Zeb, Alam; Ullah, Fareed
A simple and highly sensitive spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) as a marker for lipid peroxidation in fried fast foods. The method uses the reaction of malondialdehyde (MDA) and TBA in the glacial acetic acid medium. The method was precise, sensitive, and highly reproducible for quantitative determination of TBARS. The precision of extractions and analytical procedure was very high as compared to the reported methods. The method was used to determine the TBARS contents in the fried fast foods such as Shami kebab, samosa, fried bread, and potato chips. Shami kebab, samosa, and potato chips have higher amount of TBARS in glacial acetic acid-water extraction system than their corresponding pure glacial acetic acid and vice versa in fried bread samples. The method can successfully be used for the determination of TBARS in other food matrices, especially in quality control of food industries.
Peiretti, Pier Giorgio; Medana, Claudio; Visentin, Sonja; Giancotti, Valeria; Zunino, Valentina; Meineri, Giorgia
The aim of this research was to determine the content of the histidinic antioxidants, advanced glycation end products (pentosidine) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) in the meat from different animal species. Carnosine, anserine, homocarnosine and pentosidine were quantified by HPLC/MS, while TBARS was determined by photometric measurements. The total CRCs (carnosine+anserine+homocarnosine) content was in the increasing order: beef
Rababah, T; Hettiarachchy, N S; Horax, R; Cho, M J; Davis, B; Dickson, J
The effect of irradiation on thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and volatile compounds in raw and cooked nonirradiated and irradiated chicken breast meat infused with green tea and grape seed extracts was investigated. Chicken breast meat was vacuum infused with green tea extract (3,000 ppm), grape seed extract (3,000 ppm), or their combination (at a total of 6,000 ppm), irradiated with an electron beam, and stored at 5 degrees C for 12 d. The targeted irradiation dosage was 3.0 kGy and the average absorbed dosage was 3.12 kGy. Values of TBARS and volatile compound contents of raw and cooked chicken meat were determined during the 12-d storage period. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values ranged from 15.5 to 71.4 mg of malondialdehyde/kg for nonirradiated raw chicken and 17.3 to 80.1 mg of malondialdehyde/kg for irradiated raw chicken. Values for cooked chicken ranged from 31.4 to 386.2 and 38.4 to 504.1 mg of malondialdehyde/kg for nonirradiated and irradiated chicken, respectively. Irradiation increased TBARS and hexanal values of controls and meat infused with plant extracts. Hexanal had the highest intensity of volatiles followed by pentanal and other volatiles. Cooking the samples significantly (P < 0.05) increased the amounts of TBARS and volatiles. Addition of plant extracts decreased the amount of TBARS as well as hexanal and pentanal values. Although irradiation increases lipid oxidation, infusion of chicken meat with plant extracts could reduce lipid oxidation caused by irradiation.
Heydari, M. J.; Mohammadzadeh, S.; Kheradmand, A.; Alirezaei, M.
Because of a paucity of information on the effect of Satureja khuzistanica in male chickens, this study was undertaken to determine the influence of dietary S. khuzistanica powder (SKP) on seminal characteristics and testes thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content in Iranian native breeder rooster. Thirty-six 40-week-old roosters were randomly allotted to 3 equal groups and received either a basal diet without SKP (T1 or control), or a diet containing 20 g/kg (T2) and 40 g/kg (T3) of SKP for 8-week-long experimental period. Semen samples were obtained weekly by abdominal massage to evaluate the seminal characteristics. At the end of the eighth week 18 birds (6 birds per each group) were randomly slaughtered, and sample was taken from right testes for TBARS evaluation. Administration of SKP improved all semen traits, except for sperm concentration. Likewise, TBARS content in SKP treatments did not significantly differ from the control (P>0.05). Seminal volume, live sperm percentage and plasma membrane integrity percentage in SKP-treated groups were higher than the control. Conversely, abnormal sperm percentages reduced in SKP-treated groups (P<0.05). Plasma membrane integrity in experimental treatments was significantly higher than the control in 2nd, 3rd and 7th weeks. However, at 6th and 8th weeks only T3 treatment was significantly different from the control. Notably, there was an increase in total sperm concentration in SKP-treated groups in compared to the control birds. In conclusion, this study indicated that addition of SKP in rooster diet improves sperm quality and also reduces their sperm membrane lipid peroxidation, which may lead to higher fertilization rate. PMID:27175185
Effect of electron beam irradiation and storage at 5 degrees C on thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and carbonyl contents in chicken breast meat infused with antioxidants and selected plant extracts.
Rababah, Taha; Hettiarachchy, Navam; Horax, Ronny; Eswaranandam, Satchithanandam; Mauromoustakos, Andronikos; Dickson, James; Niebuhr, Steven
This study evaluated the effectiveness of synthetic and natural antioxidants, green tea, commercial grape seed extracts/combinations, and TBHQ, with varying concentrations of lipid oxidation of nonirradiated and irradiated chicken breast meats stored at 5 degrees C for 12 days. Fresh boneless and skinless chicken breast meats were vacuum-infused with varying concentrations of antioxidants: green tea, grape seed extracts alone/in combination, and TBHQ. The irradiation dosage was 3.0 kGy. Carbonyl values of raw chicken meat and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values of raw and cooked chicken meat were determined for 0-12 days at 5 degrees C storage. TBARS values for 0-12 days of storage at 5 degrees C ranged from 1.21 to 7.3 and 1.22 to 8.51 mg malondialdehyde/100 g chicken for nonirradiated and irradiated raw chicken, respectively. TBARS values of cooked chicken ranged from 2.19 to 35.83 and 2.45 to 45.72 mg malondialdehyde/100 g chicken for nonirradiated and irradiated chicken, respectively. Irradiation increased TBARS values of both controls and plant extracts. The carbonyl content in meat lipid ranged from 1.7 to 2.9 and 1.7 to 4.41 micromol acetophenone/10 g of nonirradiated and irradiated chicken meat, respectively, and meat protein ranged from 1.4 to 2.07 and 1.41 to 2.72 micromol/10 g meat. Infusion of chicken meat with selected plant extracts is an effective method to minimize lipid oxidation and volatiles developments caused by irradiation.
Balas, Vasilios I.; Hadjikakou, Sotiris K.; Hadjiliadis, Nick; Kourkoumelis, Nikolaos; Light, Mark E.; Hursthouse, Mike; Metsios, Apostolos K.; Karkabounas, Spyros
A novel tri-n-butyl(IV) derivative of 2-thiobarbituric acid (HTBA) of formula [(n-Bu)3Sn(TBA) H2O] (1) has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis and 119Sn-NMR and FT-IR spectroscopic techniques. The crystal structure of complex 1 has been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis at 120(2) K. The geometry around Sn(IV) is trigonal bipyramidal. Three n-butyl groups and one oxygen atom from a deprotonated 2-thiobarbituric ligand are bonded to the metal center. The geometry is completed with one oxygen from a water molecule. Compound 1 exhibits potent, in vitro, cytotoxicity against sarcoma cancer cells (mesenchymal tissue) from the Wistar rat, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH, benzo[a]pyrene) carcinogenesis. In addition, the inhibition caused by 1, in the rate of lipoxygenase (LOX) catalyzed oxidation reaction of linoleic acid to hyperoxolinoleic acid, has been also kinetically and theoretically studied. The results are compared to that of cisplatin. PMID:18401456
Golovnev, Nicolay N.; Molokeev, Maxim S.; Lesnikov, Maxim K.; Atuchin, Victor V.
Two new d-element compounds, [Co(H2O)6](Detba)2·2H2O (1) and [Ni(H2O)6](Detba)2·2H2O (2) (HDetba - 1,3-diethyl-2-thiobarbituric acid) were synthesized and characterized by single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction analysis, TG-DSC and FT-IR. Structural analysis revealed that (1) and (2) are discrete structures, in which M2+ ion (M = Co, Ni) is six-coordinated by water molecules and it forms an octahedron. The outer-sphere Detba- ions and H2O molecules participate in Osbnd H⋯(O/S) intermolecular hydrogen bonds which form the 2D layer. Thermal decomposition includes the stage of dehydration and the following stage of oxidation of Detba- with a release of CO2, SO2, H2O, NH3 and isocyanate gases.
Xiong, Zhenjie; Sun, Da-Wen; Pu, Hongbin; Xie, Anguo; Han, Zhong; Luo, Man
This study examined the potential of hyperspectral imaging (HSI) for rapid prediction of 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content in chicken meat during refrigerated storage. Using the spectral data and the reference values of TBARS, a partial least square regression (PLSR) model was established and yielded acceptable results with regression coefficients in prediction (Rp) of 0.944 and root mean squared errors estimated by prediction (RMSEP) of 0.081. To simplify the calibration model, ten optimal wavelengths were selected by successive projections algorithm (SPA). Then, a new SPA-PLSR model based on the selected wavelengths was built and showed good results with Rp of 0.801 and RMSEP of 0.157. Finally, an image algorithm was developed to achieve image visualization of TBARS values in some representative samples. The encouraging results of this study demonstrated that HSI is suitable for determination of TBARS values for freshness evaluation in chicken meat.
Lapenna, D; Ciofani, G; Pierdomenico, S D; Giamberardino, M A; Cuccurullo, F
The thiobarbituric acid (TBA) reactivity of human plasma was studied to evaluate its adequacy in quantifying lipid peroxidation as an index of systemic oxidative stress. Two spectrophotometric TBA tests based on the use of either phosphoric acid (pH 2.0, method A) or trichloroacetic plus hydrochloric acid (pH 0.9, method B) were employed with and without sodium sulfate (SS) to inhibit sialic acid (SA) reactivity with TBA. To correct for background absorption, the absorbance values at 572 nm were subtracted from those at 532 nm, which represent the absorption maximum of the TBA:MDA adduct. Method B gave values of TBA-reactive substances (TBARS) 2-fold higher than those detected with method A. SS lowered TBARS by about 50% with both methods, indicating a significant involvement of SA in plasma TBA reactivity. Standard SA, at a physiologically relevant concentration of 1.5 mM, reacted with TBA, creating interference problems, which were substantially eliminated by SS plus correction for background absorbance. When method B was carried out in the lipid and protein fraction of plasma, SS inhibited by 65% TBARS formation only in the latter. Protein TBARS may be largely ascribed to SA-containing glycoproteins and, to a minor extent, protein-bound MDA. Indeed, EDTA did not affect protein TBARS assessed in the presence of SS. TBA reactivity of whole plasma and of its lipid fraction was instead inhibited by EDTA, suggesting that lipoperoxides (and possibly monofunctional lipoperoxidation aldehydes) are involved as MDA precursors in the TBA test. Pretreatment of plasma with KI, a specific reductant of hydroperoxides, decreased TBARS by about 27%. Moreover, aspirin administration to humans to inhibit prostaglandin endoperoxide generation reduced plasma TBARS by 40%. In conclusion, reaction conditions affect the relationship between TBA reactivity and lipid peroxidation in human plasma. After correction for the interfering effects of SA in the TBA test, 40% of plasma TBARS
Osakabe, N; Yamagishi, M; Sanbongi, C; Natsume, M; Takizawa, T; Osawa, T
The antioxidative substances contained in cacao liquor, which is one of the major ingredients of chocolate, were separated by column chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. Three major compounds were purified and two of them were identified by 1H, 13C NMR and mass spectra as (-)-epicatechin (EC) and (+)-catechin (CA). Their antioxidative activity was measured by monitoring the peroxide value of linoleic acid and the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance values of erythrocyte ghost membranes and microsomes. EC and CA had strong antioxidative effects in all three methods, but one unidentified peak was found to be less effective. Additionally, we analyzed the polyphenol concentration of cacao liquor extractions produced in several countries. The total polyphenol concentration was 7.0 to 13.0%, catechin concentration was 0.31 to 0.49%, and epicatechin concentration was 0.35 to 1.68% in the extractions. It is believed that chocolate is stable against oxidative deterioration on account of the presence of these polyphenolic compounds, and it is also expected to have a protective role against lipid peroxidation in living systems.
This paper reviews intercultural variability of substance use behaviors, including availability of international statistics on consumption of alcohol and other drugs, as well as the use of drugs available locally only. Within a conceptual framework of intercultural relations, it considers the history of transcultural spread of substance use behaviors and possible reactions to the introduction of new drugs within a culture or jurisdiction, including illustrations of the "law of alien poisons." Although intercultural views of substance use have generally concentrated on majority groups' views of substance use in minority groups, minority and non-Western views of substance use need to be considered in the context of increasing international and intercultural communications that increase the rate at which substance use behaviors spread. Both Western and non-Western experiences with substance use and misuse must be taken into account so that better interventions can be developed to deal with addictions and other substance-related problems.
Simmons, Shannon; Suárez, Liza
There is a strong, bidirectional link between substance abuse and traumatic experiences. Teens with cooccurring substance use disorders (SUDs) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have significant functional and psychosocial impairment. Common neurobiological foundations point to the reinforcing cycle of trauma symptoms, substance withdrawal, and substance use. Treatment of teens with these issues should include a systemic and integrated approach to both the SUD and the PTSD.
... to: What is Elder Abuse? Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse Substance abuse has been identified as the most frequently cited ... victim and/or the perpetrator who has the substance abuse problem. Substance abuse is believed to be a ...
Substance abuse - inhalants; Drug abuse - inhalants; Drug use - inhalants; Glue - inhalants ... symptoms and may include: Strong cravings for the drug Having mood swings from feeling depressed to agitated ...
Substance abuse - amphetamines; Drug abuse - amphetamines; Drug use - amphetamines ... Amphetamine: goey, louee, speed, uppers, whiz Dextroamphetamine (ADHD medicine used illegally): dexies, kiddie-speed, pep pills, uppers; ...
This brochure outlines the substance abuse policy for students at the Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine (PCOM/Pennsylvania). Noted are the dangers of substance abuse during the stressful time of medical training and later for the doctor and clients during professional practice. The policy's five goals are briefly stated. Described next…
National Collaboration for Youth, Washington, DC.
This paper presents the policy statement on substance abuse from the National Collaboration for Youth (NCY). The policy statement section lists programs and activities supported by the NCY. A section on background includes a statement of the issue of substance abuse. Areas examined in this section include alcohol abuse and drunk driving among…
Junod, T. L.
Handbook, published in conjunction with Toxic Substances Alert Program at NASA Lewis Research Center, profiles 187 toxic chemicals in their relatively pure states and include 27 known or suspected carcinogens.
Substance abuse - marijuana; Drug abuse - marijuana; Drug use - marijuana; Cannabis; Grass; Hashish; Mary Jane; Pot; Weed ... several minutes. If you eat foods containing the drug as an ingredient, such as brownies, you may ...
PCP; Substance abuse - phencyclidine; Drug abuse - phencyclidine; Drug use - phencyclidine ... PCP is a mind-altering drug. This means it acts on your brain (central nervous system) and changes your mood, behavior, and the way you relate to ...
Junod, T. L.
A toxicity profile is provided, of 187 toxic substances procured by NASA Lewis Research Center during a 3 1/2 year period, including 27 known or suspected carcinogens. The goal of the program is to assure that the center's health and safety personnel are aware of the procurement and use of toxic substances and to alert and inform the users of these materials as to the toxic characteristics and the control measures needed to ensure their safe use. The program also provides a continuing record of the toxic substances procured, who procured them, what other toxic substances the user has obtained in the past, and where similar materials have been used elsewhere at the center.
Prenatal substance use is a critical public health concern that is linked with several harmful maternal and fetal consequences. The most frequently used substance in pregnancy is tobacco, followed by alcohol, cannabis and other illicit substances. Unfortunately, polysubstance use in pregnancy is common, as well as psychiatric comorbidity, environmental stressors, and limited and disrupted parental care, all of which can compound deleterious maternal and fetal outcomes. There are few existing treatments for prenatal substance use and these mainly comprise behavioral and psychosocial interventions. Contingency management has been shown to be the most efficacious of these. The purpose of this review is to examine the recent literature on the prenatal use of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, stimulants, and opioids, including the effects of these on maternal and fetal health and the current therapeutic options. PMID:27239283
Gellerman, Saul W.
Argues that managerial style and substance are inextricably intertwined, illustrating the discussion with excerpts from an extensive study and job analysis of first-line supervisors in a food packaging plant. (JG)
Greeson, Phillip E.
This is the third of several compilations of briefing papers on water quality by the U.S. Geological Survey. Each briefing paper is prepared in a simple, nontechnical, easy-to-understand manner. This U.S. Geological Survey Circular contains papers on selected organic substances in water. Briefing papers are included on ' Why study organic substances in water. ', ' Taste and odor in water ', and ' Classification and fractionation of organic solutes in natural waters'. (USGS)
Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Substance use disorders (SUD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are...Appendix……………………………………………………………………………. 10-end INTRODUCTION Substance use disorders (SUD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD...International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies “Resilience After Trauma: From Surviving to Thriving” Annual Meeting 7-9 November 2013. Currently
A mineral identification tool that was developed for NASA's Mars Rover Technology Development program is now serving as a powerful tool for U.S. law enforcement agencies and military personnel to identify suspicious liquid and solid substances. The tool can measure unknown substances through glass and plastic packaging materials with the RamanProbe(TradeMark) focused fiber-optic probe. The probe length can be extended up to 200 meters to enable users to analyze potentially dangerous substances at a safe distance. In many cases, the spectrometer and personnel are kept in a safe zone while the probe is positioned next to the sample being analyzed. Being able to identify chemicals in remote locations also saves users time and labor, since otherwise the samples would need to be collected, transported, and prepared prior to measurement in the laboratory.
... Adults Making Your Wishes Known Home & Community Home › Aging & Health A to Z › Drug and Substance Abuse Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Basic Facts & Information Causes & Symptoms Diagnosis & Tests Care & Treatment Lifestyle & Management Other Resources Caregiving How ...
Sales, Amos, Ed.
This book focuses on the identification of practical knowledge and skills needed for counseling individuals with substance abuse problems. It is a resource for practitioners, students, and faculty in school counseling, rehabilitation counseling, mental health counseling, school psychology, or social work in recognizing, preventing, and treating…
Blumberg, Avrom A.
Examines exposure to chemicals within the home and three important ways in which hazardous substances can be identified and evaluated. Suggests a rational picture of human health risks and contains an introductory discussion of reasons for exposure, epidemiology, cancer causes and patterns, animal testing, toxins, and risk. (LZ)
This report outlines the Hillsborough County, Florida, Head Start Program's project to field test with young children and their families curricula that were designed to prevent alcohol and other drug problems. A national search conducted by means of computers, individual contacts, and other methods yielded information on 22 substance abuse…
Thorne, Craig R.; DeBlassie, Richard R.
Cummings (1979), citing evidence from the National Institute of Drug Abuse, reports that one of every eleven adult Americans suffers from a severe addictive problem. Drug addiction is epidemic among teenagers; one of every six teenagers suffers from a severe addictive problem. This paper focuses on adolescent drug/substance abuse. (Author)
Substance abuse - LSD; Drug abuse - LSD; Drug use - LSD; Lysergic acid diethylamide; Hallucinogen - LSD ... LSD is a mind-altering drug. This means it acts on your brain (central nervous system) and changes your mood, behavior, and the way you relate to ...
This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Toxic Substances Control Act and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).
Clearing: Nature and Learning in the Pacific Northwest, 1984
Discusses the nature of toxic substances, examining pesticides and herbicides, heavy metals, industrial chemicals, and household substances. Includes a list of major toxic substances (indicating what they are, where they are found, and health concerns) and a student activity on how pesticides enter the food chain. (JN)
Dajani, Adnan S.; Gray, Ernest D.; Wannamaker, Lewis W.
A bactericidal substance previously isolated from phage type 71 Slaphylococcus aureus has been further identified and characterized. Staphylococci belonging to phage type 71 produce the substance in higher titers than staphylococci lysed by other phages in group II in addition to phage 71. Other staphylococci do not produce the bactericidal substance. The bactericidal substance shares several of the properties of bacteriocins but differs from this group of antibiotic substances in some respects. A combination of ammonium sulfate fractionation and gel filtration on a Sephadex G-100 column resulted in considerable degree of purification of the bactericidal substance. The substance is a previously unrecognized product of S. aureus and is distinct from other extracellular products of this organism. PMID:5443199
Pediatricians and other medical providers caring for children need to be aware of the dynamics in the significant relationship between substance abuse and child maltreatment. A caregiver's use and abuse of alcohol, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and other drugs place the child at risk in multiple ways. Members of the medical community need to understand these risks because the medical community plays a unique and important role in identifying and caring for these children. Substance abuse includes the abuse of legal drugs as well as the use of illegal drugs. The abuse of legal substances may be just as detrimental to parental functioning as abuse of illicit substances. Many substance abusers are also polysubstance users and the compounded effect of the abuse of multiple substances may be difficult to measure. Often other interrelated social features, such as untreated mental illness, trauma history, and domestic violence, affect these families.
The military provides a unique social environment given the organization and culture of the institution. Understanding substance use by those inside this institution provides insight into both the population as well as substance use in general. Using data collected from in-depth interviews, this article explores the nature and extent of substance…
Senior, Janet; Stone Nancy
Common household hazardous substances include cleansers, drain cleaners, automotive products, paints, solvents, and pesticides. This handbook was designed to serve as a resource for people frequently contacted by the public for information on household hazardous substances and wastes. Included in the handbook are: (1) an introduction to Michigan's…
Dhawan, Anju; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Natasha, M. Phil.
Adolescent substance abuse is a major public health concern. It is associated with an increased incidence of various psychiatric disorders like depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and conduct disorders and the relationship between mental and behavioral disorders and the substance use problems seems…
Christensen, Herbert E., Ed.; And Others
The second edition of the Toxic Substances List, containing some 13,000 entries, is prepared annually by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in compliance with the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. The purpose of the List is to identify all known toxic substances but not to quantitate the hazard. The List…
... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Controlled substance. 84.610 Section 84.610 Education... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 84.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a controlled substance in schedules I through V of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 812), and as further...
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Controlled substance. 1212.610... Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a controlled substance in schedules I through V of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 812), and as further defined by regulation at 21 CFR 1308.11...
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Controlled substance. 43.610 Section 43... DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 43.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a controlled substance in schedules I through V of the Controlled Substances Act (21...
... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Controlled substance. 32.610 Section 32.610... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 32.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a controlled substance in schedules I through V of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 812), and as further...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Controlled substance. 83.610 Section 83...-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 83.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a controlled substance in schedules I through V of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 812), and...
This rule promulgates EPA’s decision to require manufacturers and processors to test biphenyl (CAS No: 92—52—4) for environmental effects and chemical fate under section 4(a) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA).
... that trigger the heartbeat. Caffeine, Diet and Heart Arrhythmias Caffeine is the most common substance linked with abnormal heart rhythms ( arrhythmias ). Some people feel heart palpitations (fast heartbeats) when ...
... physical appearance and grooming Association with known substance abusers Need for money and stealing money Persistent dishonesty ... can be done to discourage youth from using drugs and alcohol? Everyone can help educate children and ...
Chen, Meng-Jinn; Miller, Brenda A.; Grube, Joel W.; Waiters, Elizabeth D.
Objective This study investigated whether young people’s substance use and aggressive behaviors are related to their listening to music containing messages of substance use and violence. Method Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires and from a sample of community college students aged 15-25 (N = 1056; 43% male). A structural equation modeling method was used to simultaneously assess the associations between listening to various genres of music, alcohol use, illicit drug use, and aggressive behaviors, taking into account respondents’ age, gender, race/ethnicity, and level of sensation seeking. Results Listening to rap music was significantly and positively associated with alcohol use, problematic alcohol use, illicit drug use, and aggressive behaviors when all other variables were controlled. Additionally, alcohol and illicit drug use were positively associated with listening to musical genres of techno and reggae. Control variables such as sensation seeking, age, gender and race/ethnicity were significantly related to substance use and aggressive behaviors. Conclusion The findings suggest that young people’s substance use and aggressive behaviors may be related to their frequent exposure to music containing references to substance use and violence. Conversely, music listening preference may reflect some personal predispositions or lifestyle preferences. Alternatively, substance use, aggression and music preference are independent constructs, but share common “third factors.” PMID:16608146
Boschi, Donatella; Tron, Gian Cesare; Lazzarato, Loretta; Chegaev, Konstantin; Cena, Clara; Di Stilo, Antonella; Giorgis, Marta; Bertinaria, Massimo; Fruttero, Roberta; Gasco, Alberto
The synthesis and study of the antioxidant and vasodilator properties of a new class of phenols able to release nitric oxide are described. The products were designed through a symbiotic approach using selected phenols and selected nitrooxy and furoxan NO-donors as reference models. The antioxidant activities of the hybrid products were assessed by detecting the 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) produced in the ferrous salt/ascorbate-induced autoxidation of lipids present in microsomial membranes of rat hepatocytes. The vasodilator activity was assessed on rat aortic strips precontracted with phenylephrine. Some of the products (13, 35, 37, 60-62, 64) behave principally as vasodilators and others as antioxidants (24, 32, 72), and the two properties are relatively balanced in 19, 41, and 68. Further in vivo studies should clarify whether some of these products may become preclinical candidates for the treatment of cardiovascular disease underpinned by atheroma.
Ayhan-Kilcigil, Gülgün; Coban, Tülay; Tunçbilek, Meral; Can-Eke, Benay; Bozdağ-Dündar, Oya; Ertan, Rahmiye; Iscan, Mümtaz
The in vitro antioxidant properties of some flavone-6(4)-carboxaldehyde oxime ether derivatives (Ia-f, IIa-f) were determined by their effects on the rat liver microsomal NADPH-dependent lipid peroxidation (LP) levels by measuring the formation of 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. The free radical scavenging properties of the compounds were also examined in vitro by determining their capacity to scavenge superoxide anions and interact with the stable free radical 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The most active compounds, IIb (Flavone-4'-carboxaldehyde-O-ethyl oxime) and Id (Flavone-6-carboxaldehyde-O-[2-(1-pyrolidino) ethyl] oxime), caused 98 and 79% inhibition of superoxide anion production and DPPH stable free radical at 10(-3) M, respectively.
Hur, S J; Ye, B W; Lee, J L; Ha, Y L; Park, G B; Joo, S T
The effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on color and lipid oxidation of beef patties were investigated. Ground beef was divided into three batches. The control patties were prepared with 90% lean meat and 10% tallow. The second treatment consisted of 90% lean meat with 9.5% tallow+0.5% CLA sources. The third treatment consisted of 90% lean meat with 8% tallow+2% CLA sources. The patties were wrap-packaged and then stored at 4° for 14 days. The CLA concentration significantly increased (P<0.05) by substituting CLA sources for fat. Storage of the patties did not alter the CLA concentration in beef patties. The treatment substituted with CLA sources had significantly lower TBARS (2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances) values (P<0.05) than the control. For oxymyoglobin contents and a* value, substituted CLA sources treatments had significantly higher values than the control. However, L* value significantly increased by substituting CLA sources for fat.
Leventhal, Adam M.; Gelernter, Joel; Oslin, David; Anton, Raymond F.; Farrer, Lindsay A.
Background Depression with psychomotor agitation (PMA; “agitated depression”) is a putative psychiatric phenotype that appears to associate with some forms of substance dependence. However, it is unclear whether such relationships extend across different substances and independent (I-MDE) versus substance-induced (SI-MDE) subtypes of major depressive episodes. Method We examined whether lifetime depression with (vs. without) PMA was associated with lifetime substance dependence across individuals with lifetime: (1) I-MDE only (n = 575); and (2) SI-MDE only (n = 1683). Data were pooled from several family and genetic studies of substance dependence in which participants received identical structured interviews to diagnose DSM-IV mental disorders. Results In I-MDE, PMA was significantly associated with alcohol, cocaine, opioid, other drug (hallucinogen, inhalant, speed-ball), and sedative dependence. After controlling for demographic and clinical co-factors, PMA's relationship to dependence on opioids, other drugs, and sedatives remained significant, but not its relationship to alcohol or cocaine. In SI-MDE, PMA was significantly associated with alcohol, cocaine, opioid, and other drug dependence. After adjusting for co-factors, associations remained significant for dependence on cocaine and opioids, but not alcohol or other drugs. Relationships between PMA and opioid dependence were stronger in I-MDE than SI-MDE. Depression subtype (I-MDE vs. SI-MDE) did not moderate relations between PMA and non-opioid forms of substance dependence. Conclusions Agitated depression associates with certain forms of substance dependence, particularly opioid dependence. MDE subtype did not alter most PMA-dependence associations, which suggests that the mechanisms underlying this comorbidity are complex and potentially bidirectional. PMID:21277711
Laurie Chassin focuses on the elevated prevalence of substance use disorders among young offenders in the juvenile justice system and on efforts by the justice system to provide treatment for these disorders. She emphasizes the importance of diagnosing and treating these disorders, which are linked both with continued offending and with a broad range of negative effects, such as smoking, risky sexual behavior, violence, and poor educational, occupational, and psychological outcomes. The high rates of substance use problems among young offenders, says Chassin, suggest a large need for treatment. Although young offenders are usually screened for substance use disorders, Chassin notes the need to improve screening methods and to ensure that screening takes place early enough to allow youths to be diverted out of the justice system into community-based programs when appropriate. Cautioning that no single treatment approach has been proven most effective, Chassin describes current standards of "best practices" in treating substance use disorders, examines the extent to which they are implemented in the juvenile justice system, and describes some promising models of care. She highlights several treatment challenges, including the need for better methods of engaging adolescents and their families in treatment and the need to better address environmental risk factors, such as family substance use and deviant peer networks, and co-occurring conditions, such as learning disabilities and other mental health disorders. Chassin advocates policies that encourage wider use of empirically validated therapies and of documented best practices for treating substance use disorders. High relapse rates among youths successfully treated for substance use disorders also point to a greater need for aftercare services and for managing these disorders as chronic illnesses characterized by relapse and remission. A shortage of aftercare services and a lack of service coordination in the
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Controlled substance. 48...) GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 48.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a controlled substance in schedules I through V of the...
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Controlled substance. 48...) GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 48.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a controlled substance in schedules I through V of the...
... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Controlled substance. 312.610 Section 312.610 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 312.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a controlled substance in schedules...
... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Controlled substance. 312.610 Section 312.610 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 312.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a controlled substance in schedules...
... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Controlled substance. 312.610 Section 312.610 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 312.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a controlled substance in schedules...
... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Controlled substance. 312.610 Section 312.610 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 312.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a controlled substance in schedules...
... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Controlled substance. 312.610 Section 312.610 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 312.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a controlled substance in schedules...
Barnes, Kenneth P.; Rainbow, Catherine R.
Context: Doping has been pervasive throughout the history of athletic competitions and has only recently been regulated by organizations such as the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), US Anti-Doping Agency (USADA), and the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). These regulatory bodies were created to preserve fair play and maintain the safety of the participants. Their updated 2013 lists of banned substances and practices include a variety of drugs and practices that could cause harm to an athlete or give one an unfair competitive advantage. Evidence Acquisition: Published websites for the WADA, USADA, and NCAA were investigated. These governing bodies update and publish their lists annually. Results: The WADA, USADA, and NCAA monitor anabolic steroids, hormones, growth factors, β-agonists, hormone and metabolic modulators, masking agents, street drugs, manipulation of blood and blood components, chemical and physical manipulation, gene doping, stimulants, narcotics, glucocorticosteroids, and β-blockers. Some substances may be used by athletes but require formal exemption. The WADA has also recently created a category of nonapproved substances that have yet to be identified to curb athletes from experimenting with new doping agents. Conclusion: The lists of banned substances and practices per the WADA, USADA, and NCAA are in place to ensure the integrity of sports and maintain safe competition. Health care providers who work with athletes under the jurisdiction of these organizations should review updated lists of banned substances when prescribing medications. PMID:24427415
Ivanova, T S; Krupodorova, T A; Barshteyn, V Y; Artamonova, A B; Shlyakhovenko, V A
The present status of investigations about the anticancer activity which is inherent to medicinal mushrooms, as well as their biomedical potential and future prospects are discussed. Mushroom products and extracts possess promising immunomodulating and anticancer effects, so the main biologically active substances of mushrooms responsible for immunomodulation and direct cytoto-xicity toward cancer cell lines (including rarely mentioned groups of anticancer mushroom proteins), and the mechanisms of their antitumor action were analyzed. The existing to date clinical trials of mushroom substances are mentioned. Mushroom anticancer extracts, obtained by the different solvents, are outlined. Modern approaches of cancer treatment with implication of mushroom products, including DNA vaccinotherapy with mushroom immunomodulatory adjuvants, creation of prodrugs with mushroom lectins that can recognize glycoconjugates on the cancer cell surface, development of nanovectors etc. are discussed. The future prospects of mushroom anticancer substances application, including chemical modification of polysaccharides and terpenoids, gene engineering of proteins, and implementation of vaccines are reviewed.
Kumar, Suresh; Malhotra, Anil
Brief interventions in substance abuse refer to a group of cost-effective and time efficient strategies that aim at reduction of substance use and/or harm related to substance use. They are grounded in the scientific principles of harm reduction stage of change, motivational interviewing and feasibility of community-level delivery. This review discusses the characteristics, elements, and techniques of brief interventions for abuse of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs. The available evidence for effectiveness of these strategies vis-a-vis no treatment or extended treatment is also reviewed, which clearly supports these interventions to be effective, especially for alcohol abuse but also for others It is argued that India presents a fertile ground for application of these strategies and that Indian research in this area should be a top priority. PMID:21407932
Taylor, Anne L
While substance misuse by adolescents in the UK has declined over the last decade, the UK continues to have some of the highest rates of alcohol and drug use in Europe. Many young people will try smoking and drinking alcohol during their adolescence and a significant minority will misuse alcohol and illicit drugs. This behaviour remains a significant cause for concern owing to its associated risks to the health and wellbeing of adolescents. Guidance is emerging regarding good practice in the assessment and management of adolescent substance misuse. Paediatricians may encounter substance-misusing adolescents in a variety of clinical settings and can play a valuable role in the screening, management and support of this group of young people.
Metsch, Lisa R; Pollack, Harold A
The 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) changed the nature, purpose, and financing of public aid. Researchers, administrators, and policymakers expressed special concern about the act's impact on low-income mothers with substance use disorders. Before PRWORA's passage, however, little was known about the true prevalence of these disorders among welfare recipients or about the likely effectiveness of substance abuse treatment interventions for welfare recipients. Subsequent research documented that substance abuse disorders are less widespread among welfare recipients than was originally thought and are less common than other serious barriers to self-sufficiency. This research also showed significant administrative barriers to the screening, assessment, and referral of drug-dependent welfare recipients. This article summarizes current research findings and examines implications for welfare reform reauthorization. PMID:15787954
Tenegra, Johnny C; Leebold, Bobby
One of the more prevalent and often undiagnosed problems seen by primary care clinicians is substance misuse. Resulting in increased morbidity and mortality, loss of productivity, and increased health care costs, substance misuse in our society remains a significant public health issue. Primary care physicians are on the front lines of medical care, and as such, are in a distinctive position to recognize potential problems in this area and assist. This article outlines office-based screening approaches and strategies for managing and treating this complex issue confronting primary care.
Klein, Jared Wilson
This article reviews the current pharmacotherapy options available for the treatment of patients with substance use disorders. In the United States there are medications available to treat tobacco use disorders (nicotine replacement, bupropion, and varenicline), alcohol use disorders (naltrexone and acamprosate), and opioid use disorders (methadone and buprenorphine). These medications are likely underused and physicians should more readily prescribe for eligible patients.
Lutsky, Irving; And Others
The analysis of 183 responses to a survey of former anesthesiology residents of the Medical College of Wisconsin found that 29 had been self-administered problematic substance abusers during their residencies, 23 had been alcohol dependent, and 6 had been drug dependent. More than 85 percent of respondents considered the drug policy information…
Sharp, Mark J.; Getz, J. Greg
Examines the function of substance use as an impression management tactic. Introductory psychology students (n=377) responded to a survey instrument measuring self-monitoring, perceived success in impression management, interaction anxiety, and self-esteem. Results suggest that alcohol use may serve an impression management function. (JPS)
Laurie Chassin focuses on the elevated prevalence of substance use disorders among young offenders in the juvenile justice system and on efforts by the justice system to provide treatment for these disorders. She emphasizes the importance of diagnosing and treating these disorders, which are linked both with continued offending and with a broad…
Martino, Steven C.; Collins, Rebecca L.; Ellickson, Phyllis L.
Prior work indicates that substance use is related to adolescent marriage. We describe two different processes that may account for this relationship and hypothesize patterns of association that would be consistent or inconsistent with each. Using data from a study that followed west coast youth from 7th grade to young adulthood N3,324, we…
America's romance with certainty leads to a belief that substances improve life and fits with the New Psychiatry. It's use of psychotropic medications to treat an array of mental illnesses changes evaluations, treatment and emergency coverage. The rising abuse of its prescription drugs alters the campus party scene, and challenges pretenses about…
Gillet, C; Polard, E; Mauduit, N; Allain, H
In humans, some psychotropic agents (alcohol, drugs, illicit substances) have been suggested to play a role in the occurrence of major behavioural disorders, mainly due to the suppression of psychomotor inhibition. Behavioural disinhibition is a physiological mechanism which allows humans to behave appropriately according to a given environmental situation. The behavioural disinhibition induced by either therapeutic dosage or misuse involves the loss of restraint over certain types of social behaviour and may increase the risk of auto or hetero-aggression and acting out. The increased use of psychotropic agents in recent years and the occurrence of unwanted effects are worrying and must be detected and evaluated. The objective of the present study was to establish a causal relationship between psychoactive substance use and occurrence of major behavioural disorders, such as paradoxical rage reactions and suicidal behaviour, based on a literature analysis. It consisted of reviewing reports of drug-induced violent reactions in healthy volunteers and demonstrating, where possible, a cause-effect relationship. Patients with schizophrenia and psychopathic personalities were not included in our study since psychiatric comorbidity could influence behavioural responses. Psychotropic agents included drugs, licit and illicit substances already associated with violence in the past. Many reports used the "Go/No Go test" to evaluate the disinhibiting effect of psychotropic substances; this allows the "cognitive mapping" of drugs. The results suggest that only alcohol, antidepressants, benzodiazepines and cocaïne are related to aggressive behaviour. The best known precipitant of behavioural disinhibition is alcohol, which induces aggressive behaviour. However, there are large differences between individuals, and attentional mechanisms are now recognised as being important in mediating the effects of alcohol. Suicidal tendency as an adverse antidepressant reaction is rare
This document is to help the regulated community comply with the requirements of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Section 5 Premanufacturing Notice (PMN) Program for nanoscale chemical substances.
... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164283.html Substance Abuse Taxes the American Workplace Survey, analysis reveal the ... 24, 2017 FRIDAY, March 24, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Substance abuse exacts a heavy toll on the American workplace, ...
Rogalski, C J
Previous work has documented that compliance rates of substance abusers undergoing inpatient detoxification could be influenced by professional psychological consultation. The administrative structure has been previously described as well as a clinical/humanistic component within the administrative structure. This report describes the individualized psychological consultation. This consultative intervention is in accord with the tripartite model of mental health which views the assessment of pathology from the perspectives of the mental health practitioner, the patient, and the culture; and the recent advances within self-psychology. A self-psychological model is suggested to understand the detoxifying substance abuser, from a stage of loss of cohesiveness to one of personality stabilization. The hospital environment and persons within the environment provide both a framework and self-object functions (mirroring, idealizing, and alter ego) during detoxification. Research recommendations are made to collect empirical data on the psychology of the detoxifying addict.
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Controlled substances. 423.44 Section 423... Conduct § 423.44 Controlled substances. You must not possess, consume, deliver, or be under the influence of, controlled substances included in schedules I, II, III, IV, or V of part B of the...
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Controlled substances. 423.44 Section 423... Conduct § 423.44 Controlled substances. You must not possess, consume, deliver, or be under the influence of, controlled substances included in schedules I, II, III, IV, or V of part B of the...
... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Controlled substance. 84.610 Section 84.610 Education... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 84.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a controlled..., 1094, 1221e-3 and 3474; and Sec. 2455, Pub. L. 103-355, 108 Stat. 3243 at 3327.)...
... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Controlled substance. 1509.610 Section 1509.610 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a...
... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Controlled substance. 1509.610 Section 1509.610 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Controlled substance. 210.610 Section 210.610 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 210.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a...
... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Controlled substance. 1509.610 Section 1509.610 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a...
... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Controlled substance. 1509.610 Section 1509.610 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Controlled substance. 210.610 Section 210.610 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 210.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a...
... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Controlled substance. 1509.610 Section 1509.610 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Controlled substance. 83.610 Section 83.610 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENT-WIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 83.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means...
English, R. William
This paper focuses on assisting families who have been damaged by substance abuse and on constructive involvement of families to help all members cope. The four main topics are: (1) "Substance Abuse and Family Systems," including the effects of substance abuse on families and children; (2) "Theories and Approaches to Family…
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Controlled substance. 607.610 Section 607.610 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 607.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a...
Jakasa, Ivone; Kezic, Sanja; Boogaard, Peter J
Petroleum products are complex substances comprising varying amounts of linear and branched alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics which may penetrate the skin at different rates. For proper interpretation of toxic hazard data, understanding their percutaneous absorption is of paramount importance. The extent and significance of dermal absorption of eight petroleum substances, representing different classes of hydrocarbons, was evaluated. Literature data on the steady-state flux and permeability coefficient of these substances were evaluated and compared to those predicted by mathematical models. Reported results spanned over 5-6 orders of magnitude and were largely dependent on experimental conditions in particular on the type of the vehicle used. In general, aromatic hydrocarbons showed higher dermal absorption than more lipophilic aliphatics with similar molecular weight. The results showed high variation and were largely influenced by experimental conditions emphasizing the need of performing the experiments under "in use" scenario. The predictive models overestimated experimental absorption. The overall conclusion is that, based on the observed percutaneous penetration data, dermal exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons, even of aromatics with highest dermal absorption is limited and highly unlikely to be associated with health risks under real use scenarios.
Cadet, Jean Lud; Bisagno, Veronica; Milroy, Christopher Mark
Addictions to licit and illicit drugs are chronic relapsing brain disorders that affect circuits that regulate reward, motivation, memory, and decision-making. Drug-induced pathological changes in these brain regions are associated with characteristic enduring behaviors that continue despite adverse biopsychosocial consequences. Repeated exposure to these substances leads to egocentric behaviors that focus on obtaining the drug by any means and on taking the drug under adverse psychosocial and medical conditions. Addiction also includes craving for the substances and, in some cases, involvement in risky behaviors that can cause death. These patterns of behaviors are associated with specific cognitive disturbances and neuroimaging evidence for brain dysfunctions in a diverse population of drug addicts. Postmortem studies have also revealed significant biochemical and/or structural abnormalities in some addicted individuals. The present review provides a summary of the evidence that has accumulated over the past few years to implicate brain dysfunctions in the varied manifestations of drug addiction. We thus review data on cerebrovascular alterations, brain structural abnormalities, and postmortem studies of patients who abuse cannabis, cocaine, amphetamines, heroin, and "bath salts". We also discuss potential molecular, biochemical, and cellular bases for the varied clinical presentations of these patients. Elucidation of the biological bases of addiction will help to develop better therapeutic approaches to these patient populations.
Bitar, Raoul; Dürsteler, Kenneth M; Rösner, Susanne; Grosshans, Martin; Herdener, Marcus; Mutschler, Jochen
In respect of demographic change, the number of older patients with substance abuse and addiction is on the raise. In this review we present important clinical and therapeutic aspects of substance abuse and addiction in the elderly and focus on alcohol, benzodiazepines and opioids. Daily and risky alcohol consumption is common among older people. They also have an increased risk getting alcohol-related complications. For early detection, laboratory parameters and questionnaires such as the AUDIT-C are suitable. Therapeutically brief interventions have been proved successful. Also, abuse of benzodiazepines, especially low-dose addiction, is widespread among older persons, although often overlooked, and patients often do not recognize their addiction. The physician has to know the correct indication, adequate dosage and pharmacological interactions. A slow-dose reduction is recommended in case of addiction. Thanks to opioid substitution therapy, patients with an opioidaddiction can reach a higher age. Age influences the effects of the substitute, which may require an adjustment of the dosage. Treatment of elderly patients should be based on their needs and resources and is usually very effective.
Winhusen, Theresa; Lewis, Daniel
Cigarette smoking is prevalent in pregnant substance users but receives low priority in substance use disorder treatment. This article reports the results of a secondary analysis of a randomized, multisite trial with 200 pregnant substance users, 145 (72.5%) of whom smoked at baseline. As predicted: (1) smokers had significantly greater substance use; (2) approximately half of smokers wanted to quit; and (3) smokers with a quit goal had significantly greater self-efficacy and lower perceived difficulty of quitting. Smoking may be associated with more severe substance use in pregnant substance-using patients, half of whom may be interested in smoking-cessation interventions.
Jayaram, Vasantha; Anandaram, T.S.J.; Balan, Anand; Bashyam, V.S.P
120 persons belonging to the four different groups namely, students, unskilled workers, skilled workers and professionals were interviewed using a semi-structured interview schedule on subsunce non-use. Results were analysed using SPSS 7.5 version. 65% of the sample used, at least, one of the substances during their lifetime. Alcohol (55.8%) and nicotine (45%) were the commonly used substances and paan (21.7%) was used to some extent. The non-users were questioned on the reasons for nonuse, with respect to each of the substances, namely, nicotine, alcohol, paan, cannabis, sedatives, opioids and others. Familial values, disinterest, effects of the substance, adverse effects due to substances, moral values, responsibilities and being a role model were the commonly attributed reasons for substance non-use. PMID:21206853
AD C: 2 OVIPOSITION -MODIFYING SUBSTANCES FOR MOSQUITOES Annual Summary Report YIH-SHEN HWANG * ’September 1, 1980 Supported by U.S. ARMY MEDICAL...NUMBER 2. GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED OVIPOSITION -MODIFYING SUBSTANCES...nd identify by block number) MOSQUITOES/ OVIPOSITION -ATTRACTANTS/ OVIPOSITION -REPELLENTS/ OVIPOSITION - MODIFYING-SUBSTANCES/CARBOXYLIC-ACIDS/OCTANOIC
Little, A. Jr. ); Ross, J.K. ); Lavorerio, R. ); Richards, T.A. )
In order to provide some background for the NPRA Annual Meeting Management Session panel discussion on Substance Abuse in the Refining and Petrochemical Industries, NPRA distributed a questionnaire to member companies requesting information regarding the status of their individual substance abuse policies. The questionnaire was designed to identify general trends in the industry. The aggregate responses to the survey are summarized in this paper, as background for the Substance Abuse panel discussions.
Thurman, E.M.; Wershaw, R. L.; Malcolm, R.L.; Pinckney, D.J.
Aquatic humic substances, which account for 30 to 50% of the organic carbon in water, are a principal component of aquatic organic matter. The molecular size of aquatic humic substances, determined by small-angle X-ray scattering, varies from 4.7 to 33 A?? in their radius of gyration, corresponding to a molecular weight range of 500 to greater than 10,000. The aquatic fulvic acid fraction contains substances with molecular weights ranging from 500 to 2000 and is monodisperse, whereas the aquatic humic acid fraction contains substances with molecular weights ranging from 1000 to greater than 10,000 and is generally polydisperse. ?? 1982.
EPA's existing chemicals programs address pollution prevention, risk assessment, hazard and exposure assessment and/or characterization, and risk management for chemicals substances in commercial use.
Reynolds, W J; Chiu, B; Inman, R D
The mechanism of pain in the fibrositis syndrome is unknown. We measured plasma levels of substance P in 32 patients with fibrositis and 26 sex and age matched controls using a radioimmunoassay. The mean plasma level of substance P in the patients with fibrositis was 371 +/- 91 pg/ml and in controls 397 +/- 84 pg/ml (p = NS). We conclude that determination of plasma levels of substance P in fibrositis is of no diagnostic value. This does not exclude the possible role of substance P as a neurotransmitter in the fibrositis syndrome.
Pharmaceuticals and controlled substances found during residential demolition, such as prescription medications or illegal drugs, may require special treatment for disposal or recycling before demolition.
Wershaw, R. L.
Humic substances (HS) form molecular aggregates in solution and on mineral surfaces. Elucidation of the mechanism of formation of these aggregates is important for an understanding of the interactions of HS in soils arid natural waters. The HS are formed mainly by enzymatic depolymerization and oxidation of plant biopolymers. These reactions transform the aromatic and lipid plant components into amphiphilic molecules, that is, molecules that consist of separate hydrophobic (nonpolar) and hydrophilic (polar) parts. The nonpolar parts of the molecules are composed of relatively unaltered segments of plant polymers and the polar parts of carboxylic acid groups. These amphiphiles form membrane-like aggregates on mineral surfaces and micelle-like aggregates in solution. The exterior surfaces of these aggregates are hydrophilic, and the interiors constitute separate hydrophobic liquid-like phases.
Lee, Young Sik; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Sun Mi; Renshaw, Perry F
The purpose of the current study was to evaluate possible overlapping substance abuse and internet addiction in a large, uniformly sampled population, ranging in age from 13 to 18 years. Participants (N=73,238) in the current study were drawn from the 6th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-V) for students from 400 middle schools and 400 high schools in 16 cities within South Korea. Of adolescent internet users, 85.2% were general users (GU), 11.9% were users with potential risk for internet addiction (PR), and 3.0% were users with high risk for internet addiction (HR). There was a difference in the number of students with alcohol drinking among the GU, PR, and HR groups (20.8% vs 23.1% vs 27.4%). There was a difference in the number of students who smoked among the GS, PR, and HR groups (11.7% vs 13.5% vs 20.4%). There was a difference in the number of students with drug use among the GU, PR, and HR groups (1.7% vs 2.0% vs 6.5%). After adjusting for sex, age, stress, depressed mood, and suicidal ideation, smoking may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=1.203, p=0.004). In addition, drug use may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=2.591, p<0.001). Because students with a high risk for internet addiction have vulnerability for addictive behaviors, co-morbid substance abuse should be evaluated and, if found, treated in adolescents with internet addiction.
Peltan, Jessica R; Cellucci, Tony
Incarcerated women have high rates of substance abuse problems and trauma. A variety of variables may influence whether these women seek help or are referred for substance abuse problems. This study reports an exploratory project on service utilization among incarcerated substance-dependent women (N = 40) in southeastern Idaho. Using self-report and interview tools, most participants reported some substance abuse treatment history, although extent and types of treatment varied. Most of the women also reported some type of childhood abuse. Age, income, and consequences of alcohol and other drug use related positively to substance abuse treatment. However, severity of childhood sexual abuse and current trauma symptoms were negatively correlated with substance abuse treatment episodes. These women may use substances to cope with childhood trauma or may not perceive the substance abuse system as responsive to their co-occurring trauma symptoms.
Cortes, Dharma E.; Ja, Davis; Noboa, Abdin; Perry, Vincent; Robinson, Robert; Rodriguez, Domingo; Stubben, Jerry
This monograph provides a tool to help providers and other substance abuse treatment professionals gain a greater understanding of the cultural, social, political, and economic forces affecting substance abuse treatment among Hispanic Americans, African Americans, Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders, and American Indians/Alaska Natives. An…
Therapeutic recreation is important in treating substance abuse problems. It addresses attitudes and behaviors leading to substance abuse (inability to experience pleasure or control). It encourages participation in activities that help abusers cope and obtain enjoyable states, reducing reliance on drugs. The article discusses the theory of flow…
Kendall, Ronald J.
Modern society is very dependent upon numerous chemical substances. Chemicals have a wide variety of uses, including drugs to prolong our lives and pesticides to control insect and weed pests. Life would be drastically different without the availability of these chemical substances but, while the benefits of chemicals should be appreciated, the…
Substance misuse is one of the most prevalent causes of adolescent injury and death. Additionally, 5-8% of adolescents in the U.S. qualify for a diagnosis of substance abuse disorder. This article discusses formal prevention and treatment program models, focusing on a continuum of care which extends from prevention to treatment alternatives.…
Daley, Kathryn; Chamberlain, Chris
To help explain why some young people move from recreational drug use to substance abuse, twelve in-depth interviews were conducted with young people who had experienced problematic substance use. The data were supplemented by statistical data on 111 young people. The researchers found a variety of "structural" factors that help explain…
Polzella, Sue A.; Selinger, Marilyn
The paper reviews adolescent development and considers the teacher's role in dealing with a compulsive substance abuser. Typical characteristics of substance abusers, such as isolation or withdrawal from the family unit, decreased academic achievement, initial denial of a drug/alcohol problem, and interactions with a negative peer group are noted,…
Krulewitch, Cara J.; Herman, Allen A.
This bibliography, containing over 1,000 entries from the period 1968 to June, 1991, was compiled to assist in the development of a report to Congress on the impact (both maternal and fetal) of substance abuse on pregnancy. Topics include pregnancy outcome, child health issues, legal and political issues, epidemiological aspects of substance abuse…
Eversman, Michael H.
Professional social work largely has endorsed the empirically supported paradigm of harm reduction in relation to substance abuse issues. Despite literature detailing similarities between social work and harm reduction, little is known about its presence in MSW substance abuse coursework. A purposive sample of 133 social work faculty from…
Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.
The first comprehensive assessment of substance abuse and women, this report arose from an analysis of more than 1,700 scientific and technical articles, surveys, government reports and books. Results show that American women are closing the gap with men in that they are increasingly likely to abuse substances at the same rate as men. Findings…
McLeod, Jane D.; Uemura, Ryotaro
This study examined the associations of substance use, psychological distress, and mental health services receipt with the structure and content of adolescent school-based networks. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we found that substance use was associated with receiving more, but making fewer, peer…
Discusses the teacher's role as an advocate for a child's educational needs when parents are involved in substance abuse treatment. Discusses substance abuse treatment issues, including addiction, the treatment process, and agencies involved with the family, and provides a list of recommendations for educators and administrators to assist…
Villegas-Pantoja, Miguel A; Mendez-Ruiz, Martha D
The authors of this article see substance use disorders as a major public health problem in Mexico in which nursing is taking on an increasingly important role in addressing. The authors discuss some the challenges and opportunities nurse researchers, educators, and clinicians face in the prevention and treatment of substance use disorders in Mexico.
Schroeder, Jennifer L.; Johnson, Gail E.
Current estimates indicate that over 6 million children live with at least one parent who is a substance abuser or is substance dependent. Children who are exposed to drug and alcohol abuse are at a greater risk of experiencing academic and behavior difficulties. Additionally, several studies have shown that students with emotional and behavioral…
COVERED 15 Sept 2013 – 14 Sept 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Combat Stress and Substance Abuse Intervention 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...the stigma and common barriers associated with seeking treatment. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Combat stress, substance abuse , alcohol, brief intervention... abuse . These data are vital to understanding additional steps the military might take in addressing issues of behavioral health, such as developing
Cohen, Adam W., Ed.
This volume of six lessons provides expert information on a variety of issues in substance abuse counseling. The lessons, which may be applied toward continuing education credits, are: (1) "Ethics in Substance Abuse Rehabilitation" (Robert L. Hewes); (2) "Addressing the Needs of Clients with Traumatic Injury and Alcoholism"…
Butts, Jeffrey A., Ed.; Roman, John, Ed.
Juvenile justice officials across the United States are embracing a new method of dealing with adolescent substance abuse. Importing a popular innovation from adult courts, state and local governments have started hundreds of specialized drug courts to provide judicial supervision and coordinate substance abuse treatment for drug-involved…
Watson, Donnie W.
The literature provides ample evidence of the relationship of substance abuse to crime. Research over the last 20 years has established a strong correlation between substance abuse and juvenile delinquency (held, 1998). Currently, there are more than 350,000 juveniles on probation and in continuing care programs in the U.S. who have substance…
Roberts, Donald F.; Henriksen, Lisa; Christenson, Peter G.
This study examines the frequency and nature of substance use in the most popular movie rentals and songs of 1996 and 1997. The intent was to determine the accuracy of public perceptions about extensive substance use in media popular among youth. Because teenagers are major consumers of movies and music, there is concern about the potential for…
Hochhauser, Mark; And Others
Research on adolescent substance use has focused on prevalence and incidence; however, contextual factors have been largely ignored. A survey of 155 adolescents from a Minneapolis suburb was conducted to assess contextual factors affecting adolescent substance use. Subjects reported their use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marihuana with respect to…
Kane, Michael N.; Green, Diane
Human service students' (social work, criminal justice, public administration, psychology) were surveyed (N = 242). Their perceptions about older persons' resilience and recovery from substance abuse were investigated. Overall, respondents did not agree that treating older persons for a substance abuse problem was wasteful of resources or older…
Riggs, Nathaniel R.
Several preventive interventions have demonstrated efficacy in reducing substance use. However, opportunities exist to further improve prevention approaches. The application of recent advances in developmental neuroscience can inform the design, implementation, and evaluation of substance use prevention programs. This paper first briefly describes the developmental integration of the prefrontal cortex with emotion and motivation centers of the brain, and the implications of this process for substance use vulnerability. Discussed next are specific examples of how developmental neuroscience can inform prevention timing, development, and evaluation. Contextual considerations are then suggested including a critical role for schools in substance misuse prevention. Finally, current theoretical and methodological challenges to the translation of developmental neuroscience to substance use prevention are discussed. PMID:26236576
Murakami, Tomoe; Oyma, Tsunehiro; Isse, Toyohi; Narai, Rie; Kanaoka, Maki; Pham, Thi-Thu-Phuong; Kawamoto, Toshihiro
Some occupational and environmental chemicals cause allergic diseases. To prevent chemical allergies, it is essential to identify the chemical substances that cause sensitization and to eliminate such sensitizers from daily life. As an occupational countermeasure, information for evaluating sensitization of chemical substances is needed. The aims of this article are to compare the criteria for sensitizers among national organizations in various countries and international organizations, and to make out a list of these chemical substances. The definition of sensitizing chemicals and the designation of respective sensitizers according to the PRTR law, Japan Society for Occupational Health (JSHO), American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), European Union (EU), Deutsche Forschungsgemeinshaft (DFG) and Japanese Society of Occupational and Environmental Allergy were studied. There are 1,389 chemical substances which are designated as sensitizers by any of the laws and five organizations. We specify each chemical substance in the list.
Wu, Jie; Wu, Hong; Wang, Juan; Deng, Jianxiong; Gao, Xue; Xu, Yan; Huang, Guoliang; Huang, Jinghui; Guo, Lan; Lu, Ciyong
Abstract A growing body of studies have indicated the associations between substance use and psychosocial problems in adolescents. However, few of them have examined whether these psychosocial problems form a syndemic, which means the co-occurrence of psychosocial problems accompanied by additional effects on substance use. We conducted a cross-sectional survey with 82,812 Chinese adolescents who were selected using a multistage random procedure. Bivariate associations were estimated between selected syndemic indicators and adolescent substance use. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the association between the syndemic indicator count score (the count of syndemic indicators) and adolescent substance use. In addition, cluster analysis was used to partition participants reporting at least one of syndemic indicators to assess associations between resolved cluster memberships and adolescent substance use. All selected syndemic indicators were associated with each other and with adolescent substance use. As the number of syndemic indicators increases, stronger associations with substance use were found in our analysis: the range of adjusted OR was from 1.57 (95% CI: 1.38–1.79) for 1 syndemic indicator to 9.45 (95% CI: 7.60–11.76) for 5 or 6 syndemic indicators. There was no effect modification of gender on these additive associations. The multivariate logistic regression indicated that the cluster membership of nonlow SES academic failures has the highest odds of using substance (OR = 2.26, 95% CI: 2.12–2.41), compared to students reporting none syndemic indicators. Our findings support the syndemic hypothesis that adolescents bearing multiple psychosocial problems experience additive risks of using substance. Our findings support that a comprehensive approach to substance use prevention in adolescents would necessitate the involvement of a variety of providers. PMID:26717391
... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse...: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention,......
Schinke, Steven P.; Fang, Lin; Cole, Kristin C.
This study tested a computerized gender-specific, parent-involvement intervention program grounded in family interaction theory and aimed at preventing substance use among adolescent girls. Following program delivery and 1 year later, girls randomly assigned to the intervention arm improved more than girls in a control arm on variables associated with reduced risks for substance use, including communication with their mothers, knowledge of family rules about substance use, awareness of parental monitoring of their discretionary time, non-acceptance of peer substance use, problem-solving skills, and ability to refuse peer pressure to use substances. Relative to control-arm girls, those in the intervention arm also reported less 30-day use of alcohol and marijuana and lower intentions to smoke, drink, and take illicit drugs in the future. Girls’ mothers in the intervention arm reported greater improvements after the program and relative to control-arm mothers in their communication with their daughters, establishment of family rules about substance use, and monitoring of their daughters’ discretionary time. Study findings lend support to the potential of gender-specific, parent-involvement, and computerized approaches to preventing substance use among adolescent girls. PMID:19632053
Carroll Chapman, Shawna L; Wu, Li-Tzy
Individuals with disabilities are a growing population that confronts multiple disadvantages from social and environmental determinants of health. In particular, the 7-8 million people in the U.S. with an intellectual disability (ID) suffer disproportionately from substance use problems, largely because of a lack of empirical evidence to inform prevention and treatment efforts for them. Although available research could inform future research efforts, studies are scattered across disciplines with the last review synthesizing findings written more than five years ago. To consider more recent findings with earlier works, PubMed, PsychINFO, and Google Scholar were searched and produced 37 peer-reviewed texts across multiple disciplines, 15 from 2006 or later. While the prevalence of alcohol and illicit drug use in this population are low, the risk of having a substance-related problem among ID substance users is comparatively high. Gaps in the research and population subgroups that warrant special attention are identified, such as individuals with borderline and mild ID, individuals with co-occurring mental illness, and individuals who are incarcerated. Compared with substance abusers without ID, ID substance abusers are less likely to receive substance abuse treatment or remain in treatment. Research is needed to better gauge the magnitude of substance use problems, identify prevention strategies, and specify treatment components that meet the unique needs of individuals with ID.
Chemical-induced injury and disease remains a significant problem in workers in industry. As a result of this problem, a number of national and international initiatives have recommended the development of conventions, regulations, and codes of practice to attempt to deal with the problems of hazardous substances at work. Within Australia, workplace hazardous substances regulations are in development which will impose legal obligations and responsibilities on the suppliers of hazardous substances and on the employers who use them. At the same time, internationally consistent ISO standards are in use, or are being developed, for quality systems, environmental management, and occupational health and safety. These standards outline a model for the management of quality, environment, or safety, and the processes involved are applicable to the management of hazardous substances. This process includes: obtaining commitment from senior management; instituting consultative mechanisms; developing a hazardous substances policy; identifying components of the hazardous substances management program; resourcing, implementing, and reviewing the program; and integrating the program into the organisation's strategic plan. Only by blending in a specific management program for hazardous substances into the overall planning of an organization will they be managed effectively and efficiently.
Haller, Moira; Handley, Elizabeth; Chassin, Laurie; Bountress, Kaitlin
Using a high-risk community sample (N = 405), the current study examined developmental cascades among substance use, affiliation with substance use promoting peers, and academic achievement over an 18-year period and tested whether these pathways mediated the influence of parental alcoholism on adult alcohol and drug use disorders. Results showed that the influence of parental alcoholism on adult drug disorders was mediated by developmental cascades across all three domains, whereas the influence of parental alcoholism on adult alcohol disorders was mediated through affiliation with substance use promoting peers and persistence in binge drinking. Adolescent drug use had more implications for adult outcomes than did adolescent alcohol use, which was less likely to spill over into other domains of functioning. Findings indicated that adolescent risk factors had indirect rather than unique effects on adult substance use disorders, suggesting that adolescent risk is not immutable and is largely mediated by later influences. PMID:20883589
Sharma, Aditi; Morrow, Jonathan D
There are many facets of the neurobiology of substance use that are distinct in adolescence as compared with adulthood. The adolescent brain is subject to intense subcortical reward processes, but is left with an immature prefrontal control system that is often unable to resist the pull of potentially exciting activities like substance use, even when fully aware of the dangers involved. Peer influences serve only to magnify these effects and foster more sensation-seeking, risky behavior. The unique aspects of neurobiology should be taken into consideration when designing prevention programs and clinical interventions for adolescent substance use disorders.
Microbicides to protect women from HIV are urgently needed. Several potential pharmaceutical microbicides are now undergoing obligatory clinical trials to check safety, acceptability and efficacy before approval for use. Microbicides may have side-effects and, paradoxically, their use may increase the risk of acquiring HIV. Several widely available substances have been suggested as microbicides, including substances with a low pH such as lemon juice, vinegar, soft drinks and lactobacillus dairy products. Because of the potential for harm it is important that these substances are tested before their use is widely promoted. After small scale safety and acceptability studies, their promotion needs to be evaluated as a communication intervention.
Mills, O H; Kligman, A M
Substances that are moderately to strongly comedogenic in the rabbit ear model test have been found to be capable of inducing comedones in the human model described in this report. The test substances are applied under occlusion for one month to the upper part of the backs of young adult, black men who have large follicles. The degree of follicular hyperkeratosis is assessed by a noninvasive "follicular biopsy" techniques, employing a fast-setting cyanoacrylate glue to remove the follicular contents. The rabbit model is more sensitive than the human. Substances that are weakly comedogenic in the rabbit are probably safe for human use with the possible exception of acne-prone persons.
Kraanen, Fleur L; Emmelkamp, Paul M G
Substance abuse has often been associated with committing sex offenses. In this article, the following will be reviewed: 1) studies that assessed substance abuse in sex offenders; 2) differences in substance abuse among different types of sex offenders; 3) differences in substance abuse between sex offenders and nonsexual offenders and substance abuse in the normal population; 4) sex offenders' intoxication at the time of the offense; and 5) differences in intoxication at the time of the offense among different types of sex offenders. Studies will be discussed according to the method they used to assess substance abuse, i.e., file research, screening instruments or semi-structured interviews. This review shows that about half of the sex offenders has a history of substance abuse, a quarter to half of the sex offenders has a history of alcohol misuse and that about one fifth to a quarter of the sex offenders has a history of drug misuse. Furthermore, about a quarter to half of the sex offenders appeared to be intoxicated at the time of the offense. The review results in recommendations for future research. Because of the high prevalence of substance abuse in sex offenders it is advisable to routinely screen for substance abuse and, if necessary, to treat substance abuse.
... substances: Drug Schedule Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid (2010) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I Methamphetamine... (7370), and Methamphetamine (1105) only, the company manufactures these controlled substances in...
... basic classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid (2010) I Amphetamine... controlled substances in bulk for distribution and sale to its customers for Amphetamine (1100). The...
Forray, Ariadna; Foster, Dawn
Perinatal substance use remains a major public health problem and is associated with a number of deleterious maternal and fetal effects. Polysubstance use in pregnancy is common, and can potentiate adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Tobacco is the most commonly used substance in pregnancy, followed by alcohol and illicit substances. The treatments for perinatal substance use are limited and consist mostly of behavioral and psychosocial interventions. Of these contingency management has shown the most efficacy. More recently, novel interventions such as progesterone for postpartum cocaine use have shown promise. The purpose of this review is to examine the recent literature on the use of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, stimulants, and opioids in the perinatal period, their effects on maternal and fetal health and current treatments. PMID:26386836
Selley, N. J.
Objects to the idea of treating molecular particles, such as molecules and atoms, as equal in kind to substances when discussing chemical reactions, thus confusing their different roles in the theory of matter. (GA)
EPA is issuing a final test rule establishing testing requirements under section 4(a) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) for manufacturers and processors of mesityl oxide (MO; CAS No. 141-97-7).
... Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription Drugs & Cold ... least one other substance in the past year. Marijuana and alcohol were the most common (58.5% ...
Klostermann, Keith; O'Farrell, Timothy J
Historically, alcohol and other substance use disorders were viewed as individual-based problems that were most effectively treated by focusing on the diagnosed individual. However, in response to numerous clinical trials demonstrating the efficacy (and often superiority) of couple and family treatments for alcoholism and drug abuse, this emphasis on treating the individual has slowly given way to a greater awareness of family members' crucial roles in the etiology, maintenance, and long-term course of substance use and addictive behavior. As a result, clinicians are increasingly interested in understanding substance misuse from a systemic perspective and exploring how partner- and family-involved interventions may be used to address individuals' substance abuse.
MEDINA-MORA, MARÍA ELENA
Recent advances in psychosocial research and neurosciences have provided new avenues for prevention of substance abuse at the individual and community level. A series of risk and protective factors affecting the likelihood of using and abusing substances have been identified. The scope of prevention has been broadened, allowing the prescription of different interventions for individuals according to their varying degrees of vulnerability to substance experimentation, continuous use and dependence. An increased awareness of comorbidity between mental and substance use disorders provides an arena for prevention within psychiatry and related disciplines. Emphasis on program evaluation has helped identify cost effective programs and policies. The integration of prevention within healthy life style policies and programs, including interventions at the school, family and community levels, is more likely to produce the desired outcomes. PMID:16633497
Conroy, Deirdre A; Arnedt, J Todd
Substance use disorders (SUD) are common and individuals who suffer from them are prone to relapse. One of the most common consequences of the use of and withdrawal from substances of abuse is sleep disturbance. Substances of abuse affect sleep physiology, including the neurotransmitter systems that regulate the sleep-wake system. Emerging research now highlights an interactive effect between sleep disorders and substance use. New findings in alcohol and sleep research have utilized sophisticated research designs and expanded the scope of EEG and circadian rhythm analyses. Research on marijuana and sleep has progressed with findings on the effects of marijuana withdrawal on objective and subjective measures of sleep. Treatment studies have focused primarily on sleep in alcohol use disorders. Therapies for insomnia in cannabis disorders are needed. Future research is poised to further address mechanisms of sleep disturbance in alcoholics and the effect of medical marijuana on sleep and daytime functioning.
The amount of data available concerning the toxicity of various substances to freshwater biota is so large that it is difficult to use in a practical situation, such as environmental impact assessment. In this document, summary tables are presented showing acute and/or chronic toxicity of selected substances for various groups of aquatic biota. Each entry is referenced to its original source so that details concerning experimental conditions may be consulted. In addition, general information concerning factors modifying toxicity, synergisms, evidence of bioaccumulation, and water quality standards and criteria for the selected substances is given. The final table is a general toxicity table designed to provide an easily accessible and general indication of toxicity of selected substances in aquatic systems.
Smith, Christopher Daniel; Williams, Margaret; Shaikh, Maliha
The recreational use of novel psychoactive substances in the UK has increased markedly within the last decade. The variety of new substances synthesised and sold as ‘legal’, often under the pretence of being ‘plant food’ or ‘bath salts’ is similarly increasing. This presents challenges to clinicians: they may be unaware of these substances or unable to identify them and their potential for complications and drug interactions. This case describes a patient who ingested a novel psychoactive substance and presented with severe agitation following a delay of several days. He experienced renal, hepatic and neurological complications requiring critical care input. Our case adds to the current repertoire of knowledge regarding the effects of ingestion of novel cathinones. PMID:23964049
Cragan, John F.; Shields, Donald C.
Political campaigns have been more concerned with public relations than with public policy as a result of television domination. Illustrates how political speeches are dominated by symbols without substance. (CK)
Dimeff, Linda A.; Linehan, Marsha M.
Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is a well-established treatment for individuals with multiple and severe psychosocial disorders, including those who are chronically suicidal. Because many such patients have substance use disorders (SUDs), the authors developed DBT for Substance Abusers, which incorporates concepts and modalities designed to promote abstinence and to reduce the length and adverse impact of relapses. Among these are dialectical abstinence, “clear mind,” and attachment strategies that include off-site counseling as well as active attempts to find patients who miss sessions. Several randomized clinical trials have found that DBT for Substance Abusers decreased substance abuse in patients with borderline personality disorder. The treatment also may be helpful for patients who have other severe disorders co-occurring with SUDs or who have not responded to other evidence-based SUD therapies. PMID:18497717
Stein, R L; Motta, L J; Yee, A D
The use of a microcomputer to maintain controlled substance inventory and record keeping is described. The system maintains perpetual inventories of the central narcotic vault and proof-of-use controlled drug records outstanding at nursing stations. The computerized system has eliminated (1) the delay previously encountered in the posting of transactions from the numeric log to perpetual inventory logs and (2) the potential addition and subtraction errors inherent in a manual system. Computerizing the controlled drug record-keeping system has saved approximately 166 minutes of labor per day, a cost savings of approximately $26. The new system also helps prevent diversion of controlled substances. The computer may also be used for other tasks while not running the controlled substance program. A microcomputer is well suited to the task of controlled-substance record-keeping functions, and the cost of the system (less than $4000) can be quickly recouped in labor savings.
Brady, K T; Randall, C L
Despite the fact that the rate of substance abuse and dependence is higher among men than it is among women, the prevalence rates, especially the more recent ones, indicate that a diagnosis of substance abuse is not gender specific. From the emerging literature on gender differences over the past 25 years, male and female substance abusers are clearly not the same. Women typically begin using substances later than do men, are strongly influenced by spouses or boyfriends to use, report different reasons for maintaining the use of the substances, and enter treatment earlier in the course of their illnesses than do men. Importantly, women also have a significantly higher prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders, such as depression and anxiety, than do men, and these disorders typically predate the onset of substance-abuse problems. For women, substances such as alcohol may be used to self-medicate mood disturbances, whereas for men, this may not be true. Although these comorbid disorders might complicate treatment for women, women are, in fact, responsive to treatment and do as well as men in follow-up. Gender differences and similarities have significant treatment implications. This is especially true for the telescoping phenomenon, in which the window for intervention between progressive landmarks is shorter for women than for men. This is also true for the gender differences in physical and sexual abuse, as well as other psychiatric comorbidity that is evident in female substance abusers seeking treatment. The barriers to treatment for women are being addressed in many treatment settings to encourage more women to enter treatment, and family and couples therapy are standard therapeutic interventions. Negative consequences associated with substance abuse are different for men and women, and gender-sensitive rating instruments must be used to measure not only the severity of the problem but also to evaluate treatment efficacy. To determine whether gender
preference may be due to the presence of oviposition pheromones or oviposition attractants and repellents in natural habitats. These oviposition -modifying...LfD-R125 421 OVIPOSITION -MODIFYING SUBSTANCES FOR MOSQUITOES(U) 11 I CALIFORNIA UNIV RIVERSIDE DEPT OF ENTOMOLOGY Y HWANG I 91 JUL 81 DANDi?7-79-C...STANDARDS- 1963-A ." !’, -b b’, -1 I- I 1. AD__ _ _ _ * N 3 OVIPOSITION -MODIFYING SUBSTANCES FOR MOSQUITOES Final Report Yih-Shen Hwang * July 1, 1981
high degree of pre- ference in selecting specific oviposition sites in the general area of their breeding sources. This preference may be due to the...7 -Ai5 419 OVIPOSITION -MODIFYING SUBSTANCES FOR MOSQUITOES(U) /7, CALIFORNIA UNIV RIVERSIDE DEPT OF ENTOMOLOGY Y HWANGICLRSFE 91 SEP 79 DAMD7-?9-C...9026 FO63 N - . L’. ! 1111112. MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TESr CHART NATIONAt BURAU Of S1ANDARDS 196J A -17 * 0) AD __ OVIPOSITION -MODIFYING SUBSTANCES FOR
Thurman, E.M.; Malcolm, R.L.
A useful procedure has been developed which utilizes adsorption chromatography followed by size-exclusion chromatography, hydrogen saturation by ion exchange, and lypholization to obtain low-ash aqueous humic substances. The preparative concentration of aquatic humic substances is done by multiple reconcentration procedures even though initial concentrations of aqueous humus may be less than 25 ??g/L. The procedure yields concentration factors of 25 000 times for both humic and fulvic acid in water.
Marnewick, J C; van Zyl, A W
The abuse of both licit and illicit substances by the general population affects at least one in ten people. Research shows that the oral healthcare worker has at least the same prevalence of substance abuse, perhaps even higher. The emergence of prescription drug abuse is one of the most worrying and dangerous aspects for the healthcare worker, due to ease of access to such drugs. According to the United Nations, prescription drug abuse is amongst the top three practices of substance abuse. We have an obligation to incorporate the evidence of substance abuse among oral healthcare professionals in our undergraduate dental curricula in order to combat this phenomenon. As the stress of daily survival in single practitioner practices increase, so will the danger of substance abuse. This may lead to impairment of the healthcare worker and ultimately loss of registration. It will take a combined effort from organised dentistry and academic institutions to establish a national strategy to ensure we address this important issue at undergraduate level and provide support at practitioner level. This paper will deal with substance abuse and the implications of impairment it holds for the oral healthcare worker.
Siegrist, R.L. ); Hildmann-Smed, R.; Filip, Z.K. , Langen . Inst. fuer Wasser-, Boden- und Lufthygiene); Jenssen, P.D. . Centre for Soil and Environmental Research)
Soil infiltration of wastewater effluents is a widely practiced method of treatment and disposal/reuse throughout the world. Renovation of the wastewater results from a wide variety of complex physicochemical and biological processes. One set of processes is speculated to involve the accumulation of organic matter by filtration and sorption followed by formation of humic substances. This humic substance formation can effect the performance of soil treatment systems by contributing to soil pore clogging and reduction in hydraulic capacity, and by yielding reactive substances and an enhancement of purification processes. While there has been a wealth of research into the nature and genesis of humic substances in terrestrial environments, there has been limited research of humic substance formation during soil infiltration of wastewater. The purpose of the research reported herein was to determine if humic substances can form under conditions typical of those present during wastewater infiltration into natural soil systems. This work was conducted during 1989 to 1990 as a collaborative effort between the Centre for Soil and Environmental Research, located in Aas, Norway and the Institute for Water, Soil and Air Hygiene located in Langen, West Germany. 11 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.
Brucker, Debra L
Quantitative research methods are used to examine the interaction among public disability benefit receipt, substance abuse, participation in substance abuse treatment, and employment among US adults. Using cross-sectional data from the 2002 and 2003 Survey on Drug Abuse and Health, the results demonstrate that disability beneficiaries who have substance use disorders are more likely to access treatment than persons with substance use disorders who are not beneficiaries. Results could not confirm, however, that those beneficiaries who access treatment are more likely to return to employment than those who do not access treatment.
Substance P and substance K (neurokinin A) (dose range: 0.08-80 nmol kg-1) were tested for their effects on gastrointestinal propulsion in the rat. The peptides were given by intraperitoneal injection concurrently with the intragastric administration of a test meal containing charcoal and 51Cr. Examination 3 min after the test meal showed that high doses of substance P (greater than 0.74 nmol kg-1) and substance K (greater than 8.8 nmol kg-1) inhibited gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit. This inhibitory effect was changed to a stimulant effect by pretreatment of the rats with atropine (3.5 mumol kg-1). Guanethidine pretreatment (67 mumol kg-1) revealed a facilitatory effect of low doses of the two tachykinins (about 1 nmol kg-1) on gastrointestinal propulsion. Examination 15 min after the test meal demonstrated that substance P (greater than 0.74 nmol kg-1) dose-dependently enhanced gastrointestinal propulsion, an effect that was also seen after atropine pretreatment. Low doses of substance K (about 1 nmol kg-1) also stimulated gastrointestinal propulsion but this effect was abolished by atropine. In addition, atropine pretreatment revealed a stimulant effect of high doses of substance K (88 nmol kg-1) on gastric emptying. These results show that the effects of substance P and substance K on gastrointestinal propulsion vary with dose and time and involve, at least partly, activation of the autonomic nervous system. PMID:2413940
Schlede, E; Aberer, W; Fuchs, T; Gerner, I; Lessmann, H; Maurer, T; Rossbacher, R; Stropp, G; Wagner, E; Kayser, D
From 1985 to 2001 a group consisting of thirty experts including dermatologists from universities, representatives from the chemical industry and from regulatory authorities elaborated and consequently decided on the potency ranking of chemicals with contact allergenic properties. These chemicals were defined either as synthetic chemicals or as chemicals identified as ingredients in natural products. On 244 substances clinical and experimental data on humans and results of animal tests as documented in the scientific literature were carefully collected and evaluated. This careful evaluation and assessment of these chemicals clearly demonstrate that ranking of substances according to their allergenic potency is possible and justified. It was decided to rank the most potent contact allergens in Category A of substances having significant allergenic properties. Substances with a solid-based indication of a contact allergenic potential and substances with the capacity of cross-reactions were listed in Category B and substances with insignificant or questionable allergenic effects were listed in Category C. An assessment of these compiled data is published here. Three Appendices give a comprehensive overview of the 98 substances listed in Category A, the 77 substances listed in Category B and the 69 substances listed in Category C.
McGinty, Emma E; Choksy, Seema; Wintemute, Garen J
A causal relationship between controlled substances and firearm violence has been widely assumed in the United States, and federal law prohibits individuals who are "unlawful users of or addicted to any controlled substance" from purchasing or possessing firearms (68 FR 3750. 2003. Codified at 27 CFR §478.11). However, the law does a poor job of defining "unlawful users," resulting in recent calls for a revised, actionable definition. Such a definition should be informed by research evidence, but to date the epidemiologic research on the relationship between controlled substances and violence has not been comprehensively reviewed. The initial goal of this review was to summarize the best available evidence on the relationship between controlled substances and firearm violence, but only 1 study specific to firearm violence was identified. We therefore reviewed studies of this relationship using broader measures of interpersonal violence and suicide, all of which included but were not limited to firearm violence, and measures of illicit firearm carrying. Prospective longitudinal studies (n = 22) from 1990 to 2014 were identified by using searches of online databases and citation tracking. Information was extracted from each study by using a standardized protocol. Quality of evidence was independently assessed by 2 reviewers. Aggregate measures of controlled substance use were associated with increased interpersonal violence and suicide, but evidence regarding the relationship between specific substances and violence was mixed. Involvement in illegal drug sales was consistently associated with interpersonal violence. To effectively revise extant federal law and delineate appropriate prohibiting criteria, more research is needed to understand the relationship between controlled substances and firearm violence.
Kim, Dong-Hee; Kim, Seok-Hwan; Jeong, Woo-Seok; Lee, Ha-Yan
The increase rate of utilization of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) by muscle is reduced to its plasma concentration during prolonged exercise leading to glycogen. BCAA supplementation would reduce the serum activities of intramuscular enzymes associated with muscle damage. To examine the effects of BCAA administration on fatigue substances (serotonin, ammonia and lactate), muscle damage substances (CK and LDH) and energy metabolism substances (FFA and glucose) after endurance exercise. Subjects (n = 26, college-aged males) were randomly divided into an experimental (n = 13, EXP) and a placebo (n = 13, CON) group. Subjects both EXP and CON performed a bout of cycle training (70% VO2max intensity) to exhaustion. Subject in the EXP were administrated BCAA (78ml/kg·w) prior to the bout of cycle exercise. Fatigue substances, muscle damage substances and energy metabolism substances were measured before ingesting BCAAs and placebos, 10 min before exercise, 30 min into exercise, immediately after exercise, and 30 min after exercise. Data were analyzed by two-way repeated measure ANCOVA, correlation and statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. The following results were obtained from this study; 1. In the change of fatigue substances : Serotonin in the EXP tended to decreased at the 10 min before exercise, 30 min into exercise, post exercise, and recovery 30 min. Serotonin in the CON was significantly greater than the EXP at the10 min before exercise and recovery 30. Ammonia in the EXP was increased at the 10 min before exercise, 30 min into exercise, and post exercise, but significantly decreased at the recovery 30min (p < 0.05). Ammonia in the CON was significantly lower than the EXP at the 10 min before exercise, 30 min into exercise, and post exercise (p < 0.05). Lactate in the EXP was significantly increased at the 30 min into exercise and significantly decreased at the post exercise and recovery 30 min. Lactate in the CON was significantly lower than the EXP
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Controlled substances. 245... Controlled substances. The sale of controlled substances, e.g., narcotics, stimulants, depressants, or hallucinogenic drugs, shall be subject to the following special conditions: (a) Controlled Substances. Bids...
... Enforcement Administration Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Pursuant to Title 21, Code... class of controlled substance listed in schedule II. The facility intends to import the above listed controlled substance for legitimate use. Supplies of this particular controlled substance are inadequate...
Jones, K. Dayle; Gill, Carman; Ray, Shannon
The "DSM-5" Task Force has recommended a new substance use disorder to replace substance abuse and dependence. This article provides an overview of substance abuse and dependence, a description of the "DSM-5" substance use disorder, and implications and potential consequences of this change.
... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Chemical substances for testing. 766... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT DIBENZO-PARA-DIOXINS/DIBENZOFURANS Specific Chemical Testing/Reporting Requirements § 766.25 Chemical substances for testing. (a) Listing of chemical substances. Chemical...
... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Chemical substances for testing. 766... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT DIBENZO-PARA-DIOXINS/DIBENZOFURANS Specific Chemical Testing/Reporting Requirements § 766.25 Chemical substances for testing. (a) Listing of chemical substances. Chemical...
... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Chemical substances for testing. 766... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT DIBENZO-PARA-DIOXINS/DIBENZOFURANS Specific Chemical Testing/Reporting Requirements § 766.25 Chemical substances for testing. (a) Listing of chemical substances. Chemical...
... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chemical substances for testing. 766... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT DIBENZO-PARA-DIOXINS/DIBENZOFURANS Specific Chemical Testing/Reporting Requirements § 766.25 Chemical substances for testing. (a) Listing of chemical substances. Chemical...
... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Chemical substances for testing. 766... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT DIBENZO-PARA-DIOXINS/DIBENZOFURANS Specific Chemical Testing/Reporting Requirements § 766.25 Chemical substances for testing. (a) Listing of chemical substances. Chemical...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ozone-Depleting Substances....223-11 Ozone-Depleting Substances. As prescribed in 23.804(a), insert the following clause: Ozone-Depleting Substances (MAY 2001) (a) Definition. Ozone-depleting substance, as used in this clause, means...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ozone-Depleting Substances....223-11 Ozone-Depleting Substances. As prescribed in 23.804(a), insert the following clause: Ozone-Depleting Substances (MAY 2001) (a) Definition. Ozone-depleting substance, as used in this clause, means...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ozone-Depleting Substances....223-11 Ozone-Depleting Substances. As prescribed in 23.804(a), insert the following clause: Ozone-Depleting Substances (MAY 2001) (a) Definition. Ozone-depleting substance, as used in this clause, means...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ozone-Depleting Substances....223-11 Ozone-Depleting Substances. As prescribed in 23.804(a), insert the following clause: Ozone-Depleting Substances (MAY 2001) (a) Definition. Ozone-depleting substance, as used in this clause, means...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ozone-Depleting Substances....223-11 Ozone-Depleting Substances. As prescribed in 23.804(a), insert the following clause: Ozone-Depleting Substances (MAY 2001) (a) Definition. Ozone-depleting substance, as used in this clause, means...
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Storage of incompatible substances. 56.16012... Storage and Handling § 56.16012 Storage of incompatible substances. Chemical substances, including... substances, where such contact could cause a violent reaction or the liberation of harmful fumes or gases....
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Storage of incompatible substances. 57.16012... Storage and Handling § 57.16012 Storage of incompatible substances. Chemical substances, including... substances, where such contact could cause a violent reaction or the liberation of harmful fumes or gases....
Halebsky, Mark A.
Researched the effects of peer and parent drug usage on substance abuse by the adolescent. Found parent usage correlated with increased adolescent usage, as did parental attitude toward illicit substance use. Supports Kandel's theory of stages of substance use. Shows adolescent substance usage is learned, in part, by modeling and imitation.…
Ream, Geoffrey L; Elliott, Luther C; Dunlap, Eloise
This study tested the hypothesis that playing video games while using or feeling the effects of a substance--referred to herein as "concurrent use"-is related to substance use problems after controlling for substance use frequency, video gaming as an enthusiastic hobby, and demographic factors. Data were drawn from a nationally representative online survey of adult video gamers conducted by Knowledge Networks, valid n = 2,885. Problem video game playing behavior was operationalized using Tejeiro Salguero and Bersabé Morán's 2002 problem video game play (PVP) measure, and measures for substance use problems were taken from the National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Separate structural equation modeling analyses were conducted for users of caffeine, tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana. In all four models, concurrent use was directly associated with substance use problems, but not with PVP. Video gaming as an enthusiastic hobby was associated with substance use problems via two indirect paths: through PVP for all substances, and through concurrent use for caffeine, tobacco, and alcohol only. Results illustrate the potential for "drug interaction" between self-reinforcing behaviors and addictive substances, with implications for the development of problem use.
Kümmerer, Klaus; Hofmeister, Sabine
Flows of chemical substances need to be managed in a sustainable way. Sustainable development as a whole and the sustainable management of substance flows in particular are both time issues. These include the importance of the dynamics of substance flows and the way these interconnect with the use of resources, the avoidance of environmental pollution, and their effects on health and food production. Another prerequisite for the proper management of substance flows is justice within and between generations. This requires a systematic approach and a systematic analysis of the issues as well as of the actions to be taken. One tool for such a systematic approach is temporal analysis. It brings the temporal aspects of the substances themselves and of their intended use, as well as factors affecting the stakeholders, such as decision makers, producers and consumers, into focus. In the past, timing factors were rarely taken into account. Knowledge of the temporal dynamics of substance flows and their resultant outcomes, as well as of their interaction with ecological, economic and social systems, is a basic requirement for successful substance flow management. The need to include temporal aspects into substance flow management and how to do so is outlined here. Included are not only politicians but also practitioners and scientists who must explicitly take into account adequate time scales, points in time, breaks and other forms of time in planning and acting.
Bina, Rena; Yum, Joohee; Hall, Diane M. Harnek; Sowbel, Lynda; Mollette, Angela; Jani, Jayshree; Smith-Osborne, Alexa
As frontline mental health care providers, social workers need to be prepared to confront and properly manage substance abuse issues in practice. This study examined predictors of recent master of social work (MSW) graduates' perceptions of preparedness to practice in the area of substance abuse. A cross-sectional design was used, and 232 recent…
Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.; Holub, Shayla C.; Arnett, Mitzi
Examines the importance of peer influence and personal attitudes in relation to self-reported use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana for 213 younger adolescents and 219 older adolescents. Friends' use was significantly related to substance use for both age groups, both sexes, and all substances examined. Resistance self- efficacy was…
Venuti, John Paul; Conroy, Matthew; Landis, Pamela; Chambliss, Catherine
This study assesses the differential substance use between male and female college students through the administration of a survey of recent use of six commonly used psychoactive substances (cigarettes, chewing tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, and caffeine). It investigates the situational contexts associated with use of particular substances…
D'Amore, Meredith M; Cheng, Debbie M; Kressin, Nancy R; Jones, Judith; Samet, Jeffrey H; Winter, Michael; Kim, Theresa W; Saitz, Richard
Little is known about how different types of substances affect oral health. Our objective was to examine the respective effects of alcohol, stimulants, opioids, and marijuana on oral health in substance-dependent persons. Using self-reported data from 563 substance-dependent individuals, we found that most reported unsatisfactory oral health, with their most recent dental visit more than 1 year ago. In multivariable logistic regressions, none of the substance types were significantly associated with oral health status. However, opioid use was significantly related to a worse overall oral health rating compared to 1 year ago. These findings highlight the poor oral health of individuals with substance dependence and the need to address declining oral health among opioid users. General health and specialty addiction care providers should be aware of oral health problems among these patients. In addition, engagement into addiction and medical care may be facilitated by addressing oral health concerns.
Schiff, Miriam; Fang, Lin
This paper reviews the impact of exposure to man-made or natural disasters on adolescent substance use. It covers empirical studies published from 2005 to 2015 concerning (a) the scope of the problem, (b) vulnerable groups and risk and protective factors, and (c) evidence-based interventions. The review suggests a strong link between adolescent substance use and exposure to either man-made or natural disaster. Vulnerable groups include adolescents with previous exposure to traumatic events, living in areas that are continually exposed to disasters, and ethnic minorities. Risk and protective factors at the individual, familial, community, and societal levels are described based on the bioecological model of mass trauma. Given that mass trauma is unfortunately a global problem, it is important to establish international interdisciplinary working teams to set gold standards for comparative studies on the etiology for adolescent substance use in the context of disasters.
Schifano, Fabrizio; Orsolini, Laura; Duccio Papanti, G; Corkery, John M
Novel psychoactive substances include synthetic cannabinoids, cathinone derivatives, psychedelic phenethylamines, novel stimulants, synthetic opioids, tryptamine derivatives, phencyclidine-like dissociatives, piperazines, GABA-A/B receptor agonists, a range of prescribed medications, psychoactive plants/herbs, and a large series of performance and image enhancing drugs. Users are typically attracted by these substances due to their intense psychoactive effects and likely lack of detection in routine drug screenings. This paper aims at providing psychiatrists with updated knowledge of the clinical pharmacology and psychopathological consequences of the use of these substances. Indeed, these drugs act on a range of neurotransmitter pathways/receptors whose imbalance has been associated with psychopathological conditions, including dopamine, cannabinoid CB1, GABA-A/B, 5-HT2A, glutamate, and k opioid receptors. An overall approach in terms of clinical management is briefly discussed. PMID:25655145
Rothrauff, Tanja C.; Abraham, Amanda J.; Bride, Brian E.; Roman, Paul M.
This study examined predictor, moderator, and mediator variables of occupational turnover intention (OcTI) among substance abuse counselors. Data were obtained via questionnaires from 929 counselors working in 225 private substance abuse treatment (SAT) programs across the U.S. Hierarchical multiple regression models were conducted to assess predictor, moderator, and mediator variables of OcTI. OcTI scores were relatively low on a 7-point scale, indicating that very few counselors definitely intended to leave the SAT field. Age, certification, positive perceptions of procedural and distributive justice, and hospital-based status negatively predicted OcTI. Counselors’ substance use disorder impacted history moderated the association between organizational commitment and OcTI. Organizational turnover intention partially mediated the link between organizational commitment and OcTI. Workforce stability might be achieved by promoting perceptions of advantages to working in a particular treatment program, organizational commitment, showing appreciation for counselors’ work, and valuing employees from diverse backgrounds. PMID:20947285
Pateria, Puraskar; de Boer, Bastiaan; MacQuillan, Gerry
Drug and substance abuse remains a major medical problem. Alcohol use, abuse and dependence are highly prevalent conditions. Alcohol related liver disease can present as simple steatosis, steatohepatitis, alcoholic hepatitis or liver cirrhosis. Paracetamol hepatotoxicity secondary to accidental or deliberate overdose is another common problem. While the adverse cardiovascular, neurological, renal and psychiatric consequences of various illicit substance abuses are widely studied and publicized, less attention has been directed towards possible hepatotoxic effects. Illicit drug abuse can cause a range of liver abnormalities ranging from asymptomatic derangement of liver function tests to fulminant hepatic failure. This article reviews the epidemiology, risk factors, clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, investigations, management and prognostic factors of alcohol related liver disease and paracetamol hepatotoxicity as well as the current knowledge pertaining to hepatotoxicity of the more commonly used illicit substances including cannabis, amphetamine type stimulants, cocaine, khat chewing and complementary and alternate medicine.
Sharma, H K
The present communication focuses on a sociocultural perspective of substance use in a pluralistic and diverse culture. India has a history of use of plant products, viz., cannabis, opium, and home-brewed alcoholic beverages, within a defined sociocultural framework over five millennium. Cross sectional epidemiological studies in the field of substance use in different parts of India show that certain social groups are more "vulnerable" to substance use. Caste, religion, and local customs and traditions play a significant role in the choice of drugs, their consumption, and their control in rural/semiurban populations. The intercultural barriers are diminishing in urban populations, and even alien drugs like heroin have been introduced. The social and cultural implications of the traditional vis-a-vis the altering drug use scene are discussed at length.
Amodia, Diana S; Cano, Carol; Eliason, Michele J
There is a pressing need in the substance abuse field for more comprehensive models of etiology and treatment that address the complex issues of addiction, including the biological, social, cultural, spiritual and developmental needs of individuals and groups. This article presents a theoretical framework for an integral approach to substance abuse that expands on the existing biopsychosocial model. One contribution of the model is an integrated approach to spirituality from a cross-cultural perspective. This integral approach examines substance abuse etiology and treatment from a four-quadrant perspective adapted from the work of Ken Wilber, and incorporates concepts from integrative medicine and transpersonal psychology/psychiatry. Implications of the model are explored.
Akvardar, Yildiz; Türkcan, Ahmet; Cakmak, Duran
In today's medical community, there is growing concern about substance use among physicians, not only because of their own health, but also because of the potential adverse effects on their clinical practices. Physicians affect public health both by treatment and preventive studies and as role models. Prevalence data concerning substance abuse are generally lacking. There is no consensus on the rates of substance abuse being higher among physicians than among the general public. Physicians are less likely to smoke cigarettes and use illicit substances (like marijuana, cocaine and heroin) and more likely to use alcohol and two types of prescription medications--benzodiazepines and minor opioids--compared with their age groups. Doctors are at special risk of developing addiction problems owing to the strain of medical practice, erosion of the taboo against injecting and using opiates, and particularly access to supplies. The most common precipitating factors mentioned are physical pain and illness, usually chronic, with family tragedy such as death of a wife or child next. The third most common factor is an addicted wife. Stress, overwork and marital problems are also mentioned. No data were found about physicians' substance use in Turkey. This article generally aims to review the knowledge on the prevalence of substance use among physicians, the drug of choice, the development of dependence, the treatment and prognosis and to discuss the importance of this issue by evaluating three cases treated at the Alcohol and Drug Addiction Treatment and Research Center (AMATEM), Bakirköy State Hospital for Mental and Neurological Diseases.
... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention... Abuse and Mental Health Services, Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention Drug...
... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... meeting of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance... below). Committee Name: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for...
... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT.... Committee Name: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's CSAT National Advisory...
... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT.... Committee Name: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's CSAT National Advisory...
... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... meeting of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance... Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention Drug...
Sohtome, Yoshihiro; Tokunaga, Takashi; Ueda, Katsuhiro; Yamamura, Shosuke; Ueda, Minoru
Potassium (2R,3R)-2,3,4-trihydroxy-2-methylbutanoate (1) was identified as a leaf-closing substance in the nyctinastic plant, Leucaena leucocephala. Compound 1 showed strong leaf-closing activity toward L. leucocephala and was not effective against other nyctinastic plants. The potassium ion was indispensable for the bioactivity of 1. Compound 1 gradually lost its bioactivity because of the exchange of the counter cation during isolation. A leaf-opening substance was also observed in the same plant.
Barclay, Rebecca P; Hilt, Robert J
Integrated care is a way to improve the prevention, identification, and treatment of mental health difficulties, including substance abuse, in pediatric care. The pediatrician's access, expertise in typical development, focus on prevention, and alignment with patients and families can allow successful screening, early intervention, and referral to treatment. Successful integrated substance abuse care for youth is challenged by current reimbursement systems, information exchange, and provider role adjustment issues, but these are being addressed as comfort with this care form and resources to support its development grow.
Bojan, M.; Damian, V.; Fleaca, C.; Vasile, T.
In this paper we report spectral measurements of some relatively common substances but from the hazardous category (possibly to be used like explosives or their manipulation is dangerous) in view to create a database with spectra of such substances. THz transmission spectra of some pure materials and mixed ones are also introduced. The measurements were performed using a Time-Domain system that work in the range of 0.2-4.5 THz. We develop our algorithm to obtain maximum information from the measurement and to minimize the errors.
Illicit drugs are used regularly by 14.5 million Americans. By identifying patients who abuse substances, the nurse will be better able to provide for the treatment interventions needed and omit ineffective treatment interventions. The patient will benefit by receiving timely and appropriate care. To identify substance abusers, the nurse must know effects of commonly abused drugs, their routes of administration, withdrawal signs, and the physical assessments that should be performed. The most common drugs abused are narcotics, depressants, antidepressants, anti-anxiety drugs, stimulants, hallucinogens, and marijuana.
Vaccari, D. A.
A system-based substance flow model (SFM) for phosphorus is developed based on the global phosphorus substance flow analysis (SFA) of Cordell et al (2009). The model is based strictly on mass balance considerations. It predicts the sensitivity of phosphorus consumption to various interventions intended to conserve reserves, as well as interactions among these efforts, allowing a comparison of their impacts on phosphorus demand. The interventions include control of phosphorus losses from soil erosion, food production and food waste, or phosphorus recycling such as from animal manure or human waste.
Radacsi, Gergely; Hardi, Peter
All sectors of society should be involved in reducing substance misuse, including businesses. However, the business sector is typically involved only to the extent that their products compel them to be (e.g., alcohol producers promoting responsible alcohol consumption). This article examines why business participation has been limited and how embedding prevention within a framework of health promotion could increase participation. It reviews both Hungarian and international cases, concluding that although corporate social responsibility (CSR) offers a framework to approach substance misuse reduction, a different perception of the role of the business sector is necessary to make it viable.
Shih, Regina A.; Tucker, Joan S.; Miles, Jeremy N.V.; Ewing, Brett A.; Pedersen, Eric R.; D’Amico, Elizabeth J.
The present study examined differences in lifetime use and initiation of substance use and associated risk factors for alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana among seven subgroups of Asian American (AA) adolescents: Chinese, Filipino, Indian, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, and Mixed heritage Asian. Sixth and 7th grade AA adolescents in Southern California were surveyed five times over three academic years. We examined subgroup differences in (1) lifetime alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use assessed at baseline, (2) initiation of each substance over three years, and (3) baseline individual (positive and negative expectancies about substances, resistance self-efficacy, and intentions to use), family (closest adult and older sibling substance use), and school factors (perceived peer use). Although there was considerable heterogeneity in lifetime substance use and initiation rates, subgroup differences were not statistically significant (ps > .20). Significant subgroup differences existed for negative expectancies about use, perceived peer use, and close adult alcohol and cigarette use (ps < .05). Specifically, Vietnamese and Japanese adolescents had the lowest negative expectancies about cigarettes and marijuana, respectively. Vietnamese adolescents reported the highest levels of perceived peer cigarette use. Mixed-heritage adolescents reported the highest frequency of alcohol and cigarette use by their closest adult. Although no differences in substance use rates were observed, these findings are an important first step in understanding heterogeneity in AA adolescents’ risk for substance use and initiation. PMID:26388971
Turan, Reyhan; Yargic, Ilhan
The purpose of this study is to determine if a significant relationship exists between the sociodemographics, substance use characteristics, criminal history, and completion of substance abuse treatment. In this study, 115 individuals being monitored for substance abuse treatment on probation at the Probation and Help Center under the Republic of Turkey's Ministry of Justice's Chief Public Prosecutor's Office of Istanbul were included successively between the dates of April 2008 and April 2009. During a 24-week follow-up, individuals whose urine analyses were clean 6 times consecutively were considered to have completed the treatment successfully. To determine the effect of sociodemographic factors and substance use characteristics on treatment completion, a semistructured sociodemographic data survey was used. Also, the participants' criminal records were examined. A total of 115 people participated in the study. One hundred ten (95.7%) of them were male. Sixty-eight (59.1%) of the participants had completed treatment. Age group, education level, age of onset for substance use, number of substances used, employment status, and criminal records showed a significant difference between treatment completers and noncompleters. When a logistic regression analysis was done, only number of substances used and criminal record (other than drug possession) were significantly different for the 2 groups. The current treatment program for polysubstance users and individuals with a criminal record is insufficient. It is necessary that treatment systems be developed so they can be beneficial for these types of patients.
Ream, Geoffrey L.; Elliott, Luther C.; Dunlap, Eloise
This study tested the hypothesis that playing video games while using or feeling the effects of a substance—referred to herein as “concurrent use”—is related to substance use problems after controlling for substance use frequency, video gaming as an enthusiastic hobby, and demographic factors. Data were drawn from a nationally representative online survey of adult video gamers conducted by Knowledge Networks, valid n = 2,885. Problem video game playing behavior was operationalized using Tejeiro Salguero and Bersabé Morán’s 2002 problem video game play (PVP) measure, and measures for substance use problems were taken from the National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Separate structural equation modeling analyses were conducted for users of caffeine, tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana. In all four models, concurrent use was directly associated with substance use problems, but not with PVP. Video gaming as an enthusiastic hobby was associated with substance use problems via two indirect paths: through PVP for all substances, and through concurrent use for caffeine, tobacco, and alcohol only. Results illustrate the potential for “drug interaction” between self-reinforcing behaviors and addictive substances, with implications for the development of problem use. PMID:22073023
... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Infectious substances. 172.323 Section 172.323 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE,...
... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Infectious substances. 172.323 Section 172.323 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE,...
... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Infectious substances. 172.323 Section 172.323 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE,...
... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Infectious substances. 172.323 Section 172.323 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE,...
Lang, Brent; Rosenberg, Harold
Most of the research on public perceptions of people with addictive disorders has focused on alcohol and illicit drugs, rather than addiction to behavioral activities. To expand the range of addictive behaviors and types of perceptions studied, we designed the present study to assess the lay public's definitions of and willingness to affiliate with people described as addicted to 1 of 2 specific behaviors (i.e., pornography or gambling) or 1 of 3 specific substances (i.e., alcohol, marijuana, or heroin). A nationwide convenience sample (N = 612) of American adults completed online questionnaires during the summer of 2015. Participants rated heroin as more addictive than the other drugs and behaviors and, despite differences among the conditions, were generally unwilling to affiliate with an individual addicted to any of the 2 behaviors or 3 substances. When asked to rate different potential indications of addiction, participants endorsed behavioral signs of impaired control and physiological and psychological dependence as more indicative of all 5 types of addiction than desire to use the substance or engage in the addictive behavior. Despite recent efforts to increase public knowledge about addictive disorders, members of the public continue to endorse some attitudes indicative of stigmatization toward people with selected substance and behavioral addictions. (PsycINFO Database Record
This report is designed to provide Florida's school personnel with assistance in working with students prenatally exposed to cocaine or other toxic substances. The report offers background data, practical strategies for teaching and learning, and resources for networking. The first chapter outlines statistics on the incidence of the problem of…
Hansen, William B.
This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in program evaluation for substance abuse prevention efforts. Included in this review is a discussion of approaches to process, outcome, and impact evaluation. Evaluation designs are reviewed with attention given to topics such as recruitment and retention of sites and participants, defining interventions,…
Hauck, Markus; Willenbruch, Karen; Leuschner, Christoph
The dibenzofuran usnic acid, a widespread cortical secondary metabolite produced by lichen-forming fungi, was shown to promote the intracellular uptake of Cu(2+) in two epiphytic lichens, Evernia mesomorpha and Ramalina menziesii, from acidic, nutrient-poor bark. Higher Cu(2+) uptake in the former, which produces the depside divaricatic acid in addition to usnic acid, suggests that this depside promotes Cu(2+) uptake. Since Cu(2+) is one of the rarest micronutrients, promotion of Cu(2+) uptake by lichen substances may be crucial for the studied lichens to survive in their nutrient-poor habitats. In contrast, study of the uptake of other metals in E. mesomorpha revealed that the intracellular uptake of Mn(2+), which regularly exceeds potentially toxic concentrations in leachates of acidic tree bark, was partially inhibited by the lichen substances produced by this species. Inhibition of Mn(2+) uptake by lichen substances previously has been demonstrated in lichens. The uptake of Fe(2+), Fe(3+), Mg(2+), and Zn(2+), which fail to reach toxic concentrations in acidic bark at unpolluted sites, although they are more common than Cu(2+), was not affected by lichen substances of E. mesomorpha.
Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL. Office of Vocational and Adult Education.
Alcohol and drug abuse not only affect the individual, but the entire community. No single person or organization alone is capable of, nor responsible for solving the substance abuse problem. It is now important that schools establish partnerships with the community to develop and implement appropriate programs to foster healthy adolescent…
Liepman, Michael R., Ed.; And Others
This curriculum guide on substance abuse is intended for teachers of family medicine. Comments, learning objectives, teaching hints, and evaluations of knowledge are provided for each area in all chapters. Chapter 1 focuses on the pharmacology of commonly abused drugs including depressants, opioids, stimulants, hallucinogens, inhalants, and…
Hespos, Susan J.; Dora, Begum; Rips, Lance J.; Christie, Stella
Infants can track small groups of solid objects, and infants can respond when these quantities change. But earlier work is equivocal about whether infants can track continuous substances, such as piles of sand. Experiment 1 ("N" = 88) used a habituation paradigm to show infants can register changes in the size of piles of sand that they…
Giordano, Amanda L.; Prosek, Elizabeth A.; Stamman, Julia; Callahan, Molly M.; Loseu, Sahar; Bevly, Cynthia M.; Cross, Kaitlin; Woehler, Elliott S.; Calzada, Richard-Michael R.; Chadwell, Katie
Trauma is prevalent among clients with substance abuse issues, yet addictions counselors' training in trauma approaches is limited. The purpose of the current article is to provide pertinent information regarding trauma treatment including the use of assessments, empirically supported clinical approaches, self-help groups and the risk of vicarious…
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Controlled substance. 21.610 Section 21.610 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 21.610...
Jimerson, Steven D; Musick, Sarah
Several states have proposed laws that urine drug screening be performed as a part of qualifying for public assistance. At least one state (Florida) has passed such a law, and several other states are considering similar laws. The Oklahoma Commission on Children and Youth created a committee to study laws and policies regarding the use of illegal drugs while pregnant. To get a better understanding of drug screening and pregnancy, 151 consecutive obstetrical patients receiving Medicaid were screened at their initial obstetrical visit by verbal and written questionnaire's concerning the use of alcohol, nicotine, and other illicit\\dangerous drugs; in addition a urine drug screen for the use of illicit or dangerous drugs was performed. The patient histories regarding the use of dangerous or illicit substances was reviewed and compared with the urine drug screens performed at the same visit. The authors note that when studied the incidence of substance abuse has been similar in patient population receiving public assistance and patient populations with traditional insurance. Oklahoma is one of 13 states with laws requiring mandatory reporting of substance abuse in pregnancy or the exposure of the newborn to illicit substances.
Kuula, J.; Rinta, Heikki J.; Pölönen, I.; Puupponen, H.-H.; Haukkamäki, Marko; Teräväinen, T.
Fast and safe detection methods of explosive substances are needed both before and after actualized explosions. This article presents an experiment of the detection of three selected explosives by the ATR FTIR spectrometer and by three different IR hyperspectral imaging devices. The IR spectrometers give accurate analyzing results, whereas hyperspectral imagers can detect and analyze desired samples without touching the unidentified target at all. In the controlled explosion experiment TNT, dynamite and PENO were at first analyzed as pure substances with the ATR FTIR spectrometer and with VNIR, SWIR and MWIR cameras. After three controlled explosions also the residues of TNT, dynamite and PENO were analyzed with the same IR devices. The experiments were performed in arctic outdoor conditions and the residues were collected on ten different surfaces. In the measurements the spectra of all three explosives were received as pure substances with all four IR devices. Also the explosion residues of TNT were found on cotton with the IR spectrometer and with VNIR, SWIR and MWIR hyperspectral imagers. All measurements were made directly on the test materials which had been placed on the explosion site and were collected for the analysis after each blast. Measurements were made with the IR spectrometer also on diluted sample. Although further tests are suggested, the results indicate that the IR spectrography is a potential detection method for explosive subjects, both as pure substances and as post-blast residues.
McClelland, Gary M.; Elkington, Katherine S.; Teplin, Linda A.; Abram, Karen M.
Objective: To estimate the 6-month prevalence of multiple substance use disorders (SUDs) among juvenile detainees by demographic subgroups (sex, race/ethnicity, age). Method: Participants were a randomly selected sample of 1,829 African American, non-Hispanic white, and Hispanic detainees (1,172 males, 657 females, aged 10 to 18). Patterns and…
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Controlled substance. 21.610 Section 21.610 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 21.610...
Biakeddy, Eddie; Yazzie, Arnold D.
To assist schools and community organizations in implementing the 1984 Navajo Nation Education Policy on Substance and Alcohol Abuse, the Monitoring-Evaluation and Technical Assistance office has identified resources, materials, and operational programs that should be helpful in the development of programs to prevent and combat the enormous…
Itokawa, H; Ichihara, Y; Mochizuki, M; Enomori, T; Morita, H; Shirota, O; Inamatsu, M; Takeya, K
Taspine has been isolated as a cytotoxic substance from Sangre de Grado, sap of Croton palanostigma (Euphorbiaceae), by bioassay guided fractionation. The cytotoxicity (IC50) of taspine was found to be 0.39 microgram/ml against KB cells and 0.17 microgram/ml against V-79 cells.
Kerr, Barbara; And Others
A survey of 22 writers, 27 artists, and 12 musicians compared their substance use (caffeine, nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, hallucinogens, cocaine, tranquilizers, stimulants, and narcotics) with that of a control group. In general, no significant intergroup differences were found. Older participants used marijuana less than younger participants.…
... considered to have additive toxic effects. (b) Food additives may also cause pharmacological or biological... chemicals may also cause pharmacological or biological effects similar or related to such effects caused by... General Provisions § 70.11 Related substances. (a) Different color additives may cause similar or...
Lin, Jia-Ling; Vahabzadeh, Massoud; Mezghanni, Mustapha; Na, Paul J; Leff, Michelle; Contoreggi, Carlo
Pharmacies have become essential components in support of clinical research. Their operations become highly complex when preponderance of prescriptions is composed of controlled substances. Application of informatics will result in more efficient operations. We present the Pharmacy Information Management System (PIMS) that includes a set of decision support systems to address the pharmacy challenges and is integrated into our electronic health record system.
... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Related substances. 70.11 Section 70.11 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES... pharmacological or biological effects, and, in the absence of evidence to the contrary, those that do so will...
... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Related substances. 70.11 Section 70.11 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES... pharmacological or biological effects, and, in the absence of evidence to the contrary, those that do so will...
Barillo, D J; Goode, R
Ethanol or drug use may increase the risk of fire-related injury or death. This study was performed to quantify the role of substance abuse in fatal fires occurring in New Jersey over a 7-year period. Records of all the fatalities of fire reported to the State Medical Examiners Office between 1985 and 1991 were retrospectively examined. Blood assay results for ethanol were positive in 215 of the 727 (29.5%) fatalities of fire tested. For this group, the mean blood-ethanol level was 193.9 mg/dl. Blood or urine assay results for substances of abuse were positive in 78 of the 534 (14.6%) fatalities tested. The most commonly detected illicit substances were cocaine, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and cannabinoids. The test results were positive for both ethanol and drug use in 36 victims. Forty percent of all the fatalities of fire were aged younger than 11 or older than 70. In contradistinction, 75% of drug-positive fatalities of fire and 58% of ethanol-positive fatalities of fire were between the ages of 21 and 50, suggesting that inebriation may impair the ability to escape from fire. Substance abusers in middle life are a previously unrecognized group at higher risk of injury or death in a fire.
Chapman, Shawna L. Carroll; Wu, Li-Tzy
Individuals with disabilities are a growing population that confronts multiple disadvantages from social and environmental determinants of health. In particular, the 7-8 million people in the U.S. with an intellectual disability (ID) suffer disproportionately from substance use problems, largely because of a lack of empirical evidence to inform…
Cowart, Virginia S.
Loss of control over the use of anabolic steriods had prompted the federal government to take steps to stem the black market manufacture and distribution of these drugs. However, these steps are likely to stop short of bestowing controlled substance status on steriods. (Author/CB)
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Controlled substance. 20.610 Section 20.610 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 20.610 Controlled...
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Controlled substance. 20.610 Section 20.610 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 20.610 Controlled...
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Controlled substance. 20.610 Section 20.610 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 20.610 Controlled...
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Controlled substance. 20.610 Section 20.610 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 20.610 Controlled...
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Controlled substance. 20.610 Section 20.610 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 20.610 Controlled...
Factorlally designed column and batch leaching studies were conducted on samples of various Industrial wastes, flue gas desulfurlzatlon sludges, and coal fly ash to determine the effect of leaching solution composition on release of hazardous substances from waste samples, and t...
Star, Nonnie; Shadoff, Sander
This guide is designed to assist people with learning disabilities to recognize their disabilities and the connection between learning disabilities and substance abuse. It begins by defining learning disabilities and providing a self-test checklist for common signs and symptoms of learning disabilities. Difficulties with organization, memory,…
Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.
This report on drug abuse in schools is based on 6 years of analysis, focus groups, and field investigations. Prior research has determined that if young people do not engage in smoking or substance abuse by age 21, their chances of engaging later are next to nothing. It has also been determined that next to parents, schools have the greatest…
Sepehrmanesh, Zahra; Ahmadvand, Afshin; Moraveji, Alireza
Background: Substance use in patients with psychiatric disorder is an every-day seen. Detection of this comorbidity can significantly affect the treatment of these disorders, as well as substance use. Objectives: This study has been conducted to determine the prevalence and pattern of substance use in hospitalized psychiatric patients. Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 210 hospitalized psychiatric patients were selected by simple randomization from all records of hospitalized patients. The instrument of gathering data was a demographic checklist including age, gender, marital status, education, type of disorder and substance abuse and duration of psychiatric disorder. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 16 using Fisher exact and Chi square tests. Results: The mean age of patients was 37.9 years. Most of the patients were male, married and unemployed. The Prevalence of substance use was 36.7%. The most prevalent pattern of substance use was opium, opioid, methamphetamines and other substances (poly substance). The prevalence of substance use in patients with mood disorders was more than the other disorders and the most prevalent substance use in these patients was opium and opioid. Poly substance use was the most prevalent pattern of use (80 %) in psychotic and mood disorders due to substance. Significant difference was seen between genders, marital status, occupation, duration of illness and frequency of substance use (P < 0.05 ), however no significant difference was seen between educational levels, age and substance use. Conclusions: The patients with mood disorders had the highest comorbidity with substance use and concurrent use of poly substance was the most prevalent pattern of use in these patients. Therefore, successful treatment of psychiatric disorders and substance use needs multimodal and more serious interventions. Regarding to the pattern of poly substance use in these patients, careful screening should be performed at admission
Fedotov, G. N.; Shoba, S. A.
It is argued that the isolation of low-molecular-weight compounds from humic substances does not prove their supramolecular nature, because small molecules can be sorbed on macromolecules by interacting with them due to noncovalent bonds. The relative mobility of molecular segments in humic substances has been proposed to be used as a criterion for the discrimination between the humic substances of supraand macromolecular nature. The macromolecules are characterized by mobility of their segments, whereas supramolecular systems have stiff structure. This difference between macroand supramolecules results in different behaviors of the matrices (gels) formed from them in the processes of segregation. In the macromolecules, the formations of a new phase appearing at the segregation (microphase separation) are of nano size, at least in one dimension. They are incapable of moving within the matrix and form a well-known, limited set of systems. In the supramolecular matrices, the new-phase formations should have higher mobility and ability to move within the matrix with the formation of particles and zones of not only nano, but also micro sizes, as well as a significantly larger set of systems, including fractal configurations. The experimental electron microscopic study of the humic matrices of soil gels shows that the new-phase formations in the matrix of humic substances have not only nano, but also micro sizes and are capable of moving within the matrix, which confirms the supramolecular nature of humic substances. The proposed method has allowed generalizing the supraand macromolecular approaches, because macromolecules can enter into the composition of supramolecular systems. It is no less important that the behavior of HSs can be perceived as the behavior of stiff impenetrable particles that may compose the structures of different types and sizes.
Mulder, Juul; Ter Bogt, Tom F M; Raaijmakers, Quinten A W; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Monshouwer, Karin; Vollebergh, Wilma A M
Both music preferences and the substance use behavior of peers are important elements in explaining adolescent substance use. The extent to which music preference and peer use overlap in explaining adolescent substance use remains to be determined. A nationally representative sample of 7324 Dutch school-going adolescents (aged 12-16) provided data on music preferences, substance use behaviors and perceived number of peers using substances. Factor analyses showed that preferences for eight music genres factored into four styles: Pop (chart music, Dutch pop), Adult (classical music, jazz), Urban (rap/hiphop, soul/R&B) and Hard (punk/hardcore, techno/hardhouse); substance use was indicated by smoking, drinking, and cannabis use. Structural equation modeling revealed that the relationship between music preference and substance use was either wholly or partially mediated by perceived peer use. Music can model substance use and fans of different types of music may select friends with use patterns that reinforce their own substance use inclinations.
February 28, 1988: delisting of these substances was based on the Agency's explicit recognition that they did not meet the criteria established for list qualification and were listed in error. They are no longer subject to reporting and notification.
Background Substance use disorders and perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) are interrelated, major public health problems. Methods We surveyed directors of a sample of substance use disorder treatment programs (SUDPs; N=241) and batterer intervention programs (BIPs; N=235) in California (70% response rate) to examine the extent to which SUDPs address IPV, and BIPs address substance abuse. Results Generally, SUDPs were not addressing co-occurring IPV perpetration in a formal and comprehensive way. Few had a policy requiring assessment of potential clients, or monitoring of admitted clients, for violence perpetration; almost one-quarter did not admit potential clients who had perpetrated IPV, and only 20% had a component or track to address violence. About one-third suspended or terminated clients engaging in violence. The most common barriers to SUDPs providing IPV services were that violence prevention was not part of the program’s mission, staff lacked training in violence, and the lack of reimbursement mechanisms for such services. In contrast, BIPs tended to address substance abuse in a more formal and comprehensive way; e.g., one-half had a policy requiring potential clients to be assessed, two-thirds required monitoring of substance abuse among admitted clients, and almost one-half had a component or track to address substance abuse. SUDPs had clients with fewer resources (marriage, employment, income, housing), and more severe problems (both alcohol and drug use disorders, dual substance use and other mental health disorders, HIV + status). We found little evidence that services are centralized for individuals with both substance abuse and violence problems, even though most SUDP and BIP directors agreed that help for both problems should be obtained simultaneously in separate programs. Conclusions SUDPs may have difficulty addressing violence because they have a clientele with relatively few resources and more complex psychological and medical
Zhornitsky, Simon; Tikàsz, Andràs; Rizkallah, Élie; Chiasson, Jean-Pierre; Potvin, Stéphane
Background. Substance-induced psychotic disorder (SIPD) is a diagnosis constructed to distinguish substance-induced psychotic states from primary psychotic disorders. A number of studies have compared SIPD persons with primary psychotic patients, but there is little data on what differentiates substance use disorder (SUD) individuals with and without SIPD. Here, we compared psychopathology, sociodemographic variables, and substance use characteristics between SUD patients with and without SIPD. Methods. A retrospective chart review was conducted on newly admitted patients at a rehabilitation centre between 2007 and 2012. Results. Of the 379 patients included in the study, 5% were diagnosed with SIPD (n = 19) and 95% were diagnosed with SUDs without SIPD (n = 360). More SIPD patients reported using cannabis and psychostimulants, and fewer SIPD patients reported using alcohol than SUDs patients without SIPD. SIPD patients scored higher on the “schizophrenia nuclear symptoms” dimension of the SCL-90R psychoticism scale and exhibited more ClusterB personality traits than SUD patients without SIPD. Discussion. These data are consistent with previous studies suggesting that psychopathology, substance type, and sociodemographic variables play important role in the development of SIPD. More importantly, the results highlight the need for paying greater attention to the types of self-reported psychotic symptoms during the assessment of psychotomimetic effects associated with psychoactive substances. PMID:26417473
...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics, and... export from the United States any controlled substance or narcotic drug listed in schedules I through...
...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics, and... export from the United States any controlled substance or narcotic drug listed in schedules I through...
...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics, and... export from the United States any controlled substance or narcotic drug listed in schedules I through...
... Enforcement Administration Controlled Substances: 2011 Proposed Aggregate Production Quotas AGENCY: Drug...: This notice proposes to adjust the 2011 aggregate production quotas for several controlled substances... aggregate production quotas for five synthetic cannabinoids temporarily controlled in Schedule I....
Phillips, Lindsay A.
This qualitative analysis explores the role of substance abuse in reentry from prison to society. Participants who recidivated (N = 20) in an urban prison system identified substance abuse as their primary reason for recidivism. Treatment implications are discussed.
... in the United States or U.S. Territories for substance abuse/addiction and/or mental health problems. PLEASE NOTE: ... and Spanish for individuals and family members facing substance abuse and mental health issues. 24 hours a day, ...
..., hospitals, and practitioners with the ability to use modern technology for controlled substance... to allow the creation, signature, transmission, and processing of controlled substance prescriptions... greatest extent possible, prevent the possibility of insider creation or alteration of controlled...
The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) of 1976 provides EPA with authority to require reporting, record-keeping and testing requirements, and restrictions relating to chemical substances and/or mixtures.
... substances: Drug Schedule Opium, raw (9600) II Poppy Straw Concentrate (9670) II The company plans to import... registered with DEA as a manufacturer of several controlled substances that are manufactured from opium,...
... substances: Drug Schedule Raw Opium (9600) II Concentrate of Poppy Straw (9670) II The company plans to... registered with DEA as a manufacturer of several controlled substances that are manufactured from raw...
... following basic classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Opium, raw (9600) II Poppy Straw Concentrate... substances that are manufactured from raw opium, poppy straw, and concentrate of poppy straw. As explained...
... classes of controlled substances listed in schedule II: Drug Schedule Raw Opium (9600) II Concentrate of... substances that are manufactured from raw opium, poppy straw, and concentrate of poppy straw. As explained...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Pursuant to Sec. 1301... a bulk manufacturer of Diphenoxylate (9170), a basic class of controlled substance listed...
Section 8(e) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) requires notification to EPA of information that reasonably supports the conclusion that their substances or mixtures presents a substantial risk of injury to health or the environment.
Spotts, J V; Shontz, F C
This report applies a theory of psychological individuation to inferences drawn from an 8-year series of clinical studies of men who practice heavy, chronic use of different drugs. Each man was studied intensively over a period of 4-5 months, using interviews and a comprehensive battery of dimensional and morphogenic assessment procedures. Users of barbiturates and sedative hypnotics were found to be least mature, followed by users of opiates, users of amphetamine, users of cocaine, and nonusers of drugs, who were found to be most mature. A theory is described which conceives adolescent substance abuse as rooted in dysfunctional relationships with parental figures which block or delay the normal individuation process. Comparable sets of representative case studies of heavy, chronic users of alcohol and marihuana are recommended to facilitate the development of treatment programs that take into account the special needs of persons who practice heavy, chronic use of different substances.
Lobo, Susan; Vaughan, Margaret Mortensen
Extensive qualitative research in the San Francisco Bay Area in California and in Tucson, Arizona, indicates strong associations between substance abuse and homelessness among American Indians. This article takes a comparative approach to describe and analyze precipitating factors and survival patterns of those who are both homeless and who suffer from substance dependency. Possible precipitating factors presented through case studies consider the complex interaction of childhood fostering or adoption into non-Native families, different types of involuntary institutionalization during youth, and the personal impact of accident, trauma and loss. Coping strategies and keys to survival are examined, including the role of the extended family and close friendships, American Indian and mainstream organizations that offer formal and informal services, the existence of anchor or key households, the helping relationships and sobriety groups among homeless individuals, spirituality, and cultural resiliency.
Feske, Ulrike; Tarter, Ralph E; Kirisci, Levent; Pilkonis, Paul A
The association between borderline personality disorder (BPD) and substance use disorder (SUD) was examined in a predominantly psychiatric (77.6%) sample of 232 women. BPD proved to be a significant predictor of a lifetime diagnosis of SUD across four different categories: any SUD (including alcohol); alcohol use; drug use; and heroin, cocaine, or poly-substance use. BPD continued to be a predictor of SUD even when the effects of other cluster B and all cluster C PDs were controlled statistically. Antisocial personality disorder generally yielded larger odds ratios than BPD and emerged as a partial mediator of the relation between BPD and SUD. Histrionic PD was the only other PD that showed meaningful relations with SUD.
Beck, François; Bonnet, Nicolas
This article reviews the recent knowledge on LSD stemming from various disciplines among which pharmacology, sociology and epidemiology. The d-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a particularly powerful hallucinogenic substance. It produces distortions and hearing, visual and tactile hallucinations. Rarely used (only 1.7% of people aged 15-64 years old have tried it in their lifetime), this very powerful drug generates a strong apprehension within the general population, but the ethnographical studies show that its image seems rather good among illicit drug users. This representation relies both on the proper effects of this substance and also on the history of LSD very closely linked to the counterculture characteristic of the years 1960-1970.
In contrast to traditional pharmacodynamic approaches to treat substance use disorders, the use of biologics (vaccines, monoclonal antibodies, genetically modified enzymes) is based on a pharmacokinetic principle: reduce the amount of (and in the ideal, eliminate) abused drug entering the central nervous system. Preclinical studies indicate biologics are effective in both facilitating abstinence and preventing relapse to abused substances ranging from nicotine to heroin. While data are still emerging, the results from multiple clinical trials can best be described as mixed. Nonetheless, these clinical studies have already provided important insights using “first generation” tools that may inform the development of effective and commercially viable biologics to treat tobacco, cocaine, and methamphetamine use disorders. PMID:26435208
Vlasova, I G; Torshin, V I
Using survival slices of the rat cerebellum, we studied the influence of opiates (alpha- and beta-endorphines, met-enkephalines) as well as substance P (SP) on the impulse activity (IA) of neurons. Low doses of the studied substances (10(-8)-10(-10) M) for the most part increased the IA of the neurons, while high doses (10(6)-10(-5) M) produced biphasic reaction (inhibition-excitation). It is supposed that opiates and SP act as transmitters in the cerebellum. Under increasing hypoxia, opiates and SP manifested antixypoxic properties both in low O22 concentration and under reoxygenation. Opiates and SP proved to be natural antihypoxants involved not only in nociception mechanisms but also in brain adaptation to oxygen deficiency.
Bryson, Ethan O.; Silverstein, Jeffrey H.
Despite substantial advances in our understanding of addiction and the technology and therapeutic approaches used to fight this disease, addiction still remains a major issue in the anesthesia workplace and outcomes have not appreciably changed. While alcoholism and other forms of impairment such as addiction to other substances and mental illness impact anesthesiologists at similar rates to other professions, as recently as 2005, the drug of choice for anesthesiologists entering treatment was still an opioid. There exists a considerable association between chemical dependence and other psychopathology and successful treatment for addiction is less likely when co-morbid psychopathology is not treated. Individuals under evaluation or treatment for substance abuse should have an evaluation with subsequent management of co-morbid psychiatric conditions. Participation in self-help groups is still considered a vital component in the therapy of the impaired physician, along with regular monitoring if the anesthesiologist wishes to attempt re-entry into clinical practice. PMID:18946304
Wesson, D R; Hink, R H
Computer programs can assist humans in solving complex problems that cannot be solved by traditional computational techniques using mathematic formulas. These programs, or "expert systems," are commonly used in finance, engineering, and computer design. Although not routinely used in medicine at present, medical expert systems have been developed to assist physicians in solving many kinds of medical problems that traditionally require consultation from a physician specialist. No expert systems are available specifically for drug abuse treatment, but at least one is under development. Where access to a physician specialist in substance abuse is not available for consultation, this expert system will extend specialized substance abuse treatment expertise to nonspecialists. Medical expert systems are a developing technologic tool that can assist physicians in practicing better medicine.
This rule governs the secure disposal of controlled substances by registrants and ultimate users. These regulations will implement the Secure and Responsible Drug Disposal Act of 2010 by expanding the options available to collect controlled substances from ultimate users for the purpose of disposal, including: Take-back events, mail-back programs, and collection receptacle locations. These regulations contain specific language allowing law enforcement to voluntarily continue to conduct take-back events, administer mail-back programs, and maintain collection receptacles. These regulations will allow authorized manufacturers, distributors, reverse distributors, narcotic treatment programs (NTPs), hospitals/clinics with an on-site pharmacy, and retail pharmacies to voluntarily administer mail-back programs and maintain collection receptacles. In addition, this rule expands the authority of authorized hospitals/clinics and retail pharmacies to voluntarily maintain collection receptacles at long-term care facilities. This rule also reorganizes and consolidates previously existing regulations on disposal, including the role of reverse distributors.
Iversen, Les; Gibbons, Simon; Treble, Ric; Setola, Vincent; Huang, Xi-Ping; Roth, Bryan L.
Fourteen substances from the class of drugs sometimes known as “legal highs” were screened against a battery of human receptors in binding assays, and their potencies as inhibitors of monoamine uptake determined in functional in vitro assays. Thirteen of the test substances acted as inhibitors of monoamine uptake at submicromolar concentrations, including 9 potent inhibitors of the dopamine transporter (DAT), 12 potent inhibitors of the norepinephrine transporter (NET) and 4 potent inhibitors of the serotonin transporter (SERT). Seven compounds acted as submicromolar inhibitors of both DAT and NET, and three substances 1-(benzofuran-5-yl)propan-2-amine (5-APB),1-naphthalen-2-yl-2-pyrrolidin-1-ylpentan-1-one hydrochloride, (“naphyrone”) and 1-naphthalen-1-yl-2-pyrrolidin-1-ylpentan-1-one hydrochloride, (“1-naphyrone”) were submicromolar inhibitors of all three monoamine transporters. There was a lack of correlation between results of functional uptake experiments and in vitro binding assays for the monoamine transporters. There was also no correlation between the human behavioural effects of the substances and the results of bindings assays for a range of receptor targets, although 1-(benzofuran-5-yl)propan-2-amine(5-APB), 1-(benzofuran-6-yl)propan-2-amine hydrochloride(6-APB) and 5-iodo-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-2-amine hydrochloride,(5-iodo-aminoindane) exhibited <100nM affinities for 5HT2B and α2C receptors. Functional assays revealed that 5-APB and 6-APB were potent full agonists at 5HT2B receptors. PMID:23261499
Parikh, Nirzari; Nonnemacher, Michael R; Pirrone, Vanessa; Block, Timothy; Mehta, Anand; Wigdahl, Brian
During the course of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) disease, the virus has been shown to effectively escape the immune response with the subsequent establishment of latent viral reservoirs in specific cell populations within the peripheral blood (PB) and associated lymphoid tissues, bone marrow (BM), brain, and potentially other end organs. HIV-1, along with hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV), are known to share similar routes of transmission, including intravenous drug use, blood transfusions, sexual intercourse, and perinatal exposure. Substance abuse, including the use of opioids and cocaine, is a significant risk factor for exposure to HIV-1 and the development of acquired immune deficiency syndrome, as well as HBV and HCV exposure, infection, and disease. Thus, coinfection with HIV-1 and HBV or HCV is common and may be impacted by chronic substance abuse during the course of disease. HIV- 1 impacts the natural course of HBV and HCV infection by accelerating the progression of HBV/HCV-associated liver disease toward end-stage cirrhosis and quantitative depletion of the CD4+ T-cell compartment. HBV or HCV coinfection with HIV-1 is also associated with increased mortality when compared to either infection alone. This review focuses on the impact of substance abuse and coinfection with HBV and HCV in the PB, BM, and brain on the HIV-1 pathogenic process as it relates to viral pathogenesis, disease progression, and the associated immune response during the course of this complex interplay. The impact of HIV-1 and substance abuse on hepatitis virus-induced disease is also a focal point.
13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The objective of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of two Web -based brief interventions (BIs) for...approaches and programs. Volunteers will complete a brief Web assessment for alcohol use and current stress reactions. Participants are randomly...assigned to one of three intervention conditions: Wait-list control, Stress BI, or Stress plus Substance Use BI. A Web -based intervention provides a
Pace, Christine A; Samet, Jeffrey H
This issue provides a clinical overview of substance use disorders, focusing on epidemiology, prevention, diagnosis, complications, and management. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of additional science writers and physician writers.
Brande, M.C.; Zimmerman, A.M.
This book provides an overview of the effects of several abused drugs, including opiates, cannabinoids, alcohol, nicotine, and cocaine, with special emphasis on the actions of these substances at the molecular and cellular levels. The first half deals with genetic effects, including molecular genetics, biochemical genetics, pharmacogenetics, cytogenetics, and genetic toxicity. The second half focuses on perinatal effects and covers: drug abuse during pregnancy; biochemical aspects of marihuana on male reproduction; and long-term behavioral and neuroendocrine effects of perinatal alcohol exposure.
Prescribed medication, self-medication or doping the use of psychoactive substances by caregivers is varied. Doping behaviour in the care environment is under-estimated and trivialised. It is often difficult to spot at an early stage and yet this consumption is not without consequences on the quality and safety of work. Gérard-Marchant general hospital in Toulouse integrates this issue into its professional risk management policy.
Yamada, Samantha; Pepler, Debra; Jiang, Depeng; Cappadocia, M. Catherine; Craig, Wendy; Connolly, Jennifer
Longitudinal data from 746 adolescents in Toronto, Canada (54% females), was gathered in eight waves over seven years (1995 through 2001), beginning when the youths were 10 to 12 years old (mean age = 11.8, SD = 1.2 years). Five trajectories of substance use were identified: chronic-high, childhood onset-rapid high, childhood onset-moderate,…
... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: PAPER AND PAPERBOARD COMPONENTS Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.130 Anti-offset substances. Substances named in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section may be safely used to prevent the transfer of inks...
... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: PAPER AND PAPERBOARD COMPONENTS Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.130 Anti-offset substances. Substances named in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section may be safely used to prevent the transfer of inks...
... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Controlled substances testing. 382.215 Section 382... SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES AND ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Prohibitions § 382.215 Controlled substances testing. No driver...
... Enforcement Administration Importer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application Pursuant to 21 U.S.C. 958... manufacturer of a controlled substance in schedule I or II, and prior to issuing a regulation under 21 U.S.C... controlled substance listed in schedule I. The company plans to manufacture the above listed...
... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Controlled substance use. 382.213 Section 382.213... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES AND ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Prohibitions § 382.213 Controlled substance use. (a) No driver shall report...
Saylors, Karen; Daliparthy, Nalini
Many mental health problems among substance abusing populations are directly linked to high rates of abuse and trauma. There is increasing evidence of associations between childhood physical and sexual abuse to adult substance use and HIV-risk behavior. The relationship of abuse, mental health problems, substance abuse, and high-risk sexual…
Lambert, David; Gale, John A.; Hartley, David
Purpose: Addressing substance abuse in rural America requires extending our understanding beyond urban-rural comparisons to how substance abuse varies across rural communities of different sizes. We address this gap by examining substance abuse prevalence across 4 geographic levels, focusing on youth (age 12-17 years) and young adults (age 18-25…
... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Method of testing toxic substances. 1500.40... testing toxic substances. The method of testing the toxic substances referred to in § 1500.3(c) (1)(ii)(C... with additional strips and should fit snugly around the trunk of the animal. The ends of the sleeve...
Meschke, Laurie L.; Patterson, Joan M.
Uses the resilience perspective to examine the risk and protective mechanisms associated with adolescent substance use. Resilience is defined and resilience processes related to substance use are explored. Effective adolescent substance use prevention programs that promote youth resilience are reviewed. (Contains 120 references.) (GCP)
... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 26 Certification of Substance Abuse Experts AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... substance abuse expert. The NRC determined that the issues raised in the PRM are appropriate for... substance abuse expert. The NRC received one comment during the public comment period (ADAMS Accession...
... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8728 of October 3, 2011 National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2011 By... increase their chances of living long, healthy, and productive lives. During National Substance Abuse... diagnosable substance abuse or dependence problems--countless families and communities also live with the...
Burrow-Sanchez, Jason J.; Jenson, William R.; Clark, Elaine
Experimentation with substances is typical for many young people, but unfortunately some will go on to develop substance abuse problems that substantially affect their lives. Successfully intervening with students who use or abuse substances is a challenge for school mental health professionals across the nation. There is a need for evidence-based…
Rodgers-Bonaccorsy, Roe A.
The study assessed attitudes toward counseling individuals with substance use disorders and perceived confidence of providing substance abuse screenings and referrals among a random sample of Certified Rehabilitation Counselors (CRCs). Results indicated CRCs have positive attitudes toward counseling individuals with substance use disorders.…
... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8879 of October 1, 2012 National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2012 By... substance abuse are profound. Yet, we also know that they are preventable. This month, we pay tribute to all those working to prevent substance abuse in our communities, and we rededicate ourselves to building...
Substance addiction has become one of the important issues in the world. The studies concerning substance use reveal the extent of the problem. According to the results of such studies, the number of the people using illicit drugs has increased profoundly in recent years. In this study, it was tried to find out how common substance use among…
... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Noxious liquid substance (NLS). 4.03-60 Section 4.03-60 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-60 Noxious liquid substance (NLS). Noxious liquid substance...
... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Noxious liquid substance (NLS). 4.03-60 Section 4.03-60 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-60 Noxious liquid substance (NLS). Noxious liquid substance...
... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Noxious liquid substance (NLS). 4.03-60 Section 4.03-60 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-60 Noxious liquid substance (NLS). Noxious liquid substance...
... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Noxious liquid substance (NLS). 4.03-60 Section 4.03-60 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-60 Noxious liquid substance (NLS). Noxious liquid substance...
... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Noxious liquid substance (NLS). 4.03-60 Section 4.03-60 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-60 Noxious liquid substance (NLS). Noxious liquid substance...
... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Chemical substances import policy. 707... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT CHEMICAL IMPORTS AND EXPORTS General Import Requirements and Restrictions § 707.20 Chemical substances import policy. (a) Scope. (1) This statement addresses the policy of the...
... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mixtures of substances with carriers... § 792.113 Mixtures of substances with carriers. (a) For each test, control, or reference substance that... the uniformity of the mixture and to determine, periodically, the concentration of the test,...
... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mixtures of substances with carriers... Mixtures of substances with carriers. (a) For each test, control, or reference substance that is mixed with... uniformity of the mixture and to determine, periodically, the concentration of the test, control,...
... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mixtures of substances with carriers... Mixtures of substances with carriers. (a) For each test, control, or reference substance that is mixed with... uniformity of the mixture and to determine, periodically, the concentration of the test, control,...
... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mixtures of substances with carriers... § 792.113 Mixtures of substances with carriers. (a) For each test, control, or reference substance that... the uniformity of the mixture and to determine, periodically, the concentration of the test,...
... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mixtures of substances with carriers... Mixtures of substances with carriers. (a) For each test, control, or reference substance that is mixed with... uniformity of the mixture and to determine, periodically, the concentration of the test, control,...
... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mixtures of substances with carriers... Mixtures of substances with carriers. (a) For each test, control, or reference substance that is mixed with... uniformity of the mixture and to determine, periodically, the concentration of the test, control,...
... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mixtures of substances with carriers... § 792.113 Mixtures of substances with carriers. (a) For each test, control, or reference substance that... the uniformity of the mixture and to determine, periodically, the concentration of the test,...
... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mixtures of substances with carriers... § 792.113 Mixtures of substances with carriers. (a) For each test, control, or reference substance that... the uniformity of the mixture and to determine, periodically, the concentration of the test,...
... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mixtures of substances with carriers... § 792.113 Mixtures of substances with carriers. (a) For each test, control, or reference substance that... the uniformity of the mixture and to determine, periodically, the concentration of the test,...
... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mixtures of substances with carriers... Mixtures of substances with carriers. (a) For each test, control, or reference substance that is mixed with... uniformity of the mixture and to determine, periodically, the concentration of the test, control,...
Kelder, Steven H.; Murray, Nancy G.; Orpinas, Pamela; Prokhorov, Alexander; McReynolds, Larkin; Zhang, Qing; Roberts, Robert
Investigated the association between depression and substance use among minority (predominantly Hispanic American) middle school students. Student surveys indicated that depressive symptoms were strongly and positively related to self-reported substance use. Risk of substance use increased in a dose-response fashion with each higher level of…
Brown, Tamara L.; Miller, Joshua D.; Clayton, Richard R.
Few studies have examined the predictors of substance use for ethnic minority adolescents. The current longitudinal study investigated whether factors predictive of substance use for Caucasian adolescents were also predictive for African American adolescents. Results indicated which predictors of substance use actually differ across African…
Damron, Susan W.; Simpson, William R.
Abuse of alcohol or other substances by schizophrenic patients seriously undermines effective treatment. To document the extent of substance abuse among schizophrenic patients hospitalized in one Veterans Administration Hospital, medical records of 100 patients were reviewed. The results revealed that 54 patients had recent substance abuse, with…
Floyd, Leah J.; Latimer, William
Combining substance use and sex compounds the risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV. However, the association between substance use and sexual behaviors may vary by substance and sexual behavior. The current study sought to examine the relationship between alcohol and marijuana use frequency and specific sexual…
... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Drugs and other substances. 392.4 Section 392.4... VEHICLES General § 392.4 Drugs and other substances. (a) No driver shall be on duty and possess, be under the influence of, or use, any of the following drugs or other substances: (1) Any 21 CFR...
... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drugs and other substances. 392.4 Section 392.4... VEHICLES General § 392.4 Drugs and other substances. (a) No driver shall be on duty and possess, be under the influence of, or use, any of the following drugs or other substances: (1) Any 21 CFR...
... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Drugs and other substances. 392.4 Section 392.4... VEHICLES General § 392.4 Drugs and other substances. (a) No driver shall be on duty and possess, be under the influence of, or use, any of the following drugs or other substances: (1) Any 21 CFR...
... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drugs and other substances. 392.4 Section 392.4... VEHICLES General § 392.4 Drugs and other substances. (a) No driver shall be on duty and possess, be under the influence of, or use, any of the following drugs or other substances: (1) Any 21 CFR...
... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Drugs and other substances. 392.4 Section 392.4... VEHICLES General § 392.4 Drugs and other substances. (a) No driver shall be on duty and possess, be under the influence of, or use, any of the following drugs or other substances: (1) Any 21 CFR...
... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration By Notice dated April... Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of 4-Anilino-N-phenethyl-4-Piperidine... controlled substance in the manufacturer of another controlled substance. No comments or objections have...
Bailey, Jennifer A.; Hill, Karl G.; Oesterle, Sabrina; Hawkins, J. David
This study examined patterns of between-generation continuity in substance use from generation 1 (G1) parents to generation 2 (G2) adolescents and from G2 adult substance use and G1 substance use to generation 3 (G3) problem behavior in childhood. Structural equation modeling of prospective, longitudinal data from 808 participants, their parents,…
Heinemann, Allen W.; And Others
Substance use histories were obtained from 103 persons (16 to 63 years of age) with recent spinal cord injuries (SCI). Lifetime exposure to and current use of substances with abuse potential were substantially greater in this sample compared to a like-age national sample. Exposure to and recent use of substances with abuse potential was…
Maher, Rebecca C.
Problem: Adolescents who begin abusing substances, including alcohol, prescription drugs, and illegal drugs often fail in school suffering life-altering consequences (Cox, Zhang, Johnson, & Bender, 2007). While plentiful research exists on substance abuse, there is a dearth of research on the school experiences of recovering substance abusers.…
Shears, Jeffrey; Edwards, Ruth W.; Stanley, Linda R.
Adolescent substance use in U.S. rural communities is now equal to or greater than urban use for many substances. Yet much research focuses on urban and suburban populations, raising doubt as to the generalizability of etiological models of substance use to rural populations.This study examines whether the relationship between school bonding and…
McKay, James R.; Buka, Stephen L.
Presents findings from research programs: first on substance abuse in juvenile offenders/adolescents with psychiatric/behavioral disorders focused on treatment issues (attributions for substance use, beliefs about effects of drugs, perceptions of family functioning); and second on psychiatric disorders in adolescent substance abuse patients…
North Central Regional Educational Lab., Oak Brook, IL.
Although violence and substance use are usually considered urban problems, rates of violence and substance use in rural areas are catching up to urban rates. This collection of six articles explores violence and substance use in rural America, the relationship between the two, the factors contributing to these problems, and effective preventive…
Gang membership is an indicator of chronic substance use.1 Evidence from North America and Europe indicates that gang youth, in comparison to their non-gang peers, are more likely to report alcohol and illicit drug use (Bendixen, Endresen, & Olweus, 2006; Gatti, Tremblay, Vitaro, & McDuff, 2005; Gordon, et al., 2004; Hall, Thornberry, & Lizotte, 2006; Sharp, Aldridge, & Medina, 2006). Qualitative studies focusing specifically on gang members have also noted high frequencies of lifetime rates of use for a variety of illegal substances (De La Rosa, Rugh, & Rice, 2006; Hagedorn, Torres, & Giglio, 1998; Hunt, Jo-Laidler, & Evans, 2002; Mata et al., 2002; Valdez, Kaplan, & Cepeda, 2006). Gang youth, however, have differential attitudes towards the use of various illegal drugs. Marijuana, for instance, has remained a staple within gang culture, but the use of other drugs has been heavily stigmatized, especially heroin, methamphetamine, and crack cocaine (MacKenzie, Hunt, & Joe-Laidler, 2005; Moore, 1978; Taylor, 1990; Waldorf, 1993). Perspectives with good explanatory power should be flexible enough to elucidate these distinctions regarding illicit substance use patterns and preferences. PMID:25221432
Archer, Roland P; Treble, Ric; Williams, Keith
Historically, the appearance of new psychoactive materials (and hence the requirement for new reference standards) has been relatively slow. This position has now changed, with 101 new psychoactive substances reported to EMCDDA-Europol since 2006. The newly reported materials, and associated metabolites, require properly certified reference materials to permit reliable identification and quantification. The traditional approach and timescales of reference material production and certification are being increasingly challenged by the appearance of these new substances. Reference material suppliers have to adopt new strategies to meet the needs of laboratories. This situation is particularly challenging for toxicology standards as the metabolism of many of these substances is initially unknown. Reference material production often involves synthesis from first principles. While it is possible to synthesis these materials, there can be significant difficulties, from synthetic complexities through to the need to use controlled materials. These issues are examined through a discussion of the synthesis of cathinones. Use of alternative sources, including pharmaceutical impurity materials or internet sourced products, as starting materials for conversion into appropriately certified reference materials are also discussed. The sudden appearance and sometimes brief lifetime in the market place of many of these novel legal highs or research chemicals present commercial difficulties for reference material producers. The need for collaboration at all levels is highlighted as essential to rapid identification of requirements for new reference materials. National or international commissioning or support may also be required to permit reference material producers to recover their development costs.
Gang membership is an indicator of chronic substance use. Evidence from North America and Europe indicates that gang youth, in comparison to their non-gang peers, are more likely to report alcohol and illicit drug use (Bendixen, Endresen, & Olweus, 2006; Gatti, Tremblay, Vitaro, & McDuff, 2005; Gordon, et al., 2004; Hall, Thornberry, & Lizotte, 2006; Sharp, Aldridge, & Medina, 2006). Qualitative studies focusing specifically on gang members have also noted high frequencies of lifetime rates of use for a variety of illegal substances (De La Rosa, Rugh, & Rice, 2006; Hagedorn, Torres, & Giglio, 1998; Hunt, Jo-Laidler, & Evans, 2002; Mata et al., 2002; Valdez, Kaplan, & Cepeda, 2006). Gang youth, however, have differential attitudes towards the use of various illegal drugs. Marijuana, for instance, has remained a staple within gang culture, but the use of other drugs has been heavily stigmatized, especially heroin, methamphetamine, and crack cocaine (MacKenzie, Hunt, & Joe-Laidler, 2005; Moore, 1978; Taylor, 1990; Waldorf, 1993). Perspectives with good explanatory power should be flexible enough to elucidate these distinctions regarding illicit substance use patterns and preferences.
... Used in Pharmacy Compounding; Bulk Drug Substances That May Be Used To Compound Drug Products in... Administration (FDA or Agency) is withdrawing the proposed rule to list bulk drug substances used in pharmacy... Pharmacopoeia chapter on pharmacy compounding; (II) if such a monograph does not exist, are drug substances...
Mulder, Juul; Ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Raaijmakers, Quinten A. W.; Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic; Monshouwer, Karin; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.
Both music preferences and the substance use behavior of peers are important elements in explaining adolescent substance use. The extent to which music preference and peer use overlap in explaining adolescent substance use remains to be determined. A nationally representative sample of 7324 Dutch school-going adolescents (aged 12-16) provided data…
... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hazardous atmospheres and substances (see also Â§ 1917.2 Hazardous cargo, material, substance or atmosphere). 1917.23 Section 1917.23 Labor Regulations Relating to... TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.23 Hazardous atmospheres and substances (see also §...
... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hazardous atmospheres and substances (see also Â§ 1917.2 Hazardous cargo, material, substance or atmosphere). 1917.23 Section 1917.23 Labor Regulations Relating to... TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.23 Hazardous atmospheres and substances (see also §...
... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hazardous atmospheres and substances (see also Â§ 1917.2 Hazardous cargo, material, substance or atmosphere). 1917.23 Section 1917.23 Labor Regulations Relating to... TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.23 Hazardous atmospheres and substances (see also §...
... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hazardous atmospheres and substances (see also Â§ 1917.2 Hazardous cargo, material, substance or atmosphere). 1917.23 Section 1917.23 Labor Regulations Relating to... TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.23 Hazardous atmospheres and substances (see also §...
... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hazardous atmospheres and substances (see also Â§ 1917.2 Hazardous cargo, material, substance or atmosphere). 1917.23 Section 1917.23 Labor Regulations Relating to... TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.23 Hazardous atmospheres and substances (see also §...
Golder, Seana; Hall, Martin T.; Logan, TK; Higgins, George; Dishon, Amanda; Renn, Tanya; Winham, Katherine
Victimized women within the criminal justice system are an important group and understanding their substance use is critical. Substance use was examined among 406 victimized women on probation and parole in an urban community from 2010 to 2013. Ninety-three percent reported lifetime use of an illicit substance, while 58% and 45% reported use of at least one illicit substance in the past two years and 12 months, respectively. Among probationers, having been in a controlled environment was associated with a higher prevalence of illicit substance use as compared to parolees. Implications for practice, policy and future research are discussed. PMID:24138096
Golder, Seana; Hall, Martin T; Logan, T K; Higgins, George E; Dishon, Amanda; Renn, Tanya; Winham, Katherine M
Victimized women within the criminal justice system are an important group and understanding their substance use is critical. Substance use was examined among 406 victimized women on probation and parole in an urban community from 2010 to 2013. Ninety-three percent reported lifetime use of an illicit substance, whereas 58% and 45% reported use of at least one illicit substance in the past 2 years and 12 months, respectively. Among probationers, having been in a controlled environment was associated with a higher prevalence of illicit substance use as compared to parolees. Implications for practice, policy, and future research are discussed.
Locke, Geoffrey W.; Shilkret, Robert; Everett, Joyce E.; Petry, Nancy M.
The college years are a time for developing independence and separating from one’s family, and it is also a time in which substance use often escalates. This study examined the relationships between use of substances and interpersonal guilt, an emotion that can arise from feelings about separation, among 1,979 college students. Regular users of alcohol, cigarettes, cannabis, and other illicit drugs were compared with non-regular users of each substance. Sequential linear regression, controlling for confounding variables, examined relationships between regular use of each substance and scores on a guilt index. Risky drinkers and daily smokers had significantly more interpersonal guilt than their peers who did not regularly use these substances. In contrast, regular cannabis users had significantly less guilt than non-regular cannabis users. These data suggest that substance use among college students may be related to interpersonal guilt and family separation issues, and this relationship may vary across substances. PMID:24579980
Malouf, Elizabeth; Stuewig, Jeffrey; Tangney, June
Objective This study examined the relationship between two risk factors for substance misuse (self-control, substance using friends) and changes in jail inmates’ substance misuse from pre-incarceration to post-release. Method Participants were 485 adult jail inmates held on a felony conviction, recruited from a metropolitan county-jail situated in the mid-Atlantic region of the U.S. During incarceration, participants completed self-report assessments of pre-incarceration substance misuse and self-control. At one-year post-release, participants reported their substance misuse and proportion of substance-using friends (n=322 at follow-up). Results The relationship between self-control and changes in inmates’ substance misuse was fully mediated by association with substance-using friends. Age moderated the relationship between friends’ substance use and changes in inmates’ own misuse of marijuana and cocaine. Friends’ use was more strongly related to marijuana misuse for younger adults than for older adults. However, for cocaine misuse, this relationship was stronger for older adults than for younger adults. Self-control’s relationships with other variables were not moderated by age. Conclusions This study underscores importance of self-control’s indirect relationship (through substance-using friends) with changes in substance misuse: inmates with lower self-control were more likely to associate with substance-using friends and, in turn, had more symptoms of substance misuse 1-year post release. Results emphasize the importance of considering adult substance-users’ friend-relationships. However, age and type of substance appear important when considering the relative importance of friends’ influence. PMID:22727787
Nieri, Tanya; Yabiku, Scott; Stromwall, Layne K.; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco
Efforts to address youth substance use have focused on prevention among non-users and treatment among severe users with less attention given to youth occupying the middle ground who have used substances but not yet progressed to serious abuse or addiction. Using a sample from 35 middle schools of 1,364 youth who reported using substances, this study examined the effectiveness of a universal youth substance use prevention program, the SAMHSA Model Program keepin’ it REAL, in promoting reduced or recently discontinued alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use. Discrete-time event history methods modeled the rates of reduced and recently discontinued use across four waves of data. Each substance (alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana) was modeled separately. Beginning at the second wave, participants who reported use at wave 1 were considered at risk of reducing or discontinuing use. Since the data sampled students in schools, multi-level models accounted for the nesting of data at the school level. Results indicated that prevention program participation influenced the rates of reduced and recently discontinued use only for alcohol, controlling for baseline use severity, age, grades, socioeconomic status, ethnicity and gender. Among youth who reported use of alcohol in wave 1 (N= 1,028), the rate of reducing use for program participants was 72% higher than the rate for control students. The rate of discontinuing use was 66% higher than the rate for control students. Among youth who reported use of one or more of the three substances in wave 1 (N = 1,364), the rate of discontinuing all use was 61% higher for program participants than for control students. Limitations and implications of these findings and plans for further research are discussed. PMID:17096196
Meara, Ellen; Frank, Richard G.
Aim To describe a framework that can be used to determine optimal spending on substance abuse treatment in the United States. Methods Selective review of the literature on spending for substance abuse treatment combined with an economic analysis of how to determine when spending is optimal, defining optimal spending as that which minimizes the social costs of substance use disorders. Results In 1997, only $11.9 billion of the $294 billion estimated social costs of substance abuse was spent on treatment. The discrepancy between the high indirect costs of illness relative to the level of spending on treatment of addictive disorders leads many to believe that the United States spends too little on treatment. In this paper, we argue that information on the social costs of substance abuse disorders and the level of spending on treatment is insufficient to determine whether current spending is optimal. We develop a framework that could be used to determine optimal spending on substance abuse treatment in the United States. We develop this framework in four steps. First, we provide background on the unique financial and delivery features of substance abuse treatment. Secondly, we outline the points raised by advocates of expanded substance abuse treatment: substance abuse has high social costs, yet few people receive the many effective treatments available partly because of financial barriers to treatment. Thirdly, we provide a framework that can be used to judge the additional benefits of alternative levels and types of spending on substance abuse treatment. Finally, we discuss the distinction between the potential impact of spending on substance abuse treatment and its actual impact, using productivity as an example of one significant portion of the costs of substance abuse. Conclusion To determine optimal spending on substance abuse treatment, research should describe who receives treatment, the quality of treatment received, and how treatments relate to outcomes that
... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention..., including specimen, drug analytes and their cutoffs, methodologies, proficiency testing, best...
... be reported as the substance itself, not as a mixture, since these preparations are regarded as the substance in practice. (1) The chemical substance in aqueous solution. (2) The chemical substance...
Momtazi, Saeed; Rawson, Richard A.
Purpose of review In this study, we reviewed data on drug use among high school students in Iran. Recent findings Published epidemiological studies in international and domestic journals show that drug use/abuse is a serious mental health problem in Iran. There is cultural support for opium in Iran, and also there is cultural tolerance for tobacco smoking, especially as water pipe smoking, in Iranian families. Alcohol, opium, and cannabis are the most frequently used illicit drugs, but there are new emerging problems with anabolic steroids, ecstasy, and stimulant substances, such as crystal methamphetamine. Summary There is serious drug abuse problem among Iranian high school students. It could be due to role-modeling by parents – mainly fathers – and also cultural tolerance of some substances. Early onset of tobacco smoking, with a daily use rate between 4.4% and 12.8% in high school students, is an important risk factor for other drug abuse problems. Use of all types of drugs, except prescription drugs, is more prevalent among boys. Alcohol is the most frequently abused substance, with a lifetime rate of at least 9.9%. Lifetime rates of opiate use – mostly opium – were between 1.2 an 8.6% in different parts of the country. As drug abuse is a frequent problem among Iranian high school students, it is necessary to design and implement drug prevention programs to protect them. Such programs, including life skills training and drug education, have been operating in recent years for Iranian students from kindergarten to the university level. PMID:20308905
Fisher, Dennis G; Reynolds, Grace L; D'Anna, Laura H; Hosmer, David W; Hardan-Khalil, Kholoud
Among substance abusers in the US, the discrepancy in the number who access substance abuse treatment and the number who need treatment is sizable. This results in a major public health problem of access to treatment. The purpose of this study was to examine characteristics of Persons Who Use Drugs (PWUDs) that either hinder or facilitate access to treatment. 2646 participants were administered the Risk Behavior Assessment (RBA) and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. The RBA included the dependent variable which was responses to the question "During the last year, have you ever tried, but been unable, to get into a drug treatment or detox program?" In multivariate analysis, factors associated with being unable to access treatment included: Previously been in drug treatment (OR=4.51), number of days taken amphetamines in the last 30days (OR=1.18), traded sex for drugs (OR=1.53), homeless (OR=1.73), Nonplanning subscale of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (OR=1.19), age at interview (OR=0.91), and sexual orientation, with bisexual men and women significantly more likely than heterosexuals to have tried but been unable to get into treatment. The answers to the question on "why were you unable to get into treatment" included: No room, waiting list; not enough money, did not qualify, got appointment but no follow through, still using drugs, and went to jail before program start. As expected, findings suggest that limiting organizational and financial obstacles to treatment may go a long way in increasing drug abuse treatment accessibility to individuals in need. Additionally, our study points to the importance of developing approaches for increasing personal planning skills/reducing Nonplanning impulsivity among PWUDs when they are in treatment as a key strategy to ensure access to additional substance abuse treatment in the future.
Shope, Richard E.
1. Helenine injected intraperitoneally 24 hr prior to a regularly fatal dose of Semliki Forest virus saves most of the mice to which it is administered. 2. Mice saved by helenine develop no viral immunity and regularly succumb when rechallenged 2 wk later with the same dose of virus from which they were originally saved. 3. The time during which helenine is optimally effective in protecting mice from death by Semliki Forest virus covers a period of approximately 36 hr beginning after about 12 hr and extending to 48 hr before virus infection. When periods of less than 12 hr, or more than 48 hr, elapse between the time of helenine administration and virus inoculation, its protective effectiveness diminishes progressively. 4. Repeated injections of helenine at 2- or 3-day intervals, if continued long enough, exhaust the capacity of a host to respond favorably to helenine administered 24 hr before virus inoculation. 5. Helenine injections at intervals of 4, 3, and 2 wk before its administration 24 hr prior to infection do not decrease the effectiveness of this final dose in protecting mice from fatal infection by the virus. The experimental results here reported indicate that, as suggested by the findings of earlier work, helenine does not act directly as an antiviral substance, but instead exerts its effect through some substance that it induces the host to elaborate. The nature of this induced antiviral substance is as yet unknown though, to judge from the failure of spared mice to acquire viral immunity, it appears to act at a stage in viral replication prior to that at which antigenic viral protein is produced. The findings with helenine and those thus far reported for interferon afford no factual basis for judging the relationship of the two, if any. PMID:5905239
Buxton, Herbert T.
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Toxic Substances Hydrology Program adapts research priorities to address the most important contamination issues facing the Nation and to identify new threats to environmental health. The Program investigates two major types of contamination problems: * Subsurface Point-Source Contamination, and * Watershed and Regional Contamination. Research objectives include developing remediation methods that use natural processes, characterizing and remediating contaminant plumes in fractured-rock aquifers, identifying new environmental contaminants, characterizing new and understudied pesticides in common pesticide-use settings, explaining mercury methylation and bioaccumulation, and developing approaches for remediating watersheds affected by active and historic mining.
Brook, Judith S; Lee, Jung Yeon; Rubenstone, Elizabeth; Finch, Stephen J; Seltzer, Nathan; Brook, David W
Substance use and substance use disorders (SUDs) have been linked with marital discord. Relatively little is known, however, about the antecedents of SUDs, the mediators of these factors over time, or their associations with the spousal/partner relationship among urban adults. A better understanding of the longitudinal pathways to marital conflict and to SUDs should help prevention and intervention programs target their precursors within the developmental period in which they occur. The present study, therefore, examined the longitudinal predictors of an unsupportive spousal/partner relationship and SUDs among a community sample of urban African American and Puerto Rican adults from East Harlem, NY. Participants (N = 816) completed structured questionnaires at five time waves, from adolescence to adulthood (mean ages = 14, 19, 24, 29, and 32 years). Structural equation modeling examined the effects of earlier environmental and social stressors and intrapersonal and interpersonal factors on later SUDs in adulthood. There was a good fit of the structural equation model (CFI = 0.91; RMSEA = 0.06; and SRMR = 0.06), which revealed three main pathways from adolescence to the spousal/partner relationship and SUDs in adulthood. One pathway linked a weak parent-adolescent attachment relationship with the participant's psychological symptoms in emerging adulthood (p < 0.01), which in turn were related to affiliation with deviant and drug-using peers, also in emerging adulthood (p < 0.001). Peer deviance and drug use were associated with the participant's substance use in young adulthood (p < 0.001), which predicted both an unsupportive spousal/partner relationship (p < 0.05) and SUDs (p < 0.001) later in adulthood. Other pathways highlighted the continuity of psychological symptoms as related to both substance use in young adulthood (p < 0.001) and an unsupportive spousal/partner relationship in adulthood (p < 0.001). Findings
As for substance-related disorders, there were several differences between ICD-10 and DSM-IV, however, the concept of "dependence" had been essential for both criteria. DSM-5 published in 2013 had erased dependence. This confuses us. It is important to recognize dependence again. "Abuse" is the self-intake behavior of drug against the social norms. Repeated abuse results in dependence. Dependence is a state of loss of control against drug use due to craving. Abuse can produce "acute intoxication", and repeated abuse under dependence can produce "chronic intoxication". It is important to understand abuse, dependence and "intoxication" based on their relationship from the point of time course.
Kenna, George A; Nielsen, Darci M; Mello, Patricia; Schiesl, Alison; Swift, Robert M
The US FDA has approved a limited number of treatments for alcohol, nicotine and opioid dependence; however, no treatments for other abused drugs such as marijuana, cocaine or methamphetamine are approved. This review focuses on research into drug pharmacotherapies, particularly single-drug therapies, for substance abuse and dependence contributing to the most important dual substance use disorders (SUDs). Given the implications of poly-substance abuse, it is essential that clinicians and researchers be aware of potential pharmacotherapies for the treatment of dual SUDs.A substantial number of patients abuse more than one drug concurrently, complicating the treatment of SUD and leaving clinicians with few FDA-approved drug options for their patients. In this era of evidence-based medicine, such patients are typically treated with therapeutically proven medications, but in ways that are outside the scope of a drug's original indication by the FDA. Such 'off-label' prescribing has become an important therapeutic strategy for practitioners seeking treatments for other diseases in subpopulations such as paediatrics and gerontology or for medical conditions such as oncology or mental illness. Similarly, the information that most clinicians use to make their decisions for treating patients abusing multiple drugs stems from trials treating a single SUD, anecdotal experiences from their own practice or that of their colleagues, or single-case studies reported in the literature. The existing evidence suggests there are few treatments for SUDs that confer significant reductions in substance use across a broad patient population. Moreover, even fewer clinical efficacy trials have been conducted that provide evidence of therapeutic benefit for these drugs. Recognising the difficulty in making the proper drug choice for facilitating maximum treatment success, this review highlights the single drugs or drug combinations that show some potential for treating dual SUDs. This
Shope, Richard E.
A culture of P. funiculosum isolated on Guam proved capable of elaborating a substance which exerted a favorable therapeutic effect against swine influenza virus infections in white mice. The culture was extremely variable and irregular in its production of the antiviral substance, and during maintenance in the laboratory for several years gradually lost this property. Efforts to restore it were unsuccessful. Subsequently it was found that the mold elaborated a substance, now designated helenine, which is therapeutically effective against Columbia SK encephalomyelitis virus infections in mice. Helenine appears to differ from the substance earlier procured from the mold, which was active against swine influenza virus infections in mice. It is frequently present in greater or lesser amount in the fluid portions of stationary cultures of P. funiculosum but is more regularly obtained and in larger amount, from the cellular components of the pellicles. When liberated from these latter by mechanical bruising and fracturing, it goes into solution in the culture fluids. It is precipitable from aqueous solution by 50 per cent acetone. Infected mice injected with helenine in amounts less than the amount which produces a maximal therapeutic effect exhibit a dosage response. Increasing the dose above the optimum fails to increase the therapeutic effect. Helenine exerts its maximum effect when given within the first 10 hours after viral infection but its influence is apparent even when treatment is delayed for up to 24 hours. It is not effective against massive amounts of virus and gives the best therapeutic results when used in the treatment of animals infected with from 10 to 1000 fatal doses of virus. Treatment of infected mice with helenine delays the entrance of virus into their brains for from 24 to 48 hours. The mechanism by which helenine exerts its therapeutic effect against SK virus is not known but the findings presented suggest either that it causes an inhibition or
Employee accidents, life endangering spills of harmful chemicals, toxic materials leaching into drinking water, polluted air, crippling side effects of wonder metals and products, and human and animal deaths made it apparent that in order to protect and preserve the community and the environment, the community needed to be aware/knowledgeable of chemical uses and related possible dangers, i.e., it was time to establish rules and regulations for the use and disposal of hazardous substances and chemicals. This report details several organizations, acts, rules, and regulations created in the interest of hazardous materials safety.
Albayrak, Özgür; de Zwaan, Martina
Today, food addiction has become an increasing area of research. Multiple studies aim to characterize individuals in terms of food addiction based on the assumption, that hyperpalatable foods rich of salt, sugar and fat may induce a cluster of behavioral changes that may resemble a substance use disorder, despite the fact that to date there is no evidence, that nutritional factors lead to an addictive eating-like behavior in humans. In this review article, we aim to introduce the basic experiments, that build the framework upon which food addiction is being investigated and to critically discuss the concept of food addiction.
Astor, Ron A.; Estrada, Joey N.; Benbenishty, Rami; Unger, Jennifer B.
Substance use and violence co-occur among adolescents. However, the extant literature focuses on the substance use behaviors of perpetrators of violence and not on victims. This study identifies patterns of school victimization and substance use and how they co-occur. The California Healthy Kids Survey was used to identify latent classes/clusters of school victimization patterns and lifetime and frequency of recent (past month) alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use (N =419,698). Demographic characteristics (age, gender, and race/ethnicity) were included as predictors of latent class membership. Analyses revealed four latent classes of school victimization: low victimization (44.4 %), moderate victimization (22.3 %), verbal/relational victimization (20.8 %), and high victimization (with physical threats; 12.5 %). There were also four classes of substance use: non-users (58.5 %), alcohol experimenters (some recent alcohol use; 25.8 %), mild poly-substance users (lifetime use of all substances with few days of recent use; 9.1 %), and frequent poly-substance users (used all substances several times in the past month; 6.5 %). Those in the high victimization class were twice as likely to be frequent poly-substance users, and mild poly-substance use was most salient for those in the verbal victimization class. Few studies have explored latent patterns of substance use and violence victimization concurrently. The findings indicate substantial heterogeneity in victimization and substance use among youth in California schools with implications for targeted and tailored interventions. Understanding how certain types of victimization are associated with particular patterns of substance use will provide schools with opportunities to screen for concurrent behavioral health problems among youth. PMID:24482139
Musick, Kelly; Seltzer, Judith A.; Schwartz, Christine R.
This paper uses new data from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (L.A. FANS) to examine how neighborhood norms shape teenagers’ substance use. Specifically, it takes advantage of clustered data at the neighborhood level to relate adult neighbors’ attitudes and behavior with respect to smoking, drinking, and drugs, which we treat as norms, to teenagers’ own smoking, drinking, and drug use. We use hierarchical linear models to account for parents’ attitudes and behavior and other characteristics of individuals and families. We also investigate how the association between neighborhood norms and teen behavior depends on: (1) the strength of norms, as measured by consensus in neighbors’ attitudes and conformity in their behavior; (2) the willingness and ability of neighbors to enforce norms, for instance, by monitoring teens’ activities; and (3) the degree to which teens are exposed to their neighbors. We find little association between neighborhood norms and teen substance use, regardless of how we condition the relationship. We discuss possible theoretical and methodological explanations for this finding. PMID:18496598
Baldo, B. A.
An antiserum prepared in the freshwater catfish Tandanus tandanus by the injection of O secretor seminal plasma was fractionated into anti-H reagents showing different specificities by absorption with A1B erythrocytes and by absorption and elution from A1B cells. Although purified human and hog H blood group substances inhibited the haemagglutination of O erythrocytes by both the eluate from A1B cells and the serum remaining after absorption with A1B cells, all of the simple sugars tested, except 2′-fucosyl-lactose, failed to inhibit either sample. The H-substances inhibited the A1B-eluate at dilutions which were significantly higher than those required to inhibit the A1B-absorbed serum. Inconsistent with this result was the finding that 2′-fucosyl-lactose, a trisaccharide with a structure similar to the terminal H-active groupings on the type 2 chains of the ABH macromolecules, was a more active inhibitor of the absorbed than of the eluted serum. Seventeen different samples of O secretor saliva either failed to inhibit the A1B-absorbed serum, or produced inhibition at very low dilution. These same saliva samples inhibited the A1B-eluate in high dilution. PMID:5032492
Marchand, Patrice A
Plant extracts and byproducts furnish various alternative products for crop protection and are traditionally used by farmers. However, the cost and timeframe for their registration as active substances are prohibitive for small companies and farmers' associations with the new Plant Protection Products (PPP) Regulation (EC) No. 1107/2009. However, there is now a possibility of registering light compounds as 'basic substances', a new category described in Article 23 and in 'Whereas/Recital 18'. We developed a regulatory expertise on the approval of such products within the framework of the PPP regulation. A Draft Assessment Report in one volume was established, later transformed by EC Directorate into a Basic Substance Application Template, and subsequently used by the EC as a matrix for the corresponding Guidelines for applicants (SANCO 10363/2012 rev. 9). Here we provide further tools, consisting of methodological, linguistic and strategic recommendations in order to constitute a Basic Substance Application (BSA) and proceed to its registration. While the use of alternative agents for crop protection is increasing both in organic and conventional agriculture, these usages are still considered as 'minor uses'. Our approach and tools are valuable to non-PPP specialised applicants for simplifying and facilitating their submission of the BSA.
... zinc, sodium-doped (PMN P-06-37; CAS No. 389623-07-8). These chemical substances are subject to TSCA..., tin zinc, sodium-doped (PMN P-06-37; CAS No. 389623-07-8) because the Agency received a notice...
Miele, G M; Carpenter, K M; Cockerham, M S; Trautman, K D; Blaine, J; Hasin, D S
The Substance Dependence Severity Scale (SDSS) is a semistructured interview that assesses the severity of the DSM-IV diagnoses of dependence and abuse and the ICD-10 diagnoses of substance dependence and harmful use across a wide range of substances. Previous research has demonstrated that the SDSS' DSM-IV dependence scales are reliable and valid indicators of diagnostic severity. However, the ICD-10 scales have not been psychometrically tested. This study investigated the test-retest reliability, internal consistency, diagnostic concordance, and concurrent validity of the SDSS' ICD-10 dependence and harmful use scales in 180 (112 male and 68 female) treated substance users. Test-retest reliabilities for the ICD-10 dependence scales ranged from good to excellent for alcohol, cocaine, heroin, and cannabis. Test-retest reliabilities for the SDSS' ICD-10 harmful use scales were in the good range for alcohol, cocaine, and heroin and the poor to fair range for cannabis. Internal consistency, diagnostic concordance, and concurrent validity results were comparable to the test-retest findings. These results support the use of the SDSS for assessing the severity of the ICD-10 dependence and harmful use diagnoses.
... Chemicals.'' The proposed rule, when finalized, would require manufacturers, importers, and processors of certain high production volume (HPV) chemical substances to conduct testing to obtain screening level data...., chemical manufacturing and petroleum refineries. Processors of one or more of the 29 subject...
Lago, Luise; Glantz, Meyer D; Kessler, Ronald C; Sampson, Nancy A; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Florescu, Silvia; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Murphy, Sam; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Torres de Galvis, Yolanda; Viana, Maria Carmen; Xavier, Miguel; Degenhardt, Louisa
The World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative uses the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). The first 13 surveys only assessed substance dependence among respondents with a history of substance abuse; later surveys also assessed substance dependence without symptoms of abuse. We compared results across the two sets of surveys to assess implications of the revised logic and develop an imputation model for missing values of lifetime dependence in the earlier surveys. Lifetime dependence without symptoms of abuse was low in the second set of surveys (0.3% alcohol, 0.2% drugs). Regression-based imputation models were built in random half-samples of the new surveys and validated in the other half. There were minimal differences for imputed and actual reported cases in the validation dataset for age, gender and quantity; more mental disorders and days out of role were found in the imputed cases. Concordance between imputed and observed dependence cases in the full sample was high for alcohol [sensitivity 88.0%, specificity 99.8%, total classification accuracy (TCA) 99.5%, area under the curve (AUC) 0.94] and drug dependence (sensitivity 100.0%, specificity 99.8%, TCA 99.8%, AUC 1.00). This provides cross-national evidence of the small degree to which lifetime dependence occurs without symptoms of abuse. Imputation of substance dependence in the earlier WMH surveys improved estimates of dependence.
Striley, Catherine W.; Nattala, Prasanthi; Ben Abdallah, Arbi; Dennis, Michael L.; Cottler, Linda B.
This pilot study evaluated the effectiveness of enhanced case management for substance abusers with comorbid major depression, which was an integrated approach to care. One hundred and 20 participants admitted to drug treatment who also met Computerized Diagnostic Interview Schedule criteria for major depression at baseline were randomized to…
Cieśla, Jacek; Majka, Jerzy
The paper reviews the responsibilities of producers, importers and distributors set in a new Act of January 2001 on chemical substances and preparations (Off. J. 2001, No. 11, item 84, with subsequent amendments). This Act together with executive provisions is aimed at harmonizing Polish legislation with EU requirements. The Act sets conditions, restriction and bans of production placing on the market and use of chemical substances and preparations in order to protect human health and environment against their harmful effects. The Act together with a number of executive provisions render those who introduce dangerous chemicals and chemical preparations, including distributors responsible for: classification and labelling of dangerous chemical substances and preparations; possessing, making available and up-dating safety data sheets; supplying packages containing certain dangerous substances with child-proof fastenings; notifying the Inspector for Chemical Substances and Preparations about placing a dangerous preparation on the market; notifying the Inspector about a new substance and conducting required studies; being properly qualified to handle dangerous substances. The Act strictly defines the term "placing a substance or a preparation on the market"--it means making a substance or a preparation available to third parties on the territory of The Republic of Poland, territories of the Member States of the European Union or the territory of Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway, unless the Act provides otherwise; it also means introduction of a substance or a preparation from outside of the territory referred to above on the customs territory of The Republic of Poland, or that of the member states of the European Union and other states listed above. In addition, some of the responsibilities defined by the provisions of the law on chemical substances and preparations are also applicable to handling of biocidals, which are classified as dangerous substances. The Act
Wright, Emily M.; Pinchevsky, Gillian M.
Adolescent exposure to violence and substance use are both public health problems, but how neighborhood context contributes to these outcomes is unclear. This study uses prospective data from 1,416 adolescents to examine the direct and interacting influences of victimization and neighborhood factors on adolescent substance use. Based on hierarchical Bernoulli regression models that controlled for prior substance use and multiple individual-level factors, exposure to violence significantly increased the likelihood of marijuana use but not alcohol use or binge drinking. There was little evidence that community norms regarding adolescent substance use influenced rates of substance use or moderated the impact of victimization. Community disadvantage did not directly impact substance use, but the relationship between victimization and marijuana use was stronger for those in neighborhoods with greater disadvantage. The results suggest that victimization is particularly likely to affect adolescents’ marijuana use, and that this relationship may be contingent upon neighborhood economic conditions. PMID:25432621
Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is particularly suitable for studying substance use, because use is episodic and thought to be related to mood and context. This article reviews EMA methods in substance use research, focusing on tobacco and alcohol use and relapse, where EMA has been most applied. Common EMA designs combine event-based reports of substance use with time-based assessments. Approaches to data organization and analysis have been very diverse, particularly regarding their treatment of time. Compliance with signaled assessments is often high. Compliance with recording of substance use appears good but is harder to validate. Treatment applications of EMA are emerging. EMA captures substance use patterns not measured by questionnaires or retrospective data and holds promise for substance use research.
Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) is particularly suitable for studying substance use, because use is episodic and thought to be related to mood and context. This paper reviews EMA methods in substance use research, focusing on tobacco and alcohol use and relapse, where EMA has most been applied. Common EMA designs combine event-based reports of substance use with time-based assessments. Approaches to data organization and analysis have been very diverse, particularly regarding their treatment of time. Compliance with signaled assessments is often high. Compliance with recording of substance use appears good, but is harder to validate. Treatment applications of EMA are emerging. EMA captures substance use patterns not measured by questionnaires or retrospective data, and hold promise for substance use research. PMID:19947783
Lonardo, Robert A.; Manning, Wendy D.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Longmore, Monica A.
Over half of young adults have cohabited, but relatively little is known about the role delinquency and substance use play in youths’ odds of cohabiting as well as the implications of cohabitation for early adult offending and substance use. This study focuses on the reciprocal relationship between cohabitation during late adolescence and young adulthood and self-reported offending and substance use. Using longitudinal data, we find that net of traditional predictors delinquency involvement is associated with increased odds of cohabitation and cohabiting at younger ages while substance use is not related to cohabiting during early adulthood. Further analysis indicates that cohabitation is associated with lower reports of substance use. However, cohabitation is not associated with self-reported offending. The results help to unravel the connection between cohabitation experience, offending and substance use, and early adult outcomes. PMID:21359092
Oser, Carrie B; Leukefeld, Carl G; Tindall, Michele Staton; Garrity, Thomas F; Carlson, Robert G; Falck, Russel; Wang, Jichuan; Booth, Brenda M
The purpose of this study is to use a modified version of Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use to identify the correlates of the number of substance abuse treatment episodes received by rural drug users. Data were collected from face-to-face interviews with 711 drug users in rural areas of Ohio, Arkansas, and Kentucky. Descriptive analyses examine rural drug users' substance use histories and retrospective substance abuse treatment service utilization patterns. A negative binomial regression model indicated that selected predisposing, historical health, and enabling factors were significantly associated with the utilization of substance abuse treatment among rural drug users. Despite high levels of recent and lifetime self-reported substance use among these rural drug users, treatment services were underutilized. Future studies are needed to examine the impact of the health care system and characteristics of the external environment associated with rural substance abuse treatment in order to increase utilization among drug users.
Hernandez, Lynn; Rodriguez, Ana Maria; Spirito, Anthony
Synopsis Research has consistently shown that a lack of parental involvement in the activities of their children predicts initiation and escalation of substance use. Parental monitoring, as well as youth disclosure about their whereabouts, parent child communication, positive parenting and family management strategies, e.g., consistent limit setting, and parental communication about and disapproval of substance use, have all been shown to protect against adolescent substance abuse and substance problems. Given the empirical evidence, family and parenting approaches to preventing and intervening on adolescent substance misuse have received support in the literature. This article discusses the theoretical foundations as well as the application of the Family Check-up, a brief family-based intervention for adolescent substance use. PMID:26092741
Fagan, Abigail A; Wright, Emily M; Pinchevsky, Gillian M
Adolescent exposure to violence and substance use are both public health problems, but how neighborhood context contributes to these outcomes is unclear. This study uses prospective data from 1416 adolescents to examine the direct and interacting influences of victimization and neighborhood factors on adolescent substance use. Based on hierarchical Bernoulli regression models that controlled for prior substance use and multiple individual-level factors, exposure to violence significantly increased the likelihood of marijuana use but not alcohol use or binge drinking. There was little evidence that community norms regarding adolescent substance use influenced rates of substance use or moderated the impact of victimization. Community disadvantage did not directly impact substance use, but the relationship between victimization and marijuana use was stronger for those in neighborhoods with greater disadvantage. The results suggest that victimization is particularly likely to affect adolescents' marijuana use, and that this relationship may be contingent upon neighborhood economic conditions.
Scott, Katherine; Lust, Karin
Illicit substance use is not uncommon in women of childbearing age. The direct effects of illicit substance use on the mother, pregnancy and the fetus are not well understood, in contrast to the indirect effects of social disadvantage and intercurrent medical and psychiatric illness, which are well documented. We have undertaken a review of the current literature regarding the effects of illicit substance use in pregnancy and include a suggested approach to identification and management of at-risk women. PMID:27579069
Psychoactive substances take on many symbolic meanings, and thus the politics of psychoactive substances has featured symbolic elements, or value-based rationality, alongside and often dominating instrumental rationality. Drawing particularly on the work of Joseph Gusfield and Nordic scholars, the chapter considers the symbolic dimension in the politics of substance use, even in Nordic countries celebrated for their societal commitment to knowledge-based policymaking, and its effects on the interplay of science and policy.
Amigó Tadín, Montserrat
Alcohol, tobacco, heroin, cocaine and benzodiazepines, in that order, are the most common substance addictions in Spain. The medical problems caused both by chronic medical pathologies associated with their consumption and by overdoses and withdrawal syndromes, are frequently seen in emergency departments. Knowledge of substance abuse and addiction--how it is caused, the behaviour and pathology it produces--are essential to enable nurses to determine the attitudes to adopt the skills necessary to manage patients with problems of substance.
... TABLE, SPECIAL PROVISIONS, HAZARDOUS MATERIALS COMMUNICATIONS, EMERGENCY RESPONSE INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.432 INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCE label. (a) Except for size and...
... TABLE, SPECIAL PROVISIONS, HAZARDOUS MATERIALS COMMUNICATIONS, EMERGENCY RESPONSE INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.432 INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCE label. (a) Except for size and...
... TABLE, SPECIAL PROVISIONS, HAZARDOUS MATERIALS COMMUNICATIONS, EMERGENCY RESPONSE INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.432 INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCE label. (a) Except for size and...
Marklein, Elizabeth; Negriff, Sonya
The influence of friend substance use on the association between pubertal timing and substance use has received little consideration in the literature. With a sample of 264 female adolescents (11–17 years), this study examined (a) the relationship between pubertal timing and substance use, (b) the impact of number of friends that smoke cigarettes on adolescents' use of three substances (cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana), and (c) the interactions between pubertal timing and friends' smoking in predicting individual substance use. Results showed a significant relationship between pubertal timing and alcohol use; later timing was related to more alcohol use. This association between late timing and alcohol use is contrary to previous literature and may be due to the broad age range of this sample. Pubertal timing may have less of an effect in late adolescence when drinking becomes more normative and less deviant; the rationale for this association is discussed. Second, this study found females who reported that more of their friends smoke regularly (at least once a week) used significantly more cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana than those who reported no friends who smoke. Finally, the interaction between pubertal timing and number of friends who were regular smokers was not significantly related to adolescent substance use. However, friend smoking explained more of the variation in substance use than pubertal timing. This indicates that having friends who smoke is more influential in predicting substance use than pubertal timing. These findings are important when considering the development of interventions to target adolescent substance use. PMID:19067163
... controlled substances: Drug Schedule Thebaine (9333) II Poppy Straw Concentrate (9670) II The company is a contract manufacturer. In reference to Poppy Straw Concentrate the company will manufacture...
Fabacher, D.L.; Little, E.E.
Methanol extracts of dorsal skin layers, eyes, gills, and livers from ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation-sensitive and UVB-tolerant species of freshwater fish were examined for a substance that appears to be photoprotective. Significantly larger amounts of this substance were found in extracts of outer dorsal skin layers from both UVB-sensitive and UVB-tolerant fish when compared with extracts of inner dorsal skin layers. This substance occurred in minor amounts or was not detected in eye, gill, and liver extracts. The apparent primary function of this substance in fish is to protect the cells in outer dorsal skin layers from harmful levels of UVB radiation.
Coyne, Sarah M; Callister, Mark; Phillips, James C
Media effects research provides evidence for a link between adolescent exposure to media portrayals of substance use and usage. Exposure to media content that glamorizes and normalizes substance use carries potential public health risks. Though substance use has been examined in other media, such as film, television, and magazines, no research to date examines usage portrayals in adolescent novels. Given that adolescents do read, and given the potential impact of content on adolescent attitudes and behavior, this study provides a detailed analysis of the frequency and nature of substance use in the understudied area of novels. Substance use was examined in 40 best-selling adolescent novels on the New York Times Best Sellers list (time span June-July 2008). Substance use varied widely. Of the various types of substances, alcohol portrayals were most common. Almost all substance use was portrayed as having no consequences. Alcohol use was portrayed in similar frequencies in books aimed at younger, middle, and older adolescents, though illegal drug use was more likely to be found in books aimed at older ages. Our results suggest that the manner in which substance use is generally portrayed may encourage use among adolescents. Researchers, parents, and adolescents are encouraged to examine books as one potentially overlooked area of influence.
Skidmore, Jessica R; Murphy, James G
Behavioral economic theory and laboratory research have suggested that substance abuse may be associated with diminished engagement in enjoyable substance-free activities (substance-free reinforcement). However, college students, in particular men, have reported numerous social benefits from drinking that might mitigate the expected inverse relation between drinking and substance-free reinforcement. In this study, we examined the relations between college student heavy drinking, gender, and several categories of substance-free reinforcement (peer, dating, sexual, school, and family activities). Participants were 246 undergraduate students who were classified as a function of their reported frequency of heavy drinking during a typical week in the past month (120 heavy drinkers, 126 light drinkers). Heavy drinking was associated with significantly higher substance-free peer and sexual reinforcement. This association was gender invariant and remained significant in multiple regression models that controlled for gender, ethnicity, and fraternity or sorority membership. Substance-free reinforcement did not predict frequency of heavy drinking in models that included levels of substance-related reinforcement. The results indicate that college student heavy drinking is not associated with global deficits in substance-free reinforcement and is instead associated with increased peer and sexual activity that occurs outside the context of drinking or drug use. Prevention programs should help students to compensate for the potential loss of social reinforcement associated with reductions in drinking.
Trinkoff, A M; Storr, C L
Because mailed surveys minimize personal contact, they are useful for collecting sensitive data on substance use, as long as the problems of achieving adequate response rates can be conquered. To address these issues, we report on an anonymous mailed survey of substance use with a 78% response rate, including data collection and survey methods. Analysis of sociodemographic effects on responding found certain groups required additional contacts. Substance use estimates were not affected by non-response bias, suggesting that anonymous mailed surveys can be a feasible means of collecting data on substance use.
Osman, Tarig; Victor, Cathrine; Abdulmoneim, Alaa; Mohammed, Hala; Abdalla, Fatima; Ahmed, Asma; Ali, Eiman; Mohammed, Wael
Background. Youth populations are vulnerable to substance use particularly in developing countries where circumstances may be favorable for it. There is no published data on substance use among the youth in Sudan other than on tobacco use. Objectives. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, circumstances, and factors associated with substance use. Methods. An institution-based survey was conducted on a sample of 500 students. Data was collected using a questionnaire designed by the WHO for student drug surveys and analyzed using IBM SPSS version 20. Results. The overall prevalence of substance use is 31%. The current prevalence of tobacco, cannabis, alcohol, amphetamines, tranquilizers, inhalants, opiates, cocaine, and heroin use was 13.7%, 4.9%, 2.7%, 2.4%, 3.2%, 1%, 1.2%, 0.7%, and 0.5%, respectively. Curiosity (33.1%) was the main reason for initiation of substance use. The main adverse effects reported were health problems (19.7%) and theft (19.7%). Peers (40.9%) were the prime source of substance use. On multivariate analysis, male sex was the principle predictor for substance use (AOR: 5.55; 95% CI: 3.38, 9.17). Conclusion. Strategies to control substance use should encompass the role of the university and parents in observing and providing education to improve awareness of substances and their consequences. PMID:27006856
Suwitchayanon, Prapaipit; Pukclai, Piyatida; Ohno, Osamu; Suenaga, Kiyotake; Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi
In this study, an allelopathic substance was isolated from an aqueous methanol extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. by column chromatography and reverse phase HPLC. The chemical structure of the substance was determined by 1H NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry as trimethyl allo-hydroxycitrate. Trimethyl allo-hydroxycitrate inhibited the growth of cress hypocotyls and roots at concentrations greater than 10 mM. The concentrations required for 50% growth inhibition of the hypocotyls and roots of cress were 20.3 and 14.4 mM, respectively. The inhibitory activity of trimethyl allo-hydroxycitrate suggests that the substance may act as an allelopathic substance of H. sabdariffa.
Williams, Robert J; Goodale, Leslie A; Shay-Fiddler, Michele A; Gloster, Susan P; Chang, Samuel Y
The prevalence of methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine misuse and abuse was examined in 450 adolescents referred for substance abuse treatment. Twenty three percent reported nonmedical use of these substances and six percent were diagnosed as methylphenidate or dextroamphetamine abusers. Abuse was more common in individuals who were out of school and had an eating disorder. Methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine abuse appears to be much less common than abuse of most other substances. It does occur, however, and parents and schools need to exert greater control over the dispensing of these medications. Physicians are advised to prescribe non-stimulant medications (eg, bupropion) when treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in substance-abusing individuals.
Frenken, H.; Friedsam, J.; Voss, K.
The invention relates to a process for the automatic preparation of solutions from environmentally noxious substances in solvents whereby the noxious substance is brought on a receiver and by means of an airtight adapter and a feed connection into a hermetical sealed, storage bin, an exact quantity of the substance is dosed into a measuring and mixing vessel by means of a dosing screw after the solvent is dosed into this vessel, the substance is mixed and dissolved maintained at a certain temperature filtered and delivered to a storage vessel in an automatic sequence.
Overview page provides links to information on producing, importing, and exporting ozone-depleting substances, including information about the HCFC allowance system, importing, labeling, recordkeeping and reporting.
Hynes-Dowell, Marya; Mateu-Gelabert, Pedro; Barros, Helena Maria Taunhauser; Delva, Jorge
This article summarizes data from a 2004 study of over 300,000 high school students (aged 13–18 years) in nine South American countries. A probabilistic sample targeted urban secondary schools, utilizing a self-administered questionnaire on prevalence and frequency of substance use. Multivariate analysis showed that volatile substances were the first or second most commonly reported substances used after alcohol and cigarettes in all countries (lifetime prevalence range: 2.67% [Paraguay] to 16.55% [Brazil]). Previous studies have highlighted volatile substance misuse among street children, whereas this study demonstrates that it is common among South American high school students. PMID:21609142
... controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I Amphetamine (1100) II... distribution to its customers. In reference to drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to...
... controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I Amphetamine (1100) II... 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk manufacture cannabidiol as a synthetic intermediate....
... classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I The... customers. In reference to drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk manufacture cannabidiol...
... controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I Amphetamine (1100) II... 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk manufacture cannabidiol as a synthetic intermediate....
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and substance P play a key role in inflammation. Using animal models of inflammation of different etiologies such as acute pancreatitis, sepsis, burns, and joint inflammation, studies have recently shown an important role of the proinflammatory action of H2S and substance P. Also, H2S contributes to inflammation in different conditions via substance P. This chapter reviews methods and key data that have led to our current understanding of the role of H2S and substance P in inflammation.
Hasin, Deborah S.; O’Brien, Charles P.; Auriacombe, Marc; Borges, Guilherme; Bucholz, Kathleen; Budney, Alan; Compton, Wilson M.; Crowley, Thomas; Ling, Walter; Petry, Nancy M.; Schuckit, Marc; Grant, Bridget F.
Since DSM-IV was published in 1994, its approach to substance use disorders has come under scrutiny. Strengths were identified (notably, reliability and validity of dependence), but concerns have also arisen. The DSM-5 Substance-Related Disorders Work Group considered these issues and recommended revisions for DSM-5. General concerns included whether to retain the division into two main disorders (dependence and abuse), whether substance use disorder criteria should be added or removed, and whether an appropriate substance use disorder severity indicator could be identified. Specific issues included possible addition of withdrawal syndromes for several substances, alignment of nicotine criteria with those for other substances, addition of biomarkers, and inclusion of nonsubstance, behavioral addictions. This article presents the major issues and evidence considered by the work group, which included literature reviews and extensive new data analyses. The work group recommendations for DSM-5 revisions included combining abuse and dependence criteria into a single substance use disorder based on consistent findings from over 200,000 study participants, dropping legal problems and adding craving as criteria, adding cannabis and caffeine withdrawal syndromes, aligning tobacco use disorder criteria with other substance use disorders, and moving gambling disorders to the chapter formerly reserved for substance-related disorders. The proposed changes overcome many problems, while further studies will be needed to address issues for which less data were available. PMID:23903334
Redman, Aaron D; Parkerton, Thomas F; McGrath, Joy A; Di Toro, Dominic M
A spreadsheet model (PETROTOX) is described that predicts the aquatic toxicity of complex petroleum substances from petroleum substance composition. Substance composition is characterized by specifying mass fractions in constituent hydrocarbon blocks (HBs) based on available analytical information. The HBs are defined by their mass fractions within a defined carbon number range or boiling point interval. Physicochemical properties of the HBs are approximated by assigning representative hydrocarbons from a database of individual hydrocarbons with associated physicochemical properties. A three-phase fate model is used to simulate the distribution of each structure among the water-, air-, and oil-phase liquid in the laboratory test system. Toxicity is then computed based on the predicted aqueous concentrations and aquatic toxicity of each structure and the target lipid model. The toxicity of the complex substance is computed assuming additivity of the contribution of the individual assigned hydrocarbons. Model performance was evaluated by using direct comparisons with measured toxicity data for petroleum substances with sufficient analytical characterization to run the model. Indirect evaluations were made by comparing predicted toxicity distributions using analytical data on petroleum substances from different product categories with independent, empirical distributions of toxicity data available for the same categories. Predictions compared favorably with measured aquatic toxicity data across different petroleum substance categories. These findings demonstrate the utility of PETROTOX for assessing environmental hazards of petroleum substances given knowledge of substance composition.
Breslin, Kathy T; Reed, Maria R; Malone, Sandra B
The purpose of this article is to describe a model outpatient substance abuse treatment program. This program is designed to provide patients with not only traditional modalities of treatment such as individual, group, and family therapy, but also to provide an opportunity for patients to express thoughts and feelings through holistic modalities. These modalities include dance/movement therapy, Tai Chi, art therapy, leisure and recreational skills, spiritual growth and development, cultural awareness and appreciation, vocational services, psychiatric care and physical health. The authors describe features of this program that they believe to be unique and that focus on ways to help patients develop a stronger sense of self-identity, self-esteem and self-confidence.
Hiller, Matthew L; Leukefeld, Carl G; Garrity, Thomas F; Godlaski, Theodore; Schoeneberger, Marlies; Townsend, Michael; Hascal, Karyn
Several national evaluations have been conducted since the late 1960s that have assessed the effectiveness of publicly-funded substance abuse treatment in the United States. These studies, however, have focused principally on urban-based treatment programs, and it is unclear whether findings from urban programs can be replicated in outcome studies of programs in rural areas. The current study, therefore, examined the treatment outcomes of clients admitted to one of several short-term inpatient or outpatient drug-free treatment agencies in rural Kentucky. Findings showed that treatment was associated with reductions in drug use and criminality during a six-month follow-up interval. Employment status also improved significantly, and health services utilization was reduced. The similarity between the current findings and findings from national outcome studies of urban-based treatment programs is discussed.
Brown, Thomas Kingsley
Ibogaine is a psychoactive alkaloid derived from Tabernanthe iboga, a plant used in initiatory rituals in West Central Africa. Largely because of ibogaine's status as a Schedule I substance in the U.S., the development of ibogaine's use in the treatment of drug addiction took place outside conventional clinical and medical settings. This article reviews the history of ibogaine's use in the treatment of drug addiction, and discusses progress made towards, and obstacles blocking, the establishment of controlled clinical trials of ibogaine's efficacy. Preclinical research has generally supported anecdotal claims that ibogaine attenuates withdrawal symptoms and reduces drug cravings. Concerns about ibogaine's safety, as well as a dearth of solid data from human studies, have hampered progress in its development as an approved medication. This article outlines major findings from preclinical studies, discusses concerns about ibogaine's safety, and details previous and ongoing research on ibogaine's use as an anti-addictive treatment for humans.
Extrapyramidal signs are frequently observed in toxic diseases due to environmental and industrial chemical substances. The predominant manifestations are Parkinsonism and less frequently tremor. Parkinsonism has been described among the toxic diseases due to carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, and hydrogen cyanide. In these diseases, Parkinsonism used to appear in the recovery stage from coma in the severe cases. This was also true in methyl alcohol poisoning. The extrapyramidal signs are usually symmetrical. Akinesia and rigidity are main features. Tremor is absent or mild. Levodopa and the other antiparkinsonian drugs are not so effective. Brain CT studies have revealed symmetrical low density areas in the globus pallidus and putamen. On the other hand, postural tremor is main neurological findings in the poisonings by inorganic mercury and tetraethyl lead. In general, tremor in the toxic disease is reported to be self-limited.
Grant, Jon E; Brewer, Judson A; Potenza, Marc N
Behavioral addictions, such as pathological gambling, kleptomania, pyromania, compulsive buying, and compulsive sexual behavior, represent significant public health concerns and are associated with high rates of psychiatric comorbidity and mortality. Although research into the biology of these behaviors is still in the early stages, recent advances in the understanding of motivation, reward, and addiction have provided insight into the possible pathophysiology of these disorders. Biochemical, functional neuroimaging, genetic studies, and treatment research have suggested a strong neurobiological link between behavioral addictions and substance use disorders. Given the substantial co-occurrence of these groups of disorders, improved understanding of their relationship has important implications not only for further understanding the neurobiology of both categories of disorders but also for improving prevention and treatment strategies.
The Omnibus Transportation Employee Testing Act was signed into law in October of 1991. The Omnibus Transportation Employee Testing Act of 1991 required the United States Department of Transportation (DOT) to enact regulations requiring the testing of employees that perform ``safety sensitive functions`` for illegal controlled substance use and alcohol misuse. The Transportation Management Division, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (TMD/EM-261), United States Department of Energy (DOE), Training Program Manager is committed to promoting the availability of the necessary information to those affected members of the Department of Energy (DOE) community in an effort to attain the highest possible level of regulatory compliance and to enhance the safety of each individual in the workplace.
Wong, Ming H; Armour, Margaret-Ann; Naidu, Ravi; Man, Ming
Persistent toxic substances (PTS) include the Stockholm persistent organic pollutants, like dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxin/furan, etc., and organometallic compounds, like organomercury, organotin, and organolead, which all share the same characteristics of being persistent, toxic, bioaccumulative, and able to travel long distances through different media. The adverse health effects of some of the emerging chemicals like pentabromodiphenyl ether, bisphenol A, and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, which are widely used in daily appliances (e.g., TVs, computers, mobile phones, plastic baby bottles), have become a public health concern due to more evidence now available showing their adverse effects like disturbance of the endocrine system and cancer. This article is an attempt to review the current status of PTS in our environment, citing case studies in China and North America, and whether our existing drinking water treatment and wastewater treatment processes are adequate in removing them from water. Some management issues of these emerging chemicals of concern are also discussed.
This article reminds you that, whatever the psychoactive substance in question, it is not one that has repercussions on the oral health of its user. This affects both the tooth, the periodontal and oral mucosa. Drug addicts, especially those engaged in polydrug use, represent the population at the largest risk for oral cancer. Of all the factors, smoking is by far the largest risk. The alcohol has a synergistic effect with the tobacco, so that the combined effect is more than multiplied. Preventing risks of these products is possible through good oral hygiene and lifestyle, preventive care and followed by a regular dentist. Regaining self-esteem, however, should be one of the key dimensions of social reappropriation through his body.
With the issuance of this final rule, the Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration removes [123I]ioflupane from the schedules of the Controlled Substances Act. This action is pursuant to the Controlled Substances Act which requires that such actions be made on the record after an opportunity for a hearing through formal rulemaking. Prior to the effective date of this rule, [123I]ioflupane was, by definition, a schedule II controlled substance because it is derived from cocaine via ecgonine, both of which are schedule II controlled substances. This action removes the regulatory controls and administrative, civil, and criminal sanctions applicable to controlled substances, including those specific to schedule II controlled substances, on persons who handle (manufacture, distribute, reverse distribute, dispense, conduct research, import, export, or conduct chemical analysis) or propose to handle [123I]ioflupane.
Frimmel, F.H. )
Dissolved humic substances (HS) show yellow color and relatively strong absorption in the UV range [a(254 nm) ca. 0.04 cm[sup [minus]1] for c(DOC) = 1 mg/L]. This is the basis for photochemical reactions in the photic zone of aquatic systems and in water treatment using IV sources. Even though understanding the mechanisms involved in the energy transfer and the resulting reactions is hampered by the poorly defined structure of HS, reliable information has been gathered on some typical aspects of their photochemistry. The luminescence of HS can be influenced and partly quenched by molecular interactions with other water constituents (e.g., heavy metals and organic micropollutants). The presence of oxygen may lead to the sensitized production of singlet oxygen (O[sub 2]), that can react specifically with substances containing diene structures or low valent sulfur. Because of the presence of these structures in HS, humic molecules will also react with the sensitized products. As a consequence, their biological, chemical, and physical properties are influenced. In addition, HS have a significant impact on the photochemical treatment of organic micropollutants in water. This has to be kept in mind when using photochemical steps for water treatment. The results from model experiments reflecting the conditions in surface water and in water treatment are given and discussed. In the presence of H[sub 2]O[sub 2], irradiation led to a transformation and partial degradation of HS. The rate of photochemical degradation of pesticides (e.g., atrazine) was decreased in the presence of HS. Fe and Mn quenched the luminescence. From this, a decrease of excited states of HS for sensitizing reactions can be deduced. The results suggest the manyfold and significant influences of HS on the photochemistry of aquatic systems. 66 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.
Yim, Dong-Gyun; Ahn, Dong U.
Effects of double packaging (combinational use of aerobic and vacuum conditions) and antioxidants on physicochemical properties in irradiated restructured chicken rolls were determined. Chicken breast treated with antioxidants (none, sesamol+a-tocopherol) was used to process restructured chicken breast rolls. The sliced rolls were vacuum, aerobic, or double packaged (vacuum for 7 d then aerobic for 3 d) and electron beam irradiated at 2.5 kGy. Color, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), oxidation reduction potentials (ORP), and volatile profiles of the samples were determined at 0 and 10 d. Irradiation made restructured chicken rolls redder (p<0.05), and the increased redness was more distinct in irradiated vacuum-packaged than irradiated aerobic or double packaged meats. TBARS values of antioxidant-treated double packaged rolls were lower than even nonirradiated vacuum-packaged meat, and those were distinct at 10 d (p<0.05). ORP and lipid oxidation values were lower in irradiated vacuum and double packaged samples than those in irradiated aerobic packaged ones at 0 d (p<0.05). Irradiation of restructured chicken rolls increased the amount of total volatiles. Considerable amounts of off-odor volatiles were reduced or not detected by double packaging and antioxidant treatment at 10 d. Therefore, the combined use of antioxidants and double packaging would be useful to reduce redness and control the oxidative quality changes of irradiated restructured chicken rolls. PMID:26761835
Kim, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Soo-Yeon; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Jae; Ham, Yun-Kyung; Lee, Choong-Hee; Choi, Yun-Sang; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Cheon-Jei
The objective of this study is to determine the effect of soy sauce on volatile compounds and lipid oxidation of cooked irradiated beef patties. Sulfur-containing volatile components, which are produced by irradiation, were not found in all treatments. Volatile components derived from soy sauce, such as 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, acetic acid, 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-methyl-1-butanol, were detected in beef patties containing soy sauce regardless of irradiation and packaging method. Volatile aldehydes, including hexanal, significantly decreased the irradiated beef patty prepared with soy sauce compared to those of irradiated beef patty made with NaCl at 1 day and 5 days after irradiation. In addition, combined use of vacuum packaging and soy sauce treatments could inhibit the formation of volatile compounds and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances during chilled storage. Therefore, the use of soy sauce in cooked and irradiated beef could reduce the production of volatile components associated with the irradiation-induced off-flavor and lipid oxidation.
Kang, Sun Moon; Kang, Geunho; Seong, Pil-Nam; Park, Beomyoung; Cho, Soohyun
The effects of various packaging systems, vacuum packaging (VACP), medium oxygen-modified atmosphere packaging (50% O2/20% CO2/30% N2, MOMAP), MOMAP combined with vacuum skin packaging (VSP-MOMAP), high oxygen-MAP (80% O2/20% CO2/0% N2, HOMAP), and HOMAP combined with VSP (VSP-HOMAP), on the activity of antioxidant enzyme, and oxidation and color stabilities in sliced Hanwoo (Korean cattle) beef loin were investigated at 4°C for 14 d. Higher (p<0.05) superoxide dismutase activity and total reducing ability were maintained in VSP-MOMAP beef than in HOMAP beef. Lipid oxidation (2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS) was significantly (p<0.05) retarded in MOMAP, VSP-MOMAP, and VSP-HOMAP beef compared with HOMAP beef. Production of nonheme iron content was lower (p<0.05) in VSP-MOMAP beef than in HOMAP beef. Red color (a*) was kept higher (p<0.05) in VSP-MOMAP beef compared with MOMAP, HOMAP, and VSP-HOMAP beef. However, VACP beef was found to have the most positive effects on the antioxidant activity, oxidation and red color stabilities among the various packaged beef. These findings suggested that VSP-MOMAP was second to VACP in improving oxidation and color stabilities in sliced beef loin during chill storage. PMID:25178378
El-Ghazaly, M A; Fadel, N; Rashed, E; El-Batal, A; Kenawy, S A
Selenium (Se) has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties, but its bioavailability and toxicity are considerable limiting factors. The present study aimed to investigate the possible anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of selenium nanoparticles (Nano-Se) on inflammation induced in irradiated rats. Paw volume and nociceptive threshold were measured in carrageenan-induced paw edema and hyperalgesia model. Leukocytic count, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBAR), and total nitrate/nitrite (NOx) were estimated in the exudate collected from 6 day old air pouch model. Irradiated rats were exposed to 6 Gy gamma (γ)-irradiation. Nano-Se were administered orally in a dose of 2.55 mg/kg once before carrageenan injection in the first model and twice in the second model. The paw volume but not the nociceptive response produced by carrageenan in irradiated rats was higher than that induced in non-irradiated rats. Nano-Se were effective in reducing the paw volume in non-irradiated and irradiated rats but it did not alter the nociceptive threshold. The inflammation induced in irradiated rats increased all the estimated parameters in the exudate whereas; Nano-Se decreased their elevation in non-irradiated and irradiated rats. Nano-Se possess a potential anti-inflammatory activity on inflammation induced in irradiated rats.
Guo, Shanshan; Yao, Yuan; Zuo, Lei; Shi, Wenjin; Gao, Ni; Xu, Heng
Nitric oxide (NO) is considered as a signaling molecule involved in regulation of diverse physiological processes and stress responses in animals and plants. However, whether NO regulates fungal, particularly edible fungi, response to heavy metal stresses, is unknown. This study investigated the effect of nitric oxide on biological responses of mycelia of Ganoderma lucidum to cadmium (Cd) toxicity. Exposure of Ganoderma lucidum to Cd (400 µM) triggered production of H2O2 and O2(-) in the mycelia and further induced lipid peroxidation as well as sharply decrease of fresh biomass. However, such an effect can be reversed by exogenous supply of NO. Mycelia treated with 100 µM SNP accumulated less H2O2, O2(-), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and fresh biomass of this treatment was improved. Treatment with SNP significantly increased activities of antioxidant enzyme (peroxidase and catalase) to resist Cd stress. Meanwhile, NO-mediated alleviation of Cd toxicity was closely related to the accumulated proline as well as reduced Cd accumulation. These results suggested that NO plays a crucial role in preventing the mycelia of Ganoderma lucidum from Cd toxicity.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a short-term/extreme temperature abuse (STA) on color characteristics and oxidative stability of aged beef muscles during simulated retail display. Two beef muscles (longissimus lumborum, LL and semitendinosus, ST) were aged for 7 (A7), 14 (A14), 21 (A21), and 28 d (A28), and further displayed at 2℃ for 7 d. The STA was induced by placing steak samples at 20℃ for 1 h on the 4th d of display. Instrumental and visual color evaluations, ferric ion reducing capacity (FRC) and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay were performed. Initially, redness, yellowness and hue angle of all beef muscles were similar, regardless of aging time before display (p>0.05). An increase in postmortem aging time increased lipid oxidation and caused a rapid discoloration after STA during display (p<0.05). ST muscle was more sharply discolored and oxidized after STA, when compared to LL muscle (p<0.05). The FRC value of beef muscles was decreased after 7 d of display (p<0.05). The results from the current study indicate adverse impacts of postmortem aging on color and oxidative stabilities of beef muscles, particularly under temperature abusing conditions during retail display. Thus, developing a specific post-harvest strategy to control quality attributes in retail levels for different muscle types and aging conditions would be required. PMID:27433105
Sucuk is the most popular dry-fermented meat product. Sucuk has a relatively high fat. Poppy seed oil as animal fat replacer was used in Turkish sucuk and effects of its use on sucuk quality were investigated. There was a significant (p<0.5) treatment × ripening time interaction for moisture, pH (p<0.05) and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values (p<0.01). Increasing poppy seed oil level decreased (p<0.05) TBARS values. Addition of poppy seed oil to the sucuks had a significant effect (p<0.01) on hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness and springiness values. Cholesterol content of sucuks decreased (p<0.05) with poppy seed oil addition. Using pre-emulsified poppy seed oil as partial fat replacer in Turkish sucuk decreased cholesterol and saturated fatty acid content, but increased polyunsaturated fatty acids. Poppy seed oil as partial animal fat replacer in Turkish sucuk may have significant health benefits. PMID:26761834
Hęś, Marzanna; Szwengiel, Artur; Dziedzic, Krzysztof; Le Thanh-Blicharz, Joanna; Kmiecik, Dominik; Górecka, Danuta
This study investigated the effect of antioxidants on lipid stability of frozen-stored meat products. Buckwheat hull extract was used to enrich fried meatballs made from ground pork. During 180-d storage of meat products, lipid oxidation (peroxide and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances [TBARS] value) was periodically monitored. The results were compared with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). The addition of antioxidants decreased lipid oxidation in stored meatballs. The highest ability to control peroxide and TBARS values was demonstrated for buckwheat hull extract. Moreover, buckwheat hull extract showed a higher 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity as well as higher Fe(II) ion chelating ability, as compared with BHT. The total content of phenolic compounds are highly correlated to the individual polyphenols in extract of buckwheat hull, among which the following were assayed: 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, gallic acid, isovanillic acid and p-coumaric acid, and flavonoids: isoorientin, quercetin, quercetin 3-d-glucoside, rutin, and vitexin. These results indicate that plant extracts can be used to prolong shelf life of products by protecting them against lipid oxidation and deterioration of their nutritional quality.
Takahashi, Yoshihisa; Sugimoto, Keiichiro; Soejima, Yurie; Kumagai, Arisa; Koeda, Tatsuki; Shojo, Aiko; Nakagawa, Kazuya; Harada, Naoki; Yamaji, Ryoichi; Inui, Hiroshi; Yamanouchi, Toshikazu; Fukusato, Toshio
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a liver disease associated with metabolic syndrome. The aim of this work was to examine whether eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) leaf extract (ELE) and banaba (Lagerstroemia speciosa L.) leaf extract (BLE) inhibited NASH induced by excessive ingestion of fructose in rats. Wistar rats were divided into four groups according to four distinct diets: starch diet (ST), high-fructose/high-glucose diet (FG), FG diet supplemented with ELE, or FG diet supplemented with BLE. All rats were killed after 5 weeks of treatment. Serum alanine aminotransferase and total cholesterol levels were significantly lower in the BLE group than in the FG group. Liver histopathology, including steatosis, lipogranulomas, and perisinusoidal fibrosis, was significantly attenuated in the ELE and BLE groups compared with the FG group. Levels of 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), which reflect oxidative injury to the liver, were significantly suppressed by ELE and BLE. Western blotting analysis indicated that interleukin-6 expression levels were significantly lower in the ELE and BLE groups than in the FG group. These results suggest that ELE and BLE reduced lipogenesis, oxidative stress, and inflammatory cytokine expression and thus inhibited NASH induced by excessive ingestion of fructose in rats. PMID:26000287
Takahashi, Yoshihisa; Sugimoto, Keiichiro; Soejima, Yurie; Kumagai, Arisa; Koeda, Tatsuki; Shojo, Aiko; Nakagawa, Kazuya; Harada, Naoki; Yamaji, Ryoichi; Inui, Hiroshi; Yamanouchi, Toshikazu; Fukusato, Toshio
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a liver disease associated with metabolic syndrome. The aim of this work was to examine whether eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) leaf extract (ELE) and banaba (Lagerstroemia speciosa L.) leaf extract (BLE) inhibited NASH induced by excessive ingestion of fructose in rats. Wistar rats were divided into four groups according to four distinct diets: starch diet (ST), high-fructose/high-glucose diet (FG), FG diet supplemented with ELE, or FG diet supplemented with BLE. All rats were killed after 5 weeks of treatment. Serum alanine aminotransferase and total cholesterol levels were significantly lower in the BLE group than in the FG group. Liver histopathology, including steatosis, lipogranulomas, and perisinusoidal fibrosis, was significantly attenuated in the ELE and BLE groups compared with the FG group. Levels of 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), which reflect oxidative injury to the liver, were significantly suppressed by ELE and BLE. Western blotting analysis indicated that interleukin-6 expression levels were significantly lower in the ELE and BLE groups than in the FG group. These results suggest that ELE and BLE reduced lipogenesis, oxidative stress, and inflammatory cytokine expression and thus inhibited NASH induced by excessive ingestion of fructose in rats.
Yu, Ligang; He, Zhiyong; Zeng, Maomao; Zheng, Zongping; Chen, Jie
This study investigated the effects of irradiation on Nε-carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) and Nε-carboxyethyl-lysine (CEL) formation in cooked red and white meats during storage. The results showed that irradiation did not affect CML/CEL formation (0 weeks). After 6 weeks, CML/CEL contents in the irradiated samples exhibited a higher growth rate than the non-irradiated samples, especially the red meat. The results of electron spin resonance spectrometry and 2-Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances suggested irradiation had induced free-radical reactions and accelerated lipid oxidation during storage. A linear correlation (r=0.810-0.906, p<0.01) was found between the loss of polyunsaturated fatty acids content and increase of CML/CEL content in the irradiated samples after 0 and 6 weeks of storage. The results indicate that irradiation-induced lipid oxidation promotes CML/CEL formation, and CML/CEL formation by the lipid oxidation pathways may be an important pathway for CML/CEL accumulation in irradiated meat products during storage.
Olas, Beata; Saluk-Juszczak, Joanna; Wachowicz, Barbara
The aim of our work was to study the anti-aggregatory and antioxidative effects of natural dietary products, D-glucaro 1,4-lactone (1,4-GL) in combination with phenolic compound resveratrol (trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene). Our results in vitro showed that 1,4-GL alone slightly inhibits platelet aggregation induced by thrombin. The combination of resveratrol (0.1 microM) with 0.5 mM of 1,4-GL caused a significant decrease of thrombin-induced platelet aggregation; however separately, neither of studied compound at used concentrations was not effective. When platelets were treated with 1,4-GL (at the concentration of 0.1 mM and higher) and resveratrol (0.1 microM), similar synergistic action of both tested compound on markers of oxidative stress formation was observed. We measured the levels of different specific markers of oxidative stress, e.g., superoxide anion radicals O(2)(-)*, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and carbonyl group formation. Both tested compounds inhibited also the generation of O(2)(-)* and malondialdehyde that represents enzymatical peroxidation of arachidonic acid leading to thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)) formation in platelets after thrombin stimulation. The obtained in vitro results demonstrate that anti-platelet and antioxidative properties of resveratrol may be significantly augmented by another dietary agent such as 1,4-GL, but mechanism synergistic action of these compounds is not yet known.
Jin, Sang-Keun; Kim, Chul-Wook; Chung, Ki-Hwa; Jo, Kwang-Keun; Jeong, Jin-Yeon; Hur, In-Chul; Jung, Eun-Young; Joo, Seon-Tea; Yang, Han-Sul
To determine the effect of different irradiation doses on ready-to-eat (RTE) dry-cured shoulder hams, physicochemical and sensory attributes were analyzed during 8 weeks of refrigerated storage. The results show that irradiation reduced the redness value and increased the 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) value as well as the irradiation aroma during storage. However, ham samples irradiated with 2.5 and 5.0 kGy did not show significant changes in lightness values compared to the control sample during 8 weeks of storage. TBARS values were lower in the sample irradiated with 2.5 kGy than in the other irradiated samples. The total plate counts of the 5.0 kGy-irradiated samples were not measured after 0 weeks. Sensory panels found that the 2.5- and 5.0 kGy-irradiated samples had better overall acceptability scores than the other irradiated samples. It was concluded that treatments with lower levels of irradiation (≤5.0 kGy) can enhance the microbial safety and sensory acceptance of dry-cured shoulder hams.
Lee, Jeung Hee; Son, Chan Wook; Kim, Mi Yeon; Kim, Min Hee; Kim, Hye Ran; Kwak, Eun Shil; Kim, Sena
The effect of diet supplemented with red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) leaf on antioxidant status of plasma and tissue was investigated in C57BL/6J mice. The mice were randomly divided into two groups after one-week acclimation, and fed a high fat (20%) and high cholesterol (1%) diet without (control group) or with 8% freeze-dried red beet leaf (RBL group) for 4 weeks. In RBL mice, lipid peroxidation determined as 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS value) was significantly reduced in the plasma and selected organs (liver, heart, and kidney). Levels of antioxidants (glutathione and β-carotene) and the activities of antioxidant enzyme (glutathione peroxidase) in plasma and liver were considerably increased, suggesting that antioxidant defenses were improved by RBL diet. Comet parameters such as tail DNA (%), tail extent moment, olive tail moment and tail length were significantly reduced by 25.1%, 49.4%, 35.4%, and 23.7%, respectively, in plasma lymphocyte DNA of RBL mice compared with control mice, and indicated the increased resistance of lymphocyte DNA to oxidative damage. In addition, the RBL diet controlled body weight together with a significant reduction of fat pad (retroperitoneal, epididymal, inguinal fat, and total fat). Therefore, the present study suggested that the supplementation of 8% red beet leaf in high fat high cholesterol diet could prevent lipid peroxidation and improve antioxidant defense system in the plasma and tissue of C57BL/6J mice. PMID:20016711
This effect of replacing pork with corn starch, chicken breast and surimi on the chemical composition, physical, texture and sensory properties of sausage were investigated during storage. Five treatments of sausage such as; T1 (10:0:0, %), T2 (10:5:0, %), T3 (10:10:5, %), T4 (10:15:10, %) and T5 (10:20:15, %) were prepared with replacement of pork with corn starch, chicken breast and surimi. The sausage made with pork meat served as control (C). The sausage in the control had higher moisture and fat contents, but lower protein content than the treatments (p<0.05). The sausages in the T2 and T5 had decreased pH values after 3 wk storage (p<0.05). The lightness value was lowest in the T3, while the yellowness values were lowest in the T5 during the storage. The TBARS (2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substance) values were lowest in the control in all storage times (p<0.05). However, the sausage in the control had higher VBN (volatile basic nitrogen) value than the treatments during the 1 wk storage (p<0.05). All treatments had significantly higher hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness values (p<0.05) than the control. The results indicated that corn starch, chicken breast and surimi can used as a pork replacer, that it also improves the physicochemical and texture properties of pork sausages. PMID:26761892
Kim, Ji-Hee; Ahn, Dong Uk; Eun, Jong Bang; Moon, Sun Hee
The residue of ground coffee obtained after the brewing process (spent coffee) still contains various functional components with high antioxidant capacity and health benefits, but no attempts have been made to use it as a resource to produce value-added food ingredients. This study evaluates the antioxidant activity of ethanol or hot water extracts from the residues of coffee after brewing. An extraction experiment was carried out using the conventional solid–liquid methods, including ethanol and water as the extraction media at different temperatures and liquid/solid ratios. The antioxidant activity of extracts was tested for total phenolic compound (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) using oil emulsion and raw/cooked meat systems. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of the ethanol extracts with heating (HEE) and without heating (CEE) were higher than that of the hot water extracts (WE). The highest DPPH value of HEE and CEE at 1000 ppm was 91.22% and 90.21%, respectively. In oil emulsion and raw/cooked systems, both the water and ethanol extracts had similar antioxidant effects to the positive control (BHA), but HEE and CEE extracts showed stronger antioxidant activities than WE extract. These results indicated that the ethanol extracts of coffee residue have a strong antioxidant activity and have the potential to be used as a natural antioxidant in meat. PMID:27384587
Seo, Jin-Kyu; Yum, Hyeon-Woong; Kim, Gap-Don; Jeong, Jin-Yeon; Yang, Han-Sul
This study investigates the effect of bovine heart surimi-like material (BHSM) used as a back fat replacer, on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of frankfurter-type sausages. Frankfurter-type sausage with added BHSM had a higher moisture content and lower fat content than the control. In addition, the samples with added BHSM had higher pH, cooking loss and 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) value and lower water exudation than the control. The sausage formulation with 40% BHSM was more effective in delaying lipid oxidation without affecting cooking loss compared to the 60% BHSM treatment sample. Results showed that hardness values increased upon replacement with BHSM, and sausages manufactured with 40% BHSM had higher lightness and lower redness values. Panelists found there were no differences in color, odor, and tenderness scores and the overall acceptability score found that treatment samples containing 20% and 40% BHSM were preferable to the control after storage for 14 d. These results indicate that fat replacement with BHSM was beneficial to the quality of frankfurter-type sausages, and acceptable reduced-fat products can be produced when back fat is replaced with up to 40% BHSM. PMID:27621694
Procyanidins, which are natural antioxidants and antimicrobials found in grapes, enhance the quality and extend the shelf life of meat. We explored the effects of edible films incorporating procyanidins on pork loin stored for various times. Procyanidins (0, 0.1, and 0.3%, w/w) were incorporated into the edible films. We assessed meat color, pH, levels of volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) and 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and microbial populations for 14 d. The chromaticities and pH values of pork loin wrapped in film containing procyanidins (0.1% and 0.3%) generally increased (p<0.05) with storage time. VBN and TBARS levels, and total bacterial and Escherichia coli (E. coli) counts, significantly decreased (p<0.05) in the procyanidin groups. In particular, procyanidins strongly inhibited TBARS formation. Thus, our findings suggest that edible film impregnated with procyanidins inhibits lipid oxidation and microbial growth, thereby enhancing the quality and shelf life of pork meat. PMID:27194932
Oakes, Ken D; Sibley, Paul K; Martin, Jon W; MacLean, Dan D; Solomon, Keith R; Mabury, Scott A; Van Der Kraak, Glen J
This study investigated the effects of exposure to waterborne perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) on oxidative stress and reproductive endpoints in fish. Exposures utilized species commonly used in toxicological testing, including the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), as well as relatively insensitive taxa such as creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus), spottail shiner (Notropis hudsonius), and white sucker (Catostomus commersoni). In all fish species, short-term (14-28 d) exposure to PFOS produced only modest mortality at concentrations consistent with environmental spill scenarios. However, PFOS consistently increased hepatic fatty acyl-CoA oxidase activity and increased oxidative damage, as quantified using the 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances assay. Plasma testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone, and 17beta-estradiol titers were often elevated with PFOS exposure. Vitellogenin, the egg yolk precursor protein, was occasionally altered in the plasma with PFOS exposure, but responses varied with maturity. Oviposition frequency and egg deposition in fathead minnow were not significantly impaired with PFOS exposure, despite a trend toward progressive impairment with increasing exposure concentrations. Although short-term PFOS exposure produced significant impacts on biochemical and reproductive endpoints in fish at concentrations consistent with environmental spills, the impact of long-term exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of PFOS is unclear.
Oakes, Ken D; Tremblay, Louis A; van der Kraak, Glen J
This study investigates the temporal onset of reactive oxygen species (ROS) damage and changes in circulating sex steroids in immature rainbow trout exposed over 21 d to two pulp-mill effluents. Exposure to effluent from a bleached sulfite mill produced increases in 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity, hepatic free iron, and significant depressions in hepatic ascorbic acid. Impairments in pregnenolone production relative to cholesterol availability suggest an effect of sulfite-mill effluent early in the steroidogenic pathway. Induction of vitellogenin in immature fish exposed to effluent from this mill, relative to waterborne 17 beta-estradiol treatments, indicated sulfite-mill effluent contained constituents capable of binding the estrogen receptor. Exposure to a kraft-mill effluent also elevated hepatic TBARS, tissue normalized fatty acyl-coenzyme A oxidase (FAO) activity, and hepatic free iron while producing commensurate declines in hepatic ascorbic acid. Plasma testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone, and 17 beta-estradiol were elevated with kraft-mill effluent exposure, but no changes in vitellogenin induction were observed. In summary, effluent from bleached sulfite and bleached kraft mills yielded similar oxidative stress responses, but marked differences were observed in the endocrine-disrupting potential of each effluent.
Nishino, S; Kobayashi, T; Matsushima, H; Tokii, T; Nishida, Y
The binuclear zinc(II) complex, [Zn2(HPTP)(CH3COO)]2+ was found highly active to cleave DNA (double-strand super-coiled DNA, pBR322 and phix174) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. However, no TBARS (2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substance) formation was detected in a solution containing 2-deoxyribose (or 2'-deoxyguanosine, etc); where (HPTP) represents N,N,N'-N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)-1,3-diamino-2-propanol. These facts imply that DNA cleavage reaction by the binuclear Zn(II)/H2O2 system should be due to a hydrolytic mechanism, which may be attributed to the enhanced nucleophilicity but depressed electrophilicity of the peroxide ion coordinated to the zinc(II) ion. DFT (density-functional theory) calculations on the peroxide adduct of monomeric zinc(II) have supported the above consideration. Similar DFT calculations on the peroxide adducts of the Al(III) and La(III) compounds have revealed that electrophilicity of the peroxide ion in these compounds is strongly reduced. This gives an important information to elucidate the fact that La3+ can enhance the growth of plants under certain conditions.
Movileanu, Iulia; Núñez de González, Máryuri T; Hafley, Brian; Miller, Rhonda K; Keeton, Jimmy T
Fresh ground beef patties with (1) no antioxidant (control), (2) 0.02% butylated hydroxyanisole/butylated hydroxytoluene (BHA/BHT), (3) 3% dried plum puree, or (4) 0.25% rosemary extract were aerobically packaged, irradiated at target doses of 0, 1.5, or 2.0 kGy (1.7 and 2.3 kGy actual doses), and stored at 4°C. The samples were evaluated for lipid oxidation on 0, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of storage after irradiation. When compared to the control, all antioxidant treatments were effective in retarding (P < 0.05) irradiation-induced lipid oxidation during storage as determined by 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) values. Rosemary extracts had the same antioxidant effect (P > 0.05) as BHA/BHT in irradiated and nonirradiated beef patties, followed by the dried plum puree treatment. Irradiation increased TBARs values, but no differences were noted in oxidation between irradiation dose levels.
Moloney, A P; Kennedy, C; Noci, F; Monahan, F J; Kerry, J P
Colour and lipid stability of M. longissimus dorsi (LD) from sheep fed diets containing different lipid sources (Megalac (MG), camelina oil (CO), linseed oil (LO), NaOH-treated camelina seed (CS), NaOH-treated linseed (LS) or CO treated with ethanolamine (CA)) were examined. After 100 days on-feed, samples of LD were collected, fatty acid profile determined and colour and lipid oxidation (2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; TBARS) measured during retail display in high oxygen packaging. The LS ration was most effective in increasing the 18:3n-3 and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentration in muscle. Within camelina, CA resulted in the highest 18:3n-3 and lowest CLA concentration in muscle. There was no difference in colour stability. Oil (seed) supplementation increased TBARS compared to MG in the early part of display while linseed-based rations tended to cause higher TBARS than camelina-based rations. Higher muscle 18:3n-3 concentration was associated with higher oxidation during early retail display but this was not reflected in a loss of colour stability.
Haile, Demewez Moges; De Smet, Stefaan; Claeys, Erik; Vossen, Els
The colour and lipid oxidative stability of sliced cooked ham stored at 4 °C were studied in relation to dark storage duration, lighting and packaging conditions. Colour stability was monitored by instrumental colour measurement (CIE L*a*b* colour space) whereas lipid stability was measured by the determination of the 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). A significantly higher discoloration observed in products wrapped in foil and kept in light than products wrapped in foil and kept in dark. Colour loss was estimated by loss of redness (a*), a*/b*, nitrosomyoglobin, chroma (C); or increase of lightness (L*), MetMb, hue angle (H°). Colour loss was more dependent upon photochemical process than dark storage duration and packaging types. Lipid oxidation was not significantly affected by light exposure. However lipid oxidation was significantly affected by dark storage duration as noticed from better lipid stability of products stored for short duration in dark. Better colour stability was observed on products packed in MAP with less residual oxygen.
Donmez, Baris O; Ozturk, Nihal; Sarikanat, Mehmet; Oguz, Nurettin; Sari, Ramazan; Ozdemir, Semir
Diabetes mellitus leads to bone disorders such as osteopenia and osteoporosis that can increase fracture risk. On the other hand, sodium tungstate is an inorganic compound which exerts anti-diabetic activity in experimental studies due to its suggested insulin-mimetic or antioxidant activity. Therefore this study was designed to investigate the effect of tungstate on bone quality in diabetic rat femurs. The rats were divided into four groups: Control (C), tungstate-treated control (C+Tung), diabetes (STZ-D) and tungstate-treated diabetes (STZ-D+Tung). Diabetes mellitus was induced by single injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg). The treated rats received 150 mg/kg/day of sodium tungstate for 12 weeks. Sodium tungstate achieved a little (17%) but significant reduction on blood glucose levels, while it didn't recover the reduced body weights of diabetic rats. In addition, impaired bone mechanical quality was reversed, despite the unchanged mineral density. Sodium tungstate administration significantly lowered the 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and restored the activity of tissue antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase in diabetic rats. On the other hand, glutathione levels didn't change in either case. These findings indicate that tungstate can improve the reduced mechanical quality of diabetic rat femurs due probably to reduction of reactive oxygen species and modulation of antioxidant enzymes as well as reduction in blood glucose levels.
Lyu, Fei; Huang, Rui-Ji; Liu, Lin; Zhou, Xuxia; Ding, Yu-Ting
The main objective of this study was to assess the influence of slaughter methods on the quality of Chilean jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi) during refrigerated storage on board. Fishes were slaughtered by asphyxia in air (AA), asphyxia in ice water (AI) or stunning fish heads (SH), and the rigor mortis, pH, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), trimethylamine (TMA), 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and sensory properties for the fishes were analyzed. On day 0, Chilean jack mackerel samples of AI group displayed higher pH values than those of AA and SH groups. TVB-N, TMA and TBARS values of all samples increased with the storage time, and these values of AI had a lower increase than AA and SH. Moreover, samples of AI had a better sensory score than AA and SH during storage. It can be concluded that slaughter method of asphyxia in ice water for Chilean jack mackerel exhibit the better efficiency on maintaining the fish quality during refrigerated storage on board.
Kim, Ji-Hee; Ahn, Dong Uk; Eun, Jong Bang; Moon, Sun Hee
The residue of ground coffee obtained after the brewing process (spent coffee) still contains various functional components with high antioxidant capacity and health benefits, but no attempts have been made to use it as a resource to produce value-added food ingredients. This study evaluates the antioxidant activity of ethanol or hot water extracts from the residues of coffee after brewing. An extraction experiment was carried out using the conventional solid-liquid methods, including ethanol and water as the extraction media at different temperatures and liquid/solid ratios. The antioxidant activity of extracts was tested for total phenolic compound (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) using oil emulsion and raw/cooked meat systems. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of the ethanol extracts with heating (HEE) and without heating (CEE) were higher than that of the hot water extracts (WE). The highest DPPH value of HEE and CEE at 1000 ppm was 91.22% and 90.21%, respectively. In oil emulsion and raw/cooked systems, both the water and ethanol extracts had similar antioxidant effects to the positive control (BHA), but HEE and CEE extracts showed stronger antioxidant activities than WE extract. These results indicated that the ethanol extracts of coffee residue have a strong antioxidant activity and have the potential to be used as a natural antioxidant in meat.
Grape seeds and pericarp are rich in procyanidins, a class of natural antioxidants and antimicrobials that can provide phytonutrients for healthy eating and extend food shelf life. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of procyanidins as preservatives in pork meat patties for 14 d. Pork patties were treated with 0, 0.1, or 0.3% procyanidin, and meat color, pH, volatile basic nitrogen (VBN), 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values, and microbial populations were determined during storage at 4℃ for 14 d. The color of pork patties treated with procyanidin showed lower lightness and higher redness values than untreated controls, and procyanidin treatment reduced pH values significantly (p<0.05). VBN values decreased significantly (p<0.05) with the 0.3% procyanidin treatment and increased significantly (p<0.05) during storage. TBARS values were markedly lower in procyanidin-treated meat than in the untreated control. In addition, procyanidin suppressed total bacterial colony and Escherichia coli counts significantly (p<0.05) relative to the control samples. Our findings suggest that procyanidin could be used as a food preservative in pork patties due to its natural antioxidation and antimicrobial activities, and that it may contribute to an improved healthy diet. PMID:26761880
Okazaki, Yasumasa; Wang, Yue; Tanaka, Hiromasa; Mizuno, Masaaki; Nakamura, Kae; Kajiyama, Hiroaki; Kano, Hiroyuki; Uchida, Koji; Kikkawa, Fumitaka; Hori, Masaru; Toyokuni, Shinya
Thermal plasmas and lasers are used in medicine to cut and ablate tissues and for coagulation. Non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma (NEAPP) is a recently developed, non-thermal technique with possible biomedical applications. Although NEAPP reportedly generates reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, electrons, positive ions, and ultraviolet radiation, little research has been done into the use of this technique for conventional free radical biology. Recently, we developed a NEAPP device with high electron density. Electron spin resonance spin-trapping revealed •OH as a major product. To obtain evidence of NEAPP-induced oxidative modifications in biomolecules and standardize them, we evaluated lipid peroxidation and DNA modifications in various in vitro and ex vivo experiments. Conjugated dienes increased after exposure to linoleic and α-linolenic acids. An increase in 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances was also observed after exposure to phosphatidylcholine, liposomes or liver homogenate. Direct exposure to rat liver in saline produced immunohistochemical evidence of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal- and acrolein-modified proteins. Exposure to plasmid DNA induced dose-dependent single/double strand breaks and increased the amounts of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. These results indicate that oxidative biomolecular damage by NEAPP is dose-dependent and thus can be controlled in a site-specific manner. Simultaneous oxidative and UV-specific DNA damage may be useful in cancer treatment. PMID:25411528
Kim, Hyun-Wook; Setyabrata, Derico; Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Yuan H Brad
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a short-term/extreme temperature abuse (STA) on color characteristics and oxidative stability of aged beef muscles during simulated retail display. Two beef muscles (longissimus lumborum, LL and semitendinosus, ST) were aged for 7 (A7), 14 (A14), 21 (A21), and 28 d (A28), and further displayed at 2℃ for 7 d. The STA was induced by placing steak samples at 20℃ for 1 h on the 4th d of display. Instrumental and visual color evaluations, ferric ion reducing capacity (FRC) and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay were performed. Initially, redness, yellowness and hue angle of all beef muscles were similar, regardless of aging time before display (p>0.05). An increase in postmortem aging time increased lipid oxidation and caused a rapid discoloration after STA during display (p<0.05). ST muscle was more sharply discolored and oxidized after STA, when compared to LL muscle (p<0.05). The FRC value of beef muscles was decreased after 7 d of display (p<0.05). The results from the current study indicate adverse impacts of postmortem aging on color and oxidative stabilities of beef muscles, particularly under temperature abusing conditions during retail display. Thus, developing a specific post-harvest strategy to control quality attributes in retail levels for different muscle types and aging conditions would be required.
Zouari, M; Ben Ahmed, Ch; Zorrig, W; Elloumi, N; Rabhi, M; Delmail, D; Ben Rouina, B; Labrousse, P; Ben Abdallah, F
The ability of exogenous compatible solutes, such as proline, to counteract cadmium (Cd) inhibitory effects in young date palm plants (Phoenix dactylifera L. cv Deglet Nour) was investigated. Two-year-old date palm plants were subjected for five months at different Cd stress levels (0, 10 and 30 mg CdCl2 kg(-1) soil) whether supplied or not with exogenous proline (20mM) added through the irrigation water. Different levels of Cd stress altered plant growth, gas exchanges and chlorophyll content as well as water status, but at different extent among them. In contrast, an increase of antioxidant enzymes activities of Cd-treated plants in association with high amounts of proline content, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and electrolyte leakage (EL) were observed. Interestingly, exogenous proline mitigated the adverse effects of Cd on young date palm. Indeed, it alleviated the oxidative damage induced by Cd accumulation and established better levels of plant growth, water status and photosynthetic activity. Moreover, proline-treated plants showed high antioxidant enzymes activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxydase) in roots and leaves as compared to Cd-treated plants.
Nam, K C; Seo, K S; Jo, C; Ahn, D U
To prevent oxidative quality changes, a few selected antioxidants, ascorbic acid, or an ascorbic acid plus α-tocopherol combination were electrostatically sprayed on the surface of ground beef patties. Color, metmyoglobin, oxidation-reduction potential, lipid oxidation, and volatiles of the samples were determined during the 8 d of aerobic storage. Spraying of ascorbic acid at 500 mg/kg was the most effective in controlling discoloration of ground beef. Spraying of ascorbic acid at 500 mg/kg was also effective in reducing 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and volatile aldehydes such as hexanal and heptanal related to lipid oxidation. Spraying of phenolic antioxidants such as tocopherol, sesamol, or rosemary oleoresin showed significant (P < 0.05) antioxidant effects, but had no effects (P < 0.05) in stabilizing the color of ground beef. Sesamol at 100 mg/kg showed the most potent antioxidant activities among the antioxidants, and its antioxidant effect was as strong as that of 500 mg/kg of ascorbic acid. It was concluded that electrostatic spray of ascorbic acid on the surface of ground beef at 500 mg/kg was an efficient and economical way to prevent both lipid oxidation and color changes in ground beef.
Kim, I. S.; Jin, S. K.; Yang, M. R.; Chu, G. M.; Park, J. H.; Rashid, R. H. I.; Kim, J. Y.; Kang, S. N.
This study was carried out to determine the effects of tomato powder (TP) on cooked pork patties during storage at 10±1°C in the dark. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of TP extract were 26.22 mg gallic acid/100 g and 3.52 mg quercetin/100 g, respectively. The extract of TP showed a potential antioxidant activity in the DPPH radical-scavenging assay (EC50 = 16.76 μg/mL). Pork patties were manufactured with 0.25% (T1), 0.5% (T2), 0.75% (T3) and 1.0% (T4) TP in a basic formula (C). The pH and volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) values of T2, T3 and T4 patties were lower (p<0.05) than the C patties during storage. Increased concentration of TP in meat patties decreased (p<0.05) the 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and total plate count (TPC) values at d 7 of storage. Tomato treated-patties had lower (p<0.05) values for lightness (L*), but higher (p<0.05) values for redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) at d 3 and 7 of storage compared with the C. In the case of sensory evaluation, the scores of colour, flavour and overall acceptability of T3 and T4 patties were higher (p<0.05) than those of the C patty after 3 or 7 days of storage. PMID:25049917
Wilcox, Claire E.; Pommy, Jessica M.; Adinoff, Bryon
Impaired emotion regulation contributes to the development and severity of substance use disorders (substance disorders). This review summarizes the literature on alterations in emotion regulation neural circuitry in substance disorders, particularly in relation to disorders of negative affect (without substance disorder), and it presents promising areas of future research. Emotion regulation paradigms during functional magnetic resonance imaging are conceptualized into four dimensions: affect intensity and reactivity, affective modulation, cognitive modulation, and behavioral control. The neural circuitry associated with impaired emotion regulation is compared in individuals with and without substance disorders, with a focus on amygdala, insula, and prefrontal cortex activation and their functional and structural connectivity. Hypoactivation of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex/ventromedial prefrontal cortex (rACC/vmPFC) is the most consistent finding across studies, dimensions, and clinical populations (individuals with and without substance disorders). The same pattern is evident for regions in the cognitive control network (anterior cingulate and dorsal and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices) during cognitive modulation and behavioral control. These congruent findings are possibly related to attenuated functional and/or structural connectivity between the amygdala and insula and between the rACC/vmPFC and cognitive control network. Although increased amygdala and insula activation is associated with impaired emotion regulation in individuals without substance disorders, it is not consistently observed in substance disorders. Emotion regulation disturbances in substance disorders may therefore stem from impairments in prefrontal functioning, rather than excessive reactivity to emotional stimuli. Treatments for emotion regulation in individuals without substance disorders that normalize prefrontal functioning may offer greater efficacy for substance disorders
Simon, N; Belzeaux, R; Adida, M; Azorin, J-M
Dual diagnosis of schizophrenia and substance-related disorders is common in psychiatric practice. Epidemiologic studies and report have established that the risk of a substance-related disorder was 4 to 5 times higher in a population of psychiatric patients than in the general population. However, little is known on the reason of this relationship and the treatments required. It's well known that a family history of psychosis is a risk factor of schizophrenia. Similarly a family history of substance use disorders increases the risk of using substances. Because the two disorders often occurred together, it could be hypothesized that a genetic risk factor is common. However, recent studies did not confirm this hypothesis and it seems that their genetic risks factor would be unrelated. Evidence now exists describing the different profiles of patients whether they used substance or not. Concerning negative symptoms clinical studies and meta-analyses have described fewer symptoms in schizophrenia patients with a substance use disorder. Among the different explanations that have been addressed, it seems that a lower capability of obtaining the substance could partly explain this relationship. Perhaps because patients with social withdrawal have more difficulties to find and spend the time required to obtain abused substances. At the opposite some products such as cocaine may relieve some symptoms especially anhedonia and alogia. However the link between substance-related disorders and negative symptoms is weak and decreases in more recent studies, probably because negative symptoms as well as addiction disorders are better characterized. Considering that treating psychiatric symptoms may not always lead to a decrease in the substance-related disorders but that patients who give up substances improve their psychotic symptoms, a therapeutic strategy should be planned for these dual disorders patients combining psychiatry and addiction interventions.
Mason, D.; Birmingham, L.; Grubin, D.
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of drug and alcohol use among newly remanded prisoners, assess the effectiveness of prison reception screening, and examine the clinical management of substance misusers among remand prisoners. DESIGN: A consecutive case study of remand prisoners screened at reception for substance misuse and treatment needs and comparison of findings with those of prison reception screening and treatment provision. SETTING: A large adult male remand prison (Durham). SUBJECTS: 548 men aged 21 and over awaiting trial. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of substance misuse; treatment needs of substance misusers; effectiveness of prison reception screening for substance misuse; provision of detoxification programmes. RESULTS: Before remand 312 (57%) men were using illicit drugs and 181 (33%) met DSM-IV drug misuse or dependence criteria; 177 (32%) men met misuse or dependence criteria for alcohol. 391 (71%) men were judged to require help directed at their drug or alcohol use and 197 (36%) were judged to require a detoxification programme. The prison reception screen identified recent illicit drug use in 131 (24%) of 536 men and problem drinking in 103 (19%). Drug use was more likely to be identified by prison screening if an inmate was using multiple substances, using opiates, or had a diagnosis of abuse or dependence. 47 (9%) of 536 inmates were prescribed treatment to ease the symptoms of substance withdrawal. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of substance misuse in newly remanded prisoners is high. Prison reception health screening consistently underestimated drug and alcohol use. In many cases in which substance use is identified the quantities and numbers of different substances being used are underestimated. Initial management of inmates identified by prison screening as having problems with dependence producing substances is poor. Few receive a detoxification programme, so that many are left with the option of continuing to use drugs in prison
Reuter, Peter; Pardo, Bryce
Advances in chemistry, technology, and globalization have contributed to the rapid development and diffusion of NPS (new psychoactive substances), creating perhaps the most serious challenge to the century-old international drug control system and to national systems. Very little is known about the effects of these substances which fall outside of national and international controls. The predominant response to the flood of NPS has been the development of more expeditious methods of prohibiting a new chemical entity. This article explores alternative mechanisms that have been considered: foodstuffs, alcohol and tobacco and medicines. None seems promising in terms of avoiding the problems of prohibition without permitting unsafe substances on the market. The article then considers whether there is a bias in the existing system toward excessive prohibition. In public discussion, no attention is given to the pleasures that users obtain from any NPS, to the possibility of substitution for a more dangerous legal or illegal drug or to the consequences of illegal markets for prohibited NPS. On the other hand, it may well be impossible to obtain meaningful assessments on any of these matters at the time when decisions are made. These complexities have led a number of countries, most recently Australia and the UK, to impose total bans, the effects of which are impossible to predict.
McGillicuddy, Neil; Rychtarik, Robert G.; Morsheimer, Elizabeth T.; Burke-Storer, Michelle R.
This study examined the correspondence between parent and adolescent reports of the adolescent's substance use in a population of parents concerned about, and experiencing problems resulting from, their teen's substance use. Seventy-five parents and their adolescents (76% not in treatment; 24% in treatment) were interviewed separately regarding…
Examines the incidence of substance use and mental illness among jail inmates by analyzing differences and similarities in demographic characteristics and detention status in a sample of 5,785 subjects. Significant associations were found between membership in one of the substance use and/or mental illness categories and variables reflecting…
Chen, Danhong; Wu, Li-Tzy
Gun-related violence is a public health concern. This study synthesizes findings on associations between substance use and gun-related behaviors. Searches through PubMed, Embase, and PsycINFO located 66 studies published in English between 1992 and 2014. Most studies found a significant bivariate association between substance use and increased odds of gun-related behaviors. However, their association after adjustment was mixed, which could be attributed to a number of factors such as variations in definitions of substance use and gun activity, study design, sample demographics, and the specific covariates considered. Fewer studies identified a significant association between substance use and gun access/possession than other gun activities. The significant association between nonsubstance covariates (e.g., demographic covariates and other behavioral risk factors) and gun-related behaviors might have moderated the association between substance use and gun activities. Particularly, the strength of association between substance use and gun activities tended to reduce appreciably or to become nonsignificant after adjustment for mental disorders. Some studies indicated a positive association between the frequency of substance use and the odds of engaging in gun-related behaviors. Overall, the results suggest a need to consider substance use in research and prevention programs for gun-related violence.
... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Custody of controlled substances. 162.64 Section 162.64 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics,...
... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Custody of controlled substances. 162.64 Section 162.64 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics,...
... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Custody of controlled substances. 162.64 Section 162.64 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics,...
... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Custody of controlled substances. 162.64 Section 162.64 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics,...
... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Custody of controlled substances. 162.64 Section 162.64 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics,...
In addition to the opening and closing remarks, six papers were presented at the meeting. One paper was abstracted and indexed for EDB/ERA. The other five are entitled: Toxic Substances: Clear Science, Foggy Politics; Environmental Carcinogens: the Human Perspective; Paradigms in Multiple Toxicity; Development of New Bioassay Protocols; and, Toward Improved Control of Toxic Substances. Author and subject indexes are included. (JGB)
Scherr, Rachel E.; Close, Hunter G.; McKagan, Sarah B.; Vokos, Stamatis
The nature of energy is not typically an explicit topic of physics instruction. Nonetheless, verbal and graphical representations of energy articulate models in which energy is conceptualized as a quasimaterial substance, a stimulus, or a vertical location. We argue that a substance ontology for energy is particularly productive in developing…
Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Eitle, David; Johnson-Jennings, Michelle
Despite the well-established finding that American Indian adolescents are at a greater risk of illicit substance use and abuse than the general population, few generalist explanations of deviance have been extended to American Indian substance use. Using a popular generalist explanation of deviance, General Strain Theory, we explore the predictive utility of this model with a subsample of American Indian adolescents from waves one and two of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add-Health). Overall, we find mixed support for the utility of General Strain Theory to account for American Indian adolescent substance use. While exposure to recent life events, a common measure of stress exposure, was found to be a robust indicator of substance use, we found mixed support for the thesis that negative affect plays a key role in mediating the link between strain and substance use. However, we did find evidence that personal and social resources serve to condition the link between stress exposure and substance use, with parental control, self-restraint, religiosity, and exposure to substance using peers each serving to moderate the association between strain and substance use, albeit in more complex ways than expected. PMID:23826511
Wade, Jay C.
Examines factors--such as unemployment, economic deprivation, racism, issues pertaining to gender roles--and their contribution to substance abuse in African American men. Specifically reviews the use of alcohol, opiates, crack, and cocaine. Argues that a biopsychosocial model offers the best framework in conceptualizing substance abuse and…
Samuilov, E. V.; Lebedeva, L. N.; Faminskaya, M. V.; Pokrovskaya, L. S.
A new complex approach to simulation of phase and chemical transformation of substances containing trace elements in coal burning units is proposed; this approach unites capabilities of geochemistry, chemical thermodynamics, and physical-chemical kinetics. Processes of transformation of these substances in the flow of combustion products of Moscow basin coals along the flow path of the P-59 boiler are studied.
Li, Ruiqin; Qi, Feng; Zhang, Junlong; Ji, Yong; Zhang, Dengxin; Shen, Zhiyun; Lei, Weifu
The aim of this study was to examine the role played by substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) within the dorsal horn of the spinal cord in engagement of antinociception evoked by dexmedetomidine (DEX). Paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) to mechanical stimulation was determined after chronic intrathecal infusion of DEX and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was employed to examine the levels of spinal substance P and CGRP. Our results show that PWT was significantly increased by intrathecal administration of DEX in rats (P < 0.05 vs. vehicle control, n = 20 in each group). Also, intrathecal infusion of DEX significantly decreased the concentrations of substance P and CGRP as compared with vehicle control (P < 0.05 DEX vs. vehicle control, n = 20 in each group). Blocking α2-adrenoreceptors (α2-AR) blunted the decreases of substance P and CGRP levels and the enhancement of PWT evoked by DEX. Additionally, a linear relationship was observed between PWT and the levels of spinal substance P (r = 0.87; P < 0.005) and CGRP (r = 0.85; P < 0.005). Moreover, blocking individual substance P and CGRP receptors amplified PWT without altering substance P and CGRP levels. Thus, DEX plays a role in stimulating α2-AR receptors, which thereby decreases substance P and CGRP levels within the dorsal horn. This contributes to DEX-evoked antinociception.
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cultivation of controlled substances. 34.7 Section 34.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EL PORTAL ADMINISTRATIVE SITE REGULATIONS § 34.7 Cultivation of controlled substances. In...
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cultivation of controlled substances. 34.7 Section 34.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EL PORTAL ADMINISTRATIVE SITE REGULATIONS § 34.7 Cultivation of controlled substances. In...
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cultivation of controlled substances. 34.7 Section 34.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EL PORTAL ADMINISTRATIVE SITE REGULATIONS § 34.7 Cultivation of controlled substances. In...
... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Controlled substance convictions. 212.11 Section 212.11 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DOCUMENTARY... substance convictions. In determining the admissibility of an alien who has been convicted of a violation...
... Concentrate (9670) II The company plans to import the listed controlled substances for the manufacture of controlled substances in bulk for distribution to its customers. No comments or objections have been received... protocols in effect on May 1, 1971. DEA has investigated Mallinckrodt Inc. to ensure that the...
... that does not require animals, are presented in the CPSC's animal testing policy set forth in 16 CFR... number of test animals. The method of testing the toxic substances referred to in § 1500.3(c)(1)(ii)(C... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Method of testing toxic substances....
... not require animals, are presented in the CPSC's animal testing policy set forth in 16 CFR 1500.232. A... test animals. The method of testing the toxic substances referred to in § 1500.3(c)(1)(ii)(C) and (c)(2... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Method of testing toxic substances....
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cultivation of controlled substances. 34.7 Section 34.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EL PORTAL ADMINISTRATIVE SITE REGULATIONS § 34.7 Cultivation of controlled substances. In...
Howze, Kate; Howze, Wendell M.
A pilot program was designed to address the special problems of children of substance abusers. The program was established at the Child Development and Family Guidance Center by Operation PAR, a nationally recognized substance abuse treatment and prevention program. The staff are well-trained preschool professionals who have received special…
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Added poisonous or deleterious substances. 509.6...-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 509.6 Added poisonous or deleterious substances. (a) Use of an added... approved under the criteria of section 409 of the act, or when the added poisonous or deleterious...
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Added poisonous or deleterious substances. 509.6...-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 509.6 Added poisonous or deleterious substances. (a) Use of an added... approved under the criteria of section 409 of the act, or when the added poisonous or deleterious...
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Added poisonous or deleterious substances. 509.6...-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 509.6 Added poisonous or deleterious substances. (a) Use of an added... approved under the criteria of section 409 of the act, or when the added poisonous or deleterious...
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Added poisonous or deleterious substances. 509.6...-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 509.6 Added poisonous or deleterious substances. (a) Use of an added... approved under the criteria of section 409 of the act, or when the added poisonous or deleterious...
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Added poisonous or deleterious substances. 109.6...-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 109.6 Added poisonous or deleterious substances. (a) Use of an added... approved under the criteria of section 409 of the act, or when the added poisonous or deleterious...
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Added poisonous or deleterious substances. 109.6...-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 109.6 Added poisonous or deleterious substances. (a) Use of an added... approved under the criteria of section 409 of the act, or when the added poisonous or deleterious...
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Added poisonous or deleterious substances. 109.6...-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 109.6 Added poisonous or deleterious substances. (a) Use of an added... approved under the criteria of section 409 of the act, or when the added poisonous or deleterious...
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Added poisonous or deleterious substances. 509.6...-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 509.6 Added poisonous or deleterious substances. (a) Use of an added... approved under the criteria of section 409 of the act, or when the added poisonous or deleterious...
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Added poisonous or deleterious substances. 109.6...-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 109.6 Added poisonous or deleterious substances. (a) Use of an added... approved under the criteria of section 409 of the act, or when the added poisonous or deleterious...
Glenn, Margaret K.; Moore, Lucas C.
This study explored the perceived external and internal issues that may have an effect on collaborative ventures designed to provide vocational rehabilitation services to persons with substance use disorders. Participants in the study were professionals from substance abuse (SA) treatment and vocational rehabilitation (VR) agencies in 1 state…
Gonzales, Rachel; Anglin, M. Douglas; Beattie, Rebecca; Ong, Chris Angelo; Glik, Deborah C.
Objective: To qualitatively explore how treatment-involved youth retrospectively contextualize relapse from substance use. Methods: Fourteen focus groups were conducted with 118 youth (78.3% male; 66.1% Latino) enrolled in participating substance abuse treatment programs (4 young adult and 10 adolescent) throughout Los Angeles County. Transcripts…
Sarvela, Paul D.; McClendon, E. J.
Basic research and programs in substance abuse dealing directly with rural and small town populations lag far behind those aimed at urban groups, in both quality and quantity. A study was conducted to identify factors related to substance use by a preadolescent and early adolescent rural and small town population. Data were collected from 496…
Donnermeyer, Joseph F.; Scheer, Scott D.
Examines substance use trends among rural 12th-grade students, 1976-97, based on the national triennial study "Monitoring the Future." Finds that youth from more rural locations generally displayed lower rates of substance use, but as urbanization spread, differences declined. Compares data on farm, rural nonfarm, and small-town youth in both…
Jordan, Karen M.
Studies indicate that substance abuse is a growing problem among gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, and questioning youth. Prevention and intervention efforts can be successful in working with sexual minority adolescents in jeopardy of developing substance abuse problems. School psychologists are uniquely poised to address this problem through…
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cultivation of controlled substances. 34.7 Section 34.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EL PORTAL ADMINISTRATIVE SITE REGULATIONS § 34.7 Cultivation of controlled substances. In...
Middle schools take on a higher purpose by making every effort to empower all of their students to attain their highest potential. This article rediscovers the "substance of soul" in the 21st century middle schools. The author stresses that returning to one's substance of soul goes beyond merely revisiting what educators truly value and then…
... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Substance abuse professional (SAP). 655.52 Section 655.52 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT... OPERATIONS Drug and Alcohol Testing Procedures § 655.52 Substance abuse professional (SAP). The SAP...
Salyers, Kathleen M.; Ritchie, Martin H.; Cochrane, Wendy S.; Roseman, Christopher P.
Professional counselors and counselors-in-training continue to serve clients who have substance abuse issues, yet systematic training in substance abuse counseling is not available to many counselors. The authors investigated the extent to which students in programs accredited by the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational…
... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Substance abuse professional (SAP). 655.52 Section 655.52 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT... OPERATIONS Drug and Alcohol Testing Procedures § 655.52 Substance abuse professional (SAP). The SAP...
... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Substance abuse professional (SAP). 655.52 Section 655.52 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT... OPERATIONS Drug and Alcohol Testing Procedures § 655.52 Substance abuse professional (SAP). The SAP...
Crozier, Mary K.
In the field of rehabilitation services, substance abuse counseling requires unique skills. Post-baccalaureate academic certificate programs offer professionals an opportunity to retool or expand their skills and meet licensure needs in this evolving field. East Carolina University's online Substance Abuse Counseling Certificate Program was…
... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Substance abuse professional (SAP). 655.52 Section 655.52 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT... OPERATIONS Drug and Alcohol Testing Procedures § 655.52 Substance abuse professional (SAP). The SAP...
Salm, Twyla; Sevigny, Phil; Mulholland, Val; Greenberg, Hirsch
This case study examines not only the prevalence of substance abuse in one rural, Canadian high school, but also how teachers understand teaching and learning in relation to substance abuse. Over one third of students reported that they had used marijuana (37%) and alcohol (38%) in the last seven days, a rate considerably higher than typical…
Salyers, Kathleen M.; Ritchie, Martin H.; Luellen, Wendy S.; Roseman, Christopher P.
Professional counselors and counselors-in-training continue to serve clients who have substance abuse issues, yet systematic training in substance abuse counseling is not available to many counselors. The authors investigated the extent to which students in programs accredited by the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational…
Sirri, L; Potena, L; Masetti, M; Tossani, E; Grigioni, F; Magelli, C; Branzi, A; Grandi, S
Substance abuse cessation is one of the leading factors in determining the eligibility for the heart transplantation waiting list, as noncompliance with this issue may seriously endanger posttransplantation outcomes. Yet, the prevalence of substance-related disorders among candidates for heart transplantation has not been evaluated enough. Eighty three heart transplantation candidates were assessed for prior or current substance-related disorders through the Structured Clinical Interview for mental disorders according to DSM-IV. A prior history of at least one substance-related disorder was found in 64% of patients, with nicotine dependence as the most prevalent diagnosis (61.4% of the sample). Ten subjects were currently smokers, despite heart failure. A prior history of alcohol abuse and caffeine intoxication was found in 9.6% and 2.4% of patients, respectively. Substance abuse or dependence behaviors should be monitored during all the phases of heart transplantation program. Early identification of current substance-related disorders may allow better allocation of organ resources and proper lifestyle modification programs provision. A prior history of substance-related disorders should alert physicians to assess patients for possible relapse, especially after transplantation. The inclusion of a specialist in the assessment and treatment of substance-related disorders in the heart transplantation unit may reduce the risk of unsuccessful outcomes due to noncompliance with an adequate lifestyle.
... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Substance abuse professional (SAP). 655.52 Section 655.52 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT... OPERATIONS Drug and Alcohol Testing Procedures § 655.52 Substance abuse professional (SAP). The SAP...
Chen, Danhong; Wu, Li-Tzy
Gun-related violence is a public health concern. This study synthesizes findings on associations between substance use and gun-related behaviors. Searches through PubMed, Embase, and PsycINFO located 66 studies published in English between 1992 and 2014. Most studies found a significant bivariate association between substance use and increased odds of gun-related behaviors. However, their association after adjustment was mixed, which could be attributed to a number of factors such as variations in definitions of substance use and gun activity, study design, sample demographics, and the specific covariates considered. Fewer studies identified a significant association between substance use and gun access/possession than other gun activities. The significant association between nonsubstance covariates (e.g., demographic covariates and other behavioral risk factors) and gun-related behaviors might have moderated the association between substance use and gun activities. Particularly, the strength of association between substance use and gun activities tended to reduce appreciably or to become nonsignificant after adjustment for mental disorders. Some studies indicated a positive association between the frequency of substance use and the odds of engaging in gun-related behaviors. Overall, the results suggest a need to consider substance use in research and prevention programs for gun-related violence. PMID:26769722
Smock, Sara A.; Trepper, Terry S.; Wetchler, Joseph L.; McCollum, Eric E.; Ray, Rose; Pierce, Kent
The present study compared solution-focused group therapy (SFGT) with a traditional problem-focused treatment for level 1 substance abusers. Outcome research on the effectiveness of solution-focused group therapy is minimal, especially in treating substance abusers. In the present study, clients were measured before and after treatment to…
Olmstead, Todd A.; Johnson, J. Aaron; Roman, Paul M.; Sindelar, Jody L.
The goal of this study is to determine why recovering substance abuse counselors are paid less, on average and controlling for other factors, than nonrecovering substance abuse counselors. The data come from the 2002-2003 wave of the National Treatment Center Study and consist of 1,487 full-time counselors from nationally representative samples of…
Mistrova, Eliska; Kruzliak, Peter; Chottova Dvorakova, Magdalena
This article provides an overview of the structure and function of substance P signalling system and its involvement in the cardiovascular regulation. Substance P is an undecapeptide originating from TAC1 gen and belonging to the tachykinin family. The biological actions of substance P are mainly mediated through neurokinin receptor 1 since substance P is the ligand with the highest affinity to neurokinin receptor 1. Substance P is widely distributed within the central and peripheral nervous systems as well as in the cardiovascular system. Substance P is involved in the regulation of heart frequency, blood pressure and in the stretching of vessels. Substance P plays an important role in ischemia and reperfusion and cardiovascular response to stress. Additionally, it has been also implicated in angiogenesis, pain transmission and inflammation. The substance P/neurokinin receptor 1 receptor system is involved in the molecular bases of many human pathological processes. Antagonists of neurokinin receptor 1 receptor could provide clinical solutions for a variety of diseases. Neurokinin receptor 1 antagonists are already used in the prevention of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting.
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Refuse and polluting substances. 15.4 Section 15.4 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.4 Refuse and polluting substances. No person shall dump or deposit in or on the waters of...
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Refuse and polluting substances. 15.4 Section 15.4 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.4 Refuse and polluting substances. No person shall dump or deposit in or on the waters of...
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Refuse and polluting substances. 15.4 Section 15.4 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.4 Refuse and polluting substances. No person shall dump or deposit in or on the waters of...
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Refuse and polluting substances. 15.4 Section 15.4 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.4 Refuse and polluting substances. No person shall dump or deposit in or on the waters of...
Okamoto, Janet; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Soto, Daniel; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Unger, Jennifer B.
Objective: To examine perceived discrimination and substance use among Latino high school students. Methods: Latino 9th graders (N=1332) completed self-report measures of perceived discrimination and substance use behavior. Results: Perceived discrimination was associated with lifetime use measures of smoking (OR=1.73, P less than 0.01), alcohol…