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Sample records for 2-oxoacid-dependent dioxygenase involved

  1. A Novel 2-Oxoacid-Dependent Dioxygenase Involved in the Formation of the Goiterogenic 2-Hydroxybut-3-enyl Glucosinolate and Generalist Insect Resistance in Arabidopsis[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Bjarne G.; Kerwin, Rachel E.; Ober, James A.; Lambrix, Virginia M.; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Halkier, Barbara A.; Kliebenstein, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    Glucosinolates are secondary metabolites found almost exclusively in the order Brassicales. They are synthesized from a variety of amino acids and can have numerous side chain modifications that control biological function. We investigated the biosynthesis of 2-hydroxybut-3-enyl glucosinolate, which has biological activities including toxicity to Caenorhabditis elegans, inhibition of seed germination, induction of goiter disease in mammals, and production of bitter flavors in Brassica vegetable crops. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) accessions contain three different patterns of 2-hydroxybut-3-enyl glucosinolate accumulation (present in leaves and seeds, seeds only, or absent) corresponding to three different alleles at a single locus, GSL-OH. Fine-scale mapping of the GSL-OH locus identified a 2-oxoacid-dependent dioxygenase encoded by At2g25450 required for the formation of both 2R- and 2S-2-hydroxybut-3-enyl glucosinolate from the precursor 3-butenyl glucosinolate precursor. Naturally occurring null mutations and T-DNA insertional mutations in At2g25450 exhibit a complete absence of 2-hydroxybut-3-enyl glucosinolate accumulation. Analysis of herbivory by the generalist lepidopteran Trichoplusia ni showed that production of 2-hydroxybut-3-enyl glucosinolate provides increased resistance. These results show that At2g25450 is necessary for the hydroxylation of but-3-enyl glucosinolate to 2-hydroxybut-3-enyl glucosinolate in planta and that this metabolite increases resistance to generalist herbivory. PMID:18945935

  2. Oxygen activation by mononuclear nonheme iron dioxygenases involved in the degradation of aromatics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yifan; Li, Jiasong; Liu, Aimin

    2017-04-01

    Molecular oxygen is utilized in numerous metabolic pathways fundamental for life. Mononuclear nonheme iron-dependent oxygenase enzymes are well known for their involvement in some of these pathways, activating O2 so that oxygen atoms can be incorporated into their primary substrates. These reactions often initiate pathways that allow organisms to use stable organic molecules as sources of carbon and energy for growth. From the myriad of reactions in which these enzymes are involved, this perspective recounts the general mechanisms of aromatic dihydroxylation and oxidative ring cleavage, both of which are ubiquitous chemical reactions found in life-sustaining processes. The organic substrate provides all four electrons required for oxygen activation and insertion in the reactions mediated by extradiol and intradiol ring-cleaving catechol dioxygenases. In contrast, two of the electrons are provided by NADH in the cis-dihydroxylation mechanism of Rieske dioxygenases. The catalytic nonheme Fe center, with the aid of active site residues, facilitates these electron transfers to O2 as key elements of the activation processes. This review discusses some general questions for the catalytic strategies of oxygen activation and insertion into aromatic compounds employed by mononuclear nonheme iron-dependent dioxygenases. These include: (1) how oxygen is activated, (2) whether there are common intermediates before oxygen transfer to the aromatic substrate, and (3) are these key intermediates unique to mononuclear nonheme iron dioxygenases?

  3. 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetate 2,3-dioxygenase from Klebsiella pneumoniae, a Mg(2+)-containing dioxygenase involved in aromatic catabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Gibello, A; Ferrer, E; Martín, M; Garrido-Pertierra, A

    1994-01-01

    3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetate 2,3-dioxygenase, an extradiol-ring-cleavage dioxygenase, has been purified from Klebsiella pneumoniae to homogeneity. The enzyme has an M(r) of 102,000 in its tetrameric form with an M(r) of 25,500 for each subunit. Unlike most other dioxygenases, the enzyme reported here contains Mg2+, as determined by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry and plasma emission metal analysis. The enzyme was shown to contain approx. 1 g-atom of Mg2+/mol of protein and we suggest an alpha 4 Mg2+ quaternary structure. This is the first report of a dioxygenase containing Mg2+ in its structure. Images Figure 1 PMID:8037662

  4. Benzoate degradation by Rhodococcus opacus 1CP after dormancy: Characterization of dioxygenases involved in the process.

    PubMed

    Solyanikova, Inna P; Emelyanova, Elena V; Borzova, Oksana V; Golovleva, Ludmila A

    2016-01-01

    The process of benzoate degradation by strain Rhodococcus opacus 1CP after a five-year dormancy was investigated and its peculiarities were revealed. The strain was shown to be capable of growth on benzoate at a concentration of up to 10 g L(-1). The substrate specificity of benzoate dioxygenase (BDO) during the culture growth on a medium with a low (200-250 mg L(-1)) and high (4 g L(-1)) concentration of benzoate was assessed. BDO of R. opacus 1CP was shown to be an extremely narrow specificity enzyme. Out of 31 substituted benzoates, only with one, 3-chlorobenzoate, its activity was higher than 9% of that of benzoate. Two dioxygenases, catechol 1,2-dioxygenase (Cat 1,2-DO) and protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase (PCA 3,4-DO), were identified in a cell-free extract, purified and characterized. The substrate specificity of Cat 1,2-DO isolated from cells of strain 1CP after the dormancy was found to differ significantly from that of Cat 1,2-DO isolated earlier from cells of this strain grown on benzoate. By its substrate specificity, the described Cat 1,2-DO was close to the Cat 1,2-DO from strain 1CP grown on 4-methylbenzoate. Neither activity nor inhibition by protocatechuate was observed during the reaction of Cat 1,2-DO with catechol, and catechol had no inhibitory effect on the reaction of PCA 3,4-DO with protocatechuate.

  5. Characterization of three distinct extradiol dioxygenases involved in mineralization of dibenzofuran by Terrabacter sp. strain DPO360.

    PubMed

    Schmid, A; Rothe, B; Altenbuchner, J; Ludwig, W; Engesser, K H

    1997-01-01

    The dibenzofuran-degrading bacterial strain DPO360 represents a new species of the genus Terrabacter together with the previously described dibenzofuran-mineralizing bacterial strain DPO1361 (K.-H. Engesser, V. Strubel, K. Christoglou, P. Fischer, and H. G. Rast, FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 65:205-210, 1989; V. Strubel, Ph.D. thesis, University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany, 1991; V. Strubel, H. G. Rast, W. Fietz, H.-J. Knackmuss, and K.-H. Engesser, FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 58:233-238, 1989). Two 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl-1,2-dioxygenases (BphC1 and BphC2) and one catechol-2,3-dioxygenase (C23O) were shown to be expressed in Terrabacter sp. strain DPO360 growing with dibenzofuran as a sole source of carbon and energy. These enzymes exhibited strong sensitivity to oxygen. They were purified to apparent homogeneity as homodimers (BphC and BphC2) and as a homotetrameric catechol-2,3-dioxygenase (C23O). According to their specificity constants kcat/Km, both BphC1 and BphC2 were shown to be responsible for the cleavage of 2,2',3-trihydroxybiphenyl, the first metabolite in dibenzofuran mineralization along the angular dioxygenation pathway. With this substrate, BphC2 exhibited a considerably higher kcat/Km, value (183 microM/min) than BphC1 (29 microM/min). Catechol-2,3-dioxygenase was recognized to be not involved in the ring cleavage of 2,2',3-trihydroxybiphenyl (kcat/Km, 1 microM/min). Analysis of deduced amino acid sequence data of bphC1 revealed 36% sequence identity to nahC from Pseudomonas putida PpG7 (S. Harayama and M. Rekik, J. Biol. Chem. 264:15328-15333, 1989) and about 40% sequence identity to various bphC genes from different Pseudomonas and Rhodococcus strains. In addition, another 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl-1,2-dioxygenase gene (bphC3) was cloned from the genome of Terrabacter sp. strain DPO360. Expression of this gene, however, could not be detected in Terrabacter sp. strain DPO360 after growth with dibenzofuran.

  6. Characterization of three distinct extradiol dioxygenases involved in mineralization of dibenzofuran by Terrabacter sp. strain DPO360.

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, A; Rothe, B; Altenbuchner, J; Ludwig, W; Engesser, K H

    1997-01-01

    The dibenzofuran-degrading bacterial strain DPO360 represents a new species of the genus Terrabacter together with the previously described dibenzofuran-mineralizing bacterial strain DPO1361 (K.-H. Engesser, V. Strubel, K. Christoglou, P. Fischer, and H. G. Rast, FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 65:205-210, 1989; V. Strubel, Ph.D. thesis, University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany, 1991; V. Strubel, H. G. Rast, W. Fietz, H.-J. Knackmuss, and K.-H. Engesser, FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 58:233-238, 1989). Two 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl-1,2-dioxygenases (BphC1 and BphC2) and one catechol-2,3-dioxygenase (C23O) were shown to be expressed in Terrabacter sp. strain DPO360 growing with dibenzofuran as a sole source of carbon and energy. These enzymes exhibited strong sensitivity to oxygen. They were purified to apparent homogeneity as homodimers (BphC and BphC2) and as a homotetrameric catechol-2,3-dioxygenase (C23O). According to their specificity constants kcat/Km, both BphC1 and BphC2 were shown to be responsible for the cleavage of 2,2',3-trihydroxybiphenyl, the first metabolite in dibenzofuran mineralization along the angular dioxygenation pathway. With this substrate, BphC2 exhibited a considerably higher kcat/Km, value (183 microM/min) than BphC1 (29 microM/min). Catechol-2,3-dioxygenase was recognized to be not involved in the ring cleavage of 2,2',3-trihydroxybiphenyl (kcat/Km, 1 microM/min). Analysis of deduced amino acid sequence data of bphC1 revealed 36% sequence identity to nahC from Pseudomonas putida PpG7 (S. Harayama and M. Rekik, J. Biol. Chem. 264:15328-15333, 1989) and about 40% sequence identity to various bphC genes from different Pseudomonas and Rhodococcus strains. In addition, another 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl-1,2-dioxygenase gene (bphC3) was cloned from the genome of Terrabacter sp. strain DPO360. Expression of this gene, however, could not be detected in Terrabacter sp. strain DPO360 after growth with dibenzofuran. PMID:8981980

  7. Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase 1 (Ido1) Is Involved in the Control of Mouse Caput Epididymis Immune Environment

    PubMed Central

    Damon-Soubeyrand, Christelle; Saez, Fabrice; Kocer, Ayhan; Janny, Laurent; Pons-Rejraji, Hanae; Munn, David H.; Mellor, Andrew L.; Gharbi, Najoua; Cadet, Rémi; Guiton, Rachel; Aitken, Robert J.; Drevet, Joël R.

    2013-01-01

    The epididymis maintains a state of immune tolerance towards spermatozoa while also protecting them and itself against infection and acute inflammation. The immunosuppressive enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (Ido1) participates in this delicate local equilibrium. Using the mouse Ido1−/− model, we show here that the absence of IDO1 expression leads in the epididymis but not in serum to (1) an increase in the inflammatory state as evidenced by changes in the content of cytokines and chemokines, (2) the engagement of a Th1-driven inflammatory response as evidenced by changes in the Th17/Treg as well as Th1/Th2 equilibria, as well as (3) differences in the content of lipid intermediates classically involved in inflammation. Despite this more pronounced inflammatory state, Ido1−/− animals succeed in preserving the local epididymal immune situation due to the activation of compensatory mechanisms that are discussed. PMID:23840489

  8. Generation of novel-substrate-accepting biphenyl dioxygenases through segmental random mutagenesis and identification of residues involved in enzyme specificity.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Marco; Kahl, Silke; Standfuss-Gabisch, Christine; Cámara, Beatriz; Seeger, Michael; Hofer, Bernd

    2006-03-01

    Aryl-hydroxylating dioxygenases are of interest for the degradation of persistant aromatic pollutants, such as polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), or as catalysts for the functionalization of aromatic scaffolds. In order to achieve dioxygenation of technical mixtures of PCBs, enzymes with broadened or altered substrate ranges are essential. To alter the substrate specificity of the biphenyl dioxygenase (BphA) of Burkholderia xenovorans LB400, we applied a directed evolution approach that used structure-function relationship data to target random mutageneses to specific segments of the enzyme. The limitation of random amino acid (AA) substitutions to regions that are critical for substrate binding and the exclusion of AA exchanges from positions that are essential for catalytic activity yielded enzyme variants of interest at comparatively high frequencies. After only a single mutagenic cycle, 10 beneficial variants were detected in a library of fewer than 1,000 active enzymes. Compared to the parental BphA, they showed between 5- and 200-fold increased turnover of chlorinated biphenyls, with substituent patterns that rendered them largely recalcitrant to attack by BphA-LB400. Determination of their sequences identified AAs that prevent the acceptance of specific PCBs by the wild-type enzyme, such as Pro334 and Phe384. The results suggest prime targets for subsequent cycles of BphA modification. Correlations with a three-dimensional model of the enzyme indicated that most of the exchanges with major influence on substrate turnover do not involve pocket-lining residues and had not been predictable through structural modeling.

  9. Characterization of MnpC, a hydroquinone dioxygenase likely involved in the meta-nitrophenol degradation by Cupriavidus necator JMP134.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ying; Zhou, Ning-Yi

    2010-11-01

    Cupriavidus necator JMP134 utilizes meta-nitrophenol (MNP) as the sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy. The metabolic reconstruction of MNP degradation performed in silico suggested that MnpC might have played an important role in MNP degradation. In order to experimentally confirm the prediction, we have now characterized the mnpC-encoded (amino)hydroquinone dioxygenase involved in the ring-cleavage reaction of MNP degradation. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that mnpC played an essential role in MNP degradation. MnpC was purified to homogeneity as an N-terminal six-His-tagged fusion protein, and it was proved to be a dimer as demonstrated by gel filtration. MnpC was a Fe(2+)- and Mn(2+)-dependent dioxygenase, catalyzing the ring-cleavage of hydroquinone to 4-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde in vitro and proposed as an aminohydroquinone dioxygenase involved in MNP degradation in vivo. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that MnpC diverged from the other (chloro)hydroquinone dioxygenases at an earlier point, which might result in the preference for its physiological substrate.

  10. Characterization and Functional Identification of a Novel Plant 4,5-Extradiol Dioxygenase Involved in Betalain Pigment Biosynthesis in Portulaca grandiflora

    PubMed Central

    Christinet, Laurent; Burdet, Frédéric X.; Zaiko, Maïa; Hinz, Ursula; Zrÿd, Jean-Pierre

    2004-01-01

    Betalains are pigments that replace anthocyanins in the majority of families of the plant order Caryophyllales. Betalamic acid is the common chromophore of betalains. The key enzyme of the betalain biosynthetic pathway is an extradiol dioxygenase that opens the cyclic ring of dihydroxy-phenylalanine (DOPA) between carbons 4 and 5, thus producing an unstable seco-DOPA that rearranges nonenzymatically to betalamic acid. A gene for a 4,5-DOPA-dioxygenase has already been isolated from the fungus Amanita muscaria, but no homolog was ever found in plants. To identify the plant gene, we constructed subtractive libraries between different colored phenotypes of isogenic lines of Portulaca grandiflora (Portulacaceae) and between different stages of flower bud formation. Using in silico analysis of differentially expressed cDNAs, we identified a candidate showing strong homology at the level of translated protein with the LigB domain present in several bacterial extradiol 4,5-dioxygenases. The gene was expressed only in colored flower petals. The function of this gene in the betalain biosynthetic pathway was confirmed by biolistic genetic complementation in white petals of P. grandiflora genotypes lacking the gene for color formation. This gene named DODA is the first characterized member of a novel family of plant dioxygenases phylogenetically distinct from Amanita sp. DOPA-dioxygenase. Homologs of DODA are present not only in betalain-producing plants but also, albeit with some changes near the catalytic site, in other angiosperms and in the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens. These homologs are part of a novel conserved plant gene family probably involved in aromatic compound metabolism. PMID:14730069

  11. P-HYDROXYPHENYLPYRUVATE DIOXYGENASE from Medicago sativa is involved in vitamin E biosynthesis and abscisic acid-mediated seed germination

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jishan; Chen, Zhihong; Ban, Liping; Wu, Yudi; Huang, Jianping; Chu, Jinfang; Fang, Shuang; Wang, Zan; Gao, Hongwen; Wang, Xuemin

    2017-01-01

    P-HYDROXYPHENYLPYRUVATE DIOXYGENASE (HPPD) is the first committed enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of vitamin E, and is characterized by catalyzing the conversion of p-hydroxyphenyl pyruvate (HPP) to homogentisic acid (HGA). Here, an HPPD gene was cloned from Medicago sativa L. and designated MsHPPD, which was expressed at high levels in alfalfa leaves. PEG 6000 (polyethylene glycol), NaCl, abscisic acid and salicylic acid were shown to significantly induce MsHPPD expression, especially in the cotyledons and root tissues. Overexpression of MsHPPD was found to significantly increase the level of β-tocotrienol and the total vitamin E content in Arabidopsis seeds. Furthermore, these transgenic Arabidopsis seeds exhibited an accelerated germination time, compared with wild-type seeds under normal conditions, as well as under NaCl and ABA treatments. Meanwhile, the expression level of several genes associated with ABA biosynthesis (NCED3, NCED5 and NCED9) and the ABA signaling pathway (RAB18, ABI3 and ABI5) were significantly down-regulated in MsHPPD-overexpressing transgenic lines, as well as the total free ABA content. Taken together, these results demonstrate that MsHPPD functions not only in the vitamin E biosynthetic pathway, but also plays a critical role in seed germination via affecting ABA biosynthesis and signaling. PMID:28084442

  12. A stress-inducible gene for 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase involved in abscisic acid biosynthesis under water stress in drought-tolerant cowpea.

    PubMed

    Iuchi, S; Kobayashi, M; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, K; Shinozaki, K

    2000-06-01

    Four cDNA clones named CPRD (cowpea responsive to dehydration) corresponding to genes that are responsive to dehydration were isolated using differential screening of a cDNA library prepared from 10-h dehydrated drought-tolerant cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) plants. One of the cDNA clones has a homology to 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (named VuNCED1), which is supposed to be involved in abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis. The GST (glutathione S-transferase)-fused protein indicates a 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase activity, which catalyzes the cleavage of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid. The N-terminal region of the VuNCED1 protein directed the fused sGFP (synthetic green-fluorescent protein) into the plastids of the protoplasts, indicating that the N-terminal sequence acts as a transit peptide. Both the accumulation of ABA and expression of VuNCED1 were strongly induced by drought stress in the 8-d-old cowpea plant, whereas drought stress did not trigger the expression of VuABA1 (accession no. AB030295) gene that encodes zeaxanthin epoxidase. These results indicate that the VuNCED1 cDNA encodes a 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase and that its product has a key role in the synthesis of ABA under drought stress.

  13. A Stress-Inducible Gene for 9-cis-Epoxycarotenoid Dioxygenase Involved in Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis under Water Stress in Drought-Tolerant Cowpea1

    PubMed Central

    Iuchi, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Masatomo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko; Shinozaki, Kazuo

    2000-01-01

    Four cDNA clones named CPRD (cowpea responsive to dehydration) corresponding to genes that are responsive to dehydration were isolated using differential screening of a cDNA library prepared from 10-h dehydrated drought-tolerant cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) plants. One of the cDNA clones has a homology to 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (named VuNCED1), which is supposed to be involved in abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis. The GST (glutathione S-transferase)-fused protein indicates a 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase activity, which catalyzes the cleavage of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid. The N-terminal region of the VuNCED1 protein directed the fused sGFP (synthetic green-fluorescent protein) into the plastids of the protoplasts, indicating that the N-terminal sequence acts as a transit peptide. Both the accumulation of ABA and expression of VuNCED1 were strongly induced by drought stress in the 8-d-old cowpea plant, whereas drought stress did not trigger the expression of VuABA1 (accession no. AB030295) gene that encodes zeaxanthin epoxidase. These results indicate that the VuNCED1 cDNA encodes a 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase and that its product has a key role in the synthesis of ABA under drought stress. PMID:10859185

  14. The gene coding for the DOPA dioxygenase involved in betalain biosynthesis in Amanita muscaria and its regulation.

    PubMed

    Hinz, U G; Fivaz, J; Girod, P A; Zyrd, J P

    1997-09-01

    Genomic and cDNA clones derived from the gene (dodA) coding for DOPA dioxygenase, a key enzyme in the betalain pathway, were obtained from the basidiomycete Amanita muscaria. A cDNA library was established in the phage lambda ZapII and dodA clones were isolated using polyclonal antibodies raised against the purified enzyme. Their identity was confirmed by comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence with the sequence of several tryptic peptide fragments of DOPA dioxygenase. The gene coded for a 228-amino acid protein that showed no homology to published sequences. The coding region was interrupted by five short introns. Regulation was shown to occur at the transcriptional level; the mRNA accumulated to high levels only in the coloured cap tissue. dodA was found to be a single-copy gene in A. muscaria. To our knowledge, this is the first gene from the betalain pathway to be cloned. It encodes a type of aromatic ring-cleaving dioxygenase that has not been previously described.

  15. Characterization of Three XylT-Like [2Fe-2S] Ferredoxins Associated with Catabolism of Cresols or Naphthalene: Evidence for Their Involvement in Catechol Dioxygenase Reactivation

    PubMed Central

    Hugo, N.; Meyer, C.; Armengaud, J.; Gaillard, J.; Timmis, K. N.; Jouanneau, Y.

    2000-01-01

    The xylT gene product, a component of the xylene catabolic pathway of Pseudomonas putida mt2, has been recently characterized as a novel [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin which specifically reactivates oxygen-inactivated catechol 2,3-dioxygenase (XylE). In this study, three XylT-like proteins potentially involved in the catabolism of naphthalene (NahT) or cresols (PhhQ and DmpQ) have been overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and compared with respect to their biochemical properties and interaction with XylE. The three XylT analogues show general spectroscopic characteristics common to plant-type [2Fe-2S] ferredoxins as well as distinctive features that appear to be typical for the XylT subgroup of these proteins. The midpoint redox potentials of the PhhQ and DmpQ proteins were −286 mV and −323 mV, respectively. Interestingly, all purified XylT-like proteins promoted in vitro reactivation of XylE almost as efficiently as XylT. The interaction of XylE with XylT and its analogues was studied by cross-linking experiments using the 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide. A polypeptide band with an Mr of 46,000, which corresponded to the cross-linked product between one XylE subunit and one molecule of ferredoxin, was obtained in all cases. The formation of the complex was affected by ionic strength, indicating that electrostatic forces are involved in the dioxygenase-ferredoxin interaction. In complementation experiments, plasmids expressing xylT or its analogues were introduced into an XylT-null mutant of P. putida which is unable to grow on p-methylbenzoate. All transconjugants regained the wild-type phenotype, indicating that all analogues can substitute for XylT in the in vivo reactivation of XylE. Our results provide evidence for a subgroup of [2Fe-2S] ferredoxins with distinct biochemical properties whose specific function is to reactivate intrinsically labile extradiol ring cleavage dioxygenases involved in the catabolism of various aromatic hydrocarbons

  16. Cytosolic and plastoglobule-targeted carotenoid dioxygenases from Crocus sativus are both involved in beta-ionone release.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Angela; Rambla, José Luís; Santaella, Marcella; Gómez, M Dolores; Orzaez, Diego; Granell, Antonio; Gómez-Gómez, Lourdes

    2008-09-05

    Saffron, the processed stigma of Crocus sativus, is characterized by the presence of several apocarotenoids that contribute to the color, flavor, and aroma of the spice. However, little is known about the synthesis of aroma compounds during the development of the C. sativus stigma. The developing stigma is nearly odorless, but before and at anthesis, the aromatic compound beta-ionone becomes the principal norisoprenoid volatile in the stigma. In this study, four carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD) genes, CsCCD1a, CsCCD1b, CsCCD4a, and CsCCD4b, were isolated from C. sativus. Expression analysis showed that CsCCD1a was constitutively expressed, CsCCD1b was unique to the stigma tissue, but only CsCCD4a and -b had expression patterns consistent with the highest levels of beta-carotene and emission of beta-ionone derived during the stigma development. The CsCCD4 enzymes were localized in plastids and more specifically were present in the plastoglobules. The enzymatic activities of CsCCD1a, CsCCD1b, and CsCCD4 enzymes were determined by Escherichia coli expression, and subsequent analysis of the volatile products was generated by GC/MS. The four CCDs fell in two phylogenetically divergent dioxygenase classes, but all could cleave beta-carotene at the 9,10(9',10') positions to yield beta-ionone. The data obtained suggest that all four C. sativus CCD enzymes may contribute in different ways to the production of beta-ionone. In addition, the location and precise timing of beta-ionone synthesis, together with its known activity as a fragrance and insect attractant, suggest that this volatile may have a role in Crocus pollination.

  17. Cytosolic and Plastoglobule-targeted Carotenoid Dioxygenases from Crocus sativus Are Both Involved in β-Ionone Release*

    PubMed Central

    Rubio, Angela; Rambla, José Luís; Santaella, Marcella; Gómez, M. Dolores; Orzaez, Diego; Granell, Antonio; Gómez-Gómez, Lourdes

    2008-01-01

    Saffron, the processed stigma of Crocus sativus, is characterized by the presence of several apocarotenoids that contribute to the color, flavor, and aroma of the spice. However, little is known about the synthesis of aroma compounds during the development of the C. sativus stigma. The developing stigma is nearly odorless, but before and at anthesis, the aromatic compound β-ionone becomes the principal norisoprenoid volatile in the stigma. In this study, four carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD) genes, CsCCD1a, CsCCD1b, CsCCD4a, and CsCCD4b, were isolated from C. sativus. Expression analysis showed that CsCCD1a was constitutively expressed, CsCCD1b was unique to the stigma tissue, but only CsCCD4a and -b had expression patterns consistent with the highest levels of β-carotene and emission of β-ionone derived during the stigma development. The CsCCD4 enzymes were localized in plastids and more specifically were present in the plastoglobules. The enzymatic activities of CsCCD1a, CsCCD1b, and CsCCD4 enzymes were determined by Escherichia coli expression, and subsequent analysis of the volatile products was generated by GC/MS. The four CCDs fell in two phylogenetically divergent dioxygenase classes, but all could cleave β-carotene at the 9,10(9′,10′) positions to yield β-ionone. The data obtained suggest that all four C. sativus CCD enzymes may contribute in different ways to the production of β-ionone. In addition, the location and precise timing of β-ionone synthesis, together with its known activity as a fragrance and insect attractant, suggest that this volatile may have a role in Crocus pollination. PMID:18611853

  18. Enzymes Involved in the Aerobic Bacterial Degradation of N-Heteroaromatic Compounds: Molybdenum Hydroxylases and Ring-Opening 2,4-Dioxygenases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetzner, S.

    Many N-heteroaromatic compounds are utilized by micro-organisms as a source of carbon (and nitrogen) and energy. The aerobic bacterial degradation of these growth substrates frequently involves several hydroxylation steps and subsequent dioxygenolytic cleavage of (di)hydroxy-substituted heteroaromatic intermediates to aliphatic metabolites which finally are channeled into central metabolic pathways. As a rule, the initial bacterial hydroxylation of a N-heteroaromatic compound is catalyzed by a molybdenum hydroxylase, which uses a water molecule as source of the incorporated oxygen. The enzyme's redox-active centers - the active site molybdenum ion coordinated to a distinct pyranopterin cofactor, two different [2Fe2S] centers, and in most cases, flavin adenine dinucleotide - transfer electrons from the N-heterocyclic substrate to an electron acceptor, which for many molybdenum hydroxylases is still unknown. Ring-opening 2,4-dioxygenases involved in the bacterial degradation of quinaldine and 1H-4-oxoquinoline catalyze the cleavage of two carbon-carbon bonds with concomitant formation of carbon monoxide. Since they contain neither a metal center nor an organic cofactor, and since they do not show any sequence similarity to known oxygenases, these unique dioxygenases form a separate enzyme family. Quite surprisingly, however, they appear to be structurally and mechanistically related to enzymes of the α/β hydrolase fold superfamily. Microbial enzymes are a great resource for biotechnological applications. Microbial strains or their enzymes may be used for degradative (bioremediation) or synthetic (biotransformation) purposes. Modern bioremediation or biotransformation strategies may even involve microbial catalysts or strains designed by protein engineering or pathway engineering. Prerequisite for developing such modern tools of biotechnology is a comprehensive understanding of microbial metabolic pathways, of the structure and function of enzymes, and of the

  19. Involvement of the Cys-Tyr cofactor on iron binding in the active site of human cysteine dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Arjune, Sita; Schwarz, Guenter; Belaidi, Abdel A

    2015-01-01

    Sulfur metabolism has gained increasing medical interest over the last years. In particular, cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) has been recognized as a potential marker in oncology due to its altered gene expression in various cancer types. Human CDO is a non-heme iron-dependent enzyme, which catalyzes the irreversible oxidation of cysteine to cysteine sulfinic acid, which is further metabolized to taurine or pyruvate and sulfate. Several studies have reported a unique post-translational modification of human CDO consisting of a cross-link between cysteine 93 and tyrosine 157 (Cys-Tyr), which increases catalytic efficiency in a substrate-dependent manner. However, the reaction mechanism by which the Cys-Tyr cofactor increases catalytic efficiency remains unclear. In this study, steady-state kinetics were determined for wild type CDO and two different variants being either impaired or saturated with the Cys-Tyr cofactor. Cofactor formation in CDO resulted in an approximately fivefold increase in k cat and tenfold increase in k cat/K m over the cofactor-free CDO variant. Furthermore, iron titration experiments revealed an 18-fold decrease in K d of iron upon cross-link formation. This finding suggests a structural role of the Cys-Tyr cofactor in coordinating the ferrous iron in the active site of CDO in accordance with the previously postulated reaction mechanism of human CDO. Finally, we identified product-based inhibition and α-ketoglutarate and glutarate as CDO inhibitors using a simplified well plate-based activity assay. This assay can be used for high-throughput identification of additional inhibitors, which may contribute to understand the functional importance of CDO in sulfur amino acid metabolism and related diseases.

  20. Characterization of the promoter region of an Arabidopsis gene for 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase involved in dehydration-inducible transcription.

    PubMed

    Behnam, Babak; Iuchi, Satoshi; Fujita, Miki; Fujita, Yasunari; Takasaki, Hironori; Osakabe, Yuriko; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko; Kobayashi, Masatomo; Shinozaki, Kazuo

    2013-08-01

    Plants respond to dehydration stress and tolerate water-deficit status through complex physiological and cellular processes. Many genes are induced by water deficit. Abscisic acid (ABA) plays important roles in tolerance to dehydration stress by inducing many stress genes. ABA is synthesized de novo in response to dehydration. Most of the genes involved in ABA biosynthesis have been identified, and they are expressed mainly in leaf vascular tissues. Of the products of such genes, 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) is a key enzyme in ABA biosynthesis. One of the five NCED genes in Arabidopsis, AtNCED3, is significantly induced by dehydration. To understand the regulatory mechanism of the early stages of the dehydration stress response, it is important to analyse the transcriptional regulatory systems of AtNCED3. In the present study, we found that an overlapping G-box recognition sequence (5'-CACGTG-3') at -2248 bp from the transcriptional start site of AtNCED3 is an important cis-acting element in the induction of the dehydration response. We discuss the possible transcriptional regulatory system of dehydration-responsive AtNCED3 expression, and how this may control the level of ABA under water-deficit conditions.

  1. Homology modeling, simulation and molecular docking studies of catechol-2, 3-Dioxygenase from Burkholderia cepacia: Involved in degradation of Petroleum hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Ajao, AT; Kannan, M; Yakubu, SE; VJ, Umoh; JB, Ameh

    2012-01-01

    Catechol 2, 3-dioxygenase is present in several types of bacteria and undergoes degradation of environmental pollutants through an important key biochemical pathways. Specifically, this enzyme cleaves aromatic rings of several environmental pollutants such as toluene, xylene, naphthalene and biphenyl derivatives. Hence, the importance of Catechol 2, 3-dioxygenase and its role in the degradation of environmental pollutants made us to predict the three-dimensional structure of Catechol 2, 3-dioxygenase from Burkholderia cepacia. The 10ns molecular dynamics simulation was carried out to check the stability of the modeled Catechol 2, 3- dioxygenase. The results show that the model was energetically stable, and it attains their equilibrium within 2000 ps of production MD run. The docking of various petroleum hydrocarbons into the Catechol 2,3-dioxygenase reveals that the benzene, O-xylene, Toluene, Fluorene, Naphthalene, Carbazol, Pyrene, Dibenzothiophene, Anthracene, Phenanthrene, Biphenyl makes strong hydrogen bond and Van der waals interaction with the active site residues of H150, L152, W198, H206, H220, H252, I254, T255, Y261, E271, L276 and F309. Free energy of binding and estimated inhibition constant of these compounds demonstrates that they are energetically stable in their binding cavity. Chrysene shows positive energy of binding in the active site atom of Fe. Except Pyrene all the substrates made close contact with Fe atom by the distance ranges from 1.67 to 2.43 Å. In addition to that, the above mentioned substrate except pyrene all other made π-π stacking interaction with H252 by the distance ranges from 3.40 to 3.90 Å. All these docking results reveal that, except Chrysene all other substrate has good free energy of binding to hold enough in the active site and makes strong VdW interaction with Catechol-2,3-dioxygenase. These results suggest that, the enzyme is capable of catalyzing the above-mentioned substrate. PMID:23144539

  2. Homology modeling, simulation and molecular docking studies of catechol-2, 3-Dioxygenase from Burkholderia cepacia: Involved in degradation of Petroleum hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Ajao, At; Kannan, M; Yakubu, Se; Vj, Umoh; Jb, Ameh

    2012-01-01

    Catechol 2, 3-dioxygenase is present in several types of bacteria and undergoes degradation of environmental pollutants through an important key biochemical pathways. Specifically, this enzyme cleaves aromatic rings of several environmental pollutants such as toluene, xylene, naphthalene and biphenyl derivatives. Hence, the importance of Catechol 2, 3-dioxygenase and its role in the degradation of environmental pollutants made us to predict the three-dimensional structure of Catechol 2, 3-dioxygenase from Burkholderia cepacia. The 10ns molecular dynamics simulation was carried out to check the stability of the modeled Catechol 2, 3- dioxygenase. The results show that the model was energetically stable, and it attains their equilibrium within 2000 ps of production MD run. The docking of various petroleum hydrocarbons into the Catechol 2,3-dioxygenase reveals that the benzene, O-xylene, Toluene, Fluorene, Naphthalene, Carbazol, Pyrene, Dibenzothiophene, Anthracene, Phenanthrene, Biphenyl makes strong hydrogen bond and Van der waals interaction with the active site residues of H150, L152, W198, H206, H220, H252, I254, T255, Y261, E271, L276 and F309. Free energy of binding and estimated inhibition constant of these compounds demonstrates that they are energetically stable in their binding cavity. Chrysene shows positive energy of binding in the active site atom of Fe. Except Pyrene all the substrates made close contact with Fe atom by the distance ranges from 1.67 to 2.43 Å. In addition to that, the above mentioned substrate except pyrene all other made π-π stacking interaction with H252 by the distance ranges from 3.40 to 3.90 Å. All these docking results reveal that, except Chrysene all other substrate has good free energy of binding to hold enough in the active site and makes strong VdW interaction with Catechol-2,3-dioxygenase. These results suggest that, the enzyme is capable of catalyzing the above-mentioned substrate.

  3. 2,4-Dinitrotoluene dioxygenase from Burkholderia sp. strain DNT: similarity to naphthalene dioxygenase.

    PubMed Central

    Suen, W C; Haigler, B E; Spain, J C

    1996-01-01

    2,4-Dinitrotoluene (DNT) dioxygenase from Burkholderia sp. strain DNT catalyzes the initial oxidation of DNT to form 4-methyl-5-nitrocatechol (MNC) and nitrite. The displacement of the aromatic nitro group by dioxygenases has only recently been described, and nothing is known about the evolutionary origin of the enzyme systems that catalyze these reactions. We have shown previously that the gene encoding DNT dioxygenase is localized on a degradative plasmid within a 6.8-kb NsiI DNA fragment (W.-C. Suen and J. C. Spain, J. Bacteriol. 175:1831-1837, 1993). We describe here the sequence analysis and the substrate range of the enzyme system encoded by this fragment. Five open reading frames were identified, four of which have a high degree of similarity (59 to 78% identity) to the components of naphthalene dioxygenase (NDO) from Pseudomonas strains. The conserved amino acid residues within NDO that are involved in cofactor binding were also identified in the gene encoding DNT dioxygenase. An Escherichia coli clone that expressed DNT dioxygenase converted DNT to MNC and also converted naphthalene to (+)-cis-(1R,2S)-dihydroxy-1,2-dihydronaphthalene. In contrast, the E. coli clone that expressed NDO did not oxidize DNT. Furthermore, the enzyme systems exhibit similar broad substrate specificities and can oxidize such compounds as indole, indan, indene, phenetole, and acenaphthene. These results suggest that DNT dioxygenase and the NDO enzyme system share a common ancestor. PMID:8759857

  4. Expression of a putative dioxygenase gene adjacent to an insertion mutation is involved in the short internodes of columnar apples (Malus × domestica).

    PubMed

    Okada, Kazuma; Wada, Masato; Moriya, Shigeki; Katayose, Yuichi; Fujisawa, Hiroko; Wu, Jianzhong; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Kurita, Kanako; Sasaki, Harumi; Fujii, Hiroshi; Terakami, Shingo; Iwanami, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Toshiya; Abe, Kazuyuki

    2016-11-01

    Determining the molecular mechanism of fruit tree architecture is important for tree management and fruit production. An apple mutant 'McIntosh Wijcik', which was discovered as a bud mutation from 'McIntosh', exhibits a columnar growth phenotype that is controlled by a single dominant gene, Co. In this study, the mutation and the Co gene were analyzed. Fine mapping narrowed the Co region to a 101 kb region. Sequence analysis of the Co region and the original wild-type co region identified an insertion mutation of an 8202 bp long terminal repeat (LTR) retroposon in the Co region. Segregation analysis using a DNA marker based on the insertion polymorphism showed that the LTR retroposon was closely associated with the columnar growth phenotype. RNA-seq and RT-PCR analysis identified a promising Co candidate gene (91071-gene) within the Co region that is specifically expressed in 'McIntosh Wijcik' but not in 'McIntosh'. The 91071-gene was located approximately 16 kb downstream of the insertion mutation and is predicted to encode a 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase involved in an unknown reaction. Overexpression of the 91071-gene in transgenic tobaccos and apples resulted in phenotypes with short internodes, like columnar apples. These data suggested that the 8202 bp retroposon insertion in 'McIntosh Wijcik' is associated with the short internodes of the columnar growth phenotype via upregulated expression of the adjacent 91071-gene. Furthermore, the DNA marker based on the insertion polymorphism could be useful for the marker-assisted selection of columnar apples.

  5. Molecular cloning and expression of genes encoding a novel dioxygenase involved in low- and high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation in Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Jae; Kweon, Ohgew; Freeman, James P; Jones, Richard C; Adjei, Michael D; Jhoo, Jin-Woo; Edmondson, Ricky D; Cerniglia, Carl E

    2006-02-01

    Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1 is able to metabolize a wide range of low- and high-molecular-weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A 20-kDa protein was upregulated in PAH-metabolizing M. vanbaalenii PYR-1 cells compared to control cultures. The differentially expressed protein was identified as a beta subunit of the terminal dioxygenase using mass spectrometry. PCR with degenerate primers designed based on de novo sequenced peptides and a series of plaque hybridizations were done to screen the M. vanbaalenii PYR-1 genomic library. The genes, designated nidA3B3, encoding the alpha and beta subunits of terminal dioxygenase, were subsequently cloned and sequenced. The deduced enzyme revealed close similarities to the corresponding PAH ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases from Mycobacterium and Rhodococcus spp. but had the highest similarity, 61.9%, to the alpha subunit from Nocardioides sp. strain KP7. The alpha subunit also showed 52% sequence homology with the previously reported NidA from M. vanbaalenii PYR-1. The genes nidA3B3 were subcloned into the expression vector pET-17b, and the enzyme activity in Escherichia coli cells was reconstituted through coexpression with the ferredoxin (PhdC) and ferredoxin reductase (PhdD) genes of the phenanthrene dioxygenase from Nocardioides sp. strain KP7. The recombinant PAH dioxygenase appeared to favor the HMW PAH substrates fluoranthene, pyrene, and phenanthrene. Several other PAHs, including naphthalene, anthracene, and benz[a]anthracene, were also converted to their corresponding cis-dihydrodiols. The recombinant E. coli, however, did not show any dioxygenation activity for phthalate and biphenyl. The upregulation of nidA3B3 in M. vanbaalenii PYR-1 induced by PAHs was confirmed by reverse transcription-PCR analysis.

  6. Hydroperoxylation by Hydroxyethylphosphonate Dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Hydroxyethylphosphonate dioxygenase (HEPD) catalyzes the O2-dependent cleavage of the carbon−carbon bond of 2-hydroxyethylphosphonate (2-HEP) to afford hydroxymethylphosphonate (HMP) and formate without input of electrons or use of any organic cofactors. Two mechanisms have been proposed to account for this reaction. One involves initial hydroxylation of substrate to an acetal intermediate and its subsequent attack onto an Fe(IV)-oxo species. The second mechanism features initial hydroperoxylation of substrate followed by a Criegee rearrangement. To distinguish between the two mechanisms, substrate analogues were synthesized and presented to the enzyme. Hydroxymethylphosphonate was converted into phosphate and formate, and 1-hydroxyethylphosphonate was converted to acetylphosphate, which is an inhibitor of the enzyme. These results provide strong support for a Criegee rearrangement with a phosphorus-based migrating group and require that the O−O bond of molecular oxygen is not cleaved prior to substrate activation. (2R)-Hydroxypropylphosphonate partitioned between conversion to 2-oxopropylphosphonate and hydroxymethylphosphonate, with the latter in turn converted to phosphate and formate. Collectively, these results support a mechanism that proceeds by hydroperoxylation followed by a Criegee rearrangement. PMID:19839620

  7. Hydroperoxylation by hydroxyethylphosphonate dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Whitteck, John T; Cicchillo, Robert M; van der Donk, Wilfred A

    2009-11-11

    Hydroxyethylphosphonate dioxygenase (HEPD) catalyzes the O(2)-dependent cleavage of the carbon-carbon bond of 2-hydroxyethylphosphonate (2-HEP) to afford hydroxymethylphosphonate (HMP) and formate without input of electrons or use of any organic cofactors. Two mechanisms have been proposed to account for this reaction. One involves initial hydroxylation of substrate to an acetal intermediate and its subsequent attack onto an Fe(IV)-oxo species. The second mechanism features initial hydroperoxylation of substrate followed by a Criegee rearrangement. To distinguish between the two mechanisms, substrate analogues were synthesized and presented to the enzyme. Hydroxymethylphosphonate was converted into phosphate and formate, and 1-hydroxyethylphosphonate was converted to acetylphosphate, which is an inhibitor of the enzyme. These results provide strong support for a Criegee rearrangement with a phosphorus-based migrating group and require that the O-O bond of molecular oxygen is not cleaved prior to substrate activation. (2R)-Hydroxypropylphosphonate partitioned between conversion to 2-oxopropylphosphonate and hydroxymethylphosphonate, with the latter in turn converted to phosphate and formate. Collectively, these results support a mechanism that proceeds by hydroperoxylation followed by a Criegee rearrangement.

  8. Crystal Structure and Mechanism of Tryptophan 2,3-Dioxygenase, a Heme Enzyme Involved in Tryptophan Catabolism and in Quinolinate Biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang,Y.; Kang, S.; Mukherjee, T.; Bale, S.; Crane, B.; Begley, T.; Ealick, S.

    2007-01-01

    The structure of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) from Ralstonia metallidurans was determined at 2.4 {angstrom}. TDO catalyzes the irreversible oxidation of L-tryptophan to N-formyl kynurenine, which is the initial step in tryptophan catabolism. TDO is a heme-containing enzyme and is highly specific for its substrate L-tryptophan. The structure is a tetramer with a heme cofactor bound at each active site. The monomeric fold, as well as the heme binding site, is similar to that of the large domain of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, an enzyme that catalyzes the same reaction except with a broader substrate tolerance. Modeling of the putative (S)-tryptophan hydroperoxide intermediate into the active site, as well as substrate analogue and mutagenesis studies, are consistent with a Criegee mechanism for the reaction.

  9. Human regulatory macrophages are potent in suppression of the xenoimmune response via indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase-involved mechanism(s).

    PubMed

    Guo, Fei; Hu, Min; Huang, Dandan; Zhao, Yuanfei; Heng, Benjamin; Guillemin, Gilles; Lim, Chai K; Hawthorne, Wayne J; Yi, Shounan

    2017-08-02

    For xenotransplantation to truly succeed, we must develop immunomodulatory strategies to suppress the xenoimmune response but by minimizing immunosuppression over the long term. Regulatory macrophages (Mreg) have been shown to suppress polyclonal T-cell proliferation in vitro and prolong allograft survival in vivo. However, the question of whether they are capable of suppressing xenoimmune responses remains unknown. This study assessed the potential of human Mreg to be used as an effective immunomodulatory method in xenotransplantation. CD14+ monocytes selected from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were cultured with macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) for 7 days with IFN-γ added at day 6 for Mreg induction. Mreg phenotyping was performed by flow cytometric analysis, and the in vitro suppressive function was assessed by mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) using irradiated pig PBMC as the xenogeneic stimulator cells, human PBMC as responder cells, and autologous Mreg as suppressor cells. To assess mRNA expression of Mreg functional molecules indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), IL-10, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and TGF-β were measured by real-time PCR. Supernatants were collected from the MLR cultures for IDO activity assay by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The effects of the IDO inhibitor 1-D/L-methyl-tryptophan (1-MT), iNOS inhibitor N(G) -monomethyl-l-arginine (L-NMMA), and anti-IFN-γ or anti-TGF-β monoclonal antibody (mAb) treatment on Mreg suppressive capacity were tested from the supernatants of the MLR assays. We demonstrated that induced Mreg with a phenotype of CD14(low) CD16(-/low) CD80(low) CD83(-/low) CD86(+/hi) HLA-DR(+/hi) were capable of suppressing proliferating human PBMC, CD4+, and CD8+ T cells, even at a higher responder:Mreg ratio of 32:1 in a pig-human xenogeneic MLR. The strong suppressive potency of Mreg was further correlated with their upregulated IDO expression and activity. The IDO

  10. Molecular cloning and characterization of desacetoxyvindoline-4-hydroxylase, a 2-oxoglutarate dependent-dioxygenase involved in the biosynthesis of vindoline in Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Flota, F; De Carolis, E; Alarco, A M; De Luca, V

    1997-08-01

    A 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase (EC 1.14.11.11) which catalyzes the 4-hydroxylation of desacetoxyvindoline was purified to homogeneity. Three oligopeptides isolated from a tryptic digest of the purified protein were microsequenced and one oligopeptide showed significant homology to hyoscyamine 6 beta-hydroxylase from Hyoscyamus niger. A 36-mer degenerate oligonucleotide based on this peptide sequence was used to screen a Catharanthus roseus cDNA library and three clones, cD4H-1 to -3, were isolated. Although none of the three clones were full-length, the open reading frame on each clone encoded a putative protein containing the sequence of all three peptides. Primer extension analysis suggested that cD4H-3, the longest cDNA clone, was missing 156 bp at the 5' end of the clone and sequencing of the genomic clone, gD4H-8, confirmed these results. Southern blot analysis suggested that d4h is present as a single-copy gene in C. roseus which is a diploid plant, and the significant differences in the sequence of the 3'-UTR between cD4H-1 and -3 suggest that they represent dimorphic alleles of the same hydroxylase. The identity of the clone was further confirmed when extracts of transformed Escherichia coli expressed D4H enzyme activity. The D4H clone encoded a putative protein of 401 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 45.5 kDa and the amino acid sequence showed a high degree of similarity with those of a growing family of 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases of plant and fungal origin. The similarity was not restricted to the dioxygenase protein sequences but was also extended to the gene structure and organization since the 205 and 1720 bp introns of d4h were inserted around the same highly conserved amino acid consensus sequences as those for e8 protein, hyoscyamine-6 beta-hydroxylase and ethylene-forming enzyme. These results provide further support that a common ancestral gene is responsible for the appearance of this family of dioxygenases

  11. Intracerebroventricular Administration of Streptozotocin as an Experimental Approach to Depression: Evidence for the Involvement of Proinflammatory Cytokines and Indoleamine-2,3-Dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Souza, Leandro Cattelan; Jesse, Cristiano R; de Gomes, Marcelo Gomes; Viana, Cristini Escobar; Mattos, Etiara; Silva, Neici Cáceres; Boeira, Silvana Peterini

    2017-02-02

    There is a lack of information about the molecular events underlying the depressive-like effect of an intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin (ICV-STZ) in mice. Elevated activity of the tryptophan-degrading enzyme indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) has been proposed to mediate depression in inflammatory disorders. In this study, we report that ICV-STZ activates IDO in the hippocampus of mice and culminates in depressive-like behaviors, measured by an increased duration in immobility time in the forced swimming test and decreased total time of grooming in the splash test. Indirect blockade of IDO activation with the cytokine inhibitor minocycline prevents the development of depressive-like behaviors and attenuates STZ-induced upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines in the hippocampus. Minocycline abrogates the increase in tryptophan and kynurenine levels as well as prevents serotonin dysfunction in the hippocampus of STZ-injected mice. These results suggest that hippocampal IDO activation in STZ-associated depressive-like behavior is mediated by proinflammatory cytokine-dependent mechanisms. Our study not only extends the evidence that IDO has a critical role in mediating inflammation-induced depression but also supports the notion that neuroinflammation and the kynurenine pathway are important targets of novel therapeutic drugs for depression. In addition, our study provides new insights into the neurobiological mechanisms underlying ICV-STZ and indicates that this model could be employed in the preclinical research of depression.

  12. Petunia hybrida CAROTENOID CLEAVAGE DIOXYGENASE7 Is Involved in the Production of Negative and Positive Branching Signals in Petunia1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, Revel S.M.; Martínez-Sánchez, N. Marcela; Janssen, Bart J.; Templeton, Kerry R.; Simons, Joanne L.; Quinn, Brian D.; Karunairetnam, Sakuntala; Snowden, Kimberley C.

    2009-01-01

    One of the key factors that defines plant form is the regulation of when and where branches develop. The diversity of form observed in nature results, in part, from variation in the regulation of branching between species. Two CAROTENOID CLEAVAGE DIOXYGENASE (CCD) genes, CCD7 and CCD8, are required for the production of a branch-suppressing plant hormone. Here, we report that the decreased apical dominance3 (dad3) mutant of petunia (Petunia hybrida) results from the mutation of the PhCCD7 gene and has a less severe branching phenotype than mutation of PhCCD8 (dad1). An analysis of the expression of this gene in wild-type, mutant, and grafted petunia suggests that in petunia, CCD7 and CCD8 are coordinately regulated. In contrast to observations in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), ccd7ccd8 double mutants in petunia show an additive phenotype. An analysis using dad3 or dad1 mutant scions grafted to wild-type rootstocks showed that when these plants produce adventitious mutant roots, branching is increased above that seen in plants where the mutant roots are removed. The results presented here indicate that mutation of either CCD7 or CCD8 in petunia results in both the loss of an inhibitor of branching and an increase in a promoter of branching. PMID:19846541

  13. Early Carcinogenesis Involves the Establishment of Immune Privilege via Intrinsic and Extrinsic Regulation of Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1: Translational Implications in Cancer Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Holtzhausen, Alisha; Zhao, Fei; Evans, Kathy S.; Hanks, Brent A.

    2014-01-01

    Although prolonged genetic pressure has been conjectured to be necessary for the eventual development of tumor immune evasion mechanisms, recent work is demonstrating that early genetic mutations are capable of moonlighting as both intrinsic and extrinsic modulators of the tumor immune microenvironment. The indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO) immunoregulatory enzyme is emerging as a key player in tumor-mediated immune tolerance. While loss of the tumor suppressor, BIN-1, and the over-expression of cyclooxygenase-2 have been implicated in intrinsic regulation of IDO, recent findings have demonstrated the loss of TβRIII and the upregulation of Wnt5a by developing cancers to play a role in the extrinsic control of IDO activity by local dendritic cell populations residing within tumor and tumor-draining lymph node tissues. Together, these genetic changes are capable of modulating paracrine signaling pathways in the early stages of carcinogenesis to establish a site of immune privilege by promoting the differentiation and activation of local regulatory T cells. Additional investigation of these immune evasion pathways promises to provide opportunities for the development of novel strategies to synergistically enhance the efficacy of the evolving class of T cell-targeted “checkpoint” inhibitors. PMID:25339948

  14. Tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase is regulated by prostaglandin E2 in malignant glioma via a positive signaling loop involving prostaglandin E receptor-4.

    PubMed

    Ochs, Katharina; Ott, Martina; Rauschenbach, Katharina J; Deumelandt, Katrin; Sahm, Felix; Opitz, Christiane A; von Deimling, Andreas; Wick, Wolfgang; Platten, Michael

    2015-12-27

    Malignant gliomas and other types of tumors generate a local immunosuppressive microenvironment, which prohibits an effective anti-tumor immune response and promotes tumor growth. Along with others, we have recently demonstrated that catabolism of the essential amino acid tryptophan via tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) is an important mechanism mediating tumor-associated immunosuppression particularly in gliomas. The pathways regulating TDO in tumors, however, are poorly understood. Here we show that prostaglandins enhance TDO expression and enzymatic activity in malignant gliomas via activation of prostaglandin E receptor-4 (EP4). Stimulation with prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) up-regulated TDO-mediated kynurenine release in human glioma cell lines while knockdown of the PGE2 receptor EP4 inhibited TDO expression and activity. In human malignant glioma tissue expression of the PGE2 -producing enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) and its receptor EP4 were associated with TDO expression both on transcript and protein level. High expression of EP4 correlated with poor survival in malignant glioma patients WHO III-IV. Importantly, treatment of glioma cells with an EP4 inhibitor decreased TDO expression and activity. Moreover, TDO-over-expressing murine gliomas showed increased COX2 and EP4 expression suggesting a positive feedback mechanism in vivo. In summary, targeting EP4 may inhibit - in addition to immunosuppressive COX2 signaling - tryptophan degradation as another important immunosuppressive pathway and thus, could provide a dual clinically relevant immunotherapeutic avenue for the treatment of malignant gliomas. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate Dioxygenase Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Raspail, Corinne; Graindorge, Matthieu; Moreau, Yohann; Crouzy, Serge; Lefèbvre, Bertrand; Robin, Adeline Y.; Dumas, Renaud; Matringe, Michel

    2011-01-01

    4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) catalyzes the conversion of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate (HPP) into homogentisate. HPPD is the molecular target of very effective synthetic herbicides. HPPD inhibitors may also be useful in treating life-threatening tyrosinemia type I and are currently in trials for treatment of Parkinson disease. The reaction mechanism of this key enzyme in both plants and animals has not yet been fully elucidated. In this study, using site-directed mutagenesis supported by quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical theoretical calculations, we investigated the role of catalytic residues potentially interacting with the substrate/intermediates. These results highlight the following: (i) the central role of Gln-272, Gln-286, and Gln-358 in HPP binding and the first nucleophilic attack; (ii) the important movement of the aromatic ring of HPP during the reaction, and (iii) the key role played by Asn-261 and Ser-246 in C1 hydroxylation and the final ortho-rearrangement steps (numbering according to the Arabidopsis HPPD crystal structure 1SQD). Furthermore, this study reveals that the last step of the catalytic reaction, the 1,2 shift of the acetate side chain, which was believed to be unique to the HPPD activity, is also catalyzed by a structurally unrelated enzyme. PMID:21613226

  16. Substrate Oxidation by Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Elizabeth S.; Basran, Jaswir; Lee, Michael; Handa, Sandeep; Raven, Emma L.

    2015-01-01

    The kynurenine pathway is the major route of l-tryptophan (l-Trp) catabolism in biology, leading ultimately to the formation of NAD+. The initial and rate-limiting step of the kynurenine pathway involves oxidation of l-Trp to N-formylkynurenine. This is an O2-dependent process and catalyzed by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase. More than 60 years after these dioxygenase enzymes were first isolated (Kotake, Y., and Masayama, I. (1936) Z. Physiol. Chem. 243, 237–244), the mechanism of the reaction is not established. We examined the mechanism of substrate oxidation for a series of substituted tryptophan analogues by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. We observed formation of a transient intermediate, assigned as a Compound II (ferryl) species, during oxidation of l-Trp, 1-methyl-l-Trp, and a number of other substrate analogues. The data are consistent with a common reaction mechanism for indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-catalyzed oxidation of tryptophan and other tryptophan analogues. PMID:26511316

  17. Autoxidation-product-initiated dioxygenases: vanadium-based, record catalytic lifetime catechol dioxygenase catalysis.

    PubMed

    Yin, Cindy-Xing; Sasaki, Yoh; Finke, Richard G

    2005-11-14

    In recent work, it was shown that V-containing polyoxometalates such as (n-Bu4N)7SiW9V3O40 or (n-Bu4N)9P2W15V3O62, as well as eight other V-containing precatalysts tested, evolve to a high activity, long catalytic lifetime (> or = 30,000-100,000 total turnovers) 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol dioxygenase, in which Pierpont's complex [VO(DBSQ)(DTBC)]2 (where DBSQ is 3,5-di-tert-butylsemiquinone and DTBC is the 3,5-di-tert-butylcatecholate dianion) was identified as a common catalyst or catalyst resting state (Yin, C.-X.; Finke, R. G. Vanadium-Based, Extended Catalytic Lifetime Catechol Dioxygenases: Evidence For a Common Catalyst. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127 (25), 9003-9013). Herein, those findings are followed up by studies aimed at answering the following questions about this record catalytic lifetime 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol dioxygenase catalyst: (i) What is the key to how V leaches from, for example, seemingly robust V-containing polyoxometalate precatalysts? (ii) What is the key to the sigmoidal, apparently autocatalytic kinetics observed? (iii) What can be learned about the underlying reactions that form [VO(DBSQ)(DTBC)]2? (iv) Finally, do the answers to (i-iii) lead to any broader insights or concepts? Key findings from the present work include the fact that the reaction involves a novel, autoxidation-product-induced dioxygenase, that is, one in which the undesired autoxidation of the 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol substrate to the corresponding benzoquinone and H2O2 turns on the desired dioxygenase catalysis via a V-leaching process which eventually yields Pierpont's complex, [VO(DBSQ)(DTBC)]2. Plausible reactions en route to [VO(DBSQ)(DTBC)]2 consistent with the kinetic data, the role of H2O2, and the relevant literature are provided. The results provide a prototype example of the little observed but likely more general concept of an autoxidation-product-initiated reaction. The results also provide considerable simplification of, and insight into, the previously

  18. Assay of cysteine dioxygenase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Bagley, P.J.; Stipanuk, M.H. )

    1990-02-26

    It has been proposed that rat liver contains two cysteine dioxygenase enzymes which convert cysteine to cysteinesulfinic acid, one which is stimulated by NAD{sup +} and has a pH optimum of 6.8 and one which is not stimulated by NAD{sup +} and has a pH optimum of 9.0. This led the authors to reinvestigate assay conditions for measuring cysteine dioxygenase activity in rat liver homogenate. An HPLC method, using an anion exchange column (Dionex Amino-Pac{trademark} PA1 (4x250 mm)) was used to separate the ({sup 35}S)cysteinesulfinic acid produced from ({sup 35}S)cysteine in the incubation mixture. They demonstrated that inclusion of hydroxylamine prevented further metabolism of cysteinesulfinic acid. which occurred rapidly in the absence of hydroxylamine.

  19. Development of catechol 2,3-dioxygenase-specific primers for monitoring bioremediation by competitive quantitative PCR

    SciTech Connect

    Mesarch, M.B.; Nakatsu, C.H.; Nies, L.

    2000-02-01

    Benzene, toluene, xylenes, phenol, naphthalene, and biphenyl are among a group of compounds that have at least one reported pathway for biodegradation involving catechol 2,3-dioxygenase enzymes. Thus, detection of the corresponding catechol 2,3-dioxygenase genes can serve as a basis for identifying and quantifying bacteria that have these catabolic abilities. Primes that can successfully amplify a 238-bp catechol 2,3-dioxygenase gene fragment from eight different bacteria are described. The identities of the amplicons were confirmed by hybridization with a 238-bp catechol 2,3-dioxygenase probe. The detection limit was 10{sup 2} to 10{sup 3} gene copies, which was lowered to 10{sup 0} to 10{sup 1} gene copies of hybridization. Using the dioxygenase-specific primers, an increase in catechol 2,3-dioxygenase genes was detected in petroleum-amended soils. The dioxygenase genes were enumerated by competitive quantitative PCR and a 163-bp competitor that was amplified using the same primers. Target and competitor sequences had identical amplification kinetics. Potential PCR inhibitors that could coextract with DNA, nonamplifying DNA, soil factors (humics), and soil pollutants (toluene) did not impact enumeration. Therefore, this technique can be used to accurately and reproducibly quantify catechol 2,3-dioxygenase genes in complex environments such as petroleum-contaminated soil. Direct, non-cultivation-based molecular techniques for detecting and enumerating microbial pollutant-biodegrading genes in environmental samples are powerful tools for monitoring bioremediation and developing field evidence in support of natural attenuation.

  20. Development of Catechol 2,3-Dioxygenase-Specific Primers for Monitoring Bioremediation by Competitive Quantitative PCR

    PubMed Central

    Mesarch, Matthew B.; Nakatsu, Cindy H.; Nies, Loring

    2000-01-01

    Benzene, toluene, xylenes, phenol, naphthalene, and biphenyl are among a group of compounds that have at least one reported pathway for biodegradation involving catechol 2,3-dioxygenase enzymes. Thus, detection of the corresponding catechol 2,3-dioxygenase genes can serve as a basis for identifying and quantifying bacteria that have these catabolic abilities. Primers that can successfully amplify a 238-bp catechol 2,3-dioxygenase gene fragment from eight different bacteria are described. The identities of the amplicons were confirmed by hybridization with a 238-bp catechol 2,3-dioxygenase probe. The detection limit was 102 to 103 gene copies, which was lowered to 100 to 101 gene copies by hybridization. Using the dioxygenase-specific primers, an increase in catechol 2,3-dioxygenase genes was detected in petroleum-amended soils. The dioxygenase genes were enumerated by competitive quantitative PCR with a 163-bp competitor that was amplified using the same primers. Target and competitor sequences had identical amplification kinetics. Potential PCR inhibitors that could coextract with DNA, nonamplifying DNA, soil factors (humics), and soil pollutants (toluene) did not impact enumeration. Therefore, this technique can be used to accurately and reproducibly quantify catechol 2,3-dioxygenase genes in complex environments such as petroleum-contaminated soil. Direct, non-cultivation-based molecular techniques for detecting and enumerating microbial pollutant-biodegrading genes in environmental samples are powerful tools for monitoring bioremediation and developing field evidence in support of natural attenuation. PMID:10653735

  1. Molecular Cloning, Nucleotide Sequence, and Expression of Genes Encoding a Polycyclic Aromatic Ring Dioxygenase from Mycobacterium sp. Strain PYR-1

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Ashraf A.; Wang, Rong-Fu; Cao, Wei-Wen; Doerge, Daniel R.; Wennerstrom, David; Cerniglia, Carl E.

    2001-01-01

    Mycobacterium sp. strain PYR-1 degrades high-molecular-weight polycyclic hydrocarbons (PAHs) primarily through the introduction of both atoms of molecular oxygen by a dioxygenase. To clone the dioxygenase genes involved in PAH degradation, two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis of PAH-induced proteins from cultures of Mycobacterium sp. strain PYR-1 was used to detect proteins that increased after phenanthrene, dibenzothiophene, and pyrene exposure. Comparison of proteins from induced and uninduced cultures on 2D gels indicated that at least six major proteins were expressed (105, 81, 52, 50, 43, and 13 kDa). The N-terminal sequence of the 50-kDa protein was similar to those of other dioxygenases. A digoxigenin-labeled oligonucleotide probe designed from this protein sequence was used to screen dioxygenase-positive clones from a genomic library of Mycobacterium sp. strain PYR-1. Three clones, each containing a 5,288-bp DNA insert with three genes of the dioxygenase system, were obtained. The genes in the DNA insert, from the 5′ to the 3′ direction, were a dehydrogenase, the dioxygenase small (β)-subunit, and the dioxygenase large (α)-subunit genes, arranged in a sequence different from those of genes encoding other bacterial dioxygenase systems. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the large α subunit did not cluster with most of the known α-subunit sequences but rather with three newly described α subunits of dioxygenases from Rhodococcus spp. and Nocardioides spp. The genes from Mycobacterium sp. strain PYR-1 were subcloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli with the pBAD/ThioFusion system. The functionality of the genes for PAH degradation was confirmed in a phagemid clone containing all three genes, as well as in plasmid subclones containing the two genes encoding the dioxygenase subunits. PMID:11472934

  2. Probes of the Catalytic Site of Cysteine Dioxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Chai,S.; Bruyere, J.; Maroney, M.

    2006-01-01

    The first major step of cysteine catabolism, the oxidation of cysteine to cysteine sulfinic acid, is catalyzed by cysteine dioxygenase (CDO). In the present work, we utilize recombinant rat liver CDO and cysteine derivatives to elucidate structural parameters involved in substrate recognition and x-ray absorption spectroscopy to probe the interaction of the active site iron center with cysteine. Kinetic studies using cysteine structural analogs show that most are inhibitors and that a terminal functional group bearing a negative charge (e.g. a carboxylate) is required for binding. The substrate-binding site has no stringent restrictions with respect to the size of the amino acid. Lack of the amino or carboxyl groups at the a-carbon does not prevent the molecules from interacting with the active site. In fact, cysteamine is shown to be a potent activator of the enzyme without being a substrate. CDO was also rendered inactive upon complexation with the metal-binding inhibitors azide and cyanide. Unlike many non-heme iron dioxygenases that employ a-keto acids as cofactors, CDO was shown to be the only dioxygenase known to be inhibited by {alpha}-ketoglutarate.

  3. Crystal Structure of Mammalian Cysteine dioxygenase: A Novel Mononuclear Iron Center for Cysteine Thiol Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons,C.; Liu, Q.; Huang, Q.; Hao, Q.; Begley, T.; Karplus, P.; Stipanuk, M.

    2006-01-01

    Cysteine dioxygenase is a mononuclear iron-dependent enzyme responsible for the oxidation of cysteine with molecular oxygen to form cysteinesulfinate. This reaction commits cysteine to either catabolism to sulfate and pyruvate or to the taurine biosynthetic pathway. Cysteine dioxygenase is a member of the cupin superfamily of proteins. The crystal structure of recombinant rat cysteine dioxygenase has been determined to 1.5 Angstroms resolution, and these results confirm the canonical cupin {beta}-sandwich fold and the rare cysteinyl-tyrosine intramolecular crosslink (between Cys93 and Tyr157) seen in the recently reported murine cysteine dioxygenase structure. In contrast to the catalytically inactive mononuclear Ni(II) metallocenter present in the murine structure, crystallization of a catalytically competent preparation of rat cysteine dioxygenase revealed a novel tetrahedrally coordinated mononuclear iron center involving three histidines (His86, His88, and His140) and a water molecule. Attempts to acquire a structure with bound ligand using either co-crystallization or soaks with cysteine revealed the formation of a mixed disulfide involving Cys164 near the active site, which may explain previously observed substrate inhibition. This work provides a framework for understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in thiol dioxygenation and sets the stage for exploring the chemistry of both the novel mononuclear iron center and the catalytic role of the cysteinyl-tyrosine linkage.

  4. Biochemical Characterization of Inducible 'Reductase' Component of Benzoate Dioxygenase and Phthalate Isomer Dioxygenases from Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PP4.

    PubMed

    Karandikar, Rohini; Badri, Abinaya; Phale, Prashant S

    2015-09-01

    The first step involved in the degradation of phthalate isomers (phthalate, isophthalate and terephthalate) is the double hydroxylation by respective aromatic-ring hydroxylating dioxygenases. These are two component enzymes consisting of 'oxygenase' and 'reductase' components. Soil isolate Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PP4 degrades phthalate isomers via protocatechuate and benzoate via catechol 'ortho' ring cleavage pathway. Metabolic studies suggest that strain PP4 has carbon source-specific inducible phthalate isomer dioxygenase and benzoate dioxygenase. Thus, it was of interest to study the properties of reductase components of these enzymes. Reductase activity from phthalate isomer-grown cells was 3-5-folds higher than benzoate grown cells. In-gel activity staining profile showed a reductase activity band of R f 0.56 for phthalate isomer-grown cells as compared to R f 0.73 from benzoate-grown cells. Partially purified reductase components from phthalate isomer grown cells showed K m in the range of 30-40 μM and V max = 34-48 μmol min(-1) mg(-1). However, reductase from benzoate grown cells showed K m = 49 μM and V max = 10 μmol min(-1) mg(-1). Strikingly similar molecular and kinetic properties of reductase component from phthalate isomer-grown cells suggest that probably the same reductase component is employed in three phthalate isomer dioxygenases. However, reductase component is different, with respect to kinetic properties and zymogram analysis, from benzoate-grown cells when compared to that from phthalate isomer grown cells of PP4.

  5. The Cysteine Dioxygenase Homologue from Pseudomonas aeruginosa Is a 3-Mercaptopropionate Dioxygenase*

    PubMed Central

    Tchesnokov, Egor P.; Fellner, Matthias; Siakkou, Eleni; Kleffmann, Torsten; Martin, Lois W.; Aloi, Sekotilani; Lamont, Iain L.; Wilbanks, Sigurd M.; Jameson, Guy N. L.

    2015-01-01

    Thiol dioxygenation is the initial oxidation step that commits a thiol to important catabolic or biosynthetic pathways. The reaction is catalyzed by a family of specific non-heme mononuclear iron proteins each of which is reported to react efficiently with only one substrate. This family of enzymes includes cysteine dioxygenase, cysteamine dioxygenase, mercaptosuccinate dioxygenase, and 3-mercaptopropionate dioxygenase. Using sequence alignment to infer cysteine dioxygenase activity, a cysteine dioxygenase homologue from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (p3MDO) has been identified. Mass spectrometry of P. aeruginosa under standard growth conditions showed that p3MDO is expressed in low levels, suggesting that this metabolic pathway is available to the organism. Purified recombinant p3MDO is able to oxidize both cysteine and 3-mercaptopropionic acid in vitro, with a marked preference for 3-mercaptopropionic acid. We therefore describe this enzyme as a 3-mercaptopropionate dioxygenase. Mössbauer spectroscopy suggests that substrate binding to the ferrous iron is through the thiol but indicates that each substrate could adopt different coordination geometries. Crystallographic comparison with mammalian cysteine dioxygenase shows that the overall active site geometry is conserved but suggests that the different substrate specificity can be related to replacement of an arginine by a glutamine in the active site. PMID:26272617

  6. Hemoglobin: A Nitric-Oxide Dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    Members of the hemoglobin superfamily efficiently catalyze nitric-oxide dioxygenation, and when paired with native electron donors, function as NO dioxygenases (NODs). Indeed, the NOD function has emerged as a more common and ancient function than the well-known role in O2 transport-storage. Novel hemoglobins possessing a NOD function continue to be discovered in diverse life forms. Unique hemoglobin structures evolved, in part, for catalysis with different electron donors. The mechanism of NOD catalysis by representative single domain hemoglobins and multidomain flavohemoglobin occurs through a multistep mechanism involving O2 migration to the heme pocket, O2 binding-reduction, NO migration, radical-radical coupling, O-atom rearrangement, nitrate release, and heme iron re-reduction. Unraveling the physiological functions of multiple NODs with varying expression in organisms and the complexity of NO as both a poison and signaling molecule remain grand challenges for the NO field. NOD knockout organisms and cells expressing recombinant NODs are helping to advance our understanding of NO actions in microbial infection, plant senescence, cancer, mitochondrial function, iron metabolism, and tissue O2 homeostasis. NOD inhibitors are being pursued for therapeutic applications as antibiotics and antitumor agents. Transgenic NOD-expressing plants, fish, algae, and microbes are being developed for agriculture, aquaculture, and industry. PMID:24278729

  7. Substrate Stereo-specificity in Tryptophan dioxygenase and Indoleamine 2,3- dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Capece, L.; Arrar, M.; Roitberg, A. E.; Yeh, Syun-Ru; Marti, M. A.; Estrin, D. A.

    2010-01-01

    The first and rate-limiting step of the kynurenine pathway, in which tryptophan (Trp) is converted to N-formylkynurenine is catalyzed by two heme-containing proteins, Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and Tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO). In mammals, TDO is found exclusively in liver tissue, IDO is found ubiquitously in all tissues. IDO has become increasingly popular in pharmaceutical research as it was found to be involved in many physiological situations, including immune escape of cancer. More importantly, small-molecule inhibitors of IDO are currently utilized in cancer therapy. One of the main concerns for the design of human IDO (hIDO) inhibitors is that they should be selective enough to avoid inhibition of TDO. In this work we have used a combination of classical molecular dynamics (MD) and hybrid quantum-classical (QM/MM) methodologies to establish the structural basis that determine the differences in a) the interactions of TDO and IDO with small ligands (CO/O2) and b) the substrate stereo-specificity in hIDO and TDO. Our results indicate that the differences in small ligand bound structures of IDO and TDO arise from slight differences in the structure of the bound substrate complex. The results also show that substrate stereo-specificity of TDO is achieved by the perfect fit of L-Trp, but not D-Trp, which exhibits weaker interactions with the protein matrix-. For hIDO, the presence of multiple stable binding conformations for L/D-Trp reveal the presence of a large and dynamic active site. Taken together, our data allow determination of key interactions useful for the future design of more potent hIDO-selective inhibitors. PMID:20715188

  8. Substrate Oxidation by Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase: EVIDENCE FOR A COMMON REACTION MECHANISM.

    PubMed

    Booth, Elizabeth S; Basran, Jaswir; Lee, Michael; Handa, Sandeep; Raven, Emma L

    2015-12-25

    The kynurenine pathway is the major route of L-tryptophan (L-Trp) catabolism in biology, leading ultimately to the formation of NAD(+). The initial and rate-limiting step of the kynurenine pathway involves oxidation of L-Trp to N-formylkynurenine. This is an O2-dependent process and catalyzed by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase. More than 60 years after these dioxygenase enzymes were first isolated (Kotake, Y., and Masayama, I. (1936) Z. Physiol. Chem. 243, 237-244), the mechanism of the reaction is not established. We examined the mechanism of substrate oxidation for a series of substituted tryptophan analogues by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. We observed formation of a transient intermediate, assigned as a Compound II (ferryl) species, during oxidation of L-Trp, 1-methyl-L-Trp, and a number of other substrate analogues. The data are consistent with a common reaction mechanism for indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-catalyzed oxidation of tryptophan and other tryptophan analogues.

  9. Comparative analysis of two DOPA dioxygenases from Phytolacca Americana.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kana; Yoshida, Kazuko; Sakuta, Masaaki

    2015-05-01

    The comparative analysis of two Phytolacca americana DOPA dioxygenases (PaDOD1 and PaDOD2) that may be involved in betalain biosynthesis was carried out. The recombinant protein of PaDOD catalyzed the conversion of DOPA to betalamic acid, whereas DOD activity was not detected in PaDOD2 in vitro. The role of DOD genes is discussed in the evolutionary context using phylogenetic analysis, suggesting that DOD might have been duplicated early in evolution and that accumulation of base substitutions could have led to the different characteristics of DODs within the betalain-producing Caryophyllales.

  10. miR-153-3p, a new bio-target, is involved in the pathogenesis of acute graft-versus-host disease via inhibition of indoleamine- 2,3-dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Meng; Kong, Yuan; Luo, Hong-xue; Ye, Xiao-yang; Wu, Qi; Zhao, Tong-feng; Hu, Yue-huan; Zhang, Hong-yu; Huo, Ming-Rui; Wan, Jun; Huang, Xiao-jun

    2016-01-01

    Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Therefore, seeking reliable biomarkers and delineating the potential biological mechanism are important for optimizing treatment strategies and improving their curative effect. In this study, using a microRNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based chip assay, microRNA-153-3p (miR-153-3p) was screened and selected as a potential biomarker of aGVHD. The elevated plasma miR-153-3p levels at +7 d after transplant could be used to predict the upcoming aGVHD. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for aGVHD+/aGVHD- patients receiving haploidentical transplant was 0.808 (95% confidence interval, 0.686-0.930) in a training set and 0.809 (95% confidence interval, 0.694-0.923) in a validation set. Interestingly, bioinformatics analysis indicated that indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is a potential target of miR-153-3p. In vitro study confirmed that IDO could be directly inhibited by miR-153-3p. In a GVHD model, recipient mice injected with a miR-153-3p antagomir exhibited higher IDO expression levels at the early stage after transplantation, as well as delayed aGVHD and longer survival, indicating that the miR-153-3p level at +7 d post-transplant is a good predictor of aGVHD. miR-153-3p participates in aGVHD development by inhibiting IDO expression and might be a novel bio-target for aGVHD intervention. PMID:27340781

  11. Spectroscopic Studies of the Catechol Dioxygenases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Que, Lawrence Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The catechol dioxygenases are bacterial iron-containing enzymes that catalyze the oxidative cleavage of catechols. These enzymes serve as a component of nature's mechanisms for degrading aromatic compounds in the environment. The structure and mechanistic aspects of these enzymes are described. (JN)

  12. 3-mercaptopropionate dioxygenase, a cysteine dioxygenase homologue, catalyzes the initial step of 3-mercaptopropionate catabolism in the 3,3-thiodipropionic acid-degrading bacterium variovorax paradoxus.

    PubMed

    Bruland, Nadine; Wübbeler, Jan Hendrik; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2009-01-02

    The thioether 3,3-thiodipropionic acid can be used as precursor substrate for biotechnological synthesis of 3-mercaptopropionic acid-containing polythioesters. Therefore, the hitherto unknown catabolism of this compound was elucidated to engineer novel and improved polythioester biosynthesis pathways in the future. Bacteria capable of using 3,3-thiodipropionic acid as the sole source of carbon and energy for growth were enriched from the environment. From eleven isolates, TBEA3, TBEA6, and SFWT were morphologically and physiologically characterized. Their 16 S rDNAs and other features affiliated these isolates to the beta-subgroup of the proteobacteria. Tn5::mob mutagenesis of isolate Variovorax paradoxus TBEA6 yielded ten mutants fully or partially impaired in growth on 3,3-thiodipropionic acid. Genotypic characterization of two 3,3-thiodipropionic acid-negative mutants demonstrated the involvement of a bacterial cysteine dioxygenase (EC 1.13.11.22) homologue in the further catabolism of the 3,3-thiodipropionic acid cleavage product 3-mercaptopropionic acid. Detection of 3-sulfinopropionate in the supernatant of one of these mutants during cultivation on 3,3-thiodipropionic acid as well as in vivo and in vitro enzyme assays using purified protein demonstrated oxygenation of 3-mercaptopropionic acid to 3-sulfinopropionate by this enzyme; cysteine and cysteamine were not used as substrate. Beside cysteine dioxygenase and cysteamine dioxygenase, this 3-mercaptopropionic acid dioxygenase is the third example for a thiol dioxygenase and the first report about the microbial catabolism of 3-mercaptopropionic acid. Insertion of Tn5::mob in a gene putatively coding for a family III acyl-CoA-transferase resulted in the accumulation of 3-sulfinopropionate during cultivation on 3,3-thiodipropionic acid, indicating that this compound is further metabolized to 3-sulfinopropionyl-CoA and subsequently to propionyl-CoA.

  13. Oxidative Transformation of Aminodinitrotoluene Isomers by Multicomponent Dioxygenases

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Glenn R.; Smets, Barth F.; Spain, Jim C.

    2001-01-01

    The electron-withdrawing nitro substituents of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) make the aromatic ring highly resistant to oxidative transformation. The typical biological transformation of TNT involves reduction of one or more of the nitro groups of the ring to produce the corresponding amine. Reduction of a single nitro substituent of TNT to an amino substituent increases the electron density of the aromatic nucleus considerably. The comparatively electron-dense nuclei of the aminodinitrotoluene (ADNT) isomers would be expected to be more susceptible to oxygenase attack than TNT. The hypothesis was tested by evaluating three nitroarene dioxygenases for the ability to hydroxylate the ADNT isomers. The predominant reaction was dioxygenation of the ring to yield nitrite and the corresponding aminomethylnitrocatechol. A secondary reaction was benzylic monooxygenation to form aminodinitrobenzyl alcohol. The substrate preferences and catalytic specificities of the three enzymes differed considerably. The discovery that the ADNT isomers are substrates for the nitroarene dioxygenases reveals the potential for extensive bacterial transformation of TNT under aerobic conditions. PMID:11722893

  14. Ralstonia sp. U2 naphthalene dioxygenase and Comamonas sp. JS765 nitrobenzene dioxygenase show differences in activity towards methylated naphthalenes.

    PubMed

    Tøndervik, Anne; Bruheim, Per; Berg, Laila; Ellingsen, Trond E; Kotlar, Hans K; Valla, Svein; Throne-Holst, Mimmi

    2012-02-01

    Methylsubstituted naphthalenes constitute a significant part of light gas oil fractions (LGO). These are toxic compounds with low fuel value, and can potentially be enzymatically modified to increase the fuel value and at the same time reduce toxicity. The first step in the biodegradation of naphthalene involves dioxygenation of the aromatic ring catalysed by naphthalene dioxygenase (NDO). Here we show that recombinantly produced NDO from Ralstonia sp. U2 and the related nitrobenzene dioxygenase (NBDO) from Comamonas sp. JS765 can use several mono-, di-, tri-, and tetramethylated naphthalenes as substrates. For the majority of the substrates both enzymes catalyse the formation of a mixture of mono- and dioxygenated products, and it is only dioxygenated products that are likely to be processed further, leading to ring cleavage. In some cases, like for 1-methylnaphthalene, NDO mainly generates the monooxygenated form, while with NBDO, the dioxygenated form dominates. In other cases, as for 1,4-dimethylnaphthalene, the monooxygenated product dominates with NDO, whereas NBDO generates similar amounts of both forms. Presumably, the best future strategy for bioconversion of methylated naphthalenes in LGO is to develop engineered enzyme that are optimised with respect to the specific composition of naphthalene derivatives found in a given product. Copyright © 2011 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The first step of the dioxygenation reaction carried out by tryptophan dioxygenase and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase as revealed by quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical studies

    PubMed Central

    Capece, Luciana; Lewis-Ballester, Ariel; Batabyal, Dipanwita; Di Russo, Natali; Estrin, Dario A.

    2015-01-01

    Tryptophan dioxygenase (TDO) and indole-amine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) are two heme-containing enzymes which catalyze the conversion of L-tryptophan to N-formylkynurenine (NFK). In mammals, TDO is mostly expressed in liver and is involved in controlling homeostatic serum tryptophan concentrations, whereas IDO is ubiquitous and is involved in modulating immune responses. Previous studies suggested that the first step of the dioxygenase reaction involves the deprotonation of the indoleamine group of the substrate by an evolutionarily conserved distal histidine residue in TDO and the heme-bound dioxygen in IDO. Here, we used classical molecular dynamics and hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical methods to evaluate the base-catalyzed mechanism. Our data suggest that the deprotonation of the indoleamine group of the substrate by either histidine in TDO or heme-bound dioxygen in IDO is not energetically favorable. Instead, the dioxygenase reaction can be initiated by a direct attack of heme-bound dioxygen on the C2=C3 bond of the indole ring, leading to a protein-stabilized 2,3-alkylperoxide transition state and a ferryl epoxide intermediate, which subsequently recombine to generate NFK. The novel sequential two-step oxygen addition mechanism is fully supported by our recent resonance Raman data that allowed identification of the ferryl intermediate (Lewis-Ballester et al. in Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106:17371–17376, 2009). The results reveal the subtle differences between the TDO and IDO reactions and highlight the importance of protein matrix in modulating stereoelectronic factors for oxygen activation and the stabilization of both transition and intermediate states. PMID:20361220

  16. Metabolic engineering of Arabidopsis for remediation of different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using a hybrid bacterial dioxygenase complex.

    PubMed

    Peng, Rihe; Fu, Xiaoyan; Tian, Yongsheng; Zhao, Wei; Zhu, Bo; Xu, Jing; Wang, Bo; Wang, Lijuan; Yao, Quanhong

    2014-11-01

    The widespread presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their potential harm to various organisms has generated interest in efficiently eliminating these compounds from the environment. Phytoremediation is an efficient technology for cleaning up pollutants. However, unlike microorganisms, plants lack the catabolic pathway for complete degradation of these dangerous groups of compounds. One way to enhance the potential of plants for remediation of these compounds is by transferring genes involved in xenobiotic degradation from microbes to plants. In this paper, four genes, namely nidA and nidB (encoding the large and small subunits of naphthalene dioxygenase of Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1) as well as NahAa and NahAb (encoding flavoprotein reductase and ferredoxin of the electron-transport chain of the Pseudomonas putida G7 naphthalene dioxygenase system), were transferred and ectopically expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing the heterozygous naphthalene dioxygenase system exhibited enhanced tolerance toward 2-4 rings PAHs. Transgenic plants assimilated PAHs from the culture media faster and accumulated less in vivo than wild-type plants. Furthermore, examination of metabolic intermediates by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed that the naphthalene metabolic pathway in transgenic plants mainly involves the dioxygenase pathway. Taken together, our findings suggest that grafting the naphthalene dioxygenase complex into plants is a possible strategy to breed PAH-tolerant plants to efficiently degrade PAHs in the environment. Copyright © 2014 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Synthesis of Substituted Catechols using Nitroarene Dioxygenases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    in batch fermentations , likely due to toxicity of the quinones that result from air oxidation of catechols. The nitroarene dioxygenases will serve as...strains were grown on Luria Bertani plates or broth containing ampi- cillin (100 mg L−1) or kanamycin (25 mg L−1) for plasmid maintenance as appropriate...Bacteria for substrate preference assays were cultivated in baffled shaker flasks containing LB broth ; recombinant oxygenase synthesis was induced

  18. Discovery and characterization of a second mammalian thiol dioxygenase, cysteamine dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Dominy, John E; Simmons, Chad R; Hirschberger, Lawrence L; Hwang, Jesse; Coloso, Relicardo M; Stipanuk, Martha H

    2007-08-31

    There are only two known thiol dioxygenase activities in mammals, and they are ascribed to the enzymes cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) and cysteamine (2-aminoethanethiol) dioxygenase (ADO). Although many studies have been dedicated to CDO, resulting in the identification of its gene and even characterization of the tertiary structure of the protein, relatively little is known about cysteamine dioxygenase. The failure to identify the gene for this protein has significantly hampered our understanding of the metabolism of cysteamine, a product of the constitutive degradation of coenzyme A, and the synthesis of taurine, the final product of cysteamine oxidation and the second most abundant amino acid in mammalian tissues. In this study we identified a hypothetical murine protein homolog of CDO (hereafter called ADO) that is encoded by the gene Gm237 and belongs to the DUF1637 protein family. When expressed as a recombinant protein, ADO exhibited significant cysteamine dioxygenase activity in vitro. The reaction was highly specific for cysteamine; cysteine was not oxidized by the enzyme, and structurally related compounds were not competitive inhibitors of the reaction. When overexpressed in HepG2/C3A cells, ADO increased the production of hypotaurine from cysteamine. Similarly, when endogenous expression of the human ADO ortholog C10orf22 in HepG2/C3A cells was reduced by RNA-mediated interference, hypotaurine production decreased. Western blots of murine tissues with an antibody developed against ADO showed that the protein is ubiquitously expressed with the highest levels in brain, heart, and skeletal muscle. Overall, these data suggest that ADO is responsible for endogenous cysteamine dioxygenase activity.

  19. Identification of the dioxygenase-generated intermediate formed during biosynthesis of the dihydropyrrole moiety common to anthramycin and sibiromycin

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Shalini; Li, Wei; Gerratana, Barbara; Rokita, Steven E.

    2015-01-01

    A description of pyrrolo[1,4]benzodiazepine (PBD) biosynthesis is a prerequisite for engineering production of analogs with enhanced antitumor activity. Predicted dioxygenases Orf12 and SibV associated with dihydropyrrole biosynthesis in PBDs anthramycin and sibiromycin, respectively, were expressed and purified for activity studies. UV-visible spectroscopy revealed that these enzymes catalyze the regiospecific 2,3-extradiol dioxygenation of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) to form L-2,3-secodopa (λmax = 368 nm). 1H NMR spectroscopy indicates that L-2,3-secodopa cyclizes into the α-keto acid tautomer of L-4-(2-oxo-3-butenoic-acid)-4,5-dihydropyrrole-2-carboxylic acid (λmax = 414 nm). Thus, the dioxygenases are key for establishing the scaffold of the dihydropyrrole moiety. Kinetic studies suggest the dioxygenase product is relatively labile and is likely consumed rapidly by subsequent biosynthetic steps. The enzymatic product and dimeric state of these dioxygenases are conserved in dioxygenases involved in dihydropyrrole or pyrrolidine biosynthesis within both PBD and non-PBD pathways. PMID:25564379

  20. Flavonoids biotransformation by bacterial non-heme dioxygenases, biphenyl and naphthalene dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jiyoung; Kang, Su-Il; Kim, Mihyang; Han, Jaehong; Hur, Hor-Gil

    2011-07-01

    This review details recent progresses in the flavonoid biotransformation by bacterial non-heme dioxygenases, biphenyl dioxygenase (BDO), and naphthalene dioxygenase (NDO), which can initially activate biphenyl and naphthalene with insertion of dioxygen in stereospecfic and regiospecific manners. Flavone, isoflavone, flavanone, and isoflavanol were biotransformed by BDO from Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707 and NDO from Pseudomonas sp. strain NCIB9816-4, respectively. In general, BDO showed wide range of substrate spectrum and produced the oxidized products, whereas NDO only metabolized flat two-dimensional substrates of flavone and isoflavone. Furthermore, biotransformation of B-ring skewed substrates, flavanone and isoflavanol, by BDO produced the epoxide products, instead of dihydrodiols. These results support the idea that substrate-driven reactivity alteration of the Fe-oxo active species may occur in the active site of non-heme dioxygenases. The study of flavonoid biotransformation by structurally-well defined BDO and NDO will provide the substrate structure and reactivity relationships and eventually establish the production of non-plant-originated flavonoids by means of microbial biotechnology.

  1. Thiol Dioxygenases: Unique Families of Cupin Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, C. R.; Karplus, P. A.; Dominy, J. E.

    2011-01-01

    Proteins in the cupin superfamily have a wide range of biological functions in archaea, bacteria and eukaryotes. Although proteins in the cupin superfamily show very low overall sequence similarity, they all contain two short but partially conserved cupin sequence motifs separated by a less conserved intermotif region that varies both in length and amino acid sequence. Furthermore, these proteins all share a common architecture described as a 6-stranded β-barrel core, and this canonical cupin or “jelly roll” β-barrel is formed with cupin motif 1, the intermotif region, and cupin motif 2 each forming two of the core six β-strands in the folded protein structure. The recently obtained crystal structures of cysteine dioxygenase (CDO), with contains conserved cupin motifs, show that it has the predicted canonical cupin β-barrel fold. Although there had been no reports of CDO activity in prokaryotes, we identified a number of bacterial cupin proteins of unknown function that share low similarity with mammalian CDO and that conserve many residues in the active site pocket of CDO. Putative bacterial CDOs predicted to have CDO activity were shown to have similar substrate specificity and kinetic parameters as eukaryotic CDOs. Information gleaned from crystal structures of mammalian CDO along with sequence information for homologs shown to have CDO activity facilitated the identification of a CDO family fingerprint motif. One key feature of the CDO fingerprint motif is that the canonical metal-binding glutamate residue in cupin motif 1 is replaced by a cysteine (in mammalian CDOs) or by a glycine (bacterial CDOs). The recent report that some putative bacterial CDO homologs are actually 3-mercaptopropionate dioxygenases suggests that the CDO family may include proteins with specificities for other thiol substrates. A paralog of CDO in mammals was also identified and shown to be the other mammalian thiol dioxygenase, cysteamine dioxygenase (ADO). A tentative

  2. The "Gln-Type" Thiol Dioxygenase from Azotobacter vinelandii is a 3-Mercaptopropionic Acid Dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Brad S; Subedi, Bishnu P; Sardar, Sinjinee; Crowell, Joshua K

    2015-12-29

    Cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) is a non-heme iron enzyme that catalyzes the O2-dependent oxidation of l-cysteine to produce cysteinesulfinic acid. Bacterial CDOs have been subdivided as either "Arg-type" or "Gln-type" on the basis of the identity of conserved active site residues. To date, "Gln-type" enzymes remain largely uncharacterized. It was recently noted that the "Gln-type" enzymes are more homologous with another thiol dioxygenase [3-mercaptopropionate dioxygenase (MDO)] identified in Variovorax paradoxus, suggesting that enzymes of the "Gln-type" subclass are in fact MDOs. In this work, a putative "Gln-type" thiol dioxygenase from Azotobacter vinelandii (Av) was purified to homogeneity and characterized. Steady-state assays were performed using three substrates [3-mercaptopropionic acid (3mpa), l-cysteine (cys), and cysteamine (ca)]. Despite comparable maximal velocities, the "Gln-type" Av enzyme exhibited a specificity for 3mpa (kcat/KM = 72000 M(-1) s(-1)) nearly 2 orders of magnitude greater than those for cys (110 M(-1) s(-1)) and ca (11 M(-1) s(-1)). Supporting X-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies were performed using nitric oxide (NO) as a surrogate for O2 binding to confirm obligate-ordered addition of substrate prior to NO. Stoichimetric addition of NO to solutions of 3mpa-bound enzyme quantitatively yields an iron-nitrosyl species (Av ES-NO) with EPR features consistent with a mononuclear (S = (3)/2) {FeNO}(7) site. Conversely, two distinct substrate-bound conformations were observed in Av ES-NO samples prepared with cys and ca, suggesting heterogeneous binding within the enzymatic active site. Analytical EPR simulations are provided to establish the relative binding affinity for each substrate (3map > cys > ca). Both kinetic and spectroscopic results presented here are consistent with 3mpa being the preferred substrate for this enzyme.

  3. Expression of Chlorocatechol 1,2-Dioxygenase and Chlorocatechol 2,3-Dioxygenase Genes in Chlorobenzene-Contaminated Subsurface Samples

    PubMed Central

    Alfreider, Albin; Vogt, Carsten; Babel, Wolfgang

    2003-01-01

    In order to evaluate the in situ degradative capabilities of microorganisms in an underground reactor facility housing two flowthrough columns filled with aquifer soil, we examined the distribution and phylogeny of gene transcripts encoding enzymes capable of catalyzing the cleavage of the chlorinated aromatic ring during transformation of the main pollutant, chlorobenzene. Initial biostimulation of the autochthonous bacteria in the originally anaerobic reactor columns was achieved by injecting nitrate and oxygen in the form of H2O2. Two broad-range primer pairs were used for reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) of partial subunit genes of chlorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenase and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase from RNA directly extracted from different groundwater and aquifer samples. Samples retrieved from the lowermost sections of the reactor columns, which were operated in upflow mode, were positive for the presence of chlorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenase and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase mRNA. On the other hand, chlorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenase RT-PCR products were detected in a larger part of each reactor column, up to a zone 5.5 m above the bottom. Phylogenetic analyses of these chlorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenase sequences clearly separated them into two main clusters, one of which was closely affiliated with the broad-spectrum chlorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenase from Pseudomonas chlororaphis RW71. Analysis of sequences obtained from RT-PCR products amplified with catechol 2,3-dioxygenase primers revealed that their closest relative was the chlorocatechol 2,3-dioxygenase gene cbzE from Pseudomonas putida GJ31 (A. E. Mars, J. Kingma, S. R. Kaschabek, W. Reineke, and D. B. Janssen, J. Bacteriol. 181:1309-1318, 1999), with sequence similarities between 97.8 and 99.0%. PMID:12620818

  4. A biological pathway linking inflammation and depression: activation of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Christmas, David M; Potokar, JP; Davies, Simon JC

    2011-01-01

    This article highlights the evidence linking depression to increased inflammatory drive and explores putative mechanisms for the association by reviewing both preclinical and clinical literature. The enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase is induced by proinflammatory cytokines and may form a link between immune functioning and altered neurotransmission, which results in depression. Increased indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity may cause both tryptophan depletion and increased neurotoxic metabolites of the kynurenine pathway, two alterations which have been hypothesized to cause depression. The tryptophan-kynurenine pathway is comprehensively described with a focus on the evidence linking metabolite alterations to depression. The use of immune-activated groups at high risk of depression have been used to explore these hypotheses; we focus on the studies involving chronic hepatitis C patients receiving interferon-alpha, an immune activating cytokine. Findings from this work have led to novel strategies for the future development of antidepressants including inhibition of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, moderating the cytokines which activate it, or addressing other targets in the kynurenine pathway. PMID:21792309

  5. Characterizations of Two Bacterial Persulfide Dioxygenases of the Metallo-β-lactamase Superfamily*

    PubMed Central

    Sattler, Steven A.; Wang, Xia; Lewis, Kevin M.; DeHan, Preston J.; Park, Chung-Min; Xin, Yufeng; Liu, Honglei; Xian, Ming; Xun, Luying; Kang, ChulHee

    2015-01-01

    Persulfide dioxygenases (PDOs), also known as sulfur dioxygenases (SDOs), oxidize glutathione persulfide (GSSH) to sulfite and GSH. PDOs belong to the metallo-β-lactamase superfamily and play critical roles in animals, plants, and microorganisms, including sulfide detoxification. The structures of two PDOs from human and Arabidopsis thaliana have been reported; however, little is known about the substrate binding and catalytic mechanism. The crystal structures of two bacterial PDOs from Pseudomonas putida and Myxococcus xanthus were determined at 1.5- and 2.5-Å resolution, respectively. The structures of both PDOs were homodimers, and their metal centers and β-lactamase folds were superimposable with those of related enzymes, especially the glyoxalases II. The PDOs share similar Fe(II) coordination and a secondary coordination sphere-based hydrogen bond network that is absent in glyoxalases II, in which the corresponding residues are involved instead in coordinating a second metal ion. The crystal structure of the complex between the Pseudomonas PDO and GSH also reveals the similarity of substrate binding between it and glyoxalases II. Further analysis implicates an identical mode of substrate binding by known PDOs. Thus, the data not only reveal the differences in metal binding and coordination between the dioxygenases and the hydrolytic enzymes in the metallo-β-lactamase superfamily, but also provide detailed information on substrate binding by PDOs. PMID:26082492

  6. [Isolation, charcaterization of an anthracene degrading bacterium Martelella sp. AD-3 and cloning of dioxygenase gene].

    PubMed

    Cui, Chang-Zheng; Feng, Tian-Cai; Yu, Ya-Qi; Dong, Fei; Yang, Xin-Mei; Feng, Yao-Yu; Liu, Yong-Di; Lin, Han-Ping

    2012-11-01

    Anthracene, among the 16 US EPA polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), is a typical low molecular weight environmental contaminant, which gains concern on its biodegradation under hypersaline condition. In this study, an anthracene-degrading bacterial strain was isolated from highly saline petroleum-contaminated soil. Based on its physiological, biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, the bacteria was preliminary identified and named as Martelella sp. AD-3. The strain was able to utilize anthracene as sole carbon source for growth and the degradation occurred under broad salinities (0.1% to 10%) and varying pHs (6.0 to 10.0). The optimized degradation conditions were initial concentration 25 mg x L(-1), culture temperature 30 degrees C, pH 9.0 and salinity 3%. And 94.6% of anthracene was degraded by strain AD-3 under the optimal conditions within 6 days. Degenerate primers design was performed with a reported dioxygenase alpha subunit homologous gene. A length of 307 bp fragment of the partial dioxygenase gene sequences (GenBank accession: JF823991.1) was amplified by nested PCR. The clones amino acid sequence from strain AD-3 showed 95% identity to that of the partial naphthalene dioxygenase large-subunit from Marinobacter sp. NCE312 (AF295033). The results lay a foundation for the further study of molecular mechanism involved in the PAHs biodegradation by strain AD-3.

  7. Characterization of hbzE-encoded gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase from Pseudomonas alcaligenes NCIMB 9867.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Chew Chieng; Tan, Chew Ling; Gao, Xiaoli; Zhao, Bing; Poh, Chit Laa

    2007-09-01

    Pseudomonas alcaligenes NCIMB 9867 (strain P25X) is known to synthesize two isofunctional gentisate 1,2-dioxygenases (GDO; EC 1.13.11.4) as well as other enzymes involved in the degradation of xylenols and cresols via the gentisate pathway. The hbzE gene encoding what is possibly the strictly inducible gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase II (GDO-II) was cloned, overexpressed and purified as a hexahistidine fusion protein from Escherichia coli. Active recombinant GDO-II had an estimated molecular mass of 150kDa and is likely a tetrameric protein with a subunit mass of approximately 40kDa, similar to the previously characterized gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase I (GDO-I) encoded by xlnE. However, GDO-II was unable to utilize gentisate that is substituted at the carbon-4 position, unlike GDO-I which had broader substrate specificity. GDO-II also possessed different kinetic characteristics when compared to GDO-I. The hbzE-encoded GDO-II shared higher sequence identities (53%) with GDOs from Ralstonia sp. U2 and Polaromonas naphthalenivorans CJ2, compared with only 35% identity with the xlnE-encoded GDO-I. The hbzE gene was found to be part of a cluster of nine genes including the putative regulatory gene designated hbzR, which encodes an LysR-type regulator and is divergently transcribed from the other genes of the hbzHIJKLFED cluster.

  8. Loss of ETHE1, a mitochondrial dioxygenase, causes fatal sulfide toxicity in ethylmalonic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Tiranti, Valeria; Viscomi, Carlo; Hildebrandt, Tatjana; Di Meo, Ivano; Mineri, Rossana; Tiveron, Cecilia; Levitt, Michael D; Prelle, Alessandro; Fagiolari, Gigliola; Rimoldi, Marco; Zeviani, Massimo

    2009-02-01

    Ethylmalonic encephalopathy is an autosomal recessive, invariably fatal disorder characterized by early-onset encephalopathy, microangiopathy, chronic diarrhea, defective cytochrome c oxidase (COX) in muscle and brain, high concentrations of C4 and C5 acylcarnitines in blood and high excretion of ethylmalonic acid in urine. ETHE1, a gene encoding a beta-lactamase-like, iron-coordinating metalloprotein, is mutated in ethylmalonic encephalopathy. In bacteria, ETHE1-like sequences are in the same operon of, or fused with, orthologs of TST, the gene encoding rhodanese, a sulfurtransferase. In eukaryotes, both ETHE1 and rhodanese are located within the mitochondrial matrix. We created a Ethe1(-/-) mouse that showed the cardinal features of ethylmalonic encephalopathy. We found that thiosulfate was excreted in massive amounts in urine of both Ethe1(-/-) mice and humans with ethylmalonic encephalopathy. High thiosulfate and sulfide concentrations were present in Ethe1(-/-) mouse tissues. Sulfide is a powerful inhibitor of COX and short-chain fatty acid oxidation, with vasoactive and vasotoxic effects that explain the microangiopathy in ethylmalonic encephalopathy patients. Sulfide is detoxified by a mitochondrial pathway that includes a sulfur dioxygenase. Sulfur dioxygenase activity was absent in Ethe1(-/-) mice, whereas it was markedly increased by ETHE1 overexpression in HeLa cells and Escherichia coli. Therefore, ETHE1 is a mitochondrial sulfur dioxygenase involved in catabolism of sulfide that accumulates to toxic levels in ethylmalonic encephalopathy.

  9. Purification and characterization of hydroquinone dioxygenase from Sphingomonas sp. strain TTNP3

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Hydroquinone-1,2-dioxygenase, an enzyme involved in the degradation of alkylphenols in Sphingomonas sp. strain TTNP3 was purified to apparent homogeneity. The extradiol dioxygenase catalyzed the ring fission of hydroquinone to 4-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde and the degradation of chlorinated and several alkylated hydroquinones. The activity of 1 mg of the purified enzyme with unsubstituted hydroquinone was 6.1 μmol per minute, the apparent Km 2.2 μM. ICP-MS analysis revealed an iron content of 1.4 moles per mole enzyme. The enzyme lost activity upon exposure to oxygen, but could be reactivated by Fe(II) in presence of ascorbate. SDS-PAGE analysis of the purified enzyme yielded two bands of an apparent size of 38 kDa and 19 kDa, respectively. Data from MALDI-TOF analyses of peptides of the respective bands matched with the deduced amino acid sequences of two neighboring open reading frames found in genomic DNA of Sphingomonas sp strain TTNP3. The deduced amino acid sequences showed 62% and 47% identity to the large and small subunit of hydroquinone dioxygenase from Pseudomonas fluorescens strain ACB, respectively. This heterotetrameric enzyme is the first of its kind found in a strain of the genus Sphingomonas sensu latu. PMID:21906340

  10. Hydrolase-like properties of a cofactor-independent dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Thierbach, Sven; Büldt-Karentzopoulos, Klaudia; Dreiling, Alena; Hennecke, Ulrich; König, Simone; Fetzner, Susanne

    2012-05-29

    Mechanistic promiscuity: The (2-alkyl)-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolone-cleaving dioxygenase Hod has an α/β-hydrolase fold and a Ser/His/Asp triad in its active site. Isatoic anhydride, a suicide substrate of serine hydrolases, inactivates Hod by covalent modification of the active-site serine, thus indicating that the α/β-hydrolase fold can accommodate dioxygenase chemistry without completely abandoning hydrolase-like properties.

  11. X-ray structures of 4-chlorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenase adducts with substituted catechols: new perspectives in the molecular basis of intradiol ring cleaving dioxygenases specificity.

    PubMed

    Ferraroni, Marta; Kolomytseva, Marina; Scozzafava, Andrea; Golovleva, Ludmila; Briganti, Fabrizio

    2013-03-01

    The crystallographic structures of 4-chlorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenase (4-CCD) complexes with 3,5-dichlorocatechol, protocatechuate (3,4-dihydroxybenzoate), hydroxyquinol (benzen-1,2,4-triol) and pyrogallol (benzen-1,2,3-triol), which act as substrates or inhibitors of the enzyme, have been determined and analyzed. 4-CCD from the Gram-positive bacterium Rhodococcus opacus 1CP is a Fe(III) ion containing enzyme specialized in the aerobic biodegradation of chlorocatechols. The structures of the 4-CCD complexes show that the catechols bind the catalytic iron ion in a bidentate mode displacing Tyr169 and the benzoate ion (found in the native enzyme structure) from the metal coordination sphere, as found in other adducts of intradiol dioxygenases with substrates. The analysis of the present structures allowed to identify the residues selectively involved in recognition of the diverse substrates. Furthermore the structural comparison with the corresponding complexes of catechol 1,2-dioxygenase from the same Rhodococcus strain (Rho-1,2-CTD) highlights significant differences in the binding of the tested catechols to the active site of the enzyme, particularly in the orientation of the aromatic ring substituents. As an example the 3-substituted catechols are bound with the substituent oriented towards the external part of the 4-CCD active site cavity, whereas in the Rho-1,2-CTD complexes the 3-substituents were placed in the internal position. The present crystallographic study shed light on the mechanism that allows substrate recognition inside this class of high specific enzymes involved in the biodegradation of recalcitrant pollutants.

  12. Mechanism and Substrate Recognition of 2-Hydroxyethylphosphonate Dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    HEPD belongs to the superfamily of 2-His-1-carboxylate non-heme iron-dependent dioxygenases. It converts 2-hydroxyethylphosphonate (2-HEP) to hydroxymethylphosphonate (HMP) and formate. Previously postulated mechanisms for the reaction catalyzed by HEPD cannot explain its conversion of 1-HEP to acetylphosphate. Alternative mechanisms that involve either phosphite or methylphosphonate as intermediates, which potentially explain all experimental studies including isotope labeling experiments and use of substrate analogues, were investigated. The results of these studies reveal that these alternative mechanisms are not correct. Site-directed mutagenesis studies of Lys16, Arg90, and Tyr98 support roles of these residues in binding of 2-HEP. Mutation of Lys16 to Ala resulted in an inactive enzyme, whereas mutation of Arg90 to Ala or Tyr98 to Phe greatly decreased kcat/Km,2-HEP. Furthermore, the latter mutants could not be saturated in O2. These results suggest that proper binding of 2-HEP is important for O2 activation and that the enzyme uses a compulsory binding order with 2-HEP binding before O2. The Y98F mutant produces methylphosphonate as a minor side product providing indirect support for the proposal that the last step during catalysis involves a ferric hydroxide reacting with a methylphosphonate radical. PMID:21711001

  13. Mechanism and Substrate Recognition of 2-Hydroxyethylphosphonate Dioxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Peck, Spencer C.; Cooke, Heather A.; Cicchillo, Robert M.; Malova, Petra; Hammerschmidt, Friedrich; Nair, Satish K.; van der Donk, Wilfred A.

    2011-09-20

    HEPD belongs to the superfamily of 2-His-1-carboxylate non-heme iron-dependent dioxygenases. It converts 2-hydroxyethylphosphonate (2-HEP) to hydroxymethylphosphonate (HMP) and formate. Previously postulated mechanisms for the reaction catalyzed by HEPD cannot explain its conversion of 1-HEP to acetylphosphate. Alternative mechanisms that involve either phosphite or methylphosphonate as intermediates, which potentially explain all experimental studies including isotope labeling experiments and use of substrate analogues, were investigated. The results of these studies reveal that these alternative mechanisms are not correct. Site-directed mutagenesis studies of Lys16, Arg90, and Tyr98 support roles of these residues in binding of 2-HEP. Mutation of Lys16 to Ala resulted in an inactive enzyme, whereas mutation of Arg90 to Ala or Tyr98 to Phe greatly decreased k{sub cat}/K{sub m,2-HEP}. Furthermore, the latter mutants could not be saturated in O{sub 2}. These results suggest that proper binding of 2-HEP is important for O{sub 2} activation and that the enzyme uses a compulsory binding order with 2-HEP binding before O{sub 2}. The Y98F mutant produces methylphosphonate as a minor side product providing indirect support for the proposal that the last step during catalysis involves a ferric hydroxide reacting with a methylphosphonate radical.

  14. Mechanism for catechol ring cleavage by non-heme iron intradiol dioxygenases: a hybrid DFT study.

    PubMed

    Borowski, Tomasz; Siegbahn, Per E M

    2006-10-04

    The mechanism of the catalytic reaction of protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase (3,4-PCD), a representative intradiol dioxygenase, was studied with the hybrid density functional method B3LYP. First, a smaller model involving only the iron first-shell ligands (His460, His462, and Tyr408) and the substrates (catechol and dioxygen) was used to probe various a priori plausible reaction mechanisms. Then, an extended model involving also the most important second-shell groups (Arg457, Gln477, and Tyr479) was used for the refinement of the preselected mechanisms. The computational results suggest that the chemical reactions constituting the catalytic cycle of intradiol dioxygenases involve: (1) binding of the substrate as a dianion, in agreement with experimental suggestions, (2) binding of dioxygen to the metal aided by an electron transfer from the substrate to O(2), (3) formation of a bridging peroxo intermediate and its conformational change, which opens the coordination site trans to His462, (4) binding of a neutral XOH ligand (H(2)O or Tyr447) at the open site, (5) proton transfer from XOH to the neighboring peroxo ligand yielding the hydroperoxo intermediate, (6) a Criegee rearrangement leading to the anhydride intermediate, and (7) hydrolysis of the anhydride to the final acyclic product. One of the most important results obtained is that the Criegee mechanism requires an in-plane orientation of the four atoms (two oxygen and two carbon atoms) mainly involved in the reaction. This orientation yields a good overlap between the two sigma orbitals involved, C-C sigma and O-O sigma, allowing an efficient electron flow between them. Another interesting result is that under some conditions, a homolytic O-O bond cleavage might compete with the Criegee rearrangement. The role of the second-shell residues and the substituent effects are also discussed.

  15. Antitumour agents as inhibitors of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Pantouris, Georgios; Mowat, Christopher G.

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •∼2800 National Cancer Institute USA compounds have been screened as potential inhibitors of TDO and/or IDO. •Seven compounds with anti-tumour properties have been identified as potent inhibitors. •NSC 36398 (taxifolin, dihydroquercetin) is selective for TDO with a K{sub i} of 16 M. •This may help further our understanding of the role of TDO in cancer. -- Abstract: The involvement of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) in cancer biology has recently been described, with the enzyme playing an immunomodulatory role, suppressing antitumour immune responses and promoting tumour cell survival and proliferation. This finding reinforces the need for specific inhibitors of TDO that may potentially be developed for therapeutic use. In this work we have screened ∼2800 compounds from the library of the National Cancer Institute USA and identified seven potent inhibitors of TDO with inhibition constants in the nanomolar or low micromolar range. All seven have antitumour properties, killing various cancer cell lines. For comparison, the inhibition potencies of these compounds were tested against IDO and their inhibition constants are reported. Interestingly, this work reveals that NSC 36398 (dihydroquercetin, taxifolin), with an in vitro inhibition constant of ∼16 μM, is the first TDO-selective inhibitor reported.

  16. Redesign of a dioxygenase in morphine biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Runguphan, Weerawat; Glenn, Weslee S; O'Connor, Sarah E

    2012-06-22

    Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) produces medicinally important benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, including the analgesics codeine and morphine, in the morphinan pathway. We aligned three dioxygenases that were recently discovered in P. somniferum and subsequently identified the nonconserved regions. Two of these enzymes, codeine O-demethylase (PsCODM) and thebaine O-demethylase (PsT6ODM), are known to facilitate regioselective O-demethylation in morphinan biosynthesis. We systematically swapped the residues that were nonconserved between the PsCODM and PsT6ODM sequences to generate 16 mutant PsCODM proteins that could be overexpressed in Escherichia coli. While wild-type PsCODM can demethylate both codeine and thebaine, one engineered PsCODM mutant selectively demethylates codeine. Use of this reengineered enzyme in the reconstitution of morphine biosynthesis could selectively disable a redundant pathway branch and therefore impact the yields of the downstream products codeine and morphine in subsequent metabolic engineering efforts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Regiospecific and stereoselective hydroxylation of 1-indanone and 2-indanone by naphthalene dioxygenase and toluene dioxygenase.

    PubMed Central

    Resnick, S M; Torok, D S; Lee, K; Brand, J M; Gibson, D T

    1994-01-01

    The biotransformation of 1-indanone and 2-indanone to hydroxyindanones was examined with bacterial strains expressing naphthalene dioxygenase (NDO) and toluene dioxygenase (TDO) as well as with purified enzyme components. Pseudomonas sp. strain 9816/11 cells, expressing NDO, oxidized 1-indanone to a mixture of 3-hydroxy-1-indanone (91%) and 2-hydroxy-1-indanone (9%). The (R)-3-hydroxy-1-indanone was formed in 62% enantiomeric excess (ee) (R:S, 81:19), while the 2-hydroxy-1-indanone was racemic. The same cells also formed 2-hydroxy-1-indanone from 2-indanone. Purified NDO components oxidized 1-indanone and 2-indanone to the same products produced by strain 9816/11. P. putida F39/D cells, expressing TDO, oxidized 2-indanone to (S)-2-hydroxy-1-indanone of 76% ee (R:S, 12:88) but did not oxidize 1-indanone efficiently. Purified TDO components also oxidized 2-indanone to (S)-2-hydroxy-1-indanone of 90% ee (R:S, 5:95) and failed to oxidize 1-indanone. Oxidation of 1- and 2-indanone in the presence of [18O]oxygen indicated that the hydroxyindanones were formed by the incorporation of a single atom of molecular oxygen (monooxygenation) rather than by the dioxygenation of enol tautomers of the ketone substrates. As alternatives to chemical synthesis, these biotransformations represent direct routes to 3-hydroxy-1-indanone and 2-hydroxy-1-indanone as the major products from 1-indanone and 2-indanone, respectively. PMID:7944365

  18. Expression Pattern and Clinicopathological Relevance of the Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase 1/Tryptophan 2,3-Dioxygenase Protein in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei-Ran

    2016-01-01

    Aims. Cancer cells use the indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) pathway to suppress the host's immune response in order to facilitate survival, growth, invasion, and metastasis of malignant cells. Higher IDO1 expression was shown to be involved in colorectal cancer (CRC) progression and to be correlated with impaired clinical outcome. However, the potential correlation between the expression of IDO1 in a CRC population with a low mutation rate of the APC gene remains unknown. Material and Methods. Tissues and blood samples were collected from 192 CRC patients. The expressions of IDO1, tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO2), and beta-catenin proteins were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Microsatellite instability (MSI) was determined by PCR amplification of microsatellite loci. Results. The results showed that high IDO1 or TDO2 protein expression was associated with characteristics of more aggressive phenotypes of CRC. For the first time, they also revealed a positive correlation between the abnormal expression of beta-catenin and IDO1 or TDO2 proteins in a CRC population with a low mutation rate of APC. Conclusion. We concluded that an IDO1-regulated molecular pathway led to abnormal expression of beta-catenin in the nucleus/cytoplasm of CRC patients with low mutation rate of APC, making IDO1 an interesting target for immunotherapy in CRC. PMID:27578919

  19. Crystal structure of a member of a novel family of dioxygenases (PF10014) reveals a conserved cupin fold and active site

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qingping; Grant, Joanna; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Farr, Carol L.; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Knuth, Mark W.; Miller, Mitchell D.; Lesley, Scott A.; Godzik, Adam; Elsliger, Marc-André; Deacon, Ashley M.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2014-01-01

    PF10014 is a novel family of 2-oxyglutarate-Fe2+-dependent dioxygenases that are involved in biosynthesis of antibiotics and regulation of biofilm formation, likely by catalyzing hydroxylation of free amino acids or other related ligands. The crystal structure of a PF10014 member from Methylibium petroleiphilum at 1.9 Å resolution shows strong structural similarity to cupin dioxygenases in overall fold and active site, despite very remote homology. However, one of the β-strands of the cupin catalytic core is replaced by a loop that displays conformational isomerism that likely regulates the active site. PMID:23852666

  20. Crystal structure of a member of a novel family of dioxygenases (PF10014) reveals a conserved cupin fold and active site.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qingping; Grant, Joanna; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Farr, Carol L; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Knuth, Mark W; Miller, Mitchell D; Lesley, Scott A; Godzik, Adam; Elsliger, Marc-André; Deacon, Ashley M; Wilson, Ian A

    2014-01-01

    PF10014 is a novel family of 2-oxyglutarate-Fe(2+) -dependent dioxygenases that are involved in biosynthesis of antibiotics and regulation of biofilm formation, likely by catalyzing hydroxylation of free amino acids or other related ligands. The crystal structure of a PF10014 member from Methylibium petroleiphilum at 1.9 Å resolution shows strong structural similarity to cupin dioxygenases in overall fold and active site, despite very remote homology. However, one of the β-strands of the cupin catalytic core is replaced by a loop that displays conformational isomerism that likely regulates the active site.

  1. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Nitrobenzene Dioxygenase Using AMBER Force Field

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation of the oxygenase component of nitrobenzene dioxygenase (NBDO) system, a member of the naphthalene family of Rieske nonheme iron dioxygenases, has been carried out using the AMBER force field combined with a new set of parameters for the description of the mononuclear nonheme iron center and iron–sulfur Rieske cluster. Simulation results provide information on the structure and dynamics of nitrobenzene dioxygenase in an aqueous environment and shed light on specific interactions that occur in its catalytic center. The results suggest that the architecture of the active site is stabilized by key hydrogen bonds, and Asn258 positions the substrate for oxidation. Analysis of protein–water interactions reveal the presence of a network of solvent molecules at the entrance to the active site, which could be of potential catalytic importance. PMID:24955078

  2. Dual chemistry catalyzed by human acireductone dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Aditi R; Pochapsky, Thomas C; Petsko, Gregory A; Ringe, Dagmar

    2017-03-01

    Acireductone dioxygenase (ARD) from the methionine salvage pathway of Klebsiella oxytoca is the only known naturally occurring metalloenzyme that catalyzes different reactions in vivo based solely on the identity of the divalent transition metal ion (Fe2+ or Ni2+) bound in the active site. The iron-containing isozyme catalyzes the cleavage of substrate 1,2-dihydroxy-3-keto-5-(thiomethyl)pent-1-ene (acireductone) by O2 to formate and the ketoacid precursor of methionine, whereas the nickel-containing isozyme uses the same substrates to catalyze an off-pathway shunt to form methylthiopropionate, carbon monoxide and formate. This dual chemistry was recently demonstrated in vitro by ARD from Mus musculus (MmARD), providing the first example of a mammalian ARD exhibiting metal-dependent catalysis. We now show that human ARD (HsARD) is also capable of metal-dependent dual chemistry. Recombinant HsARD was expressed and purified to obtain a homogeneous enzyme with a single transition metal ion bound. As with MmARD, the Fe2+-bound HsARD shows the highest activity and catalyzes on-pathway chemistry, whereas Ni2+, Co2+ or Mn2+ forms catalyze off-pathway chemistry. The thermal stability of the HsARD isozymes is a function of the metal ion identity, with Ni2+-bound HsARD being the most stable followed by Co2+ and Fe2+, and Mn2+-bound HsARD being the least stable. As with the bacterial ARD, solution NMR data suggest that HsARD isozymes can have significant structural differences depending upon the metal ion bound. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Assay and characterization of the NO dioxygenase activity of flavohemoglobins.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Paul R

    2008-01-01

    A variety of hemoglobins, including several microbial flavohemoglobins, enzymatically dioxygenate the free radical nitric oxide (*NO) to form nitrate. Many of these *NO dioxygenases have been shown to control *NO toxicity and signaling. Furthermore, *NO dioxygenation appears to be an ancient and intrinsic function for members of the hemoglobin superfamily found in Archaea, eukaryotes, and bacteria. Yet for many hemoglobins, a function remains to be elucidated. Methods for the assay and characterization of the *NO dioxygenase (EC 1.14.12.17) activity and function of flavohemoglobins are described. The methods may also be applied to the discovery and design of inhibitors for use as antibiotics or as modulators of *NO signaling.

  4. Exploring the mechanism of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Thackray, Sarah J.; Mowat, Christopher G.; Chapman, Stephen K.

    2008-01-01

    The haem proteins TDO (tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase) and IDO (indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase) are specific and powerful oxidation catalysts that insert one molecule of dioxygen into L-tryptophan in the first and rate-limiting step in the kynurenine pathway. Recent crystallographic and biochemical analyses of TDO and IDO have greatly aided our understanding of the mechanisms employed by these enzymes in the binding and activation of dioxygen and tryptophan. In the present paper, we briefly discuss the function, structure and possible catalytic mechanism of these enzymes. PMID:19021508

  5. Phenol degradation and genotypic analysis of dioxygenase genes in bacteria isolated from sediments.

    PubMed

    Tian, Mengyang; Du, Dongyun; Zhou, Wei; Zeng, Xiaobo; Cheng, Guojun

    The aerobic degradation of aromatic compounds by bacteria is performed by dioxygenases. To show some characteristic patterns of the dioxygenase genotype and its degradation specificities, twenty-nine gram-negative bacterial cultures were obtained from sediment contaminated with phenolic compounds in Wuhan, China. The isolates were phylogenetically diverse and belonged to 10 genera. All 29 gram-negative bacteria were able to utilize phenol, m-dihydroxybenzene and 2-hydroxybenzoic acid as the sole carbon sources, and members of the three primary genera Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter and Alcaligenes were able to grow in the presence of multiple monoaromatic compounds. PCR and DNA sequence analysis were used to detect dioxygenase genes coding for catechol 1,2-dioxygenase, catechol 2,3-dioxygenase and protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase. The results showed that there are 4 genotypes; most strains are either PNP (catechol 1,2-dioxygenase gene is positive, catechol 2,3-dioxygenase gene is negative, protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase gene is positive) or PNN (catechol 1,2-dioxygenase gene is positive, catechol 2,3-dioxygenase gene is negative, protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase gene is negative). The strains with two dioxygenase genes can usually grow on many more aromatic compounds than strains with one dioxygenase gene. Degradation experiments using a mixed culture representing four bacterial genotypes resulted in the rapid degradation of phenol. Determinations of substrate utilization and phenol degradation revealed their affiliations through dioxygenase genotype data. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Mercaptosuccinate Dioxygenase, a Cysteine Dioxygenase Homologue, from Variovorax paradoxus Strain B4 Is the Key Enzyme of Mercaptosuccinate Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Ulrike; Schürmann, Marc; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The versatile thiol mercaptosuccinate has a wide range of applications, e.g. in quantum dot research or in bioimaging. Its metabolism is investigated in Variovorax paradoxus strain B4, which can utilize this compound as the sole source of carbon and sulfur. Proteomic studies of strain B4 resulted in the identification of a putative mercaptosuccinate dioxygenase, a cysteine dioxygenase homologue, possibly representing the key enzyme in the degradation of mercaptosuccinate. Therefore, the putative mercaptosuccinate dioxygenase was heterologously expressed, purified, and characterized in this study. The results clearly demonstrated that the enzyme utilizes mercaptosuccinate with concomitant consumption of oxygen. Thus, the enzyme is designated as mercaptosuccinate dioxygenase. Succinate and sulfite were verified as the final reaction products. The enzyme showed an apparent Km of 0.4 mm, and a specific activity (Vmax) of 20.0 μmol min−1 mg−1 corresponding to a kcat of 7.7 s−1. Furthermore, the enzyme was highly specific for mercaptosuccinate, no activity was observed with cysteine, dithiothreitol, 2-mercaptoethanol, and 3-mercaptopropionate. These structurally related thiols did not have an inhibitory effect either. Fe(II) could clearly be identified as metal cofactor of the mercaptosuccinate dioxygenase with a content of 0.6 mol of Fe(II)/mol of enzyme. The recently proposed hypothesis for the degradation pathway of mercaptosuccinate based on proteome analyses could be strengthened in the present study. (i) Mercaptosuccinate is first converted to sulfinosuccinate by this mercaptosuccinate dioxygenase; (ii) sulfinosuccinate is spontaneously desulfinated to succinate and sulfite; and (iii) whereas succinate enters the central metabolism, sulfite is detoxified by the previously identified putative molybdopterin oxidoreductase. PMID:25228698

  7. Mercaptosuccinate dioxygenase, a cysteine dioxygenase homologue, from Variovorax paradoxus strain B4 is the key enzyme of mercaptosuccinate degradation.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Ulrike; Schürmann, Marc; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2014-10-31

    The versatile thiol mercaptosuccinate has a wide range of applications, e.g. in quantum dot research or in bioimaging. Its metabolism is investigated in Variovorax paradoxus strain B4, which can utilize this compound as the sole source of carbon and sulfur. Proteomic studies of strain B4 resulted in the identification of a putative mercaptosuccinate dioxygenase, a cysteine dioxygenase homologue, possibly representing the key enzyme in the degradation of mercaptosuccinate. Therefore, the putative mercaptosuccinate dioxygenase was heterologously expressed, purified, and characterized in this study. The results clearly demonstrated that the enzyme utilizes mercaptosuccinate with concomitant consumption of oxygen. Thus, the enzyme is designated as mercaptosuccinate dioxygenase. Succinate and sulfite were verified as the final reaction products. The enzyme showed an apparent Km of 0.4 mM, and a specific activity (Vmax) of 20.0 μmol min(-1) mg(-1) corresponding to a kcat of 7.7 s(-1). Furthermore, the enzyme was highly specific for mercaptosuccinate, no activity was observed with cysteine, dithiothreitol, 2-mercaptoethanol, and 3-mercaptopropionate. These structurally related thiols did not have an inhibitory effect either. Fe(II) could clearly be identified as metal cofactor of the mercaptosuccinate dioxygenase with a content of 0.6 mol of Fe(II)/mol of enzyme. The recently proposed hypothesis for the degradation pathway of mercaptosuccinate based on proteome analyses could be strengthened in the present study. (i) Mercaptosuccinate is first converted to sulfinosuccinate by this mercaptosuccinate dioxygenase; (ii) sulfinosuccinate is spontaneously desulfinated to succinate and sulfite; and (iii) whereas succinate enters the central metabolism, sulfite is detoxified by the previously identified putative molybdopterin oxidoreductase.

  8. Structure of an aromatic-ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase-naphthalene 1,2-dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Kauppi, B; Lee, K; Carredano, E; Parales, R E; Gibson, D T; Eklund, H; Ramaswamy, S

    1998-05-15

    Pseudomonas sp. NCIB 9816-4 utilizes a multicomponent enzyme system to oxidize naphthalene to (+)-cis-(1R,2S)-dihydroxy-1,2-dihydronaphthalene. The enzyme component catalyzing this reaction, naphthalene 1,2-dioxygenase (NDO), belongs to a family of aromatic-ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases that oxidize aromatic hydrocarbons and related compounds to cis-arene diols. These enzymes utilize a mononuclear non-heme iron center to catalyze the addition of dioxygen to their respective substrates. The present study was conducted to provide essential structural information necessary for elucidating the mechanism of action of NDO. The three-dimensional structure of NDO has been determined at 2.25 A resolution. The molecule is an alpha 3 beta 3 hexamer. The alpha subunit has a beta-sheet domain that contains a Rieske [2Fe-2S] center and a catalytic domain that has a novel fold dominated by an antiparallel nine-stranded beta-pleated sheet against which helices pack. The active site contains a non-heme ferrous ion coordinated by His208, His213, Asp362 (bidentate) and a water molecule. Asn201 is positioned further away, 3.75 A, at the missing axial position of an octahedron. In the Rieske [2Fe-2S] center, one iron is coordinated by Cys81 and Cys101 and the other by His83 and His104. The domain structure and iron coordination of the Rieske domain is very similar to that of the cytochrome bc1 domain. The active-site iron center of one of the alpha subunits is directly connected by hydrogen bonds through a single amino acid, Asp205, to the Rieske [2Fe-2S] center in a neighboring alpha subunit. This is likely to be the main route for electron transfer.

  9. Structure of the 2,4′-dihydroxyacetophenone dioxygenase from Alcaligenes sp. 4HAP

    PubMed Central

    Keegan, R.; Lebedev, A.; Erskine, P.; Guo, J.; Wood, S. P.; Hopper, D. J.; Rigby, S. E. J.; Cooper, J. B.

    2014-01-01

    The enzyme 2,4′-dihydroxyacetophenone dioxygenase (DAD) catalyses the conversion of 2,4′-dihydroxyacetophenone to 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and formic acid with the incorporation of molecular oxygen. Whilst the vast majority of dioxygenases cleave within the aromatic ring of the substrate, DAD is very unusual in that it is involved in C—C bond cleavage in a substituent of the aromatic ring. There is evidence that the enzyme is a homotetramer of 20.3 kDa subunits, each containing nonhaem iron, and its sequence suggests that it belongs to the cupin family of dioxygenases. In this paper, the first X-ray structure of a DAD enzyme from the Gram-negative bacterium Alcaligenes sp. 4HAP is reported, at a resolution of 2.2 Å. The structure establishes that the enzyme adopts a cupin fold, forming dimers with a pronounced hydrophobic interface between the monomers. The catalytic iron is coordinated by three histidine residues (76, 78 and 114) within a buried active-site cavity. The iron also appears to be tightly coordinated by an additional ligand which was putatively assigned as a carbonate dianion since this fits the electron density optimally, although it might also be the product formate. The modelled carbonate is located in a position which is highly likely to be occupied by the α-hydroxyketone group of the bound substrate during catalysis. Modelling of a substrate molecule in this position indicates that it will interact with many conserved amino acids in the predominantly hydrophobic active-site pocket where it undergoes peroxide radical-mediated heterolysis. PMID:25195757

  10. Atom Tunneling in the Hydroxylation Process of Taurine/α-Ketoglutarate Dioxygenase Identified by Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics Simulations.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Barcia, Sonia; Kästner, Johannes

    2017-06-01

    Taurine/α-ketoglutarate dioxygenase is one of the most studied α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases (αKGDs), involved in several biotechnological applications. We investigated the key step in the catalytic cycle of the αKGDs, the hydrogen transfer process, by a quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics approach (B3LYP/CHARMM22). Analysis of the charge and spin densities during the reaction demonstrates that a concerted mechanism takes place, where the H atom transfer happens simultaneously with the electron transfer from taurine to the Fe═O cofactor. We found the quantum tunneling of the hydrogen atom to increase the rate constant by a factor of 40 at 5 °C. As a consequence, a quite high kinetic isotope effect close to 60 is obtained, which is consistent with the experimental value.

  11. Toluene Dioxygenase-Catalysed Oxidation of Benzyl Azide to Benzonitrile: Mechanistic Insights for an Unprecedented Enzymatic Transformation.

    PubMed

    Vila, María Agustina; Pazos, Mariana; Iglesias, César; Veiga, Nicolás; Seoane, Gustavo; Carrera, Ignacio

    2016-02-15

    Enzymatic dioxygenation of benzyl azide by toluene dioxygenase (TDO) produces significant amounts of the cis-cyclohexadienediol derived from benzonitrile, along with the expected azido diols. We demonstrate that TDO catalyses the oxidation of benzyl azide to benzonitrile, which is further dioxygenated to produce the observed cis-diol. A proposed mechanism for this transformation involves initial benzylic monooxygenation followed by a nitrene-mediated rearrangement to form an oxime, which is further dehydrated to afford the nitrile. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of enzymatic oxidation of an alkyl azide to a nitrile. In addition, the described oxime-dehydration activity has not been reported for Rieske dioxygenases. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Compound-Specific Isotope Analysis of Nitroaromatic Contaminant Transformations by Nitroarene Dioxygenases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pati, Sarah G.; Kohler, Hans-Peter E.; Hofstetter, Thomas B.

    2014-05-01

    Dioxygenation is an important biochemical reaction that often initiates the mineralization of recalcitrant organic contaminants such as nitroaromatic explosives, chlorinated benzenes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. However, to assess the extent of dioxygenation in contaminated environments is difficult because of competing transformation processes and further reactions of the dioxygenation products. Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) offers a new approach to reliably quantify biodegradation initiated by dioxygenation based on changes in stable isotope ratios of the pollutant. For CSIA it is essential to know the kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) pertinent to the dioxygenation mechanism of organic contaminants. Unfortunately, the range of KIEs of such reactions is poorly constrained although many dioxygenase enzymes with a broad substrate specificity have been reported. Dioxygenase enzymes usually exhibit complex reaction kinetics involving multiple substrates and substrate-specific binding modes which makes the determination of KIEs challenging. The goal of this study was to explore the magnitude and variability of 13C-, 2H-, and 15N-KIEs for the dioxygenation of one contaminant class, that is nitroaromatic contaminants (NACs). To this end, we investigated the C, H, and N isotope fractionation during the dioxygenation of nitrobenzene (NB), 2-nitrotoluene (2-NT), and 3-nitrotoluene (3-NT) by pure cultures, E. coli clones, cell extracts, and purified enzymes. From isotope fractionations measured in the substrates and reaction products, we determined dioxygenation KIEs for different combinations of the three substrates with nitrobenzene dioxygenase (NBDO) and 2-nitrotoluene dioxygenase (2NTDO). The 13C-, 2H-, and 15N-KIEs for the dioxygenation of NB by NBDO were consistent for all experimental systems considered (i.e., Comamonas sp. Strain JS765, E. coli clones, cell extracts of E. coli clones, and purified NBDO). This observation suggests that the isotope

  13. Structure of the 2, 4′-dihydroxyacetophenone dioxygenase from Alcaligenes sp. 4HAP

    SciTech Connect

    Keegan, R.; Lebedev, A.; Erskine, P.; Guo, J.; Wood, S. P.; Hopper, D. J.; Rigby, S. E. J.; Cooper, J. B.

    2014-09-01

    The first X-ray structure of a 2, 4′-dihydroxyacetophenone dioxygenase from Alcaligenes sp. 4HAP at a resolution of 2.2 Å is reported. This structure establishes that the enzyme adopts the cupin-fold, forming compact dimers with a pronounced hydrophobic interface between the monomers. Each monomer possesses a catalytic ferrous iron that is coordinated by three histidines (76, 78 and 114) and an additional ligand which has been putatively assigned as a carbonate, although formate and acetate are possibilities. The enzyme 2, 4′-dihydroxyacetophenone dioxygenase (DAD) catalyses the conversion of 2, 4′-dihydroxyacetophenone to 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and formic acid with the incorporation of molecular oxygen. Whilst the vast majority of dioxygenases cleave within the aromatic ring of the substrate, DAD is very unusual in that it is involved in C—C bond cleavage in a substituent of the aromatic ring. There is evidence that the enzyme is a homotetramer of 20.3 kDa subunits, each containing nonhaem iron, and its sequence suggests that it belongs to the cupin family of dioxygenases. In this paper, the first X-ray structure of a DAD enzyme from the Gram-negative bacterium Alcaligenes sp. 4HAP is reported, at a resolution of 2.2 Å. The structure establishes that the enzyme adopts a cupin fold, forming dimers with a pronounced hydrophobic interface between the monomers. The catalytic iron is coordinated by three histidine residues (76, 78 and 114) within a buried active-site cavity. The iron also appears to be tightly coordinated by an additional ligand which was putatively assigned as a carbonate dianion since this fits the electron density optimally, although it might also be the product formate. The modelled carbonate is located in a position which is highly likely to be occupied by the α-hydroxyketone group of the bound substrate during catalysis. Modelling of a substrate molecule in this position indicates that it will interact with many conserved amino acids in

  14. Sequential oxygenation of linoleic acid in the fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis: stereochemistry of dioxygenase and hydroperoxide isomerase reactions.

    PubMed

    Hamberg, M; Zhang, L Y; Brodowsky, I D; Oliw, E H

    1994-02-15

    Linoleic acid is sequentially oxygenated to (7S,8S)-dihydroxylinoleic acid by dioxygenase and hydroperoxide isomerase activities present in the fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis (Brodowsky, I. D., Hamberg, M., and Oliw, E. H., J. Biol. Chem. 267, 14738-14745 (1992)). Linoleic acids stereospecifically deuterated at C-7 and C-8 were prepared by biological desaturation of the corresponding stearates and used to determine the stereochemistry of the hydrogen abstractions occurring in the dioxygenase- and hydroperoxide isomerase-catalyzed reactions. The dioxygenase reaction was found to involve stereospecific abstraction of the pro-S hydrogen from C-8 followed by antarafacial insertion of dioxygen to produce (8R)-hydroperoxylinoleic acid. The hydroperoxide isomerase reaction consisted of conversion of (8R)-hydroperoxylinoleic acid into (7S,8S)-dihydroxylinoleic acid by stereospecific elimination of the pro-S hydrogen from C-7 and intramolecular suprafacial insertion of oxygen at C-7. Accordingly, during the conversion of linoleic acid into (8R)-hydroperoxylinoleic acid, the absolute configuration of C-8 was inverted, while the conversion of (8R)-hydroperoxylinoleic acid into (7S,8S)-dihydroxylinoleic acid occurred with retention of absolute configuration at C-7.

  15. THE ROLE OF 4-HYDROXYPHENYLPYRUVATE DIOXYGENASE IN ENHANCEMENT OF SOLID-PHASE ELECTRON TRANSFER BY SHEWANELLA ONEIDENSIS MR-1

    SciTech Connect

    Turick, C; Amy Ekechukwu, A

    2007-06-01

    While mechanistic details of dissimilatory metal reduction are far from being understood, it is postulated that the electron transfer to solid metal oxides is mediated by outer membrane-associated c-type cytochromes and redox active electron shuttling compounds. This study focuses on the production of homogensitate in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, an intermediate of tyrosine degradation pathway, which is a precursor of a redox cycling metabolite, pyomelanin. In this study, we determined that two enzymes involved in this pathway, 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (4HPPD) and homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase are responsible for homogentisate production and oxidation, respectively. Inhibition of 4-HPPD activity with the specific inhibitor sulcotrione (2-(2-chloro-4-methane sulfonylbenzoyl)-1,3-cyclohexanedione), and deletion of melA, a gene encoding 4-HPPD, resulted in no pyomelanin production by S. oneidensis MR-1. Conversely, deletion of hmgA which encodes the putative homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase, resulted in pyomelanin overproduction. The efficiency and rates, with which MR-1 reduces hydrous ferric oxide, were directly linked to the ability of mutant strains to produce pyomelanin. Electrochemical studies with whole cells demonstrated that pyomelanin substantially increases the formal potential (E{sup o}{prime}) of S. oneidensis MR-1. Based on this work, environmental production of pyomelanin likely contributes to an increased solid-phase metal reduction capacity in Shewanella oneidensis.

  16. The Role of 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate Dioxygenase in Enhancement of Solid-Phase Electron Transfer by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    SciTech Connect

    Turick, Charles E.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Zakrajsek, Brian A.; Reardon, Catherine L.; Lowy, Daniel A.; Poppy, Tara E.; Maloney, Andrea; Ekechukwu, Amy A.

    2009-05-01

    ABSTRACT - While mechanistic details of dissimilatory metal reduction are far from being understood, it is postulated that the electron transfer to solid metal oxides is mediated by outer membrane associated c-type cytochromes and electron shuttling compounds. This study focuses on the production of homogensitate in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, an intermediate of the tyrosine degradation pathway, which is a precursor of a redox cycling metabolite, pyomelanin. We determined that two enzymes involved in this pathway, 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (4HPPD) and homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase are responsible for homogentisate production and oxidation, respectively. Inhibition of 4-HPPD activity with the specific inhibitor sulcotrione ([2-(2- chloro- 4- methane sulfonylbenzoyl)-1,3-cyclohexanedione), and deletion of melA, a gene encoding 4-HPPD, resulted in no pyomelanin production by S. oneidensis MR-1. Conversely, deletion of hmgA, which encodes the putative homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase, resulted in pyomelanin overproduction. The efficiency and rates at which MR-1 reduces hydrous ferric oxide were directly linked to the ability of mutant strains to produce pyomelanin. Electrochemical studies with whole cells demonstrated that pyomelanin substantially increases the formal potential (E°') of S. oneidensis MR-1. Based on our findings, environmental production of pyomelanin likely contributes to an increased solid-phase metal reduction capacity in S. oneidensis MR-1.

  17. Molecular insights into substrate recognition and catalysis by tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Forouhar, Farhad; Anderson, J L Ross; Mowat, Christopher G; Vorobiev, Sergey M; Hussain, Arif; Abashidze, Mariam; Bruckmann, Chiara; Thackray, Sarah J; Seetharaman, Jayaraman; Tucker, Todd; Xiao, Rong; Ma, Li-Chung; Zhao, Li; Acton, Thomas B; Montelione, Gaetano T; Chapman, Stephen K; Tong, Liang

    2007-01-09

    Tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) constitute an important, yet relatively poorly understood, family of heme-containing enzymes. Here, we report extensive structural and biochemical studies of the Xanthomonas campestris TDO and a related protein SO4414 from Shewanella oneidensis, including the structure at 1.6-A resolution of the catalytically active, ferrous form of TDO in a binary complex with the substrate L-Trp. The carboxylate and ammonium moieties of tryptophan are recognized by electrostatic and hydrogen-bonding interactions with the enzyme and a propionate group of the heme, thus defining the L-stereospecificity. A second, possibly allosteric, L-Trp-binding site is present at the tetramer interface. The sixth coordination site of the heme-iron is vacant, providing a dioxygen-binding site that would also involve interactions with the ammonium moiety of L-Trp and the amide nitrogen of a glycine residue. The indole ring is positioned correctly for oxygenation at the C2 and C3 atoms. The active site is fully formed only in the binary complex, and biochemical experiments confirm this induced-fit behavior of the enzyme. The active site is completely devoid of water during catalysis, which is supported by our electrochemical studies showing significant stabilization of the enzyme upon substrate binding.

  18. Molecular Insights into Substrate Recognition and Catalysis by Tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Forouhar,F.; Ross Anderson, J.; Mowat, C.; Vorobiev, S.; Hussain, A.; Abashidze, M.; Bruckmann, C.; Thackray, S.; Seetharaman, J.; et al.

    2007-01-01

    Tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) constitute an important, yet relatively poorly understood, family of heme-containing enzymes. Here, we report extensive structural and biochemical studies of the Xanthomonas campestris TDO and a related protein SO4414 from Shewanella oneidensis, including the structure at 1.6-{angstrom} resolution of the catalytically active, ferrous form of TDO in a binary complex with the substrate l-Trp. The carboxylate and ammonium moieties of tryptophan are recognized by electrostatic and hydrogen-bonding interactions with the enzyme and a propionate group of the heme, thus defining the l-stereospecificity. A second, possibly allosteric, l-Trp-binding site is present at the tetramer interface. The sixth coordination site of the heme-iron is vacant, providing a dioxygen-binding site that would also involve interactions with the ammonium moiety of l-Trp and the amide nitrogen of a glycine residue. The indole ring is positioned correctly for oxygenation at the C2 and C3 atoms. The active site is fully formed only in the binary complex, and biochemical experiments confirm this induced-fit behavior of the enzyme. The active site is completely devoid of water during catalysis, which is supported by our electrochemical studies showing significant stabilization of the enzyme upon substrate binding.

  19. Key Aromatic-Ring-Cleaving Enzyme, Protocatechuate 3,4-Dioxygenase, in the Ecologically Important Marine Roseobacter Lineage

    PubMed Central

    Buchan, Alison; Collier, Lauren S.; Neidle, Ellen L.; Moran, Mary Ann

    2000-01-01

    Aromatic compound degradation in six bacteria representing an ecologically important marine taxon of the α-proteobacteria was investigated. Initial screens suggested that isolates in the Roseobacter lineage can degrade aromatic compounds via the β-ketoadipate pathway, a catabolic route that has been well characterized in soil microbes. Six Roseobacter isolates were screened for the presence of protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase, a key enzyme in the β-ketoadipate pathway. All six isolates were capable of growth on at least three of the eight aromatic monomers presented (anthranilate, benzoate, p-hydroxybenzoate, salicylate, vanillate, ferulate, protocatechuate, and coumarate). Four of the Roseobacter group isolates had inducible protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase activity in cell extracts when grown on p-hydroxybenzoate. The pcaGH genes encoding this ring cleavage enzyme were cloned and sequenced from two isolates, Sagittula stellata E-37 and isolate Y3F, and in both cases the genes could be expressed in Escherichia coli to yield dioxygenase activity. Additional genes involved in the protocatechuate branch of the β-ketoadipate pathway (pcaC, pcaQ, and pobA) were found to cluster with pcaGH in these two isolates. Pairwise sequence analysis of the pca genes revealed greater similarity between the two Roseobacter group isolates than between genes from either Roseobacter strain and soil bacteria. A degenerate PCR primer set targeting a conserved region within PcaH successfully amplified a fragment of pcaH from two additional Roseobacter group isolates, and Southern hybridization indicated the presence of pcaH in the remaining two isolates. This evidence of protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase and the β-ketoadipate pathway was found in all six Roseobacter isolates, suggesting widespread abilities to degrade aromatic compounds in this marine lineage. PMID:11055908

  20. The Complete Reaction Mechanism of Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase as Revealed by QM/MM Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Capece, Luciana; Lewis-Ballester, Ariel; Yeh, Syun-Ru; Estrin, Dario A.; Marti, Marcelo A.

    2012-01-01

    Indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) and tryptophan dioxygenase (TDO) are two heme-proteins that catalyze the oxidation reaction of tryptophan (Trp) to N-formylkynurenine (NFK). Human IDO (hIDO) has recently been recognized as a potent anti-cancer drug target, a fact that triggered intense research on the reaction and inhibition mechanisms of hIDO. Our recent studies revealed that the dioxygenase reaction catalyzed by hIDO and TDO is initiated by addition of the ferric iron-bound superoxide to the C2=C3 bond of Trp to form a ferryl and Trp-epoxide intermediate, via a 2-indolenylperoxo radical transition state. The data demonstrate that the two atoms of dioxygen are inserted into the substrate in a stepwise fashion, challenging the paradigm of heme-based dioxygenase chemistry. In the current study, we used QM/MM methods to decipher the mechanism by which the second ferryl oxygen is inserted into the Trp-epoxide to form the NFK product in hIDO. Our results show that the most energetically favored pathway involves proton transfer from Trp-NH3+ to the epoxide oxygen, triggering epoxide ring-opening and a concerted nucleophilic attack of the ferryl oxygen to the C2 of Trp that leads to a meta-stable reaction intermediate. This intermediate subsequently converts to NFK, following C2-C3 bond cleavage and the associated back proton transfer from the oxygen to the amino group of Trp. A comparative study with Xantomonas campestris TDO (xcTDO) indicates that the reaction follows a similar pathway, although subtle differences distinguishing the two enzyme reactions are evident. The results underscore the importance of the NH3+ group of Trp in the two-step ferryl-based mechanism of hIDO and xcTDO, by acting as an acid catalyst to facilitate the epoxide ring-opening reaction and ferryl oxygen addition to the indole ring. PMID:22196056

  1. Crystal structure of human indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase: Catalytic mechanism of O2 incorporation by a heme-containing dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Hiroshi; Oda, Shun-ichiro; Otsuki, Takashi; Hino, Tomoya; Yoshida, Tadashi; Shiro, Yoshitsugu

    2006-01-01

    Human indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) catalyzes the cleavage of the pyrrol ring of l-Trp and incorporates both atoms of a molecule of oxygen (O2). Here we report on the x-ray crystal structure of human IDO, complexed with the ligand inhibitor 4-phenylimidazole and cyanide. The overall structure of IDO shows two α-helical domains with the heme between them. A264 of the flexible loop in the heme distal side is in close proximity to the iron. A mutant analysis shows that none of the polar amino acid residues in the distal heme pocket are essential for activity, suggesting that, unlike the heme-containing monooxygenases (i.e., peroxidase and cytochrome P450), no protein group of IDO is essential in dioxygen activation or proton abstraction. These characteristics of the IDO structure provide support for a reaction mechanism involving the abstraction of a proton from the substrate by iron-bound dioxygen. Inactive mutants (F226A, F227A, and R231A) retain substrate-binding affinity, and an electron density map reveals that 2-(N-cyclohexylamino)ethane sulfonic acid is bound to these residues, mimicking the substrate. These findings suggest that strict shape complementarities between the indole ring of the substrate and the protein side chains are required, not for binding, but, rather, to permit the interaction between the substrate and iron-bound dioxygen in the first step of the reaction. This study provides the structural basis for a heme-containing dioxygenase mechanism, a missing piece in our understanding of heme chemistry. PMID:16477023

  2. Structure and Reaction Mechanism in the Heme Dioxygenases

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    As members of the family of heme-dependent enzymes, the heme dioxygenases are differentiated by virtue of their ability to catalyze the oxidation of l-tryptophan to N-formylkynurenine, the first and rate-limiting step in tryptophan catabolism. In the past several years, there have been a number of important developments that have meant that established proposals for the reaction mechanism in the heme dioxygenases have required reassessment. This focused review presents a summary of these recent advances, written from a structural and mechanistic perspective. It attempts to present answers to some of the long-standing questions, to highlight as yet unresolved issues, and to explore the similarities and differences of other well-known catalytic heme enzymes such as the cytochromes P450, NO synthase, and peroxidases. PMID:21361337

  3. Patchwork Assembly of nag-Like Nitroarene Dioxygenase Genes and the 3-Chlorocatechol Degradation Cluster for Evolution of the 2-Chloronitrobenzene Catabolism Pathway in Pseudomonas stutzeri ZWLR2-1▿

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong; Wang, Shu-Jun; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Dai, Hui; Tang, Huiru; Zhou, Ning-Yi

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas stutzeri ZWLR2-1 utilizes 2-chloronitrobenzene (2CNB) as a sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy. To identify genes involved in this pathway, a 16.2-kb DNA fragment containing putative 2CNB dioxygenase genes was cloned and sequenced. Of the products from the 19 open reading frames that resulted from this fragment, CnbAc and CnbAd exhibited striking identities to the respective α and β subunits of the Nag-like ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases involved in the metabolism of nitrotoluene, nitrobenzene, and naphthalene. The encoding genes were also flanked by two copies of insertion sequence IS6100. CnbAa and CnbAb are similar to the ferredoxin reductase and ferredoxin for anthranilate 1,2-dioxygenase from Burkholderia cepacia DBO1. Escherichia coli cells expressing cnbAaAbAcAd converted 2CNB to 3-chlorocatechol with concomitant nitrite release. Cell extracts of E. coli/pCNBC exhibited chlorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenase activity. The cnbCDEF gene cluster, homologous to a 3-chlorocatechol degradation cluster in Sphingomonas sp. strain TFD44, probably contains all of the genes necessary for the conversion of 3-chlorocatechol to 3-oxoadipate. The patchwork-like structure of this catabolic cluster suggests that the cnb cluster for 2CNB degradation evolved by recruiting two catabolic clusters encoding a nitroarene dioxygenase and a chlorocatechol degradation pathway. This provides another example to help elucidate the bacterial evolution of catabolic pathways in response to xenobiotic chemicals. PMID:21602392

  4. The carotenoid dioxygenase gene family in maize, sorghum, and rice

    PubMed Central

    Vallabhaneni, Ratnakar; Bradbury, Louis M. T.; Wurtzel, Eleanore T.

    2010-01-01

    Carotenoids and their apocarotenoid derivatives play essential physiological and developmental roles and provide plants tolerance to a variety of stresses. Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases mediate the degradation of carotenoids to apocarotenoids. A better understanding of biosynthesis vs. degradation could be useful for controlling carotenoid levels leading to improved plant fitness and/or enhanced content of nutritionally valuable carotenoids. The Poaceae (grass) plant family contains many crops of agronomic value. Therefore this study focused on characterizing the carotenoid dioxygenase gene family in the grass species maize, rice, and sorghum with comparison made to newly identified gene families in two non-seed plants as well as an alga and previously identified eudicot genes. Genome analysis was used to map grass genes encoding the carotenoid dioxygenases to chromosome locations. Sequences of encoded proteins were phylogenetically compared. CCD8b was identified as a new class of cleavage dioxygenases that may play a specialized role in apocarotenoid biogenesis. A simple PCR assay was developed to measure CCD1 gene copy number which is known to vary in maize. Using a panel of maize inbred lines varying in carotenoid content, linear regression analysis revealed a statistically significant negative correlation between copy number of CCD1 and carotenoid content, an effect likely mediated through the resulting elevated levels of endosperm CCD1 transcripts in high copy number lines. The PCR assay adds to a growing toolbox for metabolic engineering of maize endosperm carotenoids. This new tool can be used to select maize lines that are less likely to promote endosperm carotenoid degradation, thus predicting optimal results in metabolic engineering of endosperm provitamin A and/or nonprovitamin A carotenoids. PMID:20670614

  5. A Hyperactive Cobalt-Substituted Extradiol-Cleaving Catechol Dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Fielding, Andrew J.; Farquhar, Erik R.

    2011-01-01

    Homoprotocatechuate (HPCA) 2,3-dioxygenase from Brevibacterium fuscum (Fe-HPCD) has an Fe(II) center in its active site that can be replaced with Mn(II) or Co(II). While Mn-HPCD exhibits steady state kinetic parameters comparable to those of Fe-HPCD, Co-HPCD behaves somewhat differently exhibiting a significantly higher KMO2 and kcat. The high activity of Co-HPCD is surprising, given that cobalt has the highest standard M(III/II) redox potential of the three metals. Comparison of the X-ray crystal structures of the resting and substrate-bound forms of Fe-, Mn-, and Co-HPCD shows that metal-substitution has no effect on the local ligand environment, the conformational integrity of the active site, or the overall protein structure, suggesting that the protein structure does not differentially tune the potential of the metal center. Analysis of the steady state kinetics of Co-HPCD suggests that the Co(II) center alters the relative rate constants for the interconversion of intermediates in the catalytic cycle but still allows the dioxygenase reaction to proceed efficiently. When compared with the kinetic data for Fe- and Mn-HPCD, these results show that dioxygenase catalysis can proceed at high rates over a wide range of metal redox potentials. This is consistent with the proposed mechanism in which the metal mediates electron transfer between the catechol substrate and O2 to form the postulated [M(II)(semiquinone)superoxo] reactive species. These kinetic differences and the spectroscopic properties of Co-HPCD provide new tools with which to explore the unique O2 activation mechanism associated with the extradiol dioxygenase family. PMID:21153851

  6. Substrate Binding Mechanism of a Type I Extradiol Dioxygenase*

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hyo Je; Kim, Kyungsun; Sohn, Seo Yean; Cho, Ha Yeon; Kim, Kyung Jin; Kim, Myung Hee; Kim, Dockyu; Kim, Eungbin; Kang, Beom Sik

    2010-01-01

    A meta-cleavage pathway for the aerobic degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons is catalyzed by extradiol dioxygenases via a two-step mechanism: catechol substrate binding and dioxygen incorporation. The binding of substrate triggers the release of water, thereby opening a coordination site for molecular oxygen. The crystal structures of AkbC, a type I extradiol dioxygenase, and the enzyme substrate (3-methylcatechol) complex revealed the substrate binding process of extradiol dioxygenase. AkbC is composed of an N-domain and an active C-domain, which contains iron coordinated by a 2-His-1-carboxylate facial triad motif. The C-domain includes a β-hairpin structure and a C-terminal tail. In substrate-bound AkbC, 3-methylcatechol interacts with the iron via a single hydroxyl group, which represents an intermediate stage in the substrate binding process. Structure-based mutagenesis revealed that the C-terminal tail and β-hairpin form part of the substrate binding pocket that is responsible for substrate specificity by blocking substrate entry. Once a substrate enters the active site, these structural elements also play a role in the correct positioning of the substrate. Based on the results presented here, a putative substrate binding mechanism is proposed. PMID:20810655

  7. Constitutive Expression of a Nag-Like Dioxygenase Gene through an Internal Promoter in the 2-Chloronitrobenzene Catabolism Gene Cluster of Pseudomonas stutzeri ZWLR2-1

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yi-Zhou; Liu, Hong; Chao, Hong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    evolution in regulatory networks for the catabolism of synthetic compounds. The 2CNB utilizer Pseudomonas stutzeri ZWLR2-1 in this study has adapted itself to the new pollutant by evolving the always-inducible Nag-like dioxygenase into a constitutively expressed enzyme, and its expression has escaped the influence of salicylate. This may facilitate an understanding of how bacteria can rapidly adapt to the new synthetic compounds by evolving its expression system for key enzymes involved in the degradation of a xenobiotic. PMID:27037114

  8. Structural organization and tissue-specific expression of the gene encoding rat cysteine dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Tsuboyama, N; Hosokawa, Y; Totani, M; Oka, J; Matsumoto, A; Koide, T; Kodama, H

    1996-11-28

    Cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) is a key enzyme involved in the metabolism of L-cysteine. Genomic clones containing the 5'-flanking sequence of the rat CDO gene were isolated and characterized. The CDO gene spanned about 15 kb, and comprised 5 exons. All boundaries between the exons and introns matched the GT/AG rule. The major transcription start point (tsp) was A at 213 bp upstream from the ATG codon. The 5'-flanking region contained a TATA-box-like sequence and putative cis-acting regulatory elements. The 3' end of CDO was polyadenylated at several sites. Northern blots of RNA from rat tissues revealed the highest CDO mRNA level in the liver. Significant levels were observed in the kidney, lung and brain, implying tissue-specific differences in CDO promoter function.

  9. Functional diversity of 2-oxoglutarate/Fe(II)-dependent dioxygenases in plant metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Farrow, Scott C.; Facchini, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative enzymes catalyze many different reactions in plant metabolism. Among this suite of enzymes are the 2-oxoglutarate/Fe(II)-dependent dioxygenases (2-ODDs). Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) as often considered the most versatile oxidative enzymes in nature, but the diversity and complexity of reactions catalyzed by 2-ODDs is superior to the CYPs. The list of oxidative reactions catalyzed by 2-ODDs includes hydroxylations, demethylations, desaturations, ring closure, ring cleavage, epimerization, rearrangement, halogenation, and demethylenation. Furthermore, recent work, including the discovery of 2-ODDs involved in epigenetic regulation, and others catalyzing several characteristic steps in specialized metabolic pathways, support the argument that 2-ODDs are among the most versatile and important oxidizing biological catalysts. In this review, we survey and summarize the pertinent literature with a focus on several key reactions catalyzed by 2-ODDs, and discuss the significance and impact of these enzymes in plant metabolism. PMID:25346740

  10. 2-Oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases in the biosynthesis of simple coumarins

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Bun-Ichi

    2014-01-01

    Coumarins are natural plant products that have been the subject of extensive phytochemical and pharmacological research studies in the past few decades. The core structure of coumarins is derived from the respective cinnamates via ortho-hydroxylation of the aromatic ring, trans/cis isomerization, and lactonization. Various substitution patterns of coumarins have been reported, whereas the biosynthesis of coumarins remains elusive. Ortho-hydroxylation is a key step in simple coumarin biosynthesis as a branch point from the lignin biosynthetic pathway. 2-Oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases (2OGDs) from plants convert cinnamate derivatives into simple coumarins through the process of ortho-hydroxylation. This review describes the 2OGDs involved in coumarin biosynthesis and their substrate specificities. PMID:25404933

  11. Purification and characterization of protocatechuate 2,3-dioxygenase from Bacillus macerans: a new extradiol catecholic dioxygenase.

    PubMed Central

    Wolgel, S A; Dege, J E; Perkins-Olson, P E; Jaurez-Garcia, C H; Crawford, R L; Münck, E; Lipscomb, J D

    1993-01-01

    Protocatechuate 2,3-dioxygenase (2,3-PCD) from Bacillus macerans JJ1b has been purified to homogeneity for the first time. The enzyme catalyzes proximal extradiol ring cleavage of protocatechuate (PCA) with the attendant incorporation of both atoms of oxygen from O2. The holoenzyme has a mass of 143 +/- 7 kDa as determined by ultracentrifugation and other techniques. It is composed of four apparently identical subunits with M(r)s of 35,500, each containing one iron atom. Mössbauer spectroscopy of 57Fe-enriched enzyme showed that the irons are indistinguishable and are high spin (S = 2) Fe2+ in both the uncomplexed and substrate-bound enzyme. However, the quadrupole splitting, delta EQ, and isomer shift, delta, of the Mössbauer spectrum changed from delta EQ = 2.57 mm/s and delta = 1.29 mm/s to delta EQ = 2.73 mm/s and delta = 1.19 mm/s upon PCA binding to the enzyme, showing that the iron environment is altered when substrate is present. The enzyme was also found to bind variable and substoichiometric amounts of Mn2+, but this metal could be removed without loss of activity or stability. The inherently electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-silent Fe2+ of the enzyme reversibly bound nitric oxide to produce an EPR-active species (g = 4.11, 3.95; S = 3/2). The specific activity of the enzyme was found to be correlated with the amount of the S = 3/2 species formed, showing that activity is dependent on Fe2+. Anaerobic addition of substrates to the enzyme-nitric oxide complex significantly altered the EPR spectrum, suggesting that substrates bind to or near the iron. The enzyme was inactivated by reagents that oxidize the Fe2+, such as H2O2 and K3FE(CN)6; full activity was restored after reduction of the iron by ascorbate. Steady-state kinetic data were found to be consistent with an ordered bi-uni mechanism in which the organic substrate must add to 2,3-PCD before O2. The enzyme has the broadest substrate range of any of the well-studied catecholic dioxygenases. All

  12. Spliceostatin hemiketal biosynthesis in Burkholderia spp. is catalyzed by an iron/α-ketoglutarate–dependent dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Eustáquio, Alessandra S.; Janso, Jeffrey E.; Ratnayake, Anokha S.; O’Donnell, Christopher J.; Koehn, Frank E.

    2014-01-01

    Spliceostatins are potent spliceosome inhibitors biosynthesized by a hybrid nonribosomal peptide synthetase−polyketide synthase (NRPS−PKS) system of the trans-acyl transferase (AT) type. Burkholderia sp. FERM BP-3421 produces hemiketal spliceostatins, such as FR901464, as well as analogs containing a terminal carboxylic acid. We provide genetic and biochemical evidence for hemiketal biosynthesis by oxidative decarboxylation rather than the previously hypothesized Baeyer–Villiger oxidative release postulated to be catalyzed by a flavin-dependent monooxygenase (FMO) activity internal to the last module of the PKS. Inactivation of Fe(II)/α-ketoglutarate–dependent dioxygenase gene fr9P led to loss of hemiketal congeners, whereas the mutant was still able to produce all major carboxylic acid-type compounds. FMO mutants, on the other hand, produced both hemiketal and carboxylic acid analogs containing an exocyclic methylene instead of an epoxide, indicating that the FMO is involved in epoxidation rather than Baeyer–Villiger oxidation. Moreover, recombinant Fr9P enzyme was shown to catalyze hydroxylation to form β-hydroxy acids, which upon decarboxylation led to hemiketal FR901464. Finally, a third oxygenase activity encoded in the biosynthetic gene cluster, the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase Fr9R, was assigned as a 4-hydroxylase based on gene inactivation results. Identification and deletion of the gene involved in hemiketal formation allowed us to generate a strain—the dioxygenase fr9P− mutant—that accumulates only the carboxylic acid-type spliceostatins, which are as potent as the hemiketal analogs, when derivatized to increase cell permeability, but are chemically more stable. PMID:25097259

  13. On the Stereochemistry of 2-Hydroxyethylphosphonate Dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Stereochemical investigations have shown that the conversion of 2-hydroxyethylphosphonate to hydroxymethylphosphonate by the enzyme HEPD involves removal of the pro-S hydrogen at C2 and, surprisingly, the loss of stereochemical information at C1. As a result, the mechanisms previously proposed for HEPD must be re-evaluated. PMID:21381767

  14. Identification of Pyrene-Induced Proteins in Mycobacterium sp. Strain 6PY1: Evidence for Two Ring-Hydroxylating Dioxygenases

    PubMed Central

    Krivobok, Serge; Kuony, Sylvain; Meyer, Christine; Louwagie, Mathilde; Willison, John C.; Jouanneau, Yves

    2003-01-01

    In this study, the enzymes involved in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) degradation were investigated in the pyrene-degrading Mycobacterium sp. strain 6PY1. [14C]pyrene mineralization experiments showed that bacteria grown with either pyrene or phenanthrene produced high levels of pyrene-catabolic activity but that acetate-grown cells had no activity. As a means of identifying specific catabolic enzymes, protein extracts from bacteria grown on pyrene or on other carbon sources were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Pyrene-induced proteins were tentatively identified by peptide sequence analysis. Half of them resembled enzymes known to be involved in phenanthrene degradation, with closest similarity to the corresponding enzymes from Nocardioides sp. strain KP7. The genes encoding the terminal components of two distinct ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases were cloned. Sequence analysis revealed that the two enzymes, designated Pdo1 and Pdo2, belong to a subfamily of dioxygenases found exclusively in gram-positive bacteria. When overproduced in Escherichia coli, Pdo1 and Pdo2 showed distinctive selectivities towards PAH substrates, with the former enzyme catalyzing the dihydroxylation of both pyrene and phenanthrene and the latter preferentially oxidizing phenanthrene. The catalytic activity of the Pdo2 enzyme was dramatically enhanced when electron carrier proteins of the phenanthrene dioxygenase from strain KP7 were coexpressed in recombinant cells. The Pdo2 enzyme was purified as a brown protein consisting of two types of subunits with Mrs of about 52,000 and 20,000. Immunoblot analysis of cell extracts from strain 6PY1 revealed that Pdo1 was present in cells grown on benzoate, phenanthrene, or pyrene and absent in acetate-grown cells. In contrast, Pdo2 could be detected only in PAH-grown cells. These results indicated that the two enzymes were differentially regulated depending on the carbon source used for growth. PMID:12813077

  15. Naphthalene dioxygenase: purification and properties of a terminal oxygenase component.

    PubMed Central

    Ensley, B D; Gibson, D T

    1983-01-01

    Naphthalene dioxygenase from Pseudomonas sp. strain NCIB 9816 is a multicomponent enzyme system that oxidized naphthalene to cis-(1R, 2S)-dihydroxy-1,2-dihydronaphthalene. The terminal oxygenase component B was purified to homogeneity by a three-step procedure that utilized ion-exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The purified enzyme oxidized naphthalene only in the presence of NADH, oxygen, and partially purified preparations of components A and C. An estimated Mr of 158,000 was obtained by gel filtration. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate revealed the presence of two subunits with molecular weights of ca. 55,000 and 20,000, indicative of an alpha 2 beta 2 quaternary structure. Absorption spectra of the oxidized enzyme showed maxima at 566 (shoulder), 462, and 344 nm, which were replaced by absorption maxima at 520 and 380 nm when the enzyme was reduced anaerobically by stoichiometric quantities of NADH in the presence of the other two components of the naphthalene dioxygenase system. Component B bound naphthalene. Enzyme-bound naphthalene was oxidized to product upon the addition of components A and C, NADH, and O2. These results, together with the detection of the presence of 6.0 g-atoms of iron and 4.0 g-atoms of acid-labile sulfur per mol of the purified enzyme, suggest that component B of the naphthalene dioxygenase system is an iron-sulfur protein which functions in the terminal step of naphthalene oxidation. PMID:6874638

  16. Substrate-protein interaction in human tryptophan dioxygenase: the critical role of H76.

    PubMed

    Batabyal, Dipanwita; Yeh, Syun-Ru

    2009-03-11

    The initial and rate-limiting step of the kynurenine pathway in humans involves the oxidation of tryptophan to N-formyl kynurenine catalyzed by two hemeproteins, tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (hTDO) and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (hIDO). In hTDO, the conserved H76 residue is believed to act as an active site base to deprotonate the indole NH group of Trp, the initial step of the Trp oxidation reaction. In hIDO, this histidine is replaced by a serine. To investigate the role of the H76, we have studied the H76S and H76A mutants of hTDO. Activity assays show that the mutations cause a decrease in k(cat) and an increase in K(M) for both mutants. The decrease in the k(cat) is accounted for by the replacement of the active site base catalyst, H76, with a weaker base, possibly a water, whereas the increase in K(M) is attributed to the loss of the specific interactions between the H76 and the substrate as well as the protein matrix. Resonance Raman studies with various Trp analogs indicate that the substrate is positioned in the active site by the ammonium, carboxylate, and indole groups, via intricate H-bonding and hydrophobic interactions. This scenario is consistent with the observation that l-Trp binding significantly perturbs the electronic properties of the O(2)-adduct of hTDO. The important structural and functional roles of H76 in hTDO is underscored by the observation that the electronic configuration of the active ternary complex, l-Trp-O(2)-hTDO, is sensitive to the H76 mutations.

  17. Distribution, Diversity, and Activities of Sulfur Dioxygenases in Heterotrophic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Honglei; Xin, Yufeng

    2014-01-01

    Sulfur oxidation by chemolithotrophic bacteria is well known; however, sulfur oxidation by heterotrophic bacteria is often ignored. Sulfur dioxygenases (SDOs) (EC 1.13.11.18) were originally found in the cell extracts of some chemolithotrophic bacteria as glutathione (GSH)-dependent sulfur dioxygenases. GSH spontaneously reacts with elemental sulfur to generate glutathione persulfide (GSSH), and SDOs oxidize GSSH to sulfite and GSH. However, SDOs have not been characterized for bacteria, including chemolithotrophs. The gene coding for human SDO (human ETHE1 [hETHE1]) in mitochondria was discovered because its mutations lead to a hereditary human disease, ethylmalonic encephalopathy. Using sequence analysis and activity assays, we discovered three subgroups of bacterial SDOs in the proteobacteria and cyanobacteria. Ten selected SDO genes were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant proteins were purified. The SDOs used Fe2+ for catalysis and displayed considerable variations in specific activities. The wide distribution of SDO genes reveals the likely source of the hETHE1 gene and highlights the potential of sulfur oxidation by heterotrophic bacteria. PMID:24389926

  18. Toluene and ethylbenzene oxidation by purified naphthalene dioxygenase from Pseudomonas sp. strain NCIB 9816-4.

    PubMed

    Lee, K; Gibson, D T

    1996-09-01

    Purified naphthalene dioxygenase (NDO) from Pseudomonas sp. strain NCIB 9816-4 oxidized toluene to benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde by reactions involving benzylic monooxygenation and dioxygen-dependent alcohol oxidation, respectively. Xylene and nitrotoluene isomers were also oxidized to substituted benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde derivatives. NDO oxidized ethylbenzene sequentially through (S)-1-phenethyl alcohol (77% enantiomeric excess) and acetophenone to 2-hydroxyacetophenone. In addition, NDO also oxidized ethylbenzene through styrene to (R)-1-phenyl-1,2-ethanediol (74% enantiomeric excess) by reactions involving desaturation and dihydroxylation, respectively. Isotope experiments with 18O2, H2 18O, and D2O suggest that 1-phenethyl alcohol is oxidized to acetophenone by a minor reaction involving desaturation followed by tautomerization. The major reaction in the conversion of 1-phenethyl alcohol and benzyl alcohol to acetophenone and benzaldehyde, respectively, probably involves monohydroxylation to form a gem-diol intermediate which stereospecifically loses the incoming hydroxyl group to leave the carbonyl product. These results are compared with similar reactions catalyzed by cytochrome P-450.

  19. A novel non-heme iron-containing dioxygenase. Chloridazon-catechol dioxygenase from Phenylobacterium immobilis DSM 1986.

    PubMed

    Müller, R; Schmitt, S; Lingens, F

    1982-07-01

    Previously we purified an enzyme from Phenylobacterium immobilis DSM 1986, which cleaves the catechol derivative of the herbicide Chloridazon [5-amino-4-chloro-2-phenyl-3 (2H)-pyridazinone] in the meta position. The enzyme, which could be crystallized, proved in Ouchterlony double-diffusion tests to consist of a single protein species. No cross-reaction was observed with other meta-cleaving enzymes. Its light absorption spectrum showed a maximum at 279 nm (epsilon = 310 mM -1 cm -1), shoulders at 289 nm and 275 nm and a very weak band at around 430 nm (epsilon = 1.14 mM -1 cm -1). The amino acid analysis showed a slight excess of acidic amino acids, in agreement with the pl of 4.5. Surprisingly the enzyme per se is completely inactive, although it contains one non-dialysable iron atom per submit. It has to be activated by preincubation with ferrous ions or ascorbate. The enzyme activated this way is autoxidizable and returns to its non-activated state in the presence of oxygen. During the reaction with the substrate, this inactivation seems to be enhanced about 100 times. Since this kind of activation and inactivation is not observed in other meta-cleaving enzymes, this enzyme seems to represent a new type of a non-heme iron dioxygenase. We tentatively propose the name Chloridazon-catechol dioxygenase for this enzyme.

  20. Synthetic, Spectroscopic and DFT Studies of Iron Complexes with Iminobenzo(semi)quinone Ligands: Implications for o-Aminophenol Dioxygenases

    PubMed Central

    Bittner, Michael M.; Kraus, David; Lindeman, Sergey V.; Popescu, Codrina V.; Fiedler, Adam T.

    2014-01-01

    The oxidative C-C bond cleavage of o-aminophenols by nonheme Fe dioxygenases is a critical step in both human metabolism (the kynurenine pathway) and the microbial degradation of nitroaromatic pollutants. The catalytic cycle of o-aminophenol dioxygenases (APDOs) has been proposed to involve formation of an Fe(II)/O2/iminobenzosemiquinone complex, although the presence of a substrate radical has been called into question by studies of related ring-cleaving dioxygenases. Recently, we reported the first synthesis of an iron(II) complex coordinated to an iminobenzosemiquinone (ISQ) ligand, namely, [Fe(Ph2Tp)(ISQtBu)] (2a; where Ph2Tp = hydrotris(3,5-diphenylpyrazol-1-yl)borate and ISQtBu is the radical anion derived from 2-amino-4,6-di-tert-butylphenol). In the current manuscript, density functional theory (DFT) calculations and a wide variety of spectroscopic methods (electronic absorption, Mössbauer, magnetic circular dichroism, and resonance Raman) were employed to obtain detailed electronic-structure descriptions of 2a and its one-electron oxidized derivative [3a]+. In addition, we describe the synthesis and characterization of a parallel series of complexes featuring the neutral supporting ligand tris(4,5-diphenyl-1-methylimidazol-2-yl)phosphine (Ph2TIP). The isomer shifts of ~0.97 mm/s obtained via Mössbauer experiments confirm that 2a (and its Ph2TIP-based analogue [2b]+) contain Fe(II) centers, and the presence of an ISQ radical was verified by analysis of the absorption spectra in light of time-dependent DFT calculations. The collective spectroscopic data indicate that one-electron oxidation of the Fe2+–ISQ complexes yields complexes ([3a]+ and [3b]2+) with electronic configurations between the Fe3+–ISQ and Fe2+–IBQ limits (IBQ = iminobenzoquinone), highlighting the ability of o-amidophenolates to access multiple oxidation states. The implications of these results for the mechanism of APDOs and other ring-cleaving dioxygenases are discussed. PMID

  1. A simple assay of taurine concentrations in food and biological samples using taurine dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Motoki; Asano, Yasuhisa

    2012-08-15

    Taurine demonstrates various physiological functions and pharmacological actions. A successful application of taurine dioxygenase (EC 1.14.11.17) for taurine determination is described. The gene encoding taurine dioxygenase was cloned from Escherichia coli strain K-12, and the enzyme was used to determine taurine in commercially available beverages and some biological samples. The measured values obtained using the current method are close to the declared values with the precolumn derivatization ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) procedure. Taurine dioxygenase can be used for taurine determination in food control, biological research, and diagnoses based on urinary taurine concentration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Nitric oxide dioxygenase: An enzymic function for flavohemoglobin

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Paul R.; Gardner, Anne M.; Martin, Lori A.; Salzman, Andrew L.

    1998-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO•) is a toxin, and various life forms appear to have evolved strategies for its detoxification. NO•-resistant mutants of Escherichia coli were isolated that rapidly consumed NO•. An NO•-converting activity was reconstituted in extracts that required NADPH, FAD, and O2, was cyanide-sensitive, and produced NO3−. This nitric oxide dioxygenase (NOD) contained 19 of 20 N-terminal amino acids identical to those of the E. coli flavohemoglobin. Furthermore, NOD activity was produced by the flavohemoglobin gene and was inducible by NO•. Flavohemoglobin/NOD-deficient mutants were also sensitive to growth inhibition by gaseous NO•. The results identify a function for the evolutionarily conserved flavohemoglobins and, moreover, suggest that NO• detoxification may be a more ancient function for the widely distributed hemoglobins, and associated methemoglobin reductases, than dioxygen transport and storage. PMID:9724711

  3. Ligand Migration in Human Indoleamine-2,3 Dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Nienhaus, Karin; Nickel, Elena; Lu, Changyuan; Yeh, Syun-Ru; Nienhaus, G. Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Summary Human indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (hIDO), a monomeric heme enzyme, catalyzes the oxidative degradation of L-tryptophan (L-Trp) and other indoleamine derivatives. Its activity follows typical Michaelis–Menten behavior only for L-Trp concentrations up to 50 µM; a further increase in the concentration of L-Trp causes a decrease in the activity. This substrate inhibition of hIDO is a result of the binding of a second L-Trp molecule in an inhibitory substrate binding site of the enzyme. The molecular details of the reaction and the inhibition are not yet known. In the following, we summarize the present knowledge about this heme enzyme. PMID:21445845

  4. 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate Dioxygenase Inhibitors: From Chemical Biology to Agrochemicals.

    PubMed

    Ndikuryayo, Ferdinand; Moosavi, Behrooz; Yang, Wen-Chao; Yang, Guang-Fu

    2017-09-25

    The development of new herbicides is receiving considerable attention to control weed biotypes resistant to current herbicides. Consequently, new enzymes are always desired as targets for herbicide discovery. 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD, EC 1.13.11.27) is an enzyme engaged in photosynthetic activity and catalyzes the transformation of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid (HPPA) into homogentisic acid (HGA). HPPD inhibitors constitute a promising area of discovery and development of innovative herbicides with some advantages, including excellent crop selectivity, low application rates, and broad-spectrum weed control. HPPD inhibitors have been investigated for agrochemical interests, and some of them have already been commercialized as herbicides. In this review, we mainly focus on the chemical biology of HPPD, discovery of new potential inhibitors, and strategies for engineering transgenic crops resistant to current HPPD-inhibiting herbicides. The conclusion raises some relevant gaps for future research directions.

  5. Molecules in focus: indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    King, Nicholas J C; Thomas, Shane R

    2007-01-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is a heme enzyme that initiates the oxidative degradation of the least abundant, essential amino acid, l-tryptophan, along the kynurenine pathway. The local cellular depletion of l-tryptophan that results may enable the host to inhibit the growth of various infectious pathogens in vivo. However, over the past decade, it has become increasingly apparent that IDO also represents an important immune control enzyme. Thus, cells expressing IDO, seemingly paradoxically, are capable of suppressing local T cell responses to promote immune tolerance under various physiological and pathophysiological conditions of medical importance, including infectious diseases, foetal rejection, organ transplantation, neuropathology, inflammatory and auto-immune disorders and cancer. In this review, we briefly outline the biochemical properties of IDO, its known and hypothetical functions and the medical implications for inhibition or induction of IDO and/or its downstream catabolites in health and disease.

  6. Bacterial 2,4-dioxygenases: new members of the alpha/beta hydrolase-fold superfamily of enzymes functionally related to serine hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Fischer, F; Künne, S; Fetzner, S

    1999-09-01

    1H-3-hydroxy-4-oxoquinoline 2,4-dioxygenase (Qdo) from Pseudomonas putida 33/1 and 1H-3-hydroxy-4-oxoquinaldine 2,4-dioxygenase (Hod) from Arthrobacter ilicis Rü61a catalyze an N-heterocyclic-ring cleavage reaction, generating N-formylanthranilate and N-acetylanthranilate, respectively, and carbon monoxide. Amino acid sequence comparisons between Qdo, Hod, and a number of proteins belonging to the alpha/beta hydrolase-fold superfamily of enzymes and analysis of the similarity between the predicted secondary structures of the 2,4-dioxygenases and the known secondary structure of haloalkane dehalogenase from Xanthobacter autotrophicus GJ10 strongly suggested that Qdo and Hod are structurally related to the alpha/beta hydrolase-fold enzymes. The residues S95 and H244 of Qdo were found to be arranged like the catalytic nucleophilic residue and the catalytic histidine, respectively, of the alpha/beta hydrolase-fold enzymes. Investigation of the potential functional significance of these and other residues of Qdo through site-directed mutagenesis supported the hypothesis that Qdo is structurally as well as functionally related to serine hydrolases, with S95 being a possible catalytic nucleophile and H244 being a possible catalytic base. A hypothetical reaction mechanism for Qdo-catalyzed 2,4-dioxygenolysis, involving formation of an ester bond between the catalytic serine residue and the carbonyl carbon of the substrate and subsequent dioxygenolysis of the covalently bound anionic intermediate, is discussed.

  7. Purification and properties of NADH-ferredoxinNAP reductase, a component of naphthalene dioxygenase from Pseudomonas sp. strain NCIB 9816.

    PubMed Central

    Haigler, B E; Gibson, D T

    1990-01-01

    Cells of Pseudomonas sp. strain NCIB 9816, after growth with naphthalene or salicylate, contain a multicomponent enzyme system that oxidizes naphthalene to cis-(1R,2S)-dihydroxy-1,2-dihydronaphthalene. We purified one of these components to homogeneity and found it to be an iron-sulfur flavoprotein that loses the flavin cofactor during purification. Dialysis against flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) showed that the enzyme bound 1 mol of FAD per mol of enzyme protein. The enzyme consisted of a single polypeptide with an apparent molecular weight of 36,300. The purified protein contained 1.8 g-atoms of iron and 2.0 g-atoms of acid-labile sulfur and showed absorption maxima at 278, 340, 420, and 460 nm, with a broad shoulder at 540 nm. The purified enzyme catalyzed the reduction of cytochrome c, dichlorophenolindophenol, Nitro Blue Tetrazolium, and ferricyanide. These activities were enhanced in the presence of added FAD. The ability of the enzyme to catalyze the reduction of the ferredoxin involved in naphthalene reduction and other electron acceptors indicates that it functions as an NAD(P)H-oxidoreductase in the naphthalene dioxygenase system. The results suggest that naphthalene dioxygenase requires two proteins with three redox groups to transfer electrons from NADH to the terminal oxygenase. Images FIG. 3 PMID:2294092

  8. Structure and mechanism leading to formation of the cysteine sulfinate product complex of a biomimetic cysteine dioxygenase model.

    PubMed

    Sallmann, Madleen; Kumar, Suresh; Chernev, Petko; Nehrkorn, Joscha; Schnegg, Alexander; Kumar, Devesh; Dau, Holger; Limberg, Christian; de Visser, Sam P

    2015-05-11

    Cysteine dioxygenase is a unique nonheme iron enzyme that is involved in the metabolism of cysteine in the body. It contains an iron active site with an unusual 3-His ligation to the protein, which contrasts with the structural features of common nonheme iron dioxygenases. Recently, some of us reported a truly biomimetic model for this enzyme, namely a trispyrazolylborato iron(II) cysteinato complex, which not only has a structure very similar to the enzyme-substrate complex but also represents a functional model: Treatment of the model with dioxygen leads to cysteine dioxygenation, as shown by isolating the cysteine part of the product in the course of the work-up. However, little is known on the conversion mechanism and, so far, not even the structure of the actual product complex had been characterised, which is also unknown in case of the enzyme. In a multidisciplinary approach including density functional theory calculations and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, we have now determined the structure of the actual sulfinato complex for the first time. The Cys-SO2 (-) functional group was found to be bound in an η(2) -O,O-coordination mode, which, based on the excellent resemblance between model and enzyme, also provides the first support for a corresponding binding mode within the enzymatic product complex. Indeed, this is again confirmed by theory, which had predicted a η(2) -O,O-binding mode for synthetic as well as the natural enzyme.

  9. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase is differentially expressed by different white blood cell populations of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Lei, N; Wang, Y; Zhang, W-J; Duan, J-Z; Yang, G-B

    2013-08-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is involved in immune processes such as transplant and fetal rejection, autoimmunity, cancer, and infection; however, its expression in rhesus macaques has not been fully addressed. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase mRNA and protein in the white blood cells (WBCs) of Chinese rhesus macaques were examined by RT-PCR, western blotting, real-time RT-PCR, and flow cytometry. Both IDO protein and mRNA could be readily detected in WBCs or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of normal rhesus macaques. IDO+ cell frequency was the highest among CD14(+) mononuclear cells, followed by CD56(+) cells and DCs. No difference in the frequency of IDO+ cells between CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells; however, Th17 cells have higher frequency of IDO+ cells than Th1 cells, with Th2 cells the lowest. Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation significantly increased IDO protein level in CD14(+) , CD56(+) , CD1c(+) , CD11c(+) , and CD123(+) myeloid cells. Rhesus macaques express IDO differentially in their leukocyte subsets and are suitable for IDO-related pathophysiological studies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Molecular basis for catalysis and substrate-mediated cellular stabilization of human tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Lewis-Ballester, Ariel; Forouhar, Farhad; Kim, Sung-Mi; Lew, Scott; Wang, YongQiang; Karkashon, Shay; Seetharaman, Jayaraman; Batabyal, Dipanwita; Chiang, Bing-Yu; Hussain, Munif; Correia, Maria Almira; Yeh, Syun-Ru; Tong, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) play a central role in tryptophan metabolism and are involved in many cellular and disease processes. Here we report the crystal structure of human TDO (hTDO) in a ternary complex with the substrates L-Trp and O2 and in a binary complex with the product N-formylkynurenine (NFK), defining for the first time the binding modes of both substrates and the product of this enzyme. The structure indicates that the dioxygenation reaction is initiated by a direct attack of O2 on the C2 atom of the L-Trp indole ring. The structure also reveals an exo binding site for L-Trp, located ~42 Å from the active site and formed by residues conserved among tryptophan-auxotrophic TDOs. Biochemical and cellular studies indicate that Trp binding at this exo site does not affect enzyme catalysis but instead it retards the degradation of hTDO through the ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal pathway. This exo site may therefore provide a novel L-Trp-mediated regulation mechanism for cellular degradation of hTDO, which may have important implications in human diseases. PMID:27762317

  11. Identification and Functional Analysis of Two Aromatic-Ring-Hydroxylating Dioxygenases from a Sphingomonas Strain That Degrades Various Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Demanèche, Sandrine; Meyer, Christine; Micoud, Julien; Louwagie, Mathilde; Willison, John C.; Jouanneau, Yves

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the enzymes involved in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) degradation in the chrysene-degrading organism Sphingomonas sp. strain CHY-1 were investigated. [14C]chrysene mineralization experiments showed that PAH-grown bacteria produced high levels of chrysene-catabolic activity. One PAH-induced protein displayed similarity with a ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase beta subunit, and a second PAH-induced protein displayed similarity with an extradiol dioxygenase. The genes encoding these proteins were cloned, and sequence analysis revealed two distinct loci containing clustered catabolic genes with strong similarities to corresponding genes found in Novosphingobium aromaticivorans F199. In the first locus, two genes potentially encoding a terminal dioxygenase component, designated PhnI, were followed by a gene coding for an aryl alcohol dehydrogenase (phnB). The second locus contained five genes encoding an extradiol dioxygenase (phnC), a ferredoxin (phnA3), another oxygenase component (PhnII), and an isomerase (phnD). PhnI was found to be capable of converting several PAHs, including chrysene, to the corresponding dihydrodiols. The activity of PhnI was greatly enhanced upon coexpression of genes encoding a ferredoxin (phnA3) and a reductase (phnA4). Disruption of the phnA1a gene encoding the PhnI alpha subunit resulted in a mutant strain that had lost the ability to grow on PAHs. The recombinant PhnII enzyme overproduced in Escherichia coli functioned as a salicylate 1-hydroxylase. PhnII also used methylsalicylates and anthranilate as substrates. Our results indicated that a single enzyme (PhnI) was responsible for the initial attack of a range of PAHs, including chrysene, in strain CHY-1. Furthermore, the conversion of salicylate to catechol was catalyzed by a three-component oxygenase unrelated to known salicylate hydroxylases. PMID:15528538

  12. Evolution and diversity of the 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase superfamily in plants.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Yosuke; Ono, Eiichiro; Mizutani, Masaharu

    2014-04-01

    The 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase (2OGD) superfamily is the second largest enzyme family in the plant genome, and its members are involved in various oxygenation/hydroxylation reactions. Despite their biochemical significance in metabolism, a systematic analysis of plant 2OGDs remains to be accomplished. We present a phylogenetic classification of 479 2OGDs in six plant models, ranging from green algae to angiosperms. These were classified into three classes - DOXA, DOXB and DOXC - based on amino acid sequence similarity. The DOXA class includes plant homologs of Escherichia coli AlkB, which is a prototype of 2OGD involved in the oxidative demethylation of alkylated nucleic acids and histones. The DOXB class is conserved across all plant taxa and is involved in proline 4-hydroxylation in cell wall protein synthesis. The DOXC class is involved in specialized metabolism of various phytochemicals, including phytohormones and flavonoids. The vast majority of 2OGDs from land plants were classified into the DOXC class, but only seven from Chlamydomonas, suggesting that this class has diversified during land plant evolution. Phylogenetic analysis assigned DOXC-class 2OGDs to 57 phylogenetic clades. 2OGD genes involved in gibberellin biosynthesis were conserved among vascular plants, and those involved in flavonoid and ethylene biosynthesis were shared among seed plants. Several angiosperm-specific clades were found to be involved in various lineage-specific specialized metabolisms, but 31 of the 57 DOXC-class clades were only found in a single species. Therefore, the evolution and diversification of DOXC-class 2OGDs is partly responsible for the diversity and complexity of specialized metabolites in land plants.

  13. Induction of pulmonary indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase by interferon.

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, R; Imanishi, J; Oku, T; Kishida, T; Hayaishi, O

    1981-01-01

    Pulmonary indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase [indoleamine: oxygen 2,3-oxidoreductase(decyclizing)] has been found to be induced (30- to 100-fold) in the mouse after a single intraperitoneal administration of bacterial endotoxin [Yoshida, R. & Hayaishi, O. (1978) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75, 3998-4000] or during in vivo virus infection [Yoshida, R., Urade, Y., Tokuda M. & Hayaishi, O. (1979) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 76, 4084-4086]. In the present study, an in vitro system with mouse lung slices was developed in which bacterial endotoxin (5 micrograms/ml)produced an induction (approximately 10-fold) of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. The endotoxin was substituted by interferon from mouse L cells or mouse brain. The pulmonary enzyme activity increased almost linearly for 48 hr after addition of mouse interferon (10(4) units/ml) to lung slices. Interferon from mouse L cells or mouse brain produced a 10- to 15-fold increase in the enzyme activity, whereas that from human leukocytes was all but ineffective. The effect also was observed using highly purified L-cell interferon, prepared by poly(U) affinity column chromatography. When interferon was treated either by heat, alpha-chymotrypsin, or anti-interferon serum, such increase in the enzyme activity was diminished essentially to the same extent as seen in the antiviral activity. The increase in the enzyme activity was blocked when actinomycin D or cycloheximide was added to the slices before interferon treatment. These results suggest that the enzyme induction was produced by interferon and not by possible contaminants in the interferon preparations. Images PMID:6165986

  14. Molecular basis for the substrate stereoselectivity in Tryptophan Dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Capece, Luciana; Lewis-Ballester, Ariel; Marti, Marcelo A.; Estrin, Dario A.; Yeh, Syun-Ru

    2011-01-01

    Tryptophan dioxygenase (TDO) and Indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) are the only two heme-proteins that catalyze the oxidation reaction of tryptophan (Trp) to N-formylkynurenine (NFK). While human IDO (hIDO) is able to oxidize both L and D-Trp, human TDO (hTDO) displays a major specificity towards L-Trp. In this work we aim to interrogate the molecular basis for the substrate stereoselectivity of hTDO. Our previous molecular dynamics simulation studies of Xanthomonas campestris TDO (xcTDO) showed that an H-bond between T254 (T342 in hTDO) and the ammonium group of the substrate is present in the L-Trp-bound enzyme, but not in the D-Trp bound enzyme. The fact that this is the only notable structural alteration induced by the change in the stereo structure of the substrate prompted us to produce and characterize the T342A mutant of hTDO to evaluate the structural role of T342 in controlling the substrate stereoselectivity of the enzyme. The experimental results indicate that the mutation only slightly perturbs the global structural properties of the enzyme, but it totally abolishes the substrate stereoselectivity. Molecular Dynamics simulations of xcTDO show that T254 controls the substrate stereoselectivity of the enzyme by (i) modulating the H-bonding interaction between the NH3+ group and epoxide oxygen of the ferryl/indole 2,3-epoxide intermediate of the enzyme, and (ii) regulating the dynamics of two active site loops, loop250–260 and loop117–130, critical for substrate-binding. PMID:22082147

  15. INHIBITION OF INDOLEAMINE 2,3-DIOXYGENASE DOES NOT IMPEDE ORAL TOLERANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), a tryptophan catabolizing enzyme, regulates immune tolerance through inhibition of T-cell proliferation. Pharmacologic inhibition of IDO, which causes fetal rejection and increased tumor resistance in mice, may prove useful in cancer...

  16. INHIBITION OF INDOLEAMINE 2,3-DIOXYGENASE DOES NOT IMPEDE ORAL TOLERANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), a tryptophan catabolizing enzyme, regulates immune tolerance through inhibition of T-cell proliferation. Pharmacologic inhibition of IDO, which causes fetal rejection and increased tumor resistance in mice, may prove useful in cancer...

  17. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of human indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Oda, Shun-ichiro; Sugimoto, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Tadashi; Shiro, Yoshitsugu

    2006-03-01

    Human indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, a haem-containing dioxygenase, was crystallized. The crystal diffracted to 2.3 Å resolution. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is a haem-containing dioxygenase that catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of the pyrrole ring of indoleamines by the insertion of molecular oxygen. This reaction is the first and the rate-limiting step in the kynurenine pathway, the major Trp catabolic pathway in mammals. Recombinant human IDO was crystallized by the vapour-diffusion technique. The addition of 4-phenylimidazole as a haem ligand was essential for crystallization. The crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 86.1, b = 98.0, c = 131.0 Å. Diffraction data were collected to 2.3 Å resolution.

  18. Properties of the iron--sulphur proteins of the benzene dioxygenase system from Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed Central

    Crutcher, S E; Geary, P J

    1979-01-01

    A purification procedure was developed to stabilize the iron-sulphur proteins of the benzene dioxygenase system from Pseudomonas putida. The intermediate electron-carrying protein has a mol. wt. of 12300 and possesses one (2Fe--2S) cluster, whereas the terminal dioxygenase has a mol.wt. of 215300 and possesses two (2Fe--2S) clusters. The order and stoicheiometry of electron transfer and of the whole system are described. Images Fig. 2. PMID:435241

  19. Investigating the Role of Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in Breast Cancer Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in Breast Cancer Metastasis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Courtney Smith, Ph.D...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Investigating the Role of Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in Breast Cancer Metastasis 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-09-1-0667...the malignant 4T1 breast carcinoma cell line exhibit metastatic spread to organs similar to that seen in human breast cancer with pulmonary metastases

  20. Human Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase Is a Catalyst of Physiological Heme Peroxidase Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Freewan, Mohammed; Rees, Martin D.; Plaza, Tito S. Sempértegui; Glaros, Elias; Lim, Yean J.; Wang, Xiao Suo; Yeung, Amanda W. S.; Witting, Paul K.; Terentis, Andrew C.; Thomas, Shane R.

    2013-01-01

    The heme enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is a key regulator of immune responses through catalyzing l-tryptophan (l-Trp) oxidation. Here, we show that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) activates the peroxidase function of IDO to induce protein oxidation and inhibit dioxygenase activity. Exposure of IDO-expressing cells or recombinant human IDO (rIDO) to H2O2 inhibited dioxygenase activity in a manner abrogated by l-Trp. Dioxygenase inhibition correlated with IDO-catalyzed H2O2 consumption, compound I-mediated formation of protein-centered radicals, altered protein secondary structure, and opening of the distal heme pocket to promote nonproductive substrate binding; these changes were inhibited by l-Trp, the heme ligand cyanide, or free radical scavengers. Protection by l-Trp coincided with its oxidation into oxindolylalanine and kynurenine and the formation of a compound II-type ferryl-oxo heme. Physiological peroxidase substrates, ascorbate or tyrosine, enhanced rIDO-mediated H2O2 consumption and attenuated H2O2-induced protein oxidation and dioxygenase inhibition. In the presence of H2O2, rIDO catalytically consumed nitric oxide (NO) and utilized nitrite to promote 3-nitrotyrosine formation on IDO. The promotion of H2O2 consumption by peroxidase substrates, NO consumption, and IDO nitration was inhibited by l-Trp. This study identifies IDO as a heme peroxidase that, in the absence of substrates, self-inactivates dioxygenase activity via compound I-initiated protein oxidation. l-Trp protects against dioxygenase inactivation by reacting with compound I and retarding compound II reduction to suppress peroxidase turnover. Peroxidase-mediated dioxygenase inactivation, NO consumption, or protein nitration may modulate the biological actions of IDO expressed in inflammatory tissues where the levels of H2O2 and NO are elevated and l-Trp is low. PMID:23209301

  1. Conversion of 3-Chlorocatechol by Various Catechol 2,3-Dioxygenases and Sequence Analysis of the Chlorocatechol Dioxygenase Region of Pseudomonas putida GJ31

    PubMed Central

    Mars, Astrid E.; Kingma, Jaap; Kaschabek, Stefan R.; Reineke, Walter; Janssen, Dick B.

    1999-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida GJ31 contains an unusual catechol 2,3-dioxygenase that converts 3-chlorocatechol and 3-methylcatechol, which enables the organism to use both chloroaromatics and methylaromatics for growth. A 3.1-kb region of genomic DNA of strain GJ31 containing the gene for this chlorocatechol 2,3-dioxygenase (cbzE) was cloned and sequenced. The cbzE gene appeared to be plasmid localized and was found in a region that also harbors genes encoding a transposase, a ferredoxin that was homologous to XylT, an open reading frame with similarity to a protein of a meta-cleavage pathway with unknown function, and a 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde dehydrogenase. CbzE was most similar to catechol 2,3-dioxygenases of the 2.C subfamily of type 1 extradiol dioxygenases (L. D. Eltis and J. T. Bolin, J. Bacteriol. 178:5930–5937, 1996). The substrate range and turnover capacity with 3-chlorocatechol were determined for CbzE and four related catechol 2,3-dioxygenases. The results showed that CbzE was the only enzyme that could productively convert 3-chlorocatechol. Besides, CbzE was less susceptible to inactivation by methylated catechols. Hybrid enzymes that were made of CzbE and the catechol 2,3-dioxygenase of P. putida UCC2 (TdnC) showed that the resistance of CbzE to suicide inactivation and its substrate specificity were mainly determined by the C-terminal region of the protein. PMID:9973359

  2. Crystal Structure of PnpCD, a Two-subunit Hydroquinone 1,2-Dioxygenase, Reveals a Novel Structural Class of Fe2+-dependent Dioxygenases*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shiheng; Su, Tiantian; Zhang, Cong; Zhang, Wen-Mao; Zhu, Deyu; Su, Jing; Wei, Tiandi; Wang, Kang; Huang, Yan; Guo, Liming; Xu, Sujuan; Zhou, Ning-Yi; Gu, Lichuan

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic microorganisms have evolved a variety of pathways to degrade aromatic and heterocyclic compounds. However, only several classes of oxygenolytic fission reaction have been identified for the critical ring cleavage dioxygenases. Among them, the most well studied dioxygenases proceed via catecholic intermediates, followed by noncatecholic hydroxy-substituted aromatic carboxylic acids. Therefore, the recently reported hydroquinone 1,2-dioxygenases add to the diversity of ring cleavage reactions. Two-subunit hydroquinone 1,2-dioxygenase PnpCD, the key enzyme in the hydroquinone pathway of para-nitrophenol degradation, catalyzes the ring cleavage of hydroquinone to γ-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde. Here, we report three PnpCD structures, named apo-PnpCD, PnpCD-Fe3+, and PnpCD-Cd2+-HBN (substrate analog hydroxyenzonitrile), respectively. Structural analysis showed that both the PnpC and the C-terminal domains of PnpD comprise a conserved cupin fold, whereas PnpC cannot form a competent metal binding pocket as can PnpD cupin. Four residues of PnpD (His-256, Asn-258, Glu-262, and His-303) were observed to coordinate the iron ion. The Asn-258 coordination is particularly interesting because this coordinating residue has never been observed in the homologous cupin structures of PnpCD. Asn-258 is proposed to play a pivotal role in binding the iron prior to the enzymatic reaction, but it might lose coordination to the iron when the reaction begins. PnpD also consists of an intriguing N-terminal domain that might have functions other than nucleic acid binding in its structural homologs. In summary, PnpCD has no apparent evolutionary relationship with other iron-dependent dioxygenases and therefore defines a new structural class. The study of PnpCD might add to the understanding of the ring cleavage of dioxygenases. PMID:26304122

  3. Evidence for a ferryl intermediate in a heme-based dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Lewis-Ballester, Ariel; Batabyal, Dipanwita; Egawa, Tsuyoshi; Lu, Changyuan; Lin, Yu; Marti, Marcelo A.; Capece, Luciana; Estrin, Dario A.; Yeh, Syun-Ru

    2009-01-01

    In contrast to the wide spectrum of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, there are only 2 heme-based dioxygenases in humans: tryptophan dioxygenase (hTDO) and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (hIDO). hTDO and hIDO catalyze the same oxidative ring cleavage reaction of L-tryptophan to N-formyl kynurenine, the initial and rate-limiting step of the kynurenine pathway. Despite immense interest, the mechanism by which the 2 enzymes execute the dioxygenase reaction remains elusive. Here, we report experimental evidence for a key ferryl intermediate of hIDO that supports a mechanism in which the 2 atoms of dioxygen are inserted into the substrate via a consecutive 2-step reaction. This finding introduces a paradigm shift in our understanding of the heme-based dioxygenase chemistry, which was previously believed to proceed via simultaneous incorporation of both atoms of dioxygen into the substrate. The ferryl intermediate is not observable during the hTDO reaction, highlighting the structural differences between the 2 dioxygenases, as well as the importance of stereoelectronic factors in modulating the reactions. PMID:19805032

  4. Ascorbate as a co-factor for fe- and 2-oxoglutarate dependent dioxygenases: physiological activity in tumor growth and progression.

    PubMed

    Kuiper, Caroline; Vissers, Margreet C M

    2014-01-01

    Ascorbate is a specific co-factor for a large family of enzymes known as the Fe- and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases. These enzymes are found throughout biology and catalyze the addition of a hydroxyl group to various substrates. The proline hydroxylase that is involved in collagen maturation is well known, but in recent times many new enzymes and functions have been uncovered, including those involved in epigenetic control and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) regulation. These discoveries have provided crucial mechanistic insights into how ascorbate may affect tumor biology. In particular, there is growing evidence that HIF-1-dependent tumor progression may be inhibited by increasing tumor ascorbate levels. However, rigorous clinical intervention studies are lacking. This review will explore the physiological role of ascorbate as an enzyme co-factor and how this mechanism relates to cancer biology and treatment. The use of ascorbate in cancer should be informed by clinical studies based on such mechanistic hypotheses.

  5. Structural Basis of the Enhanced Pollutant-Degrading Capabilities of an Engineered Biphenyl Dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Dhindwal, Sonali; Gomez-Gil, Leticia; Neau, David B.; Pham, Thi Thanh My; Sylvestre, Michel; Eltis, Lindsay D.; Bolin, Jeffrey T.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Biphenyl dioxygenase, the first enzyme of the biphenyl catabolic pathway, is a major determinant of which polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners are metabolized by a given bacterial strain. Ongoing efforts aim to engineer BphAE, the oxygenase component of the enzyme, to efficiently transform a wider range of congeners. BphAEII9, a variant of BphAELB400 in which a seven-residue segment, 335TFNNIRI341, has been replaced by the corresponding segment of BphAEB356, 333GINTIRT339, transforms a broader range of PCB congeners than does either BphAELB400 or BphAEB356, including 2,6-dichlorobiphenyl, 3,3′-dichlorobiphenyl, 4,4′-dichlorobiphenyl, and 2,3,4′-trichlorobiphenyl. To understand the structural basis of the enhanced activity of BphAEII9, we have determined the three-dimensional structure of this variant in substrate-free and biphenyl-bound forms. Structural comparison with BphAELB400 reveals a flexible active-site mouth and a relaxed substrate binding pocket in BphAEII9 that allow it to bind different congeners and which could be responsible for the enzyme's altered specificity. Biochemical experiments revealed that BphAEII9 transformed 2,3,4′-trichlorobiphenyl and 2,2′,5,5′-tetrachlorobiphenyl more efficiently than did BphAELB400 and BphAEB356. BphAEII9 also transformed the insecticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) more efficiently than did either parental enzyme (apparent kcat/Km of 2.2 ± 0.5 mM−1 s−1, versus 0.9 ± 0.5 mM−1 s−1 for BphAEB356). Studies of docking of the enzymes with these three substrates provide insight into the structural basis of the different substrate selectivities and regiospecificities of the enzymes. IMPORTANCE Biphenyl dioxygenase is the first enzyme of the biphenyl degradation pathway that is involved in the degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls. Attempts have been made to identify the residues that influence the enzyme activity for the range of substrates among various species. In this study

  6. Expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and correlation with pathological malignancy in gliomas.

    PubMed

    Mitsuka, Kentaro; Kawataki, Tomoyuki; Satoh, Eiji; Asahara, Takayuki; Horikoshi, Toru; Kinouchi, Hiroyuki

    2013-06-01

    : Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is a tryptophan catabolic enzyme involved in immune tolerance and tumor immune escape processes. Recently, IDO expression has been found to correlate with the prognosis of malignant tumors, but the implication of IDO in glioma progression remains unknown. : To investigate the relationship between IDO expression and histological malignancy in gliomas. : IDO expression was examined in a total of 75 surgical specimens obtained from 68 patients with glioma using immunohistochemical staining. The 75 specimens included 15 diffuse astrocytomas, 21 anaplastic astrocytomas, and 39 glioblastomas. Six of 39 glioblastomas were secondary glioblastomas, transforming from grade II or III gliomas that had been determined at the first surgery. IDO expression rate was compared in each histological grade, and patient survival was analyzed. : Expression of IDO was found in 72 of 75 gliomas at varying intensities. Stronger expression of IDO was more likely to be observed in malignant gliomas compared with low-grade gliomas. IDO expression in the 6 cases of secondary glioblastoma was stronger than in the initial low-grade glioma. Survival analysis using the Kaplan-Meier method revealed that grade IV patients with strong IDO expression had significantly worse overall survival rates (P = .04) than patients with weak IDO expression. : IDO is expressed more strongly in both primary and secondary glioblastoma tissue than low-grade glioma and may affect clinical outcome. If IDO promotes glioma cells to escape from the immune system, IDO may be a crucial therapeutic target for malignant gliomas.

  7. The 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase superfamily participates in tanshinone production in Salvia miltiorrhiza

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhichao

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Highly oxidized tanshinones are pharmacological ingredients extracted from the medicinal model plant Salvia miltiorrhiza and are mainly used to treat cardiovascular diseases. Previous studies have confirmed that cytochrome P450 mono-oxygenases (CYP450s) have a key function in the biosynthesis of tanshinones; however, no solid evidence links oxidation to the 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase (2OGD) superfamily. Here, we identified 132 members of the DOXB and DOXC subfamilies of 2OGD by scanning the 2OG-FeII Oxy domain using a genome-wide strategy in S. miltiorrhiza. The DOXC class was phylogenetically divided into twelve clades. Combining phylogenetic relationships, differential expression and co-expression from various organs and tissues revealed that two 2OGDs were directly related to flavonoid metabolism, and that 13 2OGDs from different clades were predicted to be involved in tanshinone biosynthesis. Based on this insight into tanshinone production, we experimentally detected significant decreases in miltirone, cryptotanshinone, and tanshinone IIA (0.16-, 0.56-, and 0.56-fold, respectively) in 2OGD5 RNAi transgenic lines relative to the control lines using a metabonomics analysis. 2OGD5 was found to play a crucial role in the downstream biosynthesis of tanshinones following the hydroxylation of CYPs. Our results highlight the evolution and diversification of 2OGD superfamily members and suggest that they contribute to the complexity of tanshinone metabolites. PMID:28398557

  8. High aromatic ring-cleavage diversity in birch rhizosphere: PAH treatment-specific changes of I.E.3 group extradiol dioxygenases and 16S rRNA bacterial communities in soil.

    PubMed

    Sipilä, Timo P; Keskinen, Anna-Kaisa; Akerman, Marja-Leena; Fortelius, Carola; Haahtela, Kielo; Yrjälä, Kim

    2008-09-01

    Genes encoding key enzymes of catabolic pathways can be targeted by DNA fingerprinting to explore genetic degradation potential in pristine and polluted soils. We performed a greenhouse microcosm experiment to elucidate structural and functional bacterial diversity in polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-polluted soil and to test the suitability of birch (Betula pendula) for remediation. Degradation of PAHs was analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography, DNA isolated from soil amplified and fingerprinted by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). Bacterial 16S rRNA T-RFLP fingerprinting revealed a high structural bacterial diversity in soil where PAH amendment altered the general community structure as well as the rhizosphere community. Birch augmented extradiol dioxygenase diversity in rhizosphere showing a rhizosphere effect, and further pyrene was more efficiently degraded in planted pots. Degraders of aromatic compounds upon PAH amendment were shown by the changed extradiol ring-cleavage community structure in soil. The RFLP analysis grouped extradiol dioxygenase marker genes into 17 distinct operational taxonomic units displaying novel phylogenetic clusters of ring-cleavage dioxygenases representing putative catabolic pathways, and the peptide sequences contained conserved amino-acid signatures of extradiol dioxygenases. A branch of major environmental TS cluster was identified as being related to Parvibaculum lavantivorans ring-cleavage dioxygenase. The described structural and functional diversity demonstrated a complex interplay of bacteria in PAH pollution. The findings improve our understanding of rhizoremediation and unveil the extent of uncharacterized enzymes and may benefit bioremediation research by facilitating the development of molecular tools to detect and monitor populations involved in degradative processes.

  9. Differential Expression of Cysteine Dioxygenase 1 in Complex Karyotype Liposarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Shaker, Mohammed; Pascarelli, Kara M; Plantinga, Matthew J; Love, Miles A; Lazar, Alexander J; Ingram, Davis R; von Mehren, Margaret; Lev, Dina; Kipling, David; Broccoli, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Altered cysteine dioxygenase 1 (CDO1) gene expression has been observed in several cancers but has not yet been investigated in liposarcomas. The aim of this study was to evaluate CDO1 expression in a cohort of liposarcomas and to determine its association with clinicopathological features. Existing microarray data indicated variable CDO1 expression in liposarcoma subtypes. CDO1 mRNA from a larger cohort of liposarcomas was quantified by real time-PCR, and CDO1 protein expression was determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in more than 300 tumor specimens. Well-differentiated liposarcomas (WDLSs) had significantly higher CDO1 gene expression and protein levels than dedifferentiated liposarcomas (DDLSs) (P < 0.001). Location of the tumor was not predictive of the expression level of CDO1 mRNA in any histological subtype of liposarcoma. Recurrent tumors did not show any difference in CDO1 expression when compared to primary tumors. CDO1 expression was upregulated as human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) undergo differentiation into mature adipocytes. Our results suggest that CDO1 is a marker of liposarcoma progression and adipogenic differentiation. PMID:24741338

  10. On 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase of adult frog liver.

    PubMed

    Lindstedt, S; Odelhög, B; Rundgren, M

    1982-01-01

    1. It has been reported that 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (EC 1.13.11.27) activity in the liver from Rana esculenta is present only after autolysis of trypsin digestion, which releases a heat-and acid-stable inhibitor of low molecular mass. 2. Attempts to demonstrate similar effects with the liver enzyme from adult Rana pipiens were unsuccessful. Trypsin had only an inhibitory effect on the enzyme activity in crude extracts. 3. Both untreated and trypsin-treated enzyme had a molecular mass of about 100,000 daltons as determined by gel filtration. The pI was around pH 4.6. One pH-optimum between pH 7 and 8 was observed. 4. At pH 7.5 and 37 degrees C the basal enzyme activity was 1.3 mumol/min per g of protein. It was increased six-fold by a reductant in the presence of catalase. Fe2+ (50 muM) increased the activity further 1.6-fold when the reaction was carried out in Tris-HCl buffer, but not in potassium phosphate buffer. 5. The Km for 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate was 50 muM and the Vmax was around 10 mumol/min per g of soluble protein with reductively activated enzyme. 6. Substrate inhibition was observed above 20 muM concentrations of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate.

  11. AlkB Dioxygenase Preferentially Repairs Protonated Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Maciejewska, Agnieszka M.; Poznański, Jarosław; Kaczmarska, Zuzanna; Krowisz, Beata; Nieminuszczy, Jadwiga; Polkowska-Nowakowska, Agnieszka; Grzesiuk, Elżbieta; Kuśmierek, Jarosław T.

    2013-01-01

    Efficient repair by Escherichia coli AlkB dioxygenase of exocyclic DNA adducts 3,N4-ethenocytosine, 1,N6-ethenoadenine, 3,N4-α-hydroxyethanocytosine, and reported here for the first time 3,N4-α-hydroxypropanocytosine requires higher Fe(II) concentration than the reference 3-methylcytosine. The pH optimum for the repair follows the order of pKa values for protonation of the adduct, suggesting that positively charged substrates favorably interact with the negatively charged carboxylic group of Asp-135 side chain in the enzyme active center. This interaction is supported by molecular modeling, indicating that 1,N6-ethenoadenine and 3,N4-ethenocytosine are bound to AlkB more favorably in their protonated cationic forms. An analysis of the pattern of intermolecular interactions that stabilize the location of the ligand points to a role of Asp-135 in recognition of the adduct in its protonated form. Moreover, ab initio calculations also underline the role of substrate protonation in lowering the free energy barrier of the transition state of epoxidation of the etheno adducts studied. The observed time courses of repair of mixtures of stereoisomers of 3,N4-α-hydroxyethanocytosine or 3,N4-α-hydroxypropanocytosine are unequivocally two-exponential curves, indicating that the respective isomers are repaired by AlkB with different efficiencies. Molecular modeling of these adducts bound by AlkB allowed evaluation of the participation of their possible conformational states in the enzymatic reaction. PMID:23148216

  12. Pinpointing Biphenyl Dioxygenase Residues That Are Crucial for Substrate Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Zielinski, Marco; Kahl, Silke; Hecht, Hans-Jürgen; Hofer, Bernd

    2003-01-01

    Three regions of the biphenyl dioxygenase (BDO) of Burkholderia sp. strain LB400 have previously been shown to significantly influence the interaction between enzyme and substrates at the active site. For a further discrimination within these regions, we investigated the effects of 23 individual amino acid exchanges. The regiospecificity of substrate dioxygenation was used as a sensitive means to monitor changes in the steric-electronic structure of the active site. Replacements of residues that, according to a model of the BDO three-dimensional structure, directly interact with substrates in most, but not all, cases (Met231, Phe378, and Phe384) very strongly altered this parameter (by factors of >7). On the other hand, a number of amino acids (Ile243, Ile326, Phe332, Pro334, and Trp392) which have no contacts with substrates also strongly changed the site preference of dioxygenation (by factors of between 2.6 and 3.5). This demonstrates that residues which had not been predicted to be influential can play a pivotal role in BDO specificity. PMID:14617661

  13. Engineering Non-Heme Mono- and Dioxygenases for Biocatalysis

    PubMed Central

    Dror, Adi; Fishman, Ayelet

    2012-01-01

    Oxygenases are ubiquitous enzymes that catalyze the introduction of one or two oxygen atoms to unreactive chemical compounds. They require reduction equivalents from NADH or NADPH and comprise metal ions, metal ion complexes, or coenzymes in their active site. Thus, for industrial purposes, oxygenases are most commonly employed using whole cell catalysis, to alleviate the need for co-factor regeneration. Biotechnological applications include bioremediation, chiral synthesis, biosensors, fine chemicals, biofuels, pharmaceuticals, food ingredients and polymers. Controlling activity and selectivity of oxygenases is therefore of great importance and of growing interest to the scientific community. This review focuses on protein engineering of non-heme monooxygenases and dioxygenases for generating improved or novel functionalities. Rational mutagenesis based on x-ray structures and sequence alignment, as well as random methods such as directed evolution, have been utilized. It is concluded that knowledge-based protein engineering accompanied with targeted libraries, is most efficient for the design and tuning of biocatalysts towards novel substrates and enhanced catalytic activity while minimizing the screening efforts. PMID:24688652

  14. Chloridazon-catechol dioxygenases, a distinct group of meta-cleaving enzymes.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, S; Müller, R; Wegst, W; Lingens, F

    1984-02-01

    We previously described a new meta-cleaving enzyme, termed chloridazon-catechol dioxygenase. The present paper describes the comparison of this enzyme with the meta-cleaving enzymes of eighteen strains of soil bacteria isolated with various aromatic compounds. Four of these strains were isolated with the herbicide chloridazon, six with the analgeticum aminopyrine and one with the analgeticum antipyrine as sole carbon source. These strains all belonged to a new type of bacteria, called Phenylobacteria. The seven other strains were isolated with aromatic compounds such as toluene, 3-phenylpropionate, benzoate, papaverine and 4-chlorobenzoate, and belonged to various species including Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter and Nocardia. In double diffusion experiments with antibodies, prepared against chloridazon-catechol dioxygenase, extracts from the eleven strains of Phenylobacteria gave a cross reaction, whereas the extracts of the seven other strains showed no reaction. The enzymes of the eleven positive strains showed the same characteristic kinetic behaviour as the previously described enzyme. In contrast to catechol 2, 3-dioxygenase they needed the addition of exogenous Fe2+ ions for activity. On ion-exchange chromatography they emerged at the same buffer concentration as chloridazon-catechol dioxygenase. In polyacrylamide electrophoresis they migrated identically. The linkage map derived from the activities of the various enzymes with 10 different substrates revealed an identity of more than 80% for these eleven enzymes. So the meta-cleaving enzymes of the Phenylobacteria seem to form a distinct group among the non-heme iron-containing dioxygenases.

  15. Expression, purification and kinetic characterization of recombinant benzoate dioxygenase from Rhodococcus ruber UKMP-5M

    PubMed Central

    Tavakoli, Arezoo; Hamzah, Ainon; Rabu, Amir

    2016-01-01

    In this study, benzoate dioxygenase from Rhodococcus ruber UKMP-5M was catalyzed by oxidating the benzene ring to catechol and other derivatives. The benzoate dioxygenase (benA gene) from Rhodococcus ruber UKMP-5M was then expressed, purified, characterized, The benA gene was amplified (642 bp), and the product was cloned into a pGEM-T vector. The recombinant plasmid pGEMT-benA was digested by double restriction enzymes BamHI and HindIII to construct plasmid pET28b-benA and was then ligated into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The recombinant E. coli was induced with 0.5 mM isopropyl β-D-thiogalactoside (IPTG) at 22˚C to produce benzoate dioxygenase. The enzyme was then purified by ion exchange chromatography after 8 purification folds. The resulting product was 25 kDa, determined by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and western blotting. Benzoate dioxygenase activity was found to be 6.54 U/mL and the optimal pH and temperature were 8.5 and 25°C, respectively. Maximum velocity (Vmax) and Michaelis constant (Km) were 7.36 U/mL and 5.58 µM, respectively. The end metabolite from the benzoate dioxygenase reaction was cyclohexane dione, which was determined by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). PMID:28097167

  16. Fe(II) Complexes That Mimic the Active Site Structure of Acetylacetone Dioxygenase: O2 and NO Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Park, Heaweon; Bittner, Michael M.; Baus, Jacob S.; Lindeman, Sergey V.; Fiedler, Adam T.

    2014-01-01

    , spectroscopic, and computational methods. Collectively, the results presented here enhance our understanding of the chemical factors involved in the oxidation of aliphatic substrates by nonheme iron dioxygenases. PMID:22974346

  17. Fe(II) complexes that mimic the active site structure of acetylacetone dioxygenase: O2 and NO reactivity.

    PubMed

    Park, Heaweon; Bittner, Michael M; Baus, Jacob S; Lindeman, Sergey V; Fiedler, Adam T

    2012-10-01

    characterized with crystallographic, spectroscopic, and computational methods. Collectively, the results presented here enhance our understanding of the chemical factors involved in the oxidation of aliphatic substrates by nonheme iron dioxygenases.

  18. Substrate specificities of hybrid naphthalene and 2,4-dinitrotoluene dioxygenase enzyme systems.

    PubMed

    Parales, R E; Emig, M D; Lynch, N A; Gibson, D T

    1998-05-01

    Bacterial three-component dioxygenase systems consist of reductase and ferredoxin components which transfer electrons from NAD(P)H to a terminal oxygenase. In most cases, the oxygenase consists of two different subunits (alpha and beta). To assess the contributions of the alpha and beta subunits of the oxygenase to substrate specificity, hybrid dioxygenase enzymes were formed by coexpressing genes from two compatible plasmids in Escherichia coli. The activities of hybrid naphthalene and 2,4-dinitrotoluene dioxygenases containing four different beta subunits were tested with four substrates (indole, naphthalene, 2,4-dinitrotoluene, and 2-nitrotoluene). In the active hybrids, replacement of small subunits affected the rate of product formation but had no effect on the substrate range, regiospecificity, or enantiomeric purity of oxidation products with the substrates tested. These studies indicate that the small subunit of the oxygenase is essential for activity but does not play a major role in determining the specificity of these enzymes.

  19. Substrate Specificities of Hybrid Naphthalene and 2,4-Dinitrotoluene Dioxygenase Enzyme Systems

    PubMed Central

    Parales, Rebecca E.; Emig, Matthew D.; Lynch, Nancy A.; Gibson, David T.

    1998-01-01

    Bacterial three-component dioxygenase systems consist of reductase and ferredoxin components which transfer electrons from NAD(P)H to a terminal oxygenase. In most cases, the oxygenase consists of two different subunits (α and β). To assess the contributions of the α and β subunits of the oxygenase to substrate specificity, hybrid dioxygenase enzymes were formed by coexpressing genes from two compatible plasmids in Escherichia coli. The activities of hybrid naphthalene and 2,4-dinitrotoluene dioxygenases containing four different β subunits were tested with four substrates (indole, naphthalene, 2,4-dinitrotoluene, and 2-nitrotoluene). In the active hybrids, replacement of small subunits affected the rate of product formation but had no effect on the substrate range, regiospecificity, or enantiomeric purity of oxidation products with the substrates tested. These studies indicate that the small subunit of the oxygenase is essential for activity but does not play a major role in determining the specificity of these enzymes. PMID:9573183

  20. Resveratrol intake enhances indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase activity in humans.

    PubMed

    Gualdoni, Guido A; Fuchs, Dietmar; Zlabinger, Gerhard J; Gostner, Johanna M

    2016-10-01

    Resveratrol is a polyphenol compound found in various nutrients that was shown to have immunomodulatory, anti-cancerogenic, and cardioprotective effects. The regulation of indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), the rate-limiting enzyme in inflammatory tryptophan metabolism, has been proposed to be involved in resveratrol's biological effects. These observations, however, rely on in vitro findings and animal studies. Therefore, we assessed the impact of resveratrol on tryptophan metabolism after oral intake in humans. Healthy volunteers were orally administrated 5g resveratrol (n=8) or placebo (n=2) in a pilot study. IDO activity was determined by analyzing plasma levels of tryptophan and kynurenine. Determination of the immune activation marker neopterin was included in the analysis. Resveratrol administration significantly reduced tryptophan levels 2.5h (p<0.001) and 5h (p<0.001) after treatment. Kynurenine levels were slightly, but not significantly, elevated 2.5h after the intervention, which resulted in an 1.33- and 1.30-fold increase of the kynurenine to tryptophan ratio at 2.5h (p<0.01) and 5h (p<0.01), respectively. Neopterin levels were not affected by resveratrol administration. This is the first evidence of a modulatory effect of orally administered resveratrol on tryptophan metabolism in humans. Since IDO has been shown to play a crucial role in immunity, cancer development and regulation of vascular tone, the modulation of this enzyme might be involved in resveratrol's diverse biological effects. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.

  1. Metal-dependent function of a mammalian acireductone dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Aditi R.; Wagenpfeil, Karina; Pochapsky, Thomas C.; Petsko, Gregory A.; Ringe, Dagmar

    2017-01-01

    The two acireductone dioxygenase (ARD) isozymes from the methionine salvage pathway of Klebsiella oxytoca are the only known pair of naturally occurring metalloenzymes with distinct chemical and physical properties determined solely by the identity of the divalent transition metal ion (Fe2+ or Ni2+) in the active site. We now show that this dual chemistry can also occur in mammals. ARD from Mus musculus (MmARD) was studied to relate metal ion identity and three-dimensional structure to enzyme function. The iron-containing isozyme catalyzes the cleavage of 1,2-dihydroxy-3-keto-5-(thiomethyl)pent-1-ene (acireductone) by O2 to formate and the ketoacid precursor of methionine, the penultimate step in methionine salvage. The nickel bound form of ARD catalyzes an off-pathway reaction resulting in formate, carbon monoxide (CO) and 5-(thiomethyl) propionate. Recombinant MmARD was expressed and purified to obtain a homogeneous enzyme with a single transition metal ion bound. The Fe2+ bound protein, which shows about ten-fold higher activity than others, catalyzes on-pathway chemistry, whereas the Ni2+, Co2+ or Mn2+ forms exhibit off-pathway chemistry, as has been seen with ARD from Klebsiella. Thermal stability of the isozymes is strongly affected by metal ion identity, with Ni2+ bound MmARD being the most stable followed by Co2+ and Fe2+, and Mn2+-bound ARD being the least stable. Ni2+ and Co2+ bound MmARD were crystallized and the structures of the two proteins found to be similar. Enzyme-ligand complexes provide insight into substrate binding, metal coordination and catalytic mechanism. PMID:26858196

  2. Studies on linoleic acid 8R-dioxygenase and hydroperoxide isomerase of the fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis.

    PubMed

    Su, C; Brodowsky, I D; Oliw, E H

    1995-01-01

    Linoleic acid is sequentially converted to 7S,8S-dihydroxy-9Z,12Z-octadecadienoic acid by the 8R-dioxygenase and hydroperoxide isomerase of the fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis, which is a common pathogen of wheat. The objective of this study was to separate and characterize the two enzyme activities. The isomerase activity was found mainly in the microsomal fraction of the mycelia and the 8R-dioxygenase in the cytosol. The 8R-dioxygenase could be partially purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration, ion exchange chromatography or isoelectric focusing. The 8R-dioxygenase was unstable during purification, but it could be stabilized by glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. Several protease inhibitors reduced the enzyme activity. Gel filtration with Sephacryl S-300 showed that most 8R-dioxygenase activity was eluted with the front with little retention. Isoelectric focusing in the presence of ethylene glycol (20%) indicated an isoelectric point of pl 6.1-6.3. The enzyme was retained on strong anion exchange columns at pH 7.4 and could be eluted with 0.3-0.5 M NaCl. Incubation of the enzyme with 0.1 mM linoleic acid led to partial inactivation, which may indicate product inhibition. Paracetamol and the lipoxygenase inhibitor ICI 230,487 at 30 microM inhibited the 8R-dioxygenase by 44 and 58%, respectively. 8R-hydroperoxy-9Z,12Z-octadecadienoic acid was isolated from incubations of linoleic acid with the partially purified enzyme or with the cytosol in the presence of p-hydroxymercuribenzoate. The hydroperoxide was rapidly converted by the hydroperoxide isomerase in the microsomal fractions to 7S,8S-dihydroxy-9Z,12Z-octadecadienoic acid.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Spectroscopic and equilibrium studies of ligand and organic substrate binding to indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Sono, M

    1990-02-13

    The binding of a number of ligands to the heme protein indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase has been examined with UV-visible absorption and with natural and magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy. Relatively large ligands (e.g., norharman) which do not readily form complexes with myoglobin and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) can bind to the dioxygenase. Except for only a few cases (e.g., 4-phenylimidazole) for the ferric dioxygenase, a direct competition for the enzyme rarely occurs between the substrate L-tryptophan (Trp) and the ligands examined. L-Trp and small heme ligands (CN-,N3-,F-) markedly enhance the affinity of each other for the ferric enzyme in a reciprocal manner, exhibiting positive cooperativity. For the ferrous enzyme, L-Trp exerts negative cooperativity with some ligands such as imidazoles, alkyl isocyanides, and CO binding to the enzyme. This likely reflects the proximity of the Trp binding site to the heme iron. Other indolamine substrates also exert similar but smaller cooperative effects on the binding of azide or ethyl isocyanide. The pH dependence of the ligand affinity of the dioxygenase is similar to that of myoglobin rather than that of HRP. These results suggest that indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase has the active-site heme pocket whose environmental structure is similar to, but whose size is considerably larger than, that of myoglobin, a typical O2-binding heme protein. Although the L-Trp affinity of the ferric cyanide and ferrous CO enzyme varies only slightly between pH 5.5 and 9.5, the unligated ferric and ferrous enzymes have considerably higher affinity for L-Trp at alkaline pH than at acidic pH. L-Trp binding to the ferrous dioxygenase is affected by an ionizable residue with a pKa value of 7.3.

  4. Enzymology of the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases: reaction mechanisms, inhibition and biochemical roles.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Peter J; Bugg, Timothy D H

    2014-02-15

    Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs) are a large family of non-heme iron (II) dependent enzymes. CCDs catalyse the selective oxidative cleavage of carotenoids to produce apocarotenoids. Apocarotenoid derived molecules form important signalling molecules in plants in the form of abscisic acid and strigolactone and in mammals in the form of retinal. Very little is known biochemically about the CCDs and only a handful of CCDs have been biochemically characterised. Mechanistically, debate surrounds whether CCDs utilise a mono or dioxygenase mechanism. Here, we review the biochemical roles of CCDs, discuss the mechanisms by which CCD cleavage is proposed to occur, and discuss recent reports of selective CCD enzyme inhibitors.

  5. Expression pattern and localization of beta,beta-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase in different tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Wyss, A; Wirtz, G M; Woggon, W D; Brugger, R; Wyss, M; Friedlein, A; Riss, G; Bachmann, H; Hunziker, W

    2001-01-01

    Beta,beta-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase cleaves beta,beta-carotene into two molecules of retinal, and is the key enzyme in the metabolism of beta,beta-carotene to vitamin A. The enzyme has been known for more than 40 years, yet all attempts to purify the protein to homogeneity have failed. Recently, the successful cloning and sequencing of an enzyme with beta,beta-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase activity from chicken, as well as from Drosophila, has been reported. Here, we describe in detail our attempt to enrich the chicken beta,beta-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase to such an extent as to allow determination of partial amino acid sequences, which were then used to design degenerate oligonucleotides. Screening of a chicken duodenal expression library yielded a full-length clone containing a coding sequence of 1578 bp. Functional expression in Escherichia coli and in eukaryotic cell lines confirmed that we had cloned the first vertebrate dioxygenase that cleaves beta,beta-carotene at the central 15,15'-double bond. By performing a sequence homology search, the cDNA sequence of the mouse homologue was found as an expressed sequence tag (EST) in the gene bank. At the amino-acid level, the degree of homology between the chicken and mouse sequences is 81%. Thus beta,beta-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase can be considered as being an enzyme that is evolutionarily rather well conserved. We established the expression pattern of beta,beta-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase in chicken and mouse tissues with a combination of Northern blots and in situ hybridization. The mRNA for beta,beta-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase was localized primarily in duodenal villi, as well as in liver and in tubular structures of lung and kidney. These new findings demonstrate that beta,beta-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase is also expressed in epithelial structures, where it serves to provide the tissue-specific vitamin A supply. PMID:11237856

  6. Stepwise conversion of flavonoids by engineered dioxygenases and dehydrogenase: Characterization of novel biotransformation products.

    PubMed

    Overwin, Heike; González, Myriam; Méndez, Valentina; Cárdenas, Franco; Seeger, Michael; Hofer, Bernd

    2015-12-01

    Flavonoids are a large group of plant secondary metabolites that exert various biological and pharmacological effects. In this context, the generation of derivatives is of considerable interest. The introduction of hydroxy groups is of particular relevance, as they are known to be involved in many of the biological interactions and furthermore enable additional modifications, such as glycosylations. Bacterial aryl-hydroxylating dioxygenases (ARHDOs) have proven to be very useful for the conversion of aromatic structures into versatile building blocks for different kinds of derivatizations. Such enzymes have been used with varying success for the oxidation of flavonoids. In order to find better ARHDOs for the hydroxylation of such substrates, we carried out biotransformation trials with a collection of hybrid ARHDOs of different origin, using resting cells of recombinant strains. This identified enzymes able to transform all of the flavonoids examined, typically in yields above 50%. It also showed that moderately reactive substituents of flavonoids, such as hydroxy or amino groups, can lead to spontaneous follow-up reactions with the dienediol structures generated by dioxygenation. A report of flavanone epoxidation, a reaction never before observed to be catalyzed by an ARHDO, is challenged by our results. All ARHDOs examined converted this substrate into a dehydrogenase-transformable dihydrodiol. All dihydrodiols obtained by dioxygenation of the examined flavonoids were successfully re-aromatized into catechols by a bacterial dehydrogenase. These metabolites were usually stable. However, the catechols formed from flavanone and 2'-hydroxy-chalcone, respectively, were interconvertible under mild conditions. Altogether, we isolated and characterized 13 compounds that have not previously been described. The biotransformations reported here give access to novel flavonoid derivatives that may be applied for biological screens as well as for further modification, such as

  7. Structure of 4-hydrophenylpyruvic acid dioxygenase (HPD) gene and its mutation in tyrosinemic mouse strain III

    SciTech Connect

    Awata, H.; Endo, F.; Matsuda, I.

    1994-09-01

    4-Hydroxphenylpyruvic acid dioxygenase (HPD) is an important enzyme in tyrosine catabolism in most organisms. The activity of this enzyme is expressed mainly in the liver and is developmentally regulated in mammals. A genetic deficiency of the enzyme in man and mouse leads to hereditary tyrosinemia type 3. Using human HPD cDNA as a probe, a chromosomal gene related to HPD was isolated from human and mouse gene libraries. The human HPD gene is over 30 kilo-bases long and is split into 14 exons. Analysis of the 5{prime} flanking sequence of the gene suggests that expression of the gene is regulated by hepatocyte-specific and liver-enriched transcription factors, as well as by hormones. These features of the 5{prime} flanking region of the gene are similar to those of other genes which are specifically expressed in hepatocytes and which are developmentally regulated. The gene for mouse HPD has a similar structure and we obtained evidence for a nucleotide substitution which generates a termination codon in exon 7 of the HPD gene in III mice. This mutation associates a partial exon skipping and most of the mRNA lacks sequences corresponding to exon 7. The partial exon skipping apparently is the result of a nonsense mutation in the exon. Thus, mouse strain III can serve as a genetic model for human tyrosinemia type 3. Ongoing studies are expected to elucidate the disease process involved in hereditary tyrosinemia type 1 and to shed light on mechanisms that mediate developmental regulation of HPD gene expression. In addition, mouse strain III together with recently established models for tyrosinemia type 1 will facilitate studies on hereditary tyrosinemias.

  8. Searching iron sensors in plants by exploring the link among 2'-OG-dependent dioxygenases, the iron deficiency response and metabolic adjustments occurring under iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Vigani, Gianpiero; Morandini, Piero; Murgia, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge accumulated on the regulation of iron (Fe) homeostasis, its intracellular trafficking and transport across various cellular compartments and organs in plants; storage proteins, transporters and transcription factors involved in Fe metabolism have been analyzed in detail in recent years. However, the key sensor(s) of cellular plant "Fe status" triggering the long-distance shoot-root signaling and leading to the root Fe deficiency responses is (are) still unknown. Local Fe sensing is also a major task for roots, for adjusting the internal Fe requirements to external Fe availability: how such sensing is achieved and how it leads to metabolic adjustments in case of nutrient shortage, is mostly unknown. Two proteins belonging to the 2'-OG-dependent dioxygenases family accumulate several folds in Fe-deficient Arabidopsis roots. Such proteins require Fe(II) as enzymatic cofactor; one of their subgroups, the HIF-P4H (hypoxia-inducible factor-prolyl 4-hydroxylase), is an effective oxygen sensor in animal cells. We envisage here the possibility that some members of the 2'-OG dioxygenase family may be involved in the Fe deficiency response and in the metabolic adjustments to Fe deficiency or even in sensing Fe, in plant cells.

  9. Searching iron sensors in plants by exploring the link among 2′-OG-dependent dioxygenases, the iron deficiency response and metabolic adjustments occurring under iron deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Vigani, Gianpiero; Morandini, Piero; Murgia, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge accumulated on the regulation of iron (Fe) homeostasis, its intracellular trafficking and transport across various cellular compartments and organs in plants; storage proteins, transporters and transcription factors involved in Fe metabolism have been analyzed in detail in recent years. However, the key sensor(s) of cellular plant “Fe status” triggering the long-distance shoot–root signaling and leading to the root Fe deficiency responses is (are) still unknown. Local Fe sensing is also a major task for roots, for adjusting the internal Fe requirements to external Fe availability: how such sensing is achieved and how it leads to metabolic adjustments in case of nutrient shortage, is mostly unknown. Two proteins belonging to the 2′-OG-dependent dioxygenases family accumulate several folds in Fe-deficient Arabidopsis roots. Such proteins require Fe(II) as enzymatic cofactor; one of their subgroups, the HIF-P4H (hypoxia-inducible factor-prolyl 4-hydroxylase), is an effective oxygen sensor in animal cells. We envisage here the possibility that some members of the 2′-OG dioxygenase family may be involved in the Fe deficiency response and in the metabolic adjustments to Fe deficiency or even in sensing Fe, in plant cells. PMID:23755060

  10. Fatty acid alpha-dioxygenase from Pisum sativum: temporal and spatial regulation during germination and plant development.

    PubMed

    Meisner, Anke K; Saffert, Alexander; Schreier, Peter; Schön, Astrid

    2009-03-01

    alpha-Dioxygenases are expressed in plants in response to biotic and abiotic stress. They catalyze the enantioselective 2-hydroperoxidation of long-chain fatty acids, the initial step of the alpha-oxidation pathway of fatty acids in plants. In this study, the complete cDNA of an alpha-dioxygenase from germinating pea seeds (Pisum sativum) is presented. The deduced amino acid sequence establishes that the enzyme belongs to the recently characterized family of alpha-dioxygenating enzymes in plants. We also present the first systematic study on the expression of alpha-dioxygenase in germinating and developing pea plants. During germination, alpha-dioxygenase mRNA accumulates in the cotyledons and the embryonic axis of pea seeds de novo. In developing pea plants, the transcript is detected almost exclusively in roots. The accumulation of alpha-dioxygenase protein parallels transcript accumulation in that it is abundant in germinating as well as young plant tissue, and correlates with loss of mRNA during plant maturation. alpha-Dioxygenase enzymatic activity in plant extracts is highest in cotyledons during imbibition. In the embryonic axis and roots of developing plants comparable activity levels are observed, whereas in shoots little alpha-oxidation activity is detected. With this contribution, we present information on the temporal and spatial expression of alpha-dioxygenase during plant germination and development, supporting the hypothesis that the alpha-oxidation pathway of fatty acids plays a role during plant developmental processes.

  11. Novel bacterial bioassay for a high-throughput screening of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase inhibitors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) is the molecular target of a range of synthetic ß-triketone herbicides that are currently used commercially. Their mode of action is based on an irreversible inhibition of HPPD. Therefore, this inhibitory capacity was used to develop a whole cell colo...

  12. Steady-state substrate specificity and O₂-coupling efficiency of mouse cysteine dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Pierce, Brad S

    2015-01-01

    Cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) is a non-heme mononuclear iron enzyme that catalyzes the oxygen-dependent oxidation of L-cysteine (Cys) to produce L-cysteine sulfinic acid (CSA). Sequence alignment of mammalian CDO with recently discovered thiol dioxygenase enzymes suggests that the mononuclear iron site within all enzymes in this class share a common 3-His first coordination sphere. This implies a similar mechanistic paradigm among thiol dioxygenase enzymes. Although steady-state studies were first reported for mammalian CDO over 45 years ago, detailed analysis of the specificity for alternative thiol-bearing substrates and their oxidative coupling efficiencies have not been reported for this enzyme. Assuming a similar mechanistic theme among this class of enzymes, characterization of the CDO substrate specificity may provide valuable insight into substrate-active site intermolecular during thiol oxidation. In this work, the substrate-specificity for wild-type Mus musculus CDO was investigated using NMR spectroscopy and LC-MS for a variety of thiol-bearing substrates. Tandem mass spectrometry was used to confirm dioxygenase activity for each non-native substrate investigated. Steady-state Michaelis-Menten parameters for sulfinic acid product formation and O₂-consumption were compared to establish the coupling efficiency for each reaction. In light of these results, the minimal substrate requirements for CDO catalysis and O₂-activation are discussed.

  13. An iron-oxygen intermediate formed during the catalytic cycle of cysteine dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Tchesnokov, E P; Faponle, A S; Davies, C G; Quesne, M G; Turner, R; Fellner, M; Souness, R J; Wilbanks, S M; de Visser, S P; Jameson, G N L

    2016-07-07

    Cysteine dioxygenase is a key enzyme in the breakdown of cysteine, but its mechanism remains controversial. A combination of spectroscopic and computational studies provides the first evidence of a short-lived intermediate in the catalytic cycle. The intermediate decays within 20 ms and has absorption maxima at 500 and 640 nm.

  14. Phytoremediation of phenanthrene by transgenic plants transformed with a naphthalene dioxygenase system from Pseudomonas.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ri-He; Fu, Xiao-Yan; Zhao, Wei; Tian, Yong-Sheng; Zhu, Bo; Han, Hong-Juan; Xu, Jing; Yao, Quan-Hong

    2014-11-04

    Genes from microbes for degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are seldom used to improve the ability of plants to remediate the pollution because the initiation of the microbial degradation of PAHs is catalyzed by a multienzyme system. In this study, for the first time, we have successfully transferred the complex naphthalene dioxygenase system of Pseudomonas into Arabidopsis and rice, the model dicot and monocot plant. As in bacteria, all four genes of the naphthalene dioxygenase system can be simultaneously expressed and assembled to an active enzyme in transgenic plants. The naphthalene dioxygenase system can develop the capacity of plants to tolerate a high concentration of phenanthrene and metabolize phenanthrene in vivo. As a result, transgenic plants showed improved uptake of phenanthrene from the environment over wild-type plants. In addition, phenanthrene concentrations in shoots and roots of transgenic plants were generally lower than that of wild type plants. Transgenic plants with a naphthalene dioxygenase system bring the promise of an efficient and environmental-friendly technology for cleaning up PAHs contaminated soil and water.

  15. Structures of the Multicomponent Rieske Non-Heme Iron Toluene 2,3-Dioxygenase Enzyme System

    SciTech Connect

    Friemann, R.; Lee, K; Brown, E; Gibson, D; Eklund, H; Ramaswamy, S

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial Rieske non-heme iron oxygenases catalyze the initial hydroxylation of aromatic hydrocarbon substrates. The structures of all three components of one such system, the toluene 2,3-dioxygenase system, have now been determined. This system consists of a reductase, a ferredoxin and a terminal dioxygenase. The dioxygenase, which was cocrystallized with toluene, is a heterohexamer containing a catalytic and a structural subunit. The catalytic subunit contains a Rieske [2Fe-2S] cluster and mononuclear iron at the active site. This iron is not strongly bound and is easily removed during enzyme purification. The structures of the enzyme with and without mononuclear iron demonstrate that part of the structure is flexible in the absence of iron. The orientation of the toluene substrate in the active site is consistent with the regiospecificity of oxygen incorporation seen in the product formed. The ferredoxin is Rieske type and contains a [2Fe-2S] cluster close to the protein surface. The reductase belongs to the glutathione reductase family of flavoenzymes and consists of three domains: an FAD-binding domain, an NADH-binding domain and a C-terminal domain. A model for electron transfer from NADH via FAD in the reductase and the ferredoxin to the terminal active-site mononuclear iron of the dioxygenase is proposed.

  16. Structures of the multicomponent Rieske non-heme iron toluene 2,3-dioxygenase enzyme system

    PubMed Central

    Friemann, Rosmarie; Lee, Kyoung; Brown, Eric N.; Gibson, David T.; Eklund, Hans; Ramaswamy, S.

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial Rieske non-heme iron oxygenases catalyze the initial hydroxylation of aromatic hydrocarbon substrates. The structures of all three components of one such system, the toluene 2,3-dioxygenase system, have now been determined. This system consists of a reductase, a ferredoxin and a terminal dioxygenase. The dioxygenase, which was cocrystallized with toluene, is a heterohexamer containing a catalytic and a structural subunit. The catalytic subunit contains a Rieske [2Fe–2S] cluster and mononuclear iron at the active site. This iron is not strongly bound and is easily removed during enzyme purification. The structures of the enzyme with and without mononuclear iron demonstrate that part of the structure is flexible in the absence of iron. The orientation of the toluene substrate in the active site is consistent with the regiospecificity of oxygen incorporation seen in the product formed. The ferredoxin is Rieske type and contains a [2Fe–2S] cluster close to the protein surface. The reductase belongs to the glutathione reductase family of flavoenzymes and consists of three domains: an FAD-binding domain, an NADH-binding domain and a C-terminal domain. A model for electron transfer from NADH via FAD in the reductase and the ferredoxin to the terminal active-site mononuclear iron of the dioxygenase is proposed. PMID:19153463

  17. Structural Investigations of the Ferredoxin and Terminal Oxygenase Components of the biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenase from Sphingobium yanoikuyae B1

    SciTech Connect

    Ferraro,D.; Brown, E.; Yu, C.; Parales, R.; Gibson, D.; Ramaswamy, S.

    2007-01-01

    The initial step involved in oxidative hydroxylation of monoaromatic and polyaromatic compounds by the microorganism Sphingobium yanoikuyae strain B1 (B1), previously known as Sphingomonas yanoikuyae strain B1 and Beijerinckia sp. strain B1, is performed by a set of multiple terminal Rieske non-heme iron oxygenases. These enzymes share a single electron donor system consisting of a reductase and a ferredoxin (BPDO-F{sub B1}). One of the terminal Rieske oxygenases, biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenase (BPDO-O{sub B1}), is responsible for B1's ability to dihydroxylate large aromatic compounds, such as chrysene and benzo(a)pyrene. Results: In this study, crystal structures of BPDO-O{sub B1} in both native and biphenyl bound forms are described. Sequence and structural comparisons to other Rieske oxygenases show this enzyme to be most similar, with 43.5 % sequence identity, to naphthalene dioxygenase from Pseudomonas sp. strain NCIB 9816-4. While structurally similar to naphthalene 1,2-dioxygenase, the active site entrance is significantly larger than the entrance for naphthalene 1,2-dioxygenase. Differences in active site residues also allow the binding of large aromatic substrates. There are no major structural changes observed upon binding of the substrate. BPDO-F{sub B1} has large sequence identity to other bacterial Rieske ferredoxins whose structures are known and demonstrates a high structural homology; however, differences in side chain composition and conformation around the Rieske cluster binding site are noted. Conclusion: This is the first structure of a Rieske oxygenase that oxidizes substrates with five aromatic rings to be reported. This ability to catalyze the oxidation of larger substrates is a result of both a larger entrance to the active site as well as the ability of the active site to accommodate larger substrates. While the biphenyl ferredoxin is structurally similar to other Rieske ferredoxins, there are distinct changes in the amino acids near the iron

  18. Localization and Characterization of Two Novel Genes Encoding Stereospecific Dioxygenases Catalyzing 2(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy)propionate Cleavage in Delftia acidovorans MC1

    PubMed Central

    Schleinitz, Kathleen M.; Kleinsteuber, Sabine; Vallaeys, Tatiana; Babel, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    Two novel genes, rdpA and sdpA, encoding the enantiospecific α-ketoglutarate dependent dioxygenases catalyzing R,S-dichlorprop cleavage in Delftia acidovorans MC1 were identified. Significant similarities to other known genes were not detected, but their deduced amino acid sequences were similar to those of other α-ketoglutarate dioxygenases. RdpA showed 35% identity with TauD of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and SdpA showed 37% identity with TfdA of Ralstonia eutropha JMP134. The functionally important amino acid sequence motif HX(D/E)X23-26(T/S)X114-183HX10-13R/K, which is highly conserved in group II α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases, was present in both dichlorprop-cleaving enzymes. Transposon mutagenesis of rdpA inactivated R-dichlorprop cleavage, indicating that it was a single-copy gene. Both rdpA and sdpA were located on the plasmid pMC1 that also carries the lower pathway genes. Sequencing of a 25.8-kb fragment showed that the dioxygenase genes were separated by a 13.6-kb region mainly comprising a Tn501-like transposon. Furthermore, two copies of a sequence similar to IS91-like elements were identified. Hybridization studies comparing the wild-type plasmid and that of the mutant unable to cleave dichlorprop showed that rdpA and sdpA were deleted, whereas the lower pathway genes were unaffected, and that deletion may be caused by genetic rearrangements of the IS91-like elements. Two other dichlorprop-degrading bacterial strains, Rhodoferax sp. strain P230 and Sphingobium herbicidovorans MH, were shown to carry rdpA genes of high similarity to rdpA from strain MC1, but sdpA was not detected. This suggested that rdpA gene products are involved in the degradation of R-dichlorprop in these strains. PMID:15345421

  19. Purification, characterization, and crystallization of the components of the nitrobenzene and 2-nitrotoluene dioxygenase enzyme systems.

    PubMed

    Parales, R E; Huang, R; Yu, C-L; Parales, J V; Lee, F K N; Lessner, D J; Ivkovic-Jensen, M M; Liu, W; Friemann, R; Ramaswamy, S; Gibson, D T

    2005-07-01

    The protein components of the 2-nitrotoluene (2NT) and nitrobenzene dioxygenase enzyme systems from Acidovorax sp. strain JS42 and Comamonas sp. strain JS765, respectively, were purified and characterized. These enzymes catalyze the initial step in the degradation of 2-nitrotoluene and nitrobenzene. The identical shared reductase and ferredoxin components were monomers of 35 and 11.5 kDa, respectively. The reductase component contained 1.86 g-atoms iron, 2.01 g-atoms sulfur, and one molecule of flavin adenine dinucleotide per monomer. Spectral properties of the reductase indicated the presence of a plant-type [2Fe-2S] center and a flavin. The reductase catalyzed the reduction of cytochrome c, ferricyanide, and 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol. The ferredoxin contained 2.20 g-atoms iron and 1.99 g-atoms sulfur per monomer and had spectral properties indicative of a Rieske [2Fe-2S] center. The ferredoxin component could be effectively replaced by the ferredoxin from the Pseudomonas sp. strain NCIB 9816-4 naphthalene dioxygenase system but not by that from the Burkholderia sp. strain LB400 biphenyl or Pseudomonas putida F1 toluene dioxygenase system. The oxygenases from the 2-nitrotoluene and nitrobenzene dioxygenase systems each had spectral properties indicating the presence of a Rieske [2Fe-2S] center, and the subunit composition of each oxygenase was an alpha(3)beta(3) hexamer. The apparent K(m) of 2-nitrotoluene dioxygenase for 2NT was 20 muM, and that for naphthalene was 121 muM. The specificity constants were 7.0 muM(-1) min(-1) for 2NT and 1.2 muM(-1) min(-1) for naphthalene, indicating that the enzyme is more efficient with 2NT as a substrate. Diffraction-quality crystals of the two oxygenases were obtained.

  20. Purification, Characterization, and Crystallization of the Components of the Nitrobenzene and 2-Nitrotoluene Dioxygenase Enzyme Systems

    PubMed Central

    Parales, R. E.; Huang, R.; Yu, C.-L.; Parales, J. V.; Lee, F. K. N.; Lessner, D. J.; Ivkovic-Jensen, M. M.; Liu, W.; Friemann, R.; Ramaswamy, S.; Gibson, D. T.

    2005-01-01

    The protein components of the 2-nitrotoluene (2NT) and nitrobenzene dioxygenase enzyme systems from Acidovorax sp. strain JS42 and Comamonas sp. strain JS765, respectively, were purified and characterized. These enzymes catalyze the initial step in the degradation of 2-nitrotoluene and nitrobenzene. The identical shared reductase and ferredoxin components were monomers of 35 and 11.5 kDa, respectively. The reductase component contained 1.86 g-atoms iron, 2.01 g-atoms sulfur, and one molecule of flavin adenine dinucleotide per monomer. Spectral properties of the reductase indicated the presence of a plant-type [2Fe-2S] center and a flavin. The reductase catalyzed the reduction of cytochrome c, ferricyanide, and 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol. The ferredoxin contained 2.20 g-atoms iron and 1.99 g-atoms sulfur per monomer and had spectral properties indicative of a Rieske [2Fe-2S] center. The ferredoxin component could be effectively replaced by the ferredoxin from the Pseudomonas sp. strain NCIB 9816-4 naphthalene dioxygenase system but not by that from the Burkholderia sp. strain LB400 biphenyl or Pseudomonas putida F1 toluene dioxygenase system. The oxygenases from the 2-nitrotoluene and nitrobenzene dioxygenase systems each had spectral properties indicating the presence of a Rieske [2Fe-2S] center, and the subunit composition of each oxygenase was an α3β3 hexamer. The apparent Km of 2-nitrotoluene dioxygenase for 2NT was 20 μM, and that for naphthalene was 121 μM. The specificity constants were 7.0 μM−1 min−1 for 2NT and 1.2 μM−1 min−1 for naphthalene, indicating that the enzyme is more efficient with 2NT as a substrate. Diffraction-quality crystals of the two oxygenases were obtained. PMID:16000792

  1. Crystal structures of alkylperoxo and anhydride intermediates in an intradiol ring-cleaving dioxygenase

    DOE PAGES

    Knoot, Cory J.; Purpero, Vincent M.; Lipscomb, John D.

    2014-12-29

    Intradiol aromatic ring-cleaving dioxygenases use an active site, nonheme Fe3+ to activate O2 and catecholic substrates for reaction. The inability of Fe3+ to directly bind O2 presents a mechanistic conundrum. The reaction mechanism of protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase is investigated in this paper using the alternative substrate 4-fluorocatechol. This substrate is found to slow the reaction at several steps throughout the mechanistic cycle, allowing the intermediates to be detected in solution studies. When the reaction was initiated in an enzyme crystal, it was found to halt at one of two intermediates depending on the pH of the surrounding solution. The X-ray crystalmore » structure of the intermediate at pH 6.5 revealed the key alkylperoxo-Fe3+ species, and the anhydride-Fe3+ intermediate was found for a crystal reacted at pH 8.5. Intermediates of these types have not been structurally characterized for intradiol dioxygenases, and they validate four decades of spectroscopic, kinetic, and computational studies. In contrast to our similar in crystallo crystallographic studies of an Fe2+-containing extradiol dioxygenase, no evidence for a superoxo or peroxo intermediate preceding the alkylperoxo was found. This observation and the lack of spectroscopic evidence for an Fe2+ intermediate that could bind O2 are consistent with concerted formation of the alkylperoxo followed by Criegee rearrangement to yield the anhydride and ultimately ring-opened product. Finally, structural comparison of the alkylperoxo intermediates from the intra- and extradiol dioxygenases provides a rationale for site specificity of ring cleavage.« less

  2. Crystal structures of alkylperoxo and anhydride intermediates in an intradiol ring-cleaving dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Knoot, Cory J.; Purpero, Vincent M.; Lipscomb, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Intradiol aromatic ring-cleaving dioxygenases use an active site, nonheme Fe3+ to activate O2 and catecholic substrates for reaction. The inability of Fe3+ to directly bind O2 presents a mechanistic conundrum. The reaction mechanism of protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase is investigated here using the alternative substrate 4-fluorocatechol. This substrate is found to slow the reaction at several steps throughout the mechanistic cycle, allowing the intermediates to be detected in solution studies. When the reaction was initiated in an enzyme crystal, it was found to halt at one of two intermediates depending on the pH of the surrounding solution. The X-ray crystal structure of the intermediate at pH 6.5 revealed the key alkylperoxo-Fe3+ species, and the anhydride-Fe3+ intermediate was found for a crystal reacted at pH 8.5. Intermediates of these types have not been structurally characterized for intradiol dioxygenases, and they validate four decades of spectroscopic, kinetic, and computational studies. In contrast to our similar in crystallo crystallographic studies of an Fe2+-containing extradiol dioxygenase, no evidence for a superoxo or peroxo intermediate preceding the alkylperoxo was found. This observation and the lack of spectroscopic evidence for an Fe2+ intermediate that could bind O2 are consistent with concerted formation of the alkylperoxo followed by Criegee rearrangement to yield the anhydride and ultimately ring-opened product. Structural comparison of the alkylperoxo intermediates from the intra- and extradiol dioxygenases provides a rationale for site specificity of ring cleavage. PMID:25548185

  3. Crystal structures of alkylperoxo and anhydride intermediates in an intradiol ring-cleaving dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Knoot, Cory J; Purpero, Vincent M; Lipscomb, John D

    2015-01-13

    Intradiol aromatic ring-cleaving dioxygenases use an active site, nonheme Fe(3+) to activate O2 and catecholic substrates for reaction. The inability of Fe(3+) to directly bind O2 presents a mechanistic conundrum. The reaction mechanism of protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase is investigated here using the alternative substrate 4-fluorocatechol. This substrate is found to slow the reaction at several steps throughout the mechanistic cycle, allowing the intermediates to be detected in solution studies. When the reaction was initiated in an enzyme crystal, it was found to halt at one of two intermediates depending on the pH of the surrounding solution. The X-ray crystal structure of the intermediate at pH 6.5 revealed the key alkylperoxo-Fe(3+) species, and the anhydride-Fe(3+) intermediate was found for a crystal reacted at pH 8.5. Intermediates of these types have not been structurally characterized for intradiol dioxygenases, and they validate four decades of spectroscopic, kinetic, and computational studies. In contrast to our similar in crystallo crystallographic studies of an Fe(2+)-containing extradiol dioxygenase, no evidence for a superoxo or peroxo intermediate preceding the alkylperoxo was found. This observation and the lack of spectroscopic evidence for an Fe(2+) intermediate that could bind O2 are consistent with concerted formation of the alkylperoxo followed by Criegee rearrangement to yield the anhydride and ultimately ring-opened product. Structural comparison of the alkylperoxo intermediates from the intra- and extradiol dioxygenases provides a rationale for site specificity of ring cleavage.

  4. Crystal structures of alkylperoxo and anhydride intermediates in an intradiol ring-cleaving dioxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Knoot, Cory J.; Purpero, Vincent M.; Lipscomb, John D.

    2014-12-29

    Intradiol aromatic ring-cleaving dioxygenases use an active site, nonheme Fe3+ to activate O2 and catecholic substrates for reaction. The inability of Fe3+ to directly bind O2 presents a mechanistic conundrum. The reaction mechanism of protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase is investigated in this paper using the alternative substrate 4-fluorocatechol. This substrate is found to slow the reaction at several steps throughout the mechanistic cycle, allowing the intermediates to be detected in solution studies. When the reaction was initiated in an enzyme crystal, it was found to halt at one of two intermediates depending on the pH of the surrounding solution. The X-ray crystal structure of the intermediate at pH 6.5 revealed the key alkylperoxo-Fe3+ species, and the anhydride-Fe3+ intermediate was found for a crystal reacted at pH 8.5. Intermediates of these types have not been structurally characterized for intradiol dioxygenases, and they validate four decades of spectroscopic, kinetic, and computational studies. In contrast to our similar in crystallo crystallographic studies of an Fe2+-containing extradiol dioxygenase, no evidence for a superoxo or peroxo intermediate preceding the alkylperoxo was found. This observation and the lack of spectroscopic evidence for an Fe2+ intermediate that could bind O2 are consistent with concerted formation of the alkylperoxo followed by Criegee rearrangement to yield the anhydride and ultimately ring-opened product. Finally, structural comparison of the alkylperoxo intermediates from the intra- and extradiol dioxygenases provides a rationale for site specificity of ring cleavage.

  5. Investigation of acid-base catalysis in the extradiol and intradiol catechol dioxygenase reactions using a broad specificity mutant enzyme and model chemistry.

    PubMed

    Brivio, Michela; Schlosrich, Janne; Ahmad, Mark; Tolond, Caroline; Bugg, Timothy D H

    2009-04-07

    The extradiol and intradiol catechol dioxygenase reaction mechanisms proceed via a common proximal hydroperoxide intermediate, which is processed via different Criegee 1,2-rearrangements. An R215W mutant of extradiol dioxygenase MhpB, able to produce a mixture of extradiol and intradiol cleavage products, was analysed at pH 5.2-8.6, and the yield of extradiol product was found to be highly pH-dependent, whereas the yield of intradiol product was pH-independent. The acid-base chemistry of a biomimetic reaction for extradiol oxidative catechol cleavage was also investigated, using 1,4,7-triazacyclononane, FeCl(2), and pyridine in methanol, in which pyridine is proposed to act as both a general base and (in protonated form) a general acid. Kinetic experiments using a range of meta- and para-substituted pyridines gave a Brønsted plot of log(v) vs. pK(a) showing a bell-shaped plot. Oxidative catechol cleavage by a pyridine-monosubstituted beta-cyclodextrin in the presence of TACN and FeCl(2) in methanol yielded only intradiol cleavage products. It is therefore proposed that bifunctional acid-base catalysis is required for iron (ii)-dependent extradiol catechol cleavage, whereas the rate-determining step for intradiol catechol cleavage does not involve acid-base catalysis.

  6. Identification and characterization of a novel water-deficit-suppressed gene OsARD encoding an aci-reductone-dioxygenase-like protein in rice.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tao; He, Xiaowei; Yang, Ling; Shou, Huixia; Wu, Ping

    2005-10-24

    The aci-reductone dioxygenase (ARD) family common to bacteria, plants and animals is involved in the methionine salvage pathway. A water-deficit-suppressed gene, OsARD encoding an aci-reductone-dioxygenase-like protein, was identified from rice (Oryza sativa L.). Northern blot and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed that the OsARD expression is regulated by abiotic stresses and phytohormones. OsARD was mainly expressed in roots under flood conditions. It was suppressed by abiotic stresses including water deficit, high salinity and low temperature, and induced by ethylene and gibberellin acid (GA). Our results showed that the genes for S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) synthase and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase were upregulated in RNA-interference (RNAi) transgenic rice plants with a significant reduction of OsARD expression. Furthermore, the expression of two genes for ethylene signal transduction, ETR2 and EIN3, increased in these RNAi transgenic plants, whereas the expression of ERF3 was suppressed. These results suggest that OsARD may play a role in the metabolism of methionine and ethylene in response to abiotic stresses.

  7. Characterization of the expression profile of a wheat aci-reductone-dioxygenase-like gene in response to stripe rust pathogen infection and abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liangsheng; Jia, Jianguang; Lv, Jie; Liang, Xiaofei; Han, Dejun; Huang, Lili; Kang, Zhensheng

    2010-06-01

    The methionine salvage pathway is conserved from prokaryotes to high eukaryotes. The reaction catalyzed by aci-reductone-dioxygenase (ARD) represents a branch point in the methionine salvage pathway. A novel aci-reductone-dioxygenase gene, designed as TaARD, was identified in a subtraction library constructed with RNA isolated from wheat leaves infected with the stripe rust pathogen. TaARD was predicted to encode a 197 amino acid protein that belongs to the cupin superfamily. In transient expression assays with onion epidermal cells, the TaARD-GFP fusion protein localized to the nucleus and cytoplasm. Southern blot analysis showed that the wheat genome had multiple copies of TaARD. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses revealed that the TaARD transcript was induced in wheat leaves infected with a compatible stripe rust strain. However, its expression was reduced or suppressed in incompatible interactions and by ABA, ethephon (ET), or salicylic acid (SA) treatments. With methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment, TaARD transcript level was suppressed in the first 6h but increased afterwards. The expression of TaARD also was inhibited by wounding and environmental stimuli, including high salinity and low temperature. Because of the role of ARD in the methionine salvage pathway, these results suggest that TaARD may be involved in ethylene synthesis and ethylene signaling in response to biotic and abiotic stresses.

  8. Purification and properties of ferredoxinNAP, a component of naphthalene dioxygenase from Pseudomonas sp. strain NCIB 9816.

    PubMed Central

    Haigler, B E; Gibson, D T

    1990-01-01

    One of the three components of the naphthalene dioxygenase occurring in induced cells of Pseudomonas sp. strain NCIB 9816 has been purified to homogeneity. The protein contained 2 g-atoms each of iron and acid-labile sulfur and had an apparent molecular weight of 13,600. The evidence indicates that it is a ferredoxin-type protein that functions as an intermediate electron transfer protein in naphthalene dioxygenase activity. PMID:2294093

  9. Assessment of toluene/biphenyl dioxygenase gene diversity in benzene-polluted soils: links between benzene biodegradation and genes similar to those encoding isopropylbenzene dioxygenases.

    PubMed

    Witzig, Robert; Junca, Howard; Hecht, Hans-Jürgen; Pieper, Dietmar H

    2006-05-01

    The PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) technique was used to assess the diversity and distribution of Rieske nonheme iron oxygenases of the toluene/biphenyl subfamily in soil DNA and bacterial isolates recovered from sites contaminated with benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). The central cores of genes encoding the catalytic alpha subunits were targeted, since they are responsible for the substrate specificities of these enzymes. SSCP functional genotype fingerprinting revealed a substantial diversity of oxygenase genes in three differently BTEX-contaminated soil samples, and sequence analysis indicated that in both the soil DNA and the bacterial isolates, genes for oxygenases related to the isopropylbenzene (cumene) dioxygenase branch of the toluene/biphenyl oxygenase subfamily were predominant among the detectable genotypes. The peptide sequences of the two most abundant alpha subunit sequence types differed by only five amino acids (residues 258, 286, 288, 289, and 321 according to numbering in cumene dioxygenase alpha subunit CumA1 of Pseudomonas fluorescens IP01). However, a strong correlation between sequence type and substrate utilization pattern was observed in isolates harboring these genes. Two of these residues were located at positions contributing, according to the resolved crystal structure of cumene dioxygenase from Pseudomonas fluorescens IP01, to the inner surface of the substrate-binding pocket. Isolates containing an alpha subunit with isoleucine and leucine at positions 288 and 321, respectively, were capable of degrading benzene and toluene, whereas isolates containing two methionine substitutions were found to be incapable of degrading toluene, indicating that the more bulky methionine residues significantly narrowed the available space within the substrate-binding pocket.

  10. Crystal structure of 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid 3,4-dioxygenase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A special subgroup of the type III extradiol dioxygenases

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaowu; Guo, Min; Fan, Jun; Tang, Wenying; Wang, Deqiang; Ge, Honghua; Rong, Hui; Teng, Maikun; Niu, Liwen; Liu, Qun; Hao, Quan

    2006-01-01

    3-Hydroxyanthranilic acid 3,4-dioxygenase (3HAO) is a non-heme ferrous extradiol dioxygenase in the kynurenine pathway from tryptophan. It catalyzes the conversion of 3-hydroxyanthranilate (HAA) to quinolinic acid (QUIN), an endogenous neurotoxin, via the activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and the precursor of NAD+ biosynthesis. The crystal structure of 3HAO from S. cerevisiae at 2.4 Å resolution shows it to be a member of the functionally diverse cupin superfamily. The structure represents the first eukaryotic 3HAO to be resolved. The enzyme forms homodimers, with two nickel binding sites per molecule. One of the bound nickel atoms occupies the proposed ferrous-coordinated active site, which is located in a conserved double-strand β-helix domain. Examination of the structure reveals the participation of a series of residues in catalysis different from other extradiol dioxygenases. Together with two iron-binding residues (His49 and Glu55), Asp120, Asn51, Glu111, and Arg114 form a hydrogen-bonding network; this hydrogen-bond network is key to the catalysis of 3HAO. Residues Arg101, Gln59, and the substrate-binding hydrophobic pocket are crucial for substrate specificity. Structure comparison with 3HAO from Ralstonia metallidurans reveals similarities at the active site and suggests the same catalytic mechanism in prokaryotic and eukaryotic 3HAO. Based on sequence comparison, we suggest that bicupin of human 3HAO is the first example of evolution from a monocupin dimer to bicupin monomer in the diverse cupin superfamilies. Based on the model of the substrate HAA at the active site of Y3HAO, we propose a mechanism of catalysis for 3HAO. PMID:16522801

  11. Crystal structure of 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid 3,4-dioxygenase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a special subgroup of the type III extradiol dioxygenases.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaowu; Guo, Min; Fan, Jun; Tang, Wenying; Wang, Deqiang; Ge, Honghua; Rong, Hui; Teng, Maikun; Niu, Liwen; Liu, Qun; Hao, Quan

    2006-04-01

    3-Hydroxyanthranilic acid 3,4-dioxygenase (3HAO) is a non-heme ferrous extradiol dioxygenase in the kynurenine pathway from tryptophan. It catalyzes the conversion of 3-hydroxyanthranilate (HAA) to quinolinic acid (QUIN), an endogenous neurotoxin, via the activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and the precursor of NAD(+) biosynthesis. The crystal structure of 3HAO from S. cerevisiae at 2.4 A resolution shows it to be a member of the functionally diverse cupin superfamily. The structure represents the first eukaryotic 3HAO to be resolved. The enzyme forms homodimers, with two nickel binding sites per molecule. One of the bound nickel atoms occupies the proposed ferrous-coordinated active site, which is located in a conserved double-strand beta-helix domain. Examination of the structure reveals the participation of a series of residues in catalysis different from other extradiol dioxygenases. Together with two iron-binding residues (His49 and Glu55), Asp120, Asn51, Glu111, and Arg114 form a hydrogen-bonding network; this hydrogen-bond network is key to the catalysis of 3HAO. Residues Arg101, Gln59, and the substrate-binding hydrophobic pocket are crucial for substrate specificity. Structure comparison with 3HAO from Ralstonia metallidurans reveals similarities at the active site and suggests the same catalytic mechanism in prokaryotic and eukaryotic 3HAO. Based on sequence comparison, we suggest that bicupin of human 3HAO is the first example of evolution from a monocupin dimer to bicupin monomer in the diverse cupin superfamilies. Based on the model of the substrate HAA at the active site of Y3HAO, we propose a mechanism of catalysis for 3HAO.

  12. Cloning, expression, and characterization of catechol 1,2-dioxygenase from a phenol-degrading Candida tropicalis JH8 strain.

    PubMed

    Long, Yan; Yang, Sheng; Xie, Zhixiong; Cheng, Li

    2016-10-02

    The sequence cato encoding catechol 1,2-dioxygenase from Candida tropicalis JH8 was cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli. The sequence cato contained an ORF of 858 bp encoding a polypeptide of 285 amino acid residues. The recombinant catechol 1,2-dioxygenase exists as a homodimer structure with a subunit molecular mass of 32 KD. Recombinant catechol 1,2-dioxygenase was unstable below pH 5.0 and stable from pH 7.0 to 9.0; its optimum pH was at 7.5. The optimum temperature for the enzyme was 30°C, and it possessed a thermophilic activity within a broad temperature range. Under the optimal conditions with catechol as substrate, the Km and Vmax of recombinant catechol 1,2-dioxygenase were 9.2 µM and 0.987 µM/min, respectively. This is the first article presenting cloning and expressing in E. coli of catechol 1,2-dioxygenase from C. tropicalis and characterization of the recombinant catechol 1,2-dioxygenase.

  13. Characterization of catechol 2,3-dioxygenase from Planococcus sp. strain S5 induced by high phenol concentration.

    PubMed

    Hupert-Kocurek, Katarzyna; Guzik, Urszula; Wojcieszyńska, Danuta

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at characterization of a new catechol 2,3-dioxygenase isolated from a Gram-positive bacterium able to utilize phenol as the sole carbon and energy source. Planococcus sp. strain S5 grown on 1 or 2 mM phenol showed activity of both a catechol 1,2- and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase while at a higher concentrations of phenol only catechol 2,3-dioxygenase activity was observed. The enzyme was optimally active at 60°C and pH 8.0. Kinetic studies showed that the K(m) and V(max) of the enzyme were 42.70 µM and 329.96 mU, respectively. The catechol 2,3-dioxygenase showed the following relative meta-cleavage activities for various catechols tested: catechol (100%), 3-methylcatechol (13.67%), 4-methylcatechol (106.33%) and 4-chlorocatechol (203.80%). The high reactivity of this enzyme towards 4-chlorocatechol is different from that observed for other catechol 2,3-dioxygenases. Nucleotide sequencing and homology search revealed that the gene encoding the S5 catechol 2,3-dioxygenase shared the greatest homology with the known genes encoding isoenzymes from Gram-negative Pseudomonas strains.

  14. Thiol dioxygenase turnover yields benzothiazole products from 2-mercaptoaniline and O2-dependent oxidation of primary alcohols.

    PubMed

    Morrow, William P; Sardar, Sinjinee; Thapa, Pawan; Hossain, Mohammad S; Foss, Frank W; Pierce, Brad S

    2017-10-01

    Thiol dioxygenases are non-heme mononuclear iron enzymes that catalyze the O2-dependent oxidation of free thiols (-SH) to produce the corresponding sulfinic acid (-SO2(-)). Previous chemical rescue studies identified a putative Fe(III)-O2(-) intermediate that precedes substrate oxidation in Mus musculus cysteine dioxygenase (Mm CDO). Given that a similar reactive intermediate has been identified in the extradiol dioxygenase 2, 3-HCPD, it is conceivable that these enzymes share other mechanistic features with regard to substrate oxidation. To explore this possibility, enzymatic reactions with Mm CDO (as well as the bacterial 3-mercaptopropionic acid dioxygenase, Av MDO) were performed using a substrate analogue (2-mercaptoaniline, 2ma). This aromatic thiol closely approximates the catecholic substrate of homoprotocatechuate of 2, 3-HPCD while maintaining the 2-carbon thiol-amine separation preferred by Mm CDO. Remarkably, both enzymes exhibit 2ma-gated O2-consumption; however, none of the expected products for thiol dioxygenase or intra/extradiol dioxygenase reactions were observed. Instead, benzothiazoles are produced by the condensation of 2ma with aldehydes formed by an off-pathway oxidation of primary alcohols added to aqueous reactions to solubilize the substrate. The observed oxidation of 1º-alcohols in 2ma-reactions is consistent with the formation of a high-valent intermediate similar to what has been reported for cytochrome P450 and mononuclear iron model complexes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Oxidation of nitrotoluenes by toluene dioxygenase: evidence for a monooxygenase reaction.

    PubMed

    Robertson, J B; Spain, J C; Haddock, J D; Gibson, D T

    1992-08-01

    Pseudomonas putida F1 and Pseudomonas sp. strain JS150 initiate toluene degradation by incorporating molecular oxygen into the aromatic nucleus to form cis-1,2-dihydroxy-3-methylcyclohexa-3,5-diene. When toluene-grown cells were incubated with 2- and 3-nitrotoluene, the major products identified were 2- and 3-nitrobenzyl alcohol, respectively. The same cells oxidized 4-nitrotoluene to 2-methyl-5-nitrophenol and 3-methyl-6-nitrocatechol. Escherichia coli JM109(pDTG601), which contains the toluene dioxygenase genes from P. putida F1 under the control of the tac promoter, oxidized the isomeric nitrotoluenes to the same metabolites as those formed by P. putida F1 and Pseudomonas sp. strain JS150. These results extend the range of substrates known to be oxidized by this versatile enzyme and demonstrate for the first time that toluene dioxygenase can oxidize an aromatic methyl substituent.

  16. A two-electron shell game: Intermediates of the extradiol-cleaving catechol dioxygenases

    PubMed Central

    Fielding, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Extradiol catechol ring-cleaving dioxygenases function by binding both the organic substrate and O2 at a divalent metal center in the active site. They have proven to be a particularly versatile group of enzymes with which to study the O2 activation process. Here, recent studies of homoprotocatechuate 2,3-dioxygenase (HPCD) are summarized with the objective of showing how Nature can utilize the enzyme structure and the properties of the metal and the substrate to select among many possible chemical paths to achieve both specificity and efficiency. Possible intermediates in the mechanism have been trapped by swapping active site metals, introducing active site amino acid substituted variants, and using substrates with different electron donating capacities. While each of these intermediates could form part of a viable reaction pathway, kinetic measurements significantly limit the likely candidates. Structural, kinetic, spectroscopic and computational analysis of the various intermediates shed light on how catalytic efficiency can be achieved. PMID:24615282

  17. Intermediate in the O−O Bond Cleavage Reaction of an Extradiol Dioxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Kovaleva, Elena G.; Lipscomb, John D.

    2009-02-16

    The reactive oxy intermediate of the catalytic cycle of extradiol aromatic ring-cleaving dioxygenases is formed by binding the catecholic substrate and O{sub 2} in adjacent ligand positions of the active site metal [usually Fe(II)]. This intermediate and the following Fe(II)-alkylperoxo intermediate resulting from oxygen attack on the substrate have been previously characterized in a crystal of homoprotocatechuate 2,3-dioxygenase (HPCD). Here a subsequent intermediate in which the O-O bond is broken to yield a gem diol species is structurally characterized. This new intermediate is stabilized in the crystal by using the alternative substrate, 4-sulfonylcatechol, and the Glu323Leu variant of HPCD, which alters the crystal packing.

  18. Trichloroethylene degradation by Escherichia coli containing the cloned Pseudomonas putida F1 toluene dioxygenase genes

    SciTech Connect

    Zylstra, G.J.; Gibson, D.T. ); Wackett, L.P. )

    1989-12-01

    Toluene dioxygenase from Pseudomonas putida F1 has been implicated as an enzyme capable of degrading trichloroethylene. This has now been confirmed with Escherichia coli JM109(pDTG601) that contains the structural genes (todC1C2BA) of toluene dioxygenase under the control of the tac promoter. The extent of trichloroethylene degradation by the recombinant organism depended on the cell concentration and the concentration of trichloroethylene. A linear rate of trichloroethylene degradation was observed with the E. coli recombinant strain. In contrast, P. putida F39/D, a mutant strain of P. putida F1 that does not contain cis-toluene dihydrodiol dehydrogenase, showed a much faster initial rate of trichloroethylene degradation which decreased over time.

  19. Purification and characterization of linoleate 8-dioxygenase from the fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis as a novel hemoprotein.

    PubMed

    Su, C; Oliw, E H

    1996-06-14

    The fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis, which causes the major root disease of wheat known as "take-all," can metabolize linoleic acid to (8R)-hydroperoxylinoleic acid. The enzyme linoleate 8-dioxygenase abstracts hydrogen and introduces molecular oxygen in an antarafacial way at C-8. We have now purified the enzyme 1000-fold to a specific activity of 1.8 micronol/min/mg of protein. Acetone powder of mycelia of G. graminis was subjected to extraction and ammonium sulfate precipitation with solubilization. The 8-dioxygenase was purified by hydrophobic interaction chromatography, size-exclusion chromatography, anion-exchange chromatography, and immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography. The active enzyme appeared to consist of four subunits since the active enzyme had an apparent molecular mass of 520 kDa determined by gel filtration, while SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed a protein band of 130 kDa. Spectroscopy indicated the presence of heme. The characteristic pyridine ferrohemochrome alpha-band was found at 557 nm and the beta-band at 525 nm. The purified protein showed an absorption maximum at 408 nm (gamma, Soret). The absorption maximum shifted to 429 nm after reduction with dithionite and to 421 nm after treatment of the reduced enzyme with carbon monoxide. BW A4C, a hydroxamic acid derivative, inhibited the enzyme by >90% at 10 microM. The pH optimum was 7.2-7.4, the isoelectric point was 5.2 by chromatofocusing, and the Km values were 8 microM for linoleic acid and 30 microM for oxygen. We conclude that linoleate 8-dioxygenase appears to be a tetrameric hemoprotein distinct from other fatty-acid dioxygenases.

  20. Origin and evolution of peptide-modifying dioxygenases and identification of the wybutosine hydroxylase/hydroperoxidase

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Lakshminarayan M.; Abhiman, Saraswathi; de Souza, Robson F.; Aravind, L.

    2010-01-01

    Unlike classical 2-oxoglutarate and iron-dependent dioxygenases, which include several nucleic acid modifiers, the structurally similar jumonji-related dioxygenase superfamily was only known to catalyze peptide modifications. Using comparative genomics methods, we predict that a family of jumonji-related enzymes catalyzes wybutosine hydroxylation/peroxidation at position 37 of eukaryotic tRNAPhe. Identification of this enzyme raised questions regarding the emergence of protein- and nucleic acid-modifying activities among jumonji-related domains. We addressed these with a natural classification of DSBH domains and reconstructed the precursor of the dioxygenases as a sugar-binding domain. This precursor gave rise to sugar epimerases and metal-binding sugar isomerases. The sugar isomerase active site was exapted for catalysis of oxygenation, with a radiation of these enzymes in bacteria, probably due to impetus from the primary oxygenation event in Earth’s history. 2-Oxoglutarate-dependent versions appear to have further expanded with rise of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. We identify previously under-appreciated aspects of their active site and multiple independent innovations of 2-oxoacid-binding basic residues among these superfamilies. We show that double-stranded β-helix dioxygenases diversified extensively in biosynthesis and modification of halogenated siderophores, antibiotics, peptide secondary metabolites and glycine-rich collagen-like proteins in bacteria. Jumonji-related domains diversified into three distinct lineages in bacterial secondary metabolism systems and these were precursors of the three major clades of eukaryotic enzymes. The specificity of wybutosine hydroxylase/peroxidase probably relates to the structural similarity of the modified moiety to the ancestral amino acid substrate of this superfamily. PMID:20423905

  1. 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase inhibitors in combination with safeners: solutions for modern and sustainable agriculture.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Hartmut; Lange, Gudrun; Müller, Thomas; Rosinger, Chris; Willms, Lothar; van Almsick, Andreas

    2013-09-02

    Inhibitors of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) prevent plant carotenoid pigment formation, which in turn leads to chlorophyll degradation. This "bleaching" herbicide mode of action provides weed-control products for various crops, such as rice, corn, and cereals. Combinations with suitable safeners allow the full exploitation of the potential of this compound class to selectively control major weed problems, including rapidly increasing cases of resistance against other important herbicide classes.

  2. Expression and Prognostic Value of Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase in Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tao; Tan, Xiang-Long; Xu, Yong; Wang, Zi-Zheng; Xiao, Chao-Hui; Liu, Rong

    2017-01-01

    Background: Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), an enzyme for tryptophan metabolism through the kynurenine pathway, exhibits an immunosuppressive effect and induces immune tolerance in tumor cells. The effects of IDO on pancreatic cancer are poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the expression and prognostic significance of IDO in pancreatic cancer. Methods: We evaluated the protein expression of IDO in PANC-1, CFPAC-1, and BxPC-3 cell lines with or without 48 h treatment by 500 U/ml interferon-γ (IFN-γ). We performed immunohistochemical staining and Western blot analysis for IDO expression in both pancreatic cancer and normal pancreas tissues obtained from Chinese PLA General Hospital from July 2012 to December 2013. Survival analysis was performed to correlate IDO expression and histopathologic parameters with overall survival. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards regression model were conducted. Results: PANC-1, CFPAC-1, and BxPC-3 cell lines expressed IDO at the protein level, and the relative expression amount increased after stimulation with 500 U/ml IFN-γ. Immunohistochemical analysis results revealed that high IDO expression was observed in 59% of pancreatic adenocarcinoma tissues. Compared with normal pancreatic tissues, pancreatic adenocarcinoma showed significantly higher IDO expression levels, especially among patients with high tumor node metastasis (TNM) stages (χ2 = 4.550, P = 0.030), poor histological differentiation (χ2 = 5.690, P = 0.017), and lymph node metastasis (χ2 = 4.340 P = 0.037). Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that high IDO expression was correlated with low survival rates (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.49 P = 0.009). Multivariate analysis using Cox proportional hazards model indicated that lymph node metastasis (HR = 0.35 P = 0.010) and IDO expression (HR = 0.42 P = 0.020) were two independent prognostic predictors of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Conclusions: The study confirmed that high IDO expression in

  3. Low indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity in persistent food allergy in children.

    PubMed

    Buyuktiryaki, B; Sahiner, U M; Girgin, G; Birben, E; Soyer, O U; Cavkaytar, O; Cetin, C; Arik Yilmaz, E; Yavuz, S T; Kalayci, O; Baydar, T; Sackesen, C

    2016-02-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), which degrades tryptophan (Trp) to kynurenine (Kyn), has been demonstrated to contribute to modulation of allergic responses. However, the role of IDO in food allergy has not yet been elucidated. Serum Trp and Kyn concentrations were analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Expression of IDO gene was measured by real-time PCR. The levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, and interferon (IFN)-γ in cell culture supernatants were measured by ELISA. Kyn/Trp (IDO activity) was significantly lower in subjects with food allergy (n = 100) than in aged-matched healthy controls (n = 112) (P = 0.004). Kyn/Trp was decreased from healthy through completely tolerant, partially tolerant, and reactive ones [LN transformation (mean ± SEM) healthy: 3.9 ± 0.02 μM/mM; completely tolerant: 3.83 ± 0.04; partially tolerant: 3.8 ± 0.06; reactive: 3.7 ± 0.04] (P = 0.008). The frequency of genetic polymorphisms of IDO did not reveal a significant association with Trp, Kyn, and Kyn/Trp in healthy and food-allergic cases. Culture of PBMC experiments yielded that IDO mRNA expression was not different between tolerant and reactive groups. IL-4 synthesis when stimulated with casein increased significantly in subjects who are reactive and tolerant to foods (P = 0.042, P = 0.006, respectively). Increase in IL-10 synthesis was observed only in children tolerant to milk, but not in reactive ones. IFN-γ synthesis, when stimulated with IL-2 and β-lactoglobulin in cell culture, was significantly higher in subjects tolerant to milk than in the reactive ones (P = 0.005 and P = 0.029, respectively). Our results imply the probability of involvement of IDO in development of tolerance process, and we presume that high IDO activity is associated with nonresponsiveness to food allergens despite allergen sensitization. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Functional characterisation of three members of the Vitis vinifera L. carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase gene family

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In plants, carotenoids serve as the precursors to C13-norisoprenoids, a group of apocarotenoid compounds with diverse biological functions. Enzymatic cleavage of carotenoids catalysed by members of the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD) family has been shown to produce a number of industrially important volatile flavour and aroma apocarotenoids including β-ionone, geranylacetone, pseudoionone, α-ionone and 3-hydroxy-β-ionone in a range of plant species. Apocarotenoids contribute to the floral and fruity attributes of many wine cultivars and are thereby, at least partly, responsible for the “varietal character”. Despite their importance in grapes and wine; carotenoid cleavage activity has only been described for VvCCD1 and the mechanism(s) and regulation of carotenoid catabolism remains largely unknown. Results Three grapevine-derived CCD-encoding genes have been isolated and shown to be functional with unique substrate cleavage capacities. Our results demonstrate that the VvCCD4a and VvCCD4b catalyse the cleavage of both linear and cyclic carotenoid substrates. The expression of VvCCD1, VvCCD4a and VvCCD4b was detected in leaf, flower and throughout berry development. VvCCD1 expression was constitutive, whereas VvCCD4a expression was predominant in leaves and VvCCD4b in berries. A transgenic population with a 12-fold range of VvCCD1 expression exhibited a lack of correlation between VvCCD1 expression and carotenoid substrates and/or apocarotenoid products in leaves, providing proof that the in planta function(s) of VvCCD1 in photosynthetically active tissue is distinct from the in vitro activities demonstrated. The isolation and functional characterisation of VvCCD4a and VvCCD4b identify two additional CCDs that are functional in grapevine. Conclusions Taken together, our results indicate that the three CCDs are under various levels of control that include gene expression (spatial and temporal), substrate specificity and compartmentalisation

  5. Expression and Prognostic Value of Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase in Pancreatic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Tan, Xiang-Long; Xu, Yong; Wang, Zi-Zheng; Xiao, Chao-Hui; Liu, Rong

    2017-03-20

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), an enzyme for tryptophan metabolism through the kynurenine pathway, exhibits an immunosuppressive effect and induces immune tolerance in tumor cells. The effects of IDO on pancreatic cancer are poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the expression and prognostic significance of IDO in pancreatic cancer. We evaluated the protein expression of IDO in PANC-1, CFPAC-1, and BxPC-3 cell lines with or without 48 h treatment by 500 U/ml interferon-γ (IFN-γ). We performed immunohistochemical staining and Western blot analysis for IDO expression in both pancreatic cancer and normal pancreas tissues obtained from Chinese PLA General Hospital from July 2012 to December 2013. Survival analysis was performed to correlate IDO expression and histopathologic parameters with overall survival. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards regression model were conducted. PANC-1, CFPAC-1, and BxPC-3 cell lines expressed IDO at the protein level, and the relative expression amount increased after stimulation with 500 U/ml IFN-γ. Immunohistochemical analysis results revealed that high IDO expression was observed in 59% of pancreatic adenocarcinoma tissues. Compared with normal pancreatic tissues, pancreatic adenocarcinoma showed significantly higher IDO expression levels, especially among patients with high tumor node metastasis (TNM) stages (χ2 = 4.550, P = 0.030), poor histological differentiation (χ2 = 5.690, P = 0.017), and lymph node metastasis (χ2 = 4.340 P = 0.037). Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that high IDO expression was correlated with low survival rates (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.49 P = 0.009). Multivariate analysis using Cox proportional hazards model indicated that lymph node metastasis (HR = 0.35 P = 0.010) and IDO expression (HR = 0.42 P = 0.020) were two independent prognostic predictors of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The study confirmed that high IDO expression in pancreatic adenocarcinoma was related to poor

  6. Application of nitroarene dioxygenases in the design of novel strains that degrade chloronitrobenzenes

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Kou‐San; Parales, Rebecca E.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Widespread application of chloronitrobenzenes as feedstocks for the production of industrial chemicals and pharmaceuticals has resulted in extensive environmental contamination with these toxic compounds, where they pose significant risks to the health of humans and wildlife. While biotreatment in general is an attractive solution for remediation, its effectiveness is limited with chloronitrobenzenes due to the small number of strains that can effectively mineralize these compounds and their ability to degrade only select isomers. To address this need, we created engineered strains with a novel degradation pathway that reduces the total number of steps required to convert chloronitrobenzenes into compounds of central metabolism. We examined the ability of 2‐nitrotoluene 2,3‐dioxygenase from Acidovorax sp. strain JS42, nitrobenzene 1,2‐dioxygenase (NBDO) from Comamonas sp. strain JS765, as well as active‐site mutants of NBDO to generate chlorocatechols from chloronitrobenzenes, and identified the most efficient enzymes. Introduction of the wild‐type NBDO and the F293Q variant into Ralstonia sp. strain JS705, a strain carrying the modified ortho pathway for chlorocatechol metabolism, resulted in bacterial strains that were able to sustainably grow on all three chloronitrobenzene isomers without addition of co‐substrates or co‐inducers. These first‐generation engineered strains demonstrate the utility of nitroarene dioxygenases in expanding the metabolic capabilities of bacteria and provide new options for improved biotreatment of chloronitrobenzene‐contaminated sites. PMID:21261918

  7. The Mechanism of Formation of N-Formylkynurenine by Heme Dioxygenases

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Heme dioxygenases catalyze the oxidation of l-tryptophan to N-formylkynurenine (NFK), the first and rate-limiting step in tryptophan catabolism. Although recent progress has been made on early stages in the mechanism, there is currently no experimental data on the mechanism of product (NFK) formation. In this work, we have used mass spectrometry to examine product formation in a number of dioxygenases. In addition to NFK formation (m/z = 237), the data identify a species (m/z = 221) that is consistent with insertion of a single atom of oxygen into the substrate during O2-driven turnover. The fragmentation pattern for this m/z = 221 species is consistent with a cyclic amino acetal structure; independent chemical synthesis of the 3a-hydroxypyrroloindole-2-carboxylic acid compound is in agreement with this assignment. Labeling experiments with 18O2 confirm the origin of the oxygen atom as arising from O2-dependent turnover. These data suggest that the dioxygenases use a ring-opening mechanism during NFK formation, rather than Criegee or dioxetane mechanisms as previously proposed. PMID:21892828

  8. Isolation and characterization of two novel halotolerant Catechol 2, 3-dioxygenases from a halophilic bacterial consortium

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Guang; Fang, Tingting; Wang, Chongyang; Huang, Yong; Tian, Fang; Cui, Qijia; Wang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Study of enzymes in halophiles will help to understand the mechanism of aromatic hydrocarbons degradation in saline environment. In this study, two novel catechol 2,3-dioxygenases (C23O1 and C23O2) were cloned and overexpressed from a halophilic bacterial consortium enriched from an oil-contaminated saline soil. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the novel C23Os and their relatives formed a new branch in subfamily I.2.A of extradiol dioxygenases and the sequence differences were further analyzed by amino acid sequence alignment. Two enzymes with the halotolerant feature were active over a range of 0–30% salinity and they performed more stable at high salinity than in the absence of salt. Surface electrostatic potential and amino acids composition calculation suggested high acidic residues content, accounting for their tolerance to high salinity. Moreover, two enzymes were further characterized. The enzymes activity both increased in the presence of Fe3+, Fe2+, Cu2+ and Al3+ and showed no significant inhibition by other tested metal ions. The optimal temperatures for the C23Os were 40 °C and 60 °C and their best substrates were catechol and 4-methylcatechol respectively. As the firstly isolated and characterized catechol dioxygenases from halophiles, the two halotolerant C23Os presented novel characteristics suggesting their potential application in aromatic hydrocarbons biodegradation. PMID:26621792

  9. Unravelling the Molecular Origin of the Regiospecificity in Extradiol Catechol Dioxygenases.

    PubMed

    Christian, Gemma J; Neese, Frank; Ye, Shengfa

    2016-04-18

    Many factors have been suggested to control the selectivity for extradiol or intradiol cleavage in catechol dioxygenases. The varied selectivity of model complexes and the ability to force an extradiol enzyme to do intradiol cleavage indicate that the problem may be complex. In this paper we focus on the regiospecificity of the proximal extradiol dioxygenase, homoprotocatechuate 2,3-dioxygenase (HPCD), for which considerable advances have been made in our understanding of the mechanism from an experimental and computational standpoint. Two key steps in the reaction mechanism were investigated: (1) attack of the substrate by the superoxide moiety and (2) attack of the substrate by the oxyl radical generated by O-O bond cleavage. The selectivity at both steps was investigated through a systematic study of the role of the substrate and the first and second coordination spheres. For the isolated native substrate, intradiol cleavage is calculated to be both kinetically and thermodynamically favored, therefore nature must use the enzyme environment to reverse this preference. Two second sphere residues were found to play key roles in controlling the regiospecificity of the reaction: Tyr257 and His200. Tyr257 controls the selectivity by modulating the electronic structure of the substrate, while His200 controls selectivity through steric effects and by preventing alternative pathways to intradiol cleavage.

  10. Crystal structure of the terminal oxygenase component of cumene dioxygenase from Pseudomonas fluorescens IP01.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xuesong; Fushinobu, Shinya; Fukuda, Eriko; Terada, Tohru; Nakamura, Shugo; Shimizu, Kentaro; Nojiri, Hideaki; Omori, Toshio; Shoun, Hirofumi; Wakagi, Takayoshi

    2005-04-01

    The crystal structure of the terminal component of the cumene dioxygenase multicomponent enzyme system of Pseudomonas fluorescens IP01 (CumDO) was determined at a resolution of 2.2 A by means of molecular replacement by using the crystal structure of the terminal oxygenase component of naphthalene dioxygenase from Pseudomonas sp. strain NCIB 9816-4 (NphDO). The ligation of the two catalytic centers of CumDO (i.e., the nonheme iron and Rieske [2Fe-2S] centers) and the bridging between them in neighboring catalytic subunits by hydrogen bonds through a single amino acid residue, Asp231, are similar to those of NphDO. An unidentified external ligand, possibly dioxygen, was bound at the active site nonheme iron. The entrance to the active site of CumDO is different from the entrance to the active site of NphDO, as the two loops forming the lid exhibit great deviation. On the basis of the complex structure of NphDO, a biphenyl substrate was modeled in the substrate-binding pocket of CumDO. The residues surrounding the modeled biphenyl molecule include residues that have already been shown to be important for its substrate specificity by a number of engineering studies of biphenyl dioxygenases.

  11. Characterization and evolution of vertebrate indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenases IDOs from monotremes and marsupials.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Hajime J; Ball, Helen J; Ho, Yuen Fern; Austin, Christopher J D; Whittington, Camilla M; Belov, Katherine; Maghzal, Ghassan J; Jermiin, Lars S; Hunt, Nicholas H

    2009-06-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1) and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) are tryptophan-degrading enzymes that catalyze the first step in tryptophan catabolism via the kynurenine pathway. TDO is widely distributed in both eukaryotes and bacteria. In contrast, IDO has been found only in mammals and yeast. In 2007, a third enzyme, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-2 (IDO2), was discovered. IDO2 is found not only in mammals but also in lower vertebrates. Interestingly, the Km value of IDO2 for L-Trp was 500-1000 fold higher than that of IDO1. In this study, we isolated both IDO1 and IDO2 cDNA from a monotreme, the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus), and a marsupial, the gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica). We characterized the recombinant proteins and those of other known IDO1/IDO2 in intact cells and a cell-free system. It was found that methylene blue may not be suitable reductant for IDO2, hence resulting in an underestimation of recombinant IDO2 activity. In intact cells, the Km value of IDO2 for L-Trp was estimated to be much higher than that of IDO1 and this high Km value appears to have been conserved during the evolution of IDO2. The protein encoded by the ancestor gene of IDO1 and IDO2 is likely to have had properties more similar to present day IDO2 than to IDO1.

  12. Characterization and evolution of vertebrate indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenases IDOs from monotremes and marsupials.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Hajime J; Ball, Helen J; Ho, Yuen Fern; Austin, Christopher J D; Whittington, Camilla M; Belov, Katherine; Maghzal, Ghassan J; Jermiin, Lars S; Hunt, Nicholas H

    2009-06-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1) and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) are tryptophan-degrading enzymes that catalyze the first step in tryptophan catabolism via the kynurenine pathway. TDO is widely distributed in both eukaryotes and bacteria. In contrast, IDO has been found only in mammals and yeast. In 2007, a third enzyme, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-2 (IDO2), was discovered. IDO2 is found not only in mammals but also in lower vertebrates. Interestingly, the K(m) value of IDO2 for L-Trp was 500-1000 fold higher than that of IDO1. In this study, we isolated both IDO1 and IDO2 cDNA from a monotreme, the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus), and a marsupial, the gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica). We characterized the recombinant proteins and those of other known IDO1/IDO2 in intact cells and a cell-free system. It was found that methylene blue may not be suitable reductant for IDO2, hence resulting in an underestimation of recombinant IDO2 activity. In intact cells, the K(m) value of IDO2 for L-Trp was estimated to be much higher than that of IDO1 and this high K(m) value appears to have been conserved during the evolution of IDO2. The protein encoded by the ancestor gene of IDO1 and IDO2 is likely to have had properties more similar to present day IDO2 than to IDO1.

  13. Structures of Arg- and Gln-type bacterial cysteine dioxygenase homologs.

    PubMed

    Driggers, Camden M; Hartman, Steven J; Karplus, P Andrew

    2015-01-01

    In some bacteria, cysteine is converted to cysteine sulfinic acid by cysteine dioxygenases (CDO) that are only ∼15-30% identical in sequence to mammalian CDOs. Among bacterial proteins having this range of sequence similarity to mammalian CDO are some that conserve an active site Arg residue ("Arg-type" enzymes) and some having a Gln substituted for this Arg ("Gln-type" enzymes). Here, we describe a structure from each of these enzyme types by analyzing structures originally solved by structural genomics groups but not published: a Bacillus subtilis "Arg-type" enzyme that has cysteine dioxygenase activity (BsCDO), and a Ralstonia eutropha "Gln-type" CDO homolog of uncharacterized activity (ReCDOhom). The BsCDO active site is well conserved with mammalian CDO, and a cysteine complex captured in the active site confirms that the cysteine binding mode is also similar. The ReCDOhom structure reveals a new active site Arg residue that is hydrogen bonding to an iron-bound diatomic molecule we have interpreted as dioxygen. Notably, the Arg position is not compatible with the mode of Cys binding seen in both rat CDO and BsCDO. As sequence alignments show that this newly discovered active site Arg is well conserved among "Gln-type" CDO enzymes, we conclude that the "Gln-type" CDO homologs are not authentic CDOs but will have substrate specificity more similar to 3-mercaptopropionate dioxygenases.

  14. Enzyme Reactivation by Hydrogen Peroxide in Heme-based Tryptophan Dioxygenase*

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Rong; Gupta, Rupal; Geng, Jiafeng; Dornevil, Kednerlin; Wang, Siming; Zhang, Yong; Hendrich, Michael P.; Liu, Aimin

    2011-01-01

    An intriguing mystery about tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase is its hydrogen peroxide-triggered enzyme reactivation from the resting ferric oxidation state to the catalytically active ferrous form. In this study, we found that such an odd Fe(III) reduction by an oxidant depends on the presence of l-Trp, which ultimately serves as the reductant for the enzyme. In the peroxide reaction with tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase, a previously unknown catalase-like activity was detected. A ferryl species (δ = 0.055 mm/s and ΔEQ = 1.755 mm/s) and a protein-based free radical (g = 2.0028 and 1.72 millitesla linewidth) were characterized by Mössbauer and EPR spectroscopy, respectively. This is the first compound ES-type of ferryl intermediate from a heme-based dioxygenase characterized by EPR and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Density functional theory calculations revealed the contribution of secondary ligand sphere to the spectroscopic properties of the ferryl species. In the presence of l-Trp, the reactivation was demonstrated by enzyme assays and by various spectroscopic techniques. A Trp-Trp dimer and a monooxygenated l-Trp were both observed as the enzyme reactivation by-products by mass spectrometry. Together, these results lead to the unraveling of an over 60-year old mystery of peroxide reactivation mechanism. These results may shed light on how a metalloenzyme maintains its catalytic activity in an oxidizing environment. PMID:21632548

  15. Structures of Arg- and Gln-type bacterial cysteine dioxygenase homologs

    PubMed Central

    Driggers, Camden M; Hartman, Steven J; Karplus, P Andrew

    2015-01-01

    In some bacteria, cysteine is converted to cysteine sulfinic acid by cysteine dioxygenases (CDO) that are only ∼15–30% identical in sequence to mammalian CDOs. Among bacterial proteins having this range of sequence similarity to mammalian CDO are some that conserve an active site Arg residue (“Arg-type” enzymes) and some having a Gln substituted for this Arg (“Gln-type” enzymes). Here, we describe a structure from each of these enzyme types by analyzing structures originally solved by structural genomics groups but not published: a Bacillus subtilis “Arg-type” enzyme that has cysteine dioxygenase activity (BsCDO), and a Ralstonia eutropha “Gln-type” CDO homolog of uncharacterized activity (ReCDOhom). The BsCDO active site is well conserved with mammalian CDO, and a cysteine complex captured in the active site confirms that the cysteine binding mode is also similar. The ReCDOhom structure reveals a new active site Arg residue that is hydrogen bonding to an iron-bound diatomic molecule we have interpreted as dioxygen. Notably, the Arg position is not compatible with the mode of Cys binding seen in both rat CDO and BsCDO. As sequence alignments show that this newly discovered active site Arg is well conserved among “Gln-type” CDO enzymes, we conclude that the “Gln-type” CDO homologs are not authentic CDOs but will have substrate specificity more similar to 3-mercaptopropionate dioxygenases. PMID:25307852

  16. Isolation and characterization of two novel halotolerant Catechol 2, 3-dioxygenases from a halophilic bacterial consortium.

    PubMed

    Guo, Guang; Fang, Tingting; Wang, Chongyang; Huang, Yong; Tian, Fang; Cui, Qijia; Wang, Hui

    2015-12-01

    Study of enzymes in halophiles will help to understand the mechanism of aromatic hydrocarbons degradation in saline environment. In this study, two novel catechol 2,3-dioxygenases (C23O1 and C23O2) were cloned and overexpressed from a halophilic bacterial consortium enriched from an oil-contaminated saline soil. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the novel C23Os and their relatives formed a new branch in subfamily I.2.A of extradiol dioxygenases and the sequence differences were further analyzed by amino acid sequence alignment. Two enzymes with the halotolerant feature were active over a range of 0-30% salinity and they performed more stable at high salinity than in the absence of salt. Surface electrostatic potential and amino acids composition calculation suggested high acidic residues content, accounting for their tolerance to high salinity. Moreover, two enzymes were further characterized. The enzymes activity both increased in the presence of Fe(3+), Fe(2+), Cu(2+) and Al(3+) and showed no significant inhibition by other tested metal ions. The optimal temperatures for the C23Os were 40 °C and 60 °C and their best substrates were catechol and 4-methylcatechol respectively. As the firstly isolated and characterized catechol dioxygenases from halophiles, the two halotolerant C23Os presented novel characteristics suggesting their potential application in aromatic hydrocarbons biodegradation.

  17. Isolation and characterization of two novel halotolerant Catechol 2, 3-dioxygenases from a halophilic bacterial consortium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Guang; Fang, Tingting; Wang, Chongyang; Huang, Yong; Tian, Fang; Cui, Qijia; Wang, Hui

    2015-12-01

    Study of enzymes in halophiles will help to understand the mechanism of aromatic hydrocarbons degradation in saline environment. In this study, two novel catechol 2,3-dioxygenases (C23O1 and C23O2) were cloned and overexpressed from a halophilic bacterial consortium enriched from an oil-contaminated saline soil. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the novel C23Os and their relatives formed a new branch in subfamily I.2.A of extradiol dioxygenases and the sequence differences were further analyzed by amino acid sequence alignment. Two enzymes with the halotolerant feature were active over a range of 0-30% salinity and they performed more stable at high salinity than in the absence of salt. Surface electrostatic potential and amino acids composition calculation suggested high acidic residues content, accounting for their tolerance to high salinity. Moreover, two enzymes were further characterized. The enzymes activity both increased in the presence of Fe3+, Fe2+, Cu2+ and Al3+ and showed no significant inhibition by other tested metal ions. The optimal temperatures for the C23Os were 40 °C and 60 °C and their best substrates were catechol and 4-methylcatechol respectively. As the firstly isolated and characterized catechol dioxygenases from halophiles, the two halotolerant C23Os presented novel characteristics suggesting their potential application in aromatic hydrocarbons biodegradation.

  18. Direct Ring Fission of Salicylate by a Salicylate 1,2-Dioxygenase Activity from Pseudaminobacter salicylatoxidans

    PubMed Central

    Hintner, Jan-Peter; Lechner, Christa; Riegert, Ulrich; Kuhm, Andrea Elisabeth; Storm, Thomas; Reemtsma, Thorsten; Stolz, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    In cell extracts of Pseudaminobacter salicylatoxidans strain BN12, an enzymatic activity was detected which converted salicylate in an oxygen-dependent but NAD(P)H-independent reaction to a product with an absorbance maximum at 283 nm. This metabolite was isolated, purified, and identified by mass spectrometry and 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as 2-oxohepta-3,5-dienedioic acid. This metabolite could be formed only by direct ring fission of salicylate by a 1,2-dioxygenase reaction. Cell extracts from P. salicylatoxidans also oxidized 5-aminosalicylate, 3-, 4-, and 5-chlorosalicylate, 3-, 4-, and 5-methylsalicylate, 3- and 5-hydroxysalicylate (gentisate), and 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoate. The dioxygenase was purified and shown to consist of four identical subunits with a molecular weight of about 45,000. The purified enzyme showed higher catalytic constants with gentisate or 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoate than with salicylate. It was therefore concluded that P. salicylatoxidans synthesized a gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase with an extraordinary substrate range, which also allowed the oxidation of salicylate. PMID:11698383

  19. Characterization of the 9-Cis-Epoxycarotenoid Dioxygenase Gene Family and the Regulation of Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis in Avocado1

    PubMed Central

    Chernys, Jacqueline T.; Zeevaart, Jan A.D.

    2000-01-01

    Avocado (Persea americana Mill. cv Lula) is a climacteric fruit that exhibits a rise in ethylene as the fruit ripens. This rise in ethylene is followed by an increase in abscisic acid (ABA), with the highest level occurring just after the peak in ethylene production. ABA is synthesized from the cleavage of carotenoid precursors. The cleavage of carotenoid precursors produces xanthoxin, which can subsequently be converted into ABA via ABA-aldehyde. Indirect evidence indicates that the cleavage reaction, catalyzed by 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), is the regulatory step in ABA synthesis. Three genes encoding NCED cleavage-like enzymes were cloned from avocado fruit. Two genes, PaNCED1 and PaNCED3, were strongly induced as the fruit ripened. The other gene, PaNCED2, was constitutively expressed during fruit ripening, as well as in leaves. This gene lacks a predicted chloroplast transit peptide. It is therefore unlikely to be involved in ABA biosynthesis. PaNCED1 was induced by water stress, but expression of PaNCED3 was not detectable in dehydrated leaves. Recombinant PaNCED1 and PaNCED3 were capable of in vitro cleavage of 9-cis-xanthophylls into xanthoxin and C25-apocarotenoids, but PaNCED2 was not. Taken together, the results indicate that ABA biosynthesis in avocado is regulated at the level of carotenoid cleavage. PMID:10982448

  20. Lowering intercellular melatonin levels by transgenic analysis of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase from rice in tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Masateru; Higuchi, Kenji; Aouini, Asma; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2010-10-01

    Melatonin exists in numerous living organisms including vertebrates, insects, fungi, bacteria, and plants. Extensive studies have been conducted on the physiological roles of melatonin in various plant species. In plants, melatonin seems to act in antioxidant protection, as a growth promoter, and in photoperiodism. However, the mechanisms by which melatonin carries out these roles remain unclear. We manipulated the endogenous melatonin content in tomato plants by modifying the metabolic enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). The OsIDO gene was isolated from rice (Oryza sativa) and characterized using 3-D homology modeling and reverse genetic approaches. The amino acid sequence of OsIDO showed high homology to the Ustilago maydis IDO. The 3-D model structure of OsIDO is composed of a small and a large domain. Transgenic tomato plants constitutively expressing the OsIDO gene exhibited a decrease in their melatonin content. Moreover, the number of lateral leaflets decreased in transgenic plants. Protein extracts taken from these plants showed activity degradation, demonstrating the function of OsIDO. These results suggest the involvement of IDO in plant melatonin metabolism and a possible role in plant leaf development. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Pineal Research © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Dynamic changes in bacterial community structure and in naphthalene dioxygenase expression in vermicompost-amended PAH-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Di Gennaro, Patrizia; Moreno, Beatriz; Annoni, Emanuele; García-Rodríguez, Sonia; Bestetti, Giuseppina; Benitez, Emilio

    2009-12-30

    The aim of the present study was to explore the potential for using vermicompost from olive-mill waste as an organic amendment for enhanced bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-contaminated soils. The focus was to analyse the genetic potential and the naphthalene dioxygenase (NDO) expression of the bacterial communities involved in the degradation of naphthalene, as chemical model for the degradation of PAH. The structure of the metabolically active bacterial population was evidenced in the RNA-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles. The relative expression of NDO was determined with real-time PCR in both the soil and the vermicompost cDNA. Naphthalene changed the structure of the metabolically active bacterial community in the vermicompost when this was artificially contaminated. When used as amendment, naphthalene-free vermicompost modified the bacterial population in the PAH-contaminated soil, evidenced in the DGGE gels after 1 month of incubation. In the amended soil, the vermicompost enhanced the NDO enzyme expression with a concomitant biodegradation of naphthalene. The effect of the vermicompost was to induce the expression of biodegradation indicator genes in the autochthonous bacterial community and/or incorporate new bacterial species capable of degrading PAH. The results indicated that vermicompost from olive-mill wastes could be considered a suitable technology to be used in PAH bioremediation.

  2. Ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase (RHD) expression in a microbial community during the early response to oil pollution.

    PubMed

    Paissé, Sandrine; Goñi-Urriza, Marisol; Stalder, Thibault; Stadler, Thibault; Budzinski, Hélène; Duran, Robert

    2012-04-01

    The early functional response of a bacterial community from the sediments of a chronically oil-polluted retention basin located at the Etang de Berre (France) was investigated just after petroleum addition. After removing hydrocarbon compounds by natural abiotic and biotic processes, the sediments were maintained in microcosms and Vic Bilh petroleum was added. The diversity and the expression of genes encoding ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases (RHD) were examined just after the petroleum addition until 14 days focussing on the first hours following the contamination. RHD gene copy numbers and diversity were maintained throughout all the incubation period; however, transcripts were detected only during the first 2 days. One dominant RHD gene, immediately and specifically expressed in response to petroleum contamination, was related to RHD gene carried by a plasmid found in Pseudomonas spp. The expression of the RHD genes was correlated with high biodegradation levels observed for low molecular weight PAHs at 7 days of incubation. The study shows that the bacterial metabolism induced just after the oil input is a key stage that could determine the bacterial community structure changes. Monitoring the expression of RHD genes, key genes involved in hydrocarbon degradation, may provide useful information for managing bioremediation processes.

  3. Molecular docking and dynamic simulation studies evidenced plausible immunotherapeutic anticancer property by Withaferin A targeting indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Reddy, S V G; Reddy, K Thammi; Kumari, V Valli; Basha, Syed Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is emerging as an important new therapeutic drug target for the treatment of cancer characterized by pathological immune suppression. IDO catalyzes the rate-limiting step of tryptophan degradation along the kynurenine pathway. Reduction in local tryptophan concentration and the production of immunomodulatory tryptophan metabolites contribute to the immunosuppressive effects of IDO. Presence of IDO on dentritic cells in tumor-draining lymph nodes leading to the activation of T cells toward forming immunosuppressive microenvironment for the survival of tumor cells has confirmed the importance of IDO as a promising novel anticancer immunotherapy drug target. On the other hand, Withaferin A (WA) - active constituent of Withania Somnifera ayurvedic herb has shown to be having a wide range of targeted anticancer properties. In the present study conducted here is an attempt to explore the potential of WA in attenuating IDO for immunotherapeutic tumor arresting activity and to elucidate the underlying mode of action in a computational approach. Our docking and molecular dynamic simulation results predict high binding affinity of the ligand to the receptor with up to -11.51 kcal/mol of energy and 3.63 nM of IC50 value. Further, de novo molecular dynamic simulations predicted stable ligand interactions with critically important residues SER167; ARG231; LYS377, and heme moiety involved in IDO's activity. Conclusively, our results strongly suggest WA as a valuable small ligand molecule with strong binding affinity toward IDO.

  4. Local gene therapy with indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase protects against development of transplant vasculopathy in chronic kidney transplant dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Vavrincova-Yaghi, D; Deelman, L E; van Goor, H; Seelen, M A; Vavrinec, P; Kema, I P; Gomolcak, P; Benigni, A; Henning, R H; Sandovici, M

    2016-11-01

    Chronic transplant dysfunction (CTD) is the primary cause of late allograft loss in kidney transplantation. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is involved in fetomaternal tolerance and IDO gene therapy inhibits acute rejection following kidney transplantation. The aim of this study is to investigate whether gene therapy with IDO is able to attenuate CTD. Transplantation was performed in a rat Dark-Agouti to Wistar-Furth CTD model. Donor kidneys were incubated either with an adenovirus carrying IDO gene, a control adenovirus or saline. During the first 10 days recipients received low-dose cyclosporine. Body weight, blood pressure, serum creatinine and proteinuria were measured every 2 weeks. Rats were killed after 12 weeks. IDO had a striking beneficial effect on transplant vasculopathy at week 12. It also significantly improved body weight gain; it reduced blood pressure and decreased proteinuria during the follow-up. However, it did not affect the kidney function. In addition, IDO therapy significantly decreased the number of graft-infiltrating macrophages at week 12. The messenger RNA levels of forkhead box p3 and transforming grow factor-β were elevated in the IDO treated group at week 12. Here we show for first time a clear beneficial effect of local IDO gene therapy especially on transplant vasculopathy in a rat model of renal CTD.

  5. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-dependent neurotoxic kynurenine metabolism mediates inflammation-induced deficit in recognition memory

    PubMed Central

    Heisler, Jillian M.; O’Connor, Jason C.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction in depression is a prevalent and debilitating symptom that is poorly treated by the currently available pharmacotherapies. Research over the past decade has provided evidence for proinflammatory involvement in the neurobiology of depressive disorders and symptoms associated with these disorders, including aspects of memory dysfunction. Recent clinical studies implicate inflammation-related changes in kynurenine metabolism as a potential pathogenic factor in the development of a range of depressive symptoms, including deficits in cognition and memory. Additionally, preclinical work has demonstrated a number of mood-related depressive-like behaviors to be dependent on indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO1), the inflammation-induced rate-limiting enzyme of the kynurenine pathway. Here, we demonstrate in a mouse model, that peripheral administration of endotoxin induced a deficit in recognition memory. Mice deficient in IDO were protected from cognitive impairment. Furthermore, endotoxin-induced inflammation increased kynurenine metabolism within the perirhinal/entorhinal cortices, brain regions which have been implicated in recognition memory. A single peripheral injection of kynurenine, the metabolic product of IDO1, was sufficient to induce a deficit in recognition memory in both control and IDO null mice. Finally, kynurenine monooxygenase (KMO) deficient mice were also protected from inflammation-induced deficits on novel object recognition. These data implicate IDO-dependent neurotoxic kynurenine metabolism as a pathogenic factor for cognitive dysfunction in inflammation-induced depressive disorders and a potential novel target for the treatment of these disorders. PMID:26130057

  6. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-dependent neurotoxic kynurenine metabolism mediates inflammation-induced deficit in recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Heisler, Jillian M; O'Connor, Jason C

    2015-11-01

    Cognitive dysfunction in depression is a prevalent and debilitating symptom that is poorly treated by the currently available pharmacotherapies. Research over the past decade has provided evidence for proinflammatory involvement in the neurobiology of depressive disorders and symptoms associated with these disorders, including aspects of memory dysfunction. Recent clinical studies implicate inflammation-related changes in kynurenine metabolism as a potential pathogenic factor in the development of a range of depressive symptoms, including deficits in cognition and memory. Additionally, preclinical work has demonstrated a number of mood-related depressive-like behaviors to be dependent on indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO1), the inflammation-induced rate-limiting enzyme of the kynurenine pathway. Here, we demonstrate in a mouse model, that peripheral administration of endotoxin induced a deficit in recognition memory. Mice deficient in IDO were protected from cognitive impairment. Furthermore, endotoxin-induced inflammation increased kynurenine metabolism within the perirhinal/entorhinal cortices, brain regions which have been implicated in recognition memory. A single peripheral injection of kynurenine, the metabolic product of IDO1, was sufficient to induce a deficit in recognition memory in both control and IDO null mice. Finally, kynurenine monooxygenase (KMO) deficient mice were also protected from inflammation-induced deficits on novel object recognition. These data implicate IDO-dependent neurotoxic kynurenine metabolism as a pathogenic factor for cognitive dysfunction in inflammation-induced depressive disorders and a potential novel target for the treatment of these disorders. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Dioxygenases catalyze O-demethylation and O,O-demethylenation with widespread roles in benzylisoquinoline alkaloid metabolism in opium poppy.

    PubMed

    Farrow, Scott C; Facchini, Peter J

    2013-10-04

    In opium poppy, the antepenultimate and final steps in morphine biosynthesis are catalyzed by the 2-oxoglutarate/Fe(II)-dependent dioxygenases, thebaine 6-O-demethylase (T6ODM) and codeine O-demethylase (CODM). Further investigation into the biochemical functions of CODM and T6ODM revealed extensive and unexpected roles for such enzymes in the metabolism of protopine, benzo[c]phenanthridine, and rhoeadine alkaloids. When assayed with a wide range of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, CODM, T6ODM, and the functionally unassigned paralog DIOX2, renamed protopine O-dealkylase, showed novel and efficient dealkylation activities, including regio- and substrate-specific O-demethylation and O,O-demethylenation. Enzymes catalyzing O,O-demethylenation, which cleave a methylenedioxy bridge leaving two hydroxyl groups, have previously not been reported in plants. Similar cleavage of methylenedioxy bridges on substituted amphetamines is catalyzed by heme-dependent cytochromes P450 in mammals. Preferred substrates for O,O-demethylenation by CODM and protopine O-dealkylase were protopine alkaloids that serve as intermediates in the biosynthesis of benzo[c]phenanthridine and rhoeadine derivatives. Virus-induced gene silencing used to suppress the abundance of CODM and/or T6ODM transcripts indicated a direct physiological role for these enzymes in the metabolism of protopine alkaloids, and they revealed their indirect involvement in the formation of the antimicrobial benzo[c]phenanthridine sanguinarine and certain rhoeadine alkaloids in opium poppy.

  8. Dioxygenases Catalyze O-Demethylation and O,O-Demethylenation with Widespread Roles in Benzylisoquinoline Alkaloid Metabolism in Opium Poppy*

    PubMed Central

    Farrow, Scott C.; Facchini, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    In opium poppy, the antepenultimate and final steps in morphine biosynthesis are catalyzed by the 2-oxoglutarate/Fe(II)-dependent dioxygenases, thebaine 6-O-demethylase (T6ODM) and codeine O-demethylase (CODM). Further investigation into the biochemical functions of CODM and T6ODM revealed extensive and unexpected roles for such enzymes in the metabolism of protopine, benzo[c]phenanthridine, and rhoeadine alkaloids. When assayed with a wide range of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, CODM, T6ODM, and the functionally unassigned paralog DIOX2, renamed protopine O-dealkylase, showed novel and efficient dealkylation activities, including regio- and substrate-specific O-demethylation and O,O-demethylenation. Enzymes catalyzing O,O-demethylenation, which cleave a methylenedioxy bridge leaving two hydroxyl groups, have previously not been reported in plants. Similar cleavage of methylenedioxy bridges on substituted amphetamines is catalyzed by heme-dependent cytochromes P450 in mammals. Preferred substrates for O,O-demethylenation by CODM and protopine O-dealkylase were protopine alkaloids that serve as intermediates in the biosynthesis of benzo[c]phenanthridine and rhoeadine derivatives. Virus-induced gene silencing used to suppress the abundance of CODM and/or T6ODM transcripts indicated a direct physiological role for these enzymes in the metabolism of protopine alkaloids, and they revealed their indirect involvement in the formation of the antimicrobial benzo[c]phenanthridine sanguinarine and certain rhoeadine alkaloids in opium poppy. PMID:23928311

  9. The role of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase in the induction of immune tolerance: focus on hematology.

    PubMed

    Curti, Antonio; Trabanelli, Sara; Salvestrini, Valentina; Baccarani, Michele; Lemoli, Roberto M

    2009-03-12

    The regulation of the interaction between the immune system and antigens, which may lead to the induction of immune tolerance, is critical both under physiologic conditions and in different pathological settings. In the past few years, major strides have been made in our understanding of the molecular and cellular bases of this process. Novel pathways have been identified and several novel therapeutic agents are currently under clinical investigation for those diseases in which the normal balance between activation and suppression of the immune response is altered. The tryptophan catabolic enzyme, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), is one of the key players involved in the inhibition of cell proliferation, including that of activated T cells. Recent works have demonstrated a crucial role for IDO in the induction of immune tolerance during infection, pregnancy, transplantation, autoimmunity, and neoplasias, including hematologic malignancies. In this review, the role of IDO in the induction of immunologic tolerance is addressed with a specific focus on its recently discovered effect on hematologic malignancies.

  10. Discovery of a bacterium, with distinctive dioxygenase, that is responsible for in situ biodegradation in contaminated sediment

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, C. O.; Park, W.; Padmanabhan, P.; DeRito, C.; Snape, J. R.; Madsen, E. L.

    2003-01-01

    Microorganisms maintain the biosphere by catalyzing biogeochemical processes, including biodegradation of organic chemical pollutants. Yet seldom have the responsible agents and their respective genes been identified. Here we used field-based stable isotopic probing (SIP) to discover a group of bacteria responsible for in situ metabolism of an environmental pollutant, naphthalene. We released 13C-labeled naphthalene in a contaminated study site to trace the flow of pollutant carbon into the naturally occurring microbial community. Using GC/MS, molecular biology, and classical microbiological techniques we documented 13CO2 evolution (2.3% of the dose in 8 h), created a library of 16S rRNA gene clones from 13C labeled sediment DNA, identified a taxonomic cluster (92 of 95 clones) from the microbial community involved in metabolism of the added naphthalene, and isolated a previously undescribed bacterium (strain CJ2) from site sediment whose 16S rRNA gene matched that of the dominant member (48%) of the clone library. Strain CJ2 is a β proteobacterium closely related to Polaromonas vacuolata. Moreover, strain CJ2 hosts the sequence of a naphthalene dioxygenase gene, prevalent in site sediment, detected before only in environmental DNA. This investigative strategy may have general application for elucidating the bases of many biogeochemical processes, hence for advancing knowledge and management of ecological and industrial systems that rely on microorganisms. PMID:14597712

  11. Theoretical approach to the innovative mutation of naphthalene 1,2-dioxygenase: a molecular dynamics and docking study.

    PubMed

    Librando, Vito; Pappalardo, Matteo

    2014-08-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are a family of ubiquitous pollutants whose environmental behavior has been widely studied. Different bacterial species are able to decompose hydrocarbons by using them as a food source. One of the best-studied enzymes is naphthalene 1,2-dioxygenase (NDO). A practical way to optimize the degradation process is by mutating the protein involved, increasing both the degradation capacity of the enzyme and its ability to work under extreme environmental conditions of high temperature and low pH. Herein, we describe the study of NDO using molecular dynamics and docking calculations to discover new mutants with high degrading capabilities. We modeled eleven new mutants of NDO. The results indicate that increasing the size of the active site cavity in the mutants allowed for the insertion of high molecular weight PAHs. Additionally, the physicochemical properties of the NDO active sites make the sites well suited to interactions with PAHs, so most amino-acid modifications should not result in significantly altered behavior of NDO.

  12. Altering Catalytic Properties of 3-Chlorocatechol-Oxidizing Extradiol Dioxygenase from Sphingomonas xenophaga BN6 by Random Mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Riegert, Ulrich; Bürger, Sibylle; Stolz, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    The 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl 1,2-dioxygenase from Sphingomonas xenophaga strain BN6 (BphC1) oxidizes 3-chlorocatechol by a rather unique distal ring cleavage mechanism. In an effort to improve the efficiency of this reaction, bphC1 was randomly mutated by error-prone PCR. Mutants which showed increased activities for 3-chlorocatechol were obtained, and the mutant forms of the enzyme were shown to contain two or three amino acid substitutions. Variant enzymes containing single substitutions were constructed, and the amino acid substitutions responsible for altered enzyme properties were identified. One variant enzyme, which contained an exchanged amino acid in the C-terminal part, revealed a higher level of stability during conversion of 3-chlorocatechol than the wild-type enzyme. Two other variant enzymes contained amino acid substitutions in a region of the enzyme that is considered to be involved in substrate binding. These two variant enzymes exhibited a significantly altered substrate specificity and an about fivefold-higher reaction rate for 3-chlorocatechol conversion than the wild-type enzyme. Furthermore, these variant enzymes showed the novel capability to oxidize 3-methylcatechol and 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl by a distal cleavage mechanism. PMID:11244073

  13. Altering catalytic properties of 3-chlorocatechol-oxidizing extradiol dioxygenase from Sphingomonas xenophaga BN6 by random mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Riegert, U; Bürger, S; Stolz, A

    2001-04-01

    The 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl 1,2-dioxygenase from Sphingomonas xenophaga strain BN6 (BphC1) oxidizes 3-chlorocatechol by a rather unique distal ring cleavage mechanism. In an effort to improve the efficiency of this reaction, bphC1 was randomly mutated by error-prone PCR. Mutants which showed increased activities for 3-chlorocatechol were obtained, and the mutant forms of the enzyme were shown to contain two or three amino acid substitutions. Variant enzymes containing single substitutions were constructed, and the amino acid substitutions responsible for altered enzyme properties were identified. One variant enzyme, which contained an exchanged amino acid in the C-terminal part, revealed a higher level of stability during conversion of 3-chlorocatechol than the wild-type enzyme. Two other variant enzymes contained amino acid substitutions in a region of the enzyme that is considered to be involved in substrate binding. These two variant enzymes exhibited a significantly altered substrate specificity and an about fivefold-higher reaction rate for 3-chlorocatechol conversion than the wild-type enzyme. Furthermore, these variant enzymes showed the novel capability to oxidize 3-methylcatechol and 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl by a distal cleavage mechanism.

  14. Vanadium-based, extended catalytic lifetime catechol dioxygenases: evidence for a common catalyst.

    PubMed

    Yin, Cindy-Xing; Finke, Richard G

    2005-06-29

    In 1999, a catechol dioxygenase derived from a V-polyoxometalate was reported which was able to perform a record >100 000 total turnovers of 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol oxygenation using O2 as the oxidant (Weiner, H.; Finke, R. G. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1999, 121, 9831). An important goal is to better understand this and other vanadium-based catechol dioxygenases. Scrutiny of 11 literature reports of vanadium-based catechol dioxygenases yielded the insight that they all proceed with closely similar selectivities. This, in turn, led to a "common catalyst hypothesis" for the broad range of vanadium based catechol dioxygenase precatalysts presently known. The following three classes of V-based compounds, 10 complexes total, have been explored to test the common catalyst hypothesis: (i) six vanadium-based polyoxometalate precatalysts, (n-Bu4N)4H5PV14O42, (n-Bu4N)7SiW9V3O40, (n-Bu4N)5[(CH3CN)(x)Fe(II).SiW9V3O40], (n-Bu4N)9P2W15V3O62, (n-Bu4N)5Na2[(CH3CN)(x)Fe(II).P2W15V3O62], and (n-Bu4N)4H2-gamma-SiW10V2O40; (ii) three vanadium catecholate complexes, [V(V)O(DBSQ)(DTBC)]2, [Et3NH]2[V(IV)O(DBTC)2].2CH3OH, and [Na(CH3OH)2]2[V(V)(DTBC)3]2.4CH3OH (where DBSQ = 3,5-di-tert-butylsemiquinone anion and DTBC = 3,5-di-tert-butylcatecholate dianion), and (iii) simple VO(acac)2. Product selectivity studies, catalytic lifetime tests, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR), negative ion mode electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (negative ion ESI-MS), and kinetic studies provided compelling evidence for a common catalyst or catalyst resting state, namely, Pierpont's structurally characterized vanadyl semiquinone catecholate dimer complex, [VO(DBSQ)(DTBC)]2, formed from V-leaching from the precatalysts. The results provide a considerable simplification and unification of a previously disparate literature of V-based catechol dioxygenases.

  15. Purification and Characterization of Two Enantioselective α-Ketoglutarate-Dependent Dioxygenases, RdpA and SdpA, from Sphingomonas herbicidovorans MH

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Tina A.; Fleischmann, Thomas; van der Meer, Jan Roelof; Kohler, Hans-Peter E.

    2006-01-01

    α-Ketoglutarate-dependent (R)-dichlorprop dioxygenase (RdpA) and α-ketoglutarate-dependent (S)-dichlorprop dioxygenase (SdpA), which are involved in the degradation of phenoxyalkanoic acid herbicides in Sphingomonas herbicidovorans MH, were expressed and purified as His6-tagged fusion proteins from Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)(pLysS). RdpA and SdpA belong to subgroup II of the α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases and share the specific motif HXDX24TX131HX10R. Amino acids His-111, Asp-113, and His-270 and amino acids His-102, Asp-104, and His 257 comprise the 2-His-1-carboxylate facial triads and were predicted to be involved in iron binding in RdpA and SdpA, respectively. RdpA exclusively transformed the (R) enantiomers of mecoprop [2-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)propanoic acid] and dichlorprop [2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)propanoic acid], whereas SdpA was specific for the (S) enantiomers. The apparent Km values were 99 μM for (R)-mecoprop, 164 μM for (R)-dichlorprop, and 3 μM for α-ketoglutarate for RdpA and 132 μM for (S)-mecoprop, 495 μM for (S)-dichlorprop, and 20 μM for α-ketoglutarate for SdpA. Both enzymes had high apparent Km values for oxygen; these values were 159 μM for SdpA and >230 μM for RdpA, whose activity was linearly dependent on oxygen at the concentration range measured. Both enzymes had narrow cosubstrate specificity; only 2-oxoadipate was able to replace α-ketoglutarate, and the rates were substantially diminished. Ferrous iron was necessary for activity of the enzymes, and other divalent cations could not replace it. Although the results of growth experiments suggest that strain MH harbors a specific 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid-converting enzyme, tfdA-, tfdAα-, or cadAB-like genes were not discovered in a screening analysis in which heterologous hybridization and PCR were used. PMID:16820480

  16. Origin of the Proton-transfer Step in the Cofactor-free (1H)-3-Hydroxy-4-oxoquinaldine 2,4-Dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Ortega, Aitor; Quesne, Matthew G.; Bui, Soi; Heuts, Dominic P. H. M.; Steiner, Roberto A.; Heyes, Derren J.; de Visser, Sam P.; Scrutton, Nigel S.

    2014-01-01

    Dioxygenases catalyze a diverse range of chemical reactions that involve the incorporation of oxygen into a substrate and typically use a transition metal or organic cofactor for reaction. Bacterial (1H)-3-hydroxy-4-oxoquinaldine 2,4-dioxygenase (HOD) belongs to a class of oxygenases able to catalyze this energetically unfavorable reaction without any cofactor. In the quinaldine metabolic pathway, HOD breaks down its natural N-heteroaromatic substrate using a mechanism that is still incompletely understood. Experimental and computational approaches were combined to study the initial step of the catalytic cycle. We have investigated the role of the active site His-251/Asp-126 dyad, proposed to be involved in substrate hydroxyl group deprotonation, a critical requirement for subsequent oxygen reaction. The pH profiles obtained under steady-state conditions for the H251A and D126A variants show a strong pH effect on their kcat and kcat/Km constants, with a decrease in kcat/Km of 5500- and 9-fold at pH 10.5, respectively. Substrate deprotonation studies under transient-state conditions show that this step is not rate-limiting and yield a pKa value of ∼7.2 for WT HOD. A large solvent isotope effect was found, and the pKa value was shifted to ∼8.3 in D2O. Crystallographic and computational studies reveal that the mutations have a minor effect on substrate positioning. Computational work shows that both His-251 and Asp-126 are essential for the proton transfer driving force of the initial reaction. This multidisciplinary study offers unambiguous support to the view that substrate deprotonation, driven by the His/Asp dyad, is an essential requirement for its activation. PMID:24482238

  17. Mechanism of Repair of Acrolein- and Malondialdehyde-Derived Exocyclic Guanine Adducts by the α-Ketoglutarate/Fe(II) Dioxygenase AlkB

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The structurally related exocyclic guanine adducts α-hydroxypropano-dG (α-OH-PdG), γ-hydroxypropano-dG (γ-OH-PdG), and M1dG are formed when DNA is exposed to the reactive aldehydes acrolein and malondialdehyde (MDA). These lesions are believed to form the basis for the observed cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of acrolein and MDA. In an effort to understand the enzymatic pathways and chemical mechanisms that are involved in the repair of acrolein- and MDA-induced DNA damage, we investigated the ability of the DNA repair enzyme AlkB, an α-ketoglutarate/Fe(II) dependent dioxygenase, to process α-OH-PdG, γ-OH-PdG, and M1dG in both single- and double-stranded DNA contexts. By monitoring the repair reactions using quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) mass spectrometry, it was established that AlkB can oxidatively dealkylate γ-OH-PdG most efficiently, followed by M1dG and α-OH-PdG. The AlkB repair mechanism involved multiple intermediates and complex, overlapping repair pathways. For example, the three exocyclic guanine adducts were shown to be in equilibrium with open-ring aldehydic forms, which were trapped using (pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine (PFBHA) or NaBH4. AlkB repaired the trapped open-ring form of γ-OH-PdG but not the trapped open-ring of α-OH-PdG. Taken together, this study provides a detailed mechanism by which three-carbon bridge exocyclic guanine adducts can be processed by AlkB and suggests an important role for the AlkB family of dioxygenases in protecting against the deleterious biological consequences of acrolein and MDA. PMID:25157679

  18. Identification of biphenyl 2, 3-dioxygenase and its catabolic role for phenazine degradation in Sphingobium yanoikuyae B1.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qiang; Bilal, Muhammad; Yue, Shengjie; Hu, Hongbo; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Xuehong

    2017-12-15

    Phenazines are important nitrogen-containing secondary metabolites that display a range of biological functionalities. However, these compounds have shown lethal effects on humans and, the fate of phenazine in the ecosystem remains uncertain. In this study, we investigated that Sphingobium yanoikuyae B1 could utilize phenazine as a sole carbon source for growth. Intermediate produced during phenazine degradation was purified and identified as 1, 2-dihydrogen 1, 2-dihydroxy phenazine. Biphenyl 2, 3-dioxygenase was determined to be the initial dioxygenase for phenazine degradation through gene cloning and whole cell transformation techniques. Phenazine was converted to 1, 2-dihydrogen 1, 2-dihydroxy phenazine through hydrogenation and hydroxylation, which then transformed to 2-hydroxy phenazine through spontaneous dehydration. ThebphA1fA2f, were evidenced to be the only genes encoding the initial dioxygenase for phenazine degradation. BphB (dihydrodiol dehydrogenase) and BphC (2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl 1,2-dioxygenase) did not exhibit any 1, 2-dihydrogen 1, 2-dihydroxy phenazine and 1, 2-dihydroxy phenazine degradation capability, suggesting no contribution in phenazine degradation. Phylogenetic analysis of the dioxygenases demonstrated enormous biodegradation potential in strain B1. In conclusion, this study opens up new possibilities in better understanding the phenazine degradation in the environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cloning, sequence analysis, and expression of the Pseudomonas putida 33/1 1H-3-hydroxy-4-oxoquinoline 2,4-dioxygenase gene, encoding a carbon monoxide forming dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Max, N; Betz, A; Facey, S; Lingens, F; Hauer, B; Fetzner, S

    1999-05-18

    1H-3-hydroxy-4-oxoquinoline 2,4-dioxygenase (Qdo) from the 1H-4-oxoquinoline utilizing Pseudomonas putida strain 33/1, which catalyzes the cleavage of 1H-3-hydroxy-4-oxoquinoline to carbon monoxide and N-formylanthranilate, is devoid of any transition metal ion or other cofactor and thus represents a novel type of ring-cleavage dioxygenase. Gene qdo was cloned and sequenced. Its overexpression in Escherichia coli yielded recombinant His-tagged Qdo which was catalytically active. Qdo exhibited 36% and 16% amino acid identity to 1H-3-hydroxy-4-oxoquinaldine 2,4-dioxygenase (Hod) and atropinesterase (a serine hydrolase), respectively. Qdo as well as Hod possesses a SXSHG motif, resembling the motif GXSXG of the serine hydrolases which comprises the active-site nucleophile (X=arbitrary residue).

  20. Oxidation of chlorinated olefins by Escherichia coli transformed with dimethyl sulfide monooxygenase genes or cumene dioxygenase genes.

    PubMed

    Takami, Wako; Yoshida, Takako; Nojiri, Hideaki; Yamane, Hisakazu; Omori, Toshio

    1999-04-01

    In the present work, it was shown that the dimethyl sulfide (DMS) monooxygenase and the cumene dioxygenase catalyzed oxidation of various chlorinated ethenes, propenes, and butenes. The specific activities of these oxygenases were determined for C(2) to C(4) chlorinated olefins, and the oxidation rates ranged from 0.19 to 4.18 nmol.min(-1).mg(-1) of dry cells by the DMS monooxygenase and from 0.19 to 1.29 nmol.min(-1).mg(-1) of dry cells by the cumene dioxygenase. The oxidation products were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Most chlorinated olefins were monooxygenated by the DMS monooxygenase to yield chlorinated epoxides. In the case of the cumene dioxygenase, the substrates lacking any chlorine atom on double-bond carbon atoms were dioxygenated, and those with chlorine atoms attaching to double-bond carbon atoms were monooxygenated to yield allyl alcohols.

  1. Chemical Components from Aloe and their Inhibition of Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ya Nan; Li, Lin Ying; Li, Wei; Kang, Jong Seong; Hwang, Inkyu; Kim, Young Ho

    2017-01-01

    Background: In Korea, Aloe is routinely ingested as a traditional medicine or as a component of health beverages. Objective: To research the inhibition of indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) activities of components from Aloe. Materials and Methods: the compounds were isolated by a combination of silica gel and YMC Rp-18 column chromatography, and their structures were identified by analysis of spectroscopic data (1D, 2D-NMR, and MS). All of the isolated compounds were examined for their ability to inhibit IDO, which actively suppresses immune functions by catalyzing the rate limiting reaction in the conversion of tryptophan to kynurenine. Results: In this phytochemical study, 18 known compounds were isolated from aqueous dissolved Aloe exudates. All of the isolated compounds were examined for their ability to inhibit IDO activities for a series of anthraquinone derivatives (1-7) isolated from the Aloe extract; the IC50 values of these compounds ranged from 39.41 to 53.93 µM. Enzyme kinetic studies of their modes of inhibition indicated that all of the compounds were uncompetitive inhibitors. Conclusion: The aqueous dissolved Aloe exudate can be used as a source of novel natural IDO inhibitors and merit testing as therapeutic agents in the treatments of cancer and immunopathologic diseases, such as autoimmune, inflammatory, and allergic disorders. SUMMARY In this study, 18 known compounds were isolated from aqueous dissolved Aloe exudates. All of the isolated compounds were examined for their ability to inhibit indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) activities for a series of anthraquinone derivatives (1−7) isolated from the Aloe extract. Abbreviation used: IDO: inhibit indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase, TMS: tetramethylsilane, HMQC: heteronuclear multiple quantum correlation, HMBC: heteronuclear multiple bond correlation, COSY: 1H-1H correlation spectroscopy, ESI-MS: Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, DMSO: dimethyl sulfoxide PMID:28216884

  2. Control of Substrate Specificity by Active-Site Residues in Nitrobenzene Dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Kou-San; Parales, Rebecca E.

    2006-01-01

    Nitrobenzene 1,2-dioxygenase from Comamonas sp. strain JS765 catalyzes the initial reaction in nitrobenzene degradation, forming catechol and nitrite. The enzyme also oxidizes the aromatic rings of mono- and dinitrotoluenes at the nitro-substituted carbon, but the basis for this specificity is not understood. In this study, site-directed mutagenesis was used to modify the active site of nitrobenzene dioxygenase, and the contribution of specific residues in controlling substrate specificity and enzyme performance was evaluated. The activities of six mutant enzymes indicated that the residues at positions 258, 293, and 350 in the α subunit are important for determining regiospecificity with nitroarene substrates and enantiospecificity with naphthalene. The results provide an explanation for the characteristic specificity with nitroarene substrates. Based on the structure of nitrobenzene dioxygenase, substitution of valine for the asparagine at position 258 should eliminate a hydrogen bond between the substrate nitro group and the amino group of asparagine. Up to 99% of the mononitrotoluene oxidation products formed by the N258V mutant were nitrobenzyl alcohols rather than catechols, supporting the importance of this hydrogen bond in positioning substrates in the active site for ring oxidation. Similar results were obtained with an I350F mutant, where the formation of the hydrogen bond appeared to be prevented by steric interference. The specificity of enzymes with substitutions at position 293 varied depending on the residue present. Compared to the wild type, the F293Q mutant was 2.5 times faster at oxidizing 2,6-dinitrotoluene while retaining a similar Km for the substrate based on product formation rates and whole-cell kinetics. PMID:16517627

  3. The Crystal Structure of the Ring-Hydroxylating Dioxygenase from Sphingomonas CHY-1

    SciTech Connect

    Jakoncic,J.; Jouanneau, Y.; Meyer, C.; Stojanoff, V.

    2007-01-01

    The ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase (RHD) from Sphingomonas CHY-1 is remarkable due to its ability to initiate the oxidation of a wide range of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), including PAHs containing four- and five-fused rings, known pollutants for their toxic nature. Although the terminal oxygenase from CHY-1 exhibits limited sequence similarity with well characterized RHDs from the naphthalene dioxygenase family, the crystal structure determined to 1.85 {angstrom} by molecular replacement revealed the enzyme to share the same global {alpha}{sub 3}{beta}{sub 3} structural pattern. The catalytic domain distinguishes itself from other bacterial non-heme Rieske iron oxygenases by a substantially larger hydrophobic substrate binding pocket, the largest ever reported for this type of enzyme. While residues in the proximal region close to the mononuclear iron atom are conserved, the central region of the catalytic pocket is shaped mainly by the side chains of three amino acids, Phe350, Phe404 and Leu356, which contribute to the rather uniform trapezoidal shape of the pocket. Two flexible loops, LI and LII, exposed to the solvent seem to control the substrate access to the catalytic pocket and control the pocket length. Compared with other naphthalene dioxygenases residues Leu223 and Leu226, on loop LI, are moved towards the solvent, thus elongating the catalytic pocket by at least 2 {angstrom}. An 11 {angstrom} long water channel extends from the interface between the {alpha} and {beta} subunits to the catalytic site. The comparison of these structures with other known oxygenases suggests that the broad substrate specificity presented by the CHY-1 oxygenase is primarily due to the large size and particular topology of its catalytic pocket and provided the basis for the study of its reaction mechanism.

  4. SPECTROSCOPIC STUDIES OF THE ANAEROBIC ENZYME-SUBSTRATE COMPLEX OF CATECHOL 1,2-DIOXYGENASE

    PubMed Central

    Horsman, Geoff P.; Jirasek, Andrew; Vaillancourt, Frédéric H.; Barbosa, Christopher J.; Jarzecki, Andrzej A.; Xu, Changliang; Mekmouche, Yasmina; Spiro, Thomas G.; Lipscomb, John D.; Blades, Michael W.; Turner, Robin F.B.; Eltis, Lindsay D.

    2008-01-01

    The basis of the respective regiospecificities of intradiol and extradiol dioxygenase is poorly understood and may be linked to the protonation state of the bidentate-bound catechol in the enzyme:substrate complex. Previous ultraviolet resonance Raman (UVRR) and UV-visible (UV-vis) difference spectroscopic studies demonstrated that in extradiol dioxygenases, the catechol is bound to the Fe(II) as a monoanion. In this study, we use the same approaches to demonstrate that in catechol 1,2-dioxygenase (C12O), an intradiol enzyme, the catechol binds to the Fe(III) as a dianion. Specifically, features at 290 nm and 1550 cm−1 in the UV-vis and UVRR difference spectra, respectively, are assigned to dianionic catechol based on spectra of the model compound, ferric tris(catecholate). The UVRR spectroscopic band assignments are corroborated by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. In addition, negative features at 240 nm in UV-vis difference spectra and at 1600, 1210, and 1175 cm−1 in UVRR difference spectra match those of a tyrosinate model compound, consistent with protonation of the axial tyrosinate ligand when it is displaced from the ferric ion coordination sphere upon substrate binding. The DFT calculations ascribe the asymmetry of the bound dianionic substrate to the trans donor effect of an equatorially ligated tyrosinate ligand. In addition, the computations suggest that trans donation from the tyrosinate ligand may facilitate charge-transfer from the substrate to yield the iron-bound semiquinone transition state, which is capable of reacting with dioxygen. In illustrating the importance of ligand trans effects in a biological system, the current study demonstrates the power of combining difference UVRR and optical spectroscopies to probe metal ligation in solution. PMID:16316234

  5. [Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase Activity during Fulvestrant Therapy for Multiple Metastatic Breast Cancer Patients].

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Kenichi; Fujisaki, Shigeru; Adachi, Keita; Suzuki, Shuhei; Masuo, Yuki; Nagashima, Saki; Hara, Yukiko; Hirano, Tomohiro; Enomoto, Katsuhisa; Tomita, Ryouichi; Gonda, Kenji

    2016-10-01

    We evaluated the clinical significance of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase(IDO)during fulvestrant therapyfor multiple metastatic breast cancer patients. IDO activitycan be measured using the tryptophan(Trp)/kynurenine(Kyn)ratio. Trp and Kyn were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC). The serum Trp/Kyn level in patients with multiple metastatic breast cancer was lower than in patients without metastases. IDO activityincreased after breast cancer metastases developed. IDO activitywas correlated with the number of metastatic lesions during toremifene and fulvestrant therapy. These results suggested that measurement of the Trp/Kyn ratio is useful to evaluate immunological metastatic status during endocrine therapy.

  6. Heterologous Expression and Characterization of Two 1-Hydroxy-2-Naphthoic Acid Dioxygenases from Arthrobacter phenanthrenivorans

    PubMed Central

    Kavakiotis, Konstantinos; Kallimanis, Aristeidis; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Drainas, Constantin; Koukkou, Anna-Irini

    2012-01-01

    A protein fraction exhibiting 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid (1-H2NA) dioxygenase activity was purified via ion exchange, hydrophobic interactions, and gel filtration chromatography from Arthrobacter phenanthrenivorans sp. nov. strain Sphe3 isolated from a Greek creosote-oil-polluted site. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and tandem MS (MS-MS) analysis revealed that the amino acid sequences of oligopeptides of the major 45-kDa protein species, as analyzed by SDS-PAGE and silver staining, comprising 29% of the whole sequence, exhibited strong homology with 1-H2NA dioxygenase of Nocardioides sp. strain KP7. A BLAST search of the recently sequenced Sphe3 genome revealed two putative open reading frames, named diox1 and diox2, showing 90% nucleotide identity to each other and 85% identity at the amino acid level with the Nocardia sp. homologue. diox1 was found on an indigenous Sphe3 plasmid, whereas diox2 was located on the chromosome. Both genes were induced by the presence of phenanthrene used as a sole carbon and energy source, and as expected, both were subject to carbon catabolite repression. The relative RNA transcription level of the chromosomal (diox2) gene was significantly higher than that of its plasmid (diox1) homologue. Both diox1 and diox2 putative genes were PCR amplified, cloned, and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant E. coli cells expressed 1-H2NA dioxygenase activity. Recombinant enzymes exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics with an apparent Km of 35 μM for Diox1 and 29 μM for Diox2, whereas they showed similar kinetic turnover characteristics with Kcat/Km values of 11 × 106 M−1 s−1 and 12 × 106 M−1 s−1, respectively. Occurrence of two diox1 and diox2 homologues in the Sphe3 genome implies that a replicative transposition event has contributed to the evolution of 1-H2NA dioxygenase in A. phenanthrenivorans. PMID:22101055

  7. The second enzyme in pyrrolnitrin biosynthetic pathway is related to the heme-dependent dioxygenase superfamily†

    PubMed Central

    De Laurentis, Walter; Khim, Leang; Anderson, J.L. Ross; Adam, Ariane; Johnson, Kenneth A.; Phillips, Robert S.; Chapman, Stephen K.; van Pee, Karl-Heinz; Naismith, James H.

    2012-01-01

    Pyrrolnitrin is a commonly used and clinically effective treatment for fungal infections and provides the structural basis for the more widely used fludioxinil. The pyrrolnitrin biosynthetic pathway consists of four chemical steps, the second of which is the rearrangement of 7-chloro-tryptophan by the enzyme PrnB, a reaction that is so far unprecedented in biochemistry. When expressed in Pseudomonas fluorescens, PrnB is red in color due to the fact that it contains 1 mole of heme b per mole of protein. The crystal structure unexpectedly establishes PrnB as a member of the heme-dependent dioxygenase superfamily with significant structural but not sequence homology to the two-domain indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase enzyme (IDO). The heme-binding domain is also structurally similar to that of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO). Here we report the binary complex structures of PrnB with D- and L-tryptophan and D- and L-chloro-tryptophan. The structures identify a common hydrophobic pocket for the indole ring but exhibit unusual heme ligation and substrate binding when compared with that observed in the TDO crystal structures. Our solution studies support the heme ligation observed in the crystal structures. Purification of the hexahistidine-tagged PrnB yields homogeneous protein that only displays in vitro activity with 7-chloro-L-tryptophan after reactivation with crude extract from the host strain, suggesting that an as yet unknown cofactor is required for activity. Mutation of the proximal heme ligand results, not surprisingly, in inactive enzyme. Redox titrations show that PrnB displays a significantly different reduction potential to that of IDO or TDO, indicating possible differences in the PrnB catalytic cycle. This is confirmed by the absence of tryptophan dioxygenase activity in PrnB, although a stable oxyferrous adduct (which is the first intermediate in the TDO/IDO catalytic cycle) can be generated. We propose that PrnB shares a key catalytic step with TDO and IDO

  8. Metabolism of Doubly para-Substituted Hydroxychlorobiphenyls by Bacterial Biphenyl Dioxygenases

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Thi Thanh My; Sondossi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we examined the profile of metabolites produced from the doubly para-substituted biphenyl analogs 4,4′-dihydroxybiphenyl, 4-hydroxy-4′-chlorobiphenyl, 3-hydroxy-4,4′-dichlorobiphenyl, and 3,3′-dihydroxy-4,4′-chlorobiphenyl by biphenyl-induced Pandoraea pnomenusa B356 and by its biphenyl dioxygenase (BPDO). 4-Hydroxy-4′-chlorobiphenyl was hydroxylated principally through a 2,3-dioxygenation of the hydroxylated ring to generate 2,3-dihydro-2,3,4-trihydroxy-4′-chlorobiphenyl and 3,4-dihydroxy-4′-chlorobiphenyl after the removal of water. The former was further oxidized by the biphenyl dioxygenase to produce ultimately 3,4,5-trihydroxy-4′-chlorobiphenyl, a dead-end metabolite. 3-Hydroxy-4,4′-dichlorobiphenyl was oxygenated on both rings. Hydroxylation of the nonhydroxylated ring generated 2,3,3′-trihydroxy-4′-chlorobiphenyl with concomitant dechlorination, and 2,3,3′-trihydroxy-4′-chlorobiphenyl was ultimately metabolized to 2-hydroxy-4-chlorobenzoate, but hydroxylation of the hydroxylated ring generated dead-end metabolites. 3,3′-Dihydroxy-4,4′-dichlorobiphenyl was principally metabolized through a 2,3-dioxygenation to generate 2,3-dihydro-2,3,3′-trihydroxy-4,4′-dichlorobiphenyl, which was ultimately converted to 3-hydroxy-4-chlorobenzoate. Similar metabolites were produced when the biphenyl dioxygenase of Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 was used to catalyze the reactions, except that for the three substrates used, the BPDO of LB400 was less efficient than that of B356, and unlike that of B356, it was unable to further oxidize the initial reaction products. Together the data show that BPDO oxidation of doubly para-substituted hydroxychlorobiphenyls may generate nonnegligible amounts of dead-end metabolites. Therefore, biphenyl dioxygenase could produce metabolites other than those expected, corresponding to dihydrodihydroxy metabolites from initial doubly para-substituted substrates. This finding shows that a clear

  9. The second enzyme in pyrrolnitrin biosynthetic pathway is related to the heme-dependent dioxygenase superfamily.

    PubMed

    De Laurentis, Walter; Khim, Leang; Anderson, J L Ross; Adam, Ariane; Johnson, Kenneth A; Phillips, Robert S; Chapman, Stephen K; van Pee, Karl-Heinz; Naismith, James H

    2007-10-30

    Pyrrolnitrin is a commonly used and clinically effective treatment for fungal infections and provides the structural basis for the more widely used fludioxinil. The pyrrolnitrin biosynthetic pathway consists of four chemical steps, the second of which is the rearrangement of 7-chloro-tryptophan by the enzyme PrnB, a reaction that is so far unprecedented in biochemistry. When expressed in Pseudomonas fluorescens, PrnB is red in color due to the fact that it contains 1 mol of heme b per mole of protein. The crystal structure unexpectedly establishes PrnB as a member of the heme-dependent dioxygenase superfamily with significant structural but not sequence homology to the two-domain indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase enzyme (IDO). The heme-binding domain is also structurally similar to that of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO). Here we report the binary complex structures of PrnB with d- and l-tryptophan and d- and l-7-chloro-tryptophan. The structures identify a common hydrophobic pocket for the indole ring but exhibit unusual heme ligation and substrate binding when compared with that observed in the TDO crystal structures. Our solution studies support the heme ligation observed in the crystal structures. Purification of the hexahistidine-tagged PrnB yields homogeneous protein that only displays in vitro activity with 7-chloro-l-tryptophan after reactivation with crude extract from the host strain, suggesting that an as yet unknown cofactor is required for activity. Mutation of the proximal heme ligand results, not surprisingly, in inactive enzyme. Redox titrations show that PrnB displays a significantly different reduction potential to that of IDO or TDO, indicating possible differences in the PrnB catalytic cycle. This is confirmed by the absence of tryptophan dioxygenase activity in PrnB, although a stable oxyferrous adduct (which is the first intermediate in the TDO/IDO catalytic cycle) can be generated. We propose that PrnB shares a key catalytic step with TDO and IDO

  10. Trichloroethylene removal and oxidation toxicity mediated by toluene dioxygenase of Pseudomonas putida

    SciTech Connect

    Heald, S.; Jenkins, R.O.

    1994-12-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a major ground water contaminant and potential health hazard in drinking water. This paper reports on the cometabolism of TCE by a wild-type strain of Pseudomonas putida containing an inducible toluene dioxygenase enzyme. The results show rapid TCE removal by the strain but severe oxidation toxicity and rapid cell death. This is also the first report of enhanced capacity of bacterial cells to remove TCE in the presence of dithiothreitol. Presented also is evidence for induction of toluene degradation by TCE. 17 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. The reduction of the Rieske iron-sulfur cluster in naphthalene dioxygenase by X-rays.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, A; Parales, J V; Parales, R E; Gibson, D T; Eklund, H; Ramaswamy, S

    2000-01-15

    Naphthalene 1,2 dioxygenase (NDO) displays characteristic UV-Vis spectra depending on the oxidation state of the Rieske center. Investigations on crystals of NDO grown for X-ray diffraction experiments showed spectra characteristic of the oxidized form. Crystals reduced in an anaerobic glovebox using sodium-dithionite showed a characteristic reduced spectrum. Spectra of crystals (cooled to 100 K) after being exposed to X-rays for data collection showed spectra corresponding to a reduced Rieske iron center, demonstrating the ability of X-rays to change the oxidation state of the Rieske iron-sulfur cluster in NDO.

  12. Purification and characterization of gentisate 1,2-dioxygenases from Pseudomonas alcaligenes NCIB 9867 and Pseudomonas putida NCIB 9869.

    PubMed

    Feng, Y; Khoo, H E; Poh, C L

    1999-03-01

    Two 3-hydroxybenzoate-inducible gentisate 1,2-dioxygenases were purified to homogeneity from Pseudomonas alcaligenes NCIB 9867 (P25X) and Pseudomonas putida NCIB 9869 (P35X), respectively. The estimated molecular mass of the purified P25X gentisate 1, 2-dioxygenase was 154 kDa, with a subunit mass of 39 kDa. Its structure is deduced to be a tetramer. The pI of this enzyme was established to be 4.8 to 5.0. The subunit mass of P35X gentisate 1, 2-dioxygenase was 41 kDa, and this enzyme was deduced to exist as a dimer, with a native molecular mass of about 82 kDa. The pI of P35X gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase was around 4.6 to 4.8. Both of the gentisate 1,2-dioxygenases exhibited typical saturation kinetics and had apparent Kms of 92 and 143 microM for gentisate, respectively. Broad substrate specificities were exhibited towards alkyl and halogenated gentisate analogs. Both enzymes had similar kinetic turnover characteristics for gentisate, with kcat/Km values of 44.08 x 10(4) s-1 M-1 for the P25X enzyme and 39.34 x 10(4) s-1 M-1 for the P35X enzyme. Higher kcat/Km values were expressed by both enzymes against the substituted gentisates. Significant differences were observed between the N-terminal sequences of the first 23 amino acid residues of the P25X and P35X gentisate 1,2-dioxygenases. The P25X gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase was stable between pH 5.0 and 7.5, with the optimal pH around 8.0. The P35X enzyme showed a pH stability range between 7.0 and 9.0, and the optimum pH was also 8.0. The optimal temperature for both P25X and P35X gentisate 1, 2-dioxygenases was around 50 degrees C, but the P35X enzyme was more heat stable than that from P25X. Both enzymes were strongly stimulated by 0.1 mM Fe2+ but were completely inhibited by the presence of 5 mM Cu2+. Partial inhibition of both enzymes was also observed with 5 mM Mn2+, Zn2+, and EDTA.

  13. Oxidation of aminonitrotoluenes by 2,4-DNT dioxygenase of Burkholderia sp. strain DNT.

    PubMed

    Leungsakul, Thammajun; Keenan, Brendan G; Mori, Masa-aki; Morton, Martha D; Stuart, James D; Smets, Barth F; Wood, Thomas K

    2006-02-05

    Aminonitrotoluenes form rapidly from the reduction of dinitrotoluenes (DNTs) which are priority pollutants and animal carcinogens. For example, 4-amino-2-nitrotoluene (4A2NT) and 2A4NT accumulate from the reduction of 2,4-DNT during its aerobic biodegradation. Here, we show that 2,4-DNT dioxygenase (DDO) from Burkholderia sp. strain DNT oxidizes the aminonitrotoluenes 2A3NT, 2A6NT, 4A3NT, and 5A2NT to 2-amino-3-nitrobenzylalcohol, 2-amino-4-nitro-m-cresol and 3-amino-5-nitro-p-cresol, 4-amino-3-nitrobenzylalcohol and aminonitrocresol, and 2-amino-5-nitro-o-cresol, respectively. 2A5NT and 3A4NT are oxidized to aminonitrocresols and/or aminonitrobenzylalcohols, and 4A2NT is oxidized to aminonitrocresol. Only 2A4NT, a reduced compound derived from 2,4-DNT, was not oxidized by DDO or its three variants. The alpha subunit mutation I204Y resulted in two to fourfold faster oxidization of the aminonitrotoluenes. Though these enzymes are dioxygenases, they acted like monooxygenases by adding a single hydroxyl group, which did not result in the release of nitrite.

  14. A DFT Study of the cis-Dihydroxylation of Nitroaromatic Compounds Catalyzed by Nitrobenzene Dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism of cis-dihydroxylation of nitrobenzene and 2-nitrotoluene catalyzed by nitrobenzene 1,2-dioxygenase (NBDO), a member of the naphthalene family of Rieske non-heme iron dioxygenases, was studied by means of the density functional theory method using four models of the enzyme active site. Different possible reaction pathways for the substrate dioxygenation initiated either by the FeIII–OOH or HO–FeV=O attack on the aromatic ring were considered and the computed activation barriers compared with the Gibbs free energy of activation for the oxygen–oxygen cleavage leading to the formation of the iron(V)–oxo species from its ferric hydroperoxo precursor. The mechanism of the substrate cis-dihydroxylation leading to the formation of a cis-dihydrodiol was then investigated, and the most feasible mechanism was found to be starting with the attack of the high-valent iron–oxo species on the substrate ring yielding a radical intermediate, which further evolves toward the final product. PMID:24624972

  15. Molecular Characterization and Substrate Specificity of Nitrobenzene Dioxygenase from Comamonas sp. Strain JS765

    PubMed Central

    Lessner, Daniel J.; Johnson, Glenn R.; Parales, Rebecca E.; Spain, Jim C.; Gibson, David T.

    2002-01-01

    Comamonas sp. strain JS765 can grow with nitrobenzene as the sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy. We report here the sequence of the genes encoding nitrobenzene dioxygenase (NBDO), which catalyzes the first step in the degradation of nitrobenzene by strain JS765. The components of NBDO were designated ReductaseNBZ, FerredoxinNBZ, OxygenaseNBZα, and OxygenaseNBZβ, with the gene designations nbzAa, nbzAb, nbzAc, and nbzAd, respectively. Sequence analysis showed that the components of NBDO have a high level of homology with the naphthalene family of Rieske nonheme iron oxygenases, in particular, 2-nitrotoluene dioxygenase from Pseudomonas sp. strain JS42. The enzyme oxidizes a wide range of substrates, and relative reaction rates with partially purified OxygenaseNBZ revealed a preference for 3-nitrotoluene, which was shown to be a growth substrate for JS765. NBDO is the first member of the naphthalene family of Rieske nonheme iron oxygenases reported to oxidize all of the isomers of mono- and dinitrotoluenes with the concomitant release of nitrite. PMID:11823201

  16. A DFT study of the cis-dihydroxylation of nitroaromatic compounds catalyzed by nitrobenzene dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Pabis, Anna; Geronimo, Inacrist; Paneth, Piotr

    2014-03-27

    The mechanism of cis-dihydroxylation of nitrobenzene and 2-nitrotoluene catalyzed by nitrobenzene 1,2-dioxygenase (NBDO), a member of the naphthalene family of Rieske non-heme iron dioxygenases, was studied by means of the density functional theory method using four models of the enzyme active site. Different possible reaction pathways for the substrate dioxygenation initiated either by the Fe(III)-OOH or HO-Fe(V)═O attack on the aromatic ring were considered and the computed activation barriers compared with the Gibbs free energy of activation for the oxygen-oxygen cleavage leading to the formation of the iron(V)-oxo species from its ferric hydroperoxo precursor. The mechanism of the substrate cis-dihydroxylation leading to the formation of a cis-dihydrodiol was then investigated, and the most feasible mechanism was found to be starting with the attack of the high-valent iron-oxo species on the substrate ring yielding a radical intermediate, which further evolves toward the final product.

  17. The Metabolic and Developmental Roles of Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenase4 from Potato1[W

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Raymond; Ducreux, Laurence J.M.; Morris, Wayne L.; Morris, Jenny A.; Suttle, Jeffrey C.; Ramsay, Gavin; Bryan, Glenn J.; Hedley, Pete E.; Taylor, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    The factors that regulate storage organ carotenoid content remain to be fully elucidated, despite the nutritional and economic importance of this class of compound. Recent findings suggest that carotenoid pool size is determined, at least in part, by the activity of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenase4 (CCD4) activity affects potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber carotenoid content. Microarray analysis revealed elevated expression of the potato CCD4 gene in mature tubers from white-fleshed cultivars compared with higher carotenoid yellow-fleshed tubers. The expression level of the potato CCD4 gene was down-regulated using an RNA interference (RNAi) approach in stable transgenic lines. Down-regulation in tubers resulted in an increased carotenoid content, 2- to 5-fold higher than in control plants. The increase in carotenoid content was mainly due to elevated violaxanthin content, implying that this carotenoid may act as the in vivo substrate. Although transcript level was also reduced in plant organs other than tubers, such as leaves, stems, and roots , there was no change in carotenoid content in these organs. However, carotenoid levels were elevated in flower petals from RNAi lines. As well as changes in tuber carotenoid content, tubers from RNAi lines exhibited phenotypes such as heat sprouting, formation of chain tubers, and an elongated shape. These results suggest that the product of the CCD4 reaction may be an important factor in tuber heat responses. PMID:20688977

  18. Purification and properties of pyrazon dioxygenase from pyrazon-degrading bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sauber, K; Fröhner, C; Rosenberg, G; Eberspächer, J; Lingens, F

    1977-03-15

    Chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and gel filtration on Sephadex revealed that pyrazon dioxygenase from pyrazon-degrading bacteria consists of three different enzyme components. No component alone oxidizes the phenyl moiety of pyrazon, only when the three components are combined can oxidation be detected. Following electron paramagnetic resonance and ultraviolet measurements the protein nature of the three components was determined: component A1 (molecular weight about 180000,red-brown in colour) is an iron-sulphur protein. The existence of approximately two moles of iron and two moles of inorganic sulphur per mole of protein was demonstrated. This enzyme component was purified to homogeneity in disc electrophoresis. Component A2 is a yellow protein of a molecular weight of about 67000. FAD was shown to be the prosthetic group of this protein. Component B (molecular weight about 12000, brown in colour) is a protein of the ferredoxin type, which was purified to homogeneity, as demonstrated by disc electrophoresis. A hypothetical scheme for the cooperation of the three components is proposed: component A2 accepts as cosubstrate NADH and functions as a ferredoxin reductase. The ferredoxin, component B, has the function of an electron carrier. The conversion of the substrates is effected by component A1, the terminal dioxygenase.

  19. Crystal structure of the non-heme iron dioxygenase PtlH in pentalenolactone biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    You, Zheng; Omura, Satoshi; Ikeda, Haruo; Cane, David E; Jogl, Gerwald

    2007-12-14

    The non-heme iron dioxygenase PtlH from the soil organism Streptomyces avermitilis is a member of the iron(II)/alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase superfamily and catalyzes an essential reaction in the biosynthesis of the sesquiterpenoid antibiotic pentalenolactone. To investigate the structural basis for substrate recognition and catalysis, we have determined the x-ray crystal structure of PtlH in several complexes with the cofactors iron, alpha-ketoglutarate, and the non-reactive enantiomer of the substrate, ent-1-deoxypentalenic acid, in four different crystal forms to up to 1.31 A resolution. The overall structure of PtlH forms a double-stranded barrel helix fold, and the cofactor-binding site for iron and alpha-ketoglutarate is similar to other double-stranded barrel helix fold enzymes. Additional secondary structure elements that contribute to the substrate-binding site in PtlH are not conserved in other double-stranded barrel helix fold enzymes. Binding of the substrate enantiomer induces a reorganization of the monoclinic crystal lattice leading to a disorder-order transition of a C-terminal alpha-helix. The newly formed helix blocks the major access to the active site and effectively traps the bound substrate. Kinetic analysis of wild type and site-directed mutant proteins confirms a critical function of two arginine residues in substrate binding, while simulated docking of the enzymatic reaction product reveals the likely orientation of bound substrate.

  20. Distribution of naphthalene dioxygenase genes in crude oil-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuyin; Wang, Jie; Liao, Jingqiu; Xie, Shuguang; Huang, Yi

    2014-11-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are one of the major pollutants in soils in oil exploring areas. Biodegradation is the major process for natural elimination of PAHs from contaminated soils. Functional genes can be used as biomarkers to assess the biodegradation potential of indigenous microbial populations. However, little is known about the distribution of PAH-degrading genes in the environment. The links between environmental parameters and the distribution of PAH metabolic genes remain essentially unclear. The present study investigated the abundance and diversity of naphthalene dioxygenase genes in the oil-contaminated soils in the Shengli Oil Field (China). Spatial variations in the density and diversity of naphthalene dioxygenase genes occurred in this area. Four different sequence genotypes were observed in the contaminated soils, with the predominance of novel PAH-degrading genes. Pearson's correlation analysis illustrated that gene abundance had positive correlations with the levels of total organic carbon and aromatic hydrocarbons, while gene diversity showed a negative correlation with the level of polar aromatics. This work could provide some new insights toward the distribution of PAH metabolic genes and PAH biodegradation potential in oil-contaminated ecosystems.

  1. Catechol 1,2-dioxygenase from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus: purification and properties.

    PubMed Central

    Patel, R N; Hou, C T; Felix, A; Lillard, M O

    1976-01-01

    Procedures for the purification of catechol 1,2-dioxygenase from extracts of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus strain ADP-96 are described. The purified enzyme was homogeneous as judged by ultracentrifugation and acrylamide gel electrophoresis. The enzyme contained 2 g-atoms of iron per mol of protein. The enzyme had a broad substrate specificity and catalyzed the oxidation of catechol, 4-methylcatechol, 3-methylcatechol, and 3-isopropyl catechol. The activity of the enzyme was inhibited by heavy metals, sulfhydryl inhibitors, and substrate analogues. The molecular weight of the enzyme was 85,000 as estimated by filtration on Bio-Gel agarose and 81,000 as estimated by sedimentation equilibrium analysis. The subunit size determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis was 40,000. The amino terminal amino acid was methionine. The amino acid composition and spectral properties of 1,2-dioxygenase are also presented. Antisera prepared against the purified enzyme cross-reacted and inhibited enzyme activity in crude extracts from the other strain of A. calcoaceticus, but failed to cross-react and inhibit isofunctional enzyme from organisms of the genera Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, and Nocardia. Images PMID:58860

  2. Bioconversion of car-3-ene by a dioxygenase of Pleurotus sapidus.

    PubMed

    Lehnert, Nicole; Krings, Ulrich; Sydes, Daniel; Wittig, Maximilian; Berger, Ralf G

    2012-06-30

    Mycelium of the basidiomycete Pleurotus sapidus known to contain a novel dioxygenase was used for the bioconversion of car-3-ene [I]. After 4h of incubation 25.3mgL(-1) car-3-en-5-one [V], 5.4mgL(-1) car-3-en-2-one [VII], and 7.3mgL(-1) car-2-en-4-one [XV] accumulated as major oxidation products. The identity of the respective carenones and their corresponding alcohols was confirmed by comparison with MS and NMR spectral data obtained for synthesized authentic compounds. The peak areas of oxidation products were at least five times higher as compared with autoxidation. A radical mechanism similar to lipoxygenase catalysis was proposed and substantiated with detailed product analyses. The reduction of assumed car-3-ene hydroperoxides to the corresponding alcohols evidenced the radical initiated formation of hydroperoxides and confirmed the regio- and stereo-selectivity of the dioxygenase. The introduction of molecular oxygen into the bicyclic car-3-ene [I] molecule occurred at allylic positions of a cyclic isopentenyl moiety with a pronounced preference for the position adjacent to the non-substituted carbon atom of the C-C-double bond. This co-factor independent selective oxygenation presents an alternative to P450 mono-oxygenase based approaches for the production of terpene derived flavor compounds, pharmaceuticals and other fine chemicals.

  3. Synergistic Substrate and Oxygen Activation in Salicylate Dioxygenase Revealed by QM/MM Simulations.

    PubMed

    Roy, Subhendu; Kästner, Johannes

    2016-01-18

    Salicylate 1,2-dioxygenase (SDO) is the first enzyme to be discovered to catalyze the oxidative cleavage of a monohydroxylated aromatic compound, namely salicylate, instead of the well-known electron-rich substrates. We have investigated the mechanism of dioxygen activation in SDO by QM/MM calculations. Our study reveals that the non-heme Fe(II) center in SDO activates salicylate and O2 synergistically through a strong covalent interaction to facilitate the reductive cleavage of O2. A covalent salicylate-Fe(II) -O2 complex is the reactive oxygen species in this case, and its electronic structure is best described as being between the two limiting cases, Fe(II)-O2 and Fe(II)-O2˙(-), with partial electron transfer from the activated salicylate to O2 via the Fe center. Thus SDO employs a synergistic strategy of substrate and oxygen activation to carry out the catalytic reaction, which is unprecedented in the family of iron dioxygenases. Moreover, O2 activation in SDO happens without the assistance of a proton source. Our study essentially shows a new mechanistic possibility for O2 activation. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Structural Insight into the Dioxygenation of Nitroarene Compounds: the Crystal Structure of Nitrobenzene Dioxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Friemann, Rosmarie; Ivkovic-Jensen, Maja M.; Lessner, Daniel J.; Yu, Chi-Li; Gibson, David T.; Parales, Rebecca E.; Eklund, Hans; Ramaswamy, S.

    2010-07-19

    Nitroaromatic compounds are used extensively in many industrial processes and have been released into the environment where they are considered environmental pollutants. Nitroaromatic compounds, in general, are resistant to oxidative attack due to the electron-withdrawing nature of the nitro groups and the stability of the benzene ring. However, the bacterium Comamonas sp. strain JS765 can grow with nitrobenzene as a sole source of carbon, nitrogen and energy. Biodegradation is initiated by the nitrobenzene dioxygenase (NBDO) system. We have determined the structure of NBDO, which has a hetero-hexameric structure similar to that of several other Rieske non-heme iron dioxygenases. The catalytic subunit contains a Rieske iron-sulfur center and an active-site mononuclear iron atom. The structures of complexes with substrates nitrobenzene and 3-nitrotoluene reveal the structural basis for its activity with nitroarenes. The substrate pocket contains an asparagine residue that forms a hydrogen bond to the nitro-group of the substrate, and orients the substrate in relation to the active-site mononuclear iron atom, positioning the molecule for oxidation at the nitro-substituted carbon.

  5. Occurrence of two different forms of protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase in a Moraxella sp.

    PubMed Central

    Sterjiades, R; Pelmont, J

    1989-01-01

    Two alternative forms of protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase (PCase) have been purified from Moraxella sp. strain GU2, a bacterium that is able to grow on guaiacol or various other phenolic compounds as the sole source of carbon and energy. One of these forms (PCase-P) was induced by protocatechuate and had an apparent molecular weight of 220,000. The second form (PCase-G) was induced by guaiacol or other phenolic compounds, such as 2-ethoxyphenol or 4-hydroxybenzoate. It appeared to be smaller (Mr 158,000), and its turnover number was about double that of the former enzyme. Both dioxygenases had similar properties and were built from the association of equal amounts of nonidentical subunits, alpha and beta, which were estimated to have molecular weights of 29,500 and 25,500, respectively. The (alpha beta)3 and (alpha beta)4 structures were suggested for PCases G and P, respectively. On the basis of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the alpha and beta polypeptides of PCase-G differed from those of PCase-P. Amino acid analysis supported this conclusion. Both PCases, however, had several other properties in common. It is proposed that both isoenzymes were generated from different sets of alpha and beta subunits, and the significance of these data is discussed. Images PMID:2541659

  6. Modulation of substrate binding to naphthalene 1,2-dioxygenase by rieske cluster reduction/oxidation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tran-Chin; Wolfe, Matt D; Neibergall, Matthew B; Mekmouche, Yasmina; Lipscomb, John D; Hoffman, Brian M

    2003-02-26

    The active site of the oxygenase component of naphthalene 1,2-dioxygenase (NDO) contains a Rieske Fe-S cluster and a mononuclear non-heme iron, which are contributed by different alpha-subunits in the (alphabeta)(3) structure. The enzyme catalyzes cis-dihydroxylation of aromatic substrates in addition to numerous other adventitious oxidation reactions. High-resolution Mims (2)H-ENDOR spectra have been recorded for the NO-ferrous center of NDO bound with d(8)-naphthalene and d(2)-naphthalene; spectra were collected for the enzyme with the Rieske diiron center both in its oxidized and in its reduced states. A sharp quartet ENDOR pattern from a nearby deuteron of substrate was detected for each substrate. Examination of the sample prepared with 1,4-dideutero-naphthalene shows that the signal arises from D1. The ENDOR data place D1 at a distance of ca. 4.4 A from the mononuclear Fe and with the Fe-D vector being roughly along the Fe-N(O) direction. Because reduction of the Rieske cluster is required for O(2) binding and subsequent catalysis, the effect of its oxidation state on substrate binding was examined. The spectra from the NDO-naphthalene complex reveal two different binding conformations, which change in relative population when the oxidation state of the Rieske cluster is changed. This shift, and the conformational coupling it implies, may hold the key to both oxygen gating and oxygen reactivity for Rieske aromatic dioxygenases.

  7. Induction of Indoleamine 2,3 Dioxygenase-1 by Immunostimulatory-DNA Limits Severity of Experimental Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Ciorba, Matthew A; Bettonville, Ellen E; McDonald, Keely G; Metz, Richard; Prendergast, George C; Newberry, Rodney D; Stenson, William F

    2010-01-01

    The chronic inflammatory bowel diseases are characterized by aberrant innate and adaptive immune responses to commensal luminal bacteria. In both human IBD and in experimental models of colitis there is an increased expression of the enzyme indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO). IDO expression has the capacity to exert antimicrobial effects and dampen adaptive immune responses. In the murine TNBS model of colitis, inhibition of this enzyme leads to worsened disease severity suggesting that IDO acts as a natural break in limiting colitis. In this investigation we show that induction of IDO-1 by a TLR-9 agonist, immunostimulatory-DNA (ISS-DNA), critically contributes to its colitis limiting capacities. ISS-DNA induces intestinal expression of IDO-1, but not the recently described paralog enzyme IDO-2. This induction occurred in both epithelial cells and in subsets of CD11c+ and CD11b+ cells of the lamina propria which also increase after ISS-ODN. Signaling required for intestinal IDO-1 induction involves interferon dependent pathways, as IDO-1 was not induced in STAT-1 knockout mice. Using both the TNBS and DSS models of colitis we show the importance of IDO-1s induction in limiting colitis severity. The clinical parameters and histologic correlates of colitis in these models were improved by administration of the TLR-9 agonist; however, when the function of IDO is inhibited, the colitis limiting effects of ISS-ODN were abrogated. These findings support the possibility that targeted induction of IDO-1 is an approach deserving further investigation as a therapeutic strategy for diseases of intestinal inflammation. PMID:20181893

  8. Sodium butyrate down-regulation of indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guan-Min; He, Yu-Wen; Fang, Rui; Zhang, Ge; Zeng, Jun; Yi, Yan-Mei; Zhang, Shu; Bu, Xian-Zhang; Cai, Shao-Hui; Du, Jun

    2010-11-01

    The clinical outcomes of most immunotherapeutic strategies have been less effective than anticipated partially because of the tumor immune tolerance induced by many immune tolerance factors, which originate from the tumor and tumor microenvironment. Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) is an interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-inducible enzyme and is one of main immune tolerance factors during tumor development. Sodium butyrate (NaB) has received much attention as a potential chemopreventive agent for cancer treatment due to its protective action against intracellular events including IFN-γ-mediated signaling transduction. Therefore, the question remains whether IDO is a target of the anti-tumor action of NaB. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that NaB down-regulated IDO via both transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. NaB repressed the activity of STAT1 to inhibit STAT1-driven transcriptional activity of IDO. These mechanisms included inhibiting STAT1 701 tyrosine phosphorylation, nuclear translocation, and repression of STAT1 binding to γ-activated sites (GAS). Moreover, immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting assays showed that treatment of cells with NaB caused dramatic ubiquitination of total intracellular proteins, including IDO. Blocking 26S proteasome activity by addition of its specific inhibitor, bortezomib, reversed the ubiquitination and down-regulation of IDO. These results suggest that NaB-induced STAT1 activity inhibition and ubiquitin/proteasome-dependent proteolysis are involved in the down-regulation of IDO. The discoveries in this study represent a new mechanism in the anti-tumor action of NaB and may have implications for development of clinical cancer immunotherapy.

  9. A novel l-isoleucine-4′-dioxygenase and l-isoleucine dihydroxylation cascade in Pantoea ananatis

    PubMed Central

    Smirnov, Sergey V; Sokolov, Pavel M; Kotlyarova, Veronika A; Samsonova, Natalya N; Kodera, Tomohiro; Sugiyama, Masakazu; Torii, Takayoshi; Hibi, Makoto; Shimizu, Sakayu; Yokozeki, Kenzo; Ogawa, Jun

    2013-01-01

    A unique operon structure has been identified in the genomes of several plant- and insect-associated bacteria. The distinguishing feature of this operon is the presence of tandem hilA and hilB genes encoding dioxygenases belonging to the PF13640 and PF10014 (BsmA) Pfam families, respectively. The genes encoding HilA and HilB from Pantoea ananatis AJ13355 were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The culturing of E. coli cells expressing hilA (E. coli-HilA) or both hilA and hilB (E. coli-HilAB) in the presence of l-isoleucine resulted in the conversion of l-isoleucine into two novel biogenic compounds: l-4′-isoleucine and l-4,4′-dihydroxyisoleucine, respectively. In parallel, two novel enzymatic activities were detected in the crude cell lysates of the E. coli-HilA and E. coli-HilAB strains: l-isoleucine, 2-oxoglutarate: oxygen oxidoreductase (4′-hydroxylating) (HilA) and l-4′-hydroxyisoleucine, 2-oxoglutarate: oxygen oxidoreductase (4-hydroxylating) (HilB), respectively. Two hypotheses regarding the physiological significance of C-4(4′)-hydroxylation of l-isoleucine in bacteria are also discussed. According to first hypothesis, the l-isoleucine dihydroxylation cascade is involved in synthesis of dipeptide antibiotic in P. ananatis. Another unifying hypothesis is that the C-4(4′)-hydroxylation of l-isoleucine in bacteria could result in the synthesis of signal molecules belonging to two classes: 2(5H)-furanones and analogs of N-acyl homoserine lactone. PMID:23554367

  10. Molecular cloning and characterization of cDNAs encoding carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase in bitter melon (Momordica charantia).

    PubMed

    Tuan, Pham Anh; Park, Sang Un

    2013-01-01

    Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs) are a family of enzymes that catalyze the oxidative cleavage of carotenoids at various chain positions to form a broad spectrum of apocarotenoids, including aromatic substances, pigments and phytohormones. Using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) PCR method, we isolated three cDNA-encoding CCDs (McCCD1, McCCD4, and McNCED) from Momordica charantia. Amino acid sequence alignments showed that they share high sequence identity with other orthologous genes. Quantitative real-time RT PCR (reverse transcriptase PCR) analysis revealed that the expression of McCCD1 and McCCD4 was highest in flowers, and lowest in roots and old leaves (O-leaves). During fruit maturation, the two genes displayed differential expression, with McCCD1 peaking at mid-stage maturation while McCCD4 showed the lowest expression at that stage. The mRNA expression level of McNCED, a key enzyme involved in abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, was high during fruit maturation and further increased at the beginning of seed germination. When first-leaf stage plants of M. charantia were exposed to dehydration stress, McNCED mRNA expression was induced primarily in the leaves and, to a lesser extend, in roots and stems. McNCED expression was also induced by high temperature and salinity, while treatment with exogenous ABA led to a decrease. These results should be helpful in determining the substrates and cleavage sites catalyzed by CCD genes in M. charantia, and also in defining the roles of CCDs in growth and development, and in the plant's response to environmental stress. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Synergistic antitumor effect with indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase inhibition and temozolomide in a murine glioma model.

    PubMed

    Hanihara, Mitsuto; Kawataki, Tomoyuki; Oh-Oka, Kyoko; Mitsuka, Kentaro; Nakao, Atsuhito; Kinouchi, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-01

    OBJECT Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), a key enzyme of tryptophan (Trp) metabolism, is involved in tumor-derived immune suppression through depletion of Trp and accumulation of the metabolite kynurenine, resulting in inactivation of natural killer cells and generation of regulatory T cells (Tregs). It has been reported that high expression of IDO in cancer cells is associated with suppression of the antitumor immune response and is consistent with a poor prognosis. Thus, IDO may be a therapeutic target for malignant cancer. The authors have recently shown that IDO expression is markedly increased in human glioblastoma and secondary glioblastoma with malignant change, suggesting that IDO targeting may also have therapeutic potential for patients with glioma. The aim of this study was to investigate the antitumor effect of IDO inhibition and to examine the synergistic function of IDO inhibitor and temozolomide (TMZ) in a murine glioma model. METHODS Murine glioma GL261 cells and human glioma U87 cells were included in this study. The authors used 3 mouse models to study glioma cell growth: 1) a subcutaneous ectopic model, 2) a syngeneic intracranial orthotopic model, and 3) an allogenic intracranial orthotopic model. IDO inhibition was achieved via knockdown of IDO in GL261 cells using short hairpin RNA (shRNA) and through oral administration of the IDO inhibitor, 1-methyl-l-tryptophan (1-MT). Tumor volume in the subcutaneous model and survival time in the intracranial model were evaluated. RESULTS In the subcutaneous model, oral administration of 1-MT significantly suppressed tumor growth, and synergistic antitumor effects of 1-MT and TMZ were observed (p < 0.01). Mice containing intracranially inoculated IDO knockdown cells had a significantly longer survival period as compared with control mice (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that IDO expression is implicated in immunosuppression and tumor progression in glioma cells. Therefore, combining IDO

  12. Tryptophan degradation in irritable bowel syndrome: evidence of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activation in a male cohort

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common disorder that affects 10–15% of the population. Although characterised by a lack of reliable biological markers, the disease state is increasingly viewed as a disorder of the brain-gut axis. In particular, accumulating evidence points to the involvement of both the central and peripheral serotonergic systems in disease symptomatology. Furthermore, altered tryptophan metabolism and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) activity are hallmarks of many stress-related disorders. The kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation may serve to link these findings to the low level immune activation recently described in IBS. In this study, we investigated tryptophan degradation in a male IBS cohort (n = 10) and control subjects (n = 26). Methods Plasma samples were obtained from patients and healthy controls. Tryptophan and its metabolites were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and neopterin, a sensitive marker of immune activation, was measured using a commercially available ELISA assay. Results Both kynurenine levels and the kynurenine:tryptophan ratio were significantly increased in the IBS cohort compared with healthy controls. Neopterin was also increased in the IBS subjects and the concentration of the neuroprotective metabolite kynurenic acid was decreased, as was the kynurenic acid:kynurenine ratio. Conclusion These findings suggest that the activity of IDO, the immunoresponsive enzyme which is responsible for the degradation of tryptophan along this pathway, is enhanced in IBS patients relative to controls. This study provides novel evidence for an immune-mediated degradation of tryptophan in a male IBS population and identifies the kynurenine pathway as a potential source of biomarkers in this debilitating condition. PMID:19154614

  13. Reaction coordinate analysis for beta-diketone cleavage by the non-heme Fe2+-dependent dioxygenase Dke1.

    PubMed

    Straganz, Grit D; Nidetzky, Bernd

    2005-09-07

    Acetylacetone dioxygenase from Acinetobacter johnsonii (Dke1) utilizes a non-heme Fe2+ cofactor to promote dioxygen-dependent conversion of 2,4-pentanedione (PD) into methylglyoxal and acetate. An oxidative carbon-carbon bond cleavage by Dke1 is triggered from a C-3 peroxidate intermediate that performs an intramolecular nucleophilic attack on the adjacent carbonyl group. But how does Dke1 bring about the initial reduction of dioxygen? To answer this question, we report here a reaction coordinate analysis for the part of the Dke1 catalytic cycle that involves O2 chemistry. A weak visible absorption band (epsilon approximately 0.2 mM(-1) cm(-1)) that is characteristic of an enzyme-bound Fe2+-beta-keto-enolate complex served as spectroscopic probe of substrate binding and internal catalytic steps. Transient and steady-state kinetic studies reveal that O2-dependent conversion of the chromogenic binary complex is rate-limiting for the overall reaction. Linear free-energy relationship analysis, in which apparent turnover numbers (k(app) cat) for enzymatic bond cleavage of a series of substituted beta-dicarbonyl substrates were correlated with calculated energies for the highest occupied molecular orbitals of the corresponding beta-keto-enolate structures, demonstrates unambiguously that k(app) cat is governed by the electron-donating ability of the substrate. The case of 2'-hydroxyacetophenone (2'HAP), a completely inactive beta-dicarbonyl analogue that has the enol double bond delocalized into the aromatic ring, indicates that dioxygen reduction and C-O bond formation cannot be decoupled and therefore take place in one single kinetic step.

  14. Photosystem II-inhibitors play a limited role in sweet corn response to 4-hydroxyphenyl pyruvate dioxygenase-inhibiting herbicides

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Postemergence (POST) application of 4-hydroxyphenyl pyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) inhibitors in combination with a photosystem II (PSII) inhibitor, such as atrazine, is common practice in sweet corn production. Given the sensitivity of sweet corn to HPPD-inhibiting herbicides, the objective of this wo...

  15. An investigation of the iron-sulphur proteins of benzene dioxygenase from Pseudomonas putida by electron-spin-resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Geary, P J; Saboowalla, F; Patil, D; Cammack, R

    1984-01-01

    Benzene dioxygenase from Pseudomonas putida comprises three components, namely a flavoprotein (NADH:ferredoxin oxidoreductase; Mr 81000), an intermediate electron-transfer protein, or ferredoxin (Mr 12000) with a [2Fe-2S] cluster, and a terminal dioxygenase containing two [2Fe-2S] iron-sulphur clusters (Mr 215000), which requires two additional Fe2+ atoms/molecule for oxygenase activity. The ferredoxin and the dioxygenase give e.s.r. signals in the reduced state with rhombic symmetry and average g values of 1.92 and 1.896 respectively. The mid-point redox potentials were determined by e.s.r. titration at pH 7.0 to be -155 mV and -112 mV respectively. The signal from the dioxygenase shows pronounced g anisotropy and most closely resembles those of 4-methoxybenzoate mono-oxygenase from Pseudomonas putida and the [2Fe-2S] 'Rieske' proteins of the quinone-cytochrome c region of electron-transport chains of respiration and photosynthesis. PMID:6324743

  16. Isolation and characterization of a novel strain of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia possessing various dioxygenases for monocyclic hydrocarbon degradation

    PubMed Central

    Urszula, Guzik; Izabela, Greń; Danuta, Wojcieszyńska; Sylwia, Łabużek

    2009-01-01

    A Gram-negative bacterium, designated as strain KB2, was isolated from activated sludge and was found to utilize different aromatic substrates as sole carbon and energy source. On the basis of morphological and physiochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolated strain KB2 was identified as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Strain KB2 is from among different Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strains the first one described as exhibiting the activities of three types of dioxygenases depending on the structure of the inducer. The cells grown on benzoate and catechol showed mainly catechol 1,2-dioxygenase activity. The activity of 2,3-dioxygenase was detected after phenol induction. Protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase was found in crude cell extracts of this strain after incubation with 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid and vanillic acid. Because of broad spectrum of dioxygenases’ types that Stenotrophomonas maltophilia KB2 can exhibit, this strain appears to be very powerful and useful tool in the biotreatment of wastewaters and in soil decontamination. PMID:24031359

  17. Total degradation of pentachloroethane by an engineered Alcaligenes strain expressing a modified camphor monooxygenase and a hybrid dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Iwakiri, Ryo; Yoshihira, Kunichika; Ngadiman; Futagami, Taiki; Goto, Masatoshi; Furukawa, Kensuke

    2004-06-01

    We engineered biphenyl-degrading Alcaligenes sp. strain KF711 for total degradation of pentachloroethane (PCA), which expresses a modified camphor monooxygenase and a hybrid dioxygenase consisting of TodC1 (a large subunit of toluene dioxygenase of Pseudomonas putida F1) and BphA2-BphA3-pbhA4 (a small subunit, ferredoxin and ferredoxin reductase of biphenyl dioxygenase, respectively, in strain KF707). Modified camphor monooxygenase genes (camCAB) were supplied as a plasmid and the todC1 gene was integrated within the chromosomal bph gene cluster by a single crossover recombination. The resultant strain KF711S-3cam dechlorinated PCA to trichloroethene by the action of the modified camphor monooxygenase under anaerobic conditions. The same strain subsequently degraded trichloroethene formed oxidatively by the action of the Tol-Bph hybrid dioxygenase under aerobic conditions. Thus sequential anaerobic and aerobic treatments of the KF711S-3cam resting cells resulted in efficient and total degradation of PCA.

  18. A fluorescence-based assay for indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Matin, Azadeh; Streete, Isla M; Jamie, Ian M; Truscott, Roger J W; Jamie, Joanne F

    2006-02-01

    A rapid and sensitive fluorescence-based bioassay for determination of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) activity has been developed. This assay relies on the quantification of the amount of kynurenine produced in the assay medium by fluorescence and complements the standard absorbance and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay methods. The fluorescence method has limits of detection similar to those of the standard assay methods. Measured activities of IDO, including in the presence of tryptophan-based inhibitors, were in statistical agreement with the absorbance and HPLC assay methods. The fluorescence-based assay was also suitable for assessment of IDO inhibition by compounds that are incompatible with the absorbance method.

  19. Structure Based Development of Phenyl-imidazole-derived Inhibitors of Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Jaller, Daniel; Patel, Bhumika; LaLonde, Judith M.; DuHadaway, James B.; Malachowski, William P.; Prendergast, George C.; Muller, Alexander J.

    2011-01-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is emerging as an important new therapeutic target for the treatment of cancer, chronic viral infections, and other diseases characterized by pathological immune suppression. With the goal of developing more potent IDO inhibitors, a systematic study of 4-phenyl-imidazole (4-PI) derivatives was undertaken. Computational docking experiments guided design and synthesis efforts with analogs of 4-PI. In particular, three interactions of 4-PI analogs with IDO were studied: the active site entrance, the interior of the active site and the heme iron binding. The three most potent inhibitors (1, 17 and 18) appear to exploit interactions with C129 and S167 in the interior of the active site. All three inhibitors are approximately ten-fold more potent than 4-PI. The study represents the first example of enzyme inhibitor development with the recently reported crystal structure of IDO and offers important lessons in the search for more potent inhibitors. PMID:18665584

  20. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase: As a potential prognostic marker and immunotherapeutic target for hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Asghar, Kashif; Farooq, Asim; Zulfiqar, Bilal; Rashid, Muhammad Usman

    2017-01-01

    Tumor cells induce an immunosuppressive microenvironment which leads towards tumor immune escape. Understanding the intricacy of immunomodulation by tumor cells is essential for immunotherapy. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is an immunosuppressive enzyme which mediates tumor immune escape in various cancers including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). IDO up-regulation in HCC may lead to recruitment of regulatory T-cells into tumor microenvironment and therefore inhibit local immune responses and promote metastasis. HCC associated fibroblasts stimulate natural killer cells dysfunction through prostaglandin E2 and subsequently IDO promotes favorable condition for tumor metastasis. IDO up-regulation induces immunosuppression and may enhance the risk of hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B virus induced HCC. Therefore, IDO inhibitors as adjuvant therapeutic agents may have clinical implications in HCC. This review proposes future prospects of IDO not only as a therapeutic target but also as a prognostic marker for HCC. PMID:28428708

  1. Alcaligenes eutrophus JMP134 "2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate monooxygenase" is an alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase.

    PubMed Central

    Fukumori, F; Hausinger, R P

    1993-01-01

    The Alcaligenes eutrophus JMP134 tfdA gene, encoding the enzyme responsible for the first step in 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) biodegradation, was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and several enzymatic properties of the partially purified gene product were examined. Although the tfdA-encoded enzyme is typically referred to as 2,4-D monooxygenase, we were unable to observe any reductant-dependent activity. Rather, we demonstrate that this enzyme is a ferrous ion-dependent dioxygenase that uses alpha-ketoglutarate as a cosubstrate. The alpha-ketoglutarate is converted to succinate concomitant with 2,4-D conversion to 2,4-dichlorophenol. By using [1-14C]alpha-ketoglutarate, we established that carbon dioxide is the second product derived from alpha-ketoglutarate. Finally, we verified the proposal that glyoxylate is the second product derived from 2,4-D. PMID:8458850

  2. Synthesis and bioevaluation of pyrazole-benzimidazolone hybrids as novel human 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yu-Ling; Lin, Hong-Yan; Ruan, Xu; Yang, Sheng-Gang; Hao, Ge-Fei; Yang, Wen-Chao; Yang, Guang-Fu

    2015-03-06

    4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD), an essential enzyme in tyrosine catabolism, is an important target for treating type I tyrosinemia. Inhibition of HPPD can effectively alleviate the symptoms of type I tyrosinemia. However, only one commercial HPPD inhibitor, 2-(2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl) cyclohexane-1,3-dione (NTBC), has been available for clinical use so far. In the present study, a series of novel pyrazole-benzimidazolone hybrids were designed, synthesized and evaluated as potent human HPPD inhibitors. Most of the new compounds displayed significant inhibitory activity against the recombinant human HPPD. Moreover, compound 9l was identified as the most potent candidate with IC50 value of 0.021 μM against recombinant human HPPD, about 3-fold more potent than NTBC. Thus the pyrazole-benzimidazolone hybrid has great potential to be further developed for the treatment of type I tyrosinemia.

  3. Modified CAROTENOID CLEAVAGE DIOXYGENASE8 expression correlates with altered branching in kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis).

    PubMed

    Ledger, Susan E; Janssen, Bart J; Karunairetnam, Sakuntala; Wang, Tianchi; Snowden, Kimberley C

    2010-11-01

    • CAROTENOID CLEAVAGE DIOXYGENASE (CCD) genes have been demonstrated to play an integral role in the control of branch development in model plants, including Arabidopsis, pea (Pisum sativum), petunia (Petunia hybrida) and rice (Oryza sativa). • Actinidia chinensis is a woody perennial plant grown for commercial production of kiwifruit. CCD7 and CCD8 genes were isolated from A. chinensis and these genes are predominantly expressed in the roots of kiwifruit. AcCCD7 and AcCCD8 were able to complement the corresponding Arabidopsis mutants max3 and max4. The function of AcCCD8 in branch development was determined in transgenic kiwifruit plants containing an RNAi construct for AcCCD8. • Reduction in expression of AcCCD8 correlated with an increase in branch development and delayed leaf senescence. • The CCD pathway for control of branch development is conserved across a wide range of species, including kiwifruit, a woody perennial.

  4. Functional Metagenomics of a Biostimulated Petroleum-Contaminated Soil Reveals an Extraordinary Diversity of Extradiol Dioxygenases

    PubMed Central

    Terrón-González, Laura; Martín-Cabello, Guadalupe; Ferrer, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    A metagenomic library of a petroleum-contaminated soil was constructed in a fosmid vector that allowed heterologous expression of metagenomic DNA. The library, consisting of 6.5 Gb of metagenomic DNA, was screened for extradiol dioxygenase (Edo) activity using catechol and 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl as the substrates. Fifty-eight independent clones encoding extradiol dioxygenase activity were identified. Forty-one different Edo-encoding genes were identified. The population of Edo genes was not dominated by a particular gene or by highly similar genes; rather, the genes had an even distribution and high diversity. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that most of the genes could not be ascribed to previously defined subfamilies of Edos. Rather, the Edo genes led to the definition of 10 new subfamilies of type I Edos. Phylogenetic analysis of type II enzymes defined 7 families, 2 of which harbored the type II Edos that were found in this work. Particularly striking was the diversity found in family I.3 Edos; 15 out of the 17 sequences assigned to this family belonged to 7 newly defined subfamilies. A strong bias was found that depended on the substrate used for the screening: catechol mainly led to the detection of Edos belonging to the I.2 family, while 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl led to the detection of most other Edos. Members of the I.2 family showed a clear substrate preference for monocyclic substrates, while those from the I.3 family showed a broader substrate range and high activity toward 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl. This metagenomic analysis has substantially increased our knowledge of the existing biodiversity of Edos. PMID:26896130

  5. Phn and Nag-like dioxygenases metabolize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Burkholderia sp. C3.

    PubMed

    Tittabutr, Panlada; Cho, Il Kyu; Li, Qing X

    2011-11-01

    Burkholderia sp. C3 can transform polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a class of ubiquitous pollutants, through multiple pathways, indicating existence of multiple dioxygenases (Seo et al., in Biodegradation 18:123-131, 2006a). Both phn and nag-like genes in C3 were cloned and identified with the DNA sequence alignment and the gene organization in the clusters. When cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, either the alpha- and beta-subunits of dioxygenase of the phn genes or the ferredoxin-, alpha- and beta-subunits of the nag-like genes transformed naphthalene, phenanthrene and dibenzothiophene but at different rates. The E. coli transformant containing the phn genes transformed phenanthrene faster than that containing the nag-like genes, which was consistent with higher transcription of the phnAc gene than the nagAc-like gene in C3 in response to phenanthrene. 1-Hydroxy-2-naphthanoic acid (1H2NA) and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthanoic acid (2H1NA) (3,4- and 1,2-dioxygenation metabolites of phenanthrene, respectively) were detected in the culture medium of the phn genes transformed E. coli. The concentration of 1H2NA was 262-fold higher than 2H1NA in the medium of the phn genes transformed E. coli. The results suggested that the phn genes play a major role in 1,2-/3,4-dioxygenation and 3,4-dioxygenation dominates. Twenty-eight PAH degradation-associated enzymes including those encoded by the nag-like and phn genes in phenanthrene-grown C3 cells were identified via alignment of amino acid sequences of the detected polypeptides with those in protein databases. The polypeptides were determined with nano liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry after tryptic in-gel digestion of the enzymes on 1D SDS-PAGE.

  6. Crystallographic Comparison of Manganese- and Iron-Dependent Homoprotocatechuate 2,3-Dioxygenases

    PubMed Central

    Vetting, Matthew W.; Wackett, Lawrence P.; Que, Lawrence; Lipscomb, John D.; Ohlendorf, Douglas H.

    2004-01-01

    The X-ray crystal structures of homoprotocatechuate 2,3-dioxygenases isolated from Arthrobacter globiformis and Brevibacterium fuscum have been determined to high resolution. These enzymes exhibit 83% sequence identity, yet their activities depend on different transition metals, Mn2+ and Fe2+, respectively. The structures allow the origins of metal ion selectivity and aspects of the molecular mechanism to be examined in detail. The homotetrameric enzymes belong to the type I family of extradiol dioxygenases (vicinal oxygen chelate superfamily); each monomer has four βαβββ modules forming two structurally homologous N-terminal and C-terminal barrel-shaped domains. The active-site metal is located in the C-terminal barrel and is ligated by two equatorial ligands, H214NE1 and E267OE1; one axial ligand, H155NE1; and two to three water molecules. The first and second coordination spheres of these enzymes are virtually identical (root mean square difference over all atoms, 0.19 Å), suggesting that the metal selectivity must be due to changes at a significant distance from the metal and/or changes that occur during folding. The substrate (2,3-dihydroxyphenylacetate [HPCA]) chelates the metal asymmetrically at sites trans to the two imidazole ligands and interacts with a unique, mobile C-terminal loop. The loop closes over the bound substrate, presumably to seal the active site as the oxygen activation process commences. An “open” coordination site trans to E267 is the likely binding site for O2. The geometry of the enzyme-substrate complexes suggests that if a transiently formed metal-superoxide complex attacks the substrate without dissociation from the metal, it must do so at the C-3 position. Second-sphere active-site residues that are positioned to interact with the HPCA and/or bound O2 during catalysis are identified and discussed in the context of current mechanistic hypotheses. PMID:15028678

  7. Molecular Pathways: Targeting IDO1 and Other Tryptophan Dioxygenases for Cancer Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Lijie; Spranger, Stefani; Binder, David C; Gritsina, Galina; Lauing, Kristen L; Giles, Francis J; Wainwright, Derek A

    2015-12-15

    Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1), IDO2, and tryptophan 2, 3-dioxygenase (TDO) comprise a family of enzymes that catalyze the first- and rate-limiting step associated with the catabolic conversion of tryptophan (Trp) into kynurenine (Kyn). Through subsequent enzymatic and spontaneous reactions, Kyn is further converted into the energetic substrates, NAD(+) and ATP, to fuel cellular metabolic functions. Coincidently, the depletion of Trp and accumulation of Kyn has been demonstrated to induce effector T-cell apoptosis/dysfunction and immunosuppressive regulatory T-cell induction, respectively. Similar to other immune checkpoints, IDO1 and TDO are suggested to be important targets for immunotherapeutic intervention. This is represented by the recent growth of efforts to inhibit the Trp-to-Kyn pathway as a means to control immunosuppression. Inhibitors currently in clinical trials, INCB024360, GDC-0919, indoximod, and an IDO1 peptide-based vaccine, are being evaluated for their efficacy against a wide range of cancers including melanoma, glioblastoma, non-small cell lung, pancreatic, and/or breast cancer, as well as metastatic disease. Despite the rapid development of potent clinical grade inhibitors, strategic questions remain. Here, we review the state of the literature with respect to current therapeutic inhibitors of tryptophan catabolism, evaluation of those efforts preclinically and clinically, compensatory changes that occur with therapeutic targeting, as well as newly recognized signaling features that raise critical questions to the field. Given the rapidly evolving interest in determining how IDO1/TDO, and to an unknown extent, IDO2, can be targeted for increasing cancer immunotherapeutic efficacy, we present a brief but comprehensive analysis that addresses critical questions, while highlighting the mechanics that remain to be explored.

  8. Desipramine decreases expression of human and murine indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenases.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Alexandra K; Janda, Tiffany M; Lawson, Marcus A; Rytych, Jennifer L; Smith, Robin A; Ocampo-Solis, Cecilia; McCusker, Robert H

    2017-05-01

    Abundant evidence connects depression symptomology with immune system activation, stress and subsequently elevated levels of kynurenine. Anti-depressants, such as the tricyclic norepinephrine/serotonin reuptake inhibitor desipramine (Desip), were developed under the premise that increasing extracellular neurotransmitter level was the sole mechanism by which they alleviate depressive symptomologies. However, evidence suggests that anti-depressants have additional actions that contribute to their therapeutic potential. The Kynurenine Pathway produces tryptophan metabolites that modulate neurotransmitter activity. This recognition identified another putative pathway for anti-depressant targeting. Considering a recognized role of the Kynurenine Pathway in depression, we investigated the potential for Desip to alter expression of rate-limiting enzymes of this pathway: indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenases (Ido1 and Ido2). Mice were administered lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone (Dex) with Desip to determine if Desip alters indoleamine-dioxygenase (DO) expression in vivo following a modeled immune and stress response. This work was followed by treating murine and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with interferon-gamma (IFNγ) and Desip. In vivo: Desip blocked LPS-induced Ido1 expression in hippocampi, astrocytes, microglia and PBMCs and Ido2 expression by PBMCs. Ex vivo: Desip decreased IFNγ-induced Ido1 and Ido2 expression in murine PBMCs. This effect was directly translatable to the human system as Desip decreased IDO1 and IDO2 expression by human PBMCs. These data demonstrate for the first time that an anti-depressant alters expression of Ido1 and Ido2, identifying a possible new mechanism behind anti-depressant activity. Furthermore, we propose the assessment of PBMCs for anti-depressant responsiveness using IDO expression as a biomarker.

  9. Nitrosyl hydride (HNO) replaces dioxygen in nitroxygenase activity of manganese quercetin dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Murugaeson R.; Zapata, Adrian; Ramirez, Alejandro J.; Bowen, Sara K.; Francisco, Wilson A.; Farmer, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    Quercetin dioxygenase (QDO) catalyzes the oxidation of the flavonol quercetin with dioxygen, cleaving the central heterocyclic ring and releasing CO. The QDO from Bacillus subtilis is unusual in that it has been shown to be active with several divalent metal cofactors such as Fe, Mn, and Co. Previous comparison of the catalytic activities suggest that Mn(II) is the preferred cofactor for this enzyme. We herein report the unprecedented substitution of nitrosyl hydride (HNO) for dioxygen in the activity of Mn-QDO, resulting in the incorporation of both N and O atoms into the product. Turnover is demonstrated by consumption of quercetin and other related substrates under anaerobic conditions in the presence of HNO-releasing compounds and the enzyme. As with dioxygenase activity, a nonenzymatic base-catalyzed reaction of quercetin with HNO is observed above pH 7, but no enhancement of this basal reactivity is found upon addition of divalent metal salts. Unique and regioselective N-containing products (14N/15N) have been characterized by MS analysis for both the enzymatic and nonenzymatic reactions. Of the several metallo-QDO enzymes examined for nitroxygenase activity under anaerobic condition, only the Mn(II) is active; the Fe(II) and Co(II) substituted enzymes show little or no activity. This result represents an enzymatic catalysis which we denote nitroxygenase activity; the unique reactivity of the Mn-QDO suggests a metal-mediated electron transfer mechanism rather than metal activation of the substrate’s inherent base-catalyzed reactivity. PMID:22084064

  10. Nitrosyl hydride (HNO) replaces dioxygen in nitroxygenase activity of manganese quercetin dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Murugaeson R; Zapata, Adrian; Ramirez, Alejandro J; Bowen, Sara K; Francisco, Wilson A; Farmer, Patrick J

    2011-11-22

    Quercetin dioxygenase (QDO) catalyzes the oxidation of the flavonol quercetin with dioxygen, cleaving the central heterocyclic ring and releasing CO. The QDO from Bacillus subtilis is unusual in that it has been shown to be active with several divalent metal cofactors such as Fe, Mn, and Co. Previous comparison of the catalytic activities suggest that Mn(II) is the preferred cofactor for this enzyme. We herein report the unprecedented substitution of nitrosyl hydride (HNO) for dioxygen in the activity of Mn-QDO, resulting in the incorporation of both N and O atoms into the product. Turnover is demonstrated by consumption of quercetin and other related substrates under anaerobic conditions in the presence of HNO-releasing compounds and the enzyme. As with dioxygenase activity, a nonenzymatic base-catalyzed reaction of quercetin with HNO is observed above pH 7, but no enhancement of this basal reactivity is found upon addition of divalent metal salts. Unique and regioselective N-containing products ((14)N/(15)N) have been characterized by MS analysis for both the enzymatic and nonenzymatic reactions. Of the several metallo-QDO enzymes examined for nitroxygenase activity under anaerobic condition, only the Mn(II) is active; the Fe(II) and Co(II) substituted enzymes show little or no activity. This result represents an enzymatic catalysis which we denote nitroxygenase activity; the unique reactivity of the Mn-QDO suggests a metal-mediated electron transfer mechanism rather than metal activation of the substrate's inherent base-catalyzed reactivity.

  11. Functional Metagenomics of a Biostimulated Petroleum-Contaminated Soil Reveals an Extraordinary Diversity of Extradiol Dioxygenases.

    PubMed

    Terrón-González, Laura; Martín-Cabello, Guadalupe; Ferrer, Manuel; Santero, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    A metagenomic library of a petroleum-contaminated soil was constructed in a fosmid vector that allowed heterologous expression of metagenomic DNA. The library, consisting of 6.5 Gb of metagenomic DNA, was screened for extradiol dioxygenase (Edo) activity using catechol and 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl as the substrates. Fifty-eight independent clones encoding extradiol dioxygenase activity were identified. Forty-one different Edo-encoding genes were identified. The population of Edo genes was not dominated by a particular gene or by highly similar genes; rather, the genes had an even distribution and high diversity. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that most of the genes could not be ascribed to previously defined subfamilies of Edos. Rather, the Edo genes led to the definition of 10 new subfamilies of type I Edos. Phylogenetic analysis of type II enzymes defined 7 families, 2 of which harbored the type II Edos that were found in this work. Particularly striking was the diversity found in family I.3 Edos; 15 out of the 17 sequences assigned to this family belonged to 7 newly defined subfamilies. A strong bias was found that depended on the substrate used for the screening: catechol mainly led to the detection of Edos belonging to the I.2 family, while 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl led to the detection of most other Edos. Members of the I.2 family showed a clear substrate preference for monocyclic substrates, while those from the I.3 family showed a broader substrate range and high activity toward 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl. This metagenomic analysis has substantially increased our knowledge of the existing biodiversity of Edos.

  12. Characterization of a Naphthalene Dioxygenase Endowed with an Exceptionally Broad Substrate Specificity Toward Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Jouanneau,Y.; Meyer, C.; Jakoncic, J.; Stojanoff, V.; Gaillard, J.

    2006-01-01

    In Sphingomonas CHY-1, a single ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase is responsible for the initial attack of a range of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) composed of up to five rings. The components of this enzyme were separately purified and characterized. The oxygenase component (ht-PhnI) was shown to contain one Rieske-type [2Fe-2S] cluster and one mononuclear Fe center per {alpha} subunit, based on EPR measurements and iron assay. Steady-state kinetic measurements revealed that the enzyme had a relatively low apparent Michaelis constant for naphthalene (K{sub m} = 0.92 {+-} 0.15 {mu}M) and an apparent specificity constant of 2.0 {+-} 0.3 M{sup -1} s{sup -1}. Naphthalene was converted to the corresponding 1,2-dihydrodiol with stoichiometric oxidation of NADH. On the other hand, the oxidation of eight other PAHs occurred at slower rates and with coupling efficiencies that decreased with the enzyme reaction rate. Uncoupling was associated with hydrogen peroxide formation, which is potentially deleterious to cells and might inhibit PAH degradation. In single turnover reactions, ht-PhnI alone catalyzed PAH hydroxylation at a faster rate in the presence of organic solvent, suggesting that the transfer of substrate to the active site is a limiting factor. The four-ring PAHs chrysene and benz[a]anthracene were subjected to a double ring-dihydroxylation, giving rise to the formation of a significant proportion of bis-cis-dihydrodiols. In addition, the dihydroxylation of benz[a]anthracene yielded three dihydrodiols, the enzyme showing a preference for carbons in positions 1,2 and 10,11. This is the first characterization of a dioxygenase able to dihydroxylate PAHs made up of four and five rings.

  13. Promotion of Germination Using Hydroxamic Acid Inhibitors of 9-cis-Epoxycarotenoid Dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Awan, Sajjad Z.; Chandler, Jake O.; Harrison, Peter J.; Sergeant, Martin J.; Bugg, Timothy D. H.; Thompson, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) inhibits seed germination and the regulation of ABA biosynthesis has a role in maintenance of seed dormancy. The key rate-limiting step in ABA biosynthesis is catalyzed by 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED). Two hydroxamic acid inhibitors of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD), D4 and D7, previously found to inhibit CCD and NCED in vitro, are shown to have the novel property of decreasing mean germination time of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seeds constitutively overexpressing LeNCED1. Post-germination, D4 exhibited no negative effects on tomato seedling growth in terms of height, dry weight, and fresh weight. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) seeds containing a tetracycline-inducible LeNCED1 transgene were used to show that germination could be negatively and positively controlled through the chemical induction of gene expression and the chemical inhibition of the NCED protein: application of tetracycline increased mean germination time and delayed hypocotyl emergence in a similar manner to that observed when exogenous ABA was applied and this was reversed by D4 when NCED expression was induced at intermediate levels. D4 also improved germination in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seeds under thermoinhibitory temperatures and in tomato seeds imbibed in high osmolarity solutions of polyethylene glycol. D4 reduced ABA and dihydrophaseic acid accumulation in tomato seeds overexpressing LeNCED1 and reduced ABA accumulation in wild type tomato seeds imbibed on polyethylene glycol. The evidence supports a mode of action of D4 through NCED inhibition, and this molecule provides a lead compound for the design of NCED inhibitors with greater specificity and potency. PMID:28373878

  14. n-Butylidenephthalide exhibits protection against neurotoxicity through regulation of tryptophan 2, 3 dioxygenase in spinocerebellar ataxia type 3.

    PubMed

    Rajamani, Karthyayani; Liu, Jen-Wei; Wu, Cheng-Han; Chiang, I-Tsang; You, Deng-Huwei; Lin, Si-Yin; Hsieh, Dean-Kuo; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Harn, Horng-Jyh; Chiou, Tzyy-Wen

    2017-05-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 or Machado-Joseph disease (SCA3/MJD) is characterized by the repetition of a CAG codon in the ataxin-3 gene (ATXN3), which leads to the formation of an elongated mutant ATXN3 protein that can neither be denatured nor undergo proteolysis in the normal manner. This abnormal proteolysis leads to the accumulation of cleaved fragments, which have been identified as toxic and further they act as a seed for more aggregate formation, thereby increasing toxicity in neuronal cells. To date, there have been few studies or treatment strategies that have focused on controlling toxic fragment formation. The aim of this study is to develop a potential treatment strategy for addressing the complications of toxic fragment formation and to provide an alternative treatment strategy for SCA3. Our preliminary data on anti-aggregation and toxic fragment formation using an HEK (human embryonic kidney cells) 293T-84Q-eGFP (green fluorescent protein) cell model identified n-butylidenephthalide (n-BP) as a potential drug treatment for SCA3. n-BP decreased toxic fragment formation in both SCA3 cell and animal models. Moreover, results showed that n-BP can improve gait, motor coordination, and activity in SCA3 mice. To comprehend the molecular basis behind the control of toxic fragment formation, we used microarray analysis to identify tryptophan metabolism as a major player in controlling the fate of mutant ATXN3 aggregates. We also demonstrated that n-BP functions by regulating the early part of the kynurenine pathway through the downregulation of tryptophan 2, 3-dioxygenase (TDO2), which decreases the downstream neurotoxic product, quinolinic acid (QA). In addition, through the control of TDO2, n-BP also decreases active calpain levels, an important enzyme involved in the proteolysis of mutant ATXN3, thereby decreasing toxic fragment formation and associated neurotoxicity. Collectively, these findings indicate a correlation between n-BP, TDO2, QA, calpain, and

  15. Parallel induction of tetrahydrobiopterin biosynthesis and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity in human cells and cell lines by interferon-gamma.

    PubMed Central

    Werner, E R; Werner-Felmayer, G; Fuchs, D; Hausen, A; Reibnegger, G; Wachter, H

    1989-01-01

    In all of eight tested human cells and cell lines with inducible indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (EC 1.13.11.17) tetrahydrobiopterin biosynthesis was activated by interferon-gamma. This was demonstrated by GTP cyclohydrolase I (EC 3.5.4.16) activities and intracellular neopterin and biopterin concentrations. Pteridine synthesis was influenced by extracellular tryptophan. In T 24-cell extracts, submillimolar concentrations of tetrahydrobiopterin stimulated the indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase reaction. PMID:2511835

  16. Genomic analysis and gene structure of the plant carotenoid dioxygenase 4 family: a deeper study in Crocus sativus and its allies.

    PubMed

    Ahrazem, Oussama; Trapero, Almudena; Gómez, M Dolores; Rubio-Moraga, Angela; Gómez-Gómez, Lourdes

    2010-10-01

    The plastoglobule-targeted enzyme carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD4) mediates the formation of volatile C13 ketones, such as β-ionone, by cleaving the C9-C10 and C9'-C10' double bonds of cyclic carotenoids. Here, we report the isolation and analysis of CCD4 genomic DNA regions in Crocus sativus. Different CCD4 alleles have been identified: CsCCD4a which is found with and without an intron and CsCCD4b that showed the presence of a unique intron. The presence of different CCD4 alleles was also observed in other Crocus species. Furthermore, comparison of the locations of CCD4 introns within the coding region with CCD4 genes from other plant species suggests that independent gain/losses have occurred. The comparison of the promoter region of CsCCD4a and CsCCD4b with available CCD4 gene promoters from other plant species highlighted the conservation of cis-elements involved in light response, heat stress, as well as the absence and unique presence of cis-elements involved in circadian regulation and low temperature responses, respectively. Functional characterization of the Crocus sativus CCD4a promoter using Arabidopsis plants stably transformed with a DNA fragment of 1400 base pairs (P-CsCCD4a) fused to the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene showed that this sequence was sufficient to drive GUS expression in the flower, in particular high levels were detected in pollen.

  17. The role of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-aryl hydrocarbon receptor pathway in the TLR4-induced tolerogenic phenotype in human DCs

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Fabián; Awuah, Dennis; Negm, Ola H.; Shakib, Farouk; Ghaemmaghami, Amir M.

    2017-01-01

    A controlled inflammatory response is required for protection against infection, but persistent inflammation causes tissue damage. Dendritic cells (DCs) have a unique capacity to promote both inflammatory and anti-inflammatory processes. One key mechanism involved in DC-mediated immunosuppression is the expression of tryptophan-metabolizing enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). IDO has been implicated in diverse processes in health and disease but its role in endotoxin tolerance in human DCs is still controversial. Here we investigated the role of IDO in shaping DCs phenotype and function under endotoxin tolerance conditions. Our data show that TLR4 ligation in LPS-primed DCs, induced higher levels of both IDO isoforms together with the transcription factor aryl-hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), compared to unprimed controls. Additionally, LPS conditioning induced an anti-inflammatory phenotype in DCs - with an increase in IL-10 and higher expression of programmed death ligand (PD-L)1 and PD-L2 - which were partially dependent on IDO. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the AhR-IDO pathway was responsible for the preferential activation of non-canonical NF-κB pathway in LPS-conditioned DCs. These data provide new insight into the mechanisms of the TLR4-induced tolerogenic phenotype in human DCs, which can help the better understanding of processes involved in induction and resolution of chronic inflammation and tolerance. PMID:28256612

  18. DNA-stable isotope probing integrated with metagenomics for retrieval of biphenyl dioxygenase genes from polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated river sediment.

    PubMed

    Sul, Woo Jun; Park, Joonhong; Quensen, John F; Rodrigues, Jorge L M; Seliger, Laurie; Tsoi, Tamara V; Zylstra, Gerben J; Tiedje, James M

    2009-09-01

    Stable isotope probing with [(13)C]biphenyl was used to explore the genetic properties of indigenous bacteria able to grow on biphenyl in PCB-contaminated River Raisin sediment. A bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone library generated from [(13)C]DNA after a 14-day incubation with [(13)C]biphenyl revealed the dominant organisms to be members of the genera Achromobacter and Pseudomonas. A library built from PCR amplification of genes for aromatic-ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases from the [(13)C]DNA fraction revealed two sequence groups similar to bphA (encoding biphenyl dioxygenase) of Comamonas testosteroni strain B-356 and of Rhodococcus sp. RHA1. A library of 1,568 cosmid clones was produced from the [(13)C]DNA fraction. A 31.8-kb cosmid clone, detected by aromatic dioxygenase primers, contained genes of biphenyl dioxygenase subunits bphAE, while the rest of the clone's sequence was similar to that of an unknown member of the Gammaproteobacteria. A discrepancy in G+C content near the bphAE genes implies their recent acquisition, possibly by horizontal transfer. The biphenyl dioxygenase from the cosmid clone oxidized biphenyl and unsubstituted and para-only-substituted rings of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. A DNA-stable isotope probing-based cosmid library enabled the retrieval of functional genes from an uncultivated organism capable of PCB metabolism and suggest dispersed dioxygenase gene organization in nature.

  19. Degradation of Chloroaromatics: Purification and Characterization of a Novel Type of Chlorocatechol 2,3-Dioxygenase of Pseudomonas putida GJ31

    PubMed Central

    Kaschabek, Stefan R.; Kasberg, Thomas; Müller, Dagmar; Mars, Astrid E.; Janssen, Dick B.; Reineke, Walter

    1998-01-01

    A purification procedure for a new kind of extradiol dioxygenase, termed chlorocatechol 2,3-dioxygenase, that converts 3-chlorocatechol productively was developed. Structural and kinetic properties of the enzyme, which is part of the degradative pathway used for growth of Pseudomonas putida GJ31 with chlorobenzene, were investigated. The enzyme has a subunit molecular mass of 33.4 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Estimation of the native Mr value under nondenaturating conditions by gel filtration gave a molecular mass of 135 ± 10 kDa, indicating a homotetrameric enzyme structure (4 × 33.4 kDa). The pI of the enzyme was estimated to be 7.1 ± 0.1. The N-terminal amino acid sequence (43 residues) of the enzyme was determined and exhibits 70 to 42% identity with other extradiol dioxygenases. Fe(II) seems to be a cofactor of the enzyme, as it is for other catechol 2,3-dioxygenases. In contrast to other extradiol dioxygenases, the enzyme exhibited great sensitivity to temperatures above 40°C. The reactivity of this enzyme toward various substituted catechols, especially 3-chlorocatechol, was different from that observed for other catechol 2,3-dioxygenases. Stoichiometric displacement of chloride occurred from 3-chlorocatechol, leading to the production of 2-hydroxymuconate. PMID:9440519

  20. Cis-2', 3'-dihydrodiol production on flavone B-ring by biphenyl dioxygenase from Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707 expressed in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kim, Song-Young; Jung, Jihyun; Lim, Yoongho; Ahn, Joong-Hoon; Kim, Su-Il; Hur, Hor-Gil

    2003-01-01

    Escherichia coli JM109 strains expressing either toluene dioxygenase from Pseudomonas putida F1 or biphenyl dioxygenase from Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707 were examined for their ability to catalyze flavones. Biphenyl dioxygenase produced metabolites from flavone and 5,7-dihydroxyflavone which were not found in the control experiments. The absorption maxima of UV-visible spectra for the metabolites from flavone and 5,7-dihydroxyflavone were found at 337 and 348 nm respectively by using a photodiode array detector in the HPLC. Liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy (LC/MS) showed molecular weights 256 and 288 for the metabolites, respectively. The metabolite of flavone, which was isolated and purified from the bacterial culture, was further subjected to analysis by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Based on the LC/MS and NMR results, biphenyl dioxygenase inserted oxygen at C2' and C3' on the B-ring of flavone, resulting in the formation of flavone cis-2', 3'-dihydrodiol (2-[3,4-dihydroxy-1.5-cyclohexadienyl]-4H-chromen-4-one). Since this product is not found in Chemical Abstracts, this compound is considered a novel one. In addition, biotransformation of flavones by biphenyl dioxygenase suggested a potential role of bacterial dioxygenase to synthesize novel compounds from plant secondary metabolites.

  1. Loss of Homogentisate 1,2-Dioxygenase Activity in Bacillus anthracis Results in Accumulation of Protective Pigment.

    PubMed

    Han, Hesong; Iakovenko, Liudmyla; Wilson, Adam C

    2015-01-01

    Melanin production is important to the pathogenicity and survival of some bacterial pathogens. In Bacillus anthracis, loss of hmgA, encoding homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase, results in accumulation of a melanin-like pigment called pyomelanin. Pyomelanin is produced in the mutant as a byproduct of disrupted catabolism of L-tyrosine and L-phenylalanine. Accumulation of pyomelanin protects B. anthracis cells from UV damage but not from oxidative damage. Neither loss of hmgA nor accumulation of pyomelanin alter virulence gene expression, sporulation or germination. This is the first investigation of homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase activity in the Gram-positive bacteria, and these results provide insight into a conserved aspect of bacterial physiology.

  2. Characterization of recombinant Beta vulgaris 4,5-DOPA-extradiol-dioxygenase active in the biosynthesis of betalains.

    PubMed

    Gandía-Herrero, Fernando; García-Carmona, Francisco

    2012-07-01

    Betalains are water-soluble pigments with high antiradical capacity which bestow bright colors to flowers, fruits and other parts of most plants of the order Caryophyllales. The formation of the structural unit of all betalains, betalamic acid from the precursor amino acid 4,5-dihydroxyphenylalanine is catalyzed by the enzyme 4,5-DOPA-extradiol-dioxygenase followed by intramolecular cyclization of the 4,5-secodopa intermediate. This paper describes the purification and the molecular and functional characterization of an active 4,5-DOPA-extradiol-dioxygenase from the best-known source of betalains-Beta vulgaris-after heterologous expression in Escherichia coli. The enzyme is a monomeric protein with a molecular mass of 32 kDa characterized by chromatography, electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF analysis. Enzyme kinetic properties are characterized in the production of betalamic acid, the structural, chromophoric and bioactive unit of plant pigment betalains.

  3. A functional model of extradiol-cleaving catechol dioxygenases: mimicking the 2-his-1-carboxylate facial triad.

    PubMed

    Paria, Sayantan; Halder, Partha; Paine, Tapan Kanti

    2010-05-17

    The synthesis and characterization of an iron-catecholate model complex of a tridentate 2-N-1-carboxylate ligand derived from L-proline are reported. The X-ray crystal structure of the complex [(L)(3)Fe(3)(DBC)(3)] (1) (where L is 1-(2-pyridylmethyl)pyrrolidine-2-carboxylate and DBC is the dianion of 3,5-di-tert-butyl catechol) reveals that the tridentate ligand binds to the iron center in a facial manner and mimics the 2-his-1-carboxylate facial triad motif observed in extradiol-cleaving catechol dioxygenases. The iron(III)-catecholate complex (1) reacts with dioxygen in acetonitrile in ambient conditions to cleave the C-C bond of catecholate. In the reaction, an equal amount of extra- and intradiol cleavage products are formed without any auto-oxidation product. The iron-catecholate complex is a potential functional model of extradiol-cleaving catechol dioxygenases.

  4. Regio- and stereospecific oxidation of fluorene, dibenzofuran, and dibenzothiophene by naphthalene dioxygenase from Pseudomonas sp. strain NCIB 9816-4.

    PubMed Central

    Resnick, S M; Gibson, D T

    1996-01-01

    The regio- and stereospecific oxidation of fluorene, dibenzofuran, and dibenzothiophene was examined with mutant and recombinant strains expressing naphthalene dioxygenase from Pseudomonas sp. strain NCIB 9816-4. The initial oxidation products were isolated and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. Salicylate-induced cells of Pseudomonas sp. strain 9816/11 and isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside-induced cells of Escherichia coli JM109(DE3)(pDTG141) oxidized fluorene to (+)-(3S,4R)-cis-3,4-dihydroxy-3,4-dihydrofluorene (80 to 90% relative yield; > 95% enantiomeric excess [ee]) and 9-fluorenol (< 10% yield). The same cells oxidized dibenzofuran to (1R,2S)-cis-1,2-dihydroxy-1, 2-dihydrodibenzofuran (60 to 70% yield; > 95% ee) and (3S,4R)-cis-3, 4-dihydroxy-3,4-dihydrodibenzofuran (30 to 40% yield; > 95% ee). Induced cells of both strains, as well as the purified dioxygenase, also oxidized dibenzothiophene to (+)-(1R,2S)-cis-1,2-dihydroxy-1, 2-dihydrodibenzothiophene (84 to 87% yield; > 95% ee) and dibenzothiophene sulfoxide (< 15% yield). The major reaction catalyzed by naphthalene dioxygenase with each substrate was stereospecific dihydroxylation in which the cis-dihydrodiols were of identical regiochemistry and of R configuration at the benzylic center adjacent to the bridgehead carbon atom. The regiospecific oxidation of dibenzofuran differed from that of the other substrates in that a significant amount of the minor cis-3,4-dihydrodiol regioisomer was formed. The results indicate that although the absolute stereochemistry of the cis-diene diols was the same, the nature of the bridging atom or heteroatom influenced the regiospecificity of the reactions catalyzed by naphthalene dioxygenase. PMID:8899998

  5. Bioinformatic and expression analyses on carotenoid dioxygenase genes in fruit development and abiotic stress responses in Fragaria vesca.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Ding, Guanqun; Gu, Tingting; Ding, Jing; Li, Yi

    2017-08-01

    Carotenoid dioxygenases, including 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenases (NCEDs) and carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs), can selectively cleave carotenoids into various apocarotenoid products that play important roles in fleshy fruit development and abiotic stress response. In this study, we identified 12 carotenoid dioxygenase genes in diploid strawberry Fragaria vesca, and explored their evolution with orthologous genes from nine other species. Phylogenetic analyses suggested that the NCED and CCDL groups moderately expanded during their evolution, whereas gene numbers of the CCD1, CCD4, CCD7, and CCD8 groups maintained conserved. We characterized the expression profiles of FveNCED and FveCCD genes during flower and fruit development, and in response to several abiotic stresses. FveNCED1 expression positively responded to osmotic, cold, and heat stresses, whereas FveNCED2 was only induced under cold stress. In contrast, FveNCED2 was the unique gene highly and continuously increasing in receptacle during fruit ripening, which co-occurred with the increase in endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) content previously reported in octoploid strawberry. The differential expression patterns suggested that FveNCED1 and FveNCED2 were key genes for ABA biosynthesis in abiotic stress responses and fruit ripening, respectively. FveCCD1 exhibited the highest expression in most stages of flower and fruit development, while the other FveCCDs were expressed in a subset of stages and tissues. Our study suggests distinct functions of FveNCED and FveCCD genes in fruit development and stress responses and lays a foundation for future study to understand the roles of these genes and their metabolites, including ABA and other apocarotenoid products, in the growth and development of strawberry.

  6. Molecular characterization of an inducible gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase gene, xlnE, from Pseudomonas alcaligenes NCIMB 9867.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Chew Chieng; Wong, Mark Vee-Meng; Feng, Yongmei; Song, Keang Peng; Poh, Chit Laa

    2003-07-17

    Pseudomonas alcaligenes NCIMB 9867 (strain P25X) produces isofunctional enzymes of the gentisate pathway that enables the degradation of xylenols and cresols via gentisate. Previous reports had indicated that one set of enzymes is constitutively expressed whereas the other set is strictly inducible by aromatic hydrocarbon substrates. The gene encoding gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase (GDO), the enzyme that catalyzes the cleavage of the gentisate aromatic ring, was cloned from strain P25X. The GDO gene, designated xlnE, is 1,044 bp, and is part of a 5.4 kb operon which consists of six genes, xlnEFGHID. Transcription of this operon was driven by a sigma 70-type promoter, PxlnE, located 123 bp upstream of the xlnE start codon. Primer extension analysis showed that the xlnE transcription start point is located at the -87 adenine residue. In a P25X xlnE knockout mutant, GDO activity could only be detected when cells were grown in the presence of aromatic substrates, suggesting that xlnE encodes for the constitutive copy of GDO. This was verified by constructing a P25X strain with xlnE transcriptionally fused to a promoterless catechol 2,3-dioxygenase gene. In this strain, catechol 2,3-dioxygenase activity was detected in cells that were grown in the absence of aromatic inducers. However, catechol 2,3-dioxygenase activity increased up to four fold when these cells were grown in the presence of aromatic substrates, in particular 3-hydroxybenzoate. Thus, xlnE is in fact, inducible and the constitutive activity observed under non-inducing conditions was due to its relatively high basal levels of expression.

  7. Effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on microbial community structure and PAH ring hydroxylating dioxygenase gene abundance in soil.

    PubMed

    Sawulski, Przemyslaw; Clipson, Nicholas; Doyle, Evelyn

    2014-11-01

    Development of successful bioremediation strategies for environments contaminated with recalcitrant pollutants requires in-depth knowledge of the microorganisms and microbial processes involved in degradation. The response of soil microbial communities to three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenanthrene (3-ring), fluoranthene (4-ring) and benzo(a)pyrene (5-ring), was examined. Profiles of bacterial, archaeal and fungal communities were generated using molecular fingerprinting techniques (TRFLP, ARISA) and multivariate statistical tools were employed to interpret the effect of PAHs on community dynamics and composition. The extent and rate of PAH removal was directly related to the chemical structure, with the 5-ring PAH benzo(a)pyrene degraded more slowly than phenathrene or fluoranthene. Bacterial, archaeal and fungal communities were all significantly affected by PAH amendment, time and their interaction. Based on analysis of clone libraries, Actinobacteria appeared to dominate in fluoranthene amended soil, although they also represented a significant portion of the diversity in phenanthrene amended and unamended soils. In addition there appeared to be more γ-Proteobacteria and less Bacteroidetes in soil amended with either PAH compared to the control. The soil bacterial community clearly possessed the potential to degrade PAHs as evidenced by the abundance of PAH ring hydroxylating (PAH-RHDα) genes from both gram negative (GN) and gram positive (GP) bacteria in PAH-amended and control soils. Although the dioxygenase gene from GP bacteria was less abundant in soil than the gene associated with GN bacteria, significant (p < 0.001) increases in the abundance of the GP PAH-RHDα gene were observed during phenanthrene and fluoranthene degradation, whereas there was no significant difference in the abundance of the GN PAH-RHDα gene during the course of the experiment. Few studies to-date have examined the effect of pollutants on more than one microbial

  8. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the catechol 2,3-dioxygenase PheB from Bacillus stearothermophilus BR219

    SciTech Connect

    Sugimoto, Keisuke; Matsufuzi, Kazuki; Ohnuma, Hiroaki; Senda, Miki; Fukuda, Masao; Senda, Toshiya

    2006-02-01

    PheB, an extradiol-cleaving catecholic dioxygenase, was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 4000 as a precipitant. The crystal belongs to the orthorhombic system, space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, and diffracts to 2.3 Å resolution. Class II extradiol-cleaving catecholic dioxygenase, a key enzyme of aromatic compound degradation in bacteria, cleaves the aromatic ring of catechol by adding two O atoms. PheB is one of the class II extradiol-cleaving catecholic dioxygenases and shows a high substrate specificity for catechol derivatives, which have one aromatic ring. In order to reveal the mechanism of the substrate specificity of PheB, PheB has been crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 4000 as a precipitant. The space group of the obtained crystal was P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 65.5, b = 119.2, c = 158.7 Å. The crystal diffracted to 2.3 Å resolution.

  9. Structures of Arg- and Gln-type bacterial cysteine dioxygenase homologs: Arg- and Gln-type Bacterial CDO Homologs

    DOE PAGES

    Driggers, Camden M.; Hartman, Steven J.; Karplus, P. Andrew

    2015-01-01

    In some bacteria, cysteine is converted to cysteine sulfinic acid by cysteine dioxygenases (CDO) that are only ~15–30% identical in sequence to mammalian CDOs. Among bacterial proteins having this range of sequence similarity to mammalian CDO are some that conserve an active site Arg residue (“Arg-type” enzymes) and some having a Gln substituted for this Arg (“Gln-type” enzymes). Here, we describe a structure from each of these enzyme types by analyzing structures originally solved by structural genomics groups but not published: a Bacillus subtilis “Arg-type” enzyme that has cysteine dioxygenase activity (BsCDO), and a Ralstonia eutropha “Gln-type” CDO homolog ofmore » uncharacterized activity (ReCDOhom). The BsCDO active site is well conserved with mammalian CDO, and a cysteine complex captured in the active site confirms that the cysteine binding mode is also similar. The ReCDOhom structure reveals a new active site Arg residue that is hydrogen bonding to an iron-bound diatomic molecule we have interpreted as dioxygen. Notably, the Arg position is not compatible with the mode of Cys binding seen in both rat CDO and BsCDO. As sequence alignments show that this newly discovered active site Arg is well conserved among “Gln-type” CDO enzymes, we conclude that the “Gln-type” CDO homologs are not authentic CDOs but will have substrate specificity more similar to 3-mercaptopropionate dioxygenases.« less

  10. An aryl dioxygenase shows remarkable double dioxygenation capacity for diverse bis-aryl compounds, provided they are carbocyclic.

    PubMed

    Overwin, Heike; González, Myriam; Méndez, Valentina; Seeger, Michael; Wray, Victor; Hofer, Bernd

    2016-09-01

    The bacterial dioxygenation of mono- or polycyclic aromatic compounds is an intensely studied field. However, only in a few cases has the repeated dioxygenation of a substrate possessing more than a single aromatic ring been described. We previously characterized the aryl-hydroxylating dioxygenase BphA-B4h, an artificial hybrid of the dioxygenases of the biphenyl degraders Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 and Pseudomonas sp. strain B4-Magdeburg, which contains the active site of the latter enzyme, as an exceptionally powerful biocatalyst. We now show that this dioxygenase possesses a remarkable capacity for the double dioxygenation of various bicyclic aromatic compounds, provided that they are carbocyclic. Two groups of biphenyl analogues were examined: series A compounds containing one heterocyclic aromatic ring and series B compounds containing two homocyclic aromatic rings. Whereas all of the seven partially heterocyclic biphenyl analogues were solely dioxygenated in the homocyclic ring, four of the six carbocyclic bis-aryls were converted into ortho,meta-hydroxylated bis-dihydrodiols. Potential reasons for failure of heterocyclic dioxygenations are discussed. The obtained bis-dihydrodiols may, as we also show here, be enzymatically re-aromatized to yield the corresponding tetraphenols. This opens a way to a range of new polyphenolic products, a class of compounds known to exert multiple biological activities. Several of the obtained compounds are novel molecules.

  11. Structures of Arg- and Gln-type bacterial cysteine dioxygenase homologs: Arg- and Gln-type Bacterial CDO Homologs

    SciTech Connect

    Driggers, Camden M.; Hartman, Steven J.; Karplus, P. Andrew

    2015-01-01

    In some bacteria, cysteine is converted to cysteine sulfinic acid by cysteine dioxygenases (CDO) that are only ~15–30% identical in sequence to mammalian CDOs. Among bacterial proteins having this range of sequence similarity to mammalian CDO are some that conserve an active site Arg residue (“Arg-type” enzymes) and some having a Gln substituted for this Arg (“Gln-type” enzymes). Here, we describe a structure from each of these enzyme types by analyzing structures originally solved by structural genomics groups but not published: a Bacillus subtilis “Arg-type” enzyme that has cysteine dioxygenase activity (BsCDO), and a Ralstonia eutropha “Gln-type” CDO homolog of uncharacterized activity (ReCDOhom). The BsCDO active site is well conserved with mammalian CDO, and a cysteine complex captured in the active site confirms that the cysteine binding mode is also similar. The ReCDOhom structure reveals a new active site Arg residue that is hydrogen bonding to an iron-bound diatomic molecule we have interpreted as dioxygen. Notably, the Arg position is not compatible with the mode of Cys binding seen in both rat CDO and BsCDO. As sequence alignments show that this newly discovered active site Arg is well conserved among “Gln-type” CDO enzymes, we conclude that the “Gln-type” CDO homologs are not authentic CDOs but will have substrate specificity more similar to 3-mercaptopropionate dioxygenases.

  12. Expression of 9-cis-EPOXYCAROTENOID DIOXYGENASE4 Is Essential for Thermoinhibition of Lettuce Seed Germination but Not for Seed Development or Stress Tolerance[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Heqiang; Dahal, Peetambar; Kunusoth, Keshavulu; McCallum, Claire M.; Bradford, Kent J.

    2013-01-01

    Thermoinhibition, or failure of seeds to germinate at warm temperatures, is common in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) cultivars. Using a recombinant inbred line population developed from a lettuce cultivar (Salinas) and thermotolerant Lactuca serriola accession UC96US23 (UC), we previously mapped a quantitative trait locus associated with thermoinhibition of germination to a genomic region containing a gene encoding a key regulated enzyme in abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, 9-cis-EPOXYCAROTENOID DIOXYGENASE4 (NCED4). NCED4 from either Salinas or UC complements seeds of the Arabidopsis thaliana nced6-1 nced9-1 double mutant by restoring germination thermosensitivity, indicating that both NCED4 genes encode functional proteins. Transgenic expression of Salinas NCED4 in UC seeds resulted in thermoinhibition, whereas silencing of NCED4 in Salinas seeds led to loss of thermoinhibition. Mutations in NCED4 also alleviated thermoinhibition. NCED4 expression was elevated during late seed development but was not required for seed maturation. Heat but not water stress elevated NCED4 expression in leaves, while NCED2 and NCED3 exhibited the opposite responses. Silencing of NCED4 altered the expression of genes involved in ABA, gibberellin, and ethylene biosynthesis and signaling pathways. Together, these data demonstrate that NCED4 expression is required for thermoinhibition of lettuce seeds and that it may play additional roles in plant responses to elevated temperature. PMID:23503626

  13. 2-Oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases are sensors of energy metabolism, oxygen availability, and iron homeostasis: potential role in the regulation of aging process.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Antero; Kauppinen, Anu; Kaarniranta, Kai

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies have revealed that the members of an ancient family of nonheme Fe(2+)/2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases (2-OGDO) are involved in the functions associated with the aging process. 2-Oxoglutarate and O2 are the obligatory substrates and Fe(2+) a cofactor in the activation of 2-OGDO enzymes, which can induce the hydroxylation of distinct proteins and the demethylation of DNA and histones. For instance, ten-eleven translocation 1-3 (TET1-3) are the demethylases of DNA, whereas Jumonji C domain-containing histone lysine demethylases (KDM2-7) are the major epigenetic regulators of chromatin landscape, known to be altered with aging. The functions of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylases (PHD1-3) as well as those of collagen hydroxylases are associated with age-related degeneration. Moreover, the ribosomal hydroxylase OGFOD1 controls mRNA translation, which is known to decline with aging. 2-OGDO enzymes are the sensors of energy metabolism, since the Krebs cycle intermediate 2-oxoglutarate is an activator whereas succinate and fumarate are the potent inhibitors of 2-OGDO enzymes. In addition, O2 availability and iron redox homeostasis control the activities of 2-OGDO enzymes in tissues. We will briefly elucidate the catalytic mechanisms of 2-OGDO enzymes and then review the potential functions of the above-mentioned 2-OGDO enzymes in the control of the aging process.

  14. Developmental and stress regulation of gene expression for a 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase, CstNCED, isolated from Crocus sativus stigmas.

    PubMed

    Ahrazem, Oussama; Rubio-Moraga, Angela; Trapero, Almudena; Gómez-Gómez, Lourdes

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative cleavage of cis-epoxycarotenoids by 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) is the critical step in the regulation of abscisic acid (ABA) synthesis in higher plants. ABA has been associated with dormancy and flower senescence, while also regulating plant adaptive responses to various environmental stresses. An NCED gene, CstNCED, was cloned from Crocus sativus stigmas. The deduced amino acid sequence of the CstNCED protein shared high identity with other monocot NCEDs, and was closely related to the liliopsida enzymes. At the N-terminus of CstNCED a chloroplast transit peptide sequence is located. However, its expression in chloroplast-free tissues suggested localization in other plastid types. The relationship between expression of CstNCED and the endogenous ABA level was investigated in the stigma and corms, where it was developmentally regulated. The senescence of the unpollinated stigma is preceded by an increase in ABA levels and CstNCED expression. In corms, a correlation was observed between CstNCED expression and dormancy. Furthermore, CstNCED expression was correlated with the presence of zeaxanthin in the dormant corms. When detached C. sativus leaves and stigmas were water and salt stressed, increases in CstNCED mRNA were observed. The results provided evidence of the involvement of CstNCED in the regulation of ABA-associated processes such as flower senescence and corm dormancy in monocotyledonous saffron.

  15. Insight into the metabolism of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) by biphenyl dioxygenases.

    PubMed

    L'Abbée, José-Bruno; Tu, Youbin; Barriault, Diane; Sylvestre, Michel

    2011-12-01

    In this work we have investigated the ability of the biphenyl dioxygenase of Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 (BphAE(LB400)) and of Pandoraea pnomenusa B356 (BphAE(B356)) to metabolize DDT. Data show BphAE(LB400) is unable to metabolize this substrate but BphAE(B356) metabolizes DDT to produce two stereoisomers. Structural analysis of DDT-docked BphAE(LB400) and BphAE(B356) identified residue Phe336 of BphAE(LB400) as critical to prevent productive binding of DDT to BphAE(LB400). Furthermore, the fact that residue Gly319 of BphAE(B356) is less constrained than Gly321 of BphAE(LB400) most likely contributes to the ability of BphAE(B356) to bind DDT productively. This was confirmed by examining the ability of BphAE chimeras obtained by shuffling bphA genes from strain B356 and LB400. Chimeras where residues Thr335 (which modulates the constraints on Gly321) and Phe336 (which contacts the substrate) of BphAE(LB400) were replaced by Gly and Ile respectively were able to metabolize DDT. However their stereospecificities varied depending on the presence of other segments or residues from BphAE(B356). Structural analysis suggests that either one or both of residue 267 and a segments comprised of residue 247-260 are likely involved in stereospecificity.

  16. Increased activity of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase in serum from acutely infected dengue patients linked to gamma interferon antiviral function

    PubMed Central

    Becerra, Aniuska; Warke, Rajas V.; Xhaja, Kris; Evans, Barbara; Evans, James; Martin, Katherine; de Bosch, Norma; Rothman, Alan L.; Bosch, Irene

    2009-01-01

    The depletion of l-tryptophan (L-Trp) has been associated with the inhibition of growth of micro-organisms and also has profound effects on T cell proliferation and immune tolerance. The enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) catalyses the rate-limiting step in the catabolic pathway of L-Trp. Gene expression analysis has shown upregulation of genes involved in L-Trp catabolism in in vitro models of dengue virus (DENV) infection. To understand the role of IDO during DENV infection, we measured IDO activity in sera from control and DENV-infected patients. We found increased IDO activity, lower levels of L-Trp and higher levels of l-kynurenine in sera from DENV-infected patients during the febrile days of the disease compared with patients with other febrile illnesses and healthy donors. Furthermore, we confirmed upregulation of IDO mRNA expression in response to DENV infection in vitro, using a dendritic cell (DC) model of DENV infection. We found that the antiviral effect of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) in DENV-infected DCs in vitro was partially dependent on IDO activity. Our results demonstrate that IDO plays an important role in the antiviral effect of IFN-γ against DENV infection in vitro and suggest that it has a role in the immune response to DENV infections in vivo. PMID:19264674

  17. MhNCED3, a gene encoding 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase in Malus hupehensis Rehd., enhances plant tolerance to Cl- stress by reducing Cl- accumulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-wei; Yang, Hong-qiang; You, Shu-zhen; Fan, Shu-lei; Ran, Kun

    2015-04-01

    High Cl(-) concentrations in tissues can be toxic to crop plants and may lead to reduced growth rates and yields. 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) is thought to be involved in the biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA), which is an important regulator of plant adaptive responses to stress. Here, the expression of MhNCED3 in Malus hupehensis Rehd. and the effects of MhNCED3 on plant tolerance to Cl(-) stress were explored. The results showed that MhNCED3 expression and ABA biosynthesis in M. hupehensis Rehd. were induced by Cl(-) stress. Ectopic expression of MhNCED3 in Arabidopsis complemented the phenotypic defects of the 129B08/nced3 mutant and enhanced WT tolerance to Cl(-) stress. The transgenic Arabidopsis showed improved growth and developmental status, increased ABA contents, and reduced transpiration rates and relative water content. Furthermore, ectopic expression of MhNCED3 decreased Cl(-) accumulation and oxidative damage, and up-regulated the expression levels of AtCLCc (chloride channel protein) and AtSLAH3 (slow anion channel 1 homolog 3) genes in Arabidopsis. These observations suggest that MhNCED3 has critical role in enhancing plant tolerance to Cl(-) stress by reducing Cl(-) accumulation.

  18. Salmonella-Based Therapy Targeting Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase Coupled with Enzymatic Depletion of Tumor Hyaluronan Induces Complete Regression of Aggressive Pancreatic Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Manuel, Edwin R.; Chen, Jeremy; D'Apuzzo, Massimo; Lampa, Melanie G.; Kaltcheva, Teodora I.; Thompson, Curtis B.; Ludwig, Thomas; Chung, Vincent; Diamond, Don J.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial-based therapies are emerging as effective cancer treatments and hold promise for refractory neoplasms such as pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), which has not shown significant improvement in therapy for over twenty-five years. Using a novel combination of shIDO-ST, a Salmonella-based therapy targeting the immunosuppressive molecule indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), with an enzyme, PEGPH20, which depletes extracellular matrix hyaluronan, we observed extended survival with frequent total regression of autochthonous and orthotopic PDAC tumors. This was associated with migration and accumulation of activated polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) from spleens into tumors, which was not observed using a scrambled control (shScr-ST). Purified splenic PMNs from PEGPH20/shIDO-ST-treated mice exhibited significant IDO knockdown and were able to kill tumor targets ex-vivo through mechanisms involving FasL and serine proteases. In addition, CD8+ T cells were observed to contribute to late control of pancreatic tumors. Collectively, our data demonstrate that entry of shIDO-ST and PMNs into otherwise impermeable desmoplastic tumors is facilitated by PEGPH20-mediated HA removal, further highlighting an important component of effective treatment for PDAC. PMID:26134178

  19. A preliminary crystallographic study of recombinant NicX, an Fe2+-dependent 2,5-dihydroxypyridine dioxygenase from Pseudomonas putida KT2440

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, José Ignacio; Acebrón, Iván; García, José Luis; Díaz, Eduardo; Mancheño, José Miguel

    2010-01-01

    NicX from Pseudomonas putida KT2440 is an Fe2+-dependent dioxygenase that is involved in the aerobic degradation of nicotinic acid. The enzyme converts 2,5-­dihydroxypyridine to N-formylmaleamic acid when overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Biophysical characterization of NicX by analytical gel-filtration chromatography revealed that it behaves as an oligomeric assembly in solution, with an apparent molecular weight that is consistent with a hexameric species. NicX was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 291 K. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.0 Å at the ESRF. The crystals most probably belong to the orthorhombic space group C222 or C2221. The estimated Matthews coefficient was 2.4 Å3 Da−1, corresponding to 50% solvent content, which is consistent with the presence of three protein molecules in the asymmetric unit. Analysis of the crystal data together with chromatographic results supports NicX being a hexameric assembly composed of two cyclic trimers. Currently, crystallization of recombinant selenomethionine-containing NicX is in progress. PMID:20445257

  20. Degradation of diphenyl ether in Sphingobium phenoxybenzoativorans SC_3 is initiated by a novel ring-cleavage dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Cai, Shu; Chen, Li-Wei; Ai, Yu-Chun; Qiu, Ji-Guo; Wang, Cheng-Hong; Shi, Chao; He, Jian; Cai, Tian-Ming

    2017-03-10

    Sphingobium phenoxybenzoativorans SC_3 degrades and utilizes diphenyl ether (DE) and 2-carboxy DE as its sole carbon and energy source. In this study, we report the degradation of DE and 2-carboxy DE initiated by a novel ring-cleavage angular dioxygenase (Dpe) in the strain. Dpe functions at the angular carbon and its adjacent carbon (C1a, C2) of a benzene ring in DE (or the 2-carboxy benzene ring in 2-carboxy DE) and cleaves the C1a-C2 bond (decarboxylation is simultaneously happened for 2-carboxy DE), yielding 2,4-hexadienal phenyl ester, which is subsequently hydrolyzed to muconic acid semialdehyde and phenol. Dpe is a type IV Rieske non-heme iron oxygenase (RHO) and consists of three components: a hetero-oligomer oxygenase, a [2Fe-2S]-type ferredoxin and a GR (glutathione reductase)-type reductase. Genetic analyses revealed that dpeA1A2 plays an essential role in degradation and utilization of DE and 2-carboxy DE in S. phenoxybenzoativorans SC_3. Enzymatic study showed that transformation of one molecule of DE needs two molecules of oxygen and two molecules of NADH, supporting the assumption that the cleavage of DE catalyzed by Dpe is a continuous two-step dioxygenation process: DE is dioxygenated at C1a, C2 to form an hemiacetal-like intermediates, which is further dioxygenated resulting the cleavage of the C1a-C2 bond to form one molecule of 2,4-hexadienal phenyl ester and two molecules of H2O. This study extends our knowledge of the mode and mechanism of ring-cleavage of aromatic compounds.IMPORTANCE Benzene ring-cleavage, catalyzed by dioxygenase, is the key and speed limiting step in the aerobic degradation of aromatic compounds. Previously reported ring-cleavage of DEs, the benzene ring needs to be firstly dihydroxylated at lateral position, and subsequently dehydrogenated and opened through extradiol cleavage. This process requires three enzymes (two dioxygenases and one dehydrogenase). In this study, we identified a novel angular dioxygenase (Dpe) in S

  1. Biological degradation of 4-chlorobenzoic acid by a PCB-metabolizing bacterium through a pathway not involving (chloro)catechol.

    PubMed

    Adebusoye, Sunday A

    2017-02-01

    Cupriavidus sp. strain SK-3, previously isolated on polychlorinated biphenyl mixtures, was found to aerobically utilize a wide spectrum of substituted aromatic compounds including 4-fluoro-, 4-chloro- and 4-bromobenzoic acids as a sole carbon and energy source. Other chlorobenzoic acid (CBA) congeners such as 2-, 3-, 2,3-, 2,5-, 3,4- and 3,5-CBA were all rapidly transformed to respective chlorocatechols (CCs). Under aerobic conditions, strain SK-3 grew readily on 4-CBA to a maximum concentration of 5 mM above which growth became impaired and yielded no biomass. Growth lagged significantly at concentrations above 3 mM, however chloride elimination was stoichiometric and generally mirrored growth and substrate consumption in all incubations. Experiments with resting cells, cell-free extracts and analysis of metabolite pools suggest that 4-CBA was metabolized in a reaction exclusively involving an initial hydrolytic dehalogenation yielding 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, which was then hydroxylated to protocatechuic acid (PCA) and subsequently metabolized via the β-ketoadipate pathway. When strain SK-3 was grown on 4-CBA, there was gratuitous induction of the catechol-1,2-dioxygenase and gentisate-1,2-dioxygenase pathways, even if both were not involved in the metabolism of the acid. While activities of the modified ortho- and meta-cleavage pathways were not detectable in all extracts, activity of PCA-3,4-dioxygenase was over ten-times higher than those of catechol-1,2- and gentisate-1,2-dioxygenases. Therefore, the only reason other congeners were not utilized for growth was the accumulation of CCs, suggesting a narrow spectrum of the activity of enzymes downstream of benzoate-1,2-dioxygenase, which exhibited affinity for a number of substituted analogs, and that the metabolic bottlenecks are either CCs or catabolites of the modified ortho-cleavage metabolic route.

  2. Diversity and distribution of catechol 2, 3-dioxygenase genes in surface sediments of the Bohai Sea.

    PubMed

    He, Peiqing; Li, Li; Liu, Jihua; Bai, Yazhi; Fang, Xisheng

    2016-05-01

    Catechol 2, 3-dioxygenase (C23O) is the key enzyme for aerobic aromatic degradation. Based on clone libraries and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, we characterized diversity and distribution patterns of C23O genes in surface sediments of the Bohai Sea. The results showed that sediments of the Bohai Sea were dominated by genes related to C23O subfamily I.2.A. The samples from wastewater discharge area (DG) and aquaculture farm (KL) showed distinct composition of C23O genes when compared to the samples from Bohai Bay (BH), and total organic carbon was a crucial determinant accounted for the composition variation. C6BH12-38 and C2BH2-35 displayed the highest gene copies and highest ratios to the 16S rRNA genes in KL, and they might prefer biologically labile aromatic hydrocarbons via aquaculture inputs. Meanwhile, C7BH3-48 showed the highest gene copies and highest ratios to the 16S rRNA genes in DG, and this could be selective effect of organic loadings from wastewater discharge. An evident increase in C6BH12-38 and C7BH3-48 gene copies and reduction in diversity of C23O genes in DG and KL indicated composition perturbations of C23O genes and potential loss in functional redundancy. We suggest that ecological habitat and trophic specificity could shape the distribution of C23O genes in the Bohai Sea sediments.

  3. Differential spatio-temporal expression of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases regulates apocarotenoid fluxes during AM symbiosis.

    PubMed

    López-Ráez, Juan A; Fernández, Iván; García, Juan M; Berrio, Estefanía; Bonfante, Paola; Walter, Michael H; Pozo, María J

    2015-01-01

    Apocarotenoids are a class of compounds that play important roles in nature. In recent years, a prominent role for these compounds in arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis has been shown. They are derived from carotenoids by the action of the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD) enzyme family. In the present study, using tomato as a model, the spatio-temporal expression pattern of the CCD genes during AM symbiosis establishment and functioning was investigated. In addition, the levels of the apocarotenoids strigolactones (SLs), C13 α-ionol and C14 mycorradicin (C13/C14) derivatives were analyzed. The results suggest an increase in SLs promoted by the presence of the AM fungus at the early stages of the interaction, which correlated with an induction of the SL biosynthesis gene SlCCD7. At later stages, induction of SlCCD7 and SlCCD1 expression in arbusculated cells promoted the production of C13/C14 apocarotenoid derivatives. We show here that the biosynthesis of apocarotenoids during AM symbiosis is finely regulated throughout the entire process at the gene expression level, and that CCD7 constitutes a key player in this regulation. Once the symbiosis is established, apocarotenoid flux would be turned towards the production of C13/C14 derivatives, thus reducing SL biosynthesis and maintaining a functional symbiosis.

  4. Identification of Homogentisate Dioxygenase as a Target for Vitamin E Biofortification in Oilseeds1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Hanh T.; Cui, Yaya; Sato, Shirley; Clark, Kerry M.; Liang, Yan; Forrester, Joe; Batek, Josef; Do, Phat Tien; Sleper, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) is a major plant source of protein and oil and produces important secondary metabolites beneficial for human health. As a tool for gene function discovery and improvement of this important crop, a mutant population was generated using fast neutron irradiation. Visual screening of mutagenized seeds identified a mutant line, designated MO12, which produced brown seeds as opposed to the yellow seeds produced by the unmodified Williams 82 parental cultivar. Using forward genetic methods combined with comparative genome hybridization analysis, we were able to establish that deletion of the GmHGO1 gene is the genetic basis of the brown seeded phenotype exhibited by the MO12 mutant line. GmHGO1 encodes a homogentisate dioxygenase (HGO), which catalyzes the committed enzymatic step in homogentisate catabolism. This report describes to our knowledge the first functional characterization of a plant HGO gene, defects of which are linked to the human genetic disease alkaptonuria. We show that reduced homogentisate catabolism in a soybean HGO mutant is an effective strategy for enhancing the production of lipid-soluble antioxidants such as vitamin E, as well as tolerance to herbicides that target pathways associated with homogentisate metabolism. Furthermore, this work demonstrates the utility of fast neutron mutagenesis in identifying novel genes that contribute to soybean agronomic traits. PMID:27660165

  5. Lignans from Carthamus tinctorius suppress tryptophan breakdown via indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Kuehnl, Susanne; Schroecksnadel, Sebastian; Temml, Veronika; Gostner, Johanna M.; Schennach, Harald; Schuster, Daniela; Schwaiger, Stefan; Rollinger, Judith M.; Fuchs, Dietmar; Stuppner, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    Seed extracts of Carthamus tinctorius L. (Asteraceae), safflower, have been traditionally used to treat coronary disease, thrombotic disorders, and menstrual problems but also against cancer and depression. A possible effect of C. tinctorius compounds on tryptophan-degrading activity of enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) could explain many of its activities. To test for an effect of C. tinctorius extracts and isolated compounds on cytokine-induced IDO activity in immunocompetent cells in vitro methanol and ethylacetate seed extracts were prepared from cold pressed seed cakes of C. tinctorius and three lignan derivatives, trachelogenin, arctigenin and matairesinol were isolated. The influence on tryptophan breakdown was investigated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Effects were compared to neopterin production in the same cellular assay. Both seed extracts suppressed tryptophan breakdown in stimulated PBMC. The three structurally closely related isolates exerted differing suppressive activity on PBMC: arctigenin (IC50 26.5 μM) and trachelogenin (IC50 of 57.4 μM) showed higher activity than matairesinol (IC50 >200 μM) to inhibit tryptophan breakdown. Effects on neopterin production were similar albeit generally less strong. Data show an immunosuppressive property of compounds which slows down IDO activity. The in vitro results support the view that some of the anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and antidepressant properties of C. tinctorius lignans might relate to their suppressive influence on tryptophan breakdown. PMID:23867649

  6. Indoleamine 2,3 Dioxygenase as a Potential Therapeutic Target in Huntington's Disease.

    PubMed

    Mazarei, Gelareh; Leavitt, Blair R

    2015-01-01

    Within the past decade, there has been increasing interest in the role of tryptophan (Trp) metabolites and the kynurenine pathway (KP) in diseases of the brain such as Huntington's disease (HD). Evidence is accumulating to suggest that this pathway is imbalanced in neurologic disease states. The KP diverges into two branches that can lead to production of either neuroprotective or neurotoxic metabolites. In one branch, kynurenine (Kyn) produced as a result of tryptophan (Trp) catabolism is further metabolized to neurotoxic metabolites such as 3-hydroxykunurenine (3-HK) and quinolinic acid (QA). In the other branch, Kyn is converted to the neuroprotective metabolite kynurenic acid (KA). The enzyme Indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO1) catalyzes the conversion of Trp into Kyn, the first and rate-limiting enzymatic step of the KP. This reaction takes place throughout the body in multiple cell types as a required step in the degradation of the essential amino acid Trp. Studies of IDO1 in brain have focused primarily on a potential role in depression, immune tolerance associated with brain tumours, and multiple sclerosis; however the role of this enzyme in neurodegenerative disease has garnered significant attention in recent years. This review will provide a summary of the current understanding of the role of IDO1 in Huntington's disease and will assess this enzyme as a potential therapeutic target for HD.

  7. Regulation of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase in primary human saphenous vein endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Mouratidis, Petros XE; George, Andrew JT

    2015-01-01

    Background Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is an enzyme associated with the regulation of immune responses. Cytokines such as IFNγ induce its expression in endothelial cells originating from immune-privileged sites. In this study, we investigate regulators of IDO in primary endothelial cells from a non-immune-privileged site and determine whether IDO expression affects immune cell behavior. Methods IDO expression was determined using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting. IDO activity was estimated using an IDO enzyme assay. Primary cells were transfected using microporation, and T-cell migration was determined using a cell transmigration assay. Results IDO is expressed in human saphenous vein endothelial cells after stimulation with IFNγ but not after treatment with TNFα, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, or IL-10. VEGFβ and heparin negatively regulate IFNγ-driven increases in IDO. Overexpression of IDO in endothelial cells does not affect transmigration of T-cells. Conclusion IDO is expressed in human saphenous vein endothelial cells after stimulation with IFNγ. Heparin and angiogenesis stimulators such as VEGFβ negatively regulate its expression. PMID:26056484

  8. Functional expression of a valencene dioxygenase from Pleurotus sapidus in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Zelena, Kateryna; Krings, Ulrich; Berger, Ralf G

    2012-03-01

    Valencene dioxygenase (ValOx) from the edible basidiomycete Pleurotus sapidus converted the sesquiterpene (+)-valencene to the valuable grapefruit flavour (+)-nootkatone and to nootkatols through intermediate hydroperoxides. Expression of the enzyme was carried out in the cytosol and periplasm of Escherichia coli. The heterologous production led to high yields of inclusion bodies. The poor yield of soluble recombinant protein was improved by various strategies including cold shock expression, chaperone co-expression, and employment of mutant E. coli strains. Up to 60 mg of the biologically active, soluble ValOx was produced by cold shock under control of the cspA promoter at 8 °C in the BL21(DE3)Star strain and co-expression of the E. coli trigger factor. The recombinant enzyme, purified using the N-terminal His tag, showed the catalytic properties of the wild-type enzyme, as was confirmed by the LC-MS analysis of hydroperoxide intermediates and GC-MS analysis of the volatile products. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ormosil gels doped with engineered catechol 1,2 dioxygenases for chlorocatechol bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Micalella, Chiara; Caglio, Raffaella; Mozzarelli, Andrea; Valetti, Francesca; Pessione, Enrica; Giunta, Carlo; Bruno, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Enzymes entrapped in wet, nanoporous silica gel have great potential as bioreactors for bioremediation because of their improved thermal, chemical, and mechanical stability with respect to enzymes in solution. The B isozyme of catechol 1,2 dioxygenase from Acinetobacter radioresistens and its mutants of Leu69 and Ala72, designed for an increased reactivity toward the environmental pollutant chlorocatechols, were encapsulated using alkoxysilanes and alkyl alkoxysilanes as precursors in varying proportions. Encapsulation of the mutants in a hydrophobic tetramethoxysilane/dimethoxydimethylsilane-based matrix yielded a remarkable 10- to 12-fold enhancement in reactivity toward chlorocatechols. These gels also showed a fivefold increase in relative reactivity toward chlorocatechols with respect to the natural substrate catechol, thus compensating for their relatively low activity for these substrates in solution. The encapsulated enzyme, unlike the enzyme in solution, proved resilient in assays carried out in urban wastewater and bacteria-contaminated solutions mimicking environmentally relevant conditions. Overall, the combination of a structure-based rational design of enzyme mutants, and the selection of a suitable encapsulation material, proved to be a powerful approach for the production and optimization of a potential bioremediation device, with increased activity and resistance toward bacterial degradation.

  10. Induction of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds enhances seed dormancy.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Andújar, Cristina; Ordiz, M Isabel; Huang, Zhonglian; Nonogaki, Mariko; Beachy, Roger N; Nonogaki, Hiroyuki

    2011-10-11

    Full understanding of mechanisms that control seed dormancy and germination remains elusive. Whereas it has been proposed that translational control plays a predominant role in germination, other studies suggest the importance of specific gene expression patterns in imbibed seeds. Transgenic plants were developed to permit conditional expression of a gene encoding 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase 6 (NCED6), a rate-limiting enzyme in abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, using the ecdysone receptor-based plant gene switch system and the ligand methoxyfenozide. Induction of NCED6 during imbibition increased ABA levels more than 20-fold and was sufficient to prevent seed germination. Germination suppression was prevented by fluridone, an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis. In another study, induction of the NCED6 gene in transgenic seeds of nondormant mutants tt3 and tt4 reestablished seed dormancy. Furthermore, inducing expression of NCED6 during seed development suppressed vivipary, precocious germination of developing seeds. These results indicate that expression of a hormone metabolism gene in seeds can be a sole determinant of dormancy. This study opens the possibility of developing a robust technology to suppress or promote seed germination through engineering pathways of hormone metabolism.

  11. Insights into DNA hydroxymethylation in the honeybee from in-depth analyses of TET dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Wojciechowski, Marek; Rafalski, Dominik; Kucharski, Robert; Misztal, Katarzyna; Maleszka, Joanna; Bochtler, Matthias; Maleszka, Ryszard

    2014-01-01

    In mammals, a family of TET enzymes producing oxidized forms of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) plays an important role in modulating DNA demethylation dynamics. In contrast, nothing is known about the function of a single TET orthologue present in invertebrates. Here, we show that the honeybee TET (AmTET) catalytic domain has dioxygenase activity and converts 5mC to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) in a HEK293T cell assay. In vivo, the levels of 5hmC are condition-dependent and relatively low, but in testes and ovaries 5hmC is present at approximately 7–10% of the total level of 5mC, which is comparable to that reported for certain mammalian cells types. AmTET is alternatively spliced and highly expressed throughout development and in adult tissues with the highest expression found in adult brains. Our findings reveal an additional level of flexible genomic modifications in the honeybee that may be important for the selection of multiple pathways controlling contrasting phenotypic outcomes in this species. In a broader context, our study extends the current, mammalian-centred attention to TET-driven DNA hydroxymethylation to an easily manageable organism with attractive and unique biology. PMID:25100549

  12. Salmonella overcomes tumor immune tolerance by inhibition of tumor indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase 1 expression.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Yu-Diao; Lee, Che-Hsin

    2016-01-05

    Over the past decades, Salmonella has been proven capable of inhibiting tumor growth. It can specifically target tumors and due to its facultative anaerobic property, can be more penetrative than other drug therapies. However, the molecular mechanism by which Salmonella inhibits tumor growth is still incompletely known. The antitumor therapeutic effect mediated by Salmonella is associated with an inflammatory immune response at the tumor site and a T cell-dependent immune response. Many tumors have been proven to have a high expression of indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO), which is a rate-limiting enzyme that catalyzes tryptophan to kynurenine, thus causing immune tolerance within the tumor microenvironment. With decreased expression of IDO, increased immune response can be observed, which might be helpful when developing cancer immunotherapy. The expression of IDO was decreased after tumor cells were infected with Salmonella. In addition, Western blot analysis showed that the expression levels of phospho-protein kinase B (P-AKT), phospho-mammalian targets of rapamycin (P-mTOR), and phospho-p70 ribosomal s6 kinase (P-p70s6K) in tumor cells were decreased after Salmonella infection. In conclusion, our results indicate that Salmonella inhibits IDO expression and plays a crucial role in anti-tumor therapy, which might be a promising strategy combined with other cancer treatments.

  13. Purification, Characterization, and Mechanism of a Flavin Mononucleotide-Dependent 2-Nitropropane Dioxygenase from Neurospora crassa

    PubMed Central

    Gorlatova, Natalia; Tchorzewski, Marek; Kurihara, Tatsuo; Soda, Kenji; Esaki, Nobuyoshi

    1998-01-01

    A nitroalkane-oxidizing enzyme was purified to homogeneity from Neurospora crassa. The enzyme is composed of two subunits; the molecular weight of each subunit is approximately 40,000. The enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of nitroalkanes to produce the corresponding carbonyl compounds. It acts on 2-nitropropane better than on nitroethane and 1-nitropropane, and anionic forms of nitroalkanes are much better substrates than are neutral forms. The enzyme does not act on aromatic compounds. When the enzyme reaction was conducted in an 18O2 atmosphere with the anionic form of 2-nitropropane as the substrate, acetone (with a molecular mass of 60 Da) was produced. This indicates that the oxygen atom of acetone was derived from molecular oxygen, not from water; hence, the enzyme is an oxygenase. The reaction stoichiometry was 2CH3CH(NO2)-CH3 + O2→2CH3COCH3 + 2HNO2, which is identical to that of the reaction of 2-nitropropane dioxygenase from Hansenula mrakii. The reaction of the Neurospora enzyme was inhibited by superoxide anion scavengers in the same manner as that of the Hansenula enzyme. Both of these enzymes are flavoenzymes; however, the Neurospora enzyme contains flavin mononucleotide as a prosthetic group, whereas the Hansenula enzyme contains flavin adenine dinucleotide. PMID:9501443

  14. Inhibition of allogeneic T-cell response by Kupffer cells expressing indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Mao-Lin; Wang, Yao-Dong; Tian, Yi-Feng; Lai, Zhi-De; Yan, Lv-Nan

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To explore the possibility and mechanism of inhibiting allogeneic T-cell responses by Kupffer cells (KC) pretreated with interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in vitro. METHODS: The expressions of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) mRNA and FasL mRNA in KC pretreated with IFN-γ were studied with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The catabolism of tryptophan by IDO from KC was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. Allogeneic T-cell response was used to confirm the inhibition of KC in vitro. The proliferation of lymphocytes was detected using [3H] thymidine incorporation. Cell cycle and lymphocyte apoptosis were evaluated by flow cytometric assay. RESULTS: Real-time PCR revealed IDO mRNA and FasL mRNA expressions in KC pretreated with IFN-γ, and IDO catabolic effect was confirmed by a decrease in tryptophan and increase in kynurenine concentration. KC expressing IDO and FasL in BABL/c mice acquired the ability to suppress the proliferation of T-cells from C57BL/6, which could be blocked by addition of 1-methyl-tryptophan and anti-FasL antibody. KC expressing IDO could induce allogeneic T-cell apoptosis. CONCLUSION: In addition to Fas/FasL pathway, IDO may be another mechanism for KC to induce immune tolerance. PMID:20128035

  15. Lignans from Carthamus tinctorius suppress tryptophan breakdown via indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Kuehnl, Susanne; Schroecksnadel, Sebastian; Temml, Veronika; Gostner, Johanna M; Schennach, Harald; Schuster, Daniela; Schwaiger, Stefan; Rollinger, Judith M; Fuchs, Dietmar; Stuppner, Hermann

    2013-10-15

    Seed extracts of Carthamus tinctorius L. (Asteraceae), safflower, have been traditionally used to treat coronary disease, thrombotic disorders, and menstrual problems but also against cancer and depression. A possible effect of C. tinctorius compounds on tryptophan-degrading activity of enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) could explain many of its activities. To test for an effect of C. tinctorius extracts and isolated compounds on cytokine-induced IDO activity in immunocompetent cells in vitro methanol and ethylacetate seed extracts were prepared from cold pressed seed cakes of C. tinctorius and three lignan derivatives, trachelogenin, arctigenin and matairesinol were isolated. The influence on tryptophan breakdown was investigated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Effects were compared to neopterin production in the same cellular assay. Both seed extracts suppressed tryptophan breakdown in stimulated PBMC. The three structurally closely related isolates exerted differing suppressive activity on PBMC: arctigenin (IC50 26.5μM) and trachelogenin (IC50 of 57.4μM) showed higher activity than matairesinol (IC50 >200μM) to inhibit tryptophan breakdown. Effects on neopterin production were similar albeit generally less strong. Data show an immunosuppressive property of compounds which slows down IDO activity. The in vitro results support the view that some of the anti-inflammatory, anticancer and antidepressant properties of C. tinctorius lignans might relate to their suppressive influence on tryptophan breakdown.

  16. Induction of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds enhances seed dormancy

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Andújar, Cristina; Ordiz, M. Isabel; Huang, Zhonglian; Nonogaki, Mariko; Beachy, Roger N.; Nonogaki, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    Full understanding of mechanisms that control seed dormancy and germination remains elusive. Whereas it has been proposed that translational control plays a predominant role in germination, other studies suggest the importance of specific gene expression patterns in imbibed seeds. Transgenic plants were developed to permit conditional expression of a gene encoding 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase 6 (NCED6), a rate-limiting enzyme in abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, using the ecdysone receptor-based plant gene switch system and the ligand methoxyfenozide. Induction of NCED6 during imbibition increased ABA levels more than 20-fold and was sufficient to prevent seed germination. Germination suppression was prevented by fluridone, an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis. In another study, induction of the NCED6 gene in transgenic seeds of nondormant mutants tt3 and tt4 reestablished seed dormancy. Furthermore, inducing expression of NCED6 during seed development suppressed vivipary, precocious germination of developing seeds. These results indicate that expression of a hormone metabolism gene in seeds can be a sole determinant of dormancy. This study opens the possibility of developing a robust technology to suppress or promote seed germination through engineering pathways of hormone metabolism. PMID:21969557

  17. Substrate Recognition and Catalysis by the Cofactor-Independent Dioxygenase DpgC+

    SciTech Connect

    Fielding,E.; Widboom, P.; Bruner, S.

    2007-01-01

    The enzyme DpgC belongs to a small class of oxygenases not dependent on accessory cofactors for activity. DpgC is in the biosynthetic pathway for the nonproteinogenic amino acid 3, 5-dihydroxyphenylglycine in actinomycetes bacteria responsible for the production of the vancomycin/teicoplanin family of antibiotic natural products. The X-ray structure of DpgC confirmed the absence of cofactors and defined a novel hydrophobic dioxygen binding pocket adjacent to a bound substrate analogue. In this paper, the role specific amino acids play in substrate recognition and catalysis is examined through biochemical and structural characterization of site-specific enzyme mutations and alternate substrates. The results establish the importance of three amino acids, Arg254, Glu299, and Glu189, in the chemistry of DpgC. Arg254 and Glu189 join to form a specific contact with one of the phenolic hydroxyls of the substrate, and this interaction plays a key role in both substrate recognition and catalysis. The X-ray crystal structure of Arg254Lys was determined to address the role this residue plays in the chemistry. In addition, characterization of alternate substrate analogues demonstrates the presence and position of phenol groups are necessary for both enzyme recognition and downstream oxidation chemistry. Overall, this work defines the mechanism of substrate recognition and specificity by the cofactor-independent dioxygenase DpgC.

  18. D2HGDH regulates alpha-ketoglutarate levels and dioxygenase function by modulating IDH2

    PubMed Central

    Lin, An-Ping; Abbas, Saman; Kim, Sang-Woo; Ortega, Manoela; Bouamar, Hakim; Escobedo, Yissela; Varadarajan, Prakash; Qin, Yuejuan; Sudderth, Jessica; Schulz, Eduard; Deutsch, Alexander; Mohan, Sumitra; Ulz, Peter; Neumeister, Peter; Rakheja, Dinesh; Gao, Xiaoli; Hinck, Andrew; Weintraub, Susan T.; DeBerardinis, Ralph J.; Sill, Heinz; Dahia, Patricia L. M.; Aguiar, Ricardo C. T.

    2015-01-01

    Isocitrate dehydrogenases (IDH) convert isocitrate to alpha-ketoglutarate (α-KG). In cancer, mutant IDH1/2 reduces α-KG to D2-hydroxyglutarate (D2-HG) disrupting α-KG-dependent dioxygenases. However, the physiological relevance of controlling the interconversion of D2-HG into α-KG, mediated by D2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase (D2HGDH), remains obscure. Here we show that wild-type D2HGDH elevates α-KG levels, influencing histone and DNA methylation, and HIF1α hydroxylation. Conversely, the D2HGDH mutants that we find in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma are enzymatically inert. D2-HG is a low-abundance metabolite, but we show that it can meaningfully elevate α-KG levels by positively modulating mitochondrial IDH activity and inducing IDH2 expression. Accordingly, genetic depletion of IDH2 abrogates D2HGDH effects, whereas ectopic IDH2 rescues D2HGDH-deficient cells. Our data link D2HGDH to cancer and describe an additional role for the enzyme: the regulation of IDH2 activity and α-KG-mediated epigenetic remodelling. These data further expose the intricacies of mitochondrial metabolism and inform on the pathogenesis of D2HGDH-deficient diseases. PMID:26178471

  19. Analysis of phylogenetic and functional diverge in plant nine-cis epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase gene family.

    PubMed

    Priya, R; Siva, Ramamoorthy

    2015-07-01

    During different environmental stress conditions, plant growth is regulated by the hormone abscisic acid (an apocarotenoid). In the biosynthesis of abscisic acid, the oxidative cleavage of cis-epoxycarotenoid catalyzed by 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) is the crucial step. The NCED genes were isolated in numerous plant species and those genes were phylogenetically investigated to understand the evolution of NCED genes in various plant lineages comprising lycophyte, gymnosperm, dicot and monocot. A total of 93 genes were obtained from 48 plant species to statistically estimate their sequence conservation and functional divergence. Selaginella moellendorffii appeared to be evolutionarily distinct from those of the angiosperms, insisting the substantial influence of natural selection pressure on NCED genes. Further, using exon-intron structure analysis, the gene structures of NCED were found to be conserved across some species. In addition, the substitution rate ratio of non-synonymous (Ka) versus synonymous (Ks) mutations using the Bayesian inference approach, depicted the critical amino acid residues for functional divergence. A significant functional divergence was found between some subgroups through the co-efficient of type-I functional divergence. Our results suggest that the evolution of NCED genes occurred by duplication, diversification and exon intron loss events. The site-specific profile and functional diverge analysis revealed NCED genes might facilitate the tissue-specific functional divergence in NCED sub-families, that could combat different environmental stress conditions aiding plant survival.

  20. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase attenuates inhibitor development in gene-therapy-treated hemophilia A mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Liu, H; Mah, C; Fletcher, B S

    2009-06-01

    A serious impediment to gene and protein replacement therapy in hemophilia A is the development of inhibitors. Mechanisms responsible for inhibitor development include T-cell-dependent adaptive immune responses and the CD28-B7 signaling pathway that eventually leads to the formation of antibodies directed against factor VIII (FVIII). Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is a potent immunosuppressive enzyme that can inhibit T-cell responses and induce T-cell apoptosis by regulation of tryptophan metabolism. Kynurenine, one of the metabolites of tryptophan, has been implicated as an immune modulator. Here we hypothesize that co-delivery of the genes for FVIII and IDO can attenuate inhibitor formation. Using transposon-based gene delivery, we observed long-term therapeutic FVIII expression and significantly reduced inhibitor titers when the genes were co-delivered. Co-expression of FVIII and IDO in the liver was associated with increased plasma kynurenine levels, an inhibition of T-cell infiltration and increased apoptosis of T cells within the liver. These experiments suggest that modulation of tryptophan catabolism through IDO expression provides a novel strategy to reduce inhibitor development in hemophilia gene/protein therapy.

  1. Dioxygenase-mediated quenching of quinolone-dependent quorum sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Pustelny, Christian; Albers, Alexander; Büldt-Karentzopoulos, Klaudia; Parschat, Katja; Chhabra, Siri Ram; Cámara, Miguel; Williams, Paul; Fetzner, Susanne

    2009-12-24

    2-Heptyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolone (PQS) is a quorum-sensing signal molecule used by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The structural similarity between 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-4(1H)-quinolone, the natural substrate for the 2,4-dioxygenase, Hod, and PQS prompted us to investigate whether Hod quenched PQS signaling. Hod is capable of catalyzing the conversion of PQS to N-octanoylanthranilic acid and carbon monoxide. In P. aeruginosa PAO1 cultures, exogenously supplied Hod protein reduced expression of the PQS biosynthetic gene pqsA, expression of the PQS-regulated virulence determinants lectin A, pyocyanin, and rhamnolipids, and virulence in planta. However, the proteolytic cleavage of Hod by extracellular proteases, competitive inhibition by the PQS precursor 2-heptyl-4(1H)-quinolone, and PQS binding to rhamnolipids reduced the efficiency of Hod as a quorum-quenching agent. Nevertheless, these data indicate that enzyme-mediated PQS inactivation has potential as an antivirulence strategy against P. aeruginosa.

  2. Identification of Homogentisate Dioxygenase as a Target for Vitamin E Biofortification in Oilseeds.

    PubMed

    Stacey, Minviluz G; Cahoon, Rebecca E; Nguyen, Hanh T; Cui, Yaya; Sato, Shirley; Nguyen, Cuong T; Phoka, Nongnat; Clark, Kerry M; Liang, Yan; Forrester, Joe; Batek, Josef; Do, Phat Tien; Sleper, David A; Clemente, Thomas E; Cahoon, Edgar B; Stacey, Gary

    2016-11-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) is a major plant source of protein and oil and produces important secondary metabolites beneficial for human health. As a tool for gene function discovery and improvement of this important crop, a mutant population was generated using fast neutron irradiation. Visual screening of mutagenized seeds identified a mutant line, designated MO12, which produced brown seeds as opposed to the yellow seeds produced by the unmodified Williams 82 parental cultivar. Using forward genetic methods combined with comparative genome hybridization analysis, we were able to establish that deletion of the GmHGO1 gene is the genetic basis of the brown seeded phenotype exhibited by the MO12 mutant line. GmHGO1 encodes a homogentisate dioxygenase (HGO), which catalyzes the committed enzymatic step in homogentisate catabolism. This report describes to our knowledge the first functional characterization of a plant HGO gene, defects of which are linked to the human genetic disease alkaptonuria. We show that reduced homogentisate catabolism in a soybean HGO mutant is an effective strategy for enhancing the production of lipid-soluble antioxidants such as vitamin E, as well as tolerance to herbicides that target pathways associated with homogentisate metabolism. Furthermore, this work demonstrates the utility of fast neutron mutagenesis in identifying novel genes that contribute to soybean agronomic traits.

  3. Insights into DNA hydroxymethylation in the honeybee from in-depth analyses of TET dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Wojciechowski, Marek; Rafalski, Dominik; Kucharski, Robert; Misztal, Katarzyna; Maleszka, Joanna; Bochtler, Matthias; Maleszka, Ryszard

    2014-08-01

    In mammals, a family of TET enzymes producing oxidized forms of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) plays an important role in modulating DNA demethylation dynamics. In contrast, nothing is known about the function of a single TET orthologue present in invertebrates. Here, we show that the honeybee TET (AmTET) catalytic domain has dioxygenase activity and converts 5mC to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) in a HEK293T cell assay. In vivo, the levels of 5hmC are condition-dependent and relatively low, but in testes and ovaries 5hmC is present at approximately 7-10% of the total level of 5mC, which is comparable to that reported for certain mammalian cells types. AmTET is alternatively spliced and highly expressed throughout development and in adult tissues with the highest expression found in adult brains. Our findings reveal an additional level of flexible genomic modifications in the honeybee that may be important for the selection of multiple pathways controlling contrasting phenotypic outcomes in this species. In a broader context, our study extends the current, mammalian-centred attention to TET-driven DNA hydroxymethylation to an easily manageable organism with attractive and unique biology.

  4. Indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase and regulation of T cell immunity

    SciTech Connect

    Mellor, Andrew . E-mail: amellor@mcg.edu

    2005-12-09

    Regulation of adaptive immune responses is critically important to allow the adaptive immune system to eradicate infections while causing minimal collateral damage to infected tissues, as well as preventing autoimmune disease mediated by self-reactive lymphocytes. Tumors and pathogens that cause persistent infections can subvert immunoregulatory processes to protect themselves from destruction by T cells, to the detriment of patients. A growing body of evidence supports the hypothesis that specialized subsets of dendritic cells expressing indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO), which catalyzes oxidative catabolism of tryptophan, play critical roles in regulation of T cell-mediated immune responses. IDO-dependent T cell suppression by dendritic cells suggests that biochemical changes due to tryptophan catabolism have profound effects on T cell proliferation, differentiation, effector functions, and viability. This has critical implications for immunotherapeutic manipulations designed for patients with cancer and chronic infectious diseases. In this review, I focus on dendritic cells that can express IDO, and which acquire potent T cell regulatory functions as a consequence.

  5. Suicide inactivation of catechol 2,3-dioxygenase from Pseudomonas putida mt-2 by 3-halocatechols

    SciTech Connect

    Bartels, I.; Knackmuss, H.J.; Reineke, W.

    1984-03-01

    The inactivation of catechol 2,3-dioxygenase from Pseudomonas putida mt-2 by 3-chloro- and 3-fluorocatechol and the iron-chelating agent Tiron (catechol-3,5-disulfonate) was studied. Whereas inactivation by Tiron is an oxygen-independent and mostly reversible process, inactivation by the 3-halocatechols was only observed in the presence of oxygen and was largely irreversible. The rate constants for inactivation (K/sub 2/) were 1.62 x 10/sup -3/ sec/sup -1/ for 3-chlorocatechol and 2.38 x 10/sup -3/ sec/sup -1/ for 3-fluorocatechol. The inhibitor constants (K/sub i/) were 23 ..mu..M for 3-chlorocatechol and 17 ..mu..M for 3-fluorocatechol. The kinetic data for 3-fluorocatechol could only be obtained in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol. Besides inactivated enzyme, some 2-hydroxyhexa-2,4-dienoic acid as the actual suicide product of meta-cleavage. A side product of 3-fluorocatechol cleavage is a yellow compound with the spectral characteristics of a 2-hydroxy-6-oxohexa-2,4-dienoci acid indicating 1,6-cleavage. Rates of inactivation by 3-fluorocatechol were reduced in the presence of superoxide dismutase, catalase, formate, and mannitol, which implies that superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radical exhibit additional inactivation. 64 references.

  6. Cysteine dioxygenase type 1 promotes adipogenesis via interaction with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Peng; Chen, Yi; Ji, Ning; Lin, Yunfeng; Yuan, Quan; Ye, Ling; Chen, Qianming

    2015-02-27

    Mammalian cysteine dioxygenase type 1 (CDO1) is an essential enzyme for taurine biosynthesis and the biodegradation of toxic cysteine. As previously suggested, Cdo1 may be a marker of liposarcoma progression and adipogenic differentiation, but the role of Cdo1 in adipogenesis has yet been reported. In this study, we found that the expression of Cdo1 is dramatically elevated during adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes and mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (mBMSCs). Conversely, knockdown of Cdo1 inhibited expression of adipogenic specific genes and lipid droplet formation in 3T3-L1 cells and mBMSCs. Mechanistically, we found Cdo1 interacted with Pparγ in response to adipogenic stimulus. Further, depletion of Cdo1 reduced the recruitment of Pparγ to the promoters of C/EBPα and Fabp4. Collectively, our finding indicates that Cdo1 may be a co-activator of Pparγ in adipogenesis, and may contribute to the development of disease associated with excessive adipose tissue. - Highlights: • Cdo1expression is highly up-regulated during adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 and mBMSCs. • Depletion of Cdo1 inhibited expression of adipogenic specific genes and lipid droplet formation. • Cdo1interacts with Pparγ during adipogenesis. • Knockdown of Cdo1 inhibited Pparγ binding to the promoters of C/EBPα and Fabp4.

  7. Therapeutic antibody targeting of indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO2) inhibits autoimmune arthritis.

    PubMed

    Merlo, Lauren M F; Grabler, Samantha; DuHadaway, James B; Pigott, Elizabeth; Manley, Kaylend; Prendergast, George C; Laury-Kleintop, Lisa D; Mandik-Nayak, Laura

    2017-02-20

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a debilitating inflammatory autoimmune disease with no known cure. Recently, we identified the immunomodulatory enzyme indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase 2 (IDO2) as an essential mediator of autoreactive B and T cell responses driving RA. However, therapeutically targeting IDO2 has been challenging given the lack of small molecules that specifically inhibit IDO2 without also affecting the closely related IDO1. In this study, we develop a novel monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based approach to therapeutically target IDO2. Treatment with IDO2-specific mAb alleviated arthritis in two independent preclinical arthritis models, reducing autoreactive T and B cell activation and recapitulating the strong anti-arthritic effect of genetic IDO2 deficiency. Mechanistic investigations identified FcγRIIb as necessary for mAb internalization, allowing targeting of an intracellular antigen traditionally considered inaccessible to mAb therapy. Taken together, our results offer preclinical proof of concept for antibody-mediated targeting of IDO2 as a new therapeutic strategy to treat RA and other autoantibody-mediated diseases.

  8. Keratin degradation by dermatophytes relies on cysteine dioxygenase and a sulfite efflux pump.

    PubMed

    Grumbt, Maria; Monod, Michel; Yamada, Tsuyoshi; Hertweck, Christian; Kunert, Jiri; Staib, Peter

    2013-06-01

    Millions of people suffer from superficial infections caused by dermatophytes. Intriguingly, these filamentous fungi exclusively infect keratin-rich host structures such as hair, nails, and skin. Keratin is a hard, compact protein, and its utilization by dermatophytes for growth has long been discussed as a major virulence attribute. Here, we provide strong support for the hypothesis that keratin degradation is facilitated by the secretion of the reducing agent sulfite, which can cleave keratin-stabilizing cystine bonds. We discovered that sulfite is produced by dermatophytes from environmental cysteine, which at elevated concentrations is toxic for microbes and humans. We found that sulfite formation from cysteine relies on the key enzyme cysteine dioxygenase Cdo1. Sulfite secretion is supported by the sulfite efflux pump Ssu1. Targeted mutagenesis proved that dermatophyte mutants in either Cdo1 or Ssu1 were highly growth-sensitive to cysteine, and mutants in Ssu1 were specifically sensitive to sulfite. Most notably, dermatophyte mutants in Cdo1 and Ssu1 were specifically growth-defective on hair and nails. As keratin is rich in cysteine, our identified mechanism of cysteine conversion and sulfite efflux supports both cysteine and sulfite tolerance per se and progression of keratin degradation. These in vitro findings have implications for dermatophyte infection pathogenesis.

  9. Niacin metabolism and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activation in malnourished patients with flaky paint dermatosis.

    PubMed

    Maltos, André Luiz; Portari, Guilherme Vannucchi; Moraes, Giselle Vanessa; Monteiro, Marina Casteli Rodrigues; Vannucchi, Helio; da Cunha, Daniel Ferreira

    2015-06-01

    Flaky paint dermatosis, characterized by extensive, often bilateral areas of flaking and pigmentation, mostly in sun unexposed areas is considered a feature of kwashiorkor in both children and adults, and must be differentiated from other dermatosis, including chapped and xerotica skin, and pellagra. In this case series we provide evidence that malnourished patients with flaky paint dermatosis and infection/inflammation shown laboratory data suggestive of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) activation, besides decreased urinary excretion of N1-methylnicotinamide (N1 MN), a marker of pellagra. We study nine adult patients showing flaky paint dermatosis and clinical features of infection or inflammation, and increased serum C-reactive protein, characteristic of the presence of acute phase response syndrome. As a group, they had low or deficient urinary N1 MN excretion (0.52 ± 0.39 mg/g creatinine) compatible with pellagra. They also showed low serum tryptophan levels (<29 μmol/L) and a serum kynurenine/tryptophan ratio higher than 0.04, suggesting increased IDO expression and increase in the tryptophan oxidation. Findings suggest that some patients with flaky paint dermatosis showed laboratory data suggestive of IDO activation, besides decreased N1 MN urinary excretion. Taken together, the data support the idea that flaky paint dermatosis could be a skin manifestation of niacin deficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Intracerebroventricular administration of lipopolysaccharide induces indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase-dependent depression-like behaviors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Activation of the tryptophan degrading enzyme indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) is associated with the development of behavioral signs of depression. Systemic immune challenge induces IDO1 in both the periphery and the brain, leading to increased circulating and brain concentrations of kynurenines. However, whether IDO1 activity within the brain is necessary for the manifestation of depression-like behavior of mice following a central immune challenge remains to be elucidated. Methods We investigated the role of brain IDO1 in mediating depression-like behavior of mice in response to intracerebroventricular injection of saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 10 ng). Results LPS increased the duration of immobility in the tail suspension test and decreased preference for a sucrose solution. These effects were associated with an activation of central but not peripheral IDO1, as LPS increased brain kynurenine but had no effect on plasma concentrations of kynurenine. Interestingly, genetic deletion or pharmacological inhibition of IDO1, using 1-methyl-tryptophan, abrogated the reduction in sucrose preference induced by intracerebroventricular LPS. 1-Methyl-tryptophan also blocked the LPS-induced increase in duration of immobility during the tail suspension test. Conclusions These data indicate that activation of brain IDO1 is sufficient to induce depression-like behaviors of mice in response to central LPS. PMID:23866724

  11. Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) metabolic activity is detrimental for cervical cancer patient survival

    PubMed Central

    Ferns, Debbie M; Kema, Ido P; Buist, Marrije R; Nijman, Hans W; Kenter, Gemma G; Jordanova, Ekaterina S

    2015-01-01

    The expression of the immunomodulating enzyme indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) suppresses T-lymphocyte function, thus correlating with poor survival in a variety of cancer patients. IDO degrades the essential amino acid tryptophan leading to immunosuppressive kynurenines production. In the present study, concentrations of tryptophan, 3-hydroxykynurenine, and kynurenine were measured in pre-treatment serum samples of 251 cervical cancer patients by a mass-spectrometric method (XLC-MS/MS) and IDO activity determined by the kynurenine/tryptophan (Kyn/Trp) ratio. A low concentration of tryptophan was found to be significantly associated with tumors greater than 4 cm and lymph node metastatic spread. Furthermore, significant positive correlations were found between high concentrations of the tryptophan metabolites kynurenine and 3-hydroxykynurenine and advanced disease stage (FIGO >IIA) and lymph node metastases. High levels of kynurenine were further associated with parametrial invasion and tumor size. A high Kyn/Trp ratio was related to lymph node metastasis, FIGO stage, tumor size, parametrial invasion and poor disease-specific survival. These results suggest that IDO activation is linked to poor clinicopathological parameters and worse survival in cervical cancer, warranting the use of IDO inhibitors in future clinical trials. PMID:25949879

  12. Substrate recognition and catalysis by the cofactor-independent dioxygenase DpgC.

    PubMed

    Fielding, Elisha N; Widboom, Paul F; Bruner, Steven D

    2007-12-11

    The enzyme DpgC belongs to a small class of oxygenases not dependent on accessory cofactors for activity. DpgC is in the biosynthetic pathway for the nonproteinogenic amino acid 3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine in actinomycetes bacteria responsible for the production of the vancomycin/teicoplanin family of antibiotic natural products. The X-ray structure of DpgC [Widboom, P. W., Fielding, E. N., Liu, Y., and Bruner, S. D. (2007) Nature 447, 342-345] confirmed the absence of cofactors and defined a novel hydrophobic dioxygen binding pocket adjacent to a bound substrate analogue. In this paper, the role specific amino acids play in substrate recognition and catalysis is examined through biochemical and structural characterization of site-specific enzyme mutations and alternate substrates. The results establish the importance of three amino acids, Arg254, Glu299, and Glu189, in the chemistry of DpgC. Arg254 and Glu189 join to form a specific contact with one of the phenolic hydroxyls of the substrate, and this interaction plays a key role in both substrate recognition and catalysis. The X-ray crystal structure of Arg254Lys was determined to address the role this residue plays in the chemistry. In addition, characterization of alternate substrate analogues demonstrates the presence and position of phenol groups are necessary for both enzyme recognition and downstream oxidation chemistry. Overall, this work defines the mechanism of substrate recognition and specificity by the cofactor-independent dioxygenase DpgC.

  13. The immune system strikes back: cellular immune responses against indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Rikke Baek; Berge-Hansen, Linda; Junker, Niels; Hansen, Christina Aaen; Hadrup, Sine Reker; Schumacher, Ton N M; Svane, Inge Marie; Becker, Jürgen C; thor Straten, Per; Andersen, Mads Hald

    2009-09-07

    The enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) exerts an well established immunosuppressive function in cancer. IDO is expressed within the tumor itself as well as in antigen-presenting cells in tumor-draining lymph nodes, where it promotes the establishment of peripheral immune tolerance to tumor antigens. In the present study, we tested the notion whether IDO itself may be subject to immune responses. The presence of naturally occurring IDO-specific CD8 T cells in cancer patients was determined by MHC/peptide stainings as well as ELISPOT. Antigen specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) from the peripheral blood of cancer patients were cloned and expanded. The functional capacity of the established CTL clones was examined by chrome release assays. The study unveiled spontaneous cytotoxic T-cell reactivity against IDO in peripheral blood as well as in the tumor microenvironment of different cancer patients. We demonstrate that these IDO reactive T cells are indeed peptide specific, cytotoxic effector cells. Hence, IDO reactive T cells are able to recognize and kill tumor cells including directly isolated AML blasts as well as IDO-expressing dendritic cells, i.e. one of the major immune suppressive cell populations. IDO may serve as an important and widely applicable target for anti-cancer immunotherapeutic strategies. Furthermore, as emerging evidence suggests that IDO constitutes a significant counter-regulatory mechanism induced by pro-inflammatory signals, IDO-based immunotherapy holds the promise to boost anti-cancer immunotherapy in general.

  14. Negative Impact of Hypoxia on Tryptophan 2,3-Dioxygenase Function

    PubMed Central

    Elbers, Frank; Woite, Claudia; Antoni, Valentina; Stein, Sara; Funakoshi, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Toshikazu; Schares, Gereon; Däubener, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Tryptophan is an essential amino acid for hosts and pathogens. The liver enzyme tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) provokes, by its ability to degrade tryptophan to N-formylkynurenine, the precursor of the immune-relevant kynurenines, direct and indirect antimicrobial and immunoregulatory states. Up to now these TDO-mediated broad-spectrum effector functions have never been observed under hypoxia in vitro, although physiologic oxygen concentrations in liver tissue are low, especially in case of infection. Here we analysed recombinant expressed human TDO and ex vivo murine TDO functions under different oxygen conditions and show that TDO-induced restrictions of clinically relevant pathogens (bacteria, parasites) and of T cell proliferation are abrogated under hypoxic conditions. We pinpointed the loss of TDO efficiency to the reduction of TDO activity, since cell survival and TDO protein levels were unaffected. In conclusion, the potent antimicrobial as well as immunoregulatory effects of TDO were substantially impaired under hypoxic conditions that pathophysiologically occur in vivo. This might be detrimental for the appropriate host immune response towards relevant pathogens. PMID:27563172

  15. The role of indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase in lepromatous leprosy immunosuppression

    PubMed Central

    de Souza Sales, J; Lara, F A; Amadeu, T P; de Oliveira Fulco, T; da Costa Nery, J A; Sampaio, E P; Pinheiro, R O; Sarno, E N

    2011-01-01

    To elucidate further the possible role of the tryptophan, rate-limiting enzyme indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) in leprosy, the distribution of IDO-positive cells and IDO activity in the skin biopsies and sera of these patients representing the entire spectrum of the disease were studied. An increased number of macrophages/dendritic cells (DC–lineage IDO+ cells were found in lepromatous (LL) compared to tuberculoid (BT) and reversal reaction (RR) patients. IDO-positive cells showing CD68 and CD86 surface markers predominated in LL lesions, while higher levels of IDO activity were observed in the sera of LL versus BT patients. Tests revealed an increased IDO message in Mycobacterium leprae-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and increased IDO expression in M. leprae-stimulated CD14+ cells of both healthy controls (HC) and LL patients, as evaluated via flow cytometry. Increased M. leprae-induced IDO–protein synthesis was also confirmed by Western blot. Based on our in vitro studies, it was confirmed that M. leprae up-regulated IDO expression and activity in HC and LL monocytes. Interferon (IFN)-γ synergized with M. leprae in promoting IDO expression and activity in monocytes. IDO expression induced by both IFN-γ and M. leprae was abrogated by 1-methyltryptophan (1-MT). Our data suggest that M. leprae chronic infection activates the suppressive molecule IDO which, in turn, contributes to the specific immunosuppression observed in LL leprosy. PMID:21592112

  16. Characterization of the Role of β-Carotene 9,10-Dioxygenase in Macular Pigment Metabolism*

    PubMed Central

    Babino, Darwin; Palczewski, Grzegorz; Widjaja-Adhi, M. Airanthi K.; Kiser, Philip D.; Golczak, Marcin; von Lintig, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    A family of enzymes collectively referred to as carotenoid cleavage oxygenases is responsible for oxidative conversion of carotenoids into apocarotenoids, including retinoids (vitamin A and its derivatives). A member of this family, the β-carotene 9,10-dioxygenase (BCO2), converts xanthophylls to rosafluene and ionones. Animals deficient in BCO2 highlight the critical role of the enzyme in carotenoid clearance as accumulation of these compounds occur in tissues. Inactivation of the enzyme by a four-amino acid-long insertion has recently been proposed to underlie xanthophyll concentration in the macula of the primate retina. Here, we focused on comparing the properties of primate and murine BCO2s. We demonstrate that the enzymes display a conserved structural fold and subcellular localization. Low temperature expression and detergent choice significantly affected binding and turnover rates of the recombinant enzymes with various xanthophyll substrates, including the unique macula pigment meso-zeaxanthin. Mice with genetically disrupted carotenoid cleavage oxygenases displayed adipose tissue rather than eye-specific accumulation of supplemented carotenoids. Studies in a human hepatic cell line revealed that BCO2 is expressed as an oxidative stress-induced gene. Our studies provide evidence that the enzymatic function of BCO2 is conserved in primates and link regulation of BCO2 gene expression with oxidative stress that can be caused by excessive carotenoid supplementation. PMID:26307071

  17. Nitric-oxide dioxygenase function of human cytoglobin with cellular reductants and in rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Anne M; Cook, Matthew R; Gardner, Paul R

    2010-07-30

    Cytoglobin (Cygb) was investigated for its capacity to function as a NO dioxygenase (NOD) in vitro and in hepatocytes. Ascorbate and cytochrome b(5) were found to support a high NOD activity. Cygb-NOD activity shows respective K(m) values for ascorbate, cytochrome b(5), NO, and O(2) of 0.25 mm, 0.3 microm, 40 nm, and approximately 20 microm and achieves a k(cat) of 0.5 s(-1). Ascorbate and cytochrome b(5) reduce the oxidized Cygb-NOD intermediate with apparent second order rate constants of 1000 m(-1) s(-1) and 3 x 10(6) m(-1) s(-1), respectively. In rat hepatocytes engineered to express human Cygb, Cygb-NOD activity shows a similar k(cat) of 1.2 s(-1), a K(m)(NO) of 40 nm, and a k(cat)/K(m)(NO) (k'(NOD)) value of 3 x 10(7) m(-1) s(-1), demonstrating the efficiency of catalysis. NO inhibits the activity at [NO]/[O(2)] ratios >1:500 and limits catalytic turnover. The activity is competitively inhibited by CO, is slowly inactivated by cyanide, and is distinct from the microsomal NOD activity. Cygb-NOD provides protection to the NO-sensitive aconitase. The results define the NOD function of Cygb and demonstrate roles for ascorbate and cytochrome b(5) as reductants.

  18. The Role of Indoleamine 2, 3-Dioxygenase in Immune Suppression and Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Mbongue, Jacques C.; Nicholas, Dequina A.; Torrez, Timothy W.; Kim, Nan-Sun; Firek, Anthony F.; Langridge, William H.R.

    2015-01-01

    Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) is the first and rate limiting catabolic enzyme in the degradation pathway of the essential amino acid tryptophan. By cleaving the aromatic indole ring of tryptophan, IDO initiates the production of a variety of tryptophan degradation products called “kynurenines” that are known to exert important immuno-regulatory functions. Because tryptophan must be supplied in the diet, regulation of tryptophan catabolism may exert profound effects by activating or inhibiting metabolism and immune responses. Important for survival, the regulation of IDO biosynthesis and its activity in cells of the immune system can critically alter their responses to immunological insults, such as infection, autoimmunity and cancer. In this review, we assess how IDO-mediated catabolism of tryptophan can modulate the immune system to arrest inflammation, suppress immunity to cancer and inhibit allergy, autoimmunity and the rejection of transplanted tissues. Finally, we examine how vaccines may enhance immune suppression of autoimmunity through the upregulation of IDO biosynthesis in human dendritic cells. PMID:26378585

  19. Extradiol dioxygenase-SiO₂ sol-gel modified electrode for catechol and its derivatives detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Qu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Xuwang; Zhou, Jiti; Wang, Hongtao

    2011-07-15

    A feasible and sensitive biosensor for catechol and its derivatives using 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl 1,2-dioxygenase (BphC)-modified glassy carbon electrode was successfully constructed by polyvinyl alcohol-modified SiO₂ sol-gel method. The as-prepared biosensor was characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and the surface topography of the film was imaged by atomic force microscope. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was applied to reveal the catalytic mechanism. BphC embedded in SiO₂ gel maintained its bioactivity well and exhibited excellent eletrocatalytical response to both catechol and some of its derivatives (such as 3-methylcatechol and 4-methylcatechol). The biosensor showed a linear amperometric response range between 0.002 mM and 0.8 mM catechol. And the sensitivity was 1.268 mA/(mM cm²) with a detection limit of 0.428 μM for catechol (S/N = 3). Furthermore, the BphC biosensor exhibited perfect selectivity for catechol in the mixtures of catechol and phenol. It was suggested that this flexible protocol would open up a new avenue for designing other ring-cleavage enzyme biosensors, which could be widely used for monitoring various kinds of environmental pollutants.

  20. Brain indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase contributes to the comorbidity of pain and depression

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyangin; Chen, Lucy; Lim, Grewo; Sung, Backil; Wang, Shuxing; McCabe, Michael F.; Rusanescu, Gabriel; Yang, Liling; Tian, Yinghong; Mao, Jianren

    2012-01-01

    Pain and depression are frequently comorbid disorders, but the mechanism underlying this association is unknown. Here, we report that brain indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1), a rate-limiting enzyme in tryptophan metabolism, plays a key role in this comorbidity. We found that chronic pain in rats induced depressive behavior and IDO1 upregulation in the bilateral hippocampus. Upregulation of IDO1 resulted in the increased kynurenine/tryptophan ratio and decreased serotonin/tryptophan ratio in the bilateral hippocampus. We observed elevated plasma IDO activity in patients with both pain and depression, as well as in rats with anhedonia induced by chronic social stress. Intra-hippocampal administration of IL-6 in rats, in addition to in vitro experiments, demonstrated that IL-6 induces IDO1 expression through the JAK/STAT pathway. Further, either Ido1 gene knockout or pharmacological inhibition of hippocampal IDO1 activity attenuated both nociceptive and depressive behavior. These results reveal an IDO1-mediated regulatory mechanism underlying the comorbidity of pain and depression and suggest a new strategy for the concurrent treatment of both conditions via modulation of brain IDO1 activity. PMID:22751107

  1. Role of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 1 (CCD1) in apocarotenoid biogenesis revisited.

    PubMed

    Floss, Daniela S; Walter, Michael H

    2009-03-01

    Oxidative tailoring of C(40) carotenoids by double bond-specific cleavage enzymes (carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases, CCDs) gives rise to various apocarotenoids. AtCCD1 generating C(13) and C(14) apocarotenoids and orthologous enzymes in other plants are the only CCDs acting in the cytosol, while the hitherto presumed C(40) substrate is localized in the plastid. A new model for CCD1 action arising from a RNAi-mediated CCD1 gene silencing study in mycorrhizal hairy roots of Medicago truncatula may solve this contradiction. This approach unexpectedly resulted in the accumulation of C(27) apocarotenoids but not C(40) carotenoids suggesting C(27) as the main substrates for CCD1 in planta. It further implies a consecutive two-step cleavage process, in which another CCD performs the primary cleavage of C(40) to C(27) in the plastid followed by C(27) export and further cleavage by CCD1 in the cytosol. We compare the specificities and subcellular locations of the various CCDs and propose the plastidial CCD7 to be the first player in mycorrhizal apocarotenoid biogenesis.

  2. Role of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 1 (CCD1) in apocarotenoid biogenesis revisited

    PubMed Central

    Floss, Daniela S

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative tailoring of C40 carotenoids by double bond-specific cleavage enzymes (carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases, CCDs) gives rise to various apocarotenoids. AtCCD1 generating C13 and C14 apocarotenoids and orthologous enzymes in other plants are the only CCDs acting in the cytosol, while the hitherto presumed C40 substrate is localized in the plastid. A new model for CCD1 action arising from a RNAi-mediated CCD1 gene silencing study in mycorrhizal hairy roots of Medicago truncatula may solve this contradiction. This approach unexpectedly resulted in the accumulation of C27 apocarotenoids but not C40 carotenoids suggesting C27 as the main substrates for CCD1 in planta. It further implies a consecutive two-step cleavage process, in which another CCD performs the primary cleavage of C40 to C27 in the plastid followed by C27 export and further cleavage by CCD1 in the cytosol. We compare the specificities and subcellular locations of the various CCDs and propose the plastidial CCD7 to be the first player in mycorrhizal apocarotenoid biogenesis. PMID:19721743

  3. Nitric-oxide Dioxygenase Function of Human Cytoglobin with Cellular Reductants and in Rat Hepatocytes*

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Anne M.; Cook, Matthew R.; Gardner, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    Cytoglobin (Cygb) was investigated for its capacity to function as a NO dioxygenase (NOD) in vitro and in hepatocytes. Ascorbate and cytochrome b5 were found to support a high NOD activity. Cygb-NOD activity shows respective Km values for ascorbate, cytochrome b5, NO, and O2 of 0.25 mm, 0.3 μm, 40 nm, and ∼20 μm and achieves a kcat of 0.5 s−1. Ascorbate and cytochrome b5 reduce the oxidized Cygb-NOD intermediate with apparent second order rate constants of 1000 m−1 s−1 and 3 × 106 m−1 s−1, respectively. In rat hepatocytes engineered to express human Cygb, Cygb-NOD activity shows a similar kcat of 1.2 s−1, a Km(NO) of 40 nm, and a kcat/Km(NO) (k′NOD) value of 3 × 107 m−1 s−1, demonstrating the efficiency of catalysis. NO inhibits the activity at [NO]/[O2] ratios >1:500 and limits catalytic turnover. The activity is competitively inhibited by CO, is slowly inactivated by cyanide, and is distinct from the microsomal NOD activity. Cygb-NOD provides protection to the NO-sensitive aconitase. The results define the NOD function of Cygb and demonstrate roles for ascorbate and cytochrome b5 as reductants. PMID:20511233

  4. Catalytic Activity of Human Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase (hIDO1) at Low Oxygen

    PubMed Central

    Kolawole, Ayodele O.; Hixon, Brian P.; Dameron, Laura S.; Chrisman, Ian M.; Smirnov, Valeriy V.

    2015-01-01

    A cytokine-inducible extrahepatic human indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (hIDO1) catalyzes the first step of the kynurenine pathway. Immunosuppressive activity of hIDO1 in tumor cells weakens host T-cell immunity, contributing to the progression of cancer. Here we report on enzyme kinetics and catalytic mechanism of hIDO1, studied at varied levels of dioxygen (O2) and L-tryptophan (L-Trp). Using a cytochrome b5-based activating system, we measured the initial rates of O2 decay with a Clark-type oxygen electrode at physiologically-relevant levels of both substrates. Kinetics was also studied in the presence of two substrate analogs: 1-methyl-L-tryptophan and norharmane. Quantitative analysis supports a steady-state rather than a rapid equilibrium kinetic mechanism, where the rates of individual pathways, leading to a ternary complex, are significantly different, and the overall rate of catalysis depends on contributions of both routes. One path, where O2 binds to ferrous hIDO1 first, is faster than the second route, which starts with the binding of L-Trp. However, L-Trp complexation with free ferrous hIDO1 is more rapid than that of O2. As the level of L-Trp increases, the slower route becomes a significant contributor to the overall rate, resulting in observed substrate inhibition. PMID:25712221

  5. Indoleamine 2,3 Dioxygenase as a Potential Therapeutic Target in Huntington’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mazarei, Gelareh; Leavitt, Blair R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Within the past decade, there has been increasing interest in the role of tryptophan (Trp) metabolites and the kynurenine pathway (KP) in diseases of the brain such as Huntington’s disease (HD). Evidence is accumulating to suggest that this pathway is imbalanced in neurologic disease states. The KP diverges into two branches that can lead to production of either neuroprotective or neurotoxic metabolites. In one branch, kynurenine (Kyn) produced as a result of tryptophan (Trp) catabolism is further metabolized to neurotoxic metabolites such as 3-hydroxykunurenine (3-HK) and quinolinic acid (QA). In the other branch, Kyn is converted to the neuroprotective metabolite kynurenic acid (KA). The enzyme Indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO1) catalyzes the conversion of Trp into Kyn, the first and rate-limiting enzymatic step of the KP. This reaction takes place throughout the body in multiple cell types as a required step in the degradation of the essential amino acid Trp. Studies of IDO1 in brain have focused primarily on a potential role in depression, immune tolerance associated with brain tumours, and multiple sclerosis; however the role of this enzyme in neurodegenerative disease has garnered significant attention in recent years. This review will provide a summary of the current understanding of the role of IDO1 in Huntington’s disease and will assess this enzyme as a potential therapeutic target for HD. PMID:26397892

  6. Nanomedicine and cancer immunotherapy: focus on indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Zulfiqar, Bilal; Mahroo, Amnah; Nasir, Kaenat; Farooq, Rai Khalid; Jalal, Nasir; Rashid, Muhammad Usman; Asghar, Kashif

    2017-01-01

    Nanomedicine application in cancer immunotherapy is currently one of the most challenging areas in cancer therapeutic intervention. Innovative solutions have been provided by nanotechnology to deliver cytotoxic agents to the cancer cells partially affecting the healthy cells of the body during the process. Nanoparticle-based drug delivery is an emerging approach to stimulate the immune responses against cancer. The inhibition of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is a pivotal area of research in cancer immunotherapy. IDO is a heme-containing immunosuppressive enzyme, which is responsible for the degradation of tryptophan while increasing the concentration of kynurenine metabolites. Various preclinical studies showed that IDO inhibition in certain diseases may result in significant therapeutic effects. Here, we provide a review of the natural and synthetic inhibitors of IDO. These inhibitors are classified according to their source, inhibitory concentrations, the chemical structure, and the mechanism of action. Tumor-targeted chemotherapy is an advanced technique and has more advantages as compared to the conventional chemotherapy. Search for more efficient and less toxic nanoparticles in conjunction with compounds to inhibit IDO is still an area of interest for several research groups worldwide, especially revealing to be an extensive and a promising area in cancer therapeutic innovations. PMID:28176942

  7. Tolerance to apoptotic cells is regulated by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Ravishankar, Buvana; Liu, Haiyun; Shinde, Rahul; Chandler, Phillip; Baban, Babak; Tanaka, Masato; Munn, David H.; Mellor, Andrew L.; Karlsson, Mikael C. I.; McGaha, Tracy L.

    2012-01-01

    Tolerance to self-antigens present in apoptotic cells is critical to maintain immune-homeostasis and prevent systemic autoimmunity. However, mechanisms that sustain self-tolerance are poorly understood. Here we show that systemic administration of apoptotic cells to mice induced splenic expression of the tryptophan catabolizing enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). IDO expression was confined to the splenic marginal zone and was abrogated by depletion of CD169+ cells. Pharmacologic inhibition of IDO skewed the immune response to apoptotic cells, resulting in increased proinflammatory cytokine production and increased effector T-cell responses toward apoptotic cell-associated antigens. Presymptomatic lupus-prone MRLlpr/lpr mice exhibited abnormal elevated IDO expression in the marginal zone and red pulp and inhibition of IDO markedly accelerated disease progression. Moreover, chronic exposure of IDO-deficient mice to apoptotic cells induced a lupus-like disease with serum autoreactivity to double-stranded DNA associated with renal pathology and increased mortality. Thus, IDO limits innate and adaptive immunity to apoptotic self-antigens and IDO-mediated regulation inhibits inflammatory pathology caused by systemic autoimmune disease. PMID:22355111

  8. Emerging concepts on inhibitors of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase in rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Filippini, P; Del Papa, N; Sambataro, D; Del Bufalo, A; Locatelli, F; Rutella, S

    2012-01-01

    The enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) finely regulates both innate and adaptive immune responses through the degradation of the essential amino acid tryptophan into kynurenine and other downstream metabolites, which suppress effector T-cell function and promote the differentiation of regulatory T cells. A novel role for IDO1 as a signaling molecule and a modifier of innate inflammatory responses is now emerging. In particular, IDO1 can either support or antagonize inflammation in a context- and tissuedependent manner. Studies in experimental arthritis have unravelled a previously unappreciated role for IDO in controlling B-cell activation and autoantibody production. IDO dysregulation has been documented in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis and Sjogren's syndrome, as well as in severe sepsis and chronic kidney disease. This article summarizes the contribution of IDO to the pathophysiology of inflammatory/autoimmune disorders, and discusses whether strategies to restore metabolic equilibrium in the kynurenine pathway might be pursued in diseases states such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic sclerosis.

  9. Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase4 is a negative regulator of β-carotene content in Arabidopsis seeds.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Jorge, Sabrina; Ha, Sun-Hwa; Magallanes-Lundback, Maria; Gilliland, Laura Ullrich; Zhou, Ailing; Lipka, Alexander E; Nguyen, Yen-Nhu; Angelovici, Ruthie; Lin, Haining; Cepela, Jason; Little, Holly; Buell, C Robin; Gore, Michael A; Dellapenna, Dean

    2013-12-01

    Experimental approaches targeting carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes have successfully increased the seed β-carotene content of crops. However, linkage analysis of seed carotenoids in Arabidopsis thaliana recombinant inbred populations showed that only 21% of quantitative trait loci, including those for β-carotene, encode carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes in their intervals. Thus, numerous loci remain uncharacterized and underutilized in biofortification approaches. Linkage mapping and genome-wide association studies of Arabidopsis seed carotenoids identified CAROTENOID cleavage dioxygenase4 (CCD4) as a major negative regulator of seed carotenoid content, especially β-carotene. Loss of CCD4 function did not affect carotenoid homeostasis during seed development but greatly reduced carotenoid degradation during seed desiccation, increasing β-carotene content 8.4-fold relative to the wild type. Allelic complementation of a ccd4 null mutant demonstrated that single-nucleotide polymorphisms and insertions and deletions at the locus affect dry seed carotenoid content, due at least partly to differences in CCD4 expression. CCD4 also plays a major role in carotenoid turnover during dark-induced leaf senescence, with β-carotene accumulation again most strongly affected in the ccd4 mutant. These results demonstrate that CCD4 plays a major role in β-carotene degradation in drying seeds and senescing leaves and suggest that CCD4 orthologs would be promising targets for stabilizing and increasing the level of provitamin A carotenoids in seeds of major food crops.

  10. Salmonella overcomes tumor immune tolerance by inhibition of tumor indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase 1 expression

    PubMed Central

    Kuan, Yu-Diao; Lee, Che-Hsin

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, Salmonella has been proven capable of inhibiting tumor growth. It can specifically target tumors and due to its facultative anaerobic property, can be more penetrative than other drug therapies. However, the molecular mechanism by which Salmonella inhibits tumor growth is still incompletely known. The antitumor therapeutic effect mediated by Salmonella is associated with an inflammatory immune response at the tumor site and a T cell-dependent immune response. Many tumors have been proven to have a high expression of indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO), which is a rate-limiting enzyme that catalyzes tryptophan to kynurenine, thus causing immune tolerance within the tumor microenvironment. With decreased expression of IDO, increased immune response can be observed, which might be helpful when developing cancer immunotherapy. The expression of IDO was decreased after tumor cells were infected with Salmonella. In addition, Western blot analysis showed that the expression levels of phospho-protein kinase B (P-AKT), phospho-mammalian targets of rapamycin (P-mTOR), and phospho-p70 ribosomal s6 kinase (P-p70s6K) in tumor cells were decreased after Salmonella infection. In conclusion, our results indicate that Salmonella inhibits IDO expression and plays a crucial role in anti-tumor therapy, which might be a promising strategy combined with other cancer treatments. PMID:26517244

  11. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) inhibitors activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.

    PubMed

    Moyer, Benjamin J; Rojas, Itzel Y; Murray, Iain A; Lee, Seokwon; Hazlett, Haley F; Perdew, Gary H; Tomlinson, Craig R

    2017-03-20

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) plays a key role in the immune system by regulating tryptophan levels and T cell differentiation. Several tumor types overexpress IDO1 to avoid immune surveillance making IDO1 of interest as a target for therapeutic intervention. As a result, several IDO1 inhibitors are currently being tested in clinical trials for cancer treatment as well as several other diseases. Many of the IDO1 inhibitors in clinical trials naturally bear structural similarities to the IDO1 substrate tryptophan, as such, they fulfill many of the structural and functional criteria as potential AHR ligands. Using mouse and human cell-based luciferase gene reporter assays, qPCR confirmation experiments, and CYP1A1 enzyme activity assays, we report that some of the promising clinical IDO1 inhibitors also act as agonists for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), best known for its roles in xenobiotic metabolism and as another key regulator of the immune response. The dual role as IDO antagonist and AHR agonist for many of these IDO target drugs should be considered for full interrogation of their biological mechanisms and clinical outcomes.

  12. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase: First evidence of expression in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Cortés, Jimena; Alvarez, Claudio; Santana, Paula; Torres, Elisa; Mercado, Luis

    2016-12-01

    The role of enzymes as active antimicrobial agents of the innate immunity in teleost fish is proposed in diverse works. Secretion of Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) has been described in higher vertebrates; it degrades l-tryptophan in extracellular environments associated mainly with mucosal organs. The effect of IDO on decreasing amino acid concentration may inhibit the growth of potential pathogens. In fish the study of this molecule is still. Here we report the identification of an Onchorhyncus mykiss IDO homologue (OmIDO). IDO was cloned, sequenced, and the primary structure shows conservation of key functional sites. The constitutive expression is altered when the fish is challenged with LPS as a pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMPs). Up-regulation of IDO was shown preferentially in the fish's mucosal cells. In order to obtain evidence of a possible regulation mechanism, an in vitro cell model was used for to show that OmIDO is induced by rIFN. These study has identified a Indoleamine 2,3-dyoxigenase in O. mykiss will contribute to expands our knowledge of the function this protein in fish immune response. These findings allow to propose the use of OmIDO as a molecular indicator of strength of the animal's immune response and wellbeing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Distribution and prediction of catalytic domains in 2-oxoglutarate dependent dioxygenases

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The 2-oxoglutarate dependent superfamily is a diverse group of non-haem dioxygenases, and is present in prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and archaea. The enzymes differ in substrate preference and reaction chemistry, a factor that precludes their classification by homology studies and electronic annotation schemes alone. In this work, I propose and explore the rationale of using substrates to classify structurally similar alpha-ketoglutarate dependent enzymes. Findings Differential catalysis in phylogenetic clades of 2-OG dependent enzymes, is determined by the interactions of a subset of active-site amino acids. Identifying these with existing computational methods is challenging and not feasible for all proteins. A clustering protocol based on validated mechanisms of catalysis of known molecules, in tandem with group specific hidden markov model profiles is able to differentiate and sequester these enzymes. Access to this repository is by a web server that compares user defined unknown sequences to these pre-defined profiles and outputs a list of predicted catalytic domains. The server is free and is accessible at the following URL ( http://comp-biol.theacms.in/H2OGpred.html). Conclusions The proposed stratification is a novel attempt at classifying and predicting 2-oxoglutarate dependent function. In addition, the server will provide researchers with a tool to compare their data to a comprehensive list of HMM profiles of catalytic domains. This work, will aid efforts by investigators to screen and characterize putative 2-OG dependent sequences. The profile database will be updated at regular intervals. PMID:22862831

  14. Identification and characterization of a novel three-component phenazine-1-carboxylic acid 1, 2-dioxygenase in Sphingomonas wittichii DP58.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qiang; Hu, Hong-Bo; Wang, Wei; Huang, Xian-Qing; Zhang, Xue-Hong

    2017-02-10

    Phenazine-1-carboxylic acid, the main component of shenqinmycin, is widely used in southern China for the prevention of rice sheath blight. However, the fate of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid in soil remains uncertain. S. wittichii DP58 can use phenazine-1-carboxylic acid as its sole carbon and nitrogen sources for growth. In this study, dioxygenase-encoding genes, pcaA1A2, were found using transcriptome analysis to be highly upregulated upon phenazine-1-carboxylic acid biodegradation. PcaA1 shares 68% amino acid sequence identity with the large oxygenase subunit of anthranilate 1, 2-dioxygenase from R. maanshanensis DSM 44675. The dioxygenase was co-expressed in E. coli with its adjacent reductase encoding gene, pcaA3 and ferredoxin encoding gene, pcaA4, and showed phenazine-1-carboxylic acid consumption. The dioxygenase-, ferredoxin- and reductase-encoding genes were expressed in P. putida KT2440 or E. coli BL21, and the three recombinant proteins were purified. A phenazine-1-carboxylic acid conversion capability occurred in vitro only when all three components were present. However, P. putida KT2440 transformed with pcaA1A2 obtained phenazine-1-carboxylic acid degradation ability, suggesting that phenazine-1-carboxylic acid 1, 2-dioxygenase has low specificities for its ferredoxin and reductase. This was verified by replacing PcaA3 with RedA2 in the in vitro enzyme assay. HPLC/MS and NMR analysis showed that phenazine-1-carboxylic acid was converted to 1, 2-dihydroxy phenazine through decarboxylation and hydroxylation, indicating that PcaA1A2A3A4 constitutes the initial phenazine-1-carboxylic acid 1, 2-dioxygenase. This study fills a gap in our understanding of the biodegradation of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid and illustrates a new dioxygenase for decarboxylation.Importance Phenazine-1-carboxylic acid is widely used in southern China as a key fungicide to prevent rice sheath blight. However, the degradation characteristics of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid and the

  15. Re-evaluation of dioxygenase gene phylogeny for the development and validation of a quantitative assay for environmental aromatic hydrocarbon degraders

    PubMed Central

    Meynet, Paola; Head, Ian M.; Werner, David; Davenport, Russell J.

    2015-01-01

    Rieske non-heme iron oxygenases enzymes have been widely studied, as they catalyse essential reactions initiating the bacterial degradation of organic compounds, for instance aromatic hydrocarbons. The genes encoding these enzymes offer a potential target for studying aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading organisms in the environment. However, previously reported primer sets that target dioxygenase gene sequences or the common conserved Rieske centre of aromatics dioxygenases have limited specificity and/or target non-dioxygenase genes. In this work, an extensive database of dioxygenase α-subunit gene sequences was constructed, and primer sets targeting the conserved Rieske centre were developed. The high specificity of the primers was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction analysis, agarose gel electrophoresis and sequencing. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays were also developed and optimized, following MIQE guidelines (Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments). Comparison of the qPCR quantification of dioxygenases in spiked sediment samples and in pure cultures demonstrated an underestimation of the Ct value, and the requirement for a correction factor at gene abundances below 108 gene copies per g of sediment. Externally validated qPCR provides a valuable tool to monitor aromatic hydrocarbon degrader population abundances at contaminated sites. PMID:25944871

  16. The two enantiospecific dichlorprop/alpha-ketoglutarate-dioxygenases from Delftia acidovorans MC1--protein and sequence data of RdpA and SdpA.

    PubMed

    Westendorf, Anne; Benndorf, Dirk; Müller, Roland H; Babel, Wolfgang

    2002-01-01

    Two alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases carrying enantiospecific activity for the etherolytic cleavage of racemic phenoxypropionate herbicides [(RS)-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)propionate and (RS)-2-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)propionate] from Delftia acidovorans MC1 were characterized with respect to protein and sequence data. The (S)-phenoxypropionate/alpha-ketoglutarate-dioxygenase (SdpA) appeared as a monomeric enzyme with a molecular weight of 32 kDa in the presence of SDS. N-terminal sequences revealed relationship to alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent taurine dioxygenase (TauD) and to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate/alpha-ketoglutarate-dioxygenase (TfdA). The (R)-phenoxypropionate/alpha-ketoglutarate-dioxygenase (RdpA) referred to 36 kDa in the presence of SDS and to 108 kDa under native conditions. Internal sequences of fragments obtained after digestion made evident relationship to TfdA and TauD. Two-dimensional electrophoretic separation resulted in the resolution of up to 3 individual spots with almost identical molecular weights but different isoelectric points with both RdpA and SdpA. The structural differences of these isoenzyme forms are not yet clear.

  17. Acetaminophen inhibits liver trytophan-2,3-dioxygenase activity with a concomitant rise in brain serotonin levels and a reduction in urinary 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Daya, S; Anoopkumar-Dukie, S

    2000-06-08

    The effect of the analgesic agent, acetaminophen was determined on rat forebrain serotonin levels as well as hepatic tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) activity and urinary 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA). The results show that acetaminophen administration (100mg/kg) over three hours does not affect the holoenzyme of tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase but significantly inhibits the apoenzyme. This inhibition is accompanied by a concomitant rise in forebrain serotonin levels. This phenomenon is also accompanied by a reduction in urinary 5-HIAA levels. These results suggest that acetaminophen use is accompanied by changes in brain serotonin levels due to inhibition of hepatic tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase activity. This in turn could explain the possible abuse potential of acetaminophen and its effects on mood at high doses.

  18. New target carotenoids for CCD4 enzymes are revealed with the characterization of a novel stress-induced carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase gene from Crocus sativus.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Moraga, Angela; Rambla, José Luis; Fernández-de-Carmen, Asun; Trapero-Mozos, Almudena; Ahrazem, Oussama; Orzáez, Diego; Granell, Antonio; Gómez-Gómez, Lourdes

    2014-11-01

    Apocarotenoid compounds play diverse communication functions in plants, some of them being as hormones, pigments and volatiles. Apocarotenoids are the result of enzymatic cleavage of carotenoids catalyzed by carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD). The CCD4 family is the largest family of plant CCDs, only present in flowering plants, suggesting a functional diversification associated to the adaptation for specific physiological capacities unique to them. In saffron, two CCD4 genes have been previously isolated from the stigma tissue and related with the generation of specific volatiles involved in the attraction of pollinators. The aim of this study was to identify additional CCD4 members associated with the generation of other carotenoid-derived volatiles during the development of the stigma. The expression of CsCCD4c appears to be restricted to the stigma tissue in saffron and other Crocus species and was correlated with the generation of megastigma-4,6,8-triene. Further, CsCCD4c was up-regulated by wounding, heat, and osmotic stress, suggesting an involvement of its apocarotenoid products in the adaptation of saffron to environmental stresses. The enzymatic activity of CsCCD4c was determined in vivo in Escherichia coli and subsequently in Nicotiana benthamiana by analyzing carotenoids by HPLC-DAD and the volatile products by GC/MS. β-Carotene was shown to be the preferred substrate, being cleaved at the 9,10 (9',10') bonds and generating β-ionone, although β-cyclocitral resulting from a 7,8 (7',8') cleavage activity was also detected at lower levels. Lutein, neoxanthin and violaxanthin levels in Nicotiana leaves were markedly reduced when CsCCD4c is over expressed, suggesting that CsCCD4c recognizes these carotenoids as substrates.

  19. Isolation and characterization of Pseudomonas putida PpF1 mutants defective in the toluene dioxygenase enzyme system.

    PubMed Central

    Finette, B A; Subramanian, V; Gibson, D T

    1984-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida PpF1 degraded toluene via a dihydrodiol pathway to tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. The initial reaction was catalyzed by a multicomponent enzyme, toluene dioxygenase, which oxidized toluene to (+)-cis-1(S),2(R)-dihydroxy-3-methylcyclohexa-3,5-diene (cis-toluene dihydrodiol). The enzyme consisted of three protein components: NADH-ferredoxintol oxidoreductase (reductasetol), ferredoxintol, and a terminal oxygenase which is an iron-sulfur protein (ISPtol). Mutants blocked in each of these components were isolated after mutagenesis with nitrosoguanidine. Mutants occurred as colony morphology variants when grown in the presence of toluene on indicator plates containing agar, mineral salts, a growth-supporting nutrient (arginine), 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC), and Nitro Blue Tetrazolium (NBT). Under these conditions, wild-type colonies appeared large and red as a result of TTC reduction. Colonies of reductasetol mutants were white or white with a light blue center, ferredoxintol strains were light blue with a dark blue center, and strains that lacked ISPtol gave dark blue colonies. Blue color differences in the mutant colonies were due to variations in the extent of NBT reduction. Strains lacking all three components appeared white. Toluene dioxygenase mutants were characterized by assaying toluene dioxygenase activity in crude cell extracts which were complemented with purified preparations of each protein component. Between 40 and 60% of the putative mutants selected from the NBT-TTC indicator plates were unable to grow with toluene as the sole source of carbon and energy. This method should prove extremely useful in isolating mutants in other multicomponent oxygenase enzyme systems. Images PMID:6501223

  20. 1,N(6)-α-hydroxypropanoadenine, the acrolein adduct to adenine, is a substrate for AlkB dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Dylewska, Małgorzata; Kuśmierek, Jarosław T; Pilżys, Tomasz; Poznański, Jarosław; Maciejewska, Agnieszka M

    2017-05-16

    1,N(6)-α-hydroxypropanoadenine (HPA) is an exocyclic DNA adduct of acrolein - an environmental pollutant and endocellular oxidative stress product. Escherichia coli AlkB dioxygenase belongs to the superfamily of α-ketoglutarate (αKG)- and iron-dependent dioxygenases which remove alkyl lesions from bases via an oxidative mechanism, thereby restoring native DNA structure. Here, we provide in vivo and in vitro evidence that HPA is mutagenic and is effectively repaired by AlkB dioxygenase. HPA generated in plasmid DNA caused A → C and A → T transversions and, less frequently, A → G transitions. The lesion was efficiently repaired by purified AlkB protein; the optimal pH, Fe(II), and αKG concentrations for this reaction were determined. In vitro kinetic data show that the protonated form of HPA is preferentially repaired by AlkB, albeit the reaction is stereoselective. Moreover, the number of reaction cycles carried out by an AlkB molecule remains limited. Molecular modeling of the T(HPA)T/AlkB complex demonstrated that the R stereoisomer in the equatorial conformation of the HPA hydroxyl group is strongly preferred, while the S stereoisomer seems to be susceptible to AlkB-directed oxidative hydroxylation only when HPA adopts the syn conformation around the glycosidic bond. In addition to the biochemical activity assays, substrate binding to the protein was monitored by differential scanning fluorimetry allowing identification of the active protein form, with cofactor and cosubstrate bound, and monitoring of substrate binding. In contrast FTO, a human AlkB homolog, failed to bind an ssDNA trimer carrying HPA. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  1. Characterizing the Promiscuity of LigAB, a Lignin Catabolite Degrading Extradiol Dioxygenase from Sphingomonas paucimobilis SYK-6

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Kevin P.; Taylor, Erika A.

    2014-01-01

    LigAB from Sphingomonas paucimobilis SYK-6 is the only structurally characterized dioxygenase of the largely uncharacterized superfamily of Type II extradiol dioxygenases (EDO). This enzyme catalyzes the oxidative ring-opening of protocatechuate (3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid or PCA) in a pathway allowing the degradation of lignin derived aromatic compounds (LDACs). LigAB has also been shown to utilize two other LDACs from the same metabolic pathway as substrates, gallate, and 3-O-methyl gallate; however, kcat/KM had not been reported for any of these compounds. In order to assess the catalytic efficiency and get insights into the observed promiscuity of this enzyme, steady-state kinetic analyses were performed for LigAB with these and a library of related compounds. The dioxygenation of PCA by LigAB was highly efficient, with a kcat of 51 s−1 and a kcat/KM of 4.26 × 106 M−1s−1. LigAB demonstrated the ability to use a variety of catecholic molecules as substrates beyond the previously identified gallate and 3-O-methyl gallate, including 3,4-dihydroxybenzamide, homoprotocatechuate, catechol, and 3,4-dihydroxybenzonitrile. Interestingly, 3,4-dihydroxybenzamide (DHBAm) behaves in a manner similar to that of the preferred benzoic acid substrates, with a kcat/Km value only ~4-fold lower than that for gallate and ~10-fold higher than that for 3-O-methyl gallate. All of these most active substrates demonstrate mechanistic inactivation of LigAB. Additionally, DHBAm exhibits potent product inhibition that leads to an inactive enzyme, being more highly deactivating at lower substrate concentration, a phenomena that, to our knowledge, has not been reported for another dioxygenase substrate/product pair. These results provide valuable catalytic insight into the reactions catalyzed by LigAB and make it the first Type II EDO that is fully characterized both structurally and kinetically. PMID:23977959

  2. Functional analysis of alpha-DOX2, an active alpha-dioxygenase critical for normal development in tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Bannenberg, Gerard; Martínez, Marta; Rodríguez, María José; López, Miguel Angel; Ponce de León, Inés; Hamberg, Mats; Castresana, Carmen

    2009-11-01

    Plant alpha-dioxygenases initiate the synthesis of oxylipins by catalyzing the incorporation of molecular oxygen at the alpha-methylene carbon atom of fatty acids. Previously, alpha-DOX1 has been shown to display alpha-dioxygenase activity and to be implicated in plant defense. In this study, we investigated the function of a second alpha-dioxygenase isoform, alpha-DOX2, in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Recombinant Slalpha-DOX2 and Atalpha-DOX2 proteins catalyzed the conversion of a wide range of fatty acids into 2(R)-hydroperoxy derivatives. Expression of Slalpha-DOX2 and Atalpha-DOX2 was found in seedlings and increased during senescence induced by detachment of leaves. In contrast, microbial infection, earlier known to increase the expression of alpha-DOX1, did not alter the expression of Slalpha-DOX2 or Atalpha-DOX2. The tomato mutant divaricata, characterized by early dwarfing and anthocyanin accumulation, carries a mutation at the Slalpha-DOX2 locus and was chosen for functional studies of alpha-DOX2. Transcriptional changes in such mutants showed the up-regulation of genes playing roles in lipid and phenylpropanoid metabolism, the latter being in consonance with the anthocyanin accumulation. Transgenic expression of Atalpha-DOX2 and Slalpha-DOX2 in divaricata partially complemented the compromised phenotype in mature plants and fully complemented it in seedlings, thus indicating the functional exchangeability between alpha-DOX2 from tomato and Arabidopsis. However, deletion of Atalpha-DOX2 in Arabidopsis plants did not provoke any visible phenotypic alteration indicating that the relative importance of alpha-DOX2 in plant physiology is species specific.

  3. Isotope effects of enzymatic dioxygenation of nitrobenzene and 2-nitrotoluene by nitrobenzene dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Pati, Sarah G; Kohler, Hans-Peter E; Bolotin, Jakov; Parales, Rebecca E; Hofstetter, Thomas B

    2014-09-16

    Oxygenation of aromatic rings is a frequent initial step in the biodegradation of persistent contaminants, and the accompanying isotope fractionation is increasingly used to assess the extent of transformation in the environment. Here, we systematically investigated the dioxygenation of two nitroaromatic compounds (nitrobenzene and 2-nitrotoluene) by nitrobenzene dioxygenase (NBDO) to obtain insights into the factors governing its C, H, and N isotope fractionation. Experiments were carried out at different levels of biological complexity from whole bacterial cells to pure enzyme. C, H, and N isotope enrichment factors and kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) were derived from the compound-specific isotope analysis of nitroarenes, whereas C isotope fractionation was also quantified in the oxygenated reaction products. Dioxygenation of nitrobenzene to catechol and 2-nitrotoluene to 3-methylcatechol showed large C isotope enrichment factors, ϵC, of -4.1 ± 0.2‰ and -2.5 ± 0.2‰, respectively, and was observed consistently in the substrates and dioxygenation products. ϵH- and ϵN-values were smaller, that is -5.7 ± 1.3‰ and -1.0 ± 0.3‰, respectively. C isotope fractionation was also identical in experiments with whole bacterial cells and pure enzymes. The corresponding (13)C-KIEs for the dioxygenation of nitrobenzene and 2-nitrotoluene were 1.025 ± 0.001 and 1.018 ± 0.001 and suggest a moderate substrate specificity. Our study illustrates that dioxygenation of nitroaromatic contaminants exhibits a large C isotope fractionation, which is not masked by substrate transport and uptake processes and larger than dioxygenation of other aromatic hydrocarbons.

  4. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase pathways of pathgenic inflammation and immune escape in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Prendergast, George C.; Smith, Courtney; Thomas, Sunil; Mandik-Nayak, Laura; Laury-Kleintop, Lisa; Metz, Richard; Muller, Alexander J.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic and pharmacological studies of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) have established this tryptophan catabolic enzyme as a central driver of malignant development and progression. IDO acts in tumor, stromal and immune cells to support pathogenic inflammatory processes that engender immune tolerance to tumor antigens. The multifaceted effects of IDO activation in cancer include the suppression of T and NK cells, the generation and activation of T regulatory cells (Treg) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), and the promotion of tumor angiogenesis. Mechanistic investigations have defined the aryl hydrocarbon receptor AhR, the master metabolic regulator mTORC1 and the stress kinase Gcn2 as key effector signaling elements for IDO, which also exerts a non-catalytic role in TGF-β signaling. Small molecule inhibitors of IDO exhibit anticancer activity and cooperate with immunotherapy, radiotherapy or chemotherapy to trigger rapid regression of aggressive tumors otherwise resistant to treatment. Notably, the dramatic antitumor activity of certain targeted therapeutics such as imatinib (Gleevec) in GIST has been traced in part to IDO downregulation. Further, antitumor responses to immune checkpoint inhibitors can be heightened safely by a clinical lead inhibitor of the IDO pathway that relieves IDO-mediated suppression of mTORC1 in T cells. In this personal perspective on IDO as a nodal mediator of pathogenic inflammation and immune escape in cancer, we provide a conceptual foundation for the clinical development of IDO inhibitors as a novel class of immunomodulators with broad application in the treatment of advanced human cancer. PMID:24711084

  5. Dioxygenase-encoding AtDAO1 gene controls IAA oxidation and homeostasis in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Porco, Silvana; Pěnčík, Aleš; Rashed, Afaf; Voß, Ute; Casanova-Sáez, Rubén; Bishopp, Anthony; Golebiowska, Agata; Swarup, Ranjan; Swarup, Kamal; Peňáková, Pavlína; Novák, Ondřej; Staswick, Paul; Hedden, Peter; Phillips, Andrew L.; Vissenberg, Kris

    2016-01-01

    Auxin represents a key signal in plants, regulating almost every aspect of their growth and development. Major breakthroughs have been made dissecting the molecular basis of auxin transport, perception, and response. In contrast, how plants control the metabolism and homeostasis of the major form of auxin in plants, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), remains unclear. In this paper, we initially describe the function of the Arabidopsis thaliana gene DIOXYGENASE FOR AUXIN OXIDATION 1 (AtDAO1). Transcriptional and translational reporter lines revealed that AtDAO1 encodes a highly root-expressed, cytoplasmically localized IAA oxidase. Stable isotope-labeled IAA feeding studies of loss and gain of function AtDAO1 lines showed that this oxidase represents the major regulator of auxin degradation to 2-oxoindole-3-acetic acid (oxIAA) in Arabidopsis. Surprisingly, AtDAO1 loss and gain of function lines exhibited relatively subtle auxin-related phenotypes, such as altered root hair length. Metabolite profiling of mutant lines revealed that disrupting AtDAO1 regulation resulted in major changes in steady-state levels of oxIAA and IAA conjugates but not IAA. Hence, IAA conjugation and catabolism seem to regulate auxin levels in Arabidopsis in a highly redundant manner. We observed that transcripts of AtDOA1 IAA oxidase and GH3 IAA-conjugating enzymes are auxin-inducible, providing a molecular basis for their observed functional redundancy. We conclude that the AtDAO1 gene plays a key role regulating auxin homeostasis in Arabidopsis, acting in concert with GH3 genes, to maintain auxin concentration at optimal levels for plant growth and development. PMID:27651491

  6. Tet methylcytosine dioxygenase 2 inhibits atherosclerosis via upregulation of autophagy in ApoE−/− mice

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Juan; Yang, Qin; Li, A-Fang; Li, Rong-Qing; Wang, Zuo; Liu, Lu-Shan; Ren, Zhong; Zheng, Xi-Long; Tang, Xiao-Qing; Li, Guo-Hua; Tang, Zhi-Han; Jiang, Zhi-Sheng; Wei, Dang-Heng

    2016-01-01

    Tet methylcytosine dioxygenase 2 (TET2) mediates the conversion of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC). The loss of TET2 is associated with advanced atherosclerotic lesions. Our previous study showed that TET2 improves endothelial cell function by enhancing endothelial cell autophagy. Accordingly, this study determined the role of TET2 in atherosclerosis and potential mechanisms. In ApoE−/− mice fed high-fat diet, TET2 overexpression markedly decreased atherosclerotic lesions with uniformly increased level of 5hmC and decreased level of 5mC in genomic DNA. TET2 overexpression also promoted autophagy and downregulated inflammation factors, such as vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, monocyte chemotactic protein 1, and interleukin-1. Consistently, TET2 knockdown with small hairpin RNA (shRNA) in ApoE−/− mice decreased 5hmC and increased 5mC levels in atherosclerotic lesions. Meanwhile, autophagy was inhibited and atherosclerotic lesions progressed with an unstable lesion phenotype characterized by large lipid core, macrophage accumulation, and upregulated inflammation factor expression. Experiments with the cultured endothelial cells revealed that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) inhibited endothelial cell autophagy. TET2 shRNA strengthened impaired autophagy and autophagic flux in the ox-LDL-treated endothelial cells. TET2 overexpression reversed these effects by decreasing the methylation level of the Beclin 1 promoter, which contributed to the downregulation of inflammation factors. Overall, we identified that TET2 was downregulated during the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The downregulation of TET2 promotes the methylation of the Beclin 1 promoter, leading to endothelial cell autophagy, impaired autophagic flux, and inflammatory factor upregulation. Upregulation of TET2 may be a novel therapeutic strategy for treating atherosclerosis. PMID:27821816

  7. Expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase in a murine model of Aspergillus fumigatus keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Nan; Zhao, Gui-Qiu; Lin, Jing; Hu, Li-Ting; Che, Cheng-Ye; Li, Cui; Wang, Qian; Xu, Qiang; Zhang, Jie; Peng, Xu-Dong

    2016-01-01

    AIM To observe the presence and expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) during the corneal immunity to Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) in the murine models. METHODS The murine model of fungal keratitis was established by smearing with colonies of A. fumigatus after scraping central epithelium of cornea and covering with contact lenses in C57BL/6 mice. The mice were randomly divided into control group, sham group and A. fumigatus keratitis group. The cornea was monitored daily using a slit lamp and recorded disease score after infection. Corneal lesion was detected by immunofluorescence staining. IDO mRNA and protein were also detected by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot. RESULTS The disease score and slit lamp photography indicated that disease severity was consistent with corneal inflammation in the murine models, and the disease scores in A. fumigatus keratitis group were obviously higher than those in the sham group. By immunofluorescence staining, IDO was mainly localized in corneal epithelium and stroma in the murine corneal tissues with A. fumigatus keratitis. Compared with the sham group, IDO mRNA expression was significantly enhanced in corneal epithelium infected by A. fumigatus. Furthermore, IDO protein expression detected by Western blot was in accord with transcript levels of IDO mRNA measured by qRT-PCR. IDO protein expression was enhanced after A. fumigatus infection compared with the sham group. CONCLUSION IDO is detected in corneal epithelium and stroma locally, which indicates IDO takes part in the pathogenesis of A. fumigatus keratitis and plays a key role in immune regulation at the early stage. PMID:27162718

  8. A 2-Oxoglutarate-Dependent Dioxygenase Mediates the Biosynthesis of Glucoraphasatin in Radish1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Kitashiba, Hiroyasu; Li, Feng; Fukino, Nobuko; Ohara, Takayoshi; Nishio, Takeshi; Ishida, Masahiko

    2017-01-01

    Glucosinolates (GSLs) are secondary metabolites whose degradation products confer intrinsic flavors and aromas to Brassicaceae vegetables. Several structures of GSLs are known in the Brassicaceae, and the biosynthetic pathway and regulatory networks have been elucidated in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). GSLs are precursors of chemical defense substances against herbivorous pests. Specific GSLs can act as feeding blockers or stimulants, depending on the pest species. Natural selection has led to diversity in the GSL composition even within individual species. However, in radish (Raphanus sativus), glucoraphasatin (4-methylthio-3-butenyl glucosinolate) accounts for more than 90% of the total GSLs, and little compositional variation is observed. Because glucoraphasatin is not contained in other members of the Brassicaceae, like Arabidopsis and cabbage (Brassica oleracea), the biosynthetic pathways for glucoraphasatin remain unclear. In this report, we identified and characterized a gene encoding GLUCORAPHASATIN SYNTHASE 1 (GRS1) by genetic mapping using a mutant that genetically lacks glucoraphasatin. Transgenic Arabidopsis, which overexpressed GRS1 cDNA, accumulated glucoraphasatin in the leaves. GRS1 encodes a 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase, and it is abundantly expressed in the leaf. To further investigate the biosynthesis and transportation of GSLs in radish, we grafted a grs1 plant onto a wild-type plant. The grafting experiment revealed a leaf-to-root long-distance glucoraphasatin transport system in radish and showed that the composition of GSLs differed among the organs. Based on these observations, we propose a characteristic biosynthesis pathway for glucoraphasatin in radish. Our results should be useful in metabolite engineering for breeding of high-value vegetables. PMID:28100450

  9. Structural basis for the enantiospecificities of R- and S-specific phenoxypropionate/α-ketoglutarate dioxygenases

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Tina A.; Zavodszky, Maria I.; Feig, Michael; Kuhn, Leslie A.; Hausinger, Robert P.

    2006-01-01

    (R)- and (S)-dichlorprop/α-ketoglutarate dioxygenases (RdpA and SdpA) catalyze the oxidative cleavage of 2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)propanoic acid (dichlorprop) and 2-(4-chloro-2-methyl-phenoxy)propanoic acid (mecoprop) to form pyruvate plus the corresponding phenol concurrent with the conversion of α-ketoglutarate (αKG) to succinate plus CO2. RdpA and SdpA are strictly enantiospecific, converting only the (R) or the (S) enantiomer, respectively. Homology models were generated for both enzymes on the basis of the structure of the related enzyme TauD (PDB code 1OS7). Docking was used to predict the orientation of the appropriate mecoprop enantiomer in each protein, and the predictions were tested by characterizing the activities of site-directed variants of the enzymes. Mutant proteins that changed at residues predicted to interact with (R)- or (S)-mecoprop exhibited significantly reduced activity, often accompanied by increased Km values, consistent with roles for these residues in substrate binding. Four of the designed SdpA variants were (slightly) active with (R)-mecoprop. The results of the kinetic investigations are consistent with the identification of key interactions in the structural models and demonstrate that enantiospecificity is coordinated by the interactions of a number of residues in RdpA and SdpA. Most significantly, residues Phe171 in RdpA and Glu69 in SdpA apparently act by hindering the binding of the wrong enantiomer more than the correct one, as judged by the observed decreases in Km when these side chains are replaced by Ala. PMID:16731970

  10. Substrate and Cofactor Range Differences of Two Cysteine Dioxygenases from Ralstonia eutropha H16

    PubMed Central

    Wenning, Leonie; Stöveken, Nadine; Wübbeler, Jan Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    Cysteine dioxygenases (Cdos), which catalyze the sulfoxidation of cysteine to cysteine sulfinic acid (CSA), have been extensively studied in eukaryotes because of their roles in several diseases. In contrast, only a few prokaryotic enzymes of this type have been investigated. In Ralstonia eutropha H16, two Cdo homologues (CdoA and CdoB) have been identified previously. In vivo studies showed that Escherichia coli cells expressing CdoA could convert 3-mercaptopropionate (3MP) to 3-sulfinopropionate (3SP), whereas no 3SP could be detected in cells expressing CdoB. The objective of this study was to confirm these findings and to study both enzymes in detail by performing an in vitro characterization. The proteins were heterologously expressed and purified to apparent homogeneity by immobilized metal chelate affinity chromatography (IMAC). Subsequent analysis of the enzyme activities revealed striking differences with regard to their substrate ranges and their specificities for the transition metal cofactor, e.g., CdoA catalyzed the sulfoxidation of 3MP to a 3-fold-greater extent than the sulfoxidation of cysteine, whereas CdoB converted only cysteine. Moreover, the dependency of the activities of the Cdos from R. eutropha H16 on the metal cofactor in the active center could be demonstrated. The importance of CdoA for the metabolism of the sulfur compounds 3,3′-thiodipropionic acid (TDP) and 3,3′-dithiodipropionic acid (DTDP) by further converting their degradation product, 3MP, was confirmed. Since 3MP can also function as a precursor for polythioester (PTE) synthesis in R. eutropha H16, deletion of cdoA might enable increased synthesis of PTEs. PMID:26590284

  11. The molecular basis for adaptive evolution in novel extradiol dioxygenases retrieved from the metagenome.

    PubMed

    Suenaga, Hikaru; Mizuta, Shiori; Miyazaki, Kentaro

    2009-09-01

    Extradiol dioxygenase (EDO) catalyzes metal-dependent ring cleavage of catecholic substrates. We previously screened a metagenomic library of activated sludge used to treat industrial wastewater contaminated with phenols and cyanide to identify 43 EDO genes. Here, we have characterized the enzymes belonging to novel I.2.G, I.3.M and I.3.N subfamilies. The I.3.M and I.3.N EDOs were Fe(II) dependent and preferred bicyclic substrates, whereas the I.2.G EDOs were Mn(II) dependent, preferred monocyclic substrates and had the highest affinity for catechol reported thus far. The I.2.G EDOs were more tolerant against heat (60 degrees C for 1 h) and chemical inhibitors (H(2)O(2) and NaCN) than I.3.M and I.3.N EDOs. Considering the dominance of the I.2.G EDOs over all retrieved EDOs (20 of 43 clones) and the presence of cyanide in the environment, this high affinity for substrate and structural robustness should provide survival advantages to host microorganisms. The 20 I.2.G EDOs were classified into six groups based on the amino acid sequence of the predicted ancestor, 1A1. Enzymes were chosen from each group and characterized. Two descendents, 1D2 and 5B2, each had a k(cat)/K(M) approximately twofold higher than that of 1A1 and reduced thermal stability, suggesting that descendents of 1A1 have adapted evolutionarily by a trade-off of inherent stability for increased activity.

  12. Key Residues for Catalytic Function and Metal Coordination in a Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Sui, Xuewu; Zhang, Jianye; Golczak, Marcin; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Kiser, Philip D

    2016-09-09

    Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs) are non-heme iron-containing enzymes found in all domains of life that generate biologically important apocarotenoids. Prior studies have revealed a critical role for a conserved 4-His motif in forming the CCD iron center. By contrast, the roles of other active site residues in catalytic function, including maintenance of the stringent regio- and stereo-selective cleavage activity, typically exhibited by these enzymes have not been thoroughly investigated. Here, we examined the functional and structural importance of active site residues in an apocarotenoid-cleaving oxygenase (ACO) from Synechocystis Most active site substitutions variably lowered maximal catalytic activity without markedly affecting the Km value for the all-trans-8'-apocarotenol substrate. Native C15-C15' cleavage activity was retained in all ACO variants examined suggesting that multiple active site residues contribute to the enzyme's regioselectivity. Crystallographic analysis of a nearly inactive W149A-substituted ACO revealed marked disruption of the active site structure, including loss of iron coordination by His-238 apparently from an altered conformation of the conserved second sphere Glu-150 residue. Gln- and Asp-150-substituted versions of ACO further confirmed the structural/functional requirement for a Glu side chain at this position, which is homologous to Glu-148 in RPE65, a site in which substitution to Asp has been associated with loss of enzymatic function in Leber congenital amaurosis. The novel links shown here between ACO active site structure and catalytic activity could be broadly applicable to other CCD members and provide insights into the molecular pathogenesis of vision loss associated with an RPE65 point mutation. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Isolation and characterization of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4 genes from different citrus species.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiongjie; Xie, Zongzhou; Zhu, Kaijie; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiuxin; Pan, Zhiyong

    2015-08-01

    In plants, the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4 (CCD4) could target on plastoglobules and cleave specific carotenoids, producing apocarotenoids and volatile compounds. These compounds are important for color and aroma formation in fruits and flowers. In this study, five CCD4 gene members (CCD4a, b, c, d, and e) were investigated in different citrus species including mandarin, pummelo, and sweet orange. Sequence analysis showed that the CCD4 genes from all the species examined exhibited extensive allelic variability (including SNPs and frame-shift mutations). Furthermore, the distribution of the CCD4 allelic mutation sites supported our previous hypothesis that the sweet orange originated from the hybridization of mandarin and pummelo. A derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (dCAPs) marker was then successfully developed based on the allelic polymorphism of CCD4c, providing an ideal molecular marker for studying the genetic relationship between citrus species. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis identified differential expression patterns for the CCD4 genes in tissues/organs, and CCD4b was shown to have a high-level expression in citrus fruit flavedos (especially those with a deep orange-reddish color). HPLC-based detection of a key component (i.e., β-citraurin) for orange-reddish flavedo formation in different citrus revealed a positive correlation between CCD4b expression levels and the presence of β-citraurin, suggesting that CCD4b may be responsible for β-citraurin biosynthesis in flavedo. In summary, this study not only reinforced the anticipated roles of CCD4 genes in flavedo color formation in citrus, but also provided new information about gene expression patterns, allelic polymorphism characteristics, and sequence variability for this gene subfamily.

  14. Bioinspired copper(I) complexes that exhibit monooxygenase and catechol dioxygenase activity.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Aline; Metzinger, Ramona; Limberg, Christian

    2015-01-12

    New tripodal ligand L2 featuring three different pyridyl/imidazolyl-based N-donor units at a bridgehead C atom, from which one of the imidazolyl units is separated by a phenylene linker, was synthesized and investigated with regards to copper(I) complexation. The resulting complex [(L2)Cu]OTf (2(OTf)), the known complex [(L1)Cu]OTf (1(OTf); L1 differs from L2 in that it lacks the phenylene spacer) and [(L3)Cu]OTf (3(OTf)), prepared from a known chiral, tripodal, N-donor ligand featuring pyridyl, pyrazolyl, and imidazolyl donors, were tested as catalysts for the oxidation of sodium 2,4-di-tert-butylphenolate (NaDTBP) with O2. Indeed, they mediated NaDTBP oxidation to give mainly the corresponding catecholate and quinone (Q). None of the complexes 1(OTf), 2(OTf), and 3(OTf) is superior to the others, as yields were comparable and, if the presence of protons is guaranteed by concomitant addition of the phenol DTBP, the oxidation can also be performed catalytically. For all complexes stoichiometric oxidations under certain conditions (concentrated solutions, high NaDTBP content) were found to also generate products typical for metal-mediated intradiol cleavage of the catecholate with O2. As shown representatively for 1(OTf) this dioxygenation sets in at a later stage of the reaction. Initially a copper species responsible for the monooxygenation must form from 1(OTf)/NaDTBP/O2, and only thereafter is the copper species responsible for dioxygenation formed and consumes Q as substrate. Hence, under these circumstances complexes 1(OTf)-3(OTf) show both monooxygenase and catechol dioxygenase activity.

  15. Robust crop resistance to broadleaf and grass herbicides provided by aryloxyalkanoate dioxygenase transgenes

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Terry R.; Shan, Guomin; Walsh, Terence A.; Lira, Justin M.; Cui, Cory; Song, Ping; Zhuang, Meibao; Arnold, Nicole L.; Lin, Gaofeng; Yau, Kerrm; Russell, Sean M.; Cicchillo, Robert M.; Peterson, Mark A.; Simpson, David M.; Zhou, Ning; Ponsamuel, Jayakumar; Zhang, Zhanyuan

    2010-01-01

    Engineered glyphosate resistance is the most widely adopted genetically modified trait in agriculture, gaining widespread acceptance by providing a simple robust weed control system. However, extensive and sustained use of glyphosate as a sole weed control mechanism has led to field selection for glyphosate-resistant weeds and has induced significant population shifts to weeds with inherent tolerance to glyphosate. Additional weed control mechanisms that can complement glyphosate-resistant crops are, therefore, urgently needed. 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is an effective low-cost, broad-spectrum herbicide that controls many of the weeds developing resistance to glyphosate. We investigated the substrate preferences of bacterial aryloxyalkanoate dioxygenase enzymes (AADs) that can effectively degrade 2,4-D and have found that some members of this class can act on other widely used herbicides in addition to their activity on 2,4-D. AAD-1 cleaves the aryloxyphenoxypropionate family of grass-active herbicides, and AAD-12 acts on pyridyloxyacetate auxin herbicides such as triclopyr and fluroxypyr. Maize plants transformed with an AAD-1 gene showed robust crop resistance to aryloxyphenoxypropionate herbicides over four generations and were also not injured by 2,4-D applications at any growth stage. Arabidopsis plants expressing AAD-12 were resistant to 2,4-D as well as triclopyr and fluroxypyr, and transgenic soybean plants expressing AAD-12 maintained field resistance to 2,4-D over five generations. These results show that single AAD transgenes can provide simultaneous resistance to a broad repertoire of agronomically important classes of herbicides, including 2,4-D, with utility in both monocot and dicot crops. These transgenes can help preserve the productivity and environmental benefits of herbicide-resistant crops. PMID:21059954

  16. Robust crop resistance to broadleaf and grass herbicides provided by aryloxyalkanoate dioxygenase transgenes.

    PubMed

    Wright, Terry R; Shan, Guomin; Walsh, Terence A; Lira, Justin M; Cui, Cory; Song, Ping; Zhuang, Meibao; Arnold, Nicole L; Lin, Gaofeng; Yau, Kerrm; Russell, Sean M; Cicchillo, Robert M; Peterson, Mark A; Simpson, David M; Zhou, Ning; Ponsamuel, Jayakumar; Zhang, Zhanyuan

    2010-11-23

    Engineered glyphosate resistance is the most widely adopted genetically modified trait in agriculture, gaining widespread acceptance by providing a simple robust weed control system. However, extensive and sustained use of glyphosate as a sole weed control mechanism has led to field selection for glyphosate-resistant weeds and has induced significant population shifts to weeds with inherent tolerance to glyphosate. Additional weed control mechanisms that can complement glyphosate-resistant crops are, therefore, urgently needed. 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is an effective low-cost, broad-spectrum herbicide that controls many of the weeds developing resistance to glyphosate. We investigated the substrate preferences of bacterial aryloxyalkanoate dioxygenase enzymes (AADs) that can effectively degrade 2,4-D and have found that some members of this class can act on other widely used herbicides in addition to their activity on 2,4-D. AAD-1 cleaves the aryloxyphenoxypropionate family of grass-active herbicides, and AAD-12 acts on pyridyloxyacetate auxin herbicides such as triclopyr and fluroxypyr. Maize plants transformed with an AAD-1 gene showed robust crop resistance to aryloxyphenoxypropionate herbicides over four generations and were also not injured by 2,4-D applications at any growth stage. Arabidopsis plants expressing AAD-12 were resistant to 2,4-D as well as triclopyr and fluroxypyr, and transgenic soybean plants expressing AAD-12 maintained field resistance to 2,4-D over five generations. These results show that single AAD transgenes can provide simultaneous resistance to a broad repertoire of agronomically important classes of herbicides, including 2,4-D, with utility in both monocot and dicot crops. These transgenes can help preserve the productivity and environmental benefits of herbicide-resistant crops.

  17. Discovery of a Novel Linoleate Dioxygenase of Fusarium oxysporum and Linoleate Diol Synthase of Colletotrichum graminicola.

    PubMed

    Sooman, Linda; Oliw, Ernst H

    2015-12-01

    Fungal pathogens constitute serious threats for many forms of life. The pathogenic fungi Fusarium and Colletotrichum and their formae speciales (f. spp.) infect many types of crops with severe consequences and Fusarium oxysporum can also induce keratitis and allergic conditions in humans. These fungi code for homologues of dioxygenase-cytochrome P450 (DOX-CYP) fusion proteins of the animal heme peroxidase (cyclooxygenase) superfamily. The objective was to characterize the enzymatic activities of the DOX-CYP homologue of Colletotrichum graminicola (EFQ34869) and the DOX homologue of F. oxysporum (EGU79548). The former oxidized oleic and linoleic acids in analogy with 7,8-linoleate diol synthases (LDSs), but with the additional biosynthesis of 8,11-dihydroxylinoleic acid. The latter metabolized fatty acids to hydroperoxides with broad substrate specificity. It oxidized 20:4n-6 and 18:2n-6 to hydroperoxides with an R configuration at the (n-10) positions, and other n-6 fatty acids in the same way. [11S-(2)H]18:2n-6 was oxidized with retention and [11R-(2)H]18:2n-6 with loss of deuterium, suggesting suprafacial hydrogen abstraction and oxygen insertion. Fatty acids of the n-3 series were oxidized less efficiently and often to hydroperoxides with an R configuration at both (n-10) and (n-7) positions. The enzyme spans 1426 amino acids with about 825 residues in the N-terminal domain with DOX homology and 600 residues at the C-terminal domain without homology to other enzymes. We conclude that fungal oxylipins can be formed by two novel subfamilies of cyclooxygenase-related DOX.

  18. Mutation and polymorphism analysis of the human homogentisate 1, 2-dioxygenase gene in alkaptonuria patients.

    PubMed

    Beltrán-Valero de Bernabé, D; Granadino, B; Chiarelli, I; Porfirio, B; Mayatepek, E; Aquaron, R; Moore, M M; Festen, J J; Sanmartí, R; Peñalva, M A; de Córdoba, S R

    1998-04-01

    Alkaptonuria (AKU), a rare hereditary disorder of phenylalanine and tyrosine catabolism, was the first disease to be interpreted as an inborn error of metabolism. AKU patients are deficient for homogentisate 1,2 dioxygenase (HGO); this deficiency causes homogentisic aciduria, ochronosis, and arthritis. We cloned the human HGO gene and characterized two loss-of-function mutations, P230S and V300G, in the HGO gene in AKU patients. Here we report haplotype and mutational analysis of the HGO gene in 29 novel AKU chromosomes. We identified 12 novel mutations: 8 (E42A, W97G, D153G, S189I, I216T, R225H, F227S, and M368V) missense mutations that result in amino acid substitutions at positions conserved in HGO in different species, 1 (F10fs) frameshift mutation, 2 intronic mutations (IVS9-56G-->A, IVS9-17G-->A), and 1 splice-site mutation (IVS5+1G-->T). We also report characterization of five polymorphic sites in HGO and describe the haplotypic associations of alleles at these sites in normal and AKU chromosomes. One of these sites, HGO-3, is a variable dinucleotide repeat; IVS2+35T/A, IVS5+25T/C, and IVS6+46C/A are intronic sites at which single nucleotide substitutions (dimorphisms) have been detected; and c407T/A is a relatively frequent nucleotide substitution in the coding sequence, exon 4, resulting in an amino acid change (H80Q). These data provide insight into the origin and evolution of the various AKU alleles.

  19. Mutation and polymorphism analysis of the human homogentisate 1, 2-dioxygenase gene in alkaptonuria patients.

    PubMed Central

    Beltrán-Valero de Bernabé, D; Granadino, B; Chiarelli, I; Porfirio, B; Mayatepek, E; Aquaron, R; Moore, M M; Festen, J J; Sanmartí, R; Peñalva, M A; de Córdoba, S R

    1998-01-01

    Alkaptonuria (AKU), a rare hereditary disorder of phenylalanine and tyrosine catabolism, was the first disease to be interpreted as an inborn error of metabolism. AKU patients are deficient for homogentisate 1,2 dioxygenase (HGO); this deficiency causes homogentisic aciduria, ochronosis, and arthritis. We cloned the human HGO gene and characterized two loss-of-function mutations, P230S and V300G, in the HGO gene in AKU patients. Here we report haplotype and mutational analysis of the HGO gene in 29 novel AKU chromosomes. We identified 12 novel mutations: 8 (E42A, W97G, D153G, S189I, I216T, R225H, F227S, and M368V) missense mutations that result in amino acid substitutions at positions conserved in HGO in different species, 1 (F10fs) frameshift mutation, 2 intronic mutations (IVS9-56G-->A, IVS9-17G-->A), and 1 splice-site mutation (IVS5+1G-->T). We also report characterization of five polymorphic sites in HGO and describe the haplotypic associations of alleles at these sites in normal and AKU chromosomes. One of these sites, HGO-3, is a variable dinucleotide repeat; IVS2+35T/A, IVS5+25T/C, and IVS6+46C/A are intronic sites at which single nucleotide substitutions (dimorphisms) have been detected; and c407T/A is a relatively frequent nucleotide substitution in the coding sequence, exon 4, resulting in an amino acid change (H80Q). These data provide insight into the origin and evolution of the various AKU alleles. PMID:9529363

  20. Expression of α-DIOXYGENASE 1 in tomato and Arabidopsis contributes to plant defenses against aphids.

    PubMed

    Avila, Carlos Augusto; Arevalo-Soliz, Lirio Milenka; Lorence, Argelia; Goggin, Fiona L

    2013-08-01

    Plant α-dioxygenases (α-DOX) are fatty acid-hydroperoxidases that contribute to the synthesis of oxylipins, a diverse group of compounds primarily generated through oxidation of linoleic (LA) and linolenic acid (LNA). Oxylipins are implicated in plant signaling against biotic and abiotic stresses. We report here that the potato aphid (Macrosiphum euphorbiae) induces Slα-DOX1 but not Slα-DOX2 expression in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Slα-DOX1 upregulation by aphids does not require either jasmonic acid (JA) or salicylic acid (SA) accumulation, since tomato mutants deficient in JA (spr2, acx1) or SA accumulation (NahG) still show Slα-DOX1 induction. Virus-induced gene silencing of Slα-DOX1 enhanced aphid population growth in wild-type (WT) plants, revealing that Slα-DOX1 contributes to basal resistance to aphids. Moreover, an even higher percent increase in aphid numbers occurred when Slα-DOX1 was silenced in spr2, a mutant line characterized by elevated LA levels, decreased LNA, and enhanced aphid resistance as compared with WT. These results suggest that aphid reproduction is influenced by oxylipins synthesized from LA by Slα-DOX1. In agreement with our experiments in tomato, two independent α-dox1 T-DNA insertion mutant lines in Arabidopsis thaliana also showed increased susceptibility to the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae), indicating that the role α-DOX is conserved in other plant-aphid interactions.

  1. Selection for Growth on 3-Nitrotoluene by 2-Nitrotoluene-Utilizing Acidovorax sp. Strain JS42 Identifies Nitroarene Dioxygenases with Altered Specificities

    PubMed Central

    Mahan, Kristina M.; Penrod, Joseph T.; Ju, Kou-San; Al Kass, Natascia; Tan, Watumesa A.; Truong, Richard; Parales, Juanito V.

    2014-01-01

    Acidovorax sp. strain JS42 uses 2-nitrotoluene as a sole source of carbon and energy. The first enzyme of the degradation pathway, 2-nitrotoluene 2,3-dioxygenase, adds both atoms of molecular oxygen to 2-nitrotoluene, forming nitrite and 3-methylcatechol. All three mononitrotoluene isomers serve as substrates for 2-nitrotoluene dioxygenase, but strain JS42 is unable to grow on 3- or 4-nitrotoluene. Using both long- and short-term selections, we obtained spontaneous mutants of strain JS42 that grew on 3-nitrotoluene. All of the strains obtained by short-term selection had mutations in the gene encoding the α subunit of 2-nitrotoluene dioxygenase that changed isoleucine 204 at the active site to valine. Those strains obtained by long-term selections had mutations that changed the same residue to valine, alanine, or threonine or changed the alanine at position 405, which is just outside the active site, to glycine. All of these changes altered the regiospecificity of the enzymes with 3-nitrotoluene such that 4-methylcatechol was the primary product rather than 3-methylcatechol. Kinetic analyses indicated that the evolved enzymes had enhanced affinities for 3-nitrotoluene and were more catalytically efficient with 3-nitrotoluene than the wild-type enzyme. In contrast, the corresponding amino acid substitutions in the closely related enzyme nitrobenzene 1,2-dioxygenase were detrimental to enzyme activity. When cloned genes encoding the evolved dioxygenases were introduced into a JS42 mutant lacking a functional dioxygenase, the strains acquired the ability to grow on 3-nitrotoluene but with significantly longer doubling times than the evolved strains, suggesting that additional beneficial mutations occurred elsewhere in the genome. PMID:25344236

  2. Performance of broiler chickens fed event DAS-40278-9 maize containing the aryloxyalkanoate dioxygenase-1 protein.

    PubMed

    Herman, Rod A; Dunville, Christina M; Juberg, Daland R; Fletcher, Dale W; Cromwell, Gary L

    2011-08-01

    Event DAS-40278-9 maize grain (containing the aryloxyalkanoate dioxygenase-1 protein), a non-transgenic near-isogenic maize grain, or one of three commercial maize grains were included in the diets of broiler chickens for six weeks. Growth, feed conversion, and carcass measurements indicated no significant difference between the groups fed the diets containing the DAS-40278-9 maize grain and those fed diets containing the matched control grain. The absence of adverse effects in this study supports the dietary safety of the AAD-1 protein expressed in event DAS-40278-9 maize. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Stereospecific hydroxylation of indan by Escherichia coli containing the cloned toluene dioxygenase genes from Pseudomonas putida F1

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, J.M.; Cruden, D.L.; Zylstra, G.J.; Gibson, D.T. )

    1992-10-01

    Escheria coli JM109(pDTG601), containing the todC1C2BA genes encoding toluene dioxygenase from Pseudomonas putida F1, oxides indan to (-)-(1R)-indanol (83{percent} R) and trans-1,3-indandiol. Under similar conditions, P.putida F39/D oxidizes indan to (-)-(1R)-indanol (96{percent}R), 1-indanone, and trans-1,3-indandiol. The differences in the enantiomeric composition of the 1-indanols formed by the two organisms are due to the presence of a 1-indanol dehydrogenase in P.putida F39/D that preferentially oxidizes (+)-(1S)-indanol.

  4. Five-coordinate M(II)-semiquinonate (M = Fe, Mn, Co) complexes: reactivity models of the catechol dioxygenases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Yap, Glenn P A; Riordan, Charles G

    2014-06-04

    A series of five-coordinate M(II)-semiquinonate (M = Fe, Mn, Co) complexes were synthesized and characterized, including the first example of a mononuclear Fe(II)-semiquinonate. Intermediates were observed in the reactions of M(II)-phenSQ (M = Fe, Co) with O2. Evidence for the relevance of these intermediates to the intradiol catechol dioxygenases was obtained by characterization of the oxidized semiquinone-derived product, muconic anhydride, resulting from the reaction of [PhTt(tBu)]Co(II)(3,5-DBSQ) with O2.

  5. Purification and properties of protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase from Chaetomium piluliferum induced with p-hydroxybenzoic acid.

    PubMed

    Wojtaś-Wasilewska, M; Trojanowski, J

    1980-01-01

    1. Protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase (protocatechuate : oxygen 3,4-oxidoreductase, EC 1.13.11.3) was isolated from mycelium of Chaetomium piluliferum induced with p-hydroxybenzoic acid. The enzyme was purified about 80-fold by ammonium sulphate fractionation and DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-200 chromatography, and was homogeneous on polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. 2. The enzyme showed high substrate specificity; its pH optimum was 7.5-8.0, and molecula weight about 76 000 as determined by filtration on Sephadex G-200. The Michaelis constant for protocatechuic acid was 11.1 microM.

  6. Catechol 1,2-dioxygenase from the Gram-positive Rhodococcus opacus 1CP: quantitative structure/activity relationship and the crystal structures of native enzyme and catechols adducts.

    PubMed

    Matera, Irene; Ferraroni, Marta; Kolomytseva, Marina; Golovleva, Ludmila; Scozzafava, Andrea; Briganti, Fabrizio

    2010-06-01

    The first crystallographic structures of a catechol 1,2-dioxygenase from a Gram-positive bacterium Rhodococcus opacus 1CP (Rho 1,2-CTD), a Fe(III) ion containing enzyme specialized in the aerobic biodegradation of catechols, and its adducts with catechol, 3-methylcatechol, 4-methylcatechol, pyrogallol (benzene-1,2,3-triol), 3-chlorocatechol, 4-chlorocatechol, 3,5-dichlorocatechol, 4,5-dichlorocatechol and protocatechuate (3,4-dihydroxybenzoate) have been determined and analyzed. This study represents the first extensive characterization of catechols adducts of 1,2-CTDs. The structural analyses reveal the diverse modes of binding to the active metal iron ion of the tested catechols thus allowing to identify the residues selectively involved in recognition of the diverse substrates by this class of enzymes. The comparison is further extended to the structural and functional characteristics of the other 1,2-CTDs isolated from Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Moreover the high structural homology of the present enzyme with the 3-chlorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenase from the same bacterium are discussed in terms of their different substrate specificity. The catalytic rates for Rho 1,2-CTD conversion of the tested compounds are also compared with the calculated energies of the highest occupied molecular orbital (E(HOMO)) of the substrates. A quantitative relationship (R=0.966) between the ln k(cat) and the calculated electronic parameter E(HOMO) was obtained for catechol, 3-methylcatechol, 4-methylcatechol, pyrogallol, 3-chlorocatechol, 4-chlorocatechol. This indicates that for these substrates the rate-limiting step of the reaction cycle is dependent on their nucleophilic reactivity. The discrepancies observed in the quantitative relationship for 3,5-dichlorocatechol, 4,5-dichlorocatechol and protocatechuate are ascribed to the sterical hindrances leading to the distorted binding of such catechols observed in the corresponding structures.

  7. 3T3-L1 Adipocytes and Rat Adipose Tissue Have a High Capacity for Taurine Synthesis by the Cysteine Dioxygenase/Cysteinesulfinate Decarboxylase and Cysteamine Dioxygenase Pathways12

    PubMed Central

    Ueki, Iori; Stipanuk, Martha H.

    2009-01-01

    Taurine is the most abundant free amino acid in the body and is synthesized in mammals by 2 pathways. Taurine is synthesized either from the oxidation of cysteine via cysteine dioxygenase (CDO), which generates cysteinesulfinate that is decarboxylated by cysteinesulfinic acid decarboxylase (CSAD), or from the oxidation of cysteamine by cysteamine (2-aminoethanethiol) dioxygenase (ADO). Both pathways generate hypotaurine, which is oxidized to taurine. To determine whether these pathways for taurine synthesis are present in the adipocyte, we studied 3T3-L1 cells during their adipogenic conversion and fat from rats fed diets with varied sulfur-amino acid content. CDO, CSAD, and ADO protein levels increased during adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells and all of these enzymes were significantly increased when cells achieved a mature adipocyte phenotype. Furthermore, these changes were accompanied by an increased hypotaurine and taurine production, particularly when cells were treated with cysteine or cysteamine. CDO mRNA levels also responded robustly to cysteine or cysteamine treatment in adipocytes but not in undifferentiated 3T3-L1 cells. Furthermore, CDO protein and activity were greater in adipose tissue from rats fed a high protein or cystine-supplemented low protein (LP) diet than in adipose tissue from rats fed a LP diet. Overall, our results demonstrate that CDO is regulated at both the level of enzyme abundance and the level of mRNA in mature adipocytes. PMID:19106324

  8. OxDBase: a database of oxygenases involved in biodegradation

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Pankaj K; Kumar, Manish; Chauhan, Archana; Raghava, Gajendra PS; Jain, Rakesh K

    2009-01-01

    Background Oxygenases belong to the oxidoreductive group of enzymes (E.C. Class 1), which oxidize the substrates by transferring oxygen from molecular oxygen (O2) and utilize FAD/NADH/NADPH as the co-substrate. Oxygenases can further be grouped into two categories i.e. monooxygenases and dioxygenases on the basis of number of oxygen atoms used for oxidation. They play a key role in the metabolism of organic compounds by increasing their reactivity or water solubility or bringing about cleavage of the aromatic ring. Findings We compiled a database of biodegradative oxygenases (OxDBase) which provides a compilation of the oxygenase data as sourced from primary literature in the form of web accessible database. There are two separate search engines for searching into the database i.e. mono and dioxygenases database respectively. Each enzyme entry contains its common name and synonym, reaction in which enzyme is involved, family and subfamily, structure and gene link and literature citation. The entries are also linked to several external database including BRENDA, KEGG, ENZYME and UM-BBD providing wide background information. At present the database contains information of over 235 oxygenases including both dioxygenases and monooxygenases. This database is freely available online at . Conclusion OxDBase is the first database that is dedicated only to oxygenases and provides comprehensive information about them. Due to the importance of the oxygenases in chemical synthesis of drug intermediates and oxidation of xenobiotic compounds, OxDBase database would be very useful tool in the field of synthetic chemistry as well as bioremediation. PMID:19405962

  9. Involvement of the kynurenine pathway in human glioma pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Adams, Seray; Teo, Charles; McDonald, Kerrie L; Zinger, Anna; Bustamante, Sonia; Lim, Chai K; Sundaram, Gayathri; Braidy, Nady; Brew, Bruce J; Guillemin, Gilles J

    2014-01-01

    The kynurenine pathway (KP) is the principal route of L-tryptophan (TRP) catabolism leading to the production of kynurenine (KYN), the neuroprotectants, kynurenic acid (KYNA) and picolinic acid (PIC), the excitotoxin, quinolinic acid (QUIN) and the essential pyridine nucleotide, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)). The enzymes indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO-1), indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-2 (IDO-2) and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO-2) initiate the first step of the KP. IDO-1 and TDO-2 induction in tumors are crucial mechanisms implicated to play pivotal roles in suppressing anti-tumor immunity. Here, we report the first comprehensive characterisation of the KP in 1) cultured human glioma cells and 2) plasma from patients with glioblastoma (GBM). Our data revealed that interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) stimulation significantly potentiated the expression of the KP enzymes, IDO-1 IDO-2, kynureninase (KYNU), kynurenine hydroxylase (KMO) and significantly down-regulated 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate semialdehyde decarboxylase (ACMSD) and kynurenine aminotransferase-I (KAT-I) expression in cultured human glioma cells. This significantly increased KP activity but significantly lowered the KYNA/KYN neuroprotective ratio in human cultured glioma cells. KP activation (KYN/TRP) was significantly higher, whereas the concentrations of the neuroreactive KP metabolites TRP, KYNA, QUIN and PIC and the KYNA/KYN ratio were significantly lower in GBM patient plasma (n = 18) compared to controls. These results provide further evidence for the involvement of the KP in glioma pathophysiology and highlight a potential role of KP products as novel and highly attractive therapeutic targets to evaluate for the treatment of brain tumors, aimed at restoring anti-tumor immunity and reducing the capacity for malignant cells to produce NAD(+), which is necessary for energy production and DNA repair.

  10. X-ray crystallography, mass spectrometry and single crystal microspectrophotometry: a multidisciplinary characterization of catechol 1,2 dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Micalella, Chiara; Martignon, Sara; Bruno, Stefano; Pioselli, Barbara; Caglio, Raffaella; Valetti, Francesca; Pessione, Enrica; Giunta, Carlo; Rizzi, Menico

    2011-06-01

    Intradiol-cleaving catechol 1,2 dioxygenases are Fe(III) dependent enzymes that act on catechol and substituted catechols, including chlorocatechols pollutants, by inserting molecular oxygen in the aromatic ring. Members of this class are the object of intense biochemical investigations aimed at the understanding of their catalytic mechanism, particularly for designing mutants with selected catalytic properties. We report here an in depth investigation of catechol 1,2 dioxygenase IsoB from Acinetobacter radioresistens LMG S13 and its A72G and L69A mutants. By applying a multidisciplinary approach that includes high resolution X-rays crystallography, mass spectrometry and single crystal microspectrophotometry, we characterised the phospholipid bound to the enzyme and provided a structural framework to understand the inversion of substrate specificity showed by the mutants. Our results might be of help for the rational design of enzyme mutants showing a biotechnologically relevant substrate specificity, particularly to be used in bioremediation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Protein Structure and Function in the Crystalline State.

  11. Cloning and mutagenesis of catechol 2,3-dioxygenase gene from the gram-positive Planococcus sp. strain S5.

    PubMed

    Hupert-Kocurek, Katarzyna; Stawicka, Agnieszka; Wojcieszyńska, Danuta; Guzik, Urszula

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the catechol 2,3-dioxygenase gene that encodes a 307- amino-acid protein was cloned from Planococcus sp. S5. The protein was identified to be a member of the superfamily I, subfamily 2A of extradiol dioxygenases. In order to study residues and regions affecting the enzyme's catalytic parameters, the c23o gene was randomly mutated by error-prone PCR. The wild-type enzyme and mutants containing substitutions within either the C-terminal or both domains were functionally produced in Escherichia coli and their activity towards catechol was characterized. The C23OB65 mutant with R296Q substitution showed significant tolerance to acidic pH with an optimum at pH 5.0. In addition, it showed activity more than 1.5 as high as that of the wild type enzyme and its Km was 2.5 times lower. It also showed altered sensitivity to substrate inhibition. The results indicate that residue at position 296 plays a role in determining pH dependence of the enzyme and its activity. Lower activity toward catechol was shown for mutants C23OB58 and C23OB81. Despite lower activity, these mutants showed higher affinity to catechol and were more sensitive to substrate concentration than nonmutated enzyme.

  12. Overexpression of the rice carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 1 gene in Golden Rice endosperm suggests apocarotenoids as substrates in planta.

    PubMed

    Ilg, Andrea; Yu, Qiuju; Schaub, Patrick; Beyer, Peter; Al-Babili, Salim

    2010-08-01

    Carotenoids are converted by carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases that catalyze oxidative cleavage reactions leading to apocarotenoids. However, apocarotenoids can also be further truncated by some members of this enzyme family. The plant carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 1 (CCD1) subfamily is known to degrade both carotenoids and apocarotenoids in vitro, leading to different volatile compounds. In this study, we investigated the impact of the rice CCD1 (OsCCD1) on the pigmentation of Golden Rice 2 (GR2), a genetically modified rice variety accumulating carotenoids in the endosperm. For this purpose, the corresponding cDNA was introduced into the rice genome under the control of an endosperm-specific promoter in sense and anti-sense orientations. Despite high expression levels of OsCCD1 in sense plants, pigment analysis revealed carotenoid levels and patterns comparable to those of GR2, pleading against carotenoids as substrates in rice endosperm. In support, similar carotenoid contents were determined in anti-sense plants. To check whether OsCCD1 overexpressed in GR2 endosperm is active, in vitro assays were performed with apocarotenoid substrates. HPLC analysis confirmed the cleavage activity of introduced OsCCD1. Our data indicate that apocarotenoids rather than carotenoids are the substrates of OsCCD1 in planta.

  13. Tryptophan-2,3-Dioxygenase (TDO) deficiency is associated with subclinical neuroprotection in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Lanz, Tobias V.; Williams, Sarah K.; Stojic, Aleksandar; Iwantscheff, Simeon; Sonner, Jana K.; Grabitz, Carl; Becker, Simon; Böhler, Laura-Inés; Mohapatra, Soumya R.; Sahm, Felix; Küblbeck, Günter; Nakamura, Toshikazu; Funakoshi, Hiroshi; Opitz, Christiane A.; Wick, Wolfgang; Diem, Ricarda; Platten, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The catabolism of tryptophan to immunosuppressive and neuroactive kynurenines is a key metabolic pathway regulating immune responses and neurotoxicity. The rate-limiting step is controlled by indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO). IDO is expressed in antigen presenting cells during immune reactions, hepatic TDO regulates blood homeostasis of tryptophan and neuronal TDO influences neurogenesis. While the role of IDO has been described in multiple immunological settings, little is known about TDO’s effects on the immune system. TDO-deficiency is neuroprotective in C. elegans and Drosophila by increasing tryptophan and specific kynurenines. Here we have determined the role of TDO in autoimmunity and neurodegeneration in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model of multiple sclerosis. We created reporter-TDO mice for in vivo imaging to show that hepatic but not CNS TDO expression is activated during EAE. TDO deficiency did not influence myelin-specific T cells, leukocyte infiltration into the CNS, demyelination and disease activity. TDO-deficiency protected from neuronal loss in the spinal cord but not in the optic nerves. While this protection did not translate to an improved overt clinical outcome, our data suggest that spatially distinct neuroprotection is conserved in mammals and support TDO as a potential target for treatment of diseases associated with neurodegeneration. PMID:28117398

  14. Activity of a Carboxyl-Terminal Truncated Form of Catechol 2,3-Dioxygenase from Planococcus sp. S5

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Catechol 2,3-dioxygenases (C23Os, E.C.1.13.12.2) are two domain enzymes that catalyze degradation of monoaromatic hydrocarbons. The catalytically active C-domain of all known C23Os comprises ferrous ion ligands as well as residues forming active site pocket. The aim of this work was to examine and discuss the effect of nonsense mutation at position 289 on the activity of catechol 2,3-dioxygenase from Planococcus strain. Although the mutant C23O showed the same optimal temperature for activity as the wild-type protein (35°C), it exhibited activity slightly more tolerant to alkaline pH. Mutant enzyme exhibited also higher affinity to catechol as a substrate. Its Km (66.17 µM) was approximately 30% lower than that of wild-type enzyme. Interestingly, removal of the C-terminal residues resulted in 1.5- to 1.8-fold (P < 0.05) increase in the activity of C23OB61 against 4-methylcatechol and 4-chlorocatechol, respectively, while towards catechol the activity of the protein dropped to about 80% of that of the wild-type enzyme. The results obtained may facilitate the engineering of the C23O for application in the bioremediation of polluted areas. PMID:24693238

  15. Multistep conversion of para-substituted phenols by phenol hydroxylase and 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl 1,2-dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yuanyuan; Shi, Shengnan; Ma, Qiao; Kong, Chunlei; Zhou, Hao; Zhang, Xuwang; Zhou, Jiti

    2013-04-01

    A multistep conversion system of para-substituted phenols by recombinant phenol hydroxylase (PH(IND)) and 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl 1,2-dioxygenase (BphC(LA-4)) was constructed in this study. Docking studies with different para-substituted phenols and corresponding catechols inside of the active site of PH(IND) and BphC(LA-4) predicted that all the substrates should be transformed. High-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed that the products of multistep conversion were the corresponding para-substituted catechols and semialdehydes. For the first-step conversion, the formation rate of 4-fluorocatechol (0.39 μM/min/mg dry weight) by strain PH(IND) hydroxylation was 1.15, 6.50, 3.00, and 1.18-fold higher than the formation of 4-chlorocatechol, 4-bromocatechol, 4-nitrocatechol, and 4-methylcatechol, respectively. For the second-step conversion, the formation rates of semialdehydes by strain BphC(LA-4) were as follows: 5-fluoro-HODA>5-chloro-HODA>2-hydroxy-5-nitro-ODA>5-bromo-HODA>2-hydroxy-5-methyl-ODA. The present study suggested that the multistep conversion by both ring hydroxylase and cleavage dioxygenase should be potential in the synthesis of industrial precursors and provide a novel avenue in the wastewater recycling treatment.

  16. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of recombinant chlorocatechol 1,2-­dioxygenase from Pseudomonas putida

    PubMed Central

    Rustiguel, Joane Kathelen; Pinheiro, Matheus Pinto; Araújo, Ana Paula Ulian; Nonato, Maria Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Chlorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenase from the Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas putida (Pp 1,2-CCD) is considered to be an important biotechnological tool owing to its ability to process a broad spectrum of organic pollutants. In the current work, the crystallization, crystallographic characterization and phasing of the recombinant Pp 1,2-CCD enzyme are described. Reddish-brown crystals were obtained in the presence of polyethylene glycol and magnesium acetate by utilizing the vapour-diffusion technique in sitting drops. Crystal dehydration was the key step in obtaining data sets, which were collected on the D03B-MX2 beamline at the CNPEM/MCT – LNLS using a MAR CCD detector. Pp 1,2-CCD crystals belonged to space group P6122 and the crystallographic structure of Pp 1,2-CCD has been solved by the MR-SAD technique using Fe atoms as scattering centres and the coordinates of 3-chlorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenase from Rhodococcus opacus (PDB entry 2boy) as the search model. The initial model, which contains three molecules in the asymmetric unit, has been refined to 3.4 Å resolution. PMID:21505253

  17. Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Diffraction Analysis of Recombinant Chlorocatechol 1 2-dioxygenase from Pseudomonas Putida

    SciTech Connect

    J Rustiguel; M Pinheiro; A Araujo; M Nonato

    2011-12-31

    Chlorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenase from the Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas putida (Pp 1,2-CCD) is considered to be an important biotechnological tool owing to its ability to process a broad spectrum of organic pollutants. In the current work, the crystallization, crystallographic characterization and phasing of the recombinant Pp 1,2-CCD enzyme are described. Reddish-brown crystals were obtained in the presence of polyethylene glycol and magnesium acetate by utilizing the vapor-diffusion technique in sitting drops. Crystal dehydration was the key step in obtaining data sets, which were collected on the D03B-MX2 beamline at the CNPEM/MCT - LNLS using a MAR CCD detector. Pp 1,2-CCD crystals belonged to space group P6{sub 1}22 and the crystallographic structure of Pp 1,2-CCD has been solved by the MR-SAD technique using Fe atoms as scattering centres and the coordinates of 3-chlorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenase from Rhodococcus opacus (PDB entry 2boy) as the search model. The initial model, which contains three molecules in the asymmetric unit, has been refined to 3.4 {angstrom} resolution.

  18. Community structure and PAH ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase genes of a marine pyrene-degrading microbial consortium.

    PubMed

    Gallego, Sara; Vila, Joaquim; Tauler, Margalida; Nieto, José María; Breugelmans, Philip; Springael, Dirk; Grifoll, Magdalena

    2014-07-01

    Marine microbial consortium UBF, enriched from a beach polluted by the Prestige oil spill and highly efficient in degrading this heavy fuel, was subcultured in pyrene minimal medium. The pyrene-degrading subpopulation (UBF-Py) mineralized 31 % of pyrene without accumulation of partially oxidized intermediates indicating the cooperation of different microbial components in substrate mineralization. The microbial community composition was characterized by culture dependent and PCR based methods (PCR-DGGE and clone libraries). Molecular analyses showed a highly stable community composed by Alphaproteobacteria (84 %, Breoghania, Thalassospira, Paracoccus, and Martelella) and Actinobacteria (16 %, Gordonia). The members of Thalasosspira and Gordonia were not recovered as pure cultures, but five additional strains, not detected in the molecular analysis, that classified within the genera Novosphingobium, Sphingopyxis, Aurantimonas (Alphaproteobacteria), Alcanivorax (Gammaproteobacteria) and Micrococcus (Actinobacteria), were isolated. None of the isolates degraded pyrene or other PAHs in pure culture. PCR amplification of Gram-positive and Gram-negative dioxygenase genes did not produce results with any of the cultured strains. However, sequences related to the NidA3 pyrene dioxygenase present in mycobacterial strains were detected in UBF-Py consortium, suggesting the representative of Gordonia as the key pyrene degrader, which is consistent with a preeminent role of actinobacteria in pyrene removal in coastal environments affected by marine oil spills.

  19. Identification and Characterization of a Novel Gentisate 1,2-Dioxygenase Gene from a Halophilic Martelella Strain

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ling; Hu, Haiyang; Tang, Hongzhi; Liu, Yongdi; Xu, Ping; Shi, Jie; Lin, Kuangfei; Luo, Qishi; Cui, Changzheng

    2015-01-01

    Halophilic Martelella strain AD-3, isolated from highly saline petroleum-contaminated soil, can efficiently degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), such as phenanthrene and anthracene, in 3–5% salinity. Gentisic acid is a key intermediate in the microbial degradation of PAH compounds. However, there is little information on PAH degradation by moderately halophilic bacteria. In this study, a 1,077-bp long gene encoding gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase (GDO) from a halophilic Martelella strain AD-3 was cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant enzyme GDO was purified and characterized in detail. By using the 18O isotope experiment and LC-MS analysis, the sources of the two oxygen atoms added onto maleylpyruvate were identified as H2O and O2, respectively. The Km and kcat values for gentisic acid were determined to be 26.64 μM and 161.29 s−1, respectively. In addition, optimal GDO activity was observed at 30 °C, pH 7.0, and at 12% salinity. Site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated the importance of four highly conserved His residues at positions 155, 157, 167, and 169 for enzyme activity. This finding provides new insights into mechanism and variety of gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase for PAH degradation in high saline conditions. PMID:26394696

  20. Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) increases during renal fibrogenesis and its inhibition potentiates TGF-β 1-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Matheus, Luiz Henrique Gomes; Simão, Gislene Mendes; Amaral, Taíssa Altieri; Brito, Rodrigo Barbosa Oliveira; Malta, Camila Soares; Matos, Yves Silva Teles; Santana, Alexandre Chagas; Rodrigues, Gabriela Gomes Cardoso; Albejante, Maria Clara; Bach, Erna Elisabeth; Dalboni, Maria Aparecida; Camacho, Cleber Pinto; Dellê, Humberto

    2017-09-06

    Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) is an immunomodulatory molecule that has been implicated in several biological processes. Although IDO has been linked with some renal diseases, its role in renal fibrosis is still unclear. Because IDO may be modulated by TGF-β1, a potent fibrogenic molecule, we hypothesized that IDO could be involved in renal fibrosis, especially acting in the TGF-β1-induced tubular epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). We analyzed the IDO expression and activity in a model of renal fibrogenesis, and the effect of the IDO inhibitor 1-methyl-tryptophan (MT) on TGF-β1-induced EMT using tubular cell culture. Male Wistar rats where submited to 7 days of UUO. Non-obstructed kidneys (CL) and kidneys from SHAM rats were used as controls. Masson's Tricrome and macrophages counting were used to chatacterize the tissue fibrosis. The EMT was analysed though immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR. Immunohistochemestry in tissue has used to show IDO expression. MDCK cells were incubated with TGF- β1 to analyse IDO expression. Additionally, effects of TGF- β1 and the inhibition of IDO over the EMT process was acessed by immunoessays and scrath wound essay. IDO was markedly expressed in cortical and medular tubules of the UUO kidneys. Similarly to the immunolocalizaton of TGF- β1, accompanied by loss of e-cadherin expression and an increase of mesenchymal markers. Results in vitro with MDCK cells, showed that IDO was increased after stimulus with TGF-β1, and treatment with MT potentiated its expression. MDCK stimulated with TGF-β1 had higher migratory activity (scratch-wound assay), which was exacerbated by MT treatment. IDO is constitutively expressed in tubular cells and increases during renal fibrogenesis. Although IDO is induced by TGF-β1 in tubular cells, its chemical inhibitor acts as a profibrotic agent.

  1. Mechanism of chimeric vaccine stimulation of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase biosynthesis in human dendritic cells is independent of TGF-β signaling.

    PubMed

    Esebanmen, Grace E; Langridge, William H R

    2017-09-01

    Cholera toxin B subunit fusion to autoantigens such as proinsulin (CTB-INS) down regulate dendritic cell (DC) activation and stimulate synthesis of DC immunosuppressive cytokines. Recent studies of CTB-INS induction of immune tolerance in human DCs indicate that increased biosynthesis of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1) may play an important role in CTB-INS vaccine suppression of DC activation. Studies in murine models suggest a role for transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) in the stimulation of IDO1 biosynthesis, for the induction of tolerance in DCs. Here, we investigated the contribution of TGF-β superfamily proteins to CTB-INS induction of IDO1 biosynthesis in human monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs). We show that CTB-INS upregulates the level of TGF-β1, activin-A and the TGF-β activator, integrin αvβ8 in human DCs. However, inhibition of endogenous TGF-β, activin-A or addition of biologically active TGF-β1, and activin-A, did not inhibit or stimulate IDO1 biosynthesis in human DCs treated with CTB-INS. While inhibition with the kinase inhibitor, RepSox, blocked SMAD2/3 phosphorylation and diminished IDO1 biosynthesis in a concentration dependent manner. Specific blocking of the TGF-β type 1 kinase receptor with SB-431542 did not arrest IDO1 biosynthesis, suggesting the involvement of a different kinase pathway other than TGF-β type 1 receptor kinase in CTB-INS induction of IDO1 in human moDCs. Together, our experimental findings identify additional immunoregulatory proteins induced by the CTB-INS fusion protein, suggesting CTB-INS may utilize multiple mechanisms in the induction of tolerance in human moDCs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Lipopolysaccharide-induced brain activation of the indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and depressive-like behavior are impaired in a mouse model of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dinel, Anne-Laure; André, Caroline; Aubert, Agnès; Ferreira, Guillaume; Layé, Sophie; Castanon, Nathalie

    2014-02-01

    Although peripheral low-grade inflammation has been associated with a high incidence of mood symptoms in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS), much less is known about the potential involvement of brain activation of cytokines in that context. Recently we showed in a mouse model of MetS, namely the db/db mice, an enhanced hippocampal inflammation associated with increased anxiety-like behavior (Dinel et al., 2011). However, depressive-like behavior was not affected in db/db mice. Based on the strong association between depressive-like behavior and cytokine-induced brain activation of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), the enzyme that metabolizes tryptophan along the kynurenine pathway, these results may suggest an impairment of brain IDO activation in db/db mice. To test this hypothesis, we measured the ability of db/db mice and their healthy db/+ littermates to enhance brain IDO activity and depressive-like behavior after a systemic immune challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Here we show that LPS (5 μg/mouse) significantly increased depressive-like behavior (increased immobility time in a forced-swim test, FST) 24h after treatment in db/+ mice, but not in db/db mice. Interestingly, db/db mice also displayed after LPS treatment blunted increase of brain kynurenine/tryptophan ratio compared to their db/+ counterparts, despite enhanced induction of hippocampal cytokine expression (interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α). Moreover, this was associated with an impaired effect of LPS on hippocampal expression of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) that contributes to mood regulation, including under inflammatory conditions. Collectively, these data indicate that the rise in brain tryptophan catabolism and depressive-like behavior induced by innate immune system activation is impaired in db/db mice. These findings could have relevance in improving the management and treatment of inflammation-related complications in MetS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier

  3. Strong Correlation of Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase 1 Expression with Basal-Like Phenotype and Increased Lymphocytic Infiltration in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sewha; Park, Sanghui; Cho, Min Sun; Lim, Woosung; Moon, Byung-In; Sung, Sun Hee

    2017-01-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) is an immunosuppressive enzyme involved in tumor immune escape. Blockade of the IDO1 pathway is an emerging modality of cancer immunotherapy. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) lacks established therapeutic targets and may be a good candidate for this novel immunotherapeutic agent. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathologic characteristics of the IDO1-expressing TNBC subset. A tissue microarray was constructed from 200 patients with TNBC. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for IDO1 and TNBC molecular subtype-surrogate markers (AR, GCDFP-15, claudin-3, E-cadherin, CK5/6, and EGFR) was performed using this tissue microarray. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to confirm the IDO1 mRNA expression level in 16 fresh-frozen TNBC samples. Two hundred TNBCs were classified into four subtypes based on surrogate IHC results: 22 luminal androgen receptor type (11.0%), 23 claudin-low type (11.4%), 103 basal-like type (51.5%), and 52 mixed type (26.0%). IDO1 positivity (defined as expression of >10% tumor cells) was observed in 37% of all TNBCs. IDO1 IHC expression was well correlated with mRNA expression. IDO1 positivity was significantly associated with smaller tumor size, dense stromal lymphocytic infiltration, and basal-like phenotype; however, it did not affect the patients' prognosis. IDO1 expression in basal-like TNBCs is considered an immune inhibitory signal that counterbalances active immunity and may reflect the high mutational load of these tumors. Our results suggest which patients with TNBC would be more efficaciously treated with IDO1 blockade. PMID:28123606

  4. Effect of overexpression of citrus 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase 3 (CsNCED3) on the physiological response to drought stress in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Pedrosa, A M; Cidade, L C; Martins, C P S; Macedo, A F; Neves, D M; Gomes, F P; Floh, E I S; Costa, M G C

    2017-03-30

    9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) encodes a key enzyme in abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis. Little is known regarding the regulation of stress response by NCEDs at physiological levels. In the present study, we generated transgenic tobacco overexpressing an NCED3 ortholog from citrus (CsNCED3) and investigated its relevance in the regulation of drought stress tolerance. Wild-type (WT) and transgenic plants were grown under greenhouse conditions and subjected to drought stress for 10 days. Leaf predawn water potential (Ψwleaf), stomatal conductance (gs), net photosynthetic rate (A), transpiration rate (E), instantaneous (A/E) and intrinsic (A/gs) water use efficiency (WUE), and in situ hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and abscisic acid (ABA) production were determined in leaves of irrigated and drought-stressed plants. The Ψwleaf decreased throughout the drought stress period in both WT and transgenic plants, but was restored after re-watering. No significant differences were observed in gs between WT and transgenic plants under normal conditions. However, the transgenic plants showed a decreased (P ≤ 0.01) gs on the 4th day of drought stress, which remained lower (P ≤ 0.001) than the WT until the end of the drought stress. The A and E levels in the transgenic plants were similar to those in WT; therefore, they exhibited increased A/gs under drought conditions. No significant differences in A, E, and gs values were observed between the WT and transgenic plants after re-watering. The transgenic plants had lower H2O2 and higher ABA than the WT under drought conditions. Our results support the involvement of CsNCED3 in drought avoidance.

  5. Kynurenine production mediated by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase aggravates liver injury in HBV-specific CTL-induced fulminant hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Ohtaki, Hirofumi; Ito, Hiroyasu; Ando, Kazuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Hoshi, Masato; Ando, Tatsuya; Takamatsu, Manabu; Hara, Akira; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Saito, Kuniaki; Seishima, Mitsuru

    2014-09-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), an enzyme that is ubiquitously distributed in mammalian tissues and cells, converts tryptophan to kynurenine, and is also known as a key molecule that promotes apoptosis in lymphocytes and neurons. In this study, we established hepatitis B virus (HBV)-transgenic (Tg)/IDO-knockout (KO) mice and examined the influence of IDO in a murine fulminant hepatitis model induced by HBV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). An increase of IDO expression in the livers of HBV-Tg/IDO-wild-type (WT) mice administered HBV-specific CTL was confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, and evaluating IDO activity. Plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in HBV-Tg/IDO-KO mice after HBV-specific CTL injection significantly decreased compared with those in HBV-Tg/IDO-WT mice. An inhibitor of IDO, 1-methyl-d-tryptophan (1-MT), could also attenuated the observed liver injury induced by this HBV-specific CTL. The expression levels of cytokine and chemokine mRNAs in the livers of HBV-Tg/IDO-WT mice were higher than those in the livers of HBV-Tg/IDO-KO mice. The administration of kynurenine aggravated the liver injury in HBV-Tg/IDO-KO mice injected with HBV-specific CTL. Simultaneous injection of recombinant murine interferon (IFN-γ) and kynurenine also increased the ALT levels in HBV-Tg/IDO-KO mice. The liver injury induced by IFN-γ and kynurenine was improved in HBV-Tg/tumor necrosis factor-α-KO mice. Kynurenine and IFN-γ induced by the administration with HBV-specific CTL are cooperatively involved in the progression of liver injury in acute hepatitis model. Our results may lead to a new therapy for the acute liver injury caused by HBV infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Strong Correlation of Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase 1 Expression with Basal-Like Phenotype and Increased Lymphocytic Infiltration in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sewha; Park, Sanghui; Cho, Min Sun; Lim, Woosung; Moon, Byung-In; Sung, Sun Hee

    2017-01-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) is an immunosuppressive enzyme involved in tumor immune escape. Blockade of the IDO1 pathway is an emerging modality of cancer immunotherapy. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) lacks established therapeutic targets and may be a good candidate for this novel immunotherapeutic agent. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathologic characteristics of the IDO1-expressing TNBC subset. A tissue microarray was constructed from 200 patients with TNBC. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for IDO1 and TNBC molecular subtype-surrogate markers (AR, GCDFP-15, claudin-3, E-cadherin, CK5/6, and EGFR) was performed using this tissue microarray. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to confirm the IDO1 mRNA expression level in 16 fresh-frozen TNBC samples. Two hundred TNBCs were classified into four subtypes based on surrogate IHC results: 22 luminal androgen receptor type (11.0%), 23 claudin-low type (11.4%), 103 basal-like type (51.5%), and 52 mixed type (26.0%). IDO1 positivity (defined as expression of >10% tumor cells) was observed in 37% of all TNBCs. IDO1 IHC expression was well correlated with mRNA expression. IDO1 positivity was significantly associated with smaller tumor size, dense stromal lymphocytic infiltration, and basal-like phenotype; however, it did not affect the patients' prognosis. IDO1 expression in basal-like TNBCs is considered an immune inhibitory signal that counterbalances active immunity and may reflect the high mutational load of these tumors. Our results suggest which patients with TNBC would be more efficaciously treated with IDO1 blockade.

  7. Benzene-Induced Uncoupling of Naphthalene Dioxygenase Activity and Enzyme Inactivation by Production of Hydrogen Peroxide

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyoung

    1999-01-01

    Naphthalene dioxygenase (NDO) is a multicomponent enzyme system that oxidizes naphthalene to (+)-cis-(1R,2S)-1,2-dihydroxy-1,2-dihydronaphthalene with consumption of O2 and two electrons from NAD(P)H. In the presence of benzene, NADH oxidation and O2 utilization were partially uncoupled from substrate oxidation. Approximately 40 to 50% of the consumed O2 was detected as hydrogen peroxide. The rate of benzene-dependent O2 consumption decreased with time, but it was partially increased by the addition of catalase in the course of the O2 consumption by NDO. Detailed experiments showed that the total amount of O2 consumed and the rate of benzene-induced O2 consumption increased in the presence of hydrogen peroxide-scavenging agents, and further addition of the terminal oxygenase component (ISPNAP) of NDO. Kinetic studies showed that ISPNAP was irreversibly inactivated in the reaction that contained benzene, but the inactivation was relieved to a high degree in the presence of catalase and partially relieved in the presence of 0.1 mM ferrous ion. Benzene- and naphthalene-reacted ISPNAP gave almost identical visible absorption spectra. In addition, hydrogen peroxide added at a range of 0.1 to 0.6 mM to the reaction mixtures inactivated the reduced ISPNAP containing mononuclear iron. These results show that hydrogen peroxide released during the uncoupling reaction acts both as an inhibitor of benzene-dependent O2 consumption and as an inactivator of ISPNAP. It is proposed that the irreversible inactivation of ISPNAP occurs by a Fenton-type reaction which forms a strong oxidizing agent, hydroxyl radicals (·OH), from the reaction of hydrogen peroxide with ferrous mononuclear iron at the active site. Furthermore, when [14C]benzene was used as the substrate, cis-benzene 1,2-dihydrodiol formed by NDO was detected. This result shows that NDO also couples a trace amount of benzene to both O2 consumption and NADH oxidation. PMID:10217759

  8. Oxy-Intermediates of Homoprotocatechuate 2,3-Dioxygenase: Facile Electron Transfer Between Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Mbughuni, Michael M.; Chakrabarti, Mrinmoy; Hayden, Joshua A.; Meier, Katlyn K.; Dalluge, Joseph J.; Hendrich, Michael P.; Münck, Eckard; Lipscomb, John D.

    2011-01-01

    Substrates homoprotocatechuate (HPCA) and O2 bind to the FeII of Homoprotocatechuate 2,3-dioxygenase (FeHPCD) in adjacent coordination sites. Transfer of an electron(s) from HPCA to O2 via the iron is proposed to activate the substrates for reaction with each other to initiate aromatic ring cleavage. Here, rapid-freeze-quench methods are used to trap and spectroscopically characterize intermediates in the reactions of the HPCA complexes of FeHPCD and the variant His200Asn (FeHPCD-HPCA and H200N-HPCA) with O2. A blue intermediate forms within 20 ms after mixing O2 with H200N-HPCA (H200NInt1HPCA). Parallel mode EPR and Mössbauer spectroscopies show that this intermediate contains high-spin FeIII (S=5/2) antiferromagnetically coupled to a radical (SR=1/2) to yield an S=2 state. Together, optical and Mössbauer spectra of the intermediate support assignment of the radical as an HPCA semiquinone, implying that oxygen is bound as a (hydro)peroxo ligand. H200NInt1HPCA decays over the next 2 s, possibly through an FeII intermediate (H200NInt2HPCA), to yield product and the resting FeII enzyme. Reaction of FeHPCD-HPCA with O2 results in rapid formation of a colorless FeII intermediate (FeHPCDInt1HPCA). This species decays within 1 s to yield the product and the resting enzyme. The absence of a chromophore from a semiquinone or evidence for a spin-coupled species in FeHPCDInt1HPCA suggests it is an intermediate occurring after O2 activation and attack. The similar Mössbauer parameters for FeHPCDInt1HPCA and H200NInt2HPCA suggest these are similar intermediates. The results show that electron transfer from the substrate to the O2 via the iron does occur leading to aromatic ring cleavage. PMID:22011290

  9. Characterizations of Metal Binding in the Active Sites of Acireductone Dioxygenase Isoforms from Klebsiella ATCC 8724

    SciTech Connect

    Chai,S.; Ju, T.; Dang, M.; Goldsmith, R.; Maroney, M.; Pochapsky, T.

    2008-01-01

    The two acireductone dioxygenase (ARD) isozymes from the methionine salvage pathway of Klebsiella ATCC 8724 present an unusual case in which two enzymes with different structures and distinct activities toward their common substrates (1, 2-dihydroxy-3-oxo-5-(methylthio)pent-1-ene and dioxygen) are derived from the same polypeptide chain. Structural and functional differences between the two isozymes are determined by the type of M2+ metal ion bound in the active site. The Ni2+-bound NiARD catalyzes an off-pathway shunt from the methionine salvage pathway leading to the production of formate, methylthiopropionate, and carbon monoxide, while the Fe2+-bound FeARD' catalyzes the on-pathway formation of methionine precursor 2-keto-4-methylthiobutyrate and formate. Four potential protein-based metal ligands were identified by sequence homology and structural considerations. Based on the results of site-directed mutagenesis experiments, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and isothermal calorimetry measurements, it is concluded that the same four residues, His96, His98, Glu102 and His140, provide the protein-based ligands for the metal in both the Ni- and Fe-containing forms of the enzyme, and subtle differences in the local backbone conformations trigger the observed structural and functional differences between the FeARD' and NiARD isozymes. Furthermore, both forms of the enzyme bind their respective metals with pseudo-octahedral geometry, and both may lose a histidine ligand upon binding of substrate under anaerobic conditions. However, mutations at two conserved nonligand acidic residues, Glu95 and Glu100, result in low metal contents for the mutant proteins as isolated, suggesting that some of the conserved charged residues may aid in transfer of metal from in vivo sources or prevent the loss of metal to stronger chelators. The Glu100 mutant reconstitutes readily but has low activity. Mutation of Asp101 results in an active enzyme that incorporates metal in vivo but

  10. Characterization of Metal Binding in the Active Sites of acireductone dioxygenase Isoforms from Klebsiella ATCC 8724

    SciTech Connect

    S Chai; T Ju; M Dang; R Goldsmith; M Maroney; T Pochapsky

    2011-12-31

    The two acireductone dioxygenase (ARD) isozymes from the methionine salvage pathway of Klebsiella ATCC 8724 present an unusual case in which two enzymes with different structures and distinct activities toward their common substrates (1,2-dihydroxy-3-oxo-5-(methylthio)pent-1-ene and dioxygen) are derived from the same polypeptide chain. Structural and functional differences between the two isozymes are determined by the type of M{sup 2+} metal ion bound in the active site. The Ni{sup 2+}-bound NiARD catalyzes an off-pathway shunt from the methionine salvage pathway leading to the production of formate, methylthiopropionate, and carbon monoxide, while the Fe{sup 2+}-bound FeARD catalyzes the on-pathway formation of methionine precursor 2-keto-4-methylthiobutyrate and formate. Four potential protein-based metal ligands were identified by sequence homology and structural considerations. Based on the results of site-directed mutagenesis experiments, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and isothermal calorimetry measurements, it is concluded that the same four residues, His96, His98, Glu102 and His140, provide the protein-based ligands for the metal in both the Ni- and Fe-containing forms of the enzyme, and subtle differences in the local backbone conformations trigger the observed structural and functional differences between the FeARD and NiARD isozymes. Furthermore, both forms of the enzyme bind their respective metals with pseudo-octahedral geometry, and both may lose a histidine ligand upon binding of substrate under anaerobic conditions. However, mutations at two conserved nonligand acidic residues, Glu95 and Glu100, result in low metal contents for the mutant proteins as isolated, suggesting that some of the conserved charged residues may aid in transfer of metal from in vivo sources or prevent the loss of metal to stronger chelators. The Glu100 mutant reconstitutes readily but has low activity. Mutation of Asp101 results in an active enzyme that incorporates

  11. NO Binding to Mn-Substituted Homoprotocatechuate 2,3-Dioxygenase: Relationship to O2 Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Hayden, Joshua A.; Farquhar, Erik R.; Que, Lawrence; Lipscomb, John D.; Hendrich, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Homoprotocatechuate 2,3-dioxygenase (FeHPCD) activates O2 to catalyze the aromatic ring opening of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (HPCA). The enzyme requires FeII for catalysis, but MnII can be substituted (MnHPCD) with essentially no change in the steady-state kinetic parameters. Near simultaneous O2 and HPCA activation has been proposed to occur through transfer of an electron(s) from HPCA to O2 through the divalent metal. In O2 reactions with MnHPCD-HPCA and the 4-nitrocatechol (4NC) complex of the His200Asn (H200N) variant of FeHPCD, this transfer has resulted in the detection of a transient MIII-O2•− species not observed during turnover of the wild type FeHPCD. The factors governing formation of the MIII-O2•− species are explored here with EPR spectroscopy using MnHPCD and nitric oxide (NO) as an O2 surrogate. Both the HPCA and dihydroxymandelic substrate complexes of MnHPCD bind NO, thus representing the first reported stable MnNO complexes of a nonheme enzyme. In contrast, the free enzyme, the MnHPCD-4NC complex, and the MnH200N and MnH200Q variants with or without HPCA bound do not bind NO. The MnHPCD-ligand complexes that bind NO are also active in normal O2-linked turnover, whereas the others are inactive. Past studies have shown that FeHPCD and the analogous variants and catecholic ligand complexes all bind NO, and are active in normal turnover. This contrasting behavior may stem from ability of the enzyme to maintain the ~0.8 V difference in the solution redox potentials of FeII and MnII. Due to the higher potential of Mn, the formation of the NO or O2 adduct requires both strong charge donation from the bound catecholic ligand and additional stabilization by interaction with the active site His200. The same non-optimal electronic and structural forces that prevent NO and O2 binding in MnHPCD variants may lead to inefficient electron transfer from the catecholic substrate to the metal center in variants of FeHPCD during O2-linked turnover

  12. Cytoplasmic Localization of Sulfide:Quinone Oxidoreductase and Persulfide Dioxygenase of Cupriavidus pinatubonensis JMP134.

    PubMed

    Gao, Rui; Liu, Honglei; Xun, Luying

    2017-09-22

    Heterotrophic bacteria have recently been reported to oxidize sulfide by using sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (SQR) and persulfide dioxygenase (PDO) to sulfite and thiosulfate. In chemolithotrophic bacteria, both SQR and PDO have been reported to function in the periplasmic space with SQR as a peripheral membrane protein whose C-terminus inserts into the cytoplasmic membrane and PDO as a soluble protein. Cupriavidus pinatubonensis JMP134, best known for its ability to degrade 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and other aromatic pollutants, has a gene cluster of sqr and pdo encoding CpSQR and CpPDO2. When cloned in Escherichia coli, the enzymes are functional. Here we investigated whether they are functioning in the periplasmic space or in the cytoplasm in heterotrophic bacteria. By performing sequence analysis, biochemical detection and GFP/PhoA fusion proteins, we found that CpSQR was located on the cytoplasmic side of the membrane and CpPDO2 was a soluble protein in the cytoplasm with a tendency of being peripherally located near the membrane. The location proximity of these proteins near the membrane in the cytoplasm may facilitate sulfide oxidation in heterotrophic bacteria. The information may guide the use of heterotrophic bacteria in bioremediation of organic pollutants as well as H2S.IMPORTANCE Sulfide (H2S, HS(-), and S(2-)), common in natural gas and wastewater, is a serious malodor at low levels and deadly at high levels. Microbial oxidation of sulfide is a valid bioremediation method, in which chemolithotrophic bacteria that use sulfide as the energy source are often used to remove sulfide. Heterotrophic bacteria with SQR and PDO have recently been reported to oxidize sulfide to sulfite and thiosulfate. Cupriavidus pinatubonensis JMP134 has been extensively characterized for its ability to degrade organic pollutants, and it also contains SQR and PDO. This paper shows the localization of SQR and PDO inside the cytoplasm in the vicinity of the membrane. The

  13. Differential Regulation of RNA Levels of Gibberellin Dioxygenases by Photoperiod in Spinach1

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong Ju; Zeevaart, Jan A.D.

    2002-01-01

    Previous work with spinach (Spinacia oleracea) has shown that the level of gibberellin (GA) 20-oxidase is strongly up-regulated by long days (LD). In the present work, the effect of photoperiod on expression of other GA dioxygenases was investigated and compared with that of GA 20-oxidase. Two GA 2-oxidases and one GA 3-oxidase were isolated from spinach by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction with degenerate primers and by 5′- and 3′-rapid amplification of cDNA ends. As determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with on-line radioactivity detection, the SoGA3ox1 gene product catalyzed 3β-hydroxylation of GA9 to GA4 and GA20 to GA1. The SoGA2ox1 and the SoGA2ox2 gene products catalyzed 2β-hydroxylation of GA9 to GA51 and GA20 to GA29. The product of GA20 metabolism by SoGA3ox1 was identified as GA1 by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, whereas the products of GA1 and GA20 metabolism by SoGA2ox1 and SoGA2ox2 were identified as GA8 and GA29, respectively. SoGA2ox1 also metabolized GA53 to GA97. The levels of SoGA20ox1 transcripts were greatly increased in all organs tested in LD conditions, but the levels of SoGA3ox1 transcripts were only slightly increased in blades and petioles. A decrease in the levels of the SoGA2ox1 transcripts in young leaves and tips in LD conditions is opposite to the expression pattern of the SoGA20ox1. Expression of SoGA20ox1 in petioles and young leaves was strongly up-regulated by a supplementary 16 h of light, but the levels of SoGA3ox1 and SoGA2ox1 transcripts did not change. It is concluded that regulation and maintenance of GA1 concentration in spinach are primarily attributable to changes in expression of SoGA20ox1. PMID:12481092

  14. Novel aromatic ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase genes from coastal marine sediments of Patagonia

    PubMed Central

    Lozada, Mariana; Riva Mercadal, Juan P; Guerrero, Leandro D; Di Marzio, Walter D; Ferrero, Marcela A; Dionisi, Hebe M

    2008-01-01

    Background Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), widespread pollutants in the marine environment, can produce adverse effects in marine organisms and can be transferred to humans through seafood. Our knowledge of PAH-degrading bacterial populations in the marine environment is still very limited, and mainly originates from studies of cultured bacteria. In this work, genes coding catabolic enzymes from PAH-biodegradation pathways were characterized in coastal sediments of Patagonia with different levels of PAH contamination. Results Genes encoding for the catalytic alpha subunit of aromatic ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases (ARHDs) were amplified from intertidal sediment samples using two different primer sets. Products were cloned and screened by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Clones representing each restriction pattern were selected in each library for sequencing. A total of 500 clones were screened in 9 gene libraries, and 193 clones were sequenced. Libraries contained one to five different ARHD gene types, and this number was correlated with the number of PAHs found in the samples above the quantification limit (r = 0.834, p < 0.05). Overall, eight different ARHD gene types were detected in the sediments. In five of them, their deduced amino acid sequences formed deeply rooted branches with previously described ARHD peptide sequences, exhibiting less than 70% identity to them. They contain consensus sequences of the Rieske type [2Fe-2S] cluster binding site, suggesting that these gene fragments encode for ARHDs. On the other hand, three gene types were closely related to previously described ARHDs: archetypical nahAc-like genes, phnAc-like genes as identified in Alcaligenes faecalis AFK2, and phnA1-like genes from marine PAH-degraders from the genus Cycloclasticus. Conclusion These results show the presence of hitherto unidentified ARHD genes in this sub-Antarctic marine environment exposed to anthropogenic contamination. This information

  15. BW A4C and other hydroxamic acids are potent inhibitors of linoleic acid 8R-dioxygenase of the fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis.

    PubMed

    Brodowsky, I D; Hamberg, M; Oliw, E H

    1994-03-11

    Linoleic acid is converted to 8R-hydroperoxylinoleic acid by the soluble 8R-dioxygenase of the fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis. Effects of different lipoxygenase inhibitors on the 8R-dioxygenase were evaluated. Three hydroxamic acid derivatives were investigated. BW A4C (N-(3-phenoxycinnamyl)acetohydroxamic acid) was the most potent with an IC50 of 0.2 microM, followed by zileuton (3-10 microM) and linoleate-hydroxamic acid (0.02 mM). Two other lipoxygenase inhibitors, nordihydroguaiaretic acid and eicosatetraynoic acid, were less potent (IC50 0.09 and 0.15 mM, respectively). The 8R-dioxygenase was also strongly inhibited by commonly used buffer additives, dithiothreitol, beta-mercaptoethanol and phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride. G. graminis also contains a hydroperoxide isomerase, which converts 8R-hydroperoxylinoleic acid to 7S,8S-dihydroxylinoleic acid. Ammonium sulphate precipitation and gel filtration indicated that the dioxygenase and the hydroperoxide isomerase activities could be separated.

  16. NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCING AND TRANSCRIPTIONAL MAPPING OF THE GENES ENCODING BIPHENYL DIOXYGENASE, A MULTICOM- PONENT POLYCHLORINATED-BIPHENYL-DEGRADING ENZYME IN PSEUDOMONAS STRAIN LB400

    EPA Science Inventory

    The DNA region encoding biphenyl dioxygenase, the first enzyme in the biphenyl-polychlorinated biphenyl degradation pathway of Pseudomonas species strain LB400, was sequenced. Six open reading frames were identified, four of which are homologous to the components of toluene dioxy...

  17. NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCING AND TRANSCRIPTIONAL MAPPING OF THE GENES ENCODING BIPHENYL DIOXYGENASE, A MULTICOM- PONENT POLYCHLORINATED-BIPHENYL-DEGRADING ENZYME IN PSEUDOMONAS STRAIN LB400

    EPA Science Inventory

    The DNA region encoding biphenyl dioxygenase, the first enzyme in the biphenyl-polychlorinated biphenyl degradation pathway of Pseudomonas species strain LB400, was sequenced. Six open reading frames were identified, four of which are homologous to the components of toluene dioxy...

  18. Purification and characterization of catechol 1,2-dioxygenase from Rhodococcus rhodochrous NCIMB 13259 and cloning and sequencing of its catA gene.

    PubMed Central

    Strachan, P D; Freer, A A; Fewson, C A

    1998-01-01

    A method was developed for the purification of catechol 1, 2-dioxygenase from Rhodococcus rhodochrous NCIMB 13259 that had been grown in the presence of benzyl alcohol. The enzyme has very similar apparent Km (1-2 microM) and Vmax (13-19 units/mg of protein) values for the intradiol cleavage of catechol, 3-methylcatechol and 4-methylcatechol and it is optimally active at pH9. Cross-linking studies indicate that the enzyme is a homodimer. It contains 0.6 atoms of Fe per subunit. The enzyme was crystallized with 15% (w/v) poly(ethylene glycol) 4000/0.33 M CaCl2/25 mM Tris (pH7.5) by using a microseeding technique. Preliminary X-ray characterization showed that the crystals are in space group C2 with unit-cell dimensions a=111.9 A, b=78.1 A, c=134.6 A, beta=100 degrees. An oligonucleotide probe, made by hemi-nested PCR, was used to clone the gene encoding catechol 1,2-dioxygenase (catA). The deduced 282-residue sequence corresponds to a protein of molecular mass 31539 Da, close to the molecular mass of 31558 Da obtained by electrospray MS of the purified enzyme. catA was subcloned into the expression vector pTB361, allowing the production of catechol 1,2-dioxygenase to approx. 40% of the total cellular protein. The deduced amino acid sequence of the enzyme has 56% and 75% identity with the catechol 1, 2-dioxygenases of Arthrobacter mA3 and Rhodococcus erythropolis AN-13 respectively, but less than 35% identity with intradiol catechol and chlorocatechol dioxygenases of Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:9677336

  19. Pseudomonas aeruginosa 142 uses a three-component ortho-halobenzoate 1,2-dioxygenase for metabolism of 2,4-dichloro- and 2-chlorobenzoate.

    PubMed Central

    Romanov, V; Hausinger, R P

    1994-01-01

    Cell extracts of Pseudomonas aeruginosa 142, which was previously isolated from a polychlorinated biphenyl-degrading consortium, were shown to degrade 2,4-dichlorobenzoate, 2-chlorobenzoate, and a variety of other substituted ortho-halobenzoates by a reaction that requires oxygen, NADH, Fe(II), and flavin adenine dinucleotide. By using extracts that were chromatographically depleted of chlorocatechol and catechol 1,2-dioxygenase activities, products of the initial reaction with 2,4- or 2,5-dichlorobenzoate and 2-chlorobenzoate were identified by mass spectrometry as 4-chlorocatechol and catechol. In contrast to the well-characterized benzoate dioxygenases or the recently described 2-halobenzoate 1,2-dioxygenase from P. cepacia 2CBS (S. Fetzner, R. Müller, and F. Lingens, J. Bacteriol. 174:279-290, 1992) that possess two protein components, the P. aeruginosa enzyme was resolved by ion-exchange chromatography into three components, each of which is required for activity. To verify the distinct nature of this enzyme, we purified, characterized, and identified one component as a ferredoxin (M(r), approximately 13,000) containing a single [2Fe-2S] Rieske-type cluster (electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopic values of gx = 1.82, gy = 1.905, and gz = 2.02 in the reduced state) that is related in sequence to ferredoxins found in the naphthalene and biphenyl three-component dioxygenase systems. By analogy to these enzymes, we propose that the P. aeruginosa ferredoxin serves as an electron carrier between an NADH-dependent ferredoxin reductase and the terminal component of the ortho-halobenzoate 1,2-dioxygenase. The broad specificity and high regiospecificity of the enzyme make it a promising candidate for use in the degradation of mixtures of chlorobenzoates. PMID:8195093

  20. Rates of the phthalate dioxygenase reaction with oxygen are dramatically increased by interactions with phthalate and phthalate oxygenase reductase.

    PubMed

    Tarasev, Michael; Rhames, Frank; Ballou, David P

    2004-10-12

    The phthalate dioxygenase system, which catalyzes the dihydroxylation of phthalate to form its cis-dihydrodiol (DHD), has two components: phthalate dioxygenase (PDO), a multimer with one Rieske-type [2Fe-2S] and one Fe(II) center per monomer, and phthalate dioxygenase reductase (PDR), which contains flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and a plant-like ferredoxin [2Fe-2S] center. PDR is responsible for transferring electrons from NADH to the Rieske center of PDO, and the Rieske center supplies electrons to the mononuclear center for the oxygenation of substrate. Reduced PDO (PDO(red)) that lacks Fe(II) at the mononuclear metal site (PDO-APO) reacts slowly with O(2) (1.4 x 10(-3) s(-1) at 125 microM O(2) and 22 degrees C), presumably in a direct reaction with the Rieske center. Binding of phthalate and/or PDR(ox) to reduced PDO-APO increases the reactivity of the Rieske center with O(2). When no PDR or phthalate is present, the oxidation of the Rieske center in native PDO(red) [which contains Fe(II) at the mononuclear site] occurs in two phases (approximately 1 and 0.1 s(-1) at 125 mM O(2), 23 degrees C), both much faster than in the absence of Fe(II), presumably because in this case O(2) reacts at the mononuclear Fe(II). Addition of PDR(ox) to native PDO(red) resulted in a large fraction of the Rieske center being oxidized at 5 s(-1), and the addition of phthalate resulted in about 70% of the reaction proceeding at 42 s(-1). With both PDR(ox) and phthalate present, most of the PDO(red) (approximately 80-85%) oxidizes at 42 s(-1), with the remaining oxidizing at approximately 5 s(-1). Thus, the binding of phthalate or PDR(ox) to PDO(red) each results in greater reactivity of PDO with O(2). The presence of both the substrate and PDR was synergistic, making PDO fully catalytically active. A model that explains the observed effects is presented and discussed in terms of PDO subunit cooperativity. It is proposed that, during oxidation of reduced PDO, each of two Rieske centers

  1. Role of dioxygenase α-DOX2 and SA in basal response and in hexanoic acid-induced resistance of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants against Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Angulo, Carlos; de la O Leyva, María; Finiti, Ivan; López-Cruz, Jaime; Fernández-Crespo, Emma; García-Agustín, Pilar; González-Bosch, Carmen

    2015-03-01

    Resistance of tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum) to the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea requires complex interplay between hormonal signalling. In this study, we explored the involvement of new oxylipins in the tomato basal and induced response to this necrotroph through the functional analysis of the tomato α-dioxygenase2 (α-DOX2)-deficient mutant divaricata. We also investigated the role of SA in the defence response against this necrotrophic fungus using SA-deficient tomato nahG plants. The plants lacking dioxigenase α-DOX2, which catalyses oxylipins production from fatty acids, were more susceptible to Botrytis, and hexanoic acid-induced resistance (Hx-IR) was impaired; hence α-DOX2 is required for both tomato defence and the enhanced protection conferred by natural inducer hexanoic acid (Hx) against B. cinerea. The divaricata plants accumulated less pathogen-induced callose and presented lower levels of jasmonic acid (JA) and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) upon infection if compared to the wild type. Glutathion-S-transferase (GST) gene expression decreased and ROS production significantly increased in Botrytis-infected divaricata plants. These results indicate that absence of α-DOX2 influences the hormonal changes, oxidative burst and callose deposition that occur upon Botrytis infection in tomato. The study of SA-deficient nahG tomato plants showed that the plants with low SA levels displayed increased resistance to Botrytis, but were unable to display Hx-IR. This supports the involvement of SA in Hx-IR. NaghG plants displayed reduced callose and ROS accumulation upon infection and an increased GST expression. This reflects a positive relationship between SA and these defensive mechanisms in tomato. Finally, Hx boosted the pathogen-induced callose in nahG plants, suggesting that this priming mechanism is SA-independent. Our results support the involvement of the oxylipins pathway and SA in tomato response to Botrytis, probably through complex crosstalk of

  2. [Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase Activity during Fulvestrant Therapy for Aromatase Inhibitor-Resistant Metastatic Breast Cancer].

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Kenichi; Fujisaki, Shigeru; Suzuki, Shuhei; Adachi, Keita; Nagashima, Saki; Masuo, Yuki; Tomita, Ryouichi; Gonda, Kenji; Enomoto, Katsuhisa; Amano, Sadao; Matsuo, Sadanori; Umeda, Nao

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated the clinical significance of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) during fulvestrant therapy for aromatase inhibitor (AI)-resistant metastatic breast cancer. IDO activity can be measured by the tryptophan (Trp)/kynurenine (Kyn) ratio. Trp and Kyn were measured with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Patients with AI resistant metastatic breast cancer had a 28.6% response rate to fulvestrant therapy, and the clinical benefit rate was 76.2%. AI-resistant metastatic breast cancer patients with distant metastases had a lower serum Trp/Kyn level than patients who had local recurrences. During fulvestrant therapy, IDO activity significantly decreased in the fulvestrant responder group compared to that in the fulvestrant non-responder group. During fulvestrant therapy, the IDO activity correlated with the number of metastatic lesions. These results suggest that measuring the Trp/Kyn ratio is useful for evaluating immunological metastatic status during endocrine therapy.

  3. The Deficiency of Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase Aggravates the CCl4-Induced Liver Fibrosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ogiso, Hideyuki; Ito, Hiroyasu; Ando, Tatsuya; Arioka, Yuko; Kanbe, Ayumu; Ando, Kazuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Saito, Kuniaki; Hara, Akira; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Shimizu, Masahito; Seishima, Mitsuru

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the role of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in the development of CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis. The liver fibrosis induced by repetitive administration with CCl4 was aggravated in IDO-KO mice compared to WT mice. In IDO-KO mice treated with CCl4, the number of several inflammatory cells and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines increased in the liver. In the results, activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and fibrogenic factors on HSCs increased after repetitive CCl4 administration in IDO-KO mice compared to WT mice. Moreover, the treatment with l-tryptophan aggravated the CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in WT mice. Our findings demonstrated that the IDO deficiency enhanced the inflammation in the liver and aggravated liver fibrosis in repetitive CCl4-treated mice. PMID:27598994

  4. Identification of amino acid residues essential for catalytic activity of gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase from Pseudomonas alcaligenes NCIB 9867.

    PubMed

    Chua, C H; Feng, Y; Yeo, C C; Khoo, H E; Poh, C L

    2001-10-16

    Gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase (GDO, EC 1.13.11.4) is a ring cleavage enzyme that utilizes gentisate as a substrate yielding maleylpyruvate as the ring fission product. Mutant GDOs were generated by both random mutagenesis and site-directed mutagenesis of the gene cloned from Pseudomonas alcaligenes NCIB 9867. Alignment of known GDO sequences indicated the presence of a conserved central core region. Mutations generated within this central core resulted in the complete loss of enzyme activity whereas mutations in the flanking regions yielded GDOs with enzyme activities that were reduced by up to 78%. Site-directed mutagenesis was also performed on a pair of highly conserved HRH and HXH motifs found within this core region. Conversion of these His residues to Asp resulted in the complete loss of catalytic activity. Mutagenesis within the core region could have affected quaternary structure formation as well as cofactor binding. A mutant enzyme with increased catalytic activities was also characterized.

  5. A refined model for the structure of acireductone dioxygenase from Klebsiella ATCC 8724 incorporating residual dipolar couplings

    PubMed Central

    Pochapsky, Thomas C.; Pochapsky, Susan S.; Ju, Tingting; Hoefler, Chris; Liang, Jue

    2006-01-01

    Summary Acireductone dioxygenase (ARD) from Klebsiella ATCC 8724 is a metalloenzyme that is capable of catalyzing different reactions with the same substrates (acireductone and O2) depending upon the metal bound in the active site. A model for the solution structure of the paramagnetic Ni2+-containing ARD has been refined using residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) measured in two media. Additional dihedral restraints based on chemical shift (TALOS) were included in the refinement, and backbone structure in the vicinity of the active site was modeled from a crystallographic structure of the mouse homolog of ARD. The incorporation of residual dipolar couplings into the structural refinement alters the relative orientations of several structural features significantly, and improves local secondary structure determination. Comparisons between the solution structures obtained with and without RDCs are made, and structural similarities and differences between mouse and bacterial enzymes are described. Finally, the biological significance of these differences is considered. PMID:16518698

  6. Papaverine 7-O-demethylase, a novel 2-oxoglutarate/Fe(2+)-dependent dioxygenase from opium poppy.

    PubMed

    Farrow, Scott C; Facchini, Peter J

    2015-09-14

    Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) produces several pharmacologically important benzylisoquinoline alkaloids including the vasodilator papaverine. Pacodine and palaudine are tri-O-methylated analogs of papaverine, which contains four O-linked methyl groups. However, the biosynthetic origin of pacodine and palaudine has not been established. Three members of the 2-oxoglutarate/Fe(2+)-dependent dioxygenases (2ODDs) family in opium poppy display widespread O-dealkylation activity on several benzylisoquinoline alkaloids with diverse structural scaffolds, and two are responsible for the antepenultimate and ultimate steps in morphine biosynthesis. We report a novel 2ODD from opium poppy catalyzing the efficient substrate- and regio-specific 7-O-demethylation of papaverine yielding pacodine. The occurrence of papaverine 7-O-demethylase (P7ODM) expands the enzymatic scope of the 2ODD family in opium poppy and suggests an unexpected biosynthetic route to pacodine.

  7. The AlkB Family of Fe(II)/α-Ketoglutarate-dependent Dioxygenases: Repairing Nucleic Acid Alkylation Damage and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Fedeles, Bogdan I; Singh, Vipender; Delaney, James C; Li, Deyu; Essigmann, John M

    2015-08-21

    The AlkB family of Fe(II)- and α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases is a class of ubiquitous direct reversal DNA repair enzymes that remove alkyl adducts from nucleobases by oxidative dealkylation. The prototypical and homonymous family member is an Escherichia coli "adaptive response" protein that protects the bacterial genome against alkylation damage. AlkB has a wide variety of substrates, including monoalkyl and exocyclic bridged adducts. Nine mammalian AlkB homologs exist (ALKBH1-8, FTO), but only a subset functions as DNA/RNA repair enzymes. This minireview presents an overview of the AlkB proteins including recent data on homologs, structural features, substrate specificities, and experimental strategies for studying DNA repair by AlkB family proteins.

  8. How do the thiolate ligand and its relative position control the oxygen activation in the cysteine dioxygenase model?

    PubMed

    Che, Xin; Gao, Jun; Zhang, Dongju; Liu, Chengbu

    2012-06-07

    In the iron(II)-thiolate models of cysteine dioxygenase, the thiolate ligand is a key factor in the oxygen activation. In this contribution, four model compounds have been theoretically investigated. This comparative study reveals that the thiolate ligand itself and its relative position are both important for the activation of O(2). Before the O(2) binding, the thiolate ligand must transfer charge to Fe(II), and the effective nuclear charges of Fe(II) is decreased, which results in a lower redox potential of compounds. In other words, the thiolate ligand provides a prerequisite for the O(2) activation. Furthermore, the relative position of the thiolate ligand is discovered to determine the reaction path of O(2) activation. The amount of charge transfer is crucial for these reactions; the more charge it transfers, the lower the related redox potentials. This work really helps think deeper into the O(2) activation process of mononuclear nonheme iron enzymes.

  9. The AlkB Family of Fe(II)/α-Ketoglutarate-dependent Dioxygenases: Repairing Nucleic Acid Alkylation Damage and Beyond*

    PubMed Central

    Fedeles, Bogdan I.; Singh, Vipender; Delaney, James C.; Li, Deyu; Essigmann, John M.

    2015-01-01

    The AlkB family of Fe(II)- and α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases is a class of ubiquitous direct reversal DNA repair enzymes that remove alkyl adducts from nucleobases by oxidative dealkylation. The prototypical and homonymous family member is an Escherichia coli “adaptive response” protein that protects the bacterial genome against alkylation damage. AlkB has a wide variety of substrates, including monoalkyl and exocyclic bridged adducts. Nine mammalian AlkB homologs exist (ALKBH1–8, FTO), but only a subset functions as DNA/RNA repair enzymes. This minireview presents an overview of the AlkB proteins including recent data on homologs, structural features, substrate specificities, and experimental strategies for studying DNA repair by AlkB family proteins. PMID:26152727

  10. The Deficiency of Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase Aggravates the CCl4-Induced Liver Fibrosis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Ogiso, Hideyuki; Ito, Hiroyasu; Ando, Tatsuya; Arioka, Yuko; Kanbe, Ayumu; Ando, Kazuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Saito, Kuniaki; Hara, Akira; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Shimizu, Masahito; Seishima, Mitsuru

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the role of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in the development of CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis. The liver fibrosis induced by repetitive administration with CCl4 was aggravated in IDO-KO mice compared to WT mice. In IDO-KO mice treated with CCl4, the number of several inflammatory cells and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines increased in the liver. In the results, activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and fibrogenic factors on HSCs increased after repetitive CCl4 administration in IDO-KO mice compared to WT mice. Moreover, the treatment with l-tryptophan aggravated the CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in WT mice. Our findings demonstrated that the IDO deficiency enhanced the inflammation in the liver and aggravated liver fibrosis in repetitive CCl4-treated mice.

  11. Discovery and characterisation of hydrazines as inhibitors of the immune suppressive enzyme, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1).

    PubMed

    Fung, Sai-Parng S; Wang, Haiyan; Tomek, Petr; Squire, Christopher J; Flanagan, Jack U; Palmer, Brian D; Bridewell, David J A; Tijono, Sofian M; Jamie, Joanne F; Ching, Lai-Ming

    2013-12-15

    Screening of a fragment library identified 2-hydrazinobenzothiazole as a potent inhibitor of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1), an enzyme expressed by tumours that suppresses the immune system. Spectroscopic studies indicated that 2-hydrazinobenzothiazole interacted with the IDO1 haem and in silico docking predicted that the interaction was through hydrazine. Subsequent studies of hydrazine derivatives identified phenylhydrazine (IC50=0.25 ± 0.07 μM) to be 32-fold more potent than 2-hydrazinobenzothiazole (IC50=8.0 ± 2.3 μM) in inhibiting rhIDO1 and that it inhibited cellular IDO1 at concentrations that were noncytotoxic to cells. Here, phenylhydrazine is shown to inhibit IDO1 through binding to haem.

  12. Regioselectivity and Enantioselectivity of Naphthalene Dioxygenase during Arene cis-Dihydroxylation: Control by Phenylalanine 352 in the α Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Parales, Rebecca E.; Resnick, Sol M.; Yu, Chi-Li; Boyd, Derek R.; Sharma, Narain D.; Gibson, David T.

    2000-01-01

    The naphthalene dioxygenase (NDO) system catalyzes the first step in the degradation of naphthalene by Pseudomonas sp. strain NCIB 9816-4. The enzyme has a broad substrate range and catalyzes several types of reactions including cis-dihydroxylation, monooxygenation, and desaturation. Substitution of valine or leucine at Phe-352 near the active site iron in the α subunit of NDO altered the stereochemistry of naphthalene cis-dihydrodiol formed from naphthalene and also changed the region of oxidation of biphenyl and phenanthrene. In this study, we replaced Phe-352 with glycine, alanine, isoleucine, threonine, tryptophan, and tyrosine and determined the activity with naphthalene, biphenyl, and phenanthrene as substrates. NDO variants F352W and F352Y were marginally active with all substrates tested. F352G and F352A had reduced but significant activity, and F352I, F352T, F352V, and F352L had nearly wild-type activities with respect to naphthalene oxidation. All active enzymes had altered regioselectivity with biphenyl and phenanthrene. In addition, the F352V and F352T variants formed the opposite enantiomer of biphenyl cis-3,4-dihydrodiol [77 and 60% (−)-(3S,4R), respectively] to that formed by wild-type NDO [>98% (+)-(3R,4S)]. The F352V mutant enzyme also formed the opposite enantiomer of phenanthrene cis-1,2-dihydrodiol from phenanthrene to that formed by biphenyl dioxygenase from Sphingomonas yanoikuyae B8/36. A recombinant Escherichia coli strain expressing the F352V variant of NDO and the enantioselective toluene cis-dihydrodiol dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas putida F1 was used to produce enantiomerically pure (−)-biphenyl cis-(3S,4R)-dihydrodiol and (−)-phenanthrene cis-(1S,2R)-dihydrodiol from biphenyl and phenanthrene, respectively. PMID:10986254

  13. Redox proteins of hydroxylating bacterial dioxygenases establish a regulatory cascade that prevents gratuitous induction of tetralin biodegradation genes.

    PubMed

    Ledesma-García, Laura; Sánchez-Azqueta, Ana; Medina, Milagros; Reyes-Ramírez, Francisca; Santero, Eduardo

    2016-03-31

    Bacterial dioxygenase systems are multicomponent enzymes that catalyze the initial degradation of many environmentally hazardous compounds. In Sphingopyxis granuli strain TFA tetralin dioxygenase hydroxylates tetralin, an organic contaminant. It consists of a ferredoxin reductase (ThnA4), a ferredoxin (ThnA3) and a oxygenase (ThnA1/ThnA2), forming a NAD(P)H-ThnA4-ThnA3-ThnA1/ThnA2 electron transport chain. ThnA3 has also a regulatory function since it prevents expression of tetralin degradation genes (thn) in the presence of non-metabolizable substrates of the catabolic pathway. This role is of physiological relevance since avoids gratuitous and wasteful production of catabolic enzymes. Our hypothesis for thn regulation implies that ThnA3 exerts its action by diverting electrons towards the regulator ThnY, an iron-sulfur flavoprotein that together with the transcriptional activator ThnR is necessary for thn gene expression. Here we analyze electron transfer among ThnA4, ThnA3 and ThnY by using stopped-flow spectrophotometry and determination of midpoint reduction potentials. Our results indicate that when accumulated in its reduced form ThnA3 is able to fully reduce ThnY. In addition, we have reproduced in vitro the regulatory circuit in the proposed physiological direction, NAD(P)H-ThnA4-ThnA3-ThnY. ThnA3 represents an unprecedented way of communication between a catabolic pathway and its regulatory system to prevent gratuitous induction.

  14. Purification and characterization of the oxygenase component of biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenase from Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400.

    PubMed Central

    Haddock, J D; Gibson, D T

    1995-01-01

    The iron-sulfur protein of biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenase (ISPBPH) was purified from Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400. The protein is composed of a 1:1 ratio of a large (alpha) subunit with an estimated molecular weight of 53,300 and a small (beta) subunit with an estimated molecular weight of 27,300. The native molecular weight was 209,000, indicating that the protein adopts an alpha 3 beta 3 native conformation. Measurements of iron and acid-labile sulfide gave 2 mol of each per mol of alpha beta heterodimer. The absorbance spectrum showed peaks at 325 and 450 nm with a broad shoulder at 550 nm. The spectrum was bleached upon reduction of the protein with NADPH in the presence of catalytic amounts of ferredoxinBPH and ferredoxinBPH oxidoreductase. The electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum of the reduced protein showed three signals at gx = 1.74, gy = 1.92, and gz = 2.01. These properties are characteristic of proteins that contain a Rieske-type [2Fe-2S] center. Biphenyl was oxidized to cis-(2R,3S)-dihydroxy-1-phenylcyclohexa-4,6-diene by ISPBPH in the presence of ferredoxinBPH, ferredoxinBPH oxidoreductase, NADPH, and ferrous iron. Naphthalene was also oxidized to a cis-dihydrodiol, but only 3% was converted to product under the same conditions that gave 92% oxidation of biphenyl. Benzene, toluene, 2,5-dichlorotoluene, carbazole, and dibenzothiophene were not oxidized. ISPBPH is proposed to be the terminal oxygenase component of biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenase where substrate binding and oxidation occur via addition of molecular oxygen and two reducing equivalents. PMID:7592331

  15. Characterization of a chromosomally encoded 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid/alpha-ketoglutarate dioxygenase from Burkholderia sp. strain RASC.

    PubMed Central

    Suwa, Y; Wright, A D; Fukimori, F; Nummy, K A; Hausinger, R P; Holben, W E; Forney, L J

    1996-01-01

    The findings of previous studies indicate that the genes required for metabolism of the pesticide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) are typically encoded on broad-host-range plasmids. However, characterization of plasmid-cured strains of Burkholderia sp. strain RASC, as well as mutants obtained by transposon mutagenesis, suggested that the 2,4-D catabolic genes were located on the chromosome of this strain. Mutants of Burkholderia strain RASC unable to degrade 2,4-D (2,4-D- strains) were obtained by insertional inactivation with Tn5. One such mutant (d1) was shown to have Tn5 inserted in tfdARASC, which encodes 2,4-D/alpha-ketoglutarate dioxygenase. This is the first reported example of a chromosomally encoded tfdA. The tfdARASC gene was cloned from a library of wild-type Burkholderia strain RASC DNA and shown to express 2,4-D/alpha-ketoglutarate dioxygenase activity in Escherichia coli. The DNA sequence of the gene was determined and shown to be similar, although not identical, to those of isofunctional genes from other bacteria. Moreover, the gene product (TfdARASC) was purified and shown to be similar in molecular weight, amino-terminal sequence, and reaction mechanism to the canonical TfdA of Alcaligenes eutrophus JMP134. The data presented here indicate that tfdA genes can be found on the chromosome of some bacterial species and suggest that these catabolic genes are rather mobile and may be transferred by means other than conjugation. PMID:8779585

  16. Characterization of the fungal gibberellin desaturase as a 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase and its utilization for enhancing plant growth.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Anjanabha; Kourmpetli, Sofia; Ward,