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Sample records for 2-methyltetrols c5-alkene triols

  1. Evidence for significant C-5 alkene emissions from car traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schade, G. W.; Park, C.

    2010-12-01

    We present evidence from urban flux tower measurements in Houston, Texas, that a five carbon alkene, likely isoprene, is emitted from car traffic. Our GC-dual FID instrument setup measures VOC concentrations at 60 m above ground level from a lattice flux tower, and determines fluxes via a novel relaxed eddy accumulation technique. C-5 2-alkenes and isoprene, 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene, are not chromatographically separated by our method, but past VOC measurements suggest that isoprene, a biogenic hydrocarbon, generally dominates during the growing season. Our measured 2008 summertime C-5 alkene fluxes generally followed the expected, light and temperature driven emission pattern of isoprene from a significant density of oak trees in the tower’s footprint area. However, nighttime fluxes were significantly different from an expected zero biogenic flux, and morning rush hour fluxes were significantly higher than modeled biogenic fluxes. Wintertime measurements in January 2009 confirmed a small flux during the morning rush-hour was maintained, suggesting either an isoprene or C-5 2-alkene emission from car exhaust. While isoprene emissions from car traffic have been found several times before, emission rates have been found negligibly small compared to biogenic emissions. A quantitative comparison of our data to simultaneously measured toluene and benzene emissions however suggests that these C-5 alkene emissions may have increased relative to aromatics by a factor of ten since the 1990s. This notion is supported both by recent direct car exhaust measurements in Europe and Japan, and airborne isoprene measurements over Houston. Car exhaust measurements show that (i) the isoprene to toluene emission ratio for the newest car models is now around 1:10, similar to the ratio obtained from our data, and (ii) cold start alkene emissions are still an order of magnitude higher than regular emissions, consistent with a more prominent morning rush hour peak. If the identity of our

  2. Characteristics of 2-methyltetrols in ambient aerosol in Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Linlin; Engling, Guenter; Duan, Fengkui; Cheng, Yuan; He, Kebin

    2012-11-01

    PM10 and PM2.5 samples were collected from November, 2010 to October, 2011 at Tsinghua University in Beijing. Various carbohydrates were quantified by high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD), including the 2-methyltetrols (2-methylthreitol and 2-methylerythritol). A clear seasonal variation in the ambient 2-methyltetrol concentrations was observed, with the highest levels occurring in the summer, followed by autumn, spring and winter. The average concentrations of the 2-methyltetrols in PM10 and PM2.5 were 17.5 ± 15.4 ng m-3 and 13.8 ± 12.2 ng m-3, respectively. The 2-methyltetrols exhibited significant positive correlations with ambient relative humidity and temperature, likely due to the higher isoprene emission strength and enhanced formation yield under higher temperature and humidity conditions. In contrast, there was no relationship between the concentration of 2-methyltetrols and sunshine duration. The significant positive correlation (R2 = 0.76) between 2-methyltetrols and SO42- indicated that high concentrations of SO42- can increase the formation rate of 2-methyltetrols from isoprene. Moreover, 2-methyltetrols were also observed in the winter time in Beijing, illustrating the enhancement of the 2-methyltetrol formation rate by high concentrations of pollutants in ambient aerosol.

  3. Gas/particle partitioning of 2-methyltetrols and levoglucosan at an urban site in Denver.

    PubMed

    Xie, Mingjie; Hannigan, Michael P; Barsanti, Kelley C

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a medium volume sampler incorporating quartz fiber filters (QFFs) and a polyurethane foam (PUF)/XAD/PUF sandwich (PXP) was used to collect 2-methyltetrols (isoprene tracer) and levoglucosan (biomass burning tracer) in gaseous and particle (PM2.5) phases. The measured gas/particle (G/P) partitioning coefficients (Kp,OMm) of 2-methyltetrols and levoglucosan were calculated and compared to their predicted G/P partitioning coefficients (Kp,OMt) based on an absorptive partitioning theory. The breakthrough experiments showed that gas-phase 2-methyltetrols and levoglucosan could be collected using the PXP or PUF adsorbent alone, with low breakthrough; however, the recoveries of levoglucosan in PXP samples were lower than 70% (average of 51.9–63.3%). The concentration ratios of 2-methyltetrols and levoglucosan in the gas phase to those in the particle phase were often close to or higher than unity in summer, indicating that these polar species are semi-volatile and their G/P partitioning should be considered when applying particle-phase data for source apportionment. The Kp,OMm values of 2-methyltetrols had small variability in summer Denver, which was ascribed to large variations in concentrations of particulate organic matter (5.14 ± 3.29 μg m–3) and small changes in ambient temperature (21.8 ± 4.05 °C). The regression between log Kp,OMm and log Kp,OMt suggested that the absorptive G/P partitioning theory could reasonably predict the measured G/P partitioning of levoglucosan in ambient samples. PMID:24517510

  4. Primary and secondary organics in tropical Amazonian rainforest aerosols: Chiral analysis of 2-methyltetrols

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, Nelida; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Artaxo, Paulo; Guenther, Alex B.; Krejci, R.; Noziere, Barbara; Noone, Kevin

    2014-06-01

    This work presents the application of a newly developed method to facilitate the distinction between primary and secondary organic compounds in ambient aerosols based on their chiral analysis. The organic constituents chosen for chiral analysis are the four stereomers of the 2-methyltetrols, (2R,3S)- and (2S,3R)- methylerythritol and (2S,3S)- and (2R,3R)- methylthreitol. Ambient PM10 aerosol samples were collected between June 2008 and June 2009 near Manaus, Brazil, in a remote tropical rainforest environment of central Amazonia. The samples were analyzed for the presence of these four stereomers because qualitatively, in a previous study, they have been demonstrated to have partly primary origins. Thus the origin of these compounds may be primary and secondary from the biosynthesis and oxidation processes of isoprene within plants and also in the atmosphere. Using authentic standards, the quantified concentrations were in average 78.2 and 72.8 ng m-3 for (2R,3S)- and (2S,3R)- methylerythritol and 3.1 and 3.3 ng m-3 for (2S,3S)- and (2R,3R)- methylthreitol during the dry season and 7.1, 6.5, 2.0, and 2.2 ng m-3 during the wet season, respectively. Furthermore, these compounds were found to be outside the confidence interval for racemic mixtures (enantiomeric fraction, Ef = 0.5 -0.01) in nearly all the samples, with deviations of up to 32 % (Ef = 0.61) for (2R,3S)-methylerythritol and 47 % (Ef = 0.65) for (2S,3S)-methylthreitol indicating (99% confidence level) biologically-produced 2-methyltetrols. The minimum primary origin contribution ranged between 0.19 and 29.67 ng m-3 for the 2-methylerythritols and between 0.15 and 1.2 ng m-3 for the 2-methylthreitols. The strong correlation of the diatereomers (racemic 2-methylerythritol and 2-methylthreitol) in the wet season implied a secondary origin. Assuming the maximum secondary contribution in the dry season, the secondary fraction in the wet season was 81-99 % and in the dry season, 10 - 95 %. Nevertheless, from the

  5. Detection and quantification of 2-methyltetrols in ambient aerosol in the southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, Andrea L.; Seinfeld, John H.

    Filters collected from the Southeastern Aerosol Research and Characterization (SEARCH) air monitoring network were analyzed for the presence of 2-methyltetrols, namely 2-methylthreitol and 2-methylerythritol, two compounds that are products of the photooxidation of isoprene and have been detected in aerosol at a variety of sites around the globe. The 2-methytetrols were detected in ambient filter samples collected at the four SEARCH sites, Birmingham, AL, Centreville, AL, Pensacola, FL, and at Jefferson Street in Atlanta, GA, in late June 2004. Average atmospheric concentrations of 11.9 and 4.8 ng m -3 were measured for 2-methylerythritol and 2-methylthreitol, respectively, at the inland sampling sites, whereas average concentrations of 4.9 and 1.6 ng m -3 were measured at the coastal sampling location (Pensacola). On average, the aerosol loading from these two compounds accounts for approximately 0.42% and 0.21% of the organic mass collected on a given sampling day at the inland and coastal sites, respectively. The present data on these compounds, which are particulate-phase fingerprints of isoprene photooxidation, add to the growing body of ambient data on secondary organic aerosol from isoprene.

  6. Determination of isoprene-derived secondary organic aerosol tracers (2-methyltetrols) by HPAEC-PAD: Results from size-resolved aerosols in a tropical rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhi-Sheng; Engling, Guenter; Chan, Chuen-Yu; Yang, Yi-Hong; Lin, Mang; Shi, Si; He, Jun; Li, Yi-De; Wang, Xue-Mei

    2013-05-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed from oxidation of isoprene, the most abundant nonmethane hydrocarbon in the atmosphere, has been estimated to contribute significantly to the global aerosol burden. Measurement of isoprene-derived SOA molecular markers has become an effective method for the investigation of biogenic aerosol contributions in the atmosphere. The primary goals of this work are to present a new method based on high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) to quantify diastereoisomeric 2-methyltetrols (2-methylerythritol and 2-methylthreitol), marker compounds of isoprene-derived SOA, and thus to obtain better understanding regarding their abundance and size distribution specifically in a rainforest area. The 2-methyltetrol data, along with water-soluble inorganic ion concentrations, were obtained from size-segregated samples collected at a tropical rainforest site in South China during the period from May to June, 2010. The concentrations of 2-methyltetrols from selected samples measured by HPAEC-PAD showed good agreement with those measured by GC/MS. Overall, the HPAEC-PAD method provides a simple and fast, yet selective and sensitive, alternative to GC/MS for 2-methyltetrol determination, allowing for more efficient analysis of large sample numbers. The size distributions of 2-methylerythritol and 2-methylthreitol both exhibited a unimodal pattern, peaking in the particle size range of 0.44-1.0 μm, where their average concentrations were 11.7 and 4.2 ng m-3, respectively. A strong correlation between 2-methylerythritol and 2-methylthreitol was observed among the entire set of size-segregated samples, indicating their photochemical origin and similar formation mechanism regardless of particle sizes. Compared to the results obtained from previous chamber studies, the similar isomeric fraction of 2-methyltetrols obtained in this study and other field studies confirms their formation through

  7. Regioselective Acylation of Diols and Triols: The Cyanide Effect.

    PubMed

    Peng, Peng; Linseis, Michael; Winter, Rainer F; Schmidt, Richard R

    2016-05-11

    Central topics of carbohydrate chemistry embrace structural modifications of carbohydrates and oligosaccharide synthesis. Both require regioselectively protected building blocks that are mainly available via indirect multistep procedures. Hence, direct protection methods targeting a specific hydroxy group are demanded. Dual hydrogen bonding will eventually differentiate between differently positioned hydroxy groups. As cyanide is capable of various kinds of hydrogen bonding and as it is a quite strong sterically nondemanding base, regioselective O-acylations should be possible at low temperatures even at sterically congested positions, thus permitting formation and also isolation of the kinetic product. Indeed, 1,2-cis-diols, having an equatorial and an axial hydroxy group, benzoyl cyanide or acetyl cyanide as an acylating agent, and DMAP as a catalyst yield at -78 °C the thermodynamically unfavorable axial O-acylation product; acyl migration is not observed under these conditions. This phenomenon was substantiated with 3,4-O-unproteced galacto- and fucopyranosides and 2,3-O-unprotected mannopyranosides. Even for 3,4,6-O-unprotected galactopyranosides as triols, axial 4-O-acylation is appreciably faster than O-acylation of the primary 6-hydroxy group. The importance of hydrogen bonding for this unusual regioselectivity could be confirmed by NMR studies and DFT calculations, which indicate favorable hydrogen bonding of cyanide to the most acidic axial hydroxy group supported by hydrogen bonding of the equatorial hydroxy group to the axial oxygen. Thus, the "cyanide effect" is due to dual hydrogen bonding of the axial hydroxy group which enhances the nucleophilicity of the respective oxygen atom, permitting an even faster reaction for diols than for mono-ols. In contrast, fluoride as a counterion favors dual hydrogen bonding to both hydroxy groups leading to equatorial O-acylation. PMID:27104625

  8. Controlled Triol-Derivative Bonding and Decoration Transformation on Cu-Centered Anderson-Evans Polyoxometalates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Li, Bao; Qian, Hujun; Wu, Lixin

    2016-05-01

    To create new types of organic ligands covalently grafted onto polyoxometalates and identify the reaction mechanism, we selected Cu(II) as the central heteroatom for the synthesis of a series of disklike Anderson-Evans clusters bearing different triol derivatives on both their faces via one-pot and/or step-by-step routes. By using a [(n-C4H9)4N]4[Mo8O26] precursor cluster and copper acetate as the starting materials, several organically modified χ isomers with Cu(II) heteroatom centers were obtained. Starting from a [(n-C4H9)4N]2[Mo2O7] subcluster, however, a half-malposition coordination fashion of triol ligands with a δ isomer on one face and a χ isomer on the other face of the Anderson-Evans cluster was obtained. By changing the reaction solvent from acetonitrile to methanol, we realized a secondary organic modification of the triol-grafted clusters and obtained a triol ligand/methanol codecoration on the Anderson-Evans polyoxometalate. In addition, by changing the reaction environment, we succeeded in modulating the transformation of triol ligands from one site to another on the polyoxometalate cluster. Importantly, by control of the reaction condition, the methanol molecules were also taken off from the cluster. PMID:27074087

  9. Concentration, distribution and variation of polar organic aerosol tracers in Ya'an, a middle-sized city in western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li; Dai, Dongjue; Deng, Shihuai; Feng, Jialiang; Zhao, Min; Wu, Jun; Liu, Lu; Yang, Xiaohui; Wu, Sishi; Qi, Hui; Yang, Gang; Zhang, Xiaohong; Wang, Yingjun; Zhang, Yanzong

    2013-02-01

    PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 μm) and TSP (total suspended particulates) aerosol samples were collected in Ya'an, a middle-sized city with extensive wood resources in Southwestern China, to characterize the contribution of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) to the regional troposphere, the composition of the organic tracers as well as factors affecting their concentrations. A total of 34 samples were gathered on the Campus of Sichuan Agricultural University (SAU, urban site, in the city zone of Ya'an), while 49 samples were collected at Baima Spring Scenic Area (BSSA, forest site, situated about 30 km to the northeast of SAU) during June to July, 2010. Using GC/MS analysis with prior trimethylsilylation, organic tracers including isoprene oxidation products (2-methyltetrols, C5-alkene triols and 2-methylglyceric acid), α-/β-pinene oxidation products (norpinic acid, 3-hydroxyglutaric acid, 3-hydroxy-4,4-dimethylglutaric acid, and 3-methyl-1,2,3- butanetricarboxylic acid), a sesquiterpene oxidation product (β-caryophyllinic acid), sugars (glucose and fructose), sugar alcohols (arabitol, mannitol, erythritol, sorbitol and xylitol), anhydrosugars (levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan) and malic acid were determined. The factors that could potentially affect the SOA tracer concentrations, i.e. trace gases (SO2, NOx, O3, NH3), aerosol acidity and meteorological parameters, were monitored. The results showed that the concentrations of total isoprene oxidation products were 72 and 82 ng/m3 at the two sampling locations, with 29 ± 18, 37 ± 9, 6 ± 2 ng/m3 at SAU and 57 ± 34, 33 ± 33, 4 ± 2 ng/m3 at BSSA for 2-methyltetrols, C5-alkene triols and 2-methylglyceric acid respectively. Compared with the concentrations of isoprene oxidation products, those of α-/β-pinene oxidation products and β-caryophyllinic acid were much lower, being 6 ± 33 and 0.5 ± 1.9 ng/m3 at SAU, and 9 ± 14 and 1.0 ± 1.2 ng/m3 at BSSA, respectively. The unique

  10. Molecular markers of biomass burning, fungal spores and biogenic SOA in the Taklimakan desert aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Pingqing; Zhuang, Guoshun; Sun, Yele; Wang, Qiongzhen; Chen, Jing; Ren, Lujie; Yang, Fan; Wang, Zifa; Pan, Xiaole; Li, Xiangdong; Kawamura, Kimitaka

    2016-04-01

    Biogenic primary organic aerosols (POA) and secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are important organic constituents of atmospheric particulate matter (PM). In order to better understand the atmospheric abundances, molecular compositions and sources of the desert aerosols, biomass-burning tracers (e.g. levoglucosan), primary saccharides including fungal spore tracers, and SOA tracers from the oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (e.g. isoprene, monoterpenes and sesquiterpene) have been studied in ambient aerosols from the Taklimakan desert, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results showed that the total concentrations of biomass-burning tracers at Hetian (177-359 ng m-3, mean 233 ng m-3 in PM2.5) in the south rim of the desert were much higher than those at Tazhong (1.9-8.8 ng m-3 in PM2.5 and 5.9-32 ng m-3 in TSP) in the central Taklimakan desert. Molecular markers of fungal spores were also detected in all the desert aerosols, highlighting the importance of primary bioaerosols in the Asian dust particles. A specific pattern of the dominance of 2-methylglyceric acid over 2-methyltetrols and C5-alkene triols was found in the Taklimakan desert aerosols, especially during the dust storm events, which is different from the 2-methyltetrols-dominated pattern in other ambient aerosols. Our results provide direct evidence on the biogenic POA and SOA tracers in the Taklimakan desert region, which help to better understand their impact on the aerosol chemistry in the down-wind regions.

  11. Isoprene Epoxydiols as Precursors to Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation: Acid-Catalyzed Reactive Uptake Studies with Authentic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ying-Hsuan; Zhang, Zhenfa; Docherty, Kenneth S.; Zhang, Haofei; Budisulistiorini, Sri Hapsari; Rubitschun, Caitlin L.; Shaw, Stephanie L.; Knipping, Eladio M.; Edgerton, Eric S.; Kleindienst, Tadeusz E.; Gold, Avram; Surratt, Jason D.

    2011-01-01

    Isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX), formed from the photooxidation of isoprene under low-NOx conditions, have recently been proposed as precursors of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) on the basis of mass spectrometric evidence. In the present study, IEPOX isomers were synthesized in high purity (> 99%) to investigate their potential to form SOA via reactive uptake in a series of controlled dark chamber studies followed by reaction product analyses. IEPOX-derived SOA was substantially observed only in the presence of acidic aerosols, with conservative lower-bound yields of 4.7–6.4% for β-IEPOX and 3.4–5.5% for δ-IEPOX, providing direct evidence for IEPOX isomers as precursors to isoprene SOA. These chamber studies demonstrate that IEPOX uptake explains the formation of known isoprene SOA tracers found in ambient aerosols, including 2-methyltetrols, C5-alkene triols, dimers, and IEPOX-derived organosulfates. Additionally, we show reactive uptake on the acidified sulfate aerosols supports a previously unreported acid-catalyzed intramolecular rearrangement of IEPOX to cis- and trans-3-methyltetrahydrofuran-3,4-diols (3-MeTHF-3,4-diols) in the particle phase. Analysis of these novel tracer compounds by aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS) suggests that they contribute to a unique factor resolved from positive matrix factorization (PMF) of AMS organic aerosol spectra collected from low-NOx, isoprene-dominated regions influenced by the presence of acidic aerosols. PMID:22103348

  12. Cholesterol metabolite cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol suppresses epileptic seizures by negative modulation of voltage-gated sodium channels.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lipeng; Wang, Youqiong; Leng, Tiandong; Sun, Huanhuan; Zhou, Yuehan; Zhu, Wenbo; Qiu, Pengxin; Zhang, Jingxia; Lu, Bingzheng; Yan, Min; Chen, Wenli; Su, Xinwen; Yin, Wei; Huang, Yijun; Hu, Haiyan; Yan, Guangmei

    2015-06-01

    Imbalance of excitation and inhibition in neurons is implicated in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. Voltage-gated sodium channels, which play a vital role in regulating neuronal excitability, are one of the major targets for developing anti-epileptic drugs. Here we provide evidence that cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol (triol), a major metabolic oxysterol of cholesterol, is an effective state-dependent negative sodium channels modulator. Triol reduced Na(+) current density in a concentration-dependent manner. 10 μM triol shifted steady-state/fast/slow inactivation curves of sodium channels toward the hyperpolarizing direction. Additionally, triol reduced voltage-gated sodium currents in a voltage- and frequency-dependent manner. In a kainic acid-induced seizures mouse model, triol (25 mg/kg) significantly increased the latency of seizure onset and attenuated seizure severity. Our findings provide novel insights for understanding the modulatory role of a small molecular oxysterol on voltage-gated sodium channels and suggest triol may represent a novel and promising candidate for epilepsy intervention. PMID:25578735

  13. Cell Transfection with a β-Cyclodextrin-PEI-Propane-1,2,3-Triol Nanopolymer

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Wing-Fu; Jung, Han-Sung

    2014-01-01

    Successful gene therapy necessitates safe and efficient gene transfer. This article describes the use of a cationic polymer, which was synthesized by cross-linking low molecular weight branched poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) with both β-cyclodextrin and propane-1,2,3-triol, for efficient and safe non-viral gene delivery. Experimentation demonstrated that the polymer had a pH buffering capacity and DNA condensing ability comparable to those of PEI 25 kDa. In B16-F0 cells, the polymer increased the transfection efficiency of naked DNA by 700-fold and yielded better transfection efficiencies than Fugene HD (threefold higher) and PEI 25 kDa (fivefold higher). The high transfection efficiency of the polymer was not affected by the presence of serum during transfection. In addition to B16-F0 cells, the polymer enabled efficient transfection of HepG2 and U87 cells with low cytotoxicity. Our results indicated that our polymer is a safe and efficient transfection reagent that warrants further development for in vitro, in vivo and clinical applications. PMID:24956480

  14. Bioassay guided isolation of a new C18-polyacetylene, (+)-9(Z),17-octadecadiene-12,14-diyne-1,11,16-triol, from Cassonia barteri.

    PubMed

    Papajewski, S; Guse, J H; Klaiber, I; Roos, G; Süssmuth, R; Vogler, B; Walter, C U; Kraus, W

    1998-06-01

    A novel C18-polyacetylene, (+)-9( Z),17-octadecadiene-12,14-diyne-1,11,16-triol, has been isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of Cassonia barteri (Araliaceae) leaves collected in Cameroon. The structure determination was achieved by NMR, mass, IR, and UV spectroscopy. The new polyenyne shows antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens, antifungal activity against Cladosporium cucumerinum, moiluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata at low concentrations, and in addition it possesses haemolytic activity. PMID:17253268

  15. Evaluation of plasma cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol and 7-ketocholesterol in inherited disorders related to cholesterol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Boenzi, Sara; Deodato, Federica; Taurisano, Roberta; Goffredo, Bianca Maria; Rizzo, Cristiano; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo

    2016-03-01

    Oxysterols are intermediates of cholesterol metabolism and are generated from cholesterol via either enzymatic or nonenzymatic pathways under oxidative stress conditions. Cholestan-3β,5α,6β-triol (C-triol) and 7-ketocholesterol (7-KC) have been proposed as new biomarkers for the diagnosis of Niemann-Pick type C (NP-C) disease, representing an alternative tool to the invasive and time-consuming method of fibroblast filipin test. To test the efficacy of plasma oxysterol determination for the diagnosis of NP-C, we systematically screened oxysterol levels in patients affected by different inherited disorders related with cholesterol metabolism, which included Niemann-Pick type B (NP-B) disease, lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) deficiency, Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS), congenital familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), and sitosterolemia (SITO). As expected, NP-C patients showed significant increase of both C-triol and 7-KC. Strong increase of both oxysterols was observed in NP-B and less pronounced in LAL deficiency. In SLOS, only 7-KC was markedly increased, whereas in both FH and in SITO, oxysterol concentrations were normal. Interestingly, in NP-C alone, we observed that plasma oxysterols correlate negatively with patient's age and positively with serum total bilirubin, suggesting the potential relationship between oxysterol levels and hepatic disease status. Our results indicate that oxysterols are reliable and sensitive biomarkers of NP-C. PMID:26733147

  16. Preparation and characterization of the deepoxy trichothecenes: deepoxy HT-2, deepoxy T-2 triol, deepoxy T-2 tetraol, deepoxy 15-monoacetoxyscirpenol, and deepoxy scirpentriol.

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, S P; Rood, H D; Behrens, J C; Sanders, P E

    1987-01-01

    The production of deepoxy metabolites of the trichothecene mycotoxins T-2 toxin and diacetoxyscirpenol, including deepoxy HT-2 (DE HT-2), deepoxy T-2 triol, deepoxy T-2 tetraol, deepoxy 15-monoacetoxyscirpenol, and deepoxy scirpentriol is described. The metabolites were prepared by in vitro fermentation with bovine rumen microorganisms under anaerobic conditions and purified by normal and reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. Capillary gas chromatographic retention times and mass spectra of the derivatized metabolites were obtained. The deepoxy metabolites were significantly less toxic to brine shrimp than were the corresponding epoxy analogs. Polyclonal and monoclonal T-2 antibodies were examined for cross-reactivity to several T-2 metabolites. Both HT-2 and DE HT-2 cross-reacted with mouse immunoglobulin monoclonal antibody 15H6 to a greater extent than did T-2 toxin. Rabbit polyclonal T-2 antibodies displayed greater specificity to T-2 toxin compared with the monoclonal antibody, with relative cross-reactivities of only 17.4, 14.6, and 9.2% for HT-2, DE HT-2, and deepoxy T-2 triol, respectively. Cross-reactivity of both antibodies was weak for T-2 triol, T-2 tetraol, 3'OH T-2, and 3'OH HT-2. PMID:3435145

  17. Polar organic marker compounds in atmospheric aerosols during the LBA-SMOCC 2002 biomass burning experiment in Rondônia, Brazil: sources and source processes, time series, diel variations and size distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claeys, M.; Kourtchev, I.; Pashynska, V.; Vas, G.; Vermeylen, R.; Wang, W.; Cafmeyer, J.; Chi, X.; Artaxo, P.; Andreae, M. O.; Maenhaut, W.

    2010-04-01

    Measurements of polar organic marker compounds were performed on aerosols that were collected at a pasture site in the Amazon basin (Rondônia, Brazil) using a High-Volume dichotomous sampler (HVDS) and a Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI). The samplings were conducted within the framework of the LBA-SMOCC (Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazônia - Smoke Aerosols, Clouds, Rainfall, and Climate: Aerosols From Biomass Burning Perturb Global and Regional Climate) campaign, which took place from 9 September till 14 November 2002, spanning the late dry season (biomass burning), the transition period, and the onset of the wet season (clean conditions). In the present study a more detailed discussion is presented compared to previous reports on the behavior of selected polar marker compounds, including: (a) levoglucosan, a tracer for biomass burning, (b) malic acid, a tracer for the oxidation of semivolatile carboxylic acids, (c) tracers for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from isoprene, i.e., the 2-methyltetrols (2-methylthreitol and 2-methylerythritol) and the C5-alkene triols [2-methyl-1,3,4-trihydroxy-1-butene (cis and trans) and 3-methyl-2,3,4-trihydroxy-1-butene], and (d) sugar alcohols (arabitol, mannitol, and erythritol), tracers for fungal spores. The results obtained for levoglucosan are covered first with the aim to address its contrasting behavior with that of malic acid, the isoprene SOA tracers, and the fungal spore tracers. The tracer data are discussed taking into account new insights that recently became available into their stability and/or aerosol formation processes. During all three periods, levoglucosan was the most dominant identified organic species in the PM2.5 size fraction of the HVDS samples. In the dry period levoglucosan reached concentrations of up to 7.5 μg m-3 and exhibited diel variations with a nighttime prevalence. It was closely associated with the PM mass in the size-segregated samples and was mainly

  18. (24S)-ergostane-3β,5α,6β-triol from Hedyotis chrysotricha with inhibitory activity on migration of SK-HEP-1 human hepatocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ye, Miao; Su, Jing-Jing; Liu, Shu-Ting; Cao, Lei; Xiong, Juan; Zhao, Yun; Fan, Hui; Yang, Guo-Xun; Xia, Gang; Hu, Jin-Feng

    2013-01-01

    The methanol extract of the whole plant of Hedyotis chrysotricha demonstrated cytotoxicity against SK-HEP-1 human hepatocarcinoma cells in a primary screening for novel antitumour agents. Bioassay-guided fractionation and purification led to an active principle (24S)-ergostane-3β,5α,6β-triol (1) along with four inactive compounds (2-5). The in vitro transwell migration assay showed that compound 1 remarkably reduced the migration of SK-HEP-1 cells by 78.9% at a dose of 30 µM, without any apoptotic effect on this cell line. Moreover, all the isolated compounds were further evaluated for their cytotoxicities against another four human cancer cell lines (MCF-7, NUGC3, SH-SY5Y and PC-3). PMID:22889249

  19. Molecular Characterization of Marine Organic Aerosols Collected during a Round-the-World Cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, P.; Kawamura, K.; Miura, K.

    2010-12-01

    Total suspended particles (TSP) were collected on board the R/V Hakuho Maru during a round-the-world cruise (KH89-2) and were characterized for organic molecular compositions using solvent extraction/derivatization and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry technique. More than 140 organic species were detected in the marine aerosols and were grouped into 11 organic compound classes, including aliphatic lipids, anhydrosugars and sugar alcohols, lignin/resin acids, sterols, hopanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, hydroxy-/polyacids, aromatic acids, as well as secondary organic aerosol (SOA) tracers from the photooxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds. Concentrations of total quantified organics ranged from 0.94 to 98 ng m-3 (average 31 ng m-3) with higher concentrations in coastal regions (California Coast, South China Sea, and Western North Pacific) than in open marine areas (North Pacific and North Atlantic), suggesting that long-range atmospheric transport from the continents is the main source of marine organic aerosols. Isoprene SOA tracers, i.e., 2-methylglyceric acid, C5-alkene triols and 2-methyltetrols, were detected in all the samples (0.11-22 ng m-3, average 3.6 ng m-3) with higher concentrations in the tropical regions. They accounted for 0.48-29% of the total identified organics. Organic compounds were further categorized into several groups to clarify their sources. In the North Pacific and North Atlantic, secondary oxidation products (30-31%), fossil fuel combustion products (27-28%), as well as marine natural emissions (22-34%) were found as major contributors to the marine aerosols. In California Coast, North Indian Ocean and South China Sea, secondary oxidation products can contribute 44-55% of the total identified organics, followed by terrestrial natural emissions (12-27%), while biomass burning emissions were found to contribute only 1-2%. However, in the western North Pacific near the Asian continent, fossil fuel combustion (27%) and

  20. Characterization of Isoprene-Derived Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation at the Look Rock Site during the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budisulistiorini, S.; Li, X.; Bairai, S. T.; Hicks, W.; Renfro, J.; Corrigan, A. L.; Guzman, J. M.; Russell, L. M.; Liu, Y.; McKinney, K. A.; Zhang, X.; Cappa, C. D.; Zimmermann, K.; Bertram, T. H.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Croteau, D.; Worsnop, D. R.; Jayne, J. T.; Zhang, Z.; Gold, A.; Surratt, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Although isoprene is considered as the single largest source of secondary organic aerosol (SOA), the exact manner in which it forms remains unclear. Improving our fundamental understanding of isoprene-derived SOA will be key to improving existing air quality models, especially in the southeastern U.S. where models currently underestimate observations. Reactive epoxides, which include methacrylic acid epoxide (MAE) and isomeric isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX), produced from the oxidation of isoprene have recently been demonstrated to lead to SOA through heterogeneous chemistry. Anthropogenic pollutants (NOx and SO2) have been shown to enhance isoprene-derived epoxides as a source of SOA. One of the major aims during SOAS was to examine how anthropogenic pollutants impact isoprene SOA formation and its climate-relevant properties. To address this aim, we deployed both an Aerodyne aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM) and a chemical ionization high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer (CI-HR-TOFMS) at the Look Rock (LRK) site in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, TN, from June 1 to July 15, 2013. In addition, high-volume PM2.5 samplers collected daily (8AM-7AM), day (8AM-7PM), and night (8PM-7AM) samples onto quartz filters. On days that LRK was forecasted to have high isoprene, SO4 (sulfate), and NOx levels, PM2.5 were collected more frequently (8AM-11AM, 12PM-3PM, 4PM-7PM, and 8PM-7AM). Filters were analyzed for known isoprene-derived SOA tracers (2-methyltetrols, 2-methylglyceric acid, C5-alkene triols, 3-methyltetrahydrofuran-3,4-diols, and organosulfates) by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection and electrospray ionization high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The average non-refractory PM1 mass measured by the ACSM was 3.87 μg m-3, with organic, sulfate, ammonium, nitrate and chloride contributing 64.4%, 24.1%, 7.6%, 3.8%, and 0.1%, respectively

  1. Anti-glycation and anti-angiogenic activities of 5'-methoxybiphenyl-3,4,3'-triol, a novel phytochemical component of Osteomeles schwerinae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun Mi; Kim, Junghyun; Kim, Chan-Sik; Jo, Kyuhyung; Yoo, Nam Hee; Sohn, Eunjin; Kim, Jin Sook

    2015-08-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are involved in the development of diabetic complications such as diabetic retinopathy. 5'-methoxybiphenyl-3,4,3'-triol (referred to as K24) was isolated using bioactivity-guided fractionation of Osteomeles schwerinae C. K. Schneid. and identified as a potent AGE inhibitor. To identify the protective effect of K24 on disruption of the blood-retinal barrier, AGE-RSA was intravitreally injected into rat eyes. K24 had an inhibitory effect on AGE-RSA-induced retinal vascular leakage by suppressing the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and decreasing the loss of occludin. In addition, we examined whether K24 has a preventive effect against retinal pathogenic angiogenesis in an oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) mouse model. K24 significantly reduced the retinal non-perfused area and neovascular tufts in the OIR mice. These data indicate that K24 could serve as an innovative pharmaceutical agent to prevent blood-retinal barrier breakage and retinal pathogenic angiogenesis through an anti-VEGF mechanism. PMID:25917323

  2. In vitro and in vivo antiherpetic effects of (1R,2R)-1-(5'-methylful-3'-yl)propane-1,2,3-triol.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Kohei; Hayashi, Kyoko; Matsuya, Yuji; Sugimoto, Kenji; Lee, Jung-Bum; Kurosaki, Fumiya; Hayashi, Toshimitsu

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we demonstrated the in vitro and in vivo antiherpetic activities of a stable furan derivative, (1R,2R)-1-(5'-methylful-3'-yl)propane-1,2,3-triol (MFPT), which had originally been isolated from Streptomyces sp. strain FV60. In the present study, we synthesized MFPT from (5-methylfuran-3-yl)methanol in 6 steps for use in the experiments. MFPT showed potent in vitro antiviral activities against two acyclovir (ACV)-sensitive (KOS and HF) strains and an ACV-resistant (A4-3) strain of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and an ACV-sensitive HSV type 2 (HSV-2) UW 268 strain, their selectivity indices ranging from 310 to 530. By intravaginal application of MFPT to mice, the virus yields decreased dose-dependently against the three strains of HSV-1 and HSV-2. When MFPT was applied at a dose of 1.0 mg/day, the lesion scores, as clinical signs manifested by viral infection, were extensively suppressed in HSV-1-infected mice, whereas the lesion scores in HSV-2-infected mice were not markedly decreased. Interestingly, MFPT exerted an inhibitory effect against ACV-resistant HSV-1 in mice to a similar degree as in ACV-sensitive HSV-1-infected mice. Therefore, the compound might have potential for developing a topical antiviral agent that could be also applied to the infections caused by ACV-resistant viruses. PMID:26763002

  3. Cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol: high levels in Niemann-Pick type C, cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis, and lysosomal acid lipase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Pajares, Sonia; Arias, Angela; García-Villoria, Judit; Macías-Vidal, Judit; Ros, Emilio; de las Heras, Javier; Girós, Marisa; Coll, Maria J; Ribes, Antonia

    2015-10-01

    Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by lysosomal/endosomal accumulation of unesterified cholesterol and glycolipids. Recent studies have shown that plasma cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol (CT) and 7-ketocholesterol (7-KC) could be potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of NPC patients. We aimed to know the sensitivity and specificity of these biomarkers for the diagnosis of NPC compared with other diseases that can potentially lead to oxysterol alterations. We studied 107 controls and 122 patients including 16 with NPC, 3 with lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) deficiency, 8 with other lysosomal diseases, 5 with galactosemia, 11 with cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX), 3 with Smith-Lemli-Opitz, 14 with peroxisomal biogenesis disorders, 19 with unspecific hepatic diseases, 13 with familial hypercholesterolemia, and 30 with neurological involvement and no evidence of an inherited metabolic disease. CT and 7-KC were analyzed by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS as mono-dimethylglycine derivatives. Levels of 7-KC were high in most of the studied diseases, whereas those of CT were only high in NPC, LAL, and CTX patients. Consequently, although CT is a sensitive biomarker of NPC disease, including those cases with doubtful filipin staining, it is not specific. 7-KC is a very unspecific biomarker. PMID:26239048

  4. In Vitro Metabolism of 20(R)-25-Methoxyl-Dammarane-3, 12, 20-Triol from Panax notoginseng in Human, Monkey, Dog, Rat, and Mouse Liver Microsomes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Liu, Li; Sun, Baoshan; Guo, Zhenghong; Shi, Caihong; Zhao, Yuqing

    2014-01-01

    The present study characterized in vitro metabolites of 20(R)-25-methoxyl-dammarane-3β, 12β, 20-triol (20(R)-25-OCH3-PPD) in mouse, rat, dog, monkey and human liver microsomes. 20(R)-25-OCH3-PPD was incubated with liver microsomes in the presence of NADPH. The reaction mixtures and the metabolites were identified on the basis of their mass profiles using LC-Q/TOF and were quantified using triple quadrupole instrument by multiple reaction monitoring. A total of 7 metabolites (M1–M7) of the phase I metabolites were detected in all species. 25(R)-OCH3-PPD was metabolized by hydroxylation, dehydrogenation, and O-demethylation. Enzyme kinetic of 20(R)-25-OCH3-PPD metabolism was evaluated in rat and human hepatic microsomes. Incubations studies with selective chemical inhibitors demonstrated that the metabolism of 20(R)-25-OCH3-PPD was primarily mediated by CYP3A4. We conclude that 20(R)-25-OCH3-PPD was metabolized extensively in mammalian species of mouse, rat, dog, monkey, and human. CYP3A4-catalyzed oxygenation metabolism played an important role in the disposition of 25(R)-OCH3-PPD, especially at the C-20 hydroxyl group. PMID:24736630

  5. Oral subchronic toxicity evaluation of a novel antitumor agent 25-methoxydammarane-3, 12, 20-triol from Panax notoginseng in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Zhang, Xiangrong; Xin, Yanfei; Xuan, Yaoxian; Liu, Jinping; Li, Pingya; Zhao, Yuqing

    2016-06-01

    Panax notoginseng and its main active ingredients ginsenosides have long been used as medicines and food additives in China. Comparing with the extensive uses and active researches of P. notoginseng and its products, the side effect and probable toxicity were rare. 25-Methoxydammarane-3,12,20-triol (25-OCH3-PPD), a novel dammarane-type triterpene sapogenin that was first isolated from the extract of P. notoginseng, was proven to have strong antitumor activities against prostate cancer, breast cancer and lung cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential subchronic toxicity of 25-OCH3-PPD after it was repeatedly orally administered to Sprague-Dawley rats (5/sex/group/each time-point) at dose levels of 0, 150, 300 or 600 mg/kg/day for 13 weeks and 4-week recovery. No mortality and treatment-related toxicity effects were observed as a result of the administration of 25-OCH3-PPD at any dose level (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg) for 92 consecutive days. Although there were some statistical changes, such as increased weights in female rats and decreased organ weights and coefficients of the liver, spleen, kidney, and adrenal gland compared with the control group at the corresponding time, the autopsy and histopathological examination of the target organs did not show any abnormal responses. As a result, 25-OCH3-PPD was well tolerated by SD rat at doses of up to 600 mg/kg and that it is a potential candidate for therapeutic use. PMID:27002186

  6. Grafting of silica with a hydrophilic triol acrylamide polymer via surface-initiated "grafting from" method for hydrophilic-interaction chromatography.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xi-Tian; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2011-11-01

    A novel hydrophilic polymer-coated silica sorbent has been prepared using the radical "grafting from" polymerization method through surface-bound azo initiators for hydrophilic-interaction chromatography (HILIC). The azo groups were introduced to the surface of silica gel through the reaction with amino groups on the surface of silica gel with 4,4'-azobis(4-cyanopentanoic acid chloride) (ACVC). The resultant azo-immobilized silica gel served as surface initiator to polymerize hydrophilic triol acrylamide monomer N-acryloyltris(hydroxymethyl) aminomethane (NA) in methanol to get hydrophilic polymer-coated silica sorbent. The obtained poly(NA)-coated silica (pNA-sil) was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), elemental analysis (EA), and nitrogen sorption porosimetry (NSP). Then the pNA-sil was packed into the stainless-steel column and evaluated in high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Good chromatographic performance for the separation of peptides and nucleosides was obtained under HILIC mode. The results indicated that the pNA-sil stationary phase behaved as mixed-mode retention mechanisms of hydrophilic and ionic interactions. Furthermore, the pNA-sil phase was used to separate tryptic digest of β-casein and our results showed that more than 12 peptides peaks were resolved and well distributed within the elution window. Finally, the pNA-sil stationary phase was demonstrated to possess remarkable reproducibility and stability. Taken together, the pNA-sil stationary phase prepared in the current study offers a potential application in proteomics study. PMID:21998034

  7. Examining the effects of anthropogenic emissions on isoprene-derived secondary organic aerosol formation during the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) at the Look Rock, Tennessee, ground site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budisulistiorini, S. H.; Li, X.; Bairai, S. T.; Renfro, J.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Y. J.; McKinney, K. A.; Martin, S. T.; McNeill, V. F.; Pye, H. O. T.; Nenes, A.; Neff, M. E.; Stone, E. A.; Mueller, S.; Knote, C.; Shaw, S. L.; Zhang, Z.; Gold, A.; Surratt, J. D.

    2015-03-01

    A suite of offline and real-time gas- and particle-phase measurements was deployed at Look Rock, Tennessee (TN), during the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) to examine the effects of anthropogenic emissions on isoprene-derived secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. High- and low-time resolution PM2.5 samples were collected for analysis of known tracer compounds in isoprene-derived SOA by gas chromatography/electron ionization-mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS) and ultra performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection-electrospray ionization-high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/DAD-ESI-HR-QTOFMS). Source apportionment of the organic aerosol (OA) was determined by positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis of mass spectrometric data acquired on an Aerodyne Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM). Campaign average mass concentrations of the sum of quantified isoprene-derived SOA tracers contributed to ~9% (up to 26%) of the total OA mass, with isoprene-epoxydiol (IEPOX) chemistry accounting for ~97% of the quantified tracers. PMF analysis resolved a factor with a profile similar to the IEPOX-OA factor resolved in an Atlanta study and was therefore designated IEPOX-OA. This factor was strongly correlated (r2>0.7) with 2-methyltetrols, C5-alkene triols, IEPOX-derived organosulfates, and dimers of organosulfates, confirming the role of IEPOX chemistry as the source. On average, IEPOX-derived SOA tracer mass was ~25% (up to 47%) of the IEPOX-OA factor mass, which accounted for 32% of the total OA. A low-volatility oxygenated organic aerosol (LV-OOA) and an oxidized factor with a profile similar to 91Fac observed in areas where emissions are biogenic-dominated were also resolved by PMF analysis, whereas no primary organic aerosol (POA) sources could be resolved. These findings were consistent with low levels of primary pollutants, such as nitric oxide (NO~0.03ppb), carbon monoxide (CO~116 ppb), and black carbon (BC~0

  8. Examining the effects of anthropogenic emissions on isoprene-derived secondary organic aerosol formation during the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) at the Look Rock, Tennessee ground site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budisulistiorini, S. H.; Li, X.; Bairai, S. T.; Renfro, J.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Y. J.; McKinney, K. A.; Martin, S. T.; McNeill, V. F.; Pye, H. O. T.; Nenes, A.; Neff, M. E.; Stone, E. A.; Mueller, S.; Knote, C.; Shaw, S. L.; Zhang, Z.; Gold, A.; Surratt, J. D.

    2015-08-01

    A suite of offline and real-time gas- and particle-phase measurements was deployed at Look Rock, Tennessee (TN), during the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) to examine the effects of anthropogenic emissions on isoprene-derived secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. High- and low-time-resolution PM2.5 samples were collected for analysis of known tracer compounds in isoprene-derived SOA by gas chromatography/electron ionization-mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS) and ultra performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection-electrospray ionization-high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/DAD-ESI-HR-QTOFMS). Source apportionment of the organic aerosol (OA) was determined by positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis of mass spectrometric data acquired on an Aerodyne Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM). Campaign average mass concentrations of the sum of quantified isoprene-derived SOA tracers contributed to ~ 9 % (up to 28 %) of the total OA mass, with isoprene-epoxydiol (IEPOX) chemistry accounting for ~ 97 % of the quantified tracers. PMF analysis resolved a factor with a profile similar to the IEPOX-OA factor resolved in an Atlanta study and was therefore designated IEPOX-OA. This factor was strongly correlated (r2 > 0.7) with 2-methyltetrols, C5-alkene triols, IEPOX-derived organosulfates, and dimers of organosulfates, confirming the role of IEPOX chemistry as the source. On average, IEPOX-derived SOA tracer mass was ~ 26 % (up to 49 %) of the IEPOX-OA factor mass, which accounted for 32 % of the total OA. A low-volatility oxygenated organic aerosol (LV-OOA) and an oxidized factor with a profile similar to 91Fac observed in areas where emissions are biogenic-dominated were also resolved by PMF analysis, whereas no primary organic aerosol (POA) sources could be resolved. These findings were consistent with low levels of primary pollutants, such as nitric oxide (NO ~ 0.03 ppb), carbon monoxide (CO ~ 116 ppb), and black

  9. Identification of (3S, 9R)- and (3S, 9S)-megastigma-6,7-dien-3,5,9-triol 9-O-beta-D-glucopyranosides as damascenone progenitors in the flowers of Rosa damascena Mill.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Masayuki; Matsumoto, Shigetaka; Mizoguchi, Masaya; Hirata, Satoshi; Takagi, Kazuteru; Hashimoto, Ikue; Yamano, Yumiko; Ito, Masayoshi; Fleischmann, Peter; Winterhalter, Peter; Morita, Tetuichiro; Watanabe, Naoharu

    2002-12-01

    The progenitors of damascenone (1), the most intensive C13-norisoprenoid volatile aroma constituent of rose essential oil, were surveyed in the flowers of Rosa damascena Mill. Besides 9-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-3-hydroxy-7,8-didehydro-beta-ionol (4b), a stable progenitor already isolated from the residual water after steam distillation of flowers of R. damascena Mill., two labile progenitors were identified to be (3S, 9R)- and (3S, 9S)-megastigma-6,7-dien-3,5,9-triol 9-O-beta-D-glucopyranosides (2b) based on their synthesis and HPLC-MS analytical data. Compound 2b gave damascenone (1), 3-hydroxy-beta-damascone (3) and 4b upon heating under acidic conditions. PMID:12596869

  10. Comprehensive Evaluation of Plasma 7-Ketocholesterol and Cholestan-3β,5α,6β-Triol in an Italian Cohort of Patients Affected by Niemann-Pick Disease due to NPC1 and SMPD1 Mutations.

    PubMed

    Romanello, Milena; Zampieri, Stefania; Bortolotti, Nadia; Deroma, Laura; Sechi, Annalisa; Fiumara, Agata; Parini, Rossella; Borroni, Barbara; Brancati, Francesco; Bruni, Amalia; Russo, Cinzia V; Bordugo, Andrea; Bembi, Bruno; Dardis, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Niemann-Pick C disease (NPCD) is a rare autosomal recessive neurovisceral disorder with a heterogeneous clinical presentation. Cholestan-3β,5α,6β-triol and 7-ketocholesterol have been proposed as biomarkers for the screening of NPCD. In this work, we assessed oxysterols levels in a cohort of Italian patients affected by NPCD and analyzed the obtained results in the context of the clinical, biochemical and molecular data. In addition, a group of patients affected by Niemann-Pick B disease (NPBD) were also analyzed. NPC patients presented levels of both oxysterols way above the cut off value, except for 5 siblings presenting the variant biochemical phenotype who displayed levels of 3β,5α,6β-triol below or just above the cut-off value; 2 of them presented also normal levels of 7-KC. Both oxysterols were extremely high in a patient presenting the neonatal systemic lethal phenotype. All NPB patients showed increased oxysterols levels. In conclusion, the reported LC-MS/MS assay provides a robust non-invasive screening tool for NPCD. However, false negative results can be obtained in patients expressing the variant biochemical phenotype. These data strengthen the concept that the results should always be interpreted in the context of the patients' clinical picture and filipin staining and/or genetic studies might still be undertaken in patients with normal levels of oxysterols if symptoms are highly suggestive of NPCD. Both oxysterols are significantly elevated in NPB patients; thus a differential diagnosis should always be performed in patients presenting isolated hepatosplenomegaly, a common clinical sign of both NPCD and NPBD. PMID:26790753

  11. Source apportionment of submicron organic aerosol at an urban background and a road site in Barcelona (Spain) during SAPUSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alier, M.; van Drooge, B. L.; Dall'Osto, M.; Querol, X.; Grimalt, J. O.; Tauler, R.

    2013-10-01

    This study investigates the contribution of potential sources to the submicron (PM1) organic aerosol (OA) simultaneously detected at an urban background (UB) and a road site (RS) in Barcelona during the 30 days of the intensive field campaign of SAPUSS (Solving Aerosol Problems by Using Synergistic Strategies, September-October 2010). A total of 103 filters at 12 h sampling time resolution were collected at both sites. Thirty-six neutral and polar organic compounds of known emission sources and photo-chemical transformation processes were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The concentrations of the trace chemical compounds analyzed are herein presented and discussed. Additionally, OA source apportionment was performed by multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) and six OA components were identified at both sites: two were of primary anthropogenic OA origin and three of secondary OA origin, while a sixth one was not clearly defined. Primary organics from emissions of local anthropogenic activities (urban primary organic aerosol, or POA Urban), mainly traffic emissions but also cigarette smoke, contributed 43% (1.5 μg OC m-3) and 18% (0.4 μg OC m-3) to OA at RS and UB, respectively. A secondary primary source - biomass burning (BBOA) - was found in all the samples (average values 7% RS; 12% UB; 0.3 μg OC m-3), but this component was substantially contributing to OA only when the sampling sites were under influence of regional air mass circulation (REG.). Three secondary organic aerosol (SOA) components (describing overall 60% of the variance) were observed in the urban ambient PM1. Products of isoprene oxidation (SOA ISO) - i.e. 2-methylglyceric acid, C5 alkene triols and 2-methyltetrols - showed the highest abundance at both sites when the city was under influence of inland air masses. The overall concentrations of SOA ISO were similar at both sites (0.4 and 0.3 μg m-3, or 16% and 7%, at UB and RS, respectively

  12. Two natural products, trans-phytol and (22E)-ergosta-6,9,22-triene-3β,5α,8α-triol, inhibit the biosynthesis of estrogen in human ovarian granulosa cells by aromatase (CYP19)

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Jiajia; Yuan, Yun; Lu, Danfeng; Du, Baowen; Xiong, Liang; Shi, Jiangong; Yang, Lijuan; Liu, Wanli; Yuan, Xiaohong; Zhang, Guolin; Wang, Fei

    2014-08-15

    Aromatase is the only enzyme in vertebrates to catalyze the biosynthesis of estrogens. Although inhibitors of aromatase have been developed for the treatment of estrogen-dependent breast cancer, the whole-body inhibition of aromatase causes severe adverse effects. Thus, tissue-selective aromatase inhibitors are important for the treatment of estrogen-dependent cancers. In this study, 63 natural products with diverse structures were examined for their effects on estrogen biosynthesis in human ovarian granulosa-like KGN cells. Two compounds—trans-phytol (SA-20) and (22E)-ergosta-6,9,22-triene-3β,5α,8α-triol (SA-48)—were found to potently inhibit estrogen biosynthesis (IC{sub 50}: 1 μM and 0.5 μM, respectively). Both compounds decreased aromatase mRNA and protein expression levels in KGN cells, but had no effect on the aromatase catalytic activity in aromatase-overexpressing HEK293A cells and recombinant expressed aromatase. The two compounds decreased the expression of aromatase promoter I.3/II. Neither compound affected intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels, but they inhibited the phosphorylation or protein expression of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). The effects of these two compounds on extracellular regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and AKT/phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway were examined. Inhibition of p38 MAPK could be the mechanism underpinning the actions of these compounds. Our results suggests that natural products structurally similar to SA-20 and SA-48 may be a new source of tissue-selective aromatase modulators, and that p38 MAPK is important in the basal control of aromatase in ovarian granulosa cells. SA-20 and SA-48 warrant further investigation as new pharmaceutical tools for the prevention and treatment of estrogen-dependent cancers. - Highlights: • Two natural products inhibited estrogen biosynthesis in human ovarian granulosa cells. • They

  13. Enabling the identification, quantification, and characterization of organics in complex mixtures to understand atmospheric aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaacman, Gabriel Avram

    -phase organic compounds in the atmosphere. High time resolution measurement of oxygenated compounds is achieved through a reproducible and quantitative methodology for in situ "derivatization" -- replacing highly polar functional groups that cannot be analyzed by traditional gas chromatography with less polar groups. Implementation of a two-channel sampling system for the simultaneous collection of particle-phase and total gas-plus-particle phase samples allows for the first direct measurements of gas/particle partitioning in the atmosphere, significantly advancing the study of atmospheric composition and variability, as well as the processes governing condensation and re-volatilization. This work presents the first in situ measurements of a large suite of highly oxygenated biogenic oxidation products in both the gas- and particle-phase. Isoprene, the most ubiquitous biogenic emission, oxidizes to form 2-methyltetrols and C5 alkene triols, while α-pinene, the most common monoterpene, forms pinic, pinonic, hydroxyglutaric, and other acids. These compounds are reported in Chapter 7 with unprecedented time resolution and are shown for the first time to have a large gas-phase component, contrary to typical assumptions. Hourly comparisons of these products with anthropogenic aerosol components elucidate the interaction of human and natural emissions at two rural sites: the southeastern, U.S. and Amazonia, Brazil. Anthropogenic influence on SOA formation is proposed to occur through the increase in liquid water caused by anthropogenic sulfate. Furthermore, these unparalleled observations of gas/particle partitioning of biogenic oxidation products demonstrate that partitioning of oxygenates is unexpectedly independent of volatility: many volatile, highly oxygenated compounds have a large particle-phase component that is poorly described by traditional models. These novel conclusions are reached in part by applying the new frameworks developed in previous chapters to understand the

  14. SALT LOADING INCREASES URINARY EXCRETION OF LINOLEIC ACID DIOLS AND TRIOLS IN HEALTHY HUMAN SUBJECTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Urinary linoleate (LA) metabolite excretion was investigated in subjects exposed to a salt loading/salt depletion regimen. Twelve healthy subjects were recruited from the New Orleans population (pre-Katrina) and admitted to Tulane-LSU Charity Hospital GCRC after a 5-day outpatient lead in phase on a...

  15. Ice core records of monoterpene- and isoprene-SOA tracers from Aurora Peak in Alaska since 1660s: Implication for climate change variability in the North Pacific Rim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokhrel, Ambarish; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Ono, Kaori; Seki, Osamu; Fu, Pingqing; Matoba, Sumio; Shiraiwa, Takayuki

    2016-04-01

    Monoterpene and isoprene secondary organic aerosol (SOA) tracers are reported for the first time in an Alaskan ice core to better understand the biological source strength before and after the industrial revolution in the Northern Hemisphere. We found significantly high concentrations of monoterpene- and isoprene-SOA tracers (e.g., pinic, pinonic, and 2-methylglyceric acids, 2-methylthreitol and 2-methylerythritol) in the ice core, which show historical trends with good correlation to each other since 1660s. They show positive correlations with sugar compounds (e.g., mannitol, fructose, glucose, inositol and sucrose), and anti-correlations with α-dicarbonyls (glyoxal and methylglyoxal) and fatty acids (e.g., C18:1) in the same ice core. These results suggest similar sources and transport pathways for monoterpene- and isoprene-SOA tracers. In addition, we found that concentrations of C5-alkene triols (e.g., 3-methyl-2,3,4-trihydroxy-1-butene, cis-2-methyl 1,3,4-trihydroxy-1-butene and trans-2-methyl-1,3,4-trihydroxy-1-butene) in the ice core have increased after the Great Pacific Climate Shift (late 1970s). They show positive correlations with α-dicarbonyls and fatty acids (e.g., C18:1) in the ice core, suggesting that enhanced oceanic emissions of biogenic organic compounds through the marine boundary layer are recorded in the ice core from Alaska. Photochemical oxidation process for these monoterpene- and isoprene-/sesquiterpene-SOA tracers are suggested to be linked with the periodicity of multi-decadal climate oscillations and retreat of sea ice in the Northern Hemisphere.

  16. Ice core records of monoterpene- and isoprene-SOA tracers from Aurora Peak in Alaska since 1660s: Implication for climate variability in the North Pacific Rim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokhrel, A.; Kawamura, K.; Seki, O.; Ono, K.; Matoba, S.; Shiraiwa, T.

    2015-12-01

    180 m long ice core (ca. 343 years old) was drilled in the saddle of the Aurora Peak of Alaska, which is located southeast of Fairbanks (63.52°N; 146.54°W, elevation: 2,825 m). Samples were directly transported to the Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University and have been analyzed for monoterpene- and isoprene-SOA tracers using gas chromatograph (GC; HP 6890) and mass spectrometry system (GC/MS; Agilent). Ice core collected from mountain glacier has not been explored for SOA yet. We found significantly high concentrations of these tracers (e.g., pinic, pinonic, and 2-methylglyceric acids, 2-methylthreitol and 2-methylrythritol), which show historical trends with good correlation with each other since 1665-2008. They show positive correlations with sugar compounds (e.g., mannitol, glucose, fructose, inositol, and sucrose), and anti-correlations with diacids (e.g., C9), w-oxocarboxylic (wC4-wC9), a-dicarbonyls and low molecular weight fatty acids (LFAs) (e.g., C18:1). LFAs show strong correlations with MSA- and nss-SO42- in the same ice core. These results suggest source regions of SOA tracers and ice core chemistry of Alaska. Concentrations of C5-alkene triols (e.g., 3-methyl-2,3,4-trihydroxy-1-butene, cis-2-methyl 1,3,4-trihydroxy-1-butene and trans-2-methyl-1,3,4-trihydroxy-1-butene) have increased in the ice core after the Great Pacific Climate Shift (late 1970's). They show positive correlations with a-dicarbonyls and LFAs (e.g., C18:1) in the ice core, suggesting that enhanced oceanic emissions of biogenic organic compounds through the surface microlayer are recorded in the ice core. Photochemical oxidation processes for these monoterpene- and isoprene-/sesquiterpene-SOA tracers are suggested to be linked with the periodicity of multi-decadal climate oscillations (e.g., North Pacific Index) and we can look at a whole range of environmental parameters in parallel with the robust reconstructed temperature changes in the Northern Hemisphere.

  17. Impacts of Anthropogenic Emissions in the Southeastern U.S. on Heterogeneous Chemistry of Isoprene-Derived Epoxides Leading to Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surratt, J. D.; Pye, H.; Lin, Y.; Budisulistiorini, S.; Zhang, H.; Marth, W.; Cui, T.; Arashiro, M.; Chu, K.; Zhang, Z.; Sexton, K.; Piletic, I.; Xie, Y.; Capps, S. L.; Luecken, D.; Hutzell, W. T.; Jaoui, M.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Croteau, D.; Jayne, J. T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Offenberg, J.; Kleindienst, T. E.; Lewandowski, M.; Edney, E.; Pinder, R. W.; Bartolotti, L.; Gold, A.

    2013-12-01

    Isoprene is a major source of secondary organic aerosol (SOA); however, the exact manner in which it forms SOA remains unclear. Improving our fundamental understanding of isoprene-derived SOA is key to improving existing air quality models, especially in the southeastern U.S. where models currently underestimate observations. By combining organic synthesis, computational calculations, mass spectrometry, smog chamber studies, and field measurements, we show that reactive epoxides, which include methacrylic acid epoxide (MAE) and isomeric isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX), produced from the photochemical oxidation of isoprene are key to SOA formation. Furthermore, anthropogenic pollutants (NOx and SO2) enhance isoprene-derived epoxides as an SOA source. In the laboratory, we find that the reactive uptake of synthetic IEPOX and MAE standards onto acidified sulfate aerosol yields known isoprene-derived SOA tracers (2-methlytetrols, 2-methylglyceric acid, C5-alkene triols, 3-methyltetrahydrofuran-3,4-diols, dimers and organosulfates) that we measure in fine aerosol collected from multiple sites across the southeastern U.S. using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection and electrospray ionization high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/DAD-ESI-QTOFMS). Notably, IEPOX- and MAE-derived SOA tracers account for ~19% of the organic aerosol mass in Yorkville, GA. Moreover, real-time continuous chemical measurements of fine aerosol made using an Aerodyne Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) during summer 2011 and summer 2013 in Atlanta, GA, and Look Rock, TN, respectively, resolved an IEPOX-oxygenated organic aerosol (IEPOX-OOA) factor when applying positive matrix factorization (PMF) to the organic mass spectral time series. In Atlanta, this factor is found to account for ~33% of the fine OA mass and is correlated with IEPOX-derived SOA tracers (r2 = 0.6), sulfate (r2 = 0.5), and to some

  18. Characterization of a real-time tracer for isoprene epoxydiols-derived secondary organic aerosol (IEPOX-SOA) from aerosol mass spectrometer measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, W. W.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; Palm, B. B.; Day, D. A.; Ortega, A. M.; Hayes, P. L.; Krechmer, J. E.; Chen, Q.; Kuwata, M.; Liu, Y. J.; de Sá, S. S.; McKinney, K.; Martin, S. T.; Hu, M.; Budisulistiorini, S. H.; Riva, M.; Surratt, J. D.; St. Clair, J. M.; Isaacman-Van Wertz, G.; Yee, L. D.; Goldstein, A. H.; Carbone, S.; Brito, J.; Artaxo, P.; de Gouw, J. A.; Koss, A.; Wisthaler, A.; Mikoviny, T.; Karl, T.; Kaser, L.; Jud, W.; Hansel, A.; Docherty, K. S.; Alexander, M. L.; Robinson, N. H.; Coe, H.; Allan, J. D.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Paulot, F.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2015-10-01

    Substantial amounts of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) can be formed from isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX), which are oxidation products of isoprene mainly under low-NO conditions. Total IEPOX-SOA, which may include SOA formed from other parallel isoprene oxidation pathways, was quantified by applying positive matrix factorization (PMF) to aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements. The IEPOX-SOA fractions of organic aerosol (OA) in multiple field studies across several continents are summarized here and show consistent patterns with the concentration of gas-phase IEPOX simulated by the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model. During the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS), 78 % of PMF-resolved IEPOX-SOA is accounted by the measured IEPOX-SOA molecular tracers (2-methyltetrols, C5-Triols, and IEPOX-derived organosulfate and its dimers), making it the highest level of molecular identification of an ambient SOA component to our knowledge. An enhanced signal at C5H6O+ (m/z 82) is found in PMF-resolved IEPOX-SOA spectra. To investigate the suitability of this ion as a tracer for IEPOX-SOA, we examine fC5H6O (fC5H6O= C5H6O+/OA) across multiple field, chamber, and source data sets. A background of ~ 1.7 ± 0.1 ‰ (‰ = parts per thousand) is observed in studies strongly influenced by urban, biomass-burning, and other anthropogenic primary organic aerosol (POA). Higher background values of 3.1 ± 0.6 ‰ are found in studies strongly influenced by monoterpene emissions. The average laboratory monoterpene SOA value (5.5 ± 2.0 ‰) is 4 times lower than the average for IEPOX-SOA (22 ± 7 ‰), which leaves some room to separate both contributions to OA. Locations strongly influenced by isoprene emissions under low-NO levels had higher fC5H6O (~ 6.5 ± 2.2 ‰ on average) than other sites, consistent with the expected IEPOX-SOA formation in those studies. fC5H6O in IEPOX-SOA is always elevated (12-40 ‰) but varies substantially between locations, which is shown to reflect

  19. Characterization of a real-time tracer for isoprene epoxydiols-derived secondary organic aerosol (IEPOX-SOA) from aerosol mass spectrometer measurements

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hu, W. W.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; Palm, B. B.; Day, D. A.; Ortega, A. M.; Hayes, P. L.; Krechmer, J. E.; Chen, Q.; Kuwata, M.; Liu, Y. J.; et al

    2015-10-23

    Substantial amounts of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) can be formed from isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX), which are oxidation products of isoprene mainly under low-NO conditions. Total IEPOX-SOA, which may include SOA formed from other parallel isoprene oxidation pathways, was quantified by applying positive matrix factorization (PMF) to aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements. The IEPOX-SOA fractions of organic aerosol (OA) in multiple field studies across several continents are summarized here and show consistent patterns with the concentration of gas-phase IEPOX simulated by the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model. During the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS), 78 % of PMF-resolved IEPOX-SOA is accountedmore » by the measured IEPOX-SOA molecular tracers (2-methyltetrols, C5-Triols, and IEPOX-derived organosulfate and its dimers), making it the highest level of molecular identification of an ambient SOA component to our knowledge. An enhanced signal at C5H6O+ (m/z 82) is found in PMF-resolved IEPOX-SOA spectra. To investigate the suitability of this ion as a tracer for IEPOX-SOA, we examine fC5H6O (fC5H6O= C5H6O+/OA) across multiple field, chamber, and source data sets. A background of ~ 1.7 ± 0.1 ‰ (‰ = parts per thousand) is observed in studies strongly influenced by urban, biomass-burning, and other anthropogenic primary organic aerosol (POA). Higher background values of 3.1 ± 0.6 ‰ are found in studies strongly influenced by monoterpene emissions. The average laboratory monoterpene SOA value (5.5 ± 2.0 ‰) is 4 times lower than the average for IEPOX-SOA (22 ± 7 ‰), which leaves some room to separate both contributions to OA. Locations strongly influenced by isoprene emissions under low-NO levels had higher fC5H6O (~ 6.5 ± 2.2 ‰ on average) than other sites, consistent with the expected IEPOX-SOA formation in those studies. fC5H6O in IEPOX-SOA is always elevated (12–40 ‰) but varies substantially between locations, which is shown

  20. The influence of temperature and aerosol acidity on biogenic secondary organic aerosol tracers: Observations at a rural site in the central Pearl River Delta region, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Xiang; Wang, Xin-Ming; Zheng, Mei

    2011-02-01

    At a rural site in the central Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in south China, fine particle (PM 2.5) samples were collected during fall-winter 2007 to measure biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) tracers, including isoprene SOA tracers (3-methyl-2,3,4-trihydroxy-1-butene, 2-methylglyceric acid, 2-methylthreitol and 2-methylerythritol), α-pinene SOA tracers ( cis-pinonic acid, pinic acid, 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid, 3-hydroxyglutaric acid and 3-hydroxy-4,4-dimethylglutaric acid) and a sesquiterpene SOA tracer (β-caryophyllinic acid). The isoprene-, α-pinene- and sesquiterpene-SOA tracers averaged 30.8 ± 15.9, 6.61 ± 4.39, and 0.54 ± 0.56 ng m -3, respectively; and 2-methyltetrols (sum of 2-methylthreitol and 2-methylerythritol, 27.6 ± 15.1 ng m -3) and cis-pinonic acid (3.60 ± 3.76 ng m -3) were the dominant isoprene- and α-pinene-SOA tracers, respectively. 2-Methyltetrols exhibited significantly positive correlations ( p < 0.05) with ambient temperature, probably resulting from the enhanced isoprene emission strength and tracer formation rate under higher temperature. The significantly positive correlation ( p < 0.05) between 2-methyltetrols and the estimated aerosol acidity with a slope of 59.4 ± 13.4 ng m -3 per μmol [H +] m -3 reflected the enhancement of isoprene SOA formation by aerosol acidity, and acid-catalyzed heterogeneous reaction was probably the major formation pathway for 2-methyltetrols in the PRD region. 2-Methylglyceric acid showed poor correlations with both temperature and aerosol acidity. The α-pinene SOA tracers showed poor correlations with temperature, probably due to the counteraction between temperature effects on the precursor emission/tracer formation and gas/particle partitioning. Among the α-pinene SOA tracers, only cis-pinonic acid and pinic acid exhibited significant correlations with aerosol acidity with slopes of -11.7 ± 3.7 and -2.2 ± 0.8 ng m -3 per μmol [H +] m -3, respectively. The negative

  1. Atmospheric chemistry in stereo: A new look at secondary organic aerosols from isoprene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozière, Barbara; González, Nélida J. D.; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Pei, Yuxin; Redeby, Johan Pettersson; Krejci, Radovan; Dommen, Josef; Prevot, Andre S. H.; Anthonsen, Thorleif

    2011-06-01

    Isoprene, a compound emitted by vegetation, could be a major contributor to secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the atmosphere. The main evidence for this contribution were the 2-methylbutane-1,2,3,4-tetraols, or 2-methyltetrols (2-methylerythritol and 2-methylthreitol) present in ambient aerosols. In this work, the four stereoisomers of these tetraols were analyzed in aerosols from Aspvreten, Sweden. 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol was found in excess over its enantiomer in the Spring/Summer, by up to 29% in July. This clearly indicated some biological origins for this enantiomer, consistent with its well-documented production by plants and other living organisms. In addition, a minimum of 20 to 60% of the mass of racemic tetraols appeared from biological origin. Thus, the SOA mass produced by isoprene in the atmosphere is less than what indicated by the 2-methyltetrols in aerosols. Our results also demonstrate that stereochemical speciation can distinguish primary and secondary organic material in atmospheric aerosols.

  2. Longipinane derivatives from Stevia connata.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Arreola, E; Cerda-García-Rojas, C M; Román, L U; Hernández, J D; Joseph-Nathan, P

    2000-01-01

    The hexane extracts of the roots of Stevia connata afforded three new longipinene derivatives, longipinane-7beta,8alpha, 9alpha-triol-1-one 7-angelate-8-methylbutyrate (1), longipin-2-ene-7beta,8alpha,9alpha-triol-1-one 8,9-diangelate (6), and longipin-2-ene-7beta,8alpha,9alpha-triol-1-one 8-angelate-9-methylbutyrate (8), together with the known longipinane-7beta,8alpha,9alpha-triol-1-one 8,9-diangelate (2), longipinane-7beta,8alpha,9alpha-triol-1-one 7,9-diangelate (3), longipinane-7beta,8alpha,9alpha-triol-1-one 7,8-diangelate (4), longipin-2-ene-7beta,8alpha,9alpha-triol-1-one 7,8-diangelate (5), longipin-2-ene-7beta,8alpha,9alpha-triol-1-one 7-angelate-8-methylbutyrate (12), and stigmasterol. The structures of the new compounds were determined by chemical transformations and spectral methods including 2D NMR measurements. Spontaneous intramolecular transesterifications starting from the 8-angelate-9-methylbutyrate 8 provided an equilibrated mixture of the 7-angelate-9-methylbutyrate 10, the 7-angelate-8-methylbutyrate 12 and the starting material when stored in MeOH-H(2)O solution, while the 8,9-diangelate 6 only provided a binary mixture of the 7, 9-diangelate 7 and the starting material under the same conditions. The structures of 6-8, 10, and 12 and those of the nonisolable reaction intermediates 9, 11, and 14 were further evaluated by AM1 semiempirical calculations. PMID:10650070

  3. Highly Tunable Selectivity for Syngas-Derived Alkenes over Zinc and Sodium-Modulated Fe5 C2 Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Peng; Xu, Cong; Gao, Rui; Liu, Xi; Li, Mengzhu; Li, Weizhen; Fu, Xinpu; Jia, Chunjiang; Xie, Jinglin; Zhao, Ming; Wang, Xiaoping; Li, Yong-Wang; Zhang, Qianwen; Wen, Xiao-Dong; Ma, Ding

    2016-08-16

    Zn- and Na-modulated Fe catalysts were fabricated by a simple coprecipitation/washing method. Zn greatly changed the size of iron species, serving as the structural promoter, while the existence of Na on the surface of the Fe catalyst alters the electronic structure, making the catalyst very active for CO activation. Most importantly, the electronic structure of the catalyst surface suppresses the hydrogenation of double bonds and promotes desorption of products, which renders the catalyst unexpectedly reactive toward alkenes-especially C5+ alkenes (with more than 50% selectivity in hydrocarbons)-while lowering the selectivity for undesired products. This study enriches C1 chemistry and the design of highly selective new catalysts for high-value chemicals. PMID:27445106

  4. Abundance of Biogenic and Anthropogenic SOA Tracers Compounds in Fine Particles during the Nucleation in Forests Experiment (NIFTy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jobson, B. T.; Wallace, W.; Westberg, H.; Hamilton, H.; Pryor, S. C.; Barthelmie, R.

    2008-12-01

    The Nucleation in Forests field experiment was conducted in May 2008 at the Morgan-Monroe State forest in Indiana to observe the nature and occurrence of new particle formation. As part of this experiment filter samples were collected at mid-canopy height using a MOUDI-110. The MOUDI sampler collected 10 size fractions from 0.056 um to 5.6 um. The filter samples were collected for 24 hours and analyzed by gas chromatography ion trap mass spectrometry for several anthropogenic and biogenic secondary organic aerosol tracer compounds including 2-methyltetrols from isoprene oxidation. The objective of the size resolved PM sampling was to determine if the growth of small particles that occurs during nucleation events was driven by biogenic or anthropogenic VOC photooxidation products. Results from this analysis will be presented.

  5. Modeling intercalated PAH metabolites: Explanation for the stereochemical and shape selectivity of B-DNA for bay-region carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Szentpaly, L.V.; Shamovsky, I.L.

    1996-12-31

    The equilibrium structures of 22 intercalation complexes of different metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) with the dG{sub 2}{lg_bullet}dC{sub 2} dinucleotide are obtained by AMBER and FLEX molecular modeling. The triol carbocations of highly potent carcinogens are stereochemically compatible with the dinucleotide and B-DNA. Their intercalation complexes are found (1) to be stabilized by two hydrogen bonds between DH groups of the triol cation and the N(3) atoms of the adjacent guanine residues, (2) to be {open_quotes}preorganized{close_quotes} for covalent bonding to the N(2) amino group of quanine, (3) to display only minor conformational changes with respect to the uncomplexed dinucleotide in B-DNA. A new explanation for the stereochemical and shape selectivity in the initiation of cancer by PAHa is presented. The molecular mechanics study is sugmented by HF/6-31G{sup I} calculations on the conformations of phenanthrene triol carbocation.

  6. Furostanol saponins from the fruits of Tribulus terrestris.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Su, Lan; Feng, Sheng-Guang; Lu, Xuan; Wang, Haifeng; Pei, Yue-Hu

    2013-01-01

    Two new steroidal saponins were isolated from the fruits of Tribulus terrestris. Their structures were assigned by spectroscopic analysis and colour reaction as 26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5α-furostane-12-one-3β,22α,26-triol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1 → 4)-β-D-galactopyranoside (1); 26-O-β- D-glucopyranosyl-25(R)-5α-furostan-12-one-3β,22α,26-triol-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)]-β-D-galactopyranoside (2). PMID:22934688

  7. Synthesis, emulsification and self-assembly properties of sugar-containing semifluorinated amphiphiles.

    PubMed

    Razgulin, Andrew V; Mecozzi, Sandro

    2015-04-10

    Surfactants with two and three monosaccharide-based heads and a perfluoroalkyl tail have been synthesized. Perfluoroalkyl C3-symmetric triol and C2-symmetric diol were conveniently prepared via Cu-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition between a fluorous alkyne and tertiary and secondary azides, respectively. Glycosylation of the perfluoroalkyl diol and triol led to orthoester-type structures, which were evaluated for their capacity to stabilize aqueous emulsions of highly fluorinated anesthetics. The self-assembly properties of the tri-sugar amphiphile were examined by transmission electron microscopy. PMID:25658061

  8. Synthesis, emulsification and self-assembly properties of sugar-containing semifluorinated amphiphiles

    PubMed Central

    Razgulin, Andrew V.; Mecozzi, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    Surfactants with two and three monosaccharide-based heads and a perfluoroalkyl tail have been synthesized. Perfluoroalkyl C3-symmetric triol and C2-symmetric diol were conveniently prepared via Cu-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition between a fluorous alkyne and tertiary and secondary azides, respectively. Glycosylation of the perfluoroalkyl diol and triol led to orthoester-type structures, which were evaluated for their capacity to stabilize aqueous emulsions of highly fluorinated anesthetics. The self-assembly properties of the tri-sugar amphiphile were examined by transmission electron microscopy. PMID:25658061

  9. Polar organic marker compounds in atmospheric aerosols during the LBA-SMOCC 2002 biomass burning experiment in Rondônia, Brazil: sources and source processes, time series, diel variations and size distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claeys, M.; Kourtchev, I.; Pashynska, V.; Vas, G.; Vermeylen, R.; Wang, W.; Cafmeyer, J.; Chi, X.; Artaxo, P.; Andreae, M. O.; Maenhaut, W.

    2010-10-01

    Measurements of polar organic marker compounds were performed on aerosols that were collected at a pasture site in the Amazon basin (Rondônia, Brazil) using a high-volume dichotomous sampler (HVDS) and a Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) within the framework of the 2002 LBA-SMOCC (Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazônia - Smoke Aerosols, Clouds, Rainfall, and Climate: Aerosols From Biomass Burning Perturb Global and Regional Climate) campaign. The campaign spanned the late dry season (biomass burning), a transition period, and the onset of the wet season (clean conditions). In the present study a more detailed discussion is presented compared to previous reports on the behavior of selected polar marker compounds, including levoglucosan, malic acid, isoprene secondary organic aerosol (SOA) tracers and tracers for fungal spores. The tracer data are discussed taking into account new insights that recently became available into their stability and/or aerosol formation processes. During all three periods, levoglucosan was the most dominant identified organic species in the PM2.5 size fraction of the HVDS samples. In the dry period levoglucosan reached concentrations of up to 7.5 μg m-3 and exhibited diel variations with a nighttime prevalence. It was closely associated with the PM mass in the size-segregated samples and was mainly present in the fine mode, except during the wet period where it peaked in the coarse mode. Isoprene SOA tracers showed an average concentration of 250 ng m-3 during the dry period versus 157 ng m-3 during the transition period and 52 ng m-3 during the wet period. Malic acid and the 2-methyltetrols exhibited a different size distribution pattern, which is consistent with different aerosol formation processes (i.e., gas-to-particle partitioning in the case of malic acid and heterogeneous formation from gas-phase precursors in the case of the 2-methyltetrols). The 2-methyltetrols were mainly associated with the

  10. Hourly Measurement of the Concentration and Gas-Particle Partitioning of Oxygenated Organic Tracers in Ambient Aerosol: First Results from Berkeley, CA and Rural Alabama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaacman, G. A.; Kreisberg, N. M.; Yee, L.; Chan, A.; Worton, D. R.; Hering, S. V.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2013-12-01

    Hourly and bi-hourly time-resolved measurements of organic tracer compounds in ambient aerosols have been successfully used to elucidate sources and formation pathways of atmospheric particulate matter. Here we extend the Semi-Volatile Thermal desorption Aerosol Gas chromatograph (SVTAG), a custom in-situ instrument that collects, desorbs, and analyzes ambient aerosol and semi-volatile compounds with hourly time resolution, to include on-line derivatization and a second, parallel collection cell that provides simultaneous collection of both particle-phase and particle-plus-gas-phase organic compounds. By introducing a silylating agent upon desorption, SVTAG can measure highly oxygenated compounds that are not easily detected using traditional gas chromatography including most of the previously reported oxygenated tracers for biogenic and anthropogenic secondary organic aerosol. The use of a pair of matched collection cells with parallel sampling and serial analysis provides direct gas-particle partitioning information. One cell collects the total organic fraction of compounds with volatilities lower than a C13 hydrocarbon, while the other cell samples through an activated carbon denuder to selectively remove the gas-phase components. Taken together these provide a direct measurement of gas-particle partitioning to yield a check on classical absorption based partitioning theory while deviations from this theory provide constraints on other driving factors in aerosol formation chemistry, such as oligomerization, salt formation, and acidity. We present here the capabilities and utility of the dual cell SVTAG with derivatization, with chemical insights gained from initial tests on ambient Berkeley air and the first results from a rural site in Alabama obtained during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS). Tracers for varying isoprene oxidation pathways are used to explore the influence of anthropogenic emissions; concentrations of 2-methyltetrols and 2-methyl

  11. Rapid Diagnosis of 83 Patients with Niemann Pick Type C Disease and Related Cholesterol Transport Disorders by Cholestantriol Screening.

    PubMed

    Reunert, Janine; Fobker, Manfred; Kannenberg, Frank; Du Chesne, Ingrid; Plate, Maria; Wellhausen, Judith; Rust, Stephan; Marquardt, Thorsten

    2016-02-01

    Niemann Pick type C (NP-C) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder caused by an impairment of intracellular lipid transport. Due to the heterogeneous clinical phenotype and the lack of a reliable blood test, diagnosis and therapy are often delayed for years. In the cell, accumulating cholesterol leads to increased formation of oxysterols that can be used as a powerful screening parameter for NP-C. In a large scale study, we evaluated the oxysterol cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol (c-triol) as potential biomarker for a rapid diagnosis of NP-C. Using GC/MS, c-triol has been analyzed in 1902 plasma samples of patients with the suspicion for NP-C. Diagnosis in patients with elevated oxysterols was confirmed by genetic analysis. 71 new NP-C patients (69 NP-C1 and two NP-C2) and 12 Niemann Pick type A/B patients were identified. 24 new mutations in NPC1, one new mutation in NPC2 and three new mutations in the SMPD1 gene were found. Cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol was elevated in Niemann Pick type C1, type C2, type A/B and in CESD disease. No other study has ever identified so many NP-C patients, proving that c-triol is a rapid and reliable biomarker to detect patients with NP-C disease and related cholesterol transport disorders. It should replace the filipin test as the first-line diagnostic assay. PMID:26981555

  12. The Precise Structures and Stereochemistry of Trihydroxy-linoleates Esterified in Human and Porcine Epidermis and Their Significance in Skin Barrier Function

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Takahito; Thomas, Christopher P.; Calcutt, M. Wade; Boeglin, William E.; O'Donnell, Valerie B.; Brash, Alan R.

    2016-01-01

    Creation of an intact skin water barrier, a prerequisite for life on dry land, requires the lipoxygenase-catalyzed oxidation of the essential fatty acid linoleate, which is esterified to the ω-hydroxyl of an epidermis-specific ceramide. Oxidation of the linoleate moiety by lipoxygenases is proposed to facilitate enzymatic cleavage of the ester bond, releasing free ω-hydroxyceramide for covalent binding to protein, thus forming the corneocyte lipid envelope, a key component of the epidermal barrier. Herein, we report the transformations of esterified linoleate proceed beyond the initial steps of oxidation and epoxyalcohol synthesis catalyzed by the consecutive actions of 12R-LOX and epidermal LOX3. The major end product in human and porcine epidermis is a trihydroxy derivative, formed with a specificity that implicates participation of an epoxide hydrolase in converting epoxyalcohol to triol. Of the 16 possible triols arising from hydrolysis of 9,10-epoxy-13-hydroxy-octadecenoates, using LC-MS and chiral analyses, we identify and quantify specifically 9R,10S,13R-trihydroxy-11E-octadecenoate as the single major triol esterified in porcine epidermis and the same isomer with lesser amounts of its 10R diastereomer in human epidermis. The 9R,10S,13R-triol is formed by SN2 hydrolysis of the 9R,10R-epoxy-13R-hydroxy-octadecenoate product of the LOX enzymes, a reaction specificity characteristic of epoxide hydrolase. The high polarity of triol over the primary linoleate products enhances the concept that the oxidations disrupt corneocyte membrane lipids, promoting release of free ω-hydroxyceramide for covalent binding to protein and sealing of the waterproof barrier. PMID:27151221

  13. The Precise Structures and Stereochemistry of Trihydroxy-linoleates Esterified in Human and Porcine Epidermis and Their Significance in Skin Barrier Function: IMPLICATION OF AN EPOXIDE HYDROLASE IN THE TRANSFORMATIONS OF LINOLEATE.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Takahito; Thomas, Christopher P; Calcutt, M Wade; Boeglin, William E; O'Donnell, Valerie B; Brash, Alan R

    2016-07-01

    Creation of an intact skin water barrier, a prerequisite for life on dry land, requires the lipoxygenase-catalyzed oxidation of the essential fatty acid linoleate, which is esterified to the ω-hydroxyl of an epidermis-specific ceramide. Oxidation of the linoleate moiety by lipoxygenases is proposed to facilitate enzymatic cleavage of the ester bond, releasing free ω-hydroxyceramide for covalent binding to protein, thus forming the corneocyte lipid envelope, a key component of the epidermal barrier. Herein, we report the transformations of esterified linoleate proceed beyond the initial steps of oxidation and epoxyalcohol synthesis catalyzed by the consecutive actions of 12R-LOX and epidermal LOX3. The major end product in human and porcine epidermis is a trihydroxy derivative, formed with a specificity that implicates participation of an epoxide hydrolase in converting epoxyalcohol to triol. Of the 16 possible triols arising from hydrolysis of 9,10-epoxy-13-hydroxy-octadecenoates, using LC-MS and chiral analyses, we identify and quantify specifically 9R,10S,13R-trihydroxy-11E-octadecenoate as the single major triol esterified in porcine epidermis and the same isomer with lesser amounts of its 10R diastereomer in human epidermis. The 9R,10S,13R-triol is formed by SN2 hydrolysis of the 9R,10R-epoxy-13R-hydroxy-octadecenoate product of the LOX enzymes, a reaction specificity characteristic of epoxide hydrolase. The high polarity of triol over the primary linoleate products enhances the concept that the oxidations disrupt corneocyte membrane lipids, promoting release of free ω-hydroxyceramide for covalent binding to protein and sealing of the waterproof barrier. PMID:27151221

  14. Linking biogenic hydrocarbons to biogenic aerosol in the Borneo rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, J. F.; Alfarra, M. R.; Robinson, N.; Ward, M. W.; Lewis, A. C.; McFiggans, G. B.; Coe, H.; Allan, J. D.

    2013-07-01

    Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds are though to contribute significantly to secondary organic aerosol formation in the tropics, but understanding the process of these transformations has proved difficult, due to the complexity of the chemistry involved and very low concentrations. Aerosols from above a South East Asian tropical rainforest in Borneo were characterised using liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry, high resolution aerosol mass spectrometry and fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICRMS) techniques. Oxygenated compounds were identified in ambient organic aerosol that could be directly traced back to isoprene, monoterpenes and sesquiterpene emissions, by combining field data on chemical structures with mass spectral data generated from synthetically produced products created in a simulation chamber. Eighteen oxygenated species of biogenic origin were identified in the rainforest aerosol from the precursors isoprene, α-pinene, limonene, α-terpinene and β-caryophyllene. The observations provide the unambiguous field detection of monoterpene and sesquiterpene oxidation products in SOA above a pristine tropical rainforest. The presence of 2-methyltetrol organosulfates and an associated sulfated dimer provides direct evidence that isoprene in the presence of sulfate aerosol can make a contribution to biogenic organic aerosol above tropical forests. High-resolution mass spectrometry indicates that sulfur can also be incorporated into oxidation products arising from monoterpene precursors in tropical aerosol.

  15. Nitrogen Containing Organic Compounds and Oligomers in Secondary Organic Aerosol Formed by Photooxidation of Isoprene

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Tran B.; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Nizkorodov, Serguei

    2011-07-06

    Electrospray ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry (ESI HR-MS) was used to probe molecular structures of oligomers in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) generated in laboratory experiments on isoprene photooxidation at low- and high-NOx conditions. Up to 80-90% of the observed products are oligomers and up to 33% are nitrogen-containing organic compounds (NOC). We observe oligomers with up to 8 monomer units in length. Tandem mass spectrometry (MSn) confirms NOC compounds are organic nitrates and elucidates plausible chemical building blocks contributing to oligomer formation. Most organic nitrates are comprised of methylglyceric acid units. Other important multifunctional C2-C5 monomer units are identified including methylglyoxal, hydroxyacetone, hydroxyacetic acid, glycolaldehyde, and 2-methyltetrols. The majority of the NOC oligomers contain only one nitrate moiety resulting in a low average N:C ratio of 0.019. Average O:C ratios of the detected SOA compounds are 0.54 under the low-NOx conditions and 0.83 under the high-NOx conditions. Our results underscore the importance of isoprene photooxidation as a source of NOC in organic particulate matter.

  16. Effect of Organic Coatings, Humidity and Aerosol Acidity on Multiphase Chemistry of Isoprene Epoxydiols.

    PubMed

    Riva, Matthieu; Bell, David M; Hansen, Anne-Maria Kaldal; Drozd, Greg T; Zhang, Zhenfa; Gold, Avram; Imre, Dan; Surratt, Jason D; Glasius, Marianne; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2016-06-01

    Multiphase chemistry of isomeric isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX) has been shown to be the dominant source of isoprene-derived secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Recent studies have reported particles composed of ammonium bisulfate (ABS) mixed with model organics exhibit slower rates of IEPOX uptake. In the present study, we investigate the effect of atmospherically relevant organic coatings of α-pinene (AP) SOA on the reactive uptake of trans-β-IEPOX onto ABS particles under different conditions and coating thicknesses. Single particle mass spectrometry was used to characterize in real-time particle size, shape, density, and quantitative composition before and after reaction with IEPOX. We find that IEPOX uptake by pure sulfate particles is a volume-controlled process, which results in particles with uniform concentration of IEPOX-derived SOA across a wide range of sizes. Aerosol acidity was shown to enhance IEPOX-derived SOA formation, consistent with recent studies. The presence of water has a weaker impact on IEPOX-derived SOA yield, but significantly enhanced formation of 2-methyltetrols, consistent with offline filter analysis. In contrast, IEPOX uptake by ABS particles coated with AP-derived SOA is lower compared to that of pure ABS particles, strongly dependent on particle composition, and therefore on particle size. PMID:27176464

  17. Structural elucidation of two new megastigmane glycosides from the leaves of Aquilaria sinensis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jian; Xia, Fang; Wang, Shu; Wang, Ke-Yuan; Chen, Jin-Ming; Tu, Peng-Fei

    2015-04-01

    The present study was designed to determine the chemical constituents and identify new components of the leaves of Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Gilg. The compounds were isolated and purified by repeated silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, and ODS column chromatography and their structures were elucidated by NMR and HR-ESI-MS spectrometry. Eight megastigmane glycosides and two cucurbitacins were isolated and identified as (9S) megastigma-4,7-diene-2,3,9-triol 9-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), (9S) megastigma-4(13),7-diene-3,6,9-triol 9-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), macarangloside D (3), corchoionoside C (4), staphylionoside H (5), (+) 3-oxo-α-ionol-β-D-glucopyranoside (6), (-) 3-oxo-α-ionol-β-D-glucopyranoside (7), citroside B (8), 2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl cucurbitacin I (9), bryoamaride (10). Compounds 1 and 2 were newly identified megstigmane glucosides and reported from this genus for the first time. PMID:25908626

  18. New steroidal glycosides from Tribulus terrestris L.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Liu, Tao; Lu, Xuan; Wang, Hai-Feng; Hua, Hui-Ming; Pei, Yue-Hu

    2012-01-01

    Two new steroidal glycosides were isolated from Tribulus terrestris L. Their structures were elucidated as 26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-5α-furostan-12-one-20(22)-ene-3β,23,26-triol-3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-[β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 3)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)]-β-D-galactopyranoside (1) and 26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-5α-furostan-20(22)-ene-3β,23,26-triol-3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-[β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 3)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)]-β-D-galactopyranoside (2) by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR experiments. PMID:22694659

  19. Oxysterols induce mitochondrial impairment and hepatocellular toxicity in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Bellanti, Francesco; Mitarotonda, Domenica; Tamborra, Rosanna; Blonda, Maria; Iannelli, Giuseppina; Petrella, Antonio; Sanginario, Vittorio; Iuliano, Luigi; Vendemiale, Gianluigi; Serviddio, Gaetano

    2014-10-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic hepatic disorder affecting up to 25% of the general population. Several intracellular events leading to NAFLD and progression to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) have been identified, including lipid accumulation, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Emerging evidence links both hepatic free fatty acids (FFAs) and cholesterol (FC) accumulation in NAFLD development; in particular oxysterols, the oxidative products of cholesterol, may contribute to liver injury. We performed a targeted lipidomic analysis of oxysterols in the liver of male Wistar rats fed a high-fat (HF), high-cholesterol (HC) or high-fat/high-cholesterol (HF/HC) diet. Both HF and HC diets caused liver steatosis, but the HF/HC diet resulted in steatohepatitis with associated mitochondrial dysfunction. Above all, the oxysterol cholestane-3beta,5alpha,6beta-triol (triol) was particularly increased in the liver of rats fed diets rich in cholesterol. To verify the molecular mechanism involved in mitochondrial dysfunction and hepatocellular toxicity, Huh7 and primary rat hepatocytes were exposed to palmitic acid (PA) and/or oleic acid (OA), with or without triol. This compound induced apoptosis in cells co-exposed to both PA and OA, and this was associated with impaired mitochondrial respiration as well as down-regulation of PGC1-alpha, mTFA and NRF1.In conclusion, our data show that hepatic free fatty acid or oxysterols accumulation per se induce low hepatocellular toxicity. On the contrary, hepatic accumulation of both fatty acids and toxic oxysterols such as triol are determinant in the impairment of mitochondrial function and biogenesis, contributing to liver pathology in NAFLD. PMID:26461297

  20. Triterpenes from Euphorbia rigida

    PubMed Central

    Gherraf, Noureddine; Zellagui, Amar; Mohamed, Naglaa S.; Hussien, Taha A.; Mohamed, Tarik A.; Hegazy, Mohamed-Elamir F.; Rhouati, Salah; Moustafa, Mahmoud F. M.; El-Sayed, Magdi A.; Mohamed, Abou El-Hamd H.

    2010-01-01

    Phytochemical studies of the aerial parts of Euphorbia rigida afforded three triterpenes: betulin (1), cycloart-23Z-ene-3, 25-diol (2) and cycloartan-3, 24, 25-triol (3), firstly isolated from this plant. The structures and relative stereochemistry were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses, including 1D and 2D NMR experiments (1H NMR, 13C NMR, COSY, NOESY, HMQC and HMBC). PMID:21808559

  1. Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis: a defect in mitochondrial 26-hydroxylation required for normal biosynthesis of cholic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Oftebro, H; Björkhem, I; Skrede, S; Schreiner, A; Pederson, J I

    1980-01-01

    Oxidation of side chain of 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-triol was studied in a patient with cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) and in control subjects, using various subcellular fractions of liver homogenate and a method based on isotope dilution-mass spectrometry. In the control, 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-triol was converted into 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha,26-tetrol and 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholestanoic acid by the mitochondrial fraction, and into 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha,-25-tetrol by the microsomal fraction. In the CTX patient, liver mitochondria were completely devoid of 26-hydroxylase activity. The same mitochondrial fraction catalyzed 25-hydroxylation of vitamin D3. The microsomal fraction of liver of the subject with CTX contained more than 50-fold the normal amount of 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-triol. The basic metabolid defect in CTX appears to be a lack of the mitochondrial 26-hydroxylase. The excretion in the bile of 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha,25-tetrol and 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha,24 alpha,25-pentol observed in CTX patients may be secondary to the accumulation of the major substrate for the 26-hydroxylase, i. e., 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-triol, and exposure of this substrate to the normally less active microsomal 25-and 24-hydroxylases. It is concluded that the major pathway in the biosynthesis of cholic acid in human liver involves a mitochondrial C27-steroid 26-hydroxylation. PMID:7410549

  2. One step synthesis of 6-oxo-cholestan-3β,5α-diol

    SciTech Connect

    Voisin, Maud; Silvente-Poirot, Sandrine; Poirot, Marc

    2014-04-11

    Highlights: • Cholesterol-5,6-epoxides are metabolized into cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol (CT) in cancer cells. • 6-Oxo-cholestan-3β,5α-diol (OCDO) is a putative metabolite of CT. • The one step syntheses of CT and OCDO from cholesterol are reported. • The one step syntheses of labelled CT and OCDO are reported. - Abstract: Cholesterol metabolism has been recently linked to cancer, highlighting the importance of the characterization of new metabolic pathways in the sterol series. One of these pathways is centered on cholesterol-5,6-epoxides (5,6-ECs). 5,6-ECs can either generate dendrogenin A, a tumor suppressor present in healthy mammalian tissues, or the carcinogenic cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol (CT) and its putative metabolite 6-oxo-cholestan-3β,5α-diol (OCDO) in tumor cells. We are currently investigating the identification of the enzyme involved in OCDO biosynthesis, which would be highly facilitated by the use of commercially unavailable [{sup 14}C]-cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol and [{sup 14}C]-6-oxo-cholestan-3β,5α-diol. In the present study we report the one-step synthesis of [{sup 14}C]-cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol and [{sup 14}C]-6-oxo-cholestan-3β,5α-diol by oxidation of [{sup 14}C]-cholesterol with iodide metaperiodate (HIO{sub 4})

  3. Driving forces for adsorption of polyols onto zeolites from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Mallon, Elizabeth E; Bhan, Aditya; Tsapatsis, Michael

    2010-02-11

    Ambient temperature adsorption isotherms have been developed for C(2)-C(6) diols and triols on small (FER), medium (MWW, MFI, BEA), and large (MOR, FAU) pore zeolites as well as on ordered mesoporous materials (MCM-36, 3DOm-MFI, and SBA-15) using gravimetry. Henry's constants for diol and triol adsorption on silicalite-1 increase exponentially with carbon number demonstrating that confinement of the adsorbate in the zeolite pores is the primary driving force for adsorption. This conclusion is supported by results for propylene glycol adsorption at low coverages on materials differing in topology and chemical composition. It is shown that adsorption decreases with an increase in the adsorbent pore size, and aluminum content only has a marginal effect. Comparison of diol and triol adsorption on silicalite-1 shows that increasing the number of hydroxyl groups causes a decrease in the Henry's constant possibly due to a change of the configuration of the adsorbate in the zeolite pores, while the location of the hydroxyl groups does not have a significant effect. Overall, this study provides evidence that polyol adsorption is primarily a function of dispersion forces that are derived from the fit of the adsorbate in the adsorbent pores. These findings could have an impact on the separation and catalytic conversion of oxygenates in the processing of biomass to chemicals and fuels. PMID:20070098

  4. Structural and Sensory Characterization of Bitter Tasting Steroidal Saponins from Asparagus Spears (Asparagus officinalis L.).

    PubMed

    Dawid, Corinna; Hofmann, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    Application of sequential solvent extraction and iterative chromatographic separation in combination with taste dilution analysis recently revealed a series of steroidal saponins as the key contributors to the typical bitter taste of white asparagus spears (Asparagus officinalis L.). Besides six previously reported saponins, (25R)-furost-5-en-3β,22,26-triol-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, (25R)-furostane-3β,22,26-triol-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and (25S)-furostane-3β,22,26-triol-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and 3-O-[{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)}{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)}-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25S)-spirost-5-ene-3β-ol were identified for the first time as key bitter compounds in the edible spears of white asparagus by means of LC-MS/MS, LC-TOF-MS, 1D/2D-NMR spectroscopy, and hydrolysis experiments. This paper presents the isolation, structure determination, and sensory activity of these saponins. Depending on their chemical structure, the saponins identified showed human bitter recognition thresholds between 10.9 and 199.7 μmol/L (water). PMID:23137023

  5. Neritinaceramides A-E, new ceramides from the marine bryozoan Bugula neritina inhabiting South China Sea and their cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiang-Rong; Tang, Hai-Feng; Feng, Jun-Tao; Li, Yu-Shan; Lin, Hou-Wen; Fan, Xiao-Pei; Zhang, Xing

    2014-04-01

    Five new ceramides, neritinaceramides A (1), B (2), C (3), D (4) and E (5), together with six known ceramides (6-11), two known alkyl glycerylethers (12 and 13) and a known nucleoside (14), were isolated from marine bryozoan Bugula neritina, which inhabits the South China Sea. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated as (2S,3R,3'S,4E,8E,10E)-2-(hexadecanoylamino)-4,8,10-octadecatriene-l,3,3'-triol (1), (2S,3R,2'R,4E,8E,10E)-2-(hexadecanoylamino)-4,8,10-octadecatriene-l,3,2'-triol (2), (2S,3R,2'R,4E,8E,10E)-2-(octadecanoylamino)-4,8,10-octadecatriene-l,3,2'-triol (3), (2S,3R,3'S,4E,8E)-2-(hexadecanoylamino)-4,8-octadecadiene-l,3,3'-triol (4) and (2S,3R,3'S,4E)-2-(hexadecanoylamino)-4-octadecene-l,3,3'-triol (5) on the basis of extensive spectral analysis and chemical evidences. The characteristic C-3'S hydroxyl group in the fatty acid moiety in compounds 1, 4 and 5, was a novel structural feature of ceramides. The rare 4E,8E,10E-triene structure in the sphingoid base of compounds 1-3, was found from marine bryozoans for the first time. The new ceramides 1-5 were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against HepG2, NCI-H460 and SGC7901 tumor cell lines, and all of them exhibited selective cytotoxicity against HepG2 and SGC7901 cells with a range of IC50 values from 47.3 μM to 58.1 μM. These chemical and cytotoxic studies on the new neritinaceramides A-E (1-5) added to the chemical diversity of B. neritina and expanded our knowledge of the chemical modifications and biological activity of ceramides. PMID:24699114

  6. Neritinaceramides A–E, New Ceramides from the Marine Bryozoan Bugula neritina Inhabiting South China Sea and Their Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xiang-Rong; Tang, Hai-Feng; Feng, Jun-Tao; Li, Yu-Shan; Lin, Hou-Wen; Fan, Xiao-Pei; Zhang, Xing

    2014-01-01

    Five new ceramides, neritinaceramides A (1), B (2), C (3), D (4) and E (5), together with six known ceramides (6–11), two known alkyl glycerylethers (12 and 13) and a known nucleoside (14), were isolated from marine bryozoan Bugula neritina, which inhabits the South China Sea. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated as (2S,3R,3′S,4E,8E,10E)-2-(hexadecanoylamino)-4,8,10-octadecatriene-l,3,3′-triol (1), (2S,3R,2′R,4E,8E,10E)-2-(hexadecanoylamino)-4,8,10-octadecatriene-l,3,2′-triol (2), (2S,3R,2′R,4E,8E,10E)-2-(octadecanoylamino)-4,8,10-octadecatriene-l,3,2′-triol (3), (2S,3R,3′S,4E,8E)-2-(hexadecanoylamino)-4,8-octadecadiene-l,3,3′-triol (4) and (2S,3R,3′S,4E)-2-(hexadecanoylamino)-4-octadecene-l,3,3′-triol (5) on the basis of extensive spectral analysis and chemical evidences. The characteristic C-3′S hydroxyl group in the fatty acid moiety in compounds 1, 4 and 5, was a novel structural feature of ceramides. The rare 4E,8E,10E-triene structure in the sphingoid base of compounds 1–3, was found from marine bryozoans for the first time. The new ceramides 1–5 were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against HepG2, NCI-H460 and SGC7901 tumor cell lines, and all of them exhibited selective cytotoxicity against HepG2 and SGC7901 cells with a range of IC50 values from 47.3 μM to 58.1 μM. These chemical and cytotoxic studies on the new neritinaceramides A–E (1–5) added to the chemical diversity of B. neritina and expanded our knowledge of the chemical modifications and biological activity of ceramides. PMID:24699114

  7. Development of heterogeneous catalysts for hydroformylation of 1-hexene in supercritical carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marteel, Anne Eugenie

    The hydroformylation of alkenes is a major commercial process used for the production of oxygenated organic compounds. When the hydroformylation reaction is performed using a homogeneous catalyst, an organic or aqueous solvent is employed and a significant effort must be expended to recover the catalyst so it can be recycled. The hydroformylation of long-chain alkenes using homogeneous catalysts in aqueous solution is compromised because of the low-solubility of C5 alkenes and above. Development of a selective heterogeneous catalyst would allow simplification of the process design in an integrated system that minimizes waste generation. Recent studies have shown that a supercritical fluid may be used as a solvent for hydroformylation reactions. The use of carbon dioxide as a reaction solvent offers optimal environmental performance because it is non-toxic, non-flammable and plentiful, and presents advantages for ease of product separation. In particular, we have considered the conversion of 1-hexene to heptanal using rhodium-phosphine catalysts tethered to supports insoluble in supercritical carbon dioxide to demonstrate the advantages and understand the limitations of a solid-catalyzed process. One of the limitations of supported catalysts is the inability to control product selectivity. To remedy this problem, we have developed tethered rhodium-phosphine catalysts with modified silica and controlled-pore size MCM-41 and MCM-20 supports that provide improved selectivity and conversion relative to their nonporous equivalents. Platinum and palladium catalysts analogous to those of rhodium were also investigated. The synthesis and characterization of the rhodium, platinum and palladium complexes and evaluation of their catalytic activity and selectivity for hydroformylation in supercritical carbon dioxide is described in this dissertation.

  8. Biogenic Emissions of Light Alkenes from a Coniferous Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhew, R. C.; Turnipseed, A. A.; Martinez, L.; Shen, S.; De Gouw, J. A.; Warneke, C.; Koss, A.; Lerner, B. M.; Miller, B. R.; Smith, J. N.; Guenther, A. B.

    2014-12-01

    Alkenes are reactive hydrocarbons that play important roles in the photochemical production of tropospheric ozone and in the formation of secondary organic aerosols. The light alkenes (C2-C4) originate from both biogenic and anthropogenic sources and include C2H4 (ethene), C3H6 (propene) and C4H8 (1-butene, 2-butene, 2-methylpropene). Light alkenes are used widely as chemical feedstocks because their double bond makes them versatile for industrial reactions. Their biogenic sources are poorly characterized, with most global emissions estimates relying on laboratory-based studies; net ecosystem emissions have been measured at only one site thus far. Here we report net ecosystem fluxes of light alkenes and isoprene from a semi-arid ponderosa pine forest in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, USA. Canopy scale fluxes were measured using relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) techniques on the 28-meter NCAR tower in the Manitou Experimental Forest Observatory. Updrafts and downdrafts were determined by sonic anemometry and segregated into 'up' and 'down' reservoirs over the course of an hour. Samples were then measured on two separate automated gas chromatographs (GCs). The first GC measured light hydrocarbons (C2-C6 alkanes and C2-C5 alkenes) by flame ionization detection (FID). The second GC measured halocarbons (methyl chloride, CFC-12, and HCFC-22) by electron capture detection (ECD). Additional air measurements from the top of the tower included hydrocarbons and their oxidation products by Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS). Three field intensives were conducted during the summer of 2014. The REA flux measurements showed that ethene, propene and the butene emissions have significant diurnal cycles, with maximum emissions at midday. The light alkenes contribute significantly to the overall biogenic source of reactive hydrocarbons and have a temporal variability that may be associated with physical and biological parameters. These ecosystem scale measurements

  9. Evaluation of incremental reactivity and its uncertainty in Southern California.

    PubMed

    Martien, Philip T; Harley, Robert A; Milford, Jana B; Russell, Armistead G

    2003-04-15

    The incremental reactivity (IR) and relative incremental reactivity (RIR) of carbon monoxide and 30 individual volatile organic compounds (VOC) were estimated for the South Coast Air Basin using two photochemical air quality models: a 3-D, grid-based model and a vertically resolved trajectory model. Both models include an extended version of the SAPRC99 chemical mechanism. For the 3-D modeling, the decoupled direct method (DDM-3D) was used to assess reactivities. The trajectory model was applied to estimate uncertainties in reactivities due to uncertainties in chemical rate parameters, deposition parameters, and emission rates using Monte Carlo analysis with Latin hypercube sampling. For most VOC, RIRs were found to be consistent in rankings with those produced by Carter using a box model. However, 3-D simulations show that coastal regions, upwind of most of the emissions, have comparatively low IR but higher RIR than predicted by box models for C4-C5 alkenes and carbonyls that initiate the production of HOx radicals. Biogenic VOC emissions were found to have a lower RIR than predicted by box model estimates, because emissions of these VOC were mostly downwind of the areas of primary ozone production. Uncertainties in RIR of individual VOC were found to be dominated by uncertainties in the rate parameters of their primary oxidation reactions. The coefficient of variation (COV) of most RIR values ranged from 20% to 30%, whereas the COV of absolute incremental reactivity ranged from about 30% to 40%. In general, uncertainty and variability both decreased when relative rather than absolute reactivity metrics were used. PMID:12731843

  10. Source apportionment of ambient non-methane hydrocarbons in Hong Kong: application of a principal component analysis/absolute principal component scores (PCA/APCS) receptor model.

    PubMed

    Guo, H; Wang, T; Louie, P K K

    2004-06-01

    Receptor-oriented source apportionment models are often used to identify sources of ambient air pollutants and to estimate source contributions to air pollutant concentrations. In this study, a PCA/APCS model was applied to the data on non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) measured from January to December 2001 at two sampling sites: Tsuen Wan (TW) and Central & Western (CW) Toxic Air Pollutants Monitoring Stations in Hong Kong. This multivariate method enables the identification of major air pollution sources along with the quantitative apportionment of each source to pollutant species. The PCA analysis identified four major pollution sources at TW site and five major sources at CW site. The extracted pollution sources included vehicular internal engine combustion with unburned fuel emissions, use of solvent particularly paints, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) or natural gas leakage, and industrial, commercial and domestic sources such as solvents, decoration, fuel combustion, chemical factories and power plants. The results of APCS receptor model indicated that 39% and 48% of the total NMHCs mass concentrations measured at CW and TW were originated from vehicle emissions, respectively. 32% and 36.4% of the total NMHCs were emitted from the use of solvent and 11% and 19.4% were apportioned to the LPG or natural gas leakage, respectively. 5.2% and 9% of the total NMHCs mass concentrations were attributed to other industrial, commercial and domestic sources, respectively. It was also found that vehicle emissions and LPG or natural gas leakage were the main sources of C(3)-C(5) alkanes and C(3)-C(5) alkenes while aromatics were predominantly released from paints. Comparison of source contributions to ambient NMHCs at the two sites indicated that the contribution of LPG or natural gas at CW site was almost twice that at TW site. High correlation coefficients (R(2) > 0.8) between the measured and predicted values suggested that the PCA/APCS model was applicable for estimation

  11. Photooxidation Products of Isoprene Epoxydiols (IEPOX) and IEPOX-Derived Secondary Organic Aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, K. H.; Nguyen, T. B.; Coggon, M. M.; Lignell, H.; Stoltz, B.; Wennberg, P. O.; Seinfeld, J.

    2014-12-01

    Isoprene epoxydiol (IEPOX) has recently been identified as a key intermediate in the photooxidation of isoprene under low-NO conditions and in the formation of isoprene-derived secondary organic aerosol (SOA). IEPOX is generally expected to react with OH in the gas phase, where it has been found to form predominantly C4O3H8 products, or undergo reactive uptake onto particles, where it is converted into 2-methyltetrols or organosulfates by acid- or ammonium-catalyzed mechanisms. The subsequent chemistry of these gas- and particle-phase products has not yet been explored. Using synthetic standards of IEPOX and its gas-phase products, we have performed environmental chamber and flow tube experiments to investigate the fate of IEPOX in both the gas and particle phases. To explore the gas-phase chemistry of IEPOX, three potential isomers of the C4O3H8 products were synthesized and photooxidized by exposure to OH. Detection with CF3O- chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) allowed for determination of their oxidation rates, fractional yields from IEPOX oxidation, and major products. To explore the photooxidation of IEPOX-derived SOA, synthetic IEPOX was reacted with various salts and atomized into a flow tube, where it was photooxidized by exposure to OH. We will present results showing changes in gas- and particle-phase chemical composition, monitored during oxidation by CIMS and aerosol mass spectrometry, including their dependence on both seed particle composition and OH concentration. Preliminary data show that the photochemical loss of IEPOX-derived SOA mass may be an important consideration for predicting aerosol loading and gas phase oxidative chemistry in isoprene-rich environments.

  12. Assessing the oxidative potential of isoprene-derived epoxides and secondary organic aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Amanda J.; Rattanavaraha, Weruka; Zhang, Zhenfa; Gold, Avram; Surratt, Jason D.; Lin, Ying-Hsuan

    2016-04-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is known to contribute to adverse health effects, such as asthma, cardiopulmonary disease, and lung cancer. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is a major component of PM2.5 and can be enhanced by atmospheric oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds in the presence of anthropogenic pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur dioxide. However, whether biogenic SOA contributes to adverse health effects remains unclear. The objective of this study was to assess the potential of isoprene-derived epoxides and SOA for generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) in light of the recent recognition that atmospheric oxidation of isoprene in the presence of acidic sulfate aerosol is a major contributor to the global SOA burden. The dithiothreitol (DTT) assay was used to characterize the ROS generation by the isoprene-derived epoxides, trans-β-isoprene epoxydiol (trans-β-IEPOX) and methacrylic acid epoxide (MAE), and their hydrolysis products, the 2-methyltetrol diastereomers (2-MT), 2-methylglyceric acid (2-MG), their organosulfate derivatives, as well as an isoprene-derived hydroxyhydroperoxide (ISOPOOH). In addition, ROS generation potential was evaluated for total SOA produced from photooxidation of isoprene and methacrolein (MACR) as well as from the reactive uptake of trans-β-IEPOX and MAE onto acidified sulfate aerosol. The high-NOx regime, which yields 2-MG-, MAE- and MACR-derived SOA has a higher ROS generation potential than the low-NOx regime, which yields 2-MT, IEPOX- and isoprene-derived SOA. ISOPOOH has an ROS generation potential similar to 1,4-naphthoquinone (1,4-NQ), suggesting a significant contribution of aerosol-phase organic peroxides to PM oxidative potential. MAE- and MACR-derived SOA show equal or greater ROS generation potential than reported in studies on diesel exhaust PM, highlighting the importance of a comprehensive investigation of the toxicity of isoprene-derived SOA.

  13. A sub-decadal trend of diacids in atmospheric aerosols in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, S.; Kawamura, K.; Kobayashi, M.; Tachibana, E.; Lee, M.; Fu, P. Q.; Jung, J.

    2015-08-01

    The change of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) has been predicted to be highly uncertain in the future atmosphere in Asia. To better quantify the SOA change, we study a sub-decadal (2001-2008) trend of major surrogate compounds (C2-C10 diacids) of SOA in atmospheric aerosols from Gosan site in Jeju Island, South Korea. Gosan site is influenced by the pollution-outflows from East Asia. The molecular distribution of diacids was characterized by the predominance of oxalic (C2) acid followed by malonic (C3) and succinic (C4) acids in each year. The seasonal variations of diacids in each year were characterized by the highest concentrations of saturated diacids in spring and unsaturated diacids in winter. The consistent molecular distribution and seasonal variations are indicative of similar pollution sources for diacids in East Asia over a sub-decadal scale. However, the intensity of the pollution sources has increased as evidenced by the increases of major diacids at the rate of 3.9-47.4 % year-1 particularly in April. The temporal variations of atmospheric tracer compounds (CO, levoglucosan, 2-methyltetrols, pinic acid, glyoxylic acid, glyoxal and methylglyoxal) suggest that the increases of diacids are due to an enhanced precursor emissions associated with more anthropogenic than biogenic activities followed by their chemical processing in the atmosphere. The trends of diacids are opposite to the reported decreases of sulfate, nitrate and ammonium in the recent years in East Asia. This study demonstrates that recent pollution control strategies in East Asia could not decrease organic acidic species in the atmosphere. If the current rates of increases continue, the organic acid- and water-soluble fractions of SOA could increase significantly in the future atmosphere in East Asia.

  14. A sub-decadal trend in diacids in atmospheric aerosols in eastern Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, S.; Kawamura, K.; Kobayashi, M.; Tachibana, E.; Lee, M.; Fu, P. Q.; Jung, J.

    2016-01-01

    Change in secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) has been predicted to be highly uncertain in the future atmosphere in Asia. To better quantify the SOA change, we examine the sub-decadal (2001-2008) trend in major surrogate compounds (C2-C10 diacids) of SOA in atmospheric aerosols from Gosan site on Cheju Island, South Korea. The Gosan site is influenced by pollution outflows from eastern Asia. The molecular distributions of diacids were characterized by the predominance of oxalic (C2) acid followed by malonic (C3) and succinic (C4) acids in each year. The seasonal variations in diacids in each year were characterized by the highest concentrations of saturated diacids in spring and unsaturated diacids in winter. The consistent molecular distributions and seasonal variations along with significantly similar air mass transport patterns are indicative of similar pollution sources for diacids in eastern Asia on a sub-decadal scale. However, the intensity of the pollution sources has increased as evidenced by the increases in major diacids at the rate of 3.9-47.4 % per year, particularly in April. The temporal variations in atmospheric tracer compounds (carbon monoxide, levoglucosan, 2-methyltetrols, pinic acid, glyoxylic acid, glyoxal and methylglyoxal) suggest that the increases in diacids are due to enhanced precursor emissions associated with more anthropogenic than biogenic activities followed by the compounds' chemical processing in the atmosphere. The trends in diacids contrast with the reported decreases in sulfate, nitrate and ammonium in recent years in eastern Asia. This study demonstrates that recent pollution control strategies in eastern Asia were not able to decrease organic acidic species in the atmosphere. The increases in water-soluble organic acid fraction could modify the aerosol organic composition and its sensitivity to climate relevant physical properties.

  15. Secondary organic aerosols formed from oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, Thomas M.; Seaman, Vincent Y.; Charles, M. Judith; Holzinger, Rupert; Goldstein, Allen H.

    2006-08-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions, such as isoprene and terpenes, can be oxidized to form less volatile carbonyls, acids, and multifunctional oxygenated products that may condense to form secondary organic aerosols (SOA). This research was designed to assess the contribution of oxidized BVOC emissions to SOA in coniferous forests by collecting high-volume particulate samples for 6 days and 5 nights in the summer of 2003. The samples were analyzed for acids, carbonyls, polyols and alkanes to quantify oxidized BVOCs. Terpene and isoprene oxidation products were among the most abundant chemical species detected with the exception of hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid and two butyl esters of unknown origin. The terpene oxidation products of pinonic acid, pinic acid, nopinone and pinonaldehyde showed clear diurnal cycles with concentrations two- to eight-fold higher at night. These cycles resulted from the diurnal cycles in gaseous terpene concentrations and lower temperatures that enhanced condensation of semivolatile chemicals onto aerosols. The terpene-derived compounds averaged 157 ± 118 ng/m3 of particulate organic matter while the isoprene oxidation compounds, namely the 2-methyltetrols and 2-methylglyceric acid, accounted for 53 ± 19 ng/m3. Together, the terpene and isoprene oxidation products represented 36.9% of the identified organic mass of 490 ± 95 ng/m3. PM10 organic matter loadings in the region were approximately 2.1 ± 1.2 μg/m3, so about 23% of the organic matter was identified and at least 8.6% was oxidized BVOCs. The BVOC oxidation products we measured were significant, but not dominant, contributors to the regional SOA only 75 km downwind of the Sacramento urban area.

  16. Organic composition of carbonaceous aerosols in an aged prescribed fire plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, B.; Zheng, M.; Hu, Y. T.; Lee, S.; Kim, H. K.; Russell, A. G.

    2007-12-01

    Aged smoke from a prescribed fire (dominated by conifers) impacted Atlanta, GA on 28 February 2007 and dramatically increased hourly ambient concentrations of PM2.5 and organic carbon (OC) up to 140 and 72 μg m-3, respectively. It was estimated that over 1 million residents were exposed to the smoky air lasting from the late afternoon to midnight. To better understand the processes impacting the aging of fire plumes, a detailed chemical speciation of carbonaceous aerosols was conducted by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. Ambient concentrations of many organic species (levoglucosan, resin acids, retene, n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids) associated with wood burning emission were significantly elevated on the event day. Levoglucosan increased by a factor of 10, while hopanes, steranes, cholesterol and major polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) did not show obvious increases. Strong odd over even carbon number predominance was found for n-alkanes versus even over odd predominance for n-alkanoic acids. Alteration of resin acids during transport from burning sites to monitors is suggested by the observations. Our study also suggests that large quantities of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) were released both as products of combustion and unburned vegetation heated by the fire. Higher leaf temperature can stimulate biogenic VOC and SVOC emissions, which enhanced formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the atmosphere. This is supported by elevated ambient concentrations of secondary organic tracers (dicarboxylic acids, 2-methyltetrols, pinonic acid and pinic acid). An approximate source profile was built for the aged fire plume to help better understand evolution of wood smoke emission and can be used for source apportionment.

  17. Organic composition of carbonaceous aerosols in an aged prescribed fire plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, B.; Zheng, M.; Hu, Y. T.; Lee, S.; Kim, H. K.; Russell, A. G.

    2008-11-01

    Aged smoke from a prescribed fire (dominated by conifers) impacted Atlanta, GA on 28 February 2007 and dramatically increased hourly ambient concentrations of PM2.5 and organic carbon (OC) up to 140 and 72 μg m-3, respectively. It was estimated that over 1 million residents were exposed to the smoky air lasting from the late afternoon to midnight. To better understand the processes impacting the aging of fire plumes, a detailed chemical speciation of carbonaceous aerosols was conducted by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. Ambient concentrations of many organic species (levoglucosan, resin acids, retene, n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids) associated with wood burning emission were significantly elevated on the event day. Levoglucosan increased by a factor of 10, while hopanes, steranes, cholesterol and major polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) did not show obvious increases. Strong odd over even carbon number predominance was found for n-alkanes versus even over odd predominance for n-alkanoic acids. Alteration of resin acids during transport from burning sites to monitors is suggested by the observations. Our study also suggests that large quantities of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) were released both as products of combustion and unburned vegetation heated by the fire. Higher leaf temperature can stimulate biogenic VOC and SVOC emissions, which enhanced formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the atmosphere. This is supported by elevated ambient concentrations of secondary organic tracers (dicarboxylic acids, 2-methyltetrols, pinonic acid and pinic acid). An approximate source profile was built for the aged fire plume to help better understand evolution of wood smoke emission and for use in source impact assessment.

  18. Molecular characterization of urban organic aerosol in tropical India: contributions of primary emissions and secondary photooxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, P. Q.; Kawamura, K.; Pavuluri, C. M.; Swaminathan, T.; Chen, J.

    2010-03-01

    Organic molecular composition of PM10 samples, collected at Chennai in tropical India, was studied using capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Fourteen organic compound classes were detected in the aerosols, including aliphatic lipids, sugar compounds, lignin products, terpenoid biomarkers, sterols, aromatic acids, hydroxy-/polyacids, phthalate esters, hopanes, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), and photooxidation products from biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). At daytime, phthalate esters were found to be the most abundant compound class; however, at nighttime, fatty acids were the dominant one. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, C16 fatty acid, and levoglucosan were identified as the most abundant single compounds. The nighttime maxima of most organics in the aerosols indicate a land/sea breeze effect in tropical India, although some other factors such as local emissions and long-range transport may also influence the composition of organic aerosols. However, biogenic VOC oxidation products (e.g., 2-methyltetrols, pinic acid, 3-hydroxyglutaric acid and β-caryophyllinic acid) showed diurnal patterns with daytime maxima. Interestingly, terephthalic acid was maximized at nighttime, which is different from those of phthalic and isophthalic acids. A positive relation was found between 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene (a tracer for plastic burning) and terephthalic acid, suggesting that the field burning of municipal solid wastes including plastics is a significant source of terephthalic acid. Organic compounds were further categorized into several groups to clarify their sources. Fossil fuel combustion (24-43%) was recognized as the most significant source for the total identified compounds, followed by plastic emission (16-33%), secondary oxidation (8.6-23%), and microbial/marine sources (7.2-17%). In contrast, the contributions of terrestrial plant waxes (5.9-11%) and biomass burning (4.2-6.4%) were relatively small. This study demonstrates that, in

  19. Biotransformation and detoxification of T-2 toxin by soil and freshwater bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Beeton, S; Bull, A T

    1989-01-01

    Bacterial communities isolated from 17 of 20 samples of soils and waters with widely diverse geographical origins utilized T-2 toxin as a sole source of carbon and energy for growth. These isolates readily detoxified T-2 toxin as assessed by a Rhodotorula rubra bioassay. The major degradation pathway of T-2 toxin in the majority of isolates involved side chain cleavage of acetyl moieties to produce HT-2 toxin and T-2 triol. A minor degradation pathway of T-2 toxin that involved conversion to neosolaniol and thence to 4-deacetyl neosolaniol was also detected. Some bacterial communities had the capacity to further degrade the T-2 triol or 4-deacetyl neosolaniol to T-2 tetraol. Two communities, TS4 and KS10, degraded the trichothecene nucleus within 24 to 48 h. These bacterial communities comprised 9 distinct species each. Community KS10 contained 3 primary transformers which were able to cleave acetate from T-2 toxin but which could not assimilate the side chain products, whereas community TS4 contained 3 primary transformers which were able to grow on the cleavage products, acetate and isovalerate. A third community, AS1, was much simpler in structure and contained only two bacterial species, one of which transformed T-2 toxin to T-2 triol in monoculture. In all cases, the complete communities were more active against T-2 toxin in terms of rates of degradation than any single bacterial component. Cometabolic interactions between species is suggested as a significant factor in T-2 toxin degradation. PMID:2705769

  20. Structures of deepoxytrichothecene metabolites from 3'-hydroxy HT-2 toxin and T-2 tetraol in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Yoshizawa, T; Sakamoto, T; Kuwamura, K

    1985-01-01

    3'-Hydroxy HT-2 toxin and T-2 tetraol, in vivo metabolites of T-2 toxin, were orally administered to Wistar rats, and four metabolites having a trichothec-9,12-diene nucleus, which were termed deepoxytrichothecenes, were newly found in the excreta. Their structures were confirmed as 3'-hydroxy-deepoxy HT-2, 3'-hydroxy-deepoxy T-2 triol, 15-acetyl-deepoxy T-2 tetraol, and deepoxy T-2 tetraol on the basis of mass and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Resolution of T-2 metabolites and corresponding deepoxytrichothecenes by gas-liquid and thin-layer chromatography was also described. PMID:4073895

  1. Three novel compounds from the leaves of Smallanthus sonchifolius.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Ying-Kun; Kang, Ting-Guo; Dou, De-Qiang; Liang, Li; Dong, Feng

    2008-01-01

    Three novel compounds, together with five known ingredients, octacosanol, 3',4',5-trihydroxy-3,7-dimethoxyflavone, 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, isorhamnetin, and ent-kaurane-3beta,16beta,17-triol, were obtained from the leaves of Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon), and their structures were elucidated as ent-kaurane-3beta,16beta,17,18-tertol (1), 3R,7E-9-butoxyl-megastigma-3-ol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2), and 3S,5R,6Z-megastigma-6-en-3,5,8,9-tertol (3) on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical methods. PMID:19031255

  2. Dihydrophenanthrenes from Bletilla formosana.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yun-Lian; Chen, Wan-Ping; Macabalang, Abdulgafor Datu

    2005-09-01

    Three new dihydrophenanthrenes, 4-methoxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene-1,2,7-triol (1), 1-(4-hydroxybenzyl)-4,7-dimethoxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene-2-ol (2), and 1,3,6-tri(4-hydroxybenzyl)-4-methoxydihydrophenanthrene-2,7-diol (3) together with seven known phenanthrene derivatives, six known flavonoids, a bibenzyl and three phenolic compounds were isolated from the whole plant of Bletilla formosana. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic, mainly 2D NMR spectrometry and chemical methods. PMID:16141577

  3. Application of a new tandem isomerization-aldolization reaction of allylic alcohols to the synthesis of three diastereoisomers of (2R)-1,2-O-isopropylidene-4-methylpentane-1,2,3,5-tetraol.

    PubMed

    Cuperly, David; Crévisy, Christophe; Grée, René

    2003-08-01

    The tandem isomerization-aldolization reaction of (2R)-1,2-O-isopropylidene-4-penten-1,2,3-triol 3 and formaldehyde gives a mixture of two aldol products 2a and 2b. The stereoselective reduction of each compound by l-Selectride affords two diastereoisomers of (2R)-1,2-O-Isopropylidene-4-methylpentane-1,2,3,5-tetraol while a third diastereoisomer is obtained by stereoselective reduction with Me(4)NHB(OAc)(3). PMID:12895076

  4. Novel hopanoids from the methylotrophic bacteria Methylococcus capsulatus and Methylomonas methanica. (22S)-35-aminobacteriohopane-30,31,32,33,34-pentol and (22S)-35-amino-3 beta-methylbacteriohopane-30,31,32,33,34-pentol.

    PubMed Central

    Neunlist, S; Rohmer, M

    1985-01-01

    The major hopanoid of the methylotrophic bacteria Methylococcus capsulatus and Methylomonas methanica was identified by spectroscopic methods as (22S)-35-aminobacteriohopane-30,31,32,33,34-pentol. Minor companions were, in both bacteria, 35-aminobacteriohopane-31,32,33,34-tetrol and in Methylomonas methanica, 35-aminobacteriohopane-32,33,34-triol. In Methylococcus capsulatus the aminopentol and the aminotetrol were accompanied by their homologues possessing an extra methyl group at C-3. Bacterial hopanoids with a functionalized C-30 carbon atom such as these two new aminopentols are possible precursors of widespread C29 hopanoid chemical fossils. PMID:3935106

  5. DFT molecular modeling and NMR conformational analysis of a new longipinenetriolone diester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerda-García-Rojas, Carlos M.; Guerra-Ramírez, Diana; Román-Marín, Luisa U.; Hernández-Hernández, Juan D.; Joseph-Nathan, Pedro

    2006-05-01

    The structure and conformational behavior of the new natural compound (4 R,5 S,7 S,8 R,9 S,10 R,11 R)-longipin-2-en-7,8,9-triol-1-one 7-angelate-9-isovalerate (1) isolated from Stevia eupatoria, were studied by molecular modeling and NMR spectroscopy. A Monte Carlo search followed by DFT calculations at the B3LYP/6-31G* level provided the theoretical conformations of the sesquiterpene framework, which were in full agreement with results derived from the 1H- 1H coupling constant analysis.

  6. Short synthesis of 16beta-hydroxy-5alpha-cholestane-3,6-dione a novel cytotoxic marine oxysterol.

    PubMed

    Denancé, Mickaël; Guyot, Michèle; Samadi, Mohammad

    2006-07-01

    The first and short synthesis of 16beta-hydroxy-5alpha-cholestane-3,6-dione 1 a metabolite from marine algae, has been achieved in six steps from readily available diosgenin 5. Selective deoxygenation of primary alcohol of triol 6 has been accomplished in one step using Et(3)SiH and catalytic amount of B(C(6)F(5))(3) to produce compound 9 in high yield. Oxidation of 11 with PCC, allowed the introduction of 3,6-ene-dione functionality, and further catalytic hydrogenation and deprotection furnished the 3,6-diketo steroid 1. PMID:16620894

  7. Mycotoxin production by Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium sporotrichioides isolated from Baccharis spp. from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mirocha, C J; Abbas, H K; Kommedahl, T; Jarvis, B B

    1989-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum isolated from roots of and soil around Baccharis species from Brazil produced the trichothecenes T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, diacetoxyscirpenol, and 3'-OH T-2 (TC-1), whereas Fusarium sporotrichioides from the same source produced T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, acetyl T-2, neosolaniol, TC-1, 3'-OH HT-2 (TC-3), iso-T-2, T-2 triol, T-2 tetraol, and the nontrichothecenes moniliformin and fusarin C. Several unknown toxins were found but not identified. Not found were macrocyclic trichothecenes, zearalenone, wortmannin, and fusarochromanone (TDP-1). PMID:2705770

  8. Isolation and Characterization of New Cannabis Constituents from a High Potency Variety

    PubMed Central

    Radwan, Mohamed M.; Ross, Samir A.; Slade, Desmond; Ahmed, Safwat A.; Zulfiqar, Fazila; ElSohly, Mahmoud A.

    2016-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of a high potency variety of Cannabis sativa L. resulted in the isolation of six new metabolites, (±)-6,7-trans-epoxycannabigerolic acid (2), (±)-6,7-cis-epoxycannabigerolic acid (3), (±)-6,7-cis-epoxycannabigerol (4), (±)-6,7-trans-epoxycannabigerol (5), 5′-methyl-4-pentylbiphenyl-2,2′,6-triol (7), and 7-methoxycannabispirone (8), along with seven known compounds namely, cannabigerolic acid (1), 5′-methoxycannabigerolic acid (6), cannabispirone (9), β-cannabispiranol (10), dehydrocannabifuran (11), cannflavin B (12) and cannabigerol (13). The antimicrobial as well as the antileishmanial activities were investigated. PMID:18283614

  9. Organic molecular composition of marine aerosols over the Arctic Ocean in summer: contributions of primary emission and secondary aerosol formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, P. Q.; Kawamura, K.; Chen, J.; Charrière, B.; Sempéré, R.

    2013-02-01

    Organic molecular composition of marine aerosol samples collected during the MALINA cruise in the Arctic Ocean was investigated by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. More than 110 individual organic compounds were determined in the samples and were grouped into different compound classes based on the functionality and sources. The concentrations of total quantified organics ranged from 7.3 to 185 ng m-3 (mean 47.6 ng m-3), accounting for 1.8-11.0% (4.8%) of organic carbon in the marine aerosols. Primary saccharides were found to be dominant organic compound class, followed by secondary organic aerosol (SOA) tracers formed from the oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as isoprene, α-pinene and β-caryophyllene. Mannitol, the specific tracer for airborne fungal spores, was detected as the most abundant organic species in the samples with a concentration range of 0.052-53.3 ng m-3 (9.2 ng m-3), followed by glucose, arabitol, and the isoprene oxidation products of 2-methyltetrols. Biomass burning tracers such as levoglucosan are evident in all samples with trace levels. On the basis of the tracer-based method for the estimation of fungal-spore OC and biogenic secondary organic carbon (SOC), we estimate that an average of 10.7% (up to 26.2%) of the OC in the marine aerosols was due to the contribution of fungal spores, followed by the contribution of isoprene SOC (mean 3.8%) and α-pinene SOC (2.9%). In contrast, only 0.19% of the OC was due to the photooxidation of β-caryophyllene. This study indicates that primary organic aerosols from biogenic emissions, both from long-range transport of mid-latitude aerosols and from sea-to-air emission of marine organics, as well as secondary organic aerosols formed from the photooxidation of biogenic VOCs are important factors controlling the organic chemical composition of marine aerosols in the Arctic Ocean.

  10. Organic molecular composition of marine aerosols over the Arctic Ocean in summer: contributions of primary emission and secondary aerosol formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, P. Q.; Kawamura, K.; Chen, J.; Charrière, B.; Sempéré, R.

    2012-08-01

    Organic molecular composition of marine aerosol samples collected during the MALINA cruise in the Arctic Ocean was investigated by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. More than 110 individual organic compounds were determined in the samples and were grouped into different compound classes based on the functionality and sources. The concentrations of total quantified organics ranged from 7.3 to 185 ng m-3 (mean 47.6 ng m-3), accounting for 1.8-11.0% (4.8%) of organic carbon in the marine aerosols. Primary saccharides were found to be dominant organic compound class, followed by secondary organic aerosol (SOA) tracers formed from the oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as isoprene, α-pinene and β-caryophyllene. Mannitol, the specific tracer for airborne fungal spores, was detected as the most abundant organic species in the samples with a concentration range of 0.052-53.3 ng m-3 (9.2 ng m-3), followed by glucose, arabitol, and the isoprene oxidation products of 2-methyltetrols. Biomass burning tracers such as levoglucosan are evident in all samples with trace levels. On the basis of the tracer-based method for the estimation of fungal-spore OC and biogenic secondary organic carbon (SOC), we estimate that an average of 10.7% (up to 26.2%) of the OC in the marine aerosols was due to the contribution of fungal spores, followed by the contribution of isoprene SOC (mean 3.8%) and α-pinene SOC (2.9%). In contrast, only 0.19% of the OC was due to the photooxidation of β-caryophyllene. This study indicates that primary organic aerosols from biogenic emissions, both from long-range transport of mid-latitude aerosols and from sea-to-air emission of marine organics, as well as secondary organic aerosols formed from the photooxidation of biogenic VOCs are important factors controlling the organic chemical composition of marine aerosols in the Arctic Ocean.

  11. Production of antioxidant and antitumor metabolites by submerged cultures of Inonotus obliquus cocultured with Phellinus punctatus.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Weifa; Zhao, Yanxia; Zheng, Xin; Liu, Yubing; Pan, Shenyuan; Dai, Yucheng; Liu, Fuming

    2011-01-01

    While Inonotus obliquus produces a diverse range of bioactive metabolites in its natural habitats, it accumulates less in its submerged cultures. We show here that coculture of I. obliquus with Phellinus punctatus resulted in less production of mycelial biomass but an increased accumulation of phenolic compounds, melanins, and lanostane-type triterpenoids. Metabolites increased in production by coculture include phelligridin C, phelligridin H, methyl inoscavin A, inoscavin C, inoscavin B, davallialactone, methyl davallialactone, foscoparianol D, 21,24-cyclopentalanosta-3β,21,25-triol-8-en, lanosta-7,9(11),23-triene-3β,22,25-triol, and inotodisaccharide and melanins. Metabolites from coculture also showed an increased potential for scavenging free radicals and inhibiting the proliferation of HeLa 229 cells. Davallialactone, methyl davallialactone, and minor phenolic components are the major contributors for scavenging DPPH and hydroxyl radical in monoculture, and phelligridin C, phelligridin H, methyl inoscavin A, inoscavin C, methyl davallialactone, foscoparianol D, and inotodisaccharide are those for scavenging the tested radicals in coculture. Lanostane-type triterpenoids indicated limited roles in scavenging free radicals. Nearly all the detected metabolites correlate positively with inhibiting proliferation of HeLa 229 cells. Thus, coculture of I. obliquus with other fungi seems to be a cost-effective strategy for upregulating biosynthesis of bioactive metabolites. PMID:20830471

  12. A stereoselective and short total synthesis of the polyhydroxylated gamma-amino acid (-)-detoxinine, based on stereoselective preparation of dihydropyrrole derivatives from lithiated alkoxyallenes.

    PubMed

    Flögel, Oliver; Okala Amombo, Marlyse Ghislaine; Reissig, Hans-Ulrich; Zahn, Gernot; Brüdgam, Irene; Hartl, Hans

    2003-03-17

    Based on our earlier results employing lithiated methoxyallene 2 as C(3) building block and imines 3 for the synthesis of dihydropyrrole derivatives 5, we have investigated chiral imines 6, 10, and 15 as electrophilic components. Combined with lithiated alkoxyallenes, these imines provide the corresponding primary adducts and finally the dihydropyrrole derivatives 8, 12, 17, 20, and 22 in good yields and with high to excellent syn selectivities. This stereochemical outcome is interpreted as a result of alpha-chelate control. Treatment with hydrochloric acid converted syn-8 and syn-12 into bicyclic compounds 9 and 13, whereas under more mildly acidic conditions adduct syn-17 was transformed into diol syn-18. The total synthesis of the uncommon gamma-amino acid (-)-detoxinine could be achieved by starting from (S)-malic acid, which was converted into imine 15 in four steps. Lithiated benzyloxyallene added to imine 15 and efficiently furnished the crucial dihydropyrrole derivative syn-22. The hydrogenolysis of this compound did not directly provide the protected triol 29 as anticipated, but a stepwise protocol made the triol available in a fairly satisfactory manner. A second crucial step of the synthesis was the selective oxidation of 29, which could be achieved by employing platinum dioxide and oxygen. The resulting bicyclic lactone 30 was smoothly transformed into enantiopure (-)-detoxinine. Thus, a fairly short synthesis of this natural product based on a lithiated alkoxyallene could be performed, demonstrating the potential of these intermediates for syntheses of interesting functionalized heterocyclic compounds. PMID:12645030

  13. Steroidogenesis by ovaries and testes of the European catfish, the wels (Silurus glanis), in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kime, D E; Bhattacharya, S; Koldras, M; Bieniarz, K

    1993-03-01

    Testosterone, 3α,17-dihydroxy-5β-pregnen-20-one, 17,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20βP) and 5β-pregnane-3α,17,20β-triol were identified as the major metabolites of [(3)H] 17-hydroxyprogesterone in ovarian incubations of the European catfish Silurus glanis. 17,20βP and the reduced triol were present only in ovaries from fish primed with carp hypophysial homogenate (chh) while testosterone yields were significantly higher in controls than in treated fish. 11-Ketotestosterone, 11β-hydroxytestosterone and 17,20α-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20αP) were identified as the major metabolites of [(3)H]17-hydroxyprogesterone in in vitro incubations of testes of a spermiating catfish. There was no significant production of conjugates or other water soluble metabolites by either sex. The stimulation of plasma 17,20αP, 17,20βP and 11β-hydroxytestosterone by chh in primed but not control males suggests that the role of these steroids in spermiation should be further examined. PMID:24214377

  14. Green engineering: Green composite material, biodiesel from waste coffee grounds, and polyurethane bio-foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hsiang-Fu

    In this thesis we developed several ways of producing green materials and energy resources. First, we developed a method to fabricate natural fibers composites, with the purpose to develop green textile/woven composites that could potentially serve as an alternative to materials derived from non-renewable sources. Flax and hemp fabrics were chosen because of their lightweight and exceptional mechanical properties. To make these textile/woven composites withstand moist environments, a commercially available marine resin was utilized as a matrix. The tensile, three-point bending, and edgewise compression strengths of these green textile/woven composites were measured using ASTM protocols. Secondly, we developed a chemical procedure to obtain oil from waste coffee grounds; we did leaching and liquid extractions to get liquid oil from the solid coffee. This coffee oil was used to produce bio-diesel that could be used as a substitute for petroleum-based diesel. Finally, polyurethane Bio-foam formation utilized glycerol that is the by-product from the biodiesel synthesis. A chemical synthesis procedure from the literature was used as the reference system: a triol and isocynate are mixed to produce polyurethane foam. Moreover, we use a similar triol, a by-product from bio-diesel synthesis, to reproduce polyurethane foam.

  15. Steroidal saponins from Tribulus terrestris.

    PubMed

    Kang, Li-Ping; Wu, Ke-Lei; Yu, He-Shui; Pang, Xu; Liu, Jie; Han, Li-Feng; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Yang; Xiong, Cheng-Qi; Song, Xin-Bo; Liu, Chao; Cong, Yu-Wen; Ma, Bai-Ping

    2014-11-01

    Sixteen steroidal saponins, including seven previously unreported compounds, were isolated from Tribulus terrestris. The structures of the saponins were established using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and chemical methods. They were identified as: 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-2α,3β,22α,26-tetrol-12-one (terrestrinin C), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-22α,26-diol-3,12-dione (terrestrinin D), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-furost-4-en-22α,26-diol-3,6,12-trione (terrestrinin E), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5α-furostan-3β,22α,26-triol-12-one (terrestrinin F), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-12β,22α,26-triol-3-one (terrestrinin G), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-22α,26-diol-3,12-dione (terrestrinin H), and 24-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5α-spirostan-3β,24β-diol-12-one-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-d-galactopyranoside (terrestrinin I). The isolated compounds were evaluated for their platelet aggregation activities. Three of the known saponins exhibited strong effects on the induction of platelet aggregation. PMID:25172515

  16. A new SPE/GC-fid method for the determination of cholesterol oxidation products. Application to subcutaneous fat from Iberian dry-cured ham.

    PubMed

    Narváez-Rivas, Mónica; Pham, Alessandra J; Schilling, M Wes; León-Camacho, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    A new method for the isolation and analysis of cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) using solid phase extraction (SPE) and silica columns was developed using gas chromatography-flame ion detection (GC-FID). The method comprises of saponification and liquid-liquid extraction of the unsaponifiable fraction prior to the isolation and derivatization of the COPs to trimethylsilyl ethers. The COPs used in this study are cholestane-5α-6α-epoxide, cholestane-3β-5α-6β-triol, 25-hydroxycholesterol and 5-cholesten-3β-ol-7-one. In order to identify the COPs fraction a GC-ion-trap-mass spectrometry experiment were conducted using authentic standards to verify the presence of the COPs. The method was effective at rapidly separating the COPs (25 min run). Calibration curves were linear with the LODs and LOQs bellow 0.03 and 0.07 mgkg(-1) for all cases, respectively. This methodology gave a total recovery for every compound that was used in the study. Betulin was used as an internal standard to monitor the recovery. The method was validated with a standard mixture of COPs. The method has been applied to characterize the COP fraction of subcutaneous fat from Iberian dry-cured ham. Cholestane-5α-6α-epoxide, cholestane-3β-5α-6β-triol, 25-hydroxycholesterol and 5-cholesten-3β-ol-7-one have been identified for the first time in these samples. PMID:24720962

  17. Steroidal saponins of Yucca schidigera Roezl.

    PubMed

    Oleszek, W; Sitek, M; Stochmal, A; Piacente, S; Pizza, C; Cheeke, P

    2001-09-01

    Eight steroidal saponins have been isolated from Yucca schidigera Roezl. trunk, and their structures were established by spectral (MS and NMR) techniques. These included three novel furostanol glycosides including 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-5 beta(25R)-furostan-3 beta,22 alpha,26-triol 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 3-O-beta-D-glcopyranosyl-(1-->2)-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-5 beta(25R)-furost-20(22)-en-3 beta,26-diol-12-one 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 3-O-beta-D-glcopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-5 beta(25R)-furostan-3 beta,22 alpha,26-triol 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and five known spirostanol glycosides. On the basis of the extraction efficiency, furostanol glycosides made up only 6.8% of total saponins isolated. PMID:11559144

  18. Sphingosines Derived from Marine Sponge as Potential Multi-Target Drug Related to Disorders in Cancer Development.

    PubMed

    Biegelmeyer, Renata; Schröder, Rafael; Rambo, Douglas F; Dresch, Roger R; Carraro, João L F; Mothes, Beatriz; Moreira, José Cláudio F; Junior, Mário L C da Frota; Henriques, Amélia T

    2015-09-01

    Haliclona tubifera, marine sponge species abundant in Brazilian coastline, presents only a few papers published in the literature. Recently, we have reported the isolation of two modified C18 sphingoid bases: (2R,3R,6R,7Z)-2-aminooctadec-7-ene-1,3, 6-triol and and (2R,3R,6R)-2-aminooctadec-1,3,6-triol. In order to continue our research, in this work aimed at the biological investigation of fractions that led to the isolation of these compounds. We evaluated the cytotoxic effect of marine sponge H. tubifera fractions in glioma (U87) and neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) human cell lines. In addition, considering the link between cancer, imbalance of reactive oxygen species and coagulation disorders, we also investigated the in vitro effects on blood coagulation and their redox properties. We showed that the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction, rich in sphingoid bases, had important cytotoxic effects in both cancer cell lines with an IC50 < 15 μg/mL and also can inhibit the production of peroxyl radicals. Interestingly, this fraction increased the recalcification time of human blood, showing anticoagulant properties. The present study indicates the sphingosines fraction as a promising source of chemical prototypes, especially multifunctional drugs in cancer therapy. PMID:26308014

  19. New lipoxygenase and cholinesterase inhibitory sphingolipids from Carthamus oxyacantha.

    PubMed

    Dilshad, Muhammad; Riaz, Naheed; Saleem, Muhammad; Shafiq, Nusrat; Ashraf, Muhammad; Ismail, Tayaba; Rafiq, Hafiza Mehwish; Jabbar, Abdul

    2016-08-01

    Two new sphingolipids: oxyacanthin A [(2S,3S,4R)-2-{[(2R,5E)-2-hydroxyoctadec-5-enoyl]amino}hexaeicosane-1,3,4-triol; 1] and B [(2S,3S,4R)-2-{[(2R,5E)-2-hydroxyoctadec-5-enoyl]amino}hexaeicosane-1,3,4-triol-1-O-β-D-glucopyranoside; 2], together with 1-octacosanol, β-sitosterol, β-sitosterol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and luteolin 7-O-β-glucopyranoside were isolated from the methanolic extract of the whole plant of Carthamus oxyacantha. Their structures were elucidated using (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra and 2D NMR analyses (HMQC, HMBC and COSY) in combination with mass spectrometry (EI-MS, HR-EI-MS, FAB-MS and HR-FAB-MS) experiments and in comparison with the literature data of the related compounds. Both the compounds 1 and 2 showed inhibitory potential against lipoxygenase (LOX) in a concentration-dependent manner with IC50 values 83.3 ± 1.3 and 245.7 ± 1.1 µM, whereas compound 2 showed inhibition against enzymes acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) with IC50 values 65.3 ± 0.1 and 93.6 ± 0.1 µM, respectively. PMID:26285908

  20. Carbon isotope ratio analysis of steroids by high-temperature liquid chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lijun; Thevis, Mario; Piper, Thomas; Jochmann, Maik A; Wolbert, J Benjamin; Kujawinski, Dorothea M; Wiese, Steffen; Teutenberg, Thorsten; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2014-03-01

    Generally, compound-specific isotope analysis of steroids is carried out by gas chromatography combined with isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Thus, a derivatization of the steroids prior to the measurement is compulsory, and a correction of the isotopic data is often necessary. To overcome this limitation, we present a new approach of high-temperature liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection and isotope ratio mass spectrometry (HT-LC/PDA/IRMS) for the carbon isotope ratio analysis of unconjugated steroids. A steroid mixture containing 19-norandrosterone, testosterone, epitestosterone, androsterone, and 5β-pregnane-3α,17α,20α-triol was fully separated on a C4 column under high-temperature elution with water as the sole eluent. The accuracy for isotope analysis (±0.5 ‰) was around 20 μg g(-1) for testosterone, epitestosterone (79 ng steroid absolute on column), and 30 μg g(-1) for 19-norandrosterone, androsterone, and 5β-pregnane-3α,17α,20α-triol (119 ng steroid absolute on column). The applicability of the method was tested by measuring a pharmaceutical gel containing testosterone. With this work, the scope of LC/IRMS applications has been extended to nonpolar compounds. PMID:24491121

  1. A new thiophene and two new monoterpenoids from Xanthium sibiricum.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yu-Sheng; Li, Li; Liu, Yun-Bao; Ma, Shuang-Gang; Li, Yong; Qu, Jing; Liu, Quan; Shen, Zhu-Fang; Chen, Xiao-Guang; Yu, Shi-Shan

    2015-01-01

    Three new compounds (1-3), together with six known compounds (4-9), were isolated from the fruits of Xanthium sibiricum. The structures and the absolute configurations of sibiricumthionol (1), (+)-(5Z)-6-methyl-2-ethenyl-5-hepten-1,2,7-triol [(+)-2], ( - )-(5Z)-6-methyl-2-ethenyl-5-hepten-1,2,7-triol [( - )-2], (2E,4E,1'S, 2'R, 4'S, 6'R)-dihydrophaseic acid (3), (+)-xanthienopyran [(+)-4] and ( - )-xanthienopyran [( - )-4] were established by extensive spectroscopic analyses, X-ray crystallographic analysis, ECCD analysis and ECD calculations. Caffeic acid (7) and caffeic acid ethyl ester (8) weekly inhibited α-glucosidase enzymatic activity by 44.5% and 40.2%, respectively, at 40 μM. Protocatechuic acid (9) selectively exhibited cytotoxicity against HepG2 cell lines, with an IC50 value of 2.92 μM. PMID:26466199

  2. New triterpene esters from flowerheads of Arnica lonchophylla.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Thomas J; von Raison, Jeanette; Willuhn, Günter

    2004-10-01

    From the flowerheads of Arnica lonchophylla Greene ssp. lonchophylla Maguire (Asteraceae), a variety of mono-, di- and trihydroxytriterpenes of the oleanane, ursane, lupane and dammarane types were isolated and their structures elucidated by EI and CI mass spectrometry and extensive NMR spectroscopic analysis. Most of the compounds are esterified at position 3 with lauric, myristic, palmitic and stearic acids. Several ester derivatives of known triterpenes represent new natural products. The triterpenetriols 20(30)-taraxasten-3beta,16beta,21alpha-triol (arnitriol A) and lupane-3beta,16beta,20-triol, both isolated in the form of their C3-fatty acid ester derivatives, possess hydroxylation patterns which have not been described previously. Besides small amounts of triterpenetriol esters, the lauric, myristic, palmitic and stearic acid esters of arnidiol, faradiol, maniladiol and calenduladiol were also identified in the flowerheads of A. montana (Arnicae flos Ph. Eur.), A. chamissonis ssp. foliosa and A. angustifolia ssp. attenuata. A search for sesquiterpene lactones in the flowers of A. lonchophylla resulted in the identification of small amounts of helenalin and 11alpha,13-dihydrohelenalin. PMID:15490326

  3. Sphingosines Derived from Marine Sponge as Potential Multi-Target Drug Related to Disorders in Cancer Development

    PubMed Central

    Biegelmeyer, Renata; Schröder, Rafael; Rambo, Douglas F.; Dresch, Roger R.; Carraro, João L. F.; Mothes, Beatriz; Moreira, José Cláudio F.; da Frota Junior, Mário L. C.; Henriques, Amélia T.

    2015-01-01

    Haliclona tubifera, marine sponge species abundant in Brazilian coastline, presents only a few papers published in the literature. Recently, we have reported the isolation of two modified C18 sphingoid bases: (2R,3R,6R,7Z)-2-aminooctadec-7-ene-1,3,6-triol and and (2R,3R,6R)-2-aminooctadec-1,3,6-triol. In order to continue our research, in this work aimed at the biological investigation of fractions that led to the isolation of these compounds. We evaluated the cytotoxic effect of marine sponge H. tubifera fractions in glioma (U87) and neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) human cell lines. In addition, considering the link between cancer, imbalance of reactive oxygen species and coagulation disorders, we also investigated the in vitro effects on blood coagulation and their redox properties. We showed that the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction, rich in sphingoid bases, had important cytotoxic effects in both cancer cell lines with an IC50 < 15 μg/mL and also can inhibit the production of peroxyl radicals. Interestingly, this fraction increased the recalcification time of human blood, showing anticoagulant properties. The present study indicates the sphingosines fraction as a promising source of chemical prototypes, especially multifunctional drugs in cancer therapy. PMID:26308014

  4. The ERα-PI3K Cascade in Proopiomelanocortin Progenitor Neurons Regulates Feeding and Glucose Balance in Female Mice.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liangru; Xu, Pingwen; Cao, Xuehong; Yang, Yongjie; Hinton, Antentor Othrell; Xia, Yan; Saito, Kenji; Yan, Xiaofeng; Zou, Fang; Ding, Hongfang; Wang, Chunmei; Yan, Chunling; Saha, Pradip; Khan, Sohaib A; Zhao, Jean; Fukuda, Makoto; Tong, Qingchun; Clegg, Deborah J; Chan, Lawrence; Xu, Yong

    2015-12-01

    Estrogens act upon estrogen receptor (ER)α to inhibit feeding and improve glucose homeostasis in female animals. However, the intracellular signals that mediate these estrogenic actions remain unknown. Here, we report that anorexigenic effects of estrogens are blunted in female mice that lack ERα specifically in proopiomelanocortin (POMC) progenitor neurons. These mutant mice also develop insulin resistance and are insensitive to the glucose-regulatory effects of estrogens. Moreover, we showed that propyl pyrazole triol (an ERα agonist) stimulates the phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway specifically in POMC progenitor neurons, and that blockade of PI3K attenuates propyl pyrazole triol-induced activation of POMC neurons. Finally, we show that effects of estrogens to inhibit food intake and to improve insulin sensitivity are significantly attenuated in female mice with PI3K genetically inhibited in POMC progenitor neurons. Together, our results indicate that an ERα-PI3K cascade in POMC progenitor neurons mediates estrogenic actions to suppress food intake and improve insulin sensitivity. PMID:26375425

  5. The Metabolic Fate of Tritium-Labeled T-2 Toxin, a Trichothecene Mycotoxin, in Swine.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corley, Richard Allen

    The metabolic fate of T-2 toxin was determined in two female crossbred swine following the intravascular administration of one millicurie of tritium-labeled T-2 toxin at a nonlethal dose of 0.15 mg/kg body weight. The plasma elimination phase half-life was 90 minutes for total tritium residues. A total of 13.1 and 1.3 percent of the administered dose was found in the gall bladders in addition to 17.9 and 42.5 percent in the urine of the two pigs, S1 and S2, respectively, 4 hours after dosing. Free metabolites, identified by thin-layer chromatography, represented less than 20 and 30 percent of the metabolite residues in bile and urine, respectively, with the parent compound, T-2 toxin, never exceeding 0.25 percent. The major free metabolites were 3'-OH HT-2 and T-2 triol. Glucuronide conjugates represented 63 and 77 percent of the metabolite residues in urine and bile, respectively. The major conjugated metabolites were glucuronides of HT-2, 3'-OH T-2, 3'-OH HT-2 and T-2 toxin. Neosolaniol, 4-deacetyl-neosolaniol and T-2 tetraol were also identified in addition to 3 unknown metabolites. In the tissues, the greatest amount of radioactivity was located in the gastrointestinal tract (15.5 and 24.1 percent of the dose for the 2 pigs, S1 and S2, respectively). The remaining tissues sampled accounted for approximately 5 percent of the dose for the 2 pigs. Twenty-one metabolites were identified in tissues following reverse phase HPLC radiochromatography. Approximately 55 percent of the extractable radioactivity in the tissues, including the gastrointestinal tract, of both pigs corresponded to T-2 toxin, HT-2, deepoxy HT-2, T-2 triol, deepoxy T-2 triol, 3'-OH T-2, 3'-OH HT -2, T-2 tetraol and deepoxy T-2 tetraol. The major metabolite in tissues, PM-XV, did not correspond to any standard and represented an additional 27 percent of the extractable radioactivity.

  6. Bis-sesquiterpene from the Marine Sponge Dysidea fragilis.

    PubMed

    Kiem, Phan Van; Nhiem, Nguyen Xuan; Tai, Bui Huu; Anh, Hoang Le Tuan; Hang, Dan Thi Thuy; Cuc, Nguyen Thi; Huyen, Le Thi; Nam, Nguyen Hoai; Yen, Pham Hai; Thung, Do Cong; Minh, Chau Van

    2016-04-01

    Two new sesquiterpenes and one new bis-sesquiterpene, named dysinidins C-E (1-3) along with three known sterols, dysideasterol F, 9α,l lα-epoxycholest-7-en-3β,5α,6α-triol, and 9α,11α-epoxycholest-7-en-3β,5α,6α,19-tetrol 6-acetate (4-6) were isolated from the Vietnamese marine sponge Dysidea fragilis (Montagu, 1814). Their structures were determined by 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopies and HR-ESI-MS, as well as by comparison with reported literature data. Compounds 4-6 were found to inhibit eight human cancer cell lines (KB, LU-1, HL-60, LNCaP, SK-Mel-2, HepG-2, MCF-7, and PC-3), with IC50 values ranging from 7.3 to 31.5 µM. PMID:27396186

  7. Cholesterol Analogs with Degradation-resistant Alkyl Side Chains Are Effective Mycobacterium tuberculosis Growth Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Frank, Daniel J; Zhao, Yan; Wong, Siew Hoon; Basudhar, Debashree; De Voss, James J; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R

    2016-04-01

    Cholest-4-en-3-one, whether added exogenously or generated intracellularly from cholesterol, inhibits the growth ofMycobacterium tuberculosiswhen CYP125A1 and CYP142A1, the cytochrome P450 enzymes that initiate degradation of the sterol side chain, are disabled. Here we demonstrate that a 16-hydroxy derivative of cholesterol, which was previously reported to inhibit growth ofM. tuberculosis, acts by preventing the oxidation of the sterol side chain even in the presence of the relevant cytochrome P450 enzymes. The finding that (25R)-cholest-5-en-3β,16β,26-triol (1) (and its 3-keto metabolite) inhibit growth suggests that cholesterol analogs with non-degradable side chains represent a novel class of anti-mycobacterial agents. In accord with this, two cholesterol analogs with truncated, fluorinated side chains have been synthesized and shown to similarly block the growth in culture ofM. tuberculosis. PMID:26833565

  8. Kinetics of hydrogen peroxide decomposition by catalase: hydroxylic solvent effects.

    PubMed

    Raducan, Adina; Cantemir, Anca Ruxandra; Puiu, Mihaela; Oancea, Dumitru

    2012-11-01

    The effect of water-alcohol (methanol, ethanol, propan-1-ol, propan-2-ol, ethane-1,2-diol and propane-1,2,3-triol) binary mixtures on the kinetics of hydrogen peroxide decomposition in the presence of bovine liver catalase is investigated. In all solvents, the activity of catalase is smaller than in water. The results are discussed on the basis of a simple kinetic model. The kinetic constants for product formation through enzyme-substrate complex decomposition and for inactivation of catalase are estimated. The organic solvents are characterized by several physical properties: dielectric constant (D), hydrophobicity (log P), concentration of hydroxyl groups ([OH]), polarizability (α), Kamlet-Taft parameter (β) and Kosower parameter (Z). The relationships between the initial rate, kinetic constants and medium properties are analyzed by linear and multiple linear regression. PMID:22565543

  9. A ceramide and cerebroside from the starfish asterias amurensis Lütken and their plant-growth promotion activities.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Takahiro; Okino, Tatsufumi; Mino, Yosuke

    2006-07-01

    The new phytosphingosine-type ceramide asteriaceramide A (1) and glucocerebroside asteriacerebroside G (2), together with two known cerebrosides, asteriacerebrosides A and B, were isolated from lipophilic fractions of the whole bodies of the Northern Pacific starfish Asterias amurensis Lütken. The water-soluble fraction afforded two known asterosaponins, glycoside B(2) and asterosaponin-1. The structures of 1 and 2 were determined on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic evidence as (2S,3S,4R,13Z)-2-[(2'R)-2-hydroxyhexadecanoylamino]-13-docosene-1,3,4-triol (1) and 1-O-(beta-d-glucopyranosyl)-(2S,3R,4E,13Z)-2-[(2'R)-2-hydroxytetradecanoylamino]-4,13-docosadiene-1,3-diol (2). Compounds 1, 2, and asteriacerebrosides A and B promoted plant growth in sprouts of Brassica campestris. PMID:16872149

  10. QSPR models based on molecular mechanics and quantum chemical calculations. 1. Construction of Boltzmann-averaged descriptors for alkanes, alcohols, diols, ethers and cyclic compounds.

    PubMed

    Dyekjaer, Jane; Rasmussen, Kjeld; Jónsdóttir, Svava

    2002-09-01

    Values for nine descriptors for QSPR (quantitative structure-property relationships) modeling of physical properties of 96 alkanes, alcohols, ethers, diols, triols and cyclic alkanes and alcohols in conjunction with the program Codessa are presented. The descriptors are Boltzmann-averaged by selection of the most relevant conformers out of a set of possible molecular conformers generated by a systematic scheme presented in this paper. Six of these descriptors are calculated with molecular mechanics and three with quantum chemical methods. Especially interesting descriptors are the relative van der Waals energies and the molecular polarizabilities, which correlate very well with boiling points. Five more simple descriptors that only depend on the molecular constitutional formula are also discussed briefly. PMID:12415333

  11. The preparation of 2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-1',2'-seconucleosides as potential antiviral agents.

    PubMed

    Vemishetti, P; Saibaba, R; Panzica, R P; Abushanab, E

    1990-02-01

    The preparation of (R,R)-1,3-dibenzyl-4-fluorobutane-1,2,3-triol (6) from D-isoascorbic acid and subsequent chloromethylation of this chiron made possible the synthesis of a series of 2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-1',2'-seconucleosides. Among them were the uridine (10), thymidine, (11), 5-iodouridine (14), ribavirin (17), and guanosine (19) analogues. They were evaluated for antiviral activity primarily against RNA viruses and found to be inactive. In addition to the aforementioned acyclonucleosides, the 3',5'-cyclic phosphates of the uridine (22) and thymidine (23) analogues were prepared from their respective 4-nitrophenyl 3',5'-cyclic phosphate triesters. The triesters were also examined for antiviral activity, but like their nucleoside counterparts exhibited only marginal activity. PMID:2299635

  12. The physiological effects of Aralia, Panax and Eleutherococcus on exercised rats.

    PubMed

    Martinez, B; Staba, E J

    1984-06-01

    Relative and total amount of saponins in Panax ginseng, Panax quinquefolius, Aralia mandshurica and Eleutherococcus senticosus were determined by thin-layer chromatography and by a spectrophotometric method. The ginsenoside Rg1 was present in American ginseng. Aralia and Eleutherococcus did not contain diol- and triol-type ginsenosides. Low concentrations of ginsenosides were found in Oriental red ginsengs (1.4-2.7%). Orally administered Araliaceae saponin extracts did not affect plasma lactic acid, glucagon, insulin or liver glycogen levels in exercised rats and did not prolong their swimming time. Plasma glucose levels in resting rats were decreased by saponin extracts of Canadian white, American red, Sanchi, Aralia, Eleutherococcus, Korean red and Shiu-Chi ginsengs. PMID:6379247

  13. Cerebrosides and a monoacylmonogalactosylglycerol from Clinacanthus nutans.

    PubMed

    Tuntiwachwuttikul, Pittaya; Pootaeng-On, Yupa; Phansa, Photchana; Taylor, Walter Charles

    2004-01-01

    A mixture of nine cerebrosides and a monoacylmonogalactosylglycerol were separated from the leaves of Clinacanthus nutans. The structures of the cerebrosides were characterized as 1-O-beta-D-glucosides of phytosphingosines, which comprised a common long-chain base, (2S,3S,4R,8Z)-2-amino-8(Z)-octadecene-1,3,4-triol with nine 2-hydroxy fatty acids of varying chain lengths (C(16), C(18), C(20-26)) linked to the amino group. The glycosylglyceride was characterized as (2S)-1-O-linolenoyl-3-O-beta-D-galactopyranosylglycerol. The structures were established on the basis of the spectroscopic data and chemical reactions. PMID:14709863

  14. Transetherification on Polyols by Intra- and Intermolecular Nucleophilic Substitutions

    PubMed Central

    Muraoka, Takahiro; Adachi, Kota; Chowdhury, Rainy; Kinbara, Kazushi

    2014-01-01

    Transetherification on polyols involving intra- and intermolecular nucleophilic substitutions is reported. Di- or trialkoxide formation of propane-1,3-diol or 2-(hydroxymethyl)propane-1,3-diol derivatives by NaH triggers the reaction via oxetanes formation, where the order to add NaH and a polyol significantly influences the yields of products. It was demonstrated that the protective group on the pentaerythritol skeleton is apparently transferred to the hydrophilic and hydrophobic chain molecules bearing a leaving group in one-step, and a protective group conversion from tosyl to benzyl was successful using a benzyl-appending triol to afford a desired product in 67% yield. PMID:24663293

  15. Five new compounds from Dendrobium longicornu.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jiang-Miao; Chen, Ji-Jun; Yu, Hong; Zhao, You-Xing; Zhou, Jun

    2008-04-01

    A novel bibenzyl, a new bibenzyl, two new phenanthrenes, and a new lignin glycoside, namely longicornuol A (1), 4-[2-(3-hdroxyphenol)-1-methoxyethyl]-2,6-dimethoxyphenol (2), 5-hydroxy-7-methoxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene-1,4-dione (3), 7-methoxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene-2,4,5-triol (4) and erythro-1-(4-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-[4-(3-hydroxypropyl)-2,6-dimethoxyphenoxy]-1,3-propanediol ( 5), together with 14 known compounds, were isolated from the stems of Dendrobium longicornu. All structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods (NMR, MS, UV and IR). Anti-platelet aggregation activities of compounds 1 - 5 were also tested. PMID:18543150

  16. Two new terpenoids from the stems of Manihot esculenta.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yan-Bo; Li, Shan-Shan; Mei, Wen-Li; Dong, Wen-Hua; Li, Kai-Mian; Dai, Hao-Fu

    2015-01-01

    A new eremophilane sesquiterpene, sporogen AO-2 (1), and a new beyerane diterpene, thecacorin C (2), together with two known compounds, longifoamide-B (3) and methylcholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol (4), were isolated from the stems of Manihot esculenta. The structures of the two new compounds were determined by spectroscopic techniques (UV, IR, MS, 1D, and 2D NMR). Antimicrobial assay showed that compound 3 possessed modest inhibitory effects on Saphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S.aureus, diameters of inhibition zones of which were 7.5 and 8.0 mm, respectively. Compound 4 possessed modest inhibitory effect on S. aureus, the diameter of inhibition zone of which was 6.8 mm. PMID:25492303

  17. Regio- and Stereoselective Monoepoxidation of Dienes using Methyltrioxorhenium: Synthesis of Allylic Epoxides

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Methyltrioxorhenium (MTO) complexed with pyridine was shown to be a highly effective catalyst for the regioselective monoepoxidation of conjugated di- and trienes using 30% H2O2 at or below room temperature. The resultant allylic epoxides, and the triols derived from them, are versatile synthetic intermediates as well as substructures present in many bioactive natural products. The site of epoxidation was dependent upon olefin substitution, olefin geometry (Z vs E), and the presence of electron-withdrawing substituents on adjacent carbons. For 1-acyl(silyl)oxypenta-2,4-dienes, epoxidation of the distal olefin was generally favored in contrast to the adjacent regioselectivity characteristic of Sharpless, peracid, and other directed epoxidations of hydroxylated dienes. PMID:25321319

  18. A new highly hydroxylated triterpene from Salvia atropatana Bunge.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Z; Cheraghi, Z; Ghasemi, S; Yousefi, M

    2012-01-01

    One new triterpenoid olean-18-ene-1β, 2α, 3β-triol (1) along with four known compounds were isolated from the chloroform extract of the aerial part of Salvia atropatana Bunge. The known compounds were two flavonoids, 5-hydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxyflavone (2) and 5-hydroxy-6,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone (3), an abietane-type diterpene namely taxodione (4) and a phytosterol namely γ -sitosterol (5). The structure of (1) was elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis including electron ionization-mass spectra (EI-MS), (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer (DEPT), H,H correlation spectroscopy (COSY), heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence (HMQC) and heteronuclear multiple bond correlation (HMBC). The structure of known compounds 2-5 were identified by comparison of their spectral data with those reported in the literature. PMID:22017660

  19. Antineoplastic Agents. 556. Isolation and Structure of Coprinastatin 1 from Coprinus cinereus1⊥

    PubMed Central

    Pettit, George R.; Meng, Yanhui; Pettit, Robin K.; Herald, Delbert L.; Cichacz, Zbigniew A.; Doubek, Dennis L.; Richert, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Cancer cell line bioassay-guided separation of an ethyl acetate extract prepared from a plant-associated fungus, Coprinus cinereus, led to the isolation of three new sesquiterpenes, coprinastatin 1 (1), coprinol (2), and the epimer (4a) of the known sesquiterpene triol 4b. The previously described sesquiterpene 3 and oxazolinone 5 were also isolated. The structure and relative configuration of coprinastatin 1 (1) was determined by HRMS and by 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic analyses. The structure of terpene 2 was elucidated by single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments. The remaining structures were similarly determined, structure 3 by spectroscopic analyses and both 4a and 5 by X-ray crystal structure determination. Coprinastatin 1 (1) was found to inhibit growth of the murine P388 lymphocytic leukemia cell line and the pathogenic bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae. PMID:19919060

  20. Design, synthesis and 1H NMR study of C3v-symmetric anion receptors with urethane-NH as recognition group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jin-Oh; Sahoo, Suban K.; Choi, Heung-Jin

    2016-01-01

    C3v-Symmetric anion receptors 3 and 4 with urethane groups were synthesized by using trindane triol as tripodal molecular framework. In 1H NMR titration study, the receptors showed noticeable downfield shift/disappearance of the urethane-NH peak in presence of H2PO4- and F- due to the host-guest complexation occurred through multiple hydrogen bonding and/or the deprotonation of urethane-NH groups. Other tested anions such as Cl-, Br-, HSO4-, and NO3- showed either no or negligible chemical shift of the urethane groups. The deprotonation event in 4 allowed selective detection of F- by perceptible color change from colorless to yellowish-red with the appearance of a new charge transfer absorption band at 450 nm.

  1. Triterpenoids from the stems of Schisandra grandiflora and their biological activity.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wei; Liu, Han-Wei; Guo, Xin; Hou, Lan; Gao, Jin-Ming

    2016-07-01

    One new ursane-type triterpenoid (1), named granditriol, along with 14 known compounds (2-15), was isolated from the organic extracts of Schisandra grandiflora stems. The structure of the new compound was elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods as 28-norursa-12,17,19,21-tetraen-2α,3α,23-triol. These isolates were evaluated for anti-phytopathogenic fungi activity and cytotoxicity against human cancer cell line (HepG2). Asiatic acid (8) and 2α,3α,19α-trihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (9) inhibited the growth of two plant pathogens, Alternaria alternata and Alternaria solani. In addition, compounds 12, 15, and 11 displayed notable anti-proliferative activity against HepG2 cells. Compound 1 is the first report of 28-nortriterpenoid from the Schisandraceae family. All these were obtained from this plant for the first time. PMID:26982651

  2. Cytotoxic 19-oxygenated steroids from the South China Sea gorgonian, Pacifigorgia senta.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min; Han, Lei; Zhang, Xiu-Li; Wang, Chang-Yun

    2016-06-01

    Bioassay guided chemical investigation of the gorgonian Pacifigorgia senta led to the discovery of a new 19-oxygenated steroid, cholesta-5,24-diene-3β,7β,19-triol (1), as well as three known steroids (2-4). The structure of 1 was determined by extensive spectroscopic analysis, including NMR and MS spectra. All of the compounds exhibited cytotoxicities against HepG2, Hep3B, MCF-7/ADR, PC-3 and HCT-116 cell lines, with the IC50 values ranging from 7.0 to 29.7 μM. It is the first report on the chemical constituents of the coral species P. senta. PMID:26230370

  3. Improved biocompatibility of a viscous bioerodible poly(ortho ester) by controlling the environmental pH during degradation.

    PubMed

    Zignani, M; Le Minh, T; Einmahl, S; Tabatabay, C; Heller, J; Anderson, J M; Gurny, R

    2000-09-01

    The poly(ortho ester), POE, used in this investigation, is a viscous bioerodible polymer (8 kDa), which rapidly degrades into a triol and an acidic by-product, acetic acid. In order to improve biocompatibility, we have evaluated the addition of various basic excipients, such as sodium acetate, hydroxyapatite, calcium carbonate and magnesium hydroxide, which buffered and neutralized the acidic degradation product and prolonged the polymer lifetime and drug release. This decrease of POE degradation rate results in a decreased rate of formation of the acidic by-product. Similarly, a POE of higher molecular weight (14 kDa) has been tested. Sodium acetate was too hydrophilic to affect the drug release and the biocompatibility of the polymer, whereas the presence of magnesium hydroxide markedly prolonged the drug release and improved the acceptability of the polymer. The increased molecular weight POE did not improve biocompatibility and a similar but delayed, inflammatory reaction was observed. PMID:10905459

  4. Antiproliferative constituents from umbelliferae plants. V. A new furanocoumarin and falcarindiol furanocoumarin ethers from the root of Angelica japonica.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, T; Furumi, K; Fujii, H; Okabe, H; Mihashi, K; Nakano, Y; Matsunaga, H; Katano, M; Mori, M

    1999-01-01

    The CHCl3 extract of the root of Angelica japonica showed high inhibitory activity against human gastric adenocarcinoma (MK-1) cell growth. From this extract, a new furanocoumarin named japoangelone and four furanocoumarin ethers of falcarindiol, named japoangelols A-D, were isolated together with caffeic acid methyl ester, four polyacetylenic compounds (panaxynol, falcarindiol, 8-O-acetylfalcarindiol, and (9Z)-1,9-heptadecadiene-4,6-diyne-3,8,11-triol), eight coumarins (osthol, isoimperatorin, scopoletin, byakangelicin, xanthotoxin, bergapten, oxypeucedanin methanolate, and oxypeucedanin hydrate), and two chromones (3'-O-acetylhamaudol, and hamaudol). The structures of the new isolates were determined based on spectral evidence. The ED50 of isolates against MK-1, HeLa, and B16F10 cell lines are reported. PMID:9987830

  5. Crystallization of the oxygen-evolving reaction centre of photosystem II in nine different detergent mixtures.

    PubMed

    Adir, N

    1999-04-01

    Oxygen-evolving photosystem II reaction centres (RCII) isolated from both spinach and pea have been crystallized. A single crystal form grew from RCII monomers in the presence of nine different three-component mixtures of non-ionic detergents and heptane-1,2, 3-triol. The crystals grew as hexagonal rods with dimensions of up to 1 x 0.3 x 0.3 mm. The crystals diffracted to a maximum resolution of 6.5 A and belong to a hexagonal space group with unit-cell parameters a = 495, b = 495, c = 115 A, alpha = beta = 90, gamma = 120 degrees. The growth of a single crystal form in the presence of such a large variety of detergents suggests a very limited range of crystal lattice formation sites in the RCII complex. PMID:10089326

  6. [Studies on chemical compounds of Chlorella sorokiniana].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Liu, Ping-huai; Wu, Jiao-na; Yang, Guo-fu; Suo, Yang-yang; Luo, Ning; Chen, Chen

    2015-04-01

    Chemical constituents of Chlorella sorokiniana were isolated and purified by repeated column chromatographies, over silicagel and Sephadex LH-20. Their structures were identified on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectroscopic data analysis. Five compounds were obtained from the petroleum ether extract of Chlorella sorokiniana, and their structures were identified as (22E, 24R)-5alpha, 3beta-epidioxiergosta-6, 22-dien-3beta-ol(1),(24S)-ergosta-7-en-3beta-ol(2), loliolide(3), stigmasta-7,22-dien-3beta,5alpha,6alpha-triol(4), and 3beta-hydroxy-5alpha,6alpha-epoxy-7-megastigmen-9-one(5). The main liposoluble fractions from Chlorella sorokiniana maiuly contain fatty acids, alkyl acids and olefine acids. Components 1-5 were isolated from the genus Chlorella for the first time. PMID:26281556

  7. a-glucosidase Inhibitors From Paraguayan Natural Medicine, Ñangapiry, The Leaves Of Eugenia Uniflora.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, T; Kasai, M; Hayashi, T; Arisawa, M; Momose, Y; Arai, I; Amagaya, S; Komatsu, Y

    2000-01-01

    The water-soluble extract from a Paraguayan natural medicine, Nangapiry, the leaves of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae), which has been used as an antidiabetic agent, was found to show inhibitory activities on the increase of plasma glucose level in the sucrose tolerance test (STT) conducted with mice. The portion adsorbed on a cation exchange resin was also found to inhibit a-glucosidases. From the active portion, two new active compounds named uniflorines A ( 1 ) and B ( 2 ) and known (+)-(3a, 4a, 5ß)-1-methylpiperidine-3, 4, 5-triol ( 3 ) were isolated. The structures of uniflorines A and B were determined as (-)-(1S, 2R, 6S, 7R, 8R, 8aR)-1,2,6,7,8-pentahydroxyindolizidine and (+)-(1S, 2R, 5R, 7R, 8S, 8aS)-1,2,5,7,8-pentahydroxyindolizidine by spectral means, respectively. PMID:21214481

  8. Polyurethane waste recycling; glycolysis and hydroglycolysis of water-blown foams

    SciTech Connect

    Gerlock, J.; Braslaw, J.; Zinbo, M.

    1984-07-01

    In this paper, glycolysis of toluenediisocyanate based water-blown polyurethane foam has been examined by high performance liquid chromatography and gel permeation chromatography to determine the product distribution. Glycolysis with diethylene glycol (DEG) yields toluenediamine (TDA), TDA mono- and di- DEG carbamates, a series of urea-linked mono- and di- DEG carbamate TDA oligomers, and polyether triol (polyol). The complexity of the product mixture suggests problems in applying simple glycolysis to the recovery of mixed and/or contaminated polyurethane wastes. A simpler product mixture results when water and a base catalyst are added to the glycolysis reaction (hydroglycolysis). Hydroglycolysis yields TDA and polyol as principal products. Data for the rate of the hydroglycolysis reaction are presented in the temperature range of 150 to 190/sup 0/C. These results suggest that hydroglycolysis could be used to recover polyols from mixed and/or contaminated water-blown polyurethane wastes.

  9. Five new cyotoxic steroidal glycosides from the fruits of Solanum torvum.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinsheng; Zhang, Lu; Huang, Cheng; Guo, Fujiang; Li, Yiming

    2014-03-01

    The fruits of Solanum torvum Swartz, commonly known as Turkey berry, are edible and commonly used as a vegetable in the South Indian population's diet and as an essential ingredient in Thai cuisine. Five new steroidal glycosides together with five known ones were isolated from the fruits of S. torvum Swartz. Based on chemical and spectral evidence, the five new compounds were identified to be 25(S)-26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-5α-furost-22(20)-en-3β,6α,26-triol-6-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-D-quinovopyranoside] (1), 25(S)-26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-5α-furost-22(20)-en-3-one-6α,26-diol-6-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-D-quinovopyranoside] (2), 25(S)-26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-5α-furost-22(20)-en-3β,6α,26-triol-6-O-β-D-quinovopyranoside (3), 5α-pregn-16-en-20-one-3β,6α-diol-6-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-D-quinovopyranoside] (4), and 5α-pregn-16-en-3,20-dione-6α-ol-6-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-D-quinovopyranoside] (5). These new compounds were assayed for cytotoxicities in vitro, and 1 to 4 showed cyotoxic activity against the human melanoma cell line A375, with IC50 values of 30 μM to 260 μM. PMID:24444891

  10. Determination of T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, and three other type A trichothecenes in layer feed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)--comparison of two sample preparation methods.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Katrin; Valenta, Hana; Kersten, Susanne; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich; Dänicke, Sven

    2016-05-01

    A sensitive method for the simultaneous determination of T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, neosolaniol, T-2 triol, and T-2 tetraol in layer feed using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in the positive ionization mode (LC-ESI-MS/MS) is described. Two fast and easy clean-up methods-with BondElut Mycotoxin and MycoSep 227 columns, respectively-were tested. The separation of the toxins was conducted on a Pursuit XRs Ultra 2.8 HPLC column using 0.13 mM ammonium acetate as eluent A and methanol as eluent B. Detection of the mycotoxins was carried out in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode using ammonium adducts as precursor ions. Quantification of all analytes was performed with d3-T-2 toxin as an internal standard. The clean-up method with MycoSep 227 columns gave slightly better results for layer feed compared to the method using BondElut Mycotoxin columns (MycoSep 227: recovery between 50 and 63%, BondElut Mycotoxin: recovery between 32 and 67%) and was therefore chosen as the final method. The limits of detection ranged between 0.9 and 7.5 ng/g depending on the mycotoxin. The method was developed for the analysis of layer feed used at carry-over experiments with T-2 toxin in laying hens. For carry-over experiments, it is necessary that the method includes not only T-2 toxin but also the potential metabolites in animal tissues HT-2 toxin, neosolaniol, T-2 triol, and T-2 tetraol which could naturally occur in cereals used as feed stuff as well. PMID:26940912

  11. Ovarian steroids regulate tachykinin and tachykinin receptor gene expression in the mouse uterus

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Francisco M; Pintado, C Oscar; Pennefather, Jocelyn N; Patak, Eva; Candenas, Luz

    2009-01-01

    Background In the mouse uterus, pregnancy is accompanied by changes in tachykinin and tachykinin receptor gene expression and in the uterotonic effects of endogenous tachykinins. In this study we have investigated whether changes in tachykinin expression and responses are a result of changes in ovarian steroid levels. Methods We quantified the mRNAs of tachykinins and tachykinin receptors in uteri from ovariectomized mice and studied their regulation in response to estrogen and progesterone using real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Early (3 h) and late (24 h) responses to estrogen were evaluated and the participation of the estrogen receptors (ER), ERalpha and ERbeta, was analyzed by treating mice with propylpyrazole triol, a selective ERalpha agonist, or diarylpropionitrile, a selective agonist of ERbeta. Results All genes encoding tachykinins (Tac1, Tac2 and Tac4) and tachykinin receptors (Tacr1, Tacr2 and Tacr3) were expressed in uteri from ovariectomized mice. Estrogen increased Tac1 and Tacr1 mRNA after 3 h and decreased Tac1 and Tac4 expression after 24 h. Tac2 and Tacr3 mRNA levels were decreased by estrogen at both 3 and 24 h. Most effects of estrogen were also observed in animals treated with propylpyrazole triol. Progesterone treatment increased the levels of Tac2. Conclusion These results show that the expression of tachykinins and their receptors in the mouse uterus is tightly and differentially regulated by ovarian steroids. Estrogen effects are mainly mediated by ERalpha supporting an essential role for this estrogen receptor in the regulation of the tachykinergic system in the mouse uterus. PMID:19627578

  12. A Great Barrier Reef Sinularia sp. Yields Two New Cytotoxic Diterpenes

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Anthony D.; Nielson, Jonathan L.; Tapiolas, Dianne M.; Liptrot, Catherine H.; Motti, Cherie A.

    2012-01-01

    The methanol extract of a Sinularia sp., collected from Bowden Reef, Queensland, Australia, yielded ten natural products. These included the new nitrogenous diterpene (4R*,5R*,9S*,10R*,11Z)-4-methoxy-9-((dimethylamino)-methyl)-12,15-epoxy-11(13)-en-decahydronaphthalen-16-ol (1), and the new lobane, (1R*,2R*,4S*,15E)-loba-8,10,13(14),15(16)-tetraen-17,18-diol-17-acetate (2). Also isolated were two known cembranes, sarcophytol-B and (1E,3E,7E)-11,12-epoxycembratrien-15-ol, and six known lobanes, loba-8,10,13(15)-triene-16,17,18-triol, 14,18-epoxyloba-8,10,13(15)-trien-17-ol, lobatrientriol, lobatrienolide, 14,17-epoxyloba-8,10,13(15)-trien-18-ol-18-acetate and (17R)-loba-8,10,13(15)-trien-17,18-diol. Structures of the new compounds were elucidated through interpretation of spectra obtained after extensive NMR and MS investigations and comparison with literature values. The tumour cell growth inhibition potential of 1 and 2 along with loba-8,10,13(15)-triene-16,17,18-triol, 14,17-epoxyloba-8,10,13(15)-trien-18-ol-18-acetate, lobatrienolide, (1E,3E,7E)-11,12-epoxycembratrien-15-ol and sarcophytol-B were assessed against three human tumour cell lines (SF-268, MCF-7 and H460). The lobanes and cembranes tested demonstrated 50% growth inhibition in the range 6.8–18.5 µM, with no selectivity, whilst 1 was less active (GI50 70–175 µM). PMID:23015765

  13. Genetic screening for Niemann-Pick disease type C in adults with neurological and psychiatric symptoms: findings from the ZOOM study.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Peter; Balding, David J; Klünemann, Hans H; Linden, David E J; Ory, Daniel S; Pineda, Mercè; Priller, Josef; Sedel, Frederic; Muller, Audrey; Chadha-Boreham, Harbajan; Welford, Richard W D; Strasser, Daniel S; Patterson, Marc C

    2013-11-01

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C) is a rare, autosomal-recessive, progressive neurological disease caused by mutations in either the NPC1 gene (in 95% of cases) or the NPC2 gene. This observational, multicentre genetic screening study evaluated the frequency and phenotypes of NP-C in consecutive adult patients with neurological and psychiatric symptoms. Diagnostic testing for NP-C involved NPC1 and NPC2 exonic gene sequencing and gene dosage analysis. When available, results of filipin staining, plasma cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol assays and measurements of relevant sphingolipids were also collected. NPC1 and NPC2 gene sequencing was completed in 250/256 patients from 30 psychiatric and neurological reference centres across the EU and USA [median (range) age 38 (18-90) years]. Three patients had a confirmed diagnosis of NP-C; two based on gene sequencing alone (two known causal disease alleles) and one based on gene sequencing and positive filipin staining. A further 12 patients displayed either single mutant NP-C alleles (8 with NPC1 mutations and 3 with NPC2 mutations) or a known causal disease mutation and an unclassified NPC1 allele variant (1 patient). Notably, high plasma cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol levels were observed for all NP-C cases (n = 3). Overall, the frequency of NP-C patients in this study [1.2% (95% CI; 0.3%, 3.5%)] suggests that there may be an underdiagnosed pool of NP-C patients among adults who share common neurological and psychiatric symptoms. PMID:23773996

  14. TSLP is differentially regulated by vitamin D3 and cytokines in human skin

    PubMed Central

    Landheer, Janneke; Giovannone, Barbara; Sadekova, Svetlana; Tjabringa, Sandra; Hofstra, Claudia; Dechering, Koen; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla; Chang, Charlie; Ying, Yu; de Waal Malefyt, Rene; Hijnen, DirkJan; Knol, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) plays an important role in allergic diseases and is highly expressed in keratinocytes in human lesional atopic dermatitis (AD) skin. In nonlesional AD skin TSLP expression can be induced by applying house dust mite allergen onto the skin in the atopy patch test. Several studies have demonstrated that the induction of TSLP expression in mouse skin does not only lead to AD-like inflammation of the skin, but also predisposes to severe inflammation of the airways. In mice, TSLP expression can be induced by application of the 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (VD3) analogue calcipotriol and results in the development of eczema-like lesions. The objective is to investigate the effect of VD3 (calcitriol) or calcipotriol on TSLP expression in normal human skin and skin from AD patients. Using multiple ex vivo experimental setups, the effects of calci(po)triol on TSLP expression by normal human skin, and skin from AD patients were investigated and compared to effects of calcipotriol on mouse and non-human primates (NHP) skin. No induction of TSLP expression (mRNA or protein) was observed in human keratinocytes, normal human skin, nonlesional AD skin, or NHP skin samples after stimulation with calcipotriol or topical application of calcitriol. The biological activity of calci(po)triol in human skin samples was demonstrated by the increased expression of the VD3-responsive Cyp24a1 gene. TSLP expression was induced by cytokines (IL-4, IL-13, and TNF-α) in skin samples from all three species. In contrast to the findings in human and NHP, a consistent increase in TSLP expression was confirmed in mouse skin biopsies after stimulation with calcipotriol. VD3 failed to induce expression of TSLP in human or monkey skin in contrast to mouse, implicating careful extrapolation of this often-used mouse model to AD patients. PMID:25866638

  15. Synthesis and crystal structures of C24-epimeric 20(R)-ocotillol-type saponins.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yang Rong; Yang, Jing Jing; Liu, Juan; Hou, Gui Ge; Meng, Qing Guo

    2016-06-01

    Ocotillol-type saponins have a wide spectrum of biological activities. Previous studies indicated that the configuration at the C24 position may be responsible for their stereoselectivity in pharmacological action and pharmacokinetics. Natural ocotillol-type saponins share a 20(S)-form but it has been found that the 20(R)-stereoisomers have different pharmacological effects. The semisynthesis of 20(R)-ocotillol-type saponins has not been reported and it is therefore worthwhile clarifying their crystal structures. Two C24 epimeric 20(R)-ocotillol-type saponins, namely (20R,24S)-20,24-epoxydammarane-3β,12β,25-triol, C30H52O4, (III), and (20R,24R)-20,24-epoxydammarane-3β,12β,25-triol monohydrate, C30H52O4·H2O, (IV), were synthesized, and their structures were elucidated by spectral studies and finally confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The (Me)C-O-C-C(OH) torsion angle of (III) is 146.41 (14)°, whereas the corresponding torsion angle of (IV) is -146.4 (7)°, indicating a different conformation at the C24 position. The crystal stacking in (III) generates an R4(4)(8) motif, through which the molecules are linked into a one-dimensional double chain. The chains are linked via nonclassical C-H...O hydrogen bonds into a two-dimensional network, and further stacked into a three-dimensional structure. In contrast to (III), epimer (IV) crystallizes as a hydrate, in which the water molecules act as hydrogen-bond donors linking one-dimensional chains into a two-dimensional network through intermolecular O-H...O hydrogen bonds. The hydrogen-bonded chains extend helically along the crystallographic a axis and generate a C4(4)(8) motif. PMID:27256698

  16. Lipoprotein Lipase releases esterified oxylipins from Very Low Density Lipoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Shearer, Gregory C.; Newman, John W.

    2009-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that defects in lipoprotein metabolism alter the distribution of oxygenated polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in lipoprotein particles. If these oxidation products are released by lipoprotein lipase (LpL), then their delivery to peripheral tissues with bulk lipids could influence cellular function. Using 26 week old normolipidemic and hyperlipidemic Zucker rats, we measured PUFA alcohols, epoxides, diols, ketones and triols (i.e. oxylipins) in esterified and non-esterified fractions of whole plasma, VLDL, and LpL-generated VLDL-lipolysates. Whole plasma, VLDL, and lipolysate oxylipin profiles were distinct and altered by hyperlipidemia. While >90% of the whole plasma oxylipins were esterified, the fraction of each oxylipin class in the VLDL varied: 46% of alcohols, 30% of epoxides, 19% of diols, <10% of ketones, <1% triols. Whole plasma was dominated by arachidonate alcohols, while the linoleate alcohols, epoxides and ketones showed an increased prevalence in VLDL. LpL-mediated VLDL lipolysis of PUFA alcohols, diols and ketones was detected and the relative abundance of oxygenated linoleates was enhanced in the lipolysates, relative to their corresponding VLDL. In summary esterified oxylipins were seen to be LpL substrates with heterogeneous distributions among lipoprotein classes. Moreover, oxylipin distributions are changes within the context of obesity-associated dyslipidemia. These results support the notion that the VLDL-LpL axis may facilitate the delivery of plasma oxylipins to the periphery. The physiological implication of these findings are yet to be elucidated, however these molecules are plausible indicators of systemic oxidative stress, and could report this status to the peripheral tissues. PMID:19042114

  17. Wild Bitter Melon Leaf Extract Inhibits Porphyromonas gingivalis-Induced Inflammation: Identification of Active Compounds through Bioassay-Guided Isolation.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tzung-Hsun; Huang, Wen-Cheng; Ying, How-Ting; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Shen, Chien-Chang; Lin, Yin-Ku; Tsai, Po-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis has been identified as one of the major periodontal pathogens. Activity-directed fractionation and purification processes were employed to identify the anti-inflammatory active compounds using heat-killed P. gingivalis-stimulated human monocytic THP-1 cells in vitro. Five major fractions were collected from the ethanol/ethyl acetate extract of wild bitter melon (Momordica charantia Linn. var. abbreviata Ser.) leaves and evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity against P. gingivalis. Among the test fractions, Fraction 5 effectively decreased heat-killed P. gingivalis-induced interleukin (IL)-8 and was subjected to separation and purification by using chromatographic techniques. Two cucurbitane triterpenoids were isolated from the active fraction and identified as 5β,19-epoxycucurbita-6,23-diene-3β,19,25-triol (1) and 3β,7β,25-trihydroxycucurbita-5,23-dien-19-al (2) by comparing spectral data. Treatments of both compounds in vitro potently suppressed P. gingivalis-induced IL-8, IL-6, and IL-1β levels and the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in THP-1 cells. Both compounds effectively inhibited the mRNA levels of IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 in P. gingivalis-stimulated gingival tissue of mice. These findings imply that 5β,19-epoxycucurbita-6,23-diene-3β,19,25-triol and 3β,7β,25-trihydroxycucurbita-5,23-dien-19-al could be used for the development of novel therapeutic approaches against P. gingivalis infections. PMID:27058519

  18. Seasonal variation of secondary organic aerosol tracers in Central Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, R.-Q.; Ding, X.; He, Q.-F.; Cong, Z.-Y.; Yu, Q.-Q.; Wang, X.-M.

    2015-08-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) affects the earth's radiation balance and global climate. High-elevation areas are sensitive to global climate change. However, at present, SOA origins and seasonal variations are understudied in remote high-elevation areas. In this study, particulate samples were collected from July 2012 to July 2013 at the remote Nam Co (NC) site, Central Tibetan Plateau and analyzed for SOA tracers from biogenic (isoprene, monoterpenes and β-caryophyllene) and anthropogenic (aromatics) precursors. Among these compounds, isoprene SOA (SOAI) tracers represented the majority (26.6 ± 44.2 ng m-3), followed by monoterpene SOA (SOAM) tracers (0.97 ± 0.57 ng m-3), aromatic SOA (SOAA) tracer (2,3-dihydroxy-4-oxopentanoic acid, DHOPA, 0.25 ± 0.18 ng m-3) and β-caryophyllene SOA tracer (β-caryophyllenic acid, 0.09 ± 0.10 ng m-3). SOAI tracers exhibited high concentrations in the summer and low levels in the winter. The similar temperature dependence of SOAI tracers and isoprene emission suggested that the seasonal variation of SOAI tracers at the NC site was mainly influenced by the isoprene emission. The ratio of high-NOx to low-NOx products of SOAI (2-methylglyceric acid to 2-methyltetrols) was highest in the winter and lowest in the summer, due to the influence of temperature and relative humidity. The seasonal variation of SOAM tracers was impacted by monoterpenes emission and gas-particle partitioning. During the summer to the fall, temperature effect on partitioning was the dominant process influencing SOAM tracers' variation; while the temperature effect on emission was the dominant process influencing SOAM tracers' variation during the winter to the spring. SOAM tracer levels did not elevate with increased temperature in the summer, probably resulting from the counteraction of temperature effects on emission and partitioning. The concentrations of DHOPA were 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than those reported in the urban regions of the world

  19. Secondary Pollutants in the Lake Tahoe Basin, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinska, B.; Bytnerowicz, A.; Gertler, A.; McDaniel, M.; Burley, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    total VOC. The photooxidation reaction products of isoprene and α-pinene, 2-methyltetrols and pinonic acid, respectively, were measured in combined PM2.5 day and night samples from four sampling sites and their concentrations ranged from 16 to 47 ng/m3 for 2-methylthreitol, from 34 to 87 ng/m3 for 2-methylerythritol and from 14 to 42 ng/m3 for pinonic acid. In general, organic carbon (OC) constituted from 87 to 99.9% of total carbon. All four sites show maximum ozone concentrations in the range of 60 ppb. However, the lower sites show a pronounced diurnal pattern (i.e. maximum concentrations during the daytime hours, 0900 to 1700, with minimum values at night and in the early morning hours), whereas the upper sites show much less variability over the 24-hour diurnal period.

  20. Assessing the impact of anthropogenic pollution on isoprene-derived secondary organic aerosol formation in PM2.5 collected from the Birmingham, Alabama, ground site during the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rattanavaraha, Weruka; Chu, Kevin; Hapsari Budisulistiorini, Sri; Riva, Matthieu; Lin, Ying-Hsuan; Edgerton, Eric S.; Baumann, Karsten; Shaw, Stephanie L.; Guo, Hongyu; King, Laura; Weber, Rodney J.; Neff, Miranda E.; Stone, Elizabeth A.; Offenberg, John H.; Zhang, Zhenfa; Gold, Avram; Surratt, Jason D.

    2016-04-01

    forming this SOA type. However, the nighttime correlation of these tracers with nitrogen dioxide (NO2) (r2 = 0.26, n = 40) was weaker. Ozone (O3) correlated strongly with MAE/HMML-derived tracers (r2 = 0.72, n = 30) and moderately with 2-methyltetrols (r2 = 0.34, n = 15) during daytime only, suggesting that a fraction of SOA formation could occur from isoprene ozonolysis in urban areas. No correlation was observed between aerosol pH and isoprene-derived SOA. Lack of correlation between aerosol acidity and isoprene-derived SOA is consistent with the observation that acidity is not a limiting factor for isoprene SOA formation at the BHM site as aerosols were acidic enough to promote multiphase chemistry of isoprene-derived epoxides throughout the duration of the study. All in all, these results confirm previous studies suggesting that anthropogenic pollutants enhance isoprene-derived SOA formation.

  1. Quantitative analysis of steroidal glycosides in different organs of Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.) by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Munafo, John P; Gianfagna, Thomas J

    2011-02-01

    organs of L. longiflorum is the first step in developing insight into the role these compounds play in plant biology and chemical ecology and aids in the development of extraction and purification methodologies for food, health, and industrial applications. In the present study, (22R,25R)-spirosol-5-en-3β-yl O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-d-glucopyranoside, (22R,25R)-spirosol-5-en-3β-yl O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-[6-O-acetyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)]-β-d-glucopyranoside, (25R)-26-O-(β-d-glucopyranosyl)furost-5-ene-3β,22α,26-triol 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-d-glucopyranoside, (25R)-26-O-(β-d-glucopyranosyl)furost-5-ene-3β,22α,26-triol 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-l-arabinopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-d-glucopyranoside, and (25R)-26-O-(β-d-glucopyranosyl)furost-5-ene-3β,22α,26-triol 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-l-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-d-glucopyranoside were quantified in the different organs of L. longiflorum for the first time. PMID:21235207

  2. Comparative studies on performance of CCC and preparative RP-HPLC in separation and purification of steroid saponins from Dioscorea zingiberensis C.H.Wright

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinxin; Liang, Jinru; Zhang, Yongmin; Liu, Jianli; Sun, Wenji; Ito, Yoichiro

    2015-01-01

    Steroid saponins from Dioscorea zingiberensis C.H.Wright were separated for the first time using two chromatographic methods for comparison: counter-current chromatography (CCC) coupled with evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD) and preparative reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with an ultraviolet detector. Ethyl acetate-n-butanol-methanol-water (4:1:2:4, v/v) was chosen as the two-phase solvent system for CCC, while the acetonitrile-water (25:75 for the first step and15:85 for the second step, v/v) was used as the mobile phase in the preparative RP-HPLC. The following five steroid saponins were purified by theses two chromatographic methods, in one-step operation by CCC and by two-step operation in preparative RP-HPLC: 1) 26-O-β-D- glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-5-en-3β, 22ζ, 26-triol-3-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-D-glucopyranoside (compound A), 2) 26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-5-en-3β, 22ζ, 4) 26-triol-3-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-D-glucopyranoside (compound B), 3) 26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-5-en-3β, 22ζ, 26-triol-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)]-β-D-glucopyranoside (compound C), 4) 26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-5, 20(22)-diene-3β, 26-diol-3-O-{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)]}-β-D-glucopyranoside (compound D) and 5) 26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-5, 20(22)-diene-3β, 26-diol-3-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-α-L-rhamnopyranosy-(1→2)]-β-D-glucopyranoside (compound E). The purities of these five steroid saponins separated by both methods were over 95%, and structural identification of these compounds was performed by ESI-MS, and 13C NMR. Comparison of these two established approaches revealed that CCC required a longer separation time but with less solvent consumption, whereas preparative RP-HPLC gave a shorter separation time but

  3. Oxysterols in the orchestra of liver cell metabolism.

    PubMed

    Serviddio, Gaetano; Bellanti, Francesco; Vendemiale, Gianluigi

    2014-10-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic hepatic disorder affecting up to 25% of the general population. Several intracellular events leading to NAFLD and progression to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) have been identified, including lipid accumulation, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Emerging evidence has suggested the cooperation of both hepatic free fatty acids (FFAs) and cholesterol (FC) accumulation in NAFLD development. Oxysterols, oxidized derivatives of cholesterol were reported as activating ligands of Liver X Receptors. Interestingly, serum levels of agonist oxysterols such as 25-HC and 27-HC are significantly increased in NAFLD patients. By contrast, 22-s- HC is considered an antagonist ligand of LXRα. 22-s-Hc down-regulated expression of the FAS gene through an LXRE located in the promoter and abolished the effect of the synthetic LXRα agonist. In addition it has been reported that 22-s-HC attenuated hepatic steatogenesis in a mouse model of high-fat-induced fatty liver. Very recently, it has been demonstrated that the inhibition of LXRα by 22-s-HC dramatically represses steatosis and HIF-1 mediated activation of MCP-1 in ethanol-induced fatty liver injury in hepatocytes as well as in Kupferr cells. Our data demonstrated that High fat diet (HF) caused liver steatosis while an atherogenic diet (ATH) diet induced hepatocellular ballooning, but only the Ath+HF diet resulted in steatohepatitis with associated mitochondrial dysfunction and impaired mitochondriogenesis. We identified in the the oxysterol cholestane-3beta,5alpha,6beta-triol (Triol) the molecule able to impair mitochondrial respiration and mitochondriogenesis by down-regulation of PGC1-alpha, mTFA and NRF1 signal. It seems that the role of oxysterols in the pathogenesis of human diseases, particularly in fat induced injury, should take into account the possible disruption of the balance between activation and inhibition of LXR signalling. Development of

  4. Phytotoxic steroidal saponins from Agave offoyana leaves.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Andy J; Simonet, Ana M; Calle, Juan M; Pecio, Łukasz; Guerra, José O; Stochmal, Anna; Macías, Francisco A

    2014-09-01

    A bioassay-guided fractionation of Agave offoyana leaves led to the isolation of five steroidal saponins (1-5) along with six known saponins (6-11). The compounds were identified as (25R)-spirost-5-en-2α,3β-diol-12-one 3-O-{α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (1), (25R)-spirost-5-en-3β-ol-12-one 3-O-{α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (2), (25R)-spirost-5-en-3β-ol-12-one 3-O-{β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (3), (25R)-26-O-β-d-glucopyranosylfurost-5-en-3β,22α,26-triol-12-one 3-O-{α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (4) and (25R)-26-O-β-d-glucopyranosylfurost-5-en-3β,22α,26-triol-12-one 3-O-{β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (5) by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis, including one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques, mass spectrometry and chemical methods. The phytotoxicity of the isolated compounds on the standard target species Lactuca sativa was evaluated. PMID:24939800

  5. Development of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with ultrasound-assisted extraction and auto solid-phase clean-up method for the determination of Fusarium toxins in animal derived foods.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dongmei; Cao, Xiaoqin; Tao, Yanfei; Wu, Qinghua; Pan, Yuanhu; Peng, Dapeng; Liu, Zhenli; Huang, Lingli; Wang, Yulian; Wang, Xu; Yuan, Zonghui

    2013-10-11

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed for the simultaneous determination of 19 Fusarium toxins and their metabolites including deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), T-2 toxin (T-2), HT-2 toxin (HT-2), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-AcDON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-AcDON), neosolaniol (NEO), fusarenon-X (F-X), diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), monoacetoxyscirpenol (MAS), zearalanone (ZAN), zearalenone (ZON), α-Zearalenol (α-ZOL), β-Zearalenol (β-ZOL), a-Zearalanol (α-ZAL), β-Zearalanol (β-ZAL), T-2 triol, T-2 tetraol, deepoxy-deoxynialenol (DOM-1) in the muscle, liver, kidney, fat of swine, bovine and sheep, muscle and liver of chicken, muscle and skin of fish, as well as milk and eggs. Sample preparation procedure includes ultrasound-assisted extraction with acetonitrile/water (90/10, v/v), defatting with n-hexane and final clean-up with auto solid phase extraction (SPE) on Bond Elut Mycotoxin cartridges. The detection and quantification of the analytes were performed by a reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS). DON, NIV, DOM-1, 3-AcDON, 15-AcDON, F-X, ZON, ZAN, α-ZOL, β-ZOL, α-ZAL, β-ZAL, T-2 triol and T-2 tetraol were detected in a negative ion mode, while T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, NEO, DAS and MAS were detected in a positive ion mode. The CCα and CCβ of the analytes in different samples varied from 0.16 to 1.37μg/kg and 0.33 to 2.34μg/kg, respectively. The recoveries of spiked sample from 0.5μg/kg to 8μg/kg ranged from 64.8% to 108.2% with the relative standard deviations of less than 19.4%. Performances of the whole analytical procedure meet the criteria established by the European Commission for mass spectrometric detection. PMID:24011505

  6. Spirostane, furostane and cholestane saponins from Persian leek with antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Masoud; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Senatore, Mauro; Lanzotti, Virginia

    2013-11-15

    A phytochemical investigation of the seeds of Persian leek afforded the isolation of two new spirostane glycosides, persicosides A (1) and B (2), four new furostane glycosides, isolated as a couple of inseparable mixture, persicosides C1/C2 (3a/3b) and D1/D2 (4a/4b), one cholestane glycoside, persicoside E (5), together with the furostane glycosides ceposides A1/A2 and C1/C2 (6a/6b and 7a/7b), tropeosides A1/A2 and B1/B2 (8a/8b and 9a/9b), and ascalonicoside A1/A2 (10a/10b), already described in white onion, red Tropea onion, and shallot, respectively. Structure elucidation of the compounds was carried out by comprehensive spectroscopic analyses, including 2D NMR spectroscopy and MS spectrometry, and by chemical evidences. The chemical structure of new compounds were identified as (25S)-spirostan-2α,3β,6β-triol 3-O-[β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)] [β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-d-galactopyranoside (1), (25S)-spirostan-2α,3β,6β-triol 3-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)] [α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside (2), furosta-1β,3β,22ξ,26-tetraol 5-en 1-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl (1→3)-β-d-glucopyranosyl (1→2)-β-d-galactopyranosyl 26-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl (1→2)-β-d-galactopyranoside (3a,3b), furosta-2α,3β,22ξ,26-tetraol 3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl (1→3)-β-d-glucopyranosyl (1→2)-β-d-galactopyranosyl 26-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (4a,4b), (22S)-cholesta-1β,3β,16β,22β-tetraol 5-en 1-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl 16-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl (1→2)-β-d-galactopyranoside (5). Antifungal activity of the isolated compounds was evaluated against the fungal pathogens, Penicillium italicum, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma harzianum and Botrytis cinerea. Persicosides A and B showed the higher activity on the tested fungi highlighting the positive effect of the spirostane skeleton on the antifungal activity. PMID:23790946

  7. In vitro studies on the oxidative metabolism of 20(s)-ginsenoside Rh2 in human, monkey, dog, rat, and mouse liver microsomes, and human liver s9.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Chen, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Jialan; Zhong, Dafang

    2012-10-01

    20(S)-Ginsenoside Rh2 (Rh2)-containing products are widely used in Asia, Europe, and North America. However, extremely limited metabolism information greatly impedes the complete understanding of its clinical safety and effectiveness. The present study aims to systematically investigate the oxidative metabolism of Rh2 using a complementary set of in vitro models. Twenty-five oxidative metabolites were found using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization ion-trap mass spectrometry. Six metabolites and a metabolic intermediate were synthesized. The metabolites were structurally identified as 26-hydroxy Rh2 (M1-1), (20S,24S)-epoxydammarane-12,25-diol-3-β-d-glucopyranoside (M1-3), (20S,24R)-epoxydammarane-12,25-diol-3-β-d-glucopyranoside (M1-5), 26,27-dihydroxy Rh2 (M3-6), (20S,24S)-epoxydammarane-12,25,26-triol-3-β-d-glucopyranoside (M3-10), (20S,24R)-epoxydammarane-12,25,26-triol-3-β-d-glucopyranoside (M3-11), and 26-aldehyde Rh2 on the basis of detailed mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance data analysis. Double-bond epoxidation followed by rearrangement and vinyl-methyl group hydroxylation represent the initial metabolic pathways generating monooxygenated metabolites M1-1 to M1-5. Further sequential metabolites (M2-M5) from the dehydrogenation and/or oxygenation of M1 were also detected. CYP3A4 was the predominant enzyme involved in the oxidative metabolism of Rh2, whereas alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase mainly catalyzed the metabolic conversion of alcohol to the corresponding carboxylic acid. No significant differences were observed in the phase I metabolite profiles of Rh2 among the five species tested. Reactive epoxide metabolite formation in both humans and animals was evident. However, GSH conjugate M6 was detected only in cynomolgus monkey liver microsomal incubations. In conclusion, Rh2 is a good substrate for CYP3A4 and could undergo extensive oxidative metabolism under the catalysis of CYP3A4. PMID:22829543

  8. Stereoselective Property of 20(S)-Protopanaxadiol Ocotillol Type Epimers Affects Its Absorption and Also the Inhibition of P-Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenyan; Wu, Xiangmeng; Wang, Li; Meng, Qingguo; Liu, Wanhui

    2014-01-01

    Stereoselectivity has been proved to be tightly related to drug action including pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. (20S,24R)-epoxy-dammarane-3,12,25-triol (24R-epimer) and (20S,24S)-epoxy-dammarane-3,12,25-triol (24S-epimer), a pair of 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD) ocotillol type epimers, were the main metabolites of PPD. Previous studies have shown that 24R-epimer and 24S-epimer had stereoselectivity in pharmacological action and pharmacokinetics. In the present study, the aim was to further study the pharmacokinetic characteristics of both epimers, investigate their absorption mechanism and analyze the selectivity effects of ocotillol type side chain and C24 stereo-configuration on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in vivo and in vitro. Results showed that the absolute bioavailability of 24R-epimer was about 14-fold higher than that of 24S-epimer, and a linear kinetic characteristic was acquired in doses of 5–20 mg/kg for both epimers after oral administration. Furthermore, the apparent permeability coefficients of 24R-epimer were 5–7 folds higher than that of 24S-epimer having lower efflux ratios in Caco-2 cell models. Moreover, both 24R-epimer and 24S-epimer had similar inhibitory effects on P-gp by increasing cellular retention of rhodamine 123 in Caco-2 cells and decreasing efflux of digoxin across Caco-2 cell monolayers. In situ in vivo experiments showed that the inhibition of 24R-epimer on P-gp was stronger than that of 24S-epimer by single-pass intestinal perfusion of rhodamine 123 in rats. Western blot analyses demonstrated that both epimers had no action on P-gp expression in Caco-2 cells. In conclusion, with respect to the stereoselectivity, C24 S-configuration of the ocotillol type epimers processed a poor transmembrane permeability and could be distinguished by P-gp. Sharing a dammarane skeleton, both 24R-epimer and 24S-epimer were potent inhibitors of P-gp. This study provides a new case of stereoselective pharmacokinetics of chiral compounds which

  9. Absorption and transport of cholesterol autoxidation derivatives in rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, S.K.; Morin, R.J.; Phillips, G.A.; Xia, G.Z.

    1986-03-01

    Spontaneously autoxidized products of cholesterol have been demonstrated to be angiotoxic and possibly atherogenic. This study investigates the absorption and transport of these cholesterol oxidation derivatives (COD's) as compared to cholesterol. /sup 14/C-labeled cholesterol autoxidized by incubation in a 60/sup 0/C water bath for 5 weeks, then suspended in gelatin and given to New Zealand white rabbits by gastric gavage. Rabbits were sacrificed 24 hours after treatment. COD's were separated by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and radioactivities of each COD and cholesterol were measured. Percentages of each COD and cholesterol in the original mixture before administration and in the rabbits' serum after administration are almost identical, suggesting that the rates of absorption of COD's are not significantly different from that of cholesterol. Lipoproteins were fractionated by ultracentrifugation into VLDL, LDL and HDL. Radioactivities of each COD separated by TLC in each lipoprotein fraction showed that cholestane-3..beta..,5..cap alpha..,6..beta..-triol, 7..cap alpha..- and 7..beta..-hydroxycholesterol and 7-ketocholesterol were predominantly present in VLDL (3 x serum concentration) and 25-hydroxycholesterol was predominantly in LDL (2.5 x serum concentration). HDL contained only minute amounts of COD's. The increased levels of COD's in VLDL and LDL may contribute to the atherogenicity of these lipoprotein.

  10. New flavanol and cycloartane glucosides from Landoltia punctata.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nini; Xu, Guobo; Fang, Yang; Yang, Tao; Zhao, Hai; Li, Guoyou

    2014-01-01

    Chemical investigation on the constituents of Landoltia punctata led to the isolation and identification of 17 compounds, four of which were new and identified as (3b,24S)-9,19-cycloartane-3,22,24,25-tetraol 3-O-[b-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)]-[b-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)]-b-D-glucopyranoside (1), (3b,24S)-9,19-cycloartane-3,24,25-triol 3-O-[b-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)]-[b-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)]-b-D-glucopyranoside (2), 3,4'-dihydroxy-7,3'-dimethoxyflavan-5-O-b-D-glucopyranoside (3) and 3,4'-dihydroxy-4,7,3'-trimethoxyflavan-5-O-b-D-glucopyranoside (4). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic, chemical, and biochemical methods. Thus, cycloartane triterpenoids were discovered in the Lemnaceae family for the first time. Compound 3 showed antioxidant capacity in the positively charged 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical (ABTS+•) and superoxide anion radical scavenging assays. PMID:24858096

  11. Simultaneous Determination of Type A and B Trichothecenes and Their Main Metabolites in Food Animal Tissues by Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Triple-Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shupeng; Wang, Ying; Beier, Ross C; Zhang, Huiyan; De Ruyck, Karl; Sun, Feifei; Cao, Xingyuan; Shen, Jianzhong; Zhang, Suxia; Wang, Zhanhui

    2015-09-30

    A rapid method for the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric determination of type A and B trichothecenes and their major metabolites in chicken meat, pork, chicken liver, and swine liver was developed. The analytes included T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, T-2 triol, neosolaniol, deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, deepoxydeoxynivalenol, and nivalenol. The compounds were extracted from samples with acetonitrile/ethyl acetate (1:3, v/v) and then cleaned up using Oasis HLB cartridges. Analysis was carried out with ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The mean recoveries of spiked samples ranged from 74.1% to 96.9% with intraday and interday relative standard deviations of less than 9.9% and 9.1%, respectively. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation ranged from 3.0 to 15.0 μg/kg and from 10.0 to 50.0 μg/kg, respectively. The proposed method has been successfully applied for analysis of real samples, with the primary results indicating that, compared to mycotoxins themselves, their metabolites are more likely to occur and be detectable in animal tissue foods. PMID:26321427

  12. Correlations for Adsorption of Oxygenates onto Zeolites from Aqueous Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Mallon, Elizabeth E.; Babineau, Ian J.; Kranz, Joshua I.; Guefrachi, Yasmine; Siepmann, J. Ilja; Bhan, Aditya; Tsapatsis, Michael

    2011-10-06

    Henry’s constants (K{sub ads}) for adsorption of C₃ polyfunctional molecules onto zeolites from aqueous solutions at 278 K were obtained and compared with the octanol–water partition coefficients, K{sub ow}, which were calculated using the prevalent ClogP group contribution method. K{sub ads} increases linearly with K{sub ow} for these adsorbates on H–ZSM-5 (MFI), FAU, BEA, and ITQ-1 (MWW). K{sub ads} values for C₂–C₆ diol adsorption at 278 K are also linearly correlated with K{sub ow} regardless of interactions in the bulk phase as measured by the solution activity coefficient. Exceptions to the correlation established between K{sub ads} and K{sub ow} are the adsorption of 1,2,ω-triols with carbon number greater than three on H–ZSM-5 and adsorption of all oxygenates studied on FER, which we postulate to be due to the effect of changing adsorption configuration with adsorbate/zeolite structure which cannot be captured by K{sub ow} alone. These results enable the prediction of separation selectivities of biomass-derived compounds on zeolite adsorbents.

  13. A Single Molecular Diels-Alder Crosslinker for Achieving Recyclable Cross-Linked Polymers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shengli; Wang, Fenfen; Peng, Yongjin; Chen, Tiehong; Wu, Qiang; Sun, Pingchuan

    2015-09-01

    A triol-functional crosslinker combining the thermoreversible properties of Diels-Alder (DA) adducts in one molecule is designed, synthesized, and used as an ideal substitute of a traditional crosslinker to prepare thermal recyclable cross-linked polyurethanes with excellent mechanical properties and recyclability in a very simple and efficient way. The recycle property of these materials achieved by the DA/retro-DA reaction at a suitable temperature is verified by differential scanning calorimetry and in situ variable temperature solid-state NMR experiments during the cyclic heating and cooling processes. The thermal recyclability and remending ability of the bulk polyurethanes is demonstrated by three polymer processing methods, including hot-press molding, injection molding, and solution casting. It is notable that all the recycled cross-linked polymers display nearly invariable elongation/stress at break compared to the as-synthesized samples. Further end-group functionalization of this single molecular DA crosslinker provides the potential in preparing a wide range of recyclable cross-linked polymers. PMID:26248230

  14. Infrared Spectroscopic Study of the Adsorption Forms of Cyanuric Acid and Cyanuric Chloride on TiO2.

    PubMed

    Chien, Tzu-En; Li, Kun-Lin; Lin, Po-Yuan; Lin, Jong-Liang

    2016-05-31

    Cyanuric acid is often found to be the end product in the hydrolysis of waste melamine and in the TiO2-mediated photocatalytic decomposition of s-triazine-containing compounds used as herbicides or dyes. The photocatalytically recalcitrant nature of cyanuric acid on TiO2 may be closely related to its adsorption properties, including the tautomeric forms present on the surfaces and their bonding structures, which remain to be determined. In this paper, we present the optimized adsorption structures of the four tautomeric isomers (triketo, diketo, monoketo, and triol) of cyanuric acid on a model rutile-TiO2(110) surface and their vibrational absorptions. Experimentally, the adsorption structures of cyanuric acid and chloride on powdered TiO2 are analyzed on the basis of the theoretically obtained, characteristic infrared information. Cyanuric acid on TiO2 at 35 °C exists in triketo and hydroxylated forms, but the diketo becomes the predominant form on the surface at 250 °C, being bonded to a titanium site via one of its carbonyl groups and with a N-H···O hydrogen bonding interaction. Hydroxylation of cyanuric chloride occurs as it is adsorbed on TiO2 at 35 °C. Upon being heated to 200 °C, the surface is mainly covered with the diketo form of cyanuric acid after the adsorption of cyanuric chloride. PMID:27176610

  15. Activation of estrogen receptor alpha disrupts differentiation of the reproductive organs in chicken embryos.

    PubMed

    Mattsson, Anna; Olsson, Jan A; Brunström, Björn

    2011-06-01

    Gonadal estrogen plays an important role in the differentiation of a female phenotype in birds. Exogenous compounds that interfere with estrogen signaling, for instance by binding to the estrogen receptors alpha and beta (ERα and ERβ), are therefore potential disruptors of sexual differentiation in birds. The ERα agonist propyl-pyrazole-triol (PPT), the ERα antagonist methyl piperidino pyrazole (MPP) and the ERβ agonist diarylproprionitrile (DPN) were used in the present study to explore the roles of the ERs in normal and disrupted sex differentiation in the chicken embryo. Activation of ERα by PPT caused disturbed differentiation of the reproductive organs in both sexes. In male embryos, PPT caused left-side ovotestis formation and retention of the Müllerian ducts. In female embryos, PPT caused retention of the right Müllerian duct (which normally regresses) and malformation of both Müllerian ducts. PPT also induced hepatic expression of mRNA for the estrogen-regulated egg yolk protein apoVLDL II. Notably, none of these effects were observed following treatment with DPN. ERα-inactivation by MPP counteracted the action of PPT but had little effect by its own. Our results indicate that ERα plays an important role in sex differentiation of the reproductive tract in female chicken embryos and show that ERα can mediate xenoestrogen-induced disturbances of sex differentiation. PMID:21420409

  16. Low density biodegradable shape memory polyurethane foams for embolic biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Pooja; Small, Ward; Cosgriff-Hernandez, Elizabeth; Maitland, Duncan J; Wilson, Thomas S

    2014-01-01

    Low density shape memory polymer foams hold significant interest in the biomaterials community for their potential use in minimally invasive embolic biomedical applications. The unique shape memory behavior of these foams allows them to be compressed to a miniaturized form, which can be delivered to an anatomical site via a transcatheter process, and thereafter actuated to embolize the desired area. Previous work in this field has described the use of a highly covalently crosslinked polymer structure for maintaining excellent mechanical and shape memory properties at the application-specific ultra low densities. This work is aimed at further expanding the utility of these biomaterials, as implantable low density shape memory polymer foams, by introducing controlled biodegradability. A highly covalently crosslinked network structure was maintained by use of low molecular weight, symmetrical and polyfunctional hydroxyl monomers such as Polycaprolactone triol (PCL-t, Mn 900 g), N,N,N0,N0-Tetrakis (hydroxypropyl) ethylenediamine (HPED), and Tris (2-hydroxyethyl) amine (TEA). Control over the degradation rate of the materials was achieved by changing the concentration of the degradable PCL-t monomer, and by varying the material hydrophobicity. These porous SMP materials exhibit a uniform cell morphology and excellent shape recovery, along with controllable actuation temperature and degradation rate. We believe that they form a new class of low density biodegradable SMP scaffolds that can potentially be used as “smart” non-permanent implants in multiple minimally invasive biomedical applications. PMID:24090987

  17. Estrogens stimulate serotonin neurons to inhibit binge-like eating in mice.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xuehong; Xu, Pingwen; Oyola, Mario G; Xia, Yan; Yan, Xiaofeng; Saito, Kenji; Zou, Fang; Wang, Chunmei; Yang, Yongjie; Hinton, Antentor; Yan, Chunling; Ding, Hongfang; Zhu, Liangru; Yu, Likai; Yang, Bin; Feng, Yuxin; Clegg, Deborah J; Khan, Sohaib; DiMarchi, Richard; Mani, Shaila K; Tong, Qingchun; Xu, Yong

    2014-10-01

    Binge eating afflicts approximately 5% of US adults, though effective treatments are limited. Here, we showed that estrogen replacement substantially suppresses binge-like eating behavior in ovariectomized female mice. Estrogen-dependent inhibition of binge-like eating was blocked in female mice specifically lacking estrogen receptor-α (ERα) in serotonin (5-HT) neurons in the dorsal raphe nuclei (DRN). Administration of a recently developed glucagon-like peptide-1-estrogen (GLP-1-estrogen) conjugate designed to deliver estrogen to GLP1 receptor-enhanced regions effectively targeted bioactive estrogens to the DRN and substantially suppressed binge-like eating in ovariectomized female mice. Administration of GLP-1 alone reduced binge-like eating, but not to the same extent as the GLP-1-estrogen conjugate. Administration of ERα-selective agonist propylpyrazole triol (PPT) to murine DRN 5-HT neurons activated these neurons in an ERα-dependent manner. PPT also inhibited a small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SK) current; blockade of the SK current prevented PPT-induced activation of DRN 5-HT neurons. Furthermore, local inhibition of the SK current in the DRN markedly suppressed binge-like eating in female mice. Together, our data indicate that estrogens act upon ERα to inhibit the SK current in DRN 5-HT neurons, thereby activating these neurons to suppress binge-like eating behavior and suggest ERα and/or SK current in DRN 5-HT neurons as potential targets for anti-binge therapies. PMID:25157819

  18. Effect of siloxane emissions and water vapor on the determination of methanol emissions from a batch chemical manufacturing facility: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, K.R.; Traister, M.

    1996-12-31

    To identify potential emissions of HAPs, a batch chemical manufacturing facility in western New York conducted stationary source testing of a blending operation to determine emissions of methyl alcohol from the process. NIOSH Method 2000 was used to quantify emissions. The 1-hour blending operation applies a siloxane-containing spray to coat powdered materials that are mixed under controlled conditions. The siloxane reacts slowly with residual moisture in the powdered materials to form a triol. This reaction theoretically evolves and releases trace amounts of methyl alcohol. Initial source testing of methyl alcohol emissions indicated that approximately 0.002 kg/s were released, far exceeding expectations. Additional investigations were conducted. A review of NIOSH Method 2000 indicated that no interferences were known to occur, but the siloxane manufacturer said that siloxane would also react with the silica gel to form methyl alcohol. In addition, it was theorized that water vapor in the air stream was reacting with the siloxane spray to form methyl alcohol. 1 tab.

  19. Production of a new tetracyclic triterpene sulfate metabolite sambacide by solid-state cultivated Fusarium sambucinum B10.2 using potato as substrate.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jian-Wei; Cai, Le; Li, Xue-Jiao; Duan, Rong-Ting; Shu, Yan; Chen, Feng-Yun; Wang, Jia-Peng; Zhou, Hao; Ding, Zhong-Tao

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this work is to explore integracide analogues from secondary metabolites of microorganisms. A new tetracyclic triterpene sulfate was produced by solid-state fermentation (SSF) with Fusarium sambucinum B10.2. The tetracyclic triterpene sulfate was identified as (3S,5R,10S,11S,12S,13R,17R,20R)-4,4-dimethylergosta-8,14,24-triene-3,11,12-triol-12-acetate, 3-sulfate on the basis of HRESIMS, NMR and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra and named sambacide (1). The antibacterial and antifungal assays of sambacide (1) showed significant antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The fermentation conditions including culture media, fermentation temperature and time, were optimized. And potato was selected as the fermentation substrate, 28°C was used as the fermentation temperature, and 20-days fermentation time was determined for F. sambucinum-SSF to produce sambacide (1) with a high yield of 19.04±0.82g/kg. This paper provides an efficient approach to produce the antibacterial and antifungal agent sambacide (1) in a very high yield. PMID:27406717

  20. Artemisinin selectively decreases functional levels of estrogen receptor-alpha and ablates estrogen-induced proliferation in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sundar, Shyam N; Marconett, Crystal N; Doan, Victor B; Willoughby, Jamin A; Firestone, Gary L

    2008-12-01

    MCF7 cells are an estrogen-responsive human breast cancer cell line that expresses both estrogen receptor (ER) alpha and ERbeta. Treatment of MCF7 cells with artemisinin, an antimalarial phytochemical from the sweet wormwood plant, effectively blocked estrogen-stimulated cell cycle progression induced by either 17beta-estradiol (E(2)), an agonist for both ERs, or by propyl pyrazole triol (PPT), a selective ERalpha agonist. Artemisinin strongly downregulated ERalpha protein and transcripts without altering expression or activity of ERbeta. Transfection of MCF7 cells with ERalpha promoter-linked luciferase reporter plasmids revealed that the artemisinin downregulation of ERalpha promoter activity accounted for the loss of ERalpha expression. Artemisinin treatment ablated the estrogenic induction of endogenous progesterone receptor (PR) transcripts by either E(2) or PPT and inhibited the estrogenic stimulation of a luciferase reporter plasmid driven by consensus estrogen response elements (EREs). Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that artemisinin significantly downregulated the level of endogeneous ERalpha bound to the PR promoter, whereas the level of bound endogeneous ERbeta was not altered. Treatment of MCF7 cells with artemisinin and the pure antiestrogen fulvestrant resulted in a cooperative reduction of ERalpha protein levels and enhanced G(1) cell cycle arrest compared with the effects of either compound alone. Our results show that artemisinin switches proliferative human breast cancer cells from expressing a high ERalpha:ERbeta ratio to a condition in which ERbeta predominates, which parallels the physiological state linked to antiproliferative events in normal mammary epithelium. PMID:18784357

  1. Crystal structure of canagliflozin hemihydrate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai-Hang; Gu, Jian-Ming; Hu, Xiu-Rong; Tang, Gu-Ping

    2016-05-01

    There are two canagliflozin mol-ecules (A and B) and one water mol-ecule in the asymmetric unit of the title compound, C24H25FO5S·0.5H2O [systematic name: (2S,3R,4R,5S,6R)-2-(3-{[5-(4-fluoro-phen-yl)thio-phen-2-yl]meth-yl}-4-methylphen-yl)-6-(hy-droxy-meth-yl)-3,4,5,6-tetra-hydro-2H-pyran-3,4,5-triol hemihydrate]. The dihedral angles between the methyl-benzene and thio-phene rings are 115.7 (4) and 111.7 (4)°, while the dihedral angles between the fluoro-benzene and thio-phene rings are 24.2 (6) and 20.5 (9)° in mol-ecules A and B, respectively. The hydro-pyran ring exhibits a chair conformation in both canagliflozin mol-ecules. In the crystal, the canagliflozin mol-ecules and lattice water mol-ecules are connected via O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds into a three-dimensional supra-molecular architecture. PMID:27308030

  2. Cutaneous sensitization to some polyisocyanate prepolymers in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Zissu, D; Binet, S; Limasset, J C

    1998-11-01

    Isocyanates are used extensively in the polyurethane industry. Pulmonary and dermal sensitization resulting from exposure to diisocyanates has frequently been reported, but the potential effects of polyisocyanates on health are less well known. Thus, since 1978, occupational exposure limits have been established for diisocyanates only. Nevertheless, respiratory diseases and dermatitis have been reported in the polyurethane industry after accidental isocyanate contact during spills or splashes. The aim of this experimental work was to assess the dermal hypersensitivity of guinea pigs to some polyisocyanate prepolymers by means of a well-conducted standard predictive Buehler test. Our results showed that dicyclohexylmethane 4,4'-diisocyanate (HMDI), toluylene 2,4-diisocyanate (TDI), TDI adduct triol, TDI isocyanurate, 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI), HDI isocyanurate, HDI biuret and isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) induced dermal sensitization while IPDI isocyanurate did not. In conclusion, the dermal hypersensitivity of guinea pigs to some polyisocyanates was similar to those of their corresponding monomers except for IPDI isocyanurate, suggesting that the results from diisocyanate monomers could not be a valuable approach for the detection of the sensitization potency of the corresponding prepolymers. PMID:9840262

  3. Synthesis, mechanical properties, biocompatibility, and biodegradation of polyurethane networks from lysine polyisocyanates.

    PubMed

    Guelcher, Scott A; Srinivasan, Abiraman; Dumas, Jerald E; Didier, Jonathan E; McBride, Sean; Hollinger, Jeffrey O

    2008-04-01

    Bone defects, such as compressive fractures in the vertebral bodies, are frequently treated with acrylic bone cements (e.g., PMMA). Although these biomaterials have sufficient mechanical properties for fixing the fracture, they are non-degradable and do not remodel or integrate with host tissue. In an alternative approach, biodegradable polyurethane (PUR) networks have been synthesized that are designed to integrate with host tissue and degrade to non-cytotoxic decomposition products. PUR networks have been prepared by two-component reactive liquid molding of low-viscosity quasi-prepolymers derived from lysine polyisocyanates and poly(epsilon-caprolactone-co-DL-lactide-co-glycolide) triols. The composition, thermal transitions, and mechanical properties of the biomaterials were measured. The values of Young's modulus ranged from 1.20-1.43 GPa, and the compressive yield strength varied from 82 to 111 MPa, which is comparable to the strength of PMMA bone cements. In vitro, the materials underwent controlled biodegradation to non-cytotoxic decomposition products, and supported the attachment and proliferation of MC3T3 cells. When cultured in osteogenic medium on the PUR networks, MC3T3 cells deposited mineralized extracellular matrix, as evidenced by von Kossa staining and tetracycline labeling. Considering the favorable mechanical and biological properties, as well as the low-viscosity of the reactive intermediates used to prepare the PUR networks, these biomaterials are potentially useful as injectable, biodegradable bone cements for fracture healing. PMID:18255140

  4. Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of a potent and selective σ1 receptor antagonist with high antiallodynic activity.

    PubMed

    Utech, Tina; Köhler, Jens; Buschmann, Helmut; Holenz, Jörg; Vela, Jose Miguel; Wünsch, Bernhard

    2011-07-01

    Based on the pharmacophore model of Glennon the conformationally restricted σ(1) receptor ligand 2 with a 1,3-dioxane moiety has been designed and synthesized. The three step synthesis (transacetalization with pentane-1,3,5-triol, tosylation, and nucleophilic substitution with benzylamine) provided diastereoselectively the cis-configured 1,3-dioxane 2 in good yields. The 1,3-dioxane 2 represents a potent σ(1) receptor ligand (K(i) = 19 nM) with moderate selectivity over the σ(2) subtype (K(i) = 92 nM) and excellent selectivity against more than 60 other targets. Additionally the hERG K(+) channel is not affected by 2. In the capsaicin assay 2 showed extraordinarily high analgesic activity with more than 70% analgesia at the very low dose of 0.25 mg/kg body weight, which indicates σ(1) antagonistic activity. Since 2 does only interact with σ(1) receptors, the in-vivo antiallodynic activity of 2 must be attributed to the σ(1) antagonistic activity. PMID:21598296

  5. Dammarane triterpenes as potential SIRT1 activators from the leaves of Panax ginseng.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun-Li; Ha, Thi-Kim-Quy; Dhodary, Basanta; Kim, Kuk-Hwa; Park, Junsoo; Lee, Chul-Ho; Kim, Young-Choong; Oh, Won-Keun

    2014-07-25

    During a search for SIRT1 activators originating in nature, three new dammarane triterpenes, 6α,20(S)-dihydroxydammar-3,12-dione-24-ene (1), 6α,20(S),24(S)-trihydroxydammar-3,12-dione-25-ene (2), and 6α,20(S),25-trihydroxydammar-3,12-dione-23-ene (3), as well as two known triterpenes, dammar-20(22),24-diene-3β,6α,12β-triol (4) and 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg3 (5), were isolated from Panax ginseng leaves. Compounds 1 and 3-5 showed potential as SIRT1 activators, as analyzed by in vitro enzyme-based SIRT1-NAD/NADH and SIRT1-p53 luciferase cell-based assays. They were also found to increase the level of NAD(+)/NADH ratio in HEK293 cells. This study presents a new class of chemical entities that may be able to be developed as SIRT1 activators for antiaging and treatment of age-associated diseases. PMID:24968750

  6. Bioassay-guided Isolation of Antiproliferative Triterpenoids from Euonymus alatus Twigs.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hee Rae; Eom, Hee Jeong; Lee, Seoung Rak; Choi, Sang Un; Kang, Ki Sung; Lee, Kang Ro; Kim, Ki Hyun

    2015-11-01

    Euonymus alatus (Celastraceae) has been used as an anticancer agent in Korean traditional medicine. However, the potential bioactive contributors to the anticancer effects have not been thoroughly studied. Our screening test revealed that the MeOH extract of E. alatus twigs exhibited significant cytotoxicity against A549, SK-OV-3, and SK-MEL-2 cell lines. A bioassay-guided separation of the MeOH extract of E. alatus twigs resulted in the isolation and identification of 14 triterpenes as main phytochemicals. The structures of the compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence as lupeol (1), betulin (2), 3β,28,30-lup-20(29)-ene triol (3), lupenone (4), betulone (5), 28,30-dihydroxy-3-oxolup-20(29)-ene (6), messagenin (7), glut-5-en-3β-ol (8), maslinic acid (9), hederagenin (10), 3-oxo-11α-methoxyolean-12-ene (11), 3β-hydroxy-1-oxo-olean-12-en-28-oic acid (12), ursolic acid (13), and 2a-hydroxy- ursolic acid (14). Of these compounds, 3, 6-8, and 10-14 were isolated for the first time from this plant. All isolated triterpenoids had consistent antiproliferative activities against A549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2, and HCT-15 cell lines. Compounds 2, 5, and 7 showed significant cytotoxicity against all four cell lines tested, with IC50 values of 3.26-8.61 µM. PMID:26749829

  7. Evaluation of mycotoxins and their metabolites in human breast milk using liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rubert, Josep; León, Nuria; Sáez, Carmen; Martins, Claudia P B; Godula, Michal; Yusà, Vicent; Mañes, Jordi; Soriano, José Miguel; Soler, Carla

    2014-04-11

    Humans can be exposed to mycotoxins through the food chain. Mycotoxins are mainly found as contaminants in food and could be subsequently excreted via biological fluids such as urine or human breast milk in native or metabolised form. Since breast milk is usually supposed as the only food for new-borns, the occurrence of mycotoxins in thirty-five human milk samples was evaluated by a newly developed method based on QuEChERS extraction and UHPLC-HRMS detection. The method described here allows the detection of target mycotoxins in order to determine the quality of this initial feeding. The method has been fully validated, with recoveries ranging from 64% to 93% and relative standard deviations (RSD, %) being lower than 20%. Using the method described, non-metabolised mycotoxins such as ZEA, NEO, NIV, ENA, ENA1, ENB, ENB1 and metabolites, such as ZEA metabolites, HT-2, DOM and T-2 triol were detected in human milk samples. Results obtained help to estimate the exposure of mothers and infants to mycotoxins. Moreover, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first work describing the simultaneous detection, quantification and screening of mycotoxins and their metabolites in human mature milk. PMID:24745736

  8. No effect of different estrogen receptor ligands on cognition in adult female monkeys.

    PubMed

    Lacreuse, Agnès; Wilson, Mark E; Herndon, James G

    2009-03-01

    Many studies in women and animal models suggest that estrogens affect cognitive function. Yet, the mechanisms by which estrogens may impact cognition remain unclear. The goal of the present study was to assess the effects of different estrogen receptor (ER) ligands on cognitive function in adult ovariectomized female rhesus monkeys. The monkeys were tested for 6 weeks on a battery of memory and attentional tasks administered on a touchscreen: the object, face, and spatial versions of the Delayed Recognition Span Test (DRST) and a Visual Search task. Following a 2-week baseline period with oil vehicle treatment, monkeys were randomly assigned to one of 3 treatment groups: estradiol benzoate (EB), selective ERbeta agonist (diarylpropionitrile DPN) or selective ER modulator tamoxifen (TAM). In each treatment group, monkeys received oil vehicle for 2 weeks and the drug for 2 weeks, in a cross-over design. After a 4-week washout, a subset of monkeys was re-tested on the battery when treated with a selective ERalpha agonist (propyl-pyrazole-triol, PPT) or oil vehicle. Overall, drug treatments had no or negligible effects on cognitive performance. These results support the contention that exogenous estrogens and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMS) do not significantly affect cognition in young adult female macaques. Additional studies are needed to determine whether the cognitive effects of estrogens in monkeys of more advanced age are mediated by ERbeta, ERalpha or complex interactions between the two receptors. PMID:19101578

  9. Discovery of a Novel Diterpene in Brown Propolis from the State of Parana, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tazawa, Shigemi; Arai, Yasuko; Hotta, Sho; Mitsui, Taichi; Nozaki, Hiroshi; Ichihara, Kenji

    2016-02-01

    Propolis is a resinous substance collected by honeybees from certain plant sources. The components of propolis depend on the vegetation of the area in which apiculture is practiced. In Brazil, there are several types of propolis including 'green,' 'red' and 'brown'. Brazilian brown propolis from the state of Parana characteristically includes diterpenes, and we discovered a novel clerodane diterpene, rel-(5S,6S,8R,9R,10S,18R,19S)-18,19-epoxy-2-oxocleroda-3,12(E),14- triene-6,18,19-triol 18,19-diacetate 6-benzoate (3) and five known diterpenes (1, 2, 4, 5 and 6). The chemical structure of the novel diterpene 3 was determined using 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic analyses. Furthermore, the activities of the isolated diterpenes on growth inhibition of several human cancer cell lines (LNCaP, MCF-7, DLD-1 and A549) were evaluated in vitro; diterpene 3 exhibited a potent inhibition of cell growth, and its activity was approximately 15 times higher than that of the other diterpenes. PMID:27032202

  10. Steroids with anti-inflammatory activity from Vernonia nigritiana Oliv. & Hiern.

    PubMed

    Vassallo, Antonio; De Tommasi, Nunziatina; Merfort, Irmgard; Sanogo, Rokia; Severino, Lorella; Pelin, Marco; Della Loggia, Roberto; Tubaro, Aurelia; Sosa, Silvio

    2013-12-01

    The leaves of Vernonia nigritiana Oliv. & Hiern. (Asteraceae) were investigated for their in vivo topical anti-inflammatory properties, following a bioassay-oriented fractionation approach. Petroleum ether, chloroform and chloroform-methanol extracts inhibited the Croton oil-induced ear dermatitis in mice. The chloroform extract was only about half as active as the non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin (ID50=237 and 93 μg/cm(2), respectively). Phytochemical investigation of this extract led to the isolation of nine polyhydroxylated stigmasterol glycosides and six polyhydroxylated stigmasterols. Their structures were elucidated by NMR, MS and chemical methods. Each compound exerted a significant anti-oedema activity, the most active being 1 (3β-O-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy-5α-stigmasta-7,9(11),24(28)Z-triene-6β,16β,26,29-tetrol) and 3 (3β-O-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy-5α-stigmasta-7,9(11),24(28)Z-triene-6β,16β,29-triol), only two and five fold less potent than the steroidal drug hydrocortisone (ID50=0.10, 0.21 and 0.04 μmol/cm(2), respectively). Compound 1 (50 μM) also completely inhibited the transcription factor NF-κB in vitro. PMID:24074552

  11. Preorganized Hydrogen Bond Donor Catalysts: Acidities and Reactivities.

    PubMed

    Samet, Masoud; Kass, Steven R

    2015-08-01

    Measured DMSO pKa values for a series of rigid tricyclic adamantane-like triols containing 0-3 trifluoromethyl groups (i.e., 3(0)-3(3)) are reported. The three compounds with CF3 substituents are similar or more acidic than acetic acid (pKa = 13.5 (3(1)), 9.5 (3(2)), 7.3 (3(3)) vs 12.6 (HOAc)), and the resulting hydrogen bond network enables a remote γ-trifluoromethyl group to enhance the acidity as well as one located at the α-position. Catalytic abilities of 3(0)-3(3) were also examined. In a nonpolar environment a rate enhancement of up to 100-fold over flexible acyclic analogs was observed presumably due to an entropic advantage of the locked-in structure. Gas-phase acidities are found to correlate with the catalytic activity better than DMSO pKa values and appear to be a better measure of acidities in low dielectric constant media. These trends are reduced or reversed in polar solvents highlighting the importance of the reaction environment. PMID:26140305

  12. Inhibitor versus chaperone behaviour of d-fagomine, DAB and LAB sp(2)-iminosugar conjugates against glycosidases: A structure-activity relationship study in Gaucher fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Mena-Barragán, Teresa; García-Moreno, M Isabel; Nanba, Eiji; Higaki, Katsumi; Concia, Alda Lisa; Clapés, Pere; García Fernández, José Manuel; Ortiz Mellet, Carmen

    2016-10-01

    A library of sp(2)-iminosugar conjugates derived from the piperidine iminosugar d-fagomine and the enantiomeric pyrrolidine iminosugars DAB and LAB has been generated in only two steps involving direct coupling of the fully unprotected polyhydroxylated heterocycles with isothiocyanates, to give monocyclic thiourea adducts, and further intramolecular nucleophilic displacement of the δ-located primary hydroxyl group by the thiocarbonyl sulphur atom, affording bicyclic isothioureas. These transformations led to a dramatic shift in the inhibitory selectivity from α- to β-glucosidases, with inhibition potencies that depended strongly on the nature of the aglycone-type moiety in the conjugates. Some of the new derivatives behaved as potent inhibitors of human β-glucocerebrosidase (GCase), the lysosomal enzyme whose dysfunction is responsible for Gaucher disease. Moreover, GCase inhibition was 10-fold weaker at pH 5 as compared to pH 7, which is generally considered as a good property for pharmacological chaperones. Surprisingly, most of the compounds strongly inhibited GCase in wild type fibroblasts at rather low concentrations, showing an unfavourable chaperone/inhibitor balance on disease-associated GCase mutants in cellulo. A structure-activity relationship analysis points to the need for keeping a contiguous triol system in the glycone moiety of the conjugates to elicit a chaperone effect. In any case, the results reported here represent a proof of concept of the utmost importance of implementing diversity-oriented strategies for the identification and optimization of potent and specific glycosidase inhibitors and chaperones. PMID:26361824

  13. Heptaketides with antiviral activity from three endolichenic fungal strains Nigrospora sp., Alternaria sp. and Phialophora sp.

    PubMed

    He, Jun-Wei; Chen, Guo-Dong; Gao, Hao; Yang, Fan; Li, Xiao-Xia; Peng, Tao; Guo, Liang-Dong; Yao, Xin-Sheng

    2012-09-01

    Two new heptaketides, (+)-(2S,3S,4aS)-altenuene (1a) and (-)-(2S,3S,4aR)-isoaltenuene (2a), together with six known compounds, (-)-(2R,3R,4aR)-altenuene (1b), (+)-(2R,3R,4aS)-isoaltenuene (2b), 5'-methoxy-6-methyl-biphenyl-3,4,3'-triol (3), alternariol (4), alternariol-9-methyl ether (5), and 4-hydroxyalternariol-9-methyl ether (6) were isolated from the EtOAc extract of an endolichenic fungal strain Nigrospora sphaerica (No.83-1-1-2). Compounds 1a and 1b were separated from enantiomers 1 by chiral HPLC, and so were 2a and 2b from enantiomers 2. Interestingly, 1-6 were also obtained from other two endolichenic fungal strains Alternaria alternata (No.58-8-4-1) and Phialophora sp. (No.96-1-8-1). The structures of 1-6 were elucidated by means of MS, HR-MS, NMR, and X-ray diffraction. Furthermore, the absolute configurations of 1a-2b were determined by CD experiments and CD calculation. Of these compounds, 4 and 5 showed antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus (HSV) in vitro, with IC(50) values of 13.5 and 21.3 μM, and with selective index (SI) values of 26.5 and 17.1, respectively. PMID:22613072

  14. Carotenoid composition and vitamin A value of an Argentinian squash (Cucurbita moschata).

    PubMed

    González, E; Montenegro, M A; Nazareno, M A; López de Mishima, B A

    2001-12-01

    The carotenoid composition of butternut squash (Cucurbita moschata) cultivated in the province of Santiago del Estero, Argentina, was determined. The main carotenoids isolated were identified as beta-carotene (beta,beta-carotene), alpha-carotene (beta,epsilon-carotene), and lutein (beta,epsilon-carotene-3,3'-diol) and the minor carotenoids, as phytofluene (7,8,11,12,7',8'-hexahydro-psi,psi-carotene), zeta-carotene (7,8,7',8'-tetrahydro-psi,psi-carotene), neurosporene (7,8-dihydro-psi,psi-carotene), violaxanthin (5,6,5',6'- diepoxy-5,6,5',6'-tetrahydro-beta,beta-carotene-3,3'-diol) and neoxanthin (5,6-epoxy-6,7-didehydro-5,6,5',6'-tetrahydro-beta,beta- carotene-3,5,3'-triol). In some samples, 5,6,5',6'-beta-carotene diepoxide, (5,6,5',6'-diepoxy-5,6,5',6'-tetrahydro-beta,beta-carotene) and flavoxanthin (5,8-epoxy-5,8-dihydro-beta,epsilon-carotene-3,3'-diol) were detected. The presence of cis-isomers of beta,beta-carotene was also detected by HPLC. The vitamin A value obtained was 432 micrograms RE/100 g fresh sample, which indicates that this vegetable is an important source of provitamin A. PMID:12012567

  15. Enhancement of oxygen vacancies and solar photocatalytic activity of zinc oxide by incorporation of nonmetal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Ashokrao B.; Patil, Kashinath R.; Pardeshi, Satish K.

    2011-12-01

    B-doped ZnO and N-doped ZnO powders have been synthesized by mechanochemical method and characterized by TG-DTA, XRD, SEM-EDX, XPS, UV-visible and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. X-ray diffraction data suggests the hexagonal wurtzite structure for modified ZnO crystallites and the incorporation of nonmetal expands the lattice constants of ZnO. The room temperature PL spectra suggest more number of oxygen vacancies exist in nonmetal-doped ZnO than that of undoped zinc oxide. XPS analysis shows the substitution of some of the O atoms of ZnO by nonmetal atoms. Solar photocatalytic activity of B-doped ZnO, N-doped ZnO and undoped ZnO was compared by means of oxidative photocatalytic degradation (PCD) of Bisphenol A (BPA). B-doped ZnO showed better solar PCD efficiency as compare to N-doped ZnO and undoped ZnO. The PCD of BPA follows first order reaction kinetics. The detail mechanism of PCD of Bisphenol A was proposed with the identification of intermediates such as hydroquinone, benzene-1,2,4-triol and 4-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl) phenol.

  16. G protein-coupled estrogen receptor-selective ligands modulate endometrial tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Petrie, Whitney K; Dennis, Megan K; Hu, Chelin; Dai, Donghai; Arterburn, Jeffrey B; Smith, Harriet O; Hathaway, Helen J; Prossnitz, Eric R

    2013-01-01

    Endometrial carcinoma is the most common cancer of the female reproductive tract. GPER/GPR30 is a 7-transmembrane spanning G protein-coupled receptor that has been identified as the third estrogen receptor, in addition to ERα and ERβ. High GPER expression is predictive of poor survival in endometrial and ovarian cancer, but despite this, the estrogen-mediated signaling pathways and specific estrogen receptors involved in endometrial cancer remain unclear. Here, employing ERα-negative Hec50 endometrial cancer cells, we demonstrate that GPER mediates estrogen-stimulated activation of ERK and PI3K via matrix metalloproteinase activation and subsequent transactivation of the EGFR and that ER-targeted therapeutic agents (4-hydroxytamoxifen, ICI182,780/fulvestrant, and Raloxifene), the phytoestrogen genistein, and the "ERα-selective" agonist propylpyrazole triol also function as GPER agonists. Furthermore, xenograft tumors of Hec50 cells yield enhanced growth with G-1 and estrogen, the latter being inhibited by GPER-selective pharmacologic antagonism with G36. These results have important implications with respect to the use of putatively ER-selective ligands and particularly for the widespread long-term use of "ER-targeted" therapeutics. Moreover, our findings shed light on the potential mechanisms of SERM/SERD side effects reported in many clinical studies. Finally, our results provide the first demonstration that pharmacological inhibition of GPER activity in vivo prevents estrogen-mediated tumor growth. PMID:24379833

  17. Synthesis of empagliflozin, a novel and selective sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor, labeled with carbon-14 and carbon-13.

    PubMed

    Hrapchak, Matt; Latli, Bachir; Wang, Xiao-Jun; Lee, Heewon; Campbell, Scot; Song, Jinhua J; Senanayake, Chris H

    2014-10-01

    Empagliflozin, (2S,3R,4R,5S,6R)-2-[4-chloro-3-[[4-[(3S)-oxolan-3-yl]oxyphenyl]methyl]phenyl]-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-3,4,5-triol was recently approved by the FDA for the treatment of chronic type 2 diabetes mellitus. Herein, we report the synthesis of carbon-13 and carbon-14 labeled empagliflozin. Carbon-13 labeled empagliflozin was prepared in five steps and in 34% overall chemical yield starting from the commercially available α-D-glucose-[(13)C6]. For the radiosynthesis, the carbon-14 atom was introduced in three different positions of the molecule. In the first synthesis, Carbon-14 D-(+)-gluconic acid δ-lactone was used to prepare specifically labeled empagliflozin in carbon-1 of the sugar moiety in four steps and in 19% overall radiochemical yield. Carbon-14 labeled empagliflozin with the radioactive atom in the benzylic position was obtained in eight steps and in 7% overall radiochemical yield. In the last synthesis carbon-14 uniformly labeled phenol was used to give [(14)C]empagliflozin in eight steps and in 18% overall radiochemical yield. In all these radiosyntheses, the specific activities of the final compounds were higher than 53 mCi/mmol, and the radiochemical purities were above 98.5%. PMID:25332189

  18. Assessment of in vitro removal of cholesterol oxidation products by Lactobacillus casei ATCC334.

    PubMed

    Machorro-Méndez, I A; Hernández-Mendoza, A; Cardenia, V; Rodriguez-Estrada, M T; Lercker, G; Spinelli, F; Cellini, A; García, H S

    2013-11-01

    Cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) are a group of compounds formed during processing and storage of foods from animal origin. After ingestion, COPs are absorbed in the intestine and can be distributed to serum and various tissues, potentially promoting a variety of toxic effects. Therefore, inhibition of their intestinal absorption may contribute to reduce the health risks associated with dietary intake of COPs. Some studies have shown that drugs and dietary compounds may inhibit the intestinal absorption of dietary COPs. However, proven cholesterol- and/or food toxins-binding lactic acid bacteria have not been previously evaluated as potential COPs removal agents. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of Lactobacillus casei ATCC334 to remove COPs in aqueous solution. Results showed the ability of both growing and resting cells to remove COPs (ca. 30-60%). All COPs-bacterium interactions were specific and partly reversible, being resting cells the most efficient for COPs removal in a ranking order of 7-KC > 7α-OH/7β-OH > triol > 5,6β-EP > 5,6α-EP > 25-OH. Binding to the cell wall and/or cell membrane incorporation appears to be the most likely mechanisms involved on COPs removal by L. casei ATCC 334. PMID:23848962

  19. Synthesis and in vitro biocompatibility of injectable polyurethane foam scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Guelcher, Scott A; Patel, Vishal; Gallagher, Katie M; Connolly, Susan; Didier, Jonathan E; Doctor, John S; Hollinger, Jeffrey O

    2006-05-01

    The development of therapeutics for orthopedic clinical indications exploiting minimally invasive surgical techniques has substantial benefits, especially for treatment of fragility fractures in the distal radius of osteoporotics and vertebral compression fractures. We have designed six formulations of injectable polyurethane foams to address these clinical indications. The polyurethanes were prepared by mixing two liquid components and injecting the reactive liquid mixture into a mold where it hardens in situ. Porous polyurethane foams were synthesized from lysine methyl ester diisocyanate, a poly(epsilon-caprolactone-co-glycolide) triol, a tertiary amine catalyst, anionic and non-ionic stabilizers, and a fatty acid pore opener. The rise time of the foams varied from 8-20 min. The porosity was approximately 95% and the pores varied in size from 100-1000 microm. The polyurethane foams supported attachment of viable (>95%) MG-63 cells under dynamic seeding conditions. We anticipate compelling opportunities will be available as a consequence of the favorable biological and physical properties of the injectable polyurethane foams. PMID:16771638

  20. Focal toxicity of oxysterols in vascular smooth muscle cell culture. A model of the atherosclerotic core region.

    PubMed Central

    Guyton, J. R.; Black, B. L.; Seidel, C. L.

    1990-01-01

    Cell necrosis and reactive cellular processes in and near the atherosclerotic core region might result from short-range interactions with toxic lipids. To model these interactions in cell culture, focal crystalline deposits of cholestane-3 beta,5 alpha,6 beta-triol, 25-OH cholesterol, and cholesterol were overlaid by a collagen gel, on which canine aortic smooth muscle cells were seeded. Oxysterols, but not cholesterol, caused focally decreased plating efficiency and cell death, leading to the formation of a persistent circular gap in the cell culture. Cholestanetriol was largely removed from the culture dishes over 3 to 4 weeks, whereas cholesterol and 25-OH cholesterol were largely retained. Smooth muscle cells were motile even in proximity to oxysterol crystals, with occasional suicidal migration toward the crystals. Chemoattraction, however, could not be demonstrated. Despite toxicity, cholestanetriol did not appear to alter the fraction of cells exhibiting 3H-thymidine uptake, even in areas close to the crystals. Thus, oxysterols may be toxic to some cells, without causing major impairment of the migration and proliferation of nearby cells. This would allow the simultaneous occurrence of cell death and proliferation evident in atherosclerosis. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:2201200

  1. Ultrahigh PEMFC performance of a thin-film, dual-electrode assembly with tailored electrode morphology.

    PubMed

    Jung, Chi-Young; Kim, Tae-Hyun; Yi, Sung-Chul

    2014-02-01

    A dual-electrode membrane electrode assembly (MEA) for proton exchange membrane fuel cells with enhanced polarization under zero relative humidity (RH) is fabricated by introducing a phase-separated morphology in an agglomerated catalyst layer of Pt/C (platinum on carbon black) and Nafion. In the catalyst layer, a sufficient level of phase separation is achieved by dispersing the Pt catalyst and the Nafion dispersion in a mixed-solvent system (propane-1,2,3-triol/1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone).The high polymer chain mobility results in improved water uptake and regular pore-size distribution with small pore diameters. The electrochemical performance of the dual-film electrode assembly with different levels of phase separation is compared to conventional electrode assemblies. As a result, good performance at 0 % RH is obtained because self-humidification is dramatically improved by attaching this dense and phase-separated catalytic overlayer onto the conventional catalyst layer. A MEA prepared using the thin-film, dual-layered electrode exhibits 39-fold increased RH stability and 28-fold improved start-up recovery time during the on-off operation relative to the conventional device. We demonstrate the successful operation of the dual-layered electrode comprised of discriminatively phase-separated agglomerates with an ultrahigh zero RH fuel-cell performance reaching over 95 % performance of a fully humidified MEA. PMID:24436310

  2. A new solid phase extraction clean-up method for the determination of 12 type A and B trichothecenes in cereals and cereal-based food by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Klötzel, Marianna; Lauber, Uwe; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2006-03-01

    A new reliable and cost-efficient solid phase extraction-based clean-up method for the determination of 12 type A and B trichothecenes [deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, fusarenon-X, T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, neosolaniol, monoacetoxy-scirpenol, diacetoxyscirpenol, T-2 triol and T-2 tetraol] in cereals and cereal-based food is presented. Furthermore, the suitability for the simultaneous determination of zearalenone is examined. Toxins were extracted from cereal samples using ACN/water (80/20, v/v), purified by means of a new Bond Elut Mycotoxin column and analyzed via liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Limits of detection were calculated for the matrix wheat and ranged from 0.3 to 5 ng/g, depending on the toxin. Average recovery rates for the tested compounds in seven cereal-based matrices have been determined ranging from 65 to 104%. The relative standard deviations of the complete method ranged from 2.67 (DON, wheat) to 20.0% (T-2 toxin, oats). PMID:16521159

  3. Determination of 12 type A and B trichothecenes in cereals by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Klötzel, Marianna; Gutsche, Birgit; Lauber, Uwe; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2005-11-16

    A new sensitive method for the simultaneous determination of 12 trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, fusarenon X, T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, neosolaniol, monoacetoxyscirpenol, diacetoxyscirpenol, T-2 triol, and T-2 tetraol) by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) is presented. The development of the method and investigations on the matrix influence on the MS signal are described in particular. The matrix effect was thereby minimized by using an internal standard, a special mobile phase, and specific fragmentation parameters. The sample was extracted with acetonitrile/water (84:16, v/v), and the extract was cleaned up with a MycoSep 227 column. Quantification was based on the internal standard de-epoxy-deoxynivalenol. Calibration curves were linear between 16 and 1600 ng/g, and the limits of detection ranged from 0.18 to 5.0 ng/g. The developed method was applied for the determination of trichothecenes in 120 naturally contaminated wheat and oat samples. PMID:16277381

  4. G Protein-Coupled Estrogen Receptor-Selective Ligands Modulate Endometrial Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Petrie, Whitney K.; Dennis, Megan K.; Dai, Donghai; Arterburn, Jeffrey B.; Smith, Harriet O.; Hathaway, Helen J.; Prossnitz, Eric R.

    2013-01-01

    Endometrial carcinoma is the most common cancer of the female reproductive tract. GPER/GPR30 is a 7-transmembrane spanning G protein-coupled receptor that has been identified as the third estrogen receptor, in addition to ERα and ERβ. High GPER expression is predictive of poor survival in endometrial and ovarian cancer, but despite this, the estrogen-mediated signaling pathways and specific estrogen receptors involved in endometrial cancer remain unclear. Here, employing ERα-negative Hec50 endometrial cancer cells, we demonstrate that GPER mediates estrogen-stimulated activation of ERK and PI3K via matrix metalloproteinase activation and subsequent transactivation of the EGFR and that ER-targeted therapeutic agents (4-hydroxytamoxifen, ICI182,780/fulvestrant, and Raloxifene), the phytoestrogen genistein, and the “ERα-selective” agonist propylpyrazole triol also function as GPER agonists. Furthermore, xenograft tumors of Hec50 cells yield enhanced growth with G-1 and estrogen, the latter being inhibited by GPER-selective pharmacologic antagonism with G36. These results have important implications with respect to the use of putatively ER-selective ligands and particularly for the widespread long-term use of “ER-targeted” therapeutics. Moreover, our findings shed light on the potential mechanisms of SERM/SERD side effects reported in many clinical studies. Finally, our results provide the first demonstration that pharmacological inhibition of GPER activity in vivo prevents estrogen-mediated tumor growth. PMID:24379833

  5. Crystal structure of canagliflozin hemihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kai-Hang; Gu, Jian-Ming; Hu, Xiu-Rong; Tang, Gu-Ping

    2016-01-01

    There are two canagliflozin mol­ecules (A and B) and one water mol­ecule in the asymmetric unit of the title compound, C24H25FO5S·0.5H2O [systematic name: (2S,3R,4R,5S,6R)-2-(3-{[5-(4-fluoro­phen­yl)thio­phen-2-yl]meth­yl}-4-methylphen­yl)-6-(hy­droxy­meth­yl)-3,4,5,6-tetra­hydro-2H-pyran-3,4,5-triol hemihydrate]. The dihedral angles between the methyl­benzene and thio­phene rings are 115.7 (4) and 111.7 (4)°, while the dihedral angles between the fluoro­benzene and thio­phene rings are 24.2 (6) and 20.5 (9)° in mol­ecules A and B, respectively. The hydro­pyran ring exhibits a chair conformation in both canagliflozin mol­ecules. In the crystal, the canagliflozin mol­ecules and lattice water mol­ecules are connected via O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds into a three-dimensional supra­molecular architecture. PMID:27308030

  6. Inulin as a novel biocompatible coating: evaluation of surface affinities toward CaHPO4, α-Fe2O3, ZnO, CaHPO4@ZnO and α-Fe2O3@ZnO nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Santillán-Urquiza, E; Arteaga-Cardona, F; Hernandez-Herman, E; Pacheco-García, P F; González-Rodríguez, R; Coffer, J L; Mendoza-Alvarez, M E; Vélez-Ruiz, J F; Méndez-Rojas, M A

    2015-12-15

    The introduction of biocompatible coatings onto nanoparticle surfaces can be synthetically challenging. In this work, calcium phosphate (brushite, CaHPO4⋅2H2O), iron oxide (hematite, α-Fe2O3), zinc oxide (ZnO), and CaHPO4@ZnO and α-Fe2O3@ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized and treated with the biocompatible, biodegradable, polysaccharide inulin {(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-[[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-3,4-dihydroxy-2,5-bis(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxymethyl]-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolane-2,3,4-triol} under mild conditions. The products were fully characterized by Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), dynamic light scattering (DLS), differential thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis (TGA/DTA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). Surface interactions among hematite and brushite with inulin are weak, but coating the nanoparticle surface with ZnO increased the affinity toward the polysaccharide. Inulin adsorption on the nanoparticle surface was confirmed by thermal and spectroscopic analyses. The nanoparticles had diameters ranging from 50 to 80nm, with nearly spherical morphology. The nanoparticles sizes, stability and solubility in water could make them useful as components for enriched foods. PMID:26364076

  7. Development of a bile acid-based newborn screen for Niemann-Pick disease type C.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xuntian; Sidhu, Rohini; Mydock-McGrane, Laurel; Hsu, Fong-Fu; Covey, Douglas F; Scherrer, David E; Earley, Brian; Gale, Sarah E; Farhat, Nicole Y; Porter, Forbes D; Dietzen, Dennis J; Orsini, Joseph J; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Zhang, Xiaokui; Reunert, Janice; Marquardt, Thorsten; Runz, Heiko; Giugliani, Roberto; Schaffer, Jean E; Ory, Daniel S

    2016-05-01

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a fatal, neurodegenerative, cholesterol storage disorder. With new therapeutics in clinical trials, it is imperative to improve diagnostics and facilitate early intervention. We used metabolomic profiling to identify potential markers and discovered three unknown bile acids that were increased in plasma from NPC but not control subjects. The bile acids most elevated in the NPC subjects were identified as 3β,5α,6β-trihydroxycholanic acid and its glycine conjugate, which were shown to be metabolites of cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol, an oxysterol elevated in NPC. A high-throughput mass spectrometry-based method was developed and validated to measure the glycine-conjugated bile acid in dried blood spots. Analysis of dried blood spots from 4992 controls, 134 NPC carriers, and 44 NPC subjects provided 100% sensitivity and specificity in the study samples. Quantification of the bile acid in dried blood spots, therefore, provides the basis for a newborn screen for NPC that is ready for piloting in newborn screening programs. PMID:27147587

  8. Selective cytotoxicity of Pancratistatin-related natural Amaryllidaceae alkaloids: evaluation of the activity of two new compounds

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Carly; Sharda, Natasha; Sood, Divya; Nair, Jerald; McNulty, James; Pandey, Siyaram

    2007-01-01

    Background Pancratistatin (PST), a compound extracted from an Amaryllidaceae (AMD) family plant, has been shown to specifically induce apoptosis in cancer cells with no/minimal toxic effect on normal cells. A systematic synthetic approach has indicated that the minimum cytotoxic pharmacophore comprises the trans-fused b/c-ring system containing the 2, 3, 4-triol unit in the C-ring. To further explore the structure-activity relationship of this group of compounds we have investigated the anti-cancer efficacy and specificity of two PST-related natural compounds, AMD4 and AMD5. Both of these compounds lack the polyhydroxylated lycorane element of PST instead having a methoxy-substuituted crinane skeleton. Results Our results indicate that AMD5 has efficacy and selectivity similar to PST, albeit at a 10-fold increased concentration. Interestingly AMD4 lacks apoptotic activity. Conclusion Our results indicate that the phenanthridone skeleton in natural Amaryllidaceae alkaloids may be a significant common element for selectivity against cancer cells; furthermore, the configuration of the methoxy-side groups is responsible for higher binding affinity to the target protein/s thus making for a more efficient anti-cancer agent. PMID:17550595

  9. New Anthraquinone Derivatives from Geosmithia lavendula

    PubMed Central

    Malak, Lourin G.; Bishay, Daoud W.; Abdel-Baky, Afaf M.; Moharram, Ahmed M.; Cutler, Stephen J.; Ross, Samir A.

    2016-01-01

    A phytochemical study of Geosmithia lavendula Pitt led to the isolation of three new anthraquinones: 1-acetyl-2,4,6,8-tetrahydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (1), 2-acetyl-1,4,5,7-tetrahydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (2), and 1-acetyl-2,4,5,6,7-pentahydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (3), as well as another new compound named didodecyl thiodipropionate (propionic acid, 3,3-sulfinyl di-1,1′-didodecyl ester) (4), along with ten known compounds: 1-acetyl-2,4,5,7-tetrahydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (rhodolamprometrin) (5), 1-acetyl-2,4,5,7,8-pentahydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (6), (22E)-ergosta-6,22-diene-3β,5α,8α-triol, p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, oleic acid, D-mannitol, palmitic acid, stearic acid, cis-vaccenic acid and 2-decenal. The structures of the isolated metabolites were elucidated based on NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric data. Compound 1 exhibited moderate activity against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus with an IC50 value of 16.1 μg/mL. PMID:23513726

  10. Structures and Absolute Configurations of Sulfate-Conjugated Triterpenoids Including an Antifungal Chemical Defense of the Green Macroalga Tydemania expeditionis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ren-Wang; Lane, Amy L.; Mylacraine, Lauren; Hardcastle, Kenneth I.; Fairchild, Craig R.; Aalbersberg, William; Hay, Mark E.; Kubanek, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Cytotoxicity-guided fractionation of the green macroalga Tydemania expeditionis led to isolation of four sulfate-conjugated triterpenoids including one new lanostane-type triterpenoid disulfate, lanosta-8-en-3,29-diol-23-oxo-3,29-disodium sulfate (1), and three known cycloartane-type triterpenoid disulfates, cycloartan-3,29-diol-23-one 3,29-disodium sulfate (2), cycloart-24-en-3,29-diol-23-one 3,29-disodium sulfate (3), and cycloartan-3,23,29-triol 3,29-disodium sulfate (4). Extensive 1D and 2D NMR analyses in combination with X-ray crystallography established the structure and absolute configuration of 1 and allowed determination of the absolute configurations of 2–4 with a revision of previously assigned configuration at C-5. Each natural product was moderately cytotoxic in tumor cell and invertebrate toxicity assays. Of the natural products, only 4 exhibited significant antifungal activity at whole-tissue natural concentrations against the marine pathogen Lindra thalassiae. Comparison of the biological activities of natural products with their desulfated derivatives indicated that sulfation does not appear to confer cytotoxicity or antifungal activity. PMID:18763828

  11. Chemical Constituents and Antimicrobial Activity of Indian Green Leafy Vegetable Cardiospermum halicacabum.

    PubMed

    Jeyadevi, R; Sivasudha, T; Ilavarasi, A; Thajuddin, N

    2013-06-01

    The present study was carried out to analyze chemical constituents and antibacterial activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Cardiospermum halicacabum (ECH). The FT-IR spectrum confirmed the presence of alcohols, phenols, alkanes, alkynes, aliphatic ester and flavonoids in ECH. The GC-MS analysis revealed that ECH contained about twenty four compounds. The major chemical compounds identified were cyclohexane-1, 4, 5-triol-3-one-1-carboxylic acid, benzene acetic acid, caryophyllene, phytol and neophytadiene. The ECH was screened for its antibacterial activity against different bacterial strains and anti fungal activity against Candida albicans by agar well diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay. ECH exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activity. All the tested bacterial strains showed MIC values ranging from 80 to 125 μg of extract/ml and C. albicans showed 190 μg of extract/ml as a MIC. The maximum activity ECH was observed against human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus followed by Escherichia coli and the fish pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila. ECH exhibited moderate activity against some of the tested multidrug resistant strains. PMID:24426110

  12. Determination of neuroprotective oxysterols in Calculus bovis, human gallstones, and traditional Chinese medicine preparations by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yalong; Jiang, Han; Huang, Huizhi; Xie, Yanqi; Zhao, Yunshi; You, Xiuhua; Tang, Lipeng; Wang, Youqiong; Yin, Wei; Qiu, Pengxin; Yan, Guangmei; Hu, Haiyan

    2015-03-01

    So far, the components responsible for the neuroprotective effects of Calculus bovis are unclear. Cholesterol, one of the major components in Calculus bovis, is easily oxidized into oxysterols, which possess direct or indirect neuroprotective effects proved by our and others' previous studies. Therefore, a liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry method coupled with ultrasonic extraction and solid-phase extraction was developed for the determination of neuroprotective oxysterols in Calculus bovis, human gallstones, and traditional Chinese medicine preparations. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 column with isocratic elution at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The established method showed good linearity (R(2) > 0.998), sensitivity with low limits of detection (0.06-0.39 μg/g), acceptable precisions (relative standard deviations ≤ 7.4%), stability (relative standard deviations ≤ 5.9%), and satisfactory accuracy (92.4-102.9%) for all analytes identified by different retention times, which could be applied for the determination of oxysterols. Five kinds of oxysterols proved to function as neuroprotectants were detected at different concentrations. Among them, 7β-hydroxycholesterol and cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol were rather abundant in the samples. It could be concluded that the potential neuroprotective components in Calculus bovis may be these oxysterols. PMID:25545614

  13. Cytotoxic constituents of Lasiosphaera fenzlii on different cell lines and the synergistic effects with paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Gao, J; Wang, L W; Zheng, H C; Damirin, A; Ma, C M

    2016-08-01

    The fruit body of Lasiosphaera fenzlii was found to show cytotoxicity on cancer cells during a preliminary screening. Repeated column chromatography of the fungal methanol extract resulted in the isolation of six compounds identified as 5α,8α-epidioxy-ergosta-6,22-dien-3β-ol (1), 5α,8α-epidioxy-ergosta-6,9(11),22-trien-3β-ol (2), 5α-ergosta-7,22-dien-3β-ol (3), 5α-ergosta-7,22-dien-3-one (4), ergosta-7,22-dien-3β,5α,6β-triol (5) and 6-dihydroxy-2,3-dihydro-1H-isoindol-1-one (6). The two peroxide compounds, 1 and 2, showed cytotoxic activity and compound 1 was selectively cytotoxic to cancer cells. Furthermore, compound 1 synergised the cytotoxicity of paclitaxel on Hela cells by increasing intracellular accumulation of paclitaxel in cancer cells but not in normal cells. PMID:26382563

  14. Isolation of a new phlorotannin, a potent inhibitor of carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes, from the brown alga Sargassum patens.

    PubMed

    Kawamura-Konishi, Yasuko; Watanabe, Natsuko; Saito, Miki; Nakajima, Noriyuki; Sakaki, Toshiyuki; Katayama, Takane; Enomoto, Toshiki

    2012-06-01

    Ethanol extracts from 15 kinds of marine algae collected from the coast of the Noto Peninsula in Japan were examined for their inhibitory effects on human salivary α-amylase. Four extracts significantly suppressed the enzyme activity. An inhibitor was purified from the extract of Sargassum patens . The compound was a new phloroglucinol derivative, 2-(4-(3,5-dihydroxyphenoxy)-3,5-dihydroxyphenoxy) benzene-1,3,5-triol (DDBT), which strongly suppressed the hydrolysis of amylopectin by human salivary and pancreatic α-amylases. The 50% inhibitory activity (IC(50)) for α-amylase inhibition of DDBT (3.2 μg/mL) was much lower than that of commercially available α-amylase inhibitors, acarbose (26.3 μg/mL), quercetagetin (764 μg/mL), and α-amylase inhibitor from Triticum aestivum (88.3 μg/mL). A kinetic study indicated that DDBT was a competitive α-amylase inhibitor with a K(i) of 1.8 μg/mL. DDBT also inhibited rat intestinal α-glucosidase with an IC(50) value of 25.4 μg/mL for sucrase activity and 114 μg/mL for maltase activity. These results suggest that DDBT, a potent inhibitor of carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes, may be useful as a natural nutraceutical to prevent diabetes. PMID:22594840

  15. Chemical constituents and antioxidant activities of waste liquid extract from Apostichopus japonicus Selenka processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chaofeng; Li, Xiancui; Li, Hong; Guo, Shuju; Zhu, Xiaobin

    2013-07-01

    Apos tichopus japonicus Selenka is an ideal tonic food that is used traditionally in many Asian countries, and it contains many bioactive substances, such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer materials. To convert waste liquid generated during production into a useful resource, extract from waste liquid was isolated by column chromatography and studied by the pyrogallol autoxidation and 1,10-phenanthroline-Fe2+ oxidation methods. Results show that the extract scavenged about 91% of the superoxide anion radical at a concentration of 1.4 mg/mL and 24% of the hydroxyl radical at 3.3 mg/mL. Four compounds were isolated and identified from the extract: 2,4-dihydroxy-5-methyl-1,3-azine; 2,4-dihydroxy-1,3-diazine; 3-O-[β-D-quinovopranosyl-(1→2)-4-O-sodium sulfate-β-D-xylopranosyl]-holosta-9(11)-ene-3β,12α,17α-triol; and 24-ethyl-5α-cholesta-7-ene-3β-O-β-D-xylopyranoside. All of these compounds are known in A. japonicus, and were found in the waste liquid for the first time.

  16. Fast methods for screening of trichothecenes in fungal cultures using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, K F; Thrane, U

    2001-09-21

    The paper presents a fast method for trichothecene profiling and chemotaxonomic studies in species of Fusarium, Stachybotrys. Trichoderma and Memnoniella. Micro scale extracted crude Fusarium extracts were derivatised using pentafluoropropionic anhydride and analysed by gas chromatography with simultaneous full scan and tandem mass spectrometric detection. It was possible to monitor for up to four compounds simultaneous, making detection of acetyl T-2 toxin, T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, T-2 triol. T-2 tetraol, neosolaniol, iso-neosolaniol, scirpentriol, 4,15-diacetoxyscirpenol, 15-acetoxyscirpenol, 4-acetoxyscirpentriol, nivalenol, fusarenon-X, deoxynivalenol, 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol and 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol possible during a 23-min GC run. A slightly modified method could detect trichothecenes produced by Stachybotrys, Memnoniella and Trichoderma, by hydrolysing crude extracts prior to derivatisation with heptafluorobuturyl imidazole. All types of derivatised extracts could be reanalysed using negative ion chemical ionisation (NICI) GC-MS for molecular mass determination and verification purposes. A retention time index could be used for correction in retention time drifts between sequences and worked both in EI+ and NICI mode. PMID:11594405

  17. The antigluconeogenic activity of cucurbitacins from Momordica charantia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian-Chao; Lau, Clara Bik-San; Chan, Judy Yuet-Wa; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Leung, Ping-Chung; Liu, Jie-Qing; Zhou, Lin; Xie, Ming-Jin; Qiu, Ming-Hua

    2015-03-01

    Five new cucurbitacins, kuguacins II-VI (1-5), along with five known analogues (6-10), were obtained from the fruit of Momordica charantia. Structures of the new compounds were elucidated as 5β,19-epoxycucurbit-23-en-7-on-3β,25-diol (1), 5β,19-epoxycucurbit-7,23-dion-3β,25-diol (2), 5β,19-epoxycucurbit-6-en-19,23-dion-3β,25-diol (3), 5β,19-epoxy-23,24,25,26,27-pentanorcucurbit-6-en-7,19-dion-3β,22-diol (4), and cucurbit-5-en-7,23-dion-3β,19,25-triol (5) by extensive spectroscopic and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Some cucurbitane compounds from this species were screened for their potential antidiabetic properties in terms of antigluconeogenic activity. As a result, compounds 1, 10, 11, and 12 (at 25-100 µM) showed concentration-dependent inhibition on glucose production from liver cells. In addition, compounds 11 and 12 (at 100 µM) showed around 20-30 % inhibition on PEPCK activity. PMID:25760384

  18. Effect of Transition Metal Ions on the B Ring Oxidation of Sterols and their Kinetics in Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Baiyi; Hu, Yinzhou; Huang, Weisu; Wang, Mengmeng; Jiang, Yuan; Lou, Tiantian

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of metal ions on the oxidation of sterols and their kinetics in oil-in-water emulsions. Sterol substrates were added with different metal ions (Cu2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, Zn2+, Na+, and Mg2+) of five concentrations and investigated after 2 h of heating at 90 °C. The substrates added with Fe2+ and Cu2+ were heated continuously to evaluate the kinetics of four sterols and their corresponding sterol oxidation products (SOPs). Sterol oxidation increased as the metal ion concentration increased and the heating time was prolonged. The capability of the metal ions oxidizing sterols ranked as followed: Fe2+ > Cu2+ > Mn2+ > Zn2+ > Mg2+ ≈ Na+. 7-Ketosterol, 7β/7α-Hydroxysterol, 5β,6β/5α,6α-Epoxysterol, and Triols were the main oxides on the B ring, whereas 6β-Hydroxysterol was not or only slightly influenced. The acceleration of sterol degradation induced by Fe2+ and Cu2+, as well as the formation of oxidation products, followed first-order formation/elimination kinetics. The acceleration effect may be partly ascribed to the increase in elimination rate constant and formation rate constant. Transition metal ions can significantly induce sterol oxidation, which reduces food nutritional quality and triggers the formation of undesirable compounds, such as SOPs. PMID:27328709

  19. Phytotoxic and Nematicidal Components of Lavandula luisieri.

    PubMed

    Julio, Luis F; Barrero, Alejandro F; Herrador del Pino, M Mar; Arteaga, Jesús F; Burillo, Jesús; Andres, Maria Fe; Díaz, Carmen E; González-Coloma, Azucena

    2016-02-26

    Several preparations were obtained from the aerial parts of predomesticated Lavandula luisieri, including the essential oil and ethanolic, hexane, and ethyl acetate extractives. Additionally, pilot plant vapor pressure extraction was carried out at a pressure range of 0.5-1.0 bar to give a vapor pressure oil and an aqueous residue. A chemical study of the hexane extract led to the isolation of six necrodane derivatives (1, 2, and 4-7), with four of these (1, 2, 5, and 7) being new, as well as camphor, a cadinane sesquiterpene (9), tormentic acid, and ursolic acid. The EtOAc and EtOH extracts contained a mixture of phenolic compounds with rosmarinic acid being the major component. Workup of the aqueous residue resulted in the isolation of the necrodane 3 and (1R*,2S*,4R*)-p-menth-5-ene-1,2,8-triol (8), both new natural compounds. The structures of the new compounds were established based on their spectroscopic data. The phytotoxic and nematicidal activities of these compounds were evaluated. PMID:26797293

  20. Mycotoxins and fungi in wheat harvested during 1990 in test plots in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Furlong, E B; Soares, L M; Lasca, C C; Kohara, E Y

    1995-09-01

    Wheat from two cultivars with contrasting characteristics were harvested in ten experimental plots located in wheat producing areas of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The samples (10 of each cultivar) were analyzed by a gas-chromatographic method for deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), toxins T-2 (T-2) and HT-2, T-2 tetraol, T-2 triol, and by a thin-layer chromatographic method for zearalenone (ZEN), aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, ochratoxin A and sterigmatocystin. No mycotoxins were detected in 13 samples. DON was found in four samples (0.47-0.59 microgram/g), NIV in three samples (0.16-0.40 microgram/g), T-2 in two samples (0.40, 0.80 microgram/g), DAS in one sample (0.60 microgram/g), and ZEN in three samples (0.04-0.21 microgram/g). The wheat samples were also examined for the incidence of fungi. Alternaria, Drechslera, Epicoccum and Cladosporium were the prevailing genera. Among the Fusarium spp., F. semitectum was present in 19 samples and F. moniliforme in 18 samples. No F. graminearum was isolated in the samples. PMID:8587586

  1. Mycotoxins and fungi in wheat stored in elevators in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Furlong, E B; Soares, L M; Lasca, C C; Kohara, E Y

    1995-01-01

    Samples of wheat harvested from 1988 to 1990 and stored in elevators in the south of Brazil (12 Brazilian, 4 Argentinian and 2 Uruguayan) were analysed in 1990 for 14 mycotoxins: deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol, diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), T-2 and HT-2 toxins, T-2 triol, T-2 tetraol, aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, ochratoxin A (OCHRA A), zearalenone and sterigmatocystin. One sample (1988 harvest) was contaminated with OCHRA A (0.04 microgram/g) and three other samples (1990 harvest) were contaminated with DON (0.40 microgram/g), DAS (0.30 microgram/g), T-2 (two samples, 0.35 and 0.36 gamma g/g) and T-2 tetraol (1.68 micrograms/g). Fusarium graminearum Schwabe was found in the 1990 samples with a relative incidence ranging from 1 to 22% and predominated in Argentinian and Uruguayan wheat (1990 harvest). Fusarium dimerum Penzig (8-75%) was the main Fusarium sp. in Brazilian wheat from the 1990 harvest. PMID:8522033

  2. Anti-Inflammatory Constituents from Bidens frondosa.

    PubMed

    Le, Jiamei; Lu, Wenquan; Xiong, Xiaojuan; Wu, Zhijun; Chen, Wansheng

    2015-01-01

    A new polyacetylene glucoside (3E,5E,11E)-tridecatriene-7,9-diyne-1,2,13-triol-2-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), a new phenylpropanoid glucoside 2'-butoxyethylconiferin (2), and a new flavonoid glycoside 8,3',4'-trihydroxyflavone-7-O-(6''-O-p-coumaroyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), have been isolated from Bidens frondosa together with fifty-three known compounds 4-56. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic methods. mainly ESIMS, 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic data. and comparison with literature data. Compounds 1-34, 36, 39, 43, 47, 51, and 52 were tested for inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in 293-NF-κB-luciferase report cell line induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and compounds 1, 2, 3, 9, 15, 21, 24 and 51 were tested for the production of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 in RAW 264.7 macrophages induced by LPS. In conclusion, the isolated compounds 1, 2, 3, 9, 15, 21, 24 and 51 exhibited significant activity in anti-inflammatory activity assays. PMID:26473814

  3. Antimalarial activity of axidjiferosides, new β-galactosylceramides from the African sponge Axinyssa djiferi.

    PubMed

    Farokhi, Fereshteh; Grellier, Philippe; Clément, Monique; Roussakis, Christos; Loiseau, Philippe M; Genin-Seward, Emilie; Kornprobst, Jean-Michel; Barnathan, Gilles; Wielgosz-Collin, Gaëtane

    2013-04-01

    The marine sponge, Axinyssa djiferi, collected on mangrove tree roots in Senegal, was investigated for glycolipids. A mixture containing new glycosphingolipids, named axidjiferoside-A, -B and -C, accounted for 0.07% of sponge biomass (dry weight) and for 2.16% of total lipids. It showed a significant antimalarial activity, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.53 ± 0.2 μM against a chloroquine-resistant strain of Plasmodium falciparum. They were identified as homologous β-galactopyranosylceramides composed of 2-amino-(6E)-octadec-6-en-1,3,4-triol, and the major one, axidjiferoside-A (around 60%), contained 2-hydroxytetracosanoic acid. Cytotoxicity was studied in vitro on human cancer cell lines (multiple myeloma, colorectal adenocarcinoma, glioblastoma and two lung cancer NSCLC-N6 and A549). Results of this investigation showed that axidjiferosides are of interest, because they proved a good antiplasmodial activity, with only a low cytotoxicity against various human cell lines and no significant antitrypanosomal and antileishmanial activity. Thus, it seems that galactosylceramides with a β anomeric configuration may be suitable in searching for new antimalarial drugs. PMID:23595058

  4. Antimalarial Activity of Axidjiferosides, New β-Galactosylceramides from the African Sponge Axinyssa djiferi

    PubMed Central

    Farokhi, Fereshteh; Grellier, Philippe; Clément, Monique; Roussakis, Christos; Loiseau, Philippe M.; Genin-Seward, Emilie; Kornprobst, Jean-Michel; Barnathan, Gilles; Wielgosz-Collin, Gaëtane

    2013-01-01

    The marine sponge, Axinyssa djiferi, collected on mangrove tree roots in Senegal, was investigated for glycolipids. A mixture containing new glycosphingolipids, named axidjiferoside-A, -B and -C, accounted for 0.07% of sponge biomass (dry weight) and for 2.16% of total lipids. It showed a significant antimalarial activity, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.53 ± 0.2 μM against a chloroquine-resistant strain of Plasmodium falciparum. They were identified as homologous β-galactopyranosylceramides composed of 2-amino-(6E)-octadec-6-en-1,3,4-triol, and the major one, axidjiferoside-A (around 60%), contained 2-hydroxytetracosanoic acid. Cytotoxicity was studied in vitro on human cancer cell lines (multiple myeloma, colorectal adenocarcinoma, glioblastoma and two lung cancer NSCLC-N6 and A549). Results of this investigation showed that axidjiferosides are of interest, because they proved a good antiplasmodial activity, with only a low cytotoxicity against various human cell lines and no significant antitrypanosomal and antileishmanial activity. Thus, it seems that galactosylceramides with a β anomeric configuration may be suitable in searching for new antimalarial drugs. PMID:23595058

  5. Two new triterpenoid glycosides from the stems of Camellia oleifera Abel.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qing-Wei; Fu, Hui-Zheng; Luo, Yue-Hua; Zhou, Guo-Ping; Wan, Kai-Hua; Zhong, Rui-Jian

    2016-07-01

    Two new oleanane-type triterpenoid glycosides, 3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1→3)-[β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-22α-angeloyloxyolean-12-ene-15α,16α,28-triol(1) and 3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1→3)-[β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-21β-acetyl-22α-angeloyloxyolean-12-ene-16α,28-diol (2) were isolated from the stems of Camellia oleifera Abel. Their structures were elucidated by means of spectroscopic methods and chemical evidence. The cytotoxic activities of compounds 1-2 were evaluated against five human tumour cell lines (HCT-8, BGC-823, A5049, and A2780). Compounds 1-2 showed cytotoxic activity against five human cancer cell lines, with IC50 values ranging from 3.15 to 7.32 μM. PMID:26610161

  6. An Estrogen Receptor-α Knock-In Mutation Provides Evidence of Ligand-Independent Signaling and Allows Modulation of Ligand-Induced Pathways in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Sinkevicius, Kerstin W.; Burdette, Joanna E.; Woloszyn, Karolina; Hewitt, Sylvia C.; Hamilton, Katherine; Sugg, Sonia L.; Temple, Karla A.; Wondisford, Fredric E.; Korach, Kenneth S.; Woodruff, Teresa K.; Greene, Geoffrey L.

    2008-01-01

    Estrogen-nonresponsive estrogen receptor-α (ERα) knock-in (ENERKI) mice were generated to distinguish between ligand-induced and ligand-independent ER-α actions in vivo. These mice have a mutation [glycine 525 to leucine (G525L)] in the ligand-binding domain of ERα, which significantly reduces ERα interaction with and response to endogenous estrogens, whereas not affecting growth factor activation of ligand-independent pathways. ENERKI mice had hypoplastic uterine tissues and rudimentary mammary gland ductal trees. Females were infertile due to anovulation, and their ovaries contained hemorrhagic cystic follicles because of chronically elevated levels of LH. The ENERKI phenotype confirmed that ligand-induced activation of ERα is crucial in the female reproductive tract and mammary gland development. Growth factor treatments induced uterine epithelial proliferation in ovariectomized ENERKI females, directly demonstrating that ERα ligand-independent pathways were active. In addition, the synthetic ERα selective agonist propyl pyrazole triol (PPT) and ER agonist diethylstilbestrol (DES) were still able to activate ligand-induced G525L ERα pathways in vitro. PPT treatments initiated at puberty stimulated ENERKI uterine development, whereas neonatal treatments were needed to restore mammary gland ductal elongation, indicating that neonatal ligand-induced ERα activation may prime mammary ducts to become more responsive to estrogens in adult tissues. This is a useful model for in vivo evaluation of ligand-induced ERα pathways and temporal patterns of response. DES did not stimulate an ENERKI uterotrophic response. Because ERβ may modulate ERα activation and have an antiproliferative function in the uterus, we hypothesize that ENERKI animals were particularly sensitive to DES-induced inhibition of ERα due to up-regulated uterine ERβ levels. PMID:18339713

  7. Hydrophobic constituents and their potential anticancer activities from Devil’s Club Oplopanax horridus

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shi; Du, Guang-Jian; Qi, Lian-Wen; Williams, Stainley; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2011-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Devil’s Club Oplopanax horridus (Sm.) Miq. is a widely used folk medicine in the Pacific Northwest such as Alaska and British Columbia for treating a variety of ailments including arthritis, cold, fever, infections, diabetes and cancer. Aim of the study To investigate hydrophobic constituents and their potential anticancer activity from Devil’s Club O. horridus. Materials and methods The root bark of O. horridus (Sm.) Miq was isolated by chromatographic techniques. Structures of isolated compounds were identified by spectroscopic methods and comparison with published data. The anti-proliferation of isolated hydrophobic constituents in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells, human colon cancer SW-480 and HCT-116 cells were tested. The potential mechanism of anti-proliferation was also investigated using cell cycle and apoptosis assays. Results and discussion Six compounds were isolated and structurally identified as 9,17-octadecadiene-12,14-diyne-1,11,16-triol, 1-acetate (1), oplopandiol acetate (2), falcarindiol (3), oplopandiol (4), trans-nerolidol (5) and t-cadinol (6). These compounds showed potential anticancer activities on human breast cancer and colon cancer cells, of which compound 3 possesses the strongest activity. Further cell cycle and apoptosis test by flow cytometry showed the polyacetylenes 1–4 induced HCT-116 cell arresting in G2/M phase and inhibited proliferation by the induction of apoptosis at both earlier and later stage. Conclusion These results provide promising baseline information for the potential use of O. horridus as well as some of the isolated compounds in the treatment of cancer. PMID:20723598

  8. Chemical constituents of Papulaspora immersa, an endophyte from Smallanthus sonchifolius (Asteraceae), and their cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Margareth Borges Coutinho; Cavalcanti, Bruno Coêlho; Barros, Francisco Washington Araújo; Odorico de Moraes, Manoel; Costa-Lotufo, Letícia Veras; Pessoa, Cláudia; Bastos, Jairo Kenupp; Pupo, Mônica Tallarico

    2010-12-01

    Papulaspora immersa H. H. Hotson was isolated from roots and leaves of Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. and Endl.) H. Rob. (Asteraceae), traditionally known as Yacon. The fungus was cultured in rice, and, from the AcOEt fraction, 14 compounds were isolated. Among them, (22E,24R)-8,14-epoxyergosta-4,22-diene-3,6-dione (4), 2,3-epoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene-c-1,c-4,8-triol (10), and the chromone papulasporin (13) were new secondary metabolites. The spectral data of the known natural products were compared with the literature data, and their structures were established as the (24R)-stigmast-4-en-3-one (1), 24-methylenecycloartan-3β-ol (2), (22E,24R)-ergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one (3), (-)-(3R,4R)-4-hydroxymellein (5), (-)-(3R)-5-hydroxymellein (6), 6,8-dihydroxy-3-methylisocoumarin (7), (-)-(4S)-4,8-dihydroxy-α-tetralone (8), naphthalene-1,8-diol (9), 6,7,8-trihydroxy-3-methylisocoumarin (11), 7-hydroxy-2,5-dimethylchromone (12), and tyrosol (14). Compound 4 showed the highest cytotoxic activity against the human tumor cell lines MDA-MB435 (melanoma), HCT-8 (colon), SF295 (glioblastoma), and HL-60 (promyelocytic leukemia), with IC₅₀ values of 3.3, 14.7, 5.0 and 1.6 μM, respectively. Strong synergistic effects were also observed with compound 5 and some of the isolated steroidal compounds. PMID:21162007

  9. The expression of Hedgehog genes (Ihh, Dhh) and Hedgehog target genes (Ptc1, Gli1, Coup-TfII) is affected by estrogenic stimuli in the uterus of immature female rats.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Seiichi; Ashizawa, Koji; Gohma, Hiroshi; Fukuhara, Tadahiro; Narumi, Kazunori; Tsuzuki, Yasuhiro; Tatemoto, Hideki; Nakada, Tadashi; Nagai, Kenji

    2006-12-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of estrogen receptor (ER) agonists and an ER antagonist on the expression of Hedgehog genes (Indian hedgehog: Ihh; Desert hedgehog: Dhh) and Hedgehog target genes (Patched 1: Ptc1; glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1: Gli1; chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor II: Coup-TfII) in the rat uterus. Immature female rats were administered once with 17alpha-ethynyl estradiol (EE, an ER agonist), propyl pyrazole triole (PPT, an ERalpha-selective agonist), diarylpropionitrile (DPN, an ERbeta-selective agonist), or ICI 182,780 (an ER antagonist). Expression of mRNA for Ihh, Dhh, and Ptc1 was dose-dependently downregulated by EE in the uterus of immature rats, mediated by ER as confirmed by coadministration of ICI 182,780. The mRNA expression levels of Ptc1, Gli1, and Coup-TfII were simultaneously downregulated during the period in which the mRNA expression levels of Ihh and Dhh were downregulated in the uterus after administration of EE. PPT downregulated the transcription of Ihh, Dhh, Ptc1, Gli1, and Coup-TfII, indicating that expression of these genes was regulated by the ERalpha-dependent pathway. DPN also downregulated the transcription of Ihh and Dhh, although the effect was weaker than that of PPT, indicating that the regulation of uterine Ihh and Dhh transcription was also affected by the ERbeta-dependent pathway. These results suggest that the expression of Hedgehog genes (Ihh, Dhh) and Hedgehog target genes (Ptc1, Gli1, Coup-TfII) is affected by estrogenic stimuli in the uterus of immature female rats. PMID:17109907

  10. Estrogen stimulates expression of chicken hepatic vitellogenin II and very low-density apolipoprotein II through ER-α.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Leghari, Imdad H; He, Bin; Zeng, Weidong; Mi, Yuling; Zhang, Caiqiao

    2014-08-01

    Steroid hormones and their receptors play pivotal roles throughout vertebrate reproduction and development. Egg formation in avian species is a prime example. The synthesis of egg yolk proteins by the liver is highly dependent on estrogen. Two major components of the yolk protein precursors, vitellogenin II (VTG II) and very low-density apolipoprotein II (ApoVLDL II), are synthesized in the liver of hens under estrogen stimulation and are subsequently transferred via the blood to the developing oocytes. Estrogen-inducible transcription can be mediated through estrogen receptors (ERs) (ER-α and ER-β) or through G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30), but the exact participation of the individual receptor is not clear. Here, we determine the relative contribution of each transduction pathway in the synthesis of VTG II and ApoVLDL II in the hepatocytes by using selective compounds that are known to specifically interact with each of the ERs and GPR30. 17β-Estradiol and propyl pyrazole triol (PPT, ER-α agonist) induced increase in VTG II and ApoVLDL II mRNA expressions in a dose-dependent manner. A high concentration of diarylpropionitrile (DPN, which preferentially motivates ER-β) slightly stimulated the expression of VTG II and ApoVLDL II mRNAs. However, G-1 (a GPR30 agonist) failed to display any stimulating role. Methyl-piperidino-pyrazole (a highly selective ER-α antagonist) fully blocked the expression of both yolk precursors, which were upregulated by 17β-estradiol, PPT, and DPN. Considering that DPN can also provoke the action of ER-α at high concentration, this excludes the participation of ER-β and supports the role of ER-α. The aforementioned results indicate that estrogen stimulates the expression of VTG II and ApoVLDL II mRNAs predominantly through ER-α in the chicken liver. PMID:24938798

  11. Effects of estrogens on sex differentiation in Japanese quail and chicken.

    PubMed

    Brunström, Björn; Axelsson, Jeanette; Mattsson, Anna; Halldin, Krister

    2009-09-01

    Estrogen production by the female avian embryo induces development of a female phenotype of the reproductive organs whereas the low estrogen concentration in the male embryo results in a male phenotype. Treatment of female embryos with exogenous estrogens disrupts Müllerian duct development resulting in malformations and impaired oviductal function. Exposure of male embryos to estrogens results in ovotestis formation and persisting Müllerian ducts in the embryos and testicular malformations, reduced semen production and partially developed oviducts in the adult bird. Furthermore, studies in Japanese quail show that the male copulatory behavior is impaired by embryonic estrogen treatment. Results from our experiments with selective agonists for ERalpha and ERbeta suggest that the effects of estrogens on the reproductive organs are mediated via activation of ERalpha. Abundant expression of ERalpha mRNA was shown in gonads and Müllerian ducts of early Japanese quail embryos. Both ERalpha and ERbeta transcripts were detected by real-time PCR in early embryo brains of Japanese quail indicating that both receptors may be involved in sex differentiation of the brain. However, in 9-day-old quail embryo brains in situ hybridization showed expression of ERbeta mRNA, but not of ERalpha mRNA, in the medial preoptic nucleus (POM) and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTm), areas implicated in copulatory behavior of adult male quail. Furthermore, embryonic treatment with the selective ERalpha agonist propyl pyrazol triol (PPT) had no effect on the male copulatory behavior. These results suggest that ERbeta may be important for the effects of estrogens on brain differentiation. PMID:19523394

  12. Oestrogen Receptors Enhance Dopamine Neurone Survival in Rat Midbrain

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, M. L.; Ho, C. C.; Day, A. E.; Walker, Q. D.; Francis, R.; Kuhn, C. M.

    2011-01-01

    Previous findings in our laboratory and elsewhere have shown that ovariectomy of rats in adulthood attenuates cocaine-stimulated locomotor behaviour. Ovarian hormones enhance both cocaine-stimulated behaviour and increase dopamine overflow after psychomotor stimulants. The present study aimed to determine whether ovarian hormones have these effects in part by maintaining dopamine neurone number in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) and to investigate the roles of specific oestrogen receptors (ERs) in the maintenance of mesencephalic dopamine neurones. To accomplish this goal, we used unbiased stereological techniques to estimate the number of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-IR) cell bodies in midbrain regions of intact, ovariectomised and hormone-replaced female rats and mice. Animals received active or sham gonadectomy on postnatal day 60 and received vehicle, 17β-oestradiol (E2) or selective ER agonists propyl-pyrazole-triol (PPT, ERα) or diarylpropionitrile (DPN, ERβ) for 1 month post-surgery. In both rats and mice, ovariectomy reduced the number of TH-IR cells in the SNpc and VTA. Replacement with E2, PPT or DPN prevented or attenuated the loss observed with ovariectomy in both rats and mice. An additional study using ER knockout mice revealed that adult female mice lacking ERα had fewer TH-IR cells in midbrain regions than wild-type mice, whereas mice lacking ERβ had TH-IR cell counts comparable to wild-type. These findings suggest that, although both ER subtypes play a role in the maintenance of TH-IR cell number in the SNpc and VTA, ERα may play a more significant role. PMID:20136693

  13. Synthesis of 4-(aminoalkyl) substituted 1,3-dioxanes as potent NMDA and σ receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Utech, Tina; Köhler, Jens; Wünsch, Bernhard

    2011-06-01

    Elongation of the distance between the oxygen heterocycle and the basic amino moiety or ring expansion of the oxygen heterocycle of the NMDA receptor antagonists dexoxadrol and etoxadrol led to compounds with promising NMDA receptor affinity. Herein the combination of both structural features, i.e. elongation of the O-heterocycle--amine distance with a 1,3-dioxane ring is envisaged. The synthesis of aminoethyl-1,3-dioxanes 13, 22, 23 and 29 was performed by transacetalization of various acetals with pentane-1,3,5-triol, activation of the remaining free OH moiety with tosyl chloride and subsequent nucleophilic substitution. The corresponding 3-aminopropyl derivatives 33-35 were prepared by substitution of the tosylates with KCN and LiAlH4 reduction. The highest NMDA receptor affinity was found for 1,3-dioxanes with a phenyl and an ethyl residue at the acetalic position (23) followed by diphenyl (22) and monophenyl derivatives (13). Generally the NMDA affinity of primary amines is higher than the NMDA affinity of secondary and tertiary amines. Altogether the primary amine 23a (Ki=24 nM) represents the most promising NMDA receptor antagonist of this series exceeding the NMDA affinity of the mono-homologues (2-aminoethyl)-1,3-dioxolanes (3,4) and (aminomethyl)-1,3-dioxanes (5,6). Whereas the primary amine 23a turned out to be selective against σ1 and σ2 receptors the benzylamine 13d was identified as potent (Ki=19 nM) and selective σ1 antagonist, which showed extraordinarily high antiallodynic activity in the capsaicin assay. PMID:21444132

  14. Effects of estrogens and progesterone on the synaptic organization of the hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus.

    PubMed

    Sá, S I; Lukoyanova, E; Madeira, M D

    2009-08-18

    The majority of the studies on the actions of estrogens in the ventrolateral part of the hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus (VMNvl) concern the factors that modulate the receptive component of the feminine sexual behavior and the expression of molecular markers of neuronal activation. To further our understanding of the factors that regulate synaptic plasticity in the female VMNvl, we have examined the effects of estradiol and progesterone, and of estrogen receptor (ER) subtype selective ligands on the number of dendritic and spine synapses established by individual VMNvl neurons and on sexual behavior. In contrast to earlier studies that analyzed synapse densities, our results show that exogenous estradiol increases the number of spine as well as of dendritic synapses, irrespective of the dose and regimen of administration. They also reveal that an effective dose of estradiol administered as one single pulse induces the formation of more synapses than the same dose administered as two pulses on consecutive days. Our results further show that both ER subtypes are involved in the mediation of the synaptogenic effects of estrogens on VMNvl neurons since the administration of the selective ERalpha, propyl-pyrazole-triol (PPT), and ERbeta, diarylpropionitrile (DPN), agonists induced a significant increase in the number of synapses that, however, was more exuberant for PPT. Despite its relevant role in feminine sexual behavior, progesterone had no synaptogenic effect in the VMNvl as no changes in synapse numbers were noticed in rats treated with progesterone alone, with estradiol followed by progesterone or with the antiprogestin mifepristone (RU486). Except for the sequential administration of estradiol and progesterone, none of the regimens was associated with lordosis response to vaginocervical stimulation. Therefore, from the sex steroids that undergo cyclic variations over the estrous cycle, only estrogens, acting through both ERalpha and ERbeta, play a key role in

  15. Antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of methanol extract, fractions and compounds from the stem bark of Entada abyssinica Stend ex A. Satabie

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the methanol extract, fractions and isolated compounds from Entada abyssinica stem bark, plant used traditionally against gastrointestinal infections. Methods The methanol extract of E. abyssinica stem bark was pre-dissolved in a mixture of methanol and water, and then partitioned between n-hexane, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. The ethyl acetate portion was fractionated by column chromatography and the structures of isolated compounds elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data and comparison with literature data. Antimicrobial activity was assayed by broth microdilution techniques on bacteria and yeasts. The antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH radical scavenging method. Results Four known compounds [(5S,6R,8aR)-5-(carboxymethyl)-3,4,4a,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydro-5,6,8a-trimethylnaphthalenecarboxylic acid (1), methyl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate (2), benzene-1,2,3-triol (3) and 2,3-dihydroxypropyltriacontanoate (4)] were isolated. Compared to the methanol extract, fractionation increased the antibacterial activities of the n-hexane and ethyl acetate fractions, while the antifungal activities increased in ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous residue fractions. The isolated compounds were generally more active on bacteria (9.7 to 156.2 μg/ml) than yeasts (78.1 to 312.5 μg/ml). Apart from compound 1, the three others displayed DPPH· scavenging activity (RSa), with RSa50 values of 1.45 and 1.60 μg/ml. Conclusion The results obtained from this study support the ethnomedicinal use of E. abyssinica in the treatment of gastrointestinal infections and the isolated compounds could be useful in the standardisation of antimicrobial phytomedicine from this plant. PMID:21771305

  16. Skin of the male African catfish, Clarias gariepinus: a source of steroid glucuronides

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, S.A.; Schoonen, W.G.; Lambert, J.G.; Van den Hurk, R.; Van Oordt, P.G.

    1987-06-01

    Steroid metabolism in the skin of mature male African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, reared in the laboratory, was studied in vitro by tissue incubations with (/sup 3/H)pregnenolone, (/sup 3/H)dehydroepiandrosterone, (/sup 3/H)17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, (/sup 3/H)androstenedione, (/sup 14/C)11 beta-hydroxyandrostenedione, and (/sup 3/H)testosterone as precursors. While pregnenolone was not converted to any other steroid, dehydroepiandrosterone was transformed mainly to 5-androstene-3 beta, 17 beta-diol. The products of 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone incubations were 5 beta-pregnane-3 alpha,17 alpha-diol-20-one, 5 beta-pregnane-3 alpha,17 alpha, 20 beta-triol, and 5 beta-pregnan-17 alpha-o1-3,20-dione. The major steroids of androstenedione incubations were etiocholanolone, testosterone, and androsterone. Testosterone was converted mainly to etiocholanolone and androstenedione, and only small quantities of 11 beta-hydroxytestosterone, 11-ketotestosterone, and 11-ketoandrostenedione were the metabolites found in 11 beta-hydroxyandrostenedione incubation. These results demonstrated the presence of the enzymes 5 alpha- and 5 beta-reductases and 3 alpha-, 11 beta-, 17 beta-, and 20 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases in the skin. From enzymehistochemical results it appeared that the steroid conversions take place in the epithelial cells. Moreover, the presence of UDP-glucose dehydrogenase, an enzyme involved in the synthesis of glucuronic acid, in these cells indicates the possibility of steroid glucuronide formation. Indeed significant amounts of water-soluble steroid conjugates, particularly 5 beta-dihydrotestosterone- and testosterone-glucuronide, were found in the incubations with androstenedione and testosterone, indicating the presence of the UDP-glucuronosyl transferase in the catfish skin.

  17. Estrogens stimulate serotonin neurons to inhibit binge-like eating in mice

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Xuehong; Xu, Pingwen; Oyola, Mario G.; Xia, Yan; Yan, Xiaofeng; Saito, Kenji; Zou, Fang; Wang, Chunmei; Yang, Yongjie; Hinton, Antentor; Yan, Chunling; Ding, Hongfang; Zhu, Liangru; Yu, Likai; Yang, Bin; Feng, Yuxin; Clegg, Deborah J.; Khan, Sohaib; DiMarchi, Richard; Mani, Shaila K.; Tong, Qingchun; Xu, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Binge eating afflicts approximately 5% of US adults, though effective treatments are limited. Here, we showed that estrogen replacement substantially suppresses binge-like eating behavior in ovariectomized female mice. Estrogen-dependent inhibition of binge-like eating was blocked in female mice specifically lacking estrogen receptor-α (ERα) in serotonin (5-HT) neurons in the dorsal raphe nuclei (DRN). Administration of a recently developed glucagon-like peptide-1–estrogen (GLP-1–estrogen) conjugate designed to deliver estrogen to GLP1 receptor–enhanced regions effectively targeted bioactive estrogens to the DRN and substantially suppressed binge-like eating in ovariectomized female mice. Administration of GLP-1 alone reduced binge-like eating, but not to the same extent as the GLP-1–estrogen conjugate. Administration of ERα-selective agonist propylpyrazole triol (PPT) to murine DRN 5-HT neurons activated these neurons in an ERα-dependent manner. PPT also inhibited a small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SK) current; blockade of the SK current prevented PPT-induced activation of DRN 5-HT neurons. Furthermore, local inhibition of the SK current in the DRN markedly suppressed binge-like eating in female mice. Together, our data indicate that estrogens act upon ERα to inhibit the SK current in DRN 5-HT neurons, thereby activating these neurons to suppress binge-like eating behavior and suggest ERα and/or SK current in DRN 5-HT neurons as potential targets for anti-binge therapies. PMID:25157819

  18. Systemic administration of diarylpropionitrile (DPN) or phytoestrogens does not affect anxiety-related behaviors in gonadally intact male rats

    PubMed Central

    Patisaul, Heather B.; Burke, Katherine T.; Hinkle, Ruth E.; Adewale, Heather L.; Shea, Damian

    2009-01-01

    The development of highly selective agonists for the two major subforms of the estrogen receptor (ERa and ERϐ) has produced new experimental methodologies for delineating the distinct functional role each plays in neurobehavioral biology. It has also been suggested that these compounds might have the potential to treat estrogen influenced behavioral disorders, such as anxiety and depression. Prior work has established that the ERϐ agonist, diarylpropionitrile (DPN) is anxiolytic in gonadectomized animals of both sexes, but whether or not this effect persists in gonadally intact individuals is unknown. Isoflavone phytoestrogens, also potent but less selective ERϐ agonists, have also been shown to influence anxiety in multiple species and are becoming more readily available to humans as health supplements. Here we determined the effects of 0.5, 1 or 2 mg/kg DPN, 1 mg/kg of the ERa agonist propyl-pyrazole-triol (PPT), 3 or 20 mg/kg of the isoflavone equol (EQ) and 3 or 20 mg/kg of the isoflavone polyphenol resveratrol (RES) on anxiety behavior in the gonadally intact male rat using the light/dark box and the elevated plus maze. We first determined that DPN can be successfully administered either orally or by subcutaneous injection, although plasma DPN levels are significantly lower if given orally. Once injected, plasma levels peak rapidly and then decline to baseline levels within 3 hours of administration. For the behavioral studies, all compounds were injected and the animals were tested within 3 hours of treatment. None of the compounds, at any of the doses, significantly altered anxiety-related behavior. Plasma testosterone levels were also not significantly altered suggesting that these compounds do not interfere with endogenous androgen levels. The results suggest that the efficacy of ERϐ agonists may depend on gonadal status. Therefore the therapeutic potential of ERϐ selective agonists to treat mood disorders may be limited. PMID:19071129

  19. Purity and stability assessment of a semi-solid poly(ortho ester) used in drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Merkli, A; Heller, J; Tabatabay, C; Gurny, R

    1996-05-01

    The research work carried out for developing bioerodible drug delivery devices in which the erosion process was to be confined to the polymer-water interface is at the origin of the discovery of a class of polymers known as poly(ortho esters) (POEs). Thus far, three POE systems have been described. The latest POE was prepared by a transesterification reaction between a triol and an ortho ester, followed by a self-condensation of the reaction product. This polymer, which exhibits viscous characteristics at room temperature, was investigated for use as a drug delivery system in glaucoma filtering surgery. The assessment of POE purity and stability was carried out by a detailed analysis of the influence of the purification procedure and storage conditions. This bioerodible semi-solid POE was purified by a repeated precipitation procedure. Elimination of the small molecular weight oligomers and monomers and of the catalysts and stabilizers used in the synthesis, as well as a decrease of the polydispersity, were obtained with this method. Fourier transform infrared analysis also verified the disappearance of degradation products after the first precipitation. Drying of the precipitated polymer was performed at 40 degrees C in order to avoid thermal degradation of the POE at higher temperatures and to facilitate solvent evaporation through the polymer network by a reduction of polymer viscosity. Water vapour uptake of the polymers stored at different relative humidities has demonstrated the high moisture sensitivity of these semi-solid POEs. The average molecular weight of the polymer and hence its viscosity, as well as the solubility characteristics of the incorporated drug, were found to have a considerable influence on the rate of water vapour absorption and on polymer degradation. The use of inert gas or vacuum to maintain the polymer under anhydrous conditions has been studied. Storage of the semi-solid POE under argon in sealed glass bottles provides good

  20. A Transient Cell-Shielding Method for Viable MSC Delivery within Hydrophobic Scaffolds Polymerized In Situ

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Ruijing; Ward, Catherine L.; Davidson, Jeffrey M.; Duvall, Craig L.; Wenke, Joseph C.

    2015-01-01

    Cell-based therapies have emerged as promising approaches for regenerative medicine. Hydrophobic poly(ester urethane)s offer the advantages of robust mechanical properties, cell attachment without the use of peptides, and controlled degradation by oxidative and hydrolytic mechanisms. However, the application of injectable hydrophobic polymers to cell delivery is limited by the challenges of protecting cells from reaction products and creating a macroporous architecture post-cure. We designed injectable carriers for cell delivery derived from reactive, hydrophobic polyisocyanate and polyester triol precursors. To overcome cell death caused by reaction products from in situ polymerization, we encapsulated bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs) in fast-degrading, oxidized alginate beads prior to mixing with the hydrophobic precursors. Cells survived the polymerization at >70% viability, and rapid dissolution of oxidized alginate beads after the scaffold cured created interconnected macropores that facilitated cellular adhesion to the scaffold in vitro. Applying this injectable system to deliver BMSCs to rat excisional skin wounds showed that the scaffolds supported survival of transplanted cells and infiltration of host cells, which improved new tissue formation compared to both implanted, pre-formed scaffolds seeded with cells and acellular controls. Our design is the first to enable injectable delivery of settable, hydrophobic scaffolds where cell encapsulation provides a mechanism for both temporary cytoprotection during polymerization and rapid formation of macropores post-polymerization. This simple approach provides potential advantages for cell delivery relative to hydrogel technologies, which have weaker mechanical properties and require incorporation of peptides to achieve cell adhesion and degradability. PMID:25907036

  1. A Multi-Component Pheromone in the Urine of Dominant Male Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) Reduces Aggression in Rivals.

    PubMed

    Keller-Costa, Tina; Saraiva, João L; Hubbard, Peter C; Barata, Eduardo N; Canário, Adelino V M

    2016-02-01

    Males often use scent to communicate their dominance, and to mediate aggressive and breeding behaviors. In teleost fish, however, the chemical composition of male pheromones is poorly understood. Male Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus, use urine that signals social status and primes females to spawn. The urinary sex pheromone directed at females consists of 5β-pregnane-3α,17α,20β-triol 3-glucuronate and its 20α-epimer. The concentration of these is positively correlated with male social rank. This study tested whether dominant male urine reduces aggression in receiver males, and whether the pregnanetriol 3-glucuronates also reduce male-male aggression. Males were allowed to fight their mirror image when exposed to either: i) water control or a chemical stimulus; ii) dominant male urine (DMU); iii) C18-solid phase (C18-SPE) DMU eluate; iv) C18-SPE DMU eluate plus filtrate; v) the two pregnanetriol 3-glucuronates (P3Gs); or vi) P3Gs plus DMU filtrate. Control males mounted an increasingly aggressive fight against their image over time. However, DMU significantly reduced this aggressive response. The two urinary P3Gs did not replicate the effect of whole DMU. Neither did the C18-SPE DMU eluate, containing the P3Gs, alone, nor the C18-SPE DMU filtrate to which the two P3Gs were added. Only exposure to reconstituted DMU (C18-SPE eluate plus filtrate) restored the aggression-reducing effect of whole DMU. Olfactory activity was present in the eluate and the polar filtrate in electro-olfactogram studies. We conclude that P3Gs alone have no reducing effect on aggression and that the urinary signal driving off male competition is likely to be a multi-component pheromone, with components present in both the polar and non-polar urine fractions. PMID:26846373

  2. Carnosol and Related Substances Modulate Chemokine and Cytokine Production in Macrophages and Chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Schwager, Joseph; Richard, Nathalie; Fowler, Ann; Seifert, Nicole; Raederstorff, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic diterpenes present in Rosmarinus officinalis and Salvia officinalis have anti-inflammatory and chemoprotective effects. We investigated the in vitro effects of carnosol (CL), carnosic acid (CA), carnosic acid-12-methylether (CAME), 20-deoxocarnosol and abieta-8,11,13-triene-11,12,20-triol (ABTT) in murine macrophages (RAW264.7 cells) and human chondrocytes. The substances concentration-dependently reduced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) production in LPS-stimulated macrophages (i.e., acute inflammation). They significantly blunted gene expression levels of iNOS, cytokines/interleukins (IL-1α, IL-6) and chemokines including CCL5/RANTES, CXCL10/IP-10. The substances modulated the expression of catabolic and anabolic genes in chondrosarcoma cell line SW1353 and in primary human chondrocytes that were stimulated by IL-1β (i.e., chronic inflammation In SW1353, catabolic genes like MMP-13 and ADAMTS-4 that contribute to cartilage erosion were down-regulated, while expression of anabolic genes including Col2A1 and aggrecan were shifted towards pre-pathophysiological homeostasis. CL had the strongest overall effect on inflammatory mediators, as well as on macrophage and chondrocyte gene expression. Conversely, CAME mainly affected catabolic gene expression, whereas ABTT had a more selectively altered interleukin and chemokine gene exprssion. CL inhibited the IL-1β induced nuclear translocation of NF-κBp65, suggesting that it primarily regulated via the NF-κB signalling pathway. Collectively, CL had the strongest effects on inflammatory mediators and chondrocyte gene expression. The data show that the phenolic diterpenes altered activity pattern of genes that regulate acute and chronic inflammatory processes. Since the substances affected catabolic and anabolic gene expression in cartilage cells in vitro, they may beneficially act on the aetiology of osteoarthritis. PMID:27070563

  3. Assay of intermediates in bile acid biosynthesis using isotope dilution--mass spectrometry: hepatic levels in the normal state and in cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis

    SciTech Connect

    Bjoerkhem, I.; Oftebro, H.; Skrede, S.; Pedersen, J.I.

    1981-02-01

    The synthesis of 2H4-labeled 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha, 7 alpha-diol, 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-triol, 7 alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one, and 7 alpha,12 alpha-dihydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one is described. A mixture of these compounds, together with 2H3-labeled 5-cholestene-3 beta, 7 alpha-diol, was added to extracts of different subcellular fractions of liver. After purification by high performance liquid chromatography and conversion into trimethylsilyl ethers, the amounts of different endogenous unlabeled steroids were determined by selected ion monitoring. In normal liver, the concentration of 5-cholestene-3 beta, 7 alpha-diol was higher than the concentration of the other steroids. The concentration of the different steroids was highest in the microsomal fraction of the liver homogenate. In a liver sample from a patient with cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX), the amounts of the 12 alpha-hydroxylated steroids were considerably higher than in the normal liver. The levels of 7 alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one and 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha, 7 alpha-diol were similar or only slightly higher than in the liver of the control patients. The concentration of 5-cholestene-3 beta, 7 alpha-diol was very high in the mitochondrial fraction of the CTX-liver. The findings are in accordance with the previous demonstration that the basic metabolic defect in CTX is a lack of the mitochondrial 26-hydroxylase. The results are further compatible with the contention that 7 alpha,26-dihydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one is an important intermediate in the normal bile acid biosynthesis.

  4. Design of bioabsorbable, amorphous polymer networks and composites

    SciTech Connect

    Wiggins, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    Amorphous, crosslinked, bioabsorbable polymers have been developed as an alternative to conventional linear, semi-crystalline thermoplastic bioabsorbable polymers, and as matrix resins for totally bioabsorbable composites. Bioabsorbable composites have been fabricated, consisting of poly(glycolic acid) surgical mesh embedded in polyester and polyester-urethane based matrices. Low-molecular weight precursors used in the matrices of the composites were based on D, L-lactide and [epsilon]-caprolactone polyols, which were synthesized by coordination ring-opening polymerization using glycol initiators and stannous octoate as catalyst. Polymers initiated with diols were chain extended with fumaric acid for use as unsaturated polyester prepolymers, and were crosslinked using peroxide initiation. Polyester triols synthesized from glycerol initiation were crosslinked with L-lysine diisocyanate (LDI). Networks synthesized from D, L-lactide based precursors were more rigid with higher tensile strengths and moduli, while networks synthesized from [epsilon]-caprolactone were more flexible and elastomeric. Copolymer network properties were influenced by the relative amounts of each monomer incorporated into the copolymers. A composite based on neat poly(D, L-lactide-co-[epsilon]-caprolactone) fumarate displayed a tensile strength of 37 MPa and modulus of 107 MPa; addition of 25 wt% styrene yielded tensile strength and modulus of 64 MPa and 689 MPa, respectively. A silane coupling agent was shown to dramatically improve the fiber-matrix interfacial adhesion; tensile strength of a poly(D, L-lactide-co-glycolic acid) fumarate composite was increased from 84 to 92 MPa upon fiber pretreatment. Improved adhesion was also demonstrated using SEM. DSC revealed that if the glass transitions for the matrices was maintained at [approximately]60[degrees]C, the composites were easily shaped above this temperature, yet remained rigid at biological temperatures.

  5. PLDLA/PCL-T Scaffold for Meniscus Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Andrea Rodrigues; Moda, Marlon; Cattani, Silvia Mara de Melo; de Santana, Gracy Mara; Barbieri, Juliana Abreu; Munhoz, Monique Moron; Cardoso, Túlio Pereira; Barbo, Maria Lourdes Peris; Russo, Teresa; D'Amora, Ugo; Gloria, Antonio; Ambrosio, Luigi; Duek, Eliana Aparecida de Rezende

    2013-04-01

    The inability of the avascular region of the meniscus to regenerate has led to the use of tissue engineering to treat meniscal injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of fibrochondrocytes preseeded on PLDLA/PCL-T [poly(L-co-D,L-lactic acid)/poly(caprolactone-triol)] scaffolds to stimulate regeneration of the whole meniscus. Porous PLDLA/PCL-T (90/10) scaffolds were obtained by solvent casting and particulate leaching. Compressive modulus of 9.5±1.0 MPa and maximum stress of 4.7±0.9 MPa were evaluated. Fibrochondrocytes from rabbit menisci were isolated, seeded directly on the scaffolds, and cultured for 21 days. New Zealand rabbits underwent total meniscectomy, after which implants consisting of cell-free scaffolds or cell-seeded scaffolds were introduced into the medial knee meniscus; the negative control group consisted of rabbits that received no implant. Macroscopic and histological evaluations of the neomeniscus were performed 12 and 24 weeks after implantation. The polymer scaffold implants adapted well to surrounding tissues, without apparent rejection, infection, or chronic inflammatory response. Fibrocartilaginous tissue with mature collagen fibers was observed predominantly in implants with seeded scaffolds compared to cell-free implants after 24 weeks. Similar results were not observed in the control group. Articular cartilage was preserved in the polymeric implants and showed higher chondrocyte cell number than the control group. These findings show that the PLDLA/PCL-T 90/10 scaffold has potential for orthopedic applications since this material allowed the formation of fibrocartilaginous tissue, a structure of crucial importance for repairing injuries to joints, including replacement of the meniscus and the protection of articular cartilage from degeneration. PMID:23593566

  6. ERbeta-selective estrogen receptor modulators produce antianxiety behavior when administered systemically to ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Walf, Alicia A; Frye, Cheryl A

    2005-09-01

    17beta-Estradiol (E2) may influence anxiety behavior; however, its effects and mechanisms are not well understood. To determine whether E2's effects on anxiety behavior may involve actions at intracellular estrogen receptor (ER) alpha or beta isoforms, selective ER modulators (SERMs) were administered (10 microg; s.c.) to ovariectomized rats 48 h before testing for anxiety behavior. Rats received sesame oil vehicle, 17beta-E2, which has a high affinity for ERalpha and ERbeta, or SERMs that vary in their activity at ERalpha and beta. ERalpha-selective SERMs were propyl pyrazole triol (PPT), which has more selective effects at ERalpha, than does the other ERalpha SERM utilized, 17alpha-E2, which also binds ERbeta. ERbeta-selective SERMs were diarylpropionitrile (DPN) and 7,12-dihydrocoumestan (coumestrol). DPN is more selective at ERbeta than coumestrol, which also binds ERalpha. 17beta-E2 and ERbeta-selective SERMs (DPN, coumestrol) produced clear antianxiety behavior in the open field, elevated plus maze, emergence, light-dark transition, defensive freezing, and Vogel punished drinking tasks. Anxiety behavior of rats administered ERalpha-selective SERMs (PPT, 17alpha-E2) was not different from vehicle; however, PPT and 17alpha-E2 enhanced sexual receptivity in a manner similar to 17beta-E2. Coadministration of tamoxifen (10 mg/kg) blocked the antianxiety behavior produced by 17beta-E2, DPN, or coumestrol. Together, these data suggest that actions at ERbeta may underlie some of E2's antianxiety effects. PMID:15798780

  7. Are Motorways Potential Stressors of Roadside Wood Mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) Populations?

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Castilla, Álvaro; Mata, Cristina; Ruiz-Capillas, Pablo; Palme, Rupert; Malo, Juan E.; Barja, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Linear infrastructures represent one of the most important human impacts on natural habitats and exert several effects on mammal populations. Motorways are recognized as a major cause of habitat fragmentation and degradation and of biodiversity loss. However, it is unknown whether motorways lead to increased physiological stress reactions in wild animal populations. We analysed faecal corticosterone metabolites (FCM) in wild populations of wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) living in a well-preserved Mediterranean agro-pastoral woodland at different distances (verge, 500 m and 1000 m) from the AP-51 motorway in Spain. Wood mice were captured with Sherman live traps, and fresh faecal samples from 424 individuals were collected and analyzed in the laboratory. The quantification of FCM was performed by a 5α-pregnane-3β,11β, 21-triol-20-one enzyme immunoassay. Results showed that females had higher FCM levels than males, and these levels were higher in breeding females. In addition, FCM levels were positively correlated with body weight of individuals. Wood mice captured where cattle were present showed higher FCM levels than individuals living where cattle were not detected. FCM levels were higher in non-breeding individuals living close to the motorway compared with FCM levels in those individuals captured further from the motorway. This is the first study showing evidence of the motorways' impact on physiological stress reactions in wild wood mice populations. Understanding how free-living animals are influenced by human interventions could help to understand other subtle changes observed in wild animal populations. Since mice are used world-wide as research models these results could open new perspectives testing human influence on the natural environment and trade-offs of species in degraded ecosystems. PMID:24637740

  8. The expression of Hedgehog genes (Ihh, Dhh) and Hedgehog target genes (Ptc1, Gli1, Coup-TfII) is affected by estrogenic stimuli in the uterus of immature female rats

    SciTech Connect

    Katayama, Seiichi . E-mail: katayama@ankaken.co.jp; Ashizawa, Koji; Gohma, Hiroshi; Fukuhara, Tadahiro; Narumi, Kazunori; Tsuzuki, Yasuhiro; Tatemoto, Hideki; Nakada, Tadashi; Nagai, Kenji

    2006-12-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of estrogen receptor (ER) agonists and an ER antagonist on the expression of Hedgehog genes (Indian hedgehog: Ihh; Desert hedgehog: Dhh) and Hedgehog target genes (Patched 1: Ptc1; glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1: Gli1; chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor II: Coup-TfII) in the rat uterus. Immature female rats were administered once with 17{alpha}-ethynyl estradiol (EE, an ER agonist), propyl pyrazole triole (PPT, an ER{alpha}-selective agonist), diarylpropionitrile (DPN, an ER{beta}-selective agonist), or ICI 182,780 (an ER antagonist). Expression of mRNA for Ihh, Dhh, and Ptc1 was dose-dependently downregulated by EE in the uterus of immature rats, mediated by ER as confirmed by coadministration of ICI 182,780. The mRNA expression levels of Ptc1, Gli1, and Coup-TfII were simultaneously downregulated during the period in which the mRNA expression levels of Ihh and Dhh were downregulated in the uterus after administration of EE. PPT downregulated the transcription of Ihh, Dhh, Ptc1, Gli1, and Coup-TfII, indicating that expression of these genes was regulated by the ER{alpha}-dependent pathway. DPN also downregulated the transcription of Ihh and Dhh, although the effect was weaker than that of PPT, indicating that the regulation of uterine Ihh and Dhh transcription was also affected by the ER{beta}-dependent pathway. These results suggest that the expression of Hedgehog genes (Ihh, Dhh) and Hedgehog target genes (Ptc1, Gli1, Coup-TfII) is affected by estrogenic stimuli in the uterus of immature female rats.

  9. SELF-ASSEMBLY CE OXIDE/ORGANOPOLYSILOXANE COMPOSITE COATINGS.

    SciTech Connect

    SUGAMA,T.; SABATINI,R.; GAWLIK,K.

    2005-01-01

    A self-assembly composite synthesis technology was used to put together a Ce(OH){sub 3}-dispersed poly-acetamide-acetoxyl methyl-propylsiloxane (PAAMPA) organometallic polymer. Three spontaneous reactions were involved; condensation, amidation, and acetoxylation, between the Ce acetate and aminopropylsilane triol (APST) at 150 C. An increase in temperature to 200 C led to the in-situ phase transformation of Ce(OH){sub 3} into Ce{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the PAAMPA matrix. A further increase to 250 C caused oxidative degradation of the PAAMPA, thereby generating copious fissures in the composite. We assessed the potential of Ce(OH){sub 3}/ and Ce{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ PAAMPA composite materials as corrosion-preventing coatings for carbon steel and aluminum. The Ce{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite coating displayed better performance in protecting both metals against NaCl-caused corrosion than did the Ce(OH){sub 3} composite. Using this coating formed at 200 C, we demonstrated that the following four factors played an essential role in further mitigating the corrosion of the metals: First was a minimum susceptibility of coating's surface to moisture; second was an enhanced densification of the coating layer; third was the retardation of the cathodic oxygen reduction reaction at the metal's corrosion sites due to the deposition of Ce{sub 2}O{sub 3} as a passive film over the metal's surface; and, fourth was its good adherence to metals. The last two factors contributed to minimizing the cathodic delamination of coating film from the metal's surface. We also noted that the affinity of the composite with the surface of aluminum was much stronger than that with steel. Correspondingly, the rate of corrosion of aluminum was reduced as much as two orders of magnitude by a nanoscale thick coating. In contrast, its ability to reduce the corrosion rate of steel was lower than one order of magnitude.

  10. 27-Oxygenation of C27-sterols and 25-hydroxylation of vitamin D3 in kidney: cloning, structure and expression of pig kidney CYP27A.

    PubMed Central

    Postlind, H; Hosseinpour, F; Norlin, M; Wikvall, K

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the molecular cloning of a cytochrome P450 enzyme in pig kidney that catalyses the hydroxylations of vitamin D(3) (cholecalciferol) and C(27)-sterols. DNA sequence analysis of the cDNA revealed that the enzyme belongs to the CYP27 family. The first 36 amino acids have many hallmarks of a mitochondrial signal sequence. The mature pig kidney CYP27 protein contains 498 amino acids. The M(r) of the mature protein was calculated to be 56607. The structure of pig kidney CYP27, as deduced by DNA sequence analysis, shows 77-83% identity with CYP27A in rat, rabbit and human liver. Transfection of the renal CYP27A cDNA into simian COS cells resulted in the synthesis of an enzyme that catalysed the 25-hydroxylation of vitamin D(3) and the 27-hydroxylation of 5beta-cholestane-3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-triol, and the further oxidation of the product into the corresponding C(27)-acid 3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholestanoic acid. As part of these studies, the enzymic activities of cultured human embryonic kidney cells were examined using vitamin D(3) and C(27)-sterols as substrates. The cells were found to express CYP27A mRNA and to convert the respective substrates into the same products as recombinantly expressed CYP27A, i.e. 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) and 27-oxygenated C(27)-sterols. The results of the present study describing the structure and expression of CYP27A in kidney suggest that this enzyme is involved in the renal metabolism of vitamin D(3) and that the kidney plays a role in the metabolism of cholesterol and other C(27)-sterols. PMID:10749662

  11. Relationships between Genetic Diversity and Fusarium Toxin Profiles of Winter Wheat Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Góral, Tomasz; Stuper-Szablewska, Kinga; Buśko, Maciej; Boczkowska, Maja; Walentyn-Góral, Dorota; Wiśniewska, Halina; Perkowski, Juliusz

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium head blight is one of the most important and most common diseases of winter wheat. In order to better understanding this disease and to assess the correlations between different factors, 30 cultivars of this cereal were evaluated in a two-year period. Fusarium head blight resistance was evaluated and the concentration of trichothecene mycotoxins was analysed. Grain samples originated from plants inoculated with Fusarium culmorum and naturally infected with Fusarium species. The genetic distance between the tested cultivars was determined and data were analysed using multivariate data analysis methods. Genetic dissimilarity of wheat cultivars ranged between 0.06 and 0.78. They were grouped into three distinct groups after cluster analysis of genetic distance. Wheat cultivars differed in resistance to spike and kernel infection and in resistance to spread of Fusarium within a spike (type II). Only B trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol and nivalenol) produced by F. culmorum in grain samples from inoculated plots were present. In control samples trichothecenes of groups A (H-2 toxin, T-2 toxin, T-2 tetraol, T-2 triol, scirpentriol, diacetoxyscirpenol) and B were detected. On the basis of Fusarium head blight assessment and analysis of trichothecene concentration in the grain relationships between morphological characters, Fusarium head blight resistance and mycotoxins in grain of wheat cultivars were examined. The results were used to create of matrices of distance between cultivars – for trichothecene concentration in inoculated and naturally infected grain as well as for FHB resistance Correlations between genetic distance versus resistance/mycotoxin profiles were calculated using the Mantel test. A highly significant correlation between genetic distance and mycotoxin distance was found for the samples inoculated with Fusarium culmorum. Significant but weak relationships were found between genetic distance matrix and FHB resistance or

  12. A transient cell-shielding method for viable MSC delivery within hydrophobic scaffolds polymerized in situ.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ruijing; Ward, Catherine L; Davidson, Jeffrey M; Duvall, Craig L; Wenke, Joseph C; Guelcher, Scott A

    2015-06-01

    Cell-based therapies have emerged as promising approaches for regenerative medicine. Hydrophobic poly(ester urethane)s offer the advantages of robust mechanical properties, cell attachment without the use of peptides, and controlled degradation by oxidative and hydrolytic mechanisms. However, the application of injectable hydrophobic polymers to cell delivery is limited by the challenges of protecting cells from reaction products and creating a macroporous architecture post-cure. We designed injectable carriers for cell delivery derived from reactive, hydrophobic polyisocyanate and polyester triol precursors. To overcome cell death caused by reaction products from in situ polymerization, we encapsulated bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs) in fastdegrading, oxidized alginate beads prior to mixing with the hydrophobic precursors. Cells survived the polymerization at >70% viability, and rapid dissolution of oxidized alginate beads after the scaffold cured created interconnected macropores that facilitated cellular adhesion to the scaffold in vitro. Applying this injectable system to deliver BMSCs to rat excisional skin wounds showed that the scaffolds supported survival of transplanted cells and infiltration of host cells, which improved new tissue formation compared to both implanted, pre-formed scaffolds seeded with cells and acellular controls. Our design is the first to enable injectable delivery of settable, hydrophobic scaffolds where cell encapsulation provides a mechanism for both temporary cytoprotection during polymerization and rapid formation of macropores post-polymerization. This simple approach provides potential advantages for cell delivery relative to hydrogel technologies, which have weaker mechanical properties and require incorporation of peptides to achieve cell adhesion and degradability. PMID:25907036

  13. Anti-Protozoal Activities of Cembrane-Type Diterpenes from Vietnamese Soft Corals.

    PubMed

    Thao, Nguyen Phuong; Luyen, Bui Thi Thuy; Brun, Reto; Kaiser, Marcel; Van Kiem, Phan; Van Minh, Chau; Schmidt, Thomas J; Kang, Jong Seong; Kim, Young Ho

    2015-01-01

    Based on our previous finding that certain cembranoid diterpenes possess selective toxicity against protozoan pathogens of tropical diseases such as Trypanosoma and Plasmodium, we have subjected a series of 34 cembranes isolated from soft corals living in the Vietnamese sea to an in vitro screening for anti-protozoal activity against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (Tbr), T. cruzi (Tc), Leishmania donovani (Ld), and Plasmodium falciparum (Pf). Twelve of the tested compounds displayed significant activity against at least one of the parasites. Specifically, 7S,8S-epoxy-1,3,11-cembratriene-16-oic methyl ester (1), (1R,4R,2E,7E,11E)-cembra-2,7,11-trien-4-ol (2), crassumol D (12), crassumol E (13), and (1S,2E,4S,6E,8S,11S)-2,6,12(20)-cembrantriene-4,8,11-triol (16) from Lobophytum crassum, L. laevigatum, and Sinularia maxima showed the highest level of inhibitory activity against T. b. rhodesiense, with IC50 values of about 1 µM or less. Lobocrasol A (6) and lobocrasol C (8) from L. crassum and L. laevigatum exhibited particularly significant inhibitory effects on L. donovani with IC50 values < 0.2 µM. The best antiplasmodial effect was exerted by laevigatol A (10), with an IC50 value of about 3.0 µM. The cytotoxicity of the active compounds on L6 rat skeletal myoblast cell was also assessed and found to be insignificant in all cases. This is the first report on anti-protozoal activity of these compounds, and points out the potential of the soft corals in discovery of new anti-protozoal lead compounds. PMID:26184133

  14. Cytotoxic, Cytostatic and HIV-1 PR Inhibitory Activities of the Soft Coral Litophyton arboreum

    PubMed Central

    Ellithey, Mona S.; Lall, Namrita; Hussein, Ahmed A.; Meyer, Debra

    2013-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation using different chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques in the analysis of the Red Sea soft coral Litophyton arboreum led to the isolation of nine compounds; sarcophytol M (1), alismol (2), 24-methylcholesta-5,24(28)-diene-3β-ol (3), 10-O-methyl alismoxide (4), alismoxide (5), (S)-chimyl alcohol (6), 7β-acetoxy-24-methylcholesta-5-24(28)-diene-3,19-diol (7), erythro-N-dodecanoyl-docosasphinga-(4E,8E)-dienine (8), and 24-methylcholesta-5,24(28)-diene-3β,7β,19-triol (9). Some of the isolated compounds demonstrated potent cytotoxic- and/or cytostatic activity against HeLa and U937 cancer cell lines and inhibitory activity against HIV-1 protease (PR). Compound 7 was strongly cytotoxic against HeLa cells (CC50 4.3 ± 0.75 µM), with selectivity index of SI 8.1, which was confirmed by real time cell electronic sensing (RT-CES). Compounds 2, 7, and 8 showed strong inhibitory activity against HIV-1 PR at IC50s of 7.20 ± 0.7, 4.85 ± 0.18, and 4.80 ± 0.92 µM respectively. In silico docking of most compounds presented comparable scores to that of acetyl pepstatin, a known HIV-1 PR inhibitor. Interestingly, compound 8 showed potent HIV-1 PR inhibitory activity in the absence of cytotoxicity against the cell lines used. In addition, compounds 2 and 5 demonstrated cytostatic action in HeLa cells, revealing potential use in virostatic cocktails. Taken together, data presented here suggest Litophyton arboreum to contain promising compounds for further investigation against the diseases mentioned. PMID:24336129

  15. Quantitation and bitter taste contribution of saponins in fresh and cooked white asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.).

    PubMed

    Dawid, Corinna; Hofmann, Thomas

    2014-02-15

    A sensitive HPLC-MS/MS method was developed enabling the simultaneous quantification of bitter-tasting mono- and bidesmosidic saponins in fresh and processed asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.). Based on quantitative data and bitter taste recognition thresholds, dose-over-threshold factors were determined for the first time to determine the bitter impact of the individual saponins. Although 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25R/S)-spirost-5-ene-3β-ol was found based on dose-over-threshold factors to be the predominant bitter saponin in raw asparagus spears, 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)}-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-26-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25R)-22-hydroxyfurost-5-ene-3β,26-diol, 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)}-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-26-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25S)-22-hydroxyfurost-5-ene-3β,26-diol, and (25R)- and (25S)-furost-5-en-3β,22,26-triol-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside were found as key bitter contributors after cooking. Interestingly, the monodesmosidic saponins 5a/b were demonstrated for the first time to be the major contributor to the bitter taste of fresh asparagus spears, while the bidesmosides 1a/b and 2a/b may be considered the primary determinants for the bitter taste of cooked asparagus. PMID:24128498

  16. Determination of 25-OCH3-PPD and the related substances by UPLC-MS/MS and their cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Ding, Meng; Lu, Jingjing; Zhao, Chen; Zhang, Sainan; Zhao, Yuqing

    2016-06-01

    20(R)-25-methoxyl-dammarane-3β,12β,20-triol (25-OCH3-PPD) is a promising antitumor compound belonging to triterpenoid saponins isolated from radix notoginseng. A systematic research on the related impurities in raw material of 25-OCH3-PPD has not been conducted. In this study, three impurities obtained by HPLC-ELSD and characterized by (13)C NMR and MS were observed in the raw material of 25-OCH3-PPD. Cytotoxic activities of the related substances were also evaluated, of which impurity B with 25-OCH3-PPD showed synergistic inhibitory activity against BGC-823 with IC50 values of 8.33μM. Furthermore, a rapid and selective UPLC-MS/MS method was developed for simultaneous determination of the principal component and three related substances in the raw material of 25-OCH3-PPD. Multiple reaction monitoring scan mode was used for the quantification of 20(R)-25-OCH3-PPD and its three related substances. The four constituents were separated within 11min on a BEH C18 column (100 mm×2.1mm, 1.7μm) using a mobile phase comprising methanol and 0.03% formic acid water (82:18, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.2mL/min. The proposed UPLC-MS/MS method displayed acceptable levels of linearity, precision, repeatability, and accuracy. In addition, the proposed method was successfully applied for the establishment of a rational quality control standard for the raw material of 25-OCH3-PPD. PMID:27128861

  17. Metabolic fate of tritium-labeled T-2 toxin, a trichothecene mycotoxin, in swine

    SciTech Connect

    Corley, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The metabolic fate of T-2 toxin was determined in two female crossbred swine following the intravascular administration of one millicurie of tritium-labeled T-2 toxin at a nonlethal dose of 0.15 mg/kg body weight. The plasma elimination phase half-life was 90 minutes for total tritium residues. A total of 13.1 and 1.3 percent of the administration dose was found in the gall bladders in addition to 17.9 and 42.5% in the urine in the two pigs, S1 and S2, respectively, 4 hours after dosing. Free metabolites, identified by thin-layer chromatography, represented less than 20 and 30% of the metabolite residues in bile and urine, respectively, with the parent compound, T-2 toxin, never exceeding 0.25%. The major free metabolites were 3-OH HT-2 and T-2 triol. Glucuronide conjugates represented 63 and 77% of the metabolite residues in urine and bile, respectively. The major conjugated metabolites were glucuronides of HT-2, 3'-OH T-2, 3'-OH HT-2 and T-2 toxin. Neosolaniol, 4-deacetyl-neosolaniol and T-2 tetraol were also identified in addition to 3 unknown metabolites. In the tissues, the greatest amount of radioactivity was located in the gastrointestinal tract (15.5 and 24.1% of the dose for the 2 pigs, S1 and S2, respectively). The remaining tissues sampled accounted for approximately 5% of the dose for the 2 pigs. Twenty-one metabolites were identified in tissues following reverse phase HPLC radiochromatography.

  18. Fate and distribution of 3H-labeled T-2 mycotoxin in guinea pigs. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Pace, J.G.; Watts, M.R.; Burrows, E.P.; Dinterman, R.E.; Matson, C.

    1984-08-03

    T-2 toxin is a potent cytotoxic metabolite produced by the Fusarium species. The fate and distribution of (3H)-labeled T-2 toxin were examined in male guinea pigs. Radioactivity was detected in all body tissues within 30 min after an im intection of an LD(50) dose (1.04 mg/kg) of T-2 toxin. The plasma concentration curve of radioactivity versus time was multiphasic, with an initial absorption half-life (T1/2,E) of less than 6 min. The initial half-life of elimination (T1/2,A) was 1.8 hr. Bile contained a large amount of radioactivity which was identified as HT-2,4-deacetylneosolaniol, 3'hydroxy HT-2, 3'hydroxy T-2 triol, and several more-polar unknowns. These T-2 metabolites are excreted from liver via bile into the intestine. Within 5 days, 75% of the total radioactivity was excreted in urine and feces at a ratio of 4 to 1. The appearance of radioactivity in the excreta was biphasic (T1/2,A=2.2 hr, 1.5 days and 8.2 hr, 1.7 days, for urine and feces, respectively). Metabolic derivatives of T-2 excreted in urine were T-2 tetraol, 4-deacetylneosolaniol, 3' hydroxy HT-2, and several unknowns. These studies showed a rapid appearance in and subsequent loss of radioactivity from tissues and body fluids. However, radioactivity (ten to the fifth power dpm) was still detectable in tissues at 28 days. The distribution patterns and excretion rates suggest that liver and kidney are the principal organs of detoxication and excretion of T-2 toxin and its metabolites.

  19. Are motorways potential stressors of roadside wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) populations?

    PubMed

    Navarro-Castilla, Álvaro; Mata, Cristina; Ruiz-Capillas, Pablo; Palme, Rupert; Malo, Juan E; Barja, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Linear infrastructures represent one of the most important human impacts on natural habitats and exert several effects on mammal populations. Motorways are recognized as a major cause of habitat fragmentation and degradation and of biodiversity loss. However, it is unknown whether motorways lead to increased physiological stress reactions in wild animal populations. We analysed faecal corticosterone metabolites (FCM) in wild populations of wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) living in a well-preserved Mediterranean agro-pastoral woodland at different distances (verge, 500 m and 1000 m) from the AP-51 motorway in Spain. Wood mice were captured with Sherman live traps, and fresh faecal samples from 424 individuals were collected and analyzed in the laboratory. The quantification of FCM was performed by a 5α-pregnane-3β,11β, 21-triol-20-one enzyme immunoassay. Results showed that females had higher FCM levels than males, and these levels were higher in breeding females. In addition, FCM levels were positively correlated with body weight of individuals. Wood mice captured where cattle were present showed higher FCM levels than individuals living where cattle were not detected. FCM levels were higher in non-breeding individuals living close to the motorway compared with FCM levels in those individuals captured further from the motorway. This is the first study showing evidence of the motorways' impact on physiological stress reactions in wild wood mice populations. Understanding how free-living animals are influenced by human interventions could help to understand other subtle changes observed in wild animal populations. Since mice are used world-wide as research models these results could open new perspectives testing human influence on the natural environment and trade-offs of species in degraded ecosystems. PMID:24637740

  20. Chemical Synthesis of Uncommon Natural Bile Acids: The 9α-Hydroxy Derivatives of Chenodeoxycholic and Lithocholic Acids.

    PubMed

    Iida, Takashi; Namegawa, Kazunari; Nakane, Naoya; Iida, Kyoko; Hofmann, Alan Frederick; Omura, Kaoru

    2016-09-01

    The chemical synthesis of the 9α-hydroxy derivatives of chenodeoxycholic and lithocholic acids is reported. For initiating the synthesis of the 9α-hydroxy derivative of chenodeoxycholic acid, cholic acid was used; for the synthesis of the 9α-hydroxy derivative of lithocholic acid, deoxycholic acid was used. The principal reactions involved were (1) decarbonylation of conjugated 12-oxo-Δ(9(11))-derivatives using in situ generated monochloroalane (AlH2Cl) prepared from LiAlH4 and AlCl3, (2) epoxidation of the deoxygenated Δ(9(11))-enes using m-chloroperbenzoic acid catalyzed by 4,4'-thiobis-(6-tert-butyl-3-methylphenol), (3) subsequent Markovnikov 9α-hydroxylation of the Δ(9(11))-enes with AlH2Cl, and (4) selective oxidation of the primary hydroxyl group at C-24 in the resulting 3α,9α,24-triol and 3α,7α,9α,24-tetrol to the corresponding C-24 carboxylic acids using sodium chlorite (NaClO2) in the presence of a catalytic amount of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl free radical (TEMPO) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). The (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectra are reported. The 3α,7α,9α-trihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid has been reported to be present in the bile of the Asian bear, and its 7-deoxy derivative is likely to be a bacterial metabolite. These bile acids are now available as authentic reference standards, permitting their identification in vertebrate bile acids. PMID:27319285

  1. Interfacial molecular interactions based on the conformation recognition between the insoluble antitumor drug AD-1 and DSPC.

    PubMed

    Yin, Tian; Cao, Xiuxiu; Liu, Xiaolin; Wang, Jian; Shi, Caihong; Su, Jia; Zhang, Yu; Gou, Jingxin; He, Haibing; Guo, Haiyan; Tang, Xing; Zhao, Yuqing

    2016-10-01

    In this study, molecular interactions between the anti-cancer agent 20(R)-25-methoxyl-dammarane-3β, 12β, 20-triol (AD-1) and phospholipid 1,2-Distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC) were investigated using the Langmuir film balance technique. The characteristics of binary Langmuir monolayers consisting of DSPC and AD-1 were conducted on the basis of the surface pressure-area per molecule (π-A) isotherms. It was found that the drug was able to become efficiently inserted into preformed DSPC monolayers, indicating a preferential interaction between AD-1 and DSPC. For the examined lateral pressure at 20mN/m, the largest negative values of ΔGex were found for the AD-1/DSPC monolayer, which should be the most stable. Based on the calculated values of ΔGex, we found that the AD-1/DSPC systems exhibited the best mixed characteristics when the molar fraction of the AD-1 was 0.8; at that relative concentration, the AD-1 molecules can mix better and interact with the phospholipid molecules. In addition, the drug-DSPC binary supramolecular structure was also deposited on the mica plates as shown by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Finally, molecular docking calculations explained satisfactorily that, based on the conformations interactions (conformation recognition), even at an AD-1/DSPC molar ratio as high as 8:2, the interfacial stabilization of the AD-1/DSPC system was fairly strong due to hydrophobic interactions. A higher loading capacity of DSPC might be possible, as it is associated with a more flexible geometrical environment, which allows these supramolecular structures to accept larger increases in drug loading upon steric binding. PMID:27469574

  2. The G Protein-Coupled Estrogen Receptor Agonist G-1 Inhibits Nuclear Estrogen Receptor Activity and Stimulates Novel Phosphoproteomic Signatures.

    PubMed

    Smith, L Cody; Ralston-Hooper, Kimberly J; Ferguson, P Lee; Sabo-Attwood, Tara

    2016-06-01

    Estrogen exerts cellular effects through both nuclear (ESR1 and ESR2) and membrane-bound estrogen receptors (G-protein coupled estrogen receptor, GPER); however, it is unclear if they act independently or engage in crosstalk to influence hormonal responses. To investigate each receptor's role in proliferation, transcriptional activation, and protein phosphorylation in breast cancer cells (MCF-7), we employed selective agonists for ESR1 propyl-pyrazole-triol (PPT), ESR2 diarylpropionitrile (DPN), and GPER (G-1) and also determined the impact of xenoestrogens bisphenol-A (BPA) and genistein on these effects. As anticipated, 17β-estradiol (E2), PPT, DPN, BPA, and genistein each enhanced proliferation and activation of an ERE-driven reporter gene whereas G-1 had no significant impact. However, G-1 significantly reduced E2-, PPT-, DPN-, BPA-, and genistein-induced proliferation and ERE activation at doses greater than 500 nM indicating that G-1 mediated inhibition is not ESR isotype specific. As membrane receptors initiate cascades of phosphorylation events, we performed a global phosphoproteomic analysis on cells exposed to E2 or G-1 to identify potential targets of receptor crosstalk via downstream protein phosphorylation targets. Of the 211 phosphorylated proteins identified, 40 and 13 phosphoproteins were specifically modified by E2 and G-1, respectively. Subnetwork enrichment analysis revealed several processes related to cell cycle were specifically enriched by G-1 compared with E2. Further there existed a number of newly identified proteins that were specifically phosphorylated by G-1. These phosphorylation networks highlight specific proteins that may modulate the inhibitory effects of G-1 and suggest a novel role for interference with nuclear receptor activity driven by E2 and xenoestrogens. PMID:27026707

  3. Target separation of a new anti-tumor saponin and metabolic profiling of leaves of Panax notoginseng by liquid chromatography with eletrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mao, Qian; Yang, Jie; Cui, Xiu-Ming; Li, Jing-Jing; Qi, Yin-Tao; Zhang, Ping-Hu; Wang, Qiang

    2012-02-01

    A method coupling high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometers (QTOF-MS) using an eletrospray ionization (ESI) source was firstly developed for detection, characterization and guiding target separation of variants of protopanaxdiol saponin from leaves of Panax notoginseng. Under the guidance of LC-QTOF-MS, a new trace saponin was probed according to the precise elemental compositions of molecular ions and the fragmentation behavior, and then separated from the ethanol extract of the plant by a set of chromatographic methods. It was further confirmed by NMR experiments as 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside-3β,l2β,23β-triol-20-ene-dammar (Pn-1). The cytotoxic assay showed that Pn-1 had relatively stronger anti-tumor effects against three tumor cell lines (NCI-H460, HepG2 and SGC-7901) than Rg₃, an approved clinical agent for cancer therapy. Meanwhile, based on accurate mass measurements within 5 ppm for each molecular ions and subsequent product ions, 48 saponins, including 40 protopanaxadiol saponins, 7 protopanaxatriol saponins and 1 oleanane saponin were identified. It is noted that the knowledge of the presence of abundant protopanaxadiol saponins in leaves of P. notoginseng may provide tools for a full understanding of the chemical diversity of secondary metabolites from the different parts of P. notoginseng. From the points of time consuming and accurate mass measurement capability, the LC-QTOF-MS is a highly powerful tool for screening and guiding target separation of new compounds in herbal extract, and thus benefits the speed of new drug discovery progress. PMID:22047761

  4. Asymmetric Synthesis of Spirocyclic 2-Benzopyrans for Positron Emission Tomography of σ1 Receptors in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Holl, Katharina; Schepmann, Dirk; Fischer, Steffen; Ludwig, Friedrich-Alexander; Hiller, Achim; Donat, Cornelius K.; Deuther-Conrad, Winnie; Brust, Peter; Wünsch, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation of styrene derivative 6 afforded chiral triols (R)-7 and (S)-7, which were cyclized with tosyl chloride in the presence of Bu2SnO to provide 2-benzopyrans (R)-4 and (S)-4 with high regioselectivity. The additional hydroxy moiety in the 4-position was exploited for the introduction of various substituents. Williamson ether synthesis and replacement of the Boc protective group with a benzyl moiety led to potent σ1 ligands with high σ1/σ2-selectivity. With exception of the ethoxy derivative 16, the (R)-configured enantiomers represent eutomers with eudismic ratios of up to 29 for the ester (R)-18. The methyl ether (R)-15 represents the most potent σ1 ligand of this series of compounds, with a Ki value of 1.2 nM and an eudismic ratio of 7. Tosylate (R)-21 was used as precursor for the radiosynthesis of [18F]-(R)-20, which was available by nucleophilic substitution with K[18F]F K222 carbonate complex. The radiochemical yield of [18F]-(R)-20 was 18%–20%, the radiochemical purity greater than 97% and the specific radioactivity 175–300 GBq/µmol. Although radiometabolites were detected in plasma, urine and liver samples, radiometabolites were not found in brain samples. After 30 min, the uptake of the radiotracer in the brain was 3.4% of injected dose per gram of tissue and could be reduced by coadministration of the σ1 antagonist haloperidol. [18F]-(R)-20 was able to label those regions of the brain, which were reported to have high density of σ1 receptors. PMID:24451404

  5. CYP7B1 Enzyme Deletion Impairs Reproductive Behaviors in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Oyola, Mario G.; Zuloaga, Damian G.; Carbone, David; Malysz, Anna M.; Acevedo-Rodriguez, Alexandra; Handa, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    In addition to androgenic properties mediated via androgen receptors, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) also regulates estrogenic functions via an alternate pathway. These estrogenic functions of DHT are mediated by its metabolite 5α-androstane-3β, 17β-diol (3β-diol) binding to estrogen receptor β (ERβ). CYP7B1 enzyme converts 3β-diol to inactive 6α- or 7α-triols and plays an important role as a regulator of estrogenic functions mediated by 3β-diol. Using a mutant mouse carrying a null mutation for the CYP7B1 gene (CYP7B1KO), we examined the contribution of CYP7B1 on physiology and behavior. Male, gonadectomized (GDX) CYP7B1KO and their wild type (WT) littermates were assessed for their behavioral phenotype, anxiety-related behavioral measures, and hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis reactivity. No significant effects of genotype were evident in anxiety-like behaviors in open field (OFA), light-dark (L/D) exploration, and elevated plus maze (EPM). T significantly reduced open arm time on the EPM while not affecting L/D exploratory and OFA behaviors in CYP7B1KO and WT littermates. T also attenuated the corticosterone response to EPM in both genotypes. In GDX animals, T was able to reinstate male-specific reproductive behaviors (latencies and number of mounts, intromission, and ejaculations) in the WT but not in the CYP7B1KO mice. The male reproductive behavior defect in CYP7B1KO seems to be due to their inability to distinguish olfactory cues from a behavioral estrus female. CYP7B1KO mice also showed a reduction in androgen receptor mRNA expression in the olfactory bulb. Our findings suggest a novel role for the CYP7B1 enzyme in the regulation of male reproductive behaviors. PMID:25849728

  6. The androgen 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone and its metabolite 5alpha-androstan-3beta, 17beta-diol inhibit the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal response to stress by acting through estrogen receptor beta-expressing neurons in the hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Lund, Trent D; Hinds, Laura R; Handa, Robert J

    2006-02-01

    Estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta) and androgen receptor (AR) are found in high levels within populations of neurons in the hypothalamus. To determine whether AR or ERbeta plays a role in regulating hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function by direct action on these neurons, we examined the effects of central implants of 17beta-estradiol (E2), 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), the DHT metabolite 5alpha-androstan-3beta, 17beta-diol (3beta-diol), and several ER subtype-selective agonists on the corticosterone and adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) response to immobilization stress. In addition, activation of neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) was monitored by examining c-fos mRNA expression. Pellets containing these compounds were stereotaxically implanted near the PVN of gonadectomized male rats. Seven days later, animals were killed directly from their home cage (nonstressed) or were restrained for 30 min (stressed) before they were killed. Compared with controls, E2 and the ERalpha-selective agonists moxestrol and propyl-pyrazole-triol significantly increased the stress induced release of corticosterone and ACTH. In contrast, central administration of DHT, 3beta-diol, and the ERbeta-selective compound diarylpropionitrile significantly decreased the corticosterone and ACTH response to immobilization. Cotreatment with the ER antagonist tamoxifen completely blocked the effects of 3beta-diol and partially blocked the effect of DHT, whereas the AR antagonist flutamide had no effect. Moreover, DHT, 3beta-diol, and diarylpropionitrile treatment significantly decreased restraint-induced c-fos mRNA expression in the PVN. Together, these studies indicate that the inhibitory effects of DHT on HPA axis activity may be in part mediated via its conversion to 3beta-diol and subsequent binding to ERbeta. PMID:16452668

  7. Estrogen receptor agonists alleviate cardiac and renal oxidative injury in rats with renovascular hypertension.

    PubMed

    Özdemir Kumral, Zarife Nigâr; Kolgazi, Meltem; Üstünova, Savaş; Kasımay Çakır, Özgür; Çevik, Özge Dağdeviren; Şener, Göksel; Yeğen, Berrak Ç

    2016-01-01

    Although endogenous estrogen is known to offer cardiac and vascular protection, the involvement of estrogen receptors in mediating the protective effect of estrogen on hypertension-induced cardiovascular and renal injury is not fully explained. We aimed to investigate the effects of estrogen receptor (ER) agonists on oxidative injury, cardiovascular and renal functions of rats with renovascular hypertension (RVH). Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided as control and RVH groups, and RVH groups had either ovariectomy (OVX) or sham-OVX. Sham-OVX-RVH and OVX-RVH groups received either ERβ agonist diarylpropiolnitrile (1 mg/kg/day) or ERα agonist propyl pyrazole triol (1 mg/kg/day) for 6 weeks starting at the third week following the surgery. At the end of the 9(th) week, systolic blood pressures were recorded, cardiac functions were determined, and the contraction/relaxation responses of aortic rings were obtained. Serum creatinine levels, tissue malondialdehyde, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase levels, and myeloperoxidase activity in heart and kidney samples were analyzed, and Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity was measured in kidney samples. In both sham-OVX and OVX rats, both agonists reduced blood pressure and reversed the impaired contractile performance of the heart, while ERβ agonist improved renal functions in both the OVX and non-OVX rats. Both agonists reduced neutrophil infiltration, lipid peroxidation, and elevated antioxidant levels in the heart, but a more ERβ-mediated protective effect was observed in the kidney. Our data suggest that activation of ERβ might play a role in preserving the function of the stenotic kidney and delaying the progression of renal injury, while both receptors mediate similar cardioprotective effects. PMID:27399230

  8. The conversion of 16β hydroxyldehydroepiandrosterone in human serum.

    PubMed

    Ke, Yuyong; Gonthier, Renaud; Labrie, Fernand

    2016-05-01

    The circulating levels of 16β hydroxydehydroepiandrosterone (16β OH-DHEA) are at the limit of detection (less than 10pg/mL), unlike the serum concentrations of 16α-hydroxydehydroepiandrosterone (16α OH-DHEA, 10-300pg/mL) in premenopausal, postmenopausal and male serum. A major reason could be the rapid conversion of 16β OH-DHEA to 5-androstene-3beta, 17beta-diol 16 one (3β, 17β-diol 16-oxo) in serum due to the stereospecific structure of 16β OH-DHEA. In ultrapure H2O, there is no apparent conversion observed while 16β OH-DHEA (10ng/mL) spiked in stripped or unstripped serum is quickly converted to 3β, 17β-diol 16-oxo at room temperature. During this conversion, a further converted product was observed with a difference in molecular weight of 16Da from that of 16β OH-DHEA and 3β, 17β-diol 16-oxo, which could be their hydroxylation product, i.e. triol-ketone. Under basic conditions, further conversion occurs. The present data can explain the practically undetectable concentration of serum 16β OH-DHEA while 3β, 17β-diol 16-oxo is at the level of less than 50pg/mL. Serum concentrations of (0.0-9.9pg/mL for 16β OH-DHEA, 8.9-50.7pg/mL for 3β, 17β-diol 16-oxo and 10.0-285.0pg/mL for 16α OH-DHEA are measured in sera of premenopausal, postmenopausal women and men over 50years of age. PMID:26896786

  9. Epimerization of tea catechins and O-methylated derivatives of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate: relationship between epimerization and chemical structure.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Masazumi; Sano, Mitsuaki; Yoshida, Risa; Degawa, Masakuni; Miyase, Toshio; Maeda-Yamamoto, Mari

    2003-01-15

    Epimerization at C-2 of O-methylated catechin derivatives and four major tea catechins were investigated. The epimeric isomers of (-)-epicatechin (I), (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate (II), (-)-epigallocatechin (III), (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (IV), and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-(3-O-methyl)gallate (V) in green tea extracts increased time-dependently at 90 degrees C. The epimerization rates of authentic tea catechins in distilled water are much lower than those in tea infusion or in pH 6.0 buffer solution. The addition of tea infusion to the authentic catechin solution accelerated the epimerization, and the addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, disodium salt (Na(2)EDTA) decreased the epimerization in the pH 6.0 buffer solution. Therefore, the metal ions in tea infusion may affect the rate of epimerization. The proportions of the epimers to authentic tea catechins [III, IV, V, and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-(4-O-methyl)gallate (VI)] in pH 6.0 buffer solution after heating at 90 degrees C for 30 min were 42.4%, 37.0%, 41.7%, and 30.4%, respectively. These values were higher than those of I and II (23.5% and 23.6%, respectively). The O-methylated derivatives at the 4'-position on the B ring of IV and VI were hardly epimerized. These results suggest that the hydroxyl moiety on the B ring of catechins plays an important role in the epimerization in the order 3',4',5'-triol type > 3',4'-diol type > 3',5'-diol type. PMID:12517118

  10. Xenobiotic biotransformation in unicellular green algae. Involvement of cytochrome P450 in the activation and selectivity of the pyridazinone pro-herbicide metflurazon.

    PubMed Central

    Thies, F; Backhaus, T; Bossmann, B; Grimme, L H

    1996-01-01

    The N-demethylation of the pyridazinone pro-herbicide metflurazon into norflurazon implies a toxification in photosynthetic organisms. This is confirmed by quantitative structure activity relationships determined for two unicellular green algae, Chlorella sorokiniana and Chlorella fusca; however, the latter is 25 to 80 times more sensitive to metflurazon. This sensitivity is linked to differences in the N-demethylase activity of both algae, as determined by an optimized in vivo biotransformation assay. Apparent K(m) values of the metflurazon-N-demethylase indicate a 10-fold higher affinity for this xenobiotic substrate for Chlorella fusca. Furthermore, algal metflurazon-N-demethylation is characterized by distinct variations in activity, depending on the stage of cell development within the cell cycle. Several well-established inhibitors of cytochrome P450-mediated reactions, including piperonylbutoxide, 1-aminobenzotriazole, 1-phenoxy-3-(1H-1,2,4-triol-1yl)-4-hydroxy-5,5-dimethylhexane++ +, and tetcyclacis, as well as cinnamic acid, a potential endogenous substrate, inhibited the N-demethylation of metflurazon. The results suggest that the N-demethylation of metflurazon by both algae is mediated by a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase. The determination of antigenic cross-reactivity of algal proteins with heterologous polyclonal antibodies originally raised against plant P450s, anti-cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase (CYP73A1), anti-ethoxycoumarin-O-dealkylase, anti-tulip allene oxidase (CYP74), and an avocado P450 (CYP71A1) or those of bacterial origin, CYP105A1 and CYP105B1, suggests the presence of distinct P450 isoforms in both algae. PMID:8819332

  11. Diagnostic tests for Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C): A critical review.

    PubMed

    Vanier, Marie T; Gissen, Paul; Bauer, Peter; Coll, Maria J; Burlina, Alberto; Hendriksz, Christian J; Latour, Philippe; Goizet, Cyril; Welford, Richard W D; Marquardt, Thorsten; Kolb, Stefan A

    2016-08-01

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C) is a neurovisceral lysosomal cholesterol trafficking and lipid storage disorder caused by mutations in one of the two genes, NPC1 or NPC2. Diagnosis has often been a difficult task, due to the wide range in age of onset of NP-C and clinical presentation of the disease, combined with the complexity of the cell biology (filipin) laboratory testing, even in combination with genetic testing. This has led to substantial delays in diagnosis, largely depending on the access to specialist centres and the level of knowledge about NP-C of the physician in the area. In recent years, advances in mass spectrometry has allowed identification of several sensitive plasma biomarkers elevated in NP-C (e.g. cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol, lysosphingomyelin isoforms and bile acid metabolites), which, together with the concomitant progress in molecular genetic technology, have greatly impacted the strategy of laboratory testing. Specificity of the biomarkers is currently under investigation and other pathologies are being found to also result in elevations. Molecular genetic testing also has its limitations, notably with unidentified mutations and the classification of new variants. This review is intended to increase awareness on the currently available approaches to laboratory diagnosis of NP-C, to provide an up to date, comprehensive and critical evaluation of the various techniques (cell biology, biochemical biomarkers and molecular genetics), and to briefly discuss ongoing/future developments. The use of current tests in proper combination enables a rapid and correct diagnosis in a large majority of cases. However, even with recent progress, definitive diagnosis remains challenging in some patients, for whom combined genetic/biochemical/cytochemical markers do not provide a clear answer. Expertise and reference laboratories thus remain essential, and further work is still required to fulfill unmet needs. PMID:27339554

  12. Photooxidation of 2-methyl-3-Buten-2-ol (MBO) as a potential source of secondary organic aerosol.

    PubMed

    Chan, Arthur W H; Galloway, Melissa M; Kwan, Alan J; Chhabra, Puneet S; Keutsch, Frank N; Wennberg, Paul O; Flagan, Richard C; Seinfeld, John H

    2009-07-01

    2-Methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) is an important biogenic hydrocarbon emitted in large quantities by pine forests. Atmospheric photooxidation of MBO is known to lead to oxygenated compounds, such as glycolaldehyde, which is the precursor to glyoxal. Recent studies have shown that the reactive uptake of glyoxal onto aqueous particles can lead to formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). In this work, MBO photooxidation under high- and low-NO(x) conditions was performed in dual laboratory chambers to quantify the yield of glyoxal and investigate the potential for SOA formation. The yields of glycolaldehyde and 2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanal (HMPR), fragmentation products of MBO photooxidation, were observed to be lower at lower NO(x) concentrations. Overall, the glyoxal yield from MBO photooxidation was 25% under high-NO(x) and 4% under low-NO(x) conditions. In the presence of wet ammonium sulfate seed and under high-NO(x) conditions, glyoxal uptake and SOA formation were not observed conclusively, due to relatively low (< 30 ppb) glyoxal concentrations. Slight aerosol formation was observed under low-NO(x) and dry conditions, with aerosol mass yields on the order of 0.1%. The small amount of SOA was not related to glyoxal uptake, but is likely a result of reactions similar to those that generate isoprene SOA under low-NO(x) conditions. The difference in aerosol yields between MBO and isoprene photooxidation under low-NO(x) conditions is consistent with the difference in vapor pressures between triols (from MBO) and tetrols (from isoprene). Despite its structural similarity to isoprene, photooxidation of MBO is not expected to make a significant contribution to SOA formation. PMID:19673246

  13. Aliphatic β-nitroalcohols for therapeutic corneoscleral cross-linking: corneal permeability considerations

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Quan; Trokel, Stephen L.; Paik, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Our recent tissue cross-linking studies have raised the possibility of using aliphatic β-nitro alcohols (BNAs) for pharmacologic, therapeutic corneal cross-linking. The present study was performed in order to determine the permeability of BNAs and to explore the use of permeability enhancing agents. Methods Ex vivo rabbit corneas were mounted in a typical Franz diffusion chamber. BNA permeability was determined by assaying the recipient chamber over time using a modification of the Griess nitrite colorimetric assay. The apparent permeability coefficient (Ptot) was determined for 2 mono-nitroalcohols, 2-nitroethanol (2NE) and 2-nitro-1-propanol (2NProp); a nitro-diol (2-methyl-2-nitro-1,3-propanediol=MNPD); and a nitro-triol (2-hydroxymethyl-2-nitro-1,3-propanediol=HNPD). Permeability enhancing effects using benzalkonium chloride (BAC) [0.01 and 0.02%], ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) [0.05%], and a combination of BAC 0.01% + tetracaine (TC) [0.5%] were also studied. Results The Ptot (+/−S.E.) values (cm/sec) were as follows: Ptot=4.33×10−5 (+/−9.82×10−6) for 2NE (MW=91), Ptot=9.34×10−6 (+/− 2.16×10−7) for 2NProp (MW=105), Ptot=4.37×10−6 (+/− 1.86×10−7) for MNPD (MW=135), and Ptot=8.95×10−7 (+/−1.93×10−8) for HNPD (MW=151). Using the nitrodiol, permeability increased approximately two-fold using BAC 0.01%, five-fold using BAC 0.02% and five-fold using the combination of BAC 0.01% + TC 0.5%. No effect was observed using EDTA 0.05%. Conclusions The results indicate that the corneal epithelium is permeable to BNAs with the apparent permeability corresponding to molecular weight. The findings are consistent with previous literature indicating that the small size of these compounds (<10Å) favors their passage through the corneal epithelium via the paracellular route. This information will help to guide dosing regimens for in vivo topical cross-linking studies. PMID:22868628

  14. Four process-related potential new impurities in ticagrelor: Identification, isolation, characterization using HPLC, LC/ESI-MS(n), NMR and their synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Neeraj; Devineni, Subba Rao; Gajjala, Prasad Reddy; Gupta, Dharmendra Kumar; Bhat, Sandesh; Kumar, Rajesh; Dubey, Shailendra Kumar; Kumar, Pramod

    2016-02-20

    Five process-related impurities were detected in the range of 0.08-0.22% in ticagrelor laboratory batches by HPLC and LC-MS methods. These impurities were named as TIC Imp-I, -II, -III, -IV and -V. Four of these impurities, TIC Imp-I to -IV were unknown and have not been reported previously. Based on LC-ESI/MS(n) study, the chemical structures of new impurities were presumed as (1S,2S,3S,5S)-3-(2-hydroxyethoxy)-5-(7-amino-5-(propylthio)-3H-[1,2,3]triazolo[4,5-d] pyrimidin-3-yl)cyclopentane-1,2-diol (TIC Imp-I), (1S,2S,3S,5S)-3-(7-((1R,2S)-2-(3,4-difluorophenyl)cyclopropylamino)-5-(propylsulfinyl)-3H-[1,2,3]triazolo [4,5-d]pyrimidin-3-yl)-5-(2-hydroxyethoxy)cyclopentane-1,2-diol (TIC Imp-II), (1S,2R,3S,4S)-4-(7-((1R,2S)-2-(3,4-difluorophenyl)cyclopropylamino)-5-(propylthio)-3H-[1,2,3]triazolo[4,5-d]pyrimidin-3-yl)cyclopentane-1,2,3-triol (TIC Imp-III) and (3S,5S)-3-(7-((1R,2S)-2-(3,4-difluorophenyl)cyclopropylamino)-5-(propylthio)-3H-[1,2,3]triazolo[4,5-d]pyrimidin-3-yl)-5-(2-hydroxyethoxy)cyclopentane-1,2-diol (TIC Imp-IV). The unknown impurities were isolated from enriched crude sample by column chromatography and preparative HPLC. The complete spectral analysis, MS, 1D NMR ((1)H, (13)C and DEPT), 2D NMR (HSQC and HMBC) and IR confirmed the proposed chemical structures of impurities. Identification, isolation, structural characterization, prospects for the formation of impurities and their synthesis were first reported in this paper. PMID:26760243

  15. Antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory polyhydroxylated spirostanol saponins from Tupistra chinensis

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Limin; Yi, Xiaomin; Wang, Yihai; He, Xiangjiu

    2016-01-01

    Tupistra chinensis is widely distributed in southwestern China and its rhizome is a famous folk medicine for the treatment of carbuncles and pharyngitis. Its chemical identity of potent antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory constituents has been carried out in this study. Twenty-three polyhydroxylated spirostanol saponins, including nine novels, were isolated and identified. The new spirostanol saponins were elucidated as spirost-25(27)-en-1β,2β,3β,4β,5β-pentol-2-O-β-D-xylopyranoside (1), spirost-25(27)- en-1β,2β,3β,4β,5β-pentol-2-O-α-L-arabinopyranoside (2), spirost-25(27)-en- 1β,3α,5β-triol (12), spirost-25(27)-en-1β,3α,4β,5β,6β-pentol (13), spirost-25(27)-en- 1β,2β,3β,5β-tetraol-5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (16), 5β-spirost-25(27)-en-1β,3β-diol- 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-glucopyranoside (17), (25R)-5β-spirostan- 1β,3β-diol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (18), (25R)-5β- spirostan-1β,3β-diol-3-O-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 → 6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (19), 5β-spirost-25(27)-en-3β-ol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-glucopyranoside (20). The antiproliferative effects against seven human cancer cell lines and inhibitory activities on nitric oxide (NO) production induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 were assayed for all the isolated compounds. Compounds 17, 19 and 21 exhibited potential antiproliferative activities against all of human cancer cell lines tested. Compounds 21 showed significant inhibition on NO production with IC50 values of 11.5 μM. These results showed that the spirostanol saponins isolated from the dried rhizomes of T. chinensis have potent antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory activities and T. chinensis might be used as anticancer and.anti-inflammatory supplement. PMID:27530890

  16. Antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory polyhydroxylated spirostanol saponins from Tupistra chinensis.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Limin; Yi, Xiaomin; Wang, Yihai; He, Xiangjiu

    2016-01-01

    Tupistra chinensis is widely distributed in southwestern China and its rhizome is a famous folk medicine for the treatment of carbuncles and pharyngitis. Its chemical identity of potent antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory constituents has been carried out in this study. Twenty-three polyhydroxylated spirostanol saponins, including nine novels, were isolated and identified. The new spirostanol saponins were elucidated as spirost-25(27)-en-1β,2β,3β,4β,5β-pentol-2-O-β-D-xylopyranoside (1), spirost-25(27)- en-1β,2β,3β,4β,5β-pentol-2-O-α-L-arabinopyranoside (2), spirost-25(27)-en- 1β,3α,5β-triol (12), spirost-25(27)-en-1β,3α,4β,5β,6β-pentol (13), spirost-25(27)-en- 1β,2β,3β,5β-tetraol-5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (16), 5β-spirost-25(27)-en-1β,3β-diol- 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-glucopyranoside (17), (25R)-5β-spirostan- 1β,3β-diol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (18), (25R)-5β- spirostan-1β,3β-diol-3-O-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 → 6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (19), 5β-spirost-25(27)-en-3β-ol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-glucopyranoside (20). The antiproliferative effects against seven human cancer cell lines and inhibitory activities on nitric oxide (NO) production induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 were assayed for all the isolated compounds. Compounds 17, 19 and 21 exhibited potential antiproliferative activities against all of human cancer cell lines tested. Compounds 21 showed significant inhibition on NO production with IC50 values of 11.5 μM. These results showed that the spirostanol saponins isolated from the dried rhizomes of T. chinensis have potent antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory activities and T. chinensis might be used as anticancer and.anti-inflammatory supplement. PMID:27530890

  17. Mutagenic characterization of cholesterol epoxides in Chinese hamster V79 cells.

    PubMed

    Peterson, A R; Peterson, H; Spears, C P; Trosko, J E; Sevanian, A

    1988-10-01

    The uptake, metabolism and alkylating properties of the diastereomeric cholesterol epoxides were studied using Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts (V79 cells). Specific emphasis is given to the comparative cyto- and geno-toxic effects of cholesterol 5 beta,6 beta-epoxide (beta CE) and cholesterol 5 alpha,6 alpha-epoxide (alpha CE) and data are provided for the first time indicating that beta CE can induce more 6-thioguanine-resistant cells than alpha CE. Cholesterol 5 beta,6 beta-epoxide induced colonies of cells resistant to 6-thioguanine at 2-3-fold the frequencies observed with the alpha-isomer, but neither compound produced ouabain-resistant colonies. The cytotoxicity (LD50) of alpha CE was estimated to be 45-50 microM whereas beta CE displayed an LD50 of 25-29 microM. Inhibition of DNA synthesis (IC50) was observed over the same dose ranges as the LD50 for each epoxide isomer. The epoxides were assimilated by cells to an equal extent, however, beta CE was metabolized to cholestane 3 beta,5 alpha-6 beta-triol twice as rapidly as the alpha-isomer. Both epoxides reacted with 4-(4'-nitrobenzyl)-pyridine to a similar extent, and with identical nucleophilic selectivity at pH 7.4, but their alkylating activity was estimated on this basis to be two orders of magnitude less than methyl methanesulfonate. Binding experiments with the DNA or cultured V79 cells or with calf-thymus DNA indicated that interactions were noncovalent and DNA binding did not correlate with the potency of the epoxides to induce the 6-thioguanine-resistant phenotype. Our results could be interpreted as indicating that both cholesterol epoxide isomers are weak mutagens or that they might induce some epigenetic event repressing the hypoxanthine guanine-phosphoribosyltransferase gene. The similarity of the epoxides' alkylating activity and their DNA-binding properties are inconsistent with their different potencies in inducing the 6-thioguanine-resistant phenotype, suggesting that the mechanism leading

  18. Structure Identification and Anti-Cancer Pharmacological Prediction of Triterpenes from Ganoderma lucidum.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yanyan; Qiao, Liansheng; Wu, Lingfang; Sun, Xuefei; Zhu, Dan; Yang, Guanghui; Zhang, Xiaoxue; Mao, Xin; Chen, Wenjing; Liang, Wenyi; Zhang, Yanling; Zhang, Lanzhen

    2016-01-01

    Ganoderma triterpenes (GTs) are the major secondary metabolites of Ganoderma lucidum, which is a popularly used traditional Chinese medicine for complementary cancer therapy. In the present study, systematic isolation, and in silico pharmacological prediction are implemented to discover potential anti-cancer active GTs from G. lucidum. Nineteen GTs, three steroids, one cerebroside, and one thymidine were isolated from G. lucidum. Six GTs were first isolated from the fruiting bodies of G. lucidum, including 3β,7β,15β-trihydroxy-11,23-dioxo-lanost-8,16-dien-26-oic acid methyl ester (1), 3β,7β,15β-trihydroxy-11,23-dioxo-lanost-8,16-dien-26-oic acid (2), 3β,7β,15α,28-tetrahydroxy-11,23-dioxo-lanost-8,16-dien-26-oic acid (3), ganotropic acid (4), 26-nor-11,23-dioxo-5α-lanost-8-en-3β,7β,15α,25-tetrol (5) and (3β,7α)-dihydroxy-lanosta-8,24-dien- 11-one (6). (4E,8E)-N-d-2'-hydroxypalmitoyl-l-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-9-methyl-4,8-spingodienine (7), and stigmasta-7,22-dien-3β,5α,6α-triol (8) were first reported from the genus Ganodema. By using reverse pharmacophoric profiling of the six GTs, thirty potential anti-cancer therapeutic targets were identified and utilized to construct their ingredient-target interaction network. Then nineteen high frequency targets of GTs were selected from thirty potential targets to construct a protein interaction network (PIN). In order to cluster the pharmacological activity of GTs, twelve function modules were identified by molecular complex detection (MCODE) and gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis. The results indicated that anti-cancer effect of GTs might be related to histone acetylation and interphase of mitotic cell cycle by regulating general control non-derepressible 5 (GCN5) and cyclin-dependent kinase-2 (CDK2), respectively. This research mode of extraction, isolation, pharmacological prediction, and PIN analysis might be beneficial to rapidly predict and discover pharmacological activities of novel compounds

  19. Identification of plasma glucocorticoids in pallid sturgeon in response to stress

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, M.A.H.; Allert, J.A.; Kappenman, K.M.; Marcos, J.; Feist, G.W.; Schreck, C.B.; Shackleton, C.H.

    2007-01-01

    Compared to teleosts, little is known about the stress response in chondrosteans, and the glucocorticoid(s) most responsive to stress have never been definitively determined in sturgeon. In terms of cortisol production, pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) have a low physiological response to stress compared to other sturgeons (Acipenser sp.). Because of this, our null hypothesis was that cortisol is not the predominant glucocorticoid secreted in response to stress in pallid sturgeon. Our objective was to identify the putative glucocorticoids present in the plasma of pallid sturgeon during the stress response. Pallid sturgeon were subjected to a severe confinement stress (12 h) with an additional handling stressor for the first 6 h. Control fish were not subjected to confinement but were handled only to collect blood. Blood plasma was collected at time 0, 6, and 12 h. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to screen the plasma for the spectrum of glucocorticoids and determine the putative steroid secreted during the stress response. Cortisol was the primary glucocorticoid detected in stressed pallid sturgeon. In addition, the cortisol metabolites cortisone, alloTHE (5??-pregnane-3??,17??,21-triol-11,20-dione), allo-??-cortolone (3??,17??,20??,21-tetrahydro-5??-pregnan-11-one), and allo-??-cortolone (3??,17??,20??,21-tetrahydro-5??-pregnan-11-one) were detected. Plasma cortisol increased from a resting concentration of 0.67 ng/ml to 10.66 ng/ml at 6 h followed by a decrease to 6.78 ng/ml by 12 h. Plasma glucose increased significantly by time 6 and 12 h in both stressed and unstressed groups and remained elevated at time 12 h, while resting lactate concentrations were low to non-detectable and did not increase significantly with the stressor over time. Cortisol was the primary glucocorticoid synthesized and secreted in response to a stressor in pallid sturgeon. Though the proportional increase in plasma cortisol in stressed pallid sturgeon was lower than

  20. Mechanisms by Which 17β-Estradiol (E2) Suppress Neuronal cox-2 Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Stacey, Winfred; Bhave, Shreyas; Uht, Rosalie M

    2016-01-01

    E2 attenuates inflammatory responses by suppressing expression of pro-inflammatory genes. Given that inflammation is increasingly being associated with neurodegenerative and psychiatric processes, we sought to elucidate mechanisms by which E2 down-regulates a component of an inflammatory response, cyclooxygenase- 2 (COX-2) expression. Although inflammatory processes in the brain are usually associated with microglia and astrocytes, we found that the COX-2 gene (cox-2) was expressed in a neuronal context, specifically in an amygdalar cell line (AR-5). Given that COX-2 has been reported to be in neurons in the brain, and that the amygdala is a site involved in neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric processes, we investigated mechanisms by which E2 could down-regulate cox-2 expression in the AR-5 line. These cells express estrogen receptors alpha (ERα) and beta (ERβ), and as shown here cox-2. At the level of RNA, E2 and the ERβ selective ligand diarylpropionitrile (DPN) both attenuated gene expression, whereas the ERα selective ligand propyl pyrazole triol (PPT) had no effect. Neither ligand increased ERβ at the cox-2 promoter. Rather, DPN decreased promoter occupancy of NF-κB p65 and histone 4 (H4) acetylation. Treatment with the non-specific HDAC inhibitor Trichostatin A (TSA) counteracted DPN's repressive effects on cox-2 expression. In keeping with the TSA effect, E2 and DPN increased histone deacetylase one (HDAC1) and switch-independent 3A (Sin3A) promoter occupancy. Lastly, even though E2 increased CpG methylation, DPN did not. Taken together, the pharmacological data indicate that ERβ contributes to neuronal cox-2 expression, as measured by RNA levels. Furthermore, ER ligands lead to increased recruitment of HDAC1, Sin3A and a concomitant reduction of p65 occupancy and Ac-H4 levels. None of the events, however, are associated with a significant recruitment of ERβ at the promoter. Thus, ERβ directs recruitment to the cox-2 promoter, but does so in the

  1. Mastering analytical challenges for the characterization of pentacyclic triterpene mono- and diesters of Calendula officinalis flowers by non-aqueous C30 HPLC and hyphenation with APCI-QTOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Nicolaus, Christoph; Sievers-Engler, Adrian; Murillo, Renato; D'Ambrosio, Michele; Lämmerhofer, Michael; Merfort, Irmgard

    2016-01-25

    Pentacyclic triterpene mono- and diesters have been isolated from Calendula officinalis flowers. GC-MS, APCI-Exactive Orbitrap HR-MS and NMR allowed to identify the triterpene skeleton in various samples (different triterpene mixtures from Calendula n-hexane extract). NMR provided evidence that triterpene diesters are present in the samples as well. However, the corresponding quasi-molecular ions could not be detected by APCI-Exactive Orbitrap HR-MS. Instability of triterpene diesters and loss of a fatty acid residue, respectively, in the ion-source made their MS detection challenging. Thus, a set of new APCI-QTOF-MS methods (using the TripleTOF 5600+ mass spectrometer) were developed which made it eventually possible to solve this problem and confirm the diester structures by MS via quasi-molecular ion [M+H](+) detection. Direct infusion APCI-QTOF MS experiments in MS/MS high sensitivity scan mode with low collision energy and multi-channel averaging acquisition (MCA) allowed the detection of quasi-molecular ions of triterpene diesters for the first time and unequivocally confirmed the presence of faradiol 3,16-dimyristate and -dipalmitate, as well as the corresponding mixed diesters faradiol 3-myristate,16-palmitate and faradiol 3-palmitate,16-myristate. Preferential loss of the fatty acid in 16-position made it possible to distinguish the mixed diesters by MS/MS spectra. Their chromatographic separations turned out to be challenging due to their bulkiness and extended molecular dimensions. However, separation could be achieved by an uncommon non-aqueous RPLC mode with an in-house synthesized C30 phase. Finally, two (U)HPLC-APCI-QTOF-MS methods with C18- and C30-based non-aqueous RPLC provided suitable, sensitive assays to monitor the presence of monoesters and diesters of various triterpenes (faradiol, maniladiol, arnidiol, arnitriol A and lupane-3β,16β,20-triol esters) in the n-hexane extract of C. officinalis with high mass resolution and good mass accuracy

  2. Estradiol receptors agonists induced effects in rat intestinal microcirculation during sepsis.

    PubMed

    Sharawy, Nivin; Ribback, Silvia; Al-Banna, Nadia; Lehmann, Christian; Kern, Hartmut; Wendt, Michael; Cerny, Vladimir; Dombrowski, Frank; Pavlovic, Dragan

    2013-01-01

    The steroid hormone estradiol is suggested to play a protective role in intestinal injury during systemic inflammation (sepsis). Our aim was to determine the effects of specific estradiol receptor (ER-α and ER-ß) agonists on the intestinal microcirculation during experimental sepsis. Male and sham ovariectomized female rats were subjected to sham colon ascendens stent peritonitis (CASP), and they were compared to male and ovariectomized female rats underwent CASP and either estradiol receptor α (ER-α) agonist propyl pyrazole triol (PPT), estradiol receptor ß (ER-ß) agonist diarylpropiolnitrile (DPN), or vehicle treatment. Intravital microscopy was performed, which is sufficiently sensitive to measure changes in the functional capillary density (FCD) as well as the major steps in leukocyte recruitment (rolling and adhesion). The leukocyte extravasations were also quantified by using histological paraffin sections of formalin fixed intestine. We found that either DPN (ER-β) or PPT (ER-α) significantly reduced (P<0.05) sepsis-induced leukocyte-endothelial interaction (rolling, adherent leukocytes and neutrophil extravasations) and improved the intestinal muscular FCD. [PPT: Female; Leukocyte rolling (n/min): V(3) 3.7±0.7 vs 0.8±0.2, Leukocyte adhesion(n/mm(2)): V(3) 131.3±22.6 vs 57.2±13.5, Neutrophil extravasations (n/10000 μm(2)): 3.1±0.7 vs 6 ±1. Male; Leukocyte adhesion (n/mm(2)): V(1) 154.8±19.2 vs 81.3±11.2, V(3) 115.5±23.1 vs 37.8±12]. [DPN: Female; neutrophil extravasations (n/10000 μm(2)) 3.8±0.6 vs 6 ±1. Male; Leukocyte adhesion (n/mm(2)) V(1) 154.8±19.2 vs 70±10.5, V(3) 115.5±23.1 vs 52.8±9.6].Those results suggest that the observed effects of estradiol receptors on different phases of leukocytes recruitment with the improvement of the functional capillary density could partially explain the previous demonstrated salutary effects of estradiol on the intestinal microcirculation during sepsis. The observed activity of this class of

  3. Identifying new lignin bioengineering targets: 1. Monolignol-substitute impacts on lignin formation and cell wall fermentability

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent discoveries highlighting the metabolic malleability of plant lignification indicate that lignin can be engineered to dramatically alter its composition and properties. Current plant biotechnology efforts are primarily aimed at manipulating the biosynthesis of normal monolignols, but in the future apoplastic targeting of phenolics from other metabolic pathways may provide new approaches for designing lignins that are less inhibitory toward the enzymatic hydrolysis of structural polysaccharides, both with and without biomass pretreatment. To identify promising new avenues for lignin bioengineering, we artificially lignified cell walls from maize cell suspensions with various combinations of normal monolignols (coniferyl and sinapyl alcohols) plus a variety of phenolic monolignol substitutes. Cell walls were then incubated in vitro with anaerobic rumen microflora to assess the potential impact of lignin modifications on the enzymatic degradability of fibrous crops used for ruminant livestock or biofuel production. Results In the absence of anatomical constraints to digestion, lignification with normal monolignols hindered both the rate and extent of cell wall hydrolysis by rumen microflora. Inclusion of methyl caffeate, caffeoylquinic acid, or feruloylquinic acid with monolignols considerably depressed lignin formation and strikingly improved the degradability of cell walls. In contrast, dihydroconiferyl alcohol, guaiacyl glycerol, epicatechin, epigallocatechin, and epigallocatechin gallate readily formed copolymer-lignins with normal monolignols; cell wall degradability was moderately enhanced by greater hydroxylation or 1,2,3-triol functionality. Mono- or diferuloyl esters with various aliphatic or polyol groups readily copolymerized with monolignols, but in some cases they accelerated inactivation of wall-bound peroxidase and reduced lignification; cell wall degradability was influenced by lignin content and the degree of ester group hydroxylation

  4. Seasonal lake surface water temperature trends reflected by heterocyst glycolipid based molecular thermometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauersachs, T.; Rochelmeier, J.; Schwark, L.

    2015-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that the relative distribution of heterocyst glycolipids (HGs) in cultures of N2-fixing heterocystous cyanobacteria is largely controlled by growth temperature, suggesting a potential use of these components in paleoenvironmental studies. Here, we investigated the effect of environmental parameters (e.g. surface water temperatures, oxygen concentrations and pH) on the distribution of HGs in a natural system using water column filtrates collected from Lake Schreventeich (Kiel, Germany) from late July to the end of October 2013. HPLC-ESI/MS analysis revealed a dominance of 1-(O-hexose)-3,25-hexacosanediols (HG26 diols) and 1-(O-hexose)-3-keto-25-hexacosanol (HG26 keto-ol) in the solvent extracted water column filtrates, which were accompanied by minor abundances of 1-(O-hexose)-3,27-octacosanediol (HG28 diol) and 1-(O-hexose)-3-keto-27-octacosanol (HG28 keto-ol) as well as 1-(O-hexose)-3,25,27-octacosanetriol (HG28 triol) and 1-(O-hexose)-3-keto-25,27-octacosanediol (HG28 keto-diol). Fractional abundances of alcoholic and ketonic HGs generally showed strong linear correlations with surface water temperatures and no or only weak linear correlations with both oxygen concentrations and pH. Changes in the distribution of the most abundant diol and keto-ol (e.g., HG26 diol and HG26 keto-ol) were quantitatively expressed as the HDI26 (heterocyst diol index of 26carbon atoms) with values of this index ranging from 0.89 in mid-August to 0.66 in mid-October. An average HDI26 value of 0.79, which translates into a calculated surface water temperature of 15.8 ± 0.3 °C, was obtained from surface sediments collected from Lake Schreventeich. This temperature - and temperatures obtained from other HG indices (e.g., HDI28 and HTI28) - is similar to the one measured during maximum cyanobacterial productivity in early to mid-September and suggests that HGs preserved in Lake Schreventeich sediments record summer surface water temperatures. As N2-fixing

  5. Seasonal lake surface water temperature trends reflected by heterocyst glycolipid-based molecular thermometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauersachs, T.; Rochelmeier, J.; Schwark, L.

    2015-06-01

    It has been demonstrated that the relative distribution of heterocyst glycolipids (HGs) in cultures of N2-fixing heterocystous cyanobacteria is largely controlled by growth temperature, suggesting a potential use of these components in paleoenvironmental studies. Here, we investigated the effect of environmental parameters (e.g., surface water temperatures, oxygen concentrations and pH) on the distribution of HGs in a natural system using water column filtrates collected from Lake Schreventeich (Kiel, Germany) from late July to the end of October 2013. HPLC-ESI/MS (high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry) analysis revealed a dominance of 1-(O-hexose)-3,25-hexacosanediols (HG26 diols) and 1-(O-hexose)-3-keto-25-hexacosanol (HG26 keto-ol) in the solvent-extracted water column filtrates, which were accompanied by minor abundances of 1-(O-hexose)-3,27-octacosanediol (HG28 diol) and 1-(O-hexose)-3-keto-27-octacosanol (HG28 keto-ol) as well as 1-(O-hexose)-3,25,27-octacosanetriol (HG28 triol) and 1-(O-hexose)-3-keto-25,27-octacosanediol (HG28 keto-diol). Fractional abundances of alcoholic and ketonic HGs generally showed strong linear correlations with surface water temperatures and no or only weak linear correlations with both oxygen concentrations and pH. Changes in the distribution of the most abundant diol and keto-ol (e.g., HG26 diol and HG26 keto-ol) were quantitatively expressed as the HDI26 (heterocyst diol index of 26 carbon atoms) with values of this index ranging from 0.89 in mid-August to 0.66 in mid-October. An average HDI26 value of 0.79, which translates into a calculated surface water temperature of 15.8 ± 0.3 °C, was obtained from surface sediments collected from Lake Schreventeich. This temperature - and temperatures obtained from other HG indices (e.g., HDI28 and HTI28) - is similar to the one measured during maximum cyanobacterial productivity in early to mid-September and suggests that HGs

  6. Search for constituents with neurotrophic factor-potentiating activity from the medicinal plants of paraguay and Thailand.

    PubMed

    Li, Yushan; Ohizumi, Yasushi

    2004-07-01

    20 medicinal plants of Paraguay and 3 medicinal plants of Thailand were examined on nerve growth factor (NGF)-potentiating activities in PC12D cells. The trail results demonstrated that the methanol extracts of four plants, Verbena littoralis, Scoparia dulcis, Artemisia absinthium and Garcinia xanthochymus, markedly enhanced the neurite outgrowth induced by NGF from PC12D cells. Furthermore, utilizing the bioactivity-guided separation we successfully isolated 32, 4 and 5 constituents from V. littoralis, S. dulcis and G. xanthochymus, respectively, including nine iridoid and iridoid glucosides (1-9), two dihydrochalcone dimers (10 and 11), two flavonoids and three flavonoid glycosides (12-16), two sterols (17 and 18), ten triterpenoids (19-28), five xanthones (29-33), one naphthoquinone (34), one benzenepropanamide (35), four phenylethanoid glycosides (36-39) and two other compounds (40 and 41). Among which, 15 compounds (1-4, 10-11, 14-18, 29-31 and 34) were new natural products. The results of pharmacological trails verified that littoralisone (1), gelsemiol (5), 7a-hydroxysemperoside aglucone (6), verbenachalcone (10), littorachalcone (11), stigmast-5-ene 3beta,7alpha,22alpha-triol (18), ursolic acid (19), 3beta-hydroxyurs-11-en-28,13beta-olide (24), oleanolic acid (25), 2alpha,3beta-dihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (26), 1,4,5,6-tetrahydroxy-7,8-di(3-methylbut-2-enyl)xanthone (29), 1,2,6-trihydroxy-5-methoxy-7-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)xanthone (30), 1,3,5,6-tetrahydroxy-4,7,8-tri(3-methyl-2-butenyl)xanthone (31), 12b-hydroxy-des-D-garcigerrin A (32), garciniaxanthone E (33) and (4R)-4,9-dihydroxy-8-methoxy-alpha-lapachone (34) elicited marked enhancement of NGF-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12D cells. These substances may contribute to the basic study and the medicinal development for the neurodegenerative disorder. PMID:15235225

  7. Atomic and Molecular Layer Deposition for Enhanced Lithium Ion Battery Electrodes and Development of Conductive Metal Oxide/Carbon Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travis, Jonathan

    The performance and safety of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are dependent on interfacial processes at the positive and negative electrodes. For example, the surface layers that form on cathodes and anodes are known to affect the kinetics and capacity of LIBs. Interfacial reactions between the electrolyte and the electrodes are also known to initiate electrolyte combustion during thermal runaway events that compromise battery safety. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) and molecular layer deposition (MLD) are thin film deposition techniques based on sequential, self-limiting surface reactions. ALD and MLD can deposit ultrathin and conformal films on high aspect ratio and porous substrates such as composite particulate electrodes in lithium-ion batteries. The effects of electrode surface modification via ALD and MLD are studied using a variety of techniques. It was found that sub-nm thick coatings of Al2O 3 deposited via ALD have beneficial effects on the stability of LIB anodes and cathodes. These same Al2O3 ALD films were found to improve the safety of graphite based anodes through prevention of exothermic solid electrolyte interface (SEI) degradation at elevated temperatures. Ultrathin and conformal metal alkoxide polymer films known as "metalcones" were grown utilizing MLD techniques with trimethylaluminum (TMA) or titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) and organic diols or triols, such as ethylene glycol (EG), glycerol (GL) or hydroquinone (HQ), as the reactants. Pyrolysis of these metalcone films under inert gas conditions led to the development of conductive metal oxide/carbon composites. The composites were found to contain sp2 carbon using micro-Raman spectroscopy in the pyrolyzed films with pyrolysis temperatures ≥ 600°C. Four point probe measurements demonstrated that the graphitic sp2 carbon domains in the metalcone films grown using GL and HQ led to significant conductivity. The pyrolysis of conformal MLD films to obtain conductive metal oxide/carbon composite films

  8. In vivo oestrogenic modulation of Egr1 and Pitx1 gene expression in female rat pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Gajewska, Alina; Herman, Andrzej P; Wolińska-Witort, Ewa; Kochman, Kazimierz; Zwierzchowski, Lech

    2014-12-01

    EGR1 and PITX1 are transcription factors required for gonadotroph cell Lhb promoter activation. To determine changes in Egr1 and Pitx1 mRNA levels in central and peripheral pituitary stimulations, an in vivo model based on i.c.v. pulsatile (1 pulse/0.5 h over 2 h) GnRH agonist (1.5 nM buserelin) or antagonist (2 nM antide) microinjections was used. The microinjections were given to ovariectomised and 17β-oestradiol (E2) (3×20 μg), ERA (ESR1) agonist propyl pyrazole triol (PPT) (3×0.5 mg), ERB (ESR2) agonist diarylpropionitrile (DPN) (3×0.5 mg) s.c. pre-treated rats 30 min after last pulse anterior pituitaries were excised. Relative mRNA expression was determined by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Results revealed a gene-specific response for GnRH and/or oestrogenic stimulations in vivo. Buserelin pulses enhanced Egr1 expression by 66% in ovariectomised rats, whereas the oestradiol-supplemented+i.c.v. NaCl-microinjected group showed a 50% increase in Egr1 mRNA expression. The oestrogenic signal was transmitted via ERA (ESR1) and ERB (ESR2) activation as administration of PPT and DPN resulted in 97 and 62%, respectively, elevation in Egr1 mRNA expression. A synergistic action of GnRH agonist and 17β-oestradiol (E2) stimulation of the Egr1 gene transcription in vivo were found. GnRHR activity did not affect Pitx1 mRNA expression; regardless of NaCl, buserelin or antide i.c.v. pulses, s.c. oestrogenic supplementation (with E2, PPT or DPN) consistently decreased (by -46, -48 and -41% respectively) the Pitx1 mRNA in the anterior pituitary gland. Orchestrated Egr1 and Pitx1 activities depending on specific central and peripheral regulatory inputs could be responsible for physiologically variable Lhb gene promoter activation in vivo. PMID:25258388

  9. Enhancement of oxygen vacancies and solar photocatalytic activity of zinc oxide by incorporation of nonmetal

    SciTech Connect

    Patil, Ashokrao B.; Patil, Kashinath R.; Pardeshi, Satish K.

    2011-12-15

    B-doped ZnO and N-doped ZnO powders have been synthesized by mechanochemical method and characterized by TG-DTA, XRD, SEM-EDX, XPS, UV-visible and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. X-ray diffraction data suggests the hexagonal wurtzite structure for modified ZnO crystallites and the incorporation of nonmetal expands the lattice constants of ZnO. The room temperature PL spectra suggest more number of oxygen vacancies exist in nonmetal-doped ZnO than that of undoped zinc oxide. XPS analysis shows the substitution of some of the O atoms of ZnO by nonmetal atoms. Solar photocatalytic activity of B-doped ZnO, N-doped ZnO and undoped ZnO was compared by means of oxidative photocatalytic degradation (PCD) of Bisphenol A (BPA). B-doped ZnO showed better solar PCD efficiency as compare to N-doped ZnO and undoped ZnO. The PCD of BPA follows first order reaction kinetics. The detail mechanism of PCD of Bisphenol A was proposed with the identification of intermediates such as hydroquinone, benzene-1,2,4-triol and 4-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl) phenol. - Graphical Abstract: B-doped ZnO and N-doped ZnO synthesized by mechanochemical method were characterized by various techniques. Solar photocatalytic degradation of Bisphenol-A is in the order of B-ZnO>N-ZnO>ZnO. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer B-doped ZnO and N-doped ZnO powders have been synthesized by mechanochemical method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PL spectra suggest oxygen vacancies are in order of B-doped ZnO>N-doped ZnO>ZnO. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solar PCD efficiency is in order of B-doped ZnO>N-doped ZnO>ZnO for Bisphenol A.

  10. Effects of temperature on the properties of glycerol: a computer simulation study of five different force fields.

    PubMed

    Jahn, David A; Akinkunmi, Frederick O; Giovambattista, Nicolas

    2014-09-25

    We perform molecular dynamics simulations of glycerol (propane-1,2,3-triol) at normal pressure and a wide range of temperatures (300-460 K) and study the sensitivity of simulation results to the force field (FF) considered. We employ five commonly used FFs: (i) AMBER, (ii) CHARMM22, and (iii) three versions of the OPLS-AA FF (OPLS1, OPLS2, and OPLS3). We study thermodynamic (density ρ(T), thermal expansion coefficient αP(T), isobaric specific heat cP(T)), dynamic (diffusion coefficient D(T)), as well as structural properties (molecular conformations and hydrogen-bond statistics). In comparison with experiments, FFs i and iii provide reasonable estimations of ρ(T) with deviations of ≤4.5%; for FF ii, deviations in density are more pronounced, ≤9%. Values of αP(T) vary considerably among the FFs; e.g., deviations are ≤9% for OPLS1-FF and ≤60% for FF ii. For all models studied, values of cP(T) are approximately twice the corresponding experimental values. Diffusion coefficients are very sensitive to the FFs considered. Specifically, for FFs i and ii and OPLS3, the values of D(T) are remarkably close to the experimental values over the whole range of temperatures studied. Instead, in the cases of OPLS1 and OPLS2-FFs, D(T) is underestimated by approximately 2 orders of magnitude. Interestingly, in all cases, D(T) can be well described by a Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher equation, as observed in experiments. We present a detailed characterization of glycerol backbone conformation based on the traditional classification introduced by Bastiansen, defined in terms of glycerol's OCCC dihedral angles. All FFs indicate that the conformer population varies smoothly with temperature. However, the FFs provide very different conformer distributions. This implies that, from the microscopic point of view, these glycerol models may provide very different liquid environments for, for example, guest biomolecules and hence may play a relevant role in interpreting simulation results

  11. Bi- to tetravalent glycoclusters presenting GlcNAc/GalNAc as inhibitors: from plant agglutinins to human macrophage galactose-type lectin (CD301) and galectins.

    PubMed

    André, Sabine; O'Sullivan, Shane; Koller, Christiane; Murphy, Paul V; Gabius, Hans-Joachim

    2015-04-14

    Emerging insights into the functional spectrum of tissue lectins leads to identification of new targets for the custom-made design of potent inhibitors, providing a challenge for synthetic chemistry. The affinity and selectivity of a carbohydrate ligand for a lectin may immensely be increased by a number of approaches, which includes varying geometrical or topological features. This perspective leads to the design and synthesis of glycoclusters and their testing using assays of physiological relevance. Herein, hydroquinone, resorcinol, benzene-1,3,5-triol and tetra(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethene have been employed as scaffolds and propargyl derivatives obtained. The triazole-containing linker to the α/β-O/S-glycosides of GlcNAc/GalNAc presented on these scaffolds was generated by copper-catalysed azide-alkyne cycloaddition. This strategy was used to give a panel of nine glycoclusters with bi-, tri- and tetravalency. Maintained activity for lectin binding after conjugation was ascertained for both sugars in solid-phase assays with the plant agglutinins WGA (GlcNAc) and DBA (GalNAc). Absence of cross-reactivity excluded any carbohydrate-independent reactivity of the bivalent compounds, allowing us to proceed to further testing with a biomedically relevant lectin specific for GalNAc. Macrophage galactose(-binding C)-type lectin, involved in immune defence by dendritic cells and in virus uptake, was produced as a soluble protein without/with its α-helical coiled-coil stalk region. Binding to ligands presented on a matrix and on cell surfaces was highly susceptible to the presence of the tetravalent inhibitor derived from the tetraphenylethene-containing scaffold, and presentation of GalNAc with an α-thioglycosidic linkage proved favorable. Cross-reactivity of this glycocluster to human galectins-3 and -4, which interact with Tn-antigen-presenting mucins, was rather small. Evidently, the valency and spatial display of α-GalNAc residues is a key factor to design potent and

  12. Aliphatic β-Nitroalcohols for Therapeutic Corneoscleral Cross-linking: Chemical Mechanisms and Higher Order Nitroalcohols

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Marissa R.; Wen, Quan; Turro, Nicholas J.; Trokel, Stephen L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. The recent tissue cross-linking studies indicate that aliphatic β-nitroalcohols (BNAs) may be useful as pharmacologic corneoscleral cross-linking agents. The present study was performed to identify the specific chemistry involved under physiologic conditions, with the intent of identifying more effective agents. Methods. The mechanism of chemical cross-linking at pH 7.4 and 37°C was studied using three techniques. The colorimetric Griess assay was used to follow the release of nitrite from three mono-nitroalcohols (2-nitroethanol [2ne], 2-nitro-1-propanol [2nprop]), and 3-nitro-2-pentanol [3n2pent]). Second, the evolution of 2nprop in 0.2 M NaH2PO4/Na2HPO4/D2O was studied using 1H-NMR. Third, thermal shrinkage temperature analysis (Ts), a measure of tissue cross-linking, was used to support information from 1the H-NMR studies. Results. A time-dependent release of nitrite was observed for all three mono-nitroalcohols studied. The maximum levels were comparable using either 2ne or 2nprop (∼30%). However, much less (∼10%) was observed from 3n2pent. Using 1H-NMR, 2nprop evolved into a unique splitting pattern. No match was observed with reference spectra from three possible products of denitration. In contrast, 2-methyl-2-nitro-1,3-propanediol (MNPD), a nitro-diol, was identified, implying the formation of formaldehyde from a retro-nitroaldol (i.e., reverse Henry) reaction. In support of this mechanism, Ts shifts induced by the nitro-triol 2-hydroxymethyl-2-nitro-1,3-propanediol (HNPD) were superior to the nitro-diol MNPD which were superior to the mono nitroalcohol 2nprop. Conclusions. BNAs function as both formaldehyde and nitrite donors under physiologic conditions to cross-link collagenous tissue. Higher order BNAs are more effective than mono nitroalcohols, raising the possibility of using these agents for therapeutic corneoscleral cross-linking. PMID:19797229

  13. Functional characterization of estrogen receptor subtypes, ER{alpha} and ER{beta}, mediating vitellogenin production in the liver of rainbow trout

    SciTech Connect

    Leanos-Castaneda, Olga Kraak, Glen van der

    2007-10-15

    The estrogen-dependent process of vitellogenesis is a key function on oviparous fish reproduction and it has been widely used as an indicator of xenoestrogen exposure. The two estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes, ER{alpha} and ER{beta}, are often co-expressed in the liver of fish. The relative contribution of each ER subtype to modulate vitellogenin production by hepatocytes was studied using selected compounds known to preferentially interact with specific ER subtypes: propyl-pyrazole-triol (PPT) an ER{alpha} selective agonist, methyl-piperidino-pyrazole (MPP) an ER{alpha} selective antagonist, and diarylpropionitrile (DPN) an ER{beta} selective agonist. First, the relative binding affinity of the test compounds to estradiol for rainbow trout hepatic nuclear ER was determined using a competitive ligand binding assay. All the test ligands achieved complete displacement of specific [{sup 3}H]-estradiol binding from the nuclear ER extract. This indicates that the test ligands have the potential to modify the ER function in the rainbow trout liver. Secondly, the ability of the test compounds to induce or inhibit vitellogenin production by primary cultures of rainbow trout hepatocytes was studied. Estradiol and DPN were the only compounds that induced a dose-dependent increase on vitellogenin synthesis. The lack of vitellogenin induction by PPT indicates that ER{alpha} could not have a role on this reproductive process whereas the ability of DPN to induce vitellogenin production supports the participation of ER{beta}. In addition, this hypothesis is reinforced by the results obtained from MPP plus estradiol. On one hand, the absence of suppressive activity of MPP in the estradiol-induced vitellogenin production does not support the participation of ER{alpha}. On the other hand, once blocked ER{alpha} with MPP, the only manifestation of agonist activity of estradiol would be achieved via ER{beta}. In conclusion, the present results indicate that vitellogenin production is

  14. Chemical constituents from branch of Fraxinus sieboldiana.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sheng; Zhang, Yan-ling; Liu, Ming-tao; Zi, Jia-chen; Gan, Mao-luo; Song, Wei-xia; Fan, Xiao-na; Wang, Xiao-na; Yang, Yong-chun; Shi, Jian-gong

    2015-07-01

    ,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-propanone(34), 2,3-dihydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1-propanone (35), 3-hydroxy-l-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-propanone(36), omega-hydroxypropioguaiacone(37), sinapyladehyde(38), trans-p-hydroxycinnamaldehyde(39), syringic acid(40), vanilic acid(41), vanillin(42), 4-hydroxy-benzaldehyde (43), (24R)-24-ethyl-5alpha-cholestane-3beta,5,6beta-triol(44), beta-sitosterol(45), daucosterol(46), 2,6-dimethoxy-I,4-benzoquinone(47), 2,6-dimethoxy-pyran-4-one(48), 1-(beta-D-ribofuranosyl)uracil(49), and mannitol(50). Compouds 1-7,12,18,28-37,44 and 48 were obtained from the genus Fraxinus for the first time. PMID:26697686

  15. Metabolic studies of oxyguno in horses.

    PubMed

    Wong, April S Y; Ho, Emmie N M; Wan, Terence S M; Lam, Kenneth K H; Stewart, Brian D

    2015-09-01

    Oxyguno (4-chloro-17α-methyl-17β-hydroxy-androst-4-ene-3,11-dione) is a synthetic oral anabolic androgenic steroid commercially available without a prescription. Manufacturers of oxyguno claim that its anabolic effect in metabolic enhancement exceeds that of the classic anabolic steroid testosterone by seven times, but its androgenic side-effects are only twelve percent of testosterone. Like other anabolic androgenic steroids, oxyguno is prohibited in equine sports. The metabolism of oxyguno in either human or horse has not been reported and therefore little is known about its metabolic fate. This paper describes the in vitro and in vivo metabolic studies of oxyguno in racehorses with an objective to identify the most appropriate target metabolites for detecting oxyguno administration. In vitro studies of oxyguno were performed using horse liver microsomes. Metabolites in the incubation mixtures were isolated by liquid-liquid extraction and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the EI mode after trimethylsilylation. In vitro metabolites identified include the stereoisomers of 4-chloro-17α-methyl-androst-4-ene-3-keto-11,17β-diol (M1a & M1b); 20-hydroxy-oxyguno (M2); and 4-chloro-17α-methyl-androst-4-ene-3-keto-11,17β,20-triol (M3). These novel metabolites were resulted from hydroxylation at C20, and/or reduction of the keto group at C11. For the in vivo studies, two geldings were each administered orally with a total dose of 210 mg oxyguno (52.5 mg twice daily for 2 days). Pre- and post-administration urine and blood samples were collected for analysis. The parent drug oxyguno was detected in both urine and blood, while numerous novel metabolites were detected in urine. The stereoisomers (M1a & M1b) observed in the in vitro studies were also detected in post-administration urine samples. Three other metabolites (M4 - M6) were detected. M4, 4-chloro-17α-methyl-androstane-11-keto-3,17β-diol, was resulted from reductions of the olefin

  16. Determination of thermal stability of specific biomarker lipids of the freshwater fern Azolla through hydrous pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sap, Merel; Speelman, Eveline N.; Lewan, Michael D.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Reichart, Gert-Jan

    2010-05-01

    Enormous blooms of the free-floating freshwater fern Azolla occurred within the Arctic Basin during an extended period of ~1.2 Ma during the middle Eocene (Brinkhuis et al. 2006; Speelman et al., GB, 2009). The sustained growth of Azolla, currently ranking among the fastest growing plants on Earth, in a major anoxic basin may have substantially contributed to decreasing atmospheric CO2 levels by burial of Azolla-derived organic matter. Speelman et al. (OG, 2009) reported biomarkers for Azolla (1,w20 C32 - C36 diols, structurally related C29 ω20,ω21 diols, C29 1,20,21 triols, C29 dihydroxy fatty acids as well as a series of wax esters containing these mono- and dihydroxy lipids), which can be used to reconstruct palaeo-environmental conditions. Here we assess the thermal stability of these compounds, to extend their biomarker potential. We specifically focused on the thermal stability of the Azolla biomarkers using hydrous pyrolysis in order to determine which burial conditions allow reconstruction of past occurrences of Azolla. In addition, hydrous pyrolysis was also performed on samples from the Eocene Arctic Ocean (ACEX core), to test if and how the biomarkers change under higher temperatures and pressures in situ. During hydrous pyrolysis, the biomass was heated under high pressure at temperatures ranging between 220 and 365°C for 72 hours. Four experiments were also run using different durations to explore the kinetics of biomarker degradation at specific temperatures. First results indicate that the Azolla specific diols are still present at 220°C, while the corresponding wax esters are already absent. At 300°C all Azolla specific biomarkers are destroyed. More specific determination of the different biomarkers' stability and kinetics would potentially allow the reconstruction of the temperature and pressure history of Azolla deposits. Literature: • Brinkhuis, H., Schouten, S., Collinson, M. E., Sluijs, A., Sinninghe Damste, J. S., Dickens, G. R., Huber

  17. Solid State Ionics Advanced Materials for Emerging Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdari, B. V. R.; Careem, M. A.; Dissanayake, M. A. K. L.; Rajapakse, R. M. G.; Seneviratne, V. A.

    2006-06-01

    spectroscopic analysis of thin film LiNiVO[symbol] prepared by pulsed laser deposition technique / S. Selvasekarapandian ... [et al.]. Synthesis and characterization of LiFePO[symbol] cathode materials by microwave processing / J. Zhou ... [et al.]. Characterization of Nd[symbol]Sr[symbol]CoO[symbol] including Pt second phase as the cathode material for low-temperature SOFCs / J. W. Choi ... [et al.]. Thermodynamic behavior of lithium intercalation into natural vein and synthetic graphite / N. W. B. Balasooriya, P. W. S. K. Bandaranayake, Ph. Touzain -- pt. III. Electroactive polymers. Invited papers. Organised or disorganised? looking at polymer electrolytes from both points of view / Y.-P. Liao ... [et al.]. Polymer electrolytes - simple low permittivity solutions? / I. Albinsson, B.-E. Mellander. Dependence of conductivity enhancement on the dielectric constant of the dispersoid in polymer-ferroelectric composite electrolytes / A. Chandra, P. K. Singh, S. Chandra. Design and application of boron compounds for high-performance polymer electrolytes / T. Fujinami. Structural, vibrational and AC impedance analysis of nano composite polymer electrolytes based on PVAC / S. Selvasekarapandian ... [et al.]. Absorption intensity variation with ion association in PEO based electrolytes / J. E. Furneaux ... [et al.]. Study of ion-polymer interactions in cationic and anionic ionomers from the dependence of conductivity on pressure and temperature / M. Duclot ... [et al.]. Triol based polyurethane gel electrolytes for electrochemical devices / A. R. Kulkarni. Contributed papers. Accurate conductivity measurements to solvation energies in nafion / M. Maréchal, J.-L Souquet. Ion conducting behaviour of composite polymer gel electrolyte: PEG-PVA-(NH[symbol]CH[symbol]CO[symbol])[symbol] system / S. L. Agrawal, A. Awadhia, S. K. Patel. Impedance spectroscopy and DSC studies of poly(vinylalcohol)/ silicotungstic acid crosslinked composite membranes / A. Anis, A. K. Banthia. (PEO