Science.gov

Sample records for 2-m box experiments

  1. DNA Radiation Environments Program Spring 1991 2-meter box experiments and analyses. [DEfense Nuclear Agency (DNA)

    SciTech Connect

    Santoro, R.T. ); Whitaker, S.Y. )

    1993-03-01

    This report summarizes the Spring 1991 2-m Box experiments that were performed at the Army Pulse Radiation Facility (APRF) at Aberdeen Proving Ground. These studies were sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) under the Radiation Environments Program to obtain measured data for benchmarking the Adjoint Monte Carlo Code System, MASH, Version 1.0. The MASH code system was developed for the Department of Defense and NATO for calculating neutron and gamma-ray radiation fields and shielding protection factors for armored vehicles and military structures against nuclear weapon radiation. In the 2-m Box experiments, neutron and gamma-ray dose rates and reduction factors were measured in the free-field and as a function of position on an anthropomorphic phantom that was placed outside and inside a borated polyethylene lined steel-walled 2-m box. The data were acquired at a distance of 400-m from the APRF reactor. The purpose of these experiments was to measure the neutron and gamma-ray dose rates as a function of detector location on the phantom for cases when the phantom was in the free-field and inside of the box. Neutron measurements were made using a BD-100R bubble detector and gamma-ray measurements were made using thermoluminescent detectors (TLD). Calculated and measured data were compared in terms of the C/M ratio. The calculated and measured neutron and gamma-ray dose rates and reduction factors agreed on the average within the [plus minus]20% limits mandated by DNA and demonstrate the capability of the MASH code system in reproducing measured data in nominally shielded assemblies.

  2. DNA Radiation Environments Program Spring 1991 2-meter box experiments and analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Santoro, R.T.; Whitaker, S.Y.

    1993-03-01

    This report summarizes the Spring 1991 2-m Box experiments that were performed at the Army Pulse Radiation Facility (APRF) at Aberdeen Proving Ground. These studies were sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) under the Radiation Environments Program to obtain measured data for benchmarking the Adjoint Monte Carlo Code System, MASH, Version 1.0. The MASH code system was developed for the Department of Defense and NATO for calculating neutron and gamma-ray radiation fields and shielding protection factors for armored vehicles and military structures against nuclear weapon radiation. In the 2-m Box experiments, neutron and gamma-ray dose rates and reduction factors were measured in the free-field and as a function of position on an anthropomorphic phantom that was placed outside and inside a borated polyethylene lined steel-walled 2-m box. The data were acquired at a distance of 400-m from the APRF reactor. The purpose of these experiments was to measure the neutron and gamma-ray dose rates as a function of detector location on the phantom for cases when the phantom was in the free-field and inside of the box. Neutron measurements were made using a BD-100R bubble detector and gamma-ray measurements were made using thermoluminescent detectors (TLD). Calculated and measured data were compared in terms of the C/M ratio. The calculated and measured neutron and gamma-ray dose rates and reduction factors agreed on the average within the {plus_minus}20% limits mandated by DNA and demonstrate the capability of the MASH code system in reproducing measured data in nominally shielded assemblies.

  3. Monte Carlo simulation experiments on box-type radon dosimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamil, Khalid; Kamran, Muhammad; Illahi, Ahsan; Manzoor, Shahid

    2014-11-01

    Epidemiological studies show that inhalation of radon gas (222Rn) may be carcinogenic especially to mine workers, people living in closed indoor energy conserved environments and underground dwellers. It is, therefore, of paramount importance to measure the 222Rn concentrations (Bq/m3) in indoors environments. For this purpose, box-type passive radon dosimeters employing ion track detector like CR-39 are widely used. Fraction of the number of radon alphas emitted in the volume of the box type dosimeter resulting in latent track formation on CR-39 is the latent track registration efficiency. Latent track registration efficiency is ultimately required to evaluate the radon concentration which consequently determines the effective dose and the radiological hazards. In this research, Monte Carlo simulation experiments were carried out to study the alpha latent track registration efficiency for box type radon dosimeter as a function of dosimeter's dimensions and range of alpha particles in air. Two different self developed Monte Carlo simulation techniques were employed namely: (a) Surface ratio (SURA) method and (b) Ray hitting (RAHI) method. Monte Carlo simulation experiments revealed that there are two types of efficiencies i.e. intrinsic efficiency (ηint) and alpha hit efficiency (ηhit). The ηint depends upon only on the dimensions of the dosimeter and ηhit depends both upon dimensions of the dosimeter and range of the alpha particles. The total latent track registration efficiency is the product of both intrinsic and hit efficiencies. It has been concluded that if diagonal length of box type dosimeter is kept smaller than the range of alpha particle then hit efficiency is achieved as 100%. Nevertheless the intrinsic efficiency keeps playing its role. The Monte Carlo simulation experimental results have been found helpful to understand the intricate track registration mechanisms in the box type dosimeter. This paper explains that how radon concentration from the

  4. DNA Radiation Environments Program - Spring 1990 2-meter box experiments and analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Santoro, R.T; Whitaker, S.Y.

    1992-09-01

    This report summarizes the Spring 1990 2-m Box Experiments performed at the Army Pulse Radiation Facility (APRF) at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. These studies were sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) under the Radiation Environments Program to obtain measured data for benchmarking the Adjoint Monte Carlo Code System, MASH, Version 1.0. MASH was developed as the Department of Defense and NATO code system for calculating neutron and gamma-ray radiation fields and shielding protection factors for armored vehicles and military structures against nuclear weapon radiation. In the experiments, neutron and gamma-ray dose and reduction factors were measured in the free-field and as a function of position on an anthropomorphic phantom that was placed outside and inside the steel-walled 2-m box. The data were acquired at a distance of 400-m from the APRF reactor. The measurements were performed by APRF, Bubble Technology Industries, the Defence Research Establishment Ottawa, Establishment Technique Central de l`Armement, and Harry Diamond Laboratory. Calculations were carried out by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Science Applications International Corporation. The purpose of these experiments was to measure the neutron and gamma-ray dose as a function of detector location on the phantom for cases when the phantom was standing in the free-field and inside of the box. Neutron measurements were made using a BD-IOOR bubble detector and gamma-ray measurements were made using thermoluminescent detectors (TLD). Calculated and measured data were compared in terms of the C/M ratio. DNA mandated that C/M values of {plus_minus}20% define the acceptable limits for the comparison of the dose and reduction factor data and for qualifying the MASH code in replicating integral parameters.

  5. DNA Radiation Environments Program - Spring 1990 2-meter box experiments and analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Santoro, R.T ); Whitaker, S.Y. )

    1992-09-01

    This report summarizes the Spring 1990 2-m Box Experiments performed at the Army Pulse Radiation Facility (APRF) at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. These studies were sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) under the Radiation Environments Program to obtain measured data for benchmarking the Adjoint Monte Carlo Code System, MASH, Version 1.0. MASH was developed as the Department of Defense and NATO code system for calculating neutron and gamma-ray radiation fields and shielding protection factors for armored vehicles and military structures against nuclear weapon radiation. In the experiments, neutron and gamma-ray dose and reduction factors were measured in the free-field and as a function of position on an anthropomorphic phantom that was placed outside and inside the steel-walled 2-m box. The data were acquired at a distance of 400-m from the APRF reactor. The measurements were performed by APRF, Bubble Technology Industries, the Defence Research Establishment Ottawa, Establishment Technique Central de l'Armement, and Harry Diamond Laboratory. Calculations were carried out by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Science Applications International Corporation. The purpose of these experiments was to measure the neutron and gamma-ray dose as a function of detector location on the phantom for cases when the phantom was standing in the free-field and inside of the box. Neutron measurements were made using a BD-IOOR bubble detector and gamma-ray measurements were made using thermoluminescent detectors (TLD). Calculated and measured data were compared in terms of the C/M ratio. DNA mandated that C/M values of {plus minus}20% define the acceptable limits for the comparison of the dose and reduction factor data and for qualifying the MASH code in replicating integral parameters.

  6. Black Box Testing: Experiments with Runway Incursion Advisory Alerting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukkamala, Ravi

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes our research findings on the Black box testing of Runway Incursion Advisory Alerting System (RIAAS) and Runway Safety Monitor (RSM) system. Developing automated testing software for such systems has been a problem because of the extensive information that has to be processed. Customized software solutions have been proposed. However, they are time consuming to develop. Here, we present a less expensive, and a more general test platform that is capable of performing complete black box testing. The technique is based on the classification of the anomalies that arise during Monte Carlo simulations. In addition, we also discuss a generalized testing tool (prototype) that we have developed.

  7. Developing Independent Learners: The Box Hill School Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavey, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Box Hill School is an independent school in Surrey, England. In 2008 the English curriculum was abandoned in favour of the International Baccalaureate Diploma (IBD). A library is a statutory requirement of the International Baccalaureate Organisation (IBO) endorsement who also recommend this be managed by a qualified teacher-librarian. In May…

  8. Sand box experiments with bioclogging of porous media: Hydraulic conductivity reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifert, Dorte; Engesgaard, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Tracer experiments during clogging and de-clogging experiments in a 2D sand box were via an image analysis used to establish a data set on the relation between changes in hydraulic conductivity (K) and relative porosity (β). Clogging appears to create a finger-like tracer transport, which could be caused by an initial heterogeneous distribution of biomass in the sand box. De-clogging occurs at a slower rate possibly due to the presence of inert biomass that is not affected by the starvation conditions by sudden removal of the substrate source. The tracer front was observed to get disturbed closer and closer to the substrate source during the experiments suggesting that the zone of clogging moved upstream. Three clogging models, K(β), from the literature were tested for their ability to describe the temporal changes in clogging at the scale of the sand box; the model of Clement et al. (1996) that makes no assumption on biomass distribution, the plug formation model of Thullner et al. (2002a), and the biofilm-plug formation model of Vandevivere (1995). The plug formation and biofilm-plug formation models both match the observed changes between the hydraulic conductivity of the sand box and the relative porosity. Unfortunately our experiments did not reach low relative porosities where the two models predict different behaviors. The model by Clement et al. (1996) underestimates clogging.

  9. Lab-in-a-box @ school: Exiting hands-on experiments in soft matter physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Karin; Brinkmann, Martin; Müller, Frank

    2015-03-01

    Soft materials like liquids and polymers are part of everyday life, yet at school, this topic is rarely touched. Within the priority program SPP 1064 'Nano- and Microfluidics' of the German Science Foundation, we designed an outreach project that allows pupils (age 14 to 18) to perform hands-on experiments (www.labinabox.de). The experiments allow them e.g. to feel viscosity and viscoelasticity, experience surface tension or see structure formation. We call the modus operandi 'subjective experiments' to contrast them with the scientifically objective experiments, which pupils often describe as being boring. Over a dozen different experiments under the topic 'physics of fluids' are collected in a big box that travels to the school. Three other topics of boxes are available, 'physics of light, 'physics of liquid crystals', and 'physics of adhesion and friction'. Each experiment can be performed by 1-3 pupils within 10 - 20 min. That way, each scholar can perform 6 to 8 different small experiments within one topic. 'Subjective experiments' especially catch the attention of girls without disadvantaging boys. Both are fascinated by the hands-on physics experience and are therefore eager to perform also 'boring' objective experiments. Morover, before/after polls reveal that their interest in physics has greatly advanced. The project can easily be taken over and/or adapted to other topics in the natural sciences. Financial support of the German Science Foundation DFG is acknowledged.

  10. Polydispersed Gravity Currents Along a V-Shaped Valley: Experiments and Box Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meriaux, C. A. M. D.; Besson, C. K.

    2014-12-01

    Turbidity currents, which occur at the continental margins and transport sediments along submarines canyons are particulate gravity currents made of poorly sorted particles. In such currents, the flow is to a large extent controlled by the grain size distribution of the particles at the source. Here we present the combined results of a box model and lock-exchange experiments of particulate gravity currents at small volumetric concentrations of particles (< 4%) flowing along a V-shaped valley, for which we looked at the grain size distributions along the deposit. The currents were made of 1) Silicon Carbide (SiC), 2) Glass Beads (GBs), 3) combined poorly sorted SiC/GBs, and 4) moderately sorted combined SiC/GBs. Experimental particles sizes were in the range 3-100 microns. We used 20 particle size classes to characterize the distributions. First we show that a box model that solves for the deposition of all the particle size classes, remarkably describes the speed of the currents, the mass deposited by the currents, and the material density of the deposit for those currents initially made of SiC and GBs. Last but not least, the box model also reconstructs the mass based size distributions along the deposits characterized by various fining. Yet, the reconstructed distributions differ with the shape of the particles. In the presence of only round GBs particles, the mass based size distributions given by the box compare extremely well with the experimental counterparts. In the presence of SiC, there is a systematic shift towards the smaller grain sizes of the mass based size distributions given by the box compared to the experimental ones. Several hypotheses to explain this shift are currently being investigated. The present work was supported by the Fundaçao para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT, Portugal) under Project Pest-OE/CTE /LA0019/2013-2014.

  11. Thermal and Mechanical Testing of Neoprene Gloves Used in a Space Shuttle Microgravity Glove Box Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingard, Charles Doug; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Neoprene gloves are used in a Space Shuttle Microgravity Glove Box (MGBX) experiment. In 1999, significant corrosion was observed in the work area and on the outer surface of the left glove ring. Analysis of the corrosion products showed that they contained chlorine. The Neoprene gloves used in this glove box were obtained in 1995, with a recommended shelf life of 3 years. After storage of these gloves in a cabinet drawer until 1999, significant signs of corrosion were also observed in the drawer. Mechanical and thermal properties were determined on samples cut from the finger and sleeve areas of the "good" and "bad" gloves. This data showed significant aging of the left-hand glove, particularly in the sleeve area. Thermal analysis data by DSC and TGA was complimentary to tensile data in showing this aging. However, this test data did not pinpoint the cause of the left-hand glove aging, or of the corrosion products.

  12. WEB - A Wireless Experiment Box for the Dextre Pointing Package ELC Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleier, Leor Z.; Marrero-Fontanez, Victor J.; Sparacino, Pietro A.; Moreau, Michael C.; Mitchell, Jason William

    2012-01-01

    The Wireless Experiment Box (WEB) was proposed to work with the International Space Station (ISS) External Wireless Communication (EWC) system to support high-definition video from the Dextre Pointing Package (DPP). DPP/WEB was a NASA GSFC proposed ExPRESS Logistics Carrier (ELC) payload designed to flight test an integrated suite of Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D) technologies to enable a wide spectrum of future missions across NASA and other US Government agencies. The ISS EWC uses COTS Wireless Access Points (WAPs) to provide high-rate bi-directional communications to ISS. In this paper, we discuss WEB s packaging, operation, antenna development, and performance testing.

  13. Web: A Wireless Experiment Box for the Dextre Pointing Package ELC Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleier, Leor Z.; Marrero-Fontanez, Victor J.; Sparacino, Pietro A.; Moreau, Michael C.; Mitchell, Jason W.

    2012-01-01

    The Wireless Experiment Box (WEB) was proposed to work with the International Space Station (ISS) External Wireless Communication (EWC) system to support high-definition video from the Dextre Pointing Package (DPP). DPP/WEB was a NASA GSFC proposed ExPRESS Logistics Carrier (ELC) payload designed to flight test an integrated suite of Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D) technologies to enable a wide spectrum of future missions across NASA and other US Government agencies. The ISS EWC uses COTS Wireless Access Points (WAPs) to provide high-rate bi-directional communications to ISS. In this paper, we discuss WEB s packaging, operation, antenna development, and performance testing.

  14. Optimization of surface plasmon resonance experiments: Case of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) interactions.

    PubMed

    Anggayasti, Wresti L; Mancera, Ricardo L; Bottomley, Steven; Helmerhorst, Erik

    2016-04-15

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is a powerful technique for evaluating protein-protein interactions in real time. However, inappropriately optimized experiments can often lead to problems in the interpretation of data, leading to unreliable kinetic constants and binding models. Optimization of SPR experiments involving "sticky" proteins, or proteins that tend to aggregate, represents a typical scenario where it is important to minimize errors in the data and the kinetic analysis of those data. This is the case of High Mobility Group Box 1 and the receptor of advanced glycation end products. A number of improvements in protein purification, buffer composition, immobilization conditions, and the choice of flow rate are shown to result in substantial improvements in the accurate characterization of the interactions of these proteins and the derivation of the corresponding kinetic constants. PMID:26869083

  15. Black-box Brain Experiments, Causal Mathematical Logic, and the Thermodynamics of Intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pissanetzky, Sergio; Lanzalaco, Felix

    2013-12-01

    Awareness of the possible existence of a yet-unknown principle of Physics that explains cognition and intelligence does exist in several projects of emulation, simulation, and replication of the human brain currently under way. Brain simulation projects define their success partly in terms of the emergence of non-explicitly programmed biophysical signals such as self-oscillation and spreading cortical waves. We propose that a recently discovered theory of Physics known as Causal Mathematical Logic (CML) that links intelligence with causality and entropy and explains intelligent behavior from first principles, is the missing link. We further propose the theory as a roadway to understanding more complex biophysical signals, and to explain the set of intelligence principles. The new theory applies to information considered as an entity by itself. The theory proposes that any device that processes information and exhibits intelligence must satisfy certain theoretical conditions irrespective of the substrate where it is being processed. The substrate can be the human brain, a part of it, a worm's brain, a motor protein that self-locomotes in response to its environment, a computer. Here, we propose to extend the causal theory to systems in Neuroscience, because of its ability to model complex systems without heuristic approximations, and to predict emerging signals of intelligence directly from the models. The theory predicts the existence of a large number of observables (or "signals"), all of which emerge and can be directly and mathematically calculated from non-explicitly programmed detailed causal models. This approach is aiming for a universal and predictive language for Neuroscience and AGI based on causality and entropy, detailed enough to describe the finest structures and signals of the brain, yet general enough to accommodate the versatility and wholeness of intelligence. Experiments are focused on a black-box as one of the devices described above of which

  16. Experiments on cleaning effects of TDC, GDC and ECR-DC in the JFT-2M tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuzaki, Y.; Ogawa, H.; Miura, Y.; Ohtsuka, H.; Suzuki, N.; Yamauchi, T.; Tani, T.; Mori, M.

    1987-02-01

    The cleaning effects of Taylor-type discharge cleaning (TDC), glow discharge cleaning (GDC) and ECR discharge cleaning (ECR-DC) were studied in the JFT-2M tokamak by comparing the properties of resulting tokamak plasmas, by observing the surface composition of samples and by residual gas analysis. The operational parameters of the three discharge cleaning techniques were as follows; the plasma current for TDC is 20 kA, the DC current for GDC is 3 A and the RF power for ECR-DC is 2.3 kW. Parameters of the tokamak plasmas such as loop voltages, radiation losses, spectra emission of oxygen, maximum mean electron densities and profiles of electron temperature were improved as the TDC and ECR-DC proceeded. Changes in the surface composition of samples were measured by Auger electron spectroscopy. The results showed that during the TDC and ECR-DC oxygen was reduced, while GDC reduced mainly carbon. Residual gas analysis performed during discharge cleaning corroborated these results.

  17. PI-in-a-box: Intelligent onboard assistance for spaceborne experiments in vestibular physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombano, Silvano; Young, Laurence; Wogrin, Nancy; Rosenthal, Don

    1988-01-01

    In construction is a knowledge-based system that will aid astronauts in the performance of vestibular experiments in two ways: it will provide real-time monitoring and control of signals and it will optimize the quality of the data obtained, by helping the mission specialists and payload specialists make decisions that are normally the province of a principal investigator, hence the name PI-in-a-box. An important and desirable side-effect of this tool will be to make the astronauts more productive and better integrated members of the scientific team. The vestibular experiments are planned by Prof. Larry Young of MIT, whose team has already performed similar experiments in Spacelab missions SL-1 and D-1, and has experiments planned for SLS-1 and SLS-2. The knowledge-based system development work, performed in collaboration with MIT, Stanford University, and the NASA-Ames Research Center, addresses six major related functions: (1) signal quality monitoring; (2) fault diagnosis; (3) signal analysis; (4) interesting-case detection; (5) experiment replanning; and (6) integration of all of these functions within a real-time data acquisition environment. Initial prototyping work has been done in functions (1) through (4).

  18. Educating the Public about Meteorites and Impacts through Virtual Field Trips and Classroom Experience Boxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashcraft, Teresa; Hines, R.; Minitti, M.; Taylor, W.; Morris, M. A.; Wadhwa, M.

    2014-01-01

    With specimens representing over 2,000 individual meteorites, the Center for Meteorite Studies (CMS) at Arizona State University (ASU) is home to the world's largest university-based meteorite collection. As part of our mission to provide educational opportunities that expand awareness and understanding of the science of meteoritics, CMS continues to develop new ways to engage the public in meteorite and space science, including the opening of a new Meteorite Gallery, and expansion of online resources through upgrades to the CMS website, meteorites.asu.edu. In 2008, CMS was the recipient of a philanthropic grant to improve online education tools and develop loanable modules for educators. These modules focus on the origin of meteorites, and contain actual meteorite specimens, media resources, a user guide, and lesson plans, as well as a series of engaging activities that utilize hands-on materials geared to help students develop logical thinking, analytical skills, and proficiency in STEM disciplines. In 2010, in partnership with the ASU NASA Astrobiology Institute team, CMS obtained a NASA EPOESS grant to develop Virtual Field Trips (VFTs) complemented by loanable “Experience Boxes” containing lesson plans, media, and hands-on objects related to the VFT sites. One VFT-Box pair focuses on the record of the oldest multicellular organisms on Earth. The second VFT-Box pair focuses on the Upheaval Dome (UD) structure, a meteorite impact crater in Utah’s Canyonlands National Park. UD is widely accepted as the deeply eroded remnant of a ~5 kilometer impact crater (e.g. Kriens et al., 1999). The alternate hypothesis that the Dome was formed by the upwelling of salt from a deposit underlying the region (e.g. Jackson et al., 1998) makes UD an ideal site to learn not only about specific scientific principles present in the Next Generation Science Standards, but also the process of scientific inquiry. The VFTs are located on an interactive website dedicated to VFTs, vft

  19. PI-in-a-box: An expert system to advise astronauts during experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Laurence R.

    1990-01-01

    Perhaps the scarcest resource for manned flight experiments - on Spacelab or on Space Station Freedom - will continue to be crew time. To maximize the efficiency of the crew, and to make use of their abilities to work as scientist collaborators as well as equipment operators, normally requires more training in a wide variety of disciplines than is practical. The successful application of on-board expert systems, as envisioned by the 'Principal Investigator (PI)-in-a-Box' program, should alleviate the training bottleneck and provide the astronaut with the guidance and coaching needed to permit him or her to operate an experiment according to the desires and knowledge of the PI, despite changes in conditions. In addition to the functions of providing expert devise concerning scheduling and repair, the program should bring the astronaut into the scientific evaluation phase of an experiment by sharing with him the guidance and observations regarding the relevance and importance of data as it is being generated. Initial reaction from the astronaut community has been positive.

  20. Magical Boxes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, Judith

    2005-01-01

    Students get excited when they realize that they can transform a flat sheet of paper into a box. By using different sizes of paper, they can make different sizes of boxes and put a box inside a box, inside a box. These magical boxes within boxes can contain unwanted emotions or special treasures. The project described in this article incorporates…

  1. Jeweled Boxes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coy, Mary

    2009-01-01

    While an empty cardboard box from a ream of copy paper may be the most coveted box among teachers in the author's school, for other people, brass boxes from India, Khokhlova lacquer boxes from Russia, and puzzle boxes from Japan are more the type that are collected and admired. Whether it is used for storage or decoration, a box can evoke a sense…

  2. Numerical models and experiment of air flow in a simulation box for optical wireless communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latal, Jan; Hajek, Lukas; Bojko, Marian; Vitasek, Jan; Koudelka, Petr; Kepak, Stanislav; Vanderka, Ales; Vasinek, Vladimir

    2016-03-01

    In this article, the authors focused on real measurements of mechanical turbulence generated by ventilators in the simulation box for Optical Wireless Communications. The mechanical turbulences disturb the optical beam that propagates along the central axis of the simulation box. The aim of authors is to show the effect of mechanical turbulence on optical beams at different heights in the simulation box. In the Ansys Fluent, we created numerical models which were then compared with real measurements. Authors compared the real and numerical models according to statistical methods.

  3. Decision boxes for clinicians to support evidence-based practice and shared decision making: the user experience

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This project engages patients and physicians in the development of Decision Boxes, short clinical topic summaries covering medical questions that have no single best answer. Decision Boxes aim to prepare the clinician to communicate the risks and benefits of the available options to the patient so they can make an informed decision together. Methods Seven researchers (including four practicing family physicians) selected 10 clinical topics relevant to primary care practice through a Delphi survey. We then developed two one-page prototypes on two of these topics: prostate cancer screening with the prostate-specific antigen test, and prenatal screening for trisomy 21 with the serum integrated test. We presented the prototypes to purposeful samples of family physicians distributed in two focus groups, and patients distributed in four focus groups. We used the User Experience Honeycomb to explore barriers and facilitators to the communication design used in Decision Boxes. All discussions were transcribed, and three researchers proceeded to thematic content analysis of the transcriptions. The coding scheme was first developed from the Honeycomb’s seven themes (valuable, usable, credible, useful, desirable, accessible, and findable), and included new themes suggested by the data. Prototypes were modified in light of our findings. Results Three rounds were necessary for a majority of researchers to select 10 clinical topics. Fifteen physicians and 33 patients participated in the focus groups. Following analyses, three sections were added to the Decision Boxes: introduction, patient counseling, and references. The information was spread to two pages to try to make the Decision Boxes less busy and improve users’ first impression. To try to improve credibility, we gave more visibility to the research institutions involved in development. A statement on the boxes’ purpose and a flow chart representing the shared decision-making process were added with the

  4. Connecting bacterial colonization to physical and biochemical changes in a sand box infiltration experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubol, S.; Freixa, A.; Carles-Brangarí, A.; Fernàndez-Garcia, D.; Romaní, A. M.; Sanchez-Vila, X.

    2014-09-01

    Infiltration through sediments is linked to complex biogeochemical processes occurring at small spatial scales, often leading to a progressive reduction in infiltration rates due to microbial growth and/or mechanical clogging. Unraveling the linkage between microbial dynamics and water infiltration in a heterogeneous medium is of concern in artificial recharge ponds and natural infiltration systems. We present an 84-day laboratory infiltration experiment that aims at studying the temporal variation of selected biogeochemical parameters at different depths along the infiltration path. The experimental setup consists of a 1.2 m high tank packed with a heterogeneous soil and instrumented with arrays of sensors as well as soil and liquid samplers. Results indicate that: (i) microbial processes are responsible for infiltration reduction, enhancing the spatially heterogeneous distribution of infiltration rates with time, (ii) bacteria and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are present at all monitored depths, indicating the potential for deep biological clogging, (iii) bacteria functioning and richness exhibit depth zonation after the system reaches a mature state and (iv) the retention curve changes towards highest saturation by the end of the experiment. The increase in water holding capacity is largest at depth, where the presence of EPS is noticeable. The reduction in time of the quantity of water infiltrating along the tank can only be accounted for with a truly interdisciplinary approach involving physical, chemical and biological processes.

  5. Comparisons of Box Model Calculations and Measurements of Formaldehyde from the 1997 North Atlantic Regional Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, G. J.; Fried, Alan; Lee, Y.- N.; Wert, B.; Henry, B.; Drummond, J. R.; Evans, M. J.; Fehsenfeld, Fred C.; Goldan, P. D.; Holloway, J. S.; Hubler, Gerhard F.; Jakoubek, R.; Jobson, B Tom T.; Knapp, K.; Kuster, W. C.; Roberts, J.; Rudolph, Jochen; Ryerson, T. B.; Stohl, A.; Stroud, C.; Sueper, D. T.; Trainer, Michael; Williams, J.

    2002-04-18

    Formaldehyde (CH2O) measurements from two independent instruments are compared with photochemical box model calculations. The measurements were made on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration P-3 aircraft as part of the 1997 North Atlantic Regional Experiment (NARE 97). The data set considered here consists of air masses sampled between 0 and 8 km over the North Atlantic Ocean which do not show recent influence from emissions or transport. These air masses therefore should be in photochemical steady state with respect to CH2O when constrained by the other P-3 measurements, and methane oxidation was expected to be the predominant source of CH2O in these air masses. For this data set both instruments measured identical CH2O concentrations to within 40 parts per trillion by volume (pptv) on average over the 0–800 pptv range, although differences larger than the combined 2s total uncertainty estimates were observed between the two instruments in 11% of the data. Both instruments produced higher CH2O concentrations than the model in more than 90% of this data set, with a median measured-modeled [CH2O] difference of 0.13 or 0.18 ppbv (depending on the instrument), or about a factor of 2. Such large differences cannot be accounted for by varying model input parameters within their respective uncertainty ranges. After examining the possible reasons for the model-measurement discrepancy, we conclude that there are probably one or more additional unknown sources of CH2O in the North Atlantic troposphere.

  6. Comparisons of box model calculations and measurements of formaldehyde from the 1997 North Atlantic Regional Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, G. J.; Fried, A.; Lee, Y.-N.; Wert, B.; Henry, B.; Drummond, J. R.; Evans, M. J.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Goldan, P. D.; Holloway, J. S.; Hübler, G.; Jakoubek, R.; Jobson, B. T.; Knapp, K.; Kuster, W. C.; Roberts, J.; Rudolph, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Stohl, A.; Stroud, C.; Sueper, D. T.; Trainer, M.; Williams, J.

    2002-04-01

    Formaldehyde (CH2O) measurements from two independent instruments are compared with photochemical box model calculations. The measurements were made on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration P-3 aircraft as part of the 1997 North Atlantic Regional Experiment (NARE 97). The data set considered here consists of air masses sampled between 0 and 8 km over the North Atlantic Ocean which do not show recent influence from emissions or transport. These air masses therefore should be in photochemical steady state with respect to CH2O when constrained by the other P-3 measurements, and methane oxidation was expected to be the predominant source of CH2O in these air masses. For this data set both instruments measured identical CH2O concentrations to within 40 parts per trillion by volume (pptv) on average over the 0-800 pptv range, although differences larger than the combined 2σ total uncertainty estimates were observed between the two instruments in 11% of the data. Both instruments produced higher CH2O concentrations than the model in more than 90% of this data set, with a median measured-modeled [CH2O] difference of 0.13 or 0.18 ppbv (depending on the instrument), or about a factor of 2. Such large differences cannot be accounted for by varying model input parameters within their respective uncertainty ranges. After examining the possible reasons for the model-measurement discrepancy, we conclude that there are probably one or more additional unknown sources of CH2O in the North Atlantic troposphere.

  7. Numerical investigation of laser radiation conversion to X rays in experiments with spherical boxes with interior coatings of different materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bondarenko, S V; Dolgoleva, G V; Novikova, E A

    2010-08-03

    The dynamics of laser and X-ray radiation fields in experiments with spherical boxes was numerically investigated in a sector approximation using the SND-LIRA numerical code. The experiments were performed on the Iskra-5 laser facility at a wavelength {lambda}=0.657 {mu}m (the second harmonic of iodine laser radiation). The characteristics of X-ray generation were investigated with the inner surface of a converter box coated with different-Z materials (Au, Cu, Mg). With lowering Z, the laser energy absorption coefficient k{sub a} decreases and there occurs a lowering of the effective X-ray radiation temperature. Our calculations reveal a strong dependence of the results on the electron free-streaming flux limitation f. In particular, on lowering f from 0.1 to 0.03 for a conventional box with a gold coating, the coefficient k{sub a} decreases from 0.83 to 0.5 and the peak X-ray radiation temperature drops from 170 to 150eV. In these calculations, the rms nonuniformity of the X-ray irradiation of a capsule with thermonuclear fuel amounted to 1%-3%.

  8. DNA Radiation Environments Program: Fall 1989 2-meter box experiments and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Santoro, R.T.

    1991-05-01

    This effort, sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency under the Radiation Environments Program, was carried out to obtain measured data for benchmarking MASH, the Monte Carlo Adjoint Code System. MASH was developed to replace the Vehicle Code System, VCS, that has been used by the Department of Defense and NATO for calculating neutron and gamma-ray radiation fields and shielding protection factors inside armored vehicles and structures from nuclear weapon radiation. Free-field data were obtained at distances of 170- and 400-meters from the APR while in-box measurements were made at 400 meters only. The box, included to obtain neutron and gamma-ray reduction factors, was a 2-meter cube configuration having 0.1016-m-thick steel walls. Calculated data were obtained using MASH by analysts from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Science Applications International Corporation. Calculated (C) results were compared with experimental (E) data in terms of C/E ratios. Free-field and in-box neutron kerma generally agreed within {+-}20%, although some C/E comparisons fell outside this range depending upon the detector against which the calculated data were compared. For those cases where the C/E ratio is marginal or unacceptable, problems in the detector systems were acknowledged to be principal cause of the discrepancy. Generally poor agreement ({approx}25-35%) was achieved among the C/E ratios for the free-field gamma-ray kerma at the 170- and 400-m locations while excellent (10%, or better) C/E values were obtained for the in-box conditions. The discrepancy for the free-field comparison was attributed to the failure by the analysts to include a tree line adjacent to the measurement site in the calculational geometry. C/E values for the neutron and gamma-ray reduction factors ranged from 1% to 23% depending on the detector. 4 refs., 2 figs., 14 tabs.

  9. An Improved Box Theater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huster, Michael E.

    2011-09-01

    While designing an optics lab for a conceptual physics course, I came across a "box theater" activity. The box theater is a pinhole camera obscura made from a box that students put over their heads and shoulders. I use the activity as a capstone experience to explain optical systems. (Classroom demonstrations of the camera obscura have been described by others.2) First, the students build and experiment with a camera obscura made from a plastic cup and a convex lens with a focal length of 7.5 cm, and then "wear" the box theater. The difficulty with the box theater is the dimness of the image. A cloth drape has to be hung from the bottom of the box around the shoulders of the students to prevent light leakage, and the students have to wait a few minutes for their eyes to adjust to the darkness.

  10. Analysis and trends of precipitation lapse rate and extreme indices over north Sikkim eastern Himalayas under CMIP5ESM-2M RCPs experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vishal; Goyal, Manish Kumar

    2016-01-01

    This paper draws attention to highlight the spatial and temporal variability in precipitation lapse rate (PLR) and precipitation extreme indices (PEIs) through the mesoscale characterization of Teesta river catchment, which corresponds to north Sikkim eastern Himalayas. A PLR rate is an important variable for the snowmelt runoff models. In a mountainous region, the PLR could be varied from lower elevation parts to high elevation parts. In this study, a PLR was computed by accounting elevation differences, which varies from around 1500 m to 7000 m. A precipitation variability and extremity were analysed using multiple mathematical functions viz. quantile regression, spatial mean, spatial standard deviation, Mann-Kendall test and Sen's estimation. For this reason, a daily precipitation, in the historical (years 1980-2005) as measured/observed gridded points and projected experiments for the 21st century (years 2006-2100) simulated by CMIP5 ESM-2 M model (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 Earth System Model 2) employing three different radiative forcing scenarios (Representative Concentration Pathways), utilized for the research work. The outcomes of this study suggest that a PLR is significantly varied from lower elevation to high elevation parts. The PEI based analysis showed that the extreme high intensity events have been increased significantly, especially after 2040s. The PEI based observations also showed that the numbers of wet days are increased for all the RCPs. The quantile regression plots showed significant increments in the upper and lower quantiles of the various extreme indices. The Mann-Kendall test and Sen's estimation tests clearly indicated significant changing patterns in the frequency and intensity of the precipitation indices across all the sub-basins and RCP scenario in an intra-decadal time series domain. The RCP8.5 showed extremity of the projected outcomes.

  11. A Plant That Escapes from a Locked Box...and Other Growing Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkman, Will

    1979-01-01

    Seven easy-to-do experiments with plants are outlined to aid in teaching children about plants: their search for water, food, and light; a variety of rooting systems; and the effects of soil temperatures. (JMF)

  12. A Strange Box and a Stubborn Brit: Rutherford's Experiments with Alpha Particles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Digilov, M.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses 5 innovative experiments conducted by Rutherford in early 1900s utilizing the 30 milligrams of radium salt he personally carried from Europe to Canada in 1903. Traces his work with alpha particles from his original results which determined their nature, charge, and mass, to his technique of backscattering which helped to advance…

  13. Quantum Dots in a Polymer Composite: A Convenient Particle-in-a-Box Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Charles V.; Giffin, Guinevere A.

    2008-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots are at the forefront of materials science chemistry with applications in biological imaging and photovoltaic technologies. We have developed a simple laboratory experiment to measure the quantum-dot size from fluorescence spectra. A major roadblock of quantum-dot based exercises is the particle synthesis and handling;…

  14. Bento Boxes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasio, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    Bento boxes are common objects in Japanese culture, designed to hold enough lunch for one person. They have individual compartments and sometimes multiple tiers for rice, vegetables, and other side dishes. They are made of materials ranging from wood, cloth, aluminum, or plastic. In general, the greater the number of foods, the better the box is…

  15. Small, Lightweight, Collapsible Glove Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    A small, lightweight, collapsible glove box enables its user to perform small experiments and other tasks. Originally intended for use aboard a space shuttle or the International Space Station (ISS), this glove box could also be attractive for use on Earth in settings in which work space or storage space is severely limited and, possibly, in which it is desirable to minimize weight. The development of this glove box was prompted by the findings that in the original space-shuttle or ISS setting, (1) it was necessary to perform small experiments in a large general-purpose work station, so that, in effect, they occupied excessive space; and it took excessive amounts of time to set up small experiments. The design of the glove box reflects the need to minimize the space occupied by experiments and the time needed to set up experiments, plus the requirement to limit the launch weight of the box and the space needed to store the box during transport into orbit. To prepare the glove box for use, the astronaut or other user has merely to insert hands through the two fabric glove ports in the side walls of the box and move two hinges to a locking vertical position (see figure). The user could do this while seated with the glove box on the user fs lap. When stowed, the glove box is flat and has approximately the thickness of two pieces of 8-in. (.20 cm) polycarbonate.

  16. The Mechanics of Coulomb Wedges: Comparison Between a Numerical Model (Boundary Element Method) and a Sand-Box Experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Castello, M.; Cooke, M.

    2006-12-01

    Fold and thrust belts have been successfully modelled using either physical or numerical methods in recent years. The two methods have well-known advantages and drawbacks for investigating contractional processes. In this work we have applied the Boundary Element Method code in order to closely reproduce successive snapshots of deformation accumulated within a sand-box experiment. Our numerical models provide a quantitative mechanical analysis of the deformation observed in analogue models of non-cohesive Coulomb wedges during an underthrusting/accretion transition. Model results show that the total work done by the contracting wedge increases during the underthrusting stage up to a critical value when the propagation of a frontal thrust significantly reduces the work required for further deformation. This transition occurs when the energetic cost of developing a new forethrust is less than the benefit of growing this new fault. The elastic numerical model predicts the location of the maximum shear stress on the basal dècollement just prior to the propagation of the sole thrust as well as the energetically most viable position for the nucleation of new forethrust ramp. These positions do not coincide. Furthermore, the forethrust within the sandbox experiment develops at the energetically favoured position rather than the location of greatest shear stress suggesting that the new thrust ramps develop first ahead and then link down and backward to the propagating basal dècollement. As a result, the most efficient location for a new thrust ramp is where gravitational, frictional, internal and propagation work terms are optimally combined. The trade-off between the dominant frictional and internal work terms is fuelled by overburden weight, which reduces slip on thrust ramps until the internal work stored in the surrounding deforming material reaches a critical value. The correlation of our numerical results with analogue experiments validates use of the principle of

  17. Film Boxes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterer, Irv

    2002-01-01

    Presents an art lesson in which students created three-dimensional designs for 35mm film packages to improve graphic arts learning. Describes how the students examined and created film boxes using QuarkXPress software. (CMK)

  18. Comparison of upconing under vertical and horizontal wells in freshwater lenses: sand-box experiments and numerical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoeckl, Leonard; Stefan, Loeffler; Houben, Georg

    2013-04-01

    Freshwater lenses on islands and in inland areas are often the primary freshwater resource there. The fragile equilibrium between saline and fresh groundwater can be disrupted by excessive pumping, leading to an upward migration of the saline water underneath the well. Sand-box experiments were conducted to compare the upconing at vertical and horizontal wells pumping from a freshwater lens. Results were then compared to numerical simulations. To simulate the cross-section of an "infinite strip island", an acrylic box with a spacing of 5 cm was filled with coarse sand. After saturating the model with degassed saltwater from bottom to top, freshwater recharge was applied from above. By coloring the infiltrating freshwater with different tracer colors using uranine and indigotine we were able to visualize flow paths during pumping. A horizontal and a vertical well were placed at the left and right side of the symmetric island. Both had equal diameter, screen length, depth of placement, and distance to shore. Three increasing pumping rates were applied to each well successively and the electrical conductivity of the abstracted water was continuously measured using a through-flow cell. Results show that no saltwater entered the wells when pumping at the lowest rate. Still, slight saltwater upconing and a shift of the freshwater divide in the island were observed. At the second rate a clear saltwater breakthrough into the vertical well occurred, while the electrical conductivity remained nearly unchanged in the horizontal well. Applying the third (highest) abstraction rate to each of the wells saltwater entered both wells, exceeding drinking water standards in the vertical well. The described behavior indicates the advantage of horizontal over vertical wells on islands and in coastal zones prone to saltwater up-coning. Numerical simulations show similar patterns, even though deviations exist between the second and the third pumping rate, which are under and

  19. Intrinsic versus extrinsic variability of analogue sand-box experiments - Insights from statistical analysis of repeated accretionary sand wedge experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santimano, Tasca; Rosenau, Matthias; Oncken, Onno

    2015-06-01

    Analogue models are not perfectly reproducible even under controlled boundary conditions which make their interpretation and application not always straight forward. As any scientific experiment they include some random component which can be influenced both by intrinsic (inherent processes) and extrinsic (boundary conditions, material properties) sources. In order to help in the assessment of analogue model results, we discriminate and quantify the intrinsic versus extrinsic variability of results from "sandbox" models of accretionary wedges that were repeated in a controlled environment. The extrinsic source of variability, i.e. the parameter varied is the nature of the décollement (material, friction and thickness). Experiment observables include geometric properties of the faults (lifetime, spacing, dip) as well as wedge geometry (height, slope, length). For each variable we calculated the coefficient of variance (CV) and quantified the variability as a symmetric distribution (Normal, Laplacian) or asymmetric distribution (Gamma) using a Chi squared test (χ2). Observables like fault dip/back thrust dip (CV = 0.6-0.7/0.2-0.6) are less variable and decrease in magnitude with decreasing basal friction. Variables that are time dependent like fault lifetime (CV = 0.19-0.56) and fault spacing (CV = 0.12 - 0.36) have a higher CV consequently affecting the variability of wedge slope (CV = 0.12-0.33). These observables also increase in magnitude with increasing basal friction. As the mechanical complexity of the evolving wedge increases over time so does the CV and asymmetry of the distribution. In addition, we confirm the repeatability of experiments using an ANOVA test. Through the statistical analysis of results from repeated experiments we present a tool to quantify variability and an alternative method to gaining better insights into the dynamic mechanics of deformation in analogue sand wedges.

  20. Boxing clever.

    PubMed

    Toon, P D

    1988-06-01

    This is the first contribution to a new JME column, "At the coalface," to which readers are invited to relate ethical problems they have encountered in their work. An adolescent patient requested that the author, a general practitioner, certify that he was medically fit to box. Toon attempted to dissuade him from boxing by explaining its dangers. When the boy persisted, the physician rapidly considered the ethical principles involved in the encounter and decided to "wash his hands" by telling his patient that if "he insisted on damaging his, or someone else's brain, then he must find another medical accomplice." PMID:3392720

  1. Exploding Boxes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney; Jan

    2011-01-01

    How do you teach the "same old, same old" in an interesting and inexpensive way? Art teachers are forever looking for new angles on the good-old elements and principles. And, as budgets tighten, they are trying to be as frugal as possible while still holding their students' attention. Enter exploding boxes! In conceptualizing the three types of…

  2. Synthesis of Bis(1,2-Dimethylimidazole)Copper(I)Hexafluorophosphate: An Experiment Using a Glove Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niewahner, J. H.; Walters, Keith A.

    2007-01-01

    A detailed description of the synthesis of bis(1,2-dimethylimidazole)copper(I) hexafluorophosphate by using techniques in a glove box is presented. The results shows that the synthesis of the copper complex has a distinct color change indicating by-product oxidation by oxygen.

  3. Fully Atomistic Simulations of Protein Unfolding in Low Speed Atomic Force Microscope and Force Clamp Experiments with the Help of Boxed Molecular Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Booth, Jonathan J; Shalashilin, Dmitrii V

    2016-02-01

    The results of boxed dynamics (BXD) fully atomistic simulations of protein unfolding by atomic force microscopy (AFM) in both force clamp (FC) and velocity clamp (VC) modes are reported. In AFM experiments the unfolding occurs on a time scale which is too long for standard atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, which are usually performed with the addition of forces which exceed those of experiment by many orders of magnitude. BXD can reach the time scale of slow unfolding and sample the very high free energy unfolding pathway, reproducing the experimental dependence of pulling force against extension and extension against time. Calculations show the presence of the pulling force "humps" previously observed in the VC AFM experiments and allow the identification of intermediate protein conformations responsible for them. Fully atomistic BXD simulations can estimate the rate of unfolding in the FC experiments up to the time scale of seconds. PMID:26760898

  4. Numerical simulation of three-dimensional X-ray and laser field inhomogeneities in experiments with spherical box converters on the Iskra-5 facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bondarenko, S V; Dolgoleva, G V; Novikova, E A

    2007-04-30

    The results of spectral calculations of the dynamics of laser radiation absorption and X-ray generation in a spherical box converter are presented for experiments on inertial fusion performed in the 1990s on the Iskra-5 facility. Numerical simulations were carried out taking into account the actual configuration of 12 laser beams and six apertures for introducing laser radiation. Calculations were performed in the sector approximation in which the inner surface of the box is divided into a certain number of regions or sectors. The movement of matter and radiation transport in each sector were calculated by using the one-dimensional spectral nonequilibrium dynamics program. Spectral calculations showed a strong inhomogeneity of irradiation of a capsule in the M-band region (2.7-2.9 keV). It is shown that the spectrum-averaged root-mean-square inhomogeneity of the X-ray energy flux on the capsule (during the time of its compression) is about 2.5% for laser beams of the same energy and is about 3% if the characteristic energy misbalance between the beams is taken into account. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  5. A new disaster victim identification management strategy targeting "near identification-threshold" cases: Experiences from the Boxing Day tsunami.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kirsty; Mundorff, Amy; Chaseling, Janet; Forrest, Alexander; Maguire, Christopher; Crane, Denis I

    2015-05-01

    The international disaster victim identification (DVI) response to the Boxing Day tsunami, led by the Royal Thai Police in Phuket, Thailand, was one of the largest and most complex in DVI history. Referred to as the Thai Tsunami Victim Identification operation, the group comprised a multi-national, multi-agency, and multi-disciplinary team. The traditional DVI approach proved successful in identifying a large number of victims quickly. However, the team struggled to identify certain victims due to incomplete or poor quality ante-mortem and post-mortem data. In response to these challenges, a new 'near-threshold' DVI management strategy was implemented to target presumptive identifications and improve operational efficiency. The strategy was implemented by the DNA Team, therefore DNA kinship matches that just failed to reach the reporting threshold of 99.9% were prioritized, however the same approach could be taken by targeting, for example, cases with partial fingerprint matches. The presumptive DNA identifications were progressively filtered through the Investigation, Dental and Fingerprint Teams to add additional information necessary to either strengthen or conclusively exclude the identification. Over a five-month period 111 victims from ten countries were identified using this targeted approach. The new identifications comprised 87 adults, 24 children and included 97 Thai locals. New data from the Fingerprint Team established nearly 60% of the total near-threshold identifications and the combined DNA/Physical method was responsible for over 30%. Implementing the new strategy, targeting near-threshold cases, had positive management implications. The process initiated additional ante-mortem information collections, and established a much-needed, distinct "end-point" for unresolved cases. PMID:25828381

  6. PREFACE: SANS-YuMO User Meeting at the Start-up of Scientific Experiments on the IBR-2M Reactor: Devoted to the 75th anniversary of Yu M Ostanevich's birth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordely, Valentin; Kuklin, Alexander; Balasoiu, Maria

    2012-03-01

    The Second International Workshop 'SANS-YuMO User Meeting at the Start-up of Scientific Experiments on the IBR-2M Reactor', devoted to the 75th anniversary of the birth of Professor Yu M Ostanevich (1936-1992), an outstanding neutron physicist and the founder of small-angle neutron scattering (field, group, and instrument) at JINR FLNPh, was held on 27-30 May at the Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics. The first Workshop was held in October 2006. Research groups from different neutron centers, universities and research institutes across Europe presented more than 35 oral and poster presentations describing scientific and methodological results. Most of them were obtained with the help of the YuMO instrument before the IBR-2 shutdown in 2006. For the last four years the IBR-2 reactor has been shut down for refurbishment. At the end of 2010 the physical launch of the IBR-2M reactor was finally realized. Nowadays the small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) technique is applied to a wide range of scientific problems in condensed matter, soft condensed matter, biology and nanotechnology, and despite the fact that there are currently over 30 SANS instruments in operation worldwide at both reactor and spallation sources, the demand for beam-time is considerably higher than the time available. It must be remembered, however, that as the first SANS machine on a steady-state reactor was constructed at the Institute Laue Langevin, Grenoble, the first SANS instrument on a 'white' neutron pulsed beam was accomplished at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research at the IBR-30 reactor, beamline N5. During the meeting Yu M Ostanevich's determinative and crucial contribution to the construction of spectrometers at the IBR-2 high-pulsed reactor was presented, as well as his contribution to the development of the time-of-flight (TOF) small-angle scattering technique, and a selection of other scientific areas. His leadership and outstanding scientific achievements in applications of the

  7. Illuminating a black box - determination of rates of reactive transport by combining numerical tools with optimized experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehrer, Dr; Totsche, Dr

    2009-04-01

    Only the combination of physical models and experiments can elucidate the processes of reactive transport in porous media. Column scale experiments offer a great opportunity to identify and quantify processes of reactive transport. In contrast to batch experiments, approximately natural flow dynamics can be realized. However, due to the complexity of interactions and wide range of parameters the experiment can be insensitive to the wanted process and misinterpretation of the results is likely. In the proposed talk we want to give examples how numerical tools can be applied for thorough planning and evaluation of experiments. In a first phase, we performed systematical numerical experiments to optimize the experimental conditions, which allow the quantification of (de-)sorption kinetics under percolation conditions. For short term column experiments we found, that the application of flow interruptions along with two different flow velocities can be applied to avoid uniqueness problems with respect to identification of partitioning coefficient and mass transfer rate. By a sensitivity analysis the parameter space was divided into regions where physical reasonable parameter estimates can be expected and where equifinal solutions are likely. In a second phase we conducted column experiments to test this optimized experimental design for its suitability for the identification and quantification of rate-limited contaminant release. We used materials polluted with organic and inorganic contaminants originating from different soils, sites and materials (Coke oven sites, abandoned industrial sites, destruction debris, municipal waste incineration ash). Repacked soil columns were percolated under saturated and unsaturated conditions and were subjected to multiple flow interruptions and different flow velocities. The third phase consisted of data evaluation and process quantification applying numerical inversion of a physical transport model. The parameter sets were evaluated

  8. Inside the Black Box: Exploring the Value Added by Career and Technical Student Organizations to Students' High School Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfeld, Corinne; Hansen, David M.; Aragon, Steven R.; Stone, James R., III

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the hypothesis that Career Technical Student Organizations (CTSOs) provide a variety of experiences that either directly or indirectly affect three important outcomes of secondary education: achievement, transition to postsecondary education and training, and employability. A pre-post-test comparison study of high school…

  9. Is Identification with School the Key Component in the "Black Box" of Education Outcomes? Evidence from a Randomized Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Jason M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we follow up the important class size reduction randomized experiment in Tennessee in the mid 1980s (Project STAR) to attempt to further understand the long-lasting influences of early education interventions. While STAR led to large test score benefits during the intervention, these benefits quickly faded at its conclusion.…

  10. Analysis of the Fall-1989 two-meter box test bed experiments performed at the Army Pulse Radiation Facility (APRF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. O.; Drischler, J. D.; Barnes, J. M.

    This report summarizes the results of a benchmark analysis of the Monte Carlo Adjoint Shielding Code System (MASH) against a series of experiments performed at the Army Pulse Radiation Facility (APRF) in Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The series of experiments was performed in the Fall of 1989 and involved experimentalists from APRF; the Defense Research Establishment Ottawa, Canada (DREO); Bubble Technology Industries, Canada, (BTI); and the Establishment Technique Central de l'Armement, France (ETCA). The 'benchmark' analysis of MASH is designed to determine the capability of MASH to reproduce the measured neutron and gamma ray integral and differential (spectral) data. Results of the 'benchmark' analysis are to be used in the recommendations to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Panel 7 Ad Hoc Group of Shielding Experts for replacing the Vehicle Code System (VCS) with MASH as the reference code of choice for armored vehicle nuclear vulnerability calculations.

  11. Box Plots in the Australian Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the definition of "box plot" as used in the "Australian Curriculum: Mathematics" with other definitions used in the education community; describes the difficulties students experience when dealing with box plots; and discusses the elaboration that is necessary to enable teachers to develop the knowledge necessary to use them…

  12. Repackaging SRS Black Box TRU Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Swale, D. J.; Stone, K.A.; Milner, T. N.

    2006-01-09

    Historically, large items of TRU Waste, which were too large to be packaged in drums for disposal have been packaged in various sizes of custom made plywood boxes at the Savannah River Site (SRS), for many years. These boxes were subsequently packaged into large steel ''Black Boxes'' for storage at SRS, pending availability of Characterization and Certification capability, to facilitate disposal of larger items of TRU Waste. There are approximately 107 Black Boxes in inventory at SRS, each measuring some 18' x 12' x 7', and weighing up to 45,000 lbs. These Black Boxes have been stored since the early 1980s. The project to repackage this waste into Standard Large Boxes (SLBs), Standard Waste Boxes (SWB) and Ten Drum Overpacks (TDOP), for subsequent characterization and WIPP disposal, commenced in FY04. To date, 10 Black Boxes have been repackaged, resulting in 40 SLB-2's, and 37 B25 overpack boxes, these B25's will be overpacked in SLB-2's prior to shipping to WIPP. This paper will describe experience to date from this project.

  13. Rate coefficient for H + O2 + M = HO2 + M evaluated from shock tube measurements of induction times

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slack, M. W.

    1977-01-01

    Shock tube experiments measured hydrogen-air induction times near the second explosion limit. By matching these experimental results with numerically predicted induction times, the rate coefficient for the reaction H + O2 + M = HO2 + M was evaluated as k-sub 4,N2 = 3.3 (plus or minus .6) x 10 to the 15 cm to the 6th/sq mole/s.

  14. 2m class telescope project at Lijiang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dong; Wang, Jian-Cheng; Xu, Jun; Zhang, Bai-Rong; Luo, Guo-Quan; Liu, Zhong; Tan, Hui-Song

    Supported by the ministry of science and technology, government of Yunnan Province and Chinese Academy of Sciences, a 2m class telescope project was granted. In this paper, we will first review the site, Gaomeigu, briefly, then give the details of 2m class telescope project, and finally discuss the future plans of this new telescope.

  15. Mystery Boxes, X Rays, and Radiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Norman

    2000-01-01

    Indicates the difficulties of teaching concepts beyond light and color and creating memorable learning experiences. Recommends sequential activities using the mystery box approach to explain how scientists and doctors use photon applications. (YDS)

  16. Present and Future of M2M

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Satoru; Watanabe, Takashi

    In recent years, the rapid progress in the development of hardware and software technologies enables tiny and low cost information devices hereinafter referred to as Machine to be widely available. M2M (Machine to Machine) has been of much attention where many tiny machines are connected to each other through networks with minimal human intervention to provide smooth and intelligent management. M2M is a promising core technology providing timely, flexible, efficient and comprehensive service at low cost. M2M has wide variety of applications including energy management system, environmental monitoring system, intelligent transport system, industrial automation system and other applications. M2M consists of terminals and networks that connect them. In this paper, we mainly focus on M2M networking and mention the future direction of the technology.

  17. GLOVE BOX ATTACHMENT

    DOEpatents

    Butts, H.L.

    1962-02-13

    This invention comprises a housing unit to be fitted between a glove box port and a glove so that a slidable plate within the housing seals off the glove box port for evacuation of the glove box without damage to the glove. The housing and the glove may be evacuated without damage to the glove since movement of the glove is restricted during evacuation by the slidable plate. (AEC)

  18. Does the Well-Being of Individuals with Down Syndrome and Dementia Improve When Using Life Story Books and Rummage Boxes? A Randomized Single Case Series Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crook, Nicola; Adams, Malcolm; Shorten, Nicola; Langdon, Peter E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study investigated whether a personalized life story book and rummage box enhanced well-being and led to changes in behaviour for people with Down syndrome (DS) who have dementia. Materials and Methods: A randomized single case series design was used with five participants who had DS and a diagnosis of dementia. Participants were…

  19. Thinking outside the Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanshawe, Simon; Sriskandarajah, Dhananjayan

    2010-01-01

    Britain is not only more diverse than ever before, but that diversity itself is growing more diverse. Britain's simplistic "tick-box" approach to identity is in danger of inhibiting the very equality it seeks to promote. To question the tick-box is not to accuse local authorities of "political correctness gone mad". The notion of political…

  20. Boxing with neutrino oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, D. J.; Weiler, Thomas J.

    1999-06-01

    We develop a characterization of neutrino oscillations based on the coefficients of the oscillating terms. These coefficients are individually observable; although they are quartic in the elements of the unitary mixing matrix, they are independent of the conventions chosen for the angle and phase parametrization of the mixing matrix. We call these reparametrization-invariant observables ``boxes'' because of their geometric relation to the mixing matrix, and because of their association with the Feynman box diagram that describes oscillations in field theory. The real parts of the boxes are the coefficients for the CP- or T-even oscillation modes, while the imaginary parts are the coefficients for the CP- or T-odd oscillation modes. Oscillation probabilities are linear in the boxes, so measurements can straightforwardly determine values for the boxes (which can then be manipulated to yield magnitudes of mixing matrix elements). We examine the effects of unitarity on the boxes and discuss the reduction of the number of boxes to a minimum basis set. For the three-generation case, we explicitly construct the basis. Using the box algebra, we show that CP violation may be inferred from measurements of neutrino flavor mixing even when the oscillatory factors have averaged. The framework presented here will facilitate general analyses of neutrino oscillations among n>=3 flavors.

  1. Boxing with neutrino oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, D.J.; Weiler, T.J.

    1999-06-01

    We develop a characterization of neutrino oscillations based on the coefficients of the oscillating terms. These coefficients are individually observable; although they are quartic in the elements of the unitary mixing matrix, they are independent of the conventions chosen for the angle and phase parametrization of the mixing matrix. We call these reparametrization-invariant observables {open_quotes}boxes{close_quotes} because of their geometric relation to the mixing matrix, and because of their association with the Feynman box diagram that describes oscillations in field theory. The real parts of the boxes are the coefficients for the {ital CP}- or {ital T}-even oscillation modes, while the imaginary parts are the coefficients for the {ital CP}- or {ital T}-odd oscillation modes. Oscillation probabilities are linear in the boxes, so measurements can straightforwardly determine values for the boxes (which can then be manipulated to yield magnitudes of mixing matrix elements). We examine the effects of unitarity on the boxes and discuss the reduction of the number of boxes to a minimum basis set. For the three-generation case, we explicitly construct the basis. Using the box algebra, we show that {ital CP} violation may be inferred from measurements of neutrino flavor mixing even when the oscillatory factors have averaged. The framework presented here will facilitate general analyses of neutrino oscillations among n{ge}3 flavors. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  2. Thinking Inside the Box

    SciTech Connect

    Boeheim, Charles T.; /SLAC

    2007-11-16

    In early 2007, SLAC was faced with a shortage of both electrical power and cooling in the main computer building, at the same time that the BaBar collaboration needed a new cluster of 250 batch machines installed. A number of different options were explored for the expansion. Provision of additional electrical power to the building was estimated to take one to two years, and cost several million dollars; additional cooling was even worse. Space in a Silicon Valley co-location facilities was reasonable on a one-year timescale, but broke even in costs by the end of three years, and were more expensive after that. There were also unresolved questions about the affects of additional latency from an offsite compute cluster to the onsite disk servers. The option of converting existing experimental hall space into computer space was estimated at one year, with uncertain availability. An option to aggressively replace several existing clusters with more power-efficient equipment was studied closely, but was disruptive to continued operations, expensive, and didn't provide any additional headroom. Finally, the installation of a Sun Project Blackbox (PBB) unit was selected as providing the capacity on a timescale of six months for a reasonable cost with minimal disruption to service. SLAC obtained and installed a beta unit and have been running it in production since September 2007. The experiences described are with the Early Access version of the PBB. The production version of the box has engineering changes based in part on our experiences.

  3. Glove box shield

    DOEpatents

    Brackenbush, Larry W.; Hoenes, Glenn R.

    1981-01-01

    According to the present invention, a shield for a glove box housing radioactive material is comprised of spaced apart clamping members which maintain three overlapping flaps in place therebetween. There is a central flap and two side flaps, the side flaps overlapping at the interior edges thereof and the central flap extending past the intersection of the side flaps in order to insure that the shield is always closed when the user withdraws his hand from the glove box. Lead loaded neoprene rubber is the preferred material for the three flaps, the extent of lead loading depending upon the radiation levels within the glove box.

  4. Glove box shield

    DOEpatents

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Hoenes, G.R.

    A shield for a glove box housing radioactive material is comprised of spaced apart clamping members which maintain three overlapping flaps in place therebetween. There is a central flap and two side flaps, the side flaps overlapping at the interior edges thereof and the central flap extending past the intersection of the side flaps in order to insure that the shield is always closed when the user wthdraws his hand from the glove box. Lead loaded neoprene rubber is the preferred material for the three flaps, the extent of lead loading depending upon the radiation levels within the glove box.

  5. Climate in a Box

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Climate in a Box Project is exploring the utility of supercomputers in providing a complete, pre-packaged, ready-to-use toolkit of climate research products and on-demand access to a high-pe...

  6. Boxing with Neutrino Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Dj; Weiler, Thomas J.

    1998-03-01

    We have developed a model-independent ``box'' parameterization of neutrino oscillations. Oscillation probabilities are linear in these new parameters, so measurements can straighforwardly determine the box parameters which can then be manipulated to yield magnitudes of mixing matrix elements. We will present these new parameters and examine the effects of unitarity which reduce the number of independent parameters to the minimum set. The framework presented here will facilitate general analyses of neutrino oscillations among n >= 3 flavors.

  7. Automatic box loader

    DOEpatents

    Eldridge, Harry H.; Jones, Robert A.; Lindner, Gordon M.; Hight, Paul H.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to a system for repetitively forming an assembly consisting of a single layer of tubes and a row of ferromagnetic armatures underlying the same, electromagnetically conveying the resulting assembly to a position overlying a storage box, and depositing the assembly in the box. The system includes means for simultaneously depositing a row of the armatures on the inclined surface of a tube retainer. Tubes then are rolled down the surface to form a single tube layer bridging the armatures. A magnet assembly carrying electromagnets respectively aligned with the armatures is advanced close to the tube layer, and in the course of this advance is angularly displaced to bring the pole pieces of the electromagnets into parallelism with the tube layer. The magnets then are energized to pick up the assembly. The loaded magnet assembly is retracted to a position overlying the box, and during this retraction is again displaced to bring the pole pieces of the electromagnets into a horizontal plane. Means are provided for inserting the loaded electromagnets in the box and then de-energizing the electromagnets to deposit the assembly therein. The system accomplishes the boxing of fragile tubes at relatively high rates. Because the tubes are boxed as separated uniform layers, subsequent unloading operations are facilitated.

  8. Cable Tester Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jason H.

    2011-01-01

    Cables are very important electrical devices that carry power and signals across multiple instruments. Any fault in a cable can easily result in a catastrophic outcome. Therefore, verifying that all cables are built to spec is a very important part of Electrical Integration Procedures. Currently, there are two methods used in lab for verifying cable connectivity. (1) Using a Break-Out Box and an ohmmeter this method is time-consuming but effective for custom cables and (2) Commercial Automated Cable Tester Boxes this method is fast, but to test custom cables often requires pre-programmed configuration files, and cables used on spacecraft are often uniquely designed for specific purposes. The idea is to develop a semi-automatic continuity tester that reduces human effort in cable testing, speeds up the electrical integration process, and ensures system safety. The JPL-Cable Tester Box is developed to check every single possible electrical connection in a cable in parallel. This system indicates connectivity through LED (light emitting diode) circuits. Users can choose to test any pin/shell (test node) with a single push of a button, and any other nodes that are shorted to the test node, even if they are in the same connector, will light up with the test node. The JPL-Cable Tester Boxes offers the following advantages: 1. Easy to use: The architecture is simple enough that it only takes 5 minutes for anyone to learn how operate the Cable Tester Box. No pre-programming and calibration are required, since this box only checks continuity. 2. Fast: The cable tester box checks all the possible electrical connections in parallel at a push of a button. If a cable normally takes half an hour to test, using the Cable Tester Box will improve the speed to as little as 60 seconds to complete. 3. Versatile: Multiple cable tester boxes can be used together. As long as all the boxes share the same electrical potential, any number of connectors can be tested together.

  9. Development of 2 m×2 m size glass RPCs for INO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuyan, M.; Datar, V. M.; Kalmani, S. D.; Lahamge, S. M.; Mohammed, S.; Mondal, N. K.; Nagaraj, P.; Redij, A.; Samuel, D.; Saraf, M. N.; Satyanarayana, B.; Shinde, R. R.; Verma, P.

    2012-01-01

    The India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) collaboration is planning to build a massive 50 kt magnetised iron calorimeter (ICAL) detector to study atmospheric neutrinos and to precisely determine the neutrino oscillation parameters. About 30,000 2 m×2 m size glass Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) will be used as active detector elements in ICAL. Starting with a small 30 cm ×30 cm size RPCs, we have now succeeded in developing full size 2 m ×2 m RPCs. The fabrication procedures used for these large size RPCs as well as their performance will be discussed in this paper. We will also present some preliminary results from our studies on SF6 based gas mixtures on the RPC operation and characteristics.

  10. PHOTOCHEMICAL BOX MODEL (PBM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This magnetic tape contains the FORTRAN source code, sample input data, and sample output data for the Photochemical Box Model (PBM). The PBM is a simple stationary single-cell model with a variable height lid designed to provide volume-integrated hour averages of O3 and other ph...

  11. Drawing inside the Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Ranella

    2007-01-01

    When working with very young children and/or students with special needs, it is beneficial for teachers to think "outside the box" in order to preserve and enhance a child's natural curiosity. In an effort to teach young children to control their drawing tools, they are often presented with coloring book-type pages and instructed to "stay inside…

  12. Cereal Box Totems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, AnnMarie

    2002-01-01

    Presents a multicultural project used with fourth-grade students in which they created a three-dimensional totem pole using leftover cereal boxes. Discusses in detail how to create the totem pole. Explains that students learned about Northwest American Indians in class. (CMK)

  13. Shoe Box Circuits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandifer, Cody

    2009-01-01

    Students' eyes grow wide with wonder as they get a motor to work or make a bulb light for the first time. As these daunting feats of electrical engineering remind us, teaching electricity is invariably rewarding and worthwhile. In this inquiry-based science project, elementary students work in pairs to design and wire a shoe box "room" that meets…

  14. "Can" the Black Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lestingi, Francis S.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the use of the "Arcane (mysterious) Can" which is a "tin" can which is permanently sealed, both air- and water-tight, by means of a home canning device. The canning procedure permits the use of a large variety of materials which can not be utilized in the ordinary mystery box. This Can activity is valuable for illustrating in an…

  15. Thinking "Inside" the Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffries, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    The authors conducted a test to determine whether they could incorporate a discovery box into a preschool setting was successful. It stimulated the students' natural inquiry processes while promoting understanding of healthy foods and allowing for practice of fine-motor skills. It was easily incorporated into the curriculum and classroom space.…

  16. Teaching with Box Tops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raiser, Lynne; D'Zamko, Mary Elizabeth

    1984-01-01

    Using environmental materials (such as the phone book and placemats from fast food restaurants) can be a motivating way to teach learning disabled students skills and concepts, as shown in an approach to reading, math, science and nutrition, and social studies instruction using a JELL-O brand gelatin box. (CL)

  17. Hydrophobic, Porous Battery Boxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, Bobby J.; Casey, John E., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Boxes made of porous, hydrophobic polymers developed to contain aqueous potassium hydroxide electrolyte solutions of zinc/air batteries while allowing air to diffuse in as needed for operation. Used on other types of batteries for in-cabin use in which electrolytes aqueous and from which gases generated during operation must be vented without allowing electrolytes to leak out.

  18. Looking Southwest at Reactor Box Furnaces With Reactor Boxes and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking Southwest at Reactor Box Furnaces With Reactor Boxes and Repossessed Uranium in Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  19. 6. VIEW OF INTERIOR GLOVE BOX DURING CONSTRUCTION. GLOVE BOXES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF INTERIOR GLOVE BOX DURING CONSTRUCTION. GLOVE BOXES CONTAINED ALL PRODUCTION OPERATIONS AND WERE INTERCONNECTED BY CONVEYORS. (9/21/59) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Fabrication, Central section of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  20. Hermit Points on a Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Richard; Grinstead, Charles; Grindstead, Marshall; Bergstrand, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    Suppose that we are given a rectangular box in 3-space. Given any two points on the surface of this box, we can define the surface distance between them to be the length of the shortest path between them on the surface of the box. This paper determines the pairs of points of maximum surface distance for all boxes. It is often the case that these…

  1. Multicultural and Nonsexist Prop Boxes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boutte, Gloria S.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Discusses how prop boxes enhance learning and are resources in multicultural and nonsexist primary education, focusing on play, experimentation, and cooperation. Examines integration of prop boxes into the curricula and activities, and presents examples of generic and specific multicultural prop boxes that incorporate art, music, foods,…

  2. Making Connections with Memory Boxes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whatley, April

    2000-01-01

    Addresses the use of children's literature within the social studies classroom on the topic of memory boxes. Includes discussions of four books: (1) "The Littlest Angel" (Charles Tazewell); (2) "The Hundred Penny Box" (Sharon Bell Mathis); (3) "Wilfrid Gordon McDonald Partridge" (Mem Fox); and (4) "The Memory Box" (Mary Bahr). (CMK)

  3. Learning with box kernels.

    PubMed

    Melacci, Stefano; Gori, Marco

    2013-11-01

    Supervised examples and prior knowledge on regions of the input space have been profitably integrated in kernel machines to improve the performance of classifiers in different real-world contexts. The proposed solutions, which rely on the unified supervision of points and sets, have been mostly based on specific optimization schemes in which, as usual, the kernel function operates on points only. In this paper, arguments from variational calculus are used to support the choice of a special class of kernels, referred to as box kernels, which emerges directly from the choice of the kernel function associated with a regularization operator. It is proven that there is no need to search for kernels to incorporate the structure deriving from the supervision of regions of the input space, because the optimal kernel arises as a consequence of the chosen regularization operator. Although most of the given results hold for sets, we focus attention on boxes, whose labeling is associated with their propositional description. Based on different assumptions, some representer theorems are given that dictate the structure of the solution in terms of box kernel expansion. Successful results are given for problems of medical diagnosis, image, and text categorization. PMID:24051728

  4. Learning with Box Kernels.

    PubMed

    Melacci, Stefano; Gori, Marco

    2013-04-12

    Supervised examples and prior knowledge on regions of the input space have been profitably integrated in kernel machines to improve the performance of classifiers in different real-world contexts. The proposed solutions, which rely on the unified supervision of points and sets, have been mostly based on specific optimization schemes in which, as usual, the kernel function operates on points only. In this paper, arguments from variational calculus are used to support the choice of a special class of kernels, referred to as box kernels, which emerges directly from the choice of the kernel function associated with a regularization operator. It is proven that there is no need to search for kernels to incorporate the structure deriving from the supervision of regions of the input space, since the optimal kernel arises as a consequence of the chosen regularization operator. Although most of the given results hold for sets, we focus attention on boxes, whose labeling is associated with their propositional description. Based on different assumptions, some representer theorems are given which dictate the structure of the solution in terms of box kernel expansion. Successful results are given for problems of medical diagnosis, image, and text categorization. PMID:23589591

  5. Bending analysis of laminated composite box beams

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathy, A.K.; Patel, H.J.; Pang, S.S. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1994-01-01

    Box beams are widely used in weight reduction structures such as aircraft wings. The use of composite box beams further reduces the weight factor for such structures with the same deflection and stress as that of isotropic box beams. The difference in the behavior of composite box beam with different fiber orientation, number of plies, and number of stringers also provides a wide range of designing parameters to achieve the required performance for a given problem. A bending analysis has been carried out for the study of deflections and stresses for box beams of different material (isotropic and laminated composites), size, and number of stringers subjected to different kinds of loading conditions. A finite element model has been developed based on the strain energy principle, and the results are compared with an available commercial code COSMOS/M.'' Experiments using aluminum and scotchply composite laminates were conducted to verify the results. An optimal design for size and number of stiffeners for a given loading condition has been achieved. Investigations have also been carried out to find the effect of transverse shear on the span-wise normal stress.

  6. Profiles in garbage: Corrugated boxes

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.

    1997-12-01

    Corrugated boxes (also known as old corrugated containers, or OCC) are used to ship products to factories, warehouses, retail stores, offices, and homes. The primary market for OCC is the paperboard industry, which uses OCC for corrugated medium, linerboard, recycled paperboard, and other paper products. In addition, 2.6 million tons of OCC were exported in 1996. OCC provided 37% of the scrap paper that was exported in 1996. Some corrugated boxes can be reused before recycling. Corrugated boxes are easily and highly recyclable. Large producers such as grocery store warehouses and factories have recycled their corrugated boxes for some time. If shredded properly, uncoated corrugated boxes are easily compostable.

  7. Upstream box/TATA box order is the major determinant of the direction of transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, L C; Thali, M; Schaffner, W

    1991-01-01

    Mammalian gene promoters for transcription by RNA polymerase II are typically organized in the following order: upstream sequence motif(s)/TATA box/initiation site. Here we report studies in which the order, orientation and DNA sequences of these three elements are varied to determine how these affect polarity of transcription. We have constructed promoters with an 'octamer' upstream sequence ATTTGCAT (or its complement ATGCAAAT) in combination with several different TATA boxes and initiation (cap) sites, and tested these promoters in transfection experiments with cultured cells. TATA boxes derived from the adenovirus major late promoter (TATAAAA), immunoglobulin kappa light chain (TTATATA) and heavy chain (TAAATATA) promoter functioned equally well or even better when inverted. Only the beta-globin TATA box (CATAAAA) was poorly active when inverted. In addition, a symmetrical TATA box (TATATATA) derived from a casein gene was very active. Our results suggest that the asymmetry of most TATA boxes (consensus TATAAAA) is not a primary determinant of the polarity of transcription. We also found that the initiation (cap) site, which usually consists of an adenine embedded in a pyrimidine-rich region (PyPyCAPyPyPyPyPy), was permissive towards sequence alterations; even a randomly composed sequence worked well. However, an inverted, hence purine-rich, cap site reduced transcript levels to 1/7th, as did an oligo G sequence. Irrespective of the presence of a cap site, the configuration: 'TATA box/octamer' yielded a strong leftward, rather than rightward transcription. From this, we conclude that the polarity of transcription is primarily determined by the linear order of an upstream sequence relative to a TATA box, rather than by the individual orientations of either of these two elements. Images PMID:1762900

  8. Kinetics of the reaction HO2 + NO2 + M yields HO2NO2 + M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sander, S. P.; Peterson, M. E.

    1984-01-01

    The flash photolysis/ultraviolet absorption technique was used to measure the rate constants for the reaction HO2 + NO2 + M yields HO2NO2 + M over the pressure range 50-700 torr and temperature range 229-362 K using He, O2, and N2 as diluent gases. The data were fit to the expression derived by Troe (1979) and co-workers for describing the pressure and temperature dependence of reactions in the falloff region. By combining these data with recent measurements of the rate constant for HO2NO2 thermal decomposition values of 73.8 + or - 2 eu for the standard entropy and -12.6 + or - kcal/mol for the standard enthalpy of formation of HO2NO2 were obtained. A significant enhancement in the rate constant was observed when water vapor was added to the system.

  9. Black box multigrid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dendy, J. E., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The black box multigrid (BOXMG) code, which only needs specification of the matrix problem for application in the multigrid method was investigated. It is contended that a major problem with the multigrid method is that each new grid configuration requires a major programming effort to develop a code that specifically handles that grid configuration. The SOR and ICCG methods only specify the matrix problem, no matter what the grid configuration. It is concluded that the BOXMG does everything else necessary to set up the auxiliary coarser problems to achieve a multigrid solution.

  10. A Golden Oldie--A Black Box Circuit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Clifton; Wang, Yimin

    1994-01-01

    Provides a schematic to build a black box experiment that uses light bulbs of various intensities. The students are to determine the complex circuit by unscrewing the bulbs and noting what happens. (MVL)

  11. Projection optics box

    DOEpatents

    Hale, Layton C.; Malsbury, Terry; Hudyma, Russell M.; Parker, John M.

    2000-01-01

    A projection optics box or assembly for use in an optical assembly, such as in an extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) system using 10-14 nm soft x-ray photons. The projection optics box utilizes a plurality of highly reflective optics or mirrors, each mounted on a precision actuator, and which reflects an optical image, such as from a mask, in the EUVL system onto a point of use, such as a target or silicon wafer, the mask, for example, receiving an optical signal from a source assembly, such as a developed from laser system, via a series of highly reflective mirrors of the EUVL system. The plurality of highly reflective optics or mirrors are mounted in a housing assembly comprised of a series of bulkheads having wall members secured together to form a unit construction of maximum rigidity. Due to the precision actuators, the mirrors must be positioned precisely and remotely in tip, tilt, and piston (three degrees of freedom), while also providing exact constraint.

  12. The Classroom Animal: Box Turtles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, David C.

    1986-01-01

    Provides basic information on the anatomy, physiology, behaviors, and distribution patterns of the box turtle. Offers suggestions for the turtle's care and maintenance in a classroom environment. (ML)

  13. 2. UPPER NOTTINGHAM MINE, WOODEN BOXES. BOXES ARE LOCATED APPROXIMATELY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. UPPER NOTTINGHAM MINE, WOODEN BOXES. BOXES ARE LOCATED APPROXIMATELY 10 YARDS TO THE RIGHT AND DOWNSLOPE OF THE ADIT IN ID-31-F-1. CAMERA IS POINTED EAST-SOUTHEAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Upper Nottingham Mine, West face of Florida Mountain, head of Jacobs Gulch, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  14. ACYSYS in a box

    SciTech Connect

    Briegel, C.; Finstrom, D.; Hendricks, B.; King, C.; Lackey, S.; Neswold, R.; Nicklaus, D.; Patrick, J.; Petrov, A.; Rechenmacher, R.; Schumann, C.; /Fermilab

    2011-11-01

    The Accelerator Control System at Fermilab has evolved to enable this relatively large control system to be encapsulated into a 'box' such as a laptop. The goal was to provide a platform isolated from the 'online' control system. This platform can be used internally for making major upgrades and modifications without impacting operations. It also provides a standalone environment for research and development including a turnkey control system for collaborators. Over time, the code base running on Scientific Linux has enabled all the salient features of the Fermilab's control system to be captured in an off-the-shelf laptop. The anticipated additional benefits of packaging the system include improved maintenance, reliability, documentation, and future enhancements.

  15. Impedance Measurement Box

    ScienceCinema

    Christophersen, Jon

    2013-05-28

    Energy storage devices, primarily batteries, are now more important to consumers, industries and the military. With increasing technical complexity and higher user expectations, there is also a demand for highly accurate state-of-health battery assessment techniques. IMB incorporates patented, proprietary, and tested capabilities using control software and hardware that can be part of an embedded monitoring system. IMB directly measures the wideband impedance spectrum in seconds during battery operation with no significant impact on service life. It also can be applied to batteries prior to installation, confirming health before entering active service, as well as during regular maintenance. For more information about this project, visit http://www.inl.gov/rd100/2011/impedance-measurement-box/

  16. Being Creative "Inside the Box"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomascoff, Rocky

    2011-01-01

    Artist Joseph Cornell (1903-1972) created wonderful environments inside boxes using mostly found objects. They were often Surrealistic in nature. Some boxes were designed with glass fronts, and others were meant to be interactive with the viewer, wherein the objects could be handled. With Joseph Cornell in mind, the author introduces an art…

  17. Spirit Boxes: Expressions of Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMuro, Ted

    1984-01-01

    After studying the culture and art of the ancient civilizations of South America, Mesopotamia, Greece, and Egypt, secondary level art students made spirit boxes as expressions of the various cultures. How to make the boxes and how to prepare the face molds are described. (RM)

  18. Box-and-Whisker Plots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Russell D.

    1985-01-01

    Box-and-whisker plots (which give rapid visualization of batches of data) can be effectively used to present diverse collections of data used in traditional first-year chemistry courses. Construction of box-and-whisker plots and their use with bond energy data and data on heats of formation and solution are discussed. (JN)

  19. What Makes a Better Box?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Richard; Everett, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Every morning, many Americans start their day with a bowl of cereal. Some spend time while they eat breakfast reading the back of the cereal box, but few consider its size, shape, and construction, or realize that it was designed by an engineer. This article describes a lesson in which students design, build, and critique cereal boxes. The lesson…

  20. Cardboard Boxes: Learning Concepts Galore!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Laverne; Wilmoth, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Mrs. Keenan, a preschool teacher, observed her 3-year-old granddaughter Riley pull, tug, and stack piles of holiday boxes on the floor. She remembered that her child care director had suggested using boxes as a curriculum theme, but she hadn't given much thought about the idea until now. She said to herself, "I wonder if my children would be as…

  1. Electrolytic glove-box decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Wedman, D.; Lugo, J.; Nelson, T.

    1997-12-01

    Programmatic requirements at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) require the decommissioning of obsolete glove boxes contaminated interiorly with high levels of transuranic (TRU) radioisotopes. At least 300 glove boxes will be decommissioned in the next 5 yr and more over the long term. Most of these glove boxes are located at the two facilities that handle plutonium, the plutonium facility at technical area 55 (TA-55) and the chemistry and metallurgy research (CMR) facility at technical area. In addition to these active LANL glove boxes, which are in need of decommissioning, there are also on the order of 200 {open_quotes}legacy{close_quotes} TRU categorized glove boxes in storage at technical area 54.

  2. Magnons in a box: Condensation and Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Fang; Olf, Ryan; Wu, Shun; Kadau, Holger; Marti, G. Edward; Stamper-Kurn, Dan

    2016-05-01

    Ultracold gases offer us a remarkable window into the quantum world, allowing direct access to a wide range of manybody and condensed matter phenomena at convenient macroscopic length and time scales. However, producing ultracold gases at ever lower entropy, and measuring statistical properties such as temperature in these low entropy regimes, is a persistent challenge. Magnons, gapless spin excitations of spinor Bose Einstein Condensate (BEC), are expected to behave like free particles. We show that magnons can be used to cool BEC in a deep trap and serve as a thermometer to measure temperatures at extremely low entropy-per-particle. Unlike atoms trapped in a harmonic trap, trapped magnons experience a box potential due to near exact cancellation of the trapping potential by the mean-field interaction within the condensate. We observe the quasi-condensation of magnon excitations within this nature-made box.

  3. Composite box beam analysis - Theory and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauchau, O. A.; Coffenberry, B. S.; Rehfield, L. W.

    1987-01-01

    Beam theory is widely used as a first approximation in numerous structural applications. When applied to composite beams, the accuracy of beam theory becomes questionable because (1) the shearing and warping deformations become significant, as the shearing stiffness of composite laminates is often very low, and (2) several elastic couplings can occur that strongly influence the behavior of composite beams. The torsional behavior of thin-walled composite beams has important implications for aeronautical structures and is deeply modified by the above nonclassical effects. This paper presents two comprehensive analysis methodologies for composite beams and describes experimental results obtained from a thin-walled, rectangular cross-sectional beam. The theoretical predictions are found in good agreement with the observed twist and strain distributions. Out-of-plane torsional warping of the cross-section is found to be the key factor for an accurate modeling of the torsional behavior of such structures.

  4. Antioxidant therapeutics: Pandora's box.

    PubMed

    Day, Brian J

    2014-01-01

    Evolution has favored the utilization of dioxygen (O2) in the development of complex multicellular organisms. O2 is actually a toxic mutagenic gas that is highly oxidizing and combustible. It is thought that plants are largely to blame for polluting the earth's atmosphere with O2 owing to the development of photosynthesis by blue-green algae over 2 billion years ago. The rise of the plants and atmospheric O2 levels placed evolutionary stress on organisms to adapt or become extinct. This implies that all the surviving creatures on our planet are mutants that have adapted to the "abnormal biology" of O2. Much of the adaptation to the presence of O2 in biological systems comes from well-coordinated antioxidant and repair systems that focus on converting O2 to its most reduced form, water (H2O), and the repair and replacement of damaged cellular macromolecules. Biological systems have also harnessed O2's reactive properties for energy production, xenobiotic metabolism, and host defense and as a signaling messenger and redox modulator of a number of cell signaling pathways. Many of these systems involve electron transport systems and offer many different mechanisms by which antioxidant therapeutics can alternatively produce an antioxidant effect without directly scavenging oxygen-derived reactive species. It is likely that each agent will have a different set of mechanisms that may change depending on the model of oxidative stress, organ system, or disease state. An important point is that all biological processes of aerobes have coevolved with O2 and this creates a Pandora's box for trying to understand the mechanism(s) of action of antioxidants being developed as therapeutic agents. PMID:23856377

  5. Breaking out of Our Boxes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, William

    2003-01-01

    Argues that educators must "think outside the box" to improve school performance. Suggests several areas for expanded thought, including school size, curriculum coverage, grading practices, use of time, organization of students, time management, and belief statement. (PKP)

  6. Myiasis in two box turtles.

    PubMed

    Gould, W J; Georgi, M E

    1991-10-15

    Two eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) were treated for myiasis caused by Sarcophaga cistudinis. The tortoises were examined because of swellings of the proximal cervical regions. Both fully recovered following surgical removal of multiple larvae. PMID:1748614

  7. The lithium vapor box divertor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldston, R. J.; Myers, R.; Schwartz, J.

    2016-02-01

    It has long been recognized that volumetric dissipation of the plasma heat flux from a fusion power system is preferable to its localized impingement on a material surface. Volumetric dissipation mitigates both the anticipated very high heat flux and intense particle-induced damage due to sputtering. Recent projections to a tokamak demonstration power plant suggest an immense upstream parallel heat flux, of order 20 GW m-2, implying that fully detached operation may be a requirement for the success of fusion power. Building on pioneering work on the use of lithium by Nagayama et al and by Ono et al as well as earlier work on the gas box divertor by Watkins and Rebut, we present here a concept for a lithium vapor box divertor, in which lithium vapor extracts momentum and energy from a fusion-power-plant divertor plasma, using fully volumetric processes. At the high powers and pressures that are projected this requires a high density of lithium vapor, which must be isolated from the main plasma in order to avoid lithium build-up on the chamber walls or in the plasma. Isolation is achieved through a powerful multi-box differential pumping scheme available only for condensable vapors. The preliminary box-wise calculations are encouraging, but much more work is required to demonstrate the practical viability of this scheme, taking into account at least 2D plasma and vapor flows within and between the vapor boxes and out of the vapor boxes to the main plasma.

  8. Principal investigator in a box: Version 1.2 documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adolph, Jurine; Bhatnagar, Rajiv; Colombano, Silvano P.; Compton, Michael; Frainer, Richard; Groleau, Nicolas; Holden, Kritina; Lai, Sen-Hao; Lam, Chih-Chao; Manahan, Meera

    1990-01-01

    Principal Investigator (PI) in a box is a computer system designed to help optimize the scientific results of experiments that are performed in space. The system will assist the astronaut experimenters in the collection and analysis of experimental data, recognition and pursuit of 'interesting' results, optimal use of the time allocated to the experiment, and troubleshooting of the experiment apparatus. This document discusses the problems that motivate development of 'PI-in-a-box', and presents a high- level system overview and a detailed description of each of the modules that comprise the current version of the system.

  9. Series of compositions Bi{sub 2}(M'{sub x}M{sub 1-x}){sub 4}O{sub 9} (M', M=Al, Ga, Fe; 0{<=}x{<=}1) with mullite-type crystal structure: Synthesis, characterization and {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O exchange experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Debnath, T.; Ruescher, C.H.; Fielitz, P.; Ohmann, S.; Borchardt, G.

    2010-11-15

    Series of compositions Bi{sub 2}(M'{sub x}M{sub 1-x}){sub 4}O{sub 9} with x=0.0, 0.1,..., 1.0 and M'/M=Ga/Al, Fe/Al and Fe/Ga were synthesized by dissolving appropriate amounts of corresponding metal nitrate hydrates in glycerine, followed by gelation, calcination and final heating at 800 {sup o}C for 24 h. The new compositions with M'/M=Ga/Al form solid-solution series, which are isotypes to the two other series M'/M=Fe/Al and Fe/Ga. The XRD data analysis yielded in all cases a linear dependence of the lattice parameters related on x. Rietveld structure refinements of the XRD patterns of the new compounds, Bi{sub 2}(Ga{sub x}Al{sub 1-x}){sub 4}O{sub 9} reveal a preferential occupation of Ga in tetrahedral site (4 h). The IR absorption spectra measured between 50 and 4000 cm{sup -1} of all systems show systematic shifts in peak positions related to the degree of substitution. Samples treated in {sup 18}O{sub 2} atmosphere (16 h at 800 {sup o}C, 200 mbar, 95% {sup 18}O{sub 2}) for {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O isotope exchange experiments show a well-separated IR absorption peak related to the M-{sup 18}O{sub c}-M vibration, where O{sub c} denotes the common oxygen of two tetrahedral type MO{sub 4} units. The intensity ratio of M-{sup 18}O{sub c}/M-{sup 16}O{sub c} IR absorption peaks and the average crystal sizes were used to estimate the tracer diffusion coefficients of polycrystalline Bi{sub 2}Al{sub 4}O{sub 9} (D=2x10{sup -22} m{sup 2}s{sup -1}), Bi{sub 2}Fe{sub 4}O{sub 9} (D=5x10{sup -21} m{sup 2}s{sup -1}), Bi{sub 2}(Ga/Al){sub 4}O{sub 9} (D=2x10{sup -21} m{sup 2}s{sup -1}) and Bi{sub 2}Ga{sub 4}O{sub 9} (D=2x10{sup -20} m{sup 2}s{sup -1}). - Graphical abstract: Fig. Perspective view of the mullite-type Bi{sub 2}(M'{sub x}M{sub 1-x}){sub 4}O{sub 9} unit cell (M', M=Al, Ga, Fe). Display Omitted

  10. 30 CFR 57.12006 - Distribution boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Distribution boxes. 57.12006 Section 57.12006... and Underground § 57.12006 Distribution boxes. Distribution boxes shall be provided with a... deenergized, and the distribution box shall be labeled to show which circuit each device controls....

  11. 30 CFR 57.12006 - Distribution boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distribution boxes. 57.12006 Section 57.12006... and Underground § 57.12006 Distribution boxes. Distribution boxes shall be provided with a... deenergized, and the distribution box shall be labeled to show which circuit each device controls....

  12. Plate forming and break down pizza box

    DOEpatents

    Pantisano, Frank; Devine, Scott M.

    1992-01-01

    A standard corrugated paper pizza box is provided with slit cuts cut through the top panel of the pizza box in a shape to form four circular serving plates with a beveled raised edge and cross slit cuts through the bottom panel of the pizza box separating the box into four essentially equal portions for easy disposal.

  13. Underwater boom box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, M. Catherine

    So far, there is no evidence that humpback whales are negatively affected by noise emitted from underwater speakers that may one day be used to measure warming in the oceans. A group of independent biologists from Cornell University monitored the behavior of the whales before, during, and after a scaled-down version of the controversial Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate (ATOC) experiment off the coast of Hawaii. In 84 trials from February through March, they “saw no overt response from the whales.” Previous observations of similar sound transmissions at California's Pioneer Seamount, the other site planned for the experiment, also found no sign of disturbance among marine mammals, including elephant seals and several whale species. More observations are needed, however, before the experiment can be deemed safe, the Cornell biologists advised.

  14. ArduiPod Box: a low-cost and open-source Skinner box using an iPod Touch and an Arduino microcontroller.

    PubMed

    Pineño, Oskar

    2014-03-01

    This article introduces the ArduiPod Box, an open-source device built using two main components (i.e., an iPod Touch and an Arduino microcontroller), developed as a low-cost alternative to the standard operant conditioning chamber, or "Skinner box." Because of its affordability, the ArduiPod Box provides an opportunity for educational institutions with small budgets seeking to set up animal laboratories for research and instructional purposes. A pilot experiment is also presented, which shows that the ArduiPod Box, in spite of its extraordinary simplicity, can be effectively used to study animal learning and behavior. PMID:23813238

  15. 46 CFR 111.81-1 - Outlet boxes and junction boxes; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... standards, all of which are incorporated by reference (see 46 CFR 110.10-1): Article 314 of NFPA NEC 2002... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Outlet boxes and junction boxes; general. 111.81-1... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Outlet Boxes and Junction Boxes § 111.81-1 Outlet boxes and...

  16. 46 CFR 111.81-1 - Outlet boxes and junction boxes; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... standards, all of which are incorporated by reference (see 46 CFR 110.10-1): Article 314 of NFPA NEC 2002... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Outlet boxes and junction boxes; general. 111.81-1... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Outlet Boxes and Junction Boxes § 111.81-1 Outlet boxes and...

  17. 46 CFR 111.81-1 - Outlet boxes and junction boxes; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... standards, all of which are incorporated by reference (see 46 CFR 110.10-1): Article 314 of NFPA NEC 2002... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Outlet boxes and junction boxes; general. 111.81-1... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Outlet Boxes and Junction Boxes § 111.81-1 Outlet boxes and...

  18. 46 CFR 111.81-1 - Outlet boxes and junction boxes; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... standards, all of which are incorporated by reference (see 46 CFR 110.10-1): Article 314 of NFPA NEC 2002... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outlet boxes and junction boxes; general. 111.81-1... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Outlet Boxes and Junction Boxes § 111.81-1 Outlet boxes and...

  19. 46 CFR 111.81-1 - Outlet boxes and junction boxes; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... standards, all of which are incorporated by reference (see 46 CFR 110.10-1): Article 314 of NFPA NEC 2002... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Outlet boxes and junction boxes; general. 111.81-1... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Outlet Boxes and Junction Boxes § 111.81-1 Outlet boxes and...

  20. Box graphs and resolutions I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Andreas P.; Schäfer-Nameki, Sakura

    2016-04-01

    Box graphs succinctly and comprehensively characterize singular fibers of elliptic fibrations in codimension two and three, as well as flop transitions connecting these, in terms of representation theoretic data. We develop a framework that provides a systematic map between a box graph and a crepant algebraic resolution of the singular elliptic fibration, thus allowing an explicit construction of the fibers from a singular Weierstrass or Tate model. The key tool is what we call a fiber face diagram, which shows the relevant information of a (partial) toric triangulation and allows the inclusion of more general algebraic blowups. We shown that each such diagram defines a sequence of weighted algebraic blowups, thus providing a realization of the fiber defined by the box graph in terms of an explicit resolution. We show this correspondence explicitly for the case of SU (5) by providing a map between box graphs and fiber faces, and thereby a sequence of algebraic resolutions of the Tate model, which realizes each of the box graphs.

  1. Phosphorylation-dependent degradation of MEF2C contributes to regulate G2/M transition.

    PubMed

    Badodi, Sara; Baruffaldi, Fiorenza; Ganassi, Massimo; Battini, Renata; Molinari, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    The Myocyte Enhancer Factor 2C (MEF2C) transcription factor plays a critical role in skeletal muscle differentiation, promoting muscle-specific gene transcription. Here we report that in proliferating cells MEF2C is degraded in mitosis by the Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) and that this downregulation is necessary for an efficient progression of the cell cycle. We show that this mechanism of degradation requires the presence on MEF2C of a D-box (R-X-X-L) and 2 phospho-motifs, pSer98 and pSer110. Both the D-box and pSer110 motifs are encoded by the ubiquitous alternate α1 exon. These two domains mediate the interaction between MEF2C and CDC20, a co-activator of APC/C. We further report that in myoblasts, MEF2C regulates the expression of G2/M checkpoint genes (14-3-3γ, Gadd45b and p21) and the sub-cellular localization of CYCLIN B1. The importance of controlling MEF2C levels during the cell cycle is reinforced by the observation that modulation of its expression affects the proliferation rate of colon cancer cells. Our findings show that beside the well-established role as pro-myogenic transcription factor, MEF2C can also function as a regulator of cell proliferation. PMID:25789873

  2. Mirror box therapy: seeing is believing.

    PubMed

    Lamont, Kelly; Chin, May; Kogan, Mikhail

    2011-01-01

    Working with patients with different chronic pain syndromes can be challenging. Pharmacological therapies are often associated with variety of side effects. Mind-body modalities are thought to play a role; however, the lack of clear consensus and large body of clinical experience makes it hard to provide good evidence-based recommendation to most of our chronic pain patients. In recent years the Phantom Limb Pain (PLP) and to some degree Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) may prove to be an exception. In this review we summarize the current evidence supporting use of Mirror Box Therapy and its successor, Immersive Virtual Reality. PMID:22051561

  3. Asymptotic symmetries from finite boxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Tomás; Marolf, Donald

    2016-01-01

    It is natural to regulate an infinite-sized system by imposing a boundary condition at finite distance, placing the system in a 'box.' This breaks symmetries, though the breaking is small when the box is large. One should thus be able to obtain the asymptotic symmetries of the infinite system by studying regulated systems. We provide concrete examples in the context of Einstein-Hilbert gravity (with negative or zero cosmological constant) by showing in 4 or more dimensions how the anti-de Sitter and Poincaré asymptotic symmetries can be extracted from gravity in a spherical box with Dirichlet boundary conditions. In 2 + 1 dimensions we obtain the full double-Virasoro algebra of asymptotic symmetries for AdS3 and, correspondingly, the full Bondi-Metzner-Sachs (BMS) algebra for asymptotically flat space. In higher dimensions, a related approach may continue to be useful for constructing a good asymptotically flat phase space with BMS asymptotic symmetries.

  4. The Confinement and Sheath Within a Glass Box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mudi; Dropmann, Michael; Kong, Jie; Qiao, Ke; Carmona-Reyes, Jorge; Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell

    2015-11-01

    The confinement structure provided by a glass box placed on the lower powered electrode of a GEC rf Reference Cell is proving to be ideal for the formation of vertically aligned structures which are often difficult to obtain under other types of confinement. A glass box also provides a mechanism for controlling the number of dust particles comprising a particular dust structure as well as their size and symmetry. However, given the small volume of the glass box and the fact that each of the glass panes comprising the box develop a new sheath within the plasma environment, the structure of the overall sheath inside is quite different from that produced by the lower electrode alone. Since both the confinement and sheath structure are vital for producing ordered dust particle structures, a better understanding of the underlying physics is sorely needed. In this experiment, the trajectories of dust particles acting as probes while falling through the glass box under various plasma environments are tracked and analyzed. It will be shown that the resulting data provides a map of both the confining force and the structure of the sheath inside the glass box. Support from the NSF and the DOE (award numbers PHY-1262031 and PHY-1414523) is gratefully acknowledged.

  5. A case study on the possible link between surface ozone photochemistry and total ozone column during the PAUR II experiment at Crete: Comparison of observations with box model calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanis, P.; Kourtidis, K.; Rappenglueck, B.; Zerefos, C.; Melas, D.; Balis, D.; Schmitt, R.; Rapsomanikis, S.; Fabian, P.

    2002-09-01

    A variety of surface chemical measurements, including surface ozone, NO, NO2, NOx, peroxyacetyl nitrate, and nonmethane hydrocarbon, were carried out at a rural coastal site, Nopigia, Crete, and at a rural elevated site, Prases, Crete, within the framework of the Photochemical Activity and Ultraviolet Radiation (PAUR) II experiment, which took place in Greece and Italy in early summer (1-31 May 1999). The total ozone exhibited very large fluctuations (larger than 90 Dobson units, 1 DU = 2.69 × 1016 molecules cm-2) during the campaign with maximum values of around 400 DU during 10 May and minimum values of <300 DU during 20 May, while the total aerosol content exhibited a reverse fluctuation as the W-NW flow on 10 May changed to SW flow on 20 May, transporting air from the Sahara. This special atmospheric situation with such distinct differences in total ozone column and total aerosol content between these 2 days provides the opportunity, on the one hand, to investigate the induced changes on local ozone production rates and, on the other hand, to assess the local photochemistry for different atmospheric conditions at both a high elevated site and a low elevated site. Box model calculations constrained by the measurements show that changes of the total ozone column and hence of J(O1D) can influence net ozone production rates at Nopigia but not at Prases due mainly to the differences in the NOx levels between the two sites. The observed surface ozone concentrations at Nopigia display larger diurnal variations and higher ozone levels on 20 May compared to the 10 May, whereas at Prases, no such differences are observed in agreement with the model results. The 20% change in J(O1D) due to the change in total ozone column can produce ˜1.3 ppbv of ozone from 0600 to 1200 UT at Nopigia. However, the concurrent effect of increasing absorbing aerosol (Sahara dust) content on 20 May may mask part of the increase in J(O1D) and offsets part of the increase in local ozone

  6. Measuring Helicase Inhibition of the DEAD-box Protein Dbp2 by Yra1

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Wai Kit; Tran, Elizabeth J.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the highly conserved helicase core, individual DEAD-box proteins are specialized in diverse RNA metabolic processes. One mechanism that determines DEAD-box protein specificity is enzymatic regulation by other protein cofactors. In this chapter, we describe a protocol for purifying the Saccharomyces cerevisiae DEAD-box RNA helicase Dbp2 and RNA-binding protein Yra1 and subsequent analysis of helicase regulation. The experiments described here can be adapted to RNA helicase and purified co-factor. PMID:25579587

  7. Viscum album-Mediated COX-2 Inhibition Implicates Destabilization of COX-2 mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Chaitrali; Hegde, Pushpa; Friboulet, Alain; Bayry, Jagadeesh; Kaveri, Srinivas V.

    2015-01-01

    Extensive use of Viscum album (VA) preparations in the complementary therapy of cancer and in several other human pathologies has led to an increasing number of cellular and molecular approaches to explore the mechanisms of action of VA. We have recently demonstrated that, VA preparations exert a potent anti-inflammatory effect by selectively down-regulating the COX-2-mediated cytokine-induced secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), one of the important molecular signatures of inflammatory reactions. In this study, we observed a significant down-regulation of COX-2 protein expression in VA-treated A549 cells however COX-2 mRNA levels were unaltered. Therefore, we hypothesized that VA induces destabilisation of COX-2 mRNA, thereby depleting the available functional COX-2 mRNA for the protein synthesis and for the subsequent secretion of PGE2. To address this question, we analyzed the molecular degradation of COX-2 protein and its corresponding mRNA in A549 cell line. Using cyclohexamide pulse chase experiment, we demonstrate that, COX-2 protein degradation is not affected by the treatment with VA whereas experiments on transcriptional blockade with actinomycin D, revealed a marked reduction in the half life of COX-2 mRNA due to its rapid degradation in the cells treated with VA compared to that in IL-1β-stimulated cells. These results thus demonstrate that VA-mediated inhibition of PGE2 implicates destabilization of COX-2 mRNA. PMID:25664986

  8. [Serum beta 2 microglobulin (beta 2M) following renal transplantation].

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Silva, A; Nishida, S K; Silva, M S; Ramos, O L; Azjen, H; Pereira, A B

    1994-01-01

    Although there was an important improvement in graft and patient survival the last 10 years, graft rejection continues to be a major barrier to the success of renal transplantation. Identification of a laboratory test that could help to diagnose graft rejection would facilitate the management of renal transplanted patients. PURPOSE--To evaluate the utility of monitoring serum beta 2M in recently transplanted patients. METHODS--We daily determined serum beta 2M levels in 20 receptors of renal grafts (10 from living related and 10 from cadaveric donors) and compared them to their clinical and laboratory evolution. RESULTS--Eight patients who presented immediate good renal function following grafting and did not have rejection had a mean serum beta 2M of 3.7 mg/L on the 4th day post transplant. The sensitivity of the test for the diagnosis of acute rejection was 87.5%, but the specificity was only 46%. Patients who presented acute tubular necrosis (ATN) without rejection had a progressive decrease in their serum levels of beta 2M, while their serum creatinine changed as they were dialyzed. In contrast, patients with ATN and concomitance of acute rejection or CSA nephrotoxicity presented elevated beta 2M and creatinine serum levels. CONCLUSION--Daily monitoring of serum beta 2M does not improve the ability to diagnose acute rejection in patients with good renal function. However, serum beta 2M levels seemed to be useful in diagnosing acute rejection or CSA nephrotoxicity in patients with ATN. PMID:7787867

  9. Black Boxes in Workplace Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Julian; Wake, Geoff

    2007-01-01

    We ground Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) in studies of workplace practices from a mathematical point of view. We draw on multiple case study visits by college students and teacher-researchers to workplaces. By asking questions that "open boxes", we "outsiders and boundary-crossers" sought to expose contradictions between College and…

  10. The Cereal Box Problem Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Jesse L. M.

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the cereal box problem using both an experimental and theoretical framework, and Monte Carlo methods. Using empirical data, students can discover patterns and relationships that help them understand the origin of the theoretical solution to the problem. Contains 17 references. (Author/ASK)

  11. On the Dirichlet's Box Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon, Kin-Keung; Shiu, Wai-Chee

    2008-01-01

    In this note, we will focus on several applications on the Dirichlet's box principle in Discrete Mathematics lesson and number theory lesson. In addition, the main result is an innovative game on a triangular board developed by the authors. The game has been used in teaching and learning mathematics in Discrete Mathematics and some high schools in…

  12. NETL's JIC in a box

    ScienceCinema

    David Anna

    2010-01-08

    The National Energy Technology Laboratory developed the idea of a portable joint information center AKA JIC in-a-box. This video discribes some of the equipment in the portable JIC as well as some of the methodology that NETL developed as a result of this portable JIC concept.

  13. The Bird Box Survey Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    When high school students are asked what's the best part of science class, many will say it's the field trips. Students enjoy engaging in authentic, community-based science outside the classroom. To capitalize on this, Patrick Willis created the Bird Box Survey Project for his introductory field biology class. The project takes students…

  14. NETL's JIC in a box

    SciTech Connect

    David Anna

    2009-06-03

    The National Energy Technology Laboratory developed the idea of a portable joint information center AKA JIC in-a-box. This video discribes some of the equipment in the portable JIC as well as some of the methodology that NETL developed as a result of this portable JIC concept.

  15. Computer simulations and experimental study on crash box of automobile in low speed collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yanjie; Ding, Lin; Yan, Shengyuan; Yang, Yongsheng

    2008-11-01

    Based on the problems of energy-absorbing components in the automobile low speed collision process, according to crash box frontal crash test in low speed as the example, the simulation analysis of crash box impact process was carried out by Hyper Mesh and LS-DYNA. Each parameter on the influence modeling was analyzed by mathematics analytical solution and test comparison, which guaranteed that the model was accurate. Combination of experiment and simulation result had determined the weakness part of crash box structure crashworthiness aspect, and improvement method of crash box crashworthiness was discussed. Through numerical simulation of the impact process of automobile crash box, the obtained analysis result was used to optimize the design of crash box. It was helpful to improve the vehicles structure and decrease the collision accident loss at most. And it was also provided a useful method for the further research on the automobile collision.

  16. Tritium stripping in a nitrogen glove box using palladium/zeolite and SAES St 198{trademark}

    SciTech Connect

    Klien, J.E.; Wermer, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    Glove box clean-up experiments were conducted in a nitrogen glove box using palladium deposited on zeolite (Pd/z) and a SAES St 198{trademark} getter as tritium stripping materials. Protium/deuterium samples spiked with tritium were released into a 620 liter glove box to simulate tritium releases in a 10,500 liter glove box. The Pd/z and the SAES St 198{trademark} stripper beds produced a reduction in tritium activity of approximately two to three orders of magnitude and glove box clean-up was limited by a persistent background tritium activity level. Attempts to significantly reduce the glove box activity to lower levels without purging were unsuccessful.

  17. Tritium stripping in a nitrogen glove box using palladium/zeolite and SAES St 198

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J.E.; Wermer, J.R.

    1995-10-01

    Glove box clean-up experiments were conducted in a nitrogen glove box using palladium deposited on zeolite (Pd/z) and a SAES St 198 getter as tritium stripping materials. Protium/deuterium samples spiked with tritium were released into a 620 liter glove box to simulate tritium releases in a 10,500 liter glove box. The Pd/z and the SAES St 198 stripper beds produced a reduction in tritium activity of approximately two to three orders of magnitude and glove box clean-up was limited by a persistent background tritium activity level. Attempts to significantly reduce the glove box activity to lower levels without purging were unsuccessful. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Teacher's Guide to Seeds: The MATCH Box Project; Prototype Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standring, Gillian; And Others

    The objective of this multimedia kit is to provide third and fourth grade children with materials with which they can interact, and which will help them to explore a selected part of their environment. By examining the fruits and seeds in the box, by experimenting with them, and by watching them grow, children will acquire skill in manipulating…

  19. Recommendations for abortion surveys using the ballot-box technique.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Marcelo; Diniz, Debora

    2012-07-01

    The article lists recommendations for dealing with methodological aspects of an abortion survey and makes suggestions for testing and validating the survey questionnaire. The recommendations are based on the experience of the Brazilian Abortion Survey (PNA), a random sample household survey that used the ballot-box technique and covered adult women in all urban areas of the country. PMID:22872333

  20. The Laser Synthesis of Linear Polyynes: The Particle in a Box Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Bruce D.; Gordon, Christopher M.

    2008-01-01

    In this experiment, linear polyynes are synthesized and then the predictions of a one-dimensional, particle in a box are used to calculate the quantum mechanical box length for the polyynes. A solution of graphite in ethanol is irradiated with a Nd:YAG laser (532 nm) and the resulting solution is filtered and analyzed. Data from gas…

  1. The Guide to the Ecology Box.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Inst. for Studies in Education, Toronto.

    Cooperating with the Canadian Commission for UNESCO, the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education has prepared boxes of experimental curriculum materials on the subject of ecology. This guide summarizes the design and contents of the boxes and provides instructions for those using the boxes--principals, teachers, parents, librarians, and…

  2. Glove box for water pit applications

    DOEpatents

    Mills, William C.; Rabe, Richard A.

    2005-01-18

    A glove box assembly that includes a glove box enclosure attached to a longitudinally extending hollow tube having an entranceway, wherein the portion of the tube is in a liquid environment. An elevator member is provided for raising an object that is introduced into the hollow tube from the liquid environment to a gas environment inside the glove box enclosure while maintaining total containment.

  3. The Heuristic Interpretation of Box Plots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lem, Stephanie; Onghena, Patrick; Verschaffel, Lieven; Van Dooren, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Box plots are frequently used, but are often misinterpreted by students. Especially the area of the box in box plots is often misinterpreted as representing number or proportion of observations, while it actually represents their density. In a first study, reaction time evidence was used to test whether heuristic reasoning underlies this…

  4. CH2M Hill cleared in tunnel explosion case

    SciTech Connect

    Krizan, W.G.; Bradford, H.; Schriener, J.

    1993-09-06

    One of the most critical issues in industry is whether architects and engineers should be held responsible for construction safety on jobsites. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration says yes under certain conditions. But the Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission has overturned one application of that view on appeal in a controversial case. It involves a unit of Denver-based CH2M Hill Cos.'s role as program manager for the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District (MMSD) on its $2.2-billion water pollution abatement program. On May 5, 1989, OSHA cited CH2M Hill Central Inc. for 46 willful safety violations in connection with a 1988 methane tunnel explosion that killed three supervisors of contractor S.A. Healy Co., Chicago, Healy was charged with 68 violations. Healy encountered methane while boring CT-7, a two-mile crosstown tunnel. It evacuated the site, but didn't follow the evacuation plan. It failed to shut down all nonessential equipment and the supervisors returned after waiting only 17 minutes instead of the one hour minimum. CH2M Hill's citations and proposed $460,000 fine for violating OSHA's construction standards were for having 45 pieces of unapproved electrical equipment in the tunnel and improper ventilation equipment. CH2M Hill claimed the standards did not apply to it because the firm did not engage in construction work, exercise substantial supervision over the construction work performed by the contractor or create or control the hazardous condition.

  5. Illumination box and camera system

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Jeffrey S.; Kelly, Fredrick R.; Bushman, John F.; Wiefel, Michael H.; Jensen, Wayne A.; Klunder, Gregory L.

    2002-01-01

    A hand portable, field-deployable thin-layer chromatography (TLC) unit and a hand portable, battery-operated unit for development, illumination, and data acquisition of the TLC plates contain many miniaturized features that permit a large number of samples to be processed efficiently. The TLC unit includes a solvent tank, a holder for TLC plates, and a variety of tool chambers for storing TLC plates, solvent, and pipettes. After processing in the TLC unit, a TLC plate is positioned in a collapsible illumination box, where the box and a CCD camera are optically aligned for optimal pixel resolution of the CCD images of the TLC plate. The TLC system includes an improved development chamber for chemical development of TLC plates that prevents solvent overflow.

  6. Efficient similarity search on 3D bounding box annotations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriegel, Hans-Peter; Petri, Marisa; Schubert, Matthias; Shekelyan, Michael; Stockerl, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Searching for similar image regions in medical databases yields valuable information for diagnosis. However, most of the current approaches are restricted to special cases or they are only available for rather small data stores. In this paper, we propose a fast query pipeline for 3D similarity queries on large databases of computed tomography (CT) scans consisting of minimum bounding box annotations. As these box annotations also contain background information which is not part of the item that was actually annotated, we employ approximate segmentation approaches for distinguishing between within-object texture and background texture in order to correctly describe the annotated objects. Our method allows a compact form of object description. In our framework, we exploit this advantage for enabling very fast query times. We have validated our method on data sets of 111 and 1293 bounding box lesion annotations within the liver and other organs. Our experiments show a significant performance improvement over previous approaches in both runtime and precision.

  7. What boxing-related stimuli reveal about response behaviour.

    PubMed

    Ottoboni, Giovanni; Russo, Gabriele; Tessari, Alessia

    2015-01-01

    When two athletes meet inside the ropes of the boxing ring to fight, their cognitive systems have to respond as quickly as possible to a manifold of stimuli to assure victory. In the present work, we studied the pre-attentive mechanisms, which form the basis of an athlete's ability in reacting to an opponent's punches. Expert boxers, beginner boxers and people with no experience of boxing performed a Simon-like task where they judged the colour of the boxing gloves worn by athletes in attack postures by pressing two lateralised keys. Although participants were not instructed to pay attention to the direction of the punches, beginner boxers' responses resembled a defence-related pattern, expert boxers' resembled counterattacks, whereas non-athletes' responses were not influenced by the unrelated task information. Results are discussed in the light of an expertise-related action simulation account. PMID:25385452

  8. A new set of ESTs from chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) embryo reveals two novel F-box genes, CarF-box_PP2 and CarF-box_LysM, with potential roles in seed development.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shefali; Garg, Vanika; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2015-01-01

    Considering the economic importance of chickpea (C. arietinum L.) seeds, it is important to understand the mechanisms underlying seed development for which a cDNA library was constructed from 6 day old chickpea embryos. A total of 8,186 ESTs were obtained from which 4,048 high quality ESTs were assembled into 1,480 unigenes that majorly encoded genes involved in various metabolic and regulatory pathways. Of these, 95 ESTs were found to be involved in ubiquitination related protein degradation pathways and 12 ESTs coded specifically for putative F-box proteins. Differential transcript accumulation of these putative F-box genes was observed in chickpea tissues as evidenced by quantitative real-time PCR. Further, to explore the role of F-box proteins in chickpea seed development, two F-box genes were selected for molecular characterization. These were named as CarF-box_PP2 and CarF-box_LysM depending on their C-terminal domains, PP2 and LysM, respectively. Their highly conserved structures led us to predict their target substrates. Subcellular localization experiment revealed that CarF-box_PP2 was localized in the cytoplasm and CarF-box_LysM was localized in the nucleus. We demonstrated their physical interactions with SKP1 protein, which validated that they function as F-box proteins in the formation of SCF complexes. Sequence analysis of their promoter regions revealed certain seed specific cis-acting elements that may be regulating their preferential transcript accumulation in the seed. Overall, the study helped in expanding the EST database of chickpea, which was further used to identify two novel F-box genes having a potential role in seed development. PMID:25803812

  9. A New Set of ESTs from Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Embryo Reveals Two Novel F-Box Genes, CarF-box_PP2 and CarF-box_LysM, with Potential Roles in Seed Development

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Shefali; Garg, Vanika; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2015-01-01

    Considering the economic importance of chickpea (C. arietinum L.) seeds, it is important to understand the mechanisms underlying seed development for which a cDNA library was constructed from 6 day old chickpea embryos. A total of 8,186 ESTs were obtained from which 4,048 high quality ESTs were assembled into 1,480 unigenes that majorly encoded genes involved in various metabolic and regulatory pathways. Of these, 95 ESTs were found to be involved in ubiquitination related protein degradation pathways and 12 ESTs coded specifically for putative F-box proteins. Differential transcript accumulation of these putative F-box genes was observed in chickpea tissues as evidenced by quantitative real-time PCR. Further, to explore the role of F-box proteins in chickpea seed development, two F-box genes were selected for molecular characterization. These were named as CarF-box_PP2 and CarF-box_LysM depending on their C-terminal domains, PP2 and LysM, respectively. Their highly conserved structures led us to predict their target substrates. Subcellular localization experiment revealed that CarF-box_PP2 was localized in the cytoplasm and CarF-box_LysM was localized in the nucleus. We demonstrated their physical interactions with SKP1 protein, which validated that they function as F-box proteins in the formation of SCF complexes. Sequence analysis of their promoter regions revealed certain seed specific cis-acting elements that may be regulating their preferential transcript accumulation in the seed. Overall, the study helped in expanding the EST database of chickpea, which was further used to identify two novel F-box genes having a potential role in seed development. PMID:25803812

  10. Environmental effects on a single electron box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, G. Y.; O'Connell, R. F.

    1995-02-01

    Lafarge et al. (Zeitschrift für Physik B 85 (1991) 327) have measured the average junction charge in a single electron box. Their results are in agreement with theoretical predictions at temperatures T above 100 mK but not at lower T values. We explain the lower T experimental results by incorporating quantum charge fluctuations due to the environment by use of a quantum Langevin equation model. It is shown that, at T = 0, the sawtooth shape of the junction charge, as predicted by existing theories, is rounded off by the quantum fluctuation effects. At finite temperature, the theory is compared with the experiments of Lafarge et al., nd a good fit is obtained at all the relevant temperatures.

  11. New hot box solar cooker

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xiping; Hou Shuqin; Sha Yongling; Liu Zude

    1992-12-31

    At present, over 100,000 solar cookers are in service in China. Most of these are concentrating cookers, making use of reflectors to concentrate sunlight at the cooking area. These cookers offer higher efficiency, more power and shorter cooking times. Since 1975 the authors have researched solar energy applications and, specifically, solar cookers. The major work has been the development of design calculations, selection of structure and materials, and performance testing. This paper describes the testing of several collection surface structures and box structures.

  12. Two VLT 8.2-m Unit Telescopes in Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-04-01

    Visitors at ANTU - Astronomical Images from KUEYEN The VLT Control Room at the Paranal Observatory is becoming a busy place indeed. From here, two specialist teams of ESO astronomers and engineers now operate two VLT 8.2-m Unit Telescopes in parallel, ANTU and KUEYEN (formerly UT1 and UT2, for more information about the naming and the pronunciation, see ESO Press Release 06/99 ). Regular science observations have just started with the first of these giant telescopes, while impressive astronomical images are being obtained with the second. The work is hard, but the mood in the control room is good. Insiders claim that there have even been occasions on which the groups have had a friendly "competition" about which telescope makes the "best" images! The ANTU-team has worked with the FORS multi-mode instrument , their colleagues at KUEYEN use the VLT Test Camera for the ongoing tests of this new telescope. While the first is a highly developed astronomical instrument with a large-field CCD imager (6.8 x 6.8 arcmin 2 in the normal mode; 3.4 x 3.4 arcmin 2 in the high-resolution mode), the other is a less complex CCD camera with a smaller field (1.5 x 1.5 arcmin 2 ), suited to verify the optical performance of the telescope. As these images demonstrate, the performance of the second VLT Unit Telescope is steadily improving and it may not be too long before its optical quality will approach that of the first. First KUEYEN photos of stars and galaxies We present here some of the first astronomical images, taken with the second telescope, KUEYEN, in late March and early April 1999. They reflect the current status of the optical, electronic and mechanical systems, still in the process of being tuned. As expected, the experience gained from ANTU last year has turned out to be invaluable and has allowed good progress during this extremely delicate process. ESO PR Photo 19a/99 ESO PR Photo 19a/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 433 pix - 160k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 866 pix - 457k] [High

  13. Contact aiming system of 2m laser automatic interferometric comparator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shuanghua; Ye, Xiaoyou; Zou, Lingding; Gao, Hongtang; Gan, Xiaochuan; Shen, Xueping

    2013-01-01

    Composition and principle of 2m laser automatic interferometric comparator were introduced. A novel contact aiming system based on high precision inductance sensor was designed. The zero-cross trigger signal of inductance sensor output voltage was treated as the aiming signal. A rotating mechanism was designed and a segmental shifting motion control model was established. Two key problems, avoiding probe crash and aiming repeatability, were solved. The one dimension end standards such as gauge block, step gauge could be measured directly by this means. The data of test revealed that aiming repeatability was less than 0.2μm.

  14. Automation of Pic du Midi 2-m Telescope Bernard Lyot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavie-Cambot, Jean-Marie; Lacassagne, F.; Ambert, P.; Arrotis, J.-M.; Argentin, Y.; Arberet, M.-P.; Chereau, E.; Decha, C.; Delaigue, C.; Guesdon, L.; Laurent-Burguiere, D.; Malbreil, G.

    2011-03-01

    Since 2007, Pic du Midi 2-m Telescope Bernard Lyot is dedicated to spectropolarimetry with a scientific niche in stella magnetism. In parallel, TBL is progressively evolving from an analogic human-controlled telescope, to a fully automated computer controlled digital telescope. This evolution required TBL team to replace all electronics and motors with digital system (parvex, brushless motors, buscan) components, and to integrate the dataflow system from proposal to archiving into a fully coordinates, remote-access software suite. A trained technician can already control remotely the telescope, instrument and science programs from anywhere. Further robotisation will require a high-level expert system to be defined.

  15. The Lithium Vapor Box Divertor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldston, Robert; Hakim, Ammar; Hammett, Gregory; Jaworski, Michael; Myers, Rachel; Schwartz, Jacob

    2015-11-01

    Projections of scrape-off layer width to a demonstration power plant suggest an immense parallel heat flux, of order 12 GW/m2, which will necessitate nearly fully detached operation. Building on earlier work by Nagayama et al. and by Ono et al., we propose to use a series of differentially pumped boxes filled with lithium vapor to isolate the buffering vapor from the main plasma chamber, allowing stable detachment. This powerful differential pumping is only available for condensable vapors, not conventional gases. We demonstrate the properties of such a system through conservation laws for vapor mass and enthalpy, and then include plasma entrainment and ultimately an estimate of radiated power. We find that full detachment should be achievable with little leakage of lithium to the main plasma chamber. We also present progress towards solving the Navier-Stokes equation numerically for the chain of vapor boxes, including self-consistent wall boundary conditions and fully-developed shocks, as well as concepts for an initial experimental demonstration-of-concept. This work supported by DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  16. Cellular microRNAs up-regulate transcription via interaction with promoter TATA-box motifs

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yijun; Fan, Miaomiao; Zhang, Xue; Huang, Feng; Wu, Kang; Zhang, Junsong; Liu, Jun; Huang, Zhuoqiong; Luo, Haihua; Tao, Liang; Zhang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    The TATA box represents one of the most prevalent core promoters where the pre-initiation complexes (PICs) for gene transcription are assembled. This assembly is crucial for transcription initiation and well regulated. Here we show that some cellular microRNAs (miRNAs) are associated with RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and TATA box-binding protein (TBP) in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Among them, let-7i sequence specifically binds to the TATA-box motif of interleukin-2 (IL-2) gene and elevates IL-2 mRNA and protein production in CD4+ T-lymphocytes in vitro and in vivo. Through direct interaction with the TATA-box motif, let-7i facilitates the PIC assembly and transcription initiation of IL-2 promoter. Several other cellular miRNAs, such as mir-138, mir-92a or mir-181d, also enhance the promoter activities via binding to the TATA-box motifs of insulin, calcitonin or c-myc, respectively. In agreement with the finding that an HIV-1–encoded miRNA could enhance viral replication through targeting the viral promoter TATA-box motif, our data demonstrate that the interaction with core transcription machinery is a novel mechanism for miRNAs to regulate gene expression. PMID:25336585

  17. Design procedures for fiber composite box beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Cristos C.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.

    1989-01-01

    Step-by-step procedures are described which can be used for the preliminary design of fiber composite box beams subjected to combined loadings. These procedures include a collection of approximate closed-form equations so that all the required calculations can be performed using pocket calculators. Included is an illustrative example of a tapered cantilever box beam subjected to combined loads. The box beam is designed to satisfy strength, displacement, buckling, and frequency requirements.

  18. WHITE BOX: LOW COST BOX FOR LAPAROSCOPIC TRAINING

    PubMed Central

    MARTINS, João Maximiliano Pedron; RIBEIRO, Roberto Vanin Pinto; CAVAZZOLA, Leandro Totti

    2015-01-01

    Background: Laparoscopic surgery is a reality in almost all surgical centers. Although with initial greater technical difficulty for surgeons, the rapid return to activities, less postoperative pain and higher quality aesthetic stimulates surgeons to evolve technically in this area. However, unlike open surgery where learning opportunities are more accessible, the laparoscopic training represents a challenge in surgeon formation. Aim: To present a low cost model for laparoscopic training box. Methods: This model is based in easily accessible materials; the equipment can be easily found based on chrome mini jet and passes rubber thread and a webcam attached to an aluminum handle. Results: It can be finalized in two days costing R$ 280,00 (US$ 90). Conclusion: It is possible to stimulate a larger number of surgeons to have self training in laparoscopy at low cost seeking to improve their surgical skills outside the operating room. PMID:26537148

  19. Fatigue crack propagation in carburized X-2M steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averbach, B. L.; Lou, Bingzhe; Pearson, P. K.; Fairchild, R. E.; Bamberger, E. N.

    1985-07-01

    The growth rates of fatigue cracks propagating through the case and into the core have been studied for carburized X-2M steel (0.14 C, 4.91 Cr, 1.31 Mo, 1.34 W, 0.42 V). Fatigue cracks were propagated at constant stress intensities, ΔK, and also at a constant cyclic peak load, and the crack growth rates were observed to pass through a minimum value as the crack traversed the carburized case. The reduction in the crack propagation rates is ascribed to the compressive stresses which were developed in the case, and a pinched clothespin model is used to make an approximate calculation of the effects of internal stress on the crack propagation rates. We define an effective stress intensity, Ke = Ka + Ki, where Ka is the applied stress intensity, Ki = σid{i/1/2}, σi is the internal stress, and di is a characteristic distance associated with the depth of the internal stress field. In our work, a value of di = 11 mm (0.43 inch) fits the data quite well. A good combination of resistance to fatigue crack propagation in the case and fracture toughness in the core can be achieved in carburized X-2M steel, suggesting that this material will be useful in heavy duty gears and in aircraft gas turbine mainshaft bearings operating under high hoop stresses.

  20. 2-m LAMOST-type telescope for the Antarctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Xiangqun; Zhao, Yongheng; Wang, Yanan; Li, Guoping

    2006-06-01

    The Large-Sky-Area Multi-object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) put forward by Shou-guan Wang and Ding-qiang Su is a special reflecting Schmidt telescope with the spherical mirror fixed and the correcting plate acts as both correcting plate and tractor. The correcting plate is installed on an alt-azimuth mounting and its aspherical figure is variable to meet the requirement for eliminate the spherical aberration of the spherical primary mirror when it is at variant orientations during the observation course and for different sky area. With LAMOST, both large aperture and large field of view can been obtained. Benefited from the LAMOST design and practice, a LAMOST-type telescope for full-sky survey is conceived for the Antarctic. Because of the favorable seeing condition and all-winter continuous observation, a telescope with aperture of the 2-m could be equivalent to the 4-m LAMOST. We preliminarily considered a 2-m telescope with a primary focus and a Cassegrain focus. The f-ratio of 5 and FOV 3-degree for the primary focus, and f-ratio of 15 and 8 minutes FOV with the diffraction limited image for the Cassegrain focus. In this paper, the scientific goals, the optical system of the telescope, particular material and technique which are applicable under the extreme low temperature condition at the Antarctic are described.

  1. Interchangeable breech lock for glove boxes

    DOEpatents

    Lemonds, David Preston

    2015-11-24

    A breech lock for a glove box is provided that may be used to transfer one or more items into the glove box. The breech lock can be interchangeably installed in place of a plug, glove, or other device in a port or opening of a glove box. Features are provided to aid the removal of items from the breech lock by a gloved operator. The breech lock can be reused or, if needed, can be replaced with a plug, glove, or other device at the port or opening of the glove box.

  2. Two VLT 8.2-m Unit Telescopes in Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-04-01

    Visitors at ANTU - Astronomical Images from KUEYEN The VLT Control Room at the Paranal Observatory is becoming a busy place indeed. From here, two specialist teams of ESO astronomers and engineers now operate two VLT 8.2-m Unit Telescopes in parallel, ANTU and KUEYEN (formerly UT1 and UT2, for more information about the naming and the pronunciation, see ESO Press Release 06/99 ). Regular science observations have just started with the first of these giant telescopes, while impressive astronomical images are being obtained with the second. The work is hard, but the mood in the control room is good. Insiders claim that there have even been occasions on which the groups have had a friendly "competition" about which telescope makes the "best" images! The ANTU-team has worked with the FORS multi-mode instrument , their colleagues at KUEYEN use the VLT Test Camera for the ongoing tests of this new telescope. While the first is a highly developed astronomical instrument with a large-field CCD imager (6.8 x 6.8 arcmin 2 in the normal mode; 3.4 x 3.4 arcmin 2 in the high-resolution mode), the other is a less complex CCD camera with a smaller field (1.5 x 1.5 arcmin 2 ), suited to verify the optical performance of the telescope. As these images demonstrate, the performance of the second VLT Unit Telescope is steadily improving and it may not be too long before its optical quality will approach that of the first. First KUEYEN photos of stars and galaxies We present here some of the first astronomical images, taken with the second telescope, KUEYEN, in late March and early April 1999. They reflect the current status of the optical, electronic and mechanical systems, still in the process of being tuned. As expected, the experience gained from ANTU last year has turned out to be invaluable and has allowed good progress during this extremely delicate process. ESO PR Photo 19a/99 ESO PR Photo 19a/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 433 pix - 160k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 866 pix - 457k] [High

  3. A nest box to facilitate excreta collection from mouse dams through pregnancy, parturition, and lactation.

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, C. A.; Wilson, A. K.; Bhattacharyya, M. H.; Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology; Oregon State Univ.; Benedictine Univ.

    1999-05-01

    Standard metabolism cages are inadequate for collecting excreta from dams during parturition because newborn pups can fall through the grating into the excreta collection area and out of reach of the dam. A nest box was designed that facilitates excreta collection from mouse dams continuously housed in metabolism cages from conception, through parturition, and into lactation and provides a safe, warm environment for pups during their first week of life. The nest box was tested by using pregnant and lactating mice of two varieties of strain 129/SvJ, metallothionein-normal and metallothionein-knockout; non-pregnant mice were used as controls. Pregnant mice (with nest box) and non-pregnant mice (without nest box) each twice received a solution of 109CdCl2 by gavage. Dams with nest boxes fastidiously urinated and defecated outside the nest box. The percentage of gavage 109Cd dose recovered in dam feces was the same after the first gavage (mean6SE, with nest box through parturition, 95%66%; n=5) as after the second gavage (mean6SE, without nest box, 95%66%; n=5). Weights and percentage weight gain of mouse dams were independent of housing conditions (metabolic cage with next box vs. conventional polycarbonate caging). Furthermore, pup growth and survival were unaffected by the inclusion of the nest box or by its removal at 1 week after birth. Therefore, the described nest box provides for the first time a way to quantitatively collect excreta from mouse dams through pregnancy, parturition, and the early postnatal period. Additional experiments are needed to test its application to other animal species and strains of mice, including those with poor mothering behavior.

  4. VO₂ requirements of boxing exercises.

    PubMed

    Arseneau, Eric; Mekary, Saïd; Léger, Luc A

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the physiological requirements of various boxing exercises such as sparring, pad work, and punching bag. Because it was not possible to measure the oxygen uptake (VO₂) of "true" sparring with a collecting gas valve in the face, we developed and validated a method to measure VO₂ of "true" sparring based on "postexercise" measurements. Nine experienced male amateur boxers (Mean ± SD: age = 22.0 ± 3.5 years, height = 176.0 ± 8.0 cm, weight = 71.4 ± 10.9 kg, number of fights = 13.0 ± 9.5) of regional and provincial level volunteered to participate in 3 testing sessions: (a) maximal treadmill test in the LAB, (b) standardized boxing training in the GYM, and (c) standardized boxing exercises in the LAB. Measures of VO₂, heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentration [LA], rated perceived exertion level, and punching frequencies were collected. VO₂ values of 43.4 ± 5.9, 41.1 ± 5.1, 24.7 ± 6.1, 30.4 ± 5.8, and 38.3 ± 6.5 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹ were obtained, which represent 69.7 ± 8.0, 66.1 ± 8.0, 39.8 ± 10.4, 48.8 ± 8.5, and 61.7 ± 10.3%VO₂peak for sparring, pad work, and punching bag at 60, 120, and 180 b·min⁻¹, respectively. Except for lower VO₂ values for punching the bag at 60 and 120 b·min⁻¹ (p < 0.05), there was no VO₂ difference between exercises. Similar pattern was obtained for %HRmax with respective values of 85.5 ± 5.9, 83.6 ± 6.3, 67.5 ± 3.5, 74.8 ± 5.9, and 83.0 ± 6.0. Finally, sparring %HRmax and [LA] were slightly higher in the GYM (91.7 ± 4.3 and 9.4 ± 2.2 mmol·L⁻¹) vs. LAB (85.5 ± 5.9 and 6.1 ± 2.3 mmol·L⁻¹). Thus, in this study simulated LAB sparring and pad work required similar VO₂ (43-41 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹, respectively), which corresponds to ~70%VO₂peak. These results underline the importance of a minimum of aerobic fitness for boxers and draw some guidelines for the intensity of training. PMID:21217532

  5. Assessment of the relationship between box weight and trunk kinematics: does a reduction in box weight necessarily correspond to a decrease in spinal loading?

    PubMed

    Davis, K G; Marras, W S

    2000-01-01

    Typically, the simplest and most cost-efficient ergonomic solution to offset the rising costs of low back injuries is to reduce the box weight that is lifted. However, there is limited research on how a worker interacts with the box. In the present study, we quantify the utility of reducing the weight that is lifted - specifically, how changes in the box weight affect trunk kinematics, trunk moments, and ultimately, spinal loads. In the experiment, 15 participants lifted a variety of box weights (from 9.1 to 41.7 kg) from knee height, carried it a distance of 5 feet (1.5 m), and placed it on a shelf at elbow height. For the lower weights, small increases in box weight (3-9 kg) were offset by the trunk dynamics (sagittal velocity), resulting in no difference in spinal loads. At the same time, spinal loads were found to be significantly higher for weights above 25 kg. Thus, when making ergonomic changes (reduction of box weight), it is important to consider how workers will interact with the box. These results indicate that purely weight-based ergonomic controls might not sufficiently reduce the risk of low back disorders. Furthermore, this study provides additional evidence of the utility of using more complex spinal load models (dynamic, multiple muscle models) when evaluating highly dynamic and complex tasks. PMID:11022880

  6. The Construction of M2M System with Sensor Networks Using Digital Plethysmograph Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segawa, Norihisa; Asakawa, Kazuhisa; Takahashi, Yoshitsugu; Yamada, Tomoko; Togashi, Atsushi; Sawamoto, Jun

    In recent years, the research of sensor networks advances and it is expected to be used in a wide variety of fields such as traceability system of products, environmental monitoring, health care, etc. We develop a M2M system with the sensor network technology for collection and analysis of the state of health and feedback of advices for better physical activity without human intervention. The system detects abnormality from pulse wave data from pulse wave sensor attached to the user. In this paper, we construct M2M sensor network system with continuous monitoring of arterial pulse wave and an advice generation function based on pr-installed rules, then we evaluate the usefulness of the system through experiment.

  7. Workplace statistical literacy for teachers: interpreting box plots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Robyn; Chick, Helen

    2013-06-01

    As a consequence of the increased use of data in workplace environments, there is a need to understand the demands that are placed on users to make sense of such data. In education, teachers are being increasingly expected to interpret and apply complex data about student and school performance, and, yet it is not clear that they always have the appropriate knowledge and experience to interpret the graphs, tables and other data that they receive. This study examined the statistical literacy demands placed on teachers, with a particular focus on box plot representations. Although box plots summarise the data in a way that makes visual comparisons possible across sets of data, this study showed that teachers do not always have the necessary fluency with the representation to describe correctly how the data are distributed in the representation. In particular, a significant number perceived the size of the regions of the box plot to be depicting frequencies rather than density, and there were misconceptions associated with outlying data that were not displayed on the plot. As well, teachers' perceptions of box plots were found to relate to three themes: attitudes, perceived value and misconceptions.

  8. Approach to a correct function of stuffing boxes

    SciTech Connect

    Bartonicek, J.; Schoeckle, F.

    1996-12-01

    Stuff boxes are often used to tighten the gaps between valve stems and the housing. The stuffing box packing material is compressed axially to achieve a radial stress value, which is necessary for tightness. Tightness is achieved, if the sealing materials are seated properly and if a sufficient stress value is acting in radial direction during all states of operation. High prestress values are necessary for tightening purposes, lower values are better for the function of the valve. As the seating and the prestressing force is applied axially (using the bolts of a gland), gasket factors must be known, that characterize the deformation behavior and the transmission (relation between radial/axial stress). Furthermore, gasket factors, that characterize the tightening behavior, are necessary. Such gasket factors give the relation between radial stress and leakage of the packing materials. A friction coefficient -- this parameter determines the function of the valve (together with the radial stress) -- is another important gasket factor. Additionally the relaxation of the stuffing box packing material between the assembly and the operating state must be known. In the paper definitions for the most important gasket factors of stuffing box materials are provided. Test procedures and test rigs for the determination of the gasket factors are discussed. Gasket factors, which have been measured with these newly developed test rigs, are related to experiences with real applications. Finally a method for a controlled prestressing of gland packings is described.

  9. Online measured hydration heat for 32 meter span concrete box bridge girders during construction process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Yuan; Zhou, Taiquan

    2008-11-01

    The concrete stress induced by temperature change is regarded as one of the main causes of concrete box girder cracking. To understand the hydration heat distribution on the box girder transverse section, the concrete hydration heat temperature effect experiments were done according to the box girder construction condition, providing useful reference for box girder design and construction practice. The measured locations for concrete hydration heat were chosen as the middle span section and tip sections of box bridge girder. The temperature sensors were embedded in the concrete box girder at the top tray, bottom tray and web of the box girder during concrete pour construction. Then the time-history record for concrete hydration heat was recorded. According to the measured results for temperature, the time-history curve for concrete hydration heat process could be drawn. According to the 32 meter span concrete box girder hydration heat analysis result of Wuhan-Guangzhou railway express line, the common law of hydration heat during early concrete hydration heat process was obtained, including the basic laws of the concrete hydration temperature rise and heat drop, the temperature gradient of concrete and the relations between pumping temperature and thermal climax. Furthermore, the measured hydration heat temperature result provides useful information for preventing concrete cracks caused by temperature difference and temperature changing.

  10. Model Equations: "Black Box" Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezruchko, Boris P.; Smirnov, Dmitry A.

    Black box reconstruction is both the most difficult and the most tempting modelling problem when any prior information about an appropriate model structure is lacking. An intriguing thing is that a model capable of reproducing an observed behaviour or predicting further evolution should be obtained only from an observed time series, i.e. "from nothing" at first sight. Chances for a success are not large. Even more so, a "good" model would become a valuable tool to characterise an object and understand its dynamics. Lack of prior information causes one to utilise universal model structures, e.g. artificial neural networks, radial basis functions and algebraic polynomials are included in the right-hand sides of dynamical model equations. Such models are often multi-dimensional and involve quite many free parameters.

  11. Kinetics of the reaction Cl + NO2 + M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leu, M.-T.

    1984-01-01

    Using atomic chlorine resonance fluorescence at 140 nm to detect the decay of atomic chlorine in the presence of an excess of NO2, the rate constant for the reaction Cl + NO2 + M, where M is the total gas concentration, is measured over the temperature range 264 to 417 K and at a pressure 1 to 7 torr in a discharge flow system. The rate constants for M= He and M= N2 are measured and the results are summarized in a table. The systematic error of the rate constants is estimated to be about 15 percent. A static photolysis system coupled with an FTIR spectrophotometer is used to determine the branching ratio for the formation of two possible isomers. The ratio is concluded to be ClONO (greater than or equal 75 percent) and ClNO2 (less than or equal 25 percent) which is in agreement with the results of Niki et al. (1978).

  12. Direct drive targets for the megajoule facility UFL-2M

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozanov, V. B.; Gus'kov, S. Yu; Vergunova, G. A.; Demchenko, N. N.; Stepanov, R. V.; Doskoch, I. Ya; Yakhin, R. A.; Zmitrenko, N. V.

    2016-03-01

    Development of direct drive target schemes for the megajoule facility is a topical problem of up-to-date inertial fusion physics. The choice of possible schemes and solutions depends essentially on the irradiation conditions. The installations both running (NIF) and under construction (LMJ) are destined to the 3ω irradiation in PDD (polar direct drive) configuration. The UFL-2M installation that is under construction is based on 2ω irradiation and a symmetrical scheme of direct drive target irradiation. Under these conditions possible schemes for direct drive targets demonstrating the ignition and the achievement of gain G=10÷20 are considered in this report. At the same time, the possibilities are analyzed for the target compression and ignition with a reliability reserve at the conditions that can deviate from the standard ones, and if our understanding of the physics of the processes is not completely adequate to the physics of the real processes.

  13. Global magnetohydrodynamic instabilities in the L-2M stellarator

    SciTech Connect

    Mikhailov, M. I.; Shchepetov, S. V.; Nührenberg, C.; Nührenberg, J.

    2015-12-15

    Analysis of global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities in the L-2M stellarator (Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences) is presented. The properties of free-boundary equilibria states are outlined, the stability conditions for small-scale modes are briefly discussed, and the number of trapped particles is estimated. All the magnetic configurations under study are stable against ballooning modes. It is shown that global ideal internal MHD modes can be found reliably only in Mercier unstable plasmas. In plasma that is stable with respect to the Mercier criterion, global unstable modes that are localized in the vicinity of the free plasma boundary and are not associated with any rational magnetic surface inside the plasma (the so-called peeling modes) can be found. The radial structure of all perturbations under study is almost entirely determined by the poloidal coupling of harmonics. The results of calculations are compared with the available experimental data.

  14. Experimental study of hot electrons in LECR2M plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, H. Y.; Zhao, H. W.; Ma, X. W.; Wang, H.; Zhang, X. Z.; Sun, L. T.; Ma, B. H.; Li, X. X.; Sha, S.; Zhu, Y. H.; Lu, W.; Shang, Y.

    2008-02-15

    In order to investigate the hot electron component in electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasmas, the volume bremsstrahlung spectra in the x-ray photon energy range were measured with a high-purity germanium detector on Lanzhou ECR Ion Source No. 2 Modified (LECR2M). A collimation system similar to Bernhardi's was used to focus at the central part of the plasma. The ion source was operated under various source conditions with argon; sometimes oxygen was added to enhance high charge state ion beam intensities. The spectral temperature of hot electrons T{sub spe} was derived from the measured bremsstrahlung spectra. The evolution of the deduced temperature of hot electrons T{sub spe} with the ion source parameters, such as the rf frequency, power, and the magnetic confinement configuration, was investigated.

  15. Heart rate response during a simulated Olympic boxing match is predominantly above ventilatory threshold 2: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    de Lira, Claudio Andre Barbosa; Peixinho-Pena, Luiz Fernando; Vancini, Rodrigo Luiz; de Freitas Guina Fachina, Rafael Júlio; de Almeida, Alexandre Aparecido; Andrade, Marília Dos Santos; da Silva, Antonio Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to describe heart rate (HR) responses during a simulated Olympic boxing match and examine physiological parameters of boxing athletes. Ten highly trained Olympic boxing athletes (six men and four women) performed a maximal graded exercise test on a motorized treadmill to determine maximal oxygen uptake (52.2 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1) ± 7.2 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1)) and ventilatory thresholds 1 and 2. Ventilatory thresholds 1 and 2 were used to classify the intensity of exercise based on respective HR during a boxing match. In addition, oxygen uptake (V̇O2) was estimated during the match based on the HR response and the HR-V̇O2 relationship obtained from a maximal graded exercise test for each participant. On a separate day, participants performed a boxing match lasting three rounds, 2 minutes each, with a 1-minute recovery period between each round, during which HR was measured. In this context, HR and V̇O2 were above ventilatory threshold 2 during 219.8 seconds ± 67.4 seconds. There was an increase in HR and V̇O2 as a function of round (round 3 < round 2 < round 1, P < 0.0001). These findings may direct individual training programs for boxing practitioners and other athletes. PMID:24379723

  16. Heart rate response during a simulated Olympic boxing match is predominantly above ventilatory threshold 2: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    de Lira, Claudio Andre Barbosa; Peixinho-Pena, Luiz Fernando; Vancini, Rodrigo Luiz; de Freitas Guina Fachina, Rafael Júlio; de Almeida, Alexandre Aparecido; Andrade, Marília dos Santos; da Silva, Antonio Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to describe heart rate (HR) responses during a simulated Olympic boxing match and examine physiological parameters of boxing athletes. Ten highly trained Olympic boxing athletes (six men and four women) performed a maximal graded exercise test on a motorized treadmill to determine maximal oxygen uptake (52.2 mL · kg−1 · min−1 ± 7.2 mL · kg−1 · min−1) and ventilatory thresholds 1 and 2. Ventilatory thresholds 1 and 2 were used to classify the intensity of exercise based on respective HR during a boxing match. In addition, oxygen uptake (V̇O2) was estimated during the match based on the HR response and the HR-V̇O2 relationship obtained from a maximal graded exercise test for each participant. On a separate day, participants performed a boxing match lasting three rounds, 2 minutes each, with a 1-minute recovery period between each round, during which HR was measured. In this context, HR and V̇O2 were above ventilatory threshold 2 during 219.8 seconds ± 67.4 seconds. There was an increase in HR and V̇O2 as a function of round (round 3 < round 2 < round 1, P < 0.0001). These findings may direct individual training programs for boxing practitioners and other athletes. PMID:24379723

  17. PINE Discovery Box, 101 Stimulating Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Phyllis S.

    This manual is intended for use with the PINE (Projects in Imaginative Nature Education) discovery box in elementary school conservation education. The box contains 21 natural specimens which can serve as the starting point for simple student investigations. Specimens and activities are keyed for grade level. For each item, background information…

  18. Cereal Box Design: An Interdisciplinary Graphics Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Mike; Tsosie, Teri

    2004-01-01

    This article describes cereal box design, an interdisciplinary graphics activity. The cereal box design activity is intriguing both for its simplicity and the resourcefulness that it can generate in young people. It lends itself to a variety of curriculums. It covers both consumerism and Design for the Environment (DfE) concepts broadly and in…

  19. Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion's Pandora's Box

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? A A A | Print | Share Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? Foot and ankle ... extreme and imprudent as it may sound, the cosmetic surgery craze isn't just for faces anymore- ...

  20. BLS: Box-fitting Least Squares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, G.; Zucker, S.; Mazeh, T.

    2016-07-01

    BLS (Box-fitting Least Squares) is a box-fitting algorithm that analyzes stellar photometric time series to search for periodic transits of extrasolar planets. It searches for signals characterized by a periodic alternation between two discrete levels, with much less time spent at the lower level.

  1. Boxing Injuries from an Instructional Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Michael J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the safeguards as well as the injury pattern of the boxing program at the US Military Academy at West Point from 1983 to 1985. About 2,100 cadets received boxing instruction during this period with an injury rate of less than four percent. (Author/MT)

  2. North American box turtles: A natural history

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dodd, C. Kenneth, Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Once a familiar backyard visitor in many parts of the United States and Mexico, the box turtle is losing the battle against extinction. In North American Box Turtles, C. Kenneth Dodd, Jr., has written the first book-length natural history of the twelve species and subspecies of this endangered animal. This volume includes comprehensive information on the species’ evolution, behavior, courtship and reproduction, habitat use, diet, population structure, systematics, and disease. Special features include color photos of all species, subspecies, and their habitats; a simple identification guide to both living and fossil species; and a summary of information on fossil Terrapene and Native uses of box turtles. End-of-chapter sections highlight future research directions, including the need for long-term monitoring and observation of box turtles within their natural habitat and conservation applications. A glossary and a bibliography of literature on box turtles accompany the text.

  3. Ventilating the box cut of a two-pass 40-ft extended cut

    SciTech Connect

    Thimons, E.D.; Taylor, C.D.; Zimmer, J.A.

    1999-07-01

    On a continuous miner coal face methane concentrations are affected by the quantity of fresh intake air reaching the face. When mining the box cut on a 12.2-m (40-ft) two-pass extended cut face, the continuous miner is always at the point of deepest penetration, and operation of the machine-mounted dust scrubber and water spray system improve the flow of fresh air to the end of the box cut. However, when the continuous miner leaves the box cut to begin cutting the 40-ft slab, little is known about how much ventilation air reaches the end of the box cut. The Pittsburgh Research Laboratory (PRL) of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conducted a full-scale study to answer this question. Tests were run to determine how much ventilation air reaches the end of the box cut with the continuous miner at three locations in the 40-ft two-pass extended cut mining sequence; at the end of the 40-ft box cut, at the start of the 40-ft slab cut, and 6.1 m (20 ft) into the slab cut. During these tests, methane gas was uniformly released at the end of the 40-ft box cut. Methane concentrations measured 0.3 m (1 ft) from the roof and face of the box cut were used to estimate face airflow quantities. Fresh airflow rates of 1.89 and 4.72 m{sup 3}/sec (4,000 and 10,000 cfm), scrubber flow rates of 0, 4,000 and 10,000 cfm, water spray pressures of 0 and 827 kPa (0 and 120 psi), and a blowing curtain setback position of 15.2 m (50 ft) were used during these tests. To improve ventilation to the end of the 40-ft box cut when the continuous miner was staging the 40-ft slab cut and 20 ft into the slab cut, the blowing curtain was advanced from its 50-ft setback to locations 40-ft and then 8.5 m (28 ft) from the face.

  4. The impact of heterogeneous surface temperatures on the 2-m air temperature over the Arctic Ocean in spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tetzlaff, A.; Kaleschke, L.; Lüpkes, C.; Ament, F.; Vihma, T.

    2012-07-01

    The influence of spatial surface temperature changes over the Arctic Ocean on the 2-m air temperature variability is estimated using backward trajectories based on ERA-Interim and the JRA25 wind fields. They are initiated at Alert, Barrow and at the Tara drifting station. Three different methods are used. The first one compares mean ice surface temperatures along the trajectories to the observed 2-m air temperatures at the stations. The second one correlates the observed temperatures to air temperatures obtained using a simple Lagrangian box model which only includes the effect of sensible heat fluxes. For the third method, mean sensible heat fluxes from the model are correlated with the difference of the air temperatures at the model starting point and the observed temperatures at the stations. The calculations are based on MODIS ice surface temperatures and four different sets of ice concentration derived from SSM/I and AMSR-E data. Under nearly cloud free conditions, up to 90% of the 2-m air temperature variance can be explained for Alert, and 60% for Barrow using these methods. The differences are attributed to the different ice conditions, which are characterized by high ice concentration around Alert and lower ice concentration near Barrow. These results are robust for the different sets of reanalyses and ice concentration data. Near-surface winds of both reanalyses show a large inconsistency in the Central Arctic, which leads to a large difference in the correlations between modeled and observed 2-m air temperatures at Tara. Explained variances amount to 70% using JRA and only 45% using ERA. The results also suggest that near-surface temperatures at a given site are influenced by the variability of surface temperatures in a domain of about 150 to 350 km radius around the site.

  5. Human Antigen R Binding and Regulation of SOX2 mRNA in Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Latorre, Elisa; Carelli, Stephana; Caremoli, Filippo; Giallongo, Toniella; Colli, Mattia; Canazza, Alessandra; Provenzani, Alessandro; Di Giulio, Anna Maria; Gorio, Alfredo

    2016-02-01

    Since 2005, sex determining region y-box 2 (SOX2) has drawn the attention of the scientific community for being one of the key transcription factors responsible for pluripotency induction in somatic stem cells. Our research investigated the turnover regulation of SOX2 mRNA in human adipose-derived stem cells, considered one of the most valuable sources of somatic stem cells in regenerative medicine. Mitoxantrone is a drug that acts on nucleic acids primarily used to treat certain types of cancer and was recently shown to ameliorate the outcome of autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis. In addition, mitoxantrone has been shown to inhibit the binding of human antigen R (HuR) RNA-binding protein to tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA. Our results show that HuR binds to the 3'-untranslated region of SOX2 mRNA together with the RNA-induced silencing complex miR145. The HuR binding works by stabilizing the interaction between the 3'-untranslated region and the RNA-induced silencing complex. Cell exposure to mitoxantrone leads to HuR detachment and the subsequent prolongation of the SOX2 mRNA half-life. The prolonged SOX2 half-life allows improvement of the spheroid-forming capability of the adipose-derived stem cells. The silencing of HuR confirmed the above observations and illustrates how the RNA-binding protein HuR may be a required molecule for regulation of SOX2 mRNA decay. PMID:26677051

  6. Signature of the Superatom to Superhalogen Behavior of Aun(BO2)m clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandalam, Anil; Gotz, Matthias; Willis, Mary; Gantefor, Gerd; Jena, Puru

    2010-03-01

    We report the discovery of a new class of clusters consisting of Aun(BO2)m which formed during the oxygenation of gold clusters when boron nitride was used as insulation in the pulsed arc cluster ion source (PACIS). Using DFT based calculations, we trace the origin of these species to be due to the unusual stability of the BO2 moiety as well as shed light on their formation process. PES measurements and the corresponding DFT calculations further reveal some rather remarkable properties of Aun(BO2)m clusters such as large HOMO-LUMO gaps in the range of 3.00 eV -- 3.95 eV and electron affinities substantially larger than that of F, the most electronegative element in the periodic table. In addition, some of the most predominant features of the electronic structure of the bare Au clusters, namely odd-even alternation in the electron affinity, are preserved in the Aun(BO2) species. The synergy between theory and experiment illustrates that Aun(BO2)m clusters, behave as superatoms and superhalogens, opening the door for the synthesis of a new class of cluster-assembled materials.

  7. Principal Investigator-in-a-Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Laurence R.

    1999-01-01

    Human performance in orbit is currently limited by several factors beyond the intrinsic awkwardness of motor control in weightlessness. Cognitive functioning can be affected by such factors as cumulative sleep loss, stress and the psychological effects of long-duration small-group isolation. When an astronaut operates a scientific experiment, the performance decrement associated with such factors can lead to lost or poor quality data and even the total loss of a scientific objective, at great cost to the sponsors and to the dismay of the Principal Investigator. In long-duration flights, as anticipated on the International Space Station and on any planetary exploration, the experimental model is further complicated by long delays between training and experiment, and the large number of experiments each crew member must perform. Although no documented studies have been published on the subject, astronauts report that an unusually large number of simple errors are made in space. Whether a result of the effects of microgravity, accumulated fatigue, stress or other factors, this pattern of increased error supports the need for a computerized decision-making aid for astronauts performing experiments. Artificial intelligence and expert systems might serve as powerful tools for assisting experiments in space. Those conducting space experiments typically need assistance exactly when the planned checklist does not apply. Expert systems, which use bits of human knowledge and human methods to respond appropriately to unusual situations, have a flexibility that is highly desirable in circumstances where an invariably predictable course of action/response does not exist. Frequently the human expert on the ground is unavailable, lacking the latest information, or not consulted by the astronaut conducting the experiment. In response to these issues, we have developed "Principal Investigator-in-a-Box," or [PI], to capture the reasoning process of the real expert, the Principal

  8. Kinetics of the ClO + NO2 + M reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molina, M. J.; Molina, L. T.; Ishiwata, T.

    1980-01-01

    The ClO + NO2 + M reaction has been studied with two techniques: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of the products, and flash photolysis-ultraviolet absorption to monitor the decay of ClO in excess NO2. The measured third-order rate constant is 1.5 x 10 to the -31st cm to the 6th/molecule-squared per sec at 298 K with M = N2, in good agreement with previous literature values, but the rate constant appears to decrease by up to a factor of three in the presence of increasing amounts of OClO. For the infrared studies a stoichiometric mixture of ClO and NO2 was prepared in a flow system by mixing NO with OClO; at least as much NO2 as ClONO2 was produced under a variety of experimental conditions. These two sets of results are incompatible with the assumption made in previous kinetic studies that ClONO2 is the only recombination product; other isomers such as OClONO or ClOONO are likely to be formed three to four times faster. These results imply that potential stratospheric ozone depletion due to chlorofluoromethanes may be even larger than previously thought.

  9. Particle Shape and Composition of NU-LHT-2M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, D. L.; Lowers, H.

    2012-01-01

    Particle shapes of the lunar regolith simulant NU-LHT-2M were analyzed by scanning electron microscope of polished sections. These data provide shape, size, and composition information on a particle by particle basis. 5,193 particles were measured, divided into four sized fractions: less than 200 mesh, 200-100 mesh, 100-35 mesh, and greater than 35 mesh. 99.2% of all particles were monominerallic. Minor size versus composition effects were noted in minor and trace mineralogy. The two metrics used are aspect ratio and Heywood factor, plotted as normalized frequency distributions. Shape versus composition effects were noted for glass and possibly chlorite. To aid in analysis, the measured shape distributions are compared to data for ellipses and rectangles. Several other simple geometric shapes are also investigated as to how they plot in aspect ratio versus Heywood factor space. The bulk of the data previously reported, which were acquired in a plane of projection, are between the ellipse and rectangle lines. In contrast, these data, which were acquired in a plane of section, clearly show that a significant number of particles have concave hulls in this view. Appendices cover details of measurement error, use of geometric shapes for comparative analysis, and a logic for comparing data from plane of projection and plane of section measurements.

  10. Results on E+ E- to Hadrons Cross Sections from VEPP-2M and BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Solodov, E.; /Novosibirsk, IYF

    2011-11-22

    In 1992-2000, data on e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation into hadrons were collected in the energy range 0.36 < {radical}s < 1.4 GeV with the CMD-2 and SND detectors at the VEPP-2M collider in Novosibirsk. The results of the R(s) measurements in these experiments are presented. The radiative return program at BaBar also allows to study low energy e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation and overview of the results are presented in this paper.

  11. 77 FR 46778 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BOX Options Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ... their customer orders for execution on BOX, will aid BOX in recovering some of its costs incurred in... sent to BOX each month execute on BOX. Executions on BOX would include orders executing on the BOX Book... to provide an incentive to BOX Participants to submit orders for execution on BOX, to aid BOX...

  12. 6. VIEW OF SPILLWAY TIMBERS AND WATER CONTROL BOX, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF SPILLWAY TIMBERS AND WATER CONTROL BOX, SHOWING WATER CONTROL BOX WITH LOWERED LAKE LEVEL - Three Bears Lake & Dams, Water Control Box, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

  13. Environmental Monitoring in a Box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrenetxea, G.; Couach, O.; Ingelrest, F.; Krichane, M.; Parlange, M.; Vetterli, M.

    2007-12-01

    Current data collection techniques are rather limited and make use of very expensive sensing stations, leading to a lack of appropriate environmental observations. We present SensorScope, a collaborative project between environmental and network researchers, that aims at providing an efficient and cheap out-of-the-box monitoring system. Sensorscope is based on a self-organized multi-hop wireless network, composed of a large number of solar powered sensing stations deployed over an area of interest. These sensing stations gather various information about their environment, such as air temperature and humidity, skin temperature, solar radiation, wind speed and direcction, precipitation, soil moisture, and soir watter content. SensorScope falls into the category of time-driven networks, as the stations intermittently transmit environmental data to a sink. The latter, in turn, is able to relay this information to a database server which makes all data publicly available in real-time by means of a Goggle Maps-based web interface. The main objective of the SensorScope project is to provide a low-cost and reliable WSN-based system for environmental monitoring to a wide community. It improves present data collection techniques with the latest technology, while exceeding the requirements of most environmental research. The Sensorscope system has already been sucessfully used in three different measurement campaigns: a glacier deployment at Plain Morte (Valais, Switzerland), a wetland monitoring program (Neuchatel, Switzerland), and an alpine deployment to study rock avalanches (Valais, Switzerland)

  14. Hydro-Balanced Stuffing Box field test

    SciTech Connect

    Giangiacomo, L.A.

    1999-05-28

    The Hydro-Balanced Stuffing Box is a seal assembly for polished rod pumping installations commonly used in oil and gas pumping well installations to contain produced well fluids. The improved stuffing box was developed and patented by Harold H. Palmour of The Palmour Group of Livingston, TX. The stuffing box is designed to reduce the incidence of seal leakage and to utilize an environmentally safe fluid, so that if there is any leakage, environmental damage is reduced or eliminated. The unit was tested on two wells at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center. During the test period, the performance of the stuffing box was measured by monitoring the pressure on the tubing and the inner chamber with a Barton Two-pen recorder. The amount of safe fluid consumed, fluid leakage at the top of the stuffing box, pressure supplied from the nitrogen bottle, ambient temperature, and polish rod temperature was recorded. The stuffing box is capable of providing a better seal between well fluids an d the environment than conventional stuffing boxes. It allows the polished rod to operate cooler and with lubrication, extending the life of the packing elements, and reducing the amount of attention required to prevent leakage.

  15. High-Density Terminal Box for Testing Wire Harness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, W. B.; Collins, W. G.

    1982-01-01

    Compact terminal box provides access to complex wiring harnesses for testing. Box accommodates more than twice as many wires as previous boxes. Box takes in wires via cable connectors and distributes them to contacts on box face. Instead of separate insulated jacks in metal face panel, box uses pairs of small military-standard metal sockets in precision-drilled plastic panel. Shorting plug provides continuity for wires when not being tested.

  16. A Fermi gas in a homogeneous box potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Biswaroop; Ku, Mark; Yan, Zhenjie; Patel, Parth; Guardado-Sanchez, Elmer; Yefsah, Tarik; Struck, Julian; Zwierlein, Martin; Zwierlein Group Team

    2015-05-01

    Traditionally, bulk quantum gas experiments take place in inhomogeneous optical and/or magnetic traps. The properties of the homogeneous gas are in many cases masked by line-of-sight integration over the inhomogeneous sample. We report on the trapping of strongly interacting fermionic atoms (6Li) in a quasi-homogenous all-optical potential. We characterize the potential flatness through in-trap imaging, and discuss progress towards directly observing the momentum distribution of the fermions in a box, with the prospect to test predictions from Fermi liquid theory for interacting gases. In contrast to inhomogeneous traps, box potentials prepare a system in one particular point of the phase diagram, giving access to the properties of bulk matter with a high signal-to-noise ratio. This sets a new direction for the exploration of strongly interacting Fermi gases at finite temperature and in the presence of spin imbalance.

  17. Examination of a junction-box adhesion test for use in photovoltaic module qualification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, David C.; Wohlgemuth, John H.

    2012-10-01

    Engineering robust adhesion of the junction-box (j-box) is a hurdle typically encountered by photovoltaic (PV) module manufacturers during product development. There are historical incidences of adverse effects (e.g., fires) caused when the j-box/adhesive/module system has failed in the field. The addition of a weight to the j-box during the "damp heat" IEC qualification test is proposed to verify the basic robustness of its adhesion system. The details of the proposed test will be described, in addition to the preliminary results obtained using representative materials and components. The described discovery experiments examine moisture-cured silicone, foam tape, and hot-melt adhesives used in conjunction with PET or glass module "substrates." To be able to interpret the results, a set of material-level characterizations was performed, including thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and dynamic mechanical analysis. PV j-boxes were adhered to a substrate, loaded with a prescribed weight, and then placed inside an environmental chamber (at 85°C, 85% relative humidity). Some systems did not remain attached through the discovery experiments. Observed failure modes include delamination (at the j-box/adhesive or adhesive/substrate interface) and phase change/creep. The results are discussed in the context of the application requirements, in addition to the plan for the formal experiment supporting the proposed modification to the qualification test.

  18. Examination of a Junction-Box Adhesion Test for Use in Photovoltaic Module Qualification: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D. C.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.

    2012-08-01

    Engineering robust adhesion of the junction-box (j-box) is a hurdle typically encountered by photovoltaic (PV) module manufacturers during product development. There are historical incidences of adverse effects (e.g., fires) caused when the j-box/adhesive/module system has failed in the field. The addition of a weight to the j-box during the 'damp heat' IEC qualification test is proposed to verify the basic robustness of its adhesion system. The details of the proposed test will be described, in addition to the preliminary results obtained using representative materials and components. The described discovery experiments examine moisture-cured silicone, foam tape, and hot-melt adhesives used in conjunction with PET or glass module 'substrates.' To be able to interpret the results, a set of material-level characterizations was performed, including thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and dynamic mechanical analysis. PV j-boxes were adhered to a substrate, loaded with a prescribed weight, and then placed inside an environmental chamber (at 85C, 85% relative humidity). Some systems did not remain attached through the discovery experiments. Observed failure modes include delamination (at the j-box/adhesive or adhesive/substrate interface) and phase change/creep. The results are discussed in the context of the application requirements, in addition to the plan for the formal experiment supporting the proposed modification to the qualification test.

  19. Examination of a Junction-Box Adhesion Test for Use in Photovoltaic Module Qualification (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D. C.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.

    2012-08-01

    Engineering robust adhesion of the junction-box (j-box) is a hurdle typically encountered by photovoltaic (PV) module manufacturers during product development. There are historical incidences of adverse effects (e.g., fires) caused when the j-box/adhesive/module system has failed in the field. The addition of a weight to the j-box during the 'damp heat' IEC qualification test is proposed to verify the basic robustness of its adhesion system. The details of the proposed test will be described, in addition to the preliminary results obtained using representative materials and components. The described discovery experiments examine moisture-cured silicone, foam tape, and hot-melt adhesives used in conjunction with PET or glass module 'substrates.' To be able to interpret the results, a set of material-level characterizations was performed, including thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and dynamic mechanical analysis. PV j-boxes were adhered to a substrate, loaded with a prescribed weight, and then placed inside an environmental chamber (at 85C, 85% relative humidity). Some systems did not remain attached through the discovery experiments. Observed failure modes include delamination (at the j-box/adhesive or adhesive/substrate interface) and phase change/creep. The results are discussed in the context of the application requirements, in addition to the plan for the formal experiment supporting the proposed modification to the qualification test.

  20. DEAD-Box Helicase Proteins Disrupt RNA Tertiary Structure Through Helix Capture

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Cynthia; Potratz, Jeffrey P.; Cannon, Brian; Simpson, Zachary B.; Ziehr, Jessica L.; Tijerina, Pilar; Russell, Rick

    2014-01-01

    DEAD-box helicase proteins accelerate folding and rearrangements of highly structured RNAs and RNA–protein complexes (RNPs) in many essential cellular processes. Although DEAD-box proteins have been shown to use ATP to unwind short RNA helices, it is not known how they disrupt RNA tertiary structure. Here, we use single molecule fluorescence to show that the DEAD-box protein CYT-19 disrupts tertiary structure in a group I intron using a helix capture mechanism. CYT-19 binds to a helix within the structured RNA only after the helix spontaneously loses its tertiary contacts, and then CYT-19 uses ATP to unwind the helix, liberating the product strands. Ded1, a multifunctional yeast DEAD-box protein, gives analogous results with small but reproducible differences that may reflect its in vivo roles. The requirement for spontaneous dynamics likely targets DEAD-box proteins toward less stable RNA structures, which are likely to experience greater dynamic fluctuations, and provides a satisfying explanation for previous correlations between RNA stability and CYT-19 unfolding efficiency. Biologically, the ability to sense RNA stability probably biases DEAD-box proteins to act preferentially on less stable misfolded structures and thereby to promote native folding while minimizing spurious interactions with stable, natively folded RNAs. In addition, this straightforward mechanism for RNA remodeling does not require any specific structural environment of the helicase core and is likely to be relevant for DEAD-box proteins that promote RNA rearrangements of RNP complexes including the spliceosome and ribosome. PMID:25350280

  1. Alpha contamination assessment for D&D activities: Monitoring inside glove boxes and vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Rawool-Sullivan, M.W.; Bolton, R.D.; Conaway, J.G.; MacArthur, D.W.

    1996-02-01

    We have developed a new approach to glove box monitoring that involves drawing air out of one glove port through a detection grid that collects ions created in the air inside the glove box by ionizing radiation, especially alpha radiation. The charge deposited on the detection grid by the ions is measured with a sensitive electrometer. The air can be circulated back to the glove box through the other glove port, preventing contamination from leaving the glove box and detector system. Initial experiments using a mock-up constructed of sheet metal indicate that this technology provides the measurement technique needed to perform a defensible, non-invasive measurement of alpha contamination inside glove boxes destined for waste disposal. This can result in an enormous cost savings if a given glove box can be shown to fall into the catagory of Low-Level Waste rather than Trans-Uranic Waste. Considering that hundreds of glove boxes contaminated with plutonium will be taken out of service at various nuclear facilities over the next few years, the potential cost savings associated with disposal as LLW rather than TRU waste are substantial.

  2. Dismantling of alpha contaminated obsolete installations and glove boxes on the IRMM site in Geel (Belgium)

    SciTech Connect

    Cretskens, Pieter; Lenie, Koen; Melis, Gustaaf

    2007-07-01

    At the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (European commission, Joint Research Centre, IRMM) a dismantling campaign of obsolete installations and glove boxes has been carried out in 2005. There were various reasons for their removal. Some large installations did not meet modern safety standards, other installations were worn out and expected to cause a radioactive contamination risk in the future. The main goal was to create as less waste as possible by extensive contamination checks and by decontamination if necessary. For the glove boxes, decontamination was not possible. A controlled area was set up around the installation to be dismantled in order to prevent spreading of contamination from dust and dirt. This was only possible for the 'minor' contaminated installations. The dismantling campaign of the glove boxes was carried out by using tents of two types depending the contamination inside the glove boxes. The most common glove boxes were dismantled in a tent constructed with hard surfaced polycarbonate plates (ventilated cell). For glove boxes with higher contamination, the same principle was used but with a second 'glove box tent' inside (ventilated glove tent). The purpose of this project was to learn from the experience of this campaign which gave the ability to make estimates of future radioactive waste or classic waste that could be expected from dismantled installations. (authors)

  3. Characteristics of wind power on Savonius rotor using a guide-box tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Irabu, Kunio; Roy, Jitendro Nath

    2007-11-15

    This study investigates to improve and adjust the output power of Savonius rotor under various wind power and suggests the method of prevention the rotor from strong wind disaster. In this study, as the appropriate device to achieve the purpose of it, a guide-box tunnel is employed. The guide-box tunnel is like a rectangular box as wind passage in which a test rotor is included. The area ratio between the inlet and exit of it is variable to adjust the inlet mass flow rate or input power. At first, the experiment was conducted to find the adequate configuration which would provide the best relative performance. The present experiment, however, does not include the test to retain the guide-box tunnel from the strong wind. The experiments include the static torque test of the fixed rotor at any phase angle and the dynamic torque test at rotation of them. Consequently, it was found that the maximum rotor rotational speed was achieved in the range of the guide-box area ratio between 0.3 and 0.7 and the value of the output power coefficient of the rotor with guide-box tunnel of the area ratio 0.43 increases about 1.5 times with three blades and 1.23 times with two blades greater than that without guide-box tunnel, respectively. It seemed that the performance of Savonius rotor within the guide-box tunnel is comparable enough with other methods for augmentation and control of the output. (author)

  4. Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion's Pandora's Box

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? Foot and Ankle Surgeons Warn Against Taking Part in Growing Surgery ... members of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons, who specialize in foot surgery, are taking ...

  5. Black Box Theatres: Cheyenne Mountain High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binder, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the design of the academic arts building at Cheyenne Mountain High School in Colorado Springs, Colorado, including its black box theater, art classroom, computer graphics lab, gallery, video production area, and chorus classroom. (EV)

  6. Enhanced Stuffing Box Rubbers Test Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rochelle, J.

    2002-07-01

    The Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) and Scott's Oil Field Service tested an enhanced stuffing box rubber at the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3. The enhanced stuffing box rubbers have saved money from not having to replace packing as often and not spilling valuable oil on the ground. A reduction in environmental hazards and the cost of cleaning up spilled oil have also been a benefit.

  7. Glove box on vehicular instrument panel

    DOEpatents

    Atarashi, Kazuya

    1985-01-01

    A glove box for the upper surface of an automobile dashboard whereby it may be positioned close to the driver. The glove box lid is pivotally supported by arms extending down either side to swing forwardly for opening. A hook is pivotally support adjacent an arm and weighted to swing into engagement with the arm to prevent opening of the lid during abrupt deceleration. A toggle spring assists in maintaining the lid in either the open or closed position.

  8. End-crop box counter manual

    SciTech Connect

    Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.; Stephens, M.M.

    1983-06-01

    The end-crop box counter was designed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for assaying filled shipping boxes of end crops from the fuel-extrusion process used in fuel-rod fabrication at United Nuclear Corporation. This manual details the measurement technique and the hardware, software, and calibration. It also provides instructions for operation and troubleshooting. The section on operation can be used as a separate operations manual by the routine user.

  9. BOX-DEATH HOLLOW ROADLESS AREA, UTAH.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weir, Gordon W.; Lane, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Geologic mapping, geochemical sampling, and a search for prospects and mineralized rock in the Box-Death Hollow Roadless Area, Utah indicate that there is little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources in the area. Additional exploratory drilling by industry seems warranted if wells elsewhere in the region find oil or gas in strata as yet untested in the Box-Death Hollow Roadless Area.

  10. Conserved spacing between the box C/D and C′/D′ RNPs of the archaeal box C/D sRNP complex is required for efficient 2′-O-methylation of target RNAs

    PubMed Central

    TRAN, ELIZABETH; ZHANG, XINXIN; LACKEY, LELA; MAXWELL, E. STUART

    2005-01-01

    RNA-guided nucleotide modification complexes direct the post-transcriptional nucleotide modification of both archaeal and eukaryotic RNAs. We have previously demonstrated that efficient 2′-O-methylation activity guided by an in vitro reconstituted archaeal box C/D sRNP requires juxtaposed box C/D and C′/D′ RNP complexes. In these experiments, we investigate the importance of spatially positioning the box C/D and C′/D′ RNPs within the sRNP complex for nucleotide modification. Initial sequence analysis of 245 archaeal box C/D sRNAs from both Eukyarchaeota and Crenarchaeota kingdoms revealed highly conserved spacing between the box C/D and C′/D′ RNA motifs. Distances between boxes C to D′ and C′ to D (D′ and D spacers, respectively) exhibit highly constrained lengths of 12 nucleotides (nt). Methanocaldococcus jannaschii sR8 sRNA, a model box C/D sRNA with D and D′ spacers of 12 nt, was mutated to alter the distance between the two RNA motifs. sRNAs with longer or shorter spacer regions could still form sRNPs by associating with box C/D core proteins, L7, Nop56/58, and fibrillarin, comparable to wild-type sR8. However, these reconstituted box C/D sRNP complexes were severely deficient in methylation activity. Alteration of the D and D′ spacer lengths disrupted the guided methylation activity of both the box C/D and C′/D′ RNP complexes. When only one spacer region was altered, methylation activity of the corresponding RNP was lost. Collectively, these results demonstrate the importance of box C/D and C′/D′ RNP positioning for preservation of critical inter-RNP interactions required for efficient box C/D sRNP-guided nucleotide methylation. PMID:15661846

  11. HYDROGEN AND VOC RETENTION IN WASTE BOXES

    SciTech Connect

    PACE ME; MARUSICH RM

    2008-11-21

    The Hanford Waste Management Project Master Documented Safety Analysis (MDSA) (HNF-14741, 2003) identifies derived safety controls to prevent or mitigate the risks of a single-container deflagration during operations requiring moving, venting or opening transuranic (TRU)-waste containers. The issue is whether these safety controls are necessary for operations involving TRU-waste boxes that are being retrieved from burial at the Hanford Site. This paper investigates the potential for a deflagration hazard within these boxes and whether safety controls identified for drum deflagration hazards should be applied to operations involving these boxes. The study evaluates the accumulation of hydrogen and VOCs within the waste box and the transport of these gases and vapors out of the waste box. To perform the analysis, there were numerous and major assumptions made regarding the generation rate and the transport pathway dimensions and their number. Since there is little actual data with regards to these assumptions, analyses of three potential configurations were performed to obtain some indication of the bounds of the issue (the concentration of hydrogen or flammable VOCs within a waste box). A brief description of each of the three cases along with the results of the analysis is summarized.

  12. Sport medicine and the ethics of boxing.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, S; Herrera, C D

    1999-12-01

    In the light of medical evidence of the health risks associated with boxing, a watchful agnostic position among sport physicians is no longer justifiable. The normal activity in a boxing match places the athletes at risk of head injury, some of which may be difficult to detect and impossible to repair. This suggests that sport physicians and others expert in the prevention and diagnosis of such injuries should take a public stand against boxing, as other medical associations have. Although there is a need for continuing research into the health risks, doctors can in the interim take steps to increase public awareness of these risks. Sport physicians in particular can make a strong public statement by also ending their professional involvement with boxing. This need not be interpreted as paternalism; doctors are qualified neither to make laws nor to restrict private behaviour. Sport physicians are, however, well equipped to advise those who do make laws and those who choose to engage in boxing. In the end, because this stance against boxing will probably reduce the number of brain injuries in certain athletes, autonomy will be preserved, rather than restricted. PMID:10597855

  13. Amateur boxing: physical and physiological attributes.

    PubMed

    Chaabène, Helmi; Tabben, Montassar; Mkaouer, Bessem; Franchini, Emerson; Negra, Yassine; Hammami, Mehrez; Amara, Samiha; Chaabène, Raja Bouguezzi; Hachana, Younés

    2015-03-01

    Boxing is one of the oldest combat sports. The aim of the current review is to critically analyze the amateur boxer's physical and physiological characteristics and to provide practical recommendations for training as well as new areas of scientific research. High-level male and female boxers show a propensity for low body fat levels. Although studies on boxer somatotypes are limited, the available information shows that elite-level male boxers are characterized by a higher proportion of mesomorphy with a well-developed muscle mass and a low body fat level. To help support the overall metabolic demands of a boxing match and to accelerate the recovery process between rounds, athletes of both sexes require a high level of cardiorespiratory fitness. International boxers show a high peak and mean anaerobic power output. Muscle strength in both the upper and lower limbs is paramount for a fighter's victory and is one of the keys to success in boxing. As boxing punches are brief actions and very dynamic, high-level boxing performance requires well-developed muscle power in both the upper and lower limbs. Albeit limited, the available studies reveal that isometric strength is linked to high-level boxing performance. Future investigations into the physical and physiological attributes of boxers are required to enrich the current data set and to help create a suitable training program. PMID:25358529

  14. Minimum airflow reset of single-duct VAV terminal boxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Young-Hum

    Single duct Variable Air Volume (VAV) systems are currently the most widely used type of HVAC system in the United States. When installing such a system, it is critical to determine the minimum airflow set point of the terminal box, as an optimally selected set point will improve the level of thermal comfort and indoor air quality (IAQ) while at the same time lower overall energy costs. In principle, this minimum rate should be calculated according to the minimum ventilation requirement based on ASHRAE standard 62.1 and maximum heating load of the zone. Several factors must be carefully considered when calculating this minimum rate. Terminal boxes with conventional control sequences may result in occupant discomfort and energy waste. If the minimum rate of airflow is set too high, the AHUs will consume excess fan power, and the terminal boxes may cause significant simultaneous room heating and cooling. At the same time, a rate that is too low will result in poor air circulation and indoor air quality in the air-conditioned space. Currently, many scholars are investigating how to change the algorithm of the advanced VAV terminal box controller without retrofitting. Some of these controllers have been found to effectively improve thermal comfort, indoor air quality, and energy efficiency. However, minimum airflow set points have not yet been identified, nor has controller performance been verified in confirmed studies. In this study, control algorithms were developed that automatically identify and reset terminal box minimum airflow set points, thereby improving indoor air quality and thermal comfort levels, and reducing the overall rate of energy consumption. A theoretical analysis of the optimal minimum airflow and discharge air temperature was performed to identify the potential energy benefits of resetting the terminal box minimum airflow set points. Applicable control algorithms for calculating the ideal values for the minimum airflow reset were developed and

  15. Assimilating Ferry Box data into the Aegean Sea model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korres, G.; Ntoumas, M.; Potiris, M.; Petihakis, G.

    2014-12-01

    Operational monitoring and forecasting of marine environmental conditions is a necessary tool for the effective management and protection of the marine ecosystem. It requires the use of multi-variable real-time measurements combined with advanced physical and ecological numerical models. Towards this, a FerryBox system was originally installed and operated in the route Piraeus-Heraklion in 2003 for one year. Early 2012 the system was upgraded and moved to a new high-speed ferry traveling daily in the same route as before. This route is by large traversing the Cretan Sea being the largest and deepest basin (2500 m) in the south Aegean Sea. The HCMR Ferry Box is today the only one in the Mediterranean and thus it can be considered as a pilot case. The analysis of FerryBox SST and SSS in situ data revealed the presence of important regional and sub-basin scale physical phenomena, such as wind-driven coastal upwelling and the presence of a mesoscale cyclone to the north of Crete. In order to assess the impact of the FerryBox SST data in constraining the Aegean Sea hydrodynamic model which is part of the POSEIDON forecasting system, the in situ data were assimilated using an advanced multivariate assimilation scheme based on the Singular Evolutive Extended Kalman (SEEK) filter, a simplified square-root extended Kalman filter that operates with low-rank error covariance matrices as a way to reduce the computational burden. Thus during the period mid-August 2012-mid January 2013 in addition to the standard assimilating parameters, daily SST data along the ferryboat route from Piraeus to Heraklion were assimilated into the model. Inter-comparisons between the control run of the system (model run that uses only the standard data set of observations) and the experiment where the observational data set is augmented with the FerryBox SST data produce interesting results. Apart from the improvement of the SST error, the additional assimilation of daily of FerryBox SST

  16. New formulation of gamma-Z box corrections to the weak charge of the proton

    SciTech Connect

    P. G. Blunden, W. Melnitchouk, A. W. Thomas

    2011-08-01

    We present a new formulation of one of the major radiative corrections to the weak charge of the proton, that arising from the axial-vector hadron part of the gamma-Z box diagram, ReBox_{gamma-Z}^A. This formulation, based on dispersion relations, relates the gamma-Z contributions with inelastic intermediate states to moments of gamma-Z structure functions. It has a very clear connection to the pioneering work of Marciano and Sirlin, and enables a systematic approach to improved numerical precision. Using the best data currently available, we evaluate the total correction from all intermediate states to be ReBox_{gamma-Z}^A = 0.0055(4) at zero energy and ReBox_{gamma-Z}^A = 0.0045(4) at the kinematics of the Q-weak experiment.

  17. Adobe Boxes: Locating Object Proposals Using Object Adobes.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhiwen; Cao, Zhiguo; Xiao, Yang; Zhu, Lei; Yuan, Junsong

    2016-09-01

    Despite the previous efforts of object proposals, the detection rates of the existing approaches are still not satisfactory enough. To address this, we propose Adobe Boxes to efficiently locate the potential objects with fewer proposals, in terms of searching the object adobes that are the salient object parts easy to be perceived. Because of the visual difference between the object and its surroundings, an object adobe obtained from the local region has a high probability to be a part of an object, which is capable of depicting the locative information of the proto-object. Our approach comprises of three main procedures. First, the coarse object proposals are acquired by employing randomly sampled windows. Then, based on local-contrast analysis, the object adobes are identified within the enlarged bounding boxes that correspond to the coarse proposals. The final object proposals are obtained by converging the bounding boxes to tightly surround the object adobes. Meanwhile, our object adobes can also refine the detection rate of most state-of-the-art methods as a refinement approach. The extensive experiments on four challenging datasets (PASCAL VOC2007, VOC2010, VOC2012, and ILSVRC2014) demonstrate that the detection rate of our approach generally outperforms the state-of-the-art methods, especially with relatively small number of proposals. The average time consumed on one image is about 48 ms, which nearly meets the real-time requirement. PMID:27305680

  18. Wind Turbine Box - energy fluxes around a characteristic wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calaf, Marc; Cortina, Gerard; Sharma, Varun

    2015-11-01

    This research project presents a new tool, so called ``Wind Turbine Box'', that allows for the direct comparison between the flow around a single wind turbine and the flow around a characteristic wind turbine immersed within a large wind farm. The Wind Turbine Box consists of a limited control volume defined around each wind turbine that is timely co-aligned with each corresponding turbine's yaw-angle. Hence it is possible to extract flow statistics around each wind turbine, regardless of whether the turbine is fully isolated or it is plunged within a large wind farm. The Wind Turbine Box tool has been used to compute the energy fluxes around a characteristic wind turbine of a large wind farm to better understand the wake replenishment processes throughout a complete diurnal cycle. The effective loading of the wind farm has been gradually increased, ranging from quasi-isolated wind turbines to a highly packed wind farm. For this purpose, several Large Eddy Simulations have been run, forced with a constant geostrophic wind and a time varying surface temperature extracted from a selected period of the CASES-99 field experiment. Results illustrate the differences in the flow dynamics as it evolves around a characteristic wind turbine within a large wind farm and its asymptotic transition to the fully developed wind turbine array boundary layer.

  19. The development of a reliable amateur boxing performance analysis template.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Edward; Lamb, Kevin; Nicholas, Ceri

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to devise a valid performance analysis system for the assessment of the movement characteristics associated with competitive amateur boxing and assess its reliability using analysts of varying experience of the sport and performance analysis. Key performance indicators to characterise the demands of an amateur contest (offensive, defensive and feinting) were developed and notated using a computerised notational analysis system. Data were subjected to intra- and inter-observer reliability assessment using median sign tests and calculating the proportion of agreement within predetermined limits of error. For all performance indicators, intra-observer reliability revealed non-significant differences between observations (P > 0.05) and high agreement was established (80-100%) regardless of whether exact or the reference value of ±1 was applied. Inter-observer reliability was less impressive for both analysts (amateur boxer and experienced analyst), with the proportion of agreement ranging from 33-100%. Nonetheless, there was no systematic bias between observations for any indicator (P > 0.05), and the proportion of agreement within the reference range (±1) was 100%. A reliable performance analysis template has been developed for the assessment of amateur boxing performance and is available for use by researchers, coaches and athletes to classify and quantify the movement characteristics of amateur boxing. PMID:23121380

  20. CNP2 mRNA directs synthesis of both CNP1 and CNP2 polypeptides.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, R C; Minuk, J; Cox, M E; Braun, P E; Gravel, M

    1997-10-15

    The ribosome scanning model for translational initiation predicts that eukaryotic mRNAs should, as a rule, be monocistronic. However, cases have recently been described of eukaryotic mRNAs producing more than one protein through alternative translational initiation at several different AUG codons. The present work reports the occurrence of two translational start sites on the mRNA encoding isoform 2 of the myelin marker enzyme 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP) in rat and mouse. We show that the CNP2 mRNA is able to direct synthesis of not only CNP2, but also CNP1 polypeptide. Immunoprecipitation experiments using a polyclonal antibody directed against CNP detect both CNP isoforms in tissues or cell lines expressing only the CNP2 transcript. Thus, the synthesis of CNP1 and CNP2 polypeptides must be encoded by the CNP2 transcript. In vitro translation of synthetic CNP2 mRNA demonstrates that both CNP isoforms are synthesized by initiation at different AUG codons. Furthermore, by introducing mutations to "switch off" translation from the second in-frame AUG codon in the CNP2 cDNA, and transfecting 293T cells with those constructs, we are able to correlate the production of CNP1 and CNP2 with different translational start sites. These results lead us to conclude that the CNP2 mRNA is able to produce both CNP1 and CNP2 polypeptides. This investigation has altered our understanding of the temporal expression of the CNP protein isoforms during development of the central nervous system (CNS). PMID:9373034

  1. 46 CFR 111.81-3 - Cables entering boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cables entering boxes. 111.81-3 Section 111.81-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Outlet Boxes and Junction Boxes § 111.81-3 Cables entering boxes. Each cable...

  2. 46 CFR 111.81-3 - Cables entering boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cables entering boxes. 111.81-3 Section 111.81-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Outlet Boxes and Junction Boxes § 111.81-3 Cables entering boxes. Each cable...

  3. 46 CFR 111.81-3 - Cables entering boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cables entering boxes. 111.81-3 Section 111.81-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Outlet Boxes and Junction Boxes § 111.81-3 Cables entering boxes. Each cable...

  4. 46 CFR 111.81-3 - Cables entering boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cables entering boxes. 111.81-3 Section 111.81-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Outlet Boxes and Junction Boxes § 111.81-3 Cables entering boxes. Each cable...

  5. 46 CFR 111.81-3 - Cables entering boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cables entering boxes. 111.81-3 Section 111.81-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Outlet Boxes and Junction Boxes § 111.81-3 Cables entering boxes. Each cable...

  6. 49 CFR 178.517 - Standards for plastic boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for plastic boxes. 178.517 Section 178...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.517 Standards for plastic boxes. (a) The following are identification codes for plastic boxes: (1) 4H1 for an expanded plastic box; and (2) 4H2 for...

  7. 49 CFR 178.517 - Standards for plastic boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for plastic boxes. 178.517 Section 178...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.517 Standards for plastic boxes. (a) The following are identification codes for plastic boxes: (1) 4H1 for an expanded plastic box; and (2) 4H2 for...

  8. 49 CFR 178.517 - Standards for plastic boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for plastic boxes. 178.517 Section 178...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.517 Standards for plastic boxes. (a) The following are identification codes for plastic boxes: (1) 4H1 for an expanded plastic box; and (2) 4H2 for...

  9. 49 CFR 178.517 - Standards for plastic boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for plastic boxes. 178.517 Section 178...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.517 Standards for plastic boxes. (a) The following are identification codes for plastic boxes: (1) 4H1 for an expanded plastic box; and (2) 4H2 for...

  10. 49 CFR 230.101 - Steam locomotive driving journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. 230.101... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.101 Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. (a) Driving journal boxes. Driving journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Not...

  11. 49 CFR 230.101 - Steam locomotive driving journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. 230.101... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.101 Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. (a) Driving journal boxes. Driving journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Not...

  12. 49 CFR 230.101 - Steam locomotive driving journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. 230.101... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.101 Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. (a) Driving journal boxes. Driving journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Not...

  13. 49 CFR 230.101 - Steam locomotive driving journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. 230.101... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.101 Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. (a) Driving journal boxes. Driving journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Not...

  14. 49 CFR 230.101 - Steam locomotive driving journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. 230.101... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.101 Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. (a) Driving journal boxes. Driving journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Not...

  15. Experimental determination of unknown masses and their positions in a mechanical black box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, Bhupati; Pathare, Shirish; Huli, Saurabhee; Nachane, Madhura

    2013-07-01

    An experiment with a mechanical black box containing unknown masses is presented. The experiment involves the determination of these masses and their locations by performing some nondestructive tests. The set-ups are inexpensive and easy to fabricate. They are very useful to gain an understanding of some well-known principles of mechanics.

  16. Experimental Determination of Unknown Masses and Their Positions in a Mechanical Black Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chakrabarti, Bhupati; Pathare, Shirish; Huli, Saurabhee; Nachane, Madhura

    2013-01-01

    An experiment with a mechanical black box containing unknown masses is presented. The experiment involves the determination of these masses and their locations by performing some nondestructive tests. The set-ups are inexpensive and easy to fabricate. They are very useful to gain an understanding of some well-known principles of mechanics.

  17. Slat Heater Boxes for Thermal Vacuum Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, Eugene

    2003-01-01

    Slat heater boxes have been invented for controlling the sink temperatures of objects under test in a thermal vacuum chamber, the walls of which are cooled to the temperature of liquid nitrogen. A slat heater box (see Figure 1) includes a framework of struts that support electrically heated slats that are coated with a high-emissivity optically gray paint. The slats can be grouped together into heater zones for the purpose of maintaining an even temperature within each side. The sink temperature of an object under test is defined as the steady-state temperature of the object in the vacuum/ radiative environment during the absence of any internal heat source or sink. The slat heater box makes it possible to closely control the radiation environment to obtain a desired sink temperature. The slat heater box is placed inside the cold thermal vacuum chamber, and the object under test is placed inside (but not in contact with) the slat heater box. The slat heaters occupy about a third of the field of view from any point on the surface of the object under test, the remainder of the field of view being occupied by the cold chamber wall. Thus, the radiation environment is established by the combined effects of the slat heater box and the cold chamber wall. Given (1) the temperature of the chamber wall, (2) the fractions of the field of view occupied by the chamber wall and the slat heater box, and (3) the emissivities of the slats, chamber wall, and the surface of object under test, the slat temperature required to maintain a desired sink temperature can be calculated by solving the equations of gray-body radiation for the steady-state adiabatic case (equal absorption and emission by the object under test). Slat heater boxes offer an important advantage over the infrared lamps that have been previously used to obtain desired sink temperatures: In comparison with an infrared lamp, a slat heater box provides a greater degree of sink temperature uniformity for a test

  18. BMI Sandwich Wing Box Analysis and Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palm, Tod; Mahler, Mary; Shah, Chandu; Rouse, Marshall; Bush, Harold; Wu, Chauncey; Small, William J.

    2000-01-01

    A composite sandwich single bay wing box test article was developed by Northrop Grumman and tested recently at NASA Langley Research Center. The objectives for the wing box development effort were to provide a demonstration article for manufacturing scale up of structural concepts related to a high speed transport wing, and to validate the structural performance of the design. The box concept consisted of highly loaded composite sandwich wing skins, with moderately loaded composite sandwich spars. The dimensions of the box were chosen to represent a single bay of the main wing box, with a spar spacing of 30 inches, height of 20 inches constant depth, and length of 64 inches. The bismaleimide facesheet laminates and titanium honeycomb core chosen for this task are high temperature materials able to sustain a 300F service temperature. The completed test article is shown in Figure 1. The tests at NASA Langley demonstrated the structures ability to sustain axial tension and compression loads in excess of 20,000 lb/in, and to maintain integrity in the thermal environment. Test procedures, analysis failure predictions, and test results are presented.

  19. Pharmacy Students’ Knowledge of Black Box Warnings

    PubMed Central

    Shireman, Theresa I.; Generali, Joyce; Rigler, Sally; Mayorga, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the progression of pharmacy students’ knowledge of black box warnings across 3 years of didactic training, and to determine how they stay current with new warnings. Methods A cross-sectional survey instrument was administered to pharmacy students in their first (P1), second (P2), and third (P3) professional years. The survey assessed student awareness of medications possessing a black box warning and familiarity with the warning content for 20 medications (15 with and 5 without warnings). Results Mean number of correct responses identifying the presence or absence of a black box warning among the 20 medications were 5.8 ± 3.3, 9.6 ± 4.0, and 14.8 ± 2.8 for the P1, P2, and P3 students, respectively. Knowledge of black box warning content was variable. Students were least aware of the warning content for stavudine and enoxaparin. Students were most familiar with the warning content for paroxetine and estrogen. Conclusion Students’ awareness and understanding of black box warnings was proportional to their educational progression, but their knowledge level was inconsistent across drug groups. PMID:20221356

  20. Mutation of either G box or I box sequences profoundly affects expression from the Arabidopsis rbcS-1A promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Donald, R G; Cashmore, A R

    1990-01-01

    A deletion analysis of the Arabidopsis thaliana rbcS-1A promoter defined a 196 bp region (-320 to -125) sufficient to confer light-regulated expression on a heterologous Arabidopsis alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) reporter gene in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) leaves. This region, which contains DNA sequences I, G and GT boxes, with homology to other ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit (RBCS) gene promoter sequences, directed expression independent of orientation and relative position in the Adh promoter. Site-specific mutagenesis of these conserved sequences and subsequent expression analysis in transgenic tobacco showed that both G box and I box mutations in the context of the full (-1700 to +21) rbcS-1A promoter substantially reduced the expression of Adh and beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter genes. The G box has previously been shown to specifically bind in vitro a factor isolated from nuclear extracts of tomato and Arabidopsis. This factor (GBF) is distinct from the factor GT-1 which binds to adjacent GT boxes in the pea rbcS-3A promoter. Multiple mutations in putative Arabidopsis rbcS-1A promoter GT boxes had no pronounced affect on expression, possibly due to a redundancy of these sites. Experiments in which rbcS-1A promoter fragments were fused to truncated 35S CaMV (cauliflower mosaic virus) promoter--GUS reporter constructs showed that cis-acting CaMV promoter elements could partially restore expression to G-box-mutated rbcS-1A sequences. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:2347304

  1. Black box multigrid solver for definite and indefinite problems

    SciTech Connect

    Shapira, Yair

    1997-02-01

    A two-level analysis method for certain separable problems is introduced. It motivates the definition of improved versions of Black Box Multigrid for diffusion problems with discontinuous coefficients and indefinite Helmholtz equations. For anisotropic problems, it helps in choosing suitable implementations for frequency decomposition multigrid methods. For highly indefinite problems, it provides a way to choose in advance a suitable mesh size for the coarsest grid used. Numerical experiments confirm the analysis and show the advantage of the present methods for several examples.

  2. Nearly Seamless Vacuum-Insulated Boxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepanian, Christopher J.; Ou, Danny; Hu, Xiangjun

    2010-01-01

    A design concept, and a fabrication process that would implement the design concept, have been proposed for nearly seamless vacuum-insulated boxes that could be the main structural components of a variety of controlled-temperature containers, including common household refrigerators and insulating containers for shipping foods. In a typical case, a vacuum-insulated box would be shaped like a rectangular parallelepiped conventional refrigerator box having five fully closed sides and a hinged door on the sixth side. Although it is possible to construct the five-closed-side portion of the box as an assembly of five unitary vacuum-insulated panels, it is not desirable to do so because the relatively high thermal conductances of the seams between the panels would contribute significant amounts of heat leakage, relative to the leakage through the panels themselves. In contrast, the proposal would make it possible to reduce heat leakage by constructing the five-closed-side portion of the box plus the stationary portion (if any) of the sixth side as a single, seamless unit; the only remaining seam would be the edge seal around the door. The basic cross-sectional configuration of each side of a vacuum-insulated box according to the proposal would be that of a conventional vacuum-insulated panel: a low-density, porous core material filling a partially evacuated space between face sheets. However, neither the face sheets nor the core would be conventional. The face sheets would be opposite sides of a vacuum bag. The core material would be a flexible polymer-modified silica aerogel of the type described in Silica/Polymer and Silica/Polymer/Fiber Composite Aero - gels (MSC-23736) in this issue of NASA Tech Briefs. As noted in that article, the stiffness of this core material against compression is greater than that of prior aerogels. This is an important advantage because it translates to greater retention of thickness and, hence, of insulation performance when pressure is

  3. Advances in the theory of box integrals

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, J.M.; Crandall, R.E.

    2009-06-25

    Box integrals - expectations <|{rvec r}|{sup s}> or <|{rvec r}-{rvec q}|{sup s}> over the unit n-cube (or n-box) - have over three decades been occasionally given closed forms for isolated n,s. By employing experimental mathematics together with a new, global analytic strategy, we prove that for n {le} 4 dimensions the box integrals are for any integer s hypergeometrically closed in a sense we clarify herein. For n = 5 dimensions, we show that a single unresolved integral we call K{sub 5} stands in the way of such hyperclosure proofs. We supply a compendium of exemplary closed forms that naturally arise algorithmically from this theory.

  4. Promotion of solar box cooker technology

    SciTech Connect

    Stibravy, R.

    1992-09-01

    Over 1.5 billion people are affected by fuel wood shortage, according to the UN Food and Agricultural Organization. Meanwhile solar cookers are under-exploited. The author presents one version of this technology and discusses how it may be promoted world-wide. The increased use of non fossil fuel energy is essential world-wide in combating global warming trends, preserving the environment, conserving resources and achieving sustainable development. The Solar Box Cooker (SBC) - a box within a box - uses an easily available source of such energy that is also renewable (in contrast to energy that, once used, is not, such as oil, coal, gas, wood). It is also readily available for the developing world, and for much of the developed world too.

  5. Deep shadows in a shallow box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiang; Mohan, Ankit; Tumblin, Jack

    2008-02-01

    We present a fast, low-cost technique to gather high-contrast 'relightable' photographs of desktop-sized objects. Instead of an elaborate light stage, we follow Mohan et al.; we place the object and a digitally steered spotlight inside a white cardboard box, aim the spotlight at the box interior, and move the spot to light the object from N repeatable lighting directions. However, strong ambient lighting from box interreflections causes 'shallow' shadows and reduces contrasts in all basis images. We show how to remove this ambient lighting computationally from the N images, by measuring an N ×N matrix of coupling factors between lighting directions using a mirrorsphere light probe. This linear method, suitable for any light stage, creates physically accurate 'deep shadow' basis images, yet imposes only a modest noise penalty, and does not require external light metering or illumination angle measurements. Results from our demonstration system support these claims.

  6. Measurement of cold neutron spectra using a model cryogenic moderator of the IBR-2M reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulikov, S. A.; Kalinin, I. V.; Morozov, V. M.; Novikov, A. G.; Puchkov, A. V.; Chernikov, A. N.; Shabalin, E. P.

    2010-01-01

    The method and results of an experiment to determine the cold neutron spectrum from solid mesitylene at moderator temperatures of 10-50 K are presented. This study was performed at the DIN-2PI spectrometer of the IBR-2 reactor. The objective of the study was to verify the system of constants used in the Monte Carlo simulation of cryogenic neutron moderators of the IBR-2M reactor and to obtain the cold neutron yield as a function of the moderator temperature. Satisfactory agreement between the experimental and calculated neutron spectra at a mesitylene temperature of 20 K has been obtained; the ratio of cold neutron intensities at 10 and 50 K is ˜1.8.

  7. Ripple reduction and surface coating tests with ferritic steel on JFT-2M

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuzuki, K.; Sato, M.; Kawashima, H.; Miura, Y.; Kimura, H.; Abe, T.; Uehara, K.; Ogawa, T.; Akiyama, T.; Shibata, T.; Yamamoto, M.; Koike, T.

    2000-12-01

    Applicability of the low-activation ferritic steel (F82H), which is one of the candidate materials for next generation fusion devices, has been tested in JFT-2M. Ferritic steel boards (FB) were installed between toroidal field coils (TFC) and the vacuum vessel at all toroidal sections. The experiment and the calculation show that the ripple amplitude decreases from 2.2% to 1.1% by the FB installation at R=1.6 m. The ripple reduction results in the reduction of fast ion loss and in the shift of the ripple loss to the outer region. No undesirable effect to the energy confinement and the plasma control was observed. The FB will be installed inside the vacuum vessel in the near future. In preparation, surface coating tests, mainly concerning with an in situ boron coating, are carried out.

  8. 40 CFR 180.325 - 2-(m-Chlorophenoxy) propionic acid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 2-(m-Chlorophenoxy) propionic acid... Tolerances § 180.325 2-(m-Chlorophenoxy) propionic acid; tolerances for residues. (a) General. A tolerance is established for negligible residues of the plant regulator 2-(m-chlorophenoxy) propionic acid from...

  9. Opening Pandora's Box: The impact of open system modeling on interpretations of anoxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotinski, Roberta M.; Kump, Lee R.; Najjar, Raymond G.

    2000-06-01

    The geologic record preserves evidence that vast regions of ancient oceans were once anoxic, with oxygen levels too low to sustain animal life. Because anoxic conditions have been postulated to foster deposition of petroleum source rocks and have been implicated as a kill mechanism in extinction events, the genesis of such anoxia has been an area of intense study. Most previous models of ocean oxygen cycling proposed, however, have either been qualitative or used closed-system approaches. We reexamine the question of anoxia in open-system box models in order to test the applicability of closed-system results over long timescales and find that open and closed-system modeling results may differ significantly on both short and long timescales. We also compare a scenario with basinwide diffuse upwelling (a three-box model) to a model with upwelling concentrated in the Southern Ocean (a four-box model). While a three-box modeling approach shows that only changes in high-latitude convective mixing rate and character of deepwater sources are likely to cause anoxia, four-box model experiments indicate that slowing of thermohaline circulation, a reduction in wind-driven upwelling, and changes in high-latitude export production may also cause dysoxia or anoxia in part of the deep ocean on long timescales. These results suggest that box models must capture the open-system and vertically stratified nature of the ocean to allow meaningful interpretations of long-lived episodes of anoxia.

  10. Conventional box model training improves laparoscopic skills during salpingectomy on LapSim: a randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Akdemir, Ali; Ergenoğlu, Ahmet Mete; Yeniel, Ahmet Özgür; Şendağ, Fatih

    2013-01-01

    Objective Box model trainers have been used for many years to facilitate the improvement of laparoscopic skills. However, there are limited data available on box trainers and their impact on skill acquisition, assessed by virtual reality systems. Material and Methods Twenty-two Postgraduate Year 1 gynecology residents with no laparoscopic experience were randomly divided into one group that received structured box model training and a control group. All residents performed a salpingectomy on LapSim before and after the training. Performances before and after the training were assessed using LapSim and were recorded using objective parameters, registered by a computer system (time, damage, and economy of motion scores). Results There were initially no differences between the two groups. The box trainer group showed significantly greater improvement in time (p=0.01) and economy of motion scores (p=0.001) compared with the control group post-training. Conclusion The present study confirmed the positive effect of low cost box model training on laparoscopic skill acquisition as assessed using LapSim. Novice surgeons should obtain practice on box trainers and teaching centers should make efforts to establish training laboratories. PMID:24592096

  11. The plant G box promoter sequence activates transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is bound in vitro by a yeast activity similar to GBF, the plant G box binding factor.

    PubMed Central

    Donald, R G; Schindler, U; Batschauer, A; Cashmore, A R

    1990-01-01

    G box and I box sequences of the Arabidopsis thaliana ribulose-bisphosphate-1,5-carboxylase small subunit (RBCS) promoter are required for expression mediated by the Arabidopsis rbcS-1A promoter in transgenic tobacco plants and are bound in vitro by factors from plant nuclear extracts termed GBF and GA-1, respectively. We show here that a -390 to -60 rbcS-1A promoter fragment containing the G box and two I boxes activates transcription from a truncated iso-1-cytochrome c (CYC1) gene promoter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mutagenesis of either the rbcS-1A G box or both I box sequences eliminated the expression mediated by this fragment. When polymerized, I box oligonucleotides were also capable of enhancing expression from the truncated CYC1 promoter. Single-copy G box sequences from the Arabidopsis rbcS-1A, Arabidopsis Adh and tomato rbcS-3A promoters were more potent activators and were used in mobility shift assays to identify a DNA binding activity in yeast functionally similar to GBF. In methylation interference experiments, the binding specificity of the yeast protein was indistinguishable from that obtained with plant nuclear extracts. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:2161333

  12. High Beta Steady State Research and Future Directions on JT-60U and JFT-2M

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, Shinichi

    2003-10-01

    JT-60U and JFT-2M research is focused on high beta steady state operation towards economically and environmentally attractive reactors. In JT-60U, a high-βp H-mode plasma was sustained with βN 2.7 for 7.4 s in which neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) limited the attainable β_N. Real-time tracking NTM stabilization system using ECCD demonstrated complete suppression of NTM leading to recovery of βN before onset of NTM. Performance in a fully non-inductive H-mode plasma was improved up to n_i(0) τE T_i(0) = 3.1 x 10^20 keV s m-3 using N-NBCD with βN 2.4, HH_y,2=1.2 and bootstrap fraction f_BS 0.5. ECH experiments extended the confinement enhancement for dominantly electron heated reversed shear plasmas up to HH_y,2 2 at T_e/Ti 1.25. A world record ECCD efficiency, 4.2 x 10^18 A/W/m^2, was achieved at Te 23 keV with a highly localized central current density. Innovative initiation and current build-up without center solenoid currents were established by LHCD/ECH and bootstrap current up to f_BS 0.9. In JFT-2M, the inside of the vacuum vessel wall was fully covered with low-activation ferritic steel plates to investigate their use in plasmas near fusion conditions. High βN plasmas were produced up to βN = 3.3 with an internal transport barrier (ITB) and a steady H-mode edge. A new H-mode regime with steady high recycling (HRS) and an ITB was exploited leading to βN H_89P 6.2 at n_e/nG 0.7. In 2003, JT-60U will be able to operate for the duration up to 65 s at 1 MA/2.7 T and the heating/current-drive duration up to 30 s at 17 MW to prolong high-βN and/or high-f_BS discharges with feedback controls. JFT-2M is planning to implement wall stabilization experiments in 2004 to pursue plasmas above the ideal no-wall limit using a ferritic wall. The modification of JT-60 to a fully superconducting tokamak is under discussion to explore high-β steady state operation in collision-less plasmas well above no-wall limit with ferritic wall in a steady state.

  13. Box truss development and its application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coyner, J. V.

    1985-01-01

    Since 1977, Martin Marietta Denver Aerospace has aggressively pursued development of deployable structural systems applicable to a wide variety of Shuttle-transportable large space system requirements. This effort has focused on the deployable box truss, mechanisms and materials development, mesh reflector design and fabrication, gate frame truss design and fabrication, and offset-fed antenna design and analysis. The activities discussed are: box truss design; metal matrix composites; precision joints; enhanced passive damping design; mesh reflector development; gate frame truss for solar arrays; 15-meter spinning radio meter; and 60 x 120 meter push broom antenna.

  14. FRAC-IN-THE-BOX utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, D.G.; West, J.T.

    1989-06-01

    FRAC-IN-THE-BOX is a computer code developed to calculate the fractions of rectangular parallelepiped mesh cell volumes that are intersected by combinatorial geometry type zones. The geometry description used in the code is a subset of the combinatorial geometry used in SABRINA. The input file may be read into SABRINA and three dimensional plots made of the input geometry. The volume fractions for those portions of the geometry that are too complicated to describe with the geometry routines provided in FRAC-IN-THE-BOX may be calculated in SABRINA and merged with the volume fractions computed for the remainder of the geometry. 21 figs., 1 tab.

  15. CASAS: A Smart Home in a Box.

    PubMed

    Cook, Diane J; Crandall, Aaron S; Thomas, Brian L; Krishnan, Narayanan C

    2013-07-01

    While the potential benefits of smart home technology are widely recognized, a lightweight design is needed for the benefits to be realized at a large scale. We introduce the CASAS "smart home in a box", a lightweight smart home design that is easy to install and provides smart home capabilities out of the box with no customization or training. We discuss types of data analysis that have been performed by the CASAS group and can be pursued in the future by using this approach to designing and implementing smart home technologies. PMID:24415794

  16. Notes on Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Education, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Describes four physics experiments including "Investigation of Box Resonances Using a Micro"; "A Direct Reading Wattmeter, DC or AC"; "Exercises in the Application of Ohm's Law"; and "Hysteresis on Gas Discharges." Discusses procedures, instrumentation, and analysis in each example. (CW)

  17. An explanation of the preferential formation of less stable isomers in three-body reactions - Cl + NO2 + M; ClO + NO2 + M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, J. S.; Baldwin, A. C.; Golden, D. M.

    1979-01-01

    A realistic assessment of the potential depletion of stratospheric ozone due to manmade emissions requires a knowledge of the sources and sinks of the potential threat. The reactions ClO + NO2 + M yield products and Cl + NO2 + M yield products are of interest because they represent possible sink mechanism for both odd chlorine and odd nitrogen species. In this paper, the Troe method (1977) is used to calculate the low-pressure limit rate constants of the above three-body reactions. The result for the Cl + NO2 + M reaction is found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental finding of Niki et al. (1978), where both nitryl chloride and chlorine nitrate are products of the cited reaction. An explanation is proposed to account for apparent discrepancy between the measured rate constants for ClO + NO2 + M in the forward and reverse directions. Stratospheric implications are also discussed.

  18. The Spatial-Functional Coupling of Box C/D and C′/D′ RNPs Is an Evolutionarily Conserved Feature of the Eukaryotic Box C/D snoRNP Nucleotide Modification Complex ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Guosheng; van Nues, Rob W.; Watkins, Nicholas J.; Maxwell, E. Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Box C/D ribonucleoprotein particles guide the 2′-O-ribose methylation of target nucleotides in both archaeal and eukaryotic RNAs. These complexes contain two functional centers, assembled around the C/D and C′/D′ motifs in the box C/D RNA. The C/D and C′/D′ RNPs of the archaeal snoRNA-like RNP (sRNP) are spatially and functionally coupled. Here, we show that similar coupling also occurs in eukaryotic box C/D snoRNPs. The C/D RNP guided 2′-O-methylation when the C′/D′ motif was either mutated or ablated. In contrast, the C′/D′ RNP was inactive as an independent complex. Additional experiments demonstrated that the internal C′/D′ RNP is spatially coupled to the terminal box C/D complex. Pulldown experiments also indicated that all four core proteins are independently recruited to the box C/D and C′/D′ motifs. Therefore, the spatial-functional coupling of box C/D and C′/D′ RNPs is an evolutionarily conserved feature of both archaeal and eukaryotic box C/D RNP complexes. PMID:21041475

  19. The spatial-functional coupling of box C/D and C'/D' RNPs is an evolutionarily conserved feature of the eukaryotic box C/D snoRNP nucleotide modification complex.

    PubMed

    Qu, Guosheng; van Nues, Rob W; Watkins, Nicholas J; Maxwell, E Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Box C/D ribonucleoprotein particles guide the 2'-O-ribose methylation of target nucleotides in both archaeal and eukaryotic RNAs. These complexes contain two functional centers, assembled around the C/D and C'/D' motifs in the box C/D RNA. The C/D and C'/D' RNPs of the archaeal snoRNA-like RNP (sRNP) are spatially and functionally coupled. Here, we show that similar coupling also occurs in eukaryotic box C/D snoRNPs. The C/D RNP guided 2'-O-methylation when the C'/D' motif was either mutated or ablated. In contrast, the C'/D' RNP was inactive as an independent complex. Additional experiments demonstrated that the internal C'/D' RNP is spatially coupled to the terminal box C/D complex. Pulldown experiments also indicated that all four core proteins are independently recruited to the box C/D and C'/D' motifs. Therefore, the spatial-functional coupling of box C/D and C'/D' RNPs is an evolutionarily conserved feature of both archaeal and eukaryotic box C/D RNP complexes. PMID:21041475

  20. Nondestructive assay of boxed radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Gilles, W.P.; Roberts, R.J.; Jasen, W.G.

    1992-12-01

    This paper describes the problems related to the nondestructive assay (NDA) of boxed radioactive waste at the Hanford Site and how Westinghouse Hanford company (WHC) is solving the problems. The waste form and radionuclide content are described. The characteristics of the combined neutron and gamma-based measurement system are described.

  1. Reading for the Able: The Think Box.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Jack

    1983-01-01

    A Think Box is a collection of independent activities based on one theme and housed in an easily transportable container. It is intended to be used as enrichment for students who have already completed their assigned work. The activities are designed to develop higher level skills such as critical thinking or creative reading. They can be part of…

  2. 30 CFR 56.12006 - Distribution boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distribution boxes. 56.12006 Section 56.12006 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity §...

  3. 30 CFR 56.12006 - Distribution boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Distribution boxes. 56.12006 Section 56.12006 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity §...

  4. The "Build-the-Box" Lesson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penrose, John M.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a "build-the-box" lesson to develop a better understanding of writing useful and effective instructions. Considers how the lack of instruction with this assignment compels students to think creatively to complete the project. Concludes that many students realize the difficulty in creating easy-to-understand instructions. Enhances the…

  5. On the Strength of Box Type Fuselages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathar, J

    1929-01-01

    The present investigation relates to a box-type fuselage with sides consisting of thin smooth sheet metal, stiffened by longitudinal members riveted to the flanged channel-section bulkheads or transverse frames and to the semicircular corrugated corner stiffenings. The results obtained in this particular case can be applied to a great number of similar structures.

  6. 30 CFR 57.12006 - Distribution boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Distribution boxes. 57.12006 Section 57.12006 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity...

  7. 30 CFR 56.12006 - Distribution boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Distribution boxes. 56.12006 Section 56.12006 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity §...

  8. 30 CFR 56.12006 - Distribution boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Distribution boxes. 56.12006 Section 56.12006 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity §...

  9. 30 CFR 56.12006 - Distribution boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Distribution boxes. 56.12006 Section 56.12006 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity §...

  10. 30 CFR 57.12006 - Distribution boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Distribution boxes. 57.12006 Section 57.12006 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity...

  11. One-Dimensional Oscillator in a Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amore, Paolo; Fernandez, Francisco M.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss a quantum-mechanical model of two particles that interact by means of a harmonic potential and are confined to a one-dimensional box with impenetrable walls. We apply perturbation theory to the cases of different and equal masses and analyse the symmetry of the states in the latter case. We compare the approximate perturbation results…

  12. Cereal Box Design: An Interdisciplinary Graphics Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Mike; Tsosie, Teri

    2012-01-01

    The cereal box design activity is intriguing both for its simplicity and the resourcefulness that it can generate in young people. Also, it lends itself to a variety of curriculums. It covers both consumerism and Design for the Environment (DfE) concepts broadly and in depth. The activity introduces a wide range of topics. They include graphic…

  13. Using Story Boxes in Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Rita

    2009-01-01

    Story boxes and story bags are containers for holding realia that are used to enhance reading and provide a variety of activities for encouraging language acquisition and use. Whatever the packaging, these are good ways to develop students' interest in books. Using realia, or real-life objects, to teach a foreign language is not a novel concept.…

  14. Hazard Analysis of Japanese Boxed Lunches (Bento).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Frank L.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    For the purposes of identifying contaminants, of assessing risks, and of determining critical food processing control points, hazard analyses were conducted at two "bento" (oriental boxed meals) catering operations. Time and temperature abuses during the holding period, after cooking and prior to consumption, were found to be the primary reason…

  15. Argon purge gas cooled by chill box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiro, L. W.

    1966-01-01

    Cooling argon purge gas by routing it through a shop-fabricated chill box reduces charring of tungsten inert gas torch head components. The argon gas is in a cooled state as it enters the torch and prevents buildup of char caused by the high concentrations of heat in the weld area during welding operations.

  16. Nest Boxes Artificial Homes for Woodland Mammals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Daniel J.; Kelley, John W.

    1983-01-01

    Provides instructions for constructing artificial "homes" for squirrels, raccoons, and rabbits. These include squirrel dens constructed from discarded automobile tires and squirrel nest boxes, raccoon dens, and rabbit burrows constructed from wood. Includes a chart giving dimensions of materials needed and suggestions on where to place the…

  17. Comparing Box Plot Distributions: A Teacher's Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfannkuch, Maxine

    2006-01-01

    Drawing conclusions from the comparison of datasets using informal statistical inference is a challenging task since the nature and type of reasoning expected is not fully understood. In this paper a secondary teacher's reasoning from the comparison of box plot distributions during the teaching of a Year 11 (15-year-old) class is analyzed. From…

  18. Trial Run of a Junction-Box Attachment Test for Use in Photovoltaic Module Qualification (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.; Deibert, S.; Wohlgemuth, J.

    2014-06-01

    Engineering robust adhesion of the junction-box (j-box) is a hurdle typically encountered by photovoltaic (PV) module manufacturers during product development and manufacturing process control. There are historical incidences of adverse effects (e.g., fires), caused when the j-box/adhesive/module system has failed in the field. The addition of a weight to the j-box during the 'damp-heat', 'thermal-cycle', or 'creep' tests within the IEC qualification protocol is proposed to verify the basic robustness of the adhesion system. The details of the proposed test are described, in addition to a trial run of the test procedure. The described experiments examine 4 moisture-cured silicones, 4 foam tapes, and a hot-melt adhesive used in conjunction with glass, KPE, THV, and TPE substrates. For the purpose of validating the experiment, j-boxes were adhered to a substrate, loaded with a prescribed weight, and then subjected to aging. The replicate mock-modules were aged in an environmental chamber (at 85 deg C/85% relative humidity for 1000 hours; then 100 degrees C/<10% relative humidity for 200 hours) or fielded in Golden, Miami, and Phoenix for 1 year. Attachment strength tests, including pluck and shear test geometries, were also performed on smaller component specimens.

  19. box modeling of the eastern mediterranean sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashkenazy, Y.; Stone, P. H.

    2003-04-01

    Recently (~1990) a new source of deep water formation in the Eastern Mediterranean was found in the southern part of the Aegean sea. Till then, the only source of deep water formation in the Eastern Mediterranean was in the Adriatic sea; the rate of the deep water formation of the new Aegean source is 1Sv=10^6m^3/s, three times larger then the Adriatic source. We develop a simple 3 box-model to study the stability of the thermohaline circulation of the Eastern Mediterranean sea. The 3 boxes represent the Adriatic sea, Aegean sea, and the Ionian sea. The boxes exchange heat and salinity and may be described by a set of nonlinear differential equations. We analytically analyze these equations and find that the system may have one, two, or four stable flux states. We consider two cases for which the temperatures of the boxes are (i) fixed or (ii) variable. After setting the parameters to correspond to the Eastern Mediterranean we find that the system has two stable states, one with (i) two thermally dominant sources of deep water formation in the Adriatic and Aegean and the other with (ii) a salinity dominant source of deep water formation in the Adriatic and a thermally dominant source in the Aegean. While the Adriatic thermally dominant source is comparable to the observed flux of 0.3Sv the Aegean source has much smaller flux than the observed value. This situation is analogous to the state of the thermohaline circulation pre 1990 where the only source of deep water formation was in the Adriatic. If we decrease the atmospheric temperature of the Aegean box by 2C in accordance with recent observations, we find that the deep water formation of the Aegean increases significantly to a value comparable to the recently observed flux.

  20. Boundary Layer Measurements in Complex Terrain: Innsbruck-Box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiperski, I.; Rotach, M. W.; Gohm, A.

    2012-04-01

    Planetary boundary layers in complex terrain remain one of the major challenges of today's boundary layer research. Our current knowledge of the characteristics of the turbulence structure and exchange processes in truly complex topography remains limited. Not only is there no suitable theory, it is not known if all the relevant processes such a theory should explain are accounted for. Meanwhile, the increasing resolution of both numerical weather prediction and regional climate models demands precisely such information for improving model performance. Except for a few recent field campaigns, limited both in time and focus, no measurement platform in highly complex terrain is available to date that would be able to provide a complete dataset of boundary layer information in sufficient complexity, resolution and covering all regimes of interest both for model validation and resolving the remaining scientific questions. The Dynamic Meteorology Group of the Institute of Meteorology and Geophysics, University of Innsbruck is presently setting up such a 'reference box', which aims to fill in this gap. It will consist of a combination of high-resolution long-term turbulence observations in an area in the vicinity of Innsbruck (hence the 'Innsbruck-Box') and high-resolution numerical modeling. Whereas the data provided by measurements will allow for improvements in process understanding and model validation, the numerical modeling will be used to fill the data gaps in areas where no measurements are possible or the current measurement techniques are inadequate. Also, numerical experiments using idealized terrain or settings can be performed in order to test hypotheses deduced from the observations. The Innsbruck-Box is designed to be a long-term reference platform for studying boundary layer processes in highly complex terrain with an integrated measurement approach. Sites are located in the Inn-Valley, an approximately East-West oriented valley in western Austria

  1. Bilirubin oxidation products (BOXes): synthesis, stability and chemical characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Wurster, W. L.; Pyne-Geithman, G. J.; Peat, I. R.; Clark, J. F.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Bilirubin oxidation products (BOXes) have been a subject of interest in neurosurgery because they are purported to be involved in subarachnoid hemorrhage induced cerebral vasospasm. There is a growing body of information concerning their putative role in vasospasm; however, there is a dearth of information concerning the chemical and biochemical characteristics of BOXes. A clearer understanding of the synthesis, stability and characteristics of BOXes will be important for a better understanding of the role of BOXes post subarachnoid hemorrhage. We used hydrogen peroxide to oxidize bilirubin and produce BOXes. BOXes were extracted and analyzed using conventional methods such as HPLC and mass spectrometry. Characterization of the stability BOXes demonstrates that light can photodegrade BOXes with a t1/2 of up to 10 h depending upon conditions. Mixed isomers of BOXes have an apparent extinction coefficient of ε = 6985, and a λmax of 310 nm. BOXes are produced by the oxidation of bilirubin, yielding a mixture of isomers: 4-methyl-5-oxo-3-vinyl-(1,5-dihydropyrrol-2-ylidene)acetamide (BOX A) and 3-methyl-5-oxo-4-vinyl-(1,5-dihydropyrrol-2-ylidene)acetamide (BOX B). The BOXes are photodegraded by ambient light and can be analyzed spectrophotometrically with their extinction coefficient as well as with HPLC or mass spectrometry. Their small molecular weight and photodegradation may have made them difficult to characterize in previous studies. PMID:18456996

  2. Mortality of riparian box elder from sediment mobilization and extended inundation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, J.M.; Auble, G.T.

    1999-01-01

    To explore how high flows limit the streamward extent of riparian vegetation we quantified the effects of sediment mobilization and extended inundation on box elder (Acer negundo) saplings along the cobble-bed Gunnison River in Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Monument, Colorado, USA. We counted and aged box elders in 144 plots of 37.2 m2, and combined a hydraulic model with the hydrologic record to determine the maximum shear stress and number of growing-season days inundated for each plot in each year of the record. We quantified the effects of the two mortality factors by calculating the extreme values survived during the lifetime of trees sampled in 1994 and by recounting box elders in the plots following a high flow in 1995. Both mortality factors can be modeled as threshold functions; box elders are killed either by inundation for more than 85 days during the growing season or by shear stress that exceeds the critical value for mobilization of the underlying sediment particles. Construction of upstream reservoirs in the 1960s and 1970s reduced the proportion of the canyon bottom annually cleared of box elders by high flows. Furthermore, because the dams decreased the magnitude of high flows more than their duration, flow regulation has decreased the importance of sediment mobilization relative to extended inundation. We use the threshold functions and cross-section data to develop a response surface predicting the proportion of the canyon bottom cleared at any combination of flow magnitude and duration. This response surface allows vegetation removal to be incorporated into quantitative multi-objective water management decisions. Copyright ?? 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. 22. Steering gear box and wheel from starboard side. Mizzen ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Steering gear box and wheel from starboard side. Mizzen boom has been removed for repairs (note boom cradle just forward of steering gear box). - Schooner C.A. THAYER, Hyde Street Pier, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  4. The Box Turtle: Room with a View on Species Decline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belzer, Bill; Steisslinger, Mary Beth

    1999-01-01

    Surveys salient aspects of eastern box-turtle natural history. Explores the societal and ecological factors that have contributed to the decline of the box-turtle population. Contains 18 references. (WRM)

  5. A one piece wall box for space electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, W.H.

    1995-05-01

    In extraterrestrial applications, satellite payloads have printed circuit modules that are housed in boxes or chassis. The box may be a one piece wall or a segmented wall. These two wall options are compared for function and cost.

  6. Roles of F-box proteins in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiwei; Liu, Pengda; Inuzuka, Hiroyuki; Wei, Wenyi

    2015-01-01

    F-box proteins, which are the substrate-recognition subunits of SKP1–cullin 1–F-box protein (SCF) E3 ligase complexes, have pivotal roles in multiple cellular processes through ubiquitylation and subsequent degradation of target proteins. Dysregulation of F-box protein-mediated proteolysis leads to human malignancies. Notably, inhibitors that target F-box proteins have shown promising therapeutic potential, urging us to review the current understanding of how F-box proteins contribute to tumorigenesis. As the physiological functions for many of the 69 putative F-box proteins remain elusive, additional genetic and mechanistic studies will help to define the role of each F-box protein in tumorigenesis, thereby paving the road for the rational design of F-box protein-targeted anticancer therapies. PMID:24658274

  7. 24. A CORE WORKER DISPLAYS THE CORE BOX AND CORES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. A CORE WORKER DISPLAYS THE CORE BOX AND CORES FOR A BRASS GATE VALVE BODY MADE ON A CORE BOX, CA. 1950. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  8. 25. Emplacement no. 1, view to southwest in terminal box ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Emplacement no. 1, view to southwest in terminal box room, showing terminal box; largest of the cables extends to gun platform - Fort Wadsworth Battery Romeyn B. Ayers, South side of Ayers Road, Staten Island, Rosebank, Richmond County, NY

  9. SATELLITE Capabilities and Limitations for the ACPC Box Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    This presentation was given at the Aerosol-Clouds-Precipitation-Climate (ACPC) Workshop held at NASA GISS in April 2015. The organizers of the meeting plan to post the presentations to a public website maintained by the University of Leipzig.

  10. Experiences with an Outdoor Prop Box: Addressing Standards during Recess

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanvey, Celeste Elaine

    2010-01-01

    When educators take play out of schools, children learn to separate play from learning. In reality, children access learning "through" play. Despite research efforts to promote the academic, physical, and cognitive importance of play in the lives of children, some school systems have reduced or eliminated playtime for young children. In order to…

  11. Ballast system for maintaining constant pressure in a glove box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shlichta, Paul J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A ballast system for a glove box including a fixed platform on which is mounted an inflatable bag on top of which resides a cover and a weight. The variable gas volume of the inflatable bag communicates with that of the glove box via a valved tube. The weight and gas volume are selected to maintain a relatively constant pressure in the glove box despite variations in the glove box volume while avoiding the use of complicated valving apparatus.

  12. On resolving 2M - 1 narrow-band signals with an M sensor uniform linear array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Douglas B.; Johnson, Don H.

    1992-01-01

    Length 2M real signal vectors are used to address the problem of determining the maximum number of narrow-band signals whose parameters can be estimated with a linear array of M equally spaced sensors. It is shown that 2M of these real vectors are linearly independent with probability one, and, thus in the presence of additive white noise, the parameters of 2M - 1 signals can be estimated. An algorithm for determining directions and amplitudes is presented.

  13. 30 CFR 57.12007 - Junction box connection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Junction box connection procedures. 57.12007... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12007 Junction box connection procedures. Trailing cable and power-cable connections to junction boxes shall not be made or broken under load....

  14. 30 CFR 57.12007 - Junction box connection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Junction box connection procedures. 57.12007... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12007 Junction box connection procedures. Trailing cable and power-cable connections to junction boxes shall not be made or broken under load....

  15. 30 CFR 57.12007 - Junction box connection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Junction box connection procedures. 57.12007... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12007 Junction box connection procedures. Trailing cable and power-cable connections to junction boxes shall not be made or broken under load....

  16. 30 CFR 57.12007 - Junction box connection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Junction box connection procedures. 57.12007... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12007 Junction box connection procedures. Trailing cable and power-cable connections to junction boxes shall not be made or broken under load....

  17. 30 CFR 57.12007 - Junction box connection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Junction box connection procedures. 57.12007... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12007 Junction box connection procedures. Trailing cable and power-cable connections to junction boxes shall not be made or broken under load....

  18. 30 CFR 18.49 - Connection boxes on machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Connection boxes on machines. 18.49 Section 18... Design Requirements § 18.49 Connection boxes on machines. Connection boxes used to facilitate replacement of cables or machine components shall be explosion-proof. Portable-cable terminals on cable...

  19. 30 CFR 18.49 - Connection boxes on machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Connection boxes on machines. 18.49 Section 18... Design Requirements § 18.49 Connection boxes on machines. Connection boxes used to facilitate replacement of cables or machine components shall be explosion-proof. Portable-cable terminals on cable...

  20. 30 CFR 18.49 - Connection boxes on machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Connection boxes on machines. 18.49 Section 18... Design Requirements § 18.49 Connection boxes on machines. Connection boxes used to facilitate replacement of cables or machine components shall be explosion-proof. Portable-cable terminals on cable...

  1. 30 CFR 18.49 - Connection boxes on machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Connection boxes on machines. 18.49 Section 18... Design Requirements § 18.49 Connection boxes on machines. Connection boxes used to facilitate replacement of cables or machine components shall be explosion-proof. Portable-cable terminals on cable...

  2. 30 CFR 18.49 - Connection boxes on machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Connection boxes on machines. 18.49 Section 18... Design Requirements § 18.49 Connection boxes on machines. Connection boxes used to facilitate replacement of cables or machine components shall be explosion-proof. Portable-cable terminals on cable...

  3. Using Origami Boxes to Explore Concepts of Geometry and Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wares, Arsalan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this classroom note is to provide an example of how a simple origami box can be used to explore important concepts of geometry and calculus. This article describes how an origami box can be folded, then it goes on to describe how its volume and surface area can be calculated. Finally, it describes how the box could be folded to…

  4. 49 CFR 178.515 - Standards for reconstituted wood boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for reconstituted wood boxes. 178.515... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.515 Standards for reconstituted wood boxes. (a) The identification code for a reconstituted wood box is 4F. (b) Construction requirements...

  5. 49 CFR 178.515 - Standards for reconstituted wood boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for reconstituted wood boxes. 178.515... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.515 Standards for reconstituted wood boxes. (a) The identification code for a reconstituted wood box is 4F. (b) Construction requirements...

  6. 49 CFR 178.515 - Standards for reconstituted wood boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for reconstituted wood boxes. 178.515... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.515 Standards for reconstituted wood boxes. (a) The identification code for a reconstituted wood box is 4F. (b) Construction requirements...

  7. 49 CFR 178.515 - Standards for reconstituted wood boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for reconstituted wood boxes. 178.515... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.515 Standards for reconstituted wood boxes. (a) The identification code for a reconstituted wood box is 4F. (b) Construction requirements...

  8. 30 CFR 77.1002 - Box cuts; spoil material placement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Box cuts; spoil material placement. 77.1002 Section 77.1002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Ground Control § 77.1002 Box cuts; spoil material placement. When box cuts are...

  9. 30 CFR 77.1002 - Box cuts; spoil material placement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Box cuts; spoil material placement. 77.1002 Section 77.1002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Ground Control § 77.1002 Box cuts; spoil material placement. When box cuts are...

  10. Transformative Environmental Education: Stepping Outside the Curriculum Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Environmental education has become trapped in the curriculum box. At a time when our students' generation is becoming trapped in a global warming box, their education needs to be rapidly adaptable to the changing state of their planet. Venturing outside the curriculum box takes courage, creativity, and a willingness to let nature serve as the…

  11. 49 CFR 230.103 - Tender roller bearing journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tender roller bearing journal boxes. 230.103... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.103 Tender roller bearing journal boxes. Tender roller bearing journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition....

  12. 49 CFR 230.103 - Tender roller bearing journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tender roller bearing journal boxes. 230.103... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.103 Tender roller bearing journal boxes. Tender roller bearing journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition....

  13. 49 CFR 230.103 - Tender roller bearing journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender roller bearing journal boxes. 230.103... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.103 Tender roller bearing journal boxes. Tender roller bearing journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition....

  14. 49 CFR 230.102 - Tender plain bearing journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tender plain bearing journal boxes. 230.102... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.102 Tender plain bearing journal boxes. Plain bearing journal boxes... expected to damage the bearing; or have a detrimental effect on the lubrication of the journal and...

  15. 49 CFR 230.102 - Tender plain bearing journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tender plain bearing journal boxes. 230.102... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.102 Tender plain bearing journal boxes. Plain bearing journal boxes... expected to damage the bearing; or have a detrimental effect on the lubrication of the journal and...

  16. 49 CFR 230.103 - Tender roller bearing journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tender roller bearing journal boxes. 230.103... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.103 Tender roller bearing journal boxes. Tender roller bearing journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition....

  17. 49 CFR 230.102 - Tender plain bearing journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender plain bearing journal boxes. 230.102... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.102 Tender plain bearing journal boxes. Plain bearing journal boxes... expected to damage the bearing; or have a detrimental effect on the lubrication of the journal and...

  18. 49 CFR 230.102 - Tender plain bearing journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tender plain bearing journal boxes. 230.102... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.102 Tender plain bearing journal boxes. Plain bearing journal boxes... expected to damage the bearing; or have a detrimental effect on the lubrication of the journal and...

  19. 49 CFR 230.103 - Tender roller bearing journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tender roller bearing journal boxes. 230.103... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.103 Tender roller bearing journal boxes. Tender roller bearing journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition....

  20. 49 CFR 230.102 - Tender plain bearing journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tender plain bearing journal boxes. 230.102... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.102 Tender plain bearing journal boxes. Plain bearing journal boxes... expected to damage the bearing; or have a detrimental effect on the lubrication of the journal and...

  1. Clocks, Cameras, and Chatter, Chatter, Chatter: Activity Boxes as Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suskind, Diane; Kittel, Jeanie

    1989-01-01

    Describes activity boxes which can be used in early childhood classrooms to further curriculum and development goals. Activity boxes are containers filled with related objects categorized by color, shape, or material which encourage children to explore, sort, and manipulate real things. Discusses goals and lists contents for 24 activity boxes.…

  2. 46. DETAIL VIEW OF THE MORTAR BOXES, STAMP BATTERIES AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. DETAIL VIEW OF THE MORTAR BOXES, STAMP BATTERIES AND AMALGAMATION TABLES. NOTE FULTON IRON WORKS, SAM FRANCISCO 1908 STAMPED INTO THE MORTAR BOX. ALSO NOTE THE DIES RESTING ON THE OUTSIDE OF THE MORTAR BOX BY THE SECOND STAMP BATTERY FROM THE CAMERA POSITION. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

  3. 49 CFR 178.517 - Standards for plastic boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.517 Standards for plastic boxes. (a) The... plastic material of the box. Other closing devices at least equally effective may be used. (4) For solid... contents and remain effective throughout the life of the box. Where use is made of carbon black pigment...

  4. Flutter analysis of composite box beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, Dewey H.; Greenman, Matthew

    1995-01-01

    The dynamic aeroelastic instability of flutter is an important factor in the design of modern high-speed, flexible aircraft. The current trend is toward the creative use of composites to delay flutter. To obtain an optimum design, we need an accurate as well as efficient model. As a first step towards this goal, flutter analysis is carried out for an unswept composite box beam using a linear structural model and Theodorsen's unsteady aerodynamic theory. Structurally, the wing was modeled as a thin-walled box-beam of rectangular cross section. Theodorsen's theory was used to get 2-D unsteady aerodynamic forces, which were integrated over the span. A free-vibration analysis is carried out. These fundamental modes are used to get the flutter solution using the V-g method. Future work is intended to build on this foundation.

  5. Beyond the Black Box Approach to Ethics!

    PubMed Central

    Sandman, Lars; Gustavsson, Erik

    2016-01-01

    In the editorial published in this journal, Daniels and colleagues argue that his and Sabin’s accountability for reasonableness (A4R) framework should be used to handle ethical issues in the health technology assessment (HTA)-process, especially concerning fairness. In contrast to this suggestion, it is argued that such an approach risks suffering from the irrrelevance or insufficiency they warn against. This is for a number of reasons: lack of comprehensiveness, lack of guidance for how to assess ethical issues within the "black box" of A4R as to issues covered, competence and legitimate arguments and finally seemingly accepting consensus as the final verdict on ethical issues. We argue that the HTA community is already in a position to move beyond this black box approach PMID:27285520

  6. Avionics Box Cold Plate Damage Prevention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stambolian, Damon; Larcher, Steven; Henderson, Gena; Tran, Donald

    2011-01-01

    Over the years there have been several occurrences of damage to Space Shuttle Orbiter cold plates during removal and replacement of avionics boxes. Thus a process improvement team was put together to determine ways to prevent these kinds of damage. From this effort there were many solutions including, protective covers, training, and improved operations instructions. The focus of this paper is to explain the cold plate damage problem and the corrective actions for preventing future damage to aerospace avionics cold plate designs.

  7. PCB-Based Break-Out Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jason H.

    2011-01-01

    Break-out boxes (BOBs) are necessary for all electrical integration/cable checkouts and troubleshooting. Because the price of a BOB is high, and no work can be done without one, often the procedure stops, simply waiting for a BOB. A less expensive BOB would take less time in the integration, testing, and troubleshooting process. The PCB-based BOB works and looks the same as a standard JPL BOB, called Gold Boxes. The only differences between the old BOB and the new PCB-based BOB is that the new one has 80 percent of its circuitry in a printed circuit board. This process reduces the time for fabrication, thus making the BOBs less expensive. Moreover, because of its unique design, the new BOBs can be easily assembled and fixed. About 80 percent of the new PCB-based BOB is in a $22 (at the time of this reporting) custom-designed, yet commercially available PCB. This device has been used successfully to verify that BOB cables were properly made. Also, upon completion, the BOB was beeped out via a multimeter to ensure that all sockets on the connectors were properly connected to the respective banana jack. When compared to the Gold Box BOBs, the new BOB has many advantages. It is much more cost efficient, it delivers equal usability at substantially lower cost of the BOB, and the Gold Box is much heavier when compared to the new BOB. The new BOB is also a bit longer and much more versatile in that connectors are easily changeable and if a banana jack is broken, it can be replaced instead of throwing away an entire BOB.

  8. The Unintended Effects of a Boxed Warning

    PubMed Central

    Eisenthal, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate a real-life correlation that after the US Food and Drug Administration introduced a boxed warning concerning malignancies to the labeling for topical calcineurin inhibitors, reluctance to use topical calcineurin inhibitors has led to their substitution with other therapies that have their own risks. Participants: An anonymous survey of attendees of the 2007 Fall Clinical Dermatology conference in Las Vegas, Nevada, from October 17–19, 2007. More than 95 percent of attendees were dermatologists; a small number of mid-level practitioners attended as well. Of nearly 700 attendees, the first 504 who agreed to complete the survey were included. Results: More than 40 percent of dermatologists surveyed claimed that more than 20 percent of their atopic dermatitis patients are not adequately controlled since the introduction of the boxed warning. Forty-eight percent claim that more than 20 percent of those patients were adequately controlled with topical calcineurin inhibitors as part of their regimens. Eighty percent of dermatologists surveyed agree that more than 10 precent of those patients were adequately controlled with topical calcineurin inhibitors in their regimens. Conclusion: While caution is usually prudent, the introduction of a boxed warning in the case of topical calcineurin inhibitors has led to the use of treatments that often have greater risks than the topical calcineurin inhibitors that they replaced. PMID:20729957

  9. Box modeling of the Eastern Mediterranean sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashkenazy, Yosef; Stone, Peter H.; Malanotte-Rizzoli, Paola

    2012-02-01

    In ˜1990 a new source of deep water formation in the Eastern Mediterranean was found in the southern part of the Aegean sea. Till then, the only source of deep water formation in the Eastern Mediterranean was in the Adriatic sea; the rate of the deep water formation of the new Aegean source is 1 Sv, three times larger than the Adriatic source. We develop a simple three-box model to study the stability of the thermohaline circulation of the Eastern Mediterranean sea. The three boxes represent the Adriatic sea, Aegean sea, and the Ionian seas. The boxes exchange heat and salinity and may be described by a set of nonlinear differential equations. We analyze these equations and find that the system may have one, two, or four stable flux states. We conjecture that the change in the deep water formation in the Eastern Mediterranean sea is attributed to a switch between the different states on the thermohaline circulation; this switch may result from decreased temperature and/or increased salinity over the Aegean sea.

  10. A Consistent Model of Plasma- The Potential in a Glass Box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Lori; Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell

    2015-11-01

    Numerical modeling has become a valuable diagnostic tool for experiments in the modern physical world. In modeling the dynamics of dust particles confined in a glass box placed on the lower electrode of a GEC cell, there are many interactions between the dust, plasma, and boundaries that need to be accounted for more accurately. The lower electrode affects the plasma conditions in the sheath, altering the electron and ion densities. These local variations in the plasma determine the charge accumulated on the surface of the glass box and the resulting electrostatic potential within it. This work describes the steps taken to build a consistent model of the relationship between the plasma conditions and the confining electric potential due to the glass box in order to more accurately model the charging and dynamics of dust clusters and strings. This work was supported by NSF Grant 1414523.

  11. Research on a precise differential box-counting method of eliminating image background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Kexue; He, Tao; Li, Cancan; Zhou, Weisong; Yang, Liangen

    2016-01-01

    Differential box-counting (DBC) method has been widely used to calculate fractal dimension. analyzing the result of fractal dimension with background image by estimating this traditional method,we find that this algorithm has the limitation to estimate fractal dimension of images with background accurately. In order to solve this issue ,in this paper, an improved differential box-counting(IDBC) method has been proposed to eliminate influence of background on fractal dimension .The mainly improved steps of IDBC as follow: firstly ,the background pixels values Gb of image need to be found out using probability .Secondly, the nq ( nq is the numbers of boxes in a grid) is set to zero when the maximum and minimum in a grid are equal to image background values. To validate IDBC method's performance ,we designed an experiment that the fractal dimension of both original texture images and these ones put in different size frame with black-background are estimated and compared through four different algorithms, including DBC, relevant differential box-counting (RDBC) method, shifting differential box-counting (SDBC) method and IDBC method. The experimental results demonstrate that the IDBC method developed in this work has the ability to improve the measurement accuracy by avoiding the influence caused by background.

  12. SimpleBox 4.0: Improving the model while keeping it simple….

    PubMed

    Hollander, Anne; Schoorl, Marian; van de Meent, Dik

    2016-04-01

    Chemical behavior in the environment is often modeled with multimedia fate models. SimpleBox is one often-used multimedia fate model, firstly developed in 1986. Since then, two updated versions were published. Based on recent scientific developments and experience with SimpleBox 3.0, a new version of SimpleBox was developed and is made public here: SimpleBox 4.0. In this new model, eight major changes were implemented: removal of the local scale and vegetation compartments, addition of lake compartments and deep ocean compartments (including the thermohaline circulation), implementation of intermittent rain instead of drizzle and of depth dependent soil concentrations, adjustment of the partitioning behavior for organic acids and bases as well as of the value for enthalpy of vaporization. In this paper, the effects of the model changes in SimpleBox 4.0 on the predicted steady-state concentrations of chemical substances were explored for different substance groups (neutral organic substances, acids, bases, metals) in a standard emission scenario. In general, the largest differences between the predicted concentrations in the new and the old model are caused by the implementation of layered ocean compartments. Undesirable high model complexity caused by vegetation compartments and a local scale were removed to enlarge the simplicity and user friendliness of the model. PMID:26802268

  13. Combined effects of astragalus soup and persistent Taiji boxing on improving the immunity of elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Song, Qing-Hua; Xu, Rong-Mei; Zhang, Quan-Hai; Shen, Guo-Qing; Ma, Ming; Zhao, Xin-Ping; Guo, Yan-Hua; Wang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To observe the combined effects of astragalus soup and persistent Taiji boxing on improving the immunity of women of advanced years. Design: 120 elderly women lacking daily exercise were chosen as the study subjects. By using the table of random numbers, they were then divided into the control group and the experiment group, consisting of 60 each. The control group practiced Taiji boxing for 45 minutes twice a day. The experiment group did the same, and, in addition, took astragalus soup after each boxing. Indexes related to physical immunity of the two groups were observed and compared when they were first chosen, when the alternative treatment was applied three, six and twelve months later, respectively. Results: The two groups demonstrated no significant differences in general data and research indexes when chosen (P > 0.05). Three months after the two groups were chosen and treated differently, the control group demonstrated no significant improvement while most indexes of the experiment group improved considerably (P > 0.05). After six months, the related indexes of both groups improved substantially (P < 0.05) and the improvement with the experiment was even clearer (P < 0.05). Twelve months later, the improvement with the experiment group was more noticeable (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). Conclusions: In a relatively short period of three months, Taiji boxing produces no noticeable effect on the improvement of immunity in elderly women. However, when they resume the exercise for another three months and longer, Taiji boxing has a noticeable advantage and the effect is the most favorable when it is combined with astragalus soup. PMID:25126193

  14. [Identification of C(2)M interacting proteins by yeast two-hybrid screening].

    PubMed

    Shanshan, Yue; Laixin, Xia

    2015-11-01

    The synaptonemal complex (SC) is a huge structure which assembles between the homologous chromosomes during meiotic prophase I. Drosophila germ cell-specific nucleoprotein C(2)M clustering at chromosomes can induce SC formation. To further study the molecular function and mechanism of C(2)M in meiosis, we constructed a bait vector for C(2)M and used the yeast two-hybrid system to identify C(2)M interacting proteins. Forty interacting proteins were obtained, including many DNA and histone binding proteins, ATP synthases and transcription factors. Gene silencing assays in Drosophila showed that two genes, wech and Psf1, may delay the disappearance of SC. These results indicate that Wech and Psf1 may form a complex with C(2)M to participate in the formation or stabilization of the SC complex. PMID:26582530

  15. Cigarette Smoking and Tryptophan Hydroxylase 2 mRNA in the Dorsal Raphe Nucleus in Suicides

    PubMed Central

    Bach, Helene; Arango, Victoria; Kassir, Suham A.; Dwork, Andrew J.; Mann, J. John; Underwood, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with suicide and mood disorders and stimulates serotonin release. Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH2) synthesizes serotonin and is over-expressed in suicides. We determined whether smoking is associated with TPH2 mRNA in suicides and controls. TPH2 mRNA was measured postmortem in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) of controls (N=26, 17 nonsmokers and nine smokers) and suicides (N=23, 5 nonsmokers and 18 smokers). Psychiatric history was obtained by psychological autopsy. TPH2 mRNA was greater in suicide nonsmokers than suicide smokers, control smokers and control nonsmokers (p=0.006). There was more TPH2 mRNA throughout the DRN. Smoking interferes with the TPH2 mRNA increase observed in suicide nonsmokers. The absence of altered TPH2 expression in non-suicide smokers suggests no pharmacological effect of smoking. PMID:26954509

  16. Targeting vertebrate intron-encoded box C/D 2′-O-methylation guide RNAs into the Cajal body

    PubMed Central

    Marnef, Aline; Richard, Patrica; Pinzón, Natalia; Kiss, Tamás

    2014-01-01

    Post-transcriptional pseudouridylation and 2′-O-methylation of splicesomal small nuclear ribonucleic acids (snRNAs) is mediated by box H/ACA and box C/D small Cajal body (CB)-specific ribonucleoproteins (scaRNPs), respectively. The WD-repeat protein 79 (WDR79) has been proposed to interact with both classes of modification scaRNPs and target them into the CB. The box H/ACA scaRNAs carry the common CAB box motif (consensus, ugAG) that is required for both WDR79 binding and CB-specific accumulation. Thus far, no cis-acting CB-localization element has been reported for vertebrate box C/D scaRNAs. In this study, systematic mutational analysis of the human U90 and another newly identified box C/D scaRNA, mgU2-47, demonstrated that the CB-specific accumulation of vertebrate intron-encoded box C/D scaRNAs relies on GU- or UG-dominated dinucleotide repeat sequences which are predicted to form the terminal stem-loop of the RNA apical hairpin. While the loop nucleotides are unimportant, the adjacent terminal helix that is composed mostly of consecutive G.U and U.G wobble base-pairs is essential for CB-specific localization of box C/D scaRNAs. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed that the newly identified CB localization element, called the G.U/U.G wobble stem, is crucial for in vivo association of box C/D scaRNPs with WDR79. PMID:24753405

  17. 49 CFR 178.512 - Standards for steel, aluminum or other metal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for steel, aluminum or other metal boxes..., aluminum or other metal boxes. (a) The following are identification codes for steel, aluminum, or other metal boxes: (1) 4A for a steel box; (2) 4B for an aluminum box; and (3) 4N for an other metal box....

  18. 49 CFR 178.512 - Standards for steel or aluminum boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for steel or aluminum boxes. 178.512... aluminum boxes. (a) The following are identification codes for steel or aluminum boxes: (1) 4A for a steel box; and (2) 4B for an aluminum box. (b) Construction requirements for steel or aluminum boxes are...

  19. 49 CFR 178.512 - Standards for steel, aluminum or other metal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for steel, aluminum or other metal boxes..., aluminum or other metal boxes. (a) The following are identification codes for steel, aluminum, or other metal boxes: (1) 4A for a steel box; (2) 4B for an aluminum box; and (3) 4N for an other metal box....

  20. Annual verifications--a tick-box exercise?

    PubMed

    Walker, Gwen; Williams, David

    2014-09-01

    With the onus on healthcare providers and their staff to protect patients against all elements of 'avoidable harm' perhaps never greater, Gwen Walker, a highly experienced infection prevention control nurse specialist, and David Williams, MD of Approved Air, who has 30 years' experience in validation and verification of ventilation and ultraclean ventilation systems, examine changing requirements for, and trends in, operating theatre ventilation. Validation and verification reporting on such vital HVAC equipment should not, they argue, merely be viewed as a 'tick-box exercise'; it should instead 'comprehensively inform key stakeholders, and ultimately form part of clinical governance, thus protecting those ultimately named responsible for organisation-wide safety at Trust board level'. PMID:25282985

  1. The impact of heterogeneous surface temperatures on the 2-m air temperature over the Arctic Ocean under clear skies in spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tetzlaff, A.; Kaleschke, L.; Lüpkes, C.; Ament, F.; Vihma, T.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of spatial surface temperature changes over the Arctic Ocean on the 2-m air temperature variability is estimated using backward trajectories based on ERA-Interim and JRA25 wind fields. They are initiated at Alert, Barrow and at the Tara drifting station. Three different methods are used. The first one compares mean ice surface temperatures along the trajectories to the observed 2-m air temperatures at the stations. The second one correlates the observed temperatures to air temperatures obtained using a simple Lagrangian box model that only includes the effect of sensible heat fluxes. For the third method, mean sensible heat fluxes from the model are correlated with the difference of the air temperatures at the model starting point and the observed temperatures at the stations. The calculations are based on MODIS ice surface temperatures and four different sets of ice concentration derived from SSM/I (Special Sensor Microwave Imager) and AMSR-E (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS) data. Under nearly cloud-free conditions, up to 90% of the 2-m air temperature variance can be explained for Alert, and 70% for Barrow, using these methods. The differences are attributed to the different ice conditions, which are characterized by high ice concentration around Alert and lower ice concentration near Barrow. These results are robust for the different sets of reanalyses and ice concentration data. Trajectories based on 10-m wind fields from both reanalyses show large spatial differences in the Central Arctic, leading to differences in the correlations between modeled and observed 2-m air temperatures. They are most pronounced at Tara, where explained variances amount to 70% using JRA and 80% using ERA. The results also suggest that near-surface temperatures at a given site are influenced by the variability of surface temperatures in a domain of about 200 km radius around the site.

  2. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion and boxing performance.

    PubMed

    Siegler, Jason C; Hirscher, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    Boxing is a sport that consists of multiple high-intensity bouts separated by minimal recovery time and may benefit from a pre-exercise alkalotic state. The purpose of this study was to observe the ergogenic potential of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) ingestion on boxing performance. Ten amateur boxers volunteered to participate in 2 competitive sparring bouts. The boxers were prematched for weight and boxing ability and consumed either 0.3 g.kg(-1) body weight (BW) of NaHCO3 (BICARB) or 0.045 g.kg(-1) BW of NaCl placebo (PLAC) mixed in diluted low calorie-flavored cordial. The sparring bouts consisted of four 3-minute rounds, each separated by 1-minute seated recovery. Blood acid-base (pH, bicarbonate [HCO3(-)], base excess [BE]), and performance (rates of perceived exertion [RPE], heart rate [HR] [HR(ave) and HR(max)], total punches landed successfully) profiles were analyzed before (where applicable) and after sparring. The results indicated a significant interaction effect for HCO3(-) (p < or = 0.001) and BE (p < 0.001), but not for pH (p = 0.48). Post hoc analysis revealed higher presparring HCO3(-) and BE for the BICARB condition, but no differences between the BICARB and PLAC conditions postsparring. There was a significant increase in punches landed during the BICARB condition (p < 0.001); however, no significant interaction effects for HRave (p = 0.15), HRmax (p = 0.32), or RPE (p = 0.38). The metabolic alkalosis induced by the NaHCO3 loading elevated before and after sparring blood buffering capacity. In practical application, the findings suggest that a standard NaHCO3 loading dose (0.3 g.kg(-1)) improves punch efficacy during 4 rounds of sparring performance. PMID:19625976

  3. Box codes of lengths 48 and 72

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, G.; Jin, Y.

    1993-01-01

    A self-dual code length 48, dimension 24, with Hamming distance essentially equal to 12 is constructed here. There are only six code words of weight eight. All the other code words have weights that are multiples of four and have a minimum weight equal to 12. This code may be encoded systematically and arises from a strict binary representation of the (8,4;5) Reed-Solomon (RS) code over GF (64). The code may be considered as six interrelated (8,7;2) codes. The Mattson-Solomon representation of the cyclic decomposition of these codes and their parity sums are used to detect an odd number of errors in any of the six codes. These may then be used in a correction algorithm for hard or soft decision decoding. A (72,36;15) box code was constructed from a (63,35;8) cyclic code. The theoretical justification is presented herein. A second (72,36;15) code is constructed from an inner (63,27;16) Bose Chaudhuri Hocquenghem (BCH) code and expanded to length 72 using box code algorithms for extension. This code was simulated and verified to have a minimum distance of 15 with even weight words congruent to zero modulo four. The decoding for hard and soft decision is still more complex than the first code constructed above. Finally, an (8,4;5) RS code over GF (512) in the binary representation of the (72,36;15) box code gives rise to a (72,36;16*) code with nine words of weight eight, and all the rest have weights greater than or equal to 16.

  4. Box codes of lengths 48 and 72

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, G.; Jin, Y.

    1993-11-01

    A self-dual code length 48, dimension 24, with Hamming distance essentially equal to 12 is constructed here. There are only six code words of weight eight. All the other code words have weights that are multiples of four and have a minimum weight equal to 12. This code may be encoded systematically and arises from a strict binary representation of the (8,4;5) Reed-Solomon (RS) code over GF (64). The code may be considered as six interrelated (8,7;2) codes. The Mattson-Solomon representation of the cyclic decomposition of these codes and their parity sums are used to detect an odd number of errors in any of the six codes. These may then be used in a correction algorithm for hard or soft decision decoding. A (72,36;15) box code was constructed from a (63,35;8) cyclic code. The theoretical justification is presented herein. A second (72,36;15) code is constructed from an inner (63,27;16) Bose Chaudhuri Hocquenghem (BCH) code and expanded to length 72 using box code algorithms for extension. This code was simulated and verified to have a minimum distance of 15 with even weight words congruent to zero modulo four. The decoding for hard and soft decision is still more complex than the first code constructed above. Finally, an (8,4;5) RS code over GF (512) in the binary representation of the (72,36;15) box code gives rise to a (72,36;16*) code with nine words of weight eight, and all the rest have weights greater than or equal to 16.

  5. A (72, 36; 15) box code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, G.

    1993-01-01

    A (72,36;15) box code is constructed as a 9 x 8 matrix whose columns add to form an extended BCH-Hamming (8,4;4) code and whose rows sum to odd or even parity. The newly constructed code, due to its matrix form, is easily decodable for all seven-error and many eight-error patterns. The code comes from a slight modification in the parity (eighth) dimension of the Reed-Solomon (8,4;5) code over GF(512). Error correction uses the row sum parity information to detect errors, which then become erasures in a Reed-Solomon correction algorithm.

  6. "Out of the box" professional development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-04-01

    At a recent AAPT meeting, I was part of a conversation about professional development that focused on conferences. We discussed the current meeting structure used by AAPT and some alternative formats. This discussion added greatly to my own understanding of new ways for teachers to receive their professional development. This conversation also began my friendship with Kelly O'Shea, a physics teacher from New York. She is also a blogger (check her out at https://kellyoshea.wordpress.com) and an innovative educator. Through my relationship with Kelly, I have grown in my own knowledge of two "out of the box" ways teachers are getting their professional development.

  7. CASAS: A Smart Home in a Box

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Diane J.; Crandall, Aaron S.; Thomas, Brian L.; Krishnan, Narayanan C.

    2013-01-01

    While the potential benefits of smart home technology are widely recognized, a lightweight design is needed for the benefits to be realized at a large scale. We introduce the CASAS “smart home in a box”, a lightweight smart home design that is easy to install and provides smart home capabilities out of the box with no customization or training. We discuss types of data analysis that have been performed by the CASAS group and can be pursued in the future by using this approach to designing and implementing smart home technologies. PMID:24415794

  8. Test procedure for boxed waste assay system

    SciTech Connect

    Wachter, J.

    1994-12-07

    This document, prepared by Los Alamos National Laboratory`s NMT-4 group, details the test methodology and requirements for Acceptance/Qualification testing of a Boxed Waste Assay System (BWAS) designed and constructed by Pajarito Scientific Corporation. Testing of the BWAS at the Plutonium Facility (TA55) at Los Alamos National Laboratory will be performed to ascertain system adherence to procurement specification requirements. The test program shall include demonstration of conveyor handling capabilities, gamma ray energy analysis, and imaging passive/active neutron accuracy and sensitivity. Integral to these functions is the system`s embedded operating and data reduction software.

  9. Characterization of the Horizontal Confinement Produced by a Glass Box in a Complex Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradshaw, Jace; Douglass, Angela

    2013-10-01

    The majority of plasmas in the visible universe are complex plasmas, consisting of not only electrons, ions, and neutral particles, but also small, usually micron-sized particles called ``dust.'' Recent complex plasma experiments have placed a glass box on the lower electrode of a GEC RF reference cell in order to alter the electric confinement experienced by micrometer-sized particles in the plasma. While this has led to interesting observations, such as vertical chains and Coulomb balls, the nature of the confinement is not well understood. In this experiment, a single melamine formaldehyde dust particle was levitated in the plasma sheath and contained by a glass box. The dust particle was then struck by a laser pulse to perturb the particle from its equilibrium position. The trajectory of the particle was analyzed to determine the nature of the electric potential produced by the walls of the glass box. Trials were run with varying pressures, particle sizes, box sizes, and plasma powers to determine the effect of each parameter on the confinement.

  10. Effect of microwave reflection from the region of electron cyclotron resonance heating in the L-2M stellarator

    SciTech Connect

    Batanov, G. M.; Borzosekov, V. D.; Kolik, L. V.; Konchekov, E. M.; Malakhov, D. V.; Petrov, A. E.; Sarksyan, K. A.; Sakharov, A. S. Skvortsova, N. N.; Stepakhin, V. D.; Kharchev, N. K.

    2013-11-15

    In experiments on electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) heating of plasma at the second harmonic of the electron gyrofrequency in the L-2M stellarator, the effect of partial reflection of high-power gyrotron radiation from the ECR heating region located in the center of the plasma column was revealed. The reflection coefficient is found to be on the order of 10{sup −3}. The coefficient of reflection of an extraordinary wave from the second-harmonic ECR region is calculated in the one-dimensional full-wave model. The calculated and measured values of the reflection coefficient are found to coincide in order of magnitude.

  11. 113. JOB NO. 1347K, SHEET 2M, 1929, FORD MOTOR COMPANY; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    113. JOB NO. 1347-K, SHEET 2M, 1929, FORD MOTOR COMPANY; BOILER HOUSE ASSEMBLY PLANT; SECTIONS - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. CH2M Hill Hanford Group Inc (CHG) Information Resource Management (IRM) Strategic Plan

    SciTech Connect

    NELSON, R.L.

    2000-05-08

    The CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc., Information Resource Management Strategic Plan is the top-level planning document for applying information and information resource management to achieve the CHG mission for the management of the River Protection Project

  13. Teaching Outside the Box: ARL Librarians' Integration of the "One- Box" into Student Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulp, Christina; McCain, Cheryl; Scrivener, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the results of a survey that targeted reference and instruction librarians who work at libraries that are members of the Asso- ciation of Research Libraries (ARL). Respondents were asked to indicate whether or not they teach students to use the one-box tool, and why or why not. Based on the responses of the 352 librarians who…

  14. Historical Thinking inside the Box: Preservice Elementary Teachers Use Journey Boxes to Craft Counter Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alarcon, Jeannette; Holmes, Kathlene; Bybee, Eric

    2015-01-01

    This article details the "journey box" project process enacted by two elementary preservice teacher cohorts. Engaging in activities and projects that promote a sense of investment in not only consuming but producing historical narratives, preservice teachers potentially become interested in sharing this type of learning with their…

  15. Idaho National Laboratory Technology to Market (T2M) Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Christopher Todd; Bush, Jason William; Gentle, Jake Paul; Hill, Porter Jack; Myers, Kurt Steven; Williams, Christopher Luke

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this project is to establish a tiered Technology to Market (T2M) curriculum for basic researchers to project leads to measure the effect of technology transfer skills on project success and impact. The plan will train five researchers in basic technology transfer principles where success will be measured by assessing improvements in T2M skills and knowledge after the training is complete, likely using before and after surveys.

  16. Dynamics model of the IBR-2M pulsed reactor for analysis of fast transition processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepelyshev, Yu. N.; Popov, A. K.; Sumkhuu, D.; Sangaa, D.

    2015-05-01

    A nonlinear model of the IBR-2M pulsed reactor dynamics relating values of variables at discreet instants of time (when power pulses appear) is developed on the basis of the MATLAB program system. The tests of the model by simulating calculated processes in the IBR-2M reactor proved the correctness of the model. A tentative estimate of the transfer coefficient for the linear part of the automatic regulator is obtained.

  17. Injuries in competitive boxing. A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Siewe, J; Rudat, J; Zarghooni, K; Sobottke, R; Eysel, P; Herren, C; Knöll, P; Illgner, U; Michael, J

    2015-03-01

    Boxing remains a subject of controversy and is often classified as dangerous. But the discussion is based mostly on retrospective studies. This survey was conducted as a prospective study. From October 2012 to September 2013, 44 competitive boxers were asked to report their injuries once a month. The questionnaire collected general information (training, competition) and recorded the number of bouts fought, injuries and resulting lost days. A total of 192 injuries were recorded, 133 of which resulted in interruption of training or competition. Each boxer sustained 3 injuries per year on average. The injury rate was 12.8 injuries per 1 000 h of training. Boxers fighting more than 3 bouts per year sustain more injuries (p=0.0075). The injury rate does is not a function of age (age≤19 vs. > 19a, p=0.53). Injuries to the head and the upper limbs occur most frequently. The most common injuries are soft tissue lacerations and contusions. Head injuries with neurological symptoms rarely occur (4.2%). Boxing has a high injury rate that is comparable with other contact sports, but most injuries are minor. Injury frequency is not a function of whether the boxer competes in the junior or adult category. Athletes fighting many bouts per year have a greater risk of injury. PMID:25376728

  18. Genetic Control of the Trigger for the G2/M Checkpoint

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Eric J.; Smilenov, Lubomir B.; Young, Erik F.

    2013-10-01

    system, the engagement of the G2/M checkpoint only occurs at doses where most of the cells are bound for mitotic catastrophe. Further, compound haploinsufficiency of various radiosensitizing genes does not impact the threshold of activation. The experiments confirm a threshold of activation for the G2/M checkpoint, hinting at two separate radiation response programs acting below and above this threshold. Small RNA transfer in bystander effect biology: Small regulatory RNA molecules have now risen in prominence and utility. Specific examples are small interfering RNAs (siRNA) which are employed in cell level expression ablation projects and micro-RNAs (miRNA) which are a pool of short transcription products which serve to modulate the expression of other transcripts emerging from the genome in a meta-regulatory fine tuning of gene expression. The existing tenets of bystander effect radiation biology involve the communication of inflammatory mediators or direct intercellular communication of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species in cell-to-cell communicative organelles called gap junctions. By ablating gap junctions, reducing the ROS/inflammatory cytokine expression one can attenuate bystander effect signaling in cell culture systems. We hypothesized that miRNAs are a competent intercellular communication molecule and therefore a possible component of the bystander response. This view is supported by the observation that miRNA are secreted from cells in exosomes found in the circulation. This circulating pool reports disease type and severity in humans. We proposed use of microbeam irradiation technology at our facilities and enhancement of this capability with a new sorting technology which would allow us to sort irradiated and non-irradiated cells with absolute fidelity. Pursuing direct quantitative transfer assessment, we succeeded in designing and constructing a new add-on sorting appliance which harmonized with our existing instruments. The sorter allowed us to gently sort

  19. Elevated TREM2 mRNA expression in leukocytes in schizophrenia but not major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Yuta; Kawabe, Kentaro; Yamazaki, Kiyohiro; Watanabe, Shinya; Numata, Shusuke; Mori, Yoko; Yoshida, Taku; Iga, Junichi; Ohmori, Tetsuro; Ueno, Shu-Ichi

    2016-06-01

    The pathological mechanisms of schizophrenia (SCZ) have not been clarified, but the microglia hypothesis has recently been discussed. We previously reported that the mRNA for a protein related to activation of microglia, triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cell 2 (TREM2), is expressed higher in peripheral leukocytes in SCZ than controls. In this study, we analyzed TREM2 mRNA expression in leukocytes from both SCZ and major depressive disorder (MDD) patients. We compared 50 SCZ patients and 42 MDD patients with age-matched controls. Levels of TREM2 mRNA in leukocytes were analyzed with quantitative real-time PCR method using TaqMan probe. TREM2 mRNA expression was significantly higher in leukocytes of SCZ subjects than controls, but the expression level was non-significantly different in MDD subjects. We observed a decrease in TREM2 mRNA expression in leukocytes from one SCZ patient after clozapine treatment. The expression did not change following ECT, but the expression level in this patient was still significantly higher than that in controls. We conclude that the high amount of TREM2 mRNA expression in leukocytes is specific to SCZ but not MDD and that changes in TREM2 mRNA expression may be a trait biomarker for SCZ. PMID:27130565

  20. 46 CFR 78.47-10 - Manual alarm boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manual alarm boxes. 78.47-10 Section 78.47-10 Shipping... and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-10 Manual alarm boxes. (a) In all new installations, manual... at least 1/2 inch letters “IN CASE OF FIRE BREAK GLASS.” All manual alarm boxes shall be numbered...

  1. CDL description of the CDC 6600 stunt box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hertzog, J. B.

    1971-01-01

    The CDC 6600 central memory control (stunt box) is described utilizing CDL (Computer Design Language), block diagrams, and text. The stunt box is a clearing house for all central memory references from the 6600 central and peripheral processors. Since memory requests can be issued simultaneously, the stunt box must be capable of assigning priorities to requests, of labeling requests so that the data will be distributed correctly, and of remembering rejected addresses due to memory conflicts.

  2. Removal of lithium antimonide from a radioactive glove box.

    SciTech Connect

    Leibowitz, L.; McDeavitt, S. M.; Graczyk, D. G.; Smith, F. P.

    2000-10-01

    A sample of lithium antimonide (L{sub 3}3Sb) was prepared in a radioactive helium-atmosphere glove box, some of which spread throughout the box. Because of the potential for stibine generation should the Li{sub 3}Sb contact water, some effort was devoted to assessing the extent of possible stibine formation and methods for removing the Li{sub 3}Sb from the box. This note summarizes our findings and the waste disposal procedures used.

  3. An Improved Method of Manufacturing Corrugated Boxes: Lateral Corrugator

    SciTech Connect

    Frank C. Murray Ph.D.; , Roman Popil Ph.D.; Michael Shaepe

    2008-12-18

    Paper physicists have known that a corrugated box constructed from outer liner sheets having a predominant fiber orientation aligned with the corrugating flute direction would have higher stiffness and crush resistance (per unit of fiber weight) than the conventional box construction. Such increased performance per unit of fiber weight could result in fiber reduction and energy savings for boxes having equivalent performance specifications. The goal of this project was to develop and demonstrate a commercially viable lateral corrugating process. This included designing and building a pilot lateral corrugator, testing and evaluating pilot machine made boxes, and developing a strategy for commercialization.

  4. An Efficient Implementation of the Gliding Box Lacunarity Algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Charles R. Tolle,; Timothy R. McJunkin; David J. Gorsich

    2008-03-01

    Lacunarity is a measure of how data fills space. It complements fractal dimension, which measures how much space is filled. Currently, many researchers use the gliding box algorithm for calculating lacunarity. This paper introduces a fast algorithm for making this calculation. The algorithm presented is akin to fast box counting algorithms used by some researchers in estimating fractal dimension. A simplified gliding box measure equation along with key pseudo code implementations for the algorithm are presented. Applications for the gliding box lacunarity measure have included subjects that range from biological community modeling to target detection.

  5. Box-Cox Mixed Logit Model for Travel Behavior Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orro, Alfonso; Novales, Margarita; Benitez, Francisco G.

    2010-09-01

    To represent the behavior of travelers when they are deciding how they are going to get to their destination, discrete choice models, based on the random utility theory, have become one of the most widely used tools. The field in which these models were developed was halfway between econometrics and transport engineering, although the latter now constitutes one of their principal areas of application. In the transport field, they have mainly been applied to mode choice, but also to the selection of destination, route, and other important decisions such as the vehicle ownership. In usual practice, the most frequently employed discrete choice models implement a fixed coefficient utility function that is linear in the parameters. The principal aim of this paper is to present the viability of specifying utility functions with random coefficients that are nonlinear in the parameters, in applications of discrete choice models to transport. Nonlinear specifications in the parameters were present in discrete choice theory at its outset, although they have seldom been used in practice until recently. The specification of random coefficients, however, began with the probit and the hedonic models in the 1970s, and, after a period of apparent little practical interest, has burgeoned into a field of intense activity in recent years with the new generation of mixed logit models. In this communication, we present a Box-Cox mixed logit model, original of the authors. It includes the estimation of the Box-Cox exponents in addition to the parameters of the random coefficients distribution. Probability of choose an alternative is an integral that will be calculated by simulation. The estimation of the model is carried out by maximizing the simulated log-likelihood of a sample of observed individual choices between alternatives. The differences between the predictions yielded by models that are inconsistent with real behavior have been studied with simulation experiments.

  6. UCP2 mRNA expression is dependent on glucose metabolism in pancreatic islets

    SciTech Connect

    Dalgaard, Louise T.

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UCP2 mRNA levels are decreased in islets of Langerhans from glucokinase deficient mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UCP2 mRNA up-regulation by glucose is dependent on glucokinase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Absence of UCP2 increases GSIS of glucokinase heterozygous pancreatic islets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This may protect glucokinase deficient mice from hyperglycemic damages. -- Abstract: Uncoupling Protein 2 (UCP2) is expressed in the pancreatic {beta}-cell, where it partially uncouples the mitochondrial proton gradient, decreasing both ATP-production and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Increased glucose levels up-regulate UCP2 mRNA and protein levels, but the mechanism for UCP2 up-regulation in response to increased glucose is unknown. The aim was to examine the effects of glucokinase (GK) deficiency on UCP2 mRNA levels and to characterize the interaction between UCP2 and GK with regard to glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic islets. UCP2 mRNA expression was reduced in GK+/- islets and GK heterozygosity prevented glucose-induced up-regulation of islet UCP2 mRNA. In contrast to UCP2 protein function UCP2 mRNA regulation was not dependent on superoxide generation, but rather on products of glucose metabolism, because MnTBAP, a superoxide dismutase mimetic, did not prevent the glucose-induced up-regulation of UCP2. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was increased in UCP2-/- and GK+/- islets compared with GK+/- islets and UCP2 deficiency improved glucose tolerance of GK+/- mice. Accordingly, UCP2 deficiency increased ATP-levels of GK+/- mice. Thus, the compensatory down-regulation of UCP2 is involved in preserving the insulin secretory capacity of GK mutant mice and might also be implicated in limiting disease progression in MODY2 patients.

  7. Interaction force in a vertical dust chain inside a glass box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Jie; Qiao, Ke; Matthews, Lorin S.; Hyde, Truell W.

    2014-07-01

    Small number dust particle clusters can be used as probes for plasma diagnostics. The number of dust particles as well as cluster size and shape can be easily controlled employing a glass box placed within a Gaseous Electronics Conference (GEC) rf reference chamber to provide confinement of the dust. The plasma parameters inside this box and within the larger plasma chamber have not yet been adequately defined. Adjusting the rf power alters the plasma conditions causing structural changes of the cluster. This effect can be used to probe the relationship between the rf power and other plasma parameters. This experiment employs the sloshing and breathing modes of small cluster oscillations to examine the relationship between system rf power and the particle charge and plasma screening length inside the glass box. The experimental results provided indicate that both the screening length and dust charge decrease as rf power inside the box increases. The decrease in dust charge as power increases may indicate that ion trapping plays a significant role in the sheath.

  8. Interaction force in a vertical dust chain inside a glass box.

    PubMed

    Kong, Jie; Qiao, Ke; Matthews, Lorin S; Hyde, Truell W

    2014-07-01

    Small number dust particle clusters can be used as probes for plasma diagnostics. The number of dust particles as well as cluster size and shape can be easily controlled employing a glass box placed within a Gaseous Electronics Conference (GEC) rf reference chamber to provide confinement of the dust. The plasma parameters inside this box and within the larger plasma chamber have not yet been adequately defined. Adjusting the rf power alters the plasma conditions causing structural changes of the cluster. This effect can be used to probe the relationship between the rf power and other plasma parameters. This experiment employs the sloshing and breathing modes of small cluster oscillations to examine the relationship between system rf power and the particle charge and plasma screening length inside the glass box. The experimental results provided indicate that both the screening length and dust charge decrease as rf power inside the box increases. The decrease in dust charge as power increases may indicate that ion trapping plays a significant role in the sheath. PMID:25122401

  9. Technology integration box beam failure study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuart, Mark J.; Ambur, D. R.; Davis, D. D., Jr.; Davis, Randall C.; Farley, G. L.; Lotts, C. G.; Wang, J. T.

    1992-01-01

    Composite structures have the potential to be cost effective, structurally efficient primary aircraft structures. As part of the Advanced Composite Technology (ACT) program to exploit this potential for heavily loaded aircraft structures, the design and fabrication of the technology integration box beam (TIBB) was completed. The TIBB is an advanced composite prototype structure for the center wing section of the Lockheed C-130 aircraft. The TIBB was tested for downbending, upbending, torsion, and combined upbending and torsion load conditions to verify the design. The TIBB failed at 83 percent of design ultimate load for the combined upbending and torsion load condition. Current analytical and experimental results are described for a study of the mechanisms that led to the failure of the TIBB. Experimental results include load, strain, and deflection data. An analytical study was conducted of the TIBB structural response. Analytical results include strain and deflection results from a global analysis of the TIBB.

  10. Thermohaline circulation and its box models simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazyura, Kateryna; Polonsky, Alexander; Sannikov, Viktor

    2014-05-01

    Ocean Thermochaline circulation (THC) is the part of large-scale World Ocean circulation and one of the main climate system components. It is generated by global meridional density gradients, which are controlled by surface heat and freshwater fluxes. THC regulates climate variability on different timescales (from decades to thousands years) [Stocker (2000), Clark (2002)]. Study of paleoclimatic evidences of abrupt and dramatic changes in ocean-atmosphere system in the past (such as, Dansgaard-Oeschger and Heinrich events or Younger Dryas, see e.g., [Rahmstorf (2002), Alley & Clark(1999)]) shows that these events are connected with THC regimes. At different times during last 120,000 years, three THC modes have prevailed in the Atlantic. They can be labeled as stadial, interstadial and Heinrich modes or as cold, warm and off mode. THC collapse (or thermohaline catastrophe) can be one of the consequences of global warming (including modern anthropogenic climate changes occurring at the moment). The ideas underlying different box-model studies, possibility of thermochaline catastrophe in present and past are discussed in this presentation. Response of generalized four box model of North Atlantic thermohaline circulation [developing the model of Griffies & Tzippermann (1995)] on periodic, stochastic and linear forcing is studied in details. To estimate climatic parameters of the box model we used monthly salinity and temperature data of ECMWF operational Ocean Reanalysis System 3 (ORA-S3) and data from atmospheric NCEP/NCAR reanalysis on precipitation, and heat fluxes for 1959-2011. Mean values, amplitude of seasonal cycle, amplitudes and periods of typical interdecadal oscillations, white noise level, linear trend coefficients and their significance level were estimated for every hydrophysical parameter. In response to intense freshwater or heat forcing, THC regime can change resulting in thermohaline catastrophe. We analyze relevant thresholds of external forcing in

  11. Centrosome-associated regulators of the G2/M checkpoint as targets for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yingmei; Ji, Ping; Liu, Jinsong; Broaddus, Russell R; Xue, Fengxia; Zhang, Wei

    2009-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, control mechanisms have developed that restrain cell-cycle transitions in response to stress. These regulatory pathways are termed cell-cycle checkpoints. The G2/M checkpoint prevents cells from entering mitosis when DNA is damaged in order to afford these cells an opportunity to repair the damaged DNA before propagating genetic defects to the daughter cells. If the damage is irreparable, checkpoint signaling might activate pathways that lead to apoptosis. Since alteration of cell-cycle control is a hallmark of tumorigenesis, cell-cycle regulators represent potential targets for therapy. The centrosome has recently come into focus as a critical cellular organelle that integrates G2/M checkpoint control and repairs signals in response to DNA damage. A growing number of G2/M checkpoint regulators have been found in the centrosome, suggesting that centrosome has an important role in G2/M checkpoint function. In this review, we discuss centrosome-associated regulators of the G2/M checkpoint, the dysregulation of this checkpoint in cancer, and potential candidate targets for cancer therapy. PMID:19216791

  12. Sound radiation characteristics of a box-type structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran Lin, Tian; Pan, Jie

    2009-09-01

    The finite element and boundary element methods are employed in this study to investigate the sound radiation characteristics of a box-type structure. It has been shown [T.R. Lin, J. Pan, Vibration characteristics of a box-type structure, Journal of Vibration and Acoustics, Transactions of ASME 131 (2009) 031004-1-031004-9] that modes of natural vibration of a box-type structure can be classified into six groups according to the symmetry properties of the three panel pairs forming the box. In this paper, we demonstrate that such properties also reveal information about sound radiation effectiveness of each group of modes. The changes of radiation efficiencies and directivity patterns with the wavenumber ratio (the ratio between the acoustic and the plate bending wavenumbers) are examined for typical modes from each group. Similar characteristics of modal radiation efficiencies between a box structure and a corresponding simply supported panel are observed. The change of sound radiation patterns as a function of the wavenumber ratio is also illustrated. It is found that the sound radiation directivity of each box mode can be correlated to that of elementary sound sources (monopole, dipole, etc.) at frequencies well below the critical frequency of the plates of the box. The sound radiation pattern on the box surface also closely related to the vibration amplitude distribution of the box structure at frequencies above the critical frequency. In the medium frequency range, the radiated sound field is dominated by the edge vibration pattern of the box. The radiation efficiency of all box modes reaches a peak at frequencies above the critical frequency, and gradually approaches unity at higher frequencies.

  13. Breakthrough thinking from inside the box.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Kevin P; Clifford, Patricia Gorman; Dye, Renée

    2007-12-01

    Companies often begin their search for great ideas either by encouraging wild, outside-the-box thinking or by conducting quantitative analysis of existing market and financial data and customer opinions. Those approaches can produce middling ideas at best, say Coyne, founder of an executive-counseling firm in Atlanta, and Clifford and Dye, strategy experts at McKinsey. The problem with the first method is that few people are very good at unstructured, abstract brainstorming. The problems with the second are that databases are usually compiled to describe current--not future--offerings, and customers rarely can tell you whether they need or want a product if they've never seen it. The secret to getting your organization to regularly generate lots of good ideas, and occasionally some great ones, is deceptively simple: First, create new boxes for people to think within so that they don't get lost in the cosmos and they have a basis for offering ideas and knowing whether they're making progress in the brainstorming session. Second, redesign ideation processes to remove obstacles that interfere with the flow of ideas--such as most people's aversion to speaking in groups larger than ten. This article offers a tested approach that poses concrete questions. For example, what do Rollerblades, Häagen-Dazs ice cream, and Spider-Man movies have in common? The answer: Each is something that adults loved as children and that was reproduced in an expensive form for grown-ups. Asking brainstorming participants to ponder how their childhood passions could be recast as adult offerings might generate some fabulous ideas for new products or services. PMID:18283917

  14. Chironex fleckeri (Box Jellyfish) Venom Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Brinkman, Diane L.; Konstantakopoulos, Nicki; McInerney, Bernie V.; Mulvenna, Jason; Seymour, Jamie E.; Isbister, Geoffrey K.; Hodgson, Wayne C.

    2014-01-01

    The box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri produces extremely potent and rapid-acting venom that is harmful to humans and lethal to prey. Here, we describe the characterization of two C. fleckeri venom proteins, CfTX-A (∼40 kDa) and CfTX-B (∼42 kDa), which were isolated from C. fleckeri venom using size exclusion chromatography and cation exchange chromatography. Full-length cDNA sequences encoding CfTX-A and -B and a third putative toxin, CfTX-Bt, were subsequently retrieved from a C. fleckeri tentacle cDNA library. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that the new toxins belong to a small family of potent cnidarian pore-forming toxins that includes two other C. fleckeri toxins, CfTX-1 and CfTX-2. Phylogenetic inferences from amino acid sequences of the toxin family grouped CfTX-A, -B, and -Bt in a separate clade from CfTX-1 and -2, suggesting that the C. fleckeri toxins have diversified structurally and functionally during evolution. Comparative bioactivity assays revealed that CfTX-1/2 (25 μg kg−1) caused profound effects on the cardiovascular system of anesthetized rats, whereas CfTX-A/B elicited only minor effects at the same dose. Conversely, the hemolytic activity of CfTX-A/B (HU50 = 5 ng ml−1) was at least 30 times greater than that of CfTX-1/2. Structural homology between the cubozoan toxins and insecticidal three-domain Cry toxins (δ-endotoxins) suggests that the toxins have a similar pore-forming mechanism of action involving α-helices of the N-terminal domain, whereas structural diversification among toxin members may modulate target specificity. Expansion of the cnidarian toxin family therefore provides new insights into the evolutionary diversification of box jellyfish toxins from a structural and functional perspective. PMID:24403082

  15. Nondestructive boxed transuranic (TRU) waste assay systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, John T.; Jones, Stephanie A.; Lucero, Randy F.

    1999-01-01

    A brief history of boxed waste assay systems (primarily those developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory) is presented. The characteristics and design process involved with current generation systems--as practiced by BII--are also discussed in some detail. Finally, a specific boxed waste assay system and acceptance test results are presented. This system was developed by BII and installed at the Waste Receiving and Packaging (WRAP) facility in Hanford, Washington in early 1997. The WRAP system combines imaging passive/active neutron (IPAN) techniques with gamma- ray energy analysis (GEA) to assay crates up to 2.5 m X 2.5 m X 6.5 m in size. (Systems that incorporate both these methodologies are usually denoted IPAN/GEA types.) Two separate gamma-ray measurements are accomplished utilizing 16 arrayed NaI detectors and a moveable HPGe detector, while 3He detectors acquire both active and passive neutron data. These neutron measurements use BII's proprietary imaging methodology. Acceptance testing of the system was conducted at Hanford in January 1998. The system's operating performance was evaluated based on accuracy and sensitivity requirements for three different matrix types. Test results indicate an average 13% active mode accuracy for 10 nCi/g loadings of Pu waste and 5% passive mode accuracy for 10 g loadings of Pu waste. Sensitivity testing demonstrated an active mode lower limit of detection of less than 5 nCi/g of 239Pu for the medium matrix and less than 20 pCi/g of fission and activation products at 3(sigma) above background.

  16. Analysis of Time-Series Quasi-Experiments. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Gene V.; Maguire, Thomas O.

    The objective of this project was to investigate the adequacy of statistical models developed by G. E. P. Box and G. C. Tiao for the analysis of time-series quasi-experiments: (1) The basic model developed by Box and Tiao is applied to actual time-series experiment data from two separate experiments, one in psychology and one in educational…

  17. Dietary NiCl2 causes G2/M cell cycle arrest in the broiler's kidney

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hongrui; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Wang, Xun; Wu, Bangyuan; Chen, Kejie; Deng, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Here we showed that dietary NiCl2 in excess of 300 mg/kg caused the G2/M cell cycle arrest and the reduction of cell proportion at S phase. The G2/M cell cycle arrest was accompanied by up-regulation of phosphorylated ataxia telangiectasia mutated (p-ATM), p53, p-Chk1, p-Chk2, p21 protein expression and ATM, p53, p21, Chk1, Chk2 mRNA expression, and down-regulation of p-cdc25C, cdc2, cyclinB and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein expression and the cdc25, cdc2, cyclinB, PCNA mRNA expression. PMID:26440151

  18. Current status of advanced pelletized cold moderators development for IBR-2M research reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulikov, S.; Belyakov, A.; Bulavin, M.; Mukhin, K.; Shabalin, E.; Verhoglyadov, A.

    2013-03-01

    The world's first advanced pelletized cold neutron moderator is prepared to be put into operation at the IBR-2M pulsed research reactor. It provides long-wavelength neutrons to the most of neutron spectrometers at the beams of the IBR-2M reactor. Aromatic hydrocarbons are used as a material for cold moderators. It is a very attractive material because of its high radiation resistance, good moderating properties, incombustibility, etc. It is shown that the idea of beads transport by a helium flow at cryogenic temperatures is successful. The recent progress and plans for moderator development at the IBR-2M reactor as well as the experimental results of beads transport are discussed in the paper.

  19. Apigenin inhibits pancreatic cancer cell proliferation through G2/M cell cycle arrest

    PubMed Central

    Ujiki, Michael B; Ding, Xian-Zhong; Salabat, M Reza; Bentrem, David J; Golkar, Laleh; Milam, Ben; Talamonti, Mark S; Bell, Richard H; Iwamura, Takeshi; Adrian, Thomas E

    2006-01-01

    Background Many chemotherapeutic agents have been used to treat pancreatic cancer without success. Apigenin, a naturally occurring flavonoid, has been shown to inhibit growth in some cancer cell lines but has not been studied in pancreatic cancer. We hypothesized that apigenin would inhibit pancreatic cancer cell growth in vitro. Results Apigenin caused both time- and concentration-dependent inhibition of DNA synthesis and cell proliferation in four pancreatic cancer cell lines. Apigenin induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest. Apigenin reduced levels of cyclin A, cyclin B, phosphorylated forms of cdc2 and cdc25, which are all proteins required for G2/M transition. Conclusion Apigenin inhibits growth of pancreatic cancer cells through suppression of cyclin B-associated cdc2 activity and G2/M arrest, and may be a valuable drug for the treatment or prevention of pancreatic cancer. PMID:17196098

  20. A Comparison of Energy Expenditure During "Wii Boxing" Versus Heavy Bag Boxing in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Perusek, Kristen; Sparks, Kenneth; Little, Kathleen; Motley, Mary; Patterson, Sheila; Wieand, Jennifer

    2014-02-01

    Traditional computer videogames are sedentary, whereas new computer videogames, such as the Nintendo(®) (Redmond, WA) "Wii™ Sports" games, allow users to physically interact while playing the sport. Energy expenditure (EE), heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during heavy bag boxing versus the Nintendo "Wii Boxing" game were compared. Fifteen males and 14 females (mean age, 25.6 years; height, 171.3 cm; weight, 71.8 kg) randomly selected (by a coin toss) heavy bag boxing or "Wii Boxing" for their first test session and completed the other protocol at their second session at least 2 days later. Each session lasted for a total duration of 30 minutes and consisted of 10 3-minute exercise bouts with measurements of HR, RPE, and EE obtained from indirect calorimetry. A paired-samples t test was used to analyze the results. Significant differences were found for HR (bag, 156 beats per minute; Wii, 138 beats per minute; P=0.001) and RPE (bag, 13.8; Wii, 11.4; P=0.0001) but not for EE (bag, 8.0 kcal/minute; Wii, 7.1 kcal/minute; bag, 241 total kcal; Wii, 213 total kcal; P=0.078). The results suggest that computer active videogames, such as the Nintendo Wii, have the potential to provide similar EE as their traditional forms of exercise and may be a sufficient replacement for traditional target HR zone activities, especially in less fit individuals. Further research is needed to compare EE for different "Wii Sports" games with those for their traditional forms of exercise. PMID:26197251

  1. 9. VIEW, LOOKING WEST, OF GLOVE BOXES ASSOCIATED WITH THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW, LOOKING WEST, OF GLOVE BOXES ASSOCIATED WITH THE ANION EXCHANGE PROCESS IN ROOM 149. THE GLOVE BOXES ON THE LEFT CONTAIN MIXER STIRRERS THAT AID IN THE DISSOLUTION PROCESS THAT OCCURRED PRIOR TO ANION EXCHANGE. (6/20/60) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery & Fabrication Facility, North-central section of plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  2. Radiographic examination of prestressed concrete box girder bridges

    SciTech Connect

    Srvinivasan, S.; Saravanan, K.; Kapali, V.; Nayak, N.U.; Suresh Bapu, R.H.; Kalyanasundaram, R.M.; Madhavamayandi, A.; Mahadeva Iyer, Y.; Rengaswamy, N.S.

    1996-10-01

    Application of high energy x-radiography, using Betatron equipment to the box girders of prestressed concrete bridges, was conducted for the first time in India. The web thickness of the concrete box girders varied from 300 to 450 mm. Stringent safety measures were observed. The study gave information on the quality of the concrete, grout, and tensioned and untensioned steels.

  3. 27. LAEMPE AUTOMATED COLD BOX CORE MAKING MACHINES IN THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. LAEMPE AUTOMATED COLD BOX CORE MAKING MACHINES IN THE GREY IRON FOUNDRY USED PRESSURE TO SET RESINS IN CORE SAND. THE ONLY EFFORT REQUIRED OF WORKERS IS TO CHANGE CORE BOXES AND REMOVE HARDENED CORE. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  4. 47 CFR 90.241 - Radio call box operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radio call box operations. 90.241 Section 90.241 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Non-Voice and Other Specialized Operations § 90.241 Radio call box operations. (a) The frequencies in the 72-76...

  5. 47 CFR 90.241 - Radio call box operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radio call box operations. 90.241 Section 90.241 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Non-Voice and Other Specialized Operations § 90.241 Radio call box operations. (a) The frequencies in the 72-76...

  6. A solar box cooker for mass production in East Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, P.A.; Wilcke, W.F.

    1992-12-31

    A solar box cooker produced in Tanzania, East Africa with indigenous materials is described. When compared to a commercially produced glass and cardboard one, it was found to perform as well. Heat transfer through each major component of the cooker is presented. The smallest losses were through the walls of the box. The greatest losses were observed in the cover system.

  7. 21 CFR 864.9185 - Blood grouping view box.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood grouping view box. 864.9185 Section 864.9185...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9185 Blood grouping view box. (a) Identification. A blood grouping view...

  8. 21 CFR 864.9185 - Blood grouping view box.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood grouping view box. 864.9185 Section 864.9185...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9185 Blood grouping view box. (a) Identification. A blood grouping view...

  9. 21 CFR 864.9185 - Blood grouping view box.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood grouping view box. 864.9185 Section 864.9185...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9185 Blood grouping view box. (a) Identification. A blood grouping view...

  10. 21 CFR 864.9185 - Blood grouping view box.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood grouping view box. 864.9185 Section 864.9185...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9185 Blood grouping view box. (a) Identification. A blood grouping view...

  11. 21 CFR 864.9185 - Blood grouping view box.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood grouping view box. 864.9185 Section 864.9185...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9185 Blood grouping view box. (a) Identification. A blood grouping view...

  12. A PHOTOCHEMICAL BOX MODEL FOR URBAN AIR QUALITY SIMULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple 'box-approach' to air quality simulation modeling has been developed in conjunction with a newly formulated photochemical kinetic mechanism to produce an easily applied Photochemical Box Model (PBM). This approach represents an urban area as a single cell 20 km in both l...

  13. Creative Underachievers: Children Who Are Too out of the Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimm, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    Educators in the field of gifted education attempt to not only accelerate curriculum for their students, but also to encourage and expand their critical and creative thinking. They often explain this creative approach to students as "out-of-the-box" thinking. "The box" is an effective analogy to help children understand how to…

  14. Boxing It Up-a Cross-curricular Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Till, Wesley

    1996-01-01

    Reports on a class project that examined the manufacture of boxes and packaging to teach about design and technology. The class discovered basic manufacturing techniques by examining and disassembling cereal boxes. Field trips to stores provided more examples. Appraises the children's final projects and discusses acquiring materials. (MJP)

  15. Band-in-a-Box for the General Music Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Laura

    2005-01-01

    Suggests ways to use the Band-in-a-Box (BIAB) software created by PG Music in the general music classroom. Benefits of the program to music teachers; Key features of BIAB; Basic steps in making an accompaniment in BIAB; Tips on putting in chords; National standards for music education. INSET: Band-in-a-Box Interface.

  16. Prizes in Cereal Boxes: An Application of Probability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litwiller, Bonnie H.; Duncan, David R.

    1992-01-01

    Presents four cases of real-world probabilistic situations to promote more effective teaching of probability. Calculates the probability of obtaining six of six different prizes successively in six, seven, eight, and nine boxes of cereal, generalizes the problem to n boxes of cereal, and offers suggestions to extend the problem. (MDH)

  17. Ancestry and diversity of the HMG box superfamily.

    PubMed Central

    Laudet, V; Stehelin, D; Clevers, H

    1993-01-01

    The HMG box is a novel type of DNA-binding domain found in a diverse group of proteins. The HMG box superfamily comprises a.o. the High Mobility Group proteins HMG1 and HMG2, the nucleolar transcription factor UBF, the lymphoid transcription factors TCF-1 and LEF-1, the fungal mating-type genes mat-Mc and MATA1, and the mammalian sex-determining gene SRY. The superfamily dates back to at least 1,000 million years ago, as its members appear in animals, plants and yeast. Alignment of all known HMG boxes defined an unusually loose consensus sequence. We constructed phylogenetic trees connecting the members of the HMG box superfamily in order to understand their evolution. This analysis led us to distinguish two subfamilies: one comprising proteins with a single sequence-specific HMG box, the other encompassing relatively non sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins with multiple HMG boxes. By studying the extent of diversification of the superfamily, we found that the speed of evolution was very different within the various groups of HMG-box containing factors. Comparison of the evolution of the two boxes of ABF2 and of mtTF1 implied different diversification models for these two proteins. Finally, we provide a tree for the highly complex group of SRY-like ('Sox' genes), clustering at least 40 different loci that rapidly diverged in various animal lineages. PMID:8506143

  18. 77 FR 36585 - Post Office Box Service Enhancements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... Post Office Box service. Id. at 14. The Commission ordered that the Complaint be held in abeyance until... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION Post Office Box Service Enhancements AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice....

  19. 47 CFR 90.241 - Radio call box operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radio call box operations. 90.241 Section 90.241 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Non-Voice and Other Specialized Operations § 90.241 Radio call box operations. (a) The frequencies in the 72-76...

  20. 49. BOX STAMPING MACHINE Located in room above warehouse. The ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. BOX STAMPING MACHINE Located in room above warehouse. The power unit is missing, but the drive belt is seen hanging from the overhead. Printing plate of desired labeling would be attached to the lower half drum. Upon rotation, labeling would be transferred to a cardboard box which was being held around the upper drum. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  1. The Lock Box: Evaluating Mental Organization in Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Joan F.

    A unique psychometric device, The "Lock Box," has been developed to measure the ability of preschool children to structure a novel problematic situation. The primary purpose of the box is to identify those preschoolers with mental ages ranging from 2 1/2 to 6 years who have difficulty imposing an orderly plan on their explorations and whose…

  2. Empty Tissue Boxes: Considering Poverty in Diversity Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuthrell, Kristen; Ledford, Carolyn; Stapleton, Joy

    2007-01-01

    A preservice teacher doing her internship overhears some of her students asking a classmate why he regularly takes home empty tissue boxes. The boy replies that he builds cities and bridges with his empty boxes. His classmates then ask why he does not just build a city with Legos or building blocks. The preservice teacher listens intently as the…

  3. Boxing Up a Mini Herd: Art Put to Pasture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Midge

    2002-01-01

    Presents an art project for high school students that was inspired by the 1999 "Cows on Parade" exhibition in Chicago (Illinois). Explains that students used old Gateway computer boxes to create their own cows using the box, scissors, and a hot-glue gun. (CMK)

  4. Using Willie's Acid-Base Box for Blood Gas Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietz, John R.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a method developed by Dr. William T. Lipscomb for teaching blood gas analysis of acid-base status and provides three examples using Willie's acid-base box. Willie's acid-base box is constructed using three of the parameters of standard arterial blood gas analysis: (1) pH; (2) bicarbonate; and (3) CO[subscript…

  5. A System for Cooling inside a Glove Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanz, Martial

    2010-01-01

    An easy, efficient, reliable, and low-cost method of constructing a cooling system using a simple circulating pump is described. The system is employed in conjunction with an inert atmosphere glove box to achieve the synthesis of air- and moisture-sensitive compounds inside the glove box at controlled, low temperatures without contaminating the…

  6. Dream Box Learning. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "DreamBox Learning" is a supplemental online mathematics program that provides adaptive instruction for students in grades K-5 and focuses on number and operations, place value, and number sense. The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) identified one study of "DreamBox Learning" that both falls within the scope of the Elementary…

  7. DreamBox Learning. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "DreamBox Learning" is a supplemental online mathematics program that provides adaptive instruction for students in grades K-5 and focuses on number and operations, place value, and number sense. The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) identified one study of "DreamBox Learning" that both falls within the scope of the Elementary…

  8. Perfect mirrors and the self-accelerating box paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marolf, Donald; Sorkin, Rafael D.

    2002-11-01

    We consider the question raised by Unruh and Wald of whether mirrored boxes can self-accelerate in flat spacetime (the ``self-accelerating box paradox''). From the point of view of the box, which perceives the acceleration as an impressed gravitational field, this is equivalent to asking whether the box can be supported by the buoyant force arising from its immersion in a perceived bath of thermal (Unruh) radiation. The perfect mirrors we study are of the type that rely on light internal degrees of freedom which adjust to and reflect impinging radiation. We suggest that a minimum of one internal mirror degree of freedom is required for each bulk field degree of freedom reflected. A short calculation then shows that such mirrors necessarily absorb enough heat from the thermal bath that their increased mass prevents them from floating on the thermal radiation. For this type of mirror the paradox is therefore resolved. We also observe that this failure of boxes to ``float'' invalidates one of the assumptions going into the Unruh-Wald analysis of entropy balances involving boxes lowered adiabatically toward black holes. Nevertheless, their broad argument can be maintained until the box reaches a new regime in which box-antibox pairs dominate over massless fields as contributions to thermal radiation.

  9. 32. LARGE LADLE, BOX FLOOR, GREY IRON FOUNDRY IS USED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. LARGE LADLE, BOX FLOOR, GREY IRON FOUNDRY IS USED TO CARRY LARGE BATCHES OF IRON FROM THE CUPOLA AREAS TO THE LARGE MOLDS MADE ON BOX FLOOR AREA. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  10. Natural Interaction Based Online Military Boxing Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Chenglei; Wang, Lu; Sun, Bing; Yin, Xu; Wang, Xiaoting; Liu, Li; Lu, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Military boxing, a kind of Chinese martial arts, is widespread and health beneficial. In this paper, the authors introduce a military boxing learning system realized by 3D motion capture, Web3D and 3D interactive technologies. The interactions with the system are natural and intuitive. Users can observe and learn the details of each action of the…

  11. 24. VIEW OF BOXES CONTAINING SOLENOIDS AND HYDRAULIC PUMP CONTRACTORS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. VIEW OF BOXES CONTAINING SOLENOIDS AND HYDRAULIC PUMP CONTRACTORS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL DOORS AND BREAKERS FOR RECEPTACLES ON SEVERAL STATIONS. BOXES LOCATED IN THE SOUTHEAST CORNER OF SLC-3W MST STATION 63. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  12. 5. VIEW OF A GLOVE BOX FIREWALL DETAIL. THE FIREWALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF A GLOVE BOX FIREWALL DETAIL. THE FIREWALL WAS A SAFETY FEATURE TO PREVENT THE SPREAD OF FIRE BETWEEN INTERCONNECTED GLOVE BOXES. PLUTONIUM IS PYROPHORIC, AND MAY IGNITE IN THE PRESENCE OF OXYGEN. (5/8/70) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Manufacturing Facility, North-central section of Plant, just south of Building 776/777, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  13. Weak-value thermostat with 0.2 mK precision.

    PubMed

    Egan, Patrick; Stone, Jack A

    2012-12-01

    A new laser-based thermostat sensitive to 0.2 mK at room temperature is reported. The method utilizes a fluid-filled prism and interferometric weak-value amplification to sense nanoradian deviations of a laser beam: due to the high thermo-optic coefficient of the fluid (colorless fluorocarbon), the deviation angle through the prism is sensitive to temperature. We estimate the daily stability of our device to be 0.2 mK, which is limited by drifts in the apparatus, and the narrow 20 mK capture range is the price paid for the weak measurement. PMID:23202114

  14. Trial-Run of a Junction-Box Attachment Test for Use in Photovoltaic Module Qualification: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D. C.; Deibert, S. L.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.

    2014-06-01

    Engineering robust adhesion of the junction box (j-box) is a hurdle typically encountered by photovoltaic module manufacturers during product development and manufacturing process control. There are historical incidences of adverse effects (e.g., fires) caused when the j-box/adhesive/module system has failed in the field. The addition of a weight to the j-box during the 'damp-heat,' 'thermal-cycle,' or 'creep' tests within the IEC qualification protocol is proposed to verify the basic robustness of the adhesion system. The details of the proposed test are described, in addition to a trial-run of the test procedure. The described experiments examine four moisture-cured silicones, four foam tapes, and a hot-melt adhesive used in conjunction with glass, KPE, THV, and TPE substrates. For the purpose of validating the experiment, j-boxes were adhered to a substrate, loaded with a prescribed weight, and then subjected to aging. The replicate mock-modules were aged in an environmental chamber (at 85 degrees C/85% relative humidity for 1000 hours; then 100 degrees C/<10% relative humidity for 200 hours) or fielded in Golden (CO), Miami (FL), and Phoenix (AZ) for one year. Attachment strength tests, including pluck and shear test geometries, were also performed on smaller component specimens.

  15. Structural testing of the technology integration box beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, C. F.

    1992-01-01

    A full-scale section of a transport aircraft wing box was designed, analyzed, fabricated, and tested. The wing box section, which was called the technology integration box beam, contained blade stiffened covers and T-stiffened channel spars constructed using graphite/epoxy materials. Covers, spars, and the aluminum ribs were assembled using mechanical fasteners. The box beam was statically tested for several loading conditions to verify the stiffness and strength characteristics of the composite wing design. Failure of the box beam occurred at 125 percent of design limit load during the combined upbending and torsion ultimate design load test. It appears that the failure initiated at a stiffener runout location in the upper cover which resulted in rupture of the upper cover and portions of both spars.

  16. Structural testing of the technology integration box beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, C. F.

    1992-01-01

    A full scale section of a transport aircraft wing box was designed, analyzed, fabricated, and tested. The wing box section, which was called the technology integration box beam, contained blade stiffened covers and T-stiffened channel spars constructed using graphite-epoxy materials. Covers, spars, and the aluminum ribs were assembled using mechanical fasteners. The box beam was statically tested for several loading conditions to verify the stiffness and strength characteristics of the composite wing design. Failure of the box beam occurred at 125 pct. of design limit load during the combined unbending and torsion ultimate design load test. It appears that the failure initiated at a stiffener runout location in the upper cover which resulted in rupture of the upper cover and portions of both spars.

  17. Structural testing of the technology integration box beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, C. F.

    1992-09-01

    A full-scale section of a transport aircraft wing box was designed, analyzed, fabricated, and tested. The wing box section, which was called the technology integration box beam, contained blade stiffened covers and T-stiffened channel spars constructed using graphite/epoxy materials. Covers, spars, and the aluminum ribs were assembled using mechanical fasteners. The box beam was statically tested for several loading conditions to verify the stiffness and strength characteristics of the composite wing design. Failure of the box beam occurred at 125 percent of design limit load during the combined upbending and torsion ultimate design load test. It appears that the failure initiated at a stiffener runout location in the upper cover which resulted in rupture of the upper cover and portions of both spars.

  18. Rescaled box counting for the topological analysis of spatial data

    SciTech Connect

    Loehle, C.

    1994-04-01

    Topological analysis of surfaces of natural objects can provide information about surface features (ridges, fragmentation, dendritic patterns) and surface roughness. Box counting is a general method useful for such surfaces, but it is currently limited to cases where the x, y, and z directions are all in the same metric. A method, rescaled box counting, is presented for overcoming these limitations. The local first omnidirectional semivariance (lag 1) is calculated for boxes of different sizes. If the semivariance is not small for small box sizes, then the z data need to be scaled up to allow detection of a difference between patches that are significantly different This rescaling converts the z metric into a distance equivalent (z units are converted into distances based on the horizontal distance over which a significant change in z is found to occur). Once rescaling is done, box counting can be used to quantify surface topology.

  19. Glove-box shielding analysis for sampling radioactive precipitate

    SciTech Connect

    Rainisch, R.

    1997-12-01

    This paper addresses a radiation transport analysis for as-built dose rates near a nitrite analyzer glove box. The glove box will be utilized in a laboratory serving the Late Wash Facility (LWF) at Savannah River site (SRS). The LWF will reduce the concentration of nitrite in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) radioactive aqueous precipitate feed stream to levels acceptable for the DWPF process. A laboratory serving the LWF incorporates nitrite and benzene analyzer glove boxes. The glove boxes will handle radioactive filtrate from the LWF filter and incorporate shielding for the protection of laboratory technicians. The analysis objective is to predict dose rates around the nitrite glove box subsequent to introduction of filtrate.

  20. HER4 D-box sequences regulate mitotic progression and degradation of the nuclear HER4 cleavage product, s80HER4

    PubMed Central

    Strunk, Karen E.; Husted, Carty; Miraglia, Leah C.; Sandahl, Melissa; Rearick, William A.; Hunter, Debra M.; Earp, H. Shelton; Muraoka-Cook, Rebecca S.

    2010-01-01

    Heregulin-mediated activation of HER4 initiates receptor cleavage (releasing an 80-kDa HER4 intracellular domain, s80HER4, containing nuclear localization sequences) and results in G2/M delay by unknown signaling mechanisms. We report herein that s80HER4 contains a functional cyclin B-like sequence known as a D-box, which targets proteins for degradation by APC/C, a multisubunit ubiquitin ligase. s80HER4 ubiquitination and ptoteosomal degradation occurred during mitosis but not during S-phase. Inhibition of an APC subunit (APC2) using siRNA knock-down impaired s80HER4 degradation. Mutation of the s80HER4 D-box sequence stabilized s80HER4 during mitosis, and s80HER4-dependent growth inhibition via G2/M delay was significantly greater with the D-box mutant. Polyomvirus middle-T antigen-transformed HC11 cells expressing s80HER4 resulted in smaller, less proliferative, more differentiated tumors in vivo than those expressing kinase-dead s80HER4 or the empty vector. Cells expressing s80HER4 with a disrupted D-box did not form tumors, instead forming differentiated ductal structures. These results suggest that cell cycle-dependent degradation of s80HER4 limits its growth inhibitory action, and stabilization of s80HER4 enhances tumor suppression, thus providing a link between HER4-mediated growth inhibition and cell cycle control. PMID:17638867

  1. Syntheses and structural characterization of non-centrosymmetric Na2M2M'S6 (M, M‧=Ga, In, Si, Ge, Sn, Zn, Cd) sulfides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yohannan, Jinu P.; Vidyasagar, Kanamaluru

    2016-06-01

    Seven new non-centrosymmetric Na2M2M'S6 sulfides, namely, Na2Sn2ZnS6(1), Na2Ga2GeS6(2), Na2Ga2SnS6(3-α), Na2Ga2SnS6(3-β), Na2Ge2ZnS6(4), Na2Ge2CdS6(5), Na2In2SiS6(6) and Na2In2GeS6(7), were synthesized by high temperature solid state reactions and structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. They crystallize in non-centrosymmetric Fdd2 and Cc space groups and their three-dimensional [M2M‧S6]2-framework structures consist of MS4 and M‧S4 tetrahedra corner-connected to one another in either orderly or disordered fashion. Sodium ions reside in the tunnels of the anionic framework. Compounds 1, 2 and 3-α have the structure of known Li2Ga2GeS6, whereas compounds 6 and 7 are isostructural with known Li2In2GeS6 compound. Isostructural compounds 4 and 5 represent a new structural variant. Compounds 3-α and its new monoclinic structural variant 3-β have disordered structural framework. All of them are wide band gap semiconductors. Na2Ga2GeS6(2), Na2Ga2SnS6(3), Na2Ge2ZnS6(4) and Na2In2GeS6(7) compounds are found to be second-harmonic generation (SHG) active. Compounds 1, 2 and 3-α melt congruently.

  2. A survey on M2M systems for mHealth: a wireless communications perspective.

    PubMed

    Kartsakli, Elli; Lalos, Aris S; Antonopoulos, Angelos; Tennina, Stefano; Renzo, Marco Di; Alonso, Luis; Verikoukis, Christos

    2014-01-01

    In the new era of connectivity, marked by the explosive number of wireless electronic devices and the need for smart and pervasive applications, Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications are an emerging technology that enables the seamless device interconnection without the need of human interaction. The use of M2M technology can bring to life a wide range of mHealth applications, with considerable benefits for both patients and healthcare providers. Many technological challenges have to be met, however, to ensure the widespread adoption of mHealth solutions in the future. In this context, we aim to provide a comprehensive survey on M2M systems for mHealth applications from a wireless communication perspective. An end-to-end holistic approach is adopted, focusing on different communication aspects of the M2M architecture. Hence, we first provide a systematic review ofWireless Body Area Networks (WBANs), which constitute the enabling technology at the patient's side, and then discuss end-to-end solutions that involve the design and implementation of practical mHealth applications. We close the survey by identifying challenges and open research issues, thus paving the way for future research opportunities. PMID:25264958

  3. CH2M Hill Hanford Group Inc (CHG) Information Resource Management (IRM) Strategic Plan

    SciTech Connect

    NELSON, R.L.

    2000-06-06

    The CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG), Information Resource Management Strategic Plan is the top-level planning document for applying information and information resource management to achieve the CHG mission for the management of the River Protection Project waste tank farm.

  4. LTE-advanced random access mechanism for M2M communication: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, Rashid; Sarowa, Sandeep; Jaglan, Reena Rathee; Khan, Mohammad Junaid; Agrawal, Sunil

    2016-03-01

    Machine Type Communications (MTC) enables one or more self-sufficient machines to communicate directly with one another without human interference. MTC applications include smart grid, security, e-Health and intelligent automation system. To support huge numbers of MTC devices, one of the challenging issues is to provide a competent way for numerous access in the network and to minimize network overload. In this article, the different control mechanisms for overload random access are reviewed to avoid congestion caused by random access channel (RACH) of MTC devices. However, past and present wireless technologies have been engineered for Human-to-Human (H2H) communications, in particular, for transmission of voice. Consequently the Long Term Evolution (LTE) -Advanced is expected to play a central role in communicating Machine to Machine (M2M) and are very optimistic about H2H communications. Distinct and unique characteristics of M2M communications create new challenges from those in H2H communications. In this article, we investigate the impact of massive M2M terminals attempting random access to LTE-Advanced all at once. We discuss and review the solutions to alleviate the overload problem by Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). As a result, we evaluate and compare these solutions that can effectively eliminate the congestion on the random access channel for M2M communications without affecting H2H communications.

  5. NFBD1/MDC1 participates in the regulation of G2/M transition in mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bu, Youquan; Suenaga, Yusuke; Okoshi, Rintaro; Sang, Meixiang; Kubo, Natsumi; Song, Fangzhou; Nakagawara, Akira; Ozaki, Toshinori

    2010-06-25

    NFBD1/MDC1 is a large nuclear protein involved in the early cellular response to DNA damage. Upon DNA damage, NFBD1 has an ability to facilitate the efficient DNA repair. In the present study, we have found that, in addition to DNA damage response, NFBD1 plays a critical role in the regulation of G2/M transition. Expression study using synchronized HeLa cells demonstrated that, like the mitotic kinase Plk1, NFBD1 expression level is maximal in G2/M-phase of the cell cycle. siRNA-mediated knockdown of NFBD1 resulted in G2/M arrest as well as simultaneous apoptosis in association with a significant increase in the amounts of {gamma}H2AX and pro-apoptotic p73. Since a remarkable down-regulation of mitotic phospho-histone H3 was detectable in NFBD1-knocked down cells, it is likely that knocking down of NFBD1 inhibits G2/M transition. Taken together, our present findings suggest that NFBD1 has a pivotal role in the regulation of proper mitotic entry.

  6. The Discharge Design of HL-2M with the Tokamak Simulation Code (TSC)

    SciTech Connect

    Yudong Pan, S.C. Jardin, and C. Kes

    2007-10-10

    We present results on the discharge design of the HL-2M tokamak, which is to be an upgrade to the existing HL-2A tokamak. We present simulation results for complete 5-sec. discharges, both double null and lower single null, for both ohmic and auxiliary heated discharges. We also discuss the vertical stability properties of the device. __________________________________________________

  7. Performance of V-4Cr-4Ti Alloy Exposed to the JFT-2M Tokamak Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, W.R.; Trester, P.W.; Sengoku, S.; Ishiyama, S.; Fukaya, K.; Eto, M.; Oda, T.; Hirohata, Y.; Hino, T.; Tsai, H.

    1999-10-01

    A long-term test has been conducted in the JFT-2M tokamak fusion device to determine the effects of environmental exposure on the mechanical and chemical behavior of a V-4Cr-4Ti alloy. Test specimens of the alloy were exposed in the outward lower divertor chamber of JFT-2M in a region away from direct contact with the plasma and were preheated to 300 C just prior to and during selected plasma discharges. During their nine-month residence time in JFT-2M, the specimens experienced approximately 200 lower single-null divertor shots at 300 C, during which high energy particle fluxes to the preheated test specimens were significant, and approximately 2,010 upper single-null divertor shots and non-diverter shots at room temperature, for which high energy particle fluxes to and expected particle retention in the test specimens were very low. Data from post-exposure tests have indicated that the performance of the V-4Cr-4Ti alloy would not be significantly affected by environmental exposure to gaseous species at partial pressures typical for tokamak operation. Deuterium retention in the exposed alloy was also low (<2 ppm). Absorption of interstitial by the alloy was limited to the very near surface, and neither the strength nor the Charpy impact properties of the alloy appeared to be significantly changed from the exposure to the JFT-2M tokamak environment.

  8. A Survey on M2M Systems for mHealth: A Wireless Communications Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kartsakli, Elli; Lalos, Aris S.; Antonopoulos, Angelos; Tennina, Stefano; Di Renzo, Marco; Alonso, Luis; Verikoukis, Christos

    2014-01-01

    In the new era of connectivity, marked by the explosive number of wireless electronic devices and the need for smart and pervasive applications, Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications are an emerging technology that enables the seamless device interconnection without the need of human interaction. The use of M2M technology can bring to life a wide range of mHealth applications, with considerable benefits for both patients and healthcare providers. Many technological challenges have to be met, however, to ensure the widespread adoption of mHealth solutions in the future. In this context, we aim to provide a comprehensive survey on M2M systems for mHealth applications from a wireless communication perspective. An end-to-end holistic approach is adopted, focusing on different communication aspects of the M2M architecture. Hence, we first provide a systematic review of Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs), which constitute the enabling technology at the patient's side, and then discuss end-to-end solutions that involve the design and implementation of practical mHealth applications. We close the survey by identifying challenges and open research issues, thus paving the way for future research opportunities. PMID:25264958

  9. Influence of quantity of litter on nest box selection and nesting behaviour of domestic hens.

    PubMed

    Petherick, J C; Seawright, E; Waddington, D

    1993-12-01

    1. Twenty two hens (Gallus gallus domesticus) were given a free choice, for egg laying, between 4 nest boxes containing different quantities of wood shavings (litter): 3180 cm3 (large), 1060 cm3 (medium), 350 cm3 (small) and none (zero). 2. There was considerable individual variation in the quantity of litter selected for egg laying, but 17 hens laid 50% or more of their eggs in a single litter quantity. Hens selected the large quantity in preference to the small and zero. More searching, nest selection and nesting behaviours tended to be directed to the boxes with the largest quantities and also to the quantities that the hens finally selected for egg laying. 3. In a second experiment, the hens from experiment 1 which showed a preference for litter, and a further 22 naïve hens were given a choice of three nest boxes containing no litter and one containing one of 6 quantities. Over 30 trials there were 5 replicates using each of the three quantities used in experiment 1 plus 115 cm3, 40 cm3 and 10 cm3. 4. There was a wide range in the proportion of trials in which hens selected litter; for experienced hens the range was 0.43 to 0.97, but only two naïve hens were within this range, all others being between 0 and 0.43. 5. The pattern of choosing litter quantities was comparable but at different levels of preference in experienced and naïve hens and a contour map was derived enabling predictions to be made of the probability of a particular quantity being chosen. 6. The variability of individual responses suggest that no single type of nest box system can cater for the requirements of all hens. PMID:8156424

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Kepler planet host candidates imaging (Lillo-Box+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillo-Box, J.; Barrado, D.; Bouy, H.

    2014-09-01

    We applied the lucky imaging technique to the selected targets to achieve diffraction-limited resolution. We used the AstraLux North instrument located at the 2.2m telescope at the Calar Alto Observatory (Almeria, Spain). The targets were observed along three visibility windows of the Kepler field during 2011, 2012, and 2013. The results regarding the non-isolated KOIs of observations on 2011 were published in Lillo-Box et al. (2012A&A...546A..10L, Cat. J/A+A/546/A10). In the present work, we report the results concerning the isolated candidates observed in 2011 and the new results for the 2012-2013 observing runs. (6 data files).

  11. Cell Cycle Arrest in G2/M Promotes Early Steps of Infection by Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    PubMed Central

    Groschel, Bettina; Bushman, Frederic

    2005-01-01

    We have identified four small molecules that boost transduction of cells by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and investigated their mechanism of action. These molecules include etoposide and camptothecin, which induce DNA damage by inhibiting religation of cleaved topoisomerase-DNA complexes, taxol, which interferes with the function of microtubules, and aphidicolin, which inhibits DNA polymerases. All four compounds arrest the cell cycle at G2/M, though in addition high concentrations of aphidicolin arrest in G1. We find that early events of HIV replication, including synthesis of late reverse transcription products, two-long terminal repeat circles, and integrated proviruses, were increased after treatment of cells with concentrations of each compound that arrested in G2/M. Stimulation was seen for both transformed cell lines (293T and HeLa cells) and primary cells (IMR90 lung fibroblasts). Arrest in G1 with high concentrations of aphidicolin boosted transduction, though not much as with lower concentrations that arrested in G2/M. Arrest of IMR90 cells in G1 by serum starvation and contact inhibition reduced transduction. Previously, the proteasome inhibitor MG132 was reported to increase HIV infection—here we investigated the effects of combinations of the cell cycle inhibitors with MG132 and obtained data suggesting that MG132 may also boost transduction by causing G2/M cell cycle arrest. These data document that cell cycle arrest in G2/M boosts the early steps of HIV infection and suggests methods for increasing transduction with HIV-based vectors. PMID:15827184

  12. Box Cello Middle School Science Clubs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandegrift, Guy

    1998-10-01

    The Box Cello is a middle school science club which is attempting to (1) understand the cello and (2) design a low-cost starter instrument. We can support and justify this research by adding a third goal: (3) to help supply local science classes with equipment. My policy of spending one entire day each week away from the university, out in a local school is essential to this project. This schedule also permits me to conduct lessons on optics and music in the schools. And, it permits circulation of tools and equipment. A simple calculation demonstrates the great economy achieved by combining science clubs with academic year school visits. Consider the cost of letting 10,000 students in 10 middle schools each learn about and play with a pair of "upside-down" glasses for one hour. A visit to each school for three consecutive weeks would easily permit such a circulation if only 30 pairs were constructed. Assume rhetorically, that the construction of 30 pairs of glasses were to consume the entire estimated annual budget of $100,000. The cost per student would be only ten dollars! The visits, guest lectures, and equipment loans permit informal networking (including lunch) with math, science and music teachers in 10 schools. For more information, visit the http://www.utep.edu/boxcello/

  13. Technology integration box beam failure study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuart, Mark J.; Ambur, Damodar R.; Davis, D. D., Jr.; Davis, R. C.; Farley, G. L.; Lotts, C. G.; Wang, J. T.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe current results from an on-going study of the mechanisms that led to the failure of the TIBB. Experimental and analytical results are presented. Experimental results include load, strain, and deflection data for the TIBB (Technology Integration Box Beam). An analytical investigation was conducted to compliment the experimental investigation and to gain additional insight into the TIBB structural response. Analytical results include strain and deflection results from a global analysis of the TIBB. A local analysis of the failure region is being completed. These analytical results are validated through comparisons with the experimental results from the TIBB tests. The experimental and analytical results from the TIBB tests are used to determine a sequence of events that may have resulted in failure of the TIBB. A potential cause of failure is high stresses in a stiffener runout region. Typical analytical results are presented for a stiffener runout specimen that is being defined to simulate the TIBB failure mechanisms. The results of this study are anticipated to provide better understanding of potential failure mechanisms in composite aircraft structures, to lead to future design improvements, and to identify needed analytical tools for design and analysis.

  14. Technology integration box beam failure study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuart, M. J.; Ambur, Damodar R.; Davis, D. D., Jr.; Davis, R. C.; Farley, G. L.; Lotts, C. G.; Wang, J. T.

    1993-01-01

    Composite structures have the potential to be cost-effective, structurally efficient primary aircraft structures. The Advanced Composites Technology (ACT) Program has the goal to develop the technology to exploit this potential for heavily loaded aircraft structures. As part of the ACT Program, Lockheed Aeronautical Systems Company completed the design and fabrication of the Technology Integration Box Beam (TIBB). The TIBB is an advanced composite prototype structure for the center wing section of the C-130 aircraft. Lockheed subjected the TIBB to downbending, upbending, torsion and combined upbending and torsion load conditions to verify the design. The TIBB failed at 83 percent of design ultimate load for the combined upbending and torsion load condition. The objective of this paper is to describe the mechanisms that led to the failure of the TIBB. The results of a comprehensive analytical and experimental study are presented. Analytical results include strain and deflection results from both a global analysis of the TIBB and a local analysis of the failure region. These analytical results are validated by experimental results from the TIBB tests. The analytical and experimental results from the TIBB tests are used to determine a sequence of events that resulted in failure of the TIBB. A potential cause of failure is high stresses in a stiffener runout region. Analytical and experimental results are also presented for a stiffener runout specimen that was used to simulate the TIBB failure mechanisms.

  15. Development of blanket box structure fabrication technology

    SciTech Connect

    Mohri, K.; Sata, S.; Kawaguchi, I.

    1994-12-31

    Fabrication studies have been performed for first wall and blanket box structure in the Fusion Experimental Reactor designed in Japan. The first wall must have internal cooling channels to remove volumetric heat loading by neutron wall load and surface heat loading from the plasma. The blanket which is higher than 10 m and 1 m wide withstands enormous electromagnetic load (about 10 MN/m). And a fabrication accuracy is required in the order of 10 mm from the machine configuration and remote assembling standpoints. To make cooling channels inside the first wall and to reduce the deformation during fabrication, the authors adopted advance techniques Hot Isostatic Pressing method (HIP) and Electron Beam Welding (EBW) respectively. Evaluation studies for the bondability of the HIP bonding joint have been performed. To evaluate the bondability, the mechanical properties such as tensile strength, impact value, low cycle fatigue strength and creep strength of the bonded part were investigated using HIP bonded test specimens. And the detectability of ultrasonic detection tests were also studied on them.

  16. Rethinking sanitation: panacea or Pandora's box.

    PubMed

    Esrey, S A

    2000-01-01

    In the 19th century, sanitation solutions were designed and built on the premises that human excreta was a waste suitable only for disposal and that the environment was capable of assimilating the waste. The prevailing view last century was that vapors from smells caused disease, and the best way to deal with excreta was to convey it to rivers and streams where it could be diluted and cleansed. Times have changed, the premises are outdated, and current solutions contribute, either directly or indirectly, to many of the problems faced by society today: water pollution, scarcity of fresh water, food insecurity, destruction and loss of soil fertility, loss of biodiversity, depletion of the ozone layer, and global warming. A common denominator of all these problems is how society deals with its wastes, specifically how it deals with human excrement. We have to rethink past premises, design and build new systems, and contribute to the solving of society's most pressing problems. The panacea of the 19th century is turning out to be the pandora's box of the 21st century. PMID:10842787

  17. Opening up a Colourful Cosmic Jewel Box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-10-01

    The combination of images taken by three exceptional telescopes, the ESO Very Large Telescope on Cerro Paranal , the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla observatory and the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, has allowed the stunning Jewel Box star cluster to be seen in a whole new light. Star clusters are among the most visually alluring and astrophysically fascinating objects in the sky. One of the most spectacular nestles deep in the southern skies near the Southern Cross in the constellation of Crux. The Kappa Crucis Cluster, also known as NGC 4755 or simply the "Jewel Box" is just bright enough to be seen with the unaided eye. It was given its nickname by the English astronomer John Herschel in the 1830s because the striking colour contrasts of its pale blue and orange stars seen through a telescope reminded Herschel of a piece of exotic jewellery. Open clusters [1] such as NGC 4755 typically contain anything from a few to thousands of stars that are loosely bound together by gravity. Because the stars all formed together from the same cloud of gas and dust their ages and chemical makeup are similar, which makes them ideal laboratories for studying how stars evolve. The position of the cluster amongst the rich star fields and dust clouds of the southern Milky Way is shown in the very wide field view generated from the Digitized Sky Survey 2 data. This image also includes one of the stars of the Southern Cross as well as part of the huge dark cloud of the Coal Sack [2]. A new image taken with the Wide Field Imager (WFI) on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile shows the cluster and its rich surroundings in all their multicoloured glory. The large field of view of the WFI shows a vast number of stars. Many are located behind the dusty clouds of the Milky Way and therefore appear red [3]. The FORS1 instrument on the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) allows a much closer look at the cluster itself. The telescope's huge mirror

  18. Early evolution of the T-box transcription factor family.

    PubMed

    Sebé-Pedrós, Arnau; Ariza-Cosano, Ana; Weirauch, Matthew T; Leininger, Sven; Yang, Ally; Torruella, Guifré; Adamski, Marcin; Adamska, Maja; Hughes, Timothy R; Gómez-Skarmeta, José Luis; Ruiz-Trillo, Iñaki

    2013-10-01

    Developmental transcription factors are key players in animal multicellularity, being members of the T-box family that are among the most important. Until recently, T-box transcription factors were thought to be exclusively present in metazoans. Here, we report the presence of T-box genes in several nonmetazoan lineages, including ichthyosporeans, filastereans, and fungi. Our data confirm that Brachyury is the most ancient member of the T-box family and establish that the T-box family diversified at the onset of Metazoa. Moreover, we demonstrate functional conservation of a homolog of Brachyury of the protist Capsaspora owczarzaki in Xenopus laevis. By comparing the molecular phenotype of C. owczarzaki Brachyury with that of homologs of early branching metazoans, we define a clear difference between unicellular holozoan and metazoan Brachyury homologs, suggesting that the specificity of Brachyury emerged at the origin of Metazoa. Experimental determination of the binding preferences of the C. owczarzaki Brachyury results in a similar motif to that of metazoan Brachyury and other T-box classes. This finding suggests that functional specificity between different T-box classes is likely achieved by interaction with alternative cofactors, as opposed to differences in binding specificity. PMID:24043797

  19. Measure Guideline: Optimizing the Configuration of Flexible Duct Junction Boxes

    SciTech Connect

    Beach, R.; Burdick, A.

    2014-03-01

    This measure guideline offers additional recommendations to heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system designers for optimizing flexible duct, constant-volume HVAC systems using junction boxes within Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) Manual D guidance (Rutkowski, H. Manual D -- Residential Duct Systems, 3rd edition, Version 1.00. Arlington, VA: Air Conditioning Contractors of America, 2009.). IBACOS used computational fluid dynamics software to explore and develop guidance to better control the airflow effects of factors that may impact pressure losses within junction boxes among various design configurations (Beach, R., Prahl, D., and Lange, R. CFD Analysis of Flexible Duct Junction Box Design. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, submitted for publication 2013). These recommendations can help to ensure that a system aligns more closely with the design and the occupants' comfort expectations. Specifically, the recommendations described herein show how to configure a rectangular box with four outlets, a triangular box with three outlets, metal wyes with two outlets, and multiple configurations for more than four outlets. Designers of HVAC systems, contractors who are fabricating junction boxes on site, and anyone using the ACCA Manual D process for sizing duct runs will find this measure guideline invaluable for more accurately minimizing pressure losses when using junction boxes with flexible ducts.

  20. Compact and Secure Design of Masked AES S-Box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakeri, Babak; Salmasizadeh, Mahmoud; Moradi, Amir; Tabandeh, Mahmoud; Shalmani, Mohammad T. Manzuri

    Composite field arithmetic is known as an alternative method for lookup tables in implementation of S-box block of AES algorithm. The idea is to breakdown the computations to lower order fields and compute the inverse there. Recently this idea have been used both for reducing the area in implementation of S-boxes and masking implementations of AES algorithm. The most compact design using this technique is presented by Canright using only 92 gates for an S-box block. In another approach, IAIK laboratory has presented a masked implementation of AES algorithm with higher security comparing common masking methods using Composite field arithmetic. Our work in this paper is to use basic ideas of the two approaches above to get a compact masked S-box. We shall use the idea of masking inversion of IAIK's masked S-box but we will rewrite the equations using normal basis. We arrange the terms in these equations in a way that the optimized functions in Canright's compact S-box can be used for our design. An implementation of IAIK's masked S-box is also presented using Canright's polynomial functions to have a fair comparison between our design and IAIK's design. Moreover, we show that this design which uses two special normal basis for GF(16) and GF(4) is the smallest. We shall also prove the security of this design using some lemmas.

  1. The Octahedral Sheet of Metamorphic 2M 1-Phengites: a Combined EMPA And AXANES Study

    SciTech Connect

    Cibin, G.; Cinque, G.; Marcelli, A.; Mottana, A.; Sassi, R.

    2009-05-12

    Two types of metamorphic phengites are known: one is linked to high pressure and is 3T; the other is 2M{sub 1}, and its composition is linked to rock-compositional constraints. This work investigates the octahedral sheet crystal-chemical differences between the two phengite types. Seven dioctahedral micas were studied: (1) one 3T phengite from an ultrahigh-pressure metagranitoid in the Dora Maira massif, Italy (P {approx} 4.3 GPa, T {approx} 730 C); (2) five 2M{sub 1} phengites from medium-P orthogneisses in the Eastern Alps metamorphic basement, Italy (P {le} 0.7 GPa, T {approx} 500-600 C); and (3) one 2M{sub 1} ferroan muscovite from pegmatite in Antarctica (P {le} 0.2 GPa, T {approx}500 C). All micas display significant extents of celadonite substitution. In particular, the 2M{sub 1}-phengite formulae (calculated on the basis of 11 O) have 0.68 < {sup IV}Al < 0.82 atoms per formula unit (apfu); octahedral atoms are dominated by Al (1.6-1.8 apfu), with minor and variable Fe (0.20-0.35 apfu) and Mg (0.05-0.17 apfu), and very minor Ti, Mn, and Cr. Total octahedral occupancies are slightly above 2.00 apfu, i.e., there seems to be partial occupancy of the third M site. For all micas, we recorded XAFS spectra on mosaics of carefully separated flakes oriented flat on a plastic support that could be rotated so as to account for the polarization of the synchrotron radiation beam, and we processed them on the basis of the AXANES theory. Spectra show angle-dependent absorption variations for Al and Fe, which can be deconvoluted and fitted by dichroic effects. Pre-edges consistently show most Fe to be Fe{sup 3+} and little angle-dependent intensity variations. The 2M{sub 1}-ferroan muscovite from Antarctica displays the same AXANES behavior as 2M{sub 1}-phengites. By contrast, the ultrahigh-pressure 3T-phengite from Dora Maira (having {sup IV}Al = 0.42 apfu, and Al and Mg as the dominant octahedral constituents) has XAFS spectra that differ significantly. Not only is the

  2. Three-dimensional analysis of a turbogenerator terminal box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Amitabh

    1987-04-01

    This paper presents a method of analyzing magnetic fields in and around turbogenerator terminal boxes in three dimensions. The magnetic field is modelled in terms of a magnetic scalar potential under the assumption that the depth of penetration of the field is very small such that eddy currents are restricted to surface currents. The potential formulation and the associated boundary conditions are discussed. A box model which has been analyzed using the present formulation is given along with plot of equipotentials on a box wall.

  3. A new box system for a high pressure tritium pump

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, S.W.; Borree, R.J.; Chambers, D.I.; Souers, P.C.; Merrill, J.T.; Wiggins, R.K.

    1988-01-01

    A 200 MPa (30 kpsi) high pressure tritium pump inside a box system is described. This system is currently under construction but all representative mechanical parts have been fabricated and tested. The pump is a conventional mechanical-plus-cryostaged system, so that most of the interesting features are in the box. The system contains nine separate sections, with automatic pressure balancing and venting systems. Five sections are hood-to-box convertible enclosures with inflatable door seals. The procedure of cryostaging with liquid argon is described. Special detail is given to valves and motor shaft seals. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  4. The research to select test data of black-box component using contract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ying; Jin, Lin; Liu, Yu-Ping

    2013-03-01

    During the process of component based software development, components must be tested before reused successfully. Test-data generation is an important topic in black-box component testing. The large number of test data will spend plenty of execution time and increase the testing cost. Based on the contracts of black-box component, this paper presents a test data selection method after generated a great deal of initial test cases. First, the contract grammar of blackbox components is defined. Then the method and process of test data selection is presented based on contract. Finally, some experiments are carried out. The results have shown that the number of test data is reduced while shortening the time and keeping the efficiency after twice selection.

  5. Dismantling of the PETRA glove box: tritium contamination and inventory assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, R.

    2015-03-15

    The PETRA facility is the first installation in which experiments with tritium were carried out at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe. After completion of two main experimental programs, the decommissioning of PETRA was initiated with the aim to reuse the glove box and its main still valuable components. A decommissioning plan was engaged to: -) identify the source of tritium release in the glove box, -) clarify the status of the main components, -) assess residual tritium inventories, and -) de-tritiate the components to be disposed of as waste. Several analytical techniques - calorimetry on small solid samples, wipe test followed by liquid scintillation counting for surface contamination assessment, gas chromatography on gaseous samples - were deployed and cross-checked to assess the remaining tritium inventories and initiate the decommissioning process. The methodology and the main outcomes of the numerous different tritium measurements are presented and discussed. (authors)

  6. Comparison of Protamine 1 to Protamine 2 mRNA Ratio and YBX2 gene mRNA Content in Testicular Tissue of Fertile and Azoospermic Men

    PubMed Central

    Moghbelinejad, Sahar; Najafipour, Reza; Hashjin, Amir Samimi

    2015-01-01

    Background Although aberrant protamine (PRM) ratios have been observed in infertile men, the mechanisms that implicit the uncoupling of PRM1 and PRM2 expression remain unclear. To uncover these mechanisms, in this observational study we have compared the PRM1/PRM2 mRNA ratio and mRNA contents of two regulatory factors of these genes. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, sampling was performed by a multi-step method from 50 non-obstructive azoospermic and 12 normal men. After RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT- QPCR) was used to analyze the PRM1, PRM2, Y box binding protein 2 (YBX2) and JmjC-containing histone demethylase 2a (JHDM2A) genes in testicular biopsies of the studied samples. Results The PRM1/PRM2 mRNA ratio differed significantly among studied groups, namely 0.21 ± 0.13 in azoospermic samples and -0.8 ± 0.22 in fertile samples. The amount of PRM2 mRNA, significantly reduced in azoospermic patients. Azoospermic men exhibited significant under expression of YBX2 gene compared to controls (P<0.001). mRNA content of this gene showed a positive correlation with PRM mRNA ratio (R=0.6, P=0.007). JHDM2A gene expression ratio did not show any significant difference between the studied groups (P=0.3). We also observed no correlation between JHDM2A mRNA content and the PRM mRNA ratio (R=0.2, P=0.3). Conclusion We found significant correlation between the aberrant PRM ratio (PRM2 under expression) and lower YBX2 mRNA content in testicular biopsies of azoospermic men compared to controls, which suggested that downregulation of the YBX2 gene might be involved in PRM2 under expression. These molecules could be useful biomarkers for predicting male infertility. PMID:26644857

  7. Curcumin induces G2/M arrest and triggers apoptosis via FoxO1 signaling in U87 human glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chao; Jiao, Jian-Tong; Qian, Yu; Guo, Xiao-Yi; Huang, Jin; Dai, Min-Chao; Zhang, Lei; Ding, Xiao-Peng; Zong, Da; Shao, Jun-Fei

    2016-05-01

    It has previously been demonstrated that curcumin possesses an antitumor activity, which is associated with its ability to induce G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. However the detailed underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the efficacy and underlying mechanism of curcumin‑induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in U87 human glioblastoma cells. By immunofluorescence staining, subcellular fractionation and western blotting, the present study demonstrated that curcumin was able to induce G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by increasing the expression levels of cyclin G2, cleaved caspase‑3 and Fas ligand (FasL), and decreasing the expression of cyclin‑dependent kinase 1 (CDK1). In addition, increased expression of forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1) and decreased expression of phosphorylated (p)‑FoxO1 were detected in the curcumin‑treated U87 cells. Curcumin was also able to induce the translocation of FoxO1 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Furthermore, following knockdown of FoxO1 expression in curcumin‑treated U87 cells using FoxO1 small interfering RNA, the expression levels of cyclin G2, cleaved caspase‑3 and FasL were inhibited; however, the expression levels of CDK1 were not markedly altered. Notably, following knockdown of CDK1 expression under normal conditions, the total expression of FoxO1 was not affected; however, p‑FoxO1 expression was decreased and FoxO1 nuclear expression was increased. Furthermore, curcumin‑induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis could be attenuated by FoxO1 knockdown. These results indicated that curcumin may induce G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in U87 cells by increasing FoxO1 expression. The present study identified a novel mechanism underlying the antitumor effects of curcumin, and may provide a theoretical basis for the application of curcumin in glioma treatment. PMID:27035875

  8. Curcumin induces G2/M arrest and triggers apoptosis via FoxO1 signaling in U87 human glioma cells

    PubMed Central

    CHENG, CHAO; JIAO, JIAN-TONG; QIAN, YU; GUO, XIAO-YI; HUANG, JIN; DAI, MIN-CHAO; ZHANG, LEI; DING, XIAO-PENG; ZONG, DA; SHAO, JUN-FEI

    2016-01-01

    It has previously been demonstrated that curcumin possesses an antitumor activity, which is associated with its ability to induce G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. However the detailed underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the efficacy and underlying mechanism of curcumin-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in U87 human glioblastoma cells. By immunofluorescence staining, subcellular fractionation and western blotting, the present study demonstrated that curcumin was able to induce G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by increasing the expression levels of cyclin G2, cleaved caspase-3 and Fas ligand (FasL), and decreasing the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1). In addition, increased expression of forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1) and decreased expression of phosphorylated (p)-FoxO1 were detected in the curcumin-treated U87 cells. Curcumin was also able to induce the translocation of FoxO1 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Furthermore, following knockdown of FoxO1 expression in curcumin-treated U87 cells using FoxO1 small interfering RNA, the expression levels of cyclin G2, cleaved caspase-3 and FasL were inhibited; however, the expression levels of CDK1 were not markedly altered. Notably, following knockdown of CDK1 expression under normal conditions, the total expression of FoxO1 was not affected; however, p-FoxO1 expression was decreased and FoxO1 nuclear expression was increased. Furthermore, curcumin-induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis could be attenuated by FoxO1 knockdown. These results indicated that curcumin may induce G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in U87 cells by increasing FoxO1 expression. The present study identified a novel mechanism underlying the antitumor effects of curcumin, and may provide a theoretical basis for the application of curcumin in glioma treatment. PMID:27035875

  9. Box spaces in pictorial space: linear perspective versus templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ridder, Huib; Pont, Sylvia C.

    2012-03-01

    In the past decades perceptual (or perceived) image quality has been one of the most important criteria for evaluating digitally processed image and video content. With the growing popularity of new media like stereoscopic displays there is a tendency to replace image quality with viewing experience as the ultimate criterion. Adopting such a high-level psychological criterion calls for a rethinking of the premises underlying human judgment. One premise is that perception is about accurately reconstructing the physical world in front of you ("inverse optics"). That is, human vision is striving for veridicality. The present study investigated one of its consequences, namely, that linear perspective will always yield the correct description of the perceived 3D geometry in 2D images. To this end, human observers adjusted the frontal view of a wireframe box on a television screen so as to look equally deep and wide (i.e. to look like a cube) or twice as deep as wide. In a number of stimulus configurations, the results showed huge deviations from veridicality suggesting that the inverse optics model fails. Instead, the results seem to be more in line with a model of "vision as optical interface".

  10. Velarium control and visual steering in box jellyfish.

    PubMed

    Petie, Ronald; Garm, Anders; Nilsson, Dan-Eric

    2013-04-01

    Directional swimming in the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora (cubozoa, cnidaria) is controlled by the shape of the velarium, which is a thin muscular sheet that forms the opening of the bell. It was unclear how different patterns of visual stimulation control directional swimming and that is the focus of this study. Jellyfish were tethered inside a small experimental tank, where the four vertical walls formed light panels. All four panels were lit at the start of an experiment. The shape of the opening in the velarium was recorded in response to switching off different combinations of panels. We found that under the experimental conditions the opening in the velarium assumed three distinct shapes during a swim contraction. The opening was (1) centred or it was off-centred and pocketed out either towards (2) a rhopalium or (3) a pedalium. The shape of the opening in the velarium followed the direction of the stimulus as long as the stimulus contained directional information. When the stimulus contained no directional information, the percentage of centred pulses increased and the shape of the off-centred pulses had a random orientation. Removing one rhopalium did not change the directional response of the animals, however, the number of centred pulses increased. When three rhopalia were removed, the percentage of centred pulses increased even further and the animals lost their ability to respond to directional information. PMID:23417442

  11. Dephasing Measurements of a Cooper-pair box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaretskey, Vitaley; Novikov, S.; Suri, B.; Kim, Z.; Wellstood, F. C.; Palmer, B. S.

    2011-03-01

    We present data on the dephasing properties of our Al/ Al Ox /Al Cooper-pair box (CPB) qubit. The CPB had a charging energy EC / h = 6.25 GHz and a maximum EJ / h = 19 GHz which was decreased by an external magnetic field to an effective EJ / h of 6.1 GHz. The qubit was capacitively coupled to a lumped element microwave resonator (f0 = 5.446 GHz, QL = 1.8 ×104) which was in turn coupled to a transmission line. To manipulate the qubit, a microwave pulse at 6.1 GHz was sent to the transmission line. The state of the qubit was then measured by sending a second microwave pulse at f0 and measuring the amplitude and phase of the transmitted power. We observed Rabi oscillations with Rabi frequencies from 1.94 to 5.32 MHz decay with time constants in the range T' = 0.6 to 1.6 μ s. We measured an inhomogeneous dephasing time (T2 {*}) of 322 ns by performing a Ramsey fringe experiment. Assuming 1 / f charge noise is the dominant dephasing mechanism we extracted a 1 / f charge noise amplitude of 1.6 × 10-3 e /√{ Hz } at 1 Hz.

  12. Aerodynamic drag reduction tests on a box-shaped vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, R. L.; Sandlin, D. R.

    1981-01-01

    The intent of the present experiment is to define a near optimum value of drag coefficient for a high volume type of vehicle through the use of a boattail, on a vehicle already having rounded front corners and an underbody seal, or fairing. The results of these tests will constitute a baseline for later follow-on studies to evaluate candidate methods of obtaining afterbody drag coefficients approaching the boattail values, but without resorting to such impractical afterbody extensions. The current modifications to the box-shaped vehicle consisted of a full and truncated boattail in conjunction with the faired and sealed underbody. Drag results from these configurations are compared with corresponding wind tunnel results of a 1/10 scale model. Test velocities ranged up to 96.6 km/h (60 mph) and the corresponding Reynolds numbers ranged up to 1.3 x 10 to the 7th power based on the vehicles length which includes the boattail. A simple coast-down technique was used to define drag.

  13. Workshops and incentive loans program for construction of solar greenhouses, grain dryers, window boxes and food dryers. Final performance report

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.H.

    1982-02-01

    A Solar Loan Fund was established to provide low-interest incentive loans to families desiring to construct their own solar devices, the only stipulations being allowance of reasonable public visitation and monitoring and employment of parish-trained construction teams if labor is to be hired. About 30 vocational agriculture students built window box collector units as part of their classroom experience, trying several designs. Later, 12 to 15 families built window box collectors for their use. A week long Energy Responsibility: Today and Tomorrow workshop was held involving construction projects and mini-seminars. Another workshop was held to construct bread box type solar hot water heaters, and yet another to build solar food dryers. (LEW)

  14. VLSI architectures for computing multiplications and inverses in GF(2m).

    PubMed

    Wang, C C; Truong, T K; Shao, H M; Deutsch, L J; Omura, J K; Reed, I S

    1985-08-01

    Finite field arithmetic logic is central in the implementation of Reed-Solomon coders and in some cryptographic algorithms. There is a need for good multiplication and inversion algorithms that can be easily realized on VLSI chips. Massey and Omura recently developed a new multiplication algorithm for Galois fields based on a normal basis representation. In this paper, a pipeline structure is developed to realize the Massey-Omura multiplier in the finite field GF(2m). With the simple squaring property of the normal basis representation used together with this multiplier, a pipeline architecture is developed for computing inverse elements in GF(2m). The designs developed for the Massey-Omura multiplier and the computation of inverse elements are regular, simple, expandable, and therefore, naturally suitable for VLSI implementation. PMID:11539660

  15. VLSI architectures for computing multiplications and inverses in GF(2-m)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, C. C.; Truong, T. K.; Shao, H. M.; Deutsch, L. J.; Omura, J. K.; Reed, I. S.

    1983-01-01

    Finite field arithmetic logic is central in the implementation of Reed-Solomon coders and in some cryptographic algorithms. There is a need for good multiplication and inversion algorithms that are easily realized on VLSI chips. Massey and Omura recently developed a new multiplication algorithm for Galois fields based on a normal basis representation. A pipeline structure is developed to realize the Massey-Omura multiplier in the finite field GF(2m). With the simple squaring property of the normal-basis representation used together with this multiplier, a pipeline architecture is also developed for computing inverse elements in GF(2m). The designs developed for the Massey-Omura multiplier and the computation of inverse elements are regular, simple, expandable and, therefore, naturally suitable for VLSI implementation.

  16. VLSI architectures for computing multiplications and inverses in GF(2m)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, C. C.; Truong, T. K.; Shao, H. M.; Deutsch, L. J.; Omura, J. K.

    1985-01-01

    Finite field arithmetic logic is central in the implementation of Reed-Solomon coders and in some cryptographic algorithms. There is a need for good multiplication and inversion algorithms that are easily realized on VLSI chips. Massey and Omura recently developed a new multiplication algorithm for Galois fields based on a normal basis representation. A pipeline structure is developed to realize the Massey-Omura multiplier in the finite field GF(2m). With the simple squaring property of the normal-basis representation used together with this multiplier, a pipeline architecture is also developed for computing inverse elements in GF(2m). The designs developed for the Massey-Omura multiplier and the computation of inverse elements are regular, simple, expandable and, therefore, naturally suitable for VLSI implementation.

  17. THE WHITE DWARF COMPANION OF A 2 M{sub sun} NEUTRON STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Bhalerao, Varun B.; Kulkarni, S. R.

    2011-08-10

    We report the optical discovery of the companion to the 2 M{sub sun} millisecond pulsar PSR J1614-2230. The optical colors show that the 0.5 M{sub sun} companion is a 2.2 Gyr old He-CO white dwarf. We infer that M-dot during the accretion phase is <10{sup -2} M-dot{sub edd}. We show that the pulsar was born with a spin close to its current value, well below the rebirth line. The spin-down parameters, the mass of the pulsar, and the age of the system challenge the simple recycling model for the formation of millisecond pulsars.

  18. Rate constant for formation of chlorine nitrate by the reaction ClO + NO2 + M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leu, M. T.; Lin, C. L.; Demore, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    The pseudo-first-order decay of ClO in a large excess of NO2 was monitored in a discharge flow/mass-spectrometer apparatus in order to measure the rate constant of the reaction ClO + NO2 + M yields ClONO2 + M for M = He, Ar, and N2 over the temperature range from 248 to 417 K. Numerical results are given for He at 248, 299, 360, and 417 K (1 to 9 torr); for Ar at 298 K (1 to 4 torr); and for N2 at 299, 360, and 417 K (1 to 6 torr). Systematic errors are estimated, and identification of the reaction product is discussed. The results obtained are shown to be in excellent agreement with other recent measurements of the same rate constant.

  19. The Delta Box: a Table-top Glimpse Into Sequence Stratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, K. M.; Hickson, T.; Martin, J.; Paola, C.

    2006-12-01

    Physical models offer an effective means of providing greater understanding of surface processes and depositional products. At the National Center for Earth-surface Dynamics' research facility, St. Anthony Falls Laboratory; we have seen that in addition to being critically important to the advancement of surface process research, experiments are extremely effective tools for engaging students, especially undergraduates, in understanding these linkages. However, many colleges and universities cannot afford the space or time to support large research or teaching flumes, so we have devised an inexpensive table-top tank that can be used in teaching deltaic depositional processes and concepts of sequence stratigraphy. Our "Delta Box" measures approximately 1.2 by 0.6 meters and is built primarily of parts available at local hardware stores or lumberyards. A simple pond pump drives a water recirculation system, while a constant head tank constructed from PVC pipe regulates the rate of water flow into the flume. A sand/coal sediment mix, fed by hand into the tank, provides a very clear visual distinction between coarse and fine particles on a continental shelf and slope constructed of foam insulation. We have tested the box with a group of undergraduate faculty from around the United States at an "On the Cutting Edge" workshop, at which we were able to consistently build many classic deltaic features, as well as show delta progradation, the effects of waves on sediment transport and deposition, and the formation of sequence boundaries and the entire suite of key sequence stratigraphic features. A manual for building the box, as well as a short movie clip of the workshop participants experimenting with it, is available at http://www.nced.edu/SERC.html. Several of the participants are currently building additional boxes; we plan to post improved instructions and example exercises on the National Center for Earth-surface Dynamics website.

  20. The AirQuality SenseBox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demuth, Dustin; Nuest, Daniel; Bröring, Arne; Pebesma, Edzer

    2013-04-01

    In the past year, a group of open hardware enthusiasts and citizen scientists had large success in the crowd-funding of an open hardware-based sensor platform for air quality monitoring, called the Air Quality Egg. Via the kickstarter platform, the group was able to collect triple the amount of money than needed to fulfill their goals. Data generated by the Air Quality Egg is pushed to the data logging platform cosm.com, which makes the devices a part of the Internet of Things. The project aims at increasing the participation of citizens in the collection of data, the development of sensors, the operation of sensor stations, and, as data on cosm is publicly available, the sharing, visualization and analysis of data. Air Quality Eggs can measure NO2 and CO concentrations, as well as relative humidity and temperature. The chosen sensors are low-cost and have limited precision and accurracy. The Air Quality Egg consists of a stationary outdoor and a stationary indoor unit. Each outdoor unit will wirelessly transmit air quality measurements to the indoor unit, which forwards the data to cosm. Most recent versions of the Air Quality Egg allow a rough calibration of the gas sensors and on-the-fly conversion from raw sensor readings (impedance) to meaningful air quality data expressed in units of parts per billion. Data generated by these low-cost platforms are not intended to replace well-calibrated official monitoring stations, but rather augment the density of the total monitoring network with citizen sensors. To improve the usability of the Air Quality Egg, we present a new and more advanced concept, called the AirQuality SenseBox. We made the outdoor platform more autonomous and location-aware by adding solarpanels and rechargeable batteries as a power source. The AirQuality SenseBox knows its own position from a GPS device attached to the platform. As a mobile sensor platform, it can for instance be attached to vehicles. A low-cost and low-power wireless chipset

  1. On the Diophantine equation x^2+q^2m=2y^p

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tengely, Sz

    In this paper we consider the Diophantine equation $x^2+q^{2m}=2y^p$ where $m,p,q,x,y$ are integer unknowns with $m>0,$ $p$ and $q$ are odd primes and $\\gcd(x,y)=1.$ We prove that there are only finitely many solutions $(m,p,q,x,y)$ for which $y$ is not a sum of two consecutive squares. We also study the above equation with fixed $y$ and with fixed $q.$

  2. E2/M1 ratio of the N to Delta transition in a modified Skyrme model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Back, Anthony Randolph

    1997-08-01

    I use a chiral effective Lagrangian to find the E2/M1 ratio. This ratio is a measure of the deformation of the nucleon. The Lagrangian is a modified Skyrme model (1). Its construction is guided by chiral symmetry and the symmetries of QCD, which dictates the addition of the Wess-Zumino term. The current is quantized using collective coordinates (2). I find the ratio to be - .118%, which is smaller than most other models.

  3. Industry 4.0, M2m, Iot&S - All Equal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrin, Carmen

    2014-11-01

    Similarity between Industry 4.0, M2M, IOT&S. Advantages and disadvantages obtained using this three important methods. Decreasing costs while components are getting smaller and smaller in a world with better networking. Influence of business management applications integrated in smart factory logistic. The most important impacts in merging virtual and real production world, with the improvement of best processes having the same goal: creating value by open innovation

  4. Operation of the University of Hawaii 2.2M Telescope on Mauna Kea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLaren, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a final report from March 1, 1997-February 28, 1999 on the Operation of the University of Hawaii 2.2M Telescope on Mauna Kea. The topics include: 1) Telescope and Instrumentation (Newsletter and Documentation, Scheduling Periods); and 2) Scientific Highlights (The Outer Solar System-Trans-Neptunian Objects and the Kuiper Belt, Comet Hale-Bopp, Near-Earth Asteroids, Asteroid Families, and Galileo Mission Support).

  5. Differential distribution of ELMO1 and ELMO2 mRNAs in the developing mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Hironori; Fujimoto, Satoshi; Ishida, Chisaki; Ishikawa, Yukio; Negishi, Manabu

    2006-02-16

    ELMO is an upstream regulator of the Rho family small GTPase Rac. We investigated the distributions of mRNAs of two subtypes of ELMO, ELMO1 and ELMO2, in the developing mouse brain. Both ELMO1 and ELMO2 mRNAs are widely distributed in the developing mouse brain, but they were expressed in different neuronal populations in the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and cerebellum. Thus, ELMO1 and ELMO2 may play different roles during brain development. PMID:16443196

  6. 25. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #2M4, (mezzanine), power supply ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #2M4, (mezzanine), power supply room; computer power supply on left and water flow on right. This room is directly below data processing area (room #318). Sign on right reads: High purity water digital rack - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  7. The Irradiation Facility at the IBR-2M Reactor in Dubna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulavin, M.; Cheplakov, A.; Kulikov, S.; Kukhtin, V.; Shabalin, E.; Verhoglyadov, A.

    2014-06-01

    After renovation neutron pulsed reactor was successfully put into operation. In view of HL-LHC development, the irradiation facility at the IBR-2m, previously used for the ATLAS Liquid Argon calorimeters electronics and materials certification, has been upgraded to permit accumulation in the warm temperature conditions of the fast neutrons fluences up to k*1017 n/cm2 per one standard reactor operation cycle - 11 days. The first test of materials for ATLAS was conducted.

  8. GREEN SUPERCOMPUTING IN A DESKTOP BOX

    SciTech Connect

    HSU, CHUNG-HSING; FENG, WU-CHUN; CHING, AVERY

    2007-01-17

    The computer workstation, introduced by Sun Microsystems in 1982, was the tool of choice for scientists and engineers as an interactive computing environment for the development of scientific codes. However, by the mid-1990s, the performance of workstations began to lag behind high-end commodity PCs. This, coupled with the disappearance of BSD-based operating systems in workstations and the emergence of Linux as an open-source operating system for PCs, arguably led to the demise of the workstation as we knew it. Around the same time, computational scientists started to leverage PCs running Linux to create a commodity-based (Beowulf) cluster that provided dedicated computer cycles, i.e., supercomputing for the rest of us, as a cost-effective alternative to large supercomputers, i.e., supercomputing for the few. However, as the cluster movement has matured, with respect to cluster hardware and open-source software, these clusters have become much more like their large-scale supercomputing brethren - a shared (and power-hungry) datacenter resource that must reside in a machine-cooled room in order to operate properly. Consequently, the above observations, when coupled with the ever-increasing performance gap between the PC and cluster supercomputer, provide the motivation for a 'green' desktop supercomputer - a turnkey solution that provides an interactive and parallel computing environment with the approximate form factor of a Sun SPARCstation 1 'pizza box' workstation. In this paper, they present the hardware and software architecture of such a solution as well as its prowess as a developmental platform for parallel codes. In short, imagine a 12-node personal desktop supercomputer that achieves 14 Gflops on Linpack but sips only 185 watts of power at load, resulting in a performance-power ratio that is over 300% better than their reference SMP platform.

  9. Development of Lunar Highland REgolith Simulants, NU-LHT-1M,-2M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoeser, D. B.; Wilson, S. A.; Fikes, J.; McLemore, C.; Rickman, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    As part of a collaborative agreement between the U.S, Geological Survey (USGS) and NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) lunar highland simulants are being produced to support engineers and scientists in developing the technologies required to put a base on the moon by 2024. Two simulants have been produced to date: NU-LHT-1M and -2M (NASA/USGS-Lunar Highlands Type-l & 2 Medium-grained). Using starting material chiefly collected from the Stillwater Mine, Nye, MT, blending protocols were developed based on normative mineralogy calculated from average chemistry, for the Apollo 16 regolith. New technologies using a high temperature remotely coupled plasma melter were developed to generate both high quality and agglutinitic glasses that simulate the glassy components of the regolith. Detailed chemical, mineralogical and physical properties analysis of NU-LHT-1M indicate that it is overall a good surrogate for highlands lunar regolith (our new simulant LHT-2M has not be analyzed yet). The primary difference between 1M and 2M was the inclusion of trace mineralogy (phosphates and sulfide). Plans will also be presented on the future direction of the simulant project.

  10. RESTful M2M Gateway for Remote Wireless Monitoring for District Central Heating Networks

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Bo; Wei, Zesan

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the increased interest in energy conservation and environmental protection, combined with the development of modern communication and computer technology, has resulted in the replacement of distributed heating by central heating in urban areas. This paper proposes a Representational State Transfer (REST) Machine-to-Machine (M2M) gateway for wireless remote monitoring for a district central heating network. In particular, we focus on the resource-oriented RESTful M2M gateway architecture, and present an uniform devices abstraction approach based on Open Service Gateway Initiative (OSGi) technology, and implement the resource mapping mechanism between resource address mapping mechanism between RESTful resources and the physical sensor devices, and present the buffer queue combined with polling method to implement the data scheduling and Quality of Service (QoS) guarantee, and also give the RESTful M2M gateway open service Application Programming Interface (API) set. The performance has been measured and analyzed. Finally, the conclusions and future work are presented. PMID:25436650

  11. On the age of the TW Hydrae association and 2M1207334-393254

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrado Y Navascués, D.

    2006-11-01

    Aims.We have estimated the age of the young moving group TW Hydrae Association, a cohort of a few dozen stars and brown dwarfs located near the Sun which share the same kinematic properties and, presumably, the same origin and age. Methods: .The chronology has been determined by analyzing different properties (magnitudes, colors, activity, lithium) of its members and comparing them with several well-known star forming regions and open clusters, as well as theoretical models. In addition, by using medium-resolution optical spectra of two M8 members of the association (2M1139 and 2M1207 - an accreting brown dwarf with a planetary mass companion), we have derived spectral types and measured Hα and lithium equivalent widths. We have also estimated their effective temperature and gravity, which were used to produce an independent age estimation for these two brown dwarfs. We have also collected spectra of 2M1315, a candidate member with a L5 spectral type and measured its Hα equivalent width. Results: .Our age estimate for the association, 10+10-7 Myr, agrees with previous values cited in the literature. In the case of the two brown dwarfs, we have derived an age of 15+15-10 Myr, which also agree with our estimate for the whole group. Conclusions: .We compared our results with recent articles published on the same subject using other techniques, and discuss the limits of the age-dating techniques.

  12. S2M: A Stochastic Simulation Model of Poliovirus Genetic State Transition

    PubMed Central

    Ecale Zhou, Carol L.

    2016-01-01

    Modeling the molecular mechanisms that govern genetic variation can be useful in understanding the dynamics that drive genetic state transition in quasispecies viruses. For example, there is considerable interest in understanding how the relatively benign vaccine strains of poliovirus eventually revert to forms that confer neurovirulence and cause disease (ie, vaccine-derived poliovirus). This report describes a stochastic simulation model, S2M, which can be used to generate hypothetical outcomes based on known mechanisms of genetic diversity. S2M begins with predefined genotypes based on the Sabin-1 and Mahoney wild-type sequences, constructs a set of independent cell-based populations, and performs in-cell replication and cell-to-cell infection cycles while quantifying genetic changes that track the transition from Sabin-1 toward Mahoney. Realism is incorporated into the model by assigning defaults for variables that constrain mechanisms of genetic variability based roughly on metrics reported in the literature, yet these values can be modified at the command line in order to generate hypothetical outcomes driven by these parameters. To demonstrate the utility of S2M, simulations were performed to examine the effects of the rates of replication error and recombination and the presence or absence of defective interfering particles, upon reaching the end states of Mahoney resemblance (semblance of a vaccine-derived state), neurovirulence, genome fitness, and cloud diversity. Simulations provide insight into how modeled biological features may drive hypothetical outcomes, independently or in combination, in ways that are not always intuitively obvious. PMID:27385911

  13. Product analysis of the OH + NO/sub 2/ + M reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Burkholder, J.B.; Hammer, P.D.; Howard, C.J.

    1987-04-09

    A high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometer optically coupled to a fast flow multipass absorption cell was used to spectroscopically study the products of OH + NO/sub 2/ + M ..-->.. HONO/sub 2/ + M (1a) and OH + NO/sub 2/ + M ..-->.. HOONO + M (1b). Infrared absorption spectra of the products of reaction 1 were recorded over the range 1850-3850 cm/sup -1/ for the following conditions: pressure 3 to 850 Torr, temperature 248 to 298 K, and (OH)/sub 0/ = (5 to 100) x 10/sup 11/ molecules cm/sup -3/. The infrared absorption spectrum of HOONO was not observed under these conditions. If the OH stretch band strength of HOONO is equal to that of HONO/sub 2/ this indicates <5% HOONO formation in reaction 1. Quantitative measurements of the conversion of OH to HONO/sub 2/ show that 75/sup +25//sub -10/% of reaction 1 forms HONO/sub 2/. These results are compared with predictions of the branching ratio of reaction 1 obtained from statistical theory.

  14. Dynamic RACH Partition for Massive Access of Differentiated M2M Services

    PubMed Central

    Du, Qinghe; Li, Wanyu; Liu, Lingjia; Ren, Pinyi; Wang, Yichen; Sun, Li

    2016-01-01

    In machine-to-machine (M2M) networks, a key challenge is to overcome the overload problem caused by random access requests from massive machine-type communication (MTC) devices. When differentiated services coexist, such as delay-sensitive and delay-tolerant services, the problem becomes more complicated and challenging. This is because delay-sensitive services often use more aggressive policies, and thus, delay-tolerant services get much fewer chances to access the network. To conquer the problem, we propose an efficient mechanism for massive access control over differentiated M2M services, including delay-sensitive and delay-tolerant services. Specifically, based on the traffic loads of the two types of services, the proposed scheme dynamically partitions and allocates the random access channel (RACH) resource to each type of services. The RACH partition strategy is thoroughly optimized to increase the access performances of M2M networks. Analyses and simulation demonstrate the effectiveness of our design. The proposed scheme can outperform the baseline access class barring (ACB) scheme, which ignores service types in access control, in terms of access success probability and the average access delay. PMID:27043568

  15. CyclinB1/Cdk1 Coordinates Mitochondrial Respiration for Cell Cycle G2/M Progression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhaoqing; Fan, Ming; Candas, Demet; Zhang, Tie-Qiao; Eldridge, Angela; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian; Ahmed, Kazi M.; Chromy, Brett A.; Nantajit, Danupon; Duru, Nadire; He, Fuchu; Chen, Min; Finkel, Toren; Weinstein, Lee S.; Li, Jian Jian

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY A substantial amount of mitochondrial energy is required for cell cycle progression. However, the mechanisms coordinating the mitochondrial respiration with G2/M transition, a critical step in cell division, remains to be elucidated. Here we show that a fraction of cell cycle CyclinB1/Cdk1 proteins localizes into the matrix of mitochondria and phosphorylates a cluster of mitochondrial proteins including the complex I (CI) subunits in the respiratory chain. The CyclinB1/Cdk1-mediated CI subunit phosphorylation enhances CI activity, whereas deficiency of such phosphorylation in each of the relevant CI subunits results in impairment of CI function. Mitochondria-targeted CyclinB1/Cdk1 increases mitochondrial respiration with enhanced oxygen consumption and ATP generation, which provides cells with efficient bioenergy for G2/M transition and shortens overall cycling time. Thus, CyclinB1/Cdk1-mediated phosphorylation of mitochondrial substrates allows cells to sense and respond to an increased energy demand for G2/M transition, and subsequently to up-regulate mitochondrial respiration for a successful cell cycle progression. PMID:24746669

  16. RESTful M2M gateway for remote wireless monitoring for district central heating networks.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Bo; Wei, Zesan

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the increased interest in energy conservation and environmental protection, combined with the development of modern communication and computer technology, has resulted in the replacement of distributed heating by central heating in urban areas. This paper proposes a Representational State Transfer (REST) Machine-to-Machine (M2M) gateway for wireless remote monitoring for a district central heating network. In particular, we focus on the resource-oriented RESTful M2M gateway architecture, and present an uniform devices abstraction approach based on Open Service Gateway Initiative (OSGi) technology, and implement the resource mapping mechanism between resource address mapping mechanism between RESTful resources and the physical sensor devices, and present the buffer queue combined with polling method to implement the data scheduling and Quality of Service (QoS) guarantee, and also give the RESTful M2M gateway open service Application Programming Interface (API) set. The performance has been measured and analyzed. Finally, the conclusions and future work are presented. PMID:25436650

  17. Dynamic RACH Partition for Massive Access of Differentiated M2M Services.

    PubMed

    Du, Qinghe; Li, Wanyu; Liu, Lingjia; Ren, Pinyi; Wang, Yichen; Sun, Li

    2016-01-01

    In machine-to-machine (M2M) networks, a key challenge is to overcome the overload problem caused by random access requests from massive machine-type communication (MTC) devices. When differentiated services coexist, such as delay-sensitive and delay-tolerant services, the problem becomes more complicated and challenging. This is because delay-sensitive services often use more aggressive policies, and thus, delay-tolerant services get much fewer chances to access the network. To conquer the problem, we propose an efficient mechanism for massive access control over differentiated M2M services, including delay-sensitive and delay-tolerant services. Specifically, based on the traffic loads of the two types of services, the proposed scheme dynamically partitions and allocates the random access channel (RACH) resource to each type of services. The RACH partition strategy is thoroughly optimized to increase the access performances of M2M networks. Analyses and simulation demonstrate the effectiveness of our design. The proposed scheme can outperform the baseline access class barring (ACB) scheme, which ignores service types in access control, in terms of access success probability and the average access delay. PMID:27043568

  18. The ASTRI SST-2M prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array: primary mirror characterization by deflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sironi, Giorgia; Canestrari, Rodolfo

    2015-09-01

    In 2014 the ASTRI Collaboration, led by the Italian National Institute for Astrophysics, has constructed an end-to-end prototype of a dual-mirror imaging air Cherenkov telescope, proposed for the small size class of telescopes for the Cherenkov Telescope Array. The prototype, named ASTRI SST-2M, has been installed at the observing station located at Serra La Nave (Italy). In this project the Brera Astronomical Observatory was responsible for the production and the testing of the primary mirror. The ASTRI SST-2M telescope's primary mirror has an aperture of ~ 4 m, a polynomial design, and consists of 18 individual hexagonal facets. These characteristics require the production and testing of panels with a typical size of ~1 m vertex-to-vertex and with an aspheric component of up to several millimetres. The mirror segments were produced assembling a sandwich of thin glass foils bent at room temperature to reach the desired shape. For the characterization of the mirrors we developed an ad-hoc deflectometry facility that works as an inverse Ronchi test in combination with a ray-tracing code. In this contribution we report the results of the deflectometric measurements performed on the primary mirror segments of the ASTRI SST-2M dual mirror telescope. The expected point spread function and the contributions to the degradation of the image quality are studied.

  19. The Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariana Nicoara, Floare

    2016-04-01

    My name is Nicoara Floarea and I am teacher at Secondary School Calatele and I teach students from preparatory class and the second grade . They are six-eight years old. In my activity, for introducing scientific concepts to my students, I use various and active methods or traditional methods including experiments. The experiment stimulates students' curiosity, their creativity, the understanding and knowledge taught accessibility. I propose you two such experiments: The life cycle of the plants (long-term experiment, with rigorous observation time):We use beans, wheat or other; They are grown in pots and on the cotton soaked with water,keeping under students' observation protecting them ( just soak them regularly) and we waiting the plants rise. For discussions and comments of plant embryo development we use the plants which rose on the cotton soaked with water plants at the end of the first week. Last school year we had in the pot climbing beans which in May made pods. They were not too great but our experiment was a success. The students could deduce that there will develop those big beans which after drying will be planted again. The influence of light on plants (average duration experiment with the necessary observation time): We use two pots in which plants are of the same type (two geraniums), one of them is situated so as to get direct sunlight and other plant we put in a closed box. Although we wet both plants after a week we see that the plant that benefited from sunlight has turned strain in direct sunlight, developing normally in return the plant out of the box I have yellowed leaves, photosynthesis does not She has occurred . Students will understand the vital role of the Sun in plants' life, both in the classroom and in nature. The experiment is a method of teaching students extremely pleasant, with a remarkable percentage of acquiring more knowledge.

  20. 46. VIEW OF ELECTRIC OUTLET BOX AT 'CATFISH' SILO, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. VIEW OF ELECTRIC OUTLET BOX AT 'CATFISH' SILO, LOOKING NORTHWEST Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. 39. VIEW OF CONTROL BOX AT 'CATFISH' SILO, LOOKING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. VIEW OF CONTROL BOX AT 'CATFISH' SILO, LOOKING NORTH Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. 32. SHAW BOX 5 TON CRANE, SANTA ANA RIVER NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. SHAW BOX 5 TON CRANE, SANTA ANA RIVER NO. 3, JAN. 24, 1977. SCE drawing no. 455678-0. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-3 Powerhouse, San Bernardino National Forest, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  3. 72. SECONDARY MILL AND CLASSIFIER FROM NORTHWEST. WOOD FEED BOX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. SECONDARY MILL AND CLASSIFIER FROM NORTHWEST. WOOD FEED BOX BEHIND MILL, BARREN SOLUTION TANK BEHIND TRAVELING CRANE TRUSS AND ABOVE MILL. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  4. 11. REMNANTS OF FLUME BOX WITHIN CANAL. NOTE THE UPRIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. REMNANTS OF FLUME BOX WITHIN CANAL. NOTE THE UPRIGHT SIDE POSTS BOLTED TO BASE STRINGER AND HORIZONTAL BOARD SIDE WALLS. VIEW IS TO THE SOUTHEAST. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  5. 9. FLUME BOX Y, LOOKING SOUTH. CANAL IN FOREGROUND FOLLOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. FLUME BOX Y, LOOKING SOUTH. CANAL IN FOREGROUND FOLLOWS HILLSIDE INTO DRAINAGE; FLUME HEADING TO RIGHT CROSSED GULCH ON A TRESTLE. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  6. Inside the "Black Box" of Classroom Language Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shohamy, Elana

    2000-01-01

    Reports five studies that provide initial insight into the black box of classroom testing. The studies investigate various aspects of perceptions and practices of assessment in the language classroom. (Author/VWL)

  7. INTERIOR VIEW, PREPARING LARGE MOLD IN BOX FLOOR AREA. WORKERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, PREPARING LARGE MOLD IN BOX FLOOR AREA. WORKERS JUST FILLED THE FLASK WITH SAND FROM A HIGH VELOCITY MECHANICAL SAND THRUSTER. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Ductile Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  8. 11. VIEW OF CIRCULAR CAR SHOP OVER TOPS OF BOX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW OF CIRCULAR CAR SHOP OVER TOPS OF BOX CARS LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Shops, South side of Pratt Street between Carey & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  9. 10. VIEW OF BOILER SHOP FROM TOP OF BOX CAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW OF BOILER SHOP FROM TOP OF BOX CAR WITH CIRCULAR CAR SHOP IN BACKGROUND LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Shops, South side of Pratt Street between Carey & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  10. 55. DETAIL OF ELECTRICAL JUNCTION BOX ON SOUTH FACE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. DETAIL OF ELECTRICAL JUNCTION BOX ON SOUTH FACE OF SLC-3W UMBLICAL MAST - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  11. 84. VIEW OF SOUTHWEST SIDE OF THE TACKLE BOX, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    84. VIEW OF SOUTHWEST SIDE OF THE TACKLE BOX, LOOKING NORTHEAST, WITH THE REFRIGERATOR ROOM IN FOREGROUND - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  12. 8. Front (east) side of incinerator and glove boxes. Ash ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Front (east) side of incinerator and glove boxes. Ash canning hood to the left, combustion chamber in the middle, incinerator hood to the right. Looking west. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

  13. 32. 48' MILL STEAM ENGINE ADMISSION BOX (?), STEAM VALVE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. 48' MILL STEAM ENGINE ADMISSION BOX (?), STEAM VALVE, AND REVERSING MECHANISM LIFTING CYLINDER. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, 48" Plate Mill, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  14. NORTH SIDE FACING TRACK, SHOWING ELECTRICAL BOX AND CONCRETE VAULT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH SIDE FACING TRACK, SHOWING ELECTRICAL BOX AND CONCRETE VAULT - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Electrical Distribution Station, South side of Sled Track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. INTERIOR VIEW WITH CORE SET IN MOLD HALF IN BOX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW WITH CORE SET IN MOLD HALF IN BOX FLOOR AREA. AWAITING OTHER MOLD HALF TO BE PLACED ON TOP. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Ductile Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  16. PNEUMATICALLY CLEANING TOP HALF OF LARGE MOLD IN BOX FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PNEUMATICALLY CLEANING TOP HALF OF LARGE MOLD IN BOX FLOOR AREA TO REMOVE ANY EXCESS OR LOOSE SAND. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Ductile Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  17. El Tovar steam tunnel breaker box in foreground. Note El ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    El Tovar steam tunnel breaker box in foreground. Note El Tovar stone vault in alignment with tunnel. - Grand Canyon Village Utilities, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  18. 17. GEAR BOXES, BUFFALO IRONWORKER (PUNCH AND SHEAR ON LEFT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. GEAR BOXES, BUFFALO IRONWORKER (PUNCH AND SHEAR ON LEFT), IN COVERED AREA BETWEEN WAREHOUSES A AND B, LOOKING EAST - Hillman Barge & Construction Company, Paul Thomas Boulevard, Brownsville, Fayette County, PA

  19. 16. VIEW OF GLOVE BOX WORKSTATIONS WITHIN THE PLUTONIUM BUTTON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. VIEW OF GLOVE BOX WORKSTATIONS WITHIN THE PLUTONIUM BUTTON BREAKOUT ROOM. (9/82) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery Facility, Northwest portion of Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  20. 10. VIEW OF WESTINGHOUSE TRANSFORMERS (THREE IDENTICAL BOXES, RIGHT CENTER) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW OF WESTINGHOUSE TRANSFORMERS (THREE IDENTICAL BOXES, RIGHT CENTER) AND OTHER ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT ON WEST WALL OF TRANSFORMER ROOM, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Enloe Dam, Power House, On Similkameen River, Oroville, Okanogan County, WA