Science.gov

Sample records for 2-mass motor drive

  1. Magnetostrictive roller drive motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vranish, John M.

    1992-01-01

    A magnetostrictive drive motor is disclosed which has a rotary drive shaft in the form of a drum which is encircled by a plurality of substantially equally spaced roller members in the form of two sets of cones which are in contact with the respective cam surfaces on the inside surface of an outer drive ring. The drive ring is attached to sets of opposing pairs of magnetostrictive rods. Each rod in a pair is mutually positioned end to end within respective energizing coils. When one of the coils in an opposing pair is energized, the energized rod expands while the other rod is caused to contract, causing the drive ring to rock, i.e., rotate slightly in either the clockwise or counterclockwise direction, depending upon which rod in a pair is energized. As the drive ring is activated in repetitive cycles in either direction, one set of drive cones attempts to roll up their respective cam surface but are pinned between the drive shaft drum and the drive ring. As the frictional force preventing sliding builds up, the cones become locked, setting up reaction forces including a tangential component which is imparted to the drive shaft drum to provide a source of motor torque. Simultaneously the other set of cones are disengaged from the drive shaft drum. Upon deactivation of the magnetostrictive rod coils, the force on the drive cones is released, causing the system to return to an initial rest position. By repetitively cycling the energization of the magnetostrictive rods, the drive shaft drum indexes in microradian rotational steps.

  2. Redundant motor drive system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calvert, J. A. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A drive system characterized by a base supporting a pair of pillars arranged in spaced parallelism, a shaft extended between and supported by the pillars for rotation about the longitudinal axis thereof, a worm gear affixed to the shaft and supported in coaxial relation therewith is described. A bearing housing of a sleeve like configuration is concentrically related to the shaft and is supported thereby for free rotation. A first and a second quiescent drive train, alternatively activatable, is provided for imparting rotation into said bearing housing. Each of the drive trains is characterized by a selectively energizable motor connected to a spur gear.

  3. Magnetostrictive direct drive motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naik, Dipak; Dehoff, P. H.

    1990-01-01

    Developing magnetostrictive direct drive research motors to power robot joints is discussed. These type motors are expected to produce extraordinary torque density, to be able to perform microradian incremental steps and to be self-braking and safe with the power off. Several types of motor designs have been attempted using magnetostrictive materials. One of the candidate approaches (the magnetostrictive roller drive) is described. The method in which the design will function is described as is the reason why this approach is inherently superior to the other approaches. Following this, the design will be modelled and its expected performance predicted. This particular candidate design is currently undergoing detailed engineering with prototype construction and testing scheduled for mid 1991.

  4. Advanced Motor Drives Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehsani, M.; Tchamdjou, A.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents an evaluation of advanced motor drive systems as a replacement for the hydrazine fueled APU units. The replacement technology must meet several requirements which are particular to the space applications and the Orbiter in general. Some of these requirements are high efficiency, small size, high power density. In the first part of the study several motors are compared, based on their characteristics and in light of the Orbiter requirements. The best candidate, the brushless DC is chosen because of its particularly good performance with regards to efficiency. Several power electronics drive technologies including the conventional three-phase hard switched and several soft-switched inverters are then presented. In the last part of the study, a soft-switched inverter is analyzed and compared to its conventional hard-switched counterpart. Optimal efficiency is a basic requirement for space applications and the soft-switched technology represents an unavoidable trend for the future.

  5. Magnetostrictive direct drive motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naik, Dipak; Dehoff, P. H.

    1992-01-01

    A new rare earth alloy, Terfenol-D, combines low frequency operation and extremely high energy density with high magnetostriction. Its material properties make it suitable as a drive element for actuators requiring high output torque. The high strains, the high forces and the high controllability of Terfenol alloys provide a powerful and challenging basis for new ways to generate motion in actuators. Two prototypes of motors using Terfenol-D rods were developed at NASA Goddard. The basic principles of operation are provided of the motor along with other relevant details. A conceptual design of a torque limiting safety clutch/brake under development is illustrated. Also, preliminary design drawings of a linear actuator using Terfenol-D is shown.

  6. Direct drive field actuator motors

    DOEpatents

    Grahn, A.R.

    1998-03-10

    A positive-drive field actuator motor is described which includes a stator carrying at least one field actuator which changes in dimension responsive to application of an energy field, and at least one drive shoe movable by the dimensional changes of the field actuator to contact and move a rotor element with respect to the stator. Various embodiments of the motor are disclosed, and the rotor element may be moved linearly or arcuately. 62 figs.

  7. Direct drive field actuator motors

    DOEpatents

    Grahn, Allen R.

    1998-01-01

    A positive-drive field actuator motor including a stator carrying at least one field actuator which changes in dimension responsive to application of an energy field, and at least one drive shoe movable by the dimensional changes of the field actuator to contact and move a rotor element with respect to the stator. Various embodiments of the motor are disclosed, and the rotor element may be moved linearly or arcuately.

  8. Magnetostrictive direct drive motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naik, Dipak; Dehoff, P. H.

    1991-01-01

    Highly magnetostrictive materials such as Tb.3Dy.7Fe2, commercially known as TERFENOL-D, have been used to date in a variety of devices such as high power actuators and linear motors. The larger magnetostriction available in twinned single crystal TERFENOL-D, approx. 2000 ppm at moderate magnetic field strengths, makes possible a new generation of magnetomechanical devices. NASA researchers are studying the potential of this material as the basis for a direct microstepping rotary motor with torque densities on the order of industrial hydraulics and five times greater than that of the most efficient, high power electric motors. Such a motor would be a micro-radian stepper, capable of precision movements and self-braking in the power-off state. Innovative mechanical engineering techniques are juxtaposed on proper magnetic circuit design to reduce losses in structural flexures, inertias, thermal expansions, eddy currents, and magneto-mechanical coupling, thus optimizing motor performance and efficiency. Mathematical models are presented, including magnetic, structural, and both linear and nonlinear dynamic calculations and simulations. In addition, test results on prototypes are presented.

  9. Frequency modulation drive for a piezoelectric motor

    DOEpatents

    Mittas, Anthony

    2001-01-01

    A piezoelectric motor has peak performance at a specific frequency f.sub.1 that may vary over a range of frequencies. A drive system is disclosed for operating such a motor at peak performance without feedback. The drive system consists of the motor and an ac source connected to power the motor, the ac source repeatedly generating a frequency over a range from f.sub.1 -.DELTA.x to f.sub.1 +.DELTA.y.

  10. Novel method for driving the ultrasonic motor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeoung woo; Dong, Shuxiang; Laoratanakul, Pitak; Uchino, Kenji; Park, Tae gone

    2002-10-01

    This paper reports a novel driving method for an annular plate-type ultrasonic motor. Instead of the direct current/alternating current (DC/AC) converter type driver using conventional electromagnetic transformer, a compact disc-type piezoelectric transformer is used to obtain high voltage output for driving the ultrasonic motor. The piezoelectric transformer is operated in the radial vibration mode at resonance frequency close to the resonance frequency of the ultrasonic motor. Later, it was found that the piezoelectric transformer could drive the ultrasonic motor, even if their resonance frequencies are not exactly the same by incorporating the matching network in the circuit. The maximum speed of the ultrasonic motor obtained by using this driving method is over 300 rpm. It is believed that the results of this study will have impact on the integration and miniaturization of the ultrasonic motor and its driving circuit. PMID:12403137

  11. Additional Drive Circuitry for Piezoelectric Screw Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smythe, Robert; Palmer, Dean; Gursel, Yekta; Reder, Leonard; Savedra, Raymond

    2004-01-01

    Modules of additional drive circuitry have been developed to enhance the functionality of a family of commercially available positioning motors (Picomotor . or equivalent) that provide linear motion controllable, in principle, to within increments .30 nm. A motor of this type includes a piezoelectric actuator that turns a screw. Unlike traditional piezoelectrically actuated mechanisms, a motor of this type does not rely on the piezoelectric transducer to hold position: the screw does not turn except when the drive signal is applied to the actuator.

  12. Direct-drive field actuator motors

    DOEpatents

    Grahn, Allen R.

    1995-01-01

    A high-torque, low speed, positive-drive field actuator motor including a stator carrying at least one field actuator which changes in dimension responsive to application of an energy field, and at least one drive shoe movable by the dimensional changes of the field actuator to contact and move a rotor element with respect to the stator. Various embodiments of the motor are disclosed, and the rotor element may be moved linearly or arcuately.

  13. Direct-drive field actuator motors

    DOEpatents

    Grahn, A.R.

    1995-07-11

    A high-torque, low speed, positive-drive field actuator motor is disclosed including a stator carrying at least one field actuator which changes in dimension responsive to application of an energy field, and at least one drive shoe movable by the dimensional changes of the field actuator to contact and move a rotor element with respect to the stator. Various embodiments of the motor are disclosed, and the rotor element may be moved linearly or arcuately. 37 figs.

  14. Oscillation control system for electric motor drive

    DOEpatents

    Slicker, J.M.; Sereshteh, A.

    1988-08-30

    A feedback system for controlling mechanical oscillations in the torsionally complaint drive train of an electric or other vehicle. Motor speed is converted in a processor to estimate state signals in which a plant model which are used to electronically modify the torque commands applied to the motor. 5 figs.

  15. Oscillation control system for electric motor drive

    DOEpatents

    Slicker, James M.; Sereshteh, Ahmad

    1988-01-01

    A feedback system for controlling mechanical oscillations in the torsionally complaint drive train of an electric or other vehicle. Motor speed is converted in a processor to estimate state signals in which a plant model which are used to electronically modify thetorque commands applied to the motor.

  16. Magnetostrictive Roller-Drive Stepping Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M.

    1993-01-01

    Proposed motor based on magnetostrictive effect provides stepped angular motion with angular increments of order of 100 microradians. Driven to repeat stepping cycle rapidly enough to achieve maximum speed of about 20 rpm, provides torque an order of magnitude greater than electric motors, and brakes itself when power turned off. Magnetostrictive rods in electromagnet coils push against drive plate, causing it to rotate slightly. This slight rotation jams conical rollers between cam surfaces on outer drive ring and split drum, so rollers transmit rotation to drum. Suitable for precise, high-torque, fail-safe-braking, direct drive of robot joint, without bulk and weight of additional brake mechanism and gear train.

  17. 49 CFR 398.4 - Driving of motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... be conversant with the requirements of this part. (b) Driving rules to be obeyed. Every motor vehicle... while ill or fatigued. No driver shall drive or be required or permitted to drive a motor vehicle while... permitted to drive a motor vehicle, be in active control of any such vehicle, or go on duty or remain...

  18. 49 CFR 398.4 - Driving of motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... be conversant with the requirements of this part. (b) Driving rules to be obeyed. Every motor vehicle... while ill or fatigued. No driver shall drive or be required or permitted to drive a motor vehicle while... permitted to drive a motor vehicle, be in active control of any such vehicle, or go on duty or remain...

  19. 49 CFR 398.4 - Driving of motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... be conversant with the requirements of this part. (b) Driving rules to be obeyed. Every motor vehicle... while ill or fatigued. No driver shall drive or be required or permitted to drive a motor vehicle while... permitted to drive a motor vehicle, be in active control of any such vehicle, or go on duty or remain...

  20. 49 CFR 398.4 - Driving of motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... be conversant with the requirements of this part. (b) Driving rules to be obeyed. Every motor vehicle... while ill or fatigued. No driver shall drive or be required or permitted to drive a motor vehicle while... permitted to drive a motor vehicle, be in active control of any such vehicle, or go on duty or remain...

  1. 49 CFR 398.4 - Driving of motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... be conversant with the requirements of this part. (b) Driving rules to be obeyed. Every motor vehicle... while ill or fatigued. No driver shall drive or be required or permitted to drive a motor vehicle while... permitted to drive a motor vehicle, be in active control of any such vehicle, or go on duty or remain...

  2. Robot drive mechanism uses conventional electric motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demchenko, I.

    1986-02-01

    The development and use of three phase asynchronous electric motors in robot technology are presented. The mechanical arm of a robot has as many drives as it has joints. Manipulators in use in modern industry must have six to nine degrees of mobility, and experimental prototypes with 18 coordinates of movement are already developed. A simple, common, and inexpensive industrial electric motor is proposed for use in the robots. This motor was previously considered unsuitable for delicate work because of its low precision in executing commands and the difficulty in controlling it. Control methods were developed to overcome this difficulty. Integrated microcircuits and a power converter control the operation of the single motor. A cassette made up of six units controls the operation of the whole mechanical arm. This cassette is linked with the brain of the robot (a microprocessor system or microcomputer).

  3. MAIN DRIVE MOTOR FOR BLISS #43 HOT ROLL. THIS WESTINGHOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MAIN DRIVE MOTOR FOR BLISS #43 HOT ROLL. THIS WESTINGHOUSE UNIT HAS SINCE BEEN REPLACED BY A 5000 HP TOSHIBA MOTOR. REHEAT FURNACES ARE SHOWN BEHIND MILL MOTOR. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  4. Development of Traction Drive Motors for the Toyota Hybrid System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiya, Munehiro

    Toyota Motor Corporation developed in 2005 a new hybrid system for a large SUV. This system included the new development of a high-speed traction drive motor achieving a significant increase in power weight ratio. This paper provides an overview of the hybrid system, discusses the characteristics required of a traction drive motor, and presents the technologies employed in the developed motor.

  5. Motorized wheelchair driving by disabled children.

    PubMed

    Butler, C; Okamoto, G A; McKay, T M

    1984-02-01

    Thirteen children with physical disabilities, normal intelligence and stable family situations were studied to learn whether children under age 4 years could learn competent control of a motorized wheelchair. Their mean age was 31.3 months (range 20 to 37 months). There were six girls and seven boys. Each child required adaptive seating to manipulate the control stick in a conventional motorized wheelchair. Without specific training instructions, parents introduced the wheelchairs under pleasant circumstances at home. Daily logs and engine-hour-meters indicate that 12 children learned seven pre-established driving skills within a mean cumulative period of 34.4 hours (range 6.6 to 168 hours) distributed over an average 16.3 days (range 3 to 50 days). Actual cumulative wheelchair movement averaged 8.1 hours (range 1.7 to 26.1 hours). All learned a cluster of four to five skills over a one to five day period. Start-stop and circling were the two initial skills in all but one case. In four children, the first skill appeared after a latent period of 5, 6, 12 and 43 days. Children as young as 24 months can learn to drive motorized wheelchairs. Because of the theoretical importance of approximating normal gross motor milestones, powered mobility should be considered an early rehabilitative intervention for physically disabled children. PMID:6230066

  6. Electric drive motors for industrial robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichtner, K.

    1985-04-01

    In robotized industrial plants it is possible to use electric motors in the technological process and also for control, assembly, transport, testing, and measurements. Particularly suitable for these applications are permanent-magnet d.c. motors. A new special series was developed for industrial robots with hinge joints in kinematic pairs. The complete drive includes thyristors or transistor controls with regulators and, if necessary, a line transformer as well as a servomotor with tachometer and odometer for speed, current, and position control. The drive is coupled to a robot tong through mechanical torque and force converters. In addition to a 0 to 4000 rpm speed regulation, without wobble at low speeds, and a high torque-to-weight ratio for repetitive short-time heavy duty, these low-inertia motors develop high starting and accelerating torques over the entire speed range. They operate from a 1 to O 220 V a.c. line through a rectifier. The motors are totally enclosed, or of open construction for better ventilation. Their windings have class F insulation for operation at ambient temperatures up to 40 C.

  7. Modeling Of Permanent Magnet Motor Drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillay, P.; Krishnan, R.

    1987-10-01

    Recent research has indicated that the permanent magnet motor drives which include the permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) and the brushless DC motor (BDCM) could become serious competitors to the induction motor for servo applications. The PMSM has a sinusoidal back emf and requires sinusoidal stator currents to produce constant torque while the BDCM has a trapezoidal back emf and requires rectangular stator currents to produce constant torque. The PMSM is very similar to the wound rotor synchronous machine except that the PMSM that is used for servo applications tend not to have any damper windings and excitation is provided by a permanent magnet instead of a field winding. Hence the d,q model of the PMSM can be derived from the well known model of the synchronous machine with the equations of the damper windings and field current dynamics removed. Because of the nonsinusoidal variation of the mutual inductances between the stator and rotor in the BDCM, it is also shown in this paper that no particular advantage exists in transforming the abc equations of the BCDM to the d,q frame. Hence the solution of the original abc equations is proposed for the BDCM.

  8. Simple motor drive system operates heavy hinged door

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitkin, R. G.

    1966-01-01

    Motor drive system remotely operates heavy steel radiation shielding doors. The drive consists of a standard motor reducer unit which is mounted on the door. This reducer drives a sprocket which is linked by chain to a fixed sprocket of the same size on the door jamb.

  9. Power-Conserving Stepping-Motor Drive Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, Frank J.; Howard, David E.

    1994-01-01

    Two improved drive circuits for sinusoidally commutated stepping motor include feedback loops reducing unnecessary consumption of power by reducing drive-current amplitude, I, when motor operates under light load. Basic design strategy attempts to supply only little more current than minimum needed to overcome friction in lightly loaded condition. In this sinusoidally commutated two-phase stepping motor, magnetic field generated by drive currents in phase-A and phase-B stator windings urges rotor toward commanded angle x.

  10. Proceedings: Advanced motors and drives R D planning forum

    SciTech Connect

    McCleer, P.J. )

    1992-12-01

    With motors consuming nearly 70% of the total US electric power generation, there is a growing need for in-depth user information and comparison data on drive technology. Adjustable-speed drive technology offers opportunities for improving the productivity, energy conservation, and cost-effectiveness of motor operation. Recommendations from an EPRI R D motors and drives forum are organized into an assessment of research needs in areas of circuits, controls, power devices, motor design, and materials. EPRI's Advanced Motors and Drives R D Planning Forum was held June 21--22, 1990, in Monterey, California. More than 110 representatives from relevant economic sectors met in four sessions, each emphasizing a different aspect of motor technology and use. Session 1 reviewed the status of newer motor systems, such as permanent magnet (PM) and reluctance motors as well as associated power electronics. Session 2 reviewed motor and drive requirements in several key application areas such as heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC); refrigeration; petrochemicals; machine tools and appliances; motion control and robotics; and electric vehicle and automobile systems. Session 3 addressed issues involving motor materials, manufacturing, and marketing. Session 4's open discussions examined other motor and drive application needs and technology issues, while identifying and prioritizing R D areas.

  11. Extended cage adjustable speed electric motors and drive packages

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S.

    1999-01-01

    The rotor cage of a motor is extended, a second stator is coupled to this extended rotor cage, and the windings have the same number of poles. The motor torque and speed can be controlled by either injecting energy into or extracting energy out from the rotor cage. The motor produces less harmonics than existing doubly-fed motors. Consequently, a new type of low cost, high efficiency drive is produced.

  12. Extended cage adjustable speed electric motors and drive packages

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, J.S.

    1999-03-23

    The rotor cage of a motor is extended, a second stator is coupled to this extended rotor cage, and the windings have the same number of poles. The motor torque and speed can be controlled by either injecting energy into or extracting energy out from the rotor cage. The motor produces less harmonics than existing doubly-fed motors. Consequently, a new type of low cost, high efficiency drive is produced. 12 figs.

  13. General purpose variable-speed drive and motor application considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Lowery, T.F.

    1998-12-31

    Variable-speed drives (VSDs) have changed over the last few years using newer power semiconductors and pulse width modulation (PWM) transistor switching methods. These advancements in drive technology have caused new concerns in their application on induction motors. This paper describes motor/drive operation and presents combination test results that can assist application engineers in designing reliable HVAC fan and pump drive systems. The focus of this paper is in three key areas: (1) PWM drive dv/dt description and its effects on induction motors; (2) motor insulation systems for variable-speed applications; and (3) audible motor noise considerations from drive carrier frequencies. Motor failures are occurring in actual installations due to misapplication of variable-speed systems. These will be investigated and described to help design engineers avoid future application problems. Several alternatives during specification and installation are offered as suggestions to the design engineers. Conclusions based on test data and field experience are summarized as a guide to successful applications of modern variable-speed HVAC drives and motors.

  14. Stepper motor drive for on load tapchanger in electric locomotive

    SciTech Connect

    Aruna Kumar, G.V.D.; Kumar, S.; Mishra, P.; Wadhonkar, N.K.

    1995-12-31

    Indian Railways have a fleet of 2,200 electrical locomotives running on 25 KV ac traction. An on-load tap changer is used to select voltage for speed control of dc traction motor. A four stroke reciprocating type air motor is used presently to drive the tap changer (GR). Complex gear and camshaft mechanism is used to move tap changer and to generate various logic signals for safe loco operation. The annual failure rate for tap changer and its drive is of the order of 20%. A microprocessor controlled stepper motor drive has been designed and constructed to drive the on-load tap changer. A current controlled chopper is used to drive the motor and control logic has been generated through an optimum hardware and software combination. The assembly has been tested on a prototype tap changer in the laboratory.

  15. Magnetically Coupled Adjustable Speed Motor Drives - Motor Tip Sheet #13

    SciTech Connect

    2008-07-01

    Alternating current electric motors rotate at a nearly constant speed that is determined by motor design and line frequency. Energy savings of 50% or more may be available when fixed speed systems are modified to allow the motor speed to match variable load requirements of a centrifugal fan or pump.

  16. Predictive Direct Torque Control for Induction Motor Drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benzaioua, A.; Ouhrouche, M.; Merabet, A.

    2008-06-01

    A predictive control combined with the direct torque control (DTC) to induction motor drive is presented. A new switching strategy is used in DTC, where the constant switching frequency is taken constant, and the speed tracking is done by a predictive controller. The scheme control is applied to induction motor drive in order to perform the dynamic responses of electromagnetic torque, stator flux and speed. A comparison between the PI controller and predictive controller for speed tracking is done. Results of simulation show that the performance of the proposed control scheme for induction motor drive is accurately achieved.

  17. System and method for determining stator winding resistance in an AC motor using motor drives

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Bin; Habetler, Thomas G; Zhang, Pinjia

    2013-02-26

    A system and method for determining the stator winding resistance of AC motors is provided. The system includes an AC motor drive having an input connectable to an AC source and an output connectable to an input terminal of an AC motor, a pulse width modulation (PWM) converter having switches therein to control current flow and terminal voltages in the AC motor, and a control system connected to the PWM converter. The control system generates a command signal to cause the PWM converter to control an output of the AC motor drive corresponding to an input to the AC motor, selectively generates a modified command signal to cause the PWM converter to inject a DC signal into the output of the AC motor drive, and determines a stator winding resistance of the AC motor based on the DC signal of at least one of the voltage and current.

  18. Electrical motor/generator drive apparatus and method

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Gui Jia

    2013-02-12

    The present disclosure includes electrical motor/generator drive systems and methods that significantly reduce inverter direct-current (DC) bus ripple currents and thus the volume and cost of a capacitor. The drive methodology is based on a segmented drive system that does not add switches or passive components but involves reconfiguring inverter switches and motor stator winding connections in a way that allows the formation of multiple, independent drive units and the use of simple alternated switching and optimized Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) schemes to eliminate or significantly reduce the capacitor ripple current.

  19. Transistorized PWM inverter-induction motor drive system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peak, S. C.; Plunkett, A. B.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a transistorized PWM inverter-induction motor traction drive system. A vehicle performance analysis was performed to establish the vehicle tractive effort-speed requirements. These requirements were then converted into a set of inverter and motor specifications. The inverter was a transistorized three-phase bridge using General Electric power Darlington transistors. The description of the design and development of this inverter is the principal object of this paper. The high-speed induction motor is a design which is optimized for use with an inverter power source. The primary feedback control is a torque angle control with voltage and torque outer loop controls. A current-controlled PWM technique is used to control the motor voltage. The drive has a constant torque output with PWM operation to base motor speed and a constant horsepower output with square wave operation to maximum speed. The drive system was dynamometer tested and the results are presented.

  20. 48. AUTOMATIC WATER CONTROL MOTOR DRIVE FOR NEEDLES CONSTRUCTION DETAILS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. AUTOMATIC WATER CONTROL MOTOR DRIVE FOR NEEDLES CONSTRUCTION DETAILS, SANTA ANA RIVER NO. 2, JAN. 24, 1977. SCE drawing no. 455667-0. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-2 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  1. Looking southwest at the motor, drive shaft, and stokers for ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking southwest at the motor, drive shaft, and stokers for boilers numbers 1 through 6. - Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corporation, Allenport Works, Boiler House, Route 88 on West bank of Monongahela River, Allenport, Washington County, PA

  2. BLOWER MOTOR & DRIVE WHEEL. Hot Springs National Park, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLOWER MOTOR & DRIVE WHEEL. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Superior Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  3. 2. ELEVATOR DRIVE, CABLE MOTOR, CIRCUIT BOX, Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. ELEVATOR DRIVE, CABLE MOTOR, CIRCUIT BOX, - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  4. Alternating-Current Motor Drive for Electric Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauthamer, S.; Rippel, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    New electric drive controls speed of a polyphase as motor by varying frequency of inverter output. Closed-loop current-sensing circuit automatically adjusts frequency of voltage-controlled oscillator that controls inverter frequency, to limit starting and accelerating surges. Efficient inverter and ac motor would give electric vehicles extra miles per battery charge.

  5. Forelimb training drives transient map reorganization in ipsilateral motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Pruitt, David T; Schmid, Ariel N; Danaphongse, Tanya T; Flanagan, Kate E; Morrison, Robert A; Kilgard, Michael P; Rennaker, Robert L; Hays, Seth A

    2016-10-15

    Skilled motor training results in reorganization of contralateral motor cortex movement representations. The ipsilateral motor cortex is believed to play a role in skilled motor control, but little is known about how training influences reorganization of ipsilateral motor representations of the trained limb. To determine whether training results in reorganization of ipsilateral motor cortex maps, rats were trained to perform the isometric pull task, an automated motor task that requires skilled forelimb use. After either 3 or 6 months of training, intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) mapping was performed to document motor representations of the trained forelimb in the hemisphere ipsilateral to that limb. Motor training for 3 months resulted in a robust expansion of right forelimb representation in the right motor cortex, demonstrating that skilled motor training drives map plasticity ipsilateral to the trained limb. After 6 months of training, the right forelimb representation in the right motor cortex was significantly smaller than the representation observed in rats trained for 3 months and similar to untrained controls, consistent with a normalization of motor cortex maps. Forelimb map area was not correlated with performance on the trained task, suggesting that task performance is maintained despite normalization of cortical maps. This study provides new insights into how the ipsilateral cortex changes in response to skilled learning and may inform rehabilitative strategies to enhance cortical plasticity to support recovery after brain injury. PMID:27392641

  6. Converter fed sub sea motor drives

    SciTech Connect

    Raad, R.O.; Henriksen, T.; Raphael, H.

    1995-12-31

    A sub sea adjustable speed motor fed via a long cable in range of several tenths of kilometers between the cable and the motor are analyzed by simulations. Due to resonance one critical frequency range occurs where significant generation of harmonics from the inverter should be avoided. A voltage source inverter is more feasible than a current source inverter since it is easier to modify the output waveform in order to avoid resonance problems. The resistive voltage drop in the long cable reduces the air gap torque of the motor particular at low frequencies. This causes a problem for the start-up of the motor due to stiction torque. A start-up strategy is envisaged which is a compromise between voltage boost, inverter current and transformer core dimensions. In normal operation mode the inverter voltage is proportional to the frequency. An open speed loop is used which keeps the system stable for potential load variations.

  7. Modular PM Motor Drives for Automotive Traction Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Su, G.J.

    2001-10-29

    This paper presents modular permanent magnet (PM) motor drives for automotive traction applications. A partially modularized drive system consisting of a single PM motor and multiple inverters is described. The motor has multiple three-phase stator winding sets and each winding set is driven with a separate three-phase inverter module. A truly modularized inverter and motor configuration based on an axial-gap PM motor is then introduced, in which identical PM motor modules are mounted on a common shaft and each motor module is powered by a separate inverter module. The advantages of the modular approach for both inverter and motor include: (1) power rating scalability--one design meets different power requirements by simply stacking an adequate number of modules, thus avoiding redesigning and reducing the development cost, (2) increased fault tolerance, and (3) easy repairing. A prototype was constructed by using two inverters and an axial-gap PM motor with two sets of three-phase stat or windings, and it is used to assist the diesel engine in a hybrid electric vehicle converted from a Chevrolet Suburban. The effect of different pulse-width-modulation strategies for both motoring and regenerative modes on current control is analyzed. Torque and regenerative control algorithms are implemented with a digital signal processor. Analytical and initial testing results are included in the paper.

  8. Friction drive of an SAW motor. Part II: analyses.

    PubMed

    Shigematsu, Takashi; Kurosawa, Minoru Kuribayashi

    2008-09-01

    The mechanics of the friction drive of a surface acoustic wave motor were investigated by means of contact mechanics theory. As a means to control the contact condition, the motor's slider had projections on its frictional surface. Assuming the projection was a rigid circular punch and the slider body was an elastic half-space allowed application of contact mechanics formulae to the analyses of the friction drive. Because the projection contacted the Rayleigh wave vibration, the projection's responses were considered dynamic; thus, the dynamics were also analyzed in the same framework of contact mechanics formulae. Moreover, the analyses were applied to measurements of the projection's displacement to examine the detailed mechanics during the friction drive. We calculated the contact/frictional forces based on the measurement and indicated the necessity of further investigation of the surface acoustic wave motor's friction drive, because the usual friction law was unable to explain the measurement. PMID:18986897

  9. A Five-Leg Inverter for Driving a Traction Motor and a Compressor Motor

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Gui-Jia; Hsu, John S

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated inverter for speed control of a traction motor and a compressor motor to reduce the compressor drive cost in EV/HEV applications. The inverter comprises five phase-legs; three of which are for control of a three-phase traction motor and the remaining two for a two-phase compressor motor with three terminals. The common terminal of the two-phase motor is tied to the neutral point of the three-phase traction motor to eliminate the requirement of a third phase leg. Further cost savings are made possible by sharing the switching devices, dc bus filter capacitors, gate drive power supplies, and control circuit. Simulation and experimental results are included to verify that speed control of the two motors is independent from each other.

  10. Sequential control by speed drive for ac motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsoum, Nader

    2012-11-01

    The speed drive for ac motor is widely used in the industrial field to allow direct control for the speed and torque without any feedback from the motor shaft. By using the ABB ACS800 speed drive unit, the speed and torque can be controlled using sequential control method. Sequential control is one of the application control method provided in the ABB ACS800 Drive, where a set of events or action performed in a particular order one after the other to control the speed and torque of the ac motor. It was claimed that sequential control method is using the preset seven constant speeds being provided in ABB ACS800 drive to control the speed and torque in a continuous and sequential manner. The characteristics and features of controlling the speed and torque using sequential control method can be investigated by observing the graphs and curves plotted which are obtained from the practical result. Sequential control can run either in the Direct Torque Control (DTC) or Scalar motor control mode. By using sequential control method, the ABB ACS800 drive can be programmed to run the motor automatically according to the time setting of the seven preset constant speeds. Besides, the intention of this project is to generate a new form of the experimental set up.

  11. Optimum control of electric motor drives for industrial robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guez, A.; Roberts, M.

    1983-04-01

    The industrial robot employs many actuators (electric motor drives) to perform a variety of tasks. Multilink manipulator arms, metal contouring machines, remote control tanks, and solar panels for satellites are just a few examples of applications for multiactuator systems. The first major problem is in the coupled, nonlinear structure of the interacting actuators. The second major problem is to find the optimum trajectories of motion. Determining the optimum control input for each drive is a difficult problem to solve. Due to the complex set of equations which govern the system, a great deal of simplification is necessary if a real-time computer is to be used to optimally control the motor drives. This paper describes a method for optimizing the performance (in this case, to minimize time of control) of these motorized actuators by automatically generating the input voltage signals.

  12. Error Signals in Motor Cortices Drive Adaptation in Reaching.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Masato; Uchimura, Motoaki; Kitazawa, Shigeru

    2016-06-01

    Reaching movements are subject to adaptation in response to errors induced by prisms or external perturbations. Motor cortical circuits have been hypothesized to provide execution errors that drive adaptation, but human imaging studies to date have reported that execution errors are encoded in parietal association areas. Thus, little evidence has been uncovered that supports the motor hypothesis. Here, we show that both primary motor and premotor cortices encode information on end-point errors in reaching. We further show that post-movement microstimulation to these regions caused trial-by-trial increases in errors, which subsided exponentially when the stimulation was terminated. The results indicate for the first time that motor cortical circuits provide error signals that drive trial-by-trial adaptation in reaching movements. PMID:27181058

  13. Three-phase multilevel solar inverter for motor drive system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhasagare, Mayuresh P.

    This thesis deals with three phase inverters and the different control strategies that can be associated with an inverter being used together. The first part of this thesis discusses the present research in the fields of PV panels, motor drive systems and three phase inverters along with their control. This control includes various strategies like MPPT, Volts-Hertz and modulation index compensation. Incorporating these techniques together is the goal of this thesis. A new topology for operating an open end motor drive system has also been discusses, where a boost converter and a flyback converter have been used in cascade to run a three phase motor. The main advantage of this is increasing the number of levels and improving the quality of the output voltage, not to mention a few other benefits of having the proposed circuit. A new algorithm has also been designed for starting and stopping the motor, which controls the current drawn from the power source during starting.

  14. Minimize Adverse Motor and Adjustable Speed Drive Interactions - Motor Tip Sheet #15

    SciTech Connect

    2008-07-01

    Electronic adjustable speed drives (ASDs) are an extremely efficient and valuable asset to motor systems. They allow precise process control and provide energy savings within systems that do not need to continuously operate at full output.

  15. A Sensorless Speed Control System for DC Motor Drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiev, Tsolo; Mikhov, Mikho

    2009-01-01

    An approach to sensorless speed control of permanent magnet DC motor drives is presented in this paper. The motor speed has been estimated indirectly by the respective back EMF voltage. Using a discrete vector-matrix description of the controlled object, an optimal modal state observer has been synthesized, as well as an optimal modal controller. The results obtained show that the applied control method can ensure good performance.

  16. Brushless permanent-magnet and reluctance motor drives

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, T.J.E.

    1989-01-01

    This volume presents the theory of brushless d.c. drives and discusses the potential of such motors and of recent developments in the permanent-magnet materials, power semiconductors, electronic control, and motor design, including CAD. Analysis of permanent-magnets and magnetic circuits is geared toward exploitation of new PM materials with outstanding properties. The text is augmented with examples and practical applications of relevance to practicing electronics engineers.

  17. Participating in mobility: People with schizophrenia driving motorized vehicles.

    PubMed

    Steinert, Tilman; Veit, Fabian; Schmid, Peter; Jacob Snellgrove, Brendan; Borbé, Raoul

    2015-08-30

    Participation of people with schizophrenia in individual mobility is an important aspect of inclusion according to the UN convention of human rights of persons with disabilities. However, driving motorized vehicles can be dangerous due to positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms, side effects of antipsychotic drugs and concomitant substance abuse. The objective of this study was to explore the patterns of individual mobility in a representative patient population, to determine predictors for active use of motorized vehicles, and to compare the results with data of the general population in the respective region. We interviewed N=150 participants with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, 66 in-patients and 84 out-patients, in different types of out-patient services. A questionnaire developed for this purpose was used in interviews. 64% of the participants had a driving licence, 32% had driven a motorized vehicle in the past year, 31% owned a car, 2% a motor bike. The driving licence had been withdrawn from 24.7% of participants, 32.7% reported having been involved in a road accident. Participants drove considerably less in time and distances than the general population. Significant variables determining the chance of active use of motorized vehicles in a logistic regression model were Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) (OR 1.04 per each point), number of previous admissions (OR 0.52 per admission), and history of driving under alcohol or drugs (OR 0.18). PMID:26089017

  18. Personal Computer Based Controller For Switched Reluctance Motor Drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mang, X.; Krishnan, R.; Adkar, S.; Chandramouli, G.

    1987-10-01

    Th9, switched reluctance motor (SRM) has recently gained considerable attention in the variable speed drive market. Two important factors that have contributed to this are, the simplicity of construction and the possibility of developing low cost con-trollers with minimum number of switching devices in the drive circuits. This is mainly due to the state-of-art of the present digital circuits technology and the low cost of switching devices. The control of this motor drive is under research. Optimized performance of the SRM motor drive is very dependent on the integration of the controller, converter and the motor. This research on system integration involves considerable changes in the control algorithms and their implementation. A Personal computer (PC) based controller is very appropriate for this purpose. Accordingly, the present paper is concerned with the design of a PC based controller for a SRM. The PC allows for real-time microprocessor control with the possibility of on-line system parameter modifications. Software reconfiguration of this controller is easier than a hardware based controller. User friendliness is a natural consequence of such a system. Considering the low cost of PCs, this controller will offer an excellent cost-effective means of studying the control strategies for the SRM drive intop greater detail than in the past.

  19. Evaluation of Driver Stress Using Motor-vehicle Driving Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deguchi, Mitsuo; Wakasugi, Junichi; Ikegami, Tatsuya; Nanba, Shinji; Yamaguchi, Masaki

    This paper proposes a method for evaluating driver stress using a motor-vehicle driving simulator and a biomarker as an index of stress. Software has been developed, which can deliberately control driving tasks, in addition to analyzing driving information, such as frequency of the use of accelerator and/or brakes and the degree of deviation from the driving course. Sympathetic nervous activity was noninvasively evaluated using a hand-held monitor of salivary amylase activity, which chemically measured a biomarker every few minutes. Using healthy 20 female adults, the appropriateness of the proposed method was evaluated in vivo. The experimental results showed that the driving stress might be caused to the drivers in only 20 minutes by adding more severe driving tasks than normally experienced by the subjects without endangering them. Furthermore, the result indicate that frequent measurements of sympathetic nervous activity were possible without putting the subjects under restraint by using salivary amylase activity as the index.

  20. Human jaw muscle motor behaviour. I. Motor drive.

    PubMed

    Hellsing, G

    1987-01-01

    Jaw muscle motor behaviour, however complicated, has important implications for the every day dental practice. In recent years the understanding of jaw and other skeletal muscle function has increased considerably. Direct recording of primary afferent discharge in conscious human beings and animals during normal function has caused radical changes of the concepts of muscle receptor function. Central pattern generators at segmental levels and suprasegmental programming centres are important mechanisms behind voluntary and automatic movements of different kinds. The most important proprioceptive function is probably to provide reassurance of correct movement pattern, to adjust the central programming to environmental changes and to directly influence slow movements requiring precision. Muscle spindle receptors contribute to mandibular kinesthesia. Muscle spindles are rarely present in jaw opening muscles. Despite this fact an excitatory reflex similar to the stretch reflex but with longer latency has been demonstrated. Further on a reciprocal organisation with antagonist inhibition has been shown to exist between jaw openers and closers. Motor behaviour of jaw and limb muscles thus seem to have many characteristics in common. PMID:2964735

  1. 53. Drive shaft, motors, eddie currents, brakes, and differential gears ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. Drive shaft, motors, eddie currents, brakes, and differential gears in south machinery room (interior of both machinery rooms is identical). Facing east. - Henry Ford Bridge, Spanning Cerritos Channel, Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbor, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. 16. LOOKING WEST AT THE MOTOR DRIVE ASSEMBLY FOR THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. LOOKING WEST AT THE MOTOR DRIVE ASSEMBLY FOR THE BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ON THE OPERATING FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  3. 8. POWERHOUSE, LOWER LEVEL, LEFT, GOVERNOR DRIVE MOTOR WITH BELT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. POWERHOUSE, LOWER LEVEL, LEFT, GOVERNOR DRIVE MOTOR WITH BELT ON RIGHT, HYDRAULIC PUMP WITH RESERVOIR TANK, STEAM HEAT PIPES ON BACK WALL LOOKING NORTHEAST - Dayville Mills Hydroelectric Facility, Powerhouse, North side of Route 101, .5 mile west of Route 395, Killingly Center, Windham County, CT

  4. FAN HOUSE INTERIOR. THREE MOTOR DRIVES FOR POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT BLOWERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FAN HOUSE INTERIOR. THREE MOTOR DRIVES FOR POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT BLOWERS LINE UP ON NORTH WALL. CONCRETE PEDESTALS. CAMERA FACES NORTHEAST. INL NEGATIVE NO. 4291. Unknown Photographer, 2/26/1952 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. BASE OF BULLWHEEL DRIVE SHAFT IN VAULT MOTOR ROOM, CONNECTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BASE OF BULLWHEEL DRIVE SHAFT IN VAULT MOTOR ROOM, CONNECTING TO REDUCTION GEAR SHAFTING. FERREL SPEED REDUCER IN FOREGROUND, FACING WEST. NOTE TWO DIAGONAL LINES: TORQUE CONVERTER CABLE (IN PIECE OF WHITE GUTTER), THROTTLE CABLE (IN LOWER STEEL TUBING). - Mad River Glen, Single Chair Ski Lift, 62 Mad River Glen Resort Road, Fayston, Washington County, VT

  6. A New Analysis about Efficient Drive of Synchronous Reluctance Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinnaka, Shinji

    This paper gives a new analysis about the minimum current under the flux saturation for efficient drive of synchronous reluctance motors. This paper shows that the asymmetric flux saturation of the mirror-phase inductance causes the nonlinear minimum current trajectory, and derives newly the general analytical trajectory and a concrete approximated analytical trajectory.

  7. Variable-frequency synchronous motor drives for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Chalmers, B.J.; Musaba, L.; Gosden, D.F.

    1995-12-31

    The performance capability envelope of a variable-frequency, permanent-magnet synchronous motor drive with field weakening is dependent upon the product of maximum current and direct-axis inductance. To obtain a performance characteristic suitable for a typical electric vehicle drive, in which short-term increase of current is applied, it is necessary to design an optimum value of direct-axis inductance. The paper presents an analysis of a hybrid motor design which uses a two-part rotor construction comprising a surface-magnet part and an axially-laminated reluctance part. This arrangement combines the properties of all other types of synchronous motor and offers a greater choice of design variables. It is shown that the desired form of performance may be achieved when the high-inductance axis of the reluctance part is arranged to lead the magnet axis by 90{degree} (elec.).

  8. Variable-frequency synchronous motor drives for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Chalmers, B.J.; Musaba, L.; Gosden, D.F.

    1996-07-01

    The performance capability envelope of a variable-frequency, permanent-magnet synchronous motor drive with field weakening is dependent upon the product of maximum current and direct-axis inductance. To obtain a performance characteristic suitable for a typical electric vehicle drive, in which short-term increase of current is applied, it is necessary to design an optimum value of direct-axis inductance. The paper presents an analysis of a hybrid motor design which uses a two-part rotor construction comprising a surface-magnet part and an axially laminated reluctance part. This arrangement combines the properties of all other types of synchronous motor and offers a greater choice of design variables. It is shown that the desired form of performance may be achieved when the high-inductance axis of the reluctance part is arranged to lead the magnet axis by 90{degree} (elec.).

  9. Automatic inoculating apparatus. [includes movable carraige, drive motor, and swabbing motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, J. R.; Mills, S. M. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    An automatic inoculating apparatus for agar trays is described and using a simple inoculating element, such as a cotton swab or inoculating loop. The apparatus includes a movable carriage for supporting the tray to be inoculated, a drive motor for moving the tray along a trackway, and a swabbing motor for automatically swabbing the tray during the movement. An actuator motor controls lowering of the inoculating element onto the tray and lifting of the inoculating element. An electrical control system, including limit microswitches, enables automatic control of the actuator motor and return of the carriage to the initial position after inoculating is completed.

  10. Scalar control on speed drive for ac motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsoum, Nader

    2012-11-01

    This paper aims to investigate the performance of ABB ACS800 variable speed drive operating under Scalar Control mode, and eventually develop a set of experimental procedures for undergraduate laboratory purposes. Scalar Control is the most widespread form of ac drive, for its low cost and simplicity especially implemented in the open loop mode. Scalar control is achieved by controlling the stator voltage and frequency, thus maintaining the motor's air-gap flux at a constant value. To illustrate the control method, the ac drive is configured according to the wiring diagram in the firmware manual that the drive control location can be both local and external. The drive is selected to operate under Factory application macro, whereby either ordinary speed control applications or constant speeds applications may be used. Under ordinary speed control, frequency reference signals are provided to the drive through the analogue input AI1. The drive will operate at the given frequency reference value throughout the operation regardless of any changes in the load. The torque speed curve moves along the speed axis with no changes to the shape as the supply frequencies changes. On the other hand, the drive allows three preset constant speed through digital inputs DI5 and DI6. The drive operate at a constant speed value over a time period, and only switch from one constant speed to another constant speed by triggering the two input switches. Scalar control is most suitable for applications not required high precision, such as blowers, fans and pumps.

  11. Special Panel Session: Driving Critical Initiatives in Motor Speech

    PubMed Central

    Weismer, Gary; Barlow, Steven; Smith, Anne; Caviness, John

    2008-01-01

    The following report is a summary of the Special Panel Session, entitled, “Driving Critical Initiatives in Motor Speech,” that was conducted at the Conference on Motor Speech, March 2008, in Monterey California. Don Finan (Program Chair for Speech Motor Control) and Julie Liss (Program Chair for Motor Speech Disorders) invited four distinguished scientists (Drs. Gary Weismer, Steven Barlow, Anne Smith, and John Caviness) to share, briefly, their opinions and views on selected topics. This was followed by an hour-long general discussion session with conference attendees. This report contains an introductory statement followed by the panel members' own summaries of the opinions and ideas expressed in their talks. We then summarize the major topics that were considered during the discussion session. This summary reflects the biases and opinions of the participants, and is meant to serve as a thought-piece for the readership of JMSLP, rather than as a scientific report. PMID:19421339

  12. Fault tolerant vector control of induction motor drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odnokopylov, G.; Bragin, A.

    2014-10-01

    For electric composed of technical objects hazardous industries, such as nuclear, military, chemical, etc. an urgent task is to increase their resiliency and survivability. The construction principle of vector control system fault-tolerant asynchronous electric. Displaying recovery efficiency three-phase induction motor drive in emergency mode using two-phase vector control system. The process of formation of a simulation model of the asynchronous electric unbalance in emergency mode. When modeling used coordinate transformation, providing emergency operation electric unbalance work. The results of modeling transient phase loss motor stator. During a power failure phase induction motor cannot save circular rotating field in the air gap of the motor and ensure the restoration of its efficiency at rated torque and speed.

  13. Testing a Low-Influence Spindle Drive Motor

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, L; Wulff, T; Sedgewick, J

    2003-11-05

    Precision spindles used for diamond turning and other applications requiring low error motion generally require a drive system that ideally applies a pure torque to the rotating spindle. Frequently a frameless motor, that is, one without its own bearings, is directly coupled to the spindle to make a compact and simple system having high resonant frequencies. Although in addition to delivering drive torque, asymmetries in the motor cause it to generate disturbance loads (forces and moments) which influence the spindle error motion of the directly coupled system. This paper describes the tests and results for a particular frameless, brushless DC motor that was originally developed for military and space applications requiring very low torque ripple. Because the construction of the motor should also lead to very low disturbance loads, it was selected for use on a new diamond turning and grinding machine under developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The level of influence for this motor-spindle combination is expected to be of order one nanometer for radial and axial error motion.

  14. Speed sensorless hybrid vector controlled induction motor drive

    SciTech Connect

    Bose, B.K.; Simoes, M.G.; Crecelius, D.R.; Rajashekara, K.; Martin, R.

    1995-12-31

    The paper describes a speed and flux sensorless vector-controlled induction motor drive primarily aimed for electric vehicle type applications. The stator flux oriented drive starts at zero speed in indirect vector control mode, transitions to direct vector control mode as the speed develops, and then transitions back to indirect vector control at zero speed. The vector control uses stator flux orientation in both indirect and direct vector control modes with the stator resistance variation compensated by measurement of stator temperature. The problem of integration at low stator frequency is solved by cascaded low pass filters with programmable time constants. The control strategy of the four-quadrant drive has been analyzed, validated by simulation study, and finally evaluated by experimental study on a laboratory 5 hp drive system.

  15. Improving Motor and Drive System Performance – A Sourcebook for Industry

    SciTech Connect

    2014-02-01

    This sourcebook outlines opportunities to improve motor and drive systems performance. The sourcebook is divided into four main sections: (1) Motor and Drive System Basics: Summarizes important terms, relationships, and system design considerations relating to motor and drive systems. (2) Performance Opportunity Road Map: Details the key components of well-functioning motor and drive systems and opportunities for energy performance opportunities. (3) Motor System Economics: Offers recommendations on how to propose improvement projects based on corporate priorities, efficiency gains, and financial payback periods. (4) Where to Find Help: Provides a directory of organizations associated with motors and drives, as well as resources for additional information, tools, software, videos, and training opportunities.

  16. The Technique of Changing the Drive Method of Micro Step Drive and Sensorless Drive for Hybrid Stepping Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoneda, Makoto; Dohmeki, Hideo

    The position control system with the advantage large torque, low vibration, and high resolution can be obtained by the constant current micro step drive applied to hybrid stepping motor. However loss is large, in order not to be concerned with load torque but to control current uniformly. As the one technique of a position control system in which high efficiency is realizable, the same sensorless control as a permanent magnet motor is effective. But, it was the purpose that the control method proposed until now controls speed. Then, this paper proposed changing the drive method of micro step drive and sensorless drive. The change of the drive method was verified from the simulation and the experiment. On no load, it was checked not producing change of a large speed at the time of a change by making electrical angle and carrying out zero reset of the integrator. On load, it was checked that a large speed change arose. The proposed system could change drive method by setting up the initial value of an integrator using the estimated result, without producing speed change. With this technique, the low loss position control system, which employed the advantage of the hybrid stepping motor, has been built.

  17. Adaptive Fuzzy Control of a Direct Drive Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medina, E.; Kim, Y. T.; Akbaradeh-T., M. -R.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a state feedback adaptive control method for position and velocity control of a direct drive motor. The proposed control scheme allows for integrating heuristic knowledge with mathematical knowledge of a system. It performs well even when mathematical model of the system is poorly understood. The controller consists of an adaptive fuzzy controller and a supervisory controller. The supervisory controller requires only knowledge of the upper bound and lower bound of the system parameters. The fuzzy controller is based on fuzzy basis functions and states of the system. The adaptation law is derived based on the Lyapunov function which ensures that the state of the system asymptotically approaches zero. The proposed controller is applied to a direct drive motor with payload and parameter uncertainty, and the effectiveness is verified by simulation results.

  18. Adaptive Fuzzy Control of a Direct Drive Motor: Experimental Aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medina, E.; Akbarzadeh-T, M.-R.; Kim, Y. T.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a state feedback adaptive control method for position and velocity control of a direct drive motor. The proposed control scheme allows for integrating heuristic knowledge with mathematical knowledge of a system. It performs well even when mathematical model of the system is poorly understood. The controller consists of an adaptive fuzzy controller and a supervisory controller. The supervisory controller requires only knowledge of the upper bound and lower bound of the system parameters. The fuzzy controller is based on fuzzy basis functions and states of the system. The adaptation law is derived based on the Lyapunov function which ensures that the state of the system asymptotically approaches zero. The proposed controller is applied to a direct drive motor with payload and parameter uncertainty, and the effectiveness is experimentally verified. The real-time performance is compared with simulation results.

  19. Designing LC filters for AC-motor drives

    SciTech Connect

    Gath, P.A.; Lucas, M.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents practical design guidelines for designing LC filters for AC-motor drive applications. A DC choke and an electrolytic capacitor bank on the DC bus filter the voltage and the current ripples and improve the input power factor. Capacitor and choke values are derived to optimize overall filter performance. Costs associated with the respective component values can then be obtained to analyze cost trade-offs between selected values. Helpful hints are also given.

  20. Optimized performance of solar powered variable speed induction motor drive

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, B.N.; Singh, B.P.; Singh, B.; Chandra, A.; Al-Haddad, K.

    1995-12-31

    This paper deals with the design and development of a photo voltaic (PV) array fed cage induction motor for an isolated water pumping system. A drive system using a chopper circuit to track maximum power from the PV for different solar insolation and a current controlled voltage source inverter (CC-VSI) to optimally match the motor to PV characteristics is presented. The model equations governing interaction of torque and flux producing components of motor current with available solar power is developed for the operation of the system at optimum efficiency. Performance of the system is presented for different realistic operating conditions, which demonstrates its special features for applications such as solar water pumping system, solar vehicles and floor mills located in hilly and isolated areas.

  1. Variable-reluctance motor drives for electric vehicle propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, J. H.; Vallese, F. J.

    1985-05-01

    A methodology is presented for the design of a variable reluctance motor drive having high specific torque, power output and efficiency. Models are developed that describe the magnetic terminal relations of the VRM. These models are based on a flux-tube analysis that is motivated by numerically obtained finite-difference magnetic simulations. The result is a model for the flux-linkage/phase-current characteristic of the VRM. Intrinsic to this model is the estimation of maximum and minimum inductance as well the incremental inductance during bulk saturation. Also fundamental is the behavior of the flux linkage during local pole-tip saturation and due to bulk core saturation. The drive-oriented treatment of modelling and design uncovered important design interactions between the VRM, its inverter, and its excitation. The experimental 3.8-kW drive operated as expected, verifying the models and the design optimizations developed for VRM drives. These experimental results were projected to the 60-kW level, indicating that a 60-kW drive could be constructed with a VRM having a mass of approximately 65 kg, and an efficiency in excess of 95% at and below peak power output.

  2. Friction drive of an SAW motor. Part III: modeling.

    PubMed

    Shigematsu, Takashi; Kurosawa, Minoru Kuribayashi

    2008-10-01

    A 2-layer modeling method of friction drive of a surface acoustic wave motor is proposed. The surface layer accounts for the previously proposed point-contact friction drive model, which was generalized to correspond spatially to the underlying layer that is comprised of a 3-D elasticity field. A method to determine stiffness through the use of analytical solutions of 3-D contact problems bridges the 2 layers. Because the determined stiffness expresses the accuracy of the results regarding either layer, the validity of the results concerning the stiffness and the resulting stress field was evaluated by comparison with the results of finite element analysis. Furthermore, we executed numerical simulations by using the friction drive model, which were compared with the measured displacements of the frictional surface of the slider. The simulation accurately represented the normal displacement of the frictional surface; the modeling procedure in the normal direction was found to be reliable. However, because the friction coefficient drastically changes the tangential displacement, we could not discuss the reliability of the modeling procedure in the tangential direction. A thorough discussion of the friction drive would thus require further investigation of the friction phenomena. PMID:18986874

  3. Distracted Driving, A Major Preventable Cause of Motor Vehicle Collisions: "Just Hang Up and Drive".

    PubMed

    Kahn, Christopher A; Cisneros, Victor; Lotfipour, Shahram; Imani, Ghasem; Chakravarthy, Bharath

    2015-12-01

    For years, public health experts have been concerned about the effect of cell phone use on motor vehicle collisions, part of a phenomenon known as "distracted driving." The Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) article "Mobile Device Use While Driving - United States and Seven European Countries 2011" highlights the international nature of these concerns. Recent (2011) estimates from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration are that 10% of fatal crashes and 17% of injury crashes were reported as distraction-affected. Of 3,331 people killed in 2011 on roadways in the U.S. as a result of driver distraction, 385 died in a crash where at least one driver was using a cell phone. For drivers 15-19 years old involved in a fatal crash, 21% of the distracted drivers were distracted by the use of cell phones. Efforts to reduce cell phone use while driving could reduce the prevalence of automobile crashes related to distracted driving. The MMWR report shows that there is much ground to cover with distracted driving. Emergency physicians frequently see the devastating effects of distracted driving on a daily basis and should take a more active role on sharing the information with patients, administrators, legislators, friends and family. PMID:26759649

  4. Two-motor direct drive control for elevation axis of telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, T.; Tan, Y.; Ren, G.

    2014-07-01

    Two-motor application has become a very attractive filed in important field which high performance is permitted to achieve of position, speed, and acceleration. In the elevation axis of telescope control system, two-motor direct drive is proposed to enhance the high performance of tracking control system. Although there are several dominant strengths such as low size of motors and high torsional structural dynamics, the synchronization control of two motors is a very difficult and important. In this paper, a multi-loop control technique base master-slave current control is used to synchronize two motors, including current control loop, speed control loop and position control loop. First, the direct drive function of two motors is modeled. Compared of single motor direct control system, the resonance frequency of two motor control systems is same; while the anti-resonance frequency of two motors control system is 1.414 times than those of sing motor system. Because of rigid coupling for direct drive, the speed of two motor of the system is same, and the synchronization of torque for motors is critical. The current master-slave control technique is effective to synchronize the torque, which the current loop of the master motors is tracked the other slave motor. The speed feedback into the input of current loop of the master motors. The experiments test the performance of the two motors drive system. The random tracking error is 0.0119" for the line trajectory of 0.01°/s.

  5. FreedomCAR Advanced Traction Drive Motor Development Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Ley, Josh; Lutz, Jon

    2006-09-01

    The overall objective of this program is to design and develop an advanced traction motor that will meet the FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) 2010 goals and the traction motor technical targets. The motor specifications are given in Section 1.3. Other goals of the program include providing a cost study to ensure the motor can be developed within the cost targets needed for the automotive industry. The program has focused on using materials that are both high performance and low costs such that the performance can be met and cost targets are achieved. In addition, the motor technologies and machine design features must be compatible with high volume manufacturing and able to provide high reliability, efficiency, and ruggedness while simultaneously reducing weight and volume. Weight and volume reduction will become a major factor in reducing cost, material cost being the most significant part of manufacturing cost at high volume. Many motor technology categories have been considered in the past and present for traction drive applications, including: brushed direct current (DC), PM (PM) brushless dc (BLDC), alternating current (AC) induction, switched reluctance and synchronous reluctance machines. Of these machine technologies, PM BLDC has consistently demonstrated an advantage in terms of power density and efficiency. As rare earth magnet cost has declined, total cost may also be reduced over the other technologies. Of the many different configurations of PM BLDC machines, those which incorporate power production utilizing both magnetic torque as well as reluctance torque appear to have the most promise for traction applications. There are many different PM BLDC machine configurations which employ both of these torque producing mechanisms; however, most would fall into one of two categories--some use weaker magnets and rely more heavily on reluctance torque (reluctance-dominant PM machines), others use strong PMs and supplement with reluctance torque

  6. Neural and Fuzzy Adaptive Control of Induction Motor Drives

    SciTech Connect

    Bensalem, Y.; Sbita, L.; Abdelkrim, M. N.

    2008-06-12

    This paper proposes an adaptive neural network speed control scheme for an induction motor (IM) drive. The proposed scheme consists of an adaptive neural network identifier (ANNI) and an adaptive neural network controller (ANNC). For learning the quoted neural networks, a back propagation algorithm was used to automatically adjust the weights of the ANNI and ANNC in order to minimize the performance functions. Here, the ANNI can quickly estimate the plant parameters and the ANNC is used to provide on-line identification of the command and to produce a control force, such that the motor speed can accurately track the reference command. By combining artificial neural network techniques with fuzzy logic concept, a neural and fuzzy adaptive control scheme is developed. Fuzzy logic was used for the adaptation of the neural controller to improve the robustness of the generated command. The developed method is robust to load torque disturbance and the speed target variations when it ensures precise trajectory tracking with the prescribed dynamics. The algorithm was verified by simulation and the results obtained demonstrate the effectiveness of the IM designed controller.

  7. Neural and Fuzzy Adaptive Control of Induction Motor Drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bensalem, Y.; Sbita, L.; Abdelkrim, M. N.

    2008-06-01

    This paper proposes an adaptive neural network speed control scheme for an induction motor (IM) drive. The proposed scheme consists of an adaptive neural network identifier (ANNI) and an adaptive neural network controller (ANNC). For learning the quoted neural networks, a back propagation algorithm was used to automatically adjust the weights of the ANNI and ANNC in order to minimize the performance functions. Here, the ANNI can quickly estimate the plant parameters and the ANNC is used to provide on-line identification of the command and to produce a control force, such that the motor speed can accurately track the reference command. By combining artificial neural network techniques with fuzzy logic concept, a neural and fuzzy adaptive control scheme is developed. Fuzzy logic was used for the adaptation of the neural controller to improve the robustness of the generated command. The developed method is robust to load torque disturbance and the speed target variations when it ensures precise trajectory tracking with the prescribed dynamics. The algorithm was verified by simulation and the results obtained demonstrate the effectiveness of the IM designed controller.

  8. Method and apparatus for improved efficiency in a pulse-width-modulated alternating current motor drive

    DOEpatents

    Konrad, C.E.; Boothe, R.W.

    1996-01-23

    A scheme for optimizing the efficiency of an AC motor drive operated in a pulse-width-modulated mode provides that the modulation frequency of the power furnished to the motor is a function of commanded motor torque and is higher at lower torque requirements than at higher torque requirements. 6 figs.

  9. Method and apparatus for improved efficiency in a pulse-width-modulated alternating current motor drive

    DOEpatents

    Konrad, Charles E.; Boothe, Richard W.

    1994-01-01

    A scheme for optimizing the efficiency of an AC motor drive operated in a pulse-width-modulated mode provides that the modulation frequency of the power furnished to the motor is a function of commanded motor torque and is higher at lower torque requirements than at higher torque requirements.

  10. Method and apparatus for improved efficiency in a pulse-width-modulated alternating current motor drive

    DOEpatents

    Konrad, Charles E.; Boothe, Richard W.

    1996-01-01

    A scheme for optimizing the efficiency of an AC motor drive operated in a pulse-width-modulated mode provides that the modulation frequency of the power furnished to the motor is a function of commanded motor torque and is higher at lower torque requirements than at higher torque requirements.

  11. Method and apparatus for improved efficiency in a pulse-width-modulated alternating current motor drive

    DOEpatents

    Konrad, C.E.; Boothe, R.W.

    1994-02-15

    A scheme for optimizing the efficiency of an AC motor drive operated in a pulse-width-modulated mode provides that the modulation frequency of the power furnished to the motor is a function of commanded motor torque and is higher at lower torque requirements than at higher torque requirements. 6 figures.

  12. Motor Drive Technologies for the Power-by-Wire (PBW) Program: Options, Trends and Tradeoffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elbuluk, Malik E.; Kankam, M. David

    1995-01-01

    Power-By-Wire (PBW) is a program involving the replacement of hydraulic and pneumatic systems currently used in aircraft with an all-electric secondary power system. One of the largest loads of the all-electric secondary power system will be the motor loads which include pumps, compressors and Electrical Actuators (EA's). Issues of improved reliability, reduced maintenance and efficiency, among other advantages, are the motivation for replacing the existing aircraft actuators with electrical actuators. An EA system contains four major components. These are the motor, the power electronic converters, the actuator and the control system, including the sensors. This paper is a comparative literature review in motor drive technologies, with a focus on the trends and tradeoffs involved in the selection of a particular motor drive technology. The reported research comprises three motor drive technologies. These are the induction motor (IM), the brushless dc motor (BLDCM) and the switched reluctance motor (SRM). Each of the three drives has the potential for application in the PBW program. Many issues remain to be investigated and compared between the three motor drives, using actual mechanical loads expected in the PBW program.

  13. Control system for multi-motor friction drive of a large-scale optical telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Yao; Ma, Jia-Guang; Bao, Qi-liang; Yang, Song-hua

    2009-05-01

    In terms of large-scale optical telescope, the design of multi-motor friction drive is obviously advantageous than that of single motor direct drive on the expense for manufacture of motors. However, to keep the high accuracy of tracking of multi-motor friction drive in certain velocity and acceleration, synchronized control for multi-motor and compensation to the mechanical resonance are needed. After designing appropriate multi-motor drive and synchronized compensation device, we overcame the interference among running motors, restricted the velocity difference in smooth running to a smaller range, and set a good foundation for the design of correcting parameter. Besides, to expand the closed loop bandwidth of the system, the control loop model has been identified, and the compensator based on the identified model effectively improved the influence of the mechanical resonance. The experimental results showed that for multi-motor friction drive of the 1.2-m large-scale Alt-Azimuth optical telescope, the proposed approach obtained high accuracy when running at the max velocity of 3 deg/s.

  14. Adjustable Speed Drive Part-Load Efficiency - Motor Tip Sheet #11

    SciTech Connect

    2008-07-01

    An adjustable speed drive (ASD) is a device that controls the rotational speed of motor-driven equipment. Variable frequency drives (VFDs), the most common type of ASDs, efficiently meet varying process requirements by adjusting the frequency and voltage of the power supplied to an AC motor to enable it to operate over a wide speed range. External sensors monitor flow, liquid levels, or pressure and then transmit a signal to a controller that adjusts the frequency and speed to match process requirements.

  15. Principle and experimental verification of novel dual driving face rotary ultrasonic motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiaolong; Hu, Junhui; Yang, Lin; Zhao, Chunsheng

    2013-09-01

    Existing rotary ultrasonic motors operating in extreme environments cannot meet the requirements of good environmental adaptability and compact structure at same time, and existing ultrasonic motors with Langevin transducers show better environmental adaptability, but size of these motors are usually big due to the radial arrangement of the Langevin transducers. A novel dual driving face rotary ultrasonic motor is proposed, and its working principle is experimentally verified. The working principle of the novel ultrasonic motor is firstly proposed. The 5th in-plane flexural vibration travelling wave, excited by the Langevin transducers around the stator ring, is used to drive the rotors. Then the finite element method is used in the determination of dimensions of the prototype motor, and the confirmation of its working principle. After that, a laser Doppler vibrometer system is used for measuring the resonance frequency and vibration amplitude of the stator. At last, output characteristics of the prototype motor are measured, environmental adaptability is tested and performance for driving a metal ball is also investigated. At room temperature and 200 V(zero to peak) driving voltage, the motor’s no-load speed is 80 r/min, the stalling torque is 0.35 N·m and the maximum output power is 0.85 W. The response time of this motor is 0.96 ms at the room temperature, and it decreases or increases little in cold environment. A metal ball driven by the motor can rotate at 210 r/min with the driving voltage 300 V(zero to peak). Results indicate that the prototype motor has a large output torque and good environmental adaptability. A rotary ultrasonic motor owning compact structure and good environmental adaptability is proposed, and lays the foundations of ultrasonic motors’ applications in extreme environments.

  16. DETAIL OF GENERAL ELECTRIC 250HP SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR FROM DRIVE END. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF GENERAL ELECTRIC 250-HP SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR FROM DRIVE END. MOTOR BADGE PLATE READS 263 AMP, 400 VOLT, FRAME 6274-D #4940649, 250 HORSEPOWER, TYPE TSR, 3 PHASE, 60 CYCLE, SPEED 300 RPM. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  17. FUZZY-LOGIC-BASED CONTROLLERS FOR EFFICIENCY OPTIMIZATION OF INVERTER-FED INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes a fuzzy-logic-based energy optimizing controller to improve the efficiency of induction motor/drives operating at various load (torque) and speed conditions. Improvement of induction motor efficiency is important not only from the considerations of energy sav...

  18. Characteristic Evaluation of Synchronous Motors Using an Universal Drive System with a Real-Time Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amano, Yoko; Ogasawara, Satoshi

    In this paper, a new universal drive system of synchronous motors used Real-Time Interface (RTI) performs characteristic evaluation of Synchronous Reluctance (SynR) motors and Surface Permanent Magnet (SPM) synchronous motors. The RTI connects directly a simulation model with experimental equipment, and makes it possible to use the simulation model for an experiment. The RTI is very effective in the early detection of an actual problem and examination of solution technique. Moreover, it concentrates on examination of control algorithm, and efficient research and development are enabled. A measuring system of synchronous motors is built by the universal drive system. The examination of various synchronous motors is possible for the measurement system using the same control algorithm. Characteristic evaluation of a SynR motor and a SPM synchronous motor that are the same gap length and stator was performed using the measuring system. The measurement result shows experimentally that motor loss of the SynR motor is smaller rather than the SPM synchronous motor, at the time of high speed and low load operation. For example, the SynR motor is suitable to hybrid cars with the comparatively long time of low load and high-speed operation.

  19. FUZZY LOGIC CONTROL OF ELECTRIC MOTORS AND MOTOR DRIVES: FEASIBILITY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study (part 1) of fuzzy logic motor control (FLMC). The study included: 1) reviews of existing applications of fuzzy logic, of motor operation, and of motor control; 2) a description of motor control schemes that can utilize FLMC; 3) selection of a m...

  20. Reducing the net torque and flow ripple effects of multiple hydraulic piston motor drives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartos, R. D.

    1992-01-01

    The torque and flow ripple effects which result when multiple hydraulic motors are used to drive a single motion of a mechanical device can significantly affect the way in which the device performs. This article presents a mathematical model describing the torque and flow ripple effects of a bent-axis hydraulic piston motor. The model is used to show how the ripple magnitude can be reduced when multiple motors are used to drive a motion. A discussion of the hydraulic servo system of the 70-m antennas located with the Deep Space Network is included to demonstrate the application of the concepts presented.

  1. Driving Torque Control Method for Electric Vehicle with In-Wheel Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Masataka; Fujimoto, Hiroshi

    Anti-slip control or slip ratio control can help improve the stability of EVs on a low-µ road. However, these control methods cannot control the driving torque. In this paper, we propose a driving torque control method for EVs with in-wheel motors. By using this method, we can control the driving torque directly. Simulations and experiments are carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  2. Evaluation of half wave induction motor drive for use in passenger vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoft, R. G.; Kawamura, A.; Goodarzi, A.; Yang, G. Q.; Erickson, C. L.

    1985-01-01

    Research performed at the University of Missouri-Columbia to devise and design a lower cost inverter induction motor drive for electrical propulsion of passenger vehicles is described. A two phase inverter motor system is recommended. The new design is predicted to provide comparable vehicle performance, improved reliability and a cost advantage for a high production vehicle, decreased total rating of the power semiconductor switches, and a somewhat simpler control hardware compared to the conventional three phase bridge inverter motor drive system. The major disadvantages of the two phase inverter motor drive are that it is larger and more expensive than a three phase machine, the design of snubbers for the power leakage inductances produce higher transient voltages, and the torque pulsations are relatively large because of the necessity to limit the inverter switching frequency to achieve high efficiency.

  3. Data Acquisition System for Electric Vehicle's Driving Motor Test Bench Based on VC++

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, Song; Chenguang, Lv

    In order to solve such problems as great labor intensity, high cost, low efficiency and accuracy during the performance experiment for driving motor system of electric vehicles, and realize data acquisition automatically and synchronously, a data acquisition system for driving motor test bench based on visual instruments is designed. This data acquisition system can be used to obtain the driving motor's parameters of currents and voltages at the same time. This system's hardware is based on electric vehicle's motor test bench in Beijing Institute of Technology, and combined with PXI2010 data acquisition card from ADLINK Company. Visual c++ software is adopted as development tool. In this paper, the design and realization of the hardware and software are presented. Experiment results show that this system improves the efficiency and quality of testing task with high utility. And experiment data can be obtained accurately.

  4. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 240 - Procedures for Obtaining and Evaluating Motor Vehicle Driving Record Data

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Procedures for Obtaining and Evaluating Motor... Evaluating Motor Vehicle Driving Record Data The purpose of this appendix is to outline the procedures... that railroads consider the motor vehicle driving record of each person prior to issuing him or...

  5. Indirect rotor position sensing in real time for brushless permanent magnet motor drives

    SciTech Connect

    Ertugrul, N.; Acarnley, P.P.

    1998-07-01

    This paper describes a modern solution to real-time rotor position estimation of brushless permanent magnet (PM) motor drives. The position estimation scheme, based on flux linkage and line-current estimation, is implemented in real time by using the abc reference frame, and it is tested dynamically. The position estimation model of the test motor, development of hardware, and basic operation of the digital signal processor (DSP) are discussed. The overall position estimation strategy is accomplished with a fast DSP (TMS320C30). The method is a shaft position sensorless method that is applicable to a wide range of excitation types in brushless PM motors without any restriction on the motor model and the current excitation. Both rectangular and sinewave-excited brushless PM motor drives are examined, and the results are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method with dynamic loads in closed estimated position loop.

  6. Quantitative analysis of noninvasive diagnostic procedures for induction motor drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eltabach, Mario; Antoni, Jerome; Najjar, Micheline

    2007-10-01

    This paper reports quantitative analyses of spectral fault components in five noninvasive diagnostic procedures that use input electric signals to detect different types of abnormalities in induction motors. Besides the traditional one phase current spectrum analysis "SC", the diagnostic procedures based on spectrum analysis of the instantaneous partial powers " P ab", " P cb", total power " P abc", and the current space vector modulus " csvm" are considered. The aim of this comparison study is to improve the diagnosis tools for detection of electromechanical faults in electrical machines by using the best suitable diagnostic procedure knowing some motor and fault characteristics. Defining a severity factor as the increase in amplitude of the fault characteristic frequency, with respect to the healthy condition, enables us to study the sensitivity of the electrical diagnostic tools. As a result, it is shown that the relationship between the angular displacement of the current side-bands components at frequencies ( f± fosc) is directly related to the type of induction motor faults. It is also proved that the total instantaneous power diagnostic procedure was observed to exhibit the highest values of the detection criterion in case of mechanical faults while in case of electrical ones the most reliable diagnostic procedure is tightly related to the value of the motor power factor angle and the group motor-load inertia. Finally, simulation and experimental results show good agreement with the fault modeling theoretical results.

  7. Comparison of a synergetic battery pack drive system to a pulse width modulated AC induction motor drive for an electric vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, A.; Salameh, Z.M.; Eaves, S.S.

    1999-06-01

    A new battery configuration technique and accompanying control circuitry, termed a Synergetic Battery Pack (SBP), is designed to work with Lithium batteries, and can be used as both an inverter for an electric vehicle AC induction motor drive and as a battery charger. In this paper, the performance of a Synergetic Battery Pack during motor drive operation is compared via computer simulation with a conventional motor drive which uses sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM) to determine its effectiveness as a motor drive. The study showed that the drive efficiency was compatible with the conventional system, and offered a significant advantage in the lower frequency operating ranges. The voltage total harmonic distortion (THD) of the SBP was significantly lower than the PWM drive output, but the current THD was slightly higher due to the shape of the harmonic spectrum. In conclusion, the SBP is an effective alternative to a conventional drive, but the real advantage lies in its battery management capabilities and charger operation.

  8. Electric Motor Thermal Management for Electric Traction Drives (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Bennion, K.; Cousineau, J.; Moreno, G.

    2014-09-01

    Thermal constraints place significant limitations on how electric motors ultimately perform. Finite element analysis and computational fluid dynamics modeling approaches are being increasingly utilized in the design and analysis of electric motors. As the models become more sophisticated, it is important to have detailed and accurate knowledge of material thermal properties and convective heat transfer coefficients. In this work, the thermal properties and inter-lamination thermal contact resistances were measured for different stator lamination materials. Also, convective heat transfer coefficients of automatic transmission fluid (ATF) jets were measured to better understand the heat transfer of ATF impinging on motor copper windings. Experiments were carried out at various ATF temperatures and jet velocities to quantify the influence of these parameters on heat transfer coefficients.

  9. A hybrid observer for high performance brushless DC motor drives

    SciTech Connect

    Corzine, K.A.; Sudhoff, S.D.

    1996-06-01

    Brushless DC drive systems are used in a wide variety of applications. These drives may be classified as being one of two types; sinusoidal drives in which there are no low-frequency harmonics in the current waveforms and no low-frequency torque ripple and non-sinusoidal drives in which there is considerable low-frequency harmonic content, both in the current and torque waveforms. Although the sinusoidal drives feature superior performance, they are generally more expensive since rotor position must be sensed on a continuous basis, thus requiring an optical encoder or a resolver, whereas relatively inexpensive Hall-effect sensors may be used for non-sinusoidal drives. In this paper, a straightforward hybrid observer is set forth which enables rotor position to be estimated on a continuous basis using information available from the Hall-effect sensors. The proposed observer is experimentally shown to perform just as well as an optical encoder for steady-state conditions and nearly as well as the optical encoder during transient conditions. The proposed scheme provides designers with a new option for rotor position sensing, one which offers an excellent compromise between accuracy and expense.

  10. Driving characteristics of a hexadecagon-shaped ultrasonic motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheon, Seong-Kyu; Jeong, Seong-Su; Lee, Byeong-Ha; Park, Tae-Gone; Park, Jong-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    A novel hexadecagon-shaped ultrasonic motor is proposed. The stator is easy to fabricate because of its simple structure. The stator of the hexadecagon ultrasonic motor is composed of an elastic ring and ceramics. The elastic ring has sixteen sides and angles. The eight ceramics are attached on the outer surfaces of the eight sides of the ring. When rotor of the cylindrical shaft is inserted inside the ring stator, the central lines of the sixteen sides of the stator hold the shaft with slight pressures. This slight pressure is the preload of the motor and it can be controlled by the radius and the thickness of the ring. When two AC voltages that have a 90-degree phase difference are applied to the eight ceramics, elliptical displacements of the inner surface of the ring are obtained. These elliptical displacements of the inner surface rotate the shaft rotor through friction. The proposed hexadecagon ultrasonic motor was designed and analyzed by using a finite element analysis (ATILA), depending on the number of piezoelectric ceramics and hexadecagon modes. As a result, the stator was optimally designed by defining the output displacement characteristics, which depend on changes in the chosen parameters.

  11. Friction drive of an SAW motor. Part V: design criteria.

    PubMed

    Shigematsu, Takashi; Kurosawa, Minoru Kuribayashi

    2008-10-01

    Design criteria for the stable and durable operation of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) motor are discussed. The low electric conductivity and pyroelectricity of the lithium niobate (LN) stator used in the motor hindered the motor's stability. We demonstrated that the use of LN whose conductivity had been enhanced by chemical reduction counteracted the instability caused by contact electrification and meniscus adhesion. The severe failure of the stator surface limits the durability of the SAW motor. Owing to the chemical inertness of LN, the surface failure of the stator was caused by mechanical stresses resulting from the indentation and sliding of the projections placed at the slider surface. The as-fabricated sharp edges of the projections are the obvious cause of failure. Thus, if the projections are necessary, a procedure in which the edges are worn off before operation is the only feasible method to correct this problem. Nevertheless, the optimum geometry to prevent surface failure was deduced as flat plane. The flat plane geometry was useful if the contact pressure is sufficiently large to diminish the effect of the layer of squeezed air between the surfaces. PMID:18986876

  12. Design of high precision motor driving system for circular scanning ultrasonic endoscopic imaging equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Haoran; Bai, Baoping; Chen, Xiaodong; Zhao, Qiang; Li, Yanan; Wang, Yi; Yu, Daoyin

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes the development of a motor driving system for circular scanning ultrasonic endoscopic imaging equipment. It was designed to guarantee the motor rotating at a relatively constant speed in load fluctuation conditions, which result from the bending and twisting of the flexible shaft which connects the probe to the motor. A hardware feedback circuit based on Frequency-To-Voltage Converter LM331 and Step-Down Voltage Regulator LM2576-ADJ was designed to ensure steady rotation of motor in load fluctuation conditions, and a D/A module offered by MCU was used to regulate the real-time rotary speed. The feedback response cycle is about 20 μs according to theoretical analysis. Experimental results show that the maximum error is +/-1 r/min under the normal running environment (300 ~1500 r/min) and load fluctuation conditions, which means the average instability is reduced to 0.11% as compared with that of the motor drive simply based on MCU which is 0.94%. Both theoretical analysis and experimental results indicate that the motor driving system has high accuracy, fast response, excellent reliability and good versatility and portability, and can precisely guarantee the smooth movement of load-changing PMW (Pulse Width Modulation) motor, so as to ensure the imaging quality, and can effectively improve the efficiency and accuracy of the diagnosis.

  13. A suppression hierarchy among competing motor programs drives sequential grooming in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Seeds, Andrew M; Ravbar, Primoz; Chung, Phuong; Hampel, Stefanie; Midgley, Frank M; Mensh, Brett D; Simpson, Julie H

    2014-01-01

    Motor sequences are formed through the serial execution of different movements, but how nervous systems implement this process remains largely unknown. We determined the organizational principles governing how dirty fruit flies groom their bodies with sequential movements. Using genetically targeted activation of neural subsets, we drove distinct motor programs that clean individual body parts. This enabled competition experiments revealing that the motor programs are organized into a suppression hierarchy; motor programs that occur first suppress those that occur later. Cleaning one body part reduces the sensory drive to its motor program, which relieves suppression of the next movement, allowing the grooming sequence to progress down the hierarchy. A model featuring independently evoked cleaning movements activated in parallel, but selected serially through hierarchical suppression, was successful in reproducing the grooming sequence. This provides the first example of an innate motor sequence implemented by the prevailing model for generating human action sequences. PMID:25139955

  14. Improved linear ultrasonic motor performance with square-wave based driving-tip trajectory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Adam Y.; Mills, James K.; Benhabib, Beno

    2015-03-01

    This paper proposes the application of a non-sinusoidal periodic excitation voltage to induce a near-square-wave driving tip trajectory in linear ultrasonic motors (LUSMs). A square-wave-based trajectory can deliver superior frictional force to the moving stage in the forward stroke of the driving tip motion and reduced frictional force during the return stroke. This would reduce lost power in the periodic driving tip motion, thereby, increasing the output force and power of the LUSM. An implementation procedure is suggested to achieve the near-square-wave driving tip trajectory. The proposed approach is illustrated through realistic finite-element-based simulations using a bimodal LUSM configuration.

  15. Radial-Gap Permanent Magnet Motor and Drive Research FY 2004

    SciTech Connect

    McKeever, J.W.

    2005-02-11

    The objective of this task was to study permanent magnet (PM) radial-gap traction drive systems that could meet the U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCAR Program's 2010 goals to expose weaknesses or identify strengths. Initially, the approach was to compare attributes such as physical deformations during operation, performance (torque, power, efficiency versus speed), material requirements (strength), material costs, manufacturability, weight, power density, specific power, reliability, and drivability for specific motors. Three motors selected were the commercially available 60-kW radial-gap surface-mounted PM motor manufactured by UQM Technologies, Inc.; a hypothetical PM motor with rotor-supported magnets similar to the Honda MCF-21; and Delphi's automotive electric machine drive motor, whose rotor is a ferromagnetic cylinder, held at one end by a shaft that supports the magnets on its inner surface. Potential problems have appeared related to PM motors, such as (1) high no-load spin losses and high operational power losses, probably from eddy current losses in the rotor; (2) the undemonstrated dual mode inverter control (DMIC) for driving a brushless dc motor (BDCM) (UQM and Delphi motors); (3) uncertainty about the potential for reducing current with DMIC; and (4) uncertainty about the relation between material requirements and maximum rotor speed. Therefore, the approach was changed to study in detail three of the comparison attributes: drivability, performance, and material requirements. Drivability and related problems were examined by demonstrating that DMIC may be used to drive an 18-pole 30-kW PM motor to 6000 rpm, where the maximum electrical frequency is 900 Hz. An available axial-gap test motor with 18 poles was used because its control is identical to that of a radial gap PM motor. Performance was analytically examined, which led to a derivation showing that DMIC controls a PM motor so that the motor uses minimum current to produce any power

  16. A current-source inverter fed induction motor drive system with reduced losses

    SciTech Connect

    Espinoza, J.R.; Joos, G.

    1995-12-31

    Standard low and medium induction power motor drives are based on the PWM voltage source inverter (VSI) fed from a diode rectifier. The dual topology, based on the current source inverter/rectifier structure is used in medium and high power applications. This paper addresses some of the drawbacks of this approach compared to the voltage source approach. The proposed drive features: (a) an on-line operated PWM inverter, using instantaneous output capacitor voltage control based on space vector modulation; (b) a line-synchronized PWM rectifier, with dc bus current control; (c) an additional inverter modulation index control loop, ensuring a constant inverter modulation index. The resulting advantages include: (a) ruggedness and inherent continuous regeneration capability; (b) near unity global input power factor; (c) reduced motor voltage distortion; (d) reduced dc bus inductor and switch conduction losses; (e) fast motor dynamic response; (f) elimination of motor circuit resonances. Simulated and experimental results based on a DSP implementation are given.

  17. A superconducting linear motor drive for a positive displacement bellows pump for use in the g-2 cryogenics system

    SciTech Connect

    Green, M.A.

    1994-10-01

    Forced two-phase cooling of indirectly cooled magnets requires circulation of liquid helium through the magnet cooling channel. A bellows helium pump is one possible way of providing helium flow to a magnet cooling system. Since the bellows type of helium pump is immersed in liquid helium, a superconducting linear motor drive appears to be an attractive option. This report describes a linear motor drive that employs oriented permanent magnet materials such as samarium-cobalt as the stator magnet system and a superconducting loud speaker voice coil type of drive as the armature of the linear motor. This report examines drive motor requirements for a helium pump.

  18. Integrated Cooling System for Induction Motor Traction Drives, CARAT Program Phase Two Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Konrad, Charles E.

    2002-12-03

    This Program is directed toward improvements in electric vehicle/hybrid electric vehicle traction systems, and in particular, the development of a low cost, highly efficient, compact traction motor-controller system targeted for high volume automotive use. Because of the complex inter-relationships between the motor and the controller, the combination of motor and controller must be considered as a system in the design and evaluation of overall cost and performance. The induction motor is ideally suited for use as a traction motor because of its basic ruggedness, low cost, and high efficiency. As one can see in Figure 1.1, the induction motor traction drive has been continually evolving through a succession of programs spanning the past fifteen years. VPT marketed an induction motor-based traction drive system, the EV2000, which proved to be a reliable, high performance system that was used in a wide range of vehicles. The EV2000 drives evolved from the Modular Electric Vehicle Program (MEVP) and has been used in vehicles ranging in size from 3,000 lb. autos and utility vans, to 32,000 lb. city transit buses. Vehicles powered by the EV2000 induction motor powertrain have accumulated over 2 million miles of service. The EV2000 induction motor system represents 1993 state-of-the-art technology, and evolved from earlier induction motor programs that drove induction motor speeds up to 15,000 rpm to reduce the motor size and cost. It was recognized that the improvements in power density and motor cost sought in the PNGV program could only be achieved through increases in motor speed. Esson’s Rule for motor power clearly states that the power obtainable from a given motor design is the product of motor speed and volume. In order to meet the CARAT Program objectives, the maximum speed goal of the induction motor designed in this Program was increased from 15,000 rpm to 20,000 rpm while maintaining the efficiency and durability demonstrated by lower speed designs done in

  19. A.C. motors for high-performance drives: A design-based comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Vagati, A.; Fratta, A.; Franceschini, G.; Rosso, P.M.

    1995-12-31

    Three AC motors are compared, for application in high-performance controlled drives: induction, brushless and synchronous reluctance motors. Their design is optimized, under common design assumptions. Then, the given stall-torques are compared to each other. In addition, the quadrature reactances are compared, as affecting overload and flux-weakening performances. Last, applicative considerations are given, thus defining the most suitable solution for each field.

  20. Kinesin-12 motors cooperate to suppress microtubule catastrophes and drive the formation of parallel microtubule bundles.

    PubMed

    Drechsler, Hauke; McAinsh, Andrew D

    2016-03-22

    Human Kinesin-12 (hKif15) plays a crucial role in assembly and maintenance of the mitotic spindle. These functions of hKif15 are partially redundant with Kinesin-5 (Eg5), which can cross-link and drive the extensile sliding of antiparallel microtubules. Although both motors are known to be tetramers, the functional properties of hKif15 are less well understood. Here we reveal how single or multiple Kif15 motors can cross-link, transport, and focus the plus-ends of intersecting microtubules. During transport, Kif15 motors step simultaneously along both microtubules with relative microtubule transport driven by a velocity differential between motor domain pairs. Remarkably, this differential is affected by the underlying intersection geometry: the differential is low on parallel and extreme on antiparallel microtubules where one motor domain pair becomes immobile. As a result, when intersecting microtubules are antiparallel, canonical transport of one microtubule along the other is allowed because one motor is firmly attached to one microtubule while it is stepping on the other. When intersecting microtubules are parallel, however, Kif15 motors can drive (biased) parallel sliding because the motor simultaneously steps on both microtubules that it cross-links. These microtubule rearrangements will focus microtubule plus-ends and finally lead to the formation of parallel bundles. At the same time, Kif15 motors cooperate to suppress catastrophe events at polymerizing microtubule plus-ends, raising the possibility that Kif15 motors may synchronize the dynamics of bundles that they have assembled. Thus, Kif15 is adapted to operate on parallel microtubule substrates, a property that clearly distinguishes it from the other tetrameric spindle motor, Eg5. PMID:26969727

  1. Kinesin-12 motors cooperate to suppress microtubule catastrophes and drive the formation of parallel microtubule bundles

    PubMed Central

    Drechsler, Hauke; McAinsh, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    Human Kinesin-12 (hKif15) plays a crucial role in assembly and maintenance of the mitotic spindle. These functions of hKif15 are partially redundant with Kinesin-5 (Eg5), which can cross-link and drive the extensile sliding of antiparallel microtubules. Although both motors are known to be tetramers, the functional properties of hKif15 are less well understood. Here we reveal how single or multiple Kif15 motors can cross-link, transport, and focus the plus-ends of intersecting microtubules. During transport, Kif15 motors step simultaneously along both microtubules with relative microtubule transport driven by a velocity differential between motor domain pairs. Remarkably, this differential is affected by the underlying intersection geometry: the differential is low on parallel and extreme on antiparallel microtubules where one motor domain pair becomes immobile. As a result, when intersecting microtubules are antiparallel, canonical transport of one microtubule along the other is allowed because one motor is firmly attached to one microtubule while it is stepping on the other. When intersecting microtubules are parallel, however, Kif15 motors can drive (biased) parallel sliding because the motor simultaneously steps on both microtubules that it cross-links. These microtubule rearrangements will focus microtubule plus-ends and finally lead to the formation of parallel bundles. At the same time, Kif15 motors cooperate to suppress catastrophe events at polymerizing microtubule plus-ends, raising the possibility that Kif15 motors may synchronize the dynamics of bundles that they have assembled. Thus, Kif15 is adapted to operate on parallel microtubule substrates, a property that clearly distinguishes it from the other tetrameric spindle motor, Eg5. PMID:26969727

  2. Torque linearizing hardware for the electric joint motors of a direct-drive robot

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, P.F.; Bryan, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Many emerging high-performance robot control algorithms require the command of the joint torques; yet no known commercial robots provide such a capability. In this paper, we describe the design, development, testing and application of a VMEbus-based torque linearizing joint interface board (JIB). One JIB resides between the robot control processor and each joint motor amplifier. The JIB provides the control processor with the capability to read the motor position and apply accurate motor torques. The torque command capability derives from the application of a 128k {times} 8 EPROM lookup table for each motor phase. Because joint motor torque is dependent upon the torque command and the motor position, the hardware is designed to utilize the torque command and the current motor position as the address to retrieve the proper pulse-width for the PWM motor amplifier. The table look-up cycle operates independently of the robot controller at a 40KHz rate to provide constant joint torque as the motor rotates. We identify the proper table entries by an automated in situ data collection procedure. Static torque generation results show that the torque deviations are reduced from as much as 76% to below 5% for each of the three direct-drive motors (two are variable reluctance motors and one is brushless DC) on an AdeptTwo robot. These torque deviations are reduced below 2.5% if only the upper 90% of the torque range is considered. The torque deviations of the non-direct-drive joint are reduced by 50%. Dynamic robot edge following experiments show that the robot speed of operation can be more than doubled for a given applied force accuracy by utilizing the joint torque linearizing boards. 8 refs.

  3. Torque linearizing hardware for the electric joint motors of a direct-drive robot

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, P.F.; Bryan, J.R.

    1991-12-31

    Many emerging high-performance robot control algorithms require the command of the joint torques; yet no known commercial robots provide such a capability. In this paper, we describe the design, development, testing and application of a VMEbus-based torque linearizing joint interface board (JIB). One JIB resides between the robot control processor and each joint motor amplifier. The JIB provides the control processor with the capability to read the motor position and apply accurate motor torques. The torque command capability derives from the application of a 128k {times} 8 EPROM lookup table for each motor phase. Because joint motor torque is dependent upon the torque command and the motor position, the hardware is designed to utilize the torque command and the current motor position as the address to retrieve the proper pulse-width for the PWM motor amplifier. The table look-up cycle operates independently of the robot controller at a 40KHz rate to provide constant joint torque as the motor rotates. We identify the proper table entries by an automated in situ data collection procedure. Static torque generation results show that the torque deviations are reduced from as much as 76% to below 5% for each of the three direct-drive motors (two are variable reluctance motors and one is brushless DC) on an AdeptTwo robot. These torque deviations are reduced below 2.5% if only the upper 90% of the torque range is considered. The torque deviations of the non-direct-drive joint are reduced by 50%. Dynamic robot edge following experiments show that the robot speed of operation can be more than doubled for a given applied force accuracy by utilizing the joint torque linearizing boards. 8 refs.

  4. Torque linearizing hardware for the electric joint motors of a direct-drive robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muir, P. F.; Bryan, J. R.

    Many emerging high-performance robot control algorithms require the command of the joint torques, yet no known commercial robots provide such a capability. We describe the design, development, testing, and application of a VMEbus-based torque linearizing joint interface board (JIB). One JIB resides between the robot control processor and each joint motor amplifier. The JIB provides the control processor with the capability to read the motor position and apply accurate motor torques. The torque command capability derives from the application of a 128k x 8 EPROM lookup table for each motor phase. Because joint motor torque is dependent upon the torque command and the motor position, the hardware is designed to utilize the torque command and the current motor position as the address to retrieve the proper pulse-width for the PWM motor amplifier. The table look-up cycle operates independently of the robot controller at a 40KHz rate to provide constant joint torque as the motor rotates. We identify the proper table entries by an automated in situ data collection procedure. Static torque generation results show that the torque deviations are reduced from as much as 76 percent to below 5 percent for each of the three direct-drive motors (two are variable reluctance motors and one is brushless DC) on an AdeptTwo robot. These torque deviations are reduced below 2.5 percent if only the upper 90 percent of the torque range is considered. The torque deviations of the non-direct-drive joint are reduced by 50 percent. Dynamic robot edge following experiments show that the robot speed of operation can be more than doubled for a given applied force accuracy by utilizing the joint torque linearizing boards.

  5. Sensorless Sinusoidal Drives for Fan and Pump Motors by V/f Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiuchi, Mitsuyuki; Ohnishi, Tokuo

    This paper proposes sensorless sinusoidal driving methods of permanent magnet synchronous motors for fans and pumps by V/f control. The proposed methods are simple methods that control the motor peak current constant by voltage or frequency control, and are characterized by DC link current detection using a single shunt resistor at carrier wave signal bottom timing. As a result of the dumping factor from square torque load characteristics of fan and pump motors, it is possible to control stable starting and stable steady state by V/f control. In general, pressure losses as a result of the fluid pass of fan and pump systems are nearly constant; therefore, the flow rate and motor torque are determined by revolutions. Accordingly, high efficiency driving is possible by setting corresponding currents to q-axis currents (torque currents) at target revolutions. Because of the simple current detection and motor control methods, the proposed methods are optimum for fan and pump motor driving systems of home appliances.

  6. Performance analysis of PV pumping systems using switched reluctance motor drives

    SciTech Connect

    Metwally, H.M.B.; Anis, W.R.

    1996-12-31

    A PV pumping system using switched reluctance motor (SRM) is thoroughly investigated in this work. This motor is supplied by a d.c. voltage through a simple switching circuit. This drive circuit is much simpler than the normal d.c./a.c. inverter required to supply the induction motor. The efficiency of this motor is considerably higher than that of the equivalent d.c. or induction motors. In addition, because of the simple construction, SRM is cheaper than these conventional drives. Because of the above advantages of the SRM, the proposed system has higher efficiency and lower cost as compared with other systems. A design example is studied in detail to explore the advantages of PV pumping systems based on this new drive. The study of the performance of the proposed system showed that the operating efficiency of the motor is about 85% during most of its working time. The matching efficiency between the PV array and the proposed system approaches 95%. The major part of the losses takes place in the pump and the riser pipes. This loss represents one-third of the total available energy. 21 refs., 10 figs.

  7. High-power CSI-fed induction motor drive with optimal power distribution based control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, S.-S.

    2011-11-01

    In this article, a current source inverter (CSI) fed induction motor drive with an optimal power distribution control is proposed for high-power applications. The CSI-fed drive is configured with a six-step CSI along with a pulsewidth modulated voltage source inverter (PWM-VSI) and capacitors. Due to the PWM-VSI and the capacitor, sinusoidal motor currents and voltages with high quality as well as natural commutation of the six-step CSI can be obtained. Since this CSI-fed drive can deliver required output power through both the six-step CSI and PWM-VSI, this article shows that the kVA ratings of both the inverters can be reduced by proper real power distribution. The optimal power distribution under load requirements, based on power flow modelling of the CSI-fed drive, is proposed to not only minimise the PWM-VSI rating but also reduce the six-step CSI rating. The dc-link current control of the six-step CSI is developed to realise the optimal power distribution. Furthermore, a vector controlled drive for high-power induction motors is proposed based on the optimal power distribution. Experimental results verify the high-power CSI-fed drive with the optimal power distribution control.

  8. Design trends and trade-offs for sensorless operation of switched reluctance motor drives

    SciTech Connect

    Perl, T.; Husain, I.; Elbuluk, M.

    1995-12-31

    The aligned to unaligned phase inductance ratio and the number of stator and rotor poles strongly affect the resolution of indirect rotor position sensing methods for switched reluctance motor (SRM) drives. A higher inductance ratio increases the resolution, while higher number of phases increases the available sampling window for indirect position sensing. However, these requirements are conflicting design criteria for an SRM. In this paper, the design considerations and trade-offs for sensorless SRM drives are analyzed by computer simulations. The existing indirect position sensing methods and their applicability for various SRM drives are also discussed.

  9. Comparison and characteristics of motor vehicle accident (MVA) and non-MVA driving fears.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J; Deane, F P

    2000-01-01

    Prior research has revealed the diagnostic complexity among people who report driving fears. However, the focus on survivors of motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) and diagnostic samples may have inadvertently led to a relative neglect of the broader driving-fearful population. No studies could be located that compared MVA survivors with those who had not experienced an MVA. The aim of the present study was to address these deficits by comparing the characteristics of MVA and non-MVA driving-fearfuls and also exploring a range of characteristics associated with driving fears. One hundred and ninety media-recruited driving-fearfuls completed a questionnaire that assessed severity of anxiety and avoidance associated with a variety of driving situations. It was found that fear levels were similar to samples of driving phobics and MVA victims. There were no significant differences between MVA and non-MVA respondents on various measures of fear severity. In addition, the sample rated a high level of anxiety when driving with someone who criticizes their driving. Implications of the findings are discussed, along with suggestions for assessment and treatment of those with driving-related fears. PMID:10868985

  10. Speed Sensorless Induction Motor Drives for Electrical Actuators: Schemes, Trends and Tradeoffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elbuluk, Malik E.; Kankam, M. David

    1997-01-01

    For a decade, induction motor drive-based electrical actuators have been under investigation as potential replacement for the conventional hydraulic and pneumatic actuators in aircraft. Advantages of electric actuator include lower weight and size, reduced maintenance and operating costs, improved safety due to the elimination of hazardous fluids and high pressure hydraulic and pneumatic actuators, and increased efficiency. Recently, the emphasis of research on induction motor drives has been on sensorless vector control which eliminates flux and speed sensors mounted on the motor. Also, the development of effective speed and flux estimators has allowed good rotor flux-oriented (RFO) performance at all speeds except those close to zero. Sensorless control has improved the motor performance, compared to the Volts/Hertz (or constant flux) controls. This report evaluates documented schemes for speed sensorless drives, and discusses the trends and tradeoffs involved in selecting a particular scheme. These schemes combine the attributes of the direct and indirect field-oriented control (FOC) or use model adaptive reference systems (MRAS) with a speed-dependent current model for flux estimation which tracks the voltage model-based flux estimator. Many factors are important in comparing the effectiveness of a speed sensorless scheme. Among them are the wide speed range capability, motor parameter insensitivity and noise reduction. Although a number of schemes have been proposed for solving the speed estimation, zero-speed FOC with robustness against parameter variations still remains an area of research for speed sensorless control.

  11. Plasticity in the human speech motor system drives changes in speech perception.

    PubMed

    Lametti, Daniel R; Rochet-Capellan, Amélie; Neufeld, Emily; Shiller, Douglas M; Ostry, David J

    2014-07-30

    Recent studies of human speech motor learning suggest that learning is accompanied by changes in auditory perception. But what drives the perceptual change? Is it a consequence of changes in the motor system? Or is it a result of sensory inflow during learning? Here, subjects participated in a speech motor-learning task involving adaptation to altered auditory feedback and they were subsequently tested for perceptual change. In two separate experiments, involving two different auditory perceptual continua, we show that changes in the speech motor system that accompany learning drive changes in auditory speech perception. Specifically, we obtained changes in speech perception when adaptation to altered auditory feedback led to speech production that fell into the phonetic range of the speech perceptual tests. However, a similar change in perception was not observed when the auditory feedback that subjects' received during learning fell into the phonetic range of the perceptual tests. This indicates that the central motor outflow associated with vocal sensorimotor adaptation drives changes to the perceptual classification of speech sounds. PMID:25080594

  12. An Improved Power Quality BIBRED Converter-Based VSI-Fed BLDC Motor Drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bhim; Bist, Vashist

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an IHQRR (integrated high-quality rectifier regulator) BIBRED (boost integrated buck rectifier energy storage DC-DC) converter-based VSI (voltage source inverter)-fed BLDC (brushless DC) motor drive. The speed control of BLDC motor is achieved by controlling the DC link voltage of the VSI using a single voltage sensor. This allows VSI to operate in fundamental frequency switching mode for electronic commutation of BLDC motor which reduces the switching losses due to high-frequency switching used in conventional approach of PWM (pulse width modulation)-based VSI-fed BLDC motor drive. A BIBRED converter is operated in a dual-DCM (discontinuous conduction mode) thus using a voltage follower approach for PFC (power factor correction) and DC link voltage control. The performance of the proposed drive is evaluated for improved power quality over a wide range of speed control and supply voltage variation for demonstrating the behavior of proposed drive. The power quality indices thus obtained are within the recommended limits by international PQ (power quality) standards such as IEC 61000-3-2.

  13. Low-cost, fast-response drive circuit for electromagnetic torque motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeller, J. R.

    1968-01-01

    Fast-response coil drive circuit, for electromagnetic torque motors, reduces the inductive coil time constant with a minimum of circuit sophistication. The low-cost modulator servoamplifier is used with a compatible preamplifier stage which provides the servo-loop function of summing, adjustable gain and compensation.

  14. Study of Advantages of PM Drive Motor with Selectable Windings for HEVs

    SciTech Connect

    Otaduy, Pedro J; Hsu, John S; Adams, Donald J

    2007-11-01

    The gains in efficiency and reduction in battery costs that can be achieved by changing the effective number of stator turns in an electric motor are demonstrated by simulating the performance of an electric vehicle on a set of eight standard driving cycles.

  15. Dual-decay converter for switched reluctance motor drives in low-voltage applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ehsani, Mehrdad; Husain, Iqbal; Ramani, K.R. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Galloway, J.H. )

    1993-04-01

    A modified converter topology for star-connected switched reluctance motors suitable for low-voltage applications is proposed in this paper. A dual time constant freewheeling circuit has been designed to improve the drive performance and efficiency over a wide range of speeds. The different modes of operation of the converter are discussed, and a comparison is made with other converter configurations.

  16. A New Analysis about Efficient Drive of Synchronous Reluctance Motors with Core Losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinnaka, Shinji; Mukai, Taisuke

    This paper gives a new analysis for efficient drive of synchronous reluctance motors with core loss. The optimal current trajectory that minimizes totally copper and iron losses is newly and analytically derived. And it is shown that the optimal trajectory is a straight line tilting to q-axis with the speed.

  17. Design single-motor AC drive for energy savings in centrifugal applications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    This article is an evaluation of a single- motor with AC drive that saves energy with increased efficiency and reliability in a wide variety of pump, fan, compressor, and other centrifugal applications. Drives deliver adjustable speed for adjustable flow and will satisfy a number of particular objectives. A principal benefit of the drive is its efficiency. The drives also offer regenerative capability without modification, built-in memory for first-fault indication, and easy troubleshooting with comprehensive self-diagnostics. The drive controls flow in centrifugal applications by adjusting the pumps or fan speed. This provides energy savings over conventional flow control systems. Slip devices, also used to produce variable speed in centrifugal equipment, vary the ''slip'' between the constant-speed motor shaft and the pump or fan shaft. The speed which is not transmitted is dissipated as heat within the slip device itself. The drives are available from stock (100-250 hp) for immediate energy savings on both new and retrofit spplications, with a number of standard features: a remote operator control station provides start-stop and speed selection; acceleration/deceleration are separately adjustable over a range of 2.5 to 35 seconds with 5- to 70-second range available using simple jumper selection; and a coast-to-rest is also available using simple jumper selection. The drive can be operated automatically from an ungrounded 4-20 mA process control signal.

  18. On-Line Tracking Controller for Brushless DC Motor Drives Using Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubaai, Ahmed

    1996-01-01

    A real-time control architecture is developed for time-varying nonlinear brushless dc motors operating in a high performance drives environment. The developed control architecture possesses the capabilities of simultaneous on-line identification and control. The dynamics of the motor are modeled on-line and controlled using an artificial neural network, as the system runs. The control architecture combines the experience and dependability of adaptive tracking systems with potential and promise of the neural computing technology. The sensitivity of real-time controller to parametric changes that occur during training is investigated. Such changes are usually manifested by rapid changes in the load of the brushless motor drives. This sudden change in the external load is simulated for the sigmoidal and sinusoidal reference tracks. The ability of the neuro-controller to maintain reasonable tracking accuracy in the presence of external noise is also verified for a number of desired reference trajectories.

  19. Implementation of DSP Based Cost Effective Inverter Fed Induction Motor Drive with VisSim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, Nalin K.; Muthu, Ranganath

    2012-03-01

    The implementation of a Digital Signal Processor (DSP) based high-performance cost effective fed Induction Motor drive with VisSim/Embedded Controls Developer (ECD) is presented in this paper. In the experimental work VisSim/ECD software automatically converts the in built block diagram to C code and compiles, links, and downloads the code to DSP processor TMS320F2812. The DSP processor generates the required PWM to a cost effective ie four switch 3-phase (FSTPI) inverter. The power circuit of FSTPI fed drive system consists of an IGBT based FSTPI bridge inverter module feeding to a 5 hp three-phase squirrel cage induction motor. In this work the speed of induction motor output is shown by the GUI of VisSim/ECD and SPWM pulses, line voltages and line current output curves are shown using digital storage oscilloscope to demonstrate the feasibility of the system.

  20. An innovative direct self-control scheme for induction motor drives

    SciTech Connect

    Bonanno, F.; Consoli, A.; Raciti, A.; Testa, A.

    1997-09-01

    The paper presents a new direct self-control (DSC) scheme for induction motor drives using the stator voltage third harmonic component in order to estimate the air-gap flux and the torque as well as to synchronize the supply voltage vector. Compared to previous DSC schemes the new one is independent from any motor parameter variation, specifically on stator resistance thus showing better performances at low speeds. The paper starts with a quick review on standard DSC main features pointing out the influence of stator resistance variations on the flux and torque control. The new DSC scheme is then introduced and evaluated by simulations and experimental tests on a 1.5-kW induction motor drive.

  1. Input Power Quality Improvement in Switched Reluctance Motor Drive using Minnesota Rectifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, B.; Rajesh, M.

    2013-09-01

    This paper deals with an input power quality improvement in a midpoint converter based switched reluctance motor (SRM) drive at ac mains using Minnesota rectifier. Normally a midpoint converter is used as a power converter for SRM drive. Conventionally three phase ac mains fed bridge rectifier is used as a dc source to feed this power converter which produces high content of harmonics at ac mains with a very low power factor. The proposed Minnesota rectifier with a midpoint converter fed SRM drive improves the power factor at ac mains with low current harmonics. This method provides constant dc link voltage and balanced capacitor voltages of the midpoint converter. The Minnesota rectifier fed SRM drive is modelled and its performance is simulated in Matlab/Simulink environment. The performance of Minnesota rectifier is compared with a conventional bridge topology for SRM drive to demonstrate improved power quality at ac mains.

  2. PM brushless DC motor drive with a new power converter topology

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, R.; Lee, S.

    1995-12-31

    With the growing potential for widespread use of permanent magnet brushless dc motor drives (hereafter referred to as PMBDC drives) in many low-cost applications such as in hvac, refrigerators, and freezers in houses and small velocity servos in process industries, it has become important to minimize the cost. One obvious place for cost reduction is in the cost of the inverter and its associated controller. With that perspective, a novel application of the converter topology for the PMBDC known as C-dump in the switched reluctance motor drives is proposed in this paper. The advantages and disadvantages of this topology vis-a-vis the conventional 3 phase H-bridge converter, are highlighted from the points of view of economy in switches, volt ampere rating, associated controller cost, and packaging. Design considerations for the PMBDC motor are derived for use with the proposed converter topology. The operational and design characteristics of this converter driven PMBDC drive are derived for four quadrant performance. Guidelines for the design of the proposed performance. Guidelines for the design of the proposed topology are derived and presented in the paper. Experimental results from a laboratory prototype are presented to validate the feasibility of the proposed PMBDC drive system.

  3. Changing pattern in the basal ganglia: motor switching under reduced dopaminergic drive

    PubMed Central

    Fiore, Vincenzo G.; Rigoli, Francesco; Stenner, Max-Philipp; Zaehle, Tino; Hirth, Frank; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2016-01-01

    Action selection in the basal ganglia is often described within the framework of a standard model, associating low dopaminergic drive with motor suppression. Whilst powerful, this model does not explain several clinical and experimental data, including varying therapeutic efficacy across movement disorders. We tested the predictions of this model in patients with Parkinson’s disease, on and off subthalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS), focussing on adaptive sensory-motor responses to a changing environment and maintenance of an action until it is no longer suitable. Surprisingly, we observed prolonged perseverance under on-stimulation, and high inter-individual variability in terms of the motor selections performed when comparing the two conditions. To account for these data, we revised the standard model exploring its space of parameters and associated motor functions and found that, depending on effective connectivity between external and internal parts of the globus pallidus and saliency of the sensory input, a low dopaminergic drive can result in increased, dysfunctional, motor switching, besides motor suppression. This new framework provides insight into the biophysical mechanisms underlying DBS, allowing a description in terms of alteration of the signal-to-baseline ratio in the indirect pathway, which better account of known electrophysiological data in comparison with the standard model. PMID:27004463

  4. Variable-Speed Induction Motor Drives for Aircraft Environmental Control Compressors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mildice, J. W.; Hansen, I. G.; Schreiner, K. E.; Roth, M. E.

    1996-01-01

    New, more-efficient designs for aircraft jet engines are not capable of supplying the large quantities of bleed air necessary to provide pressurization and air conditioning for the environmental control systems (ECS) of the next generation of large passenger aircraft. System analysis and engineering have determined that electrically-driven ECS can help to maintain the improved fuel efficiencies; and electronic controllers and induction motors are now being developed in a NASA/NPD SBIR Program to drive both types of ECS compressors. Previous variable-speed induction motor/controller system developments and publications have primarily focused on field-oriented control, with large transient reserve power, for maximum acceleration and optimum response in actuator and robotics systems. The application area addressed herein is characterized by slowly-changing inputs and outputs, small reserve power capability for acceleration, and optimization for maximum efficiency. This paper therefore focuses on the differences between this case and the optimum response case, and shows the development of this new motor/controller approach. It starts with the creation of a new set of controller requirements. In response to those requirements, new control algorithms are being developed and implemented in an embedded computer, which is integrated into the motor controller closed loop. Buffered logic outputs are used to drive the power switches in a resonant-technology, power processor/motor-controller, at switching/resonant frequencies high enough to support efficient high-frequency induction motor operation at speeds up to 50,000-RPA

  5. Changing pattern in the basal ganglia: motor switching under reduced dopaminergic drive.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Vincenzo G; Rigoli, Francesco; Stenner, Max-Philipp; Zaehle, Tino; Hirth, Frank; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Dolan, Raymond J

    2016-01-01

    Action selection in the basal ganglia is often described within the framework of a standard model, associating low dopaminergic drive with motor suppression. Whilst powerful, this model does not explain several clinical and experimental data, including varying therapeutic efficacy across movement disorders. We tested the predictions of this model in patients with Parkinson's disease, on and off subthalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS), focussing on adaptive sensory-motor responses to a changing environment and maintenance of an action until it is no longer suitable. Surprisingly, we observed prolonged perseverance under on-stimulation, and high inter-individual variability in terms of the motor selections performed when comparing the two conditions. To account for these data, we revised the standard model exploring its space of parameters and associated motor functions and found that, depending on effective connectivity between external and internal parts of the globus pallidus and saliency of the sensory input, a low dopaminergic drive can result in increased, dysfunctional, motor switching, besides motor suppression. This new framework provides insight into the biophysical mechanisms underlying DBS, allowing a description in terms of alteration of the signal-to-baseline ratio in the indirect pathway, which better account of known electrophysiological data in comparison with the standard model. PMID:27004463

  6. Development of an ultrasonic linear motor with ultra-positioning capability and four driving feet.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Cong; Chu, Xiangcheng; Yuan, Songmei; Zhong, Zuojin; Zhao, Yanqiang; Gao, Shuning

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a novel linear piezoelectric motor which is suitable for rapid ultra-precision positioning. The finite element analysis (FEA) was applied for optimal design and further analysis, then experiments were conducted to investigate its performance. By changing the input signal, the proposed motor was found capable of working in the fast driving mode as well as in the precision positioning mode. When working in the fast driving mode, the motor acts as an ultrasonic motor with maximum no-load speed up to 181.2mm/s and maximum thrust of 1.7N at 200Vp-p. Also, when working in precision positioning mode, the motor can be regarded as a flexible hinge piezoelectric actuator with arbitrary motion in the range of 8μm. The measurable minimum output displacement was found to be 0.08μm, but theoretically, can be even smaller. More importantly, the motor can be quickly and accurately positioned in a large stroke. PMID:27479230

  7. Predictive diagnostic system for DC motor drives: Forest Products Project fact sheet

    SciTech Connect

    NREL

    2000-02-01

    This report is a fact sheet on new sensor and control technology written for the NICE3 Program. ENVATEC has addressed a major problem for paper producers with its ENVAIR 4000, a sensor and control technology that optimizes DC motor drive operations by simultaneously monitoring and analyzing eight inputs on DC motors. Attributes, such as motor air temperature, speed, vibration, relative humidity, presence of corrosive gases, airflow, and amperage, are measured for irregularities and then a signal is transmitted across the customer's facility on any network interface. This eliminates unscheduled motor shutdowns, thereby cutting energy costs tied to restarting. Based on successful prototype testing, the ENVAIR 4000 promises a 70% reduction in repair and replacement costs, an 80% reduction in unscheduled downtime and pulp waste, and a 43% drop in CO{sub 2} emissions.

  8. Optimal efficiency vector control of induction motor drive system for drum washing machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Won Cheol; Yu, Jae Sung; Jang, Bong An; Won, Chung Yuen

    2005-12-01

    In home appliances, electric energy is optimally controlled by using power electronics technology, creating a comfortable environment in terms of energy saving, low sound generation, and reduced time consumption. Usually simplicity and robustness make the three phase induction motor attractive for use in domestic appliance, including washing machines. Two main types of domestic washing machine have evolved. We focus on efficiency of the front loading machine favored in Europe, which has a horizontal drum axis. This paper presents the control algorithm for optimal efficiency drives of an induction motor for drum washing machine. This system uses a simple model of the induction motor that include equations of the iron losses. The proposed optimal efficiency control algorithm calculates commands of the reference torque and flux currents for the flux oriented control of the induction motor. The proposed algorithm is verified through digital simulation.

  9. Analysis and design of energy recovery snubbers for switched reluctance motor drives

    SciTech Connect

    Gharpure, V.S.; Krishnan, R.; Lee, S.

    1994-12-31

    Snubber studies for switched reluctance motor (SRM) drives are nonexistent even though the power converter topologies are unique and do not fall under the category of inverter topologies applicable to AC motor drives. The importance of the snubbers does not come into the picture until either the power rating of the converter is high and in the multi-kW range or the switching frequency requirement is in the 20 kHz range. Such requirements are coming to the fore in many product development applications such as extruders, general purpose drives, integral starter generators for aircraft, electric vehicles, high speed spindles and centrifuges, etc. This paper is concerned with extending the Undeland snubber configuration to the two-switches per phase power converter topology of the SRM drive including the energy recovery feature. The energy recovery snubbers are then analyzed in terms of the various modes of operation encountered in the converter. A design procedure for the energy recovery snubbers is developed. The design procedure and the operation of the proposed snubber configuration in the SRM drive are experimentally verified with a laboratory prototype SRM drive. The impact of the proposed snubber on the power converter efficiency and its comparison with conventional snubber based systems, such as RCDs, is evaluated to assess the advantages of the proposed energy recovery snubber. 10 refs.

  10. Standard series of direct-current motors for regulated electric drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cholewicki, I.; Lubina, M.; Kozhevnikov, V. A.; Kochnev, A. V.; Skoda, K.; Voleskiy, E.

    1984-11-01

    A standard series of d.c. motors for electric drives with speed and torque regulation has been developed. Thyristor-type converters for machine tools with digital program control are also being developed. Meeting future goals requires modification of the motor frame from the conventional round to a nearly square one, a larger ratio of armature stack length to diameter, better cooling, and insulation of a higher temperature class. In addition, it is necessary to laminate the housing partially or completely and to include a compensating winding. The basic motor configuration is 1 M 1001, according to Council of Mutual Economic Assistance (CEMA) Standard 246-78, with at least IP 23S protection and 1C 06 or 1C 05 cooling (shaft height from 112 mm up) and 1C 01 cooling (Shaft height or up to 250 mm). The series will be designed for a reference speed of 1500 rpm with not more than 15% armature current fluctuation, with speeds of 300-3000 rpm depending on voltage and motor size and torque regulation 1:200 (externally cooled motors) or 1;5, 1:10, 1:30 (self-cooled motors). Prototype motors with 132 mm and 355 mm shaft heights have already passed all tests.

  11. Electric Circuit Model Suitable for Common Mode Current Paths Distributing in the Motor Drive System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutoh, Nobuyoshi; Ogata, Mitsukatsu; Harashima, Fumio

    Experimental date are used to analyze conducted EMI noises which are produced in a motor drive system with power converters comprised of a converter and an inverter. The processes are investigated in which common mode noises (voltages and currents) are strongly influenced by voltage fluctuations occurring due to switching operations. It is found that the common mode currents are resonance currents which appear in series resonance circuits distributed in the motor drive system. The circuits have various kinds of resonance frequencies related to voltage fluctuations produced by switching operations and micro-surge voltages generated at the terminal of machines such as an ac rector or a motor. Thus, parameters of the distributed series resonance circuits are estimated using the transient waveforms obtained by separating the common mode current into waves analyzed by the FFT method. It is proved through simulations and experiments that the proposed circuit models closely represent actual electric circuits for common mode current paths distributed in the motor drive system.

  12. Dynamic neural networks based on-line identification and control of high performance motor drives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubaai, Ahmed; Kotaru, Raj

    1995-01-01

    In the automated and high-tech industries of the future, there wil be a need for high performance motor drives both in the low-power range and in the high-power range. To meet very straight demands of tracking and regulation in the two quadrants of operation, advanced control technologies are of a considerable interest and need to be developed. In response a dynamics learning control architecture is developed with simultaneous on-line identification and control. the feature of the proposed approach, to efficiently combine the dual task of system identification (learning) and adaptive control of nonlinear motor drives into a single operation is presented. This approach, therefore, not only adapts to uncertainties of the dynamic parameters of the motor drives but also learns about their inherent nonlinearities. In fact, most of the neural networks based adaptive control approaches in use have an identification phase entirely separate from the control phase. Because these approaches separate the identification and control modes, it is not possible to cope with dynamic changes in a controlled process. Extensive simulation studies have been conducted and good performance was observed. The robustness characteristics of neuro-controllers to perform efficiently in a noisy environment is also demonstrated. With this initial success, the principal investigator believes that the proposed approach with the suggested neural structure can be used successfully for the control of high performance motor drives. Two identification and control topologies based on the model reference adaptive control technique are used in this present analysis. No prior knowledge of load dynamics is assumed in either topology while the second topology also assumes no knowledge of the motor parameters.

  13. Power-Quality Improvement in PFC Bridgeless SEPIC-Fed BLDC Motor Drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bhim; Bist, Vashist

    2013-06-01

    This article presents a design of a power factor correction (PFC)-based brushless DC (BLDC) motor drive. The speed control of BLDC motor is achieved by controlling the DC link voltage of the voltage source inverter (VSI) feeding BLDC motor using a single voltage sensor. A front-end bridgeless single-ended primary inductance converter (SEPIC) is used for DC link voltage control and PFC operation. A bridgeless SEPIC is designed to operate in discontinuous inductor current mode (DICM) thus utilizing a simple control scheme of voltage follower. An electronic commutation of BLDC motor is used for VSI to operate in a low-frequency operation for reduced switching losses in the VSI. Moreover, a bridgeless topology offers less conduction losses due to absence of diode bridge rectifier for further increasing the efficiency. The proposed BLDC motor drive is designed to operate over a wide range of speed control with an improved power-quality at the AC mains under the recommended international power-quality standards such as IEC 61000-3-2.

  14. Low cost optical tweezers systems using double coil driving stepping motor to controlling sample stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laowattanatham, N.; Cheamanunkul, N.; Plaipichit, S.; Buranasiri, P.; Nuansri, R.

    2013-06-01

    In this research, the low cost optical tweezers systems using X-Y stage has been developed by using 5-phase stepping motor. By using sequential double coil driving, we can obtain the driving torque larger than using the single coil driving. The moving scale is fine resolution at 0.2 micrometer. The overall systems based on microcontroller PIC18F458 and joystick controller with LabView® graphical user interface (GUI). The mechanical damping has been included in the system for decreasing the vibrational noise. By using this method, our optical tweezers system is cheaper than the other commercial system that has been used the piezoelectric driving, and still has the same efficiency.

  15. Design considerations of electromagnetic force in a direct drive permanent magnet brushless motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H. S.; Tsai, M. C.

    2008-04-01

    In this paper, a numerical study of electromagnetic force associated with the width of stator teeth, width of rotor back iron, and slot opening for a ten-pole nine-slot direct drive permanent magnet brushless motor is presented. The study calculates the amplitude of the electromagnetic force on the rotating rotor by using the finite-element method. The results show that the amplitude of electromagnetic force, which may cause the noise and vibration of motors, changes with the variation of these above mentioned three factors. The relationship between the considerations of output torque and the minimization of noise and vibration is also established in this paper.

  16. A suppression hierarchy among competing motor programs drives sequential grooming in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Seeds, Andrew M; Ravbar, Primoz; Chung, Phuong; Hampel, Stefanie; Midgley, Frank M; Mensh, Brett D; Simpson, Julie H

    2014-01-01

    Motor sequences are formed through the serial execution of different movements, but how nervous systems implement this process remains largely unknown. We determined the organizational principles governing how dirty fruit flies groom their bodies with sequential movements. Using genetically targeted activation of neural subsets, we drove distinct motor programs that clean individual body parts. This enabled competition experiments revealing that the motor programs are organized into a suppression hierarchy; motor programs that occur first suppress those that occur later. Cleaning one body part reduces the sensory drive to its motor program, which relieves suppression of the next movement, allowing the grooming sequence to progress down the hierarchy. A model featuring independently evoked cleaning movements activated in parallel, but selected serially through hierarchical suppression, was successful in reproducing the grooming sequence. This provides the first example of an innate motor sequence implemented by the prevailing model for generating human action sequences. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02951.001 PMID:25139955

  17. Performance evaluation of dual-frequency driving plate ultrasonic motor based on an analytical model.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yafei; Yang, Ming; Chen, Xuying; He, Wei; Li, Shiyang; Li, Chaodong

    2011-08-01

    An analytical model is presented to explain the effects of dual-frequency drive on the plate ultrasonic motor in this paper. The experimental prototype is a plate ultrasonic motor using single-phase asymmetric excitation, which can work under a single vibration or multiple vibration modes. Based on the linear superposition of vibrations with two different excitation frequencies, an analytical model is established using the classic Coulomb friction model, and the non-load rotation speed and maximum stall torque are deduced. Moreover, some crucial parameters such as preload and dead-zone in dual-frequency superposition model are identified or modified automatically by searching for the maximum correlation coefficient between simulation and experimental data using single-frequency drive. It is found that simulation and experiment results agree well when no excitation frequency component is at resonance. PMID:21859583

  18. Driving with pets as a risk factor for motor vehicle collisions among older drivers.

    PubMed

    Blunck, Hallie; Owsley, Cynthia; MacLennan, Paul A; McGwin, Gerald

    2013-09-01

    Increasing rates of distraction-related motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) continue to raise concerns regarding driving safety. This study sought to evaluate a novel driving-related distraction, driving with a pet, as a risk factor for MVCs among older, community dwelling adults. Two thousand licensed drivers aged 70 and older were identified, of whom 691 reported pet ownership. Comparing pet owners who did and did not drive with their pets, neither overall MVC rates (rate ratio [RR] 0.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.75-1.26) nor at-fault MVC rates (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.57-1.24) were elevated. However, those who reported always driving with a pet in the vehicle had an elevated MVC rate (RR 1.89, 95% CI 1.10-3.25), as compared to those who did not drive with a pet. The MVC rate was not increased for those reporting only sometimes or rarely driving with a pet in the vehicle. The current study demonstrates an increased risk of MVC involvement in those older drivers who always take a pet with them when they drive a vehicle. When confronted with an increased cognitive or physical workload while driving, elderly drivers in prior studies have exhibited slower cognitive performance and delayed response times in comparison to younger age groups. Further study of pet-related distracted driving behaviors among older drivers as well as younger populations with respect to driver safety and performance is warranted to appropriately inform the need for policy regulation on this issue. PMID:23708755

  19. Driving with Pets as a Risk Factor for Motor Vehicle Collisions among Older Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Blunck, Hallie; Owsley, Cynthia; MacLennan, Paul A.; McGwin, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Increasing rates of distraction-related motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) continue to raise concerns regarding driving safety. This study sought to evaluate a novel driving-related distraction, driving with a pet, as a risk factor for MVCs among older, community dwelling adults. Two thousand licensed drivers aged 70 and older were identified, of whom 691 reported pet ownership. Comparing pet owners who did and did not drive with their pets, neither overall MVC rates (rate ratio [RR] 0.97 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.75–1.26) nor at-fault MVC rates (RR 0.84 95% CI 0.57–1.24) were elevated. However, those who reported always driving with a pet in the vehicle had an elevated MVC rate (RR 1.89 95% CI 1.10–3.25), as compared to those who did not drive with a pet. The MVC rate was not increased for those reporting only sometimes or rarely driving with a pet in the vehicle. The current study demonstrates an increased risk of MVC involvement in those older drivers who always take a pet with them when they drive a vehicle. When confronted with an increased cognitive or physical workload while driving, elderly drivers in prior studies have exhibited slower cognitive performance and delayed response times in comparison to younger age groups. Further study of pet-related distracted driving behaviors among older drivers as well as younger populations with respect to driver safety and performance is warranted to appropriately inform the need for policy regulation on this issue. PMID:23708755

  20. Design of direct drive robot using indigenously developed d.c. torque motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athani, Vithal V.

    The range of high-performance torque motors, which were indigenously developed for use in multistage satellite launch vehicles, is described. The main features that set dc torque motors apart from dc servomotors are: high peak torque, power, and current over short periods of operation, low speed of operation, obviating the need for gearing, high torque/inertia and torque/weight ratios, and high figure of merit = torque/sq rt watt ratio. The dc torque motors are eminently suited to high-performance applications requiring high torque at low speed of operation, such as aircraft and missile control surface actuation, control of multistage satellite launch vehicles, certain computer peripherals like magnetic tape transports and hard disk drives, and robotics, CNC systems, and machine tool control.

  1. SDRE control strategy applied to a nonlinear robotic including drive motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lima, Jeferson J.; Tusset, Angelo M.; Janzen, Frederic C.; Piccirillo, Vinicius; Nascimento, Claudinor B.; Balthazar, José M.; Brasil, Reyolando M. L. R. da Fonseca

    2014-12-01

    A robotic control design considering all the inherent nonlinearities of the robot-engine configuration is developed. The interactions between the robot and joint motor drive mechanism are considered. The proposed control combines two strategies, one feedforward control in order to maintain the system in the desired coordinate, and feedback control system to take the system into a desired coordinate. The feedback control is obtained using State-Dependent Riccati Equation (SDRE). For link positioning two cases are considered. Case I: For control positioning, it is only used motor voltage; Case II: For control positioning, it is used both motor voltage and torque between the links. Simulation results, including parametric uncertainties in control shows the feasibility of the proposed control for the considered system.

  2. SDRE control strategy applied to a nonlinear robotic including drive motor

    SciTech Connect

    Lima, Jeferson J. de E-mail: tusset@utfpr.edu.br E-mail: piccirillo@utfpr.edu.br Tusset, Angelo M. E-mail: tusset@utfpr.edu.br E-mail: piccirillo@utfpr.edu.br Janzen, Frederic C. E-mail: tusset@utfpr.edu.br E-mail: piccirillo@utfpr.edu.br Piccirillo, Vinicius E-mail: tusset@utfpr.edu.br E-mail: piccirillo@utfpr.edu.br Nascimento, Claudinor B. E-mail: tusset@utfpr.edu.br E-mail: piccirillo@utfpr.edu.br; Balthazar, José M.; Brasil, Reyolando M. L. R. da Fonseca

    2014-12-10

    A robotic control design considering all the inherent nonlinearities of the robot-engine configuration is developed. The interactions between the robot and joint motor drive mechanism are considered. The proposed control combines two strategies, one feedforward control in order to maintain the system in the desired coordinate, and feedback control system to take the system into a desired coordinate. The feedback control is obtained using State-Dependent Riccati Equation (SDRE). For link positioning two cases are considered. Case I: For control positioning, it is only used motor voltage; Case II: For control positioning, it is used both motor voltage and torque between the links. Simulation results, including parametric uncertainties in control shows the feasibility of the proposed control for the considered system.

  3. Design and construction of shaft-driving type piezoceramic ultrasonic motor.

    PubMed

    Wen, Fuh-Liang; Mou, Shann-Chyi; Ouyang, Minsun

    2004-10-01

    A new approach in design of shaft-driving type piezoceramic ultrasonic motor is proposed. The stator of motor consisted of a commercial available buzzer disk in which a piezoceramic membrane is adhered to a metal sheet. The wave propagation on the metal sheet was generated by extended-shrunk force from piezoceramic oscillation. Driving energy came from the vibration modes by mechanical-electrical oscillation of the metal sheet in corresponding to converse piezoelectric effect using a single-phase AC voltage power. Where the relative elliptic motion was occurred between the bearing seat and rotor in order to kinematical delivery, the rotor being driven was connected directly on the bearing seat to transmit the dynamic power with frictional contact force. In analysis of dynamic features, the system transfer function of admittance and equivalent circuit was obtained. The rotating speed of the prototype motor could be reached as high as 2000 rpm on the driving condition of 72 kHz, +/-10 V(pp), and 0.2 A. The maximum torque was less than 0.003 Nm. It could be utilized in the driver of CD, or the cooling fan in the computer CPU. PMID:15358527

  4. Influence of Baclofen on Laryngeal and Spinal Motor Drive During Cough in the Anesthetized Cat

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Daniel; Pitts, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis The antitussive properties of (±) baclofen on laryngeal muscle activities have not been determined. The hypothesis of this study was that administration of (±) baclofen would suppress upper airway muscle motor activity in a dose-dependent manner during cough. Study Design This is a prospective, preclinical, hypothesis-driven, paired design. Methods Electromyograms of the parasternal, rectus abdominis, thyroarytenoid, posterior cricoarytenoid, and thyrohyoid were measured, along with esophageal pressure. Cough was elicited by mechanical stimulation of the lumen of the intrathoracic trachea in spontaneously breathing cats. Results Baclofen (±) (3–10 µg kg−1 i.a.) induced decreases in the electromyogram amplitude of the rectus abdominis motor drive during coughing, the inspiratory and active expiratory (E1) phases of cough, and cough number per epoch. There was no effect of (±) baclofen on the EMG amplitudes of any of the laryngeal muscles, the parasternal, or the duration of the passive expiratory (E2) phase. Conclusions Results from the present study indicate differential control mechanisms for laryngeal and inspiratory motor drive during cough, providing evidence of a control system regulating laryngeal activity and inspiratory spinal drive that is divergent from the control of expiratory spinal motoneurons. PMID:23670824

  5. Fuzzy Logic Controlled Solar Module for Driving Three- Phase Induction Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afiqah Zainal, Nurul; Sooi Tat, Chan; Ajisman

    2016-02-01

    Renewable energy produced by solar module gives advantages for generated three- phase induction motor in remote area. But, solar module's ou tput is uncertain and complex. Fuzzy logic controller is one of controllers that can handle non-linear system and maximum power of solar module. Fuzzy logic controller used for Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) technique to control Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM) for switching power electronics circuit. DC-DC boost converter used to boost up photovoltaic voltage to desired output and supply voltage source inverter which controlled by three-phase PWM generated by microcontroller. IGBT switched Voltage source inverter (VSI) produced alternating current (AC) voltage from direct current (DC) source to control speed of three-phase induction motor from boost converter output. Results showed that, the output power of solar module is optimized and controlled by using fuzzy logic controller. Besides that, the three-phase induction motor can be drive and control using VSI switching by the PWM signal generated by the fuzzy logic controller. This concluded that the non-linear system can be controlled and used in driving three-phase induction motor.

  6. Fractional-Slot Surface Mounted PM Motors with Concentrated Windings for HEV Traction Drives

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, J.M.

    2005-10-24

    High-power density and efficiency resulting from elimination of rotor windings and reduced magnetic-flux losses have made the rare earth permanent magnet (PM) motor a leading candidate for the Department of Energy's Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVTs) traction drive motor. These traction drives are generally powered by radial-gap motors, having the magnets on or embedded in a rotating cylinder separated from the inside surface of a slotted cylindrical stator by an annular gap. The two main types of radial-gap PM rotors are those with magnets mounted on the surface of a supporting back iron, called PM surface mounted (PMSM) motors, and those with magnets mounted in slots in the rotor, called interior PM (IPM) motors. Most early PM motor research was on the PMSM motor, which was thought to have an inherently low stator inductance. A low stator inductance can lead to currents dangerously exceeding rated current as the back-emf across the inductance increases with speed; consequently, part of the attempted solution has been to increase the stator inductance to reduce the rate of current rise. Although analysis suggested that there should be no problem designing sufficiently high stator inductance into PMSMs, attempts to do so were often not successful and a motor design was sought that would have a higher intrinsic inductance. Commercial research at Toyota has focused on IPM motors because they can achieve a high-saliency ratio, which helps them operate over a high constant power speed ratio (CPSR), but they are more difficult to fabricate. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) position has been to continue research on brushless direct current (dc) motors (BDCMs) because of ease of fabrication and increased power output. Recently there has been a revival of interest in a fractional-slot PMSMs [15] made with concentrated windings because they possess three important features. First, they can increase the motor's inductance sufficiently to reduce

  7. Modeling and controller performance assessment for a switched reluctance motor drive based on setpoint relay.

    PubMed

    dos Reis, L L N; Coelho, A A R; Almeida, O M; Campos, J C T

    2009-04-01

    This paper considers the implementation of a current control method for switched reluctance motors (SRMs) and presents a novel approach to the accurate on-line modeling of an SRM drive. A simple autotuning technique for the SRM drives using a PWM controller is considered. Furthermore, conventional PI control and Internal Model Control (IMC) are considered to validate this method and present corresponding robust control analysis for the process. The control structures are comparatively analyzed using standard robustness measures for stability and performance. The proposed PWM controller is simulated and a hardware prototype is then implemented using digital signal processor control to evaluate the method using a 12/8, three-phase SRM. The experimental results of the SRM drive model validates the performance of the current loop. PMID:19100982

  8. Sensor-less pseudo-sinusoidal drive for a permanent-magnet brushless ac motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Li-Hsiang; Chern, Tzuen-Lih; Pan, Ping-Lung; Huang, Tsung-Mou; Tsay, Der-Min; Kuang, Jao-Hwa

    2012-04-01

    The precise rotor-position information is required for a permanent-magnet brushless ac motor (BLACM) drive. In the conventional sinusoidal drive method, either an encoder or a resolver is usually employed. For position sensor-less vector control schemes, the rotor flux estimation and torque components are obtained by complicated coordinate transformations. These computational intensive methods are susceptible to current distortions and parameter variations. To simplify the method complexity, this work presents a sensor-less pseudo-sinusoidal drive scheme with speed control for a three-phase BLACM. Based on the sinusoidal drive scheme, a floating period of each phase current is inserted for back electromotive force detection. The zero-crossing point is determined directly by the proposed scheme, and the rotor magnetic position and rotor speed can be estimated simultaneously. Several experiments for various active angle periods are undertaken. Furthermore, a current feedback control is included to minimize and compensate the torque fluctuation. The experimental results show that the proposed method has a competitive performance compared with the conventional drive manners for BLACM. The proposed scheme is straightforward, bringing the benefits of sensor-less drive and negating the need for coordinate transformations in the operating process.

  9. A Motor Drive Electronics Assembly for Mars Curiosity Rover: An Example of Assembly Qualification for Extreme Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolawa, Elizabeth; Chen, Yuan; Mojarradi, Mohammad M.; Tudryn Weber, Carissa

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the technology development and infusion of the motor drive electronics assembly, along with the technology qualification and space qualification, is described and detailed. The process is an example of the qualification methodology for extreme environmen

  10. Motor Circuit-Specific Burst Patterns Drive Different Muscle and Behavior Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Diehl, Florian; White, Rachel S.; Stein, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    In the isolated CNS, different modulatory inputs can enable one motor network to generate multiple output patterns. Thus far, however, few studies have established whether different modulatory inputs also enable a defined network to drive distinct muscle and movement patterns in vivo, much as they enable these distinctions in behavioral studies. This possibility is not a foregone conclusion, because additional influences present in vivo (e.g., sensory feedback, hormonal modulation) could alter the motor patterns. Additionally, rhythmic neuronal activity can be transformed into sustained muscle contractions, particularly in systems with slow muscle dynamics, as in the crab (Cancer borealis) stomatogastric system used here. We assessed whether two different versions of the biphasic (protraction, retraction) gastric mill (chewing) rhythm, triggered in the isolated stomatogastric system by the modulatory ventral cardiac neurons (VCNs) and postoesophageal commissure (POC) neurons, drive different muscle and movement patterns. One distinction between these rhythms is that the lateral gastric (LG) protractor motor neuron generates tonic bursts during the VCN rhythm, whereas its POC-rhythm bursts are divided into fast, rhythmic burstlets. Intracellular muscle fiber recordings and tension measurements show that the LG-innervated muscles retain the distinct VCN-LG and POC-LG neuron burst structures. Moreover, endoscope video recordings in vivo, during VCN-triggered and POC-triggered chewing, show that the lateral teeth protraction movements exhibit the same, distinct protraction patterns generated by LG in the isolated nervous system. Thus, the multifunctional nature of an identified motor network in the isolated CNS can be preserved in vivo, where it drives different muscle activity and movement patterns. PMID:23864688

  11. Competition with Primary Sensory Afferents Drives Remodeling of Corticospinal Axons in Mature Spinal Motor Circuits

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yu-Qiu; Zaaimi, Boubker

    2016-01-01

    Injury to the mature motor system drives significant spontaneous axonal sprouting instead of axon regeneration. Knowing the circuit-level determinants of axonal sprouting is important for repairing motor circuits after injury to achieve functional rehabilitation. Competitive interactions are known to shape corticospinal tract axon outgrowth and withdrawal during development. Whether and how competition contributes to reorganization of mature spinal motor circuits is unclear. To study this question, we examined plastic changes in corticospinal axons in response to two complementary proprioceptive afferent manipulations: (1) enhancing proprioceptive afferents activity by electrical stimulation; or (2) diminishing their input by dorsal rootlet rhizotomy. Experiments were conducted in adult rats. Electrical stimulation produced proprioceptive afferent sprouting that was accompanied by significant corticospinal axon withdrawal and a decrease in corticospinal connections on cholinergic interneurons in the medial intermediate zone and C boutons on motoneurons. In contrast, dorsal rootlet rhizotomy led to a significant increase in corticospinal connections, including those on cholinergic interneurons; C bouton density increased correspondingly. Motor cortex-evoked muscle potentials showed parallel changes to those of corticospinal axons, suggesting that reciprocal corticospinal axon changes are functional. Using the two complementary models, we showed that competitive interactions between proprioceptive and corticospinal axons are an important determinant in the organization of mature corticospinal axons and spinal motor circuits. The activity- and synaptic space-dependent properties of the competition enables prediction of the remodeling of spared corticospinal connection and spinal motor circuits after injury and informs the target-specific control of corticospinal connections to promote functional recovery. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Neuroplasticity is limited in maturity

  12. MRAS state estimator for speed sensorless ISFOC induction motor drives with Luenberger load torque estimation.

    PubMed

    Zorgani, Youssef Agrebi; Koubaa, Yassine; Boussak, Mohamed

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a novel method for estimating the load torque of a sensorless indirect stator flux oriented controlled (ISFOC) induction motor drive based on the model reference adaptive system (MRAS) scheme. As a matter of fact, this method is meant to inter-connect a speed estimator with the load torque observer. For this purpose, a MRAS has been applied to estimate the rotor speed with tuned load torque in order to obtain a high performance ISFOC induction motor drive. The reference and adjustable models, developed in the stationary stator reference frame, are used in the MRAS scheme in an attempt to estimate the speed of the measured terminal voltages and currents. The load torque is estimated by means of a Luenberger observer defined throughout the mechanical equation. Every observer state matrix depends on the mechanical characteristics of the machine taking into account the vicious friction coefficient and inertia moment. Accordingly, some simulation results are presented to validate the proposed method and to highlight the influence of the variation of the inertia moment and the friction coefficient on the speed and the estimated load torque. The experimental results, concerning to the sensorless speed with a load torque estimation, are elaborated in order to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The complete sensorless ISFOC with load torque estimation is successfully implemented in real time using a digital signal processor board DSpace DS1104 for a laboratory 3 kW induction motor. PMID:26775088

  13. “Disturbance-Observers in the D-Module” for Sensorless Drive of Synchronous Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinnaka, Shinji

    This paper proposes two new “disturbance-observers in the D-module" for sensorless drive of synchronous motors including permanent-magnet synchronous motors and synchronous reluctance motors. The disturbance filter for the observers can estimate speed-varying rotor-phase (in other words, rotor-position) with zero phase-lag. It is constructed by means of “the filter in the D-module", which has the following desired characteristics for variable sensorless drive: 1) it makes distinction between positive and negative frequencies of two-phase signals; 2) it can allow to process the signals based on frequency polarities; 3) it can also change dynamically its center frequency of band-pass filtering according to rotor speed estimates; 4) its passband and transition can be designed independently; and 5) it can be easily realized. The new disturbance-observers also have a generality such that they contain the recently proposed disturbance-observer as a special case.

  14. Variable-reluctance motor drives for electric vehicle propulsion. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, J.H.; Vallese, F.J.

    1985-05-01

    A methodology is presented for the design of a variable reluctance motor drive having high specific torque, power output and efficiency. Models are developed that describe the magnetic terminal relations of the VRM. These models are based on a flux-tube analysis that is motivated by numerically obtained finite-difference magnetic simulations. The result is a model for the flux-linkage/phase-current characteristic of the VRM. Intrinsic to this model is the estimation of maximum and minimum inductance as well the incremental inductance during bulk saturation. Also fundamental is the behavior of the flux linkage during local pole-tip saturation and due to bulk core saturation. This model agrees favorably with data available in the literature as well as experimental results presented in this thesis. The drive-oriented treatment of modelling and design uncovered important design interactions between the VRM, its inverter, and its excitation. The experimental 3.8-kW drive operated as expected, verifying the models and the design optimizations developed for VRM drives. These experimental results were projected to the 60-kW level, indicating that a 60-kW drive could be constructed with a VRM having a mass of approximately 65 kg, and an efficiency in excess of 95% at and below peak power output. The corresponding inverter was designed with only three high-power switches so as to reduce its cost.

  15. Previous Driving Experience, but Not Vision, Is Associated With Motor Vehicle Collision Rate in Bioptic Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Bradley E.; Flom, Roanne E.; Bullimore, Mark A.; Raasch, Thomas W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Bioptic telescopic spectacles (BTS) consist of a small telescope (or telescopes) mounted high in a pair of spectacle lenses. More than 40 states allow for some form of bioptic driving licensure for people with decreased central vision. The purpose of this study was to determine significant associations among previous driving experience, vision, and motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) for bioptic drivers in Ohio. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of patients who received a vision examination and subsequently obtained bioptic licensure. We obtained driving records from the Ohio Bureau of Motor Vehicles in order to determine MVC involvement. Relationships among vision measures, age, sex, previous experience, and MVCs were investigated using time-to-event analysis and the Cox proportional hazards regression model. Results We identified 237 bioptic drivers (65% male). Age at initial exam ranged from 16 to 81 years, and mean visual acuity was approximately 20/120. The number of MVCs per driver ranged from 0 to 11, with 124 (52%) drivers having had at least one MVC. Visual acuity and contrast sensitivity were not significant predictors of MVC. Drivers without previous driving experience were significantly more likely to have been involved in an MVC (P < 0.001), and this association remained significant after adjusting for age and sex (P = 0.01). The rate of MVC per year decreased steadily over a 10-year period for drivers without previous experience. Conclusions Previous nonbioptic driving experience, but not visual acuity or contrast sensitivity, was associated with yearly MVC rate in bioptic drivers. PMID:26436885

  16. DC Motor Drive for Small Autonomous Robots with Educational and Research Purpose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krklješ, Damir; Babković, Kalman; Nagy, László; Borovac, Branislav; Nikolić, Milan

    Many student robot competitions have been established during the last decade. One of them, and the most popular in Europe, is the European competition EUROBOT. The basic aim of this competition is to promote the robotics among young people, mostly students and high school pupils. The additional outcome of the competition is the development of faculty curriculums that are based on this competition. Such curriculum has been developed at the Faculty of Technical Science in Novi Sad. The curriculum duration is two semesters. During the first semester the theoretical basis is presented to the students. During the second semester the students, divided into teams of three to five students, develop the robots which will take part in the incoming EUROBOT competition. Since the time for the robot development is short, the basic electronic kit is provided for the students. The basic parts of the kit are two DC motor drives dedicated to the robot locomotion. The drives will also be used in the research concerning the multi segment robot foot. This paper presents the DC motor drive and its features. The experimental results concerning speed and position regulations and also the current limiting is presented too.

  17. Training the Motor Aspects of Pre-Driving Skills of Young Adults with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Johnell; Kellett, Julie; Seeanner, Julia; Jenkins, Casey; Buchanan, Caroline; Kinsman, Anne; Kelly, Desmond; Pierce, Susan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of using a driving simulator to address the motor aspects of pre-driving skills with young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). A group of neurotypical control participants and ten participants with ASD completed 18 interactive steering and pedal exercises with the goal to achieve…

  18. A cortical motor nucleus drives the basal ganglia-recipient thalamus in singing birds

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Jesse H.

    2012-01-01

    The pallido-recipient thalamus transmits information from the basal ganglia (BG) to the cortex and plays a critical role motor initiation and learning. Thalamic activity is strongly inhibited by pallidal inputs from the BG, but the role of non-pallidal inputs, such as excitatory inputs from cortex, is unclear. We have recorded simultaneously from presynaptic pallidal axon terminals and postsynaptic thalamocortical neurons in a BG-recipient thalamic nucleus necessary for vocal variability and learning in zebra finches. We found that song-locked rate modulations in the thalamus could not be explained by pallidal inputs alone, and persisted following pallidal lesion. Instead, thalamic activity was likely driven by inputs from a motor ‘cortical’ nucleus also necessary for singing. These findings suggest a role for cortical inputs to the pallido-recipient thalamus in driving premotor signals important for exploratory behavior and learning. PMID:22327474

  19. Efficiency modeling and evaluation of a resonant snubber based soft- switching inverter for motor drive applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, J.S.; Young, R.W.; Ott, G.W.

    1995-12-31

    This paper establishes an analytical model for a resonant snubber based soft-switching inverter. The model adopts loss separation method to evaluate losses in individual components. Because of symmetry of the inverter circuit, the developed model is suitable for both single-phase and three-phase inverters. A single-phase inverter was built and tested with a single-phase induction motor driving a fan load to verify the developed model. The equivalent single-phase induction motor model was curve-fitted from experiment. Analytical results showed reasonable agreement with experiment. The same efficiency evaluation method was then applied to the conventional hard-switching inverter, and the results were compared with that of the soft-switching inverter. The resonant snubber base soft-switching inverter shows substantial efficiency improvement over the hard switching PWM (pulse-width-modulation) inverter, especially in low speed operation.

  20. Adaptative Variable Structure Control for an Online Tuning Direct Vector Controlled Induction Motor Drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasaad, Sbita; Dalila, Zaltni; Naceurq, Abdelkrim Mohamed

    This study demonstrates that high performance speed control can be obtained by using an adaptative sliding mode control method for a direct vector controlled Squirrel Cage Induction Motor (SCIM). In this study a new method of designing a simple and effective adaptative sliding mode rotational speed control law is developed. The design includes an accurate sliding mode flux observation from the measured stator terminals and rotor speed. The performance of the Direct Field-Orientation Control (DFOC) is ensured by online tuning based on a Model Reference Adaptative System (MRAS) rotor time constant estimator. The control strategy is derived in the sense of Lyapunov stability theory so that the stable tracking performance can be guaranteed under the occurrence of system uncertainties and external disturbances. The proposed scheme is a solution for a robust and high performance induction motor servo drives. Simulation results are provided to validate the effectiveness and robustness of the developed methodology.

  1. Fuzzy logic controller for the electric motor driving the astronomical telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soliman, Hussein F.; Attia, Abdel-Fattah A.; Badr, Mohammed A.; Osman, Anas M.; Gamaleldin, Abdul A.

    1998-05-01

    The paper presents an application of fuzzy logic controller to regulate the DC motor driver system of astronomical telescope. The mathematical model of such a telescope is highly nonlinear coupled equations. However, the accuracy requirement in telescope system exceed those of other industrial plants. Fuzzy logic controller provides means to deal with nonlinear functions. A fuzzy logic controller (FLC) was designed to enhance the performance of a two-link model of astronomical telescope. The proposed FLC utilizes the position deviation for the desired value, and its rate of change to regulate the armature voltage of the DC motor drive of each link. The final action of FLC is equivalent to PD controller with a variable gain by using an expert look- up table. This work presents the derivation of the mathematical model of 14 inch Celestron telescope and computer simulation of its motion. The FLC contains two groups of fuzzy sets.

  2. On-line breakage monitoring of small drills with input impedance of driving motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Lianyu; Ling, Shih-Fu; Tseng, Ching-Huan

    2007-01-01

    Input current of driving motor has been employed with success as monitoring signature for tool breakage and wear detection in manufacturing processes for more than a decade. In micro-drilling, however, the accuracy of current signature downgrades significantly owing to the disturbances often seen in electrical power supply. This paper reports the investigation results on the effectiveness of using the input impedance of the spindle motor as monitoring signature for detecting drill breakage in micro-drilling. As input impedance is an inherent property of a dynamic system and independent upon the system input such as voltage or current fluctuations and thus avoids the difficulties faced by the methods using current signature. Experimental results show that impedance signature reflects torque variations well and indicates health conditions of drills properly during micro-drilling processes. When associated with an artificial neural network to recognise its waveform, impedance signature is capable of identifying drill breakages promptly and accurately.

  3. Internal Model Controller of an ANN Speed Sensorless Controlled Induction Motor Drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamed Mouna, Ben; Lassaad, Sbita

    This study deals with the performance analysis and implementation of a robust sensorless speed controller. The robustness is guaranteed by the use of the Internal Model Controller (IMC). An intelligent algorithm is evolved to eliminate the mechanical speed. It is based on the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) principle. Verification of the proposed robust sensorless controller is provided by experimental realistic tests on a scalar controlled induction motor drive. Sensorless robust speed control at low speeds and in field weakening region (high speeds) is studied in order to show the robustness of the speed controller under a wide range of load.

  4. A fully digital control strategy for synchronous reluctance motor servo drives

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Y.Q.; Nasar, S.A.

    1995-12-31

    For existing electric drives, the controller implementation is either totally analog or hybrid analog/digital, and the control algorithm broadly falls into two categories: Average Torque Control (ATC) and Instantaneous Torque Control (InsTC). In this paper, a fully digital implementation oriented control strategy--Incremental Torque Control (IncTC)--is proposed and verified with digital simulation. A TMS320C30 DSP based implementation of the proposed IncTC is developed and tested. Experimental results given in the paper indicate that the proposed IncTC is valid and holds a great promise for reluctance motor digital control.

  5. Effects of converter excitation on the performance of axially laminated anisotropic synchronous reluctance motor drives

    SciTech Connect

    Arkadan, A.A.; Russell, A.A. . Electrical and Computer Engineering Dept.)

    1999-05-01

    An indirectly coupled State Space-Finite Element (ICSS-FE) model of Axially Laminated Anisotropic (ALA) Synchronous Reluctance Motor (SynRM) drive systems is used to evaluate the impact of converter excitation on the machine performance characteristics., The model utilizes an iterative approach which includes the full impact of nonlinearities on the machine magnetic circuit, and which results in the nonsinusoidal flux waveforms in the different parts of the machine. The modeling approach is applied to a prototype ALA SynRM designed for use in hybrid vehicle applications.

  6. Vehicle Dynamics Control of In-wheel Electric Motor Drive Vehicles Based on Averaging of Tire Force Usage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masaki, Nobuo; Iwano, Haruo; Kamada, Takayoshi; Nagai, Masao

    For in-wheel electric motor drive vehicles, a new vehicle dynamics control which is based on the tire force usage rate is proposed. The new controller adopts non-linear optimal control could manage the interference between direct yaw-moment control and the tire force usage rate. The new control is considered total longitudinal and transverse tire force. Therefore the controller can prevent tire force saturation near tire force limit during cornering. Simulations and test runs by the custom made four wheel drive in-wheel motor electric vehicle show that higher driving stability performance compared to the performance of the same vehicle without control.

  7. Driving modes for designing the cornering response of fully electric vehicles with multiple motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Novellis, Leonardo; Sorniotti, Aldo; Gruber, Patrick

    2015-12-01

    Fully electric vehicles with multiple drivetrains allow a significant variation of the steady-state and transient cornering responses through the individual control of the electric motor drives. As a consequence, alternative driving modes can be created that provide the driver the option to select the preferred dynamic vehicle behavior. This article presents a torque-vectoring control structure based on the combination of feedforward and feedback contributions for the continuous control of vehicle yaw rate. The controller is specifically developed to be easily implementable on real-world vehicles. A novel model-based procedure for the definition of the control objectives is described in detail, together with the automated tuning process of the algorithm. The implemented control functions are demonstrated with experimental vehicle tests. The results show the possibilities of torque-vectoring control in designing the vehicle understeer characteristic.

  8. Driving through the Great Recession: Why does motor vehicle fatality decrease when the economy slows down?

    PubMed

    He, Monica M

    2016-04-01

    The relationship between short-term macroeconomic growth and temporary mortality increases remains strongest for motor vehicle (MV) crashes. In this paper, I investigate the mechanisms that explain falling MV fatality rates during the recent Great Recession. Using U.S. state-level panel data from 2003 to 2013, I first estimate the relationship between unemployment and MV fatality rate and then decompose it into risk and exposure factors for different types of MV crashes. Results reveal a significant 2.9 percent decrease in MV fatality rate for each percentage point increase in unemployment rate. This relationship is almost entirely explained by changes in the risk of driving rather than exposure to the amount of driving and is particularly robust for crashes involving large commercial trucks, multiple vehicles, and speeding cars. These findings provide evidence suggesting traffic patterns directly related to economic activity lead to higher risk of MV fatality rates when the economy improves. PMID:26967529

  9. An Improved Power Quality Based Sheppard-Taylor Converter Fed BLDC Motor Drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bhim; Bist, Vashist

    2015-12-01

    This paper deals with the design and analysis of a power factor correction based Sheppard-Taylor converter fed brushless dc motor (BLDCM) drive. The speed of the BLDCM is controlled by adjusting the dc link voltage of the voltage source inverter (VSI) feeding BLDCM. Moreover, a low frequency switching of the VSI is used for electronically commutating the BLDCM for reduced switching losses. The Sheppard-Taylor converter is designed to operate in continuous conduction mode to achieve an improved power quality at the ac mains for a wide range of speed control and supply voltage variation. The BLDCM drive is designed and its performance is simulated in a MATLAB/Simulink environment to achieve the power quality indices within the limits of the international power quality standard IEC-61000-3-2.

  10. One central oscillatory drive is compatible with experimental motor unit behaviour in essential and Parkinsonian tremor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dideriksen, Jakob L.; Gallego, Juan A.; Holobar, Ales; Rocon, Eduardo; Pons, Jose L.; Farina, Dario

    2015-08-01

    Objective. Pathological tremors are symptomatic to several neurological disorders that are difficult to differentiate and the way by which central oscillatory networks entrain tremorogenic contractions is unknown. We considered the alternative hypotheses that tremor arises from one oscillator (at the tremor frequency) or, as suggested by recent findings from the superimposition of two separate inputs (at the tremor frequency and twice that frequency). Approach. Assuming one central oscillatory network we estimated analytically the relative amplitude of the harmonics of the tremor frequency in the motor neuron output for different temporal behaviors of the oscillator. Next, we analyzed the bias in the relative harmonics amplitude introduced by superimposing oscillations at twice the tremor frequency. These findings were validated using experimental measurements of wrist angular velocity and surface electromyography (EMG) from 22 patients (11 essential tremor, 11 Parkinson’s disease). The ensemble motor unit action potential trains identified from the EMG represented the neural drive to the muscles. Main results. The analytical results showed that the relative power of the tremor harmonics in the analytical models of the neural drive was determined by the variability and duration of the tremor bursts and the presence of the second oscillator biased this power towards higher values. The experimental findings accurately matched the analytical model assuming one oscillator, indicating a negligible functional role of secondary oscillatory inputs. Furthermore, a significant difference in the relative power of harmonics in the neural drive was found across the patient groups, suggesting a diagnostic value of this measure (classification accuracy: 86%). This diagnostic power decreased substantially when estimated from limb acceleration or the EMG. Signficance. The results indicate that the neural drive in pathological tremor is compatible with one central network

  11. Fuel-Cell-Powered Electric Motor Drive Analyzed for a Large Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Gerald V.; Choi, Benjamin B.

    2005-01-01

    Because of its high efficiency, fuel cell technology may be used to launch a new generation of more-electric aeropropulsion and power systems for future aircraft. Electric-motor-driven airplanes using fuel-cell powerplants would be beneficial to the environment because of fuel savings, low noise, and zero carbon-dioxide emissions. In spite of the fuel cell s efficiency benefit, to produce the same shaft drive power, a fuel cell- powered electric-drive system must be definitely heavier than a turbine-drive system. However, the fuel-cell system s overall efficiency from fuel-to-shaft power is higher than for a turbine-drive system. This means that the fuel consumption rate could be lower than for a conventional system. For heavier, fuel-laden planes for longer flights, we might achieve substantial fuel savings. In the airplane industry, in fact, an efficiency gain of even a few percentage points can make a major economic difference in operating costs.

  12. Improving Energy Efficiency in Pharmaceutical ManufacturingOperations -- Part I: Motors, Drives and Compressed Air Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Chang, Sheng-chien; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet,Eric

    2006-04-01

    In Part I of this two-part series, we focus on efficient use of motors, drives and pumps, both for process equipment and compressed air systems. Pharmaceutical manufacturing plants in the U.S. spend nearly $1 billion each year for the fuel and electricity they need to keep their facilities running (Figure 1, below). That total that can increase dramatically when fuel supplies tighten and oil prices rise, as they did last year. Improving energy efficiency should be a strategic goal for any plant manager or manufacturing professional working in the drug industry today. Not only can energy efficiency reduce overall manufacturing costs, it usually reduces environmental emissions, establishing a strong foundation for a corporate greenhouse-gas-management program. For most pharmaceutical manufacturing plants, Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) is typically the largest consumer of energy, as shown in Table 1 below. This two-part series will examine energy use within pharmaceutical facilities, summarize best practices and examine potential savings and return on investment. In this first article, we will focus on efficient use of motors, drives and pumps, both for process equipment and compressed air systems. Part 2, to be published in May, will focus on overall HVAC systems, building management and boilers.

  13. Friction drive of an SAW motor. Part IV: physics of contact.

    PubMed

    Shigematsu, Takashi; Kurosawa, Minoru Kuribayashi

    2008-10-01

    A procedure for modeling the frictional heating and electricity of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) motor is proposed. The frictional heat is developed during friction drive when sliding occurs at the frictional interface; the heat is conducted into the solids, resulting in an increase in temperature. The spatial distribution of the heat source was associated with the contact pressure distribution, and the heat conduction from the heat source was formulated. Owing to the piezoelectricity and pyroelectricity of the stator used in the present study, the elastic deformation and temperature increase produce the electric fields. The electric fields in the stator were determined with respect to each cause. Electric discontinuity at the boundary between the stator and the slider, moreover, produces electrostatic force, which was calculated using a Maxwell stress tensor. All the analyses revealed the underlying physical fields in addition to the mechanical fields of the SAW motor. By the use of those analytical methods, the frictional properties of the SAW motor were discussed. We pointed out that another physical phenomenoniquestcontact electrificationiquestcould arise at the contact interface. The electrostatic force due to contact electrification had sufficient strength to change the friction property, which corresponded to the variation of the friction coefficient from 0.1 to 1. PMID:18986875

  14. Device with Functions of Linear Motor and Non-contact Power Collector for Wireless Drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Nobuo; Mizuma, Tsuyoshi

    The authors propose a new apparatus with functions of propulsion and non-contact power collection for a future vehicle which can run like an electric vehicle supplied from the onboard battery source in most of the root except near stations. The batteries or power-capacitors are non-contact charged from the winding connected with commercial power on ground in the stations etc. The apparatus has both functions of linear motor and transformer, and the basic configuration is a wound-secondary type linear induction motor (LIM). In the paper, the wound type LIM with the concentrated single-phase winding for the primary member on the ground is dealt from the viewpoint of low cost arrangement. The secondary winding is changed to the single-phase connection for zero thrust in the transformer operation, and the two-phase connection for the linear motor respectively. The change of connection is done by the special converter for charge and linear drive on board. The characteristics are studied analytically.

  15. Adaptive control schemes for improving dynamic performance of efficiency-optimized induction motor drives.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Navneet; Raj Chelliah, Thanga; Srivastava, S P

    2015-07-01

    Model Based Control (MBC) is one of the energy optimal controllers used in vector-controlled Induction Motor (IM) for controlling the excitation of motor in accordance with torque and speed. MBC offers energy conservation especially at part-load operation, but it creates ripples in torque and speed during load transition, leading to poor dynamic performance of the drive. This study investigates the opportunity for improving dynamic performance of a three-phase IM operating with MBC and proposes three control schemes: (i) MBC with a low pass filter (ii) torque producing current (iqs) injection in the output of speed controller (iii) Variable Structure Speed Controller (VSSC). The pre and post operation of MBC during load transition is also analyzed. The dynamic performance of a 1-hp, three-phase squirrel-cage IM with mine-hoist load diagram is tested. Test results are provided for the conventional field-oriented (constant flux) control and MBC (adjustable excitation) with proposed schemes. The effectiveness of proposed schemes is also illustrated for parametric variations. The test results and subsequent analysis confer that the motor dynamics improves significantly with all three proposed schemes in terms of overshoot/undershoot peak amplitude of torque and DC link power in addition to energy saving during load transitions. PMID:25820090

  16. Nonsinusoidal electrical measurement accuracy in adjustable-speed motors and drives

    SciTech Connect

    Domijan, A.; Czarkowski, D.; Johnson, J.H.

    1998-11-01

    Accurate measurements of voltage, current, and power under nonsinusoidal conditions are essential for determining the efficiency of a drive system and performing separation of losses between an adjustable-speed drive (ASD) and an electric motor. That information is invaluable for equipment designers, manufacturers, and users. Three modern power meters and analyzers were tested to determine their accuracy with various nonsinusoidal waveforms applied. The meters were subjected to waveforms that are characteristic to the three most common fractional and integral horsepower ASD technologies, namely, pulsewidth modulation induction, brushless dc, and switched-reluctance drives. The tests were performed under field conditions and in a computer-controlled laboratory environment. The obtained results show that some meters are able to measure accurately electric power at the input to ASD`s. However, the output power of ASD`s for brushless dc and switched-reluctance technology was not measured with acceptable accuracy by any of the tested meters. Possible reasons of meters inaccuracies and suggestions for performance improvement are presented. Conclusions on the present state of ASD electric power measurements and recommendations for further research are given.

  17. Fault diagnosis of motor drives using stator current signal analysis based on dynamic time warping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhen, D.; Wang, T.; Gu, F.; Ball, A. D.

    2013-01-01

    Electrical motor stator current signals have been widely used to monitor the condition of induction machines and their downstream mechanical equipment. The key technique used for current signal analysis is based on Fourier transform (FT) to extract weak fault sideband components from signals predominated with supply frequency component and its higher order harmonics. However, the FT based method has limitations such as spectral leakage and aliasing, leading to significant errors in estimating the sideband components. Therefore, this paper presents the use of dynamic time warping (DTW) to process the motor current signals for detecting and quantifying common faults in a downstream two-stage reciprocating compressor. DTW is a time domain based method and its algorithm is simple and easy to be embedded into real-time devices. In this study DTW is used to suppress the supply frequency component and highlight the sideband components based on the introduction of a reference signal which has the same frequency component as that of the supply power. Moreover, a sliding window is designed to process the raw signal using DTW frame by frame for effective calculation. Based on the proposed method, the stator current signals measured from the compressor induced with different common faults and under different loads are analysed for fault diagnosis. Results show that DTW based on residual signal analysis through the introduction of a reference signal allows the supply components to be suppressed well so that the fault related sideband components are highlighted for obtaining accurate fault detection and diagnosis results. In particular, the root mean square (RMS) values of the residual signal can indicate the differences between the healthy case and different faults under varying discharge pressures. It provides an effective and easy approach to the analysis of motor current signals for better fault diagnosis of the downstream mechanical equipment of motor drives in the time

  18. A Medium-Voltage Motor Drive with a Modular Multilevel PWM Inverter Part II. Startup Method and Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Kazutoshi; Hagiwara, Makoto; Akagi, Hirofumi

    This paper presents a medium-voltage motor drive with a modular multilevel PWM inverter, and focuses on a startup method and its performance. It is formed by six modular arms, each of which consists of a cascaded stack of multiple bidirectional chopper-cells. The frequency of the dominant ac-voltage fluctuation is equal to the motor (inverter) frequency. These fluctuations occur in the dc capacitor of each chopper-cell, and the magnitude of the fluctuation is inversely proportional to the motor frequency. Because of the increased voltage fluctuation in low-frequency regions, the so-called “volt-per-hertz control” cannot be applied in motor starting. The startup method proposed in this paper is suitable for a motor drive with the modular multilevel PWM inverter. It enables the motor to produce a startup torque loaded on the motor at an initial amplitude and a fixed frequency of the inverter while taking into account constraints on the motor current and the ac-voltage fluctuation. The validity of the startup method as well as the startup performance is confirmed by experiment and simulation.

  19. The effects of 5-HT on sensory, central and motor neurons driving the abdominal superficial flexor muscles in the crayfish.

    PubMed

    Strawn, J R; Neckameyer, W S; Cooper, R L

    2000-12-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) induces a variety of physiological and behavioral effects in crustaceans. However, the mechanisms employed by 5-HT to effect behavioral changes are not fully understood. Among the mechanisms by which these changes might occur are alterations in synaptic drive and efficacy of sensory, interneurons and motor neurons, as well as direct effects on muscles. We investigated these aspects with the use of a defined sensory-motor system, which is entirely contained within a single abdominal segment and consists of a 'cuticular sensory neurons segmental ganglia abdominal superficial flexor motor neurons-muscles' circuit. Our studies address the role of 5-HT in altering (1) the activity of motor neurons induced by sensory stimulation; (2) the inherent excitability of superficial flexor motor neurons; (3) transmitter release properties of the motor nerve terminal and (4) input resistance of the muscle. Using en passant recordings from the motor nerve, with and without sensory stimulation, and intracellular recordings from the muscle, we show that 5-HT enhances sensory drive and output from the ventral nerve cord resulting in an increase in the firing frequency of the motor neurons. Also, 5-HT increases transmitter release at the neuromuscular junction, and alters input resistance of the muscle fibers. PMID:11281271

  20. Development of Permanent Magnet Reluctance Motor Suitable for Variable-Speed Drive for Electric Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Kazuto; Takahashi, Norio; Shimomura, Eiji; Arata, Masanobu; Nakazawa, Yousuke; Tajima, Toshinobu

    Regarding environmental and energy issues, increasing importance has been placed on energy saving in various systems. To save energy, it would be desirable if the total efficiency of various types of equipment were increased.Recently, a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and an electric vehicle (EV) have been developed. The use of new technologies will eventually lead to the realization of the new- generation vehicle with high efficiency. One new technology is the variable-speed drive over a wide range of speeds. The motor driving systems of the EV or the HEV must operate in the variable-speed range of up to 1:5. This has created the need for a high-efficiency motor that is capable of operation over a wide speed range. In this paper, we describe the concept of a novel permanent magnet reluctance motor (PRM) and discuss its characteristics. We developed the PRM, which has the capability of operating over a wide speed range with high efficiency. The PRM has a rotor with a salient pole, which generates magnetic anisotropy. In addition, the permanent magnets embedded in the rotor core counter the q-axis flux by the armature reaction. Then, the power density and the power factor increase. The PRM produces reluctance torque and torque by permanent magnet (PM) flux. The reluctance torque is 1 to 2 times larger than the PM torque. When the PRM operates over a constant-power speed range, the field component of the current will be regulated to maintain a constant voltage. The output power of the developed PRM is 8 to 250kW. It is clarified that the PRM operates at a wide variable-speed range (1:5) with high efficiency (92-97%). It is concluded that the PRM has high performance over a wide constant-power speed range. In addition, the PRM is constructed using a small PM, so that we can solve the problem of cost. Thus, the PRM is a superior machine that is suited for variable-speed drive applications.

  1. A gradient in endogenous rhythmicity and oscillatory drive matches recruitment order in an axial motor pool.

    PubMed

    Menelaou, Evdokia; McLean, David L

    2012-08-01

    The rhythmic firing behavior of spinal motoneurons is a function of their electrical properties and synaptic inputs. However, the relative contribution of endogenous versus network-based rhythmogenic mechanisms to locomotion is unclear. To address this issue, we have recorded from identified motoneurons and compared their current-evoked firing patterns to network-driven ones in the larval zebrafish (Danio rerio). Zebrafish axial motoneurons are recruited topographically from the bottom of the spinal cord up. Here, we have explored differences in the morphology of axial motoneurons, their electrical properties, and their synaptic drive, to reveal how they match the topographic pattern of recruitment. More ventrally located "secondary" motoneurons generate bursts of action potentials in response to constant current steps, demonstrating a strong inherent rhythmogenesis. The membrane potential oscillations underlying bursting behavior occur in the normal frequency range of swimming. In contrast, more dorsal secondaries chatter in response to current, while the most dorsally distributed "primary" motoneurons all fire tonically. We find that systematic variations in excitability and endogenous rhythmicity are inversely related to the level of oscillatory synaptic drive within the entire axial motor pool. Specifically, bursting cells exhibit the least amount of drive, while tonic cells exhibit the most. Our data suggest that increases in swimming frequency are accomplished by the recruitment of axial motoneurons that progressively rely on instructive synaptic drive to shape their oscillatory activity appropriately. Thus, within the zebrafish spinal cord, there are differences in the relative contribution of endogenous versus network-based rhythms to locomotion and these vary predictably according to order of recruitment. PMID:22875927

  2. A Gradient in Endogenous Rhythmicity and Oscillatory Drive Matches Recruitment Order in an Axial Motor Pool

    PubMed Central

    Menelaou, Evdokia; McLean, David L.

    2012-01-01

    The rhythmic firing behavior of spinal motoneurons is a function of their electrical properties and synaptic inputs. However, the relative contribution of endogenous versus network-based rhythmogenic mechanisms to locomotion is unclear. To address this issue, we have recorded from identified motoneurons and compared their current-evoked firing patterns to network-driven ones in the larval zebrafish (Danio rerio). Zebrafish axial motoneurons are recruited topographically from the bottom of the spinal cord up. Here, we have explored differences in the morphology of axial motoneurons, their electrical properties and their synaptic drive, to reveal how they match the topographic pattern of recruitment. More ventrally located ‘secondary’ motoneurons generate bursts of action potentials in response to constant current steps, demonstrating a strong inherent rhythmogenesis. The membrane potential oscillations underlying bursting behavior occur in the normal frequency range of swimming. In contrast, more dorsal secondaries chatter in response to current, while the most dorsally distributed ‘primary’ motoneurons all fire tonically. We find that systematic variations in excitability and endogenous rhythmicity are inversely related to the level of oscillatory synaptic drive within the entire axial motor pool. Specifically, bursting cells exhibit the least amount of drive while tonic cells exhibit the most. Our data suggest that increases in swimming frequency are accomplished by the recruitment of axial motoneurons that progressively rely on instructive synaptic drive to shape their oscillatory activity appropriately. Thus, within the zebrafish spinal cord there are differences in the relative contribution of endogenous versus network-based rhythms to locomotion and these vary predictably according to order of recruitment. PMID:22875927

  3. Linear motor drive system for continuous-path closed-loop position control of an object

    DOEpatents

    Barkman, William E.

    1980-01-01

    A precision numerical controlled servo-positioning system is provided for continuous closed-loop position control of a machine slide or platform driven by a linear-induction motor. The system utilizes filtered velocity feedback to provide system stability required to operate with a system gain of 100 inches/minute/0.001 inch of following error. The filtered velocity feedback signal is derived from the position output signals of a laser interferometer utilized to monitor the movement of the slide. Air-bearing slides mounted to a stable support are utilized to minimize friction and small irregularities in the slideway which would tend to introduce positioning errors. A microprocessor is programmed to read command and feedback information and converts this information into the system following error signal. This error signal is summed with the negative filtered velocity feedback signal at the input of a servo amplifier whose output serves as the drive power signal to the linear motor position control coil.

  4. Optimal control of electric drive with simultaneous control inputs for motor current and flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pansyuk, V. I.

    1984-08-01

    A detailed mathematical analysis of the optimal control of a dc electric drive with a variable magnetic flux is presented. Expressions are found for the optimal controller. When this controller uses real time microprocessors control hardware, formulas are also derived for the various portions of the optimal process as well as the logic expressions for the switching of these parts of the process. The resulting optimal process differs from previous determinations in that the braking portion, when a resistance moment is present, contains a free run-down (passive braking) region, before and after which there can be regions of active braking, when the motor produces an electromagnetic moment. In one numerical example of step dc motor control, which is used to compare the optimal process found here with one developed earlier, power losses are found to be reduced by 5.44% with the new process. The entire solution of the problem using the procedure presented here reduces to finding the conditional extremum of some function of several variables whose number is no greater than the dimensionality of the system and does not lead to a boundary value problem.

  5. Thrust and normal force characteristics analysis of linear synchronous motor for direct drive conveyer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yu-wu; Kim, Do-sun; Cho, Yun-hyun

    2007-12-01

    The problem in improving the high positioning precision of permanent magnet linear synchronous motor (PMLSM) for direct drive conveyer is the large detent force, which contains two components: one is the cogging force caused by the interaction between the permanent magnet (PM) and the iron core, the other is the end effect caused by the finite mover length. In this paper a force compensator in the field oriented control (FOC) algorithm is employed to reduce this detent force, so the thrust and the normal force characteristics analysis of PMLSM are of the most importance. First the characteristics of the thrust and the normal force are simulated by finite element method (FEM), and the relation of the thrust and the normal force to the q-axis current is analyzed. Then the components of detent force are defined by Fourier series using the curve fitting method, and compensated by injecting the instantaneous currents using the FOC method. Finally the dynamic characteristics of this PMLSM for direct drive conveyer are investigated, and the numerical results are reported to validate the effectiveness of this proposed method.

  6. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 242 - Procedures for Obtaining and Evaluating Motor Vehicle Driving Record Data

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Procedures for Obtaining and Evaluating Motor Vehicle Driving Record Data C Appendix C to Part 242 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... CERTIFICATION OF CONDUCTORS Pt. 242, App. C Appendix C to Part 242—Procedures for Obtaining and Evaluating...

  7. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 240 - Procedures for Obtaining and Evaluating Motor Vehicle Driving Record Data

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Vehicle Driving Record Data C Appendix C to Part 240 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... CERTIFICATION OF LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS Pt. 240, App. C Appendix C to Part 240—Procedures for Obtaining and... provisions of the National Driver Register Act (23 U.S.C. 401 note). Under that statute, state motor...

  8. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 240 - Procedures for Obtaining and Evaluating Motor Vehicle Driving Record Data

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Vehicle Driving Record Data C Appendix C to Part 240 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... CERTIFICATION OF LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS Pt. 240, App. C Appendix C to Part 240—Procedures for Obtaining and... provisions of the National Driver Register Act (23 U.S.C. 401 note). Under that statute, state motor...

  9. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 242 - Procedures for Obtaining and Evaluating Motor Vehicle Driving Record Data

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Procedures for Obtaining and Evaluating Motor Vehicle Driving Record Data C Appendix C to Part 242 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... CERTIFICATION OF CONDUCTORS Pt. 242, App. C Appendix C to Part 242—Procedures for Obtaining and Evaluating...

  10. Study of the Advantages of Internal Permanent Magnet Drive Motor with Selectable Windings for Hybrid-Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Otaduy, P.J.; Hsu, J.S.; Adams, D.J.

    2007-11-30

    This report describes research performed on the viability of changing the effectively active number of turns in the stator windings of an internal permanent magnet (IPM) electric motor to strengthen or weaken the magnetic fields in order to optimize the motor's performance at specific operating speeds and loads. Analytical and simulation studies have been complemented with research on switching mechanisms to accomplish the task. The simulation studies conducted examine the power and energy demands on a vehicle following a series of standard driving cycles and the impact on the efficiency and battery size of an electrically propelled vehicle when it uses an IPM motor with turn-switching capabilities. Both full driving cycle electric propulsion and propulsion limited starting from zero to a set speed have been investigated.

  11. Tire-road friction coefficient estimation based on the resonance frequency of in-wheel motor drive system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Long; Bian, Mingyuan; Luo, Yugong; Qin, Zhaobo; Li, Keqiang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a resonance frequency-based tire-road friction coefficient (TRFC) estimation method is proposed by considering the dynamics performance of the in-wheel motor drive system under small slip ratio conditions. A frequency response function (FRF) is deduced for the drive system that is composed of a dynamic tire model and a simplified motor model. A linear relationship between the squared system resonance frequency and the TFRC is described with the FRF. Furthermore, the resonance frequency is identified by the Auto-Regressive eXogenous model using the information of the motor torque and the wheel speed, and the TRFC is estimated thereafter by a recursive least squares filter with the identified resonance frequency. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated through simulations and experimental tests on different road surfaces.

  12. Training the Motor Aspects of Pre-driving Skills of Young Adults With and Without Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Johnell; Kellett, Julie; Seeanner, Julia; Jenkins, Casey; Buchanan, Caroline; Kinsman, Anne; Kelly, Desmond; Pierce, Susan

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of using a driving simulator to address the motor aspects of pre-driving skills with young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). A group of neurotypical control participants and ten participants with ASD completed 18 interactive steering and pedal exercises with the goal to achieve error-free performance. Most participants were able to achieve this goal within five trials for all exercises except for the two most difficult ones. Minimal performance differences were observed between the two groups. Participants with ASD needed more time to complete the tasks. Overall, the interactive exercises and the process used worked well to address motor related aspects of pre-driving skills in young adults with ASD. PMID:27055416

  13. Drinking, Driving, and Crashing: A Traffic-Flow Model of Alcohol-Related Motor Vehicle Accidents*

    PubMed Central

    Gruenewald, Paul J.; Johnson, Fred W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the influence of on-premise alcohol-outlet densities and of drinking-driver densities on rates of alcohol-related motor vehicle crashes. A traffic-flow model is developed to represent geographic relationships between residential locations of drinking drivers, alcohol outlets, and alcohol-related motor vehicle crashes. Method: Cross-sectional and time-series cross-sectional spatial analyses were performed using data collected from 144 geographic units over 4 years. Data were obtained from archival and survey sources in six communities. Archival data were obtained within community areas and measured activities of either the resident population or persons visiting these communities. These data included local and highway traffic flow, locations of alcohol outlets, population density, network density of the local roadway system, and single-vehicle nighttime (SVN) crashes. Telephone-survey data obtained from residents of the communities were used to estimate the size of the resident drinking and driving population. Results: Cross-sectional analyses showed that effects relating on-premise densities to alcohol-related crashes were moderated by highway traffic flow. Depending on levels of highway traffic flow, 10% greater densities were related to 0% to 150% greater rates of SVN crashes. Time-series cross-sectional analyses showed that changes in the population pool of drinking drivers and on-premise densities interacted to increase SVN crash rates. Conclusions: A simple traffic-flow model can assess the effects of on-premise alcohol-outlet densities and of drinking-driver densities as they vary across communities to produce alcohol-related crashes. Analyses based on these models can usefully guide policy decisions on the siting of on-premise alcohol outlets. PMID:20230721

  14. Driving and braking control of PM synchronous motor based on low-resolution hall sensor for battery electric vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Jing; Ouyang, Minggao; Li, Jianqiu; Lu, Dongbin; Fang, Chuan; Ma, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Resolvers are normally employed for rotor positioning in motors for electric vehicles, but resolvers are expensive and vulnerable to vibrations. Hall sensors have the advantages of low cost and high reliability, but the positioning accuracy is low. Motors with Hall sensors are typically controlled by six-step commutation algorithm, which brings high torque ripple. This paper studies the high-performance driving and braking control of the in-wheel permanent magnetic synchronous motor (PMSM) based on low-resolution Hall sensors. Field oriented control (FOC) based on Hall-effect sensors is developed to reduce the torque ripple. The positioning accuracy of the Hall sensors is improved by interpolation between two consecutive Hall signals using the estimated motor speed. The position error from the misalignment of the Hall sensors is compensated by the precise calibration of Hall transition timing. The braking control algorithms based on six-step commutation and FOC are studied. Two variants of the six-step commutation braking control, namely, half-bridge commutation and full-bridge commutation, are discussed and compared, which shows that the full-bridge commutation could better explore the potential of the back electro-motive forces (EMF), thus can deliver higher efficiency and smaller current ripple. The FOC braking is analyzed with the phasor diagrams. At a given motor speed, the motor turns from the regenerative braking mode into the plug braking mode if the braking torque exceeds a certain limit, which is proportional to the motor speed. Tests in the dynamometer show that a smooth control could be realized by FOC driving control and the highest efficiency and the smallest current ripple could be achieved by FOC braking control, compared to six-step commutation braking control. Therefore, FOC braking is selected as the braking control algorithm for electric vehicles. The proposed research ensures a good motor control performance while maintaining low cost and high

  15. Modelling and steady state simulation of a switched reluctance motor drive

    SciTech Connect

    Ruckstadter, E.J.; Kee, R.J.

    1995-12-31

    The switched reluctance motor (SRM) has been a popular topic of research for the last 15 years. As a result of this development activity, the SRM has evolved into a practical alternative to other machines for a variety of applications. It is now becoming increasingly important to understand the SRM`s control characteristics and power requirements. To accomplish this a thorough description of the machine`s terminal characteristics is required. The SRM can be described as a system with two ports, the windings through which electrical power is transferred and the shaft through which mechanical power flows. These systems are coupled by a magnetic system, through which the energy conversion process occurs. The windings can be modelled as an inductor and much work has focused on the modelling of the SRM inductance. The difficulty with this approach is that the SRM magnetic structures must operate in deep saturation resulting in a nonlinear winding inductance. Many people have linearized this inductance using a variety of techniques but each results in unnecessarily complicated models for many applications. In this paper a relatively simple model for the SRM is developed. This type of model could be a cheap and effective tool for the development of SRM drive systems. This approach will become increasingly relevant as these drives become increasingly popular. In this paper the machine terminal characteristics in terms of flux linkage are described. It will be shown that flux linkage is a function of two variables resulting in a surface function. Additionally it will be shown that this surface function contains the terminal characteristics of the SRM. Finally measurements from actual hardware are made and used to develop a model using the techniques developed here. Results of model simulation are then compared with measured data.

  16. A transputer-based adaptive speed controller for AC induction motor drives with load torque estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, M.F.; Tzou, Y.Y.

    1997-03-01

    In this paper, the authors design and implement an adaptive speed controller that can estimate load torque for ac induction motor drives employing a transputer-based parallel processing technique. The adaptive speed controller, which precedes the field-oriented control loop, consists of a two-degree-of-freedom controller and a feedforward load-torque compensator. The two-degree-of-freedom controller is designed by a pole-placement technique with polynomial manipulations. Its parameters are adjusted adaptively in terms of estimated model parameters. Estimating the model parameters entails a second-order least-squares estimator with constant trace to avoid estimator windup. The design of the feedforward compensator is based on an estimated load-torque model. Estimating the load torque entails a first-order least-squares estimator with variable forgetting factor and covariance resetting, the purposes of which are to detect any slow or sudden changes of torque disturbance, respectively. The resulting adaptive controller is implemented in parallel by IMS T800-20 transputers. Experimental results demonstrate the robustness of the proposed control method in contending with varying load and torque disturbance.

  17. Inverter Output Filter Effect on PWM Motor Drives of a Flywheel Energy Storage System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santiago, Walter

    2004-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been involved in the research and development of high speed flywheel systems for small satellite energy storage and attitude control applications. One research and development area has been the minimization of the switching noise produced by the pulsed width modulated (PWM) inverter that drives the flywheel permanent magnet motor/generator (PM M/G). This noise can interfere with the flywheel M/G hardware and the system avionics hampering the full speed performance of the flywheel system. One way to attenuate the inverter switching noise is by placing an AC filter at the three phase output terminals of the inverter with the filter neutral point connected to the DC link (DC bus) midpoint capacitors. The main benefit of using an AC filter in this fashion is the significant reduction of the inverter s high dv/dt switching and its harmonics components. Additionally, common mode (CM) and differential mode (DM) voltages caused by the inverter s high dv/dt switching are also reduced. Several topologies of AC filters have been implemented and compared. One AC filter topology consists of a two-stage R-L-C low pass filter. The other topology consists of the same two-stage R-L-C low pass filter with a series connected trap filter (an inductor and capacitor connected in parallel). This paper presents the analysis, design and experimental results of these AC filter topologies and the comparison between the no filter case and conventional AC filter.

  18. Effects of anisotropy on the performance characteristics of an axially laminated anisotropic-rotor synchronous reluctance motor drive system

    SciTech Connect

    Isaac, F.N.; Arkadan, A.A.; Russell, A.A.; El-Antably, A.

    1998-09-01

    In the last few years, increased attention has been paid to the performance characterization and evaluation of the performance of synchronous reluctance machines. Extensive research has concentrated on different rotor structures in order to achieve high performance variable speed drives for applications such as electric vehicles. The effects of accounting for anisotropy on the performance characteristics of Axially Laminated Anisotropic (ALA) rotor Synchronous Reluctance Motor (SynRM) drive systems are studied. These effects are evaluated from the simulations of a computer aided model. The model is based on the use of an iterative approach which indirectly couples a two dimensional (2D) nonlinear finite element (FE) model, which accounts for anisotropy, to a state space model describing the SynRM drive system. The simulation results are also validated by comparison to test data of a prototype ALA rotor SynRM drive system.

  19. High-order sliding mode control of a DC motor drive via a switched controlled multi-cellular converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djemaï, M.; Busawon, K.; Benmansour, K.; Marouf, A.

    2011-11-01

    In this article, we present a high-order sliding mode controller of a DC motor drive connected to a multi-cellular converter. More specifically, we design a second-order (super-twisting) control algorithm for the speed regulation of a DC motor. For this, a switching control for the multi-cellular converter is derived in order to supply the correct reference value for the speed regulation. A practical implementation of the controller is realised using a laboratory set-up. The performance and the validity of the controller are shown experimentally.

  20. Thermal Management of Power Electronics and Electric Motors for Electric-Drive Vehicles (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Narumanchi, S.

    2014-09-01

    This presentation is an overview of the power electronics and electric motor thermal management and reliability activities at NREL. The focus is on activities funded by the Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Office Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors Program.

  1. Analysis of field-oriented controlled induction motor drives under sensor faults and an overview of sensorless schemes.

    PubMed

    Arun Dominic, D; Chelliah, Thanga Raj

    2014-09-01

    To obtain high dynamic performance on induction motor drives (IMD), variable voltage and variable frequency operation has to be performed by measuring speed of rotation and stator currents through sensors and fed back them to the controllers. When the sensors are undergone a fault, the stability of control system, may be designed for an industrial process, is disturbed. This paper studies the negative effects on a 12.5 hp induction motor drives when the field oriented control system is subjected to sensor faults. To illustrate the importance of this study mine hoist load diagram is considered as shaft load of the tested machine. The methods to recover the system from sensor faults are discussed. In addition, the various speed sensorless schemes are reviewed comprehensively. PMID:24981890

  2. Design and analysis of new fault-tolerant permanent magnet motors for four-wheel-driving electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guohai; Gong, Wensheng; Chen, Qian; Jian, Linni; Shen, Yue; Zhao, Wenxiang

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, a novel in-wheel permanent-magnet (PM) motor for four-wheel-driving electrical vehicles is proposed. It adopts an outer-rotor topology, which can help generate a large drive torque, in order to achieve prominent dynamic performance of the vehicle. Moreover, by adopting single-layer concentrated-windings, fault-tolerant teeth, and the optimal combination of slot and pole numbers, the proposed motor inherently offers negligible electromagnetic coupling between different phase windings, hence, it possesses a fault-tolerant characteristic. Meanwhile, the phase back electromotive force waveforms can be designed to be sinusoidal by employing PMs with a trapezoidal shape, eccentric armature teeth, and unequal tooth widths. The electromagnetic performance is comprehensively investigated and the optimal design is conducted by using the finite-element method.

  3. A Motor Drive Electronics Assembly for Mars Curiosity Rover: An Example of Assembly Qualification for Extreme Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolawa, Elizabeth; Chen, Yuan; Mojarradi, Mohammad M.; Weber, Carissa Tudryn; Hunter, Don J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the technology development and infusion of a motor drive electronics assembly for Mars Curiosity Rover under space extreme environments. The technology evaluation and qualification as well as space qualification of the assembly are detailed and summarized. Because of the uncertainty of the technologies operating under the extreme space environments and that a high level reliability was required for this assembly application, both component and assembly board level qualifications were performed.

  4. A Transformerless Hybrid Active Filter Capable of Complying with Harmonic Guidelines for Medium-Voltage Motor Drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Ryota; Akagi, Hirofumi

    This paper presents a transformerless hybrid active filter that is integrated into medium-voltage adjustable-speed motor drives for fans, pumps, and compressors without regenerative braking. The authors have designed and constructed a three-phase experimental system rated at 400V and 15kW, which is a downscaled model from a feasible 6.6-kV 1-MW motor drive system. This system consists of the hybrid filter connecting a passive filter tuned to the 7th harmonic filter in series with an active filter that is based on a three-level diode-clamped PWM converter, as well as an adjustable-speed motor drive in which a diode rectifier is used as the front end. The hybrid filter is installed on the ac side of the diode rectifier with no line-frequency transformer. The downscaled system has been exclusively tested so as to confirm the overall compensating performance of the hybrid filter and the filtering performance of a switching-ripple filter for mitigating switching-ripple voltages produced by the active filter. Experimental results verify that the hybrid filter achieves harmonic compensation of the source current in all the operating regions from no-load to the rated-load conditions, and that the switching-ripple filter reduces the switching-ripple voltages as expected.

  5. A new instantaneous torque control of PM synchronous motor for high-performance direct-drive applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, S.K.; Kim, H.S.; Kim, C.G.; Youn, M.J.

    1998-05-01

    a new instantaneous torque-control strategy is presented for high-performance control of a permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motor. In order to deal with the torque pulsating problem of a PM synchronous motor in a low-speed region, new torque estimation and control techniques are proposed. The linkage flux of a PM synchronous motor is estimated using a model reference adaptive system technique, and the developed torque is instantaneously controlled by the proposed torque controller combining a variable structure control (VSC) with a space-vector pulse-width modulation (PWM). The proposed control provides the advantage of reducing the torque pulsation caused by the nonsinusoidal flux distribution. This control strategy is applied to the high-torque PM synchronous motor drive system for direct-drive applications and implemented by using a software of the digital signal processor (DSP) TMS320C30. The simulations and experiments are carried out for this system, and the results well demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control.

  6. Sensored Field Oriented Control of a Robust Induction Motor Drive Using a Novel Boundary Layer Fuzzy Controller

    PubMed Central

    Saghafinia, Ali; Ping, Hew Wooi; Uddin, Mohammad Nasir

    2013-01-01

    Physical sensors have a key role in implementation of real-time vector control for an induction motor (IM) drive. This paper presents a novel boundary layer fuzzy controller (NBLFC) based on the boundary layer approach for speed control of an indirect field-oriented control (IFOC) of an induction motor (IM) drive using physical sensors. The boundary layer approach leads to a trade-off between control performances and chattering elimination. For the NBLFC, a fuzzy system is used to adjust the boundary layer thickness to improve the tracking performance and eliminate the chattering problem under small uncertainties. Also, to eliminate the chattering under the possibility of large uncertainties, the integral filter is proposed inside the variable boundary layer. In addition, the stability of the system is analyzed through the Lyapunov stability theorem. The proposed NBLFC based IM drive is implemented in real-time using digital signal processor (DSP) board TI TMS320F28335. The experimental and simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed NBLFC based IM drive at different operating conditions.

  7. Direct Torque Control with Full Order Stator Flux Observer for Dual-Three Phase Induction Motor Drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farina, Francesco; Bojoi, Radu; Tenconi, Alberto; Profumo, Francesco

    A Direct Torque Control (DTC) strategy for dual-three phase induction motor drives is discussed in this paper. The induction machine has two sets of stator three-phase windings spatially shifted by 30 electrical degrees with isolated neutral points. The proposed control strategy is based on Proportional Integral (PI) regulators implemented in the stator flux synchronous reference frame. To improve the flux estimation, an Adaptive Stator Flux Observer (ASFO) has been used. Doing so, besides a better flux estimation in contrast to open-loop flux estimators, it is possible to use the observed currents to compensate the inverter non-linear behavior (such as dead-time effects), improving the drive performance at low speed. This is particularly important for low voltage/high current applications, as the drive considered in this paper. The advantages of the discussed control strategy are: constant inverter switching frequency, good transient and steady-state performance and less distorted machine currents in contrast to DTC schemes with variable switching frequency. Experimental results are presented for a 10kW dual three-phase induction motor drive prototype.

  8. Distracted Driving, A Major Preventable Cause of Motor Vehicle Collisions: “Just Hang Up and Drive”

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Christopher A.; Cisneros, Victor; Lotfipour, Shahram; Imani, Ghasem; Chakravarthy, Bharath

    2015-01-01

    For years, public health experts have been concerned about the effect of cell phone use on motor vehicle collisions, part of a phenomenon known as “distracted driving.” The Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) article “Mobile Device Use While Driving - United States and Seven European Countries 2011” highlights the international nature of these concerns. Recent (2011) estimates from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration are that 10% of fatal crashes and 17% of injury crashes were reported as distraction-affected. Of 3,331 people killed in 2011 on roadways in the U.S. as a result of driver distraction, 385 died in a crash where at least one driver was using a cell phone. For drivers 15–19 years old involved in a fatal crash, 21% of the distracted drivers were distracted by the use of cell phones. Efforts to reduce cell phone use while driving could reduce the prevalence of automobile crashes related to distracted driving. The MMWR report shows that there is much ground to cover with distracted driving. Emergency physicians frequently see the devastating effects of distracted driving on a daily basis and should take a more active role on sharing the information with patients, administrators, legislators, friends and family. PMID:26759649

  9. Subcontract Report: Final Report on Assessment of Motor Technologies for Traction Drives of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles (Subcontract #4000080341)

    SciTech Connect

    Fezzler, Raymond

    2011-03-01

    Currently, interior permanent magnet (IPM) motors with rare-earth (RE) magnets are almost universally used for hybrid and electric vehicles (EVs) because of their superior properties, particularly power density. However, there is now a distinct possibility of limited supply or very high cost of RE magnets that could make IPM motors unavailable or too expensive. Because development of electric motors is a critical part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Power Electronics and Motors activity, DOE needs to determine which options should be investigated and what barriers should be addressed. Therefore, in order to provide a basis for deciding which research topics should be pursued, an assessment of various motor technologies was conducted to determine which, if any, is potentially capable of meeting FreedomCAR 2015 and 2020 targets. Highest priority was given to IPM, surface mounted permanent magnet (SPM), induction, and switched reluctance (SR) motors. Also of interest, but with lesser emphasis, were wheel motors, multiple-rotor motors, motors with external excitation, and several others that emerged from the assessment. Cost and power density (from a design perspective, the power density criterion translates to torque density) are emerging as the two most important properties of motors for traction drives in hybrid and EVs, although efficiency and specific power also are very important. The primary approach for this assessment involved interviews with original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), their suppliers, and other technical experts. For each technology, the following issues were discussed: (1) The current state-of-the-art performance and cost; (2) Recent trends in the technology; (3) Inherent characteristics of the motor - which ones limit the ability of the technology to meet the targets and which ones aid in meeting the target; (4) What research and development (R&D) would be needed to meet the targets; and (5) The potential for the technology to

  10. Amplitude modulation drive to rectangular-plate linear ultrasonic motors with vibrators dimensions 8 mm x 2.16 mm X 1 mm.

    PubMed

    Ming, Yang; Hanson, Ben; Levesley, Martin C; Walker, Peter G; Watterson, Kevin G

    2006-12-01

    In this paper, to exploit the contribution from not only the stators but also from other parts of miniature ultrasonic motors, an amplitude modulation drive is proposed to drive a miniature linear ultrasonic motor consisting of two rectangular piezoelectric ceramic plates. Using finite-element software, the first longitudinal and second lateral-bending frequencies of the vibrator are shown to be very close when its dimensions are 8 mm x 2.16 mm x 1 mm. So one single frequency power should be able to drive the motor. However, in practice the motor is found to be hard to move with a single frequency power because of its small vibration amplitudes and big frequency difference between its longitudinal and bending resonance, which is induced by the boundary condition variation. To drive the motor effectively, an amplitude modulation drive is used by superimposing two signals with nearly the same frequencies, around the resonant frequency of the vibrators of the linear motor. When the amplitude modulation frequency is close to the resonant frequency of the vibrator's surroundings, experimental results show that the linear motor can move back and forward with a maximum thrust force (over 0.016 N) and a maximum velocity (over 50 mm/s). PMID:17186925

  11. An enhanced Z-source inverter topology-based permanent magnet brushless DC motor drive speed control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geno Peter, P.; Rajaram, M.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, an enhanced Z-source inverter (ZSI) is introduced for controlling the speed of permanent magnet brushless DC motor (PMBLDCM) drive. It is the extension of the conventional ZSI and the elements used in the circuit are the same as those of the conventional ZSI, except that the position of Inverter Bridge and diode would be exchanged from the classical circuit diagram. This exchanged circuit avoids the startup path of the inrush current and hence reduces the inrush current and improves the motor efficiency. Different modes of enhanced ZSI are studied with PMBLDCM. The voltage polarity of Z-source capacitors in the proposed circuit is the same as that of the input voltage polarity. Furthermore, to get the same voltage boost, the capacitor voltage stress is reduced to a significant extent. The speed control capability of the proposed brushless DC motor drive is compared with that of the conventional ZSI. The proposed ZSI is implemented in MATLAB/Simulink working platform and the output performance is evaluated. Also, the performance of voltage ratio is analysed both by simulation and mathematical models. All these analyses are known to express the innovative features of the proposed system.

  12. Transistors for Electric Motor Drives: High-Performance GaN HEMT Modules for Agile Power Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    ADEPT Project: Transphorm is developing transistors with gallium nitride (GaN) semiconductors that could be used to make cost-effective, high-performance power converters for a variety of applications, including electric motor drives which transmit power to a motor. A transistor acts like a switch, controlling the electrical energy that flows around an electrical circuit. Most transistors today use low-cost silicon semiconductors to conduct electrical energy, but silicon transistors don’t operate efficiently at high speeds and voltage levels. Transphorm is using GaN as a semiconductor material in its transistors because GaN performs better at higher voltages and frequencies, and it is more energy efficient than straight silicon. However, Transphorm is using inexpensive silicon as a base to help keep costs low. The company is also packaging its transistors with other electrical components that can operate quickly and efficiently at high power levels—increasing the overall efficiency of both the transistor and the entire motor drive.

  13. Relationship Between Motor Vehicle Collisions and Results of Perimetry, Useful Field of View, and Driving Simulation in Drivers With Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Tatham, Andrew J.; Boer, Erwin R.; Gracitelli, Carolina P. B.; Rosen, Peter N.; Medeiros, Felipe A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the relationship between Motor Vehicle Collisions (MVCs) in drivers with glaucoma and standard automated perimetry (SAP), Useful Field of View (UFOV), and driving simulator assessment of divided attention. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 153 drivers from the Diagnostic Innovations in Glaucoma Study. All subjects had SAP and divided attention was assessed using UFOV and driving simulation using low-, medium-, and high-contrast peripheral stimuli presented during curve negotiation and car following tasks. Self-reported history of MVCs and average mileage driven were recorded. Results: Eighteen of 153 subjects (11.8%) reported a MVC. There was no difference in visual acuity but the MVC group was older, drove fewer miles, and had worse binocular SAP sensitivity, contrast sensitivity, and ability to divide attention (UFOV and driving simulation). Low contrast driving simulator tasks were the best discriminators of MVC (AUC 0.80 for curve negotiation versus 0.69 for binocular SAP and 0.59 for UFOV). Adjusting for confounding factors, longer reaction times to driving simulator divided attention tasks provided additional value compared with SAP and UFOV, with a 1 standard deviation (SD) increase in reaction time (approximately 0.75 s) associated with almost two-fold increased odds of MVC. Conclusions: Reaction times to low contrast divided attention tasks during driving simulation were significantly associated with history of MVC, performing better than conventional perimetric tests and UFOV. Translational Relevance: The association between conventional tests of visual function and MVCs in drivers with glaucoma is weak, however, tests of divided attention, particularly using driving simulation, may improve risk assessment. PMID:26046007

  14. Visible Thrombolysis Acceleration of a Nanomachine Powered by Light-Driving F0F1-ATPase Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Xiaoxia; Liu, Lifeng; Jiang, Weijian; Yue, Jiachang

    2015-05-01

    We report on thrombolysis acceleration of a nanomachine powered by light-driving δ-subunit-free F0F1-ATPase motor. It is composed of a mechanical device, locating device, energy storage device, and propeller. The rotory δ-subunit-free F0F1-ATPase motor acts as a mechanical device, which was obtained by reconstructing an original chromatophore extracted from Rhodospirillum rubrum. We found that the bioactivity of the F0F1-ATPase motor improved greatly after reconstruction. The zeta potential of the nanomachine is about -23.4 mV. Cytotoxicity induced by the nanomachine was measured using cell counting kit (CCK)-8 assay. The A549 cells incubated with different fractional concentrations of the nanomachine within 48 h did not show obvious cytotoxicity. The locating device helps the nanomachine bind to the thrombi. Energy was easily stored by exposing the nanomachine to 600-nm-wavelength irradiation, which promoted activity of the motor. The rotation of the long propeller accelerated thrombolysis of a blood clot in vitro in the presence of urokinase (UK). This result was based on visual inspection and confirmed by a series of tests.

  15. Business recession, alcohol consumption, drinking and driving laws: impact on Oklahoma motor vehicle fatalities and fatal crashes.

    PubMed Central

    Muller, A

    1989-01-01

    In 1982, Oklahoma enacted a series of drinking and driving laws. In the ensuing years, motor vehicle fatalities and fatal crashes were reduced by one-third. Factors contributing to this reduction were examined using interrupted time series analysis of monthly rates of motor vehicle deaths and fatal crashes for the period January 1980 to December 1986. Decreasing per capita alcohol consumption and increased unemployment apparently account for most of the fatality and fatal crash reduction in Oklahoma. The enactment of two traffic safety laws--one specifying the illegal blood alcohol concentration level (BAC law) and the other facilitating license withdrawal from suspected drunk drivers (administrative per se law)--together reduced Oklahoma traffic deaths and fatal crashes by about 9 percent. The effectiveness of the laws appeared to be greatest in the first two years following their enactment. PMID:2782504

  16. Drive control and position measurement of RailCab vehicles driven by linear motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pottharst, Andreas; Henke, Christian; Schneider, Tobias; Böcker, Joachim; Grotstollen, Horst

    2006-11-01

    The novel railway system RailCab makes use of autonomous vehicles which are driven by an AC linear motor. Depending on the track-side motor part, long-stator or short-stator operations are possible. The paper deals with the operation of the doubly-fed induction motor which is used for motion control and for transferring the energy required onboard the vehicle. This type of linear motor synchronization of the traveling fields generated by the stationary primary and moving secondary windings is an important and demanding task because the instantaneous positions of the vehicle or the primary traveling wave must be determined with high accuracy. The paper shows how this task is solved at the moment and what improvements are under development.

  17. Induction Motor Drive System Based on Linear Active Disturbance Rejection Controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liying; Zhang, Yongli; Yao, Qingmei

    It is difficult to establish an exact mathematical model for the induction motor and the robustness is poor of the vector control system using PI regulator. This paper adopts the linear active disturbance rejection controller (LADRC) to control inductor motor. LADRC doesn't need the exact mathematical model of motor and it can not only estimate but also compensate the general disturbance that includes the coupling items in model of motor and parameters perturbations by linear extended state observer (LESO), so the rotor flux and torque fully decouple. As a result, the performance is improved. To prove the above control scheme, the proposed control system has been simulated in MATLAB/SIMULINK, and the comparison was made with PID. Simulation results show that LADRC' has better performance and robustness than PID.

  18. A Five-Level Cascade Multilever Invertor Three-Phase Motor Drive Using a Single DC Source

    SciTech Connect

    Chiasson, J.N.

    2006-09-15

    A method is presented showing that a 5-level cascade multilevel inverter for a three-phase permanent magnet synchronous motor drive can be implemented using only a single DC link to supply a standard 3-leg inverter along with three full H-bridges supplied by capacitors. It is shown that the capacitor voltages can be regulated while achieving an output voltage waveform that is 20% greater than that obtained using the standard 3-leg inverter alone. Finally conditions are given in terms of the power factor and modulation index that determine when the capacitor voltage can regulated.

  19. A Five-Level Cascade Multilevel Inverter Three-Phase Motor Drive Using a Single DC Source

    SciTech Connect

    Chiasson, J. N.

    2006-10-01

    A method is presented showing that a 5-level cascade multilevel inverter for a three-phase permanent magnet sychronous motor drive can be implemented using only a single DC link to supply a standard 3-leg inverter along with three full H-bridges supplied by capacitors. It is shown that the capacitor voltages can be regulated while achieving an output voltage waveform that is 20% greater than that obained using the standard 3-leg inverter alone. Finally conditions are given in terms of the power factor and modulation index that determine when the capacitor voltage can regulated.

  20. A novel approach to modeling and identifying the double loop DC motor driving system in soccer robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yonglong; Li, Zushu; Li, Jun; Wang, Niu

    2007-12-01

    Using double loop DC motor drive system (DLM) of the RoboCup middle size robots as research subject, the model of DLM has been reduced to a simple state space one by the "quasi-equivalent" modeling method, based on the characteristic analysis of the system. Further, the parameters of the model can be exactly identified applying the improved genetic algorithm. The results of compared experiment proved that using this model and identification ways can get a reasonably structural and high parameters precision model. The model can describe the DLM to design the control system for robot soccer.

  1. Experimental study of a bidirectional DC-DC converter for the DC link voltage control and the regenerative braking in PM motor drives devoted to electrical vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Caricchi, F.; Crescimbini, F.; Noia, G.; Pirolo, D.

    1994-12-31

    The use of a bidirectional DC-DC converter operating in the DC link of CRPWM-inverter-fed motor drives devoted to electric vehicles (EVs) application allows a suitable control of both motoring and regenerative braking operations, and it can contribute to a significant increase of the motor drive overall efficiency. This paper deals with the experimental study of a bidirectional DC-DC converter prototype which has been designed for application in small-size EVs propelled by axial-flux PM motor drives. The paper discusses the converter modes of operation and reports the experimental results taken from a converter prototype which has been constructed using an IGBTs power module rated 600 V, 50 A. 2 refs.

  2. Rotor reference frame models of a multiloop 2-phase motor drive in brushless DC and microstepping modes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.E.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes non-linear models of a 2-phase permanent magnet synchronous motor drive in brushless DC and microstepping modes. The models account for everything from the main power bus up to and including the mechanical load and velocity feedback loop. In particular, the models include the power electronics for each phase complete with their internal feedback loops. Classical state space averaged power electronics models are transformed to the rotor reference frame along with the usual electromechanical variables. Since SPICE linearizes the rotor reference frame model about shaft velocity, instead of shaft angle, frequency domain methods apply. The frequency domain analysis detects unstable interactions between torque angle and deliberate feedback within the drives. Time domain simulations using stator reference frame models confirm the results. All models are SPICE-compatible but were developed on Cadence`s Analog Workbench.

  3. Impaired Driving

    MedlinePlus

    ... Risk Factors BAC Effects Prevention Additional Resources How big is the problem? In 2014, 9,967 people ... Driving: A Threat to Everyone (October 2011) Additional Data Drunk Driving State Data and Maps Motor Vehicle ...

  4. Action relevance in linguistic context drives word-induced motor activity

    PubMed Central

    Aravena, Pia; Courson, Mélody; Frak, Victor; Cheylus, Anne; Paulignan, Yves; Deprez, Viviane; Nazir, Tatjana A.

    2014-01-01

    Many neurocognitive studies on the role of motor structures in action-language processing have implicitly adopted a “dictionary-like” framework within which lexical meaning is constructed on the basis of an invariant set of semantic features. The debate has thus been centered on the question of whether motor activation is an integral part of the lexical semantics (embodied theories) or the result of a post-lexical construction of a situation model (disembodied theories). However, research in psycholinguistics show that lexical semantic processing and context-dependent meaning construction are narrowly integrated. An understanding of the role of motor structures in action-language processing might thus be better achieved by focusing on the linguistic contexts under which such structures are recruited. Here, we therefore analyzed online modulations of grip force while subjects listened to target words embedded in different linguistic contexts. When the target word was a hand action verb and when the sentence focused on that action (John signs the contract) an early increase of grip force was observed. No comparable increase was detected when the same word occurred in a context that shifted the focus toward the agent's mental state (John wants to sign the contract). There mere presence of an action word is thus not sufficient to trigger motor activation. Moreover, when the linguistic context set up a strong expectation for a hand action, a grip force increase was observed even when the tested word was a pseudo-verb. The presence of a known action word is thus not required to trigger motor activation. Importantly, however, the same linguistic contexts that sufficed to trigger motor activation with pseudo-verbs failed to trigger motor activation when the target words were verbs with no motor action reference. Context is thus not by itself sufficient to supersede an “incompatible” word meaning. We argue that motor structure activation is part of a dynamic process

  5. Optimum Design of Thrust Air Bearing for Hard Disk Drive Spindle Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Mohd Danial; Namba, Tadashi; Ochiai, Masayuki; Hashimoto, Hiromu

    This paper describes the application of geometry optimization method proposed by Hashimoto to the design of air lubricated thrust bearings used for HDD spindle motors. The optimization is carried out to maximize the dynamic stiffness of air films because the low stiffness is a serious problem of thrust air bearings in the actual application to HDD spindle motor. The optimized dynamic stiffnesses are obtained by changing the allowable film thickness, which is corresponding to the tolerance of bearings. The results obtained show that the optimized thrust air bearings have the comparable stiffness to the oil lubricated thrust bearings and it is verified theoretically that this type of thrust air bearing can be used for HDD spindle motors.

  6. Motor Origin of Precise Synaptic Inputs onto Forebrain Neurons Driving a Skilled Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Vallentin, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Sensory feedback is crucial for learning and performing many behaviors, but its role in the execution of complex motor sequences is poorly understood. To address this, we consider the forebrain nucleus HVC in the songbird, which contains the premotor circuitry for song production and receives multiple convergent sensory inputs. During singing, projection neurons within HVC exhibit precisely timed synaptic events that may represent the ongoing motor program or song-related sensory feedback. To distinguish between these possibilities, we recorded the membrane potential from identified HVC projection neurons in singing zebra finches. External auditory perturbations during song production did not affect synaptic inputs in these neurons. Furthermore, the systematic removal of three sensory feedback streams (auditory, proprioceptive, and vagal) did not alter the frequency or temporal precision of synaptic activity observed. These findings support a motor origin for song-related synaptic events and suggest an updated circuit model for generating behavioral sequences. PMID:25568122

  7. F1 rotary motor of ATP synthase is driven by the torsionally-asymmetric drive shaft

    PubMed Central

    Kulish, O.; Wright, A. D.; Terentjev, E. M.

    2016-01-01

    F1F0 ATP synthase (ATPase) either facilitates the synthesis of ATP in a process driven by the proton moving force (pmf), or uses the energy from ATP hydrolysis to pump protons against the concentration gradient across the membrane. ATPase is composed of two rotary motors, F0 and F1, which compete for control of their shared γ -shaft. We present a self-consistent physical model of F1 motor as a simplified two-state Brownian ratchet using the asymmetry of torsional elastic energy of the coiled-coil γ -shaft. This stochastic model unifies the physical concepts of linear and rotary motors, and explains the stepped unidirectional rotary motion. Substituting the model parameters, all independently known from recent experiments, our model quantitatively reproduces the ATPase operation, e.g. the ‘no-load’ angular velocity is ca. 400 rad/s anticlockwise at 4 mM ATP. Increasing the pmf torque exerted by F0 can slow, stop and overcome the torque generated by F1, switching from ATP hydrolysis to synthesis at a very low value of ‘stall torque’. We discuss the motor efficiency, which is very low if calculated from the useful mechanical work it produces - but is quite high when the ‘useful outcome’ is measured in the number of H+ pushed against the chemical gradient. PMID:27321713

  8. F1 rotary motor of ATP synthase is driven by the torsionally-asymmetric drive shaft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulish, O.; Wright, A. D.; Terentjev, E. M.

    2016-06-01

    F1F0 ATP synthase (ATPase) either facilitates the synthesis of ATP in a process driven by the proton moving force (pmf), or uses the energy from ATP hydrolysis to pump protons against the concentration gradient across the membrane. ATPase is composed of two rotary motors, F0 and F1, which compete for control of their shared γ -shaft. We present a self-consistent physical model of F1 motor as a simplified two-state Brownian ratchet using the asymmetry of torsional elastic energy of the coiled-coil γ -shaft. This stochastic model unifies the physical concepts of linear and rotary motors, and explains the stepped unidirectional rotary motion. Substituting the model parameters, all independently known from recent experiments, our model quantitatively reproduces the ATPase operation, e.g. the ‘no-load’ angular velocity is ca. 400 rad/s anticlockwise at 4 mM ATP. Increasing the pmf torque exerted by F0 can slow, stop and overcome the torque generated by F1, switching from ATP hydrolysis to synthesis at a very low value of ‘stall torque’. We discuss the motor efficiency, which is very low if calculated from the useful mechanical work it produces - but is quite high when the ‘useful outcome’ is measured in the number of H+ pushed against the chemical gradient.

  9. F1 rotary motor of ATP synthase is driven by the torsionally-asymmetric drive shaft.

    PubMed

    Kulish, O; Wright, A D; Terentjev, E M

    2016-01-01

    F1F0 ATP synthase (ATPase) either facilitates the synthesis of ATP in a process driven by the proton moving force (pmf), or uses the energy from ATP hydrolysis to pump protons against the concentration gradient across the membrane. ATPase is composed of two rotary motors, F0 and F1, which compete for control of their shared γ -shaft. We present a self-consistent physical model of F1 motor as a simplified two-state Brownian ratchet using the asymmetry of torsional elastic energy of the coiled-coil γ -shaft. This stochastic model unifies the physical concepts of linear and rotary motors, and explains the stepped unidirectional rotary motion. Substituting the model parameters, all independently known from recent experiments, our model quantitatively reproduces the ATPase operation, e.g. the 'no-load' angular velocity is ca. 400 rad/s anticlockwise at 4 mM ATP. Increasing the pmf torque exerted by F0 can slow, stop and overcome the torque generated by F1, switching from ATP hydrolysis to synthesis at a very low value of 'stall torque'. We discuss the motor efficiency, which is very low if calculated from the useful mechanical work it produces - but is quite high when the 'useful outcome' is measured in the number of H(+) pushed against the chemical gradient. PMID:27321713

  10. Enhancement in Steady State and Dynamic Performance of Direct Torque Control Induction Motor Drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bhoopendra; Jain, Shailendra; Dwivedi, Sanjeet

    2013-09-01

    An enhancement in dynamic performance of a traditional DTC drive can be achieved by a robust speed control algorithm while the steady state performance depends upon the switching strategy selected for minimization of torque ripples and an efficient flux control loop. In this paper a new torque ripple reduction technique with a modified look up table incorporating a larger number of synthesized non zero active voltage vectors is utilized to overcome the limitations of the conventionally controlled DTC drive. A fuzzy logic based speed controller and a low pass filter with tunable cutoff frequency for flux estimation is proposed in this paper. The proposed study is investigated through simulation and experimentally validated on a test drive.

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF HEAVY-DUTY MOTOR VEHICLE EMISSIONS UNDER TRANSIENT DRIVING CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this program was to characterize heavy-duty diesel truck and bus emissions produced during transient driving cycles. In the initial phase of the program an improved road-load simulation method was developed for use in operating large trucks on a chassis dynamomet...

  12. Ways of miniaturizing the electric drive by means of a hysteresis motor and a voltage inverter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasov, V. N.

    It is shown that the drive can be miniaturized through optimizing the losses to magnetization and through the structural optimization of the power source. Besides optimization of the energy losses, attention is also given to periodic magnetization and to the combination of functions.

  13. When eyes drive hand: Influence of non-biological motion on visuo-motor coupling.

    PubMed

    Thoret, Etienne; Aramaki, Mitsuko; Bringoux, Lionel; Ystad, Sølvi; Kronland-Martinet, Richard

    2016-01-26

    Many studies stressed that the human movement execution but also the perception of motion are constrained by specific kinematics. For instance, it has been shown that the visuo-manual tracking of a spotlight was optimal when the spotlight motion complies with biological rules such as the so-called 1/3 power law, establishing the co-variation between the velocity and the trajectory curvature of the movement. The visual or kinesthetic perception of a geometry induced by motion has also been shown to be constrained by such biological rules. In the present study, we investigated whether the geometry induced by the visuo-motor coupling of biological movements was also constrained by the 1/3 power law under visual open loop control, i.e. without visual feedback of arm displacement. We showed that when someone was asked to synchronize a drawing movement with a visual spotlight following a circular shape, the geometry of the reproduced shape was fooled by visual kinematics that did not respect the 1/3 power law. In particular, elliptical shapes were reproduced when the circle is trailed with a kinematics corresponding to an ellipse. Moreover, the distortions observed here were larger than in the perceptual tasks stressing the role of motor attractors in such a visuo-motor coupling. Finally, by investigating the direct influence of visual kinematics on the motor reproduction, our result conciliates previous knowledge on sensorimotor coupling of biological motions with external stimuli and gives evidence to the amodal encoding of biological motion. PMID:26708633

  14. Microtubule minus end motors kinesin-14 and dynein drive nuclear congression in parallel pathways

    PubMed Central

    Scheffler, Kathleen; Minnes, Refael; Fraisier, Vincent; Paoletti, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Microtubules (MTs) and associated motors play a central role in nuclear migration, which is crucial for diverse biological functions including cell division, polarity, and sexual reproduction. In this paper, we report a dual mechanism underlying nuclear congression during fission yeast karyogamy upon mating of haploid cells. Using microfluidic chambers for long-term imaging, we captured the precise timing of nuclear congression and identified two minus end–directed motors operating in parallel in this process. Kinesin-14 Klp2 associated with MTs may cross-link and slide antiparallel MTs emanating from the two nuclei, whereas dynein accumulating at spindle pole bodies (SPBs) may pull MTs nucleated from the opposite SPB. Klp2-dependent nuclear congression proceeds at constant speed, whereas dynein accumulation results in an increase of nuclear velocity over time. Surprisingly, the light intermediate chain Dli1, but not dynactin, is required for this previously unknown function of dynein. We conclude that efficient nuclear congression depends on the cooperation of two minus end–directed motors. PMID:25869666

  15. Performance Evaluation and Slip Regulation Control of an Asymmetrical Parameter Type Two-Phase Induction Motor Drive Using a Three-Leg Voltage Source Inverter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piyarat, Wekin; Kinnares, Vijit

    This paper presents a performance evaluation and a simple speed control method of an asymmetrical parameter type two-phase induction motor drive using a three-leg VSI (Voltage Source Inverter). The two-phase induction motor is adapted from an existing single-phase induction motor resulting in impedance unbalance between main and auxiliary windings. The unbalanced two-phase inverter outputs with orthogonal displacement based on a SPWM (Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation) method are controlled with appropriate amplitudes for improving the motor performance. Dynamic simulation of the proposed drive system is given. A simple speed controller based on a slip regulation method is designed. The overall system is implemented on a DSP (Digital Signal Processor) board. The validity of the proposed system is verified by simulation and experimental results.

  16. Motor vehicle driving in high incidence psychiatric disability: comparison of drivers with ADHD, depression, and no known psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Aduen, Paula A; Kofler, Michael J; Cox, Daniel J; Sarver, Dustin E; Lunsford, Erin

    2015-05-01

    Although not often discussed in clinical settings, motor vehicle driving is a complex multitasking endeavor during which a momentary attention lapse can have devastating consequences. Previous research suggests that drivers with high incidence psychiatric disabilities such as ADHD contribute disproportionately to collision rates, which in turn portend myriad adverse social, financial, health, mortality, and legal outcomes. However, self-referral bias and the lack of psychiatric comparison groups constrain the generalizability of these findings. The current study addressed these limitations and examined the unique associations among ADHD, Depression, and adverse driving outcomes, independent of self-selection, driving exposure, and referral bias. The Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP-2) Naturalistic Driving Study comprises U.S. drivers from six sites selected via probability-based sampling. Groups were defined by Barkley ADHD and psychiatric diagnosis questionnaires, and included ADHD (n = 275), Depression (n = 251), and Healthy Control (n = 1828). Primary outcomes included self-reported traffic collisions, moving violations, collision-related injuries, and collision fault (last 3 years). Accounting for demographic differences, ADHD but not Depression portended increased risk for multiple violations (OR = 2.3) and multiple collisions (OR = 2.2). ADHD but not Depression portended increased risk for collision fault (OR = 2.1). Depression but not ADHD predicted increased risk for self-reported injury following collisions (OR = 2.4). ADHD appears uniquely associated with multiple collisions, multiple violations, and collision fault, whereas Depression is uniquely associated with self-reported injury following a collision. Identification of the specific mechanisms underlying this risk will be critical to designing effective interventions to improve long-term functioning for drivers with high incidence psychiatric disability. PMID:25843156

  17. Note: Single-polarity high-voltage amplifier to drive coarse-approach slip-stick piezoelectric motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belussi, Cristian H.; Gómez Berisso, Mariano; Fasano, Yanina

    2013-05-01

    Scanning probe microscopies typically rely on coarse-approach slip-stick piezoelectric motors that work by exciting piezoelectric stacks with sawtooth signals of hundreds of V and some kHz. For this application, we introduce a single-polarity high-voltage amplifier based on discrete MOSFET-technology components with improved output current desirable for low-temperature actuation. The amplifier has an output signal of 600 V, 100 mA output current, noise level below 2 μV/sqrt{Hz}, 4 kHz high-voltage bandwidth, 2 V/μs slew-rate, and rise and fall times of 80 μs (when loaded with 30 nF). The circuit was successfully applied to drive a home-made scanning tunnelling microscope.

  18. Optimal Design of Rotary-Type Voice Coil Motor Using Multisegmented Magnet Array for Small Form Factor Optical Disk Drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Jaehwa; Gweon, Dae-Gab

    2007-05-01

    For a small form factor optical disk drive (SFFODD), a high-performance actuator satisfying the requirements for small size, high speed, and low-power consumption simultaneously is required. In this paper, we propose a rotary-type voice coil motor (VCM) using a multisegmented magnet array (MSMA) for the SFFODD. The VCM is designed to move the entire system including miniaturized optical components, which are necessary in reading and writing data. To increase the actuating force of the VCM, the MSMA, a novel magnetic circuit, is adopted because it can provide a higher flux density than a conventional magnet array in the rotary-type VCM. To obtain the best performance from the VCM in the limit of actuator size, design optimization is performed. The manufactured actuator with optimally designed parameters is described and the potential performance of track seeking is evaluated and presented.

  19. A DC-Voltage-Balancing Circuit for a Five-Level Diode-Clamped PWM Inverter Intended for Motor Drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Kazunori; Akagi, Hirofumi

    This paper proposes a new dc-voltage-balancing circuit for a five-level diode-clamped inverter intended for a medium-voltage motor drive. This circuit consists of two unidirectional choppers and a single coupled inductor with two galvanically-isolated windings. The dc magnetic fluxes in the magnetic core, which are generated by the two windings, cancel out each other. Therefore, the inductor does not generate any dc-magnetic flux in the magnetic core. This makes the inductor compact by a factor of six compared to previously used balancing circuits containing two non-coupled inductors. Experimental results obtained from a 200-V 5.5-kW downscaled model verify that the dc mean voltages of the four split dc capacitors are balanced well under all operating conditions.

  20. Experimental muscle pain increases variability of neural drive to muscle and decreases motor unit coherence in tremor frequency band.

    PubMed

    Yavuz, Utku Ş; Negro, Francesco; Falla, Deborah; Farina, Dario

    2015-08-01

    It has been observed that muscle pain influences force variability and low-frequency (<3 Hz) oscillations in the neural drive to muscle. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of experimental muscle pain on the neural control of muscle force at higher frequency bands, associated with afferent feedback (alpha band, 5-13 Hz) and with descending cortical input (beta band, 15-30 Hz). Single-motor unit activity was recorded, in two separate experimental sessions, from the abductor digiti minimi (ADM) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles with intramuscular wire electrodes, during isometric abductions of the fifth finger at 10% of maximal force [maximum voluntary contraction (MVC)] and ankle dorsiflexions at 25% MVC. The contractions were repeated under three conditions: no pain (baseline) and after intramuscular injection of isotonic (0.9%, control) and hypertonic (5.8%, painful) saline. The results showed an increase of the relative power of both the force signal and the neural drive at the tremor frequency band (alpha, 5-13 Hz) between the baseline and hypertonic (painful) conditions for both muscles (P < 0.05) but no effect on the beta band. Additionally, the strength of motor unit coherence was lower (P < 0.05) in the hypertonic condition in the alpha band for both muscles and in the beta band for the ADM. These results indicate that experimental muscle pain increases the amplitude of the tremor oscillations because of an increased variability of the neural control (common synaptic input) in the tremor band. Moreover, the concomitant decrease in coherence suggests an increase in independent input in the tremor band due to pain. PMID:26019314

  1. "Fan-Tip-Drive" High-Power-Density, Permanent Magnet Electric Motor and Test Rig Designed for a Nonpolluting Aircraft Propulsion Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Gerald V.; Kascak, Albert F.

    2004-01-01

    A scaled blade-tip-drive test rig was designed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The rig is a scaled version of a direct-current brushless motor that would be located in the shroud of a thrust fan. This geometry is very attractive since the allowable speed of the armature is approximately the speed of the blade tips (Mach 1 or 1100 ft/s). The magnetic pressure generated in the motor acts over a large area and, thus, produces a large force or torque. This large force multiplied by the large velocity results in a high-power-density motor.

  2. Temperature and Light Control of Three phase Induction Motor Speed Drive by PIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsoum, Nader

    2010-06-01

    PIC is a family of Harvard architecture microcontrollers made by Microchip Technology, derived from the PIC1640 originally developed by General Instrument's Microelectronics Division. The name PIC initially referred to "Peripheral Interface Controller". PICs are popular with the developers and the hobbyists due to their low cost, wide availability, large user base, extensive collection of application notes, free development tools, and serial programming (and re-programming with flash memory) capability. In modern days, PIC microcontrollers are used in the industrial world to control many types of equipment, ranging from consumer to specialized devices. They have replaced older types of controllers, including microprocessors. Also, there is a growing need for off-line support of a computer's main processor. The demand is going to grow with more equipment uses more intelligence. In the engineering field for instance, PIC has brought a very positive impact in designing an automation control system and controlling industrial machineries. Accordingly, this paper shows the change in the motor speed by the use of PIC in accordance to the light and level of temperature. The project focuses on programming the PIC by embedded software that detects the temperature and light signals and send it to 3 phase induction motor of 240 volt. A theoretical analysis and the practical approach in achieving this work goal have proved that PIC plays an important role in the field of electronics control.

  3. A Soft-Switching Inverter for High-Temperature Advanced Hybrid Electric Vehicle Traction Motor Drives

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Jason; Yu, Wensong; Sun, Pengwei; Leslie, Scott; Prusia, Duane; Arnet, Beat; Smith, Chris; Cogan, Art

    2012-03-31

    The state-of-the-art hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) require the inverter cooling system to have a separate loop to avoid power semiconductor junction over temperatures because the engine coolant temperature of 105°C does not allow for much temperature rise in silicon devices. The proposed work is to develop an advanced soft-switching inverter that will eliminate the device switching loss and cut down the power loss so that the inverter can operate at high-temperature conditions while operating at high switching frequencies with small current ripple in low inductance based permanent magnet motors. The proposed tasks also include high-temperature packaging and thermal modeling and simulation to ensure the packaged module can operate at the desired temperature. The developed module will be integrated with the motor and vehicle controller for dynamometer and in-vehicle testing to prove its superiority. This report will describe the detailed technical design of the soft-switching inverters and their test results. The experiments were conducted both in module level for the module conduction and switching characteristics and in inverter level for its efficiency under inductive and dynamometer load conditions. The performance will be compared with the DOE original specification.

  4. Sensorless FOC Performance Improved with On-Line Speed and Rotor Resistance Estimator Based on an Artificial Neural Network for an Induction Motor Drive.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez-Villalobos, Jose M; Rodriguez-Resendiz, Juvenal; Rivas-Araiza, Edgar A; Martínez-Hernández, Moisés A

    2015-01-01

    Three-phase induction motor drive requires high accuracy in high performance processes in industrial applications. Field oriented control, which is one of the most employed control schemes for induction motors, bases its function on the electrical parameter estimation coming from the motor. These parameters make an electrical machine driver work improperly, since these electrical parameter values change at low speeds, temperature changes, and especially with load and duty changes. The focus of this paper is the real-time and on-line electrical parameters with a CMAC-ADALINE block added in the standard FOC scheme to improve the IM driver performance and endure the driver and the induction motor lifetime. Two kinds of neural network structures are used; one to estimate rotor speed and the other one to estimate rotor resistance of an induction motor. PMID:26131677

  5. Sensorless FOC Performance Improved with On-Line Speed and Rotor Resistance Estimator Based on an Artificial Neural Network for an Induction Motor Drive

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez-Villalobos, Jose M.; Rodriguez-Resendiz, Juvenal; Rivas-Araiza, Edgar A.; Martínez-Hernández, Moisés A.

    2015-01-01

    Three-phase induction motor drive requires high accuracy in high performance processes in industrial applications. Field oriented control, which is one of the most employed control schemes for induction motors, bases its function on the electrical parameter estimation coming from the motor. These parameters make an electrical machine driver work improperly, since these electrical parameter values change at low speeds, temperature changes, and especially with load and duty changes. The focus of this paper is the real-time and on-line electrical parameters with a CMAC-ADALINE block added in the standard FOC scheme to improve the IM driver performance and endure the driver and the induction motor lifetime. Two kinds of neural network structures are used; one to estimate rotor speed and the other one to estimate rotor resistance of an induction motor. PMID:26131677

  6. Modeling and Simulation of Control Actuation System with Fuzzy-PID Logic Controlled Brushless Motor Drives for Missiles Glider Applications

    PubMed Central

    Muniraj, Murali; Arulmozhiyal, Ramaswamy

    2015-01-01

    A control actuation system has been used extensively in automotive, aerospace, and defense applications. The major challenges in modeling control actuation system are rise time, maximum peak to peak overshoot, and response to nonlinear system with percentage error. This paper addresses the challenges in modeling and real time implementation of control actuation system for missiles glider applications. As an alternative fuzzy-PID controller is proposed in BLDC motor drive followed by linkage mechanism to actuate fins in missiles and gliders. The proposed system will realize better rise time and less overshoot while operating in extreme nonlinear dynamic system conditions. A mathematical model of BLDC motor is derived in state space form. The complete control actuation system is modeled in MATLAB/Simulink environment and verified by performing simulation studies. A real time prototype of the control actuation is developed with dSPACE-1104 hardware controller and a detailed analysis is carried out to confirm the viability of the proposed system. PMID:26613102

  7. Modeling and Simulation of Control Actuation System with Fuzzy-PID Logic Controlled Brushless Motor Drives for Missiles Glider Applications.

    PubMed

    Muniraj, Murali; Arulmozhiyal, Ramaswamy

    2015-01-01

    A control actuation system has been used extensively in automotive, aerospace, and defense applications. The major challenges in modeling control actuation system are rise time, maximum peak to peak overshoot, and response to nonlinear system with percentage error. This paper addresses the challenges in modeling and real time implementation of control actuation system for missiles glider applications. As an alternative fuzzy-PID controller is proposed in BLDC motor drive followed by linkage mechanism to actuate fins in missiles and gliders. The proposed system will realize better rise time and less overshoot while operating in extreme nonlinear dynamic system conditions. A mathematical model of BLDC motor is derived in state space form. The complete control actuation system is modeled in MATLAB/Simulink environment and verified by performing simulation studies. A real time prototype of the control actuation is developed with dSPACE-1104 hardware controller and a detailed analysis is carried out to confirm the viability of the proposed system. PMID:26613102

  8. By land or by sea: a modified C-start motor pattern drives the terrestrial tail-flip.

    PubMed

    Perlman, Benjamin M; Ashley-Ross, Miriam A

    2016-06-15

    Aquatic C-start escape responses in teleost fishes are driven by a well-studied network of reticulospinal neurons that produce a motor pattern of simultaneous contraction of axial muscle on the side of the body opposite the threatening stimulus, bending the fish into the characteristic C shape, followed by a traveling wave of muscle contraction on the contralateral side that moves the fish away from the threat. Superficially, the kinematics of the terrestrial tail-flip resemble the C-start, with the anterior body rolling up and over the tail into a tight C shape, followed by straightening as the fish launches off of the caudal peduncle into ballistic flight. We asked whether similar motor control is used for both behaviors in the amphibious mangrove rivulus, Kryptolebias marmoratus Fine-wire bipolar electrodes were percutaneously inserted into repeatable paired axial locations in five individual fish. Electromyograms synchronized with high-speed video were made of aquatic C-starts, immediately followed by terrestrial tail-flips. Tail-flips took longer to complete than aquatic escapes; correspondingly, muscles were activated for longer durations on land. In the tail-flip, activity was seen in contralateral posterior axial muscle for an extended period of time during the formation of the C shape, likely to press the caudal peduncle against the ground in preparation for launch. Tail-flips thus appear to be produced by modification of the motor pattern driving the aquatic C-start, with differences consistent with the additional requirement of overcoming gravity. PMID:27045097

  9. Sliding mode pulse-width modulation technique for direct torque controlled induction motor drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bounadja, M.; Belarbi, A. W.; Belmadani, B.

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a novel pulse-width modulation technique based sliding mode approach for direct torque control of an induction machine drive. Methodology begins with a sliding mode control of machine's torque and stator flux to generate the reference voltage vector and to reduce parameters sensitivity. Then, the switching control of the three-phase inverter is developed using sliding mode concept to make the system tracking reference voltage inputs. The main features of the proposed methodologies are the high tracking accuracy and the much easier implementation compared to the space vector modulation. Simulations are carried out to confirm the effectiveness of proposed control algorithms.

  10. Properties of the Driving Behavior Survey Among Individuals with Motor Vehicle Accident-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Clapp, Joshua D.; Baker, Aaron S.; Litwack, Scott D.; Sloan, Denise M.; Beck, J. Gayle

    2014-01-01

    Data suggest anxious drivers may engage in problematic behaviors that place themselves and others at increased risk of negative traffic events. Three domains of problematic behavior – exaggerated safety/caution, performance deficits, and hostile/aggressive behaviors – previously were identified during development of the Driving Behavior Survey (DBS), a novel measure of anxiety-related behavior. Extending this research, the current study examined the psychometric properties of DBS scores among individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) subsequent to motor vehicle trauma (N = 40). Internal consistencies and 12-week test-retest reliabilities for DBS scales ranged from good to excellent. Comparison of scores to normative student data indicated dose-response relationships for safety/caution and performance deficit subscales, with increased frequency of anxious behavior occurring within the PTSD sample. Associations with standard clinical measures provide additional evidence for anxiety-related driving behavior as a unique marker of functional impairment, distinct from both avoidance and disorder-specific symptoms. PMID:24325891

  11. A self-organizing and self-tuning fuzzy logic controller for field oriented control of induction motor drives

    SciTech Connect

    Ashrafzadeh, F.; Nowicki, E.P.; Salmon, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    This paper proposes a design approach for a self-organizing self-tuning fuzzy logic controller, and is applied to the design of a field oriented drive system. The basic structure of a fuzzy logic controller is outlined and the design problems associated with the conventional trial-and-error schemes are addressed. The suitability of the genetic algorithm optimization technique as a means to determine and optimize the fuzzy logic controller design is discussed. In the proposed approach normalization factors and/or membership function parameters and/or the controller policy, are translated into bit-strings. These bit-strings are processed by the genetic algorithm and if the selection process as well as the objective function are chosen properly, a near-optimal solution can be found. To examine the efficiency of the proposed approach, a self-tuning and self-organizing fuzzy logic controller for an indirect field oriented induction motor drive is designed in both a sequential and a concurrent manner. A particular objective function (i.e., a performance index) is chosen to achieve a high dynamic performance. The simulation results demonstrate a significant enhancement in shortening the development time, and improving system performance over a manually tuned fuzzy logic controller.

  12. Properties of the Driving Behavior Survey among individuals with motor vehicle accident-related posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Clapp, Joshua D; Baker, Aaron S; Litwack, Scott D; Sloan, Denise M; Beck, J Gayle

    2014-01-01

    Data suggest anxious drivers may engage in problematic behaviors that place themselves and others at increased risk of negative traffic events. Three domains of problematic behavior--exaggerated safety/caution, performance deficits, and hostile/aggressive behaviors--previously were identified during development of the Driving Behavior Survey (DBS), a novel measure of anxiety-related behavior. Extending this research, the current study examined the psychometric properties of DBS scores among individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) subsequent to motor vehicle trauma (N=40). Internal consistencies and 12-week test-retest reliabilities for DBS scales ranged from good to excellent. Comparison of scores to normative student data indicated dose-response relationships for safety/caution and performance deficit subscales, with increased frequency of anxious behavior occurring within the PTSD sample. Associations with standard clinical measures provide additional evidence for anxiety-related driving behavior as a unique marker of functional impairment, distinct from both avoidance and disorder-specific symptoms. PMID:24325891

  13. Experimental Performance Evaluation of a High Speed Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor and Drive for a Flywheel Application at Different Frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagorny, Aleksandr S.; Jansen, Ralph H.; Kankam, M. David

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental performance characterization study of a high speed, permanent magnet motor/generator (M/G) and drive applied to a flywheel module. Unlike the conventional electric machine the flywheel M/G is not a separated unit; its stator and rotor are integrated into a flywheel assembly. The M/G rotor is mounted on a flywheel rotor, which is magnetically levitated and sealed within a vacuum chamber during the operation. Thus, it is not possible to test the M/G using direct load measurements with a dynamometer and torque transducer. Accordingly, a new in-situ testing method had to be developed. The paper describes a new flywheel M/G and drive performance evaluation technique, which allows the estimation of the losses, efficiency and power quality of the flywheel high speed permanent magnet M/G, while working in vacuum, over wide frequency and torque ranges. This method does not require any hardware modification nor any special addition to the test rig. This new measurement technique is useful for high-speed applications, when applying an external load is technically difficult.

  14. An Adaptive Supervisory Sliding Fuzzy Cerebellar Model Articulation Controller for Sensorless Vector-Controlled Induction Motor Drive Systems

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shun-Yuan; Tseng, Chwan-Lu; Lin, Shou-Chuang; Chiu, Chun-Jung; Chou, Jen-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the implementation of an adaptive supervisory sliding fuzzy cerebellar model articulation controller (FCMAC) in the speed sensorless vector control of an induction motor (IM) drive system. The proposed adaptive supervisory sliding FCMAC comprised a supervisory controller, integral sliding surface, and an adaptive FCMAC. The integral sliding surface was employed to eliminate steady-state errors and enhance the responsiveness of the system. The adaptive FCMAC incorporated an FCMAC with a compensating controller to perform a desired control action. The proposed controller was derived using the Lyapunov approach, which guarantees learning-error convergence. The implementation of three intelligent control schemes—the adaptive supervisory sliding FCMAC, adaptive sliding FCMAC, and adaptive sliding CMAC—were experimentally investigated under various conditions in a realistic sensorless vector-controlled IM drive system. The root mean square error (RMSE) was used as a performance index to evaluate the experimental results of each control scheme. The analysis results indicated that the proposed adaptive supervisory sliding FCMAC substantially improved the system performance compared with the other control schemes. PMID:25815450

  15. [Diagnosis and certification of the ability of epileptic patients to drive motor vehicles: cases consulted by the author].

    PubMed

    Sińczuk-Walczak, Halina; Wagrowska-Koski, Ewa

    2002-01-01

    Epilepsy is a frequent diagnostic problem. It is also difficult to certify whether an epileptic patient is able to drive a motor vehicle. With the advent of efficient anti-epileptic treatment, a general practice of refusing epileptic patients driving license should be seriously reconsidered. However, the matter should be given careful consideration not to jeopardize public safety and patients' rights. The aim of the study was to highlight the problems encountered in rediagnosing and certifying people with diagnosed epilepsy or pseudoepileptic seizures. The authors discuss the diagnosis and certification procedures in persons with epileptic seizures after severe craniocerebral trauma. They also analyze a case of diagnosed epilepsy suggesting the syncope in a patient with cardiac defect; a case of psychogenous pseudoepileptic seizures and the course of the disease in a patient with febrile convulsions in childhood. The problems result from the fact that reliable medical histories are not available and thus the retroassessment of the clinical picture of epileptic seizures is not possible. Missing results of timely laboratory tests (EEG, ECG) and diagnostic errors concerning earlier episodes, especially epilepsy diagnosed inconsiderately, are additional obstacles. PMID:12577810

  16. Efficiency consideration of DC link soft-switching inverters for motor drive applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, J.S.; Young, R.W.; McKeever, J.W.

    1994-12-31

    This paper critically evaluates efficiency of soft switching inverters including an actively clamped resonant dc link inverter and a clamped-mode resonant pole inverter. An analytical approach to evaluating efficiency of the clamped-mode soft switching inverter has been developed. The evaluation results are compared with that of the standard pulse-width-modulation (PWM) inverter. A 50-kW induction motor is used as the variable load, and the inverter efficiency is evaluated under different speed and torque conditions. The clamped-mode soft-switching inverter, although eliminating the switching loss, shows poor efficiency over the entire load range. Under low load conditions, the efficiency profile is even worse. The actively clamped resonant dc link inverter shows highest efficiency over the entire speed and torque range. However, its energy saving over the standard PWM inverter is marginal under full load or high speed conditions.

  17. Rotating vector methods for smooth torque control of a switched reluctance motor drive

    SciTech Connect

    Nagel, N.J.; Lorenz, R.D.

    2000-04-01

    This paper has two primary contributions to switched reluctance motor (SRM) control: a systematic approach to smooth torque production and a high-performance technique for sensorless motion control. The systematic approach to smooth torque production is based on development of novel rotating spatial vectors methods that can be used to predict the torque produced in an arbitrary SRM. This analysis directly leads to explicit, insightful methods to provide smooth torque control of SRM's. The high-performance technique for sensorless motion control is based on a rotating vector method for high bandwidth, high resolution, position, and velocity estimation suitable for both precise torque and motion control. The sensorless control and smooth torque control methods are both verified experimentally.

  18. Do emotions or gender drive our actions? A study of motor distractibility.

    PubMed

    Ambron, Elisabetta; Rumiati, Raffaella I; Foroni, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    People's interaction with the social environment depends on the ability to attend social cues with human faces being a key vehicle of this information. This study explores whether directing the attention to gender or emotion of a face interferes with ongoing actions. In two experiments, participants reached for one of two possible targets by relying on one of two features of a face, namely, emotion (Experiment 1) or gender (Experiment 2) of a non-target stimulus (a task-relevant distractor). Participants' reaching movements deviated toward the task-relevant distractor in both experiments. However, when attending to the gender of the face the distractor effect was modulated by both gender (task-relevant feature) and emotion (task-irrelevant feature), with the largest movement deviation being observed toward angry male faces. Endogenous allocation of attention toward faces elicits a competing motor response to the ongoing action and the emotional content of the face contributes to this process at a more automatic and implicit level. PMID:26418348

  19. Gravitational search algorithm based tuning of a PI speed controller for an induction motor drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd Ali, Jamal; Hannan, M. A.; Mohamed, Azah

    2016-03-01

    Proportional-integral (PI)-controller is very useful for controlling speed and mechanical load variables for the three-phase induction motor (TIM) operation. However, the conventional PI-controller has a very exhaustive trial and error procedure for obtaining it is parameters. In this paper, PI speed controller has been improved in it is design technique to suite TIM by utilizing a gravitational search algorithm (GSA) optimization technique. The mean absolute error (MAE) of the speed response has been used as an objective function. An optimal GSA based PI speed controller (GSA-PI) objective function is also employed to tune and minimize the MAE for developing the performance of the TIM in terms of changes speed and mechanical load. This experiment use space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) technique to create pulse width modulation for switching devices for three phase bridge inverter. Results obtained from the GSA-PI speed controller are compared with those obtained through particle swarm optimization (PSO) to validate the developed controller. Then it has been proved that the robustness of the GSA-PI speed controller is far better than that of the1 PSO controller in all tested cases in terms of damping capability and transient response under different mechanical loads and speeds.

  20. Power switch and baffle assembly having unidirectional drive motor for a refrigerator

    SciTech Connect

    Linstromberg, W.J.; Janke, D.E.

    1988-03-22

    In a refrigerator having a cabinet defining a frozen food compartment and a fresh food compartment separated from each other by a divider wall, a through opening formed in the wall to enable cold air from the frozen food compartment to flow into the fresh food compartment; a baffle selectively closing the opening; a compressor; an evaporator fan for circulating chilled air within the frozen food compartment and through the opening into the fresh food compartment; temperature sensor means for measuring the temperatures of the fresh food and frozen food compartments and control means responsive to the temperatures sensor means for producing command signals indicative of the need to cool the compartments; a system for controlling the baffle, compressor and evaporator fan to maintain predetermined frozen food and fresh food compartment temperatures is described comprising: a cam having first and second control surfaces; first electrical switch means operated by movement of the first control surface to apply electricity from an external electrical power source selectively to the compressor and the defrost heater; means for coupling the cam to the baffle; motor means responsive to the command signals for moving the cam; and second electrical switch means operated by movement of the second control surface to apply feedback signals to the control means to indicate the position of the cam.

  1. Necroptosis drives motor neuron death in models of both sporadic and familial ALS

    PubMed Central

    Re, Diane B.; Verche, Virginia Le; Yu, Changhao; Amoroso, Mackenzie W.; Politi, Kristin A.; Phani, Sudarshan; Ikiz, Burcin; Hoffmann, Lucas; Koolen, Martijn; Nagata, Tetsuya; Papadimitriou, Dimitra; Nagy, Peter; Mitsumoto, Hiroshi; Kariya, Shingo; Wichterle, Hynek; Henderson, Christopher E.; Przedborski, Serge

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Most cases of neurodegenerative disease are sporadic, hindering the use of genetic mouse models to analyze disease mechanisms. Focusing on the motor neuron (MN) disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) we therefore devised a fully humanized co-culture model composed of human adult primary sporadic ALS (sALS) astrocytes and human embryonic stem cell-derived MNs. The model reproduces the cardinal features of human ALS: sALS astrocytes, but not those from control patients, trigger selective death of MNs. The mechanisms underlying this non-cell-autonomous toxicity were investigated in both astrocytes and MNs. Although causal in familial ALS (fALS), SOD1 does not contribute to the toxicity of sALS astrocytes. Death of MNs triggered by either sALS or fALS astrocytes occurs through necroptosis, a form of programmed necrosis involving receptor-interacting protein 1 and the mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein. The necroptotic pathway therefore constitutes a novel potential therapeutic target for this incurable disease. PMID:24508385

  2. PM Motor Parametric Design Analyses for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Traction Drive Application: Interim Report

    SciTech Connect

    Staunton, R.H.

    2004-08-11

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR (Cooperative Automotive Research) and Vehicle Technologies has a strong interest in making rapid progress in permanent magnet (PM) machine development. The program is directing various technology development projects that will advance the technology and lead to request for proposals (RFP) for manufacturer prototypes. This aggressive approach is possible because the technology is clearly within reach and the approach is deemed essential, based on strong market demand, escalating fuel prices, and competitive considerations. In response, this study began parallel development paths that included a literature search/review, development and utilization of multiple parametric models to determine the effects of design parameters, verification of the modeling methodology, development of an interior PM (IPM) machine baseline design, development of alternative machine baseline designs, and cost analyses for several candidate machines. This interim progress report summarizes the results of these activities as of June 2004. This report provides background and summary information for recent machine parametric studies and testing programs that demonstrate both the potential capabilities and technical limitations of brushless PM machines (axial gap and radial gap), the IPM machine, the surface-mount PM machines (interior or exterior rotor), induction machines, and switched reluctance machines. The FreedomCAR program, while acknowledging the progress made by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Delphi, Delco-Remy International, and others in these programs, has redirected efforts toward a ''short path'' to a marketable and competitive PM motor for hybrid electric vehicle traction applications. The program has developed a set of performance targets for the type of traction machine desired. The short-path approach entails a comprehensive design effort focusing on the IPM machine and meeting the performance targets. The selection of the

  3. PM Motor Parametric Design Analyses for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle Traction Drive Application

    SciTech Connect

    Staunton, R.H.

    2004-10-11

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR (Cooperative Automotive Research) and Vehicle Technologies office has a strong interest in making rapid progress in permanent magnet (PM) machine development. The DOE FreedomCAR program is directing various technology development projects that will advance the technology and hopefully lead to a near-term request for proposals (RFP) for a to-be-determined level of initial production. This aggressive approach is possible because the technology is clearly within reach and the approach is deemed essential, based on strong market demand, escalating fuel prices, and competitive considerations. In response, this study began parallel development paths that included a literature search/review, development and utilization of multiple parametric models, verification of the modeling methodology, development of an interior PM (IPM) machine baseline design, development of alternative machine baseline designs, and cost analyses for several candidate machines. This report summarizes the results of these activities as of September 2004. This report provides background and summary information for recent machine parametric studies and testing programs that demonstrate both the potential capabilities and technical limitations of brushless PM machines (axial gap and radial gap), the IPM machine, the surface-mount PM machines (interior or exterior rotor), induction machines, and switched-reluctance machines. The FreedomCAR program, while acknowledging the progress made by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Delphi, Delco-Remy International, and others in these programs, has redirected efforts toward a ''short path'' to a marketable and competitive PM motor for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) traction applications. The program has developed a set of performance targets for the type of traction machine desired. The short-path approach entails a comprehensive design effort focusing on the IPM machine and meeting the performance targets

  4. Distracted driving

    MedlinePlus

    ... stay safe with a cell phone in the car. ... for Disease Control and Prevention Injury Prevention & Control. Motor Vehicle Safety. www.cdc.gov/motorvehiclesafety/distracted_driving . Accessed May ...

  5. Electrical drive for automobile

    SciTech Connect

    Fobbs, H.

    1980-09-16

    Electrical apparatus for driving an automobile is described that is comprised of a dc motor operationally connected to the rear axle through a drive shaft with the motor energized from storage batteries and recharged from alternators coupled to the drive shaft adjacent a clutch at the rear end of the automobile through an auxiliary drive shaft.

  6. General Methodologies for Improving Motor Drive Precision in Order to Utilize It as an Embedded Application Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Secrest, Caleb W.

    The objectives of this research are to reliably, and non-invasively, extract high quality spatial information from a limited-stroke multi-stage gear train driven by an AC machine using only the sensors necessary for normal AC machine control. In this work, the spatial information will be used to estimate the state of wear of each axis in the gear train. To extract this information, cascaded observer structures are utilized to estimate the load disturbances acting on the AC machine, and then to estimate the spatial errors which produce those disturbances. Further signal processing techniques are then utilized to observe the spatial error information in the spatial domain where the information is most relevant and to extract the systematic spatial errors that reoccur over many operating cycles. In prior art, the intrinsic spatial properties of the AC machine and position sensor feedback limited the quality of the spatial error information that could be extracted using motor drive-based estimation. Furthermore, the limited-stroke of the multi-stage gear train limits the separation of spatial content between the axes of the gear train and limits the extraction of the systematic spatial errors that reoccur over many operating cycles. In this work, methods are developed to reduce and separate machine and sensor contributions to the spatial error information being extracted, and general system design methodologies are investigated to improve the quality of spatial error information that can be extracted within the limited-stroke motion constraints of the multi-stage gear train.

  7. Exploring the use of computer games and virtual reality in exposure therapy for fear of driving following a motor vehicle accident.

    PubMed

    Walshe, David G; Lewis, Elizabeth J; Kim, Sun I; O'Sullivan, Kathleen; Wiederhold, Brenda K

    2003-06-01

    Specific phobia, situational type-driving, induced by accident (accident phobia) occurs in 18-38% of those involved in a vehicular accident of sufficient severity to warrant referral to the emergency departments of a general hospital. The objective is to investigate, in an open study, the effectiveness of the combined use of computer generated environments involving driving games (game reality [GR]) and a virtual reality (VR) driving environment in exposure therapy for the treatment of driving phobia following a motor vehicle accident (MVA) program. Fourteen subjects who met DSM-IV criteria for Simple Phobia/Accident Phobia and were referred from the emergency department of a general hospital were exposed to a Virtual Driving Environment (Hanyang University Driving Phobia Environment) and computer driving games (London Racer/Midtown Madness/Rally Championship). Patients who experienced "immersion" (i.e., a sense of presence with heightened anxiety) in one of the driving simulations (defined as an increase in SUD ratings of 3 and/or an increase of heart rate > 15 BPM in a 1-h trial session of computer simulation driving) were exposed to a cognitive behavioral program of up to 12 1-h sessions involving graded driving simulation tasks with self-monitoring, physiological feedback, diaphragmatic breathing and cognitive reappraisal. Subjects were assessed at the beginning and end of therapy with measurements of: physiological responsivity (heart rate), subjective ratings of distress (SUD), rating scales for severity of fear of driving (FDI), Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (CAPS) and depression (HAM-D) and achievement of target behaviors. Of all patients 7/14 (50%) became immersed in the driving environments. This immersed group (n = 7) completed the exposure program. Pre- and post-treatment comparisons showed significant post treatment reductions on all measures SUDS (p = 0.008), FDI (p = 0.008), CAPS (p = 0.008), HR (p = 0.008), CAPS (p = 0.008), HAM-D (p = 0

  8. Naturalistic field study of the restart break in US commercial motor vehicle drivers: Truck driving, sleep, and fatigue.

    PubMed

    Sparrow, Amy R; Mollicone, Daniel J; Kan, Kevin; Bartels, Rachel; Satterfield, Brieann C; Riedy, Samantha M; Unice, Aaron; Van Dongen, Hans P A

    2016-08-01

    Commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers in the US may start a new duty cycle after taking a 34-h restart break. A restart break provides an opportunity for sleep recuperation to help prevent the build-up of fatigue across duty cycles. However, the effectiveness of a restart break may depend on its timing, and on how many nighttime opportunities for sleep it contains. For daytime drivers, a 34-h restart break automatically includes two nighttime periods. For nighttime drivers, who are arguably at increased risk of fatigue, a 34-h restart break contains only one nighttime period. To what extent this is relevant for fatigue depends in part on whether nighttime drivers revert back to a nighttime-oriented sleep schedule during the restart break. We conducted a naturalistic field study with 106 CMV drivers working their normal schedules and performing their normal duties. These drivers were studied during two duty cycles and during the intervening restart break. They provided a total of 1260days of data and drove a total of 414,937 miles during the study. Their duty logs were used to identify the periods when they were on duty and when they were driving and to determine their duty cycles and restart breaks. Sleep/wake patterns were measured continuously by means of wrist actigraphy. Fatigue was assessed three times per day by means of a brief psychomotor vigilance test (PVT-B) and a subjective sleepiness scale. Data from a truck-based lane tracking and data acquisition system were used to compute lane deviation (variability in lateral lane position). Statistical analyses focused on 24-h patterns of duty, driving, sleep, PVT-B performance, subjective sleepiness, and lane deviation. Duty cycles preceded by a restart break containing only one nighttime period (defined as 01:00-05:00) were compared with duty cycles preceded by a restart break containing more than one nighttime period. During duty cycles preceded by a restart break with only one nighttime period, drivers

  9. Control algorithm for the inverter fed induction motor drive with DC current feedback loop based on principles of the vector control

    SciTech Connect

    Vuckovic, V.; Vukosavic, S. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper brings out a control algorithm for VSI fed induction motor drives based on the converter DC link current feedback. It is shown that the speed and flux can be controlled over the wide speed and load range quite satisfactorily for simpler drives. The base commands of both the inverter voltage and frequency are proportional to the reference speed, but each of them is further modified by the signals derived from the DC current sensor. The algorithm is based on the equations well known from the vector control theory, and is aimed to obtain the constant rotor flux and proportionality between the electrical torque, the slip frequency and the active component of the stator current. In this way, the problems of slip compensation, Ri compensation and correction of U/f characteristics are solved in the same time. Analytical considerations and computer simulations of the proposed control structure are in close agreement with the experimental results measured on a prototype drive.

  10. Piezoelectric drive circuit

    DOEpatents

    Treu, C.A. Jr.

    1999-08-31

    A piezoelectric motor drive circuit is provided which utilizes the piezoelectric elements as oscillators and a Meacham half-bridge approach to develop feedback from the motor ground circuit to produce a signal to drive amplifiers to power the motor. The circuit automatically compensates for shifts in harmonic frequency of the piezoelectric elements due to pressure and temperature changes. 7 figs.

  11. Piezoelectric drive circuit

    DOEpatents

    Treu, Jr., Charles A.

    1999-08-31

    A piezoelectric motor drive circuit is provided which utilizes the piezoelectric elements as oscillators and a Meacham half-bridge approach to develop feedback from the motor ground circuit to produce a signal to drive amplifiers to power the motor. The circuit automatically compensates for shifts in harmonic frequency of the piezoelectric elements due to pressure and temperature changes.

  12. Type-1 and Type-2 Fuzzy Logic and Sliding-Mode Based Speed Control of Direct Torque and Flux Control Induction Motor Drives - A Comparative Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, Tejavathu; Panda, A. K.; Kumar, S. Shiva

    2013-08-01

    In this research study, the performance of direct torque and flux control induction motor drive (IMD) is presented using five different speed control techniques. The performance of IMD mainly depends on the design of speed controller. The PI speed controller requires precise mathematical model, continuous and appropriate gain values. Therefore, adaptive control based speed controller is desirable to achieve high-performance drive. The sliding-mode speed controller (SMSC) is developed to achieve continuous control of motor speed and torque. Furthermore, the type-1 fuzzy logic speed controller (T1FLSC), type-1 fuzzy SMSC and a new type-2 fuzzy logic speed controller are designed to obtain high performance, dynamic tracking behaviour, speed accuracy and also robustness to parameter variations. The performance of each control technique has been tested for its robustness to parameter uncertainties and load disturbances. The detailed comparison of different control schemes are carried out in a MATALB/Simulink environment at different speed operating conditions, such as, forward and reversal motoring under no-load, load and sudden change in speed.

  13. An Efficient Power Regeneration and Drive Method of an Induction Motor by Means of an Optimal Torque Derived by Variational Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Kaoru; Ogata, Kenji; Kato, Toshiji

    When the motor speed is reduced by using a regenerative brake, the mechanical energy of rotation is converted to the electrical energy. When the regenerative torque is large, the corresponding current increases so that the copper loss also becomes large. On the other hand, the damping effect of rotation increases according to the time elapse when the regenerative torque is small. In order to use the limited energy effectively, an optimal regenerative torque should be discussed in order to regenerate electrical energy as much as possible. This paper proposes a design methodology of a regenerative torque for an induction motor to maximize the regenerative electric energy by means of the variational method. Similarly, an optimal torque for acceleration is derived in order to minimize the energy to drive. Finally, an efficient motor drive system with the proposed optimal torque and the power storage system stabilizing the DC link voltage will be proposed. The effectiveness of the proposed methods are illustrated by both simulations and experiments.

  14. Reduction of Common-Mode Conducted Noise Emissions in PWM Inverter-fed AC Motor Drive Systems using Optimized Passive EMI Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jettanasen, C.; Ngaopitakkul, A.

    2010-10-01

    Conducted electromagnetic interference (EMI) generated by PWM inverter-fed induction motor drive systems, which are currently widely used in many industrial and/or avionic applications, causes severe parasitic current problems, especially at high frequencies (HF). These restrict power electronic drive's evolution. In order to reduce or minimize these EMI problems, several techniques can be applied. In this paper, insertion of an optimized passive EMI filter is proposed. This filter is optimized by taking into account real impedances of each part of a considered AC motor drive system contrarily to commercial EMI filters designed by considering internal impedance of disturbance source and load, equal to 50Ω. Employing the latter EMI filter would make EMI minimization less effective. The proposed EMI filter optimization is mainly dedicated to minimize common mode (CM) currents due to its most dominant effects in this kind of system. The efficiency of the proposed optimization method using two-port network approach is deduced by comparing the minimized CM current spectra to an applied normative level (ex. DO-160D in aeronautics).

  15. Phase II CRADA ORNL99-0568 Report : Developing Transmission-Less Inverter Drive Systems for Axial-Gap Permanent magnet Accessory and Traction Motors and Generators

    SciTech Connect

    McKeever, J.W.

    2001-08-06

    Researchers of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNLs) Power Electronics and Electric Machine Research Center (PEEMRC) collaborated with Visual Computing Systems (VCS) to develop an electric axial-gap permanent magnet (PM) motor controlled by a self-sensing inverter for driving vehicle accessories such as power steering, air conditioning, and brakes. VCS designed an 8 kW motor based on their Segmented Electromagnetic Array (SEMA) technology. ORNL designed a 10 kW inverter to fit within the volume of a housing, which had been integrated with the motor. This modular design was pursued so that multiple modules could be used for higher power applications. ORNL built the first inverter under the cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) ORNL 98-0514 and drove a refurbished Delta motor with no load during the Merit Review at ORNL on Monday, May 17, 1999. Inverter circuitry and instructions for assembling the inverters were sent to VCS. A report was prepared and delivered during the Future Car Congress in April 2000, at Arlington, Virginia. Collaboration continued under CRADA ORNL 99-0568 as VCS designed and built a SEMA motor with a dual coil platter to be the traction motor for an electric truck. VCS and ORNL assembled two 45 kW inverters. Each inverter drove one coil, which was designed to deliver 15 kW continuous power and 45 kW peak power for 90 s. The vehicle was road tested as part of the Future Truck Competition. A report was prepared and delivered during the PCIM in October 2000, at Boston, Massachusetts.

  16. Driving Simulator Performance in Novice Drivers with Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Role of Executive Functions and Basic Motor Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Stephany M.; Cox, Daniel J.; Kofler, Michael J.; Moncrief, Matthew A.; Johnson, Ronald J.; Lambert, Ann E.; Cain, Sarah A.; Reeve, Ronald E.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate poorer driving performance than their peers and are less likely to obtain a driver's license. This study aims to examine the relationship between driving performance and executive functioning for novice drivers, with and without ASD, using a driving…

  17. Motorized mobility scooters – The use of training/intervention and technology for improving driving skills in aging adults - A Mini-Review

    PubMed Central

    Toosizadeh, Nima; Bunting, Matthew; Howe, Carol; Mohler, Jane; Sprinkle, Jonathan; Najafi, Bijan

    2014-01-01

    Background Motorized mobility scooters (MMS) have become the most acceptable powered assistive device for those with impaired mobility, who have sufficient upper body strength and dexterity, and postural stability. Although several benefits have been attributed to MMS usage, there are likewise risks of use, including injuries and even deaths. Objective The aim of the current review was to summarize results from clinical studies regarding the enhancement of MMS driver safety with a primary focus on improving driving skills/performance using clinical approaches. We addressed three main objectives: 1) to identify and summarize any available evidence (strong, moderate, or weak evidence based on the quality of studies) regarding improved driving skills/performance following training/intervention; 2) to identify types of driving skills/performance that might be improved by training/intervention; and 3) to identify the use of technology in improving MMS performance or training procedure. Methods Articles were searched for in the following medical and engineering electronic databases: PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, ClinicalTrials.gov, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ERIC, EI Compendix, IEEE Explore, and REHABDATA. Inclusion criteria included: aging adults or those with ambulatory problems; intervention or targeted training; and clinical trial. Outcomes included: MMS skills/performance. Results Six articles met the inclusion criteria and are analyzed in this review. Four of the six articles contained training approaches for MMS drivers including skill trainings using real MMS inside and outside (i.e., in community) and in a 3D virtual environment. The other two studies contain infrastructural assessments (i.e., the minimum space required for safe maneuverability of MMS users) and additional mobility assistance tools to improve maneuverability and to enhance driving performance. Conclusions Results from the current review showed improved driving skills/performance by training

  18. A Five-Level Three-Phase Cascade Multilevel Inverter Using a Single DC Source for a PM Synchronous Motor Drive

    SciTech Connect

    Ozpineci, Burak; Chiasson, John N; Tolbert, Leon M

    2007-01-01

    The interest here is in using a single DC power source to construct a 3-phase 5-level cascade multilevel inverter to be used as a drive for a PM traction motor. The 5-level inverter consists of a standard 3-leg inverter (one leg for each phase) and an H-bridge in series with each inverter leg, which use a capacitor as a DC source. It is shown that one can simultaneously maintain the regulation of the capacitor voltage while achieving an output voltage waveform which is 25% higher than that obtained using a standard 3-leg inverter by itself.

  19. Energy-Saving Effect of the Add-on Energy Recovery System for Electric Motor Drive Systems in the Injection Molding Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Keisuke; Hiraki, Eiji; Tanaka, Toshihiko

    The regenerative energy from the motor drive systems used in the injection molding is consumed by resistors connected to the DC bus of the inverters. Recently the recovery systems of the regenerative energy with a bi-directional DC-DC converter and capacitors have been developed. In this paper a new control strategy of the EDLC based energy recovery system is proposed. The basic principle of the proposed control strategy and the power losses consumed in the energy recovery system are discussed in detail. The validity and practicability are confirmed by digital computer simulation.

  20. International policies on alcohol impaired driving: are legal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limits in motorized countries compatible with the scientific evidence?

    PubMed

    Desapriya, E B R; Iwase, Nobutada; Brussoni, Mariana; Shimizu, Shinji; Belayneh, Taye N

    2003-04-01

    Borkenstein et al. (1974) study indicated that drivers with BACs of 0.05 to 0.09 per cent were twice as likely to crash as drivers with a zero BAC. Drivers with BACs from 0.10 to 0.14 per cent were ten times as likely to have a fatal crash in 1964. There have been numerous efforts during the history of motorized countries to control the consumption of alcohol and the problems associated with it through legislative mandate, it was not until the 1970s that acceptance of legal BAC (Blood Alcohol Concentration) limits laws became widespread. In particular, as more and more people drive automobiles, the number of traffic accidents involving drunken drivers has soared, and many of these are known to be related to the consumption of alcohol. Thus, legislators find themselves under increasing pressure to find a reasonable and fair solution to the question of alcohol impaired driving, as the scientific evidence about alcohol consumption level and psycho motor functions impairment came to clear. A landmark event in the development of policies regarding impaired driving was the establishment of the fact that consumption of alcohol does, in fact, increase the probability of traffic crashes. Legal limit laws specify a maximum permissible BAC limit for drivers. Currently, a BAC laws range from zero tolerance and 0.02 to 0.10% constitutes prima facie evidence in most countries for 'Driving under Influence of Alcohol.' This latter standard is too permissive, as driving skills deteriorate and crash involvement risk increases beginning at 0.02%. There are consequences attached to setting a BAC limit so high that a 72 kg man can drink five bottles of beer and still be under legal limit. In this sense high legal BAC limit may influence people to make bad estimates of their relative risk of injury or death while driving. Provided there is adequate political will, millions of lives could be saved in the coming years. This review is an attempt to examine in detail the available

  1. PWM-switching pattern-based diagnosis scheme for single and multiple open-switch damages in VSI-fed induction motor drives.

    PubMed

    Trabelsi, Mohamed; Boussak, Mohamed; Gossa, Moncef

    2012-03-01

    This paper deals with a fault detection technique for insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) open-circuit faults in voltage source inverter (VSI)-fed induction motor drives. The novelty of this idea consists in analyzing the pulse-width modulation (PWM) switching signals and the line-to-line voltage levels during the switching times, under both healthy and faulty operating conditions. The proposed method requires line-to-line voltage measurement, which provides information about switching states and is not affected by the load. The fault diagnosis scheme is achieved using simple hardware and can be included in the existing inverter system without any difficulty. In addition, it allows not only accurate single and multiple faults diagnosis but also minimization of the fault detection time to a maximum of one switching period (T(c)). Simulated and experimental results on a 3-kW squirrel-cage induction motor drive are displayed to validate the feasibility and the effectiveness of the proposed strategy. PMID:22153956

  2. COMPOSITION OF MOTOR VEHICLE ORGANIC EMISSIONS UNDER ELEVATED TEMPERATURE SUMMER DRIVING CONDITIONS (75 TO 105 DEGREES F)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions from seven late-model popular V-6 and V-8 motor vehicles were characterized at three test temperatures. ix port fuel injected (PFI) and a single carbureted vehicle were tested at temperatures at 75, 90, and 105 degrees F with unleaded regular summer grade fuel. ailpipe ...

  3. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 240 - Procedures for Obtaining and Evaluating Motor Vehicle Driving Record Data

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... that person. It may be supplemented by data concerning the person's height, weight, color of eyes, and... of birth; (d) Sex; (e) Height; (f) Weight; (g) Color of eyes; (h) Driver's license number (unless... person's motor vehicle driver's license and, under the provisions of a 1982 change to the statute,...

  4. Locomotor play drives motor skill acquisition at the expense of growth: A life history trade-off

    PubMed Central

    Berghänel, Andreas; Schülke, Oliver; Ostner, Julia

    2015-01-01

    The developmental costs and benefits of early locomotor play are a puzzling topic in biology, psychology, and health sciences. Evolutionary theory predicts that energy-intensive behavior such as play can only evolve if there are considerable benefits. Prominent theories propose that locomotor play is (i) low cost, using surplus energy remaining after growth and maintenance, and (ii) beneficial because it trains motor skills. However, both theories are largely untested. Studying wild Assamese macaques, we combined behavioral observations of locomotor play and motor skill acquisition with quantitative measures of natural food availability and individual growth rates measured noninvasively via photogrammetry. Our results show that investments in locomotor play were indeed beneficial by accelerating motor skill acquisition but carried sizable costs in terms of reduced growth. Even under moderate natural energy restriction, investment in locomotor play accounted for up to 50% of variance in growth, which strongly contradicts the current theory that locomotor play only uses surplus energy remaining after growth and maintenance. Male immatures played more, acquired motor skills faster, and grew less than female immatures, leading to persisting size differences until the age of female maturity. Hence, depending on skill requirements, investment in play can take ontogenetic priority over physical development unconstrained by costs of play with consequences for life history, which strongly highlights the ontogenetic and evolutionary importance of play. PMID:26601237

  5. Locomotor play drives motor skill acquisition at the expense of growth: A life history trade-off.

    PubMed

    Berghänel, Andreas; Schülke, Oliver; Ostner, Julia

    2015-08-01

    The developmental costs and benefits of early locomotor play are a puzzling topic in biology, psychology, and health sciences. Evolutionary theory predicts that energy-intensive behavior such as play can only evolve if there are considerable benefits. Prominent theories propose that locomotor play is (i) low cost, using surplus energy remaining after growth and maintenance, and (ii) beneficial because it trains motor skills. However, both theories are largely untested. Studying wild Assamese macaques, we combined behavioral observations of locomotor play and motor skill acquisition with quantitative measures of natural food availability and individual growth rates measured noninvasively via photogrammetry. Our results show that investments in locomotor play were indeed beneficial by accelerating motor skill acquisition but carried sizable costs in terms of reduced growth. Even under moderate natural energy restriction, investment in locomotor play accounted for up to 50% of variance in growth, which strongly contradicts the current theory that locomotor play only uses surplus energy remaining after growth and maintenance. Male immatures played more, acquired motor skills faster, and grew less than female immatures, leading to persisting size differences until the age of female maturity. Hence, depending on skill requirements, investment in play can take ontogenetic priority over physical development unconstrained by costs of play with consequences for life history, which strongly highlights the ontogenetic and evolutionary importance of play. PMID:26601237

  6. Hydraulic drive system prevents backlash

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acord, J. D.

    1965-01-01

    Hydraulic drive system uses a second drive motor operating at reduced torque. This exerts a relative braking action which eliminates the normal gear train backlash that is intolerable when driving certain heavy loads.

  7. Sliding-mode control of a six-phase series/parallel connected two induction motors drive.

    PubMed

    Abjadi, Navid R

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, a parallel configuration is proposed for two quasi six-phase induction motors (QIMs) to feed them from a single six-phase voltage source inverter (VSI). A direct torque control (DTC) based on input-output feedback linearization (IOFL) combined with sliding mode (SM) control is used for each QIM in stationary reference frame. In addition, an adaptive scheme is employed to solve the motor resistances mismatching problem. The effectiveness and capability of the proposed method are shown by practical results obtained for two QIMs in series/parallel connections supplied from a single VSI. The decoupling control of QIMs and the feasibility of their torque and flux control are investigated. Moreover, a complete comparison between series and parallel connections of two QIMs is given. PMID:25264286

  8. Modeling and damping of high-frequency leakage currents in PWM inverter-fed AC motor drive systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ogasawara, Satoshi; Akagi, Hirofumi

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents an equivalent circuit for high-frequency leakage currents in PWM inverter-fed ac motors, which forms a series resonant circuit. The analysis based on the equivalent circuit leads to such a conclusion that the connection of a conventional common-mode choke or reactor in series between the ac terminals of a PWM inverter and those of an ac motor is not effective to reduce the rms and average values of the leakage current, but effective to reduce the peak value. Furthermore, this paper proposes a common-mode transformer which is different in damping principle from the conventional common-mode choke. It is shown theoretically and experimentally that the common-mode transformer is able to reduce the rms value of the leakage current to 25%, where the core used in the common-mode transformer is smaller than that of the conventional common-mode choke.

  9. Dynamic Analysis and Vibration Control of a Flexible SLIDER-CRANK Mechanism Using PM Synchronous Servo Motor Drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, R.-F.; Chen, K.-W.

    1998-07-01

    Dynamic analysis and vibration control of a flexible slider-crank mechanism driven by a permanent magnet (PM) synchronous servo motor are studied in this paper. Geometric constraint at the end of a flexible connecting rod is derived and introduced into Hamilton's principle to formulate the governing equations of the connecting rod which is modelled by Timoshenko beam theory. The coupling equations describe the rigid-body motion, flexible vibrations and motor system. In order to control crank speed and reduce flexible vibrations simultaneously, speed and tracking controllers are designed through a reaching law variable structure control (VSC) method. By choosing proper parameters in control law, dynamic responses of the flexible system in reaching mode can be controlled. Numerical results show that the proposed controllers not only eliminate the dynamic deflections of the flexible connecting rod, but also keep good tracking performances. Moreover, the robustness against external disturbances can also be improved by employing the proposed control scheme.

  10. A piezo motor based on a new principle with high output force, rigidity and integrity: the Tuna Drive.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaolong; Lu, Qingyou

    2012-11-01

    We present a linear piezoelectric motor as simple as one piezoelectric scanner tube (PST) spring-clamping a central shaft at both ends with roughly equal clamping forces. The clamping points are aligned with ±X electrodes at one end and ±Y electrodes at the other end. Thus, the ±X (or ±Y) push-pull motions of the PST can cause the push-pull motions of the clamping points on the shaft (called push-pull rubbing), which reduces the total dynamic friction force at one (or the other) end of the PST. This new piezo motor advances one step by fast push-pull rubbing at one end while slowly retracting the PST followed by fast push-pull rubbing at the other end while slowly elongating the PST. Apart from the obvious advantages of simplicity, rigidity, integrity, etc., we will also show that this motor can produce a large output force, which we believe is because of the huge drop of the clamping friction force when the push-pull rubbing occurs. PMID:23206102

  11. A piezo motor based on a new principle with high output force, rigidity and integrity: The Tuna Drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaolong; Lu, Qingyou

    2012-11-01

    We present a linear piezoelectric motor as simple as one piezoelectric scanner tube (PST) spring-clamping a central shaft at both ends with roughly equal clamping forces. The clamping points are aligned with ±X electrodes at one end and ±Y electrodes at the other end. Thus, the ±X (or ±Y) push-pull motions of the PST can cause the push-pull motions of the clamping points on the shaft (called push-pull rubbing), which reduces the total dynamic friction force at one (or the other) end of the PST. This new piezo motor advances one step by fast push-pull rubbing at one end while slowly retracting the PST followed by fast push-pull rubbing at the other end while slowly elongating the PST. Apart from the obvious advantages of simplicity, rigidity, integrity, etc., we will also show that this motor can produce a large output force, which we believe is because of the huge drop of the clamping friction force when the push-pull rubbing occurs.

  12. The CB(1) cannabinoid receptor drives corticospinal motor neuron differentiation through the Ctip2/Satb2 transcriptional regulation axis.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Alonso, Javier; Aguado, Tania; Wu, Chia-Shan; Palazuelos, Javier; Hofmann, Clementine; Garcez, Patricia; Guillemot, François; Lu, Hui-Chen; Lutz, Beat; Guzmán, Manuel; Galve-Roperh, Ismael

    2012-11-21

    The generation and specification of pyramidal neuron subpopulations during development relies on a complex network of transcription factors. The CB(1) cannabinoid receptor is the major molecular target of endocannabinoids and marijuana active compounds. This receptor has been shown to influence neural progenitor proliferation and axonal growth, but its involvement in neuronal differentiation and the functional impact in the adulthood caused by altering its signaling during brain development are not known. Here we show that the CB(1) receptor, by preventing Satb2 (special AT-rich binding protein 2)-mediated repression, increased Ctip2 (COUP-TF interacting protein 2) promoter activity, and Ctip2-positive neuron generation. Unbalanced neurogenic fate determination found in complete CB(1)(-/-) mice and in glutamatergic neuron-specific Nex-CB(1)(-/-) mice induced overt alterations in corticospinal motor neuron generation and subcerebral connectivity, thereby resulting in an impairment of skilled motor function in adult mice. Likewise, genetic deletion of CB(1) receptors in Thy1-YFP-H mice elicited alterations in corticospinal tract development. Altogether, these data demonstrate that the CB(1) receptor contributes to the generation of deep-layer cortical neurons by coupling endocannabinoid signals from the neurogenic niche to the intrinsic proneurogenic Ctip2/Satb2 axis, thus influencing appropriate subcerebral projection neuron specification and corticospinal motor function in the adulthood. PMID:23175820

  13. An assessment of driving fitness in patients with visual impairment to understand the elevated risk of motor vehicle accidents

    PubMed Central

    Kunimatsu-Sanuki, Shiho; Iwase, Aiko; Araie, Makoto; Aoki, Yuki; Hara, Takeshi; Nakazawa, Toru; Yamaguchi, Takuhiro; Ono, Hiroshi; Sanuki, Tomoyuki; Itoh, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the driving fitness of patients with glaucoma by identifying specific areas and degrees of visual field impairment that threaten safe driving. Design Case–control study. Setting, and participants This prospective study included 36 patients with advanced glaucoma, defined as Humphrey field analyzer (HFA; 24-2 SITA standard program) measurements of mean deviation in both eyes of worse than −12 dB, and 36 age-matched and driving exposure time-matched normal subjects. All participants underwent testing in a novel driving simulator (DS) system. Participants were recruited between September 2010 and January 2012. Main outcome measures The number of collisions with simulated hazards and braking response time in 14 DS scenarios was recorded. Monocular HFA 24-2 test results from both eyes were merged to calculate the binocular integrated visual field (IVF). The position of the IVF subfields in which the collision-involved patients had lower sensitivity than the collision-uninvolved patients was compared with the track of the hazard. The cut-off value to predict an elevated risk of collisions was determined, as were its sensitivity and specificity, with the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve. Results Patients with advanced glaucoma were involved in a significantly higher number of collisions in the DS than the age-matched and driving exposure time-matched normal subjects (119 vs 40, respectively, p<0.0001), especially in four specific DS scenarios. In these four scenarios, IVF sensitivity was significantly lower in the collision-involved patients than in the collision-uninvolved patients in subfields on or near the track of the simulated hazard (p<0.05). The subfields with the largest AUROC curve had values ranging from 0.72 to 0.91 and were located in the paracentral visual field just below the horizontal. Conclusions Our novel DS system effectively assessed visual impairment, showing that simulators may have future

  14. A Novel Current Angle Control Scheme in a Current Source Inverter Fed Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Drive for Automotive Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Lixin; Su, Gui-Jia

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a novel speed control scheme to operate a current source inverter (CSI) driven surface-mounted permanent magnet synchronous machine (SPMSM) for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) applications. The idea is to use the angle of the current vector to regulate the rotor speed while keeping the two dc-dc converter power switches on all the time to boost system efficiency. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme was verified with a 3 kW CSI-SPMSM drive prototype.

  15. A fuzzy-based approach for open-transistor fault diagnosis in voltage-source inverter induction motor drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianghan; Luo, Hui; Zhao, Jin; Wu, Feng

    2015-02-01

    This paper develops a novel method for the detection and isolation of open-transistor faults in voltage-source inverters feeding induction motors. Based on analyzing the load currents trajectories after Concordia transformation, six diagnostic signals each of which indicates a certain switch are extracted and a fuzzy rule base is designed to perform fuzzy reasoning in order to detect and isolate 21 fault modes including single- and double-transistor faults. In addition, the fuzzy rules are rearranged and each of them is set to a reasonable value representing the fault modes. The simulation and experiment are carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed fuzzy approach.

  16. Interplay of active processes modulates tension and drives phase transition in self-renewing, motor-driven cytoskeletal networks

    PubMed Central

    Mak, Michael; Zaman, Muhammad H.; Kamm, Roger D.; Kim, Taeyoon

    2016-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton—a complex, nonequilibrium network consisting of filaments, actin-crosslinking proteins (ACPs) and motors—confers cell structure and functionality, from migration to morphogenesis. While the core components are recognized, much less is understood about the behaviour of the integrated, disordered and internally active system with interdependent mechano-chemical component properties. Here we use a Brownian dynamics model that incorporates key and realistic features—specifically actin turnover, ACP (un)binding and motor walking—to reveal the nature and underlying regulatory mechanisms of overarching cytoskeletal states. We generate multi-dimensional maps that show the ratio in activity of these microscopic elements determines diverse global stress profiles and the induction of nonequilibrium morphological phase transition from homogeneous to aggregated networks. In particular, actin turnover dynamics plays a prominent role in tuning stress levels and stabilizing homogeneous morphologies in crosslinked, motor-driven networks. The consequence is versatile functionality, from dynamic steady-state prestress to large, pulsed constrictions. PMID:26744226

  17. Common drive unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, R. C.; Fink, R. A.; Moore, E. A.

    1987-01-01

    The Common Drive Unit (CDU) is a high reliability rotary actuator with many versatile applications in mechanism designs. The CDU incorporates a set of redundant motor-brake assemblies driving a single output shaft through differential. Tachometers provide speed information in the AC version. Operation of both motors, as compared to the operation of one motor, will yield the same output torque with twice the output speed.

  18. A rugged 650 V SOI-based high-voltage half-bridge IGBT gate driver IC for motor drive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Qing; Li, Zehong; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Weizhong; Huang, Xiangjun; Feng, Yuxiang

    2015-05-01

    This paper proposes a rugged high-voltage N-channel insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) gate driver integrated circuit. The device integrates a high-side and a low-side output stages on a single chip, which is designed specifically for motor drive applications. High-voltage level shift technology enables the high-side stage of this device to operate up to 650 V. The logic inputs are complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS)/transistor transistor logic compatible down to 3.3 V. Undervoltage protection functionality with hysteresis characteristic has also been integrated to enhance the device reliability. The device is fabricated in a 1.0 μm, 650 V high-voltage bipolar CMOS double-diffused metal oxide semiconductor (BCD) on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) process. Deep trench dielectric isolation technology is employed to provide complete electrical isolation with advantages such as reduced parasitic effects, excellent noise immunity and low leakage current. Experimental results show that the isolation voltage of this device can be up to approximately 779 V at 25°C, and the leakage current is only 5 nA at 650 V, which is 15% higher and 67% lower than the conventional ones. In addition, it delivers an excellent thermal stability and needs very low quiescent current and offers a high gate driver capability which is needed to adequately drive IGBTs that have large input capacitances.

  19. Type-2 fuzzy logic control based MRAS speed estimator for speed sensorless direct torque and flux control of an induction motor drive.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Tejavathu; Kumar Panda, Anup; Shiva Kumar, S

    2015-07-01

    In this research study, a model reference adaptive system (MRAS) speed estimator for speed sensorless direct torque and flux control (DTFC) of an induction motor drive (IMD) using two adaptation mechanism schemes are proposed to replace the conventional proportional integral controller (PIC). The first adaptation mechanism scheme is based on Type-1 fuzzy logic controller (T1FLC), which is used to achieve high performance sensorless drive in both transient as well as steady state conditions. However, the Type-1 fuzzy sets are certain and unable to work effectively when higher degree of uncertainties presents in the system which can be caused by sudden change in speed or different load disturbances, process noise etc. Therefore, a new Type-2 fuzzy logic controller (T2FLC) based adaptation mechanism scheme is proposed to better handle the higher degree of uncertainties and improves the performance and also robust to various load torque and sudden change in speed conditions, respectively. The detailed performances of various adaptation mechanism schemes are carried out in a MATLAB/Simulink environment with a speed sensor and speed sensorless modes of operation when an IMD is operating under different operating conditions, such as, no-load, load and sudden change in speed, respectively. To validate the different control approaches, the system also implemented on real-time system and adequate results are reported for its validation. PMID:25887841

  20. DSP-based adaptive backstepping using the tracking errors for high-performance sensorless speed control of induction motor drive.

    PubMed

    Zaafouri, Abderrahmen; Ben Regaya, Chiheb; Ben Azza, Hechmi; Châari, Abdelkader

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a modified structure of the backstepping nonlinear control of the induction motor (IM) fitted with an adaptive backstepping speed observer. The control design is based on the backstepping technique complemented by the introduction of integral tracking errors action to improve its robustness. Unlike other research performed on backstepping control with integral action, the control law developed in this paper does not propose the increase of the number of system state so as not increase the complexity of differential equations resolution. The digital simulation and experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed control compared to the conventional PI control. The results analysis shows the characteristic robustness of the adaptive control to disturbances of the load, the speed variation and low speed. PMID:26653141

  1. Dual rotor single- stator axial air gap PMSM motor/generator drive for high torque vehicles applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutelea, L. N.; Deaconu, S. I.; Boldea, I.; Popa, G. N.

    2014-03-01

    The actual e - continuously variable transmission (e-CVT) solution for the parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) requires two electric machines, two inverters, and a planetary gear. A distinct electric generator and a propulsion electric motor, both with full power converters, are typical for a series HEV. In an effort to simplify the planetary-geared e-CVT for the parallel HEV or the series HEV we hereby propose to replace the basically two electric machines and their two power converters by a single, axial-air-gap, electric machine central stator, fed from a single PWM converter with dual frequency voltage output and two independent PM rotors, destined for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and military vehicles applications. The proposed topologies and the magneto-motive force analysis are the core of the paper.

  2. Driving and riding avoidance following motor vehicle crashes in a non-clinical sample: psychometric properties of a new measure.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Alan E; St Peter, Claire C

    2004-08-01

    Three studies were conducted to assess the reliability and validity of a measure that we developed using a non-clinical sample of university undergraduates, the Driving and Riding Avoidance Scale (DRAS). Study 1 indicated that the scale was internally consistent (alpha=0.92) and that a four-factor model (general avoidance, avoidance of traffic and busy roads, avoidance of weather or darkness, and riding avoidance) provided the best fit to the data in a sample of 386 crash survivors. This study also revealed that survivors who received medical treatment for their crash-related injuries reported significantly greater avoidance than people who were uninjured or injured and not medically treated. Study 2 revealed that the DRAS possessed acceptable test-retest reliability (r=0.83) over a 4-week interval in a sample of 67 crash survivors. Using a sample of 118 survivors, study 3 examined the instrument's convergent and divergent validity through correlations with the Accident Fear Questionnaire (AFQ), the Mobility Inventory (MI), the Fear Survey Schedule-II (FSS-II), and the Fear Questionnaire (FQ). The strongest relationships were observed between the DRAS and the AFQ and with a driving subscale created from the MI items. The DRAS exhibited significantly weaker relationships with the FQ subscales that assessed other kinds of phobic avoidance. PMID:15178463

  3. Motor Vehicle Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... these crashes is one part of motor vehicle safety. Here are some things you can do to ... speed or drive aggressively Don't drive impaired Safety also involves being aware of others. Share the ...

  4. Drive alignment pays maintenance dividends

    SciTech Connect

    Fedder, R.

    2008-12-15

    Proper alignment of the motor and gear drive on conveying and processing equipment will result in longer bearing and coupling life, along with lower maintenance costs. Selecting an alignment free drive package instead of a traditional foot mounted drive and motor is a major advancement toward these goals. 4 photos.

  5. CONTROL ROD DRIVE MECHANISM FOR A NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Hawke, B.C.; Liederbach, F.J.; Lones, W.

    1963-05-14

    A lead-screw-type control rod drive featuring an electric motor and a fluid motor arranged to provide a selectably alternative driving means is described. The electric motor serves to drive the control rod slowly during normal operation, while the fluid motor, assisted by an automatic declutching of the electric motor, affords high-speed rod insertion during a scram. (AEC)

  6. Crystal Structures of the Pilus Retraction Motor PilT Suggest Large Domain Movements and Subunit Cooperation Drive Motility

    PubMed Central

    Satyshur, Kenneth A.; Worzalla, Gregory A.; Meyer, Lorraine S.; Heiniger, Erin K.; Aukema, Kelly G.; Misic, Ana M.; Forest, Katrina T.

    2007-01-01

    Summary PilT is a hexameric ATPase required for bacterial Type IV pilus retraction and surface motility. Crystal structures of ADP and ATP-bound Aquifex aeolicus PilT at 2.8 and 3.2 Å resolution show N-terminal PAS-like and C-terminal RecA-like ATPase domains followed by a set of short C-terminal helices. The hexamer is formed by extensive polar subunit interactions between the ATPase core of one monomer and the N-terminal domain of the next. An additional structure captures a non-symmetric PilT hexamer in which approach of invariant arginines from two subunits to the bound nucleotide forms an enzymatically competent active site. A panel of pilT mutations highlights the importance of the arginines, the PAS-like domain, the polar subunit interface, and the C-terminal helices for retraction. We present a model for ATP binding leading to dramatic PilT domain motions, engagement of the arginine wire, and subunit communication in this hexameric motor. Our conclusions apply to the entire Type II/IV secretion ATPase family. PMID:17355871

  7. Driving and the Built Environment: The Effects of Compact Development on Motorized Travel, Energy Use, and CO2 Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez-Ibanez, Dr. Jose; Boarnet, Marlon G.; Brake, Dianne R.; Cervero, Robert B.; Cotugno, Andrew; Downs, Anthony; Hanson, Susan; Kockelman, Kara M.; Mokhtarian, Patricia L.; Pendall, Rolf J.; Santini, Danilo J.; Southworth, Frank

    2009-01-01

    The vast majority of the U.S. population-some 80 percent-now lives in metropolitan areas, but population and employment continue to decentralize within regions, and density levels continue to decline at the urban fringe. Suburbanization is a long-standing trend that reflects the preference of many Americans for living in detached single-family homes, made possible largely through the mobility provided by the automobile and an extensive highway network. Yet these dispersed, automobile-dependent development patterns have come at a cost, consuming vast quantities of undeveloped land; increasing the nation's dependence on petroleum, particularly foreign imports; and increasing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that contribute to global warming. The primary purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between land development patterns, often referred to as the built environment, and motor vehicle travel in the United States and to assess whether petroleum use, and by extension GHG emissions, could be reduced through changes in the design of development patterns (see Appendix A for the full statement of task). A key question of interest is the extent to which developing more compactly would reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT) and make alternative modes of travel (e.g., transit, walking) more feasible. The study is focused on metropolitan areas and on personal travel, the primary vectors through which policy changes designed to encourage more compact development should have the greatest effect.

  8. Gear bearing drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, Brian (Inventor); Mavroidis, Constantinos (Inventor); Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A gear bearing drive provides a compact mechanism that operates as an actuator providing torque and as a joint providing support. The drive includes a gear arrangement integrating an external rotor DC motor within a sun gear. Locking surfaces maintain the components of the drive in alignment and provide support for axial loads and moments. The gear bearing drive has a variety of applications, including as a joint in robotic arms and prosthetic limbs.

  9. Low cost, compact, and high efficiency traction motor for electric and hybrid electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Ehsani, Mark

    2002-10-07

    A new motor drive, the switched reluctance motor drive, has been developed for hybrid-electric vehicles. The motor drive has been designed, built and tested in the test bed at a near vehicle scale. It has been shown that the switched reluctance motor drive is more suitable for traction application than any other motor drive.

  10. CONTROL ROD DRIVE

    DOEpatents

    Chapellier, R.A.

    1960-05-24

    BS>A drive mechanism was invented for the control rod of a nuclear reactor. Power is provided by an electric motor and an outside source of fluid pressure is utilized in conjunction with the fluid pressure within the reactor to balance the loadings on the motor. The force exerted on the drive mechanism in the direction of scramming the rod is derived from the reactor fluid pressure so that failure of the outside pressure source will cause prompt scramming of the rod.

  11. Chaotic motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laroche, C.; Labbé, R.; Pétrélis, F.; Fauve, S.

    2012-02-01

    We show that electric motors and dynamos can be used to illustrate most elementary instabilities or bifurcations discussed in courses on nonlinear oscillators and dynamical systems. These examples are easier to understand and display a richer behavior than the ones commonly used from mechanics, electronics, hydrodynamics, lasers, chemical reactions, and population dynamics. In particular, an electric motor driven by a dynamo can display stationary, Hopf, and codimension-two bifurcations by tuning the driving speed of the dynamo and the electric current in the stator of the electric motor. When the dynamo is driven at constant torque instead of constant rotation rate, chaotic reversals of the generated current and of the angular rotation of the motor are observed. Simple deterministic models are presented which capture the observed dynamical regimes.

  12. Gas centrifuge with driving motor

    DOEpatents

    Dancy, Jr., William H.

    1976-01-01

    1. A centrifuge for separating gaseous constituents of different masses comprising a vertical tubular rotor, means for introducing a gas mixture of different masses into said rotor and means for removing at least one of the gas components from the rotor, a first bearing means supporting said rotor at one end for rotational movement, a support, a damping bearing mounted on said support, a shaft fixed to said rotor at the opposite end and mechanically connecting said rotor to said damping bearing, a cup-shaped tube of electrically conductive, non-magnetic material in coaxial relationship with said shaft, the open end of said tube extending away from said rotor and the closed end of said tube being directly secured to the adjacent end of the rotor, an annular core of magnetic material fixedly mounted on said support so as to be disposed within said tube and around said shaft, and a second annular magnetic core with coils arranged thereon to receive polyphase current to produce a rotating magnetic field traversing the circumference of said tube, fixedly mounted on said support so as to surround said tube, the size of said first annular core and said second annular core being such as to permit limited radial displacement of said shaft and said tube.

  13. CONTROL ROD DRIVE

    DOEpatents

    Chapellier, R.A.; Rogers, I.

    1961-06-27

    Accurate and controlled drive for the control rod is from an electric motor. A hydraulic arrangement is provided to balance a piston against which a control rod is urged by the application of fluid pressure. The electric motor drive of the control rod for normal operation is made through the aforementioned piston. In the event scramming is required, the fluid pressure urging the control rod against the piston is relieved and an opposite fluid pressure is applied. The lack of mechanical connection between the electric motor and control rod facilitates the scramming operation.

  14. Directed flux motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Andrew (Inventor); Punnoose, Andrew (Inventor); Strausser, Katherine (Inventor); Parikh, Neil (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A directed flux motor described utilizes the directed magnetic flux of at least one magnet through ferrous material to drive different planetary gear sets to achieve capabilities in six actuated shafts that are grouped three to a side of the motor. The flux motor also utilizes an interwoven magnet configuration which reduces the overall size of the motor. The motor allows for simple changes to modify the torque to speed ratio of the gearing contained within the motor as well as simple configurations for any number of output shafts up to six. The changes allow for improved manufacturability and reliability within the design.

  15. Driving and neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Uc, Ergun Y; Rizzo, Matthew

    2008-09-01

    The proportion of elderly people in the general population is rising, resulting in greater numbers of drivers with neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. These neurodegenerative disorders impair cognition, visual perception, and motor function, leading to reduced driver fitness and greater crash risk. Yet neither medical diagnosis nor age alone is reliable enough to predict driver safety or crashes or to revoke the driving privileges of these individuals. Driving research utilizes tools such as questionnaires about driving habits and history, driving simulators, standardized road tests utilizing instrumented vehicles, and state driving records. Research challenges include outlining the evolution of driving safety, understanding the mechanisms of driving impairment, and developing a reliable and efficient standardized test battery for prediction of driver safety in neurodegenerative disorders. This information will enable healthcare providers to advise their patients with neurodegenerative disorders with more certainty, affect policy, and help develop rehabilitative measures for driving. PMID:18713573

  16. Variation in the electrical properties of 100 V/100 a rated mesh and stripe TDMOSFETs (Trench Double-Diffused MOSFETs) for motor drive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Kyoung-Il; Kah, Dong-Ha; Kim, Sang-Gi; Koo, Jin-Gun; Kim, Jongdae; Yang, Yil-Suk; Lee, Jin-Ho

    2012-05-01

    The vertical power metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) with deep trench structures are the most promising candidates to overcome the trade-off relationship between the ON-resistance (R ON ) and the blocking voltage (BV DS ). Especially, 100 V/100 A rated trench power MOSFETs are used in components of many power systems, such as motors and LED lighting drive ICs, DC-DC converters in electric vehicles, and so on. In this work, we studied variations of the electrical characteristics, such as threshold voltage (V TH ), BV DS , and drain current drivability, with p-well doping concentration via the SILVACO simulator. From simulation results, we found the BV DS and the drain current (I D ) as functions of the p-well doping concentration at an ion implantation energy of 80 keV. With increasing of p-well doping concentration in the guard ring region, both V TH and BV DS slowly increased, but I D decreased, because the boron lateral diffusion during the fabrication process below gate trench region affected the doping concentration of the p-body at the active region. Additionally, 100 V/100 A rated trench double-diffused MOSFETs (TDMOSFETs) with meshes and stripes were successfully developed by using a silicon deep etching process. The variations in the electrical properties, such as V TH , BV DS , and drain current drivability, of the two different kinds of fabricated devices, with cell design and density in TDMOSFETs were also studied. The BV DS and the V TH in the stripe-type TDMOSFET were 110 and 3 V, respectively. However, the V TH of mesh-type device was smaller 0.5 V than that of stripe-type because of corner effect. The BV DS improved about 20 V compared to stripe-type TDMOSFET due to edge termination, and the maximum drain current (I D.MAX ) was improved by about 10% due to an increase in the gate width at the same chip size. These effects were reflected in devices with different cell densities. When the cell density was increased, however

  17. Bent shaft motor

    DOEpatents

    Benavides, G.L.

    1998-05-05

    A nonelectromagnetic motor comprising a base, a bent shaft which is rotatable relative to the base wherein the bent shaft comprises a straight portion aligned with a main axis and an offset portion that is offset with respect to the main axis; and a drive means for driving the offset portion of the bent shaft along a generally circular path in a plane perpendicular to the main axis to rotate the bent shaft. The bent shaft and drive means for driving the bent shaft can be selected from piezoelectric, magnetostrictive, rheological and shape memory alloys. The drive means of the nonelectromagnetic motor can additionally comprise a shell which shell surrounds and houses the bent shaft and precesses or gyrates which in turn causes the bent drive shaft to rotate. The nonelectromagnetic motor does not rely on friction for the application of torque upon a rotor. 11 figs.

  18. Bent shaft motor

    DOEpatents

    Benavides, Gilbert L.

    1998-01-01

    A nonelectromagnetic motor comprising a base, a bent shaft which is rotable relative to the base wherein the bent shaft comprises a straight portion aligned with a main axis and an offset portion that is offset with respect to the main axis; and a drive means for driving the offset portion of the bent shaft along a generally circular path in a plane perpendicular to the main axis to rotate the bent shaft. The bent shaft and drive means for driving the bent shaft can be selected from piezoelectric, magnetostrictive, rheological and shape memory alloys. The drive means of the nonelectromagnetic motor can additionally comprise a shell which shell surrounds and houses the bent shaft and precesses or gyrates which in turn causes the bent drive shaft to rotate. The nonelectromagnetic motor does not rely on friction for the application of torque upon a rotor.

  19. 49 CFR 395.3 - Maximum driving time for property-carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... to drive a property-carrying commercial motor vehicle, nor shall any such driver drive a property-carrying commercial motor vehicle, regardless of the number of motor carriers using the driver's services...-carrying commercial motor vehicle to drive, nor shall any driver drive a property-carrying commercial...

  20. 49 CFR 395.3 - Maximum driving time for property-carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... used by it to drive a property-carrying commercial motor vehicle, nor shall any such driver drive a property-carrying commercial motor vehicle: (1) More than 11 cumulative hours following 10 consecutive... commercial motor vehicle to drive, nor shall any driver drive a property-carrying commercial motor...

  1. 49 CFR 395.3 - Maximum driving time for property-carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... to drive a property-carrying commercial motor vehicle, nor shall any such driver drive a property-carrying commercial motor vehicle, regardless of the number of motor carriers using the driver's services... require a driver of a property-carrying commercial motor vehicle to drive, nor shall any driver drive...

  2. Motor/generator

    DOEpatents

    Hickam, Christopher Dale

    2008-05-13

    A motor/generator is provided for connecting between a transmission input shaft and an output shaft of a prime mover. The motor/generator may include a motor/generator housing, a stator mounted to the motor/generator housing, a rotor mounted at least partially within the motor/generator housing and rotatable about a rotor rotation axis, and a transmission-shaft coupler drivingly coupled to the rotor. The transmission-shaft coupler may include a clamp, which may include a base attached to the rotor and a plurality of adjustable jaws.

  3. Drill drive mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Dressel, Michael O.

    1979-01-01

    A drill drive mechanism is especially adapted to provide both rotational drive and axial feed for a drill of substantial diameter such as may be used for drilling holes for roof bolts in mine shafts. The drill shaft is made with a helical pattern of scroll-like projections on its surface for removal of cuttings. The drill drive mechanism includes a plurality of sprockets carrying two chains of drive links which are arranged to interlock around the drill shaft with each drive link having depressions which mate with the scroll-like projections. As the chain links move upwardly or downwardly the surfaces of the depressions in the links mate with the scroll projections to move the shaft axially. Tangs on the drive links mate with notch surfaces between scroll projections to provide a means for rotating the shaft. Projections on the drive links mate together at the center to hold the drive links tightly around the drill shaft. The entire chain drive mechanism is rotated around the drill shaft axis by means of a hydraulic motor and gear drive to cause rotation of the drill shaft. This gear drive also connects with a differential gearset which is interconnected with a second gear. A second motor is connected to the spider shaft of the differential gearset to produce differential movement (speeds) at the output gears of the differential gearset. This differential in speed is utilized to drive said second gear at a speed different from the speed of said gear drive, this speed differential being utilized to drive said sprockets for axial movement of said drill shaft.

  4. U.S. DRIVE

    SciTech Connect

    2012-03-16

    U.S. DRIVE, which stands for United States Driving Research and Innovation for Vehicle efficiency and Energy sustainability, is an expanded government-industry partnership among the U.S. Department of Energy; USCAR, representing Chrysler Group LLC, Ford Motor Company and General Motors; Tesla Motors; five energy companies – BP America, Chevron Corporation, ConocoPhillips, ExxonMobil Corporation, and Shell Oil Products US; two utilities – Southern California Edison and Michigan-based DTE Energy; and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The U.S. DRIVE mission is to accelerate the development of pre-competitive and innovative technologies to enable a full range of affordable and clean advanced light-duty vehicles, as well as related energy infrastructure.

  5. Development of 2MASS Catalog Server Kit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Chisato

    2011-11-01

    We develop a software kit called "2MASS Catalog Server Kit" to easily construct a high-performance database server for the 2MASS Point Source Catalog (includes 470,992,970 objects) and several all-sky catalogs. Users can perform fast radial search and rectangular search using provided stored functions in SQL similar to SDSS SkyServer. Our software kit utilizes open-source RDBMS, and therefore any astronomers and developers can install our kit on their personal computers for research, observation, etc. Out kit is tuned for optimal coordinate search performance. We implement an effective radial search using an orthogonal coordinate system, which does not need any techniques that depend on HTM or HEALpix. Applying the xyz coordinate system to the database index, we can easily implement a system of fast radial search for relatively small (less than several million rows) catalogs. To enable high-speed search of huge catalogs on RDBMS, we apply three additional techniques: table partitioning, composite expression index, and optimization in stored functions. As a result, we obtain satisfactory performance of radial search for the 2MASS catalog. Our system can also perform fast rectangular search. It is implemented using techniques similar to those applied for radial search. Our way of implementation enables a compact system and will give important hints for a low-cost development of other huge catalog databases.

  6. Research Group Introduction : Motor Drive System Research Group, Dept. of Electrical and Information Systems, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    井上, 征則; 真田, 雅之; 森本, 茂雄

    Our research focuses on electrical machine design, controls, drives and power generation systems with respect to permanent magnet synchronous machines and reluctance machines. Three faculty members, a support staff and 20 students are with the research group.

  7. DC drive system for cine/pulse cameras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerlach, R. H.; Sharpsteen, J. T.; Solheim, C. D.; Stoap, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    Camera-drive functions are separated mechanically into two groups which are driven by two separate dc brushless motors. First motor, a 90 deg stepper, drives rotating shutter; second electronically commutated motor drives claw and film transport. Shutter is made of one piece but has two openings for slow and fast exposures.

  8. Variable reluctance drive system

    SciTech Connect

    Lipo, T.A.; Liang, F.

    1995-10-17

    A variable reluctance drive system including a motor and corresponding converter for improved current commutation is described. The motor incorporates a salient pole rotor and a salient pole stator having one or more full pitch windings which operate by mutual inductance to transfer the current from the active short pitch winding following phase alignment. This increases output torque and/or speed and permits a number of simple and economical converter circuits. 17 figs.

  9. AMPA Receptor Phosphorylation and Synaptic Colocalization on Motor Neurons Drive Maladaptive Plasticity below Complete Spinal Cord Injury1,2,3

    PubMed Central

    Stuck, Ellen D.; Irvine, Karen-Amanda; Bresnahan, Jacqueline C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Clinical spinal cord injury (SCI) is accompanied by comorbid peripheral injury in 47% of patients. Human and animal modeling data have shown that painful peripheral injuries undermine long-term recovery of locomotion through unknown mechanisms. Peripheral nociceptive stimuli induce maladaptive synaptic plasticity in dorsal horn sensory systems through AMPA receptor (AMPAR) phosphorylation and trafficking to synapses. Here we test whether ventral horn motor neurons in rats demonstrate similar experience-dependent maladaptive plasticity below a complete SCI in vivo. Quantitative biochemistry demonstrated that intermittent nociceptive stimulation (INS) rapidly and selectively increases AMPAR subunit GluA1 serine 831 phosphorylation and localization to synapses in the injured spinal cord, while reducing synaptic GluA2. These changes predict motor dysfunction in the absence of cell death signaling, suggesting an opportunity for therapeutic reversal. Automated confocal time-course analysis of lumbar ventral horn motor neurons confirmed a time-dependent increase in synaptic GluA1 with concurrent decrease in synaptic GluA2. Optical fractionation of neuronal plasma membranes revealed GluA2 removal from extrasynaptic sites on motor neurons early after INS followed by removal from synapses 2 h later. As GluA2-lacking AMPARs are canonical calcium-permeable AMPARs (CP-AMPARs), their stimulus- and time-dependent insertion provides a therapeutic target for limiting calcium-dependent dynamic maladaptive plasticity after SCI. Confirming this, a selective CP-AMPAR antagonist protected against INS-induced maladaptive spinal plasticity, restoring adaptive motor responses on a sensorimotor spinal training task. These findings highlight the critical involvement of AMPARs in experience-dependent spinal cord plasticity after injury and provide a pharmacologically targetable synaptic mechanism by which early postinjury experience shapes motor plasticity. PMID:26668821

  10. Control rod drive

    SciTech Connect

    Hawke, Basil C.

    1986-01-01

    A control rod drive uses gravitational forces to insert one or more control rods upwardly into a reactor core from beneath the reactor core under emergency conditions. The preferred control rod drive includes a vertically movable weight and a mechanism operatively associating the weight with the control rod so that downward movement of the weight is translated into upward movement of the control rod. The preferred control rod drive further includes an electric motor for driving the control rods under normal conditions, an electrically actuated clutch which automatically disengages the motor during a power failure and a decelerator for bringing the control rod to a controlled stop when it is inserted under emergency conditions into a reactor core.

  11. Current Control Method to Achieve Wide-Range Power Driving for Linear Synchronous Motor with Half-Wave-Rectified Self-Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirayama, Tadashi; Higuchi, Tsuyoshi

    In a previous paper, we proposed a novel linear synchronous motor with half-wave-rectified self-excitation. The long-stator-type linear synchronous motor was built, and its performance was verified by performing experiments. This paper presents a new current control method for the linear synchronous motor for achieving a wide range of speeds and high-power operations. First, we propose the current control method for high-thrust operation in the constant-thrust region. This operation is realized by using a reluctance thrust resulting from the saliency of the linear synchronous motor. Furthermore, we propose a control method that maximizes the ratio of the thrust to the voltage; this method can be used to expand the operating range. Wide-range-speed operation can be achieved by applying this new control method along with field-weakening control. The thrust and operation characteristics of the proposed control methods are estimated by performing experiments and an electric and magnetic coupled analysis.

  12. Motorized support jack

    DOEpatents

    Haney, Steven J.; Herron, Donald Joe

    2001-01-01

    A compact, vacuum compatible motorized jack for supporting heavy loads and adjusting their positions is provided. The motorized jack includes: (a) a housing having a base; (b) a first roller device that provides a first slidable surface and that is secured to the base; (c) a second roller device that provides a second slidable surface and that has an upper surface; (d) a wedge that is slidably positioned between the first roller device and the second roller device so that the wedge is in contact with the first slidable surface and the second slidable surface; (e) a motor; and (d) a drive mechanism that connects the motor and the wedge to cause the motor to controllably move the wedge forwards or backwards. Individual motorized jacks can support and lift of an object at an angle. Two or more motorized jacks can provide tip, tilt and vertical position adjustment capabilities.

  13. Motorized support jack

    DOEpatents

    Haney, Steven J.; Herron, Donald Joe

    2003-05-13

    A compact, vacuum compatible motorized jack for supporting heavy loads and adjusting their positions is provided. The motorized jack includes: (a) a housing having a base; (b) a first roller device that provides a first slidable surface and that is secured to the base; (c) a second roller device that provides a second slidable surface and that has an upper surface; (d) a wedge that is slidably positioned between the first roller device and the second roller device so that the wedge is in contact with the first slidable surface and the second slidable surface; (e) a motor; and (d) a drive mechanism that connects the motor and the wedge to cause the motor to controllably move the wedge forwards or backwards. Individual motorized jacks can support and lift of an object at an angle. Two or more motorized jacks can provide tip, tilt and vertical position adjustment capabilities.

  14. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT XIX, LEARNING ABOUT CRANKING MOTORS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATING PRINCIPLES OF CRANKING MOTORS USED ON DIESEL POWERED EQUIPMENT, TOPICS ARE (1) CRANKING MOTORS. (2) MOTOR PINCIPLES, (3) CRANKING MOTOR CIRCUITS, (4) TYPES OF CRANKING MOTOR DRIVES, AND (5) CRANKING MOTOR SOLENOID CIRCUITS. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A…

  15. Parametric electric motor study

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.; Stahura, D.

    1995-04-30

    Technology for the axial gap motor was developed by DOE with an investment of approximately $15 million. This development effort is for motor technologies of high power density and high efficiency. Such motors that are also small and light-weight are not available on the commercial market because high-power motors have typically been used in large industrial applications where small size and light weight are not requirements. AC Delco has been developing motors since 1918 and is interested in leveraging its research and development dollars to produce an array of motor systems for vehicles and to develop a future line of propulsion products. The DOE focus of the study was applied to machining applications. The most attractive feature of this motor is the axial air gap, which may make possible the removal of the motor`s stationary component from a total enclosure of the remainder of the machine if the power characteristics are adequate. The objectives of this project were to evaluate alternative electric drive systems for machine tools and automotive electric drive systems and to select a best machine type for each of those applications. A major challenge of this project was to produce a small, light-weight, highly efficient motor at a cost-effective price. The project developed machine and machine drive systems and design criteria for the range of applications. The final results included the creation of a baseline for developing electric vehicle powertrain system designs, conventional vehicle engine support system designs, and advanced machine tool configurations. In addition, an axial gap permanent magnet motor was built and tested, and gave, said one engineer involved, a sterling performance. This effort will commercialize advanced motor technology and extend knowledge and design capability in the most efficient electric machine design known today.

  16. Induction motor control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Irving G.

    1990-01-01

    Electromechanical actuators developed to date have commonly utilized permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors. More recently switched reluctance (SR) motors have been advocated due to their robust characteristics. Implications of work which utilizes induction motors and advanced control techniques are discussed. When induction motors are operated from an energy source capable of controlling voltages and frequencies independently, drive characteristics are obtained which are superior to either PM or SR motors. By synthesizing the machine frequency from a high frequency carrier (nominally 20 kHz), high efficiencies, low distortion, and rapid torque response are available. At this time multiple horsepower machine drives were demonstrated, and work is on-going to develop a 20 hp average, 40 hp peak class of aerospace actuators. This effort is based upon high frequency power distribution and management techniques developed by NASA for Space Station Freedom.

  17. Induction motor control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Irving G.

    1990-01-01

    Electromechanical actuators developed to date have commonly ultilized permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors. More recently switched reluctance (SR) motors have been advocated due to their robust characteristics. Implications of work which utilized induction motors and advanced control techniques are discussed. When induction motors are operated from an energy source capable of controlling voltages and frequencies independently, drive characteristics are obtained which are superior to either PM or SR motors. By synthesizing the machine frequency from a high-frequency carrier (nominally 20 kHz), high efficiencies, low distortion, and rapid torque response are available. At this time multiple horsepower machine drives were demonstrated, and work is on-going to develop a 20 hp average, 40 hp peak class of aerospace actuators. This effort is based upon high-frequency power distribution and management techniques developed by NASA for Space Station Freedom.

  18. Induction motor control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Irving G.

    Electromechanical actuators developed to date have commonly ultilized permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors. More recently switched reluctance (SR) motors have been advocated due to their robust characteristics. Implications of work which utilized induction motors and advanced control techniques are discussed. When induction motors are operated from an energy source capable of controlling voltages and frequencies independently, drive characteristics are obtained which are superior to either PM or SR motors. By synthesizing the machine frequency from a high-frequency carrier (nominally 20 kHz), high efficiencies, low distortion, and rapid torque response are available. At this time multiple horsepower machine drives were demonstrated, and work is on-going to develop a 20 hp average, 40 hp peak class of aerospace actuators. This effort is based upon high-frequency power distribution and management techniques developed by NASA for Space Station Freedom.

  19. Myosin II Motors and F-Actin Dynamics Drive the Coordinated Movement of the Centrosome and Soma during CNS Glial-Guided Neuronal Migration

    SciTech Connect

    Solecki, Dr. David; Trivedi, Dr. Niraj; Govek, Eve-Ellen; Kerekes, Ryan A; Gleason, Shaun Scott; Hatten, Mary E

    2009-01-01

    Lamination of cortical regions of the vertebrate brain depends on glial-guided neuronal migration. The conserved polarity protein Par6{alpha} localizes to the centrosome and coordinates forward movement of the centrosome and soma in migrating neurons. The cytoskeletal components that produce this unique form of cell polarity and their relationship to polarity signaling cascades are unknown. We show that F-actin and Myosin II motors are enriched in the neuronal leading process and that Myosin II activity is necessary for leading process actin dynamics. Inhibition of Myosin II decreased the speed of centrosome and somal movement, whereas Myosin II activation increased coordinated movement. Ectopic expression or silencing of Par6{alpha} inhibited Myosin II motors by decreasing Myosin light-chain phosphorylation. These findings suggest leading-process Myosin II may function to 'pull' the centrosome and soma forward during glial-guided migration by a mechanism involving the conserved polarity protein Par6{alpha}.

  20. Do Emergency Physicians Educate Patients about the Dangers of Drinking and Driving after a Motor Vehicle Collision, and What Are the Barriers or Motivators to Do So?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garnett, Meghan; Stewart, Tanya Charyk; Van Aarsen, Kristine; Millard, Wanda; Lim, Rodrick; Miller, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Impaired driving is the leading cause of criminal death in Canada and results in numerous emergency department (ED) visits each year. Methods: An online survey was distributed to 94 emergency physicians and emergency medicine residents at an academic tertiary care hospital in Southwestern Ontario. Descriptive statistics were…

  1. Vision and Driving

    PubMed Central

    Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    Driving is the primary means of personal travel in many countries and is relies heavily on vision for its successful execution. Research over the past few decades has addressed the role of vision in driver safety (motor vehicle collision involvement) and in driver performance (both on-road and using interactive simulators in the laboratory). Here we critically review what is currently known about the role of various aspects of visual function in driving. We also discuss translational research issues on vision screening for licensure and re-licensure and rehabilitation of visually impaired persons who want to drive. PMID:20580907

  2. Closed-Loop Motor-Speed Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Matthew A.; Delcher, Ray C.; Huston, Steven W.

    1989-01-01

    Electronic motor-speed control circuit designed to operate in electrically noisy environment. Includes optoelectronic pick-up device, placed inside motor housing to provide speed feedback signal. Automatically maintains speed motor at commanded value. Measures speed of motor in terms of frequency of pulses of infrared light chopped by fan blades of motor. Difference between measured and commanded speeds serves as control signal for external amplifier driving motor. Major advantage of circuit is low cost.

  3. Magnetically Coupled Adjustable Speed Drive Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chvala, William D.; Winiarski, David W.

    2002-08-18

    Adjustable speed drive (ASD) technologies have the ability to precisely control motor sytems output and produce a numbr of benefits including energy and demand savings. This report examines the performance and cost effectiveness of a specific class of ASDs called magnetically-coupled adjustable speed drives (MC-ASD) which use the strength of a magnetic field to control the amount of torque transferred between motor and drive shaft. The MagnaDrive Adjustable Speed Coupling System uses fixed rare-earth magnets and varies the distance between rotating plates in the assembly. the PAYBACK Variable Speed Drive uses an electromagnet to control the speed of the drive

  4. A DSP-based position sensor elimination method with an on-line parameter identification scheme for permanent magnet synchronous motor drives

    SciTech Connect

    Wijenayake, A.H.; Bailey, J.M.; Naidu, M.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents a Digital Signal Processor-based algorithm with an on-line parameter identification scheme for precision estimation of the rotor position and speed of a permanent magnet adjustable speed drive system by measuring stator currents, voltages and temperature. A modified d-q equivalent circuit model has been obtained to account for the core losses. Machine parameter variations due to saturation and temperature are included in the algorithm, which is valid for any speed, including zero speed. A simple hardware implementation to estimate the initial rotor position during the machine start-up and the implementation of position estimation algorithm, using a TMS320C25 DSP, is discussed. Because the estimation algorithm needs few instructions, it can easily be implemented in real-time vector control of permanent magnet synchronous drives. A complete vector-controlled drive system using an actively clamped resonant dc link inverter with the position estimator has been simulated, and results show that the estimated position is in close agreement with the actual rotor position of the machine.

  5. Chemistry: No turning back for motorized molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayden, Jonathan

    2016-06-01

    Two molecular motors have been developed that use chemical energy to drive rotational motion in a single direction. The findings bring the prospect of devices powered by such motors a tantalizing step closer. See Letter p.235

  6. Diabetes and driving.

    PubMed

    Inkster, B; Frier, B M

    2013-09-01

    The principal safety concern for driving for people treated with insulin or insulin secretagogues is hypoglycaemia, which impairs driving performance. Other complications, such as those causing visual impairment and peripheral neuropathy, are also relevant to medical fitness to drive. Case control studies have suggested that drivers with diabetes pose a modestly increased but acceptable and measurable risk of motor vehicle accidents compared to non-diabetic drivers, but many studies are limited and of poor quality. Factors which have been shown to increase driving risk include previous episodes of severe hypoglycaemia, previous hypoglycaemia while driving, strict glycaemic control (lower HbA1c) and absence of blood glucose monitoring before driving. Impaired awareness of hypoglycaemia may be counteracted by frequent blood glucose testing. The European Union Third directive on driving (2006) has necessitated changes in statutory regulations for driving licences for people with diabetes in all European States, including the UK. Stricter criteria have been introduced for Group 1 vehicle licences while those for Group 2 licences have been relaxed. Insulin-treated drivers can now apply to drive Group 2 vehicles, but in the UK must meet very strict criteria and be assessed by an independent specialist to be issued with a 1-year licence. PMID:23350766

  7. Adjustable Speed Drive Study, Part 2.

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, Alan K.; Oregon State University. Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering.

    1989-08-01

    Advances in speed control for motors in recent years, notably those in power electronics, have widened the range of application for several adjustable speed drive (ASD) types to include the smaller horsepower sizes. The DC motor drive, formerly in almost universal use for speed control, is being challenged by the high efficiency induction motor/pulse width modulation (PWM) drive; and for special small horsepower size applications, by the permanent magnet motor/PWM inverter drive or by the switched reluctance motor drive. The main characteristics of the several ASD types suitable for small horsepower size applications are discussed, as well as their unwanted side effects: poor power factor, harmonic distortion of the supply, acoustic noise, and electromagnetic interference. A procedure is recommended for determining which, if any, ASD to use.

  8. Adjustable speed drive study, part 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, A.

    1989-08-01

    Advances in speed control for motors in recent years, notably those in power electronics, have widened the range of application for several adjustable speed drive (ASD) types to include the smaller horsepower sizes. The dc motor drive, formerly in almost universal use for speed control, is being challenged by the high efficiency induction motor/pulse width modulation (PWM) drive; and for special small horsepower size applications, by the permanent magnet motor/PWM inverter drive or by the switched reluctance motor drive. The main characteristics of the several ASD types suitable for small horsepower size applications are discussed, as well as their unwanted side effects: poor power factor, harmonic distortion of the supply, acoustic noise, and electromagnetic interference. A procedure is recommended for determining which, if any, ASD to use.

  9. Adjustable Speed Drive Study, Part 1.

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, Alan K.; Oregon State University. Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering.

    1989-08-01

    Advances in speed control for motors in recent years, notably those in power electronics, have widened the range of application for several adjustable speed drive (ASD) types to include the smaller horsepower sizes. The dc motor drive, formerly in almost universal use for speed control, is being challenged by the high efficiency induction motor/pulse width modulation (PWM) drive; and for special small horsepower size applications, by the permanent magnet motor/PWM inverter drive or by the switched reluctance motor drive. The main characteristics of the several ASD types suitable for small horsepower size applications are discussed, as well as their unwanted side effects: poor power factor, harmonic distortion of the supply, acoustic noise, and electromagnetic interference. A procedure is recommended for determining which, if any, ASD to use. 31 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Fatalities of Pedestrians, Bicycle Riders, and Motorists Due to Distracted Driving Motor Vehicle Crashes in the U.S., 2005–2010

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Fernando A.; Muelleman, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Distracted driving is an increasingly deadly threat to road safety. This study documents trends in and characteristics of pedestrian, bicycle rider, and other victim deaths caused by distracted drivers on U.S. public roads. Methods We obtained data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System database from 2005 to 2010 on every crash that resulted in at least one fatality within 30 days occurring on public roads in the U.S. Following the definition used by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, we identified distracted driving based on whether police investigators determined that a driver had been using a technological device, including a cell phone, onboard navigation system, computer, fax machine, two-way radio, or head-up display, or had been engaged in inattentive or careless activities. Results The rate of fatalities per 10 billion vehicle miles traveled increased from 116.1 in 2005 to 168.6 in 2010 for pedestrians and from 18.7 in 2005 to 24.6 in 2010 for bicyclists. Pedestrian victims of distracted driving crashes were disproportionately male, 25–64 years of age, and non-Hispanic white. They were also more likely to die at nighttime, be struck by a distracted driver outside of a marked crosswalk, and be in a metro location. Bicycling victims of distracted crashes were disproportionately male, non-Hispanic white, and struck by a distracted driver outside of a crosswalk. Compared with pedestrians, bicyclists were less likely to be hit in early morning. Conclusions Distracted drivers are the cause of an increasing share of fatalities found among pedestrians and bicycle riders. Policies are needed to protect pedestrians and bicycle riders as they cross intersections or travel on roadways. PMID:24179255

  11. Parkinson disease and driving

    PubMed Central

    Classen, Sherrilene; Uc, Ergun Y.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT The growing literature on driving in Parkinson disease (PD) has shown that driving is impaired in PD compared to healthy comparison drivers. PD is a complex neurodegenerative disorder leading to motor, cognitive, and visual impairments, all of which can affect fitness to drive. In this review, we examined studies of driving performance (on-road tests and simulators) in PD for outcome measures and their predictors. We searched through various databases and found 25 (of 99) primary studies, all published in English. Using the American Academy of Neurology criteria, a study class of evidence was assigned (I–IV, I indicating the highest level of evidence) and recommendations were made (Level A: predictive or not; B: probably predictive or not; C: possibly predictive or not; U: no recommendations). From available Class II and III studies, we identified various cognitive, visual, and motor measures that met different levels of evidence (usually Level B or C) with respect to predicting on-road and simulated driving performance. Class I studies reporting Level A recommendations for definitive predictors of driving performance in drivers with PD are needed by policy makers and clinicians to develop evidence-based guidelines. PMID:23150533

  12. The FIRST-2MASS Red Quasar Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Glikman, E; Helfand, D J; White, R L; Becker, R H; Gregg, M D; Lacy, M

    2007-06-28

    Combining radio observations with optical and infrared color selection--demonstrated in our pilot study to be an efficient selection algorithm for finding red quasars--we have obtained optical and infrared spectroscopy for 120 objects in a complete sample of 156 candidates from a sky area of 2716 square degrees. Consistent with our initial results, we find our selection criteria--J-K > 1.7,R-K > 4.0--yield a {approx} 50% success rate for discovering quasars substantially redder than those found in optical surveys. Comparison with UVX- and optical color-selected samples shows that {approx}> 10% of the quasars are missed in a magnitude-limited survey. Simultaneous two-frequency radio observations for part of the sample indicate that a synchrotron continuum component is ruled out as a significant contributor to reddening the quasars spectra. We go on to estimate extinctions for our objects assuming their red colors are caused by dust. Continuum fits and Balmer decrements suggest E(B-V) values ranging from near zero to 2.5 magnitudes. Correcting the K-band magnitudes for these extinctions, we find that for K {le} 14.0, red quasars make up between 25% and 60% of the underlying quasar population; owing to the incompleteness of the 2MASS survey at fainter K-band magnitudes, we can only set a lower limit to the radio-detected red quasar population of > 20-30%.

  13. Low backlash direct drive actuator

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, T.C.

    1994-10-25

    A low backlash direct drive actuator is described which comprises a motor such as a stepper motor having at least 200 steps per revolution; a two part hub assembly comprising a drive hub coaxially attached to the shaft of the motor and having a plurality of drive pins; a driven hub having a plurality of bores in one end thereof in alignment with the drive pins in the drive hub and a threaded shaft coaxially mounted in an opposite end of the driven hub; and a housing having a central bore therein into which are fitted the drive hub and driven hub, the housing having a motor mount on one end thereof to which is mounted the stepper motor, and a closed end portion with a threaded opening therein coaxial with the central bore in the housing and receiving therein the threaded shaft attached to the driven hub. Limit switches mounted to the housing cooperate with an enlarged lip on the driven hub to limit the lateral travel of the driven hub in the housing, which also acts to limit the lateral travel of the threaded shaft which functions as a lead screw. 10 figs.

  14. Low backlash direct drive actuator

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, Thomas C.

    1994-01-01

    A low backlash direct drive actuator is described which comprises a motor such as a stepper motor having at least 200 steps per revolution; a two part hub assembly comprising a drive hub coaxially attached to the shaft of the motor and having a plurality of drive pins; a driven hub having a plurality of bores in one end thereof in alignment with the drive pins in the drive hub and a threaded shaft coaxially mounted in an opposite end of the driven hub; and a housing having a central bore therein into which are fitted the drive hub and driven hub, the housing having a motor mount on one end thereof to which is mounted the stepper motor, and a closed end portion with a threaded opening therein coaxial with the central bore in the housing and receiving therein the threaded shaft attached to the driven hub. Limit switches mounted to the housing cooperate with an enlarged lip on the driven hub to limit the lateral travel of the driven hub in the housing, which also acts to limit the lateral travel of the threaded shaft which functions as a lead screw.

  15. Low cost electronic ultracapacitor interface technique to provide load leveling of a battery for pulsed load or motor traction drive applications

    DOEpatents

    King, Robert Dean; DeDoncker, Rik Wivina Anna Adelson

    1998-01-01

    A battery load leveling arrangement for an electrically powered system in which battery loading is subject to intermittent high current loading utilizes a passive energy storage device and a diode connected in series with the storage device to conduct current from the storage device to the load when current demand forces a drop in battery voltage. A current limiting circuit is connected in parallel with the diode for recharging the passive energy storage device. The current limiting circuit functions to limit the average magnitude of recharge current supplied to the storage device. Various forms of current limiting circuits are disclosed, including a PTC resistor coupled in parallel with a fixed resistor. The current limit circuit may also include an SCR for switching regenerative braking current to the device when the system is connected to power an electric motor.

  16. Financial performance, ISO 9000 standard and safe driving practices effects on accident rate in the U.S. motor carrier industry.

    PubMed

    Naveh, Eitan; Marcus, Alfred

    2007-07-01

    The question this research address is if voluntary certification with ISO 9000 standards can reduce the number of accidents large trucks have. Certification might have a positive effect depending upon the actions a company takes as a result of being certified, for instance, a company may change driver training and maintenance and how it carries out corrective action. We identified 40 ISO 9002: 1994 certified U.S. trucking companies and compared their safety performance before and after ISO certification. We also compared them to a group of motor carriers that had similar characteristics but were not certified. The safety performance of the certified carriers was significantly better after certification than before, and it also was significantly better than that of non-certified carriers, findings that we believe can be useful to carriers, shippers and regulators who wish to better understand the value of certification. PMID:17166474

  17. Dopaminergic Circuitry Underlying Mating Drive.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Stephen X; Rogulja, Dragana; Crickmore, Michael A

    2016-07-01

    We develop a new system for studying how innate drives are tuned to reflect current physiological needs and capacities, and how they affect sensory-motor processing. We demonstrate the existence of male mating drive in Drosophila, which is transiently and cumulatively reduced as reproductive capacity is depleted by copulations. Dopaminergic activity in the anterior of the superior medial protocerebrum (SMPa) is also transiently and cumulatively reduced in response to matings and serves as a functional neuronal correlate of mating drive. The dopamine signal is transmitted through the D1-like DopR2 receptor to P1 neurons, which also integrate sensory information relevant to the perception of females, and which project to courtship motor centers that initiate and maintain courtship behavior. Mating drive therefore converges with sensory information from the female at the point of transition to motor output, controlling the propensity of a sensory percept to trigger goal-directed behavior. PMID:27292538

  18. Recent Advances of Reluctance Torque Assisted Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohyama, Kazunobu

    The history of motor technology began with the discovery of electromagnetic induction by Faraday. Various kinds of motors were developed by the recent progress of the fundamental technology (magnetic structure, magnetic material, drive circuit, control method). Especially, motors using the reluctance torque have many advantages and some of them are used as high efficient motors. This paper overviews recent advances of reluctance torque assisted motors such as Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM), Synchronous Reluctance Motor (SynRM) and Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (IPMSM).

  19. Chapter 18: Variable Frequency Drive Evaluation Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Romberger, J.

    2014-11-01

    An adjustable-speed drive (ASD) includes all devices that vary the speed of a rotating load, including those that vary the motor speed and linkage devices that allow constant motor speed while varying the load speed. The Variable Frequency Drive Evaluation Protocol presented here addresses evaluation issues for variable-frequency drives (VFDs) installed on commercial and industrial motor-driven centrifugal fans and pumps for which torque varies with speed. Constant torque load applications, such as those for positive displacement pumps, are not covered by this protocol. Other ASD devices, such as magnetic drive, eddy current drives, variable belt sheave drives, or direct current motor variable voltage drives, are also not addressed. The VFD is by far the most common type of ASD hardware. With VFD speed control on a centrifugal fan or pump motor, energy use follows the affinity laws, which state that the motor electricity demand is a cubic relationship to speed under ideal conditions. Therefore, if the motor runs at 75% speed, the motor demand will ideally be reduced to 42% of full load power; however, with other losses it is about 49% of full load power.

  20. 32 CFR 634.15 - Restricted driving privileges or probation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Privileges... person whose driver license or right to operate motor vehicles is under suspension or revocation by a... driving privileges, a state, Federal, or host nation driver's license or right to operate motor...

  1. Fine-tuning motor torque

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connor, L.

    1996-01-01

    Direct-torque control, a new method of regulating the output of ac induction motors, provides a swift response to input commands. A new variable-speed ac motor drive system that responds to torque input commands 10 times faster than current state-of-the-art drives has been developed by ABB Industrial Systems Inc. in New Berlin, Wis. The new control system, called the ACS 600, provides an alternative to drive systems that use sophisticated flux vector control or more routine pulse width modulation--the primary methods of regulating the output of ac induction motors. The ACS 600 is suitable for use in single motor applications that require a standard level of performance, such as conveyors, fans, and pumps. But it will likely be more valuable in applications that require the linking of multiple motors, such as textile production, and in applications that require tight control over torque, such as cranes, elevators, and centrifuges.

  2. 32 CFR 263.6 - Speeding or reckless driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... driving. (a) No person shall drive a motor vehicle on the site at a speed greater than or in a manner... a special hazard exists that requires lower speed, the speed limit on the site is 15 m.p.h., unless another speed limit has been duly posted, and no person shall drive a motor vehicle on the site in...

  3. Cryogenic Electric Motor Tested

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Gerald V.

    2004-01-01

    Technology for pollution-free "electric flight" is being evaluated in a number of NASA Glenn Research Center programs. One approach is to drive propulsive fans or propellers with electric motors powered by fuel cells running on hydrogen. For large transport aircraft, conventional electric motors are far too heavy to be feasible. However, since hydrogen fuel would almost surely be carried as liquid, a propulsive electric motor could be cooled to near liquid hydrogen temperature (-423 F) by using the fuel for cooling before it goes to the fuel cells. Motor windings could be either superconducting or high purity normal copper or aluminum. The electrical resistance of pure metals can drop to 1/100th or less of their room-temperature resistance at liquid hydrogen temperature. In either case, super or normal, much higher current density is possible in motor windings. This leads to more compact motors that are projected to produce 20 hp/lb or more in large sizes, in comparison to on the order of 2 hp/lb for large conventional motors. High power density is the major goal. To support cryogenic motor development, we have designed and built in-house a small motor (7-in. outside diameter) for operation in liquid nitrogen.

  4. [Automobile driving capacity in dementia].

    PubMed

    Seeger, Rolf

    2015-04-01

    Dementia influences at an early stage the driving aptitude of motor vehicle steering persons. Every year in Switzerland, around 16'000 driving permit holders suffer newly from dementia; therefore the driving aptitude is questioned, especially because of possibly limited executive functions. Individuals with early-stage dementia often may show a dangerous driving stile. However, a mild dementia does not a priori exclude the driving aptitude, and less than half of these drivers can continue driving for another 1 - 3 years. In contrast, there is no further driving aptitude in presence of moderate dementia. In the assessment of driving aptitude, the underlying cause of dementia is always taken into account. Cognitive short tests such as the Mini-Mental Status Exam, Clock Drawing Test and Trail-Making Test are not suitable to make reliable statements about the aptitude to drive, but these tests are very important for the initial diagnosis of dementia in primary care practice and can lead the way for further examination concerning driving aptitude. The legally prescribed regular check-up for motorists aged over 70 years in Switzerland provides an ideal opportunity for early detection of incipient dementia. The practical procedure for the assessment of aptitude to drive in the primary care practice is presented. The physician-guided on-road driving test represents a meaningful, practical and relatively cost-effective tool for the evaluation of driving aptitude in cases of doubt. PMID:25791047

  5. Comparison of capabilities of reluctance synchronous motor and induction motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štumberger, Gorazd; Hadžiselimović, Miralem; Štumberger, Bojan; Miljavec, Damijan; Dolinar, Drago; Zagradišnik, Ivan

    2006-09-01

    This paper compares the capabilities of a reluctance synchronous motor (RSM) with those of an induction motor (IM). An RSM and IM were designed and made, with the same rated power and speed. They differ only in the rotor portion while their stators, housings and cooling systems are identical. The capabilities of both motors in a variable speed drive are evaluated by comparison of the results obtained by magnetically nonlinear models and by measurements.

  6. iDriving (Intelligent Driving)

    2012-09-17

    iDriving identifies the driving style factors that have a major impact on fuel economy. An optimization framework is used with the aim of optimizing a driving style with respect to these driving factors. A set of polynomial metamodels is constructed to reflect the responses produced in fuel economy by changing the driving factors. The optimization framework is used to develop a real-time feedback system, including visual instructions, to enable drivers to alter their driving stylesmore » in responses to actual driving conditions to improve fuel efficiency.« less

  7. iDriving (Intelligent Driving)

    SciTech Connect

    Malikopoulos, Andreas

    2012-09-17

    iDriving identifies the driving style factors that have a major impact on fuel economy. An optimization framework is used with the aim of optimizing a driving style with respect to these driving factors. A set of polynomial metamodels is constructed to reflect the responses produced in fuel economy by changing the driving factors. The optimization framework is used to develop a real-time feedback system, including visual instructions, to enable drivers to alter their driving styles in responses to actual driving conditions to improve fuel efficiency.

  8. Circuit increases capability of hysteresis synchronous motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markowitz, I. N.

    1967-01-01

    Frequency and phase detector circuit enables a hysteresis synchronous motor to drive a load of given torque value at a precise speed determined by a stable reference. This technique permits driving larger torque loads with smaller motors and lower power drain.

  9. Development of a drive system for a sequential space camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpsteen, J. T.; Solheim, C. D.; Stoap, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    Breadboard models of single and dual motor drives for the shutter, claw and magazine of a space camera system were designed and tested. The single motor technique utilizes a single electronically commutated motor to drive the claw and shutter without resorting to a solenoid actuated clutch for pulse operation. Shutter speed is established by a combination of the cinemode speed and the opening of the conventional DAC two piece shutter. Pulse mode operation is obtained by applying power at a fixed clock rate and removing power at an appropriate point in the mechanical cycle such that the motor comes to rest by system friction. The dual motor approach utilizes a stepper motor to drive the shutter and an electronically commutated dc motor to drive the claw and magazine functions. The motors are synchronized electronically.

  10. Drugged Driving

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infographics » Drugged Driving Drugged Driving Email Facebook Twitter Text Description of Infographic Top Right Figure : In 2009, ... crash than those who don't smoke. Bottom Text: Develop Social Strategies Offer to be a designated ...

  11. Electric vehicle drive train with contactor protection

    DOEpatents

    Konrad, C.E.; Benson, R.A.

    1994-11-29

    A drive train for an electric vehicle includes a traction battery, a power drive circuit, a main contactor for connecting and disconnecting the traction battery and the power drive circuit, a voltage detector across contacts of the main contactor, and a controller for controlling the main contactor to prevent movement of its contacts to the closed position when the voltage across the contacts exceeds a predetermined threshold, to thereby protect the contacts of the contactor. The power drive circuit includes an electric traction motor and a DC-to-AC inverter with a capacitive input filter. The controller also inhibits the power drive circuit from driving the motor and thereby discharging the input capacitor if the contacts are inadvertently opened during motoring. A precharging contactor is controlled to charge the input filter capacitor prior to closing the main contactor to further protect the contacts of the main contactor. 3 figures.

  12. Electric vehicle drive train with contactor protection

    DOEpatents

    Konrad, Charles E.; Benson, Ralph A.

    1994-01-01

    A drive train for an electric vehicle includes a traction battery, a power drive circuit, a main contactor for connecting and disconnecting the traction battery and the power drive circuit, a voltage detector across contacts of the main contactor, and a controller for controlling the main contactor to prevent movement of its contacts to the closed position when the voltage across the contacts exceeds a predetermined threshold, to thereby protect the contacts of the contactor. The power drive circuit includes an electric traction motor and a DC-to-AC inverter with a capacitive input filter. The controller also inhibits the power drive circuit from driving the motor and thereby discharging the input capacitor if the contacts are inadvertently opened during motoring. A precharging contactor is controlled to charge the input filter capacitor prior to closing the main contactor to further protect the contacts of the main contactor.

  13. Variable-Reluctance Motor For Electric Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Jeffrey H.

    1987-01-01

    Report describes research on variable-reluctance electric-motor drive for eventual use in electric-vehicle propulsion. Primary design and performance criteria were torque and power output per unit mass of motor, cost, and drive efficiency. For each criterion, optimized drive design developed, and designs unified to yield single electric-vehicle drive. Scaled-down motor performed as expected. Prototype of paraplegic lift operated by toggle switch and joystick. Lift plugs into household electrical outlet for recharging when not in use.

  14. 49 CFR 395.5 - Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... used by it to drive a passenger-carrying commercial motor vehicle, nor shall any such driver drive a passenger-carrying commercial motor vehicle: (1) More than 10 hours following 8 consecutive hours off duty...) No motor carrier shall permit or require a driver of a passenger-carrying commercial motor vehicle...

  15. 49 CFR 395.5 - Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... used by it to drive a passenger-carrying commercial motor vehicle, nor shall any such driver drive a passenger-carrying commercial motor vehicle: (1) More than 10 hours following 8 consecutive hours off duty...) No motor carrier shall permit or require a driver of a passenger-carrying commercial motor vehicle...

  16. 49 CFR 395.5 - Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... used by it to drive a passenger-carrying commercial motor vehicle, nor shall any such driver drive a passenger-carrying commercial motor vehicle: (1) More than 10 hours following 8 consecutive hours off duty...) No motor carrier shall permit or require a driver of a passenger-carrying commercial motor vehicle...

  17. Motor Controller System For Large Dynamic Range of Motor Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, David E. (Inventor); Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Smith, Dennis A. (Inventor); Dutton, Kenneth R. (Inventor); Paulson, Mitchell Scott (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A motor controller system uses a rotary sensor with a plurality of signal conditioning units, coupled to the rotary sensor. Each of these units, which is associated with a particular range of motor output shaft rotation rates, generate a feedback signal indicative of the position of the motor s output shaft. A controller (i) converts a selected motor output shaft rotation rate to a corresponding incremental amount of rotational movement for a selected fixed time period, (ii) selects, at periodic completions of the selected fixed time period, the feedback signal from one of the signal conditioning units for which the particular range of motor output shaft rotation rates associated therewith encompasses the selected motor output shaft rotation rate, and (iii) generates a motor drive signal based on a difference between the incremental amount of rotational movement and the feedback signal from the selected one of the signal conditioning Units.

  18. Apparatus for forming drive belts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Topits, A., Jr. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    An apparatus for manufacturing belts, such as seamless belts, is provided, the apparatus has relatively movable rollers that are mounted in an oven. A belt blank, for example, of a thin polyester film, is rotated on the rollers as heat is applied. Four rollers, each mounted on a separate roller assembly, are movable along appropriate tracks while a fifth centrally located roller is stationary. A pair of dc motors are operatively connected to a speed reduction gear assembly to provide a pair of rotating drive shafts that extend into the oven. One rotating shaft drives all of the rollers through a rotational gear assembly while the other drive shaft is capable of positioning the movable rollers through respective rotating threaded shafts. Control devices are provided for controlling the motors while measuring devices are operatively connected to the positional drive shaft to indicate the position of the rollers.

  19. Precision stop control for motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, David E. (Inventor); Montenegro, Justino (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An improved stop control system and method are provided for a motor having a drive mechanism in which the motor is coupled to a motor controller that controls the speed and position of the drive mechanism using a first signal indicative of a commanded position of the drive mechanism, a second signal indicative of the actual speed of the drive mechanism and a third signal indicative of the actual position of the drive mechanism. The improved system/method uses a first circuit that receives the first and third signal and generates an error signal indicative of a difference therebetween. A second circuit receives the error signal and compares same with a threshold position error. The result of this comparison is used to selectively supply the second signal (i.e., speed) to the motor controller at least whenever the error signal is less than the threshold position error so that the motor controller can use the second signal in conjunction with the third signal to stop the motor.

  20. A linear magnetic motor and generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studer, P. A.

    1980-01-01

    In linear magnetic motor and generator suitable for remote and hostile environments, magnetic forces drive reciprocating shaft along its axis. Actuator shaft is located in center of cylindrical body and may be supported by either contacting or noncontacting bearings. When device operates as bidirectional motor, drive coil selectively adds and subtracts magnetic flux to and from flux paths, producing forces that drive actuator along axis. When actuator is driven by external reciprocating engine, device becomes ac generator.

  1. Simulation model for a seven-phase BLDCM drive system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Won-Cheol; Lee, Jung-Hyo; Yu, Jae-Sung; Kim, Gyu-Sik; Won, Chung-Yuen

    2007-12-01

    BLDC motors have many advantages over brushed DC motors and induction motors. So, BLDC motors extend their application to many industrial fields. In this paper, the digital simulation and modeling of a 7-phase brushless DC motor have been presented. The 14-switch inverter and a 7-phase brushless DC motor drive system are simulated using hysteresis current controller and logic of switching pattern with the Boolean¡s function. Through some simulations, we found that our modeling and analysis of a 7-phase BLDCM with PWM inverter would be helpful for the further studies of the multi-phase BLDCM drive systems.

  2. When Should Inverter-Duty Motors Be Specified? - Motor Tip Sheet #14

    SciTech Connect

    2008-07-01

    Electronic adjustable speed drives (ASDs) used to be marketed as “usable with any standard motor.” However, premature failures of motor insulation systems began to occur with the introduction of fast-switching pulse-width modulated (PWM) drives.

  3. Pile Driving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Machine-oriented structural engineering firm TERA, Inc. is engaged in a project to evaluate the reliability of offshore pile driving prediction methods to eventually predict the best pile driving technique for each new offshore oil platform. Phase I Pile driving records of 48 offshore platforms including such information as blow counts, soil composition and pertinent construction details were digitized. In Phase II, pile driving records were statistically compared with current methods of prediction. Result was development of modular software, the CRIPS80 Software Design Analyzer System, that companies can use to evaluate other prediction procedures or other data bases.

  4. Motorized control for mirror mount apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W.

    1989-01-01

    A motorized control and automatic braking system for adjusting mirror mount apparatus is disclosed. The motor control includes a planetary gear arrangement to provide improved pitch adjustment capability while permitting a small packaged design. The motor control for mirror mount adjustment is suitable for laser beam propagation applications. The brake is a system of constant contact, floating detents which engage the planetary gear at selected between-teeth increments to stop rotation instantaneously when the drive motor stops.

  5. [Drug use and driving].

    PubMed

    Lemaire-Hurtel, Anne-Sophie; Goullé, Jean-Pierre; Alvarez, Jean-Claude; Mura, Patrick; Verstraete, Alain G

    2015-10-01

    Some drugs are known to impair driving because they can change the vision or hearing, and/or disrupt the intellectual or motor abilities: impaired vigilance, sedation, disinhibition effect, the coordination of movement disorders and the balance. The doctor during prescribing and the pharmacist during deliverance of drug treatment should inform their patients of the potential risks of drugs on driving or operating machinery. The driver has direct responsibility, who hired him and him alone, to follow the medical advice received. The pictograms on the outer packaging of medicinal products intended to classify substances according to their risk driving: The driver can whether to observe simple precautions (level one "be prudent"), or follow the advice of a health professional (level two "be very careful"), or if it is totally not drive (level three "danger caution: do not drive"). This classification only evaluates the intrinsic danger of drugs but not the individual variability. Medicines should be taken into account also the conditions for which the medication is prescribed. It is important to inform the patient on several points. PMID:25956300

  6. Spectroscopic classification of 2MASS_J16211735+4412541

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaringi, S.; Mason, E.; Van Winckel, H.; Escorza, A.

    2016-06-01

    We obtained a spectrum of the candidate short period binary 2MASS_J16211735+4412541 (CSS160603:162117+441254) with the high resolution HERMES spectrograph mounted on the 1.2m Mercator telescope on La Palma.

  7. Optotech 5984 Drive Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Tzuo-Chang; Chen, Di

    1987-01-01

    We present in this paper an overview of Optotech's 5984 Optical Disk Drive. Key features such as the modulation code, the disk format, defect mapping scheme and the optical head and servo subsystem will be singled out for discussion. Description of Optotech's 5984 disk drive The Optotech 5984 optical disk drive is a write-once-read-mostly (WORM) rotating optical memory with 200 Megabyte capacity on each side of the disk. It has a 5 1/4 inch form factor that will fit into any personal computer full-height slot. The drive specification highlights are given in Table 1. A perspective view of the drive mechanical assembly is shown in Figure 1. The spindle that rotates the disk has a runout of less than 10 um. The rotational speed at 1200 revolutions per minute (rpm) is held to an accuracy of 10-3. The total angular tolerance from perfect perpendicular alignment between the rotating disk and the incident optical beam axis is held to less than 17 milliradians. The coarse seek is accomplished through a stepping motor driving the optical head with 1.3 milliseconds per step or 32 tracks per step. The analog channels including read/write, the phase lock loop and the servo loops for focus and track control are contained on one surface mount pc board while the digital circuitry that interfaces with the drive and the controller is on a separate pc board. A microprocessor 8039 is used to control the handshake and the sequence of R/W commands. A separate power board is used to provide power to the spindle and the stepping motors. In the following we will discuss some of the salient features in the drive and leave the details to three accompanying Optotech papers. These salient features are derived from a design that is driven by three major considerations. One is precise control of the one micron diameter laser spot to any desired location on the disk. The second consideration is effective management of media defects. Given the state of the art of the Te-based disk technology with

  8. Variation in motor output and motor performance in a centrally generated motor pattern

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Brian J.; Doloc-Mihu, Anca; Calabrese, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    Central pattern generators (CPGs) produce motor patterns that ultimately drive motor outputs. We studied how functional motor performance is achieved, specifically, whether the variation seen in motor patterns is reflected in motor performance and whether fictive motor patterns differ from those in vivo. We used the leech heartbeat system in which a bilaterally symmetrical CPG coordinates segmental heart motor neurons and two segmented heart tubes into two mutually exclusive coordination modes: rear-to-front peristaltic on one side and nearly synchronous on the other, with regular side-to-side switches. We assessed individual variability of the motor pattern and the beat pattern in vivo. To quantify the beat pattern we imaged intact adults. To quantify the phase relations between motor neurons and heart constrictions we recorded extracellularly from two heart motor neurons and movement from the corresponding heart segments in minimally dissected leeches. Variation in the motor pattern was reflected in motor performance only in the peristaltic mode, where larger intersegmental phase differences in the motor neurons resulted in larger phase differences between heart constrictions. Fictive motor patterns differed from those in vivo only in the synchronous mode, where intersegmental phase differences in vivo had a larger front-to-rear bias and were more constrained. Additionally, load-influenced constriction timing might explain the amplification of the phase differences between heart segments in the peristaltic mode and the higher variability in motor output due to body shape assumed in this soft-bodied animal. The motor pattern determines the beat pattern, peristaltic or synchronous, but heart mechanics influence the phase relations achieved. PMID:24717348

  9. Rotor position sensor switches currents in brushless dc motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Reluctance switch incorporated in an induction motor is used for sensing rotor position and switching armature circuits in a brushless dc motor. This device drives the solar array system of an unmanned space satellite.

  10. 24. UPPER STATION, LOWER FLOOR, MOTOR ROOM, OFF VERTICAL DEFLECTOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. UPPER STATION, LOWER FLOOR, MOTOR ROOM, OFF VERTICAL DEFLECTOR SHEAVE, MOTOR, BRAKE, PINION SHAFT, DRIVE WHEEL. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  11. Driving difficulties in Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, Matthew; Uc, Ergun Y; Dawson, Jeffrey; Anderson, Steven; Rodnitzky, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Safe driving requires the coordination of attention, perception, memory, motor and executive functions (including decision-making) and self-awareness. PD and other disorders may impair these abilities. Because age or medical diagnosis alone is often an unreliable criterion for licensure, decisions on fitness to drive should be based on empirical observations of performance. Linkages between cognitive abilities measured by neuropsychological tasks, and driving behavior assessed using driving simulators, and natural and naturalistic observations in instrumented vehicles, can help standardize the assessment of fitness-to-drive. By understanding the patterns of driver safety errors that cause crashes, it may be possible to design interventions to reduce these errors and injuries and increase mobility. This includes driver performance monitoring devices, collision alerting and warning systems, road design, and graded licensure strategies. PMID:20187237

  12. QUICK RELEASABLE DRIVE

    DOEpatents

    Dickson, J.J.

    1958-07-01

    A quick releasable mechanical drive system suitable for use in a nuclear reactor is described. A small reversible motor positions a control rod by means of a worm and gear speed reducer, a magnetic torque clutch, and a bell crank. As the control rod is raised to the operating position, a heavy coil spring is compressed. In the event of an emergency indicated by either a''scram'' signal or a power failure, the current to the magnetic clutch is cut off, thereby freeing the coil spring and the bell crank positioner from the motor and speed reduction gearing. The coil spring will immediately act upon the bell crank to cause the insertion of the control rod. This arrangement will allow the slow, accurate positioning of the control rod during reactor operation, while providing an independent force to rapidly insert the rod in the event of an emergency.

  13. Pulse-Width-Modulating Driver for Brushless dc Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomon, Phil M.

    1991-01-01

    High-current pulse-width-modulating driver for brushless dc motor features optical coupling of timing signals from low-current control circuitry to high-current motor-driving circuitry. Provides high electrical isolation of motor-power supply, helping to prevent fast, high-current motor-driving pulses from being coupled through power supplies into control circuitry, where they interfere with low-current control signals.

  14. 27. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST IN THE ELECTRICAL MOTOR ROOM. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST IN THE ELECTRICAL MOTOR ROOM. FROM LEFT TO RIGHT. DC GENERATOR, AC MOTOR, OLD DC GENERATOR, OPENING FOR THE BELT TO THE CLUTCH ASSEMBLY FOR THE MILL POWER SYSTEM. THE BOARDS THAT ARE ASKEW WERE PROTECTION AROUND THE DRIVE BELT. THE SMALL MOTOR IN THE FOREGROUND IS THE MOTOR THAT MOST RECENTLY POWERED THE MILL'S BELT DRIVE SYSTEM. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

  15. 32 CFR 634.43 - Driving records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Records and the Traffic Point System § 634.43 Driving records. Each Service and DLA will use its own form to record vehicle traffic accidents, moving violations, suspension or revocation actions, and traffic point assessments involving military and DOD civilian...

  16. 32 CFR 634.43 - Driving records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Records and the Traffic Point System § 634.43 Driving records. Each Service and DLA will use its own form to record vehicle traffic accidents, moving violations, suspension or revocation actions, and traffic point assessments involving military and DOD civilian...

  17. Mathematical modeling of bent-axis hydraulic piston motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartos, R. D.

    1992-01-01

    Each of the DSN 70-m antennas uses 16 bent-axis hydraulic piston motors as part of the antenna drive system. On each of the two antenna axes, four motors are used to drive the antenna and four motors provide counter torque to remove the backlash in the antenna drive train. This article presents a mathematical model for bent-axis hydraulic piston motors. The model was developed to understand the influence of the hydraulic motors on the performance of the DSN 70-m antennas' servo control system.

  18. Variable speed drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obler, H. D. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A variable speed drive wherein a first embodiment is comprised of a pivotally mounted prime mover coupled to a rotary fluid output device, such as a fan or pump, through a variable and fixed pulley drive arrangement is described. The pivotal position of the prime mover and accordingly the pitch diameter of variable pulley means is controlled in accordance with fluid motor means coupled to the prime mover. This is actuated in response to a fluid feedback control signal derived from a sensed output of the rotary fluid output device. The pivotal motion of the prime mover imparts an arcuate motion to the variable pulley means which effects a speed variation of the rotary fluid output device in accordance with the variation of the pitch diameter ratio of opposing variable and fixed pulley means.

  19. Perceptual and Cognitive Impairments and Driving

    PubMed Central

    Korner-Bitensky, Nicol; Coopersmith, Henry; Mayo, Nancy; Leblanc, Ginette; Kaizer, Franceen

    1990-01-01

    Perceptual and cognitive disorders that frequently accompany stroke and head injury influence an individual's ability to drive a motor vehicle. Canadian physicians are legally responsible for identifying patients who are potentially unsafe to drive and, if they fail to do so, may be held liable in a civil action suit. The authors review the guidelines for physicians evaluating a patient's fitness to drive after brain injury. They also examine the actions a physician should take when a patient with perceptual and cognitive problems wants to drive. Ultimately, by taking these actions, physicians will help to prevent driving accidents. PMID:21234047

  20. Distracted Driving

    MedlinePlus

    ... combines all three types of distraction. 3 How big is the problem? Deaths In 2013, 3,154 ... European countries. More A CDC study analyzed 2011 data on distracted driving, including talking on a cell ...

  1. Driving Safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... drivers’ flexibility and coordination, and reduced driving errors. S l Hand grip strengthening to help you hold on to the steering wheel l Shoulder and upper arm flexibility exercises to make ...

  2. Hydraulic motor for cars

    SciTech Connect

    Gagnon, D.C.

    1986-09-02

    A hydraulic motor for a car is described comprising, in combination, an automotive vehicle engine for travel self-propulsion, including a block, a plurality of cylinders in the block, a piston slidable in each cylinder, a crankshaft in the block, a piston rod connected between the crankshaft and each of the pistons, a power take-off gear on the crankshaft for the travel self-propulsion, and the engine including a hydraulic means for driving the pistons in the cylinders.

  3. Micromachine Wedge Stepping Motor

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, J.J.; Schriner, H.K.

    1998-11-04

    A wedge stepping motor, which will index a mechanism, has been designed and fabricated in the surface rnicromachine SUMMiT process. This device has demonstrated the ability to index one gear tooth at a time with speeds up to 205 teeth/see. The wedge stepper motor has the following features, whi:h will be useful in a number of applications. o The ability to precisely position mechanical components. . Simple pulse signals can be used for operation. o Only 2 drive signals are requixed for operation. o Torque and precision capabilities increase with device size . The device to be indexed is restrained at all times by the wedge shaped tooth that is used for actuation. This paper will discuss the theory of operation and desi=m of the wedge stepping motor. The fabrication and testing of I he device will also be presented.

  4. Impaired Driving

    MedlinePlus

    ... the cause of more than half of all car crashes. It means operating a motor vehicle while you are affected by Alcohol Legal or illegal drugs Sleepiness Distractions, such as using a cell phone or texting Having a medical condition which affects ...

  5. DC Motor control using motor-generator set with controlled generator field

    DOEpatents

    Belsterling, Charles A.; Stone, John

    1982-01-01

    A d.c. generator is connected in series opposed to the polarity of a d.c. power source supplying a d.c. drive motor. The generator is part of a motor-generator set, the motor of which is supplied from the power source connected to the motor. A generator field control means varies the field produced by at least one of the generator windings in order to change the effective voltage output. When the generator voltage is exactly equal to the d.c. voltage supply, no voltage is applied across the drive motor. As the field of the generator is reduced, the drive motor is supplied greater voltage until the full voltage of the d.c. power source is supplied when the generator has zero field applied. Additional voltage may be applied across the drive motor by reversing and increasing the reversed field on the generator. The drive motor may be reversed in direction from standstill by increasing the generator field so that a reverse voltage is applied across the d.c. motor.

  6. 49 CFR 392.22 - Emergency signals; stopped commercial motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Emergency signals; stopped commercial motor...) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Stopped Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.22 Emergency...

  7. Synchronous motor with soft start element formed between the motor rotor and motor output shaft to successfully synchronize loads that have high inertia and/or high torque

    SciTech Connect

    Umans, Stephen D; Nisley, Donald L; Melfi, Michael J

    2014-10-28

    A line-start synchronous motor has a housing, a rotor shaft, and an output shaft. A soft-start coupling portion is operatively coupled to the output shaft and the rotor shaft. The soft-start coupling portion is configurable to enable the synchronous motor to obtain synchronous operation and to drive, at least near synchronous speed during normal steady state operation of the motor, a load having characteristics sufficient to prevent obtaining normal synchronous operation of the motor when the motor is operatively connected to the load in the absence of the soft-start coupling. The synchronous motor is sufficiently rated to obtain synchronous operation and to drive, at least near synchronous speed during normal steady state operation of the motor, a load having characteristics sufficient to prevent obtaining normal synchronous operation of the motor when the motor is operatively connected to the load in the absence of the soft-start coupling.

  8. High Power Density Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kascak, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    With the growing concerns of global warming, the need for pollution-free vehicles is ever increasing. Pollution-free flight is one of NASA's goals for the 21" Century. , One method of approaching that goal is hydrogen-fueled aircraft that use fuel cells or turbo- generators to develop electric power that can drive electric motors that turn the aircraft's propulsive fans or propellers. Hydrogen fuel would likely be carried as a liquid, stored in tanks at its boiling point of 20.5 K (-422.5 F). Conventional electric motors, however, are far too heavy (for a given horsepower) to use on aircraft. Fortunately the liquid hydrogen fuel can provide essentially free refrigeration that can be used to cool the windings of motors before the hydrogen is used for fuel. Either High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) or high purity metals such as copper or aluminum may be used in the motor windings. Superconductors have essentially zero electrical resistance to steady current. The electrical resistance of high purity aluminum or copper near liquid hydrogen temperature can be l/lOO* or less of the room temperature resistance. These conductors could provide higher motor efficiency than normal room-temperature motors achieve. But much more importantly, these conductors can carry ten to a hundred times more current than copper conductors do in normal motors operating at room temperature. This is a consequence of the low electrical resistance and of good heat transfer coefficients in boiling LH2. Thus the conductors can produce higher magnetic field strengths and consequently higher motor torque and power. Designs, analysis and actual cryogenic motor tests show that such cryogenic motors could produce three or more times as much power per unit weight as turbine engines can, whereas conventional motors produce only 1/5 as much power per weight as turbine engines. This summer work has been done with Litz wire to maximize the current density. The current is limited by the amount of heat it

  9. Efficient alternatives for electric drives

    SciTech Connect

    Comnes, G.A.; Barnes, R.W.

    1987-11-01

    This analysis of industrial electric motors describes the current motor stock, its energy use and operating characteristics, and innovations that could change current use patterns. It provides calculations characterizing the economic attractiveness of several existing and potential options. One attractive option given particular attention is the adjustable-speed drive which can replace throttles or valves for many pumping operations. A major conclusion is that, throughout industry, options that are both energy-saving and economically attractive appear to penetrate markets more slowly than would be socially optimal. The final section examines characteristics of industry that may contribute to slow market penetration. 29 refs., 14 figs., 14 tabs.

  10. The search for red AGN with 2MASS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutri, R. M.; Nelson, B. O.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Huchra, J. P.; Smith, P. S.

    2001-01-01

    We present the results of a simple, highly efficient 2MASS color-based survey that has already discovered 140 previously unknown red AGN and QSOs. These objects are near-infrared-bright and relatively nearby; the media redshift of the sample is z=0.25, and all but two have z<0.7.

  11. ACCURACY OF REMOTELY SENSED SO2 MASS EMISSION RATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remote sensing data of single-stack power plant emissions and local wind speed have been analyzed to determined SO2 mass flux for comparison with EPA referenced methods. Four days of SO2 data were gathered from a moving platform by three upward-viewing remote sensors -- two ultra...

  12. Future trends in adjustable speed drives

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, H.G.

    1995-12-31

    Adjustable speed drives are an evolving technology stimulated by the demand for improved process control and tempered by environmental conditions--an evolution controlled by the dynamics of electrical power, power devices and traditional control methods. How these factors interact controls future trends and product offerings for a variety of adjustable speed motor controllers. With the topic of adjustable speed motor controllers` a reasonable place to start would be with the motor. Although many types of motors can be used for variable speed applications, this paper will focus on the ac motor and the electronic controllers associated with ac motors. Both frequency and voltage are controllable motor parameters. Controlling either or both can improve the performance of the ac motor within a given application. Each type of controller offers a unique set of advantages and disadvantages, however, the simultaneous control of frequency and voltage provides the greatest benefits. The adjustable speed controller that provides simultaneous control of frequency and voltage for ac motors is the AFD or adjustable frequency drive.

  13. THE 2MASS REDSHIFT SURVEY-DESCRIPTION AND DATA RELEASE

    SciTech Connect

    Huchra, John P.; Berlind, Perry; Calkins, Michael; Falco, Emilio; Mink, Jessica D.; Tokarz, Susan; Macri, Lucas M.; Masters, Karen L.; Jarrett, Thomas H.; Crook, Aidan C.; Cutri, Roc; Erdogdu, Pirin; Lahav, Ofer; George, Teddy; Hutcheson, Conrad M.; Mader, Jeff; Martimbeau, Nathalie; Schneider, Stephen; Skrutskie, Michael; Westover, Michael E-mail: karen.masters@port.ac.uk

    2012-04-01

    We present the results of the 2MASS Redshift Survey (2MRS), a ten-year project to map the full three-dimensional distribution of galaxies in the nearby universe. The Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) was completed in 2003 and its final data products, including an extended source catalog (XSC), are available online. The 2MASS XSC contains nearly a million galaxies with K{sub s} {<=} 13.5 mag and is essentially complete and mostly unaffected by interstellar extinction and stellar confusion down to a galactic latitude of |b| = 5 Degree-Sign for bright galaxies. Near-infrared wavelengths are sensitive to the old stellar populations that dominate galaxy masses, making 2MASS an excellent starting point to study the distribution of matter in the nearby universe. We selected a sample of 44,599 2MASS galaxies with K{sub s} {<=} 11.75 mag and |b| {>=} 5 Degree-Sign ({>=}8 Degree-Sign toward the Galactic bulge) as the input catalog for our survey. We obtained spectroscopic observations for 11,000 galaxies and used previously obtained velocities for the remainder of the sample to generate a redshift catalog that is 97.6% complete to well-defined limits and covers 91% of the sky. This provides an unprecedented census of galaxy (baryonic mass) concentrations within 300 Mpc. Earlier versions of our survey have been used in a number of publications that have studied the bulk motion of the Local Group, mapped the density and peculiar velocity fields out to 50 h{sup -1} Mpc, detected galaxy groups, and estimated the values of several cosmological parameters. Additionally, we present morphological types for a nearly complete sub-sample of 20,860 galaxies with K{sub s} {<=} 11.25 mag and |b| {>=} 10 Degree-Sign .

  14. Hyperactivation of B-type motor neurons results in aberrant synchrony of the C. elegans motor circuit

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Yingchuan B.; Po, Michelle D.; Mac, Patrick; Kawano, Taizo; Jorgensen, Erik M.; Zhen, Mei; Jin, Yishi

    2013-01-01

    Excitatory acetylcholine motor neurons drive C. elegans locomotion. Coordinating the activation states of the backward-driving A and forward-driving B class motor neurons is critical for generating sinusoidal and directional locomotion. Here, we show by in vivo calcium imaging that expression of a hyperactive, somatodendritic ionotropic acetylcholine receptor ACR-2(gf) in A and B class motor neurons induces aberrant synchronous activity in both ventral- and dorsal-innervating B and A class motor neurons. Expression of ACR-2(gf) in either ventral- or dorsal-innervating B neurons is sufficient for triggering the aberrant synchrony that results in arrhythmic convulsions. Silencing of AVB, the pre-motor interneurons that innervate B motor neurons suppresses ACR-2(gf)-dependent convulsion; activating AVB by channelrhodopsin induces the onset of convulsion. These results support that the activity state of B motor neurons plays an instructive role for the coordination of motor circuit. PMID:23516296

  15. 40 CFR 600.109-78 - EPA driving cycles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1978 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.109-78 EPA driving cycles. (a) The driving cycle to be... driving cycle to be utilized for generation of the highway fuel economy data is specified in...

  16. 40 CFR 600.109-08 - EPA driving cycles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Test Procedures § 600.109-08 EPA driving cycles. (a) The FTP driving cycle is prescribed in § 86.115 of this chapter. (b) The highway fuel economy driving cycle is specified in this paragraph....

  17. 40 CFR 600.109-08 - EPA driving cycles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust... cycles. (a) The FTP driving cycle is prescribed in § 86.115 of this chapter. (b) The highway fuel economy driving cycle is specified in this paragraph. (1) The Highway Fuel Economy Driving Schedule is set...

  18. 40 CFR 600.109-08 - EPA driving cycles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Test Procedures § 600.109-08 EPA driving cycles. (a) The FTP driving cycle is prescribed in § 86.115 of this chapter. (b) The highway fuel economy driving cycle is specified in this paragraph....

  19. 40 CFR 600.109-08 - EPA driving cycles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1978 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.109-08 EPA driving cycles. (a) The FTP driving cycle is prescribed in § 86.115 of this chapter. (b) The highway fuel economy driving cycle is specified in...

  20. 40 CFR 600.109-08 - EPA driving cycles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Test Procedures § 600.109-08 EPA driving cycles. (a) The FTP driving cycle is prescribed in § 86.115 of this chapter. (b) The highway fuel economy driving cycle is specified in this paragraph....

  1. Electropneumatic transducer automatically limits motor current

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovitt, T. F.

    1966-01-01

    Pneumatic controller regulates the load on a centrifugal freon compressor in a water cooling system, thus limiting the current input to an electric motor driving it. An electromechanical transducer monitoring the motor input current sends out air signals which indicate changes in the current to the pneumatic controller.

  2. Motor Starters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The power factor controller (PFC) was invented by a NASA engineer. It matches voltage with a motor's actual need by sensing shifts in the relationship between voltage and current flow. With the device, power can be trimmed as much as 65%. Intellinet adopted this technology and designed "soft start" and "load-responsive" control modes to start engines gradually and recycle voltage without reducing motor speed. Other features are lower motor heat and faster fault identification.

  3. Motor syndromes.

    PubMed

    Corea, Francesco; Micheli, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Motor disturbances alone or associated with other focal deficits are the most common symptoms suggesting a neurovascular event. An appropriate clinical assessment of these signs and symptoms may help physicians to better diagnose and to both better treat and predict outcome. In this paper the main clinical features of motor deficit are described together with other motor-related events such as ataxia and movement disturbances. PMID:22377850

  4. Rotary steerable motor system for underground drilling

    DOEpatents

    Turner, William E.; Perry, Carl A.; Wassell, Mark E.; Barbely, Jason R.; Burgess, Daniel E.; Cobern, Martin E.

    2010-07-27

    A preferred embodiment of a system for rotating and guiding a drill bit in an underground bore includes a drilling motor and a drive shaft coupled to drilling motor so that drill bit can be rotated by the drilling motor. The system further includes a guidance module having an actuating arm movable between an extended position wherein the actuating arm can contact a surface of the bore and thereby exert a force on the housing of the guidance module, and a retracted position.

  5. Rotary steerable motor system for underground drilling

    DOEpatents

    Turner, William E.; Perry, Carl A.; Wassell, Mark E.; Barbely, Jason R.; Burgess, Daniel E.; Cobern, Martin E.

    2008-06-24

    A preferred embodiment of a system for rotating and guiding a drill bit in an underground bore includes a drilling motor and a drive shaft coupled to drilling motor so that drill bit can be rotated by the drilling motor. The system further includes a guidance module having an actuating arm movable between an extended position wherein the actuating arm can contact a surface of the bore and thereby exert a force on the housing of the guidance module, and a retracted position.

  6. Circuit Regulates Speed Of dc Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, Charles; Padden, Robin; Brown, Floyd A., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Driving circuit regulates speed of small dc permanent-magnet motor in tape recorder. Two nested feedback loops maintain speed within 1 percent of constant value. Inner loop provides coarse regulation, while outer loop removes most of variation in speed that remains in the presence of regulation by the inner loop. Compares speed of motor with commanded speed and adjusts current supplied to motor accordingly.

  7. Small computer interface to a stepper motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Fred A., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A Commodore VIC-20 computer has been interfaced with a stepper motor to provide an inexpensive stepper motor controller. Only eight transistors and two integrated circuits compose the interface. The software controls the parallel interface of the computer and provides the four phase drive signals for the motor. Optical sensors control the zeroing of the 12-inch turntable positioned by the controller. The computer calculates the position information and movement of the table and may be programmed in BASIC to execute automatic sequences.

  8. Development of a drive system for a sequential space camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpsteen, J. T.; Solheim, C. D.; Stoap, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    An electronically commutated dc motor is reported for driving the camera claw and magazine, and a stepper motor is described for driving the shutter with the two motors synchronized electrically. Subsequent tests on the breadboard positively proved the concept, but further development beyond this study should be done. The breadboard testing also established that the electronically commutated motor can control speed over a wide dynamic range, and has a high torque capability for accelerating loads. This performance suggested the possibility of eliminating the clutch from the system while retaining all of the other mechanical features of the DAC, if the requirement for independent shutter speeds and frame rates can be removed. Therefore, as a final step in the study, the breadboard shutter and shutter drive were returned to the original DAC configuration, while retaining the brushless dc motor drive.

  9. Timing mechanism for wind motors

    SciTech Connect

    White, H.O.

    1980-09-23

    A plate is carried by the blade support shaft journalled within the frame of a wind motor. The axle shaft of the blade is securable to the plate at variable distances relative the support shaft to selectively vary the offset of the blade. A primary drive element, gear or sprocket, coaxial with the axle shaft and rotatable in response to rotation of the blade, drivingly engages a driven idler element, gear or sprocket, respectively, carried by an idler shaft journalled within the plate. A planetary gear rotatable in response to the driven idler element, drivingly engages a sun gear fixed to the frame coaxial with the support shaft.

  10. 2MASS Extended Sources in the Zone of Avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarrett, T.-H.; Chester, T.; Cutri, R.; Schneider, S.; Rosenberg, J.; Huchra, J. P.; Mader, J.

    2000-07-01

    A new high-resolution near-infrared mapping effort, the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), is now underway and will provide a complete census of galaxies as faint as 13.5 mag (3 mJy) at 2.2 μm for most of the sky, and ~12.1 mag (10 mJy) for regions veiled by the Milky Way. This census has already discovered nearby galaxies previously hidden behind our Galaxy and will allow delineation of large-scale structures in the distribution of galaxies across the whole sky. Here we report the detection and discovery of new extended sources from this survey for fields incorporating the Galactic plane at longitudes between 40° and 70°. Follow-up H I 21 cm and optical spectroscopy observations provide positive confirmation for 14 of the new 2MASS galaxies. We perform an internal completeness and reliability analysis for the sample, consisting of 7000 sources in ~1000 deg2 of area, including galaxies and Galactic nebulae from the W51 giant molecular cloud. The area-normalized detection rate is about one to two galaxies per deg2 brighter than 12.1 mag (10 mJy), roughly constant with Galactic latitude throughout the ``Zone of Avoidance,'' of which 85%-95% are newly discovered sources. In conjunction with the deep H I surveys, 2MASS will greatly increase the current census of galaxies hidden behind the Milky Way. Moreover, owing to its sensitivity to elliptical and other gas-poor galaxies, 2MASS will provide a key complementary data set to that of the gas-rich-sensitive H I surveys of the Milky Way galaxy, potentially uncovering nearby galaxies critical to the local gravity and mass density fields.

  11. 2MASS extended sources in the zone of avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarrett, T.; Chester, T.; Cutri, R.; Schneider, S.; Rosenberg, J.; Huchra, J.; Mader, J.

    2000-01-01

    A new high-resolution near-infrared mapping effort, the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), is now underway and will provide a complete census of galaxies as faint as 13.5 mag (3 mJy) at 2.2 mu m for most of the sky, and similar to 12.1 mag (10 mJy) for regions veiled by the Milky Way.

  12. Applications of adjustable speed drives. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning types and applications of adjustable speed drives (ASD). Uses in heat pumps, fans, compressors, electric motors, boiler feed systems, and power transmission are described. Coverage includes AC-DC motors, induction motors, and brushless electric motors. Energy cost savings are also examined. (Contains a minimum of 102 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. Electric vehicle drive train components

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, F.

    1994-12-31

    Power Control Systems has developed a family of electric vehicle drive systems that range from 65 horsepower through 300 horse power. These propulsion systems support vehicle applications ranging from light cars and pickups to buses and trucks weighing as much as 40,000 lbs (18,400 kg). These robust systems are designed specifically for automotive applications including safety, electromagnetic emissions, and environment ruggedness. Dolphin Drive Systems are very flexible. Their inverter controllers are programmable and can be provided as stand alone components matched to customer specified motors. A selection of pre-calibrated systems including motor and inverter/controller can be provided. Accessory tools are also available for customer self programming. Dolphin Drive Systems provide precision control of AC induction motors providing excellent torque-speed performance usually eliminating the need for multistage transmissions. In addition, they are very efficient over a wide speed/torque range. This provides for excellent power management over a variety of continuous speed and stop and go applications.

  14. Molecular motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allemand, Jean François Desbiolles, Pierre

    2015-10-01

    How do we move? More precisely, what are the molecular mechanisms that can explain that our muscles, made of very small components can move at a osopic scale? To answer these questions we must introduce molecular motors. Those motors are proteins, or small protein assemblies that, in our cells, transform chemical energy into mechanical work. Then, like we could do for a oscopic motor, used in a car or in a fan, we are going to study the basic behavior of these molecular machines, present what are their energy sources, calculate their power, their yield. If molecular motors are crucial for our oscopic movements, we are going to see that they are also essential to cellular transport and that considering the activity of some enzymes as molecular motors bring some interesting new insights on their activity.

  15. 75 FR 4305 - Regulatory Guidance Concerning the Applicability of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... Applicability of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations to Texting by Commercial Motor Vehicle Drivers.... SUMMARY: The FMCSA announces regulatory guidance concerning texting while driving a commercial motor... operators engaged in ``texting'' on an electronic device while driving a CMV in interstate...

  16. Assessment of gas engine drives for CNG compressors at NGV fueling stations. Final technical report, June 1993-April 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Keder, J.; Darrow, K.G.

    1995-06-01

    This report assesses the technical and economic issues associated with the use of gas engine drives for gas compressors at natural gas vehicle (NGV) fueling stations. The use of gas engine drives and electric motor drives is compared for typical time fill, fast fill, and combined fill applications. NGV fueling station equipment is described with an emphasis on gas engine and electric motor drives, their installation, operation, and maintenance. The economic benefits of gas engine drives and electric motor drives are compared using sensitivity and operating cost analyses. A perspective of the current market for gas engine drives is also presented, as well as several case histories.

  17. Four quadrant control of induction motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Irving G.

    1991-01-01

    Induction motors are the nation's workhorse, being the motor of choice in most applications due to their simple rugged construction. It has been estimated that 14 to 27 percent of the country's total electricity use could be saved with adjustable speed drives. Until now, induction motors have not been suited well for variable speed or servo-drives, due to the inherent complexity, size, and inefficiency of their variable speed controls. Work at NASA Lewis Research Center on field oriented control of induction motors using pulse population modulation method holds the promise for the desired drive electronics. The system allows for a variable voltage to frequency ratio which enables the user to operate the motor at maximum efficiency, while having independent control of both the speed and torque of an induction motor in all four quadrants of the speed torque map. Multiple horsepower machine drives were demonstrated, and work is on-going to develop a 20 hp average, 40 hp peak class of machine. The pulse population technique, results to date, and projections for implementation of this existing new motor control technology are discussed.

  18. The 34-meter antenna drive control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Detailed definitions of the baseline antenna drive and control/instrumentation equipment for 34 meter antennas included in Network Consolidation Program of the Deep Space Network are presented. The overall antenna control and monitor system and its interfaces with other higher level control and monitor equipment is described. Explicit descriptions of the antenna axis drive motors and motor controllers, the axis angle encoding systems, and miscellaneous antenna located components are presented, and related to system functional and performance requirements. Some potential alternates to the baseline system configuration are described and discussed.

  19. MULTIPLE DIFFERENTIAL ROTARY MECHANICAL DRIVE

    DOEpatents

    Smits, R.G.

    1964-01-28

    This patent relates to a mechanism suitable for such applications as driving two spaced-apart spools which carry a roll film strip under conditions where the film movement must be rapidly started, stopped, and reversed while maintaining a constant tension on the film. The basic drive is provided by a variable speed, reversible rnotor coupled to both spools through a first differential mechanism and driving both spools in the same direction. A second motor, providing a constant torque, is connected to the two spools through a second differential mechanism and is coupled to impart torque to one spool in a first direction anid to the other spool in the reverse direction thus applying a constant tension to the film passing over the two spools irrespective of the speed or direction of rotation thereof. (AEC)

  20. [Driving license and mellitus diabetes].

    PubMed

    Cimino, Luc; Deneufgermain, Alain; Lalau, Jean-Daniel

    2015-10-01

    For the "light group" as for the "heavy group" driving license cannot be issued or renewed to the applicant or drivers suffering from a condition that may constitute or lead to functional disability jeopardize road safety when driving a motor vehicle. The decision to issue or renew the license by the prefectural authority is taken on the advice of the departmental medical commission or a licensed physician. The decree of August 31, 2010 establishes the list of medical conditions incompatible with obtaining or maintaining the driving license or which may give rise to the issue of driving license limited validity. "Diabetes mellitus treated with medications that can cause hypoglycemia" belongs to this list. If the medical control of driving ability comes at the initiative of the user, the treating physician should firstly ensure the understanding of prescribed treatments that can cause hypoglycaemic episodes and other by informing diabetic person she must pass a medical examination of fitness to drive in a licensed physician. PMID:25956301

  1. SRS Computer Animation and Drive Train System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthun, Daniel; Schachner, Christian

    2001-01-01

    The spinning rocket simulator (SRS) is an ongoing project at Oral Roberts University. The goal of the SRS is to gather crucial data concerning a spinning rocket under thrust for the purpose of analysis and correction of the coning motion experienced by this type of spacecraft maneuver. The computer animation simulates a virtual, scale model of the component of the SRS that represents the spacecraft itself. This component is known as the (VSM), or virtual spacecraft model. During actual physical simulation, this component of the SRS will experience a coning. The goal of the animation is to cone the VSM within that range to accurately represent the motion of the actual simulator. The drive system of the SRS is the apparatus that turns the actual simulator. It consists of a drive motor, motor mount and chain to power the simulator into motion. The motor mount is adjustable and rigid for high torque application. A digital stepper motor controller actuates the main drive motor for linear acceleration. The chain transfers power from the motor to the simulator via sprockets on both ends.

  2. Driving and insulin-dependent diabetes.

    PubMed

    Frier, B M; Matthews, D M; Steel, J M; Duncan, L J

    1980-06-01

    A survey of 250 patients with insulin-dependent diabetes (IDD) holding a full motor vehicle driving licence revealed that 107 (42.8%) had not declared IDD on their application for a driving licence. 70 of these (28% of entire group) claimed that they were unaware of the statutory requirements. There was no difference in the declaration-rate between men and women. 159 patients (66%) declared IDD for their motor insurance. 86 patients (34.4%) had had severe or frequent hypoglycaemia in the preceding six months, during which they had been driving regularly. 34 patients (13.6%) admitted involvement in a driving accident since commencing treatment with insulin, and 13 of these patients were aware that hypoglycaemia had been an important causal factor. The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy and cataracts was considerable, but few patients (2.4%) had severe impairment of vision in both eyes. PMID:6104046

  3. Force generation by cellular motors.

    PubMed

    Wanka, Friedrich; Van Zoelen, Everardus J J

    2003-01-01

    Cell motility processes in non-muscle cells depend on the activity of motor proteins that bind to either microtubules or actin filaments. From presently available data it must be concluded that the driving force is generated by transient interaction of the respective motors with microtubules or actin filaments which then activates the binding and hydrolysis of ATP. This reaction results in an abrupt discharge of the motor molecule, the direction of which is determined by the spatial orientation of its binding to the helical and polar vehicle. The latter is thereby propelled in its length direction and simultaneously undergoes an axial rotation, while the expelled motor exerts an oppositely directed current in the surrounding fluid, comparable to jet propulsion. Force production, propulsion velocities and energy requirements known from in vitro studies comply with those derived from the theory. The theory opens new ways for the understanding of cellular activities such as particle transport, mitosis and morphodynamics. PMID:14668925

  4. Chemically peculiar stars as seen with 2MASS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herdin, A.; Paunzen, E.; Netopil, M.

    2016-01-01

    Context. The chemically peculiar (CP) stars of the upper main sequence are well suited for investigating the impact of magnetic fields and diffusion on the surface layers of slowly rotating stars. They can even be traced in the Magellanic Clouds and are important to the understanding of the stellar formation and evolution. Aims: A systematic investigation of the near-infrared (NIR), 2MASS JHKs, photometry for the group of CP stars has never been performed. Nowadays, there is a great deal of data available in the NIR that reach very large distances. It is therefore very important for CP stars to be unambiguously detected in the NIR region and for these detections to be used to derive astrophysical parameters (age and mass) by applying isochrone fitting. Furthermore, we investigated whether the CP stars behave in a different way to normal-type stars in the various photometric diagrams. Methods: For our analysis, we carefully compiled a sample of CP and apparently normal (non-peculiar) type stars. Only stars for which high-quality (i.e. with low error levels), astrometric, and photometric data are available were chosen. In total, 639 normal and 622 CP stars were selected and further analysed. All stars were dereddened and calibrated in terms of the effective temperature and absolute magnitude (luminosity). Finally, isochrone fitting was applied. Results: No differences in the astrophysical parameters derived from 2MASS and Johnson UBV photometry were found. Furthermore, no statistical significant deviations from the normal type stars within several colour-colour and colour-magnitude diagrams were discovered. Therefore, it is not possible to detect new CP stars with the help of the photometric 2MASS colours only. A new effective temperature calibration, valid for all CP stars, using the (V - KS)0 colour was derived.

  5. Motor Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    M.H. Marks Enterprises' Power Factor Controller (PFC) matches voltage with motor's actual need. Plugged into a motor, PFC continuously determines motor load by sensing shifts between voltage and current flow. When it senses a light load, it cuts voltage to the minimum needed. It offers potential energy savings ranging from eight percent up to 65 percent depending on the application. Myles Marks started out with the notion of writing an article for Popular Electronics magazine at the same time offering to furnish kits to readers interested in assembling PFC's. Within two weeks from publication he had orders for 500 kits and orders are still coming three years later.

  6. Stepper motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dekramer, Cornelis

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the more commonly used permanent magnet stepper motors for spaceflight. It will discuss the mechanical and electrical aspects of the devices, their torque behavior, those parameters which need to be controlled and measured, and test methods to be employed. It will also discuss torque margins, compare these to the existing margin requirements, and determine the applicability of these requirements. Finally it will attempt to generate a set of requirements which will be used in any stepper motor procurement and will fully characterize the stepper motor behavior in a consistent and repeatable fashion.

  7. 32 CFR 636.3 - Suspension or revocation of driving privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.3 Suspension or revocation of driving privileges. In addition to the... driving privileges applies to the operation of a motor vehicle on Fort Stewart/Hunter Army Airfield....

  8. Recruitment of rat diaphragm motor units across motor behaviors with different levels of diaphragm activation

    PubMed Central

    Seven, Yasin B.; Mantilla, Carlos B.

    2014-01-01

    Phrenic motor neurons are recruited across a range of motor behaviors to generate varying levels of diaphragm muscle (DIAm) force. We hypothesized that DIAm motor units are recruited in a fixed order across a range of motor behaviors of varying force levels, consistent with the Henneman Size Principle. Single motor unit action potentials and compound DIAm EMG activities were recorded in anesthetized, neurally intact rats across different motor behaviors, i.e., eupnea, hypoxia-hypercapnia (10% O2 and 5% CO2), deep breaths, sustained airway occlusion, and sneezing. Central drive [estimated by root-mean-squared (RMS) EMG value 75 ms after the onset of EMG activity (RMS75)], recruitment delay, and onset discharge frequencies were similar during eupnea and hypoxia-hypercapnia. Compared with eupnea, central drive increased (∼25%) during deep breaths, and motor units were recruited ∼12 ms earlier (P < 0.01). During airway occlusion, central drive was ∼3 times greater, motor units were recruited ∼30 ms earlier (P < 0.01), and motor unit onset discharge frequencies were significantly higher (P < 0.01). Recruitment order of motor unit pairs observed during eupnea was maintained for 98%, 87%, and 84% of the same pairs recorded during hypoxia-hypercapnia, deep breaths, and airway occlusion, respectively. Reversals in motor unit recruitment order were observed primarily if motor unit pairs were recruited <20 ms apart. These results are consistent with DIAm motor unit recruitment order being determined primarily by the intrinsic size-dependent electrophysiological properties of phrenic motor neurons. PMID:25257864

  9. Error analysis of friction drive elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guomin; Yang, Shihai; Wang, Daxing

    2008-07-01

    Friction drive is used in some large astronomical telescopes in recent years. Comparing to the direct drive, friction drive train consists of more buildup parts. Usually, the friction drive train consists of motor-tachometer unit, coupling, reducer, driving roller, big wheel, encoder and encoder coupling. Normally, these buildup parts will introduce somewhat errors to the drive system. Some of them are random error and some of them are systematic error. For the random error, the effective way is to estimate their contributions and try to find proper way to decrease its influence. For the systematic error, the useful way is to analyse and test them quantitively, and then feedback the error to the control system to correct them. The main task of this paper is to analyse these error sources and find out their characteristics, such as random error, systematic error and contributions. The methods or equations used in the analysis will be also presented detail in this paper.

  10. 2MASS Catalog Server Kit Version 2.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, C.

    2013-10-01

    The 2MASS Catalog Server Kit is open source software for use in easily constructing a high performance search server for important astronomical catalogs. This software utilizes the open source RDBMS PostgreSQL, therefore, any users can setup the database on their local computers by following step-by-step installation guide. The kit provides highly optimized stored functions for positional searchs similar to SDSS SkyServer. Together with these, the powerful SQL environment of PostgreSQL will meet various user's demands. We released 2MASS Catalog Server Kit version 2.1 in 2012 May, which supports the latest WISE All-Sky catalog (563,921,584 rows) and 9 major all-sky catalogs. Local databases are often indispensable for observatories with unstable or narrow-band networks or severe use, such as retrieving large numbers of records within a small period of time. This software is the best for such purposes, and increasing supported catalogs and improvements of version 2.1 can cover a wider range of applications including advanced calibration system, scientific studies using complicated SQL queries, etc. Official page: http://www.ir.isas.jaxa.jp/~cyamauch/2masskit/

  11. Single-Molecule Studies of Rotary Molecular Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilizota, Teuta; Sowa, Yoshiyuki; Berry, Richard M.

    Rotary molecular motors are protein complexes that transform chemical or electrochemical energy into mechanical work. There are five known rotary molecular motors in nature; the bacterial flagellar motor, and two motors in each of ATP-synthase and V-ATPase. Rotation of the flagellar motor drives a helical propeller that powers bacterial swimming. The function of the other rotary motors is to couple electrochemical ion gradients to synthesis or hydrolysis of ATP, and rotation is a detail of the coupling mechanism rather than the ultimate purpose of the motors. Much has been learned about the mechanism of the F1 part of ATP-synthase and the flagellar motor by measuring the rotation of single motors with a variety of techniques under a wide range of conditions. This chapter will review the structures of ATP-synthase and the flagellar motor, and what has been learned about their mechanisms using single molecule techniques.

  12. Dementia and driving

    MedlinePlus

    ... not drive at times of the day when traffic is heaviest. Do not drive when the weather is bad. Do not drive long distances. Drive only on roads the person is used to. Caregivers should try to lessen ...

  13. Fuzzy logic controllers for electric motors and wind turbines. Report for October 1996-April 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Spiegel, R.J.

    1997-04-01

    The paper discusses a precision laboratory test facility that has been assempbled to test the performance of two fuzzy-logic based controllers for electric motors and wind turbines. Commercial induction motors up to 10 hp (7.46 kWe) in motors and equipped with adjustable-speed drives (ASDs) were used to test the motor optimizers.

  14. Study of New Start Method for Position Sensorless Brushless DC Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawabata, Yukio; Endo, Tsunehiro; Takakura, Yuhachi; Ishii, Makoto

    The position sensor-less drive technique based on the back electromotive force (EMF) has been widely used for brush-less DC motor drives. However, it is impossible to detect the rotor position at low-speed by using this technique. Therefore, the motor must be accelerated by the open loop based synchronous drive up to the middle speed. The open loop based synchronous drive extremely influences the motor performance. The torque pulsation and the over current can be occurred by using that. This paper proposes a new start method for the brush-less DC motors. In this method, the rotor position can be detected the moment the motor is driven. As a result, the open loop based synchronous drive can be eliminated, rapid acceleration and high performance of the motor drives are achieved. Effectiveness of the proposed method is shown by experimental results.

  15. Upgrading, monitoring and operation of a dome drive system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauman, Steven E.; Cruise, Bill; Look, Ivan; Matsushige, Grant; Roberts, Larry; Salmon, Derrick; Taroma, Ralph; Vermeulen, Tom; Richards, Krieg

    2014-08-01

    CFHT's decision to move away from classical observing prompted the development of a remote observing environment aimed at producing science observations from headquarters facility in Waimea, HI. This remote observing project commonly referred to as the Observatory Automation Project (OAP ) was completed at the end of January 2011 and has been providing the majority of science data ever since. A comprehensive feasibility study was conducted to determine the options available to achieve remote operations of the observatory dome drive system. After evaluation, the best option was to upgrade the original hydraulic system to utilize variable frequency drive (VFD) technology. The project upgraded the hydraulic drive system, which initially utilized a hydraulic power unit and three (3) identical drive units to rotate the dome. The new electric drive system replaced the hydraulic power unit with electric motor controllers, and each drive unit reuses the original drive and swaps one for one the original hydraulic motors with an electric motor. The motor controllers provide status and monitoring parameters for each drive unit which convey the functionality and health of the system. This paper will discuss the design upgrades to the dome drive rotation system, as well as some benefits, control, energy savings, and monitoring.

  16. Bearingless Segment Motor with Buried Magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, Wolfgang; Amrhein, Wolfgang; Stallinger, Thomas; Grabner, Herbert

    Bearingless motors combine contactless levitation and rotation in a preferably compact system design, because bearing as well as motor windings are located on the same lamination stack. The bearingless slice motor features comparatively low complexity for a fully magnetically levitated drive system, because it allows the passive stabilization of three degrees of freedom by reluctance forces. By the use of a proper control scheme and the superposition of different current components, bearing forces and motor torque can be generated simultaneously by applying concentrated windings. This leads to a further simplification of the mechanical configuration. The bearingless segment motor features such concentrated coils on separated stator elements, which reduce the stator iron and therefore weight and cost, especially for constructions with large diameter. However, so far all bearingless slice motors are designed with surface mounted permanent magnets on the rotor, neglecting the advantages of buried permanent magnets. In this paper a novel bearingless segment motor featuring a rotor with buried permanent magnets is investigated. The motor specific mathematical model of force and torque generation is presented, a proper control scheme is introduced and the optimization of the prototype motor is outlined. Motor specific considerations concerning the angular sensors are given. Finally, the performance of the bearingless segment motor with buried permanent magnets is shown by the comparison of simulation results with measurement data of the manufactured prototype.

  17. Analysis of HB Type Vernier Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suda, Hiroshi; Matsushima, Yoshitaro; Xu, Li; Anazawa, Yoshihisa

    Direct drive motors are used as actuators in numerous applications in which they must rotate at low speeds with high torque and low torque ripple. Recently, various types of vernier motor have been developed. The HB type vernier motor is one of them. The structure of rotor is the same as HB type stepping motor. Our model of HB type vernier motor has a winding as field system in the rotor, but stator has three-phase windings. Relationship between S, R and P is S ± P/2=R/2, where S, R and P are the numbers of stator and rotor slots and the number of poles. The rotor of the vernier motor moves at a sub-multiple of the angular velocity of the stator mmf. The multiplying factor is P/R. As a result of analysis, the voltage equation on the γ-δ axis of HB type vernier motor is equal to general synchronous machine. The tests were performed on the trial motor. The calculated pull-out torque agreed well with the measured values. Our model of HB type vernier motor is equivalent with the PM type vernier motor which has permanent magnets in the rotor. The result of this analysis is useful for the design of both types of vernier motor.

  18. Individual Difference Factors in Risky Driving among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Schwebel, David C.; Ball, Karlene K.; Severson, Joan; Barton, Benjamin K.; Rizzo, Matthew; Viamonte, Sarah M.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Motor-vehicle crashes kill roughly 4,500 American adults over the age of 75 annually. Among younger adults, one behavioral factor consistently linked to risky driving is personality, but this predictor has been overshadowed by research on cognitive, perceptual, and motor processes among older drivers. Method In this study, a sample of 101 licensed drivers, all age 75 and over, were recruited to complete self-report measures on personality, temperament, and driving history. Participants also completed a virtual environment (VE) course designed to assess risk-taking driving behavior. State records of motor-vehicle crashes were collected. Results Results suggest both a sensation-seeking personality and an undercontrolled temperament are related to risky driving among older adults. Sensation-seeking was particularly related to history of violations and tickets, while temperamental control was more broadly related to a number of risky driving measures. Methodological and crash prevention issues are discussed. PMID:18023635

  19. Catálogo de Grupos Compactos del 2MASS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco, M. C.; Alonso, M. V.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.

    We present a catalog of Compact Groups automatically extracted from the 2MASS extended source catalog (Sktrutskie et al. 2006). Following the cri- teria defined by Hickson (1982), we find 329 Compact Groups. After a vi- sual inspection, we find out that only 295 groups constitute our final catalog, due to some galaxy miss-identifications in the parent catalog. Finally, we found 17% previously known Compact Groups while the remaining (83%) represents a brand new sample. From these Compact Groups, 172 have all their members with redshifts available in the literature, however only 97 of these groups (56%) have four or more accordant galaxies. This is the largest velocity filtered sample available at present and constitutes the baseline to our statistical studies of Compact Groups. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  20. Advanced Motors

    SciTech Connect

    Knoth, Edward A; Chelluri, Bhanumathi; Schumaker, Edward J

    2012-12-14

    vProject Summary Transportation energy usage is predicted to increase substantially by 2020. Hybrid vehicles and fuel cell powered vehicles are destined to become more prominent as fuel prices rise with the demand. Hybrid and fuel cell vehicle platforms are both dependent on high performance electric motors. Electric motors for transportation duty will require sizeable low-speed torque to accelerate the vehicle. As motor speed increases, the torque requirement decreases which results in a nearly constant power motor output. Interior permanent magnet synchronous motors (IPMSM) are well suited for this duty. , , These rotor geometries are configured in straight lines and semi circular arc shapes. These designs are of limited configurations because of the lack of availability of permanent magnets of any other shapes at present. We propose to fabricate rotors via a novel processing approach where we start with magnet powders and compact them into a net shape rotor in a single step. Using this approach, widely different rotor designs can be implemented for efficiency. The current limitation on magnet shape and thickness will be eliminated. This is accomplished by co-filling magnet and soft iron powders at specified locations in intricate shapes using specially designed dies and automatic powder filling station. The process fundamentals for accomplishing occurred under a previous Applied Technology Program titled, Motors and Generators for the 21st Century. New efficient motor designs that are not currently possible (or cost prohibitive) can be accomplished by this approach. Such an approach to motor fabrication opens up a new dimension in motor design. Feasibility Results We were able to optimize a IPMSM rotor to take advantage of the powder co-filling and DMC compaction processing methods. The minimum low speed torque requirement of 5 N-m can be met through an optimized design with magnet material having a Br capability of 0.2 T. This level of magnetic performance can

  1. SED and Emission Line Properties of Red 2MASS AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuraszkiewicz, Joanna; Wilkes, Belinda J.; Schmidt, Gary; Ghosh, Himel

    2009-09-01

    Radio and far-IR surveys, and modeling of the cosmic X-ray background suggest that a large population of obscured AGN has been missed by traditional, optical surveys. The Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) has revealed a large population (surface density comparable to that of optically selected AGN with Ks<14.5mag) of mostly nearby (median z=0.25), red, moderately obscured AGN, among which 75% are previously unidentified emission-line AGN, with 85% showing broad emission lines. We present the SED and emission line properties of 44 such red (J-Ks>2) 2MASS AGN observed with Chandra. They lie at z<0.37, span a full range of spectral types (Type 1, intermediate, Type 2),Ks-to-X-ray slopes, and polarization (<13%). Their IR-to-X-ray spectral energy distributions (SEDs) are red in the near-IR/opt/UV showing little or no blue bump. The optical colors are affected by reddening, host galaxy emission, redshift, and in few, highly polarized objects, also by scattered AGN light. The levels of obscuration obtained from optical, X-rays, and far-IR imply N_H

  2. [Useful assessment for identifying unsafe driving].

    PubMed

    Gonthier, Régis; Fabrigoule, Colette; Domont, Alain

    2005-03-01

    Ability to drive safely is the resultant of interactions between the individual (the driver), the vector (the car) and the environment (the state of the road). For some aged drivers, an important decline of visual, musculosquelettic and cognitive performances, may affect the ability to drive and increase the rate of crashes per vehicle-kilometer-driven, and the morbidity and mortality related to crash. Therefore, each holder of a driving licence should be medically suited to control his driving ability. In case of transitory or lasting driving incapacity, drivers must, of their own initiative, stop driving according to the Highway code and the contractual obligations appearing in their vehicle insurance contract. A medical examination for aptitude to driving requires a standardized, reliable, reproducible procedure based on consensual assessment tools to avoid arbitrary decisions for driving cessation. We propose a multidisciplinary approach to detect important decline of visuospatial and motor skills, paroxystic drops of attention and vigilance, and decreased cognitive capacity to anticipate and adapt driving at every moment. This assessment is based on a semi-directed interview and simple diagnostic tests. According to the present French law, only twelve medical conditions or functional deficits are inconsistent with the retain of the driving licence for a light vehicle. PMID:15814324

  3. Motor Planning.

    PubMed

    Wong, Aaron L; Haith, Adrian M; Krakauer, John W

    2015-08-01

    Motor planning colloquially refers to any process related to the preparation of a movement that occurs during the reaction time prior to movement onset. However, this broad definition encompasses processes that are not strictly motor-related, such as decision-making about the identity of task-relevant stimuli in the environment. Furthermore, the assumption that all motor-planning processes require processing time, and can therefore be studied behaviorally by measuring changes in the reaction time, needs to be reexamined. In this review, we take a critical look at the processes leading from perception to action and suggest a definition of motor planning that encompasses only those processes necessary for a movement to be executed-that is, processes that are strictly movement related. These processes resolve the ambiguity inherent in an abstract goal by defining a specific movement to achieve it. We propose that the majority of processes that meet this definition can be completed nearly instantaneously, which means that motor planning itself in fact consumes only a small fraction of the reaction time. PMID:24981338

  4. 32 CFR 636.18 - Driving records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Driving records. 636.18 Section 636.18 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.18...

  5. 32 CFR 636.18 - Driving records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Driving records. 636.18 Section 636.18 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.18...

  6. New Conception of Waving Machine CamEl Drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bílkovský, A.; Marek, O.; Jirásko, P.; Volanský, Z.

    New mechatronic conception of waving machine CamEl drive is realized by two electronic cams Yaskawa and planetary gears. The first servo motor is used to slay and shedding motion in position mode and the second servo motor is used in automatic weaving mode. Moment of inertia of kinematic chain was reduced that it was possible used a smaller servo motor of electronic cam Yaskawa.

  7. Variable frequency drive applications guide

    SciTech Connect

    Laloudakis, D.J.

    1991-10-01

    Traditionally, fans and pumps have been designed to be capable of handling the maximum demand of the system in which they are installed. However, quite often the actual demand can vary and it can be much lower than the original design capacity. These situations have been corrected in the past through additions of outlet dampers to fans or throttling valves to pumps. While these can be effective and simple controls they severely affect the efficiency of the system. Variable frequency (speed) is the most efficient means of capacity control. The most cost effective method of achieving variable speed capacity control is using AC adjustable frequency drives. AC adjustable frequency controls convert any fixed speed AC motor into an adjustable speed device. Adjusting the speed of a motor, by controlling the frequency of the AC power to that motor, reduces its horsepower requirements. According to pump and fan laws, capacity is proportional to speed while horsepower is proportional to the cube of the speed. Therefore, by reducing the speed of an AC motor by 20 percent the horsepower requirement is reduced by nearly 50 percent. Reduced speed through variable frequency control allows for flexibility of meeting changing weather and comfort requirements without operating costly equipment at full capacity.

  8. Adolescence, Attention Allocation, and Driving Safety

    PubMed Central

    Romer, Daniel; Lee, Yi-Ching; McDonald, Catherine C.; Winston, Flaura K.

    2014-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading source of morbidity and mortality in adolescents in the United States and the developed world. Inadequate allocation of attention to the driving task and to driving hazards are important sources of adolescent crashes. We review major explanations for these attention failures with particular focus on the roles that brain immaturity and lack of driving experience play in causing attention problems. The review suggests that the potential for overcoming inexperience and immaturity with training to improve attention to both the driving task and hazards is substantial. Nevertheless, there are large individual differences in both attentional abilities and risky driving tendencies that pose challenges to novice driver policies. Research that can provide evidence-based direction for such policies is urgently needed. PMID:24759442

  9. The Role of Personality Characteristics in Young Adult Driving

    PubMed Central

    PATIL, SUJATA M.; SHOPE, JEAN THATCHER; RAGHUNATHAN, TRIVELLORE E.; BINGHAM, C. RAYMOND

    2007-01-01

    Background Motor vehicle injury is the major cause of mortality among young adults. Information about the individual characteristics of those who drive dangerously could enhance traffic safety programs. The goal of this research was to examine the association between various personality-related characteristics and risky driving behaviors. Methods Young adults in Michigan, USA (n = 5,362) were surveyed by telephone regarding several personality factors (risk-taking, hostility, aggression, tolerance of deviance, achievement expectations) and driving behaviors (competitive driving, risk-taking driving, high-risk driving, aggressive driving, and drink/driving). Michigan driver records were obtained to examine offenses, serious offenses, driving offense points, crashes and serious crashes in the three pre-interview years. Multivariate regression analyses, adjusting for age, race, and marital status were conducted separately by sex to identify personality factors related to driving. Results For men and women, greater risk-taking propensity, physical/verbal hostility, aggression, and tolerance of deviance were significant predictors of a competitive attitude toward driving, risk-taking driving, high-risk driving, driving aggression, and drink/driving. Greater risk-taking propensity, physical/verbal hostility, aggression, and to a small degree, expectations for achievement predicted higher numbers of offenses, serious offenses, and points. Conclusion Traffic safety policies and programs could be enhanced through recognition of the role personality factors play in driving behavior and the incorporation of this knowledge into the design and implementation of interventions that modify the behaviors associated with them. PMID:17114089

  10. Motor Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Kollmorgen Corporation's Mermaid II two person submersible is propeller-driven by a system of five DC brushless motors with new electronic controllers that originated in work performed in a NASA/DOE project managed by Lewis Research Center. A key feature of the system is electric commutation rather than mechanical commutation for converting AC current to DC.

  11. Therma motor

    DOEpatents

    Kandarian, R.

    The disclosure is directed to a thermal motor utilizing two tapered prestressed parallel adjacent cylinders lengthwise disposed about one third in a coolant. Heat is applied to contacting portions of the cylinders outside the coolant to cause them to deform and turn. Heat sources such as industrial waste heat, geothermal hot water, solar radiation, etc. can be used.

  12. 40 CFR 600.109-78 - EPA driving cycles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust... cycles. (a) The driving cycle to be utilized for generation of the city fuel economy data is prescribed in § 86.115 of this chapter. (b) The driving cycle to be utilized for generation of the highway...

  13. Considerations when using variable frequency drive technology for pond aquculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some farmers have decided to use variable frequency drives (VFDs) to control pump speed and water flow rate to reduce operational cost and costs associated with repairs and maintenance. Mixed performance issues with VFDs and electric motors have been reported. Examples include frequent drive failure...

  14. Can variable frequency drives reduce irrigation costs for rice producers?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variable Frequency Drives (VFD's) allow for variable speed operation of electrical motor drive irrigation pumps and are an emerging technology for agricultural irrigation, primarily for pressurized irrigation systems. They are considered an energy savings device, but less is known about their app...

  15. Adolescent Problem Behavior and Problem Driving in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, C. Raymond; Shope, Jean T.

    2004-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death among drivers younger than age 35, making problem driving behavior among young drivers a significant public concern. Effective intervention requires a better understanding of the antecedents of problem driving. Problem behavior theory, social control theory, and Kandel's model of substance use…

  16. Proceedings of the international conference on maglev and linear drives

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book contains papers presented at a conference on Maglev and linear drives. Topics covered include: Development of superconducting magnets for the Canadian electrodynamic Maglev vehicle; Power supply system to drive HSST - Expo '86; and Thrust and levitation force characteristics of linear synchronous motors.

  17. PORTION O MAIN DRIVE TRAIN FROM 800 HORSEPOWER TO STANDS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PORTION O MAIN DRIVE TRAIN FROM 800 HORSEPOWER TO STANDS #2, 1, AND 0, INCLUDING BREAKING SPINDLE COUPLING AND #2 STAND BEVEL GEARING. THE SAME MOTOR ALSO DRIVES THE OTHER FOUR STANDS OF CONTINUOUS ROUGHING ROLLS. - LTV Steel, 8-inch Bar Mill, Buffalo Plant, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  18. Premium Efficiency Motor Selection and Application Guide – A Handbook for Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert A. McCoy and John G. Douglass

    2014-02-01

    This handbook informs new motor purchase decisions by identifying energy and cost savings that can come from replacing motors with premium efficiency units. The handbook provides an overview of current motor use in the industrial sector, including the development of motor efficiency standards, currently available and emerging advanced efficiency motor technologies, and guidance on how to evaluate motor efficiency opportunities. It also several tips on getting the most out of industrial motors, such as how to avoid adverse motor interactions with electronic adjustable speed drives and how to ensure efficiency gains are not lost to undervoltage operation or excessive voltage unbalance.

  19. Motor Neuron Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Motor Neuron Diseases Information Page Condensed from Motor Neuron Diseases ... and Information Publicaciones en Español What are Motor Neuron Diseases? The motor neuron diseases (MNDs) are a ...

  20. Motor Neuron Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... called upper motor neurons ) are transmitted to nerve cells in the brain stem and spinal cord (called lower motor neurons ) and from them to particular muscles. Upper motor neurons direct the lower motor neurons ...