CA1 of the hippocampus was measured by immunohistochemistry. In place navigation test, the SEG had a significantly longer escape latency than the CG (P < 0.05), and the EEG had a significantly shorter escape latency than the SEG (P < 0.05); there was no significant difference in escape latency between IEG and SEG (P > 0.05). In spatial probe test, the EEG had a significantly greater number of platform crossings than the SEG (P < 0.05), and the IEG had a significantly smaller number of platform crossings than the SEG (P < 0.05). The expression of CREB in area CA1 of the hippocampus was significantly lower in IEG and SEG than in CG (P < 0.05), and it was significantly higher in EEG than in SEG (P < 0.05). In the enriched environment, the learning and memory ability of manganese-exposed mice can be improved, which may be due to the increased expression of CREB in the hippocampus.

  15. Activation of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins in mice exposed to perfluorooctanoic acid for 28 days.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shengmin; Wang, Jianshe; Dai, Jiayin

    2015-09-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids are widely used in numerous industrial and commercial applications due to their unique physical and chemical characteristics. Although perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is associated with hepatomegaly through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) activation, liver fat accumulation and changes in gene expression related to fatty acid metabolism could still be found in PPARα-null mice exposed to PFOA. To explore the potential effects of PFOA on sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) activity, male mice were dosed with either Milli-Q water or PFOA at doses of 0.08, 0.31, 1.25, 5, and 20 mg/kg/day by gavage for 28 days. Liver total cholesterol concentrations and PFOA contents showed a dose-dependent decrease and increase, respectively. Transcriptional activity of PPARα and SREBPs was significantly enhanced in livers. Protein expression analyzed by Western blotting showed that PFOA exposure stimulated SREBP maturation. Furthermore, proteins blocked SREBP precursor transport, insulin-induced gene 1 (INSIG1) and INSIG2 proteins, as well as a protein-mediated nuclear SREBP proteolysis, F-box and WD-40 domain protein 7, decreased in mouse liver exposed to PFOA. The expression levels of the miR-183-96-182 cluster, which is possibly involved in a regulatory loop intermediated by SREBPs maturation, were also increased in the mouse liver after PFOA exposure. We also observed that PFOA induced lipid content and PPARα in Hepa 1-6 cells after exposure to PFOA for 72 h but SREBPs were not activated in vitro. These results demonstrated that SREBPs were maturated by activating the miR-183-96-182 cluster-SREBP regulatory loop in PFOA-exposed mouse liver.

  16. Acceleration of wound repair by curcumin in the excision wound of mice exposed to different doses of fractionated γ radiation.

    PubMed

    Jagetia, Ganesh Chandra; Rajanikant, Golgod Krishnamurthy

    2012-02-01

    Fractionated irradiation (IR) before or after surgery of malignant tumours causes a high frequency of wound healing complications. Our aim was to investigate the effect of curcumin (CUM) on the healing of deep excision wound of mice exposed to fractionated IR by mimicking clinical conditions. A full-thickness dermal excision wound was created on the shaved dorsum of mice that were orally administered or not with 100 mg of CUM per kilogram body weight before partial body exposure to 10, 20 or 40 Gy given as 2 Gy/day for 5, 10 or 20 days. The wound contraction was determined periodically by capturing video images of the wound from day 1 until complete healing of wounds. Fractionated IR caused a dose-dependent delay in the wound contraction and prolonged wound healing time, whereas CUM administration before fractionated IR caused a significant elevation in the wound contraction and reduced mean wound healing time. Fractionated IR reduced the synthesis of collagen, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and nitric oxide (NO) at different post-IR times and treatment of mice with CUM before IR elevated the synthesis of collagen, DNA and NO significantly. Histological examination showed a reduction in the collagen deposition, fibroblast and vascular densities after fractionated IR, whereas CUM pre-treatment inhibited this decline significantly. Our study shows that CUM pre-treatment accelerated healing of irradiated wound and could be a substantial therapeutic strategy in the management of irradiated wounds.

  17. Maternal effects and cancer risk in the progeny of mice exposed to X-rays before conception.

    PubMed

    Dasenbrock, Clemens; Tillmann, Thomas; Ernst, Heinrich; Behnke, Wolfgang; Kellner, Rupert; Hagemann, Gerd; Kaever, Volkhard; Kohler, Manfred; Rittinghausen, Susanne; Mohr, Ulrich; Tomatis, Lorenzo

    2005-04-01

    To investigate in an animal model whether preconceptual X-ray exposure leads to an altered tumor rate and spectrum in the offspring, a transgeneration carcinogenesis study was carried out. Female mice received X-ray irradiation (2 x 2 Gray) 2 weeks prior to mating with untreated males. After weaning, half of the descendants were exposed for 6 months to the immunomodulating and tumor-promoting compound cyclosporine A (CsA) by diet, the others remained untreated. The animals were maintained for their entire lifespan, terminal sacrifices were carried out after 28 months. Complete autopsy was performed, and three protocol organs (lung, liver and spleen) were examined histologically, together with any suspicious lesions in other organs. Fertility and the lifetime of the maternal mice were reduced by the X-ray irradiation, and their incidence of lung and liver tumors was increased as compared to non-irradiated mice. The descendants of all groups revealed comparable body weights and mortality rates. The incidence of hematopoietic/lymphoreticular tissue tumors increased in the female hybrids by 6 months of CsA-treatment. A higher incidence of lung and liver tumors in the sham-treated male progeny of irradiated mothers was detected, pointing to a possible germ cell-transmitted alteration initiated by the preconceptual maternal X-ray exposure.

  18. Glucose tolerance in mice exposed to light-dark stimulus patterns mirroring dayshift and rotating shift schedules.

    PubMed

    Figueiro, Mariana G; Radetsky, Leora; Plitnick, Barbara; Rea, Mark S

    2017-01-12

    Glucose tolerance was measured in (nocturnal) mice exposed to light-dark stimulus patterns simulating those that (diurnal) humans would experience while working dayshift (DSS) and 2 rotating night shift patterns (1 rotating night shift per week [RSS1] and 3 rotating night shifts per week [RSS3]). Oral glucose tolerance tests were administered at the same time and light phase during the third week of each experimental session. In contrast to the RSS1 and RSS3 conditions, glucose levels reduced more quickly for the DSS condition. Glucose area-under-the-curve measured for the DSS condition was also significantly less than that for the RSS1 and RSS3 conditions. Circadian disruption for the 3 light-dark patterns was quantified using phasor magnitude based on the 24-h light-dark patterns and their associated activity-rest patterns. Circadian disruption for mice in the DSS condition was significantly less than that for the RSS1 and RSS3 conditions. This study extends previous studies showing that even 1 night of shift work decreases glucose tolerance and that circadian disruption is linked to glucose tolerance in mice.

  19. Glucose tolerance in mice exposed to light–dark stimulus patterns mirroring dayshift and rotating shift schedules

    PubMed Central

    Figueiro, Mariana G.; Radetsky, Leora; Plitnick, Barbara; Rea, Mark S.

    2017-01-01

    Glucose tolerance was measured in (nocturnal) mice exposed to light–dark stimulus patterns simulating those that (diurnal) humans would experience while working dayshift (DSS) and 2 rotating night shift patterns (1 rotating night shift per week [RSS1] and 3 rotating night shifts per week [RSS3]). Oral glucose tolerance tests were administered at the same time and light phase during the third week of each experimental session. In contrast to the RSS1 and RSS3 conditions, glucose levels reduced more quickly for the DSS condition. Glucose area-under-the-curve measured for the DSS condition was also significantly less than that for the RSS1 and RSS3 conditions. Circadian disruption for the 3 light–dark patterns was quantified using phasor magnitude based on the 24-h light–dark patterns and their associated activity–rest patterns. Circadian disruption for mice in the DSS condition was significantly less than that for the RSS1 and RSS3 conditions. This study extends previous studies showing that even 1 night of shift work decreases glucose tolerance and that circadian disruption is linked to glucose tolerance in mice. PMID:28079162

  20. Effect of Selenium on Neurotoxicity in Adult Male Mice Exposed to Formaldehyde

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Shabnam

    2014-01-01

    Background: Formaldehyde is used in medicine and industry, and it is known to have detrimental effects on various systems including the nervous system, by increasing oxidative stress. However, data are scarce related to substances that can protect against the neurotoxicity induced by formaldehyde. Therefore, this study was designed to assess the protective effects of selenium against the toxic effect of this compound. Methods: A total of 48 adult male mice were divided randomly into six groups, i.e., (1) control, (2) treated with formaldehyde, (3) treated with formaldehyde plus 0.1 mg/kg selenium, (4) treated with formaldehyde plus 0.2 mg/kg selenium, (5) treated with formaldehyde plus 0.4 mg/kg selenium, and (6) treated with formaldehyde plus 0.8 mg/kg selenium. At the end of 14 days, the cerebellums were removed for histological evaluation. Morphological changes were examined using Image J software. The data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20.0 and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: Formaldehyde caused a reduction in the numbers and sizes of Purkinje cells and granular cells; in addition, the thickness of the granular layer was thinner than that in the control mice (P < 0.05). Treatment with 0.1 mg/kg selenium resulted in an increase in the number of Purkinje cells as well as the area of the gray matter compared to those of the control mice. Conclusion: Formaldehyde-induced neuronal damage was prevented by the administration of 0.1 mg/kg selenium, hence this treatment shows therapeutic potential for the treatment of neurotoxicity PMID:25763172

  1. [Detection of large deletions of mitochondrial DNA in tissues of mice exposed to X-rays].

    PubMed

    Antipova, V N; Malakhova, L V; Bezlepkin, V G

    2011-01-01

    Large mtDNA deletions in mouse brain and spleen cells, induced by X-radiation at doses of 2 and 5 Gy were studied within four weeks after the exposure of animals to X-rays. Variations in the content of extracellular (deletion) mtDNA were examined in the blood plasma of mice irradiated with 5 Gy in the same postirradiation times. Ionizing radiation was shown to effectively induce large mtDNA deletions at the doses chosen. The level of deletion mtDNA was dependent on dose and postirradiation time.

  2. Modulation by metformin of molecular and histopathological alterations in the lung of cigarette smoke-exposed mice

    PubMed Central

    Izzotti, Alberto; Balansky, Roumen; D'Agostini, Francesco; Longobardi, Mariagrazia; Cartiglia, Cristina; Micale, Rosanna T; La Maestra, Sebastiano; Camoirano, Anna; Ganchev, Gancho; Iltcheva, Marietta; Steele, Vernon E; De Flora, Silvio

    2014-01-01

    The anti-diabetic drug metformin is endowed with anti-cancer properties. Epidemiological and experimental studies, however, did not provide univocal results regarding its role in pulmonary carcinogenesis. We used Swiss H mice of both genders in order to detect early molecular alterations and tumors induced by mainstream cigarette smoke. Based on a subchronic toxicity study, oral metformin was used at a dose of 800 mg/kg diet, which is 3.2 times higher than the therapeutic dose in humans. Exposure of mice to smoke for 4 months, starting at birth, induced a systemic clastogenic damage, formation of DNA adducts, oxidative DNA damage, and extensive downregulation of microRNAs in lung after 10 weeks. Preneoplastic lesions were detectable after 7.5 months in both lung and urinary tract along with lung tumors, both benign and malignant. Modulation by metformin of 42 of 1281 pulmonary microRNAs in smoke-free mice highlighted a variety of mechanisms, including modulation of AMPK, stress response, inflammation, NFκB, Tlr9, Tgf, p53, cell cycle, apoptosis, antioxidant pathways, Ras, Myc, Dicer, angiogenesis, stem cell recruitment, and angiogenesis. In smoke-exposed mice, metformin considerably decreased DNA adduct levels and oxidative DNA damage, and normalized the expression of several microRNAs. It did not prevent smoke-induced lung tumors but inhibited preneoplastic lesions in both lung and kidney. In conclusion, metformin was able to protect the mouse lung from smoke-induced DNA and microRNA alterations and to inhibit preneoplastic lesions in lung and kidney but failed to prevent lung adenomas and malignant tumors induced by this complex mixture. PMID:24683044

  3. Exercise of obese mice induces cardioprotection and oxygen-sparing in hearts exposed to high fat-load.

    PubMed

    Boardman, Neoma T; Hafstad, Anne Dragøy; Lund, Jim; Rossvoll, Line; Aasum, Ellen

    2017-08-11

    Exercise training is a potent, therapeutic approach in obesity and diabetes that exerts protective effects against development of diabetic cardiomyopathy and ischemic-injury. Acute increases in circulating fatty acids (FAs) during an ischemic insult can challenge the heart, as high FA-load is considered to have adverse cardiac effects. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that exercise-induced cardiac effects in diet-induced obese mice are abrogated by an acute high FA-load. Diet-induced obese mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 20 weeks. They were exercised using moderate and/or high-intensity exercise training (MIT and HIT) for 10 or 3 weeks, and isolated perfused hearts from these mice were exposed to a high FA-load. Sedentary HFD mice served as controls. Ventricular function and myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2) were assessed following 10 weeks HIT and MIT, and post-ischemic functional recovery and infarct size were examined after 3 weeks HIT. In addition to improving aerobic capacity (VO2max) and reducing obesity and insulin resistance, long-term exercise ameliorated the development of the diet-induced cardiac dysfunction. This was associated with improved mechanical efficiency, due to reduced MVO2 Although to a lesser extent, 3 weeks HIT also increased VO2max and decreased obesity and insulin resistance. HIT also improved post-ischemic recovery and reduced infarct size. Despite the exposure to a high FA-load, short-term exercise induced an oxygen-sparing effect. This study therefore shows that exercise-induced cardioprotective effects are present under hyperlipidemic conditions and highlights the important role of myocardial energetics during ischemic stress. Copyright © 2017, American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology.

  4. Histopathology related to cadmium and lead bioaccumulation in chronically exposed wood mice, Apodemus sylvaticus, around a former smelter.

    PubMed

    Tête, Nicolas; Durfort, Mercè; Rieffel, Dominique; Scheifler, Renaud; Sánchez-Chardi, Alejandro

    2014-05-15

    The ceasing of industrial activities often reduces the emission of pollutants but also often leaves disturbed areas without remediation and with persistent pollutants that can still be transferred along the food chain. This study examines the potential relationships between non-essential trace metals and histopathology in target tissues of wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) collected along a gradient of contamination around the former smelter, Metaleurop Nord (northern France). Cadmium and lead concentrations were measured, and histological alterations attributable to chronic trace metal exposure were assessed in the liver and the kidneys of 78 individuals. Metal concentrations quantified in the present study were among the highest observed for this species. Some histological alterations significantly increased with Cd or Pb concentrations in the soil and in the organs. Sixteen mice from polluted sites were considered at risk for metal-induced stress because their Cd and/or Pb tissue concentrations exceeded the LOAELs for single exposure to these elements. These mice also exhibited a higher severity of histological alterations in their organs than individuals with lower metal burdens. These results indicate that the Metaleurop smelter, despite its closure in 2003, still represents a threat to the local ecosystem because of the high levels and high bioavailability of Cd and Pb in the soil. However, among the mice not considered at risk for metal-induced stress based on the metal levels in their tissues, a large percentage of individuals still exhibited histological alterations. Thus, the present study suggests that the evaluation of toxic effects based only on the LOAELs for single metal exposure may result in the underestimation of the real risks when specimens are exposed to multiple stressors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Radiomodulatory role of Rutin and Quercetin in Swiss Albino mice exposed to the whole body gamma radiation

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Shrikant L; Somashekarappa, HM; Rajashekhar, KP

    2012-01-01

    Context: Radiation therapy is the prime treatment modality against various cancers. However, its use is limited due to the effects of radiation on normal tissues. Aims: In view of this, present study was carried out to evaluate the radioprotective potential of Rutin (RUT) and Quercetin (QRT) in Swiss Albino mice exposed to the whole body gamma radiation. To gain insight into the mechanism of action, RUT and QRT were tested for its antioxidant levels in mice. Settings and Designs: Optimum protective dose of RUT and QRT against radiation induced animal mortality was selected by administration of various doses of the RUT and QRT before 10 Gy gamma irradiation. Materials and Methods: Swiss Albino mice were used for the assessment of radiation induced sickness along with the survival analysis and anti-oxidative properties of RUT and QRT. Statistical Analysis Used: Survival studies were determined using the Kaplan-Meier survival curves. Results: The maximum survival was observed with 10 mg/kg. b. wt. and 20 mg/kg. b. wt. of RUT and QRT respectively, this dose was considered as an optimal dose for radioprotection. Treatment of mice with RUT and QRT before irradiation delayed the onset of mortality as compared with the untreated irradiated controls. The oral administration of RUT and QRT resulted in an increase in the radiation tolerance and the dose reduction factor was found to be 1.15 and 1.11 respectively. RUT and QRT pre-treatment significantly (P < 0.01) elevated levels of reduced glutathione, glutathione-S-transferase, catalase, Superoxide dismutase, and a decreased lipid peroxidation in mouse liver homogenate at 24 h after exposure to 4.5 Gy. Conclusions: Present findings demonstrate the potential of RUT and QRT in mitigating radiation-induced mortality, which may be attributed to the elevation in the antioxidant status, anti-lipid peroxidative potential. PMID:24019653

  6. Frequency of micronuclei in the peripheral blood and bone marrow of cancer-prone mice chronically exposed to 2450 MHz radiofrequency radiation.

    PubMed

    Vijayalaxmi; Frei, M R; Dusch, S J; Guel, V; Meltz, M L; Jauchem, J R

    1997-04-01

    C3H/HeJ mice, which are prone to mammary tumors, were exposed for 20 h/day, 7 days/week, over 18 months to continuous-wave 2450 MHz radiofrequency (RF) radiation in circularly polarized wave guides at a whole-body average specific absorption rate of 1.0 W/kg. Sham-exposed mice were used as controls. The positive controls were the sentinel mice treated with mitomycin C during the last 24 h before necropsy. At the end of the 18 months, all mice were necropsied. Peripheral blood and bone marrow smears were examined for the extent of genotoxicity as indicated by the presence of micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs). The results indicate that the incidence of micronuclei/1,000 PCEs was not significantly different between groups exposed to RF radiation (62 mice) and sham-exposed groups (58 mice), and the mean frequencies were 4.5 +/- 1.23 and 4.0 +/- 1.12 in peripheral blood and 6.1 +/- 1.78 and 5.7 +/- 1.60 in bone marrow, respectively. In contrast, the positive controls (7 mice) showed a significantly elevated incidence of micronuclei/1,000 PCEs in peripheral blood and bone marrow, and the mean frequencies were 50.9 +/- 6.18 and 55.2 +/- 4.65, respectively. When the animals with mammary tumors were considered separately, there were no significant differences in the incidence of micronuclei/1,000 PCEs between the group exposed to RF radiation (12 mice) and the sham-exposed group (8 mice), and the mean frequencies were 4.6 +/- 1.03 and 4.1 +/- 0.89 in peripheral blood and 6.1 +/- 1.76 and 5.5 +/- 1.51 in bone marrow, respectively. Thus there was no evidence for genotoxicity in mice prone to mammary tumors that were exposed chronically to 2450 MHz RF radiation compared with sham-exposed controls.

  7. Far-infrared suppresses skin photoaging in ultraviolet B-exposed fibroblasts and hairless mice

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Hui-Wen; Chen, Cheng-Hsien; Chen, Yi-Jie; Hsu, Yung-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) induces skin photoaging, which is characterized by thickening, wrinkling, pigmentation, and dryness. Collagen, which is one of the main building blocks of human skin, is regulated by collagen synthesis and collagen breakdown. Autophagy was found to block the epidermal hyperproliferative response to UVB and may play a crucial role in preventing skin photoaging. In the present study, we investigated whether far-infrared (FIR) therapy can inhibit skin photoaging via UVB irradiation in NIH 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts and SKH-1 hairless mice. We found that FIR treatment significantly increased procollagen type I through the induction of the TGF-β/Smad axis. Furthermore, UVB significantly enhanced the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and MMP-9. FIR inhibited UVB-induced MMP-1 and MMP-9. Treatment with FIR reversed UVB-decreased type I collagen. In addition, FIR induced autophagy by inhibiting the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. In UVB-induced skin photoaging in a hairless mouse model, FIR treatment resulted in decreased skin thickness in UVB irradiated mice and inhibited the degradation of collagen fibers. Moreover, FIR can increase procollagen type I via the inhibition of MMP-9 and induction of TGF-β in skin tissues. Therefore, our study provides evidence for the beneficial effects of FIR exposure in a model of skin photoaging. PMID:28301572

  8. Leucocytes DNA damage in mice exposed to JS-118 by the comet assay.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Hu, Jiye; Zhang, Yuchao; Zhao, Qianfei; Ning, Jun

    2011-09-01

    JS-118 is an extensively used insecticide in China. The present study investigated the genotoxic effect of JS-118 on whole blood at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h by using alkaline comet assay. Male Kunming mice were given 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg BW of JS-118 intraperitoneally. A statistically significant increase in all comet parameters indicating DNA damage was observed at 24 h post-treatment (p < 0.05). A clear concentration-dependent increase of DNA damage was revealed as evident by the OTM (arbitrary units), tail length (µm) and tail DNA (%). From 48 h post-treatment, a gradual decrease in mean comet parameters was noted. By 96 h of post-treatment, the mean comet tail length reached control levels indicating repair of damaged DNA. This study on mice showed different DNA damage depending on the concentration of JS-118 and the period of treatment. The present study provided further information of the potential risk of the genetic damage caused by JS-118.

  9. Gender Dependent Evaluation of Autism like Behavior in Mice Exposed to Prenatal Zinc Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Grabrucker, Stefanie; Boeckers, Tobias M; Grabrucker, Andreas M

    2016-01-01

    Zinc deficiency has recently been linked to the etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) as environmental risk factor. With an estimated 17% of the world population being at risk of zinc deficiency, especially zinc deficiency during pregnancy might be a common occurrence, also in industrialized nations. On molecular level, zinc deficiency has been shown to affect a signaling pathway at glutamatergic synapses that has previously been identified through genetic mutations in ASD patients, the Neurexin-Neuroligin-Shank pathway, via altering zinc binding Shank family members. In particular, prenatal zinc deficient but not acute zinc deficient animals have been reported to display autism like behavior in some behavioral tests. However, a full behavioral analysis of a possible autism like behavior has been lacking so far. Here, we performed an extensive behavioral phenotyping of mice born from mothers with mild zinc deficiency during all trimesters of pregnancy. Prenatal zinc deficient animals were investigated as adults and gender differences were assessed. Our results show that prenatal zinc deficient mice display increased anxiety, deficits in nest building and various social interaction paradigm, as well as mild alterations in ultrasonic vocalizations. A gender specific analysis revealed only few sex specific differences. Taken together, given that similar behavioral abnormalities as reported here are frequently observed in ASD mouse models, we conclude that prenatal zinc deficient animals even without specific genetic susceptibility for ASD, already show some features of ASD like behavior.

  10. Gender Dependent Evaluation of Autism like Behavior in Mice Exposed to Prenatal Zinc Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Grabrucker, Stefanie; Boeckers, Tobias M.; Grabrucker, Andreas M.

    2016-01-01

    Zinc deficiency has recently been linked to the etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) as environmental risk factor. With an estimated 17% of the world population being at risk of zinc deficiency, especially zinc deficiency during pregnancy might be a common occurrence, also in industrialized nations. On molecular level, zinc deficiency has been shown to affect a signaling pathway at glutamatergic synapses that has previously been identified through genetic mutations in ASD patients, the Neurexin-Neuroligin-Shank pathway, via altering zinc binding Shank family members. In particular, prenatal zinc deficient but not acute zinc deficient animals have been reported to display autism like behavior in some behavioral tests. However, a full behavioral analysis of a possible autism like behavior has been lacking so far. Here, we performed an extensive behavioral phenotyping of mice born from mothers with mild zinc deficiency during all trimesters of pregnancy. Prenatal zinc deficient animals were investigated as adults and gender differences were assessed. Our results show that prenatal zinc deficient mice display increased anxiety, deficits in nest building and various social interaction paradigm, as well as mild alterations in ultrasonic vocalizations. A gender specific analysis revealed only few sex specific differences. Taken together, given that similar behavioral abnormalities as reported here are frequently observed in ASD mouse models, we conclude that prenatal zinc deficient animals even without specific genetic susceptibility for ASD, already show some features of ASD like behavior. PMID:26973485

  11. Toxicity of Lunar Dust in Lungs Assessed by Examining Biomarkers in Exposed Mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, C.-W.; James, J. T.; Zeidler-Erdely, P. C.; Castranova, V.; Young, S. H.; Quan, C. L.; Khan-Mayberry, N.; Taylor, L. A.

    2010-01-01

    NASA is contemplating to build an outpost on the Moon for prolonged human habitation and research. The lunar surface is covered by a layer of soil, of which the finest portion is highly reactive dust. Dust samples of respirable sizes were aerodynamically isolated from two lunar soil samples of different maturities (cosmic exposure ages) collected during the Apollo 16 mission. The lunar dust samples, TiO2, or quartz, suspended in normal saline were given to groups of 5 C57 male mice by intrapharyngeal aspiration at 0. 1, 0.3, or 1.0 mg/mouse. Because lunar dust aggregates rapidly in aqueous media, some tests were conducted with dusts suspended in Survanta/saline (1:1). The mice were euthanized 7 or 30 days later, and their lungs were lavaged to assess the presence of toxicity biomarkers in bronchioalveolar lavage fluids. The overall results showed that the two lunar dust samples were similar in toxicity, they were more toxic than T102 , but less toxic than quartz. This preliminary study is a part of the large study to obtain data for setting exposure limits for astronauts living on the Moon

  12. Alleviation of severe inflammatory responses in LPS-exposed mice by Schisantherin A.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Ci, Xinxin; Li, Yang; Liu, Chaoying; Wen, Zhongmei; Jie, Jing; Peng, Liping

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate our hypothesis starting that Schisantherin A (SchA), which exerts significant anti-inflammatory effects in vitro, could reduce the pulmonary inflammatory response in an acute lung injury (ALI) model. ALI was induced in mice by exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 20 mg/kg), and the inflammatory mediator production, neutrophil infiltration, and histopathological changes were evaluated. SchA at a dose of 100 mg/kg significantly improved survival rate of mice injected with LPS. The levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and the histopathological changes due to the injury were significantly inhibited when SchA was administered before or after LPS insult, and the infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages in lung tissues induced by LPS were suppressed by SchA. Additionally, pretreatment with SchA notably blocked the activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Taken together, SchA showed obvious anti-inflammatory effects in an LPS-induced ALI model via blockage of the NF-κB and MAPK pathways. Thus, SchA may be an innovative therapy for inflammatory diseases.

  13. Cytogenetic effects in bone marrow cells of mice exposed on the biosatellite "BION-M1"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorozhkina, Olga; Ivanov, Alexander

    In studies of cytogenetic damage in blood lymphocytes of astronauts, conducted in recent years, have shown an increase in the frequency of chromosomal damage bound, as believe, with influence on an organism of astronauts of space radiation (B.S. Fedorenko, G.P. Snigireva, 2004). However, in recent years published evidence that both acute and chronic stress induce chromosomal aberrations and modified genome sensitivity to mutagens of different nature, including to ionizing radiation (F.I. Ingel et al, 2005 ). This question is especially actual for space biology and medicine due to a number of specific features of space flights, when the interaction of factors more pronounced than in normal terrestrial conditions. In experiment "BION - M1" by anaphase method was determined level of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells of tibia of mice. Flight duration biosatellite "BION - M1" was 30 days in Earth orbit. Euthanasia of experimental animals was carried out at intervals of 15-20 minutes by method of cervical dislocation after 12 hours from the moment of landing satellite. Level of chromosomal aberrations in vivarium-housed control mice was 1,75 ± 0,6% and 1,8 ± 0,45%, while the mitotic index 1,46 ± 0,09% and 1,53 ± 0,05%. Differences are not significant. The maintenance of animals in experiment with the onboard equipment (ground experiment) led to some increase in aberrant mitoses (2,3 ± 0,4%) and to decrease in a mitotic index (1,37 ± 0,02%). In the flight experiment "BION - M1" statistically significant increase of level of chromosomal aberrations (29,7 ± 4,18%) and a decrease in the mitotic index (0,74 ± 0,07%). Since the mouse is a suitable experimental model , also had several ground experiments on research of combined effect of irradiation and other stress factors specific to space flight, with marked tendency to increase the level of aberrant mitoses under the combined action of radiation and stress exposure group housing male mice. Statistically

  14. Mutagenicity of urine from mice exposed orally to nitrite and various aminated antiparasitic drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Alba, M.A.; Aguirre, J.E.; Ramirez, J.; de Nava, C.C. )

    1989-01-01

    Mutagenic N-nitroso compound formation from the in vitro reaction of amebicides and anthelmintic drugs, which are pyrimidine derivatives or contain secondary aliphatic amines or heterocyclic nitrogens, has been previously described. Under similar conditions, antiparasitic drugs containing halogenated derivatives of tertiary amines or quaternary ammonium salts do not form mutagenic nitrosated compounds. In the present study the mutagenic activity of mouse urine was determined after oral administration of sodium nitrite and the two above-mentioned groups of drugs. Results show that the simultaneous administration of piperazine or chloroquine with sodium nitrite produced urinary mutagens that appeared conjugated as glucuronides, whereas pyrantel pamoate and dehydroemetine in the presence of nitrite caused only slightly mutagenic urine. No mutagenic activity was detected in the urine of mice to which halogenated derivatives of tertiary amines (iodochlorhydroxyquin) or quaternary ammonium salts (bephenium hydroxynaphthoate) were administered together with nitrite.

  15. Altered immunological response in mice subjected to stress and exposed to fungal spores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurup, Viswanath P.; Choi, Hongyung; Kumar, Anoopa; Murali, Pazhayannur S.; Mishra, S. K.; Pierson, Duane L.

    1992-01-01

    Space flight and related factors such as stress appear to have an adverse effect on astronauts' immune systems. The presence of potentially pathogenic microbes including several genera of fungi reported from spacecraft environment may be a cause of concern in such situations. In order to study the role of such organisms in causing opportunistic or allergic diseases in crewmembers, we have tried to develop an animal model. BALB/c mice were suspended upside down for varying periods of time to induce stress, and their lymphocyte functions were evaluated. These studies indicate that the stress resulted in lowered mitogen induced lymphocyte stimulation as represented by 3H-thymidine uptake. We have also studied the ability of these animals to respond to Aspergillus fumigatus spores. The results of the study clearly demonstrate a definite down-regulation in T-cell proliferation and a higher incidence of infection with A. fumigatus.

  16. Studies on antioxidant enzymes in mice exposed to pulsed electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Eraslan, Gokhan; Bilgili, Ali; Akdogan, Mehmet; Yarsan, Ender; Essiz, Dinc; Altintas, Levent

    2007-02-01

    In this study, 56 female albino mice weighing 30-35 g were used. The animals were divided into a control and an experimental group. The animals in the experimental group were subjected to a pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) with a field magnitude of 50 Hz and 2 mT for 8h each day between 0900 and 1700 for 90 days. In both control and experimental groups, blood was sampled at 45, 60, and 90 days in heparinized tubes and erythrocyte malondialdehyde levels, and superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities were determined. The results revealed that the PEMF applied chronically within the given period and field magnitude does not cause oxidative damage.

  17. Altered immunological response in mice subjected to stress and exposed to fungal spores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurup, Viswanath P.; Choi, Hongyung; Kumar, Anoopa; Murali, Pazhayannur S.; Mishra, S. K.; Pierson, Duane L.

    1992-01-01

    Space flight and related factors such as stress appear to have an adverse effect on astronauts' immune systems. The presence of potentially pathogenic microbes including several genera of fungi reported from spacecraft environment may be a cause of concern in such situations. In order to study the role of such organisms in causing opportunistic or allergic diseases in crewmembers, we have tried to develop an animal model. BALB/c mice were suspended upside down for varying periods of time to induce stress, and their lymphocyte functions were evaluated. These studies indicate that the stress resulted in lowered mitogen induced lymphocyte stimulation as represented by 3H-thymidine uptake. We have also studied the ability of these animals to respond to Aspergillus fumigatus spores. The results of the study clearly demonstrate a definite down-regulation in T-cell proliferation and a higher incidence of infection with A. fumigatus.

  18. Differential proteome and gene expression for testis of mice exposed to carbon ion radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hong; Li, Hongyan

    Objective To investigate the effect and mechanism of high linear energy transfer (LET) carbon ion irradiation (CIR) on reproduction in the testis of male Swiss Webster mice, and assess the risk associated with space environment. Methods Male mice underwent whole-body irradiation with CIR (0.5, 1 and 4Gy), and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF) analysis was used to determine the alteration in protein expression in 2-DE (two-dimensional gel electrophoresis) gels of testes caused by irradiation after 7, 14 days. Results 15 differentially expressed proteins, such as glucose-regulated protein(GRP78), aconitate hydratase-mitochondrial precursor (ACO), pyruvate kinase isozymes M1/M2 (PKM1/M2), glutathione-S-transferaseA3 (GSTA3), glutathione S-transferase Pi 1 (GSTP1), Cu/Zn super-oxide dismutase (SOD1), Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (Pin1) and Heat shock 70 kDa protein 4L (HSPa4L), were identified and these proteins were mainly involved in energy supply, the endoplasmic reticulum, cell proliferation, cell cycle, antioxidant capacity and mitochondrial respiration, which play important roles in the inhibition of testicular function in response to CIR. Furthermore, we confirmed the relationship between transcription of mRNA and the abundance of proteins. Conclusion The findings of the present study demonstrated that these proteins may lead to new insights into the molecular mechanism of CIR toxicity, and suggested that the gene expression response to CIR involves diverse regulatory mechanisms from transcription of mRNA to the formation of functional proteins. These data also may provide a scientific basis for protecting astronauts and space traveler’s health and safety.

  19. Toxicity of Lunar Dust in Lungs Assessed by Examining Biomarkers in Exposed Mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, C.-W.; James, J. T.; Zeidler-Erdely, P. C.; Castranova, V.; Young, S. H.; Quan, C. L.; Khan-Mayberry, N.; Taylor, L. A.

    2009-01-01

    NASA plans to build an outpost on the Moon for prolonged human habitation and research. The lunar surface is covered by a layer of soil, of which the finest portion is highly reactive dust. NASA has invited NIOSH to collaboratively investigate the toxicity of lunar dust. Dust samples of respirable sizes were aerodynamically isolated from two lunar soil samples of different maturities (cosmic exposure ages) collected during the Apollo 16 mission. The lunar dust samples, titanium dioxide, or quartz, suspended in normal saline or in Survanta (a bovine lung surfactant), were given to groups of 5 mice (C-57 male) by intrapharyngeal aspiration at 1, 0.3, or 0.1 mg/mouse. The mice were euthanized 7 or 30 days later, and their lungs were lavaged to assess the toxicity biomarkers in bronchioalveolar lavage fluids. The acellular fractions were assayed for total proteins, lactate dehydrogenase activities, and cytokines; the cellular portions were assessed for total cell counts and cell differentials. Results from the high-dose groups showed that lunar dust, suspended in saline, was more toxic than TiO 2, but less toxic than quartz. Lunar dust particles aggregate and settle out rapidly in water or saline, but not in Survanta. Lunar dust suspended in Survanta manifested greater toxicity than lunar dust in saline. The increase in toxicity presumably was due to that Survanta gave a better particle dispersion in the lungs. The two lunar dust samples showed similar toxicity. The overall results showed that lunar dust is more toxic than TiO 2 but less toxic than quartz.

  20. Toxicity of Lunar Dust in Lungs Assessed by Examining Biomarkers in Exposed Mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, C.-W.; James, J. T.; Zeidler-Erdely, P. C.; Castranova, V.; Young, S. H.; Quan, C. L.; Khan-Mayberry, N.; Taylor, L. A.

    2009-01-01

    NASA plans to build an outpost on the Moon for prolonged human habitation and research. The lunar surface is covered by a layer of soil, of which the finest portion is highly reactive dust. NASA has invited NIOSH to collaboratively investigate the toxicity of lunar dust. Dust samples of respirable sizes were aerodynamically isolated from two lunar soil samples of different maturities (cosmic exposure ages) collected during the Apollo 16 mission. The lunar dust samples, titanium dioxide, or quartz, suspended in normal saline or in Survanta (a bovine lung surfactant), were given to groups of 5 mice (C-57 male) by intrapharyngeal aspiration at 1, 0.3, or 0.1 mg/mouse. The mice were euthanized 7 or 30 days later, and their lungs were lavaged to assess the toxicity biomarkers in bronchioalveolar lavage fluids. The acellular fractions were assayed for total proteins, lactate dehydrogenase activities, and cytokines; the cellular portions were assessed for total cell counts and cell differentials. Results from the high-dose groups showed that lunar dust, suspended in saline, was more toxic than TiO 2, but less toxic than quartz. Lunar dust particles aggregate and settle out rapidly in water or saline, but not in Survanta. Lunar dust suspended in Survanta manifested greater toxicity than lunar dust in saline. The increase in toxicity presumably was due to that Survanta gave a better particle dispersion in the lungs. The two lunar dust samples showed similar toxicity. The overall results showed that lunar dust is more toxic than TiO 2 but less toxic than quartz.

  1. Suppression of NMDA receptor function in mice prenatally exposed to valproic acid improves social deficits and repetitive behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jaeseung; Kim, Eunjoon

    2015-01-01

    Animals prenatally exposed to valproic acid (VPA), an antiepileptic agent, have been used as a model for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Previous studies have identified enhanced NMDA receptor (NMDAR) function in the brain of VPA rats, and demonstrated that pharmacological suppression of NMDAR function normalizes social deficits in these animals. However, whether repetitive behavior, another key feature of ASDs, can be rescued by NMDAR inhibition remains unknown. We report here that memantine, an NMDAR antagonist, administered to VPA mice rescues both social deficits and repetitive behaviors such as self-grooming and jumping. These results suggest that suppression of elevated NMDAR function in VPA animals normalizes repetitive behaviors in addition to social deficits. PMID:26074764

  2. The humoral immune response of mice exposed to simulated road paving-like asphalt fumes.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Stacey E; Munson, Albert E; Tomblyn, Seth; Meade, B Jean; Diotte, Nicole M

    2008-07-01

    Asphalt is a complex mixture of organic molecules, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), which have been reported to cause serious adverse health effects in humans. Workers in manufacturing and construction trades exposed to asphalt are potentially at risk for being exposed to asphalt fumes and PAHs. Epidemiological investigations have collected mounting evidence that chemicals found in asphalt fumes present carcinogenic and possibly immunotoxic hazards. Studies evaluating the immunotoxic effects of asphalt fume are limited due to the large number of variables associated with asphalt fume exposures. This work investigates the immuno-toxic effects of road paving-like asphalt fume by analyzing the in vivo IgM response to a T-dependent antigen after exposure to whole, vapor, and particulate phase road paving-like asphalt fumes and asphalt fume condensate. Systemic exposures via intraperitoneal injection of asphalt fume condensate (at 0.625 mg/kg) and the particulate phase (at 5 mg/kg) resulted in significant reductions in the specific spleen IgM response to SRBC. Pharyngeal aspiration of the asphalt fume condensate (at 5 mg/kg) also resulted in significant suppression of the IgM response to SRBC. A significant reduction in the specific spleen IgM activity was observed after inhalation exposure to whole asphalt fumes (35 mg/m(3)) and the vapor components (11 mg/m(3)). Dermal exposures to the asphalt fume condensate resulted in significant reductions in the total (at 50 mg/kg) and specific (at 250 mg/kg) spleen IgM response to SRBC. These results demonstrate that exposure to road paving-like asphalt fumes is immunosuppressive through systemic, respiratory, and dermal routes of exposure in a murine model and raise concerns regarding the potential for adverse immunological effects.

  3. Single-molecule PCR analysis of an unstable microsatellite for detecting mutations in sperm of mice exposed to chemical mutagens.

    PubMed

    Beal, Marc A; Rowan-Carroll, Andrea; Campbell, Caleigh; Williams, Andrew; Somers, Christopher M; Marchetti, Francesco; Yauk, Carole L

    2015-05-01

    Single-molecule PCR (SM-PCR) analysis of long and repetitive DNA sequences, known as expanded simple tandem repeats (ESTRs), has been the most efficient method for studying germline mutation induction in endogenous sequences to date. However, the long length of these sequences makes mutation detection imprecise and laborious, and they have been characterized only in mice. Here, we explore the use of unstable microsatellite sequences that can be typed with high precision by capillary electrophoresis as alternative loci for detecting germline mutations. We screened 24 microsatellite loci across inbred mouse strains and identified Mm2.2.1 as the most polymorphic microsatellite locus. We then optimized SM-PCR of Mm2.2.1 to detect mutations in sperm. SM-PCR analysis of sperm from untreated B6C3F1 and Muta(™)Mouse samples revealed mutation frequencies that are consistent with rates derived from family pedigree analysis (∼ 5 × 10(-3)). To determine whether this locus can be used to detect chemically induced germline mutations, Muta(™)Mouse males were exposed by oral gavage to a single dose of 100mg/kg of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) or to 100mg/kg of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) for 28 days alongside vehicle treated controls. Sperm were collected 10 weeks post-ENU exposure to sample sperm exposed as spermatogonial stem cells and 6 weeks post-BaP exposure to sample sperm that were dividing spermatogonia when the exposure was terminated. Both treatments resulted in a significant (approximately 2-fold) increase in mutation frequency in sperm compared to the control animals. The work establishes the utility of this microsatellite for studying mutation induction in the germ cells of mice. Because microsatellites are found in virtually every species, this approach holds promise for other organisms, including humans.

  4. Generation and characterization of RAG2 knockout pigs as animal model for severe combined immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shunichi; Iwamoto, Masaki; Hashimoto, Michiko; Suzuki, Misae; Nakai, Michiko; Fuchimoto, Daiichiro; Sembon, Shoichiro; Eguchi-Ogawa, Tomoko; Uenishi, Hirohide; Onishi, Akira

    2016-10-01

    Pigs with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) are versatile animal models for human medical research because of their biological similarities to humans, suitable body size, and longevity for practical research. SCID pigs with defined mutation(s) can be an invaluable tool for research on porcine immunity. In this study, we produced RAG2-knockout pigs via somatic cell nuclear transfer and analyzed their phenotype. The V(D)J recombination processes were confirmed as being inactivated. They consistently lacked mature T and B cells but had substantial numbers of cells considered to be T- or B-cell progenitors as well as NK cells. They also lacked thymic medulla and lymphoid aggregations in the spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes, and ileal Peyer's patches. We showed more severe immunological defects in the RAG2 and IL2RG double-knockout pig through this study. Thus, SCID pigs could be promising animal models not only for translational medical research but also for immunological studies of pigs themselves. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Deficient Cholesterol Esterification in Plasma of apoc2 Knockout Zebrafish and Familial Chylomicronemia Patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Gaudet, Daniel; Miller, Yury I

    2017-01-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Apolipoprotein C-II (APOC2) is an obligatory cofactor for lipoprotein lipase (LPL), the major enzyme catalyzing plasma triglyceride hydrolysis. We have created an apoc2 knockout zebrafish model, which mimics the familial chylomicronemia syndrome (FCS) in human patients with a defect in the APOC2 or LPL gene. In this study, we measured plasma levels of free cholesterol (FC) and cholesterol esters (CE) and found that apoc2 mutant zebrafish have a significantly higher FC to CE ratio (FC/CE), when compared to the wild type. Feeding apoc2 mutant zebrafish a low-fat diet reduced triglyceride levels but not the FC/CE ratio. In situ hybridization and qPCR results demonstrated that the hepatic expression of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (lcat), the enzyme responsible for esterifying plasma FC to CE, and of apolipoprotein A-I, a major protein component of HDL, were dramatically decreased in apoc2 mutants. Furthermore, the FC/CE ratio was significantly increased in the whole plasma and in a chylomicron-depleted fraction of human FCS patients. The FCS plasma LCAT activity was significantly lower than that of healthy controls. In summary, this study, using a zebrafish model and human patient samples, reports for the first time the defect in plasma cholesterol esterification associated with LPL deficiency.

  6. Deficient Cholesterol Esterification in Plasma of apoc2 Knockout Zebrafish and Familial Chylomicronemia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chao; Gaudet, Daniel; Miller, Yury I.

    2017-01-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Apolipoprotein C-II (APOC2) is an obligatory cofactor for lipoprotein lipase (LPL), the major enzyme catalyzing plasma triglyceride hydrolysis. We have created an apoc2 knockout zebrafish model, which mimics the familial chylomicronemia syndrome (FCS) in human patients with a defect in the APOC2 or LPL gene. In this study, we measured plasma levels of free cholesterol (FC) and cholesterol esters (CE) and found that apoc2 mutant zebrafish have a significantly higher FC to CE ratio (FC/CE), when compared to the wild type. Feeding apoc2 mutant zebrafish a low-fat diet reduced triglyceride levels but not the FC/CE ratio. In situ hybridization and qPCR results demonstrated that the hepatic expression of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (lcat), the enzyme responsible for esterifying plasma FC to CE, and of apolipoprotein A-I, a major protein component of HDL, were dramatically decreased in apoc2 mutants. Furthermore, the FC/CE ratio was significantly increased in the whole plasma and in a chylomicron-depleted fraction of human FCS patients. The FCS plasma LCAT activity was significantly lower than that of healthy controls. In summary, this study, using a zebrafish model and human patient samples, reports for the first time the defect in plasma cholesterol esterification associated with LPL deficiency. PMID:28107429

  7. iRhom2 deficiency relieves TNF-α associated hepatic dyslipidemia in long-term PM2.5-exposed mice.

    PubMed

    Ge, Chen-Xu; Qin, Yu-Ting; Lou, De-Shuai; Li, Qiang; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Zhong-Ming; Yang, Wei-Wei; Wang, Ming; Liu, Nan; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Peng-Xing; Tu, Yan-Yang; Tan, Jun; Xu, Min-Xuan

    2017-09-28

    Accumulating researches reported that particulate matter (PM2.5) is a risk factor for developing various diseases, including metabolic syndrome. Recently, inactive rhomboid protein 2 (iRhom2) was considered as a necessary modulator for shedding of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in immune cells. TNF-α, a major pro-inflammatory cytokine, was linked to various pathogenesis of diseases, including dyslipidemia. Here, wild type (WT) and iRhom2-knockout (iRhom2(-/-)) mice were used to investigate the effects of iRhom2 on PM2.5-induced hepatic dyslipidemia. The hepatic histology, inflammatory response, glucose tolerance, serum parameters and gene expressions were analyzed. We found that long-term inhalation of PM2.5 resulted in hepatic steatosis. And a significant up-regulation of iRhom2 in liver tissues was observed, accompanied with elevated TNF-α, TNF-α converting enzyme (TACE), TNFα receptor (TNFR)2 and various inflammatory cytokines expressions. Additionally, PM2.5 treatment caused TG and TC accumulation in serum and liver, probably attributed to changes of genes modulating lipid metabolism. Intriguingly, hepatic injury and dyslipidemia were attenuated by iRhom2(-/-) in mice with PM2.5 challenge. In vitro, iRhom2-knockdwon reduced TNF-α expressions and its associated inflammatory cytokines in Kupffer cells, implying that liver-resident macrophages played an important role in regulating hepatic inflammation and lipid metabolism in cells treated with PM2.5. The findings indicated that long-term PM2.5 exposure caused hepatic steatosis and dyslipidemia through triggering inflammation, which was, at least partly, dependent on iRhom2/TNF-α pathway in liver-resident macrophages. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Sulforaphane Prevents Testicular Damage in Kunming Mice Exposed to Cadmium via Activation of Nrf2/ARE Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shu-Hua; Long, Miao; Yu, Li-Hui; Li, Lin; Li, Peng; Zhang, Yi; Guo, Yang; Gao, Feng; Liu, Ming-Da; He, Jian-Bin

    2016-10-11

    Sulforaphane (SFN) is a natural and highly effective antioxidant. Studies suggest that SFN protects cells and tissues against cadmium (Cd) toxicity. This study investigated the protective effect of SFN against oxidative damage in the testes of Kunming mice exposed to cadmium, and explored the possible molecular mechanisms involved. Cadmium greatly reduced the serum testosterone levels in mice, reduced sperm motility, total sperm count, and increased the sperm deformity rate. Cadmium also reduces superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) and glutathione (GSH) levels and increases malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations. SFN intervention improved sperm quality, serum testosterone, and antioxidant levels. Both mRNA and protein expression of mouse testicular nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) was reduced in cadmium-treated group. Furthermore, the downstream genes of Nrf2, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), γ-glutamyl cysteine synthetase (γ-GCS), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1) were also decreased in cadmium-treated group. SFN intervention increases the expression of these genes. Sulforaphane prevents cadmium-induced testicular damage, probably via activation of Nrf2/ARE signaling.

  9. Sulforaphane Prevents Testicular Damage in Kunming Mice Exposed to Cadmium via Activation of Nrf2/ARE Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shu-Hua; Long, Miao; Yu, Li-Hui; Li, Lin; Li, Peng; Zhang, Yi; Guo, Yang; Gao, Feng; Liu, Ming-Da; He, Jian-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Sulforaphane (SFN) is a natural and highly effective antioxidant. Studies suggest that SFN protects cells and tissues against cadmium (Cd) toxicity. This study investigated the protective effect of SFN against oxidative damage in the testes of Kunming mice exposed to cadmium, and explored the possible molecular mechanisms involved. Cadmium greatly reduced the serum testosterone levels in mice, reduced sperm motility, total sperm count, and increased the sperm deformity rate. Cadmium also reduces superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) and glutathione (GSH) levels and increases malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations. SFN intervention improved sperm quality, serum testosterone, and antioxidant levels. Both mRNA and protein expression of mouse testicular nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) was reduced in cadmium-treated group. Furthermore, the downstream genes of Nrf2, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), γ-glutamyl cysteine synthetase (γ-GCS), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1) were also decreased in cadmium-treated group. SFN intervention increases the expression of these genes. Sulforaphane prevents cadmium-induced testicular damage, probably via activation of Nrf2/ARE signaling. PMID:27727176

  10. Antibody responses of mice exposed to low-power microwaves under combined, pulse-and-amplitude modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Veyret, B.; Bouthet, C.; Deschaux, P.; de Seze, R.; Geffard, M.; Joussot-Dubien, J.; le Diraison, M.; Moreau, J.M.; Caristan, A.

    1991-01-01

    Irradiation by pulsed microwaves (9.4 GHz, 1 microsecond pulses at 1,000/s), both with and without concurrent amplitude modulation (AM) by a sinusoid at discrete frequencies between 14 and 41 MHz, was assessed for effects on the immune system of Balb/C mice. The mice were immunized either by sheep red blood cells (SRBC) or by glutaric-anhydride conjugated bovine serum albumin (GA-BSA), then exposed to the microwaves at a low rms power density (30 microW/cm2; whole-body-averaged SAR approximately 0.015 W/kg). Sham exposure or microwave irradiation took place during each of five contiguous days, 10 h/day. The antibody response was evaluated by the plaque-forming cell assay (SRBC experiment) or by the titration of IgM and IgG antibodies (GA-BSA experiment). In the absence of AM, the pulsed field did not greatly alter immune responsiveness. In contrast, exposure to the field under the combined-modulation condition resulted in significant, AM-frequency-dependent augmentation or weakening of immune responses.

  11. Autoantibodies from mice exposed to Libby amphibole asbestos bind SSA/Ro52 – enriched apoptotic blebs of murine macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Blake, David J.; Wetzel, Scott A.; Pfau, Jean C.

    2008-01-01

    Asbestos exposure is associated with increased autoimmune responses in humans. For example, in Libby, MT where significant asbestos exposure has occurred due to an asbestos contaminated vermiculite mine near the community, residents have developed increased autoimmune responses compared to an unexposed population. However, the exact mechanism by which Libby amphibole asbestos generates autoimmune responses is unclear. A murine model of amphibole asbestos-induced autoimmunity was recently established, and one of the targets of the autoantibodies was the SSA/Ro52 autoantigen. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the SSA/Ro52 autoantigen is exposed at the surface of cells as a result of asbestos exposure as a possible mechanism leading to antigenicity. Our results indicate that Libby asbestos induces apoptosis in murine macrophages as determined by phosphatidylserine exposure, cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase and morphological changes such as nuclear condensation. Moreover, asbestos induced apoptosis results in the formation of apoptotic cell surface blebs enriched in SSA/Ro52 as determined by confocal microscopy. Most importantly, apoptotic cell surface blebs are recognized by autoantibodies from mice exposed to amphibole asbestos suggesting that these cell surface structures may be antigenic when presented in a pro-inflammatory context. This study supports the hypothesis that the induction of apoptosis plays a key role in environmentally-induced autoimmunity through cell surface exposure of a known autoantigen. PMID:18295955

  12. Study of hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in male Swiss-Webster mice exposed to functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Patlolla, Anita K.; Berry, Ashley; Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), the most promising material with unique characteristics, find its application in different fields ranging from composite materials to medicine and from electronics to energy storage. However, little is known about the mechanisms behind the interaction of these particles with cells and their toxicity. The aim of this study was to assess the effects, after intraperitoneal injection, of functionalized multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) (carboxyl groups) on various hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress biomarkers (ROS, LHP, ALT, AST, ALP and morphology of liver) in the mouse model. The mice were dosed intraperitoneally at 0.25, 0.5 & 0.75 mg/kg/day for 5 days of purified/functionalized MWCNTs and two controls (negative; saline and positive; carbon black 0.75 mg/kg) as appropriate. Samples were collected 24 hours after the fifth day treatment following standard protocols. Exposure to carboxylated functionalized MWCNT; the body-weight gain of the mice decreased, induced reactive oxygen species (ROS), and enhanced the activities of serum amino-transferases (ALT/AST), alkaline phosphatases (ALP) and concentration of lipid hydro peroxide compared to control. Histopathology of exposed liver showed a statistically significant effect in the morphological alterations of the tissue compared to controls. The cellular findings reported here do suggest that purified carboxylated functionalized MWCNT has the potential to induce hepatotoxicity in Swiss-Webster mice through activation of the mechanisms of oxidative stress, which warrant in vivo animal exposure studies. However, more studies of functionalization in the in vivo toxicity of MWCNTs are required and parallel comparison is preferred. PMID:21725842

  13. Study of hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in male Swiss-Webster mice exposed to functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Patlolla, Anita K; Berry, Ashley; Tchounwou, Paul B

    2011-12-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), the most promising material with unique characteristics, find its application in different fields ranging from composite materials to medicine and from electronics to energy storage. However, little is known about the mechanisms behind the interaction of these particles with cells and their toxicity. The aim of this study was to assess the effects, after intraperitoneal (ip) injection, of functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) (carboxyl groups) on various hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress biomarkers (ROS, LHP, ALT, AST, ALP, and morphology of liver) in the mouse model. The mice were dosed ip at 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 mg/kg/day for 5 days of purified/functionalized MWCNTs and two controls (negative; saline and positive; carbon black 0.75 mg/kg) as appropriate. Samples were collected 24 h after the fifth day treatment following standard protocols. Exposure to carboxylated functionalized MWCNT; the body-weight gain of the mice decreased, induced reactive oxygen species (ROS), and enhanced the activities of serum amino-transferases (ALT/AST), alkaline phosphatases (ALP), and concentration of lipid hydro peroxide compared to control. Histopathology of exposed liver showed a statistically significant effect in the morphological alterations of the tissue compared to controls. The cellular findings reported here do suggest that purified carboxylated functionalized MWCNT has the potential to induce hepatotoxicity in Swiss-Webster mice through activation of the mechanisms of oxidative stress, which warrant in vivo animal exposure studies. However, more studies of functionalization in the in vivo toxicity of MWCNTs are required and parallel comparison is preferred.

  14. Commentary to Krishna et al. (2014): brain deposition and neurotoxicity of manganese in adult mice exposed via the drinking water.

    PubMed

    Kumasaka, Mayuko Y; Yajima, Ichiro; Ohgami, Nobutaka; Naito, Hisao; Omata, Yasuhiro; Kato, Masashi

    2014-05-01

    Krishna et al. (Arch Toxicol 88(1):47-64, 2014) recently published the results of a study in which adult C57BL/6 mice were subchronically exposed to 400,000 μg/L manganese (Mn) using manganese chloride via drinking water for 8 weeks and examined the neurotoxic effects. After 5 weeks of Mn exposure, significant deposition of Mn in all of the brain regions examined by magnetic resonance imaging was detected. After 6 weeks of Mn exposure, neurobehavioral deficits in an open field test, a grip strength test, and a forced swim test were observed. Eight weeks of Mn exposure increased striatal 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (a serotonin metabolite) levels, but did not alter the levels of striatal dopamine, its metabolites and serotonin. Krishna et al. also reported significant increases in mRNA levels of GFAP (an astrocyte activation marker), HO-1 (an oxidative stress marker) and NOS2 (a nitrosative stress marker), and in protein expression level of GFAP in the substantia nigra pars reticulata after 8 weeks of Mn exposure. These results suggest that 400,000 μg/L Mn exposure via drinking water in mice induces neurobehavioral deficits, serotonergic imbalance, and glial activation accompanied by an increase in brain Mn deposition. The report by Krishna et al. is interesting because the studies on the neurobehavioral effect of Mn exposure by drinking water in mice are very limited. However, Mn concentrations previously reported in well drinking water (Agusa et al. in Vietnam Environ Pollut 139(1):95-106, 2006; Buschmann et al. in Environ Int 34(6):756-764, 2008; Hafeman et al. in Environ Health Perspect 115(7):1107-1112, 2007; Wasserman et al. in Bangladesh Environ Health Perspect 114(1):124-129, 2006) were lower than 400,000 μg/L.

  15. Induction of chronic oxidative stress, chronic inflammation and aberrant patterns of DNA methylation in the liver of titanium-exposed CBA/CaJ mice.

    PubMed

    Jangiam, Witawat; Tungjai, Montree; Rithidech, Kanokporn Noy

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the biological effects of titanium ((48)Ti, one of the important heavy ions found in space) in the liver of exposed-mice. We gave adult male CBA/CaJ mice a whole-body exposure to a total dose of 0, 0.1, 0.25 or 0.5 Gy of (48)Ti ions. The liver was collected at 1 week, 1 month, and 6 months post-irradiation (five mice per treatment-group at each harvest-time). Three biological endpoints were used for evaluating the effects of (48)Ti ions: Oxidative-stress, inflammatory responses, and DNA-methylation (5-methylcytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine). Our data clearly demonstrated dose-dependent increases in oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in the liver of exposed mice at all time-points (Analysis of Variance or ANOVA, p < 0.05). Significant dose-dependent increases in the levels of 5-methylcytosine were detected at 1 week and 1 month (ANOVA, p < 0.05). At 6 months post-irradiation, a significant increase in the level of 5-methylcytosine was found only in 0.5-Gy-(48)Ti-ion-exposed mice. In contrast, dose-dependent decreases in 5-hydroxymethylcytosine levels were found in the liver of exposed mice (ANOVA, p < 0.05) at all time-points. Chronic oxidative-stress, chronic inflammation, and persistent aberrant DNA-methylation occurred in the liver of (48)Ti-exposed mice. Hence, exposure to (48)Ti ions in space may pose health risks.

  16. Persistence of chromosome aberrations in mice acutely exposed to 56Fe+26 ions.

    PubMed

    Tucker, James D; Marples, Brian; Ramsey, Marilyn J; Lutze-Mann, Louise H

    2004-06-01

    Space exploration has the potential to yield exciting and significant discoveries, but it also brings with it many risks for flight crews. Among the less well studied of these are health effects from space radiation, which includes the highly charged, energetic particles of elements with high atomic numbers that constitute the galactic cosmic rays. In this study, we demonstrated that 1 Gy iron ions acutely administered to mice in vivo resulted in highly complex chromosome damage. We found that all types of aberrations, including dicentrics as well as translocations, insertions and acentric fragments, disappear rapidly with time after exposure, probably as a result of the death of heavily damaged cells, i.e. cells with multiple and/or complex aberrations. In addition, numerous cells have apparently simple exchanges as their only aberrations, and these cells appear to survive longer than heavily damaged cells. Eight weeks after exposure, the frequency of cells showing cytogenetic damage was reduced to less than 20% of the levels evident at 1 week, with little further decline apparent over an additional 8 weeks. These results indicate that exposure to 1 Gy iron ions produces heavily damaged cells, a small fraction of which appear to be capable of surviving for relatively long periods. The health effects of exposure to high-LET radiation in humans on prolonged space flights should remain a matter of concern.

  17. Differential Transcriptional Changes in Mice Exposed to Chemically Distinct Diesel Samples

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Tina; Hester, Susan; Gilmour, M. Ian

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have linked exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) with increased asthmatic symptoms. Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are a predominant source of vehicle derived ambient PM, and experimental studies have demonstrated that they may have adjuvant potential when given with an antigen. We previously compared 3 DEP samples: N-DEP, A-DEP, and C-DEP in a murine ovalbumin (OVA) mucosal sensitization model and reported the adjuvant activity to be: C-DEP ≈ A-DEP > N-DEP. The present study analyzed gene expression changes from the lungs of these mice. Transcription profiling demonstrated that all the DEP samples altered cytokine and toll-like receptor pathways regardless of type, with or without antigen sensitization. Further analysis of DEP exposure with OVA showed that all DEP treatments altered networks involved in immune and inflammatory responses. The A- and C-DEP/OVA treatments induced differential expression of apoptosis pathways in association with stronger adjuvant responses, while expression of cell cycle control and DNA damage pathways were also altered in the C-DEP/OVA treatment. This comprehensive approach using gene expression analysis to examine changes at a pathway level provides detailed information on events occurring in the lung after DEP exposure, and confirms that the most bioactive sample induced many more individual genes and changes in immunoregulatory and homeostatic pathways. PMID:27458330

  18. Cell cycle arrest and gene expression profiling of testis in mice exposed to fluoride.

    PubMed

    Su, Kai; Sun, Zilong; Niu, Ruiyan; Lei, Ying; Cheng, Jing; Wang, Jundong

    2017-05-01

    Exposure to fluoride results in low reproductive capacity; however, the mechanism underlying the impact of fluoride on male productive system still remains obscure. To assess the potential toxicity in testis of mice administrated with fluoride, global genome microarray and real-time PCR were performed to detect and identify the altered transcriptions. The results revealed that 763 differentially expressed genes were identified, including 330 up-regulated and 433 down-regulated genes, which were involved in spermatogenesis, apoptosis, DNA damage, DNA replication, and cell differentiation. Twelve differential expressed genes were selected to confirm the microarray results using real-time PCR, and the result kept the same tendency with that of microarray. Furthermore, compared with the control group, more apoptotic spermatogenic cells were observed in the fluoride group, and the spermatogonium were markedly increased in S phase and decreased in G2/M phase by fluoride. Our findings suggested global genome microarray provides an insight into the reproductive toxicity induced by fluoride, and several important biological clues for further investigations. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 1558-1565, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Metabolomic profiling of brain tissues of mice chronically exposed to heroin.

    PubMed

    Li, Ren-Shi; Takeda, Tomoki; Ohshima, Takashi; Yamada, Hideyuki; Ishii, Yuji

    2017-02-01

    The chronic neurotoxicity of heroin on the nervous system is poorly understood. To address this issue, we comprehensively assessed the alteration of brain metabolomics caused by chronic heroin exposure and the withdrawal of heroin. Male C57BL/6J mice (n = 10) were given heroin (15 μmol/kg, i.p., twice a day) for 12 days while the withdrawal group received saline-treatment instead of heroin for the last two days. The control group received saline. We developed an UPLC-TOF/MS-based metabolomic approach to analyze the metabolites and carry out a metabolic pathway analysis in the brain. The major metabolites contributing to the discrimination were identified as amino acids, tricarboxylic-acid cycle intermediates, neurotransmitters, nucleotides and other compounds. A marked reduction in histidine and a slight but significant increase in phenylalanine and tryptophan were observed after heroin was withdrawn while the increased level of catecholamines was restored to baseline. Interestingly, N-acetylserotonin - a precursor of melatonin - was increased with the withdrawal of heroin while melatonin was markedly reduced along with the sub-chronic exposure to heroin. This shows that heroin disrupts not only the energy metabolism but also the biosynthesis of both catecholamines and melatonin in the mouse brain. Therefore, these substances are candidate biomarkers for chronic heroin-abuse. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society for the Study of Xenobiotics. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Proteomic analysis for testis of mice exposed to carbon ion radiation.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongyan; Zhang, Hong; Xie, Yi; He, Yuxuan; Miao, Guoying; Yang, Lina; Di, Cuixia; He, Yang

    2013-08-15

    This paper investigates the mechanism of action of heavy ion radiation (HIR) on mouse testes. The testes of male mice subjected to whole body irradiation with carbon ion beam (0.5 and 4Gy) were analyzed at 7days after irradiation. A two-dimensional gel electrophoresis approach was employed to investigate the alteration of protein expression in the testes. Spot detection and matching were performed using the PDQuest 8.0 software. A difference of more than threefold in protein quantity (normalized spot volume) is the standard for detecting differentially expressed protein spots. A total of 11 differentially expressed proteins were found. Protein identification was performed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF). Nine specific proteins were identified by searching the protein sequence database of the National Center for Biotechnology Information. These proteins were found involved in molecular chaperones, metabolic enzymes, oxidative stress, sperm function, and spermatogenic cell proliferation. HIR decreased glutathione activity and increased malondialdehyde content in the testes. Given that Pin1 is related to the cell cycle and that proliferation is affected by spermatogenesis, we analyzed testicular histological changes and Pin1 protein expression through immunoblotting and immunofluorescence. Alterations of multiple pathways may be associated with HIR toxicity to the testes. Our findings are essential for studies on the development, biology, and pathology of mouse testes after HIR in space or radiotherapy.

  1. Post-weaning diet determines metabolic risk in mice exposed to overnutrition in early life.

    PubMed

    King, Vicky; Norman, Jane E; Seckl, Jonathan R; Drake, Amanda J

    2014-08-01

    Maternal overnutrition during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of obesity and cardiometabolic disease in the offspring; a phenomenon attributed to 'developmental programming'. The post-weaning development of obesity may associate with exacerbation of the programmed metabolic phenotype. In mice, we have previously shown that exposure to maternal overnutrition causes increased weight gain in offspring before weaning, but exerts no persistent effects on weight or glucose tolerance in adulthood. In order to determine whether post-weaning exposure to a cafeteria diet might lead to an exacerbation of programmed effects, offspring born and raised by mothers on control (CON) or cafeteria (DIO) diets were transferred onto either CON or DIO diets at weaning. Post-weaning DIO caused the development of obesity, with hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia in males; and obesity with hyperinsulinaemia in females and with increased cholesterol levels in both sexes. Exposure to maternal overnutrition during pregnancy and lactation caused only subtle additional effects on offspring phenotype. These results suggest that post-weaning exposure to a high-fat high-sugar diet has a more profound effect on offspring weight gain and glucose tolerance than exposure to maternal overnutrition. These data emphasise the importance of optimising early life nutrition in offspring of both obese and lean mothers.

  2. Proteome alterations in cortex of mice exposed to fluoride and lead.

    PubMed

    Niu, Ruiyan; Zhang, Yuliang; Liu, Shuangling; Liu, Fengyu; Sun, Zilong; Wang, Jundong

    2015-03-01

    Both fluoride and lead can cross the blood-brain barrier and produce toxic effects on the central neural system, resulting in low learning and memory abilities, especially in children. In order to identify the proteomic pattern in the cortex of young animals, from the beginning of fertilization to the age of postnatal day 56, pregnant female mice and pups were administrated with 150 mg sodium fluoride/L and/or 300 mg lead acetate/L in their drinking water. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) combined with mass spectrometry (MS) was applied to identify differently expressed protein spots. Results showed that there were eight proteins in the cortex that significantly changed, whose biological functions were involved in (1) energy metabolism (Ndufs1, Atp5h, Atp6v1b2), (2) cytoskeleton (Spna2, Tuba1a, Tubb2a), (3) glycation repair (Hdhd2), and (4) cell stress response (Hspa8). Based on the previous and current studies, ATPase, Spna2, and Hspa8 were shared by fluoride and lead both as common target molecules.

  3. Brain barrier properties and cerebral blood flow in neonatal mice exposed to cerebral hypoxia-ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Ek, C Joakim; D'Angelo, Barbara; Baburamani, Ana A; Lehner, Christine; Leverin, Anna-Lena; Smith, Peter LP; Nilsson, Holger; Svedin, Pernilla; Hagberg, Henrik; Mallard, Carina

    2015-01-01

    Insults to the developing brain often result in irreparable damage resulting in long-term deficits in motor and cognitive functions. The only treatment today for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in newborns is hypothermia, which has limited clinical benefit. We have studied changes to the blood–brain barriers (BBB) as well as regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in a neonatal model of HIE to further understand the underlying pathologic mechanisms. Nine-day old mice pups, brain roughly equivalent to the near-term human fetus, were subjected to hypoxia-ischemia. Hypoxia-ischemia increased BBB permeability to small and large molecules within hours after the insult, which normalized in the following days. The opening of the BBB was associated with changes to BBB protein expression whereas gene transcript levels were increased showing direct molecular damage to the BBB but also suggesting compensatory mechanisms. Brain pathology was closely related to reductions in rCBF during the hypoxia as well as the areas with compromised BBB showing that these are intimately linked. The transient opening of the BBB after the insult is likely to contribute to the pathology but at the same time provides an opportunity for therapeutics to better reach the infarcted areas in the brain. PMID:25627141

  4. Bisphenol S (BPS) Alters Maternal Behavior and Brain in Mice Exposed During Pregnancy/Lactation and Their Daughters.

    PubMed

    Catanese, Mary C; Vandenberg, Laura N

    2017-03-01

    Estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals have been shown to disrupt maternal behavior in rodents. We investigated the effects of an emerging xenoestrogen, bisphenol S (BPS), on maternal behavior and brain in CD-1 mice exposed during pregnancy and lactation (F0 generation) and in female offspring exposed during gestation and perinatal development (F1 generation). We observed different effects in F0 and F1 dams for a number of components of maternal behavior, including time on the nest, time spent on nest building, latency to retrieve pups, and latency to retrieve the entire litter. We also characterized expression of estrogen receptor α in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) and quantified tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive cells in the ventral tegmental area, 2 brain regions critical for maternal care. BPS-treated females in the F0 generation had a statistically significant increase in estrogen receptor α expression in the caudal subregion of the central MPOA in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, there were no statistically significant effects of BPS on the MPOA in F1 dams or the ventral tegmental area in either generation. This work demonstrates that BPS affects maternal behavior and brain with outcomes depending on generation, dose, and postpartum period. Many studies examining effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals view the mother as a means by which offspring can be exposed during critical periods of development. Here, we demonstrate that pregnancy and lactation are vulnerable periods for the mother. We also show that developmental BPS exposure alters maternal behavior later in adulthood. Both findings have potential public health implications. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society.

  5. Activity-related behaviors in the hole-board predict nicotine consumption in C57B6 mice perinatally exposed to nicotine.

    PubMed

    Gyekis, Joseph; Foreman, Jennifer E; Anthony, Kate; Klein, Laura Cousino; Vandenbergh, David J

    2010-01-05

    Hole-board behaviors of adolescent C57B/6 mice that had been exposed to nicotine during gestation and suckling were evaluated on postnatal days 34-36. Rearing on all three trials significantly predicted higher nicotine intake on a two-bottle choice test administered from days 37-42. For head pokes, there was a weak trend for lower head poking in the first trial to be predictive of higher nicotine intake. Locomotor activity only predicted higher nicotine consumption on the third trial. These results show that hole-board behaviors predict subsequent nicotine intake in mice exposed to nicotine perinatally, especially after habituation to the apparatus.

  6. Anthocyanins control neuroinflammation and consequent memory dysfunction in mice exposed to lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Fabiano B; Gutierres, Jessié M; Bueno, Andressa; Agostinho, Paula; Zago, Adriana M; Vieira, Juliano; Frühauf, Pâmela; Cechella, José L; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne; Oliveira, Sara M; Rizzi, Caroline; Spanevello, Roselia M; Duarte, Marta M F; Duarte, Thiago; Dellagostin, Odir A; Andrade, Cinthia M

    2017-07-01

    Peripheral inflammatory stimuli may activate a brain neuroinflammatory processes with consequences in brain function. The present study investigated if anthocyanins (ANT) consumption was able to prevent the memory loss, the neuronal damage, and the neuroinflammatory processes triggered by the intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration. C57BL6 male mice were treated with ANT (30-100 mg/kg by gavage). With a single dose or during 10 days, before be challenged with LPS (250 μg/kg intraperitoneally single administration), a classical inductor of inflammation. The data obtained showed that ANT was able to confer protection against the memory impairment after 10 days of ANT treatment (100 mg/kg). This phytonutrient also prevented the hypothermia episode induced by LPS. Moreover, ANT prevented the increase in protein carbonyl, NOx, and MDA levels in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex (4 and 24 h) in animal challenged with LPS. ANT showed a protective effect on the increase in the pro-inflammatory cytokines content, especially Interleukin (IL)-1β, tumoral necrosis factor-α and on the reduction of IL-10 induced by LPS. ANT 100 mg/kg prevented the infiltration of peripheral immune cells in the hippocampus at 24 h post-LPS administration. In parallel, LPS increased the activity of myeloperoxidase in cortex and hippocampus, and ANT prevented this effect, also reducing microglia (Iba-1) and astrocyte (GFAP) immunoreactivity. Thus, our data support that ANT are a promising therapeutic component against brain disorders associated with process of neuroinflammation. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  7. Metabolomic and Lipidomic Analysis of Serum from Mice Exposed to an Internal Emitter, Cesium-137, Using a Shotgun LC–MSE Approach

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In this study ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry in the MSE mode was used for rapid and comprehensive analysis of metabolites in the serum of mice exposed to internal exposure by Cesium-137 (137Cs). The effects of exposure to 137Cs were studied at several time points after injection of 137CsCl in mice. Over 1800 spectral features were detected in the serum of mice in positive and negative electrospray ionization modes combined. Detailed statistical analysis revealed that several metabolites associated with amino acid metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, and the TCA cycle were significantly perturbed in the serum of 137Cs-exposed mice compared with that of control mice. While metabolites associated with the TCA cycle and glycolysis increased in their serum abundances, fatty acids such as linoleic acid and palmitic acid were detected at lower levels in serum after 137Cs exposure. Furthermore, phosphatidylcholines (PCs) were among the most perturbed ions in the serum of 137Cs-exposed mice. This is the first study on the effects of exposure by an internal emitter in serum using a UPLC–MSE approach. The results have put forth a panel of metabolites, which may serve as potential serum markers to 137Cs exposure. PMID:25333951

  8. Mechanisms for how Inhaled Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Suppress Systemic Immune Function in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, L. A.; Lauer, F. T.; Burchiel, S. W.; McDonald, J. D.

    2013-01-01

    The potential health effects of inhaling carbon nanotubes are important because of possible exposures in an occupational setting. Previously, we showed that mice inhaling multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) showed suppressed systemic immune function. Here we show the mechanisms for this immune suppression. Mice were exposed to 0, 0.3, or 1 mg/m3 MWCNT for 6h/day for 14 consecutive days in whole-body inhalation chambers. Those exposed to 1 mg/m3 showed compromised systemic immune function. Spleen cells from exposed animals increased gene expression of prostaglandin synthase enzymes and were rescued from immunosuppression when treated with ibuprofen. Cyclooxygenase-2 knockout mice were resistant to MWCNT-induced suppression. Proteins isolated from the lungs of exposed mice contained transforming growth factor-beta, which suppressed immune function of wild-type splenocytes but not those from knockout mice in vitro. This suggests that signals from the lung can activate signals in the spleen to suppress the immune function of exposed mice. PMID:19581899

  9. CD28 in thymocyte development and peripheral T cell activation in mice exposed to suspended particulate matter

    SciTech Connect

    Drela, Nadzieja . E-mail: ndrela@biol.uw.edu.pl; Zesko, Izabela; Jakubowska, Martyna; Biernacka, Marzena

    2006-09-01

    The CD28:B7 signaling pathway is very important for the activity of mature peripheral T lymphocytes and thymocyte development. The proper development of thymocytes into mature single positive CD4{sup +}and CD8{sup +} T cells is crucial for almost all immune functions. In naturally occurring conditions, T cells maturation in the thymus is influenced by environmental agents. The expression of CD28 and the distribution of CD28{sup low/high} thymocytes have been examined at various stages of thymocyte development in BALB/c mice exposed to air-suspended particulate matter (ASM). Acute exposure to ASM resulted in the decrease of CD28 expression in the total thymocyte population. The increase of the percentage of CD28{sup low} and the decrease of CD28{sup high} thymocytes were observed, which may account for the acceleration of thymocyte development under the conditions of elevated risk resulting from the exposure of animals to environmental xenobiotics. ASM exposure resulted in the increase of the level of proliferation of lymph node T cells induced by anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 monoclonal antibodies activation despite normal expression of CD28 molecule. In contrast, the level of proliferation of spleen T cells was lowered or normal dependently of the concentration of stimuli used for activation. Results of these studies demonstrate that acute exposure of mice to ASM can result in the progression of two contrasting processes in the immune system: upregulation of thymocyte development, which contributes to the maintenance of peripheral T cell pool, and over-activation of lymph node lymphocytes, which may lead to uncontrolled immunostimulation.

  10. Differential effect of dehydroepiandrosterone and its steroid precursor pregnenolone against the behavioural deficits in CO-exposed mice.

    PubMed

    Maurice, T; Phan, V; Sandillon, F; Urani, A

    2000-02-25

    The neuroactive steroids pregnenolone (3beta-hydroxy-5-pregnen-20-one) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, 3alpha-hydroxy-5-androstene-17-one) are negative allosteric modulators of the GABA(A) receptors and positive modulators of acetylcholine, NMDA and sigma(1) receptors. Pregnenolone was recently shown to potentiate the neuronal damage induced by excessive glutamate in cell culture models, whereas dehydroepiandrosterone was reported to present some neuroprotective activity. The in vivo relevance of these effects was investigated in mice submitted to an hypoxic insult, the repeated exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) gas, a model that leads to neurodegeneration in the CA(1) hippocampal area and learning deficits. Recording spontaneous alternation behaviour in the Y-maze assessed short-term memory and long-term memory was examined using a passive avoidance task. After exposure to CO, mice showed a progressive deterioration of their learning ability, reaching significance after 3 days and being maximal after 7 days. Pregnenolone administered before CO significantly facilitated the hypoxia-related deficits, which could be measured 1 day after CO and appeared maximal after 3 days. Dizocilpine blocked the deficits in vehicle- and pregnenolone-treated CO-exposed animals, showing that pregnenolone selectively facilitated the NMDA receptor-dependent excitotoxicity. Dehydroepiandrosterone blocked the appearance of the CO-induced deficits, even after 7 days. Interestingly, the sigma(1) receptor antagonist N, N-dipropyl-2-(4-methoxy-3-(2-phenylethoxy)phenyl)ethylamine (NE-100) failed to affect the dehydroepiandrosterone-induced protection, showing the lack of involvement of sigma(1) receptors. Cresyl violet-stained sections of the mouse hippocampal formation showed that the neurodegeneration observed in the CA(1) area after exposure to CO was augmented by pregnenolone and blocked by dehydroepiandrosterone. These results show that pregnenolone and dehydroepiandrosterone, although

  11. MORTALITY IN DIOXIN-EXPOSED MICE INFECTED WITH INFLUENZA: MITOCHONDRIAL TOXICITY (REYES-LIKE SYNDROME) VERSUS ENHANCED INFLAMMATION AS THE MODE OF ACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract
    Increased mortality following influenza A infection was reported in B6C3F1 mice exposed to a low (0.01 g/kg) dose of dioxin. However, mortality was not associated with increased viral load and antibody titers to the virus were not decreased at doses of TCDD 10 g/k...

  12. Suppression of antigen-specific antibody responses in mice exposed to perfluorooctanoic acid: Role of PPARalpha and T- and B-cell targeting

    EPA Science Inventory

    T-cell-dependent antibody responses (TDAR) are suppressed in female C57BL/6N mice exposed to ≥3.75 mg/kg of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) for 15 days. To determine if suppression of humoral immunity by PFOA is peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARa)-dependent and...

  13. Suppression of antigen-specific antibody responses in mice exposed to perfluorooctanoic acid: Role of PPARalpha and T- and B-cell targeting

    EPA Science Inventory

    T-cell-dependent antibody responses (TDAR) are suppressed in female C57BL/6N mice exposed to ≥3.75 mg/kg of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) for 15 days. To determine if suppression of humoral immunity by PFOA is peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARa)-dependent and...

  14. MORTALITY IN DIOXIN-EXPOSED MICE INFECTED WITH INFLUENZA: MITOCHONDRIAL TOXICITY (REYES-LIKE SYNDROME) VERSUS ENHANCED INFLAMMATION AS THE MODE OF ACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract
    Increased mortality following influenza A infection was reported in B6C3F1 mice exposed to a low (0.01 g/kg) dose of dioxin. However, mortality was not associated with increased viral load and antibody titers to the virus were not decreased at doses of TCDD 10 g/k...

  15. Metabolomic Profiling of Urine Samples from Mice Exposed to Protons Reveals Radiation Quality and Dose Specific Differences

    PubMed Central

    Laiakis, Evagelia C.; Trani, Daniela; Moon, Bo-Hyun; Strawn, Steven J.; Fornace, Albert J.

    2015-01-01

    As space travel is expanding to include private tourism and travel beyond low-Earth orbit, so is the risk of exposure to space radiation. Galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events have the potential to expose space travelers to significant doses of radiation that can lead to increased cancer risk and other adverse health consequences. Metabolomics has the potential to assess an individual’s risk by exploring the metabolic perturbations in a biofluid or tissue. In this study, C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 0.5 and 2 Gy of 1 GeV/nucleon of protons and the levels of metabolites were evaluated in urine at 4 h after radiation exposure through liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Significant differences were identified in metabolites that map to the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and fatty acid metabolism, suggesting that energy metabolism is severely impacted after exposure to protons. Additionally, various pathways of amino acid metabolism (tryptophan, tyrosine, arginine and proline and phenylalanine) were affected with potential implications for DNA damage repair and cognitive impairment. Finally, presence of products of purine and pyrimidine metabolism points to direct DNA damage or increased apoptosis. Comparison of these metabolomic data to previously published data from our laboratory with gamma radiation strongly suggests a more pronounced effect on metabolism with protons. This is the first metabolomics study with space radiation in an easily accessible biofluid such as urine that further investigates and exemplifies the biological differences at early time points after exposure to different radiation qualities. PMID:25768838

  16. Metabolomic profiling of urine samples from mice exposed to protons reveals radiation quality and dose specific differences.

    PubMed

    Laiakis, Evagelia C; Trani, Daniela; Moon, Bo-Hyun; Strawn, Steven J; Fornace, Albert J

    2015-04-01

    As space travel is expanding to include private tourism and travel beyond low-Earth orbit, so is the risk of exposure to space radiation. Galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events have the potential to expose space travelers to significant doses of radiation that can lead to increased cancer risk and other adverse health consequences. Metabolomics has the potential to assess an individual's risk by exploring the metabolic perturbations in a biofluid or tissue. In this study, C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 0.5 and 2 Gy of 1 GeV/nucleon of protons and the levels of metabolites were evaluated in urine at 4 h after radiation exposure through liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Significant differences were identified in metabolites that map to the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and fatty acid metabolism, suggesting that energy metabolism is severely impacted after exposure to protons. Additionally, various pathways of amino acid metabolism (tryptophan, tyrosine, arginine and proline and phenylalanine) were affected with potential implications for DNA damage repair and cognitive impairment. Finally, presence of products of purine and pyrimidine metabolism points to direct DNA damage or increased apoptosis. Comparison of these metabolomic data to previously published data from our laboratory with gamma radiation strongly suggests a more pronounced effect on metabolism with protons. This is the first metabolomics study with space radiation in an easily accessible biofluid such as urine that further investigates and exemplifies the biological differences at early time points after exposure to different radiation qualities.

  17. Emotional Contagion is not Altered in Mice Prenatally Exposed to Poly (I:C) on Gestational Day 9

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Liencres, Cristina; Juckel, Georg; Esslinger, Manuela; Wachholz, Simone; Manitz, Marie-Pierre; Brüne, Martin; Friebe, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal immune activation has been associated with increased risk of developing schizophrenia. The polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (Poly(I:C)) mouse model replicates some of the endophenotype characteristic of this disorder but the social deficits observed in schizophrenia patients have not been well studied in this model. Therefore we aimed to investigate social behavior, in particular emotional contagion for pain, in this mouse model. We injected pregnant mouse dams with Poly(I:C) or saline (control) on gestation day 9 (GD9) and we evaluated their offspring in the pre-pulse inhibition (PPI) test at age 50–55 days old to confirm the reliability of our model. Mice were then evaluated in an emotional contagion test immediately followed by the light/dark test to explore post-test anxiety-like behavior at 10 weeks of age. In the emotional contagion test, an observer (prenatally exposed to Poly(I:C) or to saline) witnessed a familiar wild-type (WT) mouse (demonstrator) receiving electric foot shocks. Our results replicate the sensory gating impairments in the Poly(I:C) offspring but we only observed minor group differences in the social tasks. One of the differences we found was that demonstrators deposited fewer feces in the presence of control observers than of observers prenatally exposed to Poly(I:C), which we suggest could be due to the observers’ behavior. We discuss the findings in the context of age, sex and day of prenatal injection, suggesting that Poly(I:C) on GD9 may be a valuable tool to assess other symptoms or symptom clusters of schizophrenia but perhaps not comprising the social domain. PMID:27445729

  18. Loss of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5 Function on Peripheral Benzodiazepine Receptor in Mice Prenatally Exposed to LPS.

    PubMed

    Arsenault, Dany; Coulombe, Katherine; Zhu, Aijun; Gong, Chunyu; Kil, Kun-Eek; Choi, Ji-Kyung; Poutiainen, Pekka; Brownell, Anna-Liisa

    2015-01-01

    Parental microglial induced neuroinflammation, triggered by bacterial- or viral infections, can induce neuropsychiatric disorders like schizophrenia and autism to offspring in animal models. Recent investigations suggest that microglia, the resident immune cells of the brain, provides a link between neurotransmission, immune cell activation, brain inflammation and neuronal dysfunction seen with the offspring. Relatively little is known about how reduction of brain inflammation and restoration of glial function are associated with diminution of brain degeneration and behavioral deficits in offspring. Increased mGluR5 expression and the long-lasting excitotoxic effects of the neurotoxin during brain development are associated with the glial dysfunctions. We investigated the relationship of mGluR5 and PBR and how they regulate glial function and inflammatory processes in mice prenatally exposed to LPS (120μg/kg, between gestational days 15 and 17), an inflammatory model of a psychiatric disorder. Using PET imaging, we showed that pharmacological activation of mGluR5 during 5 weeks reduced expression of classic inflammation marker PBR in many brain areas and that this molecular association was not present in LPS-exposed offspring. The post-mortem analysis revealed that the down regulation of PBR was mediated through activation of mGluR5 in astrocytes. In addition, we demonstrated that this interaction is defective in a mouse model of the psychiatric deficit offering a novel insight of mGluR5 involvement to brain related disorders and PBR related imaging studies. In conclusion, mGluR5 driven glutamatergic activity regulates astrocytic functions associated with PBR (cholesterol transport, neurosteroidogenesis, glial phenotype) during maturation and could be associated with neuropsychiatric disorders in offspring.

  19. DNA damage and apoptosis of endometrial cells cause loss of the early embryo in mice exposed to carbon disulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Bingzhen; Shen, Chunzi; Yang, Liu; Li, Chunhui; Yi, Anji; Wang, Zhiping

    2013-12-01

    Carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}) may lead to spontaneous abortion and very early pregnancy loss in women exposed in the workplace, but the mechanism remains unclear. We designed an animal model in which gestating Kunming strain mice were exposed to CS{sub 2} via i.p. on gestational day 4 (GD4). We found that the number of implanted blastocysts on GD8 was significantly reduced by each dose of 0.1 LD{sub 50} (157.85 mg/kg), 0.2 LD{sub 50} (315.7 mg/kg) and 0.4 LD{sub 50} (631.4 mg/kg). In addition, both the level of DNA damage and apoptosis rates of endometrial cells on GD4.5 were increased, showed definite dose–response relationships, and inversely related to the number of implanted blastocysts. The expressions of mRNA and protein for the Bax and caspase-3 genes in the uterine tissues on GD4.5 were up-regulated, while the expressions of mRNA and protein for the Bcl-2 gene were dose-dependently down-regulated. Our results indicated that DNA damage and apoptosis of endometrial cells were important reasons for the loss of implanted blastocysts induced by CS{sub 2}. - Highlights: • We built an animal model of CS2 exposure during blastocyst implantation. • Endometrial cells were used in the comet assay to detect DNA damage. • CS2 exposure caused DNA damage and endometrial cell apoptosis. • DNA damage and endometrial cell apoptosis were responsible for embryo loss.

  20. Epigenomic profiling in visceral white adipose tissue of offspring of mice exposed to late gestational sleep fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Cortese, R; Khalyfa, A; Bao, R; Andrade, J; Gozal, D

    2015-07-01

    Sleep fragmentation during late gestation (LG-SF) is one of the major perturbations associated with sleep apnea and other sleep disorders during pregnancy. We have previously shown that LG-SF induces metabolic dysfunction in offspring mice during adulthood. To investigate the effects of late LG-SF on metabolic homeostasis in offspring and to determine the effects of LG-SF on the epigenome of visceral white adipose tissue (VWAT) in the offspring. Time-pregnant mice were exposed to LG-SF or sleep control during LG (LG-SC) conditions during the last 6 days of gestation. At 24 weeks of age, lipid profiles and metabolic parameters were assessed in the offspring. We performed large-scale DNA methylation analyses using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) coupled with microarrays (MeDIP-chip) in VWAT of 24-week-old LG-SF and LG-SC offspring (n=8 mice per group). Univariate multiple-testing adjusted statistical analyses were applied to identify differentially methylated regions (DMRs) between the groups. DMRs were mapped to their corresponding genes, and tested for potential overlaps with biological pathways and gene networks. We detected significant increases in body weight (31.7 vs 28.8 g; P=0.001), visceral (642.1 vs 497.0 mg; P=0.002) and subcutaneous (293.1 vs 250.1 mg; P=0.001) fat mass, plasma cholesterol (110.6 vs 87.6 mg dl(-1); P=0.001), triglycerides (87.3 vs 84.1 mg dl(-1); P=0.003) and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance values (8.1 vs 6.1; P=0.007) in the LG-SF group. MeDIP analyses revealed that 2148 DMRs (LG-SF vs LG-SC; P<0.0001, model-based analysis of tilling-arrays algorithm). A large proportion of the DMR-associated genes have reported functions that are altered in obesity and metabolic syndrome, such as Cartpt, Akt2, Apoe, Insr1 and so on. Overrepresented pathways and gene networks were related to metabolic regulation and inflammatory response. Our findings show a major role for epigenomic regulation of pathways

  1. Protein damage from electrophiles and oxidants in lungs of mice chronically exposed to the tumor promoter butylated hydroxytoluene.

    PubMed

    Shearn, Colin T; Fritz, Kristofer S; Thompson, John A

    2011-07-15

    The food additive butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) promotes tumorigenesis in mouse lung. Chronic BHT exposure is accompanied by pulmonary inflammation and several studies indicate that elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in its promoting activity. The link between BHT and elevated ROS involves formation of quinone methide (QM) metabolites; these electrophiles form adducts with a variety of lung proteins including several enzymes that protect cells from oxidative stress. Studies in vitro demonstrated that QM alkylation of cytoprotective enzymes is accompanied by inactivation, so an objective of the present investigation was to determine if inactivation also occurs in vivo. Two groups of mice were exposed to BHT by intraperitoneal injection, one for 10 days and the other for 24 days, and proteins from lung cytosols were examined for damage. Analysis by Western blotting demonstrated that BHT treatment caused substantial increases in protein carbonylation, nitration and adduction by 4-hydroxynonenal, confirming the occurrence of sustained oxidative and nitrosative stress over the treatment period required for tumor promotion. Effects of BHT on the activities and/or levels of a representative group of antioxidant/protective enzymes in mouse lung also were assessed; NAD(P)H:quinone reductase and glutathione reductase were unaffected, however carbonyl reductase activity decreased 50-60%. Superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities increased 2- and 1.5-fold, respectively, and glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit expression increased 32-39% relative to untreated mice. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity decreased 50-60% but concentrations of the predominant isoforms, GSTM1 and P1, were not affected. GSTP1 was substantially more susceptible than M1 to adduction and inhibition by treatment with BHT-QM in vitro, suggesting that lower GST activity in mice after BHT treatment is due to adduction of the P1 isoform. The results of

  2. Disturbed Cholesterol Homeostasis in a Peroxisome-Deficient PEX2 Knockout Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Kovacs, Werner J.; Shackelford, Janis E.; Tape, Khanichi N.; Richards, Michael J.; Faust, Phyllis L.; Fliesler, Steven J.; Krisans, Skaidrite K.

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the major pathways of cholesterol regulation in the peroxisome-deficient PEX2−/− mouse, a model for Zellweger syndrome. Zellweger syndrome is a lethal inherited disorder characterized by severe defects in peroxisome biogenesis and peroxisomal protein import. Compared with wild-type mice, PEX2−/− mice have decreased total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in plasma. Hepatic expression of the SREBP-2 gene is increased 2.5-fold in PEX2−/− mice and is associated with increased activities and increased protein and expression levels of SREBP-2-regulated cholesterol biosynthetic enzymes. However, the upregulated cholesterogenic enzymes appear to function with altered efficiency, associated with the loss of peroxisomal compartmentalization. The rate of cholesterol biosynthesis in 7- to 9-day-old PEX2−/− mice is markedly increased in most tissues, except in the brain and kidneys, where it is reduced. While the cholesterol content of most tissues is normal in PEX2−/− mice, in the knockout mouse liver it is decreased by 40% relative to that in control mice. The classic pathway of bile acid biosynthesis is downregulated in PEX2−/− mice. However, expression of CYP27A1, the rate-determining enzyme in the alternate pathway of bile acid synthesis, is upregulated threefold in the PEX2−/− mouse liver. The expression of hepatic ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters (ABCA1 and ABCG1) involved in cholesterol efflux is not affected in PEX2−/− mice. These data illustrate the diversity in cholesterol regulatory responses among different organs in postnatal peroxisome-deficient mice and demonstrate that peroxisomes are critical for maintaining cholesterol homeostasis in the neonatal mouse. PMID:14673138

  3. Augmented atherogenesis in ApoE-null mice co-exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

    SciTech Connect

    Shan, Qiuli; Wang, Jing; Huang, Fengchen; Lv, Xiaowen; Ma, Min; Du, Yuguo

    2014-04-15

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants found as complex mixtures in the environment throughout the world. Therefore, humans are ubiquitously and simultaneously exposed to TCDD and PCBs. TCDD and PCBs alone have been linked to atherosclerosis. However, the effects of interactions or synergism between TCDD and PCBs on atherogenesis are unknown. We investigated the possible enhanced atherogenesis by co-exposure to TCDD and PCBs and the potential mechanism(s) involved in this enhancement. Male ApoE{sup −/−} mice were exposed to TCDD (15 μg/kg) and Aroclor1254 (55 mg/kg, a representative mixture of PCBs) alone or in combination by intraperitoneal injection four times over six weeks of duration. Our results showed that mice exposed to TCDD alone, but not Aroclor1254 alone, developed atherosclerotic lesions. Moreover, we found that atherosclerotic disease was exacerbated to the greatest extent in mice co-exposed to TCDD and Aroclor1254. The enhanced lesions correlated with several pro-atherogenic changes, including a marked increase in the accumulation of the platelet-derived chemokine PF4, and the expression of the proinflammatory cytokine MCP-1 and the critical immunity gene-RIG-I. Our data demonstrated that co-exposure to TCDD and Aroclor1254 markedly enhanced atherogenesis in ApoE{sup −/−} mice. Significantly, our observations suggest that combined exposure to TCDD and PCBs may be a greater cardiovascular health risk than previously anticipated from individual studies. - Highlights: • Augmented atherogenesis was found in ApoE{sup −/−} mice co-exposed to Aroclor1254 and TCDD. • Enhanced expression of PF4, MCP-1 and RIG-I correlated with augmented lesions. • POPs combination may be a greater cardiovascular health risk than individual POPs.

  4. Hepatic and Nephric NRF2 Pathway Up-Regulation, an Early Antioxidant Response, in Acute Arsenic-Exposed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jinlong; Duan, Xiaoxu; Dong, Dandan; Zhang, Yang; Li, Wei; Zhao, Lu; Nie, Huifang; Sun, Guifan; Li, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs), a proven human carcinogen, damages biological systems through multiple mechanisms, one of them being reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. NRF2 is a redox-sensitive transcription factor that positively regulates the genes of encoding antioxidant and detoxification enzymes to neutralize ROS. Although NRF2 pathway activation by iAs has been reported in various cell types, however, the experimental data in vivo are very limited and not fully elucidated in humans. The present investigation aimed to explore the hepatic and nephric NRF2 pathway upregulation in acute arsenic-exposed mice in vivo. Our results showed 10 mg/kg NaAsO2 elevated the NRF2 protein and increased the transcription of Nrf2 mRNA, as well as up-regulated NRF2 downstream targets HO-1, GST and GCLC time- and dose-dependently both in the liver and kidney. Acute NaAsO2 exposure also resulted in obvious imbalance of oxidative redox status represented by the increase of GSH and MDA, and the decrease of T-AOC. The present investigation reveals that hepatic and nephric NRF2 pathway expression is an early antioxidant defensive response upon iAs exposure. A better knowledge about the NRF2 pathway involvment in the cellular response against arsenic could help improve the strategies for reducing the cellular toxicity related to this metalloid. PMID:26473898

  5. Sex-specific cognitive deficits and regional brain volume loss in mice exposed to chronic, sublethal hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Lan, Wen-Chun J; Priestley, Matthew; Mayoral, Sonia R; Tian, Lu; Shamloo, Mehrdad; Penn, Anna A

    2011-07-01

    Male sex is an independent risk factor for long-term neurologic deficits in human preterm infants. Using a chronic, sublethal hypoxia (CSH) mouse model of preterm brain injury, we recently demonstrated acute brain volume loss with an increased male susceptibility to hippocampal volume loss and hypomyelination. We now characterize the long-term, sex-specific effects of CSH on cognition and brain growth. Neonatal mice were treated with CSH for 8 d, raised in normoxia thereafter and underwent behavioral testing at 6 wk of age. Behavioral assays sensitive to hippocampal function were chosen. CSH-treated males had impairments in associative learning, spatial memory, and long-term social memory compared with control males. In contrast, CSH-treated females were less impaired. Persistent reductions in hippocampal and cerebellar volumes were found in adult CSH-treated males, whereas regional brain volumes in adult CSH-treated females were indistinguishable from controls. Similar to human preterm infants, males exposed to hypoxia are especially vulnerable to short-term and long-term deficits in cognition and brain growth.

  6. Maternal Substrate Utilization Programs the Development of the Metabolic Syndrome in Male Mice Exposed to High Fat in Utero

    PubMed Central

    Hartil, Kirsten; Vuguin, Patricia M.; Kruse, Michael; Schmuel, Esther; Fiallo, Ariana; Vargas, Carlos; Warner, Matthew J.; Durand, Jorge L.; Jelicks, Linda A.; Charron, Maureen J.

    2009-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine whether maternal substrate utilization during pregnancy affects fetal growth and predisposes offspring to metabolic disease. Female wild type (WT) and glucose transporter 4 heterozygous mice (G4+/−, a model of altered peripheral substrate utilization) were fed high fat (HFD, 36% fat) or control chow (C, 10% fat) for 2 weeks prior to mating, throughout pregnancy and lactation (IU/L). WT HFD females exhibited increased serum NEFA and lactate levels and increased hepatic mRNA expression of PGC1-β and SREBP-1c consistent with increased lipogenesis. G4+/− HFD females exhibited enhanced lipid clearance and exposure to HFD did not increase hepatic gene expression. HFD independent of maternal genotype decreased fetal growth, and birth weight. WT offspring were weaned onto a low-fat diet (5% fat). Male offspring of WT mothers exposed to HFD exhibited “catch-up” growth accompanied by increased adiposity, impaired glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity. In contrast, male offspring of G4+/− HFD mothers did not exhibit any characteristics of metabolic syndrome. These data suggest that differences in maternal substrate utilization influence offspring metabolic phenotype. PMID:19581843

  7. Synchrotron X-ray microscopy reveals early calcium and iron interaction with crocidolite fibers in the lung of exposed mice.

    PubMed

    Pascolo, Lorella; Zabucchi, Giuliano; Gianoncelli, Alessandra; Kourousias, George; Trevisan, Elisa; Pascotto, Ernesto; Casarsa, Claudia; Ryan, Chris; Lucattelli, Monica; Lungarella, Giuseppe; Cavarra, Eleonora; Bartalesi, Barbara; Zweyer, Marina; Cammisuli, Francesca; Melato, Mauro; Borelli, Violetta

    2016-01-22

    Human exposure to asbestos can cause a wide variety of lung diseases that are still a current major health concern, even if asbestos has been banned in many countries. It has been shown in many studies that asbestos fibers, ingested by alveolar macrophages, disrupt lung iron homeostasis by sequestering iron. Calcium can also be deposited on the fibers. The pathways along which iron and above all calcium interact with fibers are still unknown. Our aim was that of investigating if the iron accumulation induced by the inhaled asbestos fibers also involves calcium ions accumulation. Lung sections of asbestos-exposed mice were analyzed using an extremely sensitive procedure available at the synchrotron facilities, that provides morphological and chemical information based on X-ray fluorescence microspectroscopy (μ-XRF). In this study we show that (1) where conventional histochemical procedures revealed only weak deposits of iron and calcium, μ-XRF analysis is able to detect significant deposits of both iron and calcium on the inhaled asbestos fibers; (2) the extent of the deposition of these ions is proportionally directly related and (3) iron and calcium deposition on inhaled asbestos fibers is concomitant with the appearance of inflammatory and hyperplastic reactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Generic anti-drug antibody assay with drug tolerance in serum samples from mice exposed to human antibodies.

    PubMed

    Stubenrauch, Kay; Mackeben, Klaus; Vogel, Rudolf; Heinrich, Julia

    2012-11-15

    Knowledge of the anti-drug antibody (ADA) status is necessary in early research studies. Because specific assay materials are sparse and time is pressing, a generic assay format with drug tolerance for detection of ADAs in serum samples from mice exposed to immunoglobulin G (IgG) or antigen-binding fragments (Fabs) is highly desirable. This article describes a generic immune complex assay in the sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) format based on (i) transformation of free ADAs to immune complexes by preincubation with excess drug, (ii) the use of a murine anti-human Fab constant domain Fab as capture reagent, (iii) detection of the immune complexes by a peroxidase-labeled rabbit anti-murine Fc antibody, and (iv) ADA-positive control conjugates consisting of human Fab and murine IgG. Results of the experiments suggest that the generic immune complex assay for mouse serum samples was at least equivalent to specific ADA immune assays and even superior regarding drug tolerance. The generic immune complex assay confers versatility as it detects ADAs in complex with full-length IgG as well as with Fabs independent of the target specificity in mouse serum samples. These features help to save the sparse amounts of specific antibodies available in early research and development and speed up drug candidate selection.

  9. Strain-Specific Induction of Endometrial Periglandular Fibrosis in Mice Exposed During Adulthood to the Endocrine Disrupting Chemical Bisphenol A

    PubMed Central

    Kendziorski, Jessica A.; Belcher, Scott M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare effects of bisphenol A (BPA) on collagen accumulation in uteri of two mouse strains. Adult C57Bl/6N and CD-1 mice were exposed to dietary BPA (0.004–40 mg/kg/day) or 17α-ethinyl estradiol (0.00002–0.001 mg/kg/day) as effect control. An equine endometrosis-like phenotype with increased gland nesting and periglandular collagen accumulation was characteristic of unexposed C57Bl/6N, but not CD-1, endometrium. BPA non-monotonically increased gland nest density and periglandular collagen accumulation in both strains. Increased collagen I and III expression, decreased matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) and MMP14 expression, and increased immune response were associated with the endometrosis phenotype in the C57Bl/6N strain and the 30 ppm BPA CD-1 group. The association between the pro-collagen shift in increased collagen expression and decreased MMP2 expression and activity implies that strain differences and BPA exposure salter regulation of endometrial remodeling and contributes to increased fibrosis, a component of several human uterine diseases. PMID:26307436

  10. Pathology of Serially Sacrificed Female B6C3F1 Mice Continuously Exposed to Very Low-Dose-Rate Gamma Rays.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, I B; Komura, J; Tanaka, S

    2017-03-01

    We have previously reported on life span shortening as well as increased incidence rates in several neoplasms in B6C3F1 mice that were continuously exposed to 21 mGy/day of gamma rays for 400 days. To clarify whether the life shortening was due to early appearance of neoplasms (shortened latency) or increased promotion/progression, 8-week-old female specific-pathogen-free B6C3F1 mice were gamma-ray irradiated at a low dose rate of 20 mGy/day for 400 days. At 100 days postirradiation, 60-90 mice were sacrificed, and thereafter every 100 days alongside the age-matched nonirradiated controls, for 700 days. Additional groups were allowed to live out their natural life span. Pathological examination was performed on all mice to identify lesions, non-neoplastic and neoplastic, as well as to determine the cause of death. Body weights were significantly increased in irradiated mice from sacrifice days 200-500. Incidence rates for spontaneously occurring non-neoplastic lesions, such as adrenal subcapsular cell hyperplasia, fatty degeneration of the liver, atrophy and tubulostromal hyperplasia of the ovaries, were significantly increased in irradiated mice. Significantly increased incidence rates with no shortening of latency periods were observed in irradiated mice for malignant lymphomas, hepatocellular adenomas/carcinomas, bronchioloalveolar adenomas, harderian gland adenoma/adenocarcinoma. Shortened latencies with significantly increased incidence rates were observed for adrenal subcapsular cell adenomas and ovarian neoplasms (tubulostromal adenoma, granulosa cell tumors) in irradiated mice. Life span shortening in mice exposed to 20 mGy/day was mostly due to malignant lymphomas. Multiple primary neoplasms were significantly increased in mice exposed to 20 mGy/day from sacrifice days 400-700 and in the life span group. Our results confirm that continuous low-dose-rate gamma-ray irradiation of female B6C3F1 mice causes both cancer induction (shortened latency) and

  11. Brain DNA damage and 70-kDa heat shock protein expression in CD1 mice exposed to extremely low frequency magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Mariucci, Giuseppina; Villarini, Milena; Moretti, Massimo; Taha, Elena; Conte, Carmela; Minelli, Alba; Aristei, Cynthia; Ambrosini, Maria Vittoria

    2010-08-01

    The question of whether exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF), may contribute to cerebral cancer and neurodegeneration is of current interest. In this study we investigated whether exposure to ELF-MF (50 Hz-1 mT) harms cerebral DNA and induces expression of 70-kDa heat shock protein (hsp70). CD1 mice were exposed to a MF (50 Hz-1 mT) for 1 or 7 days (15 h/day) and sacrificed either at the end of exposure or after 24 h. Unexposed and sham-exposed mice were used as controls. Mouse brains were dissected into cerebral cortex-striatum, hippocampus and cerebellum to evaluate primary DNA damage and hsp70 gene expression. Food intake, weight gain, and motor activity were also evaluated. An increase in primary DNA damage was detected in all cerebral areas of the exposed mice sacrificed at the end of exposure, as compared to controls. DNA damage, as can be evaluated by the comet assay, appeared to be repaired in mice sacrificed 24 h after a 7-day exposure. Neither a short (15 h) nor long (7 days) MF-exposure induced hsp70 expression, metabolic and behavioural changes. These results indicate that in vivo ELF-MF induce reversible brain DNA damage while they do not elicit the stress response.

  12. LC-MS/MS Determination of Isoprostanes in Plasma Samples Collected from Mice Exposed to Doxorubicin or Tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide

    PubMed Central

    Janicka, Monika; Kot-Wasik, Agata; Paradziej-Łukowicz, Jolanta; Sularz-Peszyńska, Grażyna; Bartoszek, Agnieszka; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Isoprostanes are stable products of arachidonic acid peroxidation and are regarded as the most reliable markers of oxidative stress in vivo. Here we describe the LC-MS/MS procedure enabling simultaneous determination of four regioisomers (8-iso prostaglandin F2α, 8-iso-15(R)-prostaglandin F2α, 11β-prostaglandin F2α, 15(R)-prostaglandin F2α) in plasma samples collected from mice. The four plasma isoprostanes are determined by LC–ESI-MS/MS with deuterated 8-iso-PGF2α-d4 as an internal standard (I.S.). For plasma samples spiked with the isoprostanes at a level of 200 pg/mL each, the method imprecision has been below 7.1% and mean inaccuracy equaled 8.7%. The applicability of the proposed approach has been verified by the assessment of changes in isoprostane levels in plasma samples derived from mice exposed to tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP), a model inducer of oxidative stress, or to antitumor drug doxorubicin (DOX) known for potent stimulation of redox cycling. Compared to the control group of mice, both oxidative stress inducers tested increased the levels of three out of four isoprostanes in exposed animals; 11β-prostaglandin F2α being the exception. The greatest rise was observed in the case of 15(R)-prostaglandin F2α, by about 50% and 70% in plasma samples derived from mice exposed to DOX and TBHP, respectively. PMID:23507752

  13. The C57BL/6J mice offspring originated from a parental generation exposed to tannery effluents shows object recognition deficits.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Abraão Tiago Batista; Ferreira, Raíssa de Oliveira; Rabelo, Letícia Martins; E Silva, Bianca Costa; de Souza, Joyce Moreira; da Silva, Wellington Alves Mizael; de Menezes, Ivandilson Pessoa Pinto; Rodrigues, Aline Sueli de Lima; Vaz, Boniek Gontijo; de Oliveira Costa, Denys Ribeiro; Pereira, Igor; da Silva, Anderson Rodrigo; Malafaia, Guilherme

    2016-12-01

    The main aim of the present paper is to assess whether the parental generation exposure to such discharges could cause object recognition deficits in their offspring. Male and female C57Bl/6J mice were put to mate after they were exposed to 7.5% and 15% tannery effluents or water (control group), for 60 days. The male mice were withdrawn from the boxes after 15 days and the female mice remained exposed to the treatment during the gestation and lactation periods. The offspring were subjected to the object recognition test after weaning in order to assess possible cognition losses. The results of the analysis of the novel object recognition index found in the testing session (performed 1 h after the training session) applied to offspring from different experimental groups appeared to be statistically different. The novel object recognition index of the offspring from female mice exposed to tannery effluents (7.5% and 15% groups) was lower than that of the control group, and it demonstrated object recognition deficit in the studied offspring. The present study is the first to report evidences that parental exposure to effluent of tannery (father and mother) can cause object recognition deficit in the offspring, which is related to problems in the central nervous system.

  14. Ultrastructural findings in the brain of fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) and mice exposed to high-energy particle radiation

    SciTech Connect

    D'Amelio, F.; Kraft, L.M.; D'Antoni-D'Amelio, E.; Benton, E.V.; Miquel, J.

    1984-01-01

    Effects of high energy, heavy particle (HZE) radiation were studied in the brain of the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) exposed to argon (40Ar) or krypton (84Kr) ions. In the flies exposed to argon the fluence ranged from 6 X 10(4) to 8 X 10(7) particles/cm2. The insects were killed 35 days after exposure. Extensive tissue fragmentation was observed at the higher fluence employed. At fluences ranging from 5 X 10(6) (one hit/two cell bodies) to 9 X 10(4) (one hit/90 cell bodies) particles/cm2, swelling of the neuronal cytoplasm and focally fragmented membranes was observed. Marked increase of glial lamellae around nerve cell processes was seen at fluences ranging from one hit/six to one hit/135 cell bodies. In the flies irradiated with krypton, the fluences employed were 5.8 X 10(3) and 2.2 X 10(6) particles/cm2. Acute and late effects were evaluated. In the flies killed 36 hours after exposure (acute effects) to either fluence, glycogen particles were found in the neuroglial compartment. The granules were no longer present in flies killed 35 days later (late effects). From these studies it appears that the Drosophila brain is a useful model to investigate radiation damage to mature neurons, neuroglia, and therefore, to the glio-neuronal metabolic unit. In a separate study, the synaptic profiles of the neuropil in layers II-III of the frontal cerebral cortex of anesthesized adult LAFl mice were quantitatively appraised after exposure to argon (40Ar) particles. The absorbed dose ranged from 0.05 to 5 gray (Gy) plateau. It was determined that the sodium pentobarbital anesthesia per se results in a significant decrease in synaptic profile length one day after anesthetization, with return to normal values after 2-28 days. Irradiation with 0.05-5 Gy argon particles significantly inhibited the synaptic shortening effect of anesthesia at one day after exposure.

  15. Inhibition of radiation-induced DNA damage by jamun, Syzygium cumini, in the cultured splenocytes of mice exposed to different doses of γ-radiation.

    PubMed

    Jagetia, Ganesh Chandra; Shetty, Prakash Chandra; Vidyasagar, Mamidipudi Srinivasa

    2012-06-01

    The radioprotective property of 50 mg/kg body weight jamun (Syzygium cumini) extract was studied in the cultured splenocytes of mice exposed to 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, or 4 Gy of γ-radiation. The spleens of irradiated mice were removed aseptically and the splenocytes were extracted from the individual spleens and cultured. The micronuclei were prepared 72 hours after irradiation in binucleate splenocytes by blocking cytokinesis with cytochalasin-B. Irradiation of mice resulted in a dose-dependent elevation in the micronucleated splenocytes. The exposure of mice not only elevated splenocytes bearing one micronucleus but also cells bearing 2 and multiple (>2) micronuclei indicating induction of complex DNA damage after irradiation. Oral treatment of mice with 50 mg/kg body weight of jamun leaf extract protected against the radiation-induced micronuclei formation. Jamun extract also protected against the formation of 2 and multiple micronuclei indicating repair or inhibition of complex DNA damage. The assessment of lipid peroxidation in mice brain homogenate has indicated a concentration dependent inhibition of lipid peroxidation by jamun extract. Studies in a cell free system revealed that jamun extract inhibited the formation of OH, O(2)-, DPPH, and ABTS(+) free radicals in a concentration dependent manner. Our study demonstrates that jamun extract protected mice against the radiation-induced DNA damage and inhibition of radiation-induced free radical formation may be one of the mechanisms of radioprotection.

  16. Genomics-based screening of differentially expressed genes in the brains of mice exposed to silver nanoparticles via inhalation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hye-Young; Choi, You-Jin; Jung, Eun-Jung; Yin, Hu-Quan; Kwon, Jung-Taek; Kim, Ji-Eun; Im, Hwang-Tae; Cho, Myung-Haing; Kim, Ju-Han; Kim, Hyun-Young; Lee, Byung-Hoon

    2010-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are among the fastest growing product categories in the nanotechnology industry. Despite the importance of AgNP in consumer products and clinical applications, relatively little is known regarding AgNP toxicity and its associated risks. We investigated the effects of AgNP on gene expression in the mouse brain using Affymetrix Mouse Genome Arrays. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to AgNP (geometric mean diameter, 22.18 ± 1.72 nm; 1.91 × 107 particles/cm3) for 6 h/day, 5 days/week using the nose-only exposure system for 2 weeks. Total RNA isolated from the cerebrum and cerebellum was subjected to hybridization. From over 39,000 probe sets, 468 genes in the cerebrum and 952 genes in the cerebellum were identified as AgNP-responsive (one-way analysis of variance; p < 0.05). The largest groups of gene products affected by AgNP exposure included 73 genes in the cerebrum and 144 genes in the cerebellum. AgNP exposure modulated the expression of several genes associated with motor neuron disorders, neurodegenerative disease, and immune cell function, indicating potential neurotoxicity and immunotoxicity associated with AgNP exposure. Real-time PCR data for five genes analyzed from whole blood showed good correlation with the observed changes in the brain. Following rigorous validation and substantiation, these genes may assist in the development of surrogate markers for AgNP exposure and/or toxicity.

  17. Deviations from Haber’s Law for Multiple Measures of Acute Lung Injury in Chlorine-Exposed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hoyle, Gary W.; Chang, Weiyuan; Chen, Jing; Schlueter, Connie F.; Rando, Roy J.

    2010-01-01

    Chlorine gas is considered a chemical threat agent that can cause acute lung injury. Studies in the early 20th century on war gases led Haber to postulate that the dose of an inhaled chemical expressed as the product of gas concentration and exposure time leads to a constant toxicological effect (Haber’s Law). In the present work, mice were exposed to a constant dose of chlorine (100 ppm-h) delivered using different combinations of concentration and time (800 ppm/7.5 min, 400 ppm/15 min, 200 ppm/30 min, and 100 ppm/60 min). Significant effects of exposure protocol on survival evaluated 6 h after exposure were observed, ranging from 0% for the 7.5-min exposure to 100% for the 30- and 60-min exposures. Multiple parameters indicative of lung injury were examined to determine if any aspects of lung injury were differentially affected by the exposure protocols. Most parameters (pulmonary edema, neutrophil influx, and levels of protein, immunoglobulin M, and the chemokine KC [Cxcl1] in lavage fluid) indicated that lung injury was most pronounced for the 15-min exposure and least for the 60-min exposure. In contrast, changes in pulmonary function at baseline and in response to inhaled methacholine were similar following the three exposure regimens. The results indicate that the extent of lung injury following chlorine inhalation depends not only on total dose but also on the specifics of exposure concentration and time, and they suggest that evaluation of countermeasures against chlorine-induced lung injury should be performed using multiple types of exposure scenarios. PMID:20819911

  18. Comparison of immunomodulator mRNA and protein expression in the lungs of Stachybotrys chartarum spore-exposed mice.

    PubMed

    Hudson, B; Flemming, J; Sun, G; Rand, T G

    2005-08-13

    Stachybotrys chartarum is an important toxigenic fungus that has been associated with respiratory disease onset in animals and humans. It can be separated into macrocyclic trichothecene-producing and nonproducing chemotypes based on secondary metabolite production. However, effects of spores of the two chemotypes on lung inflammatory responses are poorly understood. In this study, real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to investigate time-course (1, 3, 6, 24, and 48 h post-instillation [PI]) relationships in mice intratracheally exposed to 300 spores/g body weight of a macrocyclic trichothecene-producing (JS 58-17) and a nonproducing (JS 58-06) S. chartarum isolate and of Cladosporium cladosporioides. There were marked differences in the magnitude and temporal patterns of mouse lung immune responses to intratracheal exposure to spores of these species at this spore dose. Both macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) and surfactant protein-D (SP-D) mRNA expression were significantly upregulated in lungs of JS 58-17-treated animals compared to that of all other treatment animals at 6 and 24 h PI. Heightened mRNA expression of these immunomodulators combined with comparatively depressed MIP-2 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a protein expression suggests that the action of macrocyclic trichothecenes sequestered in 58-17 spores is involved. Interestingly, TNF-a protein expression in